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Full text of "History of Elkhart County, Indiana; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history: portraits of prominent persons, and biographies of representative citizens"

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Hundreds of thousands of fi<.ure. dafP« ,-„-f i 

How many errors should there be a2lt """^ °''"''-' 

torical data? For this h 11 ?. . ^''^^ ^ ^"^"'^'^ «*' ^is- 

accounts of any compHcated eL^ - "^ individual 

we are all familiar .1^ tie It ,Tt ^r'^''"''^^' ^''' ^^'•^' 
simple event, will varv in f 1' fV ^'t^^^^es, even to the same 
we connect hes Ss^J^^'^;^;---^ before a court; and when 

earliest settlers of tt?poToVof":V!/"'^^;' "^■"^^^' ^'^^ ^^^ 
their memories of 50 years alo ^ ""' becoming fe^ and 

an insight into the nkfof ,1 , ^ ^r '"""■ '" °'^=' '-> "I""" 

tbe townships are arrl^Zr \ ? '^ ?"°" ''^' '»>'nsl.ips, ll,„ 
are .,„„ i„ t,.e bod, of .he histoj, of relty "" '"""'^ 

his con^.ienerrL'triV""" "''?"■"' " '="'™"' >>»' i'' 
lessened or elaborated tITh-T™"'" ■""' """''' "'"? «»""' "^e 
first seotion o^Jh s w„rt 1 ! ' »""<lian., which forms the 
strict regard to ht „rr ' ' ^''° '"""^""' "'"' "'"«"' '^'•> «n<i 
ha™ a pC he °ro :T7 • ^^''^^ " o-""^ "«■• «ho,.,d 
huilders to that on thrVv "f'""'*"™ P'Per on the ,„„„ud. 
e.nhraced a hi^r'w ^w^r *;! el'if:::."^ "" r'" ^'^ =' 


up the history of a great people. Doubtless a few interesting 
items may have escaped notice therein; but wherever such omission 
occurs, it will be found on reference to township history, that a 
very full compensation has been made. 

The cities of Elkhart and Goshen have each claimed many inter- 
esting pages. They contributed in the highest degree to perfect 
the bright story of the county, and to draw forth the best energies 
of her sons. 

The chapters devoted to township history are as extensive as they 
are entertaining. The history proper may be brief, but what is lost 
in this respect is doubly won in the mine of biographical matter 
brought to light. This necessarily includes every item of town- 
ship history worthy of record, and forms most interesting and 
instructive reading. 

As one of the most interesting features of this work, we present 
the portraits of a number of representative citizens: wish we could 
have given pictures of all the old settlers and prominent citizens. 
Many residents, no doubt, are as prominent and worthy as those 
whose portraits appear in this volume. 

"We desire here to express our hearty thanks to those who have 
so freely aided us in collecting material. To the county officials, 
pastors of Churches, officers of societies, pioneers, and particularly 
the editors of the press, we are particularly grateful for the many 
kindnesses and courtesies shown us while laboring in the county; 
but most of all we wish to thank those who so liberally and materi- 
ally aided the work by becoming subscribers to it. 

Chicago, January, 1S81. 



The First Immigration — 
TtiJ Second Immigration. 

Manners and Ouetoms 


Earliest Explorere 




Tlie Great French Scheme 

Pontiac's War 

British Policy 

American Policy 

Indian Savagery 



Clary's Ingenious Ruse 

S;il)'cquent Career of Hamilton 




Ordinance of 1787 


) of Harmar, Scott and Wil- 

Expeditions of St. Clair and Wayne 

Wayne'sGreat Victory 


Organization of Indiana Territory 

First Territorial Legislature 

The Western Sun 

Indiana in 1810 



Harrison's Campaign 

Battle of Tippecanoe 

WAR OF 1812 1 

Evpedition against the Indians : 

Close of the War ] 


CIVIL MATTERS 1813-'5 1 

Population in 1815 1 

General Vie v ] 








The Log Cabin : 

Sleeping Accommodations : 

Cooking : 

Women^s Work : 

Dress and Manners : 

Family Worship 


Prairie Fires 

Wild Hogs 

Native Animals. 

Wolf Hunts 

Bee-Han ting 

Snakes , 



"Past the Pictures." 



Guarding against Indians 

The Bright Side 

What the Pioneers Have Done 

Military Drill 

"Jack, the Philosopher of the 19ihCen- 

"Too S'uU ior titter' ne'e.'".' V.V.''/.V.'.'.V. 

Thieving and Lynch-Law 

Curingthe Druuken Husband 

The "CI 



1.5th Amendment 


Lincoln di d not seek the Presidency . 

Character of Abraham Lincoln i 

The War Ended-The Union Restored., i 

The Morgan-Raid Regiments S 

Six Months' Regiments i 

ThelOO-Davs'Voluiteers i 

The President's Call of Julv, 18i'i4 S 

Dec., '• S 

Independent Cavalry Company of Indi- 
ana Volunteers ' 

Our Colored Troops : 

Batteries of Light Artillery 1 

AftertheWar i 



State Bank I 

Wealth and Progress ; 

Internal Improvements J 




State Board of Agriculture '■ 

The Exposition '■ 

Indiana Horiicnltural Society ! 

*' Poraological " ! 


Public Schools ! 

Indiana Scale University 1 

Purdue University ! 

Indiana State Normal School ! 

Normal School, etc., at Valparaiso I 

Denominational and Privatelnstitutlons i 

Institute fur the Education of the Blind i 

Institute for the Deaf and Dumb ) 

Hospital for the Insane i 

The State Prison South : 

North I 

Female Prison and Reformatory I 

Indiana House of Reluge I 




Of Governors 

OfU.S. Senators : 













Pioneers' Song 



A Retrospect 

A History In Brlel 


Location of the County-Seat . . 

The Fli-st Gnst^Mlll 

Platting Goslien 

The Board ot Justices Abolished 

First Settlers at Goshen 

The First Circuit Court 

" Northwestern Pioneer " 

The Bashful Man Craving Fame 

The Sac War 


Navigation ol the Elkhart River 

Mall Route Established 

Political Reminiscences 

" He would Connect Two Hemispheres" 

Elections and Politicians 

Goshen •' Express" 

Presidential vote 


Time and Change 

Happy Memories 


The 'Squire's Democracy 4S3 

The Witty Barrister and the Judge 4S4 

Looking for Political Honors 4S6 

The Auditor and the Immigrant 486 

The Farmer ..nd the Lawyer 48T 

The Profane Man and Judge Sample. . . 488 
Seven Citizens and the Long-Halred 

Stranger 489 

The Old Pioaeer 490 

The Terrible Judge 494 

The " Surrogugeon " Court 495 

The Present Bar 496 



Presidential Vote of the County .500 

Other Election Statistics 502 

State Senators and Representatives 502 

Congressional Apportionment 503 



CL\LS 506 

The Court-House 506 

Provision for the Relief of the Poor. ... 513 

The State Hospital and Elkhart County 516 

County Judges, Justices and Officials. . 516 



TheGoshi u^.uanis 527 

The \\ 523 

ANi< 535 

COU-i' 537 

L0.-!-r ise 566 

Oalilui. 566 

Jackson CeniPt en 567 

The FamlUes 01 the soldiers 56S 



Northern Indiana 

Before the Era of Railways 4«s 

Work of the Board of Justices 409 

The New Board .'.'....'.'.'.".'.'.'.'....'.'.'.'.'... 417 




Reminiscences ot Elkhart 459 

Principal Citizens 459 

Elkhart and its Institutions 459 

Railroad Matters 460 

An Editor and a Lawyer 460 

Miscellaneous 461 

1S43— a Retrospect 463 

The Graves ot Age and Youth ,.465 

The Jackson Lot 468 



The First Disturbers 471 

The Circuit Court 475 

The Reign of Terror 478 

Reminiscences of the Bar 480 

'Squire Rose and the Whigs. 4S0 

The Profane Hog-Robber 4Sl 

Washington Earle's Boots 4S2 

cn.^.PTER xin., 


The County in General 586 

The Rivers and Streams. 587 

A Sketch ol Old and New Industries 588 

RaUroads 591 

Telegraph Company 593 

Agricultural Products 593 

Coimty Fairs 593 

Resources 593 


ENTS 603 

Goshen Democrat 606 

Goshen Times. 618 

Goshen Independent 614 

Elkhart Ke\-1ew 61S 

MiUer-bur_- Ki^Mrn- 617 

Bristol l; n , . 617 

Eikhai- [■ , 617 

Nappaii'- .>-,;> Nriv> 618 

Elkharl e t^uut;. .Juuri..a 618 

Light and Shade 620 

The Danger of Being a Bachelor. 620 

All about Apples 624 

How Editors Commune with one Anoth- 
er 624 

A Mlchlganer's Epistle to an Elkhart 

Girl 624 

Delinquent Newspaper Subscribers. 625 


:ii> I 

i~i rhurch ( 

niliina Conference ( 

c iimvli ( 

^. 11, :ii United Mennonlte 

111 1 luivcli ( 

.11,111 t'liurcli ( 

The Congregational Cliul-eU 639 

Kefl's ChurcU G40 

The German Methodist Church 6W 

The Menuonltes .640 



Revenue 644 

Address or Prol. Moury 648 

TowTishlp Statistics 651 





Cleveland 685 

Clinton 692 

Concord T24~ 

Elkliart S81 

Harrison 9ST 

Jackson 999 

Jefferson 1028 

Locke 1041 

Mlddlebury 1069 

OUve 1101 

Osolo 1115 

Union ...1128 

Washington 1149 

York 1171 

Noah B. Metzler 1180 


Map of Elkhart County 14 & 15 

Scene on the Ohio River 25 

Hieroglyphics of the Mound-Builders. 29 

LaSalle Landing at the Mouth of St. 

Joseph's River 43 

Gen. RogersCIark 63 

Gen. Arthur St. Clair 89 

Tecumseh 109 

Indians Attacking Frontiersmen 123 

A Pioneer Dwelling 139 

Hunting Prairie Wolves 153 

Trapping 169 

Pontlac «3 

The Shawnee Prophet 195 

Lincoln Monument at Springfield S04 

Opening an Indiana Forest 435 

View on the Wabash River 247 

Surrender of Indians to Wilidnson 289 

Court-House 329 

Old Court-House 419 

JaU 609 

Elkhart High-School Building 789 

Goshen High-School BuUdlng 897 


Allen.J. W 865 

Anderson, Leander 609 

Beet)P, Calvin 807 

Beyerle,H.J 62T 

Compton, James 383 

Congdon, Dr. J.R 401 

Cummins, S. M 915 

Dansman, David 437 

Davenport, B. L 347 

Eckelman, F. C 825 

Ellis, Joel 455 

Ellls,J.W 473 

Evans, T. H '491 

Gorman, William B 519 

Heatwole, Joel P 529 

Hllblsh, Tllman 663 

Hlxon, .Solomon Landis 539 

Kessler, A. P M9 

McDowell, William 559 

Me tzger, Jacob 843 

MUler, Samuel R 569 

Mulholland. JI. D.. John R 949 

Myil>. .T'Oi:!-- H 579 

N.'-w. 11. N,, lb, ml. 1 689 646 

lUpiir\, .J..>rpli 681 

Klppry, ,\lattllf-w 1017 

Rippey, Mi-s. Matthew 1017 

Shaver, John 599 

Simonton, David S 861 

Smith, Nicholas 1051 

Strong, S. S 699 

Thompson, David 879 

Thompson, JolinE 717 

Van Frank, John 73B 

violett, Jolm H 983 

Wernu, C. 1 763 

Wright,A. P 771 


t .1 O S K 





Scientists have ascribed to the Moand Builders varied origins^ 
and though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions airived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opiuioi^s of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suffice to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
periotl over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no 
chimnel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
antediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1656 anno mundi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe ; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent. 


will not be claimed; because it is not probable, tliougli it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was effected bj the immediate 
followers of the first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
heaven were swung open to burl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtless at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore from Lopatka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bound 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
1757, A. M. ; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
the Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
raths, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 


periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and -watched lor the return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the wliile adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
Theraputae of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Theraputos or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copper found within 
the tumuli ; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all the modus opera7idi of ancient raining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European Northman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45'^ was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebrae averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebrjB ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by twelve inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of tlie people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that he may 


devour the budding tops of those great trees. Other efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for such a consummation; nor is it beyond the range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
grants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
bringing in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom says: "It is now the generally 
received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet farther confirmed by some remarkable traces, 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, are supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 


boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring's Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as virell as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were the Hiongnoos, 
who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowl- 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which he 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the "West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid? 
situated in the north of Yera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highly-polished porphj'ry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 


notwithstanding all their varied accomplishments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage aad ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religions 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were oflFered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portions of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up ia sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and when about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Maliometanism urged tl»e 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible fiuth bora of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 


spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the tierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until tlie all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and Northwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and tlie wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating forages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it offered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and Huil- 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 


in some hasty effort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of Waters, and indeed the country from 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Vincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Fourteen-Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the '' Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications which has 
ever come under my notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the 'Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a short distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 2i0 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridge, facing the creek. This natural wall 





is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet high. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
"Within the artificial walla is a string of mounds which rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliffs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in his efforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside, and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry off the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the others, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as affording an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound.' Tliere is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passageway to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 


all points. Stone axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spear-points, totums, 
charms and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing the field at the foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " the Professor turns his steps ,to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Bone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. " It is," he states 
"situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being the only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and aff'orded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by the cotton wood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especially' rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been very abundant, and is still found in such quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of clay, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes by surrounding them with walls of earth and 


stone. In some of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state of preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and fragments are so common that every student of 
archasology can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh- water shells. A paste 
made of snch a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 


The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west of 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, offer a subject for theanti- 
■ quarian as deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-Oif Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglyphical characters really are, 
"Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that which is desired to be repre- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we must dwell in 
a world of mere speculation. 


Vigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with hieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "New "World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theoiy on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. Tiie difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Elumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the Mon- 
golidse. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Prichard, whose views are apt to difler from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 

five to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
rown, the latest authority, attributes, in his " Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. He says that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think tliat Japan, the Kuriles, 
and neighboring regions, may be regarded as the original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogether in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both North 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which might account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their lucas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongolian 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
years later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the loth century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Ked Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to aflect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future. 


devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race maj taste the sweets of public kindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil and tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country b}' the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust. A. modern writer says, 
when speaking of tiie Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion of 
demons, even with odds against thein. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military systems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy anything which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued by the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian people 
of the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 


sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its ilight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiflf. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody' revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements wore the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The mam labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is bounded on the east by the meridian line 
■which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Ohio river from the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the Wabash; on the west by aline drawn along the middle of 
the Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 45' and 11° 1' west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Nova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude AUuuez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were received 


in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They were made the 
honored guests at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast buffalo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
1682 LaSalle explored the West, but it is not known that he entered 
the region now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name " Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
into collision. But the country was actually held and occupied by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity. 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Ryswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XIV., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary eftbrts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 



The Wabash was first named by the French, and spelled by them 
Ouabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Ouabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Oliio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 


Francois Morgan de Vinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Vincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Vinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 40S pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept safe until Vinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

There are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Vinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this officer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Vinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Vinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant officer, leaving a name 
which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Vin- 
cennes, changed from Vinsenne to its present orthography in 1749. 

Post Vincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: "Zes Francois itoient itahli un fort sur 


lefleuve Ouahache / ila demanderent U7i. missionaire / et le Pere 
Mermet leur fut envoye. Ce Pere crut devoir travailler a la 
conversion des Mascoutens qui avoient fait itn village sur les 
bords duineme Jleuve. Cest une nation Indians qui entend la 
langue lUinoise." Translated: " The French have established a 
fort upon the river Wabash, and want a missionary; and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was therefore the first preacher of Christianity in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The way I took," says he, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buflFalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou,. or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance, and which one of 
his natiou worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. ' "Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
tou which inhabits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in 1849. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Yin- 
cennes is thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plain 


building with a rough exterior, of upright posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
email bell. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Vincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the Wea river, 
among the Ouiatenons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing iniiuence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
The missionary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " We fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and -iO feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the riverside. "We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approach of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
his vessel (the Griffin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
he concealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gal)riel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our pre>:ent circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one, is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indiflferent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for a long time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re. 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the In, 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituous liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 


More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
penned the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1765 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of fonr 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 
300 Weas, or Ouiatenons,300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the Wabash between Vincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 



In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been snrrendered 
to the English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the "West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly -visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed nuder their blankets, and on a given signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neio-hborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, li at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy ofthe British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efibrts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Yirginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of "Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Vincennes by 
Clark, he engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 
the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter. He was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and establish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort "Jefferson" was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " EecoUections of the 
Wabash Valley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Hinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard 
Ene and George Holman, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Hinton drove the horses while Rue walked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Hinton heard some one say Whoa 
to the horses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Holman why he had called him to 
bait. Holman said that he had not spoken; Rue also denied it, 


but said that he had heard the voice distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you ; it was Simon Girty that 
cried Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, followed by 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Kentuckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receiving several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Eue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boys, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these J'oung 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled up the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless sufferer, 
who died about midnight from the eifects of the slow heat. As 
soon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


him in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with his knife stripped off the scalp, 
which he bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust into the faces of Rue and Holman, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners, Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, took Holman by the hand,- lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said: " I 
adopt you as my son, to fill the place of the one I have lately buried ; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." "With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the victim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the crowd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said : " I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
will be glad when I tell her that 1 have brought her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning 
of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent young 
men do not merit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 
. A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Holman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivit\-. Rue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity, 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of §90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At lengtli a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate him soon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, " You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it soon. You will meet with many trials 
and hardships in passing over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind ; after that you will have plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in fovor of recalling the council and trying 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

"While with the Indians, Holnian saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckian named Richard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on a mission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Harrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Rue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Richmond, Ind. 


In the summer of 1778, Col. George Eogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle countj, Va., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. 
With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that they had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
so hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 



burg and Wheeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the " Falls," 
where he took possession of an island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Vin- 
cennes comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Kegion. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ-' 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in tlieir church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has since been termed the "Rarey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Vigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption would they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currency, and Vigo found great difficulty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. ''Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Vigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Vigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, wiiere he sold coffee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their little bills. 


"Douleur," was the general reply; and as an authority on the sub- 
ject says, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to purchase a 
silver dollar's worth of coffee; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
nifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
lish languages expressed the idea more correctly than the douleur 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to the 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
large amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Now, the post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to "the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Vincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to gai-rison their own fort like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had its desired efiiect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their style of language 
and conduct changed to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as "Illinois" county; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an array of about 


30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and 400 Indians, went down and 
re-took the post Vincennes in December, 1778. No attempt was 
made by the population to defend the town. Capt. Helm and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at tlie fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken prisoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, btarted from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel had to work'hard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suiiered them to shoot game whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little "Wabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the ISth they heard the signal gun at Yincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet tlie vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


gone, and starvation seemed to be hoverino^ about them. The next 
day they commenced to make more canoes, when about noon the 
sentinel on the river brought a boat with five Frenchmen from the 
fort. From this party they learned that they were not as yet dis- 
covered. All the army crossed the river in two canoes the next 
day, and as Clark had determined to reach the town tliat night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. Tliej^ plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at one time mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, "Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the high land in perl'ect safet}'. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Clark's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the officers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
• one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war-whoop, and marched into the water without say- 
in.^ a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me to 
begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we exanained and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 
least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick instill 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
through the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about raid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
the canoes to make the land,discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men; and 
to encourage the party, sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting sliallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired efi'ect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until they were 


taken off" by the canoes; the strong and tall got ashore and built 
fires. Many would reach the shore and fall with their bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

" This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coming up to town, and took through 'this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-men as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' "We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Every man 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other, — which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
a half a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

"Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little array, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 


now to be determined, probably in a few hours; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; I knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished ns well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooability of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, I determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 
To the Inhabitants of Post Vmcennes: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find in 
arms on my arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. R. Clark. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered by our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town, — crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town ; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 


not a perfect level, but had frequent risings in it, of 7 or 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally run in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut. 
Bayley was ordered with 14 men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
terms of surrender, Feb. 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the " unanimity" 
of his oflicers in the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Ofthi9expedition,of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be- 
longs to two men; Gen. George Eogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 


covered by the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
waa added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 17S3; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both our commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,000,000 people, the human mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results." 
[John Law. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 60 men up the river 
"Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
$50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Vincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town, Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of White Eiver; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and cliildren. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities uutil a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 


message to the Delawares, telling them that he would not accept 
their friendship or treat with them for peace; but that if they 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piankeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Clark's attention was next turned to tlie British post at Detroit, 
bat being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 

Clark's ingenious ruse against the Indians. 

Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the British 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just been efl'ected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair-buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all. 

subsequent career of HAMILTON. 

Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 


■ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejean and LaMothe, to 
Williamsburg, Va., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sum for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage he 
was. Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, coniined in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 

The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of hira in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the influence of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "14 toises, one side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Vaudrey, 
and to two streets," — a vague description of land. 


Col. Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, in the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents -and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Vigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Kas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
"With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, he overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of afiairs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant. Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to parole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 


rassed by his detention, being besieged by the inhabitants of the 
town, who loved Vigo and threatened to withdraw their support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Vigo's release. Hamilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on 
his way to St. Louis. He went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vinceunes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country' from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 1779 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of the Ohio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements, Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lauds set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established b}' the early 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
1783, it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 17S7, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The commandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were invested 


with the authority to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 1842 liad been granted bj the Piankeshaws to the French 
inhabitants of Vincennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to be divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that etfect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 1780 La Baline, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British garrison of Detroit by leading au expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the Iiead of 30 men he marched to 
Vincennes, where his force was slightly increased. From this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Wayne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 1783, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
■ pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indjana belonged by conquest to the State of Virginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to tlie Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Virginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 1784 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; aud that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the Kas- 


kasljia, Post Vincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; that a quantity not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Virginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him when tlie posts and of Kaskaskiaand Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Oiiio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Virginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldidrs of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Virginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and honafide dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1784, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. Jeffer- 
son of Virginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after 1800, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 


government of the county was adopted. In 1785 laws were passed 
by Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
hibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was. pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 1781. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson liad vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtlj' gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1.500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jeflerson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the "Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 
were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and ever3' section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all tiie land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 17SS, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted. Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Yincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 


Mary's rivers, but was coldly received ; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Yincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 

" Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Auge here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
17S7, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent says tbere were about 150 French families at Vin- 
cenues in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil ; and while 
the Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause. Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of iOO acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Vincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of ofiicers. He had conducted tlie investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American Kevolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
his judicious management of aflTairs. 



Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, had a long conversation with Gen. Hartnar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of that fort to Vincenues, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Vincennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave him a force of 1,4:50 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. Tliey commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and 60 regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the e.xpeditiou 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Vincennes, as far as the Vermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 


gahela, Harrison, Eandolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Mont- 
gomery counties sent a joint niemorial to the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, saying that the defenseless condition of the counties, form- 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineiFectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if, of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. They farther stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (although thousands of their relatives iu the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and sufiiered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding officers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
"War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed the Oiiio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
ing all the villages around Oiiiatenon, together with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 58 prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to aiFord a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be oflfered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: "Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the eflfects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the wliole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. * * * * 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United States, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." 

Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town. Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north bank of Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town, 
which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally dx::- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day he commenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of the expe- 
dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions ofHarmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
tliis time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 1783, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all 
hona fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Eegion were a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they aflforded succor to hostile Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among the Americans. This state of aflfairs in the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when under a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the country 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washin<.ton 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consistin<. 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head-waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour 
betore sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 23 officers and 
233 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat 
tie and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in the action were valued at $33,800 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dying and the dead! 


Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Mafor-Gen- 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for reorganizing the army, so 
that It should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training his 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
lie moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every 


possible means was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the 
Jforthwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Government; speeches were sent among them, and agents to 
make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 
Hamtramck, who still remained at Vincennes, succeeded in con- 
cluding a general peace with the Wabash and Illinois Indians; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St. Clair's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Wayne July 26, 
1794, and on the 28t]i the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, 
the American army gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about 50 


miles oil each side of tlie Maumee were destroyed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post. 

Sept. 14, 1794, the army under Gen. Wayne commenced its 
march toward the deserted Miami villages at the confluence of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. 17, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort "Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Nov. 22, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In 1814 a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant oiBcer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
affairs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within tlie boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 



On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Vincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 houses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the 18th century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Vincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at "Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes. May 
13, 1800, Wra. Henry Harrison, a native ot Virginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished WesCern pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774:), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
Wm. Clark, Henry Vanderburgh and John Griffin were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Vincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 


to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810 the principal subjects which attracted the 
attention of tlie people of Indiana were land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Sliawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territory, iiad been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the Territory, 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamation 
April 6, 1804, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1804 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33° was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 

When it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeholders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1804, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of 17S7, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory,to choose members of a House 
of Representatives, who should meet at Vincennes Feb. 1 and 


adopt measures for the organization of a Territorial Council. These 
de egates were elected, and met according to the P-^^^^^^^; ^3' 
selected ten men from whom the President of the Un ted States, 
mlefferson, should appoint five to be -^.-nstitute the Leg. a 
tive Council of the Territory, but he dechmng requested Mr^Ha 
rison to make the selection, which was --^^^S ^ J^.?"^^„ J^' 
the first session of this Council, however, was ^-^J' ^^^^^^f^J^;^ 
ritory was set oft', its south line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Lrie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Vincennes July 29, 1805, in pursrfabce of a gubernatorial 
roclamT "on The members of the House of Kepresentatives were 
CeB. Thomas,of Dearborn county;DavisFloyd,otCnarkc^^^^^^^ 

Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of K"°^ ^^'^^^^ ' ^'"^her 
Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair --^{v' .Urfirft mes- 
of Randolph county. July 30 the Governor delivered his fi .t mes 
le to "the Legislative Council and House of R^F-- ^t-- f 

ft Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke -- ^^^^^^^^f ^"f^ 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from New Jersey to In- 

diana in 1801. 

THE "western sun 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
om^dsing the four great States of Indiana, II^--^^^-^^^- ^^^^ 
Wisconsin^ and the second in all that country onoe^^^ZX 
"Northwestern Territory." It was c^^^'"'^"^^^,^^,^;"^"^.^ 
1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first cdled the /^c^.-" 
^aa «.: and July, 4, 1804, was changed to the Wester>i Sun. Mr. 
Stout cntinued the paper until 1845, amid many d-couragements 
whl he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 



The events which we have just been describing -^^Ij --^J;;^^ 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
whi h ended'in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but be ore proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant affair, let us take a glance at the re 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this tune 1810. 

Total population, 24,5.20; 33 grist mills: 14 saw -^ ^^^ ^ ^orse 
onills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; l,2o6 looms, 


1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen and flaxen cloths, $159,032; of cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 pounds, $1,S00; of wiue from grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: "We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the affiiirs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1S06 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
. "Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territory started ofl" on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoyed. 

From the first settlement of Yincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


Standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough for both parties to study out and understand them. The 
government was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unknown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; there seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied by a 
command to render justice. If this had no efiect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sherifi" and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in prison until he rendered justice 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Immediately after the organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, by necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 46,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Vin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jefiersonville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jefferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed; the Indian 



was nearly always the sufferer. All along from 180.5 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the encroachments of the white 
people upon the lands that belonged to them. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said : " You 
callus children; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? They never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between us. They planted where they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and the state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Peras-quat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons; that he had power to cure all 
diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1804, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 



death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her out of the council- house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " The Evil S])irit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — \_DilloiiS lliHtonj of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This really destroyed to some 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecuraseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians tiiat the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white jieople might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped; I will no longer suifer it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant triltes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that lie was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Vincennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


erly love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that he was 
houest; but before long it was demonstrated that the "Prophet" 
was designing, cunning and unreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Yincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
English, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1S09, he said that he 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties. Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lauds, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of land ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been eflected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 aires. 

From 1S05 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed tliat 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned his expedition and his followers had 

Harrison's campaign. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the officials who offered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter.offering to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Vincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with 70 of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 


Governor's house, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with His Excellency. In all of his speeches Tecumseh was 
haughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20th he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returning their lands or meeting them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumsehinter- 
rupted him with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way oif, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of offense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
in 1S09, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
"Brother, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. *I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in the course of along 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce liim to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 


injured by tlie war. He may sit still in his town and drink his 
wine, while yon and I will have to fight it oat." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held by Tecumseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
among the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed by this session of the Legislature, one 
authorize'd the President and Directors of the Vincennes Public 
Library to "raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian afi"airs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savages in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Tecumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was being organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew more and more 


aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech, 
substantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings; you threaten us with war; you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. The tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as you expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. What can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife fire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash, Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see rae, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not suifer you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you, 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You are 


yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
who replied to the Governor briefly that he should visit Vincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27, 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inhabitants. In view of an emergency Gov. 
Harrison reviewed his militia — about 750 armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At this interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which tliey ought to follow; 
that it was his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difliculties with him, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Vincennes, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the "Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Vincennes. When 
the military expedition organized by Gov, Harrison was nearly 


ready to march to the Prophet's town,several Indian chiefs arrived 
at Vincenues Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Vincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place 
where Fort Harrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
were sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, "Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his jiossession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the "Wabash was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 


and near this bank ran a small stream clothed with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and rear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than half that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of ilajor-General Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on tlie left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single flle was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was flred by the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
■were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in these companies suffered considerably before relief could be 
brought to them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetrated to some distance before 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemy than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his horse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
suffered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and "Wentworth's companies to march 
up to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. riflemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force than was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
his men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his 1st 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp until daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
the marsh, where they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 
Cook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed under tire of the enemy, and being there joined 


by tlie riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killing a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Tlius ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victoriously to the 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 efficient men. wliile 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and 126 wounded; the 
Indians lost 3S killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Among the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, "Warwick, Eandolph, Bean and "White. Standing on 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless b}' the Great Spirit. Eeing informed during the engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very tew followers, then took 
up his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
"Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the ISth the American army returned to Yincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted onr 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, 1812, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 22. In that skirmish the white man was 
killed, and "Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the rifle of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 


The victory recently gained by the Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, but only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States again to declare war against them. 
Tecuraseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June 18, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1S12, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Waj-ne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disqualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had "broken their ranks" and reached 
tbe fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising men for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; but the little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 
relief. During this siege the commanding officer, whose habits of 


intemperance rendered him unfit for the command, was confined in 
the " black hole," while the junior officer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Ehea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Sept. 6, 1S12, Harrison moved forward with his army to the re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
miles of St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Eich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's they were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
ofiered their services as spies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through the lines of the hostile Indians,he ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering the fort, he encouraged the solaiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were damp; theywere dis- 
charged and reloaded; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ererl; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed ; and " At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, "the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1819. 


Simultaneously with the attack on Fort Wayne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded by Zachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when tiie garrison was in a ratlier poor plight for receiving 
tliem. The enemy succeeded in firing one of tlie block-houses, 
which contained v/hisky, and the whites had great difliculty in pre- 
venting the burning of all the barracks. The word " fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers' and citizens' 
wives, who had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, raHied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th°ra 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove oflf all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dur- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children ; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful efibrt was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Vincennes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
Wm. Russell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 


cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and families 
were in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Kussell, and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being ofKcered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrying with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and DaVis White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. "With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men offered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Kevolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Viucennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, with about 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About the same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry and Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to march with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was compelled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentucky militia, 


commanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zacliary Taylor; a company of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under the command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison Nov. 5; on the 11th it pro- 
ceeded up the east side of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Vincennes as rapidly as possible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the enemy. That 
exception was the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the enemy, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

In the fall of 1812 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 men. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delawares and 
Miamis This and three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the supplies growing short and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met by the re-enforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, wbo 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at unfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Auglaize river, lie assured them that their 
peo])le, in his power, would be compensated by the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miamis. The Shawanee Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White river, to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1813, Col. William Russell, of the 7th U. S., organized 
a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the iiioiitli of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, wiio had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suffered many losses, found tlie villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every place where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 


country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep them- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the 2ith. of December, 1814, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, aiid entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 
death. His brother Tecumseh. was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of LaHarpe township, 
Hancock county. 111., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 


If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecumseh will go down to posterity in 
the "West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foeraen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and tlie Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 
passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 


this part of the country; but Tecnmseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowing that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. lu his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

"When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " trumpet-tongued," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
■which his race had suffered from the time of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could, not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the iands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
"Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the '"Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
uribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in -which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the effect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate liis speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pot tawa torn ies, when Tecumseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecumseh, addressing tiie interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell hira belies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arras to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four titties his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyaudots, Kickapoos, Potta-watomies, Ottawas and the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril . Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, and each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong-, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that co\intry in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 


ice; indeed, it is said that he never forgave hiin to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, ou the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 


Owing to the absence of Gov, Harrison on military duty, John 
Gibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1813, he said, substantially: 

"Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Altliough not an admirer of 
war, I am glad to see our little but inimitable navy riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
by our foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians, 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victirris to savage cruelty. I have done my duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
law. Said he: "It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
' good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thing, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

During this session of the Legislature the seat of the Territorial 
Government was declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1813. During this 3-ear the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was' made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been oflicer of the army of the 
Revolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Vincennes and entered upon 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with great events. Onr land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being, who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a' foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not suffer to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. * * * Although our aSairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war. Every measure consistent with honor, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy, * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 


good roads and highways in as many directions tbrough the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. There is an appropriation made 1^ Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of establishing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

This Legislature passed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the ISTorth- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1814, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. ■ These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought iu the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands. 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 

COUNTIES. White males ofCl and over. TOTAL. 

Wayne 1,225 6,407 

Franklin 1,430 7,370 

Dearborn 903 4,434 

SwitzerlanU 377 1,832 

Jefferson-- 874 4,270 

Clark 1,387 7,150 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,056 6,975 

Knox 1,391 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,3i0 

Posey 320 1,619 

Warrick 280 l,41o 

Perry 350 1,720 

Grand Totals 12,113 63,897 


The well-known ordinance of 1787 conferred many " rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories. Tliey did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory ; every member of the Territorial House 
of Representatives was required to hold, in his own right, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia, Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Survej-ors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among tlie several counties the members of tlie House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of suflTrage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: ''Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected tu what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. This act was passed in 1809. and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the right of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate 


to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty-one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1814 the voting qualification in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every free white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Keprcsentatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were em- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank of Vincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 


The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory upon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improvement of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jennings, the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 28th, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
■whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon'' s History of Indiana. 


The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Wm. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Kepresentatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate pro tem., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: " The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten in our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure efiiciency to its 
measures and stability' to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Governrnent 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government * * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * * I recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law. to prevent more 
effectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 



persons of color legally entitled to their freedom; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Eobert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give th«m in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period 1825-'30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Grovernor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 


In 1830 there still lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of' living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the Wabash, felt as sad as 
^schines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life, 
and for whicli he died. 

On Sunday morning. May 18, 1832, the people on the west side 
of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 
account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 
approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 
alarm soon spread tliroughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 
Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 
commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 
Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 
dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 


make a call upon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Gen. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jenners, Capt. 
Bro\vn, of the artillery, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety. Imag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
his wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the ftimily in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that '• discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fear? of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the " Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 


the meeting adjourned, the guards were paraded on the green 
where Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evohi- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the niglit air as he marched 
and couuter-marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
to Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of tlie people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
march to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who , after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. Tiie aroused 
Colonels and stafl' sprang to their feet, shouting "To arms! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, he put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the aftrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 2S, 1S32, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even though it be necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Thursday a squad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the iOth Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panics of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and Warren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return, They all did so except about 4.5 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing? 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1S12, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraham, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difficulty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Capt. I. II. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 1.5 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gun 
had been seen; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Vincennes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 


inhabitants gathered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsville were suddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full speed with the announce- 
ment tliat the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at the prin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched in different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the nioment- 
arih' expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the "Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of "Warren, Fountain and "Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified by exaggerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged ; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into "Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In July, 1837, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river bv George Proffit, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nas-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup-' 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons,— sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippe- 


canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished from 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from different points on their journey, and it was several years 
before they could be induced to join their countrymen west ot the 
Mississippi. . 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatomies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within the State, was forwarded to that body, 
which -ranted the request. The Secretary of War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sel 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold abou 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois aud Michigan, including all 
their claim in this State. . r j- ,.1 1 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
ceded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated bj the early Indianians, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's " Recollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 2i, 1824, many parties were present 
trom the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him; if neither would consent to be bou-ht off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the otiier would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would "crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
tlie district and continuing north until all had been ofi-ered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, althougli it kept many on 
the gronnd for several days waiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country mi-ht 
entef the land he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 
of his voice, "Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians 
(133) ' 


murdering and scalping all before them!" They paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois, Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalry, hastening to the thickest settlements and giving 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated tlie story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
"There's a Yankee trick for you, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Rappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid off 
a town, to which they gave the name of "Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was "in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Rappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the year 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriety. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. He charged tlie latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsibility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he: 

"That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

" 1. Because they are born with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, playmates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked ; or, 

" 3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked. Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I reply, Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

"2. That the affections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerity and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

"3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary effects 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 

" Facts prove, however, 

" 1. That character is universally formed for and not by the in- 


"2. That any habits and sentiments may be given to mankind; 

" 3. That the affections are not under the control of the indi- 

" 4. That every individual may be trained to produce far more 
than he can consume, while there is a sufficiency left for him to 

" 5. That nature has provided means by which population may 
be at all times maintained in the proper state to give the greatest 
happiness to every individual, without one check of vice and 
misery ; 

" 6. That any community may be arranged on a due combina- 
tion of the foregoing principles in such a manner as not only to 
withdraw vice, poverty, and in a great degree misery from the 
world, but also to place every individual under circumstances in 
which he shall enjoy more permanent happiness than can be given 
to any individual under the principles which have hitherto regu- 
lated society; 

" 7. That all the fundamental principles on which society has 
hitherto been founded are erroneous and may be demonstrated to 
be contrary to fact; and — 

" 8. That the change that would follow the abandonment of 
those erroneous maxims which bring misery into the world, and the 
adoption of the principles of truth, unfolding a system which shall 
remove and forever exclude that misery, may be effected without 
the slightest injury to any human being." 

Mr. Owen's efforts to establish a community on his principles 
failed, probably because he overlooked the deeper principle that 
the main element of " Liberalism " is "individuality" of life in 
all respects. 


Most of the early settlers of Indiana came from older States, as 
Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Virginia, where their prospects for 
even a competency were very poor. They found those States 
good — to emigrate from. Tlieir entire stock of furniture, imple- 
ments and family necessities were easily stored in one wagon, and 
sometimes a cart was their only vehicle. 


After arriving and selecting a suitable location, the next thing 
to do was to build a log cabin, a description of which may be inter- 


esting to many of our younger readers, as in some sections these 
old-time structures are no more to be seen. Trees of uniform size 
were chosen and cut into logs of the desired length, generally 12 
to 15 feet, and hauled to the spot selected for the future dwelling. 
On an appointed day the few neighbors who were available would 
assemble and have a " house-raising." Each end of every log was 
saddled and notched so that they would lie as close down as possi- 
ble; the next day the propiietor would proceed to " chink and 
daub" the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and cold. The house 
had to be re-daubed every fall, as the rains of the intervening time 
would wash out a great part >f the mortar. The usual height of 
the house was seven or eight feet. The gables were formed by 
shortening the logs gradually at each end of the building near the 
top. The roof was made by laying very straight small logs or 
stout poles suitable distances apart, generally about two and a half 
feet, from gable to gable, and on these poles were laid the " clap- 
boards " after the manner of shingling, showing about two and a 
half feet to the weather. These clapboards were fastened to their 
place by " weight poles," corresponding in place with the joists 
just described, and these again were held in their place by " runs " 
or " knees," which were chunks of wood about 18 or 20 inches long 
fitted between them near the ends. Clapboards were made from 
the nicest oaks in the vicinity, by chopping or sawing them into 
four-foot blocks and riving these with a frow, which was a simple 
blade fixed at right angles to its handle. This was driven into 
the blocks of wood by a mallet. As the frow was wrenched down 
through the wood, the latter was turned alternately over from side 
to side, one end being held by a forked piece of timber. 

The chimney to the "Western pioneer's cabin was made by leaving 
in the original building a large open place in one wall, or by cut- 
ting one after the structure was up, and by building on the out- 
side from the ground up, a stone column, or a column of sticks and 
mud, the sticks being laid up cob-house fashion. The fire-place 
thus made was often large enough to receive fire-wood six to eight 
feet long. Sometimes tliis wood, especially the " back-log," would 
be nearly as large as a saw-log. The more rapidly the pioneer 
could burn up the wood in his vicinity the sooner he had his little 
farm cleared and read}' for cultivation. For a window, a piece 
about two feet long was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed sometimes by glass, but generally with greased paper. 
Even greased deer-hide was sometimes used. A doorway was cut 


through one of the walls if a saw was to be had; otherwise the 
door would be left bj shortened logs in the original building. The 
door was made by pinning clapboards to two or three wood bars, 
and was hung upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, with catch, 
then finished the door, and the latch was raised by any one on the 
outside by pulling a leather string. For security at night this 
latch-string was drawn in; but for friends and neighbors, and even 
strangers, the '• latch-string was always hanging out," as a welcome. 
In the interior, over the fire-place would be a shelf, called " the 
mantel," on which stood the candlestick or lamp, some cooking and 
table ware, possibly an old clock, and other articles; in the fire- 
place would be the crane, sometimes of iron, sometimes of wood; on 
it the pots were hung for cooking; over the door, in forked cleats, 
hung the ever trustful rifle and powder-horn ; in one corner stood 
the larger bed for the " old folks," and under it the trundle bed for 
the children; in another stood the old-fashioned spinning-wheel, 
with a smaller one by its side; in another the heavy table, the only 
table, of course, there was in the house; in the remaining corner 
was a rude cupboard holding the table-ware, whicii consisted of a 
few cups and saucers and blue-edged plates, standing singly on 
their edges against the back, to make the display of table furniture 
more conspicuous; while around the room were scattered a few 
splint-bottomed or Windsor chairs and two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true-hearted 
people. They were strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler, 
seeking lodgings for the night, or desirous of spending a few days 
in the community, if willing to accept the rude offering, was always 
welcome, although how they were disposed of at night the reader 
might not easily imagine; for, as described, a single room was 
made to answer for kitchen, dining-room, sitting-room, bed-room and 
parlor, and many families consisted of six or eight members. 


The bed was very often made by fixing a post in the floor about 
six feet from one wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, and 
fastening a stick to this post about two feet above the floor, on 
each of two sides, so that the other end of each of the two sticks 
could be fastened in the opposite wall; clapboards were laid across 
these, and thus the bed was made complete. Guests were given 
this bed, while the family disposed of themselves in another corner 
of the room, or in the "loft." "When sovor:;! iriic-^'-^ were on hand 


at once, they were sometimes kept over night in the following 
manner: when bed-time came the men were requested to step out 
of doors while the women spread out a broad bed upon the mid- 
floor, and put themselves to bed in the center; the signal was given 
and the men came in and each husband took his place in bed next 
his own wife, and the single men outside beyond them again. They 
were generally so crowded that they had to lie " spoon" fashion, 
and when any one wished to turn over he would say "Spoon," and 
the whole company of sleepers would turn over at once. This was 
the only way they could all keep in bed. 

To witness the various processes of cooking in those days would 
alike surprise and amuse those who have grown up since cooking 
stoves and ranges came into use. Kettles were hung over the 
large fire, suspended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, on the crane, 
or on poles, one end of which would rest upon a chair. The long- 
handled frying-pan was used for cooking meat. It was either held 
over the blaze by hand or set down upon coals drawn out upon the 
hearth. This pan was also used for baking pan-cakes, also called 
" flap-jacks," " batter-cakes," etc. A better article for this, how- 
ever, was the cast-iron spider or Dutch skillet. The best thing 
for baking bread those days, and possibly even yet in these latter 
days, was the flat-bottomed bake kettle, of greater depth, with 
closely fitting cast-iron cover, and commonly known as the " Dutch- 
oven." With coals over and under it, bread and biscuit would 
quickly and nicely bake. Turkey and spare-ribs were sometimes 
roasted before the fire, suspended by a string, a dish being placed 
underneath to catch the drippings. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. The hominy, how- 
ever, was generally hulled corn — boiled corn from which the hull, 
or bran, had been taken by hot lye; hence sometimes called 
"lye hominy." True hominy and samp were made of pounded 
corn. A popular method of making this, as well as real meal for 
bread, was to cut out or burn a large hole in the top of a huge 
stump, in the shape of a mortar, and pounding the corn in this by 
a maul or beetle suspended on the end of a swing pole, like a well- 
sweep. This and the well-sweep consisted of a pole 20 to 30 
feet long fixed in an upright fork so that it could be worked "teeter" 
fashion. It was a rapid and simple way of drawing water. When 
the samp was sufficiently pounded it was taken out, the bran floated 


off, and tlie delicious grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in early day were corn bread, hominy 
or samp, venison, pork, honey, beans, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for 
more than half the year), turkey, prairie chicken, squirrel and some 
other game, with a few additional vegetables a portion of the year. 
Wheat bread, tea, coffee and fruit were luxuries not to be indulged 
in except on special occasions, as when visitors were present. 

women's work. 

Besides cooking in the manner described, the women had many 
other arduous duties to perform, one of the chief of which was spin- 
ning. The "big wheel" was used for spinning yarn and the " little 
wheel " for spinning flax. These stringed instruments furnished 
the princii)al music of the family, and were operated by our moth- 
ers and grandmothers with great skill, attained without pecuniary 
expense and with far less practice than is necessary for tlie girls of 
our period to acquire a skillful use of their costly and elegant in- 
struments. But those wheels, indispensable a few years ago, are 
all now superseded by the mighty factories which overspread the 
country, furnishing cloth of all kinds at an expense ten times less 
than would be incurred now by the old system. 

The loom was not less necessary than the wheel, though they 
were not needed in so great numbers; not every house had a loom, 
one loom had a capacity for the needs of several families. Settlers, 
having succeeded in spite of the wolves in raising sheep, commenced 
the manufacture of woolen cloth; wool was carded and made into rolls 
by hand-cards, and the rolls were spun on the " big wheel." We still 
occasionally find in the houses of old settlers a wheel of this kind, 
sometimes used for spinning and twisting stocking yarn. They are 
turned with the hand, and with such velocity that it will run itself 
while the nimble worker, by her backward step, draws out and 
twists her thread nearly the whole length of the cabin. A common 
article woven on the loom was linsey, or linsey-woolsey, the chain 
being linen and the filling woolen. This cloth was used for dresses 
for the women and girls. Nearly all the clothes worn by the men 
were also home-made; rarely was a farmer or his son seen in a coat 
made of any other. If, occasionally, a young man appeared in a 
suit of " boughten " clothes, he was suspected of having gotten it 
for a particular occasion, which occurs in the life of nearly every 
young man. 



The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light upon 
their conditions and limitations that in order better to show the 
circumstances surrounding the people of the State, we will give a 
short exposition of the manner of life of our Indiana people at 
dififerent epochs. The Indians themselves are credited by Charle- 
voix with being "very laborious," — raising poultry, spinning the 
wool of the buffalo, and manufacturing garments therefrom. 
These must have been, however, more than usually favorable repre- 
sentatives of their race. 

"The working and voyaging dress of the French masses," says 
Reynolds, "was simple and primitive. The French were like the 
lilies of the valley [ the Old Eanger was not always exact in his 
quotations], — they neither spun nor wove any of their clothing, 
but purchased it from the merchants. The white blanket coat, 
known as the capot, was the universal and eternal coat for the winter 
with the masses. A cape was made of it that could be raised over 
the head in cold weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it hung behind, a cape to 
the blanket coat. The reason that I know these coats so well is 
that I have worn many in my youth, and a working man never 
wore a better garment. Dressed deer-skins and blue cloth were 
worn commonly in the winter for pantaloons. The blue handker- 
chief and the deer-skin moccasins covered tlie head and feet gener- 
ally of the French Creoles. In 1800 scarcely a man thought him- 
self clothed unless he had a belt tied round his blanket coat, and 
on one side was hung the dressed skin of a pole-cat filled with 
tobacco, pipe, flint and steel. On the other side was fastened, 
under the belt, the butcher knife. A Creole in this dress felt like 
Tam O'Shanter filled with usquebaugh; he could face the devil. 
Checked calico shirts were then common, but in winter flannel 
was frequently worn. In the summer the laboring men and the 
voyagers often took their shirts off" in hard work and hot weather, 
and turned out the naked back to the air and sun." 

" Among the Americans," he adds, " home-made wool hats were 
the common wear. Fur hats were not common, and scarcely a 
boot was seen. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly 
moccasins made of deer-skins and shoe-packs of tanned leather. 
Some wore shoes, but not common in very early times. In the 
summer the greater portion of the young people, male and female, 


and many of the old, went barefoot. The substantial and universal 
outside wear was the blue linsey hunting shirt. This is an excel- 
lent garment, and I have never felt so happy and healthy since I 
laid it off. It is made of wide sleeves, open before, with ample size 
so as to envelop the body almost twice around. Sometimes it had a 
large cape, which answers well to save the shoulders from the rain. 
A belt is mostly used to keep the garment close around thejierson, 
and, nevertheless, there is nothing tight about it to hamper the 
body. It is often fringed, and at times the fringe is composed of 
red, and other gay colors. The belt, frequently, is sewed to the 
hunting shirt. The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The 
colors were made often with alum, copperas and madder, boiled with 
the bark of trees, in such a manner and proportions as the old ladies 
prescribed. The pantaloons of the masses were generally made of 
deer-skin and linsey. Coarse blue cloth was sometimes made into 

" Linsey, neat and fine, manufactured at home, composed generally 
the outside garments of the females as well as the males. The 
ladies had linsey colored and woven to suit their fancy. A bonnet, 
composed of calico, or some gay goods, was worn on the head when 
they were in the open air. Jewelry on the pioneer ladies was 
Tincommon; a gold ring was an ornament not often seen." 

In 1820 a change of dress began to take place, and before 1830, 
according to Ford, most of the pioneer costume had disappeared. 
''The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or white fringe, had given 
place to the cloth coat. [Jeans would be more like the fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of the animal dangling down behind, had 
been thrown aside for hats of wool or fur. Boots and shoes had 
supplied the deer-skin moccasins; and the leather breeches, strapped 
tight around the ankle, had disappeared before unmentionables of a 
more modern material. The female sex had made still greater prog- 
ress in dress. The old sort of cotton or woolen frocks, spun, woven 
and made with their own fair hands, and striped and cross-barred 
with blue dye and Turkey red, had given place to gowns of silk and 
calico. The feet, before in a state of nudity, now charmed in shoes 
of calf-skin or slippers of kid ; and the head, formerly unbonneted, 
but covered with a cotten handkerchief, now displayed the charms 
of the female face under many forms of bonnets of straw, silk and 
Leghorn. The young ladies, instead of walking a mile or two to 
church on Sunday, carrying their shoes and stockings in their hands 
until within a hundred yards of the place of worship, as formerly, 


now came forth arrayed complete in all the pride of dress, mounted . 
on fine horses and attended bv their male admirers." 

The last half century has doubtless witnessed changes quite as 
great as those set forth by our Illinois historian. Tiie chronicler 
of to-day, looking back to the golden days of 1830 to 1840, and 
comparing them with the present, must be struck with the tendency 
of an almost monotonous uniformity in dress and manners that 
comes from the easy inter-communication afforded by steamer, rail- 
way, telegraph and newspaper. Home manufacturers have been 
driven from the household by the lower-priced fabrics of distant 
mills. The Kentucky jeans, and the copperas-colored clothing of 
home manufacture, so femiliar a few years ago, have given place to 
the cassimeres and cloths of noted factories. The ready-made 
clothing stores, like a touch of nature, made the whole world kin- 
and may drape the charcoal man in a dress-coat and a stove-pipe 
hat. The prints and silks of England and France give a variety of 
choice and an assortment of colors and shades such as the pioneer 
women could hardly have dreamed of. Godey and Demorest and 
Harper's Bazar are found in our modern farm-houses, and the latest 
fashions of Paris are not uncommon. 


The Methodists were generally first on the ground in pioneer 
settlements, and at that early day they seemed more demonstrative 
in their devotions than at the present time. In those days, too, pul- 
pit oratory was generally more eloquent and effective, while the 
grammatical dress and other " worldly" accomplishments were not 
so assiduously cultivated as at present. But in the manner of con- 
ducting public worship there has probably not been so much 
change as in that of family worship, or " family prayers," as it was 
often called. We had then most emphatically an American edition 
of that pious old Scotch practice so eloquently described in Burns' 
" Cotter's Saturday Night:" 

The cheerfu' supper done, wi' serious face 
They round the ingle formed a circle wide; 

The sire turns o'er, wi' patriarchal grace, 
The big ha' Bible, ance his father's pride ; 

His bonnet rev'rently is laid aside. 
His lyart haffets wearing thin and bare; 

Those strains that once did sweet in Zion glide ; 
He wales a portion with judicious care, 
And " let us worsnip God," he says with solemn air. 


They chant their artless notes in simple guise; 

They tune their hearts, — by far the noblest aim ; 
Perhaps " Dundee's " wild warbling measures rise, 

Or plaintive " Martyrs," worthy of the name; 
Or noble " Elgin'' beats the heavenward flame, — 

The sweetest far of Scotia's hallowed lays. 
Compared with these, Italian trills are tame; 

The tickled ear no heart-felt raptures raise: 
■ Nae unison hae they with our Creator's praise. 
The priest-like father reads the sacred page, — 

How Abraham was the friend of God on high, etc. 

Then kneeling down, to heaven's Eternal King 
The saint, the father and the husband prays ; 

Hope " springs exulting on triumphant wing," 
That thus they all shall meet in future days ; 

There ever bask in uncreated rays, 
No more to sigh or shed the bitter tear. 

Together hymning their Creator's praise. 
In such society, yet still more dear , 
While circling time moves round in an eternal sphere. 

Once or twice a daj% in tlie morning just before breakfast, or in 
the evening just before retiring to rest, the head of the family- 
would call those around him to order, read a chapter in the Bible, 
announce the hymn and tune by commencing to sing it, when all 
would join; then he would deliver a most fervent prayer. If a pious 
guest was present he would be called on to take the lead in all the 
exercises of the evening; and if in those days a person who prayed 
in the family or in public did not pray as if it were his very last on 
earth, his piety was thought to be defective. 

The familiar tunes of that day are remembered by the surviving 
old settlers as being more spiritual and inspiring than those of the 
present day, such as Bourbon, Consolation, China, Canaan, Con- 
quering Soldier, Condescension, Devotion, Davis, Fiducia, Funeral 
Thought, Florida, Golden Hill, Greenfields, Ganges, Idumea, 
Imandra, Kentucky, Lenox, Leander, Mear, New Orleans, North 
field. New Salem, New Durham, Olney, Primrose, Pisgah, Pleyel's 
Hymn, Eockbridge, Kocklngham, Eeflection, Supplication, Salva- 
tion, St. Thomas, Salem, Tender Thought, Windham, Greenville, 
etc., as they are named in the Missouri Harmony. 

Members of other orthodox denominations also had their family 
prayers in which, however, the phraseology of the prayer was some- 
what different and the voice not so loud as characterized the real 
Methodists, United Brethren, etc. 




The traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's cabin. It 
was never full. Although there might be already a guest for every 
puncheon, there was still "room for one more," and a wider circle 
would be made for the new-comer at the log fire. If the stranger 
was in search of land, he was doubly welcome, and his host would 
volunteer to show him all the " first-rate claims in this neck of the 
woods," going with him for days, showing the corners and advan- 
tages of every " Congress tract " within a dozen miles of his own 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally liberal. If a deer was 
killed, the choicest bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a half- 
dozeft miles away, perhaps. Whena"shoat" was butchered, the 
same custom prevailed. If a new comer came in too late for " crop- 
ping," the neighbors would supply his table with just the same 
luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal quantity, until 
a crop could be raised. When a new-comer had located his claim, 
the neighbors for miles around would assemble at the site of the 
new-comer's proposed cabin and aid hitn in " gittin' " it up. One 
party with axes would cut down the trees and hew the logs; another 
with teams would haul the logs to the ground; another party would 
"raise" the cabin; while several of the old men would " rive the 
clapboards " for the roof. By night the little forest domicile would 
be up and ready for a "house-warming," which was the dedicatory 
occupation of the house, when music and dancing and festivity 
would be enjoyed at full height. The next day the new-comer 
would be as well situated as his neighbors. 

An instance of primitive hospitable manners will be in place 
here. A traveling Methodist preacher arrived in a distant neigh- 
borhood to fill an appointment. The house where services were to 
be held did not belong to a church member, but no matter for that. 
Boards were raked up from all quarters with which to make tem- 
porary seats, one of the neighbors volnnteeringto lead off in the work, 
while the man of the house, with the faitliful rifle on his shoulder, 
sallied forth in quest of meat, for this truly was a " ground-hog " 
case, the preacher coming and no meat in the house. The host ceased 
not the chase until he found the meat, in the shape of a deer; re- 
turning, he sent a boy out after it, with directions on what " pint " 
to find it. After services, which had been listened to with rapt at- 


tention by all the audience, mine host said to his wife, " Old 
woman, I reckon this 'ere preacher is pretty hungry and you must 
git him a bite to eat." " What shall I git him ? " asked the wife, 
who had not seen the deer; "thar's nuthiii' in the house to eat." 
" Why, look thar," returned he; " thar's a deer, and thar's plenty 
of corn in the field; you git some corn and grate it while I skin 
the deer, and we'll have a good supper for him." It is needless 
to add that venison and corn bread made a supper fit for any pio- 
neer preacher, and was thankfully eaten. 

In pioneer times the transactions of commerce were generally 
carried on by neighborhood exchanges. Now and then a farmer 
would load a fiat-boat with beeswax, honey, tallow and peltries, 
with perhaps a few bushels of wheat or corn or a few hundred clap- 
boards, and float down the rivers into the Ohio and thence to New 
Orleans, where he would exchange his produce for substantials in 
the shape of groceries and a little ready money, with which he 
would return by some one of the two or three steamboats then run- 
ning. Betimes there appeared at the best steamboat landings a 
number of " middle men " engaged in the " commission and for- 
warding " business, buying up the farmers' produce and the tro- 
phies of the chase and the trap, and sending them to the various 
distant markets. Their winter's accumulations would be shipped 
in the spring, and the manufactured goods of the far East or dis- 
tant South would come back in return; and in all these transac- 
tions scarcely any money was seen or used. Goods were sold on a 
year's time to the farmers, and payment made from the proceeds of 
the ensuing crops. When the crops were sold and the merchant 
satisfied, the surplus was paid out in orders on the store to labor- 
ing men and to satisfy other creditors. When a day's work was 
done by a working man, his employer would ask, " Well, what 
store do you want your order on?" The answer being given, the 
order was written and always cheerfully accepted. 

Money was an article little known and seldom seen among the 
earlier settlers. Indeed, they had but little use for it, as they could 
transact all their business about as well without it, on the " barter " 
system, wherein great ingenuity was sometimes displayed. When 


it failed in any instance, long credits contributed to the conven- 
ience of the citizens. But for taxes and postage neither the barter 
nor the credit system would answer, and often letters were suffered 
to remain a long time in the postofBce for the want of the twenty- 
five cents demanded by the Government. With all this high price 
on postage, by the way, the letter had not been brouglit 500 miles 
in a day or two, as is the case nowadays, but had probably been 
weeks on the route, and the mail was delivered at the pioneer's 
postoffice, several miles distant. from his residence, only once in a 
week or two. All the mail would be carried by a lone horseman. 
Instances are related illustrating how misrepresentation would be 
resorted to in order to elicit tlie sympathies of some one who was 
known to have " two bits " (25 cents) of money with him, and pro- 
cure the required Govermental fee for a letter. 

Peltries came nearer being money than anything else, as it came 
to be custom to estimate the value of everything in peltries. Such 
an article was worth so many peltries. Even some tax collectors 
and postmasters were known to take peltries and exchange them 
for the money required by the Government. 

When the first settlers first came into the wilderness they 
generally supposed that their hard struggle would be princi- 
pally over after the first year; but alas! tliey often looked for 
"easier times next year" for many years before realizing them, 
and then they came in so slily as to be almost imperceptible. The 
sturdy pioneer thus learned to bear hardships, privation and hard 
living, as good soldiers do. As the facilities for making. money 
were not great, they lived pretty well satisfied in an atmosphere of 
good, social, friendly feeling, and thought themselves as good as 
those they had left behind in the East. But among the early set- 
tlers who came to this State were many who, accustomed to the 
advantages of an older civilization, to churches, schools and society, 
became speedily home-sick and dissatisfied. They would remain 
perhaps one summer, or at most two, then, selling whatever claim 
with its improvements they had made, would return to the older 
States, spreading reports of the hardships endured by the settlers 
here and the disadvantages which they had found, or imagined they 
had found, in the country. These weaklings were not an unmiti- 
gated curse. Tlie slight improvements they had made were sold to 
men of sterner stuff, who were the sooner able to surround them- 
selves with the necessities cf life, while their unfavorable report 
deterred other weaklings from coming. The men who stayed, who 


were willing to endure privations, belonged to a different guild; 
they were heroes every one, — men to whom hardships were things 
to be overcome, and present privations things to be endured for the 
sake of posterity, and they never shrank from this duty. It is to 
these hardy pioneers who could endure, that we to-day owe the 
wonderful improvement we have made and the development, almost 
miraculous, that has brought our State in the past sixty years, from 
a wilderness, to the front rank among the States of this great nation. 

Not the least of the hardships of the pioneers was the procuring 
of bread. The first settlers must be supplied at least one year from 
other sources than tlieir own lands; but the first crops, however 
abundant, gave only partial relief, there being no mills to grind the 
grain. Hence the necessity of grinding by hand power, and many 
families were poorly provided with means for doing this. Another 
way was to grate the corn. A grater was made from a piece of 
tin, sometimes taken from an old, worn-out tin bucket or other 
vessel. It was thickly perforated, bent into a semicircular form, 
and nailed, rough side upward, on a board. The corn was taken in 
the ear, and grated before it got dry and hard. Corn, however, was 
eaten in various ways. 

Soon after the country became more generally settled, enterpris- 
ing men were ready to embark in the milling business. Sites along 
the streams were selected for water-power. A person looking for a 
mill-site would follow up and down the stream for a desired loca- 
tion, and when found he would go before the authorities and secure 
a writ of ad quod damninn. Tliis would enable the miller to have 
the adjoining land officially examined, and the amount of damage 
by making a dam was named. Mills being so great a public neces- 
sity, they were permitted to be located upon any person's land 
where the miller thought the site desirable. 


The agricultural implements used by the first farmers in this State 
would in this age of improvement be great curiosities. The plow 
used was called the " bar-share" plow; the iron point consisted of 
a bar of iron about two feet long, and a broad share of iron welded 
to it. At the extreme point was a coulter that passed through a 
beam six or seven feet long, to which were attached handles of cor- 
responding length. The mold-board was a wooden one split out of 


winding timber, or hewed into a winding shape, in order to turn 
the soil over. Sown seed was brushed in by dragging over the 
ground a sapling with a bushy top. In harvesting the change is most 
striking. Instead of the reapers and mowers of to-day, the sickle 
and cradle were used. The grain was threshed with a flail, or 
trodden out by horses or o.xen. 


Hogs were always dressed before they were taken to market. The 
farmer, if forehanded, would call in his neighbors some bright fall 
or winter morning to help " kill hogs." Immense kettles of water 
were heated; a sled or two, covered with loose boards or plank, 
constituted the platform on which the hog was cleaned, and was 
placed near an inclined hogshead in which the scalding was done; 
a quilt was thrown over the top of the latter to retain the heat; 
from a crotch of some convenient tree a projecting pole was rigged 
to hold the animals for disemboweling and thorough cleaning. 
When everything was arranged, the best shot of the neighborhood 
loaded his rifle, and the work of killing was commenced. It was con- 
sidered a disgrace to make a hog " squeal " by bad shooting or by 
a " shoulder-stick," that is, running the point of the butcher-knife 
into the shoulder instead of the cavity of the beast. As each hog 
fell, the " sticker " mounted him and plunged the butcher-knife, 
long and well sharpened, into his throat; two persons would then 
catch him by the hind legs, draw him up to the scalding tub, which 
had just been filled with boiling-hot water with a shovelful of good 
green wood ashes thrown in; in this the carcass was plunged and 
moved around a minute or so, that is, until the hair would slip off easi- 
ly, then placed on the platform where the cleaners would pitch into 
him with all their might and clean him as quickly as possible, with 
knives and other sharp-edged implements; then two stout fellows 
would take him up between them, and a third man to manage the 
" gambrel " (which was a stout stick about two feet long, sharpened 
at both ends, to be inserted' between the muscles of the hind legs at 
or near the hock joint), the animal would be elevated to the pole, 
where the work of cleaning was finished. 

After the slaughter was over and the hogs had had time to cool, 
such as were intended for domestic use were cut up, the lard 
" tried " out by the women of the household, and the surplus hogs 
taken to market, while the weather was cold, if possible. In those 
days almoet every merchant had, at the rear end of his place of 


busiiiess or at some convenient building, a " pork-bouse," and 
would buy tbe pork of his customers and of such others as would 
sell to him, and cut it for the market. This gave employment to a 
large number of hands in every village, who would cut and pack 
pork all winter. The hauling of all this to the river would also 
give employment to a large number of teams, and the manufacture 
of pork barrels would keep many coopers employed. 

Allowing for the diiference of currency and manner of market- 
ing, the price of pork was not so high in those days as at present. 
Now, while calico and muslin are ten cents a yard and pork two to 
four cents a pound, then, while calico and muslin were twenty-five 
cents a yard pork was one to two cents a pound. When, as the 
country grew older and communications easier between the seaboard 
and the great "West, prices went up to two and a half and three 
cents a pound, the farmers thought they would always be content 
to raise pork at such a price; but times have changed, even con- 
trary to the current-cy. 

There was one feature in this method of marketing pork that 
made the country a paradise for the poor man in the winter time. 
Spare-ribs, tenderloins, pigs' heads and pigs' feet were not con- 
sidered of any value, and were freely given to all who could use 
them. If a barrel was taken to auy pork-house and salt furnished, 
the barrel would be filled and salted down with tenderloins and 
spare-ribs gratuitously. So great in many cases was the quantity 
of spare-ribs, etc., to be disposed of, that they would be hauled 
away in wagon-loads and dumped in the woods out of town. 

In those early times much wheat was marketed at twenty-five to 
fifty cents a bushel, oats the same or less, and corn ten cents a 
bushel. A good young milch-cow could be bought for $5 to §10, 
and that payable in work. 

Those might truly be called "close times," yet the citizens of 
the Country were accommodating, and but very little sufi'eriug for 
the actual necessities of life was ever known to e.xist. 


Fires, set out by Indians or settlers, sometimes purposely and 
sometimes permitted through carelessness, would visit the prairies 
every autumn, and sometimes the forests, either in autumn or 
spring, and settlers could not always succeed in defending them- 
selves against the destroying element. Many interesting incidents 
are related. Often a fire was started to bewilder game, or to bare 


a piece of ground for the early grazing of stock the ensuing spring, 
and it would get away under a wind, and soon be beyond control. 
Violent winds would often arise and drive the flames with such 
rapidity that riders on the fleetest steeds could scarcely escape. 
On the approach of a prairie fire the farmer would immediately 
set about " cutting off supplies " for the devouring enemy by a 
" back fire." Thus, by starting a small fire near the bare ground 
about his premises, and keeping it under control next his property, 
he would burn off a strip around him and prevent the attack of the 
on-coming flames. A few furrows or a ditch around the farm con- 
stituted a help in the work of protection. 

An original prairie of tall and exuberant grass on fire, especially 
at night, was a magnificent spectacle, enjoyed only by the pioneer. 
Here is an instance where the frontiersman, proverbially deprived 
of the sights and pleasures of an old community, is privileged far 
beyond the people of the present day in this country. One could 
scarcely tire of beholding the scene, as its awe-inspiring features 
seemed constantly to increase, and the whole panorama unceasingly 
changed like the dissolving views of a magic lantern, or like the 
aurora borealis. Language cannot convey, words cannot express, 
the faintest idea of the splendor and grandeur of such a conflagra- 
tion at night. It was as if the pale queen of night, disdaining to 
take her accustomed place in the heavens, had dispatched myriads 
upon myriads of messengers to light their torches at the altar of 
the setting sun until all had flashed into one long and continuous 

The following graphic description of prairie fires was written by 
a traveler through this region in lSi9: 

" Soon the fires began to kindle wider and rise higher from the 
long grass; the gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, and soon 
fanned the small, flickering blaze into fierce torrent flames, which 
curled up and leaped along in resistless splendor; and like quickly 
raising the dark curtain from the luminous stage, the scenes before 
me were suddenly changed, as if by the magician's wand, into one 
boundless amphitheatre, blazing from earth to heaven and sweeping 
the horizon round, — columns of lurid flames sportively mourning 
up to the zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke curling away 
and aloft till they nearly obscured stars and moon, while the rush- 
ing, crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts mingled with distant 
thunders, were almost deafening; danger, death, glared all around; 
it screamed for victims; yet, notwithstanding the imminent peril 


of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, almost unable to withdraw 
or seek refuge.'' 


"When the earliest pioneer reached this Western wilderness, game 
was his principal food until he had conquered a farm from the 
forest or prairie, — rarely, then, from the latter. As the country 
settled game grew scarce, and by ISoO he who would live by his 
rifle would have had but a precarious subsistence had it not been 
for "wild hogs." These animals, left by home-sick immigrants 
whom the chills or fever and ague had driven out, had strayed into 
the woods, and began to multiply in a wild state. The woods each 
fall were full of acorns, walnuts, hazelnuts, and these hogs would 
grow fat and multiply at a wonderful rate in the bottoms and along 
the bluffs. The second and third immigration to the country found 
these wild hogs an unfailing source of meat supply up to that 
period when they had in the townships contiguous to the river be- 
come so numerous as to be an evil, breaking in herds into the 
farmer's corn-fields or toling their domestic swine into their 
retreats, where they too became in a season as wild as those in the 
woods. In 1S3S or '39, in a certain township, a meeting was allied 
of citizens of the township to take steps to get rid of wild hogs. At 
this meeting, which was held in the spring, the people of the town- 
ship were notified to turn out en masse on a cert^aiu day and engage 
in the work of catching, trimming and branding wild hogs, which 
were to be turned loose, and the next winter were to be hunted and 
killed by the people of the township, the meat to be divided jtro 
rati! among the citizens of the township. This plan was fully 
carried into efi'ect. two or three days being spent in the exciting 
work in the spring. » 

In the early part of the ensuing winter the settlers again turned 
out, supplied at convenient points in the bottom with large kettles 
and bai-rels for scalding, and while the hunters were engaged in 
killing, others with horses dragged the carcasses to the scalding 
platforms where they were dressed; and when all that could be 
were killed and dressed a division was made, every farmer getting 
more meat than enough, for his winter's supply. Like energetic 
measures were resorted to in other townships, so that in two or 
three vears the breed of wild liogs became extinct. 



The principal wild animals found in the State by the early set- 
tler -were the deer, wolf, bear, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, generally 
called "coon," woodchnck. or gronnd-hog, skunk, mink, weasel, 
muskrat, opossum, rabbit and squirrel; and the principal feathered 
game were the quail, prairie chicken and wild turkey. Hawks, 
turkey buzzards, crows, blackbirds were also very abundant. Sev- 
eral of these animals furnished meat for the settlers; but their 
principal meat did not long consist of game; pork and poultry 
were raised in abundance. Tlie wolf was the most troublesome 
animal, it being the common enemy of the sheep, and sometimes 
attacking other domestic animals and even human beings. But 
their hideous bowlings at night were so constant and terrifying 
that they almost seemed to do more raiscliief by that anno3-ance 
than by direct attack. They would keep everbody and every ani- 
mal about the farm-house awake and friglitened, and set all the dogs 
in the neighborhood to barking. As one man described it: "Sup- 
pose six boys, having six dogs tied, whipped them all at the same 
time, and you would liear such music as two wolves would make." 

To eti'ect the destruction of these animals the county authorities 
offered a bounty for their scalps; and, besides, big hunts were 


In early days more mischief was done by wolves than by any 
other wild animal, and no small part of their mischief consisted in 
their almost constant barking at night, which always seemed so 
menacing and frightful to the settlers. Like mosquitoes, the 
noise they made appeared to be about as dreadful as the real depre- 
dations they committed. Tlie most effectual, as well as the most 
exciting, method of ridding the country of these hateful pests, was 
that known as the " circular wolf hunt," by which all tiie men and 
boys would turn out on an appointed day, in a kind of circle com- 
prising many square miles of territory, with horses and dogs, and 
then close up toward the center of their field of operation, gather- 
ing not only wolves, but also deer and many smaller "varmint." 
Five, ten, or more wolves by this means would sometimes be killed 
in a single day. The men would be organized with as much 
system as a little army, every one being well posted in the meaning 
of every signal and the application of every rule. Guns were 
scarcely ever allowed to be brought on such occasions, as their use 


■would be unavoidably dangerous. The dogs were depended upon 
for the final slaughter. The dogs, by the way, had all to be held 
in check by a cord in the hands of their keepers until the final 
signal was given to let them loose, when away they would all go to 
the center of battle, and a more exciting scene would follow than 
can be easily described. 


This wild recreation was a peculiar one, and many sturdy back- 
woodsmen gloried in excelling in this art. He would carefully 
watch a bee as it filled itself witli the sweet product of some flower 
or leaf-bud, and notice particularly the direction taken by it as it 
struck a "bee-line" for its home, which when found would be 
generally high up in the hollow of a tree. The tree would be 
marked, and in September a party would go and cut down the tree 
and capture the houey as quickly as they could before it wasted 
away through the broken walls in which it had been so carefully 
stowed away by the little busy bee. Several gallons would often be 
thus taken from a single tree, and by a very little work, and pleas- 
ant at that, the early settlers could keep themselves in honey the 
year round. By the time the honey was a year old, or before, 
it would turn white and granulate, yet be as good and healthful as 
wheu fresh. This was by some called "candid " honey. 

In some districts, the resorts of bees would be so plentiful that 
all the available hollow trees would be occupied and many colonies 
of bees would be found at work in crevices in the rock and holes in 
the ground. A considerable quantity of honey has even been taken 
from such places. 


In pioneer times snakes were numeroas, such as the rattlesnake, 
viper, adder, blood snake and many varieties of large blue and green 
snakes, milk snake, garter and water snakes, black snakes, etc., etc. 
If, on meeting one of these, you would retreat, they would chase 
you very fiercely; but if you would turn and give them battle, they 
would immediately crawl away with all possible speed, hide in the 
grass and weeds, and wait for a "'greener " customer. These really 
harmless snakes served to put people on their guard against the 
more dangerous and venomous kinds. 

It was the practice in some sections of the country to turn out in 
companies, with spades, mattocks and crow-bars, attack the princi- 
pal snake dens and slay large numbers of them. In early spring 


the suakes were somewhat torpid and easily captured. Scores of 
rattlesnakes were sometimes frightened out of a single den, which, 
as soon as they showed their heads through the crevices of the rocks, 
were dispatched, and left to be devoured by the numerous wild hogs 
of that day. Some of the fattest of these snakes were taken to the 
house and oil extracted from them, and their glittering skins were 
saved as specifies for rheumatism. 

Another method was to so fix a heavy stick over the door of their 
dens, with a long grape-vine attached, that one at a distance could 
plug the entrance to the den when the snakes were all out sunning 
themselves. Then a large company of the citizens, on hand by ap- 
pointment, could kill scores of the reptiles in a few minutes. 

One of the greatest obstacles to the early settlement and pros- 
perity of this State was the " chills and fever," " fever and ague," 
or " shakes," as it was variously called. It was a terror to new- 
comers; in the fall of the year almost everybody was afflicted with it. 
It was no respecter of persons; everybody looked pale and sallow as 
though he were frost-bitten. It was not contagious, but derived 
from impure water and air, which are always developed in the 
opening up of a new country of rank soil like that of the Northwest. 
The impurities continue to be absorbed from day to day, and from 
week to week, until the whole body corporate became saturated with 
it as with electricity, and then the shock came; and the shock was a 
regular shake, with a fixed beginning and ending, coming on in 
some cases each day but generally on alternate days, with a regu- 
larity that was surprising. After the shake came the fever, and 
this "last estate was worse than the first." It was a burning-hot 
fever, and lasted for hours. When you had the chill you couldn't 
get warm, and when you had the fever you couldn't get cool. It 
was exceedingly awkward in this respect; indeed it was. Nor would 
it stop for any sort of contingency ; not even a wedding in the family 
would stop it. It was imperative and tyrannical. When the ap- 
pointed time came around, everything else had to be stopped to at- 
tend to its demands. It didn't even have any Sundays or holidays; 
after the fever went down you still didn't feel much better. You 
felt as though you had gone through some sort of collision, 
thrashing-machine or jarring-machine, and came out not killed, but 
next thing to it. You felt weak, as though you had run too far after 
something, and then didn't catch it. You felt languid, stupid and 


sore, and was down in the month and heel and partially raveled 
out. Tour back was out of fix, vour head ached and your appetite 
crazy. Tonr eyes had too iniich white in them, your ears, especially 
after taking quinine, had too much roar in them, and your 
whole body and soul were entirely woe-begone, disconsolate, sad, 
poor and good for nothing. You didn't think much of ' yourself, 
and didn't believe that other people did, either; and you didn't 
care. You didn't quite make up your mind to commit suicide, but 
sometimes wished some accident would happen to knock either the 
malady or yourself out of existence. Yon imagined that even the 
dogs looked at you with a kind of self-complacency. You thought 
the sun had a kind of sickly shine about it. 

About this time you came to the conclusion that you would not 
accept the whole State of Indiana as a gift; and if you had the 
strength and means, you picked up Hannah and the baby, and your 
traps, and went back *'yander" to "Old Virginny," the •■■ Jar- 
seys," Maryland or " Pennsjlvany." 

" Ami to-day the swallows flittiag 
Round my cabin see me sitting 
Moodily within the simshine, 

Just inside my silent door, 
Waiting for the ' Ager,' seeming 
Like a man foierer dreaming; 
And the sunlight on me stresiming 

Throws no shadow on the floor ; 
For I am too thin sind siillow 
To make shadows on the floor — 

Nary shadow .any more ! " 

The above is not a mere picture of the imagination. It is sim- 
ply recounting in quaint phrase what actually occurred in thousands 
of cases. Whole families would sometimes be sick at one time 
and not one member scarcely able to wait upon another. Labor or 
exercise always aggravated the malady, and it took General L:\zi- 
ness a long time to thrash the enemy out. And those were the 
days for swallowing all sorts of roots and "yarbs," and whisky? 
etc.. with some faint hope of relief. And finally, when the case 
wore out, the last remedy taken got the credit of the cure. 


Though struggling through the pressure of poverty and priva- 
tion, the early settlers planted among them the school-house at the 
earliest practical period. So important au object as the education 


of their children they did not defe;- until they could build more 
comely and convenient houses. They were for a time content with 
such as corresponded with their rude dwellings, but soon better build- 
ings and accommodations were provided. As may readily be sup- 
posed, the accommodations of the earliest schools were not good. 
Sometimes school was taught in a room of a large or a double log 
cabin, but oftener in a log house built for the purpose. Stoves 
and such heating apparatus as are now in use were then unknown. 
A mud-and-stick chimney in one end of the building, with earthen 
hearth and a iire-place wide and deep enough to receive a four to 
six-foot back-log, and smaller wood to match, served for warming 
purposes in winter and a kind of conservatory in summer. For 
windows, part of a log was cut out in two sides of the building, 
and maybe a few lights of eight by ten glass set in, or the aper- 
ture might be covered over with greased paper. "Writing desks 
consisted of heavy oak plank or a hewed slab laid upon wooden 
pins driven into the wall. The four-legged slab benches were in 
front of these, and the pupils when not writing would sit with 
their backs against the front, sharp edge of the writing-desks. 
The tloor was also made out of these slabs, or " puncheons," laid 
upon log sleepers. _ Everything was rude and plain; but many of 
America's greatest men have goneont from just such school-houses 
to grapple with the world and make names for themselves and re- 
flect honor upon their country. Among these we can name x\bra- 
ham Lincoln, our martyred president, one of the noblest men 
known to the world's history. Stephen A. Douglas, one of the 
greatest statesmen of the age, began his career in Illinois teaching 
in one of these primitive school- houses. Joseph A. Wright, and 
several others of Indiana's great statesmen have also graduated 
from the log school-house into political eminence. So with many 
of her most eloquent and efBcient preachers. 

Imagine such a house with the children seated around, and the 
teacher seated on one end of a bench, with no more desk at his 
hand than any other pupil has, and you have in view the whole 
scene. The " schoolmaster " has called '■ Books! books!" at the 
door, and the "scholars" have just run in almost out of breath 
from vigorous play, have taken their seats, and are for the moment 
"saying over their lessons" to themselves with all their might, 
that is, in as loud a whisper as possible. While they are thus en- 
gaged the teacher is perhaps sharpening a few quill pens for the 
pupils, for no other kind of writing pen had been thought of as 


yet. In a few minutes he calls up an urchin to say his a b c's; 
the little boy stands beside the teacher, perhaps partially leaning 
upon his lap; the teacher with his pen-knife points to the letter 
and asks what it is; the little fellow remains silent, for he dees not 
know what to say; "A," says the teacher; the boy echoes "A;" 
the teacher points to the next and asks what it is; the boy is silent 
again; "B," says the teacher; " B," echoes the little urchin; and 
so it goes through the exercise, at the conclusion of which the 
teacher tells the little " Major " to go back to his seat and study his 
letters, and %vhen lie comes to a letter he doesn't know, to come to 
him and he will tell him. He obediently goes to his seat, 
looks on his book a little while, and then goes trudging across the 
punclieon floor again in his bare feet, to the teacher, and points to 
a letter, probably outside of his lesson, and asks what it is. The 
teacher kindly tells him that that is not in his lesson, that he need 
not study that or look at it now; he will come to that some other 
day, and then he will learn what it is. The simple-minded little 
fellow then trudges, smilingly, as he catches the eye of some one, 
back to his seat again. But why he smiled, he has no definite 

To prevent wearing the books out at the lower corner, eveiy 
pujjil was expected to keep a " thumb-paper" under his thumb as 
he holds the book; even then the books were soiled and worn 
out at this place in a few weeks, so that a part of many lessons 
■were gone. Consequently the request was often made, " Master, 
may I borrow Jimmy's book to git my lesson in? mine haintin my 
book: it's tore out." It was also customary to use book-pointers, 
to point out the letters or words in study as well as in recitation. 
The black stem of the maiden-hair fern was a very popular material 
from which pointers were made. 

The a-b-ab scholars through with, perhaps the second or third- 
reader class would be called, who would stand in a row in front of 
the teacher, "toeing the mark," which was actually a chalk or char- 
coal mark drawn on the floor, and commencing at one end of the 
class, one would read the first " verse," the next the second, and so 
on around, taking the paragraphs in the order as they occur in the 
book. Whenever a pupil hesitated at a word, the teacher would 
pronounce it for him. And this was all there was of the reading 

Those studying arithmetic were but little classified, and they were 
therefore generally called forward singly and interviewed, or the 


teacher simply visited them at their seats. A lessoa containing several 
" sums" would be given for the next day. Whenever the learner 
came to a sum he couldn't do, he would go to the teacher with it, 
who would willingly and patiently, if he had time, do it for him. 

In geography, no wall maps were used, no drawing required, 
and the studying and recitation comprised only the committing 
to memory, or "getting by heart," as it was called, the names and 
locality of places. The recitation proceeded like this: Teacher — 
"Wliere is Norfolk?" Pupil — "In the southeastern part of Vir- 
ginia." Teacher — "AVhatbay between Maryland and Virginia?" 
Pupil — " Chesapeake." 

"When the hour for writing arrived, the time was announced by 
the master, and every pupil practicing this art would turn his feet 
over to the back of his seat, thus throwing them under the writing 
desk, already described, and proceed to '• follow copy," which was 
invariably set by the teacher, not by rule, but by as nice a stroke of 
the pen as he could make. The first copies for each pupil would 
be letters, and the second kind and last consisted of maxims. Blue 
ink on white paper, or black ink on blue paper, were common; and 
sometimes a pupil would be so unfortunate as to be compelled to 
use blue ink on blue paper; and a '• blue" time he had of it. 

About half past ten o'clock the master would announce, " School 
may go out;" which meant '■ little play-time," in the children's 
parlance, called nowadays, recess or intermission. Often the prac- 
tice was to have the boys and girls go out separately, in which case 
the teacher would first say, " The girls may go out," and after they 
had been out about ten minutes the boys were allowed a similar 
privilege in the same way. In calling the children in from the 
play-ground, the teacher would invariably stand near the door of the 
school-house and call out " Books! books!" Between play-times 
the request, "Teacher, may I go out?" was often iterated to the 
annoyance of the teacher and the disturbance of the school. 

At about half past eleven o'clock the teacher would announce, 
" Scholars may now get their spelling lessons," and they would all 
pitch in with their characteristic lond whisper and " say over " 
their lessons with that vigor which characterizes the movements of 
those who have just learned that the dinner hour and " big play- 
time " is near at hand. A few minutes before twelve the "little 
spelling-class " would recite, then the " big spelling-class. " The 
latter would comprise the larger scholars and the major part of the 
school. The classes would stand in a row, either toeing the mark 


in the midst of the floor, or straggling along next an unoccupied 
portion of the wall. One end of the class was the " head," the 
other the " foot," and when a pupil spelled a word correctly, which 
had been missed by one or more, he would " go up " and take his 
station above all that had missed the word; this was called " turning 
them down." At the conclusion of the recitation, tlie head pupil 
would go to the foot, to have another opportanity of turning them 
all down. The class would number, and before taking their seats 
the teacher would say, '' School's dismissed," which was the signal 
for every child rushing for his dinner, and having the " big play- 
time. " 

The same process of spelling would also be gone through with in 
the afternoon just before dismissing the school for the day. 

The chief text-books in which the " scholars " got their lessons 
were "Webster's or some other elementary spelling-book, an arith- 
metic, may be Pike's, Dilworth's, Daboll's, Smiley's or Adams', 
McGufley's or the old English reader, and Roswell C. Smith's 
geography and atlas. Very few at the earliest day, however, got 
so far along as to study geography. Nowadays, in contrast with the 
above, look at the "ographies" and "ologies!" Grammar and 
composition were scarcely thought of until Indiana was a quarter 
of a century old, and they were introduced in such a way that 
their utility was always questioned. First, old Murray's, then 
Kirkham's grammar, were the text-books on this subject. " Book 
larnin'," instead of practical oral instruction, was the only thing 
supposed to be attained in the primitive log school-house days. 
But writing was generally taught with fair diligence. 

"past the pictcees." 

This phrase had its origin in the practice of pioneer schools 
which used Webster's Elementary Spelling-book. Toward the back 
part of that time-honored text-book was a series of seven or eight 
pictures, illustrating morals, and after these again were a few more 
spelling exercises of a peculiar kind. When a scholar got over into 
these he was said to be " past the pictures," and was looked up to 
as being smarter and more learned than most other people ever 
hoped to be. Hence the application of this phrase came to be 
extended to other affairs in life, especially where scholarship was 



The chief public evening entertainment for the first 30 or 40 
years of Indiana's existence was the celebrated " spelling-school." 
Both young people and old looked forward to the next spelling- 
school with as much anticipation and anxiety as we nowadays look 
forward to a general Fourth-of-Jnly celebration; and when the time 
arrived the whole neighborhood, yea, and sometimes several neigh- 
borhoods, would flock together to the scene of academical combat, 
where the excitement was often more intense than had been expect- 
ed. It was far better, of course, when tliere was good sleighing; 
then the young folks would turn out in high glee and be fairly 
beside themselves. The jollity is scarcely equaled at the present 
day by anything in vogue. 

When the appointed hour arrived, the usual plan of commencing 
battle was for two of the young people who might agree to play 
against each other, or who might be selected to do so by the school- 
teacher of the neighborhood, to " choose sides," that is, each con- 
testant, or "captain," as he was generally called, would choose the 
best speller from the assembled crowd. Each one choosing alter- 
nately, the ultimate strength of the respective parties would be 
about equal. When all were chosen who could be made to serve, 
each side would "number," so as to ascertain whether amid the 
confusion one captain had more spellers than the other. In case he 
had, some compromise would be made by the aid of the teacher, the 
master of ceremonies, and then the plan of conducting the campaign, 
or counting the misspelled words, would be canvassed for a moment 
by the captains, sometimes by the aid of the teacher and others. 
There were many ways of conducting the contest and keeping tally. 
Every section of the country had several favorite methods, and all 
or most of these were different from what other communities had. 
At one time they would commence spelling at the head, at another 
time at the foot; at one time they would "spell across," that is, the 
first on one side would spell the first word, then the first on the 
other side; next the second in the line on each side, alternately, 
down to the other end of each line. The question who should spell 
the first word was determined by the captains guessing what page 
the teacher would have before him in a partially opened book at a 
distance; the captain guessing the nearest would spell the first word 
pronounced. When a word was missed, it would be re-pronounced, 
or passed along without re-pronouncing (as some teachers strictly 


followed the rule never to re-pronounce a word), until it was spelled 
correctly. If a speller on the opposite side finally spelled the missed 
word correctly, it was counted a gain of one to that side; if the 
word was finally corrected by some speller on the same side on 
which it was originated as a missed word, it was "saved," and no 
tally mark was made. 

Another popular method was to commence at one end of the 
line of spellers and go directly around, and the missed words 
caught up quickly and corrected by " word -catchers," appointed by 
the captains from among their best spellers. These word-catchers 
would attempt to correct all the words missed on his opponent's 
side, and foiling to do this, the catcher on the other side would 
catch him up with a peculiar zest, and then there was fun. 

Still another very interesting, though somewhat disorderly, 
method, was this: Each word-catcher would go to the foot of the 
adversary's line, and every time he "catched " a word he would go 
up one, thus "turning them down" in regular spelling-class style. 
"When one catcher in this way turned all down on the opposing side, 
his own party was victorious by as many as the opposing catcher 
was behind. This method required no slate or blackboard tally to 
be kept. 

One turn, by either of the foregoing or other methods, would 
occupy 40 minutes to an hour, and by this time an intermission or 
recess was had, when the buzzing, cackling and hurrahing that en- 
sued for 10 or 15 minutes were beyond description. 

Coming to order again, the next style of battle to be illustrated 
was to " spell down," by which process it was ascertained who were 
the best spellers and could continue standing as a soldier the longest 
But very often good spellers would inadvertently miss a word in 
an early stage of the contest and would have to sit down humilia- 
ted, while a comparatively poor speller would often stand till nearly 
or quite the last, amid the cheers of the assemblage. Sometimes 
the two parties first "chosen up" in the evening would re-take 
their places after recess, so that by the " spelling-down " process 
there would virtuall}' be another race, in another form; sometimes 
there would be a new " choosing up " for the " spelling-down " con- 
test; and sometimes the spelling down would be conducted with- 
out any party lines being made. It would occasionally happen that 
two or three very good spellers would retain the floor so long that 
the exercise would become monotonous, when a few outlandish 
■words like " chevaux-de-frise." " Ompompanoosuc" or "Baugh- 


naugb-claugli-ber," as they used to spell it sometimes, would create 
a little ripple of excitement to clope with. Sometimes these words 
would decide the contest, but generally when two or three good 
spellers kept the floor until the exercise became monotonous, the 
teaclier would declare the race closed and the standing spellers ac- 
quitted with a " drawn game." 

The audience dismissed, the next thing was to " go home," very 
often by a round-about way, " a-sleighing with the girls," which, 
of course, was with many the most interesting part of the even- 
ing's performances, sometimes, however, too rough to be com- 
mended, as the boys were often inclined to be somewhat rowdyish. 


Next to the night spelling-school the singing-school was an occa- 
sion of much jollity, wherein it was difficult for the average singing- 
master to preserve order, as many went more for fun than for music. 
This species of evening entertainment, in its introduction to the West, 
was later than the spelling-school, and served, as it were, as the second 
step toward the more modern civilization. Good sleighing weather was 
of course almost a necessity for the success of these schools, but how 
many of them have been prevented by mud and rain! Perhaps a 
greater part of the time from November to April the roads would be 
muddy and often half frozen, which would have a very dampening 
and freezing eflect upon the souls, as well as the bodies, of the 
young people who longed for a good time on such occasions. 

The old-time method of conducting singing-school was also some- 
what different from that uf modern times. It was more plodding 
and heavy, the attention being kept upon the simplest rudiments, 
as the names ot the notes on the staif, and their pitch, and beating 
time, while comparatively little attention was given to expression 
and light, gleeful music. The very earliest scale introduced in the 
West was from the Soutli, and the notes, from their peculiar shape, 
were denominated " patent " or "buckwheat" notes. They were 
four, of which the round one was always called sol, the square one 
la, the triangular oneya, and the "diamond-shaped" one jni, pro- 
nounced me; and the diatonic scale, or "gamut" as it was called 
then, ran thusrya, sol, la, fa, sol, la, mi, fa. The part of a tune 
nowadays called " treble," or "soprano," was then called " tenor;" 
the part now called " tenor " was called " treble," and what is now 
"alto" was then "counter," and when sung according to the oldest 
rule, was sung by a female an octave higiier than marked, and still 


on the " chest register." The " old " "Missouri Harmony" and 
Mason's " Sacred Harp " were the principal books used with this 
style of musical notation. 

About 1850 the " round-note " system began to '• come around," 
being introduced by the Yankee singing-master. The scale was 
do,re,ini,fa,sol,la,si,do\ and for many years thereafter there 
was much more do-re-mi-ing than is practiced at the present day, 
when a musical instrument is always under the hand. The Car- 
mina Sacra was the pioneer round-note book, in which the tunes 
partook more of the German or Puritan character, and were gener- 
ally regarded by the old folks as being far more spiritless than 
the old " Pisgah," " Fiducia," " Tender Thought," " New Durham," 
"Windsor," " Mount Sion," " Devotion," etc., of the old Missouri 
Harmony and tradition. 


The fashion of carrj'ing fire-arms was made necessary by the 
presence of roving bands of Indians, most of whom were ostensi- 
bly friendly, but like Indians in all times, treacherous and unreli- 
able. An Indian war was at any time probable, and all the old 
settlers still retain vivid recollections of Indian massacres, murders, 
plunder, and frightful rumors of intended raids. While target 
practice was much indulged in as an amusement, it was also neces- 
sary at times to carry their guns with them to their daily field work. 

As an illustration of the painstaking which characterized pioneer 
life, we quote the following from Zebulon Collings, wlio lived about 
six miles from the scene of massacre in the Pigeon Roost settle- 
ment: " The manner in which I used to work in those perilous times 
was as follows: On all occasions I carried my riiie, tomahawk and 
butcher-knife, with a loaded pistol in my belt. When I went to 
plow I laid my gun on the plowed ground, and stuck up a stick by 
it for a mark, so that I could get it quick in case it was wanted. 
I had two good dogs; I took one into the house, leaving the other 
out. The one outside was expected to give the alarm, which would 
cause the one inside to bark, by which I would be awakened, hav- 
ing my arms always loaded. I kept my horse in a stable close to 
the house, having a port-hole so that I could shoot to the stable door. 
During two years I never went from home with any certainty of 
returning, not knowing the minute I might receive a ball from an 
unknown hand." 




The history of pioneer life generally presents the dark side of the 
picture; but the toils and privations of the early settlers were not a 
series of unmitigated snflerings. No; for while the fathers and 
mothers toiled hard, they were not averse to a little relaxation, and 
had their seasons of fun and enjoyment. They contrived to do 
something to break the raonoton}' of their daily life and furnish 
them a good hearty laugh. Among the more general forms of 
amusements were the "quilting-bee," "corn-husking," "apple-par- 
ing," "log-rolling" and "house-raising." Ouryouug readers will 
doubtless be interested in a description of these forms of amuse- 
ment, when labor was made to afford fun and enjoyment to all par- 
ticipating. The "quilting-bee," as its name implies, was when the 
industrious qualities of the busy little insect that " improves each 
shining hour " were exemplified in the manufacture of quilts for the 
household. In the afternoon ladies for miles around gathered at an 
appointed place, and while their tongues would not cease to play, 
the hands were as busily engaged in making the quilt; and desire 
as always manifested to get it out as quickly as possible, for then 
the fun would begin. In the evening the gentlemen came, and the 
hours would then pass swiftly by in playing games or dancing. 
" Corn-huskings " were when both sexes united in the work. They 
usually assembled in a large barn, which was arranged for the oc- 
casion; and when cacii gentleman had selected a lady partner the 
husking began. When a lady found a red ear she was entitled to 
a kiss from every gentleman present; when a gentleman found one 
he was allowed to kiss every lady present. After the corn was all 
husked a good supper was served; then the "old folks" would 
leave, and the remainder of the evening was spent in the dance and 
in having a general good time. The recreation aflPorded to the 
young people on the annual recurrence of these festive occasions 
was as highly enjoyed, and quite as innocent, as the amusements of 
the present boasted age of refinement and culture. 

The amusements of the pioneers were peculiar to themselves. 
Saturday afternoon was a holiday in which no man was expected 
to work. A load of produce might be taken to " town " for sale or 
traffic without violence to custom, but no more serious labor could 
be tolerated. When on Saturday afternoon the town was reached 
" fun commenced." Had two neighbors business to transact, here 
it was done. Horses were " swapped." Difficulties settled and 


free fights indulged in. Blue and red ribbons were not worn in 
those days, and whisk j was as free as water; twelve and a half 
cents would buy a quart, and thirty-five or forty cents a gallon, 
and at such prices enormous quantities were consumed. Go to any 
town in the county and ask the first pioneer you meet, and he would 
tell you of notable Saturday-afternoon fights, either of which to-day 
would fill a column of the Police News, with elaborate engravings 
to match. 

Mr. Sandford C. Cox quaintly describes some of the happy feat- 
tures of frontier life in this manner: 

We cleared land, rolled logs, burned brush, blazed out paths 
from one neighbor's cabin to another and from one settlement to 
another, made and used hand-mills and hominy mortars, hunted 
deer, turkey, otter, and raccoons, caught fish, dug ginseng, hunted 
bees and the like, and — lived on the fat of the land. We read of a 
land of " corn and wine," and another " flowing with milk and 
honey;" but 1 rather think, in a temporal point of view, taking into 
account the richness of the soil, timber, stone, wild game and 
other advantages, that the Sugar creek country would come up to 
any of them, if not surpass them. 

I once cut cord-wood, continues Mr. Cox, at 31J cents per cord, 
and walked a mile and a half night and morning, where the first 
frame college was built northwest of town (Crawfordsville). 
Prof. Curry, the lawyer, would sometimes come down and help for 
an hour or two at a time, by way of amusement, as there was little 
or no law business in the town or country at that time. Reader, 
what would you think of going six to eight miles to help roll logs, 
or raise a cabin? or ten to thirteen miles to mill, and wait three or 
four days and nights for your grist? as many had to do in the 
first settlement of this country. Such things were of frequent oc- 
currence then, and there was but little grumbling about it. It was 
a grand sight to see the log heaps and brush piles burning in the 
night on a clearing of 10 or 15 acres. A Democratic torchlight 
procession, or a midnight march of the Sons of Malta with their 
grand Gyasticutus in the center bearing the grand jewel of the 
order, would be nowhere in comparison with the log-heaps and 
brush piles in a blaze. 

But it may be asked, Had you any social amusements, or manly 
pastimes, to recreate and enliven the dwellers in the wilderness? 
We had. In the social line we had our meetings and our singing- 
schools, sugar-boilings and weddings, which were as good as ever 


came off in any country, new or old ; and if our youngsters did 
not " trip the light fantastic toe " under a professor of the Terpsi- 
chorean art or expert French dancing- master, they had many a 
good "hoe-down" on puncheon floors, and were not annoyed by bad 
whisky. And as for manly sports, requiring mettle and muscle, 
there were lots of wild hogs running in the cat-tail swamps on Lye 
creek, and Mill creek, and among them many large boars that 
Ossian's heroes and Homer's model soldiers, such as Achilles, Hector 
and Ajax would have delighted to give chase to. The boys and 
men of those days had quite as much sport, and made more money 
and health by their hunting excursions than our city gents nowa- 
days playing chess by telegraph where the players are more than 
70 miles apart. 


Indiana is a grand State, in many respects second to none 
in the Union, and in almost every thing that goes to make a 
live, prosperous community, not far behind the best. Beneath her 
fertile soil is coal enough to supply tlie State for generations; her 
harvests are bountiful; she has a medium climate, ind many other 
things, that make her people contented, prosperous and happy; 
but she owes much to those who opened up these avenues that have 
led to her present condition and happy surroundings. Unremit- 
ting toil and labor have driven off the sickly miasmas that brooded 
over swampy prairies. Energy and perseverance have peopled 
every section of her wild lands, and changed them from wastes and 
deserts to gardens of beauty and profit. When but a few years 
ago the barking wolves made the night hideous with their wild 
shrieks and howls, now is heard only the lowing and bleating of 
domestic animals. Only a half century ago the wild whoop of the 
Indian rent the air where now are heard tlie engine and rumbling 
trains of cars, bearing away to markets the products of our labor 
and soil. Then the savage built his rude huts on tlie spot where 
now rise the dwellings and school-houses and chiirch spires of civ- 
ilized life. How great the transformation! This change has been 
brought about by the incessant toil and aggregated labor of 
thousands of tired hands and anxious hearts, and the noble aspira- 
tions of such men and women as make any country great. What 
will another half century accomplish? There are few, very few, 
of these old pioneers yet lingering on the shores of time as connect- 
ing links of the past with the present. What must their thoughts 


be as witli their dim eyes they view the scenes that surround them? 
Wc often hear people talk about the old- fogy ideas and fogy ways, 
and want of enterprise on the part of the old men who have gone 
through the experiences of pioneer life. Sometimes, perhaps, 
such remarks are just, but, considering the experiences, education 
and entire life of such men, such remarks are better unsaid. 
They have had their trials, misfortunes, hardships and adventures, 
and shall we now, as they are passing far down the western decliv- 
ity of life, and many of them gone, point to them the finger of 
derision and laugh and sneer at the simplicity of their ways? 
Let us rather cheer them up, revere and respect them, for beneath 
those rough exteriors beat hearts as noble as ever throbbed in the 
human breast. These veterans have been compelled to live for 
weeks upon hominy and, if bread at all, it was bread made from 
corn ground in hand-mills, or pounded up with mortars. Their 
children have been destitute of shoes during the winter; their 
families had no clothing except what was carded, spun, wove and 
mad-e into garments by their own hands; schools they had none; 
churches they had none; afflicted with sickness incident to all 
new countries, sometimes the entire family at once; luxuries of 
life they had none; the auxiliaries, improvements, inventions and 
labor-saving machinery of to-day they had not; and what they 
possessed they obtained by the hardest of labor and individual exer- 
tions, yet they bore these hardships and privations without mur- 
muring, hoping for better times to come, and often, too, with but 
little prospect of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes written on every hand are 
most wonderful. It has been but three-score years since the white 
man began to exercise dominion over this region, erst the home of 
the red men, yet the visitor of to-day, ignorant of the past of the 
country, could scarcely be made to realize that within these years 
there has grown up a population of 2,000,000 people, who in all 
the accomplishments of life are as far advanced as are the inhabi- 
tants of the older States. Schools, churches, colleges, pala- 
tial dwellings, beautiful grounds, large, well-cultivated and produc- ' 
tive farms, as well as cities, towns and busy manufactories, have 
grown up, and occupy the hunting grounds and camping places of 
the Indians, and in every direction there are evidences of wealth, 
comfort and luxury. There is but little left of the old landmarks. 
Advanced civilization and the progressive demands of revolving 
years have obliterated all traces of Indian occupancy, until they are 
only remembered in name. 


In closing this section we again would impress upon the minds. 
of our readers the fact that they owe a debt of gratitude to those 
who pioneered tliis State, which can be but partially repaid. 
Never grow unmindful of the peril and adventure, fortitude, 
self-sacrifice and heruic devotion so prominently displayed in their 
lives. As time sweeps on in its ceaseless flight, may the cherished 
memories of them lose none of their greenness, but may the future 
generations alike cherish and perpetuate tliem with a just devotion 
to gratitude. 


In the days of muster and military drill, so well known through- 
out the country, a specimen of pioneer work was done on the South 
Wea prairie, as follows, according to Mr. S. C. Cox: 

The Captain was a stout-built, muscular man, who stood six feet 
four in his boots, and weighed over 200 pounds; when dressed in 
his uniform, a blue hunting-shirt fastened with a wide red sash, 
with epaulettes on each shoulder, his large sword fastened by his 
side, and tall plume waving in the wind, he looked like another 
William "Wallace, or Koderick Dhu, unsheathing his claymore in 
defense of his country. His company consisted of about 70 men, who 
had reluctantly turned out to muster to avoid paying a fine; some 
with guns, some with sticks, and others carrying corn-stalks. The 
Captain, who had but recently been elected, understood his business 
better than his men supposed he did. He intended to give them a 
thorough drilling, and showed them that he understood the ma- 
neuvers of the military art as well as he did farming and fox hunt- 
ing, the latter of which was one of his favorite amusements. After 
forming a hollow square, marciiing and counter-marching, and 
putting them through several other evolutions, according to Scott's 
tactics, he commanded his men to " form a line." They partially 
complied, but the line was crooked. He took his sword and passed 
it along in front of his men, straightening the line. By the time he 
passed from one end of the line to the other, on casting his eye back, 
he discovered that the line presented a zigzag and unmilitary ap- 
pearance. Someof the men were leaning on their guns, some on their 
sticks a yard in advance of the line, and others as far in the rear. The 
Captain's dander arose; he threw liis cocked hat, feather and all, 
on the ground, took off his red sash and hunting-shirt, and threw 
them, with his sword, upon his hat; he then rolled up his sleeves 
and shouted with the voice of a stentor, " Gentlemen, form a line 


and keep it, or I'll thrash the whole company." Instantly the wTiole 
line was straight as an arrow. The Captain was satisfied, put on 
his clothes again, and never had any more trouble in drilling his 


In early day in this State, before books and newspapers were in- 
troduced, a few lawyers were at a certain place in the habit of play- 
ing cards, and sometimes drinking a little too much whisky. During 
the session of a certain court, a man named John Stevenson, but 
who was named "Jack," and who styled himself the "philoso- 
pher of the 19th century," found out where these genteel sports- 
men met of evenings to peruse the "history of the four kings." 
He went to the door and knocked for admission; to the question, 
" Who is there?" he answered, " Jack." The insiders hesitated; he 
knocked and thumped importunately: at length a voice from 
within said, " Gro away. Jack; we have already four ' Jacks ' in our 
game, and we will not consent to have a ' cold one ' wrung in on 

Indignant at this rebuff from gentlemen from whom he liad ex- 
pected kinder treatment, he left, muttering vengeance, which 
excited no alarm in the minds of the players. At first he started 
away to walk off his passion, but the longer he walked the madder 
he got, and he finally concluded that he would not "pass " while 
he held or might hold so many trumps in his hands, but would 
return and play a strong hand with them. Accordingly he gath- 
ered his arms full of stones a little larger than David gatliered to 
throw at Goliath, and when he came near enough he threw a volley 
of them in through the window into the room where they were 
playing, extinguishing their lights, and routing the whole band 
with the utmost trepidation into the street, in search of their curi- 
ous assailant. Jack stood his ground and told them that that was 
a mere foretaste of what they might expect if they molested him 
in the least. 

Next day the pugnacious Jack was arrested to answer an indict- 
ment for malicious mischief; and failing to give bail, was lodged 
in jail. His prosecutors laughed through the grates of the prison 
as they passed. Meanwhile Jack " nursed his wrath to keep it 
warm," and indicted a speech in his own defense. In due time 
he was taken before the Court, the indictment was read, and he 
was asked what he pleaded to the indictment. " Not guilty," 


he answered in a deep, earnest tone. " Have you counsel engaged 
to defend yon, Mr. Stevenson?" inquired the Judge. " No; please 
your honor; I desire none; with your permission I will speak for 
myself." "Very well," said the Judge. A titter ran through the 
crowd. After the prosecuting attorney had gone through with the 
evidence and his opening remarks in the case, the prisoner arose 
and said, " It is a lamentable fact well known to the Court and 
Jury and to all who hear me, that our county seat has for many 
years been infested and disgraced, especially during Court time, 
with a knot of drunken, carousing gamblers, whose Bacchanalian 
revels and midnight orgies disturb the quiet and pollute the morals 
of our town. Shall these nuisances longer remain in our midst, 
to debauch society and lead our young men to destruction? Fully 
impressed with a sense of their turpitude, and my duty as a good 
citizen to the community in which I live, I resolved to 'abate the 
nuisance,' which, according to the doctrine of the common law, with 
which your honor is familiar, I or any other citizen had a right to 
do. I have often listened with pleasure to the charges your honor 
gave the Grand Jury to ferret out crime and all manner of gaming 
in our community. I saw I had it in my power to ferret out these 
fellows with a volley of stones, and save the county the cost of 
finding and trying a half a dozen indictments. Judge, I did 
' abate the nuisance,' and consider it one of the most meritorious 
acts of my life." 

The prosecutor made no reply. The Judge and lawyers looked 
at each other with a significant glance. A nolle prosequi was 
entered. Jack was acquitted and was ever afterward considered 
" trump." — Settlement of the Wabash Valley. 


The early years of Indiana afibrd to the enquirer a rare oppor- 
tunity to obtain a glimpse of the political and even social relation 
of the Indianians of the olden time to the moderns. As is custom- 
ary in all new countries there was to be found, within the limits of 
the new State, a happy people, far removed from all those influ- 
ences which tend to interfere with the public morals: they possessed 
the courage and the gait of freeborn men, took an esjiecial interest in 
the political questions affecting their State, and often, when met 
under the village shade trees to discuss sincerely, and unostenta- 
tiously, some matters of local importance, accompanied the subject 
before their little convention with song and jest, and even the cup 


which cheers but not inebriates. The election of militia officers 
for the Black Creek Eegiment may be taken for e.xample. The 
village school boys prowled at large, for on the day previous the 
teacher expressed his intention of attending the meeting of electors, 
and of aiding in building up a military company worthy of his own 
importance, and the reputation of the few villagers. The industri- 
ous matrons and maids— bless their souls— donned the habiliments 
of fashion, and as they arrived at the meeting ground, ornamented 
the scene for which nature in its untouched simplicity did so much. 
Now arrived the moment when the business should be entered on. 
"With a good deal of urging the ancient Elward Tomkius took the 
chair, and with a pompous air, wherein was concentrated a con- 
sciousness of his own importance, demanded the gentlemen entrusted 
with resolutions to open the proceedings. By this time a respected 
elector brought forward a jar and an uncommonly large tin-cup. 
These articles proved objects of very serious attention, and when 
the chairman repeated his demand, the same humane elector filled 
the cup to the brim, passed it to the venerable president and bade 
him drink deep to the prosperity of Indiana, of Black Creek, and 
of the regiment about to be formed. The secretary was treated 
similarly, and then a drink all round the thirty electors and their 
friends. This ceremony completed, the military subject melted 
into nothingness before the great question, then agitating the peo- 
ple, viz., " Sliould the State of Indiana accept the grant of land 
donated by Congress for the construction of the Wabash and Erie 
canal, from Lake Erie to the mouth of Tippecauoe river?" A sou 
of Esculapius, one Doctor Stone, protested so vehemently against 
entertaining even an idea of accepting the grant, that the parties 
favorable to the question felt themselves to be treading on tottering 
grounds. Stone's logic was to the point, unconquerable; but his 
enemies did not surrender hope; they looked at one another, then 
at the young school-teacher, whom they ultimately selected as their 
orator "and defender. The meeting adjourned for an hour, after 
which the youthful teacher of the young ideas ascended the rostrum. 
His own story of his emotions and efforts may be acceptable. He 
Bays: " I was sorry they called upon me; for I felt about ' half seas 
over' from the free and frequent use of the tin-cup. I was puzzled 
to know what to do. To decline would injure me in the estimation 
of the neighborhood, who were strongly in favor of the grant; and, 
on the other hand, if I attempted to speak, and failed from intoxi- 
cation, it would ruin me with my patrons. Soon a fence-rail was 


slipped into the worn fence near by, and a wasli-tub, turned bottom 
upward, placed upon it and on the neighboring rails, about five 
feet from the ground, as a rostrum for me to speak >from. Two or 
three men seized hold of me and placed me upon the stand, amidst 
the vociferous shouts of the friends of the canal, which were none 
the less loud on account of the frequent circulation of the tin and 
jug. I could scarcely preserve my equilibrium, but there I was on 
the tub for the purpose of answering and exposing the Doctor's 
sophistries, and an anxious auditory waiting for me to exterminate 
him. But, strange to saj', my lips refused utterance. I saw 'men 
as trees, walking,' and after a long, and to me, painful pause, 
I smote my hand upon my breast, and said, ' I feel too full for 
utterance.' (I meant of whisky, they thought of righteous indig- 
nation at the Doctor's effrontery in opposing the measure under 
consideration.) The ruse worked like a cliarm. The crowd shouted: 
' Let him have it.' I raised my finger and pointed a moment 
steadily at the Doctor. The audience shouted, ' Hit him again.' 
Thus encouraged, I attempted the first stump speech I ever 
attempted to make; and after I got my mouth to go off (and a part 
of the whisky — in perspiration), I had no trouble whatever, and the 
liquor dispelled my native timidity that otherwise might have 
embarrassed me. 1 occupied the tub about twenty-five minutes. 
The Doctor, boiling over with indignation and a speech, mounted 
the tub and harangued us for thirty minutes. The 'young 
school-master' was again called for, and another speech from him 
of about twenty minutes closed the debate." A vive voce vote of 
the company was taken, which resulted in twenty-six for the grant 
and four against it. My two friends were elected Captain and 
Lieutenant, and I am back at my boarding house, ready for supper, 
■with a slight headache. Strange as it may appear, none of them 
discovered that I was intoxicated. Lucky for me they did not, or 
I would doubtless lose my school. I now here promise myself, on 
this leaf of my day-book, that / will not drink liquor again, ex- 
cept given as a medical prescription^ 

It is possible that the foregoing incident was the origin of the 
double entendre, " Too full for utterance." 


During the year 186S the sentiment began to prevail that the 
processes of law in relation to criminal proceedings were neither 
prompt nor sure in the punishment of crime. It was easy to ob- 


tain contiiniances and changes of venue, and in this way delay the 
administration of justice or entirely frustrate it. The consequence 
was, an encouragement and increase of crime and lynch law 
became apparent. An event this year excited the public conscience 
upon this subject. A gang of robbers, who had been operating 
many months in the southern counties, on the 22d of May attacked 
and plundered a railroad car of the Adams' Express company on 
the Jefferson ville road; they were captured, and after being kept 
several weeks in custody in Cincinnati, Ohio, they were put on 
board a train, July 20, to be taken to the county of Jackson, in this 
State, for trial. An armed body of the "Vigilance Committee" of 
Seymour county lay in wait for the train, stopped the cars by hoist- 
ing a red signal on the track, seized the prisoners, extorted a confes- 
sion from them, and hanged them without the form of a trial. 

This same committee, to the number of 75 men, all armed and 
disguised, entered New Albany on the night of December 12, 
forcibly took the keys of the jail from the Sheriff, and proceeded to 
hang four others of these railroad robbers in the corridors of the 
prison. They published a proclamation, announcing by printed 
handbills that they would " swing by the neck until they be dead 
every thieving character they could lay their hands on, without in- 
quiry whether they had the persons who committed that particu- 
lar crime or not." 


Another case of necessity being the mother of invention occurred 
in Fountain county between 1S25 and 1830, as thus related in the 
book above quoted: 

A little old man, who was in the habit of getting drunk at every 
log rolling and house-raising he attended, upon coming home at 
night would make indiscriminate war upon his wife and daughters, 
and everything that came in his way. The old lady and the daugh- 
ters bore with his tyraimy and maudlin abuse as long as forbear. 
ance seemed to be a virtue. For awhile they adopted the doctrine 
of non-resistance and would fly from the house on his approach; 
but they found that this only made him worse. At length they 
resolved to change the order of things. They held a council of war, 
in which it was determined that the next time became home drunk 
they would catch him and tie him hand and foot, take him out and 
tie him fast to a tree, and keep him there until he got duly sober. 

It was not long before they had an opportunity to execute their 


decree. True to their plan, when they saw him coming, two of them 
placed themselves behind the door with ropes, and the other caught 
him by the wrists as he crossed the threshold. He was instantly 
lassoed. A tussle ensued, but the old woman and girls fell upper- 
most. They made him fast with the ropes and dragged him out 
toward the designated tree. He raved, swore, remonstrated and 
begged alternately, but to no effect; they tied him to the true and 
kept him there most of the night. They did not even untie him 
directly after he became sober, until they extorted a promise from 
him that he would behave himself and keep sober for the future, 
and not maltreat them for the favor they had conferred upon him 
and themselves. 

Two or three applications of this mild and diluted form of lynch 
law had an admirable effect in restoring order and peace in that 
family and correcting the conduct of the delinquent husband and 
father. The old woman thinks the plan they pursued far better 
and less expensive than it would have been if they had gone ten 
miles to Esquire Makepeace every few weeks and got out a writ for 
assault and battery besides the trouble and expense of attending 
as witnesses, $10 or $20 every month or two, and withal doing no 
good toward reforming the old man. 


About 1S08, in the neighborhood on the east fork of White river, 
there occurred a flagrant breach of the peace which demanded a 
summary execution of the law. A certain ungallant offender had 
flogged his wife in a most barbarous manner and then drove her 
from home. Bleeding and weeping, the poor woman appeared be- 
fore Justice Tongs for redress. The justice wrote out an aflidavit, 
which was signed, sworn to, and subscribed in due form. A warrant 
was soon placed in the hands of a constable commanding him to 
arrest and forthwith bring the offender before Justice Tongs, to 
answer to the charge preferred against him. After an absence of 
some five or six hours, the constable returned with the prisoner in 
custody. He had had a vexatious time of it, for the prisoner, a 
gigantic man, had frequently on the way, after he had consented 
peaceably to accompany him to the magistrate's office, stopped short 
and declared he would go no further, observing at the same time 
that neither he (the constable) nor 'Squire Tongs had any business 
to meddle with his domestic concerns. It was during one of those 
vexatious parleys, the constable coaxing and persuading, and the 


prisoner protesting and swinging back like an unruly ox, that the 
constable fortunately spied a hunter at a short distance who was 
armed and accoutred in real backwoods style. The constable beck- 
oned to the hunter, who then came up to his assistance, and who, 
after hearing the particulars of the affair, cocked his rifle, and soon 
galloped oflT the prisoner to the 'Squire's office. 

But this was only the beginning of the trouble in the case. The 
witnesses were yet to be summoned and brought before the justice; 
even the complaining witness had unexpectedly withdrawn from 
the house and premises of the justice, and was to be looked after. 
The hunter could not possibly stay long, as his comrades were to 
meet him at a point down 10 or 15 miles distant that evening. 
The prist)ner was quite sullen, and it was evident that the 'Squire 
could not keep liim safely if the constable and Imnter were to leave. 
Although the 'Squire's jurisdiction extended from the west line of 
Ohio far toward the JRocky Mountains, and from the Ohio river 
north to Green Bay, yet so sparse was the neighborhood in point of 
population, and so scattering were the settlers, that he and his 
faithful constable found that it would be but little use to a call upon 
the posse comitatus. But in this critical situation of affairs, the 
fruitful mind of the justice hit upon a first-rate plan to keep the 
prisoner until the witnesses could be brought. It was simply to 
pry up the corner of his heavy eight-rail fence near by, make a 
crack two or three rails above the ground, and thrust the prisoner's 
head through the crack, and then take out the pry. 

As soon as the 'Squire made known his plan to the company 
they with one accord resolved to adopt it. The constable immedi- 
ately rolled out an empty " bee-gum " for a fulcrum, and applied a 
fence rail for a lever; up went the fence, tlie justice took hold of the 
prisoner's arm, and, with the assisting nudges of the hunter, who 
brought up the rear witli rifle in hand, they thurst the prisoner's 
head through the crack, nolens oolens, and then took out the prop. 
There lay the offender safe enough, his head on one side of the fence 
and his body on the other. The hunter went on his way, satisfied 
that he had done signal service to his country, and the constable 
could- now be spared to hunt up the witnesses. 

The prisoner in the meantime, although the crack in the fence 
■was fully large enough without pinching, kept squirming about and 
bawling out lustily, "Choke trap! The devil take your choke 
trap!" Toward sunset the constable returned with the witnesses. 
The prisoner was taken frona his singular duress, and was regularly 


tried for his misdemeanor. He was found guilty, fined, and, as it 
appeared from the evidence on the trial that the defendant had 
been guilty aforetime of the same offense, the justice sentenced him 
to three hours' imprisonment in jail. There being no jail within 
100 miles, the constable and bystanders led the offender to the 
fence again, rolled up the "bee-gum," applied the rail, and thrust 
his head a second time through the fence. There he remained in 
limbo until ten o'clock that night, when, after giving security for 
the final costs, he was set at liberty, with not a few cautions that 
he had better " let Betsey alone," or he would get another applica- 
on of the law and the " choke trap." — Cox' Recollections of the 
Wabatth Valley. 


About the year lS3i Michigan claimed that her southern bound- 
ary was properly about 10 miles south of the parallel fixed by Con- 
gress, that is, a line drawn from the extreme southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie, thus including Toledo. 
Ohio and Indiana, especially the former, stoutly opposed this 
claim. The contest grew so warm that militarj' organization had 
actually commenced, and a war was expected. This was called the 
"Toledo war," and for a time there was as much excitement as on 
the eve of a great revolution. But the blustering Wolverine was 
soothed to rest by an offer of a large extent of territory north and 
west of the Strait of Mackinaw. Had that State succeeded in es- 
tablishing its claim by decree of Congress, Indiana would have 
been cut off from the lakes, thrown entirely inland like Kentucky, 
and lost a very valuable strip of country. This State also would 
have probably lost the co-operation of Ohio in the conduct of the 
Wabash & Erie canal, the greatest and costliest pet of the State. 
It is amusing to observe, by the way, that the people of Michigan 
at first thought that their reward for yielding the golden strip on 
her southern boundary was a very meager one, thinking that she 
had naught but a barren waste and a large body of cold water; but 
behold, how vast are now her mineral resources in that same bleak 
country, the " upper peninsula! " 


During the administration of Gov. Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1846, must be sought for as far back as the year 1830, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1830, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lands from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1830. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,000 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
crime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1835, having with a force of 


600 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refuge to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on the banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, tlie latter were 
driven from the field, nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican JRepublic, and consequently left unratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Eepublic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integial part of the United 
States, July 4, 1S46. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same ti me an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
General Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to tlie Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, with- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river Nueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore. General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed an open 


act of war. On the 2Gth of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this effect to General Taylor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Rio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander. Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
had now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supplies for his army. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the 8th of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very effective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion. General de la Vega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. This 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 1S4G, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1846 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan. General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In November, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of General AVorth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Victoria, 
the capital of Tamaulipas, and nearly at the same period. 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of July, Captain Fremoi:t, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, the whole of California was in the utidisj^uted occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By the drawing off of a large part of 
General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now marching upon him, under command of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued nearly the whole daj', when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 


the Rio Grande to the complete occupation of our troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Vera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. On the 9th of March, 18i7, 
General Scott landed near the city with an army, of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18th commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an almost incessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and the city. General Scott now prepared to 
inarch upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8th of April the 
army commenced their march. At Gerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the ISth the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
18th of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras, Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the citj-, or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chapul tepee was successfully 


Btormed by General Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his men 
iu the desperate struggle. The castle of Chapultepec, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the surrounding 
country, presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'cloclc, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the war. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1S48, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th of May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4:th of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Rio Grande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him the Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as one of the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
of our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not only as a soldier, but as a man, set by our com- 
mander, Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belonging to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who efi'ectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
"Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4th and 5th. The lact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jefiersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June 15, 1847, and on the 16th elected 
Major "Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jefi'ersonville for the front, and 


subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
TJ. S. Rrtillery, the 4tli Regiment of Indiana "Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Passo de Ovegas, August 10, 1S47; 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Puebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12th of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th; Guerrilla Ranche, December 5th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 184S; 
Chohila, March 26tli; Matacordera, February i9th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Vera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixt3'-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a quarrelsome 


We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
]North western Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
1787; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the organization of the State. 
The next item of significance in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Eay to the Legislature of 1828: " Since 
our last separation, while we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
fall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
National Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscription 
upon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty, Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
North, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 


law-lp:-was-i-kaw, the shawnee prophet. 


Northern destiny: she plants herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in January, 1869, the subject 
of ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Kepublicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the Kepublicans resolved to push the measure tlirough, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislature 
without a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senators; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratif3'ing resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned 
there was a quorum of the defaoto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, tha 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House Committee had time to report on the matter, 34 Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
stop to further legislation. 


On the fourth day of March, 1861, after the most exciting and 
momentous political campaign known in the history of this country, 
Abraham Lincoln — America's martyred President — was inaugu- 
rated Chief Magistrate of the United States. This fierce contest 
was principally sectional, and as the announcement was flashed over 
the telegraph wires that the Eepublican Presidential candidate had 
been elected, it was hailed by the South as a justifiable pretext for 
dissolving the Union. Said Jefferson Davis in a speech at Jackson, 
Miss., prior to the election, "If an abolitionist be chosen Presi- 
dent of the United States you will have presented to you the 
question whether you will permit the government to pasS into 
the hands of your avowed and implacable enemies. Without 
pausing for an answer, I will state my own position to be that 
such a result would be a species of revolution by which the 
purpose of the Government would be destroyed, and the obser- 
vances of its mere forms entitled to no respect. In that event, 
in such manner as should be most expedient, I should deem it 
your duty to provide for your safet}- outside of tlie Union." Said 
another Southern politician, when speaking on the same sub- 
ject, " We shall fire the Southern heart, instruct the Southern 
mind, give courage to each, and at the proper moment, by one 
organized, concerted action, we can precipitate the Cotton States 
into a revolution." To disrupt the Uuicu and form a government 
which recognized the absolute supremacy of the white population 
and the perpetual bondage of the black was what they deemed 
freedom from the galling yoke of a Eepublican administration. 


Hon. Rufus W. Miles, of Illinois, sat on the floor by the side 
of Abraham Lincoln in the Library room of the Capitol, in Spring- 
field, at the secret caucus meeting, held in January, 1859, when 
Mr. Lincoln's name was first spoken of in caucus as candidate ibr 
President. When a gentleman, in making a short speech, said, 
" We are going to bring Abraham Lincoln out as a candidate for 
President," Mr. Lincoln at once arose to his feet, and exclaimed, 
"For God's sake, let me alone! I have suffered enough!" This 
was soon after he had been defeated in the Legislature for United 
States Senate by Stephen A. Douglas, and only those who are 


intimate with that important and unparalleled contest can appre- 
ciate the full force and meaning of these expressive words of the 
martyred President. They were spontaneous, and prove beyond a 
shadow of doiil)t that Abraham Lincoln did not seek the high posi- 
tion of President. Nor did he use any trickery or chicanery to 
obtain it. But his expressed wish was not to be complied with; 
our beloved country needed a savior and a martyr, and Fate had 
decreed that he should be tlie victim. After Mr. Lincoln was 
elected President, Mr. Miles sent him an eagle's quill, with which 
the chief magistrate wrote his first inaugural address. The letter 
written by Mr. Miles to the President, and sent with the quill, 
which was two feet in length, is such a jewel of eloquence and 
prophecy that it should be given a place in history: 

Persifer, December 21, 18G0. 
Hon. a. Lixcoi.x : 

Dear Sir :— Ploise accept the ea.dc quill I promised you, liy the hand of our 
. Representative, A. A. Smith. The bird from whose wing the quill was taken, was 
shot by John F Dillon, in Persifer township, Kuo.\ Co., Ills., in Feb., 1857. Hay- 
ing heard tluit James Buchanan was furnished with an eagle quill to write his 
Inaugural with, and believing that in 1860, a Republican would be elected to take 
his place, I determined to save this quill and present it to thefnrtun:Ui- man, who- 
ever he might be. Reports tell us that the bird which furnished Uuchanan's quill 
was a captured bird, — tit. emblem of the man that used it ; Init the tdrd from 
which this quill was taken, yielded the quill only with hi^ life,— tit emblem of the ' 
man who is expected to use it, for true Republicans lidicvc that you would not 
think lile worth the keeping after the surrender ot pi iiu iplc. Great difficulties 
surround you; traitors to their countrv have llinauiird your life ; and should 
you be called upon to surrender it at the post of duty, ycur'niemory will live for- 
ever in the heart of every freeman ; and that is a grander monument than can be 
built of brick or marble. 

"For tr hearts may not our memories keep, 
Obliviou tiaste eacti vestij^e sweep, 
And let our memories end." 

Yours Truly, 

R. W. :Miles. 


At the time of President Lincoln's accession to power, several 
members of the Union claimed they had withdrawn from it, and 
styling themselves the "Confederate States of America," organ- 
ized a separate government. The house was indeed divided 
against itself, but it should not fall, nor should it long continue 
divided, w;is the hearty, determined response of every loyal heart 
in the nation. The accursed institution of human slavery was 
the primary cause for this dissolution of the American Union. 
Doubtless other agencies served to intensity the hostile feel- 
ings which existed between the jSTorthern and Southern portions 


of our countrj, but their remote origin could be traced to this great 
national evil. Had Lincoln's predecessor put forth a timely, ener- 
getic effort, he might have prevented tlie bloody war our nation 
was called to pass through. On the other hand every aid was given 
the rebels; every advantage and all the power of the Government 
was placed at their disposal, and when Illinois' honest son took the 
reins of the Republic he found Buchanan had been a traitor to his 
trust, and given over to the South all available means of war. 


On the 12th day of April, 1861, the rebels, who for weeks had 
been erecting their batteries upon the shore, after demanding of 
Major Anderson a surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For 
thirty-four hours an incessant cannonading was continued; the fort 
was being seriously injured; provisions were almost gone, and Major 
Anderson was compelled to haul down the stars and stripes. That 
dear old flag which had seldom been lowered to a foreign foe by 
rebel hands was now trailed in the dust. The first blow of the 
terrible conflict which summoned vast armies into the field, and 
moistened the soil of a nation iu fraternal blood and tears, had 
been struck. Tlie gauntlet thus thrown down by the attack on 
Sumter by the traitors of the South was accepted — not, however, 
in the spirit with which insolence meets insolence — but with a firm, 
determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. Tiie duty of 
the President was plain under the constitution and the laws, and 
above and beyond all, the people from whom all political power is 
derived, demanded the suppression of the Rebellion, and stood ready 
to sustain the authority of their representative and executive 
officers. Promptly did the new President issue a proclamation 
calling for his countrymen to join with him to defend their homes 
and their country, and vindicate lier honor. This call was made 
April 14, two days after Sumter was first fired upon, and was for 
75,000 men. On the 15th, the same day he was notified. Gov. 
Yates issued his proclamation convening the Legislature. He also 
ordered the organization of six regiments. Troops were in abund- 
ance, and the call was no sooner made than filled. Patriotism 
thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, 
the M'orkshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, 
the school-house, — every calling offered its best men, their lives and 
their fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. 


Bitter words spoken in moments of political heat were forgotten 
and forgiven, and joining hands in a common cause, they repeated 
the oath of America's soldier-statesman: " -fiy the Oreat Eternal^ 
the Union mu^t and shall he preserved." The honor, the very 
life and glory of the nation was committed to the stern arbitrament 
of the sword, and soon the tramp of armed men, the clash of 
musketry and the heavy boom of artillery reverberated throughout 
the continent; rivers of blood saddened by tears of mothers, wives, 
sisters, daughters and sweethearts flowed from the lakes to the 
gulf, but a nation was saved. Tlie sacrifice was great, but the 
Dnion was preserved. 


In July and August of 1S02 the President called for 600,000 
men — our quotaof which was 52,296 — and gave until August 18 as 
the limits in which the number might be raised by volunteering, 
after which a draft would be ordered. The State had already fur- 
nished 17,000 in excess of her quota, and it was first thought this 
number would be deducted from the present requisition, but that 
could not be done. But thirteen days were granted to enlist this 
vast army, which had to come from the farmers and mechanics. 
The former were in the midst of harvest, but, inspired by love of 
country, over 50,000 of them left their harvests ungatliered, their 
tools and their benches, the plows in their furrows, turning their 
backs on their homes, and belbre eleven days had expired the 
demands of the Government were met and both quotas filled. 

The war went on, and call followed call, until it began to look as 
if there would not be men enough in all the Free States to crush 
out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inaugurated. But 
to every call for either men or money there was a willing and ready 
response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of 
men fallen short, there were women brave enough, daring enough, 
patriotic enough, to have offered themselves as sacrifices on their 
country's altar. On the 21st of December, lS6i, the last call for 
troops was made. It was for 300,000. In consequence of an im- 
perfect enrollment of the men subject to military duty, it became 
evident, ere this call was made, that Indiana, was furnishing thous- 
ands of men more than what her quota would have been, had it 
been correct. So glaring had this disproportion become, that 
under this call the quota of some districts exceeded the number of 
able-bodied men in them. 


Tlio poo)>lo woro lilHTal as woll as patriotic; and wliilo the men 
wore busy cnlistiiiij, organizing niul equipping companies, the ladies 
were no less active, and the noble, generous work performed by 
their tender, loving hands deserves mention along with the bravery, 
devotion and patriotism of their brothers upon the battle-tield. 

The continued need of money to obtain the comforts and neces- 
saries for the sick and wounded of our army suggested to the loyal 
women of the North many and various devices for the raising of 
funds. Every city, town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, 
excursion, concert, which netted more or less to the cause of 
hospital relief, according to the population of the place and the 
amount of energy and patriotism displayed on such occasions. 
Especially was this characteristic of our own fair Stnto, and scarcely 
a hamlet within its borders which did not send something from its 
stores to hospital or battle-tield, and in the larger towns and cities 
were well-organized soldiei-s' aid societies, working systematically 
and continuously from the beginning of the war till its close. 
sukuman's makoh to the sea. 

On ths 15th of November, lSti4-, after the destruction of Atlanta, 
and the railroads behind him, Sherman, with his army, began his 
march to the sea-coast. The almost breathless an.xiety with which 
his ]^rogress was watched by the loyal hearts of the nation, and the 
trembling apprehension with which it was regarded by all who 
lioped for i-ebel success, indicateil this as one of the most remai-k- 
able events of tlie war; and so it proveil. Of Sherman's army, 45 
resiiuients of infantry, three companies of artillery, and one of 
ojwalry were from this State. Lincoln answered all rumors of 
Shernnin's defeat with, "It is impossible; there is a mighty sight 
of tight in 100,000 Western men." 


One other name from the "West comes up in all minds, embalmed 
in all hearts, that n\ust have the supreme place in this sketch of 
our glory and of our nation's honor: that name is Abraham 
Lincoln. The analysis of i[r. Lincoln's character is ditficult on 
account of its symmetry. In this age we look with admiration at 
his uncompnnnising honesty; and well we may, for this saved us. 
Thousands throughout the length and breadth of our country, who 
knew him only as " Honest Old Abe," votai for him on tliat 
account ; and wisely did they choi^se, for no other man could have 
carried us thnnigh the fearful night of W!ir. When his plans were 
tiK> vast for our comoi-ehension, and his faith in the cause too sub- 


lime for our participation; wlien it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us; when not one 
ray shone upon our cause; when traitors were haughty and exult- 
ant at the South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North; when 
the loyal men seemed almost in the minority; when the stoutest 
heart quailed, the bravest cheek paled; when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractois were leeching out the very 
heart's blood of the republic; when everything else had failed us, 
we looked at this calm, patient man standing like a rock in the 
storm, and said, " Mr. Lincoln is honest, and we can trust him still." 
Holding to this single point with the energy of faith and despair, 
■we held together, and under God he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With 
such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate 
effects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 
He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory will shed 
a glory upon this age that will fill the eyes of men as they look 
into history. Other men have excelled him in some points; but, 
taken at all points, he stands head and shoulders above every other 
man of 6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the 
perils of unparalleled civil war; a statesman, he justified his 
measures by their success; a philanthropist, be gave liberty to one 
race ami salvation to another; a moralist, he bowed frotn the sum- 
mit of human power to the foot of the cross; a mediator, lie exer- 
cised mercy under the most absolute obedience to law; a leader, 
he was no partisan; a commander, he was untainted with blood; a 
luler in desperate times, he was unsullied with crime; a man, he 
has left no word of passion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, 
no act of jealousy, no purpose of selfish ambition. Thus perfected, 
without a model and without a peer, he was dropped into these 
troubled years to adorn and embellish all that is good and all that 
is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming time the 
representative of the divine idea of free gov^ernment. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the future, when the republic 
has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when the great war 
itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the 
horizon ; when the Anglo-Saxon shall be spoken only by the tongue 
of the stranger, then the generations looking this way shall see 
the great President as the supreme figure in this vortex of history. 



The rebellion was ended with the surrender of Lee and his army, 
and Johnson and his command in April, 1S65. Our armies at the 
time were up to their maximum strength, never so formidable, 
never so invincible; and, until recruiting ceased by order of Sec- 
retary Stanton, were daily strengtliening. The necessity, however, 


for so vast and formidable numbers ceased with the disbanding of 
the rebel forces, which had for more than four years disputed the 
supremacy of the Government over its domain. And now the 
joyful and welcome news was to be borne to the victorious legions 
that their work was ended in triumph, and they were to be per- 
mitted "to see homes and friends once more." 


The events of the earlier years of this State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Republic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States: to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life iinder laws that harbored the slave^a civil defiance of the 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll of honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The tall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 
The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the 14th of 
April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 
the welcome message to Washington: — 

Executive Department op Indiana, ) 
Indianapolis, April 15, 18G1. J 
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States:— On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, I tender to you for the defense of the Nation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Government, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first oflicial act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
" War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
often thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1S61 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merely do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 


The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of cash in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and purpo ses 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, and for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertaint}", amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of tlie magnificent 
corps (T armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1834. Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end in 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, their zeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Eepublicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep. 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 

Ko: dear as freedom is — and, in my heart's 

Just estimation, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave. 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 men, 


answered nobly by the people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,683 men for three 
years' service from April 15, 1S60. On the IGth of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster-General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " "Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75.000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days — re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such truly, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set a]:)art by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State oS'ered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very few days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in 1834, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters from Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor of the people, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt which may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
days later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a note of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The measage was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly' recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes 11,000,000 

Purchase of arms 500,000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, thediligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. AVithin three da^'s after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 


iments, notwithstanding the fact that the first six regiments were 
already mustered into the general service, were known as "The 
First Brigade, Indiana Volunteers," and with the simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
■were numbered respectively 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 

Seventh " " " " Ebenezer Dumont. 

Eighth « " " " W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " " " " E. H. Milroy. 

Tenth " " " " T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and the entire force placed under Bz-igadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following staff: John Love, Major; Cyrus C- 
Hines, Aid-de-catnp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opinion has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Thei-efore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, July 21, 1861, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor : — 

"GovEUNOR O. P. Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Governor:— I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to j'ou without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
George B. McClellan, 
Major- General, U. S. A. 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the whole. After passing a glowing enlogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

"Soldiers! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you 
to the field of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and country acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future career be as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized for til ree years' service, between the 20th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
ColonelJohn M. Wallace, and reorganized May 17, 1862, for three 
3'ears' service under Col. "W. H. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13tii Rkgiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into tlie United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The 11th Regiment, organized in 1S61 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser- 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1864, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The ISth Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col. G. D. "Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the 11th 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1S62, and during the 
first days of January-, 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


after enduring terrible hardships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th June, 
1864, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Regiment, organized under Col. P. A. Hackleman at 
Eichmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C., on the 14th 
of May, 1S62. Col. Hackleman was killed at tlie battle of luka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service, May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 18G5, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid tlie rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12th of June, 1861, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. This 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's array 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The ISth Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

Thel9Tii Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20Tn Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July. 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
same month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve days later. Throughout all its brilliant actions from Ilat- 
teras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, 


including the saving of the United States ship Congress, at New- 
port News, it added daily some new name to its escutcheon. This 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865, and return- 
ing to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

The 21sT Regiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. McMillan, July 2i, 1S61, and reported at the front the third 
day of August. It was the first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its members, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1863, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1SG4, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for lionors won. 

The 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the 15th of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victoiy, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16th June. 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 2i, 1S65, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

■The 24th Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Yincennes the 31st of July, 1S61. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25th Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Yeatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During the war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 


and officers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 186-5, it returned 
to Indianapolis on the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

The 26th Battalion, under W. M. Wheatley, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1S61, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and Smith, may be said to 
disband the ISth of September, 1865, when the non-veteraus and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Regiment, uuder Col. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Wasliingtuu City, September 15th, 1861, and in 
October was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the affairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28tii oe 1st Cavalky was mustered into service at Evans- 
ville on the 20th of August, 1861, under Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
few rebels, to the battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29Tn Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5th of October, 1S61, and reaching Camp Kevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to Rosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Rosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 1861. At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's array of observation in Texas. 

The 31st Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the reduction of Fort Douelson on the 
13th, 14th, and 15th of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate lighting qualities. The organization 


was subjected to many changes, but in all its phases maintained a 
fair fame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas. 

The 32d Regimext of German Infantry, under Col. August 
"Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered on the 24th of August, 
18G1, served with distinction throughout the campaign. Col. 
"Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, andLieut.- 
Col. Henry Vou Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Regiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1865, taken with its name as one of the most 
poweri'ul regiments engaged in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1S61, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1S65, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccupy the position, so long in 
Southern hands, of Ringold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th or First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. "Walker. At Nashville, on the 22d of May, 
1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-first or 
Second Irish Regiment, and nnassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lieut.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the Sth of October, 1862, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, witii Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 


The 36th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. William 
Grose, mustered into service for three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Shiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the most important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's army. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1864 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Hazzard, organized tiie 18th of September, 1861, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1862, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
This regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 1865, wiiere a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The BSth Regiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at Kew Albany, on the 18th of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were efi route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1862, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the 18tii of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39th Regiment, ok Eighth Cavalet, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August. 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it took a conspicuous part in all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds which men will extol 
while language liv'es; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second siiame. 

The 40th Regiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 


at once proceeded to the front,wliere some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstown, Kentucky. In February, 
1862, it joined in Buell's forward.movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st Eegiment ok Second Cavalry, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Bridgland, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1862, and at Pea 
Ridge on the 15th. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, lS6i, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment was 
mustered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the principal 
military affairs of the period, Wartrace. Mission Ridge, Altoona, 
Kenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute enroate to 
the front within a few days. Later it was al'ied to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a militar}' body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1S65. 

The 44th ok the Regiment of the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 24th of October, 1S61, under 
Col. Hugh B. Reed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it vv^as 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the 14th of September, 1865. 

The 45th, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


organized at different periods and for varied services in 1861- 
'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 1S65. 

The 46th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1862, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's army, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Ilovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1862. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. Buell's army; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1864 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Mc- 
Laughton; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The 48th Regiment, organized at Goshen tlie 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers in 
1865 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jeffersonville, under Col. J. W. 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1861, for service, 
left en route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on many 


a well-fonght field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50th Regiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, left oi route to 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1865. 

The 51sT Regiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the lith of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
Buell's and acted with great efi'ect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Army of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and the 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53rd Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was mus- 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The 54th Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D. G. Rose. The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgan- 


ized for one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1SG3 at New Orleans. 

The 55Tn Eegiment, organized for three months' service, retains 
tlie brief history applicable to the first organization of the 54th. 
It was mustered in on the 16th of June, 1862, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon, disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56th Regiment, referred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J. M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
already volunteered into other regiments. Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel,— the Rev. I. W. T. McMullen and Rev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 1861, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. llaynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1861, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 1865, 
at Louisville, having gained a jilace on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization, Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the 18th it left en route to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 


acterized by distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on the 17th of July, 1S65. 

The 60th Eegiment was partially organized under Lieut.-Col. 
Kichard Owen at Evansville during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg's army investing Munlbrdsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14th of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21st of March, 1865. 

The 61sT was partially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and officers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Volunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant of Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regiment failed in organization as an artillery corps; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65th was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once en 
route for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action during the war was on the 18th and 20th of February, 
1865, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after which, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

Tlie 66th Regiment partially organized at New Albany, under 
Commandant Roger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1862, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1865, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Regiment was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20th of August, 1862, whence it marched to Muufordville, 
only to share the same fate with the other gallant regiuients en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a term of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
few days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col. Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Muufordville; but shar- 
ing in the fiite of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1863. From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69th Regiment, of Riclimond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th ot August, 1S62, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and officers together with its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, 
formed into a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1SG2, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors cf Bruee's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis witli public honors. 

The 71sT OR Sixth Cavalry was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the 18th of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Toppin<^. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Couklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an excliange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of l,00ii Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the 15th of September, 1865, at 

The 77th Regiment was organized at Lafayette, and left eri route 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under CoF. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73rd Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1882, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1S65, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74:TH Regiment, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on tlie 22d 
of August, 1862, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together with the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9th of June, 1865, at Washington. On the return of the 
regiment to Iiidiaaapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 75th Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, on the 21st of August, 1862, for the 
front, under Col. I. W. Petit. It was the first regiment to enter 
Tullahoma, and one of the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1865. 

The 76th Battalion was solely organized for tliirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavin, for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 1862. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, " The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77tu, or Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29th June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Knefler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th June, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The 80th Regiment was organized within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and ofiicers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81sT Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862, and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in tiie pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of tlie war its 
influence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 


on the 13th June, 1865, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton 
and the people. 

The 82xD Regiment, under Colonel Morton C. Hunter, was 
mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 30th August, 1862, and 
leaving immediately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles down to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
at Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The 83kd Regijient, of Lawrenceburg, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1862, and soon left en route 
to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history, the fact of its being 
under fire for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1865, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 84th Regiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1862, under Colonel Kelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short time its labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
enemy on many well -con tested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the 14th of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The 85th Regiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the 4th March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate aiFair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Regiment, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1862, under Colonel Orville S. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the 84th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Kashville on the 15th 
and 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The S7th Regiment, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day en route to 


the front. From Springfield and Perryville on the 6th and 8th of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, 1863, 
thence througli tlie Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic welcome- home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
absent comrades aggregating 451. 

The 88th Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 28th of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, or Fifth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of June, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91sT Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1862, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Carr. On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 


Gen. Sbei-inan's. On the 14th of May it was among the first regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississij)])!; was next pres- 
ent at the assault on Yicksburg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to the storming of Fort Blakel}' on the 9th of April, 1S65. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The 94th and 95th Regiments, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Regiment could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incorpo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 97th Regiment, raised in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. Robert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Yicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 186-5, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 341 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Railway, from the loth to the 27th of June, 1864. 

The 98th Regiment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated with the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16tli Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon ali occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at "Washington, and 
returned to Indianapolis on the 11th of the same montli. 

The 100th Regiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 


into the service on the 10th of September, left for the front on the 
nth of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 1862. The regiment participated in 
twentj-fi\-e battles, together with skirmishing during fullv one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at Washington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the 1-ith of June, 1865. 

The lOlsT Regiment was mustered into service at "Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. "William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavalry, and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1863, to the fall 
of Savannah on tlie 23rd of September, 1863, tlie regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in July, and reported at North Vernon on the 12th of 
July, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only in its service by being mus- 
tered out one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The 104th Regiment of Minute Men was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 71i men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John. H Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the ISth of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 


Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and Madison counties. The command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and officers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Ee- 
turningon the 18th of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 106th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundred and ninety-two men and officers. The 
counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1863. 

The 107th Regiment, under Col. De Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The IOSth Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county. 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R, 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 18G3, after seven days' service. 

The 110th Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing Y33 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Company' of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton. Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was mustered out oil the 17tli of 
July, 1863. 

The 113th Regiment, furnished by Daviess, Martin, Washington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and lile under Col. Geo. 
"W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Hughes' 
Brigade, and defended North Vernon against the repeated attacks 
of John K. Morgan's forces. 

The lllxH Regiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the aflair of North 
Vernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry^ 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

SIX- months' regiments. 

The Horn Regiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1863, was mustered into service on 
the 17th of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and leceived its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Regiment, mustered in on the 17th of August, 1863, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24th of February, 1864, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117Tn Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 1863, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1864, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9th. 

The 118th Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


State capital on the 14th of February, 1864. Its casualties were 
comprised in a list ol" 15 killed and wounded. 

Tlie 119th, or Seventh Cavaluy, was recruited under Col. John 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and file numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the llth it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arms. General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalr3\ saying: " Your General con- 
gratulates j'ou upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unflinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have full}' justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1S65, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiies, were lost on the steamer "Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The riOTu IIehiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for three years' service. By April, 1864, 
this organization was complete, and being transferred to the _ com- 
mand of Brigadier General Alvin P. Ilovey, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from fri6nd 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121sT, OR Ninth Cavaxrt, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 8rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a brief period, is 


pregnant with deeds of war of a high character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 3S6 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 18G5, was hailed with jo}', and jiroved how well and 
dearlj' the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Hegiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
sional District, owing to very few men being tlien at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Regiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of lK63-'64, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1864, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharj^ed on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 124Tn Regiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Regiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, on the lOtli of 
March, 1864, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Luuis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Roost, on the 8th of May, 
1864, under General Schofield. Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the loth July, to the 21st March, 1H65, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125th, or Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Yincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville, Ptcynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of tlie Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain Gaffney and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad. May, 1864, lost 
live men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 


surpassed for its utility and character it was disembodied at Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, on tlie 31st August, 1S65, and returning to 
Indianapolis early in September, was welcomed by the Executive 
and people. 

The 12Ctii, or Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Robert R. Stewart, on the 1st of March, 1864, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a very conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, wliore it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, and thence to Leavenworth, where it 
•was mustered out on the 19th September, 1S65. 

The 127Tn, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 186-4. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 1'28tu Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. p. De Hart, on the 18th March, 1864. On the 25th it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schofield's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Daltou, Brentwood Hills, Nashville, 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 12Sth until August 29, 1865, when it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130th Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left en route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th December, 1865. 

The 131sT, OR Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was tiie last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Indianapolis on the SOth of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the 1st of October in its magnificent 
defense of Huntsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Biiford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Vicksburg on the 18th of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton,in obedience to the offer made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for one hun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of the war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed The Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Kegiment, under Col. S. C. Vance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyville, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on 
the 18th of May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d Regiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
1864, under Col. R. N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The 134th Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of May, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W, C. Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135th, under Col. J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesville, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owen and Lawrence counties, lefte;i route to Tennessee on the 
28th of May, ISGi, liaviug completed organization the day previous. 

Tiie 138tu Regiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
1864, under Col. J. II. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139tu Eegiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, Elizaville, 
Knightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Vevay, New 
Albany, Metamora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the ho less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 

THE president's CALL OF JULY, 1864. 

The 140th Regiment was organized w'ith many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Prady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Having taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1864, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, ls65, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14 1st Regiment was only partially raised, and its few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col. Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort Wayne, under Col. 1. 
M. Comparct, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
3d of November, 1864, After a steady and exceedingly eli'ective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1S65. 

THE president's CALL OF DECEMBER, 1S64, 

Was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 



The 144th Regiment, under Col. G. W. Kiddle, was mustered in 
on tlie 6tli March, 1865, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August, 1865. 

The 145th Regimpjnt, under Col. W. A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the 18th of February, 1865, and joining Gen. Steadman's division 
at Chattanooga on tlie 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The 146th Regiment, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the lltli of March en route to Harper's Ferry, where it was i.s- 
signed to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1S65. 

The 147th Regiment, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1865, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 146th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 1865. 

The 14Sth Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 28th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The 149Tn Regiment was organized at Indianapolis by Col. "W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 1865, for Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150th Regiment, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9th of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the ITth. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on the 9th of 
August to Indianapolis for discliarge. 

The 151sT Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashville on 
the 9th of March, 1865. On the 14th a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1S65. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 


W. W Griswokl, and left for Harper's Ferry on the IStliof March, 
1865. It was attaclied to the ])rovisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Ami}-, and engaged until tlie 1st of Septemher, when it was dis- 
cliarged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was "organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1865, under Col. O. H. P. Care}-. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The ISlrTH Eegiment, organized under Col. Frank Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, I'or Parkersburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 2Sth of April, 1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155th Regiment, recruited throughout the State, lelt on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the countr}', — at 
Dover, Centreville, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4th of August, 1SG5, it was mustered out at Dover, 

The 156tii Battalion, under Lieut. -Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1 805, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 

independent cavalry company of INDIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25tli of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary, on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 



The 2STn Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited through- 
out tlie State of Indiana, and under Lieut.-Colonel Charles S. 
Kussell, left Indianapolis for the fronton the 24th of April, 1864. 
The retjiment acted very well in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gron. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chickahominy In the battle of 
the "Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command by Major Thomas TI. Logan. 
During the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
liistory, and was ultimately discharged, on the 8th of January, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 

batteries of light artillery. 

First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, 1S62 at Elkhoni Tavern, 
and on the 8th at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Teche country, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efiicacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Coffee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1SG4, and 
even after, to June, 1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 


which may be engraven on its guns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1864, when 
General Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakely, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The FouKTii Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in October, 1861, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Rosencrans and McCook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1866. Its first organization was completed 
under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Oapt 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on tlie 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-pounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29th, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. Daring its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 

The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. fl. Mor- 
gan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrived at 
the froHt on the 26th of Febrnary, 1862, and subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The XiNTu Battery. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1862, under Capt. 
JM. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in the aflairs 
of Shiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Kapids, Mansura, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johnson- 
ville, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1S65, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mastered in 
under Capt. Jerome B. Cox, in January, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1861, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

Tlie Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
I7th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1862, to the capture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th of June, 1865. 

Tiie Twelfth Battery was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, resigned, and the 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
officers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 


was occupied in the pursuit of John H. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided effectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4:th of July, 1865, and 
were discharged the day following. 

The Fourteenth Batteut, recruited in Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. II. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1862, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two gnus and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29tli of August. 1865, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The FiBTEENTH Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Von Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferr}'. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 2-lth of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Naylor, and on the 1st of June, 1862, left for 
Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated in the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favorable record,, 
and returned on the 5th of July, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Battery, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on these battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1865. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in tlie cam- 
paign until 1863, when, under Gen. Eosencrans, it appeared prom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the aifairs of "West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25th of June, 1865. 

The Nineteenth Battery was mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city on 
the 6th of June, 1865, it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on the 17th of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1863, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1S63, it 
was again in tlie field, where it won many honors under Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-first Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain "W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in numerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

Tiie Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in many other affairs. It threw 
the first sliot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. .While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers 37. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 


The TwENTT-THiED Battert, recruited in October 1862, and 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Capt. I. H. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered very efficient services at home 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In July, 1863, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged on the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
■enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty until tha 13thof March, 1863, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 2Sth 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wilder's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1S61; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enth,usiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 







No. of Battles. 








South Carolina 

No. of Battles. 





Ohio r 








North Carolina 



The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Republic in the 
hour of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arras that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their fathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Governinent. 

The relation of Indiana to the Eepiiblic was then established; 
for when the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from 1861-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided bj' the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the ofticial reports, furnished to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legions of the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and Ijrought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe wliich, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of which the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelit\', courage or elficiency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of tliem 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 


In 1867 tlie Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session, Gov. Morton 
resigned his office in consequence of having been elected to the U. 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14tli amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 



ing the Congressional representation in any State in which there 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
who shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a Board of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Republicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of suffrage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suffrage, etc. ; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 961. In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1868 Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and $1,958,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 


commission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

Tliis year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refuge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to that date the insti- 
tution had afforded relief and temporary subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adultery. 2. Impo- 
tency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 


Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money much longer than they did. The pressure of 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to provide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufBcient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they %vere considerably 
depreciated, Said the Governor: " It will be oppressive if the 
State^ after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign- 
ment of the evidences of existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 
The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 
of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 
bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 
the connection of interest between the steaiu-niill company and the 
bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 
effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 
the officers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 


had prostrated the paper circulating medium of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal 
state of affiiirs like this very naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an '' unwise administration." 

Durinw the first 16 years of this century, the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America, and 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three years. This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a liopeful 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the " agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to their normal height 
on the very first opportunity. 

In lS22-'3, before speculation started up again, the snrphis 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 


of the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surphis cap- 
ital, however, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time, but eventually proved remu- 

Nuah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1S32 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and j'et the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 28, 
1834. The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 1834, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'58 the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemption of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured by the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,780,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondlj', the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, o\^er-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
state of things tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more tlian ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namel}', agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Whitcomb, lS43-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise betv/een the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term. Gov. Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1818, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted wliich gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During the war of the Eebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within tlie State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 


see what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own gaine. 
The agricultural connnunity here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It probably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1S75 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, 3,681:, with a 
total horse-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,614; number of hands employed in the manufactories, 86,402; 
capital employed, is $117,4-62,161; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 
material, $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These 
figures are on an average about twice what they were only live years 
previously, at which time they were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1870 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, 8-203,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. Tiiis is utterly astonishing, especially when 
ws consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared witii its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Reports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
to burden these pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from bis representative in 


Congress, all these and other public documents in which he may be 


This subject began to be agitated as early as 1818, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 1843, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of highways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specitied as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1826 Governor Ray considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an et^ual financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow ii-ksome, since it must be the source of the bless- 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in whicii the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some sufiering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13^ per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
$5-4,000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from tiie sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to the 



Lake. In compliance with this request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the coijipletion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said: "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Public "Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the "Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidly forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the "Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
"to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the "Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusuall}' active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


without engaging an Engineer-in-Cbief for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort "Wayne to Huntington, was 
unintei;rupted; 16 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were tilled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation ; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
work was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Earh' in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Vernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon ''over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never he 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told tbcin that the astonishing success so far, surpassed even the 
hopes of the most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of the 
future were suthcient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
"Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, tlie construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and in his last message he exclaimed: 
" Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the present. * » * "pjig 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves,, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,827,000 for internal improvem^t pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie ca'^al and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest on 
debts— about $200,000— which the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 1838, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of afiairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more thaa 


ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov, Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest 
on the State debt without increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In 1840 the system embraced ten different works, the most im- 
portant of which was the Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,160 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufhcient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows: 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in length, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period oi)ened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Nettle creek, 76^ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on tlic Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of which was completed at that date, 
at the southern end, and 16 miles, extending south from Indianao- 
olls, were nearly completed. 

7. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Road finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, 8593, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

11. Jefi'ersonville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty-five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
Jeffersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the "Wabasii rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the. works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the pa^'ment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment oj interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 


and glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By the year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of which 124 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-burden the State with the old canal debt, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1870. The subject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some etfect on the elect.ion in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax the people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Aoril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 

In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also fine quarries of building stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Iu,dianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed^s reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicki 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long lor the appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survej' of the State. A partial survey was made as early as lS37-'8, 
by David Dale Owen, State Ge^jlogist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1852, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. Tiiey had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people " — 
W. W. Clayton. 

In 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of wiiich the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcely give even the substance of his report in a 
work like tliis, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up entirely of local detail. 


The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the southwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowing counties: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 800 
feet, with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is rained by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, the average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contains a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about 4J cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,080. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about 24 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of 81^ to 83^ percent, of 
carbon, and not quite tliree fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

Tlie great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considering the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri^ 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous throughout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw off scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coafl gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of e.xcellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where many large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which act are substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement ofagriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and appointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall oSer annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural and household manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1S52, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies arc to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
may deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, vvlio shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for tlie same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 187"2 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular "exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1873, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idh' gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State had nearly 3,700 miles of railroad, not counting side- 
track, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or 18 months one can go from Indianapolis to every county in 
the State by railroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal field) 
450 of which contain block coal, the best in the United States for 
manufacturing purposes. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania had, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60,460,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
busliels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

" Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania. 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

" What we want in this country is diversified labor." 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under the roof, thus affording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the ofiices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 


approached by three wide stairways, accommodates the fine art, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is brilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. Wright, 
18o2-'4r; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, 1856-'8; G. D. 
Wagner; 1859-60; D. P. Ilolloway, 1861; Jas. D.Williams, 1862, 
1S70-'1; A. D. Hamrick, 1863, lS67-'9; Stearns Fisher, lS6i-'6; 
John SulherJand, 1872-'4; Wra. Grim, 1875. Secretaries: John B. 
Dillon, 1852-'3, 1855, 1858- '9; Ignatius Brown, lS56-'7; W.T. Den- 
nis, 1854, 1860-'l; W. H. Loomis, 1862-'6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l ; Alex. Heron, 1872-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1853; Madison, 1854; New 
Albany, 1859,- Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terra Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7, 1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony, 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of tlie State was equal to the finest French plate; that 
the force-blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world ; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beecher was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not anly as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Fanner and Gardener, and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn, 


Aaron Aldridgc, Capt. James Sigarson, D. V. CiiUey, Keuben 
Eagan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius Ratliff, Joshua Lindley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year the 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the West, in the ball of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
aj)j)le, which was won by Reuben Kagan, of Putnam count}-, for 
an a])ple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of tlic young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1S60, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wm H. 
Loouiis, of Marion county. Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the " State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


In 1864 there was but little done on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the great war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so indefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
a substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 mauj^ valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed tlie management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to tliis time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and diffusing annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best volume 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 the office of corresponding secretary was discontinued; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

lu 1873 the State officials, refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1S75 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1860 to 1875 was 1,225. 

The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State . In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of the 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
-were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 18:25 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$l,216.0il:. At this time the seminary at Bloomington, supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1S52 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though this is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-school system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 


for school purposes were elected throngli the State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the edacational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared by the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men ; and although, of course, many blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the youth; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the oiBce of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leaky, dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
voter in the township a member of the corporation; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


half finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law that the entire school law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of ofSce. Hon. 
W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufiiciently to enable them to license 
as manj' as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many " unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1S53 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teacher, while 
there might not be a suflScient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to $2,400,000. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these ofiicers were 
allowed one-tentli of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 


of tlie State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into efi'ect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1864 was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
1858, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Report (for ]877-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantia) and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 



of School 

No of 



Am't Paid 


In Days. 


at School. 








$ 239,924 
































The increase of school population during the past ten years has 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 593,865. 

Increase for year ending 

Sept. 1,1869 

" 1,1870 

" 1,1871 

.. 17,699 
.. 9,063 
. 3,101 
. . 8,811 

IncreaBe for year ending 

May 1,1874 

" 1.1875 

" 1, 1876 

. 13,373 

" 1,1872 

" 1,1877 

" 1 1878 

May 1, 1873 (8 monthsj 

. . 8,903 

354,271; i 
. 5,937 ; 

4 447 

Total, 1878 

females 333.033 

" 5,912 


.. 11,849 

" " colored " 


Twenty-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the scliools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored" 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: " As 
long as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
days and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system, — such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools in his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easil}' applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population, in the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. I 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six mouths of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax be^'ond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 


The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1878 was 9,380, in 
all but 3i of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, G2, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, except about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
State in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1-90; females, 
$1.70: in towns, males, §3.09; females, $1.81; in cities, males, 
.$4.06; females, $2.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school -houses, 1.724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana $8,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,214.91 

Ohio 6,614,816.50 Missouri 2,525,252.52 

Illinois 6,348,538.33 Minnesota 2,471, 199..31 

New York 2,880.017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,210,864.09 

Iowa 4,274,581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17.866.55 

Common-school fund, 1,666,^24.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinking fund, at 8 per cent .569,139.94 ution 67,068.72 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fund 2,281,076.69 uted 100,165.92 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land fund 42,418.40 

sinnal township lands. . 94,245.00 - — 

Saline fund 5,727.66 $8,437,593 47 

Bank ta.x fund 1,744.94 

In 1878 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The " Congressional township " fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of the townships. Almost all of these 


have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The " saline " fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congress. By authority of the same act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money aracng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's share was 
$860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to 12^ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. "Sinking'' fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 


7. All fines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to tlie credit of the common-school fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible by law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,865.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1S72 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1873 there was $42,418.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Yincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds miglit be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On tliis Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution; William H. Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, "Wal- 
ler Taylor. Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias McNamee, 
John Badolett, Henry Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee. Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

Tlie sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memorv. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1S25 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Rev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," under 
■which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1S28 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the different departments; Rev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof, of mathematics and natural philosophy ; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difficulties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1854, when it was destroyed b}' fire, and 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
■was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany »fc Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gothic style, si mply and trnly carried out. The building, 
fronting College avenue is 145 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 3S feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in lS79-'80, 183; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on aiixed founaation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except 90 far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
•education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5. That the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

" First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of tliis act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

" Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourtli section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sold^ and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, including 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands shall be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroad 


grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act 
unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President." 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1S63, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, who 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions ot the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $iOO.OOO, and is invested in U. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1869, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, offered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to " Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Ciiurch. 

The building was located on a 100- acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
whicli 86^ acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The boarding-house is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring 120 feet front by 68 feet deep. The dormitor}' is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan style, four stories 
high, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, R. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suflB- 
ciently large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Eichard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of a new building. The military 
liall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposal 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, S37,807.0Y; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $32,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $1,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, $1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations. Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $600 a year, for the time 
lie served, for decorating the grounds, — if neoessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1874, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 


comprises the varied subjects generally pertaining to a first-class 
university course, namely: in the school- of natural science — 
physics and industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history; 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and practical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, ]874-'5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efliciency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difiiculty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that laj^ within tlieir power, 
their efibrts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geography. United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


State. The advanced course of studies, together with the higher 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to the State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from the official reports: out of 41 persons who had 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the student's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, so 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 


This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1873, with 35 students 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadily, until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the school 
is one hundi-ed thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosopiiical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thoroui^h, energetic, and scholarlj' instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large nuinberof finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efficiency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and development is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proprietor and principaL The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
" denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 


Notre Dame University, near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is one of the most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
the present time, now having 35 professors, 26 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in librarj'. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all parts of tlie world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Asbury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1835, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokomo, and 
was founded in 1869. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore'' s Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

Earlhatn's College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1872, eight professors^nd teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort "Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 





Hartsville University, United Brethren, at Hartsville, was 
founded in 1854, and in 1872 had seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located at 
Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
so great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, the first effort was made by James M. Ray, 
about 1846. Through his etibrts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Ray, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 


the Coriotbian style, while each wing is similarly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, wlio was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Plicebe Garrettson, Frances Cunditf, Dallas Newland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Racliel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows: 

1. The school year commences the first "Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of S-t days. 

2. • Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 


over 21 years of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or unsound persons, or confirmed immoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

4. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where he or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate tlie subject 
was William "Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tutiou, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretary of State, ex-officio,and Eevs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, 
Hon. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpsoa. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and opened the first State asylum there in 1841; but in 1846, 
a site for a permanent buildingjust east of Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1849, and 
completed in the fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was iminediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a fagade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of oflicers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the library. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the chapel and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories higii, the center being 50 feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these tiiereare 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

The flrst instructor in the institution was Win. Wiliard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Brown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mcliitire, who continues principal of the 



The Legislature of 1832-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would have heen 
done much earlier had it not been for the hard times of 1837, 
intensified by the results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year 1842 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
efforts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and hospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in 18-44, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of 624 feet. The central building is five stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of the superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately 
in the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
bakery, employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing ail the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the " State 
Prison South," located at Jeft'ersonville, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1S21. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among whom were Capt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an affray was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
K. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, tlie atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
ou 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or j)leasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and unventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
Government to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1857 to 1871 the labor of the prisoners was devoted 


to the manufacture of wagons and farm implements; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company was organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car-building 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 1873, when 
the company suifered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. During the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard, 
Chamberlain, and gained tlie fields. Chamberlain went in pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of his 
life. Bill Eodifer, better known as "The Hoosier Jack Sheppard," 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the Jefl'ersonviile prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 


toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffer- 
son ville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and cannot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this State attained telling 
proportions in 1869, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the autliority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

" Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to-wit: 

"1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 


that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under snch guardianship. 

" 2. When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vaerrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and that from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

"3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people for an appropriation of another $50,000. which 
the Legislature granted in February. 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadilj', that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State prisons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the advanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a three- 
story brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174: feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 



rear is the engine house, with all the ways and means for heating 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also u school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31, 1879, there were 66 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the " girls' reformatory " department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Kefuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were also visited with this design; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and family offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution. Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1868, 


three family bouses and work-shop wore completed; in 1869 the 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1SG7, a Mr. Frank P. Ains worth and 
his wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
offices and five dormitories for officers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, librar}', chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boj-, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as 'the management has proved efiicient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 


About 1832, at the suggestion of the architect who was to build 
the State House, with the concurrence of the commissioners, the 
block north of the State House square was reserved for sale, to 
await the determination of the Legislature as to the propriety of 
addit.'g it to the public ground, making it an oblong square corre- 
sponding to the form of the edifice to be erected. The plan drawn 
by Mr. Town, the artist, was adopted by the Legislature, and he 
was to complete the building by November, 1837, for $58,000. The 
building erected in pursuance of this contract served the State 
until within a few years; and now Indiana has a new, beautiful cap- 
itol, equal in proportions, style, etc., to those of her sister States, 
under headway. 



Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Territory of the United States 
]Sorthwestof the Ohio, from Oct. 5, 1787, to July 4, 1800. 


Wra. Henry Harrison, from July 4, 1800, to 1812. 
John Gibson, Acting Governor from 1812 to 1813. 
Thomas Posey, from March 3, 1813, to Nov. 7, 1816. 


Jonathan Jennings, from Nov. 7, 1816, to Dec. 4, 1822. 
Wm. Hendricks, from Dec. 4, 1822, to Feb. 12, 1825. 
James B. Ray, from Dec. 7, 1825, to Dec. 7, 1831. 
Noah Noble," from Dec. 7, 1831, to Dec. 6, 1837. 
David Wallace, from Dec. 6, 1837, to Dec. 9, 1840. 
Samuel Bigger, from Dec. 9, 1840, to Dec. 6, 1843. 
James Whitcomb, from Dec. 6, 1843, to Dec. 26, 1848. 
Paris C. Dunning, Acting-Governor, from Dec. 26, 1848, to Dec. 
6, 1849. 

Joseph A. Wright, from Dec. 6, 1849, to Jan. 5, 1857. 

Ashbel P. Willard. 

Abram A. Hammond. 

Henry S. Lane, a few days in January, 1860. 

Oliver P. Morton, acting, from 1860, to January 12, 1865. 

Oliver P. Morton, from Jan. 12, 1865, to Jan. 12, 1867. 

Conrad Baker, acting, from 1867 to 1869. 

Conrad Baker,- from 1869 to 1873 

Thomas A. Hendricks, from 1873 to 1877. 

James D. Williams, 1877 to 1881. 


Christopher Harrison, from 1816 to Dec. 17, 1818. 
Ratliff Boone, from 1819 to 1824. 


James B. Ray, acting, from 1S24 to 1825. 

John H. Thompson, from 1825 to 1828. 

Milton Stapp, from 1828 to 1831. 

David Wallace, from 1831 to 1837. 

David Hillis, from 1837 to 1810. 

Samuel Hall, from 1840 to 1843. 

Jesse D. Bright, from 1843 to 1845. 

Godlove S. Orth, acting, 1845. 

James G. Read, acting, 1846. 

Paris C. Dunning, from 1846 to 1848. 

James G. Read, 1849. 

James H. Lane, from 1849 tol853. 

Ashbel P. Willard, from 1853 to 1857. 

Abram A. Hammond, from 1857 to 1859. 

John R. Cravens, acting, from 1S59 to 1863. 

Paris C. Dunning, acting, from 1863 to 1865. 

Conrad Baker, from 1865 to 1867. 

Will Cumback, from 1867 to 1869. 

Will Cumback, from 1869 to 1873. 

Leonidas Sexton, from 1873 to 1877. 

Isaac P. Gray, from 1877 to 1881. 


John Gibson, Territorial, from 1800 to 1816. 
Robert A. Wew, from 1816 to 1825. 
W. W. Wick, from 1825 to 1829. 
James Morrison, from 1829 to 1833. 
Wm. Sheets, from 1833 to 1837. 
Wm. J. Brown, from 1837 to 1841. 
Wm. Sheets, from 1841 to 1845. 
John H. Thompson, from 1845 to 1849. 
Charles H. Test, from 1849 to 1853. 
Nehemiah Hayden, from 1853 to 1855. 
Erasmus B. Collins, from 1855 to 1857. 
Daniel McClure, from 1857 to 1858. 
Cyrus L. Dunham, from 1858 to 1859. 
Daniel McClure, from 1859 to 1861. 
Wm. A. Peele, from 1861 to 1863. 
James S. Anthon from 1863 to 1865. 
Nelson Trusler, from 1865 to 1869. 


Max F. A. noffman, from 1S69 to 1871, 

Norman Eddy, from 1871 to 1872. ' 

John H. Farqubar, from 1872 to 1873. 

W. W. Curry, from 1873 to 1874. 

John E. Neff, from 1874 to 

John P. Shanklin, from 1879 .o 1881. 


Wm. H. Lilley, from 1S16 to 1S29. 
Morris Morris, from 1829 to 1844. 
Horatio J. Harris, from 1844 to 1847. 
Douglas McGuire, from 1847 to 1850. 
E. W. H. Ellis, from 1850 to 1853. 
John P. Dunn, from 1853 to 1855. 
Hiram E. Talbot, from 1855 to 1857. 
John W. Dodd, from 1857 to 1860. 
Albert Lange, from 1861 to 1863. 
Joseph Ristine, from 1863 to 1865. 
Thomas B. McCarty, from 1865 to 1869. 
John D. Evans, from 1869 to 1871. 
John C Shoemaker, from 1871 to 1873. 
James A. Wildman, from 1873 to 1874. 
Ebenezer Henderson, from 1875 to 
M. D. Manson, from 1879 to 1881. 


Daniel C. Lane, from 1816 to 1823. 

Samuel Merrill, from 1823 to 1835. 

Nathan B. Palmer, from 1835 to 1841. 

Geo. II. Dunn, from 1841 to 1844. 

Royal May hew, from 1844 to 1847. 

Samuel Ilanna, from 1847 to 1850. 

J. P. Drake, from 1S50 to 1853. 

Elijah Ncwland, from 1853 to 1855. 

Wm. B. Noffsinger, from 1855 to 1857, 

Aquilla Jones, from 1857 to 1859. 

Nathaniel F. Cunningham, from 1859 to 1861. 

J. S. Harvey, 1861 to 1S63. 

Matthew L. Brett, from 1863 to 1865. 

John I. Morrison, from 1865 to 1867. 


Nathan Kimball, from 1S67 to 1871. 
James B. Rjaii, from 1S71 to 1873. 
John B. Glover, from 1873 to 1875. 
B. C. Sliaw, from 1875 to 
Wm. Fleming, from 1879 to 1881. 


James Morrison, from Marcli 5, 1855. 
J. E. McDonald, from Dec. 17, 1857. 
J. G. Jones, from Dec. 17, 1859. 
John P. Usher, from Nov. 10, 1861. 
Oscar B. Hord, from Nov. 3, 1862. 
D. E. Williamson, from Nov. 3, 1864. 
Bayiiss W. Ilanna, from Nov. 3, 1870. 
James C. Denny, from Nov. 6, 1872. 
Clarence A. Buskirk, from Nov. 6, 1874. 
Thomas Woolen, from Nov., 1878 to Nov., 1880. 


James Scott, from 1816 to 1831. 

Jolin Jolinston, from 1816 to 1817. 

J. L. Holraan, from 1816 to 1831. 

Isaac Blackford, from 1817 to 1853. 

S. C. Stevens, from 1831 to 1836. 

J. T. McKinney, from 1831 to 1837. 

Charles Dewey, from 1836 to 1847. 

Jeremiali Sullivan, from 1837 to 1846. 

Samuel E. Perkins, from 1846 to 1865. 

Thomas L. Smith, from 1847 to 1853. 

Andrew Davidson, from 1853 to 1865. 

Wm. L. Stewart, from 1853 to 1857. 

Addison L. Ptoache, from 1853 to 1854. 

Alvin P. Ilovey, appointed, to 1854. 

S. B. Gookins, from 1854 to 1857. 

James L. Worden, apjjointed, from 1858 to 1865. 

James M. Ilanna, appointed, from 1858 to 1865. 

Charles A. Ray, from 1865 to 1871. 

John P. Elliott, from 1865 to 1871. 

James S. Frazier, from 1865 to 1871. 

Robert S. Gregory, from 1865 to 1871. 


James L. "Worden, from 1871 to 
Alex. C. Downey, from 1S71 to 
Samuel H. Buskirk, from 1871 to 
John Pettit, from 1871 to 
Andrew L. Osborn, from 1872 to 
Horace P. Biddle, from 1874 to 
Samuel E. Perkins. 
George V. Howk. 
Wm. E. Nihlack. 


James Noble, from 1816 to 1831. 

Waller Taylor, from 1816 to 1825. 

Wm. Hendricks, from 1825 to 1837. 

Robert Hanna, appointed, 1831. 

John Tipton, from 1831 to 1839. 

Oliver H. Smith, from 1S3T to 1843. 

Albert S. White, from 1839 to 1845. 

Edward A. Hannegan, from 1843 to 1849. 

Jesse D. Bright, from 1845 to 1S61. 

James Whitcoinb, from 1849 to 1852. 

Charles W. Cathcart, appointed, from 1852 to 1853. 

John Pettit, from 1853 to 1857. 

Graham N. Fitch, from 1857 to 1861. 

Joseph A. Wright, from 1861 to 1863. 

Henry S. Lane, from 1861 to 1867. 

David Turpie, 1863. 

Thos. A. Hendricks, from 1863 to 1869. 

Oliver P. Morton, from 1867 to 1877. 

Daniel D. Pratt, from 1869 to 1875. 

Joseph E. McDonald, from 1875 to 


Wm. H. Harrison, delegate from the " Territory Northwest of the 
Ohio River;" resigned in 1800, succeeded by Wm. McMillan, who 
took his seat Nov. 24, 1800. 


Benjamin Parke, Dec. 12, 1805; resigned in 1808; succeeded 
by Jesse B. Thomas, who took his seat Dec. 1, 1808. Jonathan 
Jennings, Nov. 27, 1809. 



18l7-'22.— "Wm. Hendricks. 

1822-'4. — Jonathan Jennings. 

1823-'5. — Jonathan Jennings, Wm. Prince, John Test and Jacob 

]825-'7. — Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John Test. 

lS27-'9.— Thomas II. Blake, Jonathan Jennings, Oliver H. Smith. 

1829-'31.— Eatliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John Test. 

1831-'3.— Ratliff Boon, John Carr, Jonathan McCarty. 

1833-'5. — Ratliff Boon, John Carr, John Ewing, Jonathan 

1835-'7.— Ratliff Boon, John Carr, John W. Davis, Edward A. 
Hannegan, "Win. Herod, George L. Kinnard, Amos Lane, Jonathan 

1837-'9.— Ratliff Boon, George H. Dunn, John Ewing, Wm. 
Graliam, Wm. Ilerod, James Rariden, Albert S. White. 

1839-'41.— John Carr, John W. Davis, Tilghman A. Howard, 
Henry S. Lane, George H. Proffit, James Rariden, Thomas Smith, 
Wm. W. Wick. 

1841-'3. — James H. Cravens, Andrew Kennedy, Henry S. Lane, 
Geo. II. Proffit, Richard W. Thompson, David Wallace, Joseph L. 

1843-'5.— Wm. J. Brown, John W. Davis. Thomas J. Henley, 
Andrew Kennedy, Robert Dale Owen, John Pettit, Samuel C. 
Sample, Caleb B. Smith, Thomas Smith, Joseph A. Wright. 

1845-'7.— Charles W. Cathcart, John W. Davis, Thomas J. 
Henley, Andrew Kennedy, Edward W. McGaughey, Robert D. 
Owen, John Pettit, Caleb B. Smith, Thomas Smith, Wm. W. 

1847-'9.— Chas. W. Cathcart, George G. Dunn, Elisha Embree. 
Thomas J. Henley, John Pettit, John L. Robinson, Wm. Rockhill, 
Caleb B. Smith, Richard W. Thompson, Wm. W. Wick. 

1849-'51.— Nathaniel Albertson, Wm. J. Brown, Cyrus L. Dun- 
ham, Graham N. Fitch, Willis A. Gorman, Andrew J. Harlan, Geo. 
W. Julian, Joseph E. McDonald, Edward W. McGaughey, John L. 

1851-'8 — Samuel Brenton, John G. Davis, Cj'rus L. Dunham, 
Graham N. Fitch, Willis A. Gorman, Thomas A. Hendricks, Jas. 
Lockhart, Daniel Mace, Samuel W. Parker, John L. Robinson. 


1853-'5., — Ebenezer M. Chamberlain, John G. Davis, Cjrns L. 
Dujhara, Norman Eddy, Wm. H. English, Andrew J. Harlan, 
Thomas A. Hendricks, James H. Laue, Daniel Mace, Smith Mil- 
ler, Samuel W. Parker. 

lS55-'7. — Lncien Barbour, Samuel Breuton, Schuyler Colfax, 
Wm. Cumback, George G. Dunn, Wm. H. English, David P. 
Holloway, Daniel Mace, Smith Miller, John U. Pettit, Harvey D. 

1857-'9.— Charles Case, Schuyler Colfax, John G. Davis, Wm. 
H. English, James B. Foley, James M. Gregg, James Hughes, 
David Kilgore, Wm. E. Niblack, John U. Pettit, James Wilson. 

lS59-'61.~Charles Case, Schuyler Colfax, John G. Davis, Wm. 
M. Dunn, Wm. H. English, Wm. S. Holman, David Kilgore, Wm. 
E. Niblack, John TJ. Pettit, Albert G. Porter, James Wilson. 

lS61-'3. — Schuyler Colfax, James A. Cravens, W. McKee Dunn, 
Wm. S. Holman, Geo. W. Julian, John Law, Wm. Mitchell, Albert 
G. Porter, John P. C. Shanks, Daniel W. Voorhees, Albert S. 

18G3-'5. — Schuyler Colfax, James A. Cravens, Ebenezer Dnmont, 
Joseph K. Edgertou, Henry W. Harrington, Wm. S. Holman, 
Geo. W. Julian, John Law, James F. McDowell, Godlove S. Orth, 
Daniel W. Voorhees. 

1865-'7. — Schuyler Colfax, Joseph H. Defrees, Ebenezer Dumont, 
John H. Farquhar, Ralpii Hill. Geo. W. Julian, Michael C. Kerr, 
Wm. E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, Thomas N. Stillwell, Daniel 
W. Yoorhees, Henry D. Washburn. 

1867-'9.— John Coburn, Schuyler Colfax, Wm. S. Holman, Mor- 
ton C. Hunter, Geo. W. Julian, Michael C. Kerr, Wm. E. Niblack, 
Godlove S. Orth, John P. C. Shanks, Henry D. Washburn, Wm. 

1869-71.— John Coburn, Wm. S. Holman, Geo. W. Julian, 
Michael C. Kerr, Wm. E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, Jasper Pack- 
ard, John P. C. Shanks, James N. Tyner, Daniel W. Voorhees, 
Wm. Williams. 

lS71-'3.— John Coburn, Wm. S. Holman, Michael C. Kerr, 
Mahlon D. Manson, Wm. E. Niblack, Jasper Packard, John P. C. 
Shanks, James N. Tyner, Daniel W. Voorhees, Wm. Williams, 
Jeremiah M. Wilson. 

1873-'5 — Thomas J. Casou, John Coburn, Wm. S. Holman, 
Morton C. Hunter, Wm. E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, Jasper 


Packard, Henry B. Sayler, John P. C. Shanks, James N. Tyner, 
"Wm. Williams, Jeremiah M. Wilson, Simeon K. Wolfe. 

1875-'7— John H. Baker, ISIathan T. Carr, Thomas J. Cason, 
James L. Evans, Benoni S. Fuller, Andrew H. Hamilton, Wm. 
S. Hayinond, W. S. Holraan, Andrew Humphreys, Morton C. 
Hunter, Michael C. Kerr, Franklin Landers, Jeptha D. New, Mil- 
ton S. Robinson, James D. Williams, 

1877-'9— John H. Baker, George A. Bicknell, Thomas M. Browne, 
Wm. H. Calkins, Thomas R. Cobb, James L. Evans, B. S. Fuller, 
A. n. Hamilton, John Hanna, M. C- Hunter, M. S. Robinson, 
Leonidas Se.xton, M. D. White. 

1S79-'81— William Heilman, Thomas R. Cobb, George A. Bick- 
nell, Jeptha D. New, Thomas M. Browne, Wm. R. Myers, Gilbert 
De La Matyr, Abraham J. Hostetter, Godlovc S. Orth, Wm. H. 
Calkins, Calvin Cowgill, Walpole G. Colerick, John H. Baker. 



Arthur St. Clair was born in Scotland in 1734, a grandson 
of the Earl of Rosslyn; educated at the Universitj^ of Edinburgh; 
studied medicine under John Hunter; inherited a large fortune 
on the death of his mother; entered the British army as an ensign, 
May 13, 1757, and the next year he came to America; became 
distinguished under General Wolfe at Quebec; married at Boston, 
May U, 1760, Miss Phoebe Bayard, half-sister of Gov. James Bow- 
doin; resigned his commission in 1762; settled in Pennsylvania, 
in 1764, erecting a fine residence and several mills; held many 
offices, civil and military, and during the- Revolutionary war was 
eminent in his services; was a member of the Continental Con- 
gress 17S5-'87; became the first Governor of the Northwestern 
Territory February 1, 1788; made the treaty of Fort Harmar with 
the Indian tribes in 1789 ; fixed the seat of the Supreme Court for 
the Territory, January, 1790, at a point which he named Cincinnati, 
after the society of which he was an officer; became Commander- 
in-Chief of the U. S. army, March 4, 1791, which position he 
resigned. May 5, 1792; made an unsuccessful expedition against 
the Indians of the Miami and the Wabash, but was vindicated from 
all blame by a Congressional committee of investigation; was 
removed from the post of Governor, by Jefi"erson, 'Nov. 22, 1802, 
when he settled in aloghouseon the summit of Chestnut Ridge, near 
Greensburg, Pa., where he passed his remaining years in poverty and 
fruitless effijrts to effect a settlement of claims against tlie U. S. 
Government, but receiving small pensions, both from tlie National 
and State Governments. He died near Greensburg, Aug. 31. 1818. 
In 1812 he published a "Narrative of the Manner in which the 
Campaign against the Indians in 1791 was conducted." 

William Henry Harrison was born at Berkeley, Yirginia, in 1773. 
In 1801 he was appointed Governor of the Territory of Indiana, 
which position he held more than ten years. In 1811, in the hard- 
fought battle of Tippecanoe, he defeated the Indians under the 
commajidofthe" Prophet." In 1812, was made Brigadier General; 


and in March, 1S13 was made Major-General. In 1834 he was 
elected to United States Senate from Ohio. In 1836 was defeated 
by Van Buren for President. He a^ain became the nominee of the 
Whig party in 1840, and was cliosen President by an overwhelming 
majority. He was inaugurated March 4, 1841, but died just one 
month afterward, and his remains now lie near the old homestead at 
North Bend, Ind. 

Thomas Posey was born in Virginia, July 9, 1750; received an 
ordinary common-school education; removed to "Western Virginia 
in 1769; participated in expeditions against the Ohio Indians, and 
in many battles of the Revolution, after which he resided for a 
number of years in Spotsylvania county, Va.; was appointed Brig- 
adier-General, Feb. 14, 1793; moved soon afterward to Kentucky, 
where he became Lieut. -Governor and Major-General in 1809; was 
U. S. Senator from Louisiana, 1812 '3; succeeded Harrison as 
Governor of Indiana, in 1813, and became Agent for Indian affairs 
in 1816. He died at Shawneetown, 111., March, 19, 1818. 

Jonathan Jennings, first Governor of the State of Indiana, 1816- 
'22, was born in Hunterdon county, N. J., and died near Charles- 
town, Clark Co., Indiana, July 26, 1834; he was a member of Con- 
gress, 1809-'16 and 1822-'31, and in 1818 he was appointed Indian 
Commissioner by President Monroe. 

William Hendricks, the second Governor of the State of Indiana, 
was born in Westmoreland county. Pa., in 17S3, and settled in 
Madison, Indiana, in 1814, where he died May 16, 1850. Besides 
that of State Executive, he tilled many important offices. He was 
Secretary of the Convention which formed the present Constitution 
of Indiana, was a Representative in Congress, lS16-'22, and U. S. 
Senator, 1825-'37. 

Noah Nohle, Governor, 1831 -'7, was born in Virginia, Jan. 15, 
1794, and died at Indianapolis in February, 1844. During his 
term as Governor occurred the Black Hawk war, the inauguration 
of the great " internal improvements " of so much notoriety, the 
hard times of 1837, the last exodus of Indians from the State, etc. 

David Wallace was born in Philadelphia, Pa, April 4, 1799; 
graduated at West Point in 1821 as Lieutenant of Artillery, which 
position he resigned June 1, 1822; removed with his father's 
family in 1817 to Brookville, Ind.; studied law and acquired an 
extensive practice in Franklin county; was several times a member 


of the Legislature, once a member of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, Lieutenant-Governor, 1837-'40, member of Congress, 
1841-'3, and Judge of Marion county, 1856-'9. He died Sept. 4, 

Samuel Bigger was born in Warren county, Ohio, about 1800, 
graduated at Athens University; studied law at Lebanon and com- 
menced practice in Indiana, attaining eminence in the profession; 
was a Representative in the State Legislature, lS34-"5, and afterward 
Judge of the Circuit Court. He was elected Governor of Indiana 
in 18-tO, on the "Whig ticket, and served his terra acceptably. By 
his rccommodation the Indiana Hospital for the Insane was estab- 
lished. He died in 1845 at Fort Wayne. 

James Whitcomb was born in Stockbridge, Vt., Dec. 1, 1791, 
educated at Transylvania University; Jan. 1, 1824 he established 
himself in the practice of law at Bloomington, Ind.; in 1826 he 
was appointed Prosecuting Attorney for his district; was State 
Senator, lS30-'5, and a leader of the Democratic party; in 1836 he 
was appointed Superintendent of the Land OfEce; resumed prac- 
tice at Terre Haute in 1841; was Governor, 1843-'8, when he was 
elected to the U. S. Senate. He died in New York, October 4, 

Joseph A. Wright was born in Pennsylvania, April 17, 1810; 
educational advantages limited; early in life he settled in Indiana; 
admitted to the Bar in 1829, and rose to eminence as a practitioner; 
member of the Legislature in 1833, and State Senator in 1840; 
member of Congress, lS43-'5; Governor of Indiana, 1849-'57; Min- 
ister to Prussia, 1857-'61; U.S. Senator, 186i-'2; U.S. Commissioner 
to the Hamburg Exhibition in 1863, and Minister to Prussia again, 
from 1865 until his death, at Berlin, May 11, 1867. 

Ashbel P. Willard was born in Oneida county, New York, the 
son of Erastus Willard, sheriff of that county, 1832-'5; graduated 
at Hamilton College in 1842; was Governor of Indiana, 1853- '8; 
died at St. Paul in October, 1860. 

Henry S. Lane^ brother of Gen. James H. Lane, was bom in 
Montgomery county, Ky., Feb., 24, 1811 ; received a good common- 
school education and some knowledge of the classics, studied law, 
moved to Indiana and was admitted to the Bar; elected to the 
Legislature in 1837; to Congress in 1841; was Lieutenant-Colonel of 
volunteers in the Mexican war, 1846-'7; elected U. S. Senator, 1859, 
but denied the seat; elected Governor of Indiana in 1861, but in a 


few days after he took the chair he was elected U. S. Senator again, 
and as such served until 1867. 

Oliver P. Morton was born in Wayne county, Indiana, Aug. 4, 
1823; was apprenticed to a hatter at the age of 15, and worked at 
the trade four years, spending his leisure in study; graduated at 
the Miami University in 1843; studied law with John S. Newman, 
admitted to the Bar in 1847, and commenced practice at Centre- 
ville, this State; elected Circuit Judge in 1852; was defeated as the 
Republican nominee for Governor in 1856; was elected Lieutenant 
Governor in 1860, with the understanding that Gen. Henry S. 
Lane, who was placed at the head of the ticket, was to be elected 
to the U. S. Senate in the event of Republican success, which plan 
was carried out, and he became Governor of Indiana; was elected 
Governor in 1864, and United States Senator, as a Union-Republi- 
can, to succeed Henry S. Lane, same politics, and was re-elected, 
serving all together from March 4, 1867, until his death, Nov. 1, 
1877, at Indianapolis. In the autumn of 1865 he was stricken 
with partial paralysis, from which he never recovered. He was 
compelled to do his work by secretaries, to be carried in and out of 
the Senate Chamber, and to address the Senate seated. As he was 
the noted " war Governor " of this glorious State, see section on 
the war with the Rebellion, pages 205 to 249, for further particu- 
lars of this illustrious man's life. 

Conrad Baker first served as acting Governor during the excit- 
ing times over the 15th amendment described on pages 197, su- 
pra, of this volume. He was elected by the Republicans Lieutenant 
Governor of the State, on the same ticket with Oliver P. Morton 
for Governor, with the understanding that Mr. Morton should be 
sent to the United States Senate and resign the government of this 
State to Mr. Baker. The programme was carried out, and Mr. 
Baker served his place so well that at the end of the term he was 
elected by the people Governor, and he served the second term, — 
making in all six years. Governor Baker was a faithful Executive, 
in sympathy with all the institutions of Republicanism and the 
interests of his State. He had a work compiled on " Indiana and 
her Resources," which is well calculated to draw men of capital to 
this fine commonwealth and enable her to compete with all her 
sister States in the Union. 

Thomas A. Hendricks was born in Muskingum county, Ohio, 
Sept. 7, 1819; removed with his father in 1822 to Shelby county, 
Ind.; graduated in 1841 at South Hanover College; admitted to 


the Bar in 1843. Was an active member of State Constitutional 
Conveution of 1850, member of Congress 1851-'5 from the Indi- 
anapolis district; Commissioner of the General Land Office of the 
United States 18o5-'9; United States Senator, Democratic, lS63-'9, 
and lastly Governor of Indiana lS72-'6. In the latter year he was 
candidate for Vice President of the United States. 

James D. 'Williams was born in Pickaway county, O., Jan. 16, 
1808; removed to Knox county, Ind., in 1818; was educated in 
the log school-house of the country; is by occupation a farmer; was 
a member of the State House of Representatives in 1S43, 1847, 
1851, 1856 and 1858; was elected to the State Senate in 1858, 1862 
and 1870; was a delegate to the National Democratic Conveution 
at Baltimore in 1872; was the Democratic nominee for United 
States Senator in 1873 against O. P. Morton; was elected a Repre- 
sentative from Indiana in the 44th Congress, 1875-'7, receiving 
17,393 votes against 9,545 for Levi Ferguson, and Dec. 1, 1876, he 
resigned this office, on account of having been elected Governor. 
His term will expire Jan. 3, 1881. 


James Noble was born at Battletown, Va., went to the frontier 
when a youth, located in Kentucky, and afterward in Indiana; 
served as United States Senator from Dec. 12, 1816, to Feb. 26, 
1831, when he died, in "Washington, D. C. 

Waller Taylor was a Major and Aide to Gen. Harrison at Tippe- 
canoe, United States Senator 1816-'25, and a man of much literary 
culture. He was breveted General, and died at Lunenburg, Va., 
August 26, 1826. 

William Hendricks, see page 311. 

Robert Hanna was bora in Laurens District, S. C, April 6, 
1786; removed with his parents to Indiana and subsequently 
settled in Brookville in 1802; was Sheriff of the Eastern District 
of Indiana in 1809, and held the position until the organization of 
the State Government; was appointed Register of the Land Office, 
and removed to Indianapolis in 1825; was appointed United States 
Senator as a Whig, in place of James Noble, deceased, serving 
from Dec. 5, 1831, to Jan. 3, 1832, wlien his successor took his 
seat; was elected a State Senator, but was defeated when a candi- 
date for re-election ; was killed by a railroad train while walking 
on the track at Indianapolis, Nov. 19, 1859. 


John Tipton was born in Sevier count}', Tenn., in August, 
1785; his father having been killed by the Indians in 1793, he did 
not even enjoy the advantages of a public-school education, having 
to support a mother, two sisters and a half brother; in 1807 he 
removed with them to Indiana, where he purchased 50 acres of 
land, paying for it by splitting rails at 50 cents a hundred; was 
elected Ensign of that noted frontier company, the " Yellow- 
Jackets," in 1811, and served with them in the Tippecanoe 
campaign; was chosen Siieriff" of Harrison county, Ind., in 1815; 
was elected Master of Pisgah Lodge of Freemasons in 1819, and 
was Grand Master of Masons in Indiana in 1819 and 1829; was 
elected a Representative in the State Legislature in 1821; was 
U S. Indian Agent with the Miami and Pottawatomie tribes from 
1824 to 1831, when he was elected U. S. Senator, to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of James Noble; was re-elected for a full 
term, and served from Jan. 3 1832, until his death, April 5, 1839, 
by j.ulmonary apoplexy, at Logansport, Ind. 

Oliver H. Smith was born in Trenton, X. J., Oct. 23, 1794, 
emigrated to Indiana in 1817, practiced law, and in 1824 was 
Prosecuting Attorney for the 3d District of Indiana; was a member 
of Legislature in 1822, of Congress 1827-'9, and of the U. S. 
Senate 1837-'43. He published " Recollections of Congressional 
Life." and " Early Indiana Trials, Sketches and Reminiscences." 
He died at Indianapolis, March 19, 1859. 

Albert S. White was born at Blooming Grove, N. Y., Ocl. 24, 
18'''3; received a classical education, graduating at Union College 
in 1822; studied law and was admitted to the Bar in 18''5, and 
commenced practice at Lafayette, Ind.; was for five years Clerk of 
the Indiana House of Representatives; was elected Representative 
in Congress as a Whig in 1837, receiving 10,737 votes against 
3,369 votes for N. Jackson, Democrat, serving from Sept. 4, 1837, 
to March 3, 1839; was president of several railroads; was elected 
TT. S. Senator from Indiana, serving from Dec. 2, 1839, to March 
3, 1845 ; declined a re-election ; was again elected Representative 
in Congress in 1861, as a Republican, receiving 13,310 votes against 
11,489 votes for Wilson, Democrat, serving from July 4, 1861, to 
March 3,1863; was a commissioner to adjust claims against the 
Sioux Indians; was appointed by President Lincoln in J 864, U. S. 
Judge for Indiana; died at Stockwell, Ind., September 4, 1864. 

JEd^ard A. Bannegan was born in Ohio, received a good 
education, studied law, admitted to the Bar in his 23d year, settling 


in Indiana. He was several times a member of the Legislature, and 
was a member of Congress 1833-'7, U. S. Senator 1843- '9, Minister 
to Prussia, 1849-'53. While partially drunk, in 1852, he killed his 
brother-in-law, Capt. Duncan. 

Jesse D. Bright was born in Norwich, Chenango Co., N. Y., Dec. 
18, 1812; moving to Indiana, he received an academic education, 
and studied and practiced law; was Circuit Judge, State Senator, 
U. S. Marshall, Lieut. Governor of the State, and President of the 
U. S. Senate during several sessions. In 1857 the Democratic mem- 
bers of the State Legislature re-elected him to the IT. S. Senate in 
a manner which was denounced as fraudulent and unconstitutional 
by his Eepublican opponents, and his seat was contested. He 
continued a Senator until February, 1862, when he was expelled for 
disloyalty by a vote of 32 to 14. The principal proof of his crime 
was recommending to Jeff. Davis, in March, 1861, a person desirous 
of furnishing arms. 

James Wkitcomh, see page 312. 

Charles W. Cathcart was born on the island of Madeira in 1809, 
received a good English education, followed the sea in his boyhood, 
located at LaPorte, Ind., in 1831, and engaged in farming; was 
U. S. Land Surveyor several years, a Representative in the State 
Legislature, a Democratic Elector in 1845, Representative in 
Congress 1845-'7, re-elected to serve 1847-'9, appointed D. S. Senator 
in place of James Whitcomb, deceased, and served from Dec. 6, 
1852, to March 3, 1853; then returned to farming. 

John Pettit was born at Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., July 24, 1807; 
received an academical education, studied law and was admitted to 
the Bar in 1838, commencing practice at Lafayette, Ind. ; was a 
member of the State House of Representatives two terms, U. S. 
District Attorney, representative in Congress lS43-'5, as a Democrat, 
re-elected to the next Congress, serving all together from Dec. 4, 
1843, to March 3, 1849; was a Delegate to the State Constitutional 
Convention in 1850; was a Democratic Elector in 1852; was U. S. 
Senator from Jan. 18, 1853, to March 3, 1855, in place of James 
Whitcomb, deceased; was appointed by President Buchanan, Chief 
Justice of the U. S. Courts in Kansas; in 1870, was elected Supreme 
Judge of Indiana. He was renominated for this position in 1876, 
but owing to scandals in connection with the Court, which excited 
popular indignation, he was forced off the ticket, and the name of 
Judge Perkins substituted; he died at Lafayette, Ind., June 17, 


Graham N . Fitch was bora at LeRoy, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1810; 
received a classical education, studied medicine and practiced at 
Logansport, Ind. ; was professor in Eusli Medical College, Chicago, 
lS41-'-i9; was an Indiana Presidential Elector in 1844, 1848 and 
18.56, a member of the State Legislature in 1836 and 1839; was a 
Eepresentative in Congress from Dec. 3, 1849, to March 3, 1853, 
being elected the last time over Schuyler Colfax, Whig; was IT. S. 
Senator from Indiana from Feb. 9, 1857, to March 3, 1861; was a 
Delegate to the National Democratic Convention at New York 
City in 1868. 

Henry 8. Lane, see page 312. 

David Turpie was born in Hamilton county, Ohio, July 8, 1829, 
graduated at Kenyon College in 1848, studied law, admitted to the 
Bar in 1849, and commenced practice at Logansport, Ind. ; was a 
member of the State House of Kepresentatives in 1852; was 
appointed Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1854, and of 
the Circuit Court in 1856, both of which positions he resigned; 
was again a member of the Legislature in 1858; was U. S. Senator, 
as a Democrat, in place of Jesse D. Bright, expelled, from Jan. 22, 
1863, to March 3, same year. 

Joseph A. Wright, see page 312. 

Thomas A. Ee7idricks,see page 313. 

Oliver P. Morton, see page 313. 

Daniel D. Pratt was born at Palermo, Me., Oct. 26, 1813, and 
was taken to New York State by his parents when a lad; gradu- 
ated at Hamilton College in 1831; removed to Indiana in 1832 
where he taught school ; went to Indianapolis in 1834, where he 
wrote in the Secretary of State's office and studied law; commenced 
practice at Logansport in 1836; was elected to the Legislature in 
1851 and 1853; was elected to the 41st Congress in 1868, by a 
majority of 2,287, and, before taking his seat, was elected U. S 
Senator as a Republican, to succeed Thos. A. Hendricks, Democrat 
and served from March 4, 1869, to March 3, 1875; was appointed 
by President Grant Commissioner of Internal Eevenue, serving 
from May 15, 1875, to August 1, 1876; he died at Logansport, 
very suddenly, of heart disease, June 17, 1877. 

Josej)h E. McDonald was born in Butler county, Ohio, Aug. 29 
1819, taken to Indiana in 1826, and at Lafayette was apprenticed 
to the saddler's trade; was two years in college, but did not 
graduate; studied law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1843, and 
commenced practice; was Prosecuting Attorney in 1843-'7; was 


elected a Eepresentative in Congress as a Democrat in 1849, 
receiving 7,432 votes against 7,098 for Lane, Whig, and served 
from December 3, 1849, to March 3, 1851; in 1856 he was elected 
Attorney General of Indiana, and in 1858 re-elected; in 1859 
removed to Indianapolis; in 1864 was the unsuccessful candidate 
for Governor of Indiana, but in 1875 he was elected U. S. Senator, 
as a Democrat, to succeed D. D. Pratt, Republican. 

Daniel W. Yoorhees was born in Fountain county, lud., Sept. 
26, 1828; graduated at the Asbury University in 1849; studied law, 
admitted to the Bar in 1851, when he commenced practice at 
Crawfbrdsville; was defeated as a candidate for Congress in 1857, 
by only 230 votes in a total of 22,374, James Wilson being his 
opponent. Was appointed by President Buchanan, U. S. Attorney 
for Indiana, 1858-'60; in 1859 he went to Yirginia as counsel for 
John E. Cook, one of John Brown's raiders; was elected a 
Representative to Congress from Indiana in 1861, receiving 12,535 
votes against 11,516 votes for T. H. Nelson, Republican; was 
re-elected in 1863, receiving 12,457 votes against 9,976 for H. D. 
Scott, Republican; was again elected in 1865, by 12,880 against 
12,296 for Washburn, but the latter in 1866 successfully contested 
his seat; was again re-elected twice, serving from March 4, 1869, to 
March 3, 1873; was appointed U. S. Senator November 12, 1877, 
to serve in place of O. P. Morton; and in 1879 was elected for a 
full term. 


Indiana belonged to the "Territory of Louisiana" till 1721; 
was then .included in Illinois as a "District" of said Territory 
until 1774; then included in the " Province of Quebec " until 1788; 
then was a part of the " Territory Northwest of the Ohio river" 
until 1800; then " Indiana Territory " until 1816, since which time 
it has been a "State." French to 1774:; British, 1774 to 1788; U. 
S. Government, 1788 to the present time. 



Alabama. — This State was first explored by LaSalle in 1684, and 
settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as a State in 
1817. Its name is Indian, and means " Here we rest." Has no 
motto. Population in 1800,904,201; in 1870,996,992. Furnished 
2,576 soldiers for the Union army. Area 50,722 square miles. 
Montgomery is the capital. Has 8 Representatives and 10 Presi- 
dential electors. Rufus "W. Cobb is Governor; salary, $3,000; 
politics. Democratic. Length of term, 2 years. 

Arkansas — Became a State in 1836. Population in 1860, 435,- 
450; in 1870,484,471. Area 52,198 square miles. Little Rock, 
capital. Its motto is Rer/nant Populi — " The people rule." It iias 
the Indian name of its principal river. Is called the "Bear State." 
Furnished 8,289 soldiers. She is entitled to 4 members in Congress, 
and 6 electoral votes. Governor, "W. R. Miller, Democrat; salary, 
$3,500; term, 2 years. 

Calif oTnia — Has a Greek motto, Eureka., which means " I have 

found it." It derived its name from the bay forming the peninsula 

of Lower California, and was first applied by Cortez. It was first 

visited by the Spaniards in 1542. and by the celebrated English 



navigator, Sir Francis Drake, in 1578. In 1S4G Fremont took 
possession of it, defeating the Mexicans, in the name of the United 
States, and it was admitted as a State in 1850. Its gold mines 
from 1868 to 1878 produced over $800,000,000. Area 188,982 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 379,994. In 1870, .560,247. She gave 
to defend the Union 15,225 soldiers. Sacramento is the capital. 
Has 4 Representatives in Congress. Is entitled to 6 Presidential 
electors. Present Governor is "William Irwin, a Democrat; term, 
4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Colorado — Contains 106,475 square miles, and had a population 
in 1860 of 34,277, and in 1870, 39,864. She furnished 4,903 
soldiers. Was admitted as a State in 1876. It lias a Latin motto, 
]\ril sine Quinine, which means, "Nothing can be done without 
divine aid." It was named from its river. Denver is the capital. 
Has 1 member in Congress, and 3 electors. T. "W. Pitkin is Gov- 
ernor; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years; politics. Republican. 

Connecticut — Qui transtulit unstinet, " He who brought us over 
sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the Indir.n Quon- 
ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long River." It is called the "Nutmeg 
State." Area 4,674 square miles. Population 1860, 460,147; in 
1870, 537,454. Gave to the Union army 55,755 soldiers. Hart- 
ford is the capital. Has 4 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 6 Presidential electors. Salary of Governor $2,000; 
term, 2 years. 

Delaioare. — " Liberty and Independence," is the motto of this 
State. It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English states- 
man, and is called, " The Blue Hen," and the " Diamond State." It 
was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was one of the original 
thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 square miles. Population in 
1860. 112,216; in 1870, 125,015. She sent to the front to defend 
the Union, 12,265 soldiers. Dover is the capital. Has but 1 mem- 
ber in Congress; entitled to 3 Presidential electors. John W. 
Hall, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $2,000; term. 2 years. 

Florida — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on Easter 
Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, which, with the 
variety and beauty of the flowers at this early season caused him to 
name it Florida — which means in Spanish, flowery. Its motto is, 
" In God we trust." It was admitted into the Union in 1845. It has 
an area of 59,268 square miles. Population in 1860, 140,424; in 



1870, 187,756. Its capital is Tallahassee. Has 2 members in Con- 
gress. Has 4 Presidential electors. George F. Drew, Democrat, 
Governor; term, 4 years; suhiry, $3,500. 

Georgia — Owes its name to George II., of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is, " Wisdom, justice 
and moderation." It was one of the original States. Population 
in 18C0, 1,057,2SG; 1870, 1,184,109. Capital, Atlanta. Area 58,- 
OuO square miles. Has 9 Representatives in Congress, and 11 
Presidential electors. Her Governor is A. H. Colquitt, Democrat; 
term, 4 years; salary, $4,000. 

Illinois — Motto, '"State Sovereignty, National Union." Name 
derived from the Indian word, Illini, meaning, superior men. It 
is called the "Prairie State," and its inhabitants, "Suckers." 
Was lirst explored by the French in 1673, and admitted into the 
Union in 1818. Area 55,410 square miles. Population, in I860 
1,711,951; in 1870, 2,539,871. She sent to the front to defend the 
Union, 258,162 soldiers. Capital, Springfield Has 19 members in 
Congress, and 21 Presidential electors. Shelby M. Cullom, Repub. 
lican, is Governor; elected ibr 4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Indiana — Is called " Iloosier State." Was explored in 1682, , 
and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was suggested by its 
numerous Indian population. Area 33,809 square miles. Popu- * 
lation in 1860, 1,350,428; in 1870, 1,680,637. She put into the 
Federal army, 194,363 men. Capital, Indianapolis. Has 13 mem- 
bers in Congress, and 15 Presidential electors. J. D. Williams, 
Governor, Democrat; salary, $3,000; term, 4 year. 

Iowa — Is an Indian name and means "This is the land." Its 
motto is, '• Our liberties we prize, our rights we will maintain." 
It is called the " Hawk Eye State." It was first visited by 
Marquette and Joliet in 1673; settled by New Englanders in 
1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846. Des Moines is the 
capital. It has an area of 55,045, and a population in 1860 of 674,913, 
and in 1870 of 1,191,802. She sent to defend the Government, 
75,793 soldiers. Has 9 members in Congress; 11 Presidential) 
electors. John H. Gear, Eepublican, is Governor; salary, $2,500;. 
term, 2years. 

Kunma — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, making thei 
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is Ad astra per aspera, "To the, 
stars through difficulties." Its name means, " Smoky water," and 


is derived from one of her rivers. Area 78,841 square miles. 
Population in 1860, 107,209; in 1870 was 362,812. She furnished 
20,095 soldiers. Capital is Topeka. Has 3 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 5 Presidential electors. John P. St. John, Governor; 
politics. Republican; salary, §3,000; term, 2 years. 

Kentucky — Is the Indian name for "At the head of the rivers." 
Its motto is, " United we stand, divided we fall." The sobriquet 
of "dark and bloody ground " is applied to this State. It was first 
settled in 1769, and admitted in 1792 as the fifteenth State. Area 
37,680. Population in 1860, 1,155,684; in 1870, 1,321,000. She 
put into the Federal army 75,285 soldiers. Capital, Frankfort. 
Has 10 members in Congress ; 12 Electors. J. B. McCreary, 
Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000 ; term, 4 years. 

Louisiana — Was called after Louis XIY., who at one time 
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and Con- 
fidence." It is called "The Creole State." It was visited by La 
Salle in 1684, and admitted into the Union in 1812, making the 
eighteenth State. Population in 1860,708,002; in 1870, 732,731. 
Area 46,431 square miles. She put into the Federal army 5,224 
soldiers. Capital, New Orleans. Has 6 Representatives and 8 
Electors. F. T. Nichols, Governor, Democrat; salary, $8,000; 
terra, 4 years. 

Maine. — This State was called after the province of Maine in 
France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned 
that province. Its motto is Birigo, meaning " I direct." It is 
called "The Pine Tree State." It was settled by the English in 
1625. It was admitted as a State in 1820. Area 31,766 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 628,279; in 1870, 626,463; 69,738 sol- 
diers went from this State. Has 5 members in Congress, and 7 
Electors. Selden Conner, Republican, Governor; term, 1 year; 
salary, $2,500. 

Maryland — Was named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles 
I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Crescite et muUiplica- 
inini, meaning "Increase and Multiply." It was settled in 1634, 
and was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 11,- 
124 square miles. Population in 1860 was 687,049; in 1870, 780,- 
806. This State furnished 46,053 soldiers. Capital, Annapolis. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. J. H. Carroll, 
Democrat, Governor; salary-, $4,500; term, 4 years. 


Massachusetts — Is the Indian for " The country around the great 
hills." It is called the " Bay State," from its numerous bays. Its 
motto is Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem, " By the sword 
she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was settled in 1620 at Plymouth 
by English Puritans. It was one of the original thirteen States, 
and was the first to take up arms against the English during the 
Revolution. Area 7,800 square miles. Population in 1860, 1,231,- 
066; in 1870, 1,457,351. She gave to the Union array 1-46,467 sol- 
diers. Boston is the capital. Has 11 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 13 Presidential electors. Thomas Talbot, Republican, is 
Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 1 year. 

Michigan — Latin motto, Tuehor, and Si quceris ■peninsulam 
ammnam circumspice, '■^ \ will defend" — " If you seek a pleasant 
peninsula, look around you." The name is a contraction of two 
Indian words meaning " Great Lake." It was early explored by 
Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union. It 
is known as the " "Wolverine State." It contains 56,243 square 
miles. In 1860 it had a population of 749,173; in 1870, 1,184,059. 
She furnished 88,111 soldiers. Capital, Lansing. Has 9 Repre- 
sentatives and 11 Presidential electors. C. M. Croswell is Gov- 
ernor; politics, Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years. 

Minnesota — Is an Indian name, meaning " Cloudy "Water." It 
has a French motto, L' Etoile du Nord — " The Star of the North." 
It was visited in 1680 by La Salle, settled in 1846, and admitted 
into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 square miles. In 1860 
had a population of 172,023; in 1870, 439,511. She gave to the 
Union army 24;002 soldiers. St. Paul is the capital. Has 3 mem- 
bers in Congress, 5 Presidential electors. Governor, J. S. Pilla- 
bury. Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Mississippi — Is an Indian name, meaning "Long River," and the 
State is named from the " Father of "Waters." The State was first 
explored by De Sota in 1541; settled by the French at Natchez in 
1716, and was admitted into the Union in 1817. It has an area of 
47,156 square miles. Population in 1860, 791,305; iu 1870,827,- 
922. She gave to suppress the Rebellion 545 soldiers. Jackson is 
the capital. Has 6 representatives in Congress, and 8 Presidential 
electors. J. M. Stone is Governor, Democrat; salary, $4,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Missouri — Is derived from the Indian word " muddy," which 


more properly applies to the river that flows through it. Its motto 
is Salus popull sicprema lex esto, " Let the welfare of the people 
be the supreme law." The State was first settled by the French 
near Jefferson City in 1719, and in 1S21 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 67,380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200 
acres. It had a population in 1860 of 1,182.012; in 1870, 1,721,- 
000. She gave to defend the Union 108,162 soldiers. Capital, 
Jefferson City. Its inhabitants are known by the offensive cogno- 
men of ■' Pukes." Has 13 representatives in Congress, and 15 
Presidential electors. J. S. Phelps is Governor; politics, Demo- 
cratic; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Nebraska — Has fjr its motto, "Equality before the law." Its 
name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning " broad and shal- 
low, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 1367. Its capital 
is Lincoln. It had a population in 1860 of 28,841, and in 1870, 
123,993, and in 1875,246,280. It has an area of 75,995 square 
miles. She furnished to defend the Union 3,157 soldiers. Has but 
1 Eepresentative and 3 Presidential electors. A. Nance, Kepub- 
lican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; term, 2 years. 

Nevada — '• The Snowy Land " derived its name from the Span- 
ish. Its motto is Latin, Volens et potens, and means " willing 
and able." It was settled in 1850, and admitted into the Union in 
1S64. Capital, Carson City. Its population in 1860 was 6,857; 
in 1870 it was 42,491. It has an area of 112,090 square miles. 
She furnished 1,080 soldiers to suppress the Eebellion. Has 1 Rep- 
resentative and 3 Electors. Governor, J. H. Kinkhead, Republican; 
salary, $6,000; term, 4 years. 

New Ilampsldre — -"Was first settled at Dover by the English in 
1623. "Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It is 
named from Hampshire county in England. It also bears the 
name of " The Old Granite State." It has an area of 9,280 miles, 
which equals 9,239,200 acres. It had a population in 1 860 of 326,- 
073, and in 1870 of 318,300. She increased the Union army with 
33,913 soldiers. Concord is the capital. Has 3 Representatives 
and 5 Presidential electors. N. Head, Republican, Governor; 
salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

New Jersey — "Was named in honor of the Island of Jersey in the 
British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Independence." It was 
first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. It is one of the orig- 


inal thirteen States. It has an area of 8,320 square miles, or 5,324,- 
800 acres. Population in 1860 was 672,035 ; in 1870 it was 906,096. 
She put into the Federal army 75,315 soldiers. Capital, Trenton. 
Has 7 Representatives and 9 Presidential electors. Governor, 
George B. McClelland, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 3 years. 

Nexv York. — The " Empire State " was named by the Duke of 
York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a Latin motto, 
Excelsior, which means " Still Higher." It was first settled by the 
Dutch in 1614 at Manhattan. It has an area of 47,000 square 
miles, or 30,080.000 acres. The population in 1860 was 3,880,735; 
in 1870 it was 4,332,759. It is one of the original thirteen States. 
Capital is Albany. It gave to defend our Government 445,959 
men. Has 33 members in Congress, and 35 Presidential electors. 
Governor, L. Robinson, Democrat; salary, $10,000; term, 3 years. 

North Carolina — "Was named after Charles IX., King of France. 
It is called " The Old Xorth," or " The Turpentine State." It was 
first visited in 1524 by a Florentine navigator, sent out by Francis 
I., King of France. It was settled at Albemarle in 1663. It was 
one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 50,704 square 
miles, equal to 32,450,560 acres. It had in ISCO a population of 
992,622, and in 1870, 1,071,361. Raleigh is the capital. Slie 
furnished 3,156 soldiers to put down the Rebellion. Has 8 mem- 
bers in Congress, and is entitled to 10 Presidential electors. Z. B. 
Vance, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 j'ears. 

Ohio — Took its name from the river on its Southern boundary, 
and means " Beautiful." Its motto is Imperium in Imperio — 
"An Empire in an Empire." It was fir^t p:,'rmanentiy settled in 
1783 at Marietta by New Englanders. It was admitted as a State 
iu 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It contains 39,964 square 
miles, or 25,576,960 acres. Population in 1860,2,339,511; in 1870 
it had 2.665,260. She sent to tiie front during the Rebellion 310,- 
654 soldiers. lias 20 Representatives, and 22 Presidential electors. 
Governor, R. M. Bishop, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Oregon — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its motto 
is Alis volat propriis — "She flics with her own wings." It was 
first visited by the Spaniards in the sixteentli centnry. It was set- 
tled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the Union in 1859, 
Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95.274 square miles, equal 
to 60,975,360 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 52,465; in 


1870, 90,922. She furnished 1,810 soldiers. She is entitled to 1 
member in Congress, and 3 Presidential electors. W. "W. Thayer, 
Eepublican, is Governor; salary, $1,500 ; terra, 4 years. 

Pennsylvania. — This is the "Keystone State," and means "Penn's 
Woods," and was so called after William Penn, its original owner. 
Its motto is, " Virtue, liberty and independence." A colony was 
established by Penn in 1682. The State was one of the original 
thirteen. It has an area of 46,000 square miles, equaling 29,440,- 
000 acres. It had in 1S60 a population of 2,906.215; and in 1870, 
3,515,993. She gave to suppress the Rebellion, 338,155. Harris- 
burg is the capital. Has 27 Representatives and 29 electors. H. 
M.Hoyt, is Governor; salary, §10,000; politics, Eepublican; term 
of oflSce, 3 years. 

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its name to 
the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said 
to greatly resemble. Its motto is " Hope," and it is familiarly 
called, "Little Rhody." It was settled by Roger Williams in 1636. 
It was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 1,306 
square miles, or 835,840 acres. Its population in 1860 numbered 
174,620; in 1870, 217,356. She gave to defend the Union, 23,248. 
Its capitals are Providence and Newport. Has 2 Representatives, 
and 4 Presidential electors. C. Vanzandt is Governor; politics, 
Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name of 
Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto is Latin, Animis 
opib usque parati, " Ready in will and deed." The first permanent 
settlement was made at Port Royal in 1670, where the French 
Huguenots had failed three-quarters of a century before to found a 
settlement. It is one of the original thirteen States. Its capital is 
Columbia. It has an area of 29,385 square miles, or 18,806,400 
acres, with a population in 1860 of 703,708; in 1870, 728,000. 
Has 5 Representatives in Congress, and is entitled to 7 Presidential 
electors. Salary of Governor, $3,500; term, 2 years. 

Tennessee — Is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e. 
the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She is called 
"The Big Bend State." Her motto is, " Agriculture, Commerce." 
It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the Union in 1796, mak- 
ing the si-xteenth State, or the third admitted after the Revolution- 
ary War — Vermont being the first, and Kentucky the second. It 


has an area of 45,600 S(|uare miles, or 29,184,000 acres. In 1860 
its population numbered 1,109,801, and in 1S70, 1,257,983 She 
furnished 31,092 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Nashville is 
the capital. Has 10 Representatives, and 12 Presidential electors. 
Governor, A. S. Marks, Democrat; salary, §4,000; term, 2 years. 

Texas — Is the American word for the Mexican name by which 
all that section of the country was known before it was ceded to the 
United States. It is known as " The Lone Star State." The first set- 
tlement was made by LaSalle in 1685. After the independence of 
Mexico in 1822, it remained a Mexican Province until 1S36, when 
it gained its independence, and in 1845 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 237,504 square miles, equal to 152,002,- 
560 acres. Its population in 1860 was 604,215; in 1870, 818,579. 
She gave to put down the Rebelion 1,965 soldiers. Capital, Austin. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. Governor, O. 
M. Roberts, Democrat; salary, §5,000; term, 2 years. 

Yermont — Bears the French name of her mountains Verde Mont, 
"Green Mountains." Its motto is "Freedom and Unit}'." It 
was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union in 1791. Area 
10,212 square miies. Population in 1860, 315,098 ; in 1870, 330,551. 
She gave to defend the Government, 33,272 soldiers. Capital, Mont- 
pelier. Has 3 Representatives, and 5 electors. Governor, H. Fair- 
banks, Republican; term, 2 years; salary, $1,000. 

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is the 
oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen Elizabeth, 
the " Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his 
first attempt to colonize that region. Its motto is Sic semper 
tyrannis, " So always with tyrants." It was first settled at James- 
town, in 1607, by the English, being the first settlement in the 
United States. It is one of original thirteen States, and had before 
its division in 1862, 61,352 square miles, but at present contains 
but 38,352 square miles, equal to 24,545,280 acres. The population 
in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, and in 1870 it was 1,224,830. Rich- 
mond is the capital. Has 9 Representatives, and 11 electors. Gov- 
ernor, F. W. M. Halliday, Democrat; salary, $5,500; term, 4 years. 

West Virginia. — 'Motto, II 07ita7iisemj)erliberi, " Mountaineers 
are always free." This is the only State ever formed, under the 
Constitution, by the division of an organized State. This was done 
in 1862, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of 


23,000 square miles, or 14,720,000 acres. The population in 1860 
was 376,000; in 1870 it numbered 4i5,616. She furnished 32,003. 
Capital, Wheeling. Has 3 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 5 Presidential electors. Tlie Governor is H. AI. Mathews, 
Democrat; term, 4 years; salary, $2,700. 

Wisconsin — Is an Indian name, and means "Wild-rushing 
channel." Its motto, Civitatus successit harharum. " The civilized 
man succeeds the barbarous." It is called " The Badger State." 
The State was visited by the French explorers in 1665, and a eettle- 
ment was made in 1669 at Green Bay. It was admitted into the 
Union in 1848. It has an area of 52,924 square miles, equal to 
34,511,360 acres. In 1860 its population numbered 775,881; in 
1870, 1,055,167. Madison is the capital. She furnished for the 
Union army 91,021 soldiers. Has 8 members in Congress, and is 
entitled to 10 Presidential electors. The Governor is W. E. Smith; 
politics. Republican; salary', $5,000; terra, 2 years. 





What's hallowed ground ? Has earth a clod 
Its maker meant not should be trod 
By man, the image of his God, 

Erect and free, 
Unscourged by Tyranny's rod 

To bow the knee ? 

The present will liv^e in the future; the good works of man do 
not die with him or sink into oblivion, but grow brighter with 
age, and aid in carrying down precedents and principles which 
will be advanced and observed, when the memory and acts of 
soulless men will lie forever with them in their graves. History 
entwines itself with the names of the illustrious as well as with 
those of the notorious. Wherever the former is held up for the 
admiration of men, and the latter for their scorn, the pen of impar- 
tiality may be traced; for never yet was the historian true to 
his conscience and to his people, who wandered from the path 
of justice by devoting a space in historical works to the names 
of bad men without accompanying such names with qualifying 
paragraphs. In the pages of this work the true and good will 
have that prominence to which their purity of morals and phys- 
ical courage entitle them. It is a necessity that their unstained 
names be transmitted; because, though many of these men who 
made subject for history have passed into eternity, their posterity 
live to be reminded of their fidelity, and to profit by the noble 
example which was given them by the unconquerable pioneers, — the 
fathers of this county. Looking back over the period of half a 
century which has transpired since the true old settlers turned this 

22 (331) 


beautiful desert into an inhabited garden, one is forcibly reminded 
of all the sacrifices, all the dangers, all the labors the new colonists 
had made in the interest of their children. Paternal solicitude 
alone urged the greater number to move forward toward the Western 
woods and prairies in search of some beautiful tract upon which to 
locate a home, and acquire an indestructible heritage for their chil- 
dren. The intuitive love of liberty which characterized them, the 
Heaven-bestowed desire to move toward new homes which possessed 
them and the unflinching energy whicli overcapped all difl'icul- 
ties and led them to prosperity and peace, are all evidences of the 
workings of that Divine economy which opened up, as it were, a 
new world where industry should, at least, possess liberty of con- 
science, and win ample reward from its genial climate and fertile 
soil, — another Eden for true men, where right would reign supreme. 
Before entering upon the histor}' of men and events connected 
with this county during the last half century, we will inquire into 
its aboriginal or prehistoric period, — prehistoric because the Indi- 
ans inhabiting this portion of Indiana in 1S28 knew nothing what- 
ever of their predecessors in occupation of the beautiful valleys of 
the St. Joseph country. From a period coeval with the Columbian 
era, the Indian as we know him now made his presence known to 
the decaying remnants of the mound-building race, who sought a 
refuge in this territory from the periodical assaults of their bar- 
baric brethren. It is conjectured, that about the beginning of the 
fifteenth century the last representative of* that race, seeing the 
hour of their annihilation approaching, covered in their sacred 
circles with clay, and, fleeing northward still from the valley of the 
Wabash, made temporary settlements throughout Northern Indi- 
ana, which were ultimately occupied by the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies, who gave the ancient people up to the tomahawk and 
scalping-knife, and thus became joint proprietors of the land. 
The ignorance of those savages may be said to excel itself in the 
massacre of that little colony. Its members, though very far 
removed in manners and customs from the early mound-builders, 
still claimed to form the chieftaincy of tlio tribes, and entertained 
a hope that the wandering savages would join with them in inter- 
ests and win back their heritage, which the New Tartar had taken 
from their fathers long years before. The idea was impracticable; 
their Aztec enemies were destined to rule, their savage brethren 
were doomed to perpetual barbarism, and themselves to be ofl'ered 
in sacrifice by the hands of ferocious fratricides. Thus perished 


the last of the mound-builders. That within Northern Indiana, 
perhaps within the present boundary of Elkhart county, the sacri- 
ficial altar was set up, is a matter removed from speculation, since 
the mounds of the Wabash vallej'may be considered the monuments 
of their latest organized villages, and the shores of the lakes and 
rivers, which once occupied a vast area of this county and country, 
their latest temporary fishing posts. That the Miamis were the 
actors in this tragedy is almost conceded, because modern testi- 
mony points them out as the first invaders of Indiana, and their 
own legendary records sustain such a conclusion. 

Western Ohio, Southern Michigan and the country now com- 
prised in the State of Indiana were once in possession of the Miamis, 
one of the branches of the powerful Algonquin tribe, who inter- 
posed between the tribes of the six nations of the shores of the 
Northern lakes, and the Mobilian tribes of the Atlantic slopes. 
Their claim to this territory was proven in the great conclave of the 
tribes at Greenville, Ohio, in 1795, immediately prior to entering 
into the treaty. On that occasion Machikinaqua, a chief and 
orator of the Miamis, addressing Gen. Wayne, said: "My fore- 
father kindled the first fire at Detroit; from thence he extended 
his lines to the head waters of the Scioto river; from thence to its 
mouth; from thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash; 
from thence to Chicago on Lake Michigan. These are the bound- 
aries wherein the prints of my ancestors' houses are everywhere to 
be seen." Historians have acknowledged the truth and claim of the 
Miami chief, confirming many of his statements regarding the 
other peoples inhabiting his territory, the Delaware Indians from 
the East, driven before the incoming European colonists; theSiiaw- 
onoes from the South, forced to move northward by the Aztecs of 
the southwest or theMobilians of the southeast, and the Chippewas 
or Pottawatomies from the Northern regions. Lagio, an Indian chief, 
referring to the immigration of the latter, maintained that " a very 
long time since, the Great Spirit sent upon the Pottawatomies 
a severe winter, and they came over the hard water ( ice-covered 
Lake Michigan) and asked the privilege of hunting until spring; 
that the Miamis granted it; that they returned home in the spring, 
and the next winter came back and would never return to Lake 
Superior again." At the treaty of Greenville, when General Wayne 
pressed the Miami chieftains to cede a township of land at 
Kekeogue and a few sections west at the head waters of Little river 
Machikinaqua spoke to him thus: " Elder brother, I now give you 


the true sentiments of your younger brothers, the Miamis, with 
respect to the great Miami village. We thank you for kindly con- 
tracting the limits you first proposed, we wish you to take the six 
miles square on the side of the river where your fort ( Wayne ) now 
stands; as your younger brothers, the Miamis, wish to inhabit 
that beloved spot again. You shall cut hay for your cattle where- 
ever you please, and you shall never require in vain the assistance 
of your younger brothers at that place. Elder brother, the next 
place you pointed was Little river, and said you wanted two miles 
square at that place. This is a request that our fathers, the French 
or British, never made us: it was always ours. This carrying place has 
hitherto proved in a great degree the subsistence of your younger 
brothers; that place has brought to us in the course of one day 
$100 ; we thank you for the trade you promise to open in our coun- 
try; and permit us to remark that we wish our former traders ( the 
French ) may be continued and mixed with yours." The genial 
manners of Wayne, however, won from the Miamis every privi- 
lege claimed, and led to the establishment of the first American set- 
tlements in Northern Indiana. Preceding the treaty of Greenville, 
a number of French missionaries penetrated this north country, 
and immediately succeeding its acceptance by the tribes, another 
and equally zealous band visited every Indian village, and in some of 
them established missions which have been carried down to the 
present time, though, as was evident to the early settlers of Elkhart, 
whatever good the first missionaries implanted among the bands 
then settled in the county was forgotten or ignored, so that the 
Indian people in the neighborhood were deeply sunk in all the 
horrors of their awe-inspiring superstition. 

The relief of Fort Wayne, under General Harrison and Colonel 
Jackson, and the total rout of the English and their Indian allies 
in 1812, secured the extreme northern lines of the territory now 
comprised in the State of Indiana; but yet much remained to be 
done. The routed besiegers of Fort Wayne had found a road to 
the Indian villages of Assissippi, Obsbenobe and Elkhart, so that 
the reduction of these dens of treachery became a, necessity; accord- 
ingly Gen. Harrison ordered three flyiug columns to be sent in pur- 
suit. Two of these pursuing detachments nnder Colonels Wells 
and Jackson scoured the St. Joseph country, and on Sept. 11, 1812, 
gave up to fire the Indian village of Obsbenobe, then situated near 
where Benton now stands. Subsequently the unfortunate red men 
of the district fell before the advance of the patriots, and before the 


return of the troops to Ohio the supremacy of the American over 
the Britisli and Indian was well insured. 

The United States claimed within a few years about 135,000,000 
acres surveyed land: In Missouri, 17,-U3,429-, Ohio, 4,100,493; Indi- 
ana, 11,456,136; Illinois,17,234,010; Alabama, 22,386,058; Mis- 
sissippi, 12,904,301; Louisiana, 19,686,526; Arkansas, 14,223,195; 
Michigan, 14,532,827; and Territory of Florida, 6,729,909. 

Together with this acreage of surve3'ed lands, there were one hun- 
dred millions of acres of unsurveyed land in these States, to which 
the Indians laid no claim, and about eighty million acres pertain- 
ing to the Indian reservations. The fact that Indiana possessed this 
great public domain, comprising eleven and one-half millions of 
acres, imbued the early settlers with an idea of immensity, and 
tended to inspire them with a knowledge of the great future which 
spread itself before the brave people and told them silently, but 
truly, that their new land would shortly hold a place among the 


The traveler from the North, who sought a way to the prairies of 
Mongoquanong and Northern Indiana in 1828-'30, had to pursue 
the tortuous trail made by the fierce Sacs and Foxes from Rock river 
in Illinois to Maiden in Canada, whither they paid an annual visit, 
to receive the blood-money granted them by the British govern- 
ment for taking the scalps of Americans during the war of 1812. 

To name the settlers on the prairies of Northern Indiana and the 
adjoining portion of Michigan, who always rendered a welcome and 
a shelter to the traveler, is not a difiScult matter, since they were 
few and far between: Rice and a few neighbors were lords of the 
tract round the present town of Lima; Shaeffer was master of Big 
Prairie; Cutter and Winchell settled on White Pigeon Prairie; 
LaceyandWalling,atNiles; Coquillard and Navarre,at South Bend; 
Thompson, at Pokagon; Shields and Macintosh on Young's Prairie; 
Bertrand, at the Sac ford of the St. Joseph river; Lewis Davis, at 
the mouth of the Christiana; Noifsinger, on the banks of the same 
creek, near its junction with the St. Joseph; and a few French traders 
who had erected their wigwams near the villages of Waubee Papoose 
and the neighboring Indian towns. Among the latter was the 
notorious old Binnack, a French half-breed, who, on the slightest 
acquaintance with whisky and molasses, brought an infinite amount 
of trouble to friend and foe; Rosseau, a French trader, who turned 


his sprightliness of character to rare account, and made himself thor- 
oughly at home in the wigwams of the red men, even as he did 
subsequently in the homes of the hospitable pioneers. To follow 
the romantic career of this Kosseau is beyond the intent of the 
writer; his social relations with the tribes would revive, in part, the 
story of Pocahontas, and as such pertains more to the pages of a 
novel than to those of a county history. He is supposed to have 
settled on Elkhart Prairie, five miles northwest of the present site 
of Goshen, in 1815, having for many years before traded among 
the Indians of this district. 

Joseph Noflsinger — the hermit squatter — made a home at the 
junction of the Christiana and St. Joseph streams as early as 1821, 
but for some reason, fled away before the tide of civilization which 
bei,^an to flow in 1828. Unlike Rosseau, this man has left his actions 
shrouded in mystery; in fact, he appeared to the early settlers to be 
a mystery to himself. That some great crime, or to be more char- 
itable, some unquenchable sorrow, held possession of his heart is 
undoubted, since he hated the face of his brother white man and sel- 
dom tolerated the presence of the Indian. Whatever that crime or 
sorrow may be, the knowledge of it has died with himself in that 
■wilderness where, doubtless, he succeeded in finding a refuge from 
the prying eyes of his race, and from intercourse with men, who 
appeared to merit his earnest loathing with all that intensity which 
Timon of Athens once entertained toward his former associates. 
Matthew Boyd must have settled here at an early date, since in 
1828 he completed the building of a house at the Elkhart Crossing, 
one-half mile south of the prairie. In 1827 Elias Riggs settled 
at the edge of the prairie near Boyd and Simpson, and it is supposed 
that a man named Rush settled at the southwest corner of Pleasant 
Plain in the fall of 1827. Mr. John H. Violett says that he him- 
self was the first white child born in Elkhart county that lived, 
and that the first settlement in the county was made in the fall of 
1828. According to the testimony of a Mrs. Wagoman, the wife 
of this early prospector presented to her husband on May 16, 1828) 
a son and daughter, thus claiming the honor of being the progenitrix 
of the first white male and female children native to the soil. 
Mrs. Susan Wagoman's existence at that period was very bene- 
ficial if not providential. She was the bosom friend of Mrs. Rush, 
even before her marriage with Nickerson, and so recently as the 
year 1879 came before the reunion of old settlers, held at Goshen, 
to establish the fact that her early neighbor was the first woman 


who gave a couple of Elkhartiaus to the world. The old lady won 
her suit by extractinnj from a majority present an opinion that Isaiah 
Rush was born within the limits of Klkhart county in May,1828, and 
thus gained for himself the enviable precedence of being the earliest 
native-born citizen, though many are still confident that the honor 
belongs to J. H. Violett. The Hon. E. M. Chamberlain delivered 
a beautiful address at a meeting of old settlers, assembled some 
years ago at Goshen. He referred to those early times, to the first 
French settlers of the district now known as Elkhart county, and 
to the first American pioneers," though some bold adventurers," said 
he, had preceded the pioneers, "the first actual settlers of Elkhart 
county. Tlie first ripple upon the shore of this then wilderness of 
the advancing tide of population were a few families who pitched 
their tents in the neighborhood of the mouth of the Elkhart river 
in 1827. Those primitive old settlers, the Pottawatomie Indians, 
then held this whole region of country in undisturbed dominion, 
kindled the fires of their wigwams, chased the bounding deer 
through the unbroken forest and over the unobstructed prairie* 
held their infernal orgies, danced their war dance and yelled in hid- 
eous delight over the agonies of the victims of their cruel rites." 
With such neighbors, and almost a total absence of the accompa- 
niments of civilized life, those men contrived to live in peace 
with their uncouth surroundings, and to draw both health and hap- 
piness from the fertile soil, for which they searched so long, and 
discovered after years of weary travel and anxious thought. 



Of the species of native quadrupeds that once roamed the flowery 
prairies and wild forests of this county, but few of the smaller 
remain, and none of the larger. Of the latter we cannot even find 
a specimen preserved in taxidermy. The bufialo which grazed 
upon the verdant prairies has been driven westward. With or be- 
fore it went the beaver, elk, badger, panther, black wolf and black 
bear. Some animals that were quite numerous have become very 
rare, such as the gray fox, the catamount, otter, lynx, the beautiful 
Virginia deer, the opossum, raccoon, mink, muskrat, the common 
weasel, the small brown weasel, skunk, woodchuck, or Maryland 
marmot, prairie mole, common shrew mole, meadow and deer 
mouse, and the gray rabbit. Of squirrels there are the gray tim- 
ber squirrel, the tbx, chipmunk, the large gray prairie squirrel, the 
striped and the spotted prairie squirrel, and the beautiful flying 
squirrel. The dark-brown and the reddish bat are common. Other 
small animals have been found here which have strayed from other 

Of the 5,000 existing species of birds many have sojourned in 
this county, some temporarily and others for a considerable time. 
Many migratory species come only at long intervals, and therefore 
but little is known of them. Most species seen here are migratory 
between the North and the South. 

There is not a more fascinating study than that aflForded by our 
feathered friends. Their free movements through seemingly bound- 
less space, the joyous songs of many, and the characteristic tones of 
all, their brilliant colors, their livel}' manners, and their wonderful 
instincts, have from earliest ages made a strong impression on the 
minds of men, and in the infancy of intellect gave rise to many 
peculiar and mysterious associations. Hence the flight of birds 
was made the foundation of a peculiar art of divination. Religion 
borrowed many symbols from them, and poetry many of its orna- 
ments. Birds avail themselves of their powers of wing to seek sit- 
uations adapted for them in respect to temperature and supply of 
food. The arrival of summer birds is always a welcome sign of 
advancing spring, and is associated with all that is cheerful and 
delightful. Some birds come almost at the same date annually ; 
others are more influenced by the character of the season, as mild 
or severe. 


The following list is as nearly correct as can be compiled from 
the available information upon the subject. 

Perchers.— This order of birds is by far the most numerous, and 
includes nearly all those which are attractive either in plumage or 
in song. The ruby-throated humming-bird, with its exquisite 
plumage and almost ethereal existence, is at the head of the list. 
This is the humming-bird which is always the delight of the chil- 
dren, and the only one found in this State. The chimney swallow, 
easily known from other swallows by its very long wings and forked 
tail, and which is a true swift, is quite numerous. Of the "Whip- 
poorwill family there are two representatives, — the whippoorwill 
proper, whose note enlivens the forest at night, and the night-hawk. 
The belted king-fisher, so well known to the school boy, is the only 
member of its family in this region. At the head of the fly-catchers 
is the king-bird, the crested fly-catcher and the wood pewee. 

Of the Thnish family are the robin, the wood thrush, Wilson's 
thrush, the blue-bird, the ruby-crowned and the golden-crested 
wren, tit- lark, the black and the white creeper, blue yellow-backed 
warbler, yellow-breasted chat, worm-eating warbler, blue-winged 
yellow warbler, Tennessee warbler, and golden-crowned thrush. 
The Shrike family is represented by the great northern shrike, 
red-eyed fly-catcher, white-eyed fly-catcher, the blue-headed and 
the yellow-throated fly-catcher. The Swallow family of birds are 
very numerous in this country. Among them are the barn swal- 
low, white-bellied swallow, bank swallow, cliff swallow and purple 
martin. The cedar-bird is the representative of the wax-wing 
family in America. The genera of the Mocking-bird family are 
the cat-bird, brown thrush, the house and winter wren. Of the 
Finch and Sparrow family, the snow bunting and Smith's bunting 
appear only in winter. The purple finch, tlie yellow-bird and the 
lark finch inhabit this county. Of the Passerine genus of this 
family are the savannah sparrow, the field and the chipping spar- 
row, the black snow-bird, the tree sparrow, the song sparrow, the 
swamp and the fox-colored sparrow, the black-throated bunting, the 
rose-breasted gros-beak and the ground robin. The Titmouse family 
is represented by the chickadee and the tufted titmouse. There are 
two species of the Creeper family — the white bellied nut-hatch and 
the American creeper. The melodious family of Skylarks is rep- 
resented here by only the common skylark of the prairie. Of the 
Black-bird family, the rusty black-bird, the crow black-bird, the 
cow-bird, the red-winged black-bird, the meadow lark, the orchard 
and the Baltimore oriole, are the most beautiful and brilliant that 
inhabit this region. The blue-jay and the common crow comprise 
the species of the Crow family. 

Birds of Prey. — This order of birds comprises all those, with few 
exceptions, which pursue and capture birds and other animals for 
food. They are mostly of large size, the females are larger than the 
males, they live in pairs, and choose their mates for life. , Most 
raptorial birds have disappeared. Among them are the 


eagle, which was always rare but now no longer seen here; the bald 
eagle, or properly the white-headed eagle, once quite corninou, now 
scarce. Some well-preserved specimens of this genus are in the 
county. This eagle enjoys the honor of standing as our national 
emblem. Benjamin Franklin lamented the selection of this bird 
as emblematical of the Union, for its great cowardice. It has the 
ability of ascending in circular sweeps without any apparent mo- 
tion of the wings or the tail, and it often rises in this manner until 
it disappears from view, when at an immense height, and as if ob- 
serving an object on the ground, it sometimes closes its wings and 
glides toward the earth with such velocity that the eye can scarcely 
follow it, causing a loud rustling sound like a violent gust of wind 
among the branches of the forest. The Hawk family lias eight or 
nine species, some but seldom seen, others common. The turkey- 
buzzard has almost, if not quite, disappeared. It is still abundant 
further south. Of the Owl genera are several species, tliough all 
are but seldom seen because of their nocturnal habits. Among 
them are the barn owl, the screech owl, the long and the short eared 
owl, the barred owl, and the snowy owl, the latter being the rarest. 

Climbers. — But few of this order remain in the county, the most 
common of which are the woodpeckers. Of the various kinds of 
these are the golden-winged, tlie pileated, the hairy, the downy, the 
yellow-bellied, red-bellied and the red-headed. The yellow billed 
cuckoo is occasionally seen; the black- billed cuckoo is rare. 

Scnitchers. — This order contains but few genera in this county. 
The wild turkey, the choicest of game, has almost entirely disap- 

f eared, and was the only one of its family that ever sojourned here, 
n an early day they were in abundance. The chiefest among the 
Grouse family is the prairie chicken, which, if not carefully 
protected, must ere long follow the wild turkey, never to return. 
The ruffled grouse, wrongfully called " pheasant," has of late made 
its appearance. When frightened it takes to flight with a smothered, 
drum-like noise. It is quite fond of cultivated fields, and, if 
properly protected and encouraged until it becomes fairly settled, 
will make a fine addition to the game, and fill the place of the 
prairie chicken. Partridge family. — The fate of that excellent bird, 
the quail, is only a question of a short time. The Dove family. — 
The wild pigeons continue to make their semi-annual visits, but 
not in such vast numbers as years ago. Acres of forest were so 
often filled at night with these birds that the breaking of boughs 
and the flying of pigeons made a noise that could be heard for 
miles, and the shot of a sportsman's gun could not be heard at a 
distance often feet. Highly interesting is the description by Audu- 
bon of the enormous flights which he observed on the Ohio in the 
fall of 1813; they obscured the daylight and lasted three days with- 
out interruption. According to a very moderate estimate of his, 
each flight contained the stupendous number of one billion, one 
hundred and fifteen thousand million, one hundred and thirtyrsix 
thousand pigeons. These flights caused a general commotion 


among the entire rural population. Desirous of booty, and anxious 
lest their crops should be spoiled, the farmers, arming themselves 
with rifles, clubs, poles, torches and iron pots filled with sulphur, 

Eroceed to the resting places of the birds. The work of slaughter 
eing accomplished, everybody sat down among mountains of dead 
pigeons, plucking and salting the birds which they selected, aban- 
doning the rest to the foxes, wolves, raccoons, opossums and hogs, 
whole herds of which were driven to the battle-field. The plaintive 
notes of the Carolina dove, commonly known as the turtle-dove, are 
still heard. 

Siohnmers. — This order of birds, which formerly frequented this 
county in large numbers, have almost disappeared. They are 
migratory, and in their usual season would appear coming fi'om the 
north or south, as winter passes into summer or summer into winter. 
Of the Diver family, the great northern diver, or loon, sometimes 
visits tliis section, but inhabits the frigid zone. Of the Gull family 
are Wilson's tern and silvery gull. — The roughed-billed pelican 
was the only genus of the Pelican family that ever stopped in this 
county, and it has now altogether ceased to make its visits here. 
Of the Cormorant family, the double-crested cormorant, or sea- 
raven, has been seen here. Duck family. — This family of migratory 
birds visited the ponds and streams of this county in large numbers 
before it became so thickly settled, both on their northern and 
southern passage, but now mostly confine themselves to the wilder 
places, where large numbers are found. This family furnishes most 
game for sportsmen and for the table. There are the wood-duck, 
the big black-headed duck, the ring-necked duck, the red-head, the 
canvas-back, the dipper, the shell-drake or goosander, the fish-duck, 
the red-breasted, and the hooded merganser, the mallard and the 
pintail, the greea-winged and the blue-winged teal, the spoonbill 
and the gad wall, the baldpate, the American swan, the trumpeter 
swan and the white-fronted goose. 

Wade7's. — Probably less is known of this order of birds than of 
any other, because of their shyness and solitary habits. They fre- 
quented the marshes, but cultivation has drained their favorite 
haunts. Of the Crane family, the whooping crane, always rare, 
is now never seen. The sand-hill cranes stop on their journeys 
north and south. Of the Heron family, the great blue heron or 
crane, least bittern, the green heron, night heron and the American 
bittern visit this region. Of the Ibis family, the glossy ibis 
has been seen here. Of the Plover family, the golden plover, 
the kildeer and the king plover comprise this family known here. 
Of the Phalarope family, the Wilson's and the red phalarope have 
frequented the swamps of this county. Various birds of the Snipe 
family have been common in and around the swamps of this county. 
Among them were Wilson's snipe, grey or red-breasted snipe, tlie 
least and the semi-palmated sandpiper, the willet, the tell-tale, the 
yellow-leg, the solitary sandpiper, the spotted sandpiper, the field 

E lover, long-billed curlew, the common rail, the clapper rail or mud 
en, and the coot. 


Reptiles. — AH of the species of this class that ever inhabited 
this region are still to be found here except most of the poisonous 
snakes. The rattlesnake is of a yellowish-brown color, and has a 
series of liorny joints at the end of the tail, wliich make a rattling 
sound. These were the most venomous of all snakes found here, 
and were numerous in the early settlement. There are two kinds, 
the bandy, or striped, and the prairie rattlesnake, the latter being 
still occasionally found. The copperhead was always rare. Among 
the harmless snakes are the water-snake, the garter-snake, the 
bull-snake, the milk-snake, the black-snake, and the blue racer. 

Many reptiles found here are erroneously called lizards, but are 
salamanders and other like innocent creatures. Lizards are never 
found in this county. The so-called "water lizards " are newts, or 
Tritons. Among the tortoises or turtles are found the map turtle, 
the snapping and the soft-shelled turtle. Of the batrachian, or 
naked reptiles, there are a few, and, though loathsome to sight and 
touch, are harmless. The toad, tlie bull-frog, the leopard-frog, the 
tree-toad, with some tailed batrachia, comprise the most of this 
order. The bull-frog is often as large as a man's head, or larger, 
and liis deep bellowing can be heard for a mile or more. 

Fishes. — Although Ushes are the lowest class of vertebrates, their 
varied forms and colors, which often rival those of precious stones 
and burnished gold, the wonderful power and velocity of some, the 
wholesome food furnished by many, and the exciting sport of their 
capture, combine to render fishes subjects of great interest to the 
casual observer, as well as to tlie amateur and professional natural- 
ist. Tlie number of known species of fishes is about ten thousand. 
The waters of this country are quite prolific of the tinny tribe. The 
commerce in fish has become quite extensive along some of the 
and lakes. The Sickle-backed . family furnishes the game fish, 
and are never caught larger than four pounds in weight. The 
various genera found here are the black bass, goggle-eye, the croppy, 
or big black sun-fish, and the two common sun-fish. There are but 
two species of the Pike family, — the pickerel, weighing from five 
to twenty-five pounds, and the gar pike. Of the Sucker family 
are the bufi"alo, red-horse, white-sucker, two species of black- 
suckers and mullet ranick. Fish of this family are found in all 
the streams of the county. They abound wherever there is water. 
Of tiie Cat-fish family the channel cat-fish, the mud cat-fish and 
two species of the small cat-fish inhabit the waters of this county, 
and are caught ranging in weigiit from one to thirty pounds. The 
bull-head is yet abundant, and its flesh, as well as its general 
appearance, resembles that of the cat-fish. 

Besides these varieties there are the chub, silver-sides and fresh- 
water herring, and large numbers of other species denominated 
minnows, which are found in the smallest spring branches, as well 
as the larger streams. 


This county is favorably situated for the production of a i^reat 
variety of interesting plants. Out of about 2,400 spe-ies of flower- 
ing plants in the Fiiited States, about 1,600 can be found within 
the limits of this State, and about 1,000 within this county. In 
the following list we will enumerate only the most common and 
remarkable, growing spontaneously in this county; and we give 
the English names from Gray's Manual, tiftli edition, being well 
aware that most localities have different names for many plants, 
and that even in the books some English names are given to two 
or more plants, as sycamore, button snakeroot, black snakeroot, 
goose-grass, hair-grass, loosestrife, etc. 

Croiofoots. -Common virgin's bower, a vine, is occasionally found: 
the leather-flower, a cultivated vine bearing large, blue flowers, is 
of the same genus. The Peunsylvanian, Virginian and wood anem- 
ones occur here and there. Liver-leaf ("liver- wort") is common 
on forest hillsides. Rue anemone, and the early, the purplish and 
the tall meadow-rues are common in the woods. The true butter- 
cups of the East are not found here, but the most common flower 
corresponding to them is the creeping crowfoot. The small- 
flowered, the hooked, tlie bristly and the early crowfoots also occur. 
Isopyrum grows in moist, shady places. Marsh marigold is com- 
mon in early spring, growing in mud supplied with fresh water: in 
the East they are called " cowslips" and sometimes used for greens. 
Water plantain spearwort, growing in mud, and yellow water crow- 
foot, growing in water and with the submersed leaves tinely divided, 
are seen occasionally. Wild columbine, so easily recognized by its 
resemblance to the cultivated species, abounds in the margins of 
the woods ; so also two species of wild larkspur. Yellow puccoon 
is very scarce. White baueberry is occasionally seen in the deep 

Uustard-Apple Family. — The papaw is common. This is a 
fragile bush, with large leaves, bearing fruit about the size and 
appearance of short, thick, green cucumbers, which have a pulp 
like the banana. To " learn" to like them one must merely taste 
of them at times far apart. 

J/bon.yeecZ.— Canadian moonseed is abundant in the woods. It 
is a smooth, twining vine like the morning-glory, with a beautiful, 
round, yellow root, which has a tonic-bitter taste, and is sometimes 
called sarsaparilla. The true wild sarsaparilla belongs to the Gin- 
seng family. 

Barherry Family. — May-apple, or mandrake, is abundant, and 
blue cohosh somewhat rare. 

Water Lilie.s. — The pond, or white water lily, is abundant in 
large, open ponds in the river bottoms, and the yellow water, or 
frog lily, growing in shallow, stagnant water, is common. The 
vellow nelumbo, a similar plant, is sometimes found. 


Poppy FaTTiily. — The well-known blood-root is the only repre- 
sentative of tliis family growing wild in this county. 

Fumitory Family. — The celebrated Dutchman's breeches is 
common, and squirrel-corn is sometimes found. Bleeding heart is 
of the same genus. 

Mustards. — Marsh cress is common; lake cress, growing in 
water, is sometimes seen; and horse-radish flourishes beyond the 
bounds of cultivation. Pepper-root, an early-flowering plant, is 
common in the dense forest. Two varieties of spring cress are fre- 
quent. Two species of the delicate little rock cress and Arabis 
dentata are also frequent. Hedge mustard is the most common 
mustard-like weed that grows on cultivated and waste grounds. 
Tansy mustard is rare. Black mustard, the type of this family, 
floiirishes on cultivated and waste grounds. White mustard is 
very rare at the present day. Shepherd's purse is abundant early 
in the season, — a weed everywhere: its seed-pod is triangular, 
somewhat inflated, and in shape resembles a shepherd's purse of 
the olden time. Wild peppergrass is common in late summer: 
seed-pods, wafer-form. Whitlow grass grows in sandy ground. To 
the Mustard family belong the radish, turnip and cabbage of our 

Caper Family. — Polanisia, a fetid pod-bearing plant, is common 
on sandy ground, and is extending along the railroads where sand 
and gravel are deposited. Cleome pungens, or spider-flower, is 
escaping from cultivation. 

Violets. — Common blue violet is abundant, the other kinds more 
rare, namely, hand-leaf, arrow-leaved, larkspur, bird-foot, downy 
yellow, etc. Heart's-ease belongs to this order. 

Bock-Boses. — Frost-weed grows in sandy soil, and pin-weed on 
dry ground. Hudsonia, the smallest shrub in the country, grows 
on some of the sandy hills. 

S>nidewi. — Round-leaved sundew is common in some places. 

St. John.s-ivorts. — Several species are found in this county. 

Pinks. — Starry campion, sleepy catchfly, corn cockle, sandwort, 
long-leaved stitchwort and forked chickweed are found here and 
tliere. Common chickweed and three species of mouse-ear chick- 
weed and bouncing bet are more common. Carpet weed is common 
on the sand; it grows in the form of a bunchy lamp-mat. 

Purslanes. — Akin to the beautiful portulaca is our universal 
purslane, often called " pursley." Spring beauty belongs to this 
family. It is one of the earliest spring flowers, and may be distin- 
guished by the plant's having but two leaves, long and narrow and 
somewhat fleshy. The flower is a light rose color, with deeper veins. 
^Mallows Family. — Common, or low mallows and velvet-leaf, or 
Indian mallows are very abundant. The latter is a tall, pestiferous 
weed about our fields, with seed-vessels resembling poppy-bolls. 
Sida and bladder ketmia, or flower of an hour, are common. To 
this order belong the hollyhock and okra, in cultivation. 


Linden. — Bass-wood, known as lin among Sonthern people, is 
the only member of this family growing here. 

GeraniuTn Family. — "Wild crane's-bill is common in early spring, 
having a solitary, rose-colored flower on the summit. Carolina 
crane's-bill is rather rare. Spotted and pale touch-me-nots are com- 
mon in moist, shaded places, growing in dense patches. The bal- 
samine of cultivation is of the same genus. Yellow wood-sorrel is 
everywhere, and here and there the violet wood-sorrel ]Tevails to 
some extent. This is erroneously called "sheep-sorrel." Sheep, or 
field-sorrel, grows on sandy or gravely ground, has lance-shaped and 
pointed leaves, obscure flowers, and seeds like pie-plant or yellow- 
dock, while wood-sorrel grows mostly in clay soil, has three leaflets 
like clover, showy flowers, and seeds in a pod. The two sorrels be- 
long to dift'erent orders, but have a similar taste. 

Rueworts. — The northern prickl}' ash, a common shrub in our 
woods, but growing scarcer, and the still rarer hop-tree, are the only 
members of this family in this county. Garden rue is of the 
same order, or family. 

Cashew Fmnily. — In America this would seem to be rather the 
sumac family. The smooth sumac is common every where, fragrant 
sumac abundant in sandy ground, and poison ivy is common along 
fences — some places abundant. The latter is a coarse, woody vine 
with innumerable rootlets, and lias three leaflets to each leaf, with 
these leaflets sometimes partly divided. When the plant is young 
it can be distinguished from box-elder by the latter having a white 
" bloom " on the stem, and at all times it can be distinguished from 
Virginia creeper (American ivy, an innocent plant) by the latter 
having five leaflets to each leaf, and the whole leaf in shape like 
that of buckeye. Poison, dwarf and stag-horn sumacs are common 
in some places. 

Vine Family, that is, the Grape-vine family. — Virginia creeper, 
just described, is as abundant as any weed. The winter, or frost- 
grape and the northern fox-grape are common, but the summer 
grape, a delicious fruit, is very scarce, if indeed it can be found at 
all in this county. It used to be abundant, but the vines have been 
destroyed by reckless grape gatherers. 

Buckthorn Family. — The noted red-root, or New Jersey tea, a 
shrub in the margin of prairies, and to some extent in all other sit- 
uations, is the only representative of this family here, and it is be- 
coming rarer by the encroachments of cultivation and pasturage. 
The leaves make very good tea. 

Staff-tree Family. — The climbing bittersweet and waahoo are all 
there are of this family in our limits. The former is a smooth, 
woody vine, common in the woods, climbing by simply twining, 
and bearing orange-colored berries in clusters, often called wax- 
work, and used in ornamentation. This vine is often called simply 
bittersweet, but the true medical bittersweet is a very different 

?lant, scarcely a vine at all, and not growing wild in this county, 
he waahoo, or burning-bush, is a real bush of about the size and 


proportions of a plum-tree; its twigs have four white lines, and its 
crimson fruit in autumn after the leaves have fallen is very showy. 
The flowers are dark purple. Strawberry-bush is rare. 

Soa2)herrii Order includes the Maple, Bladdernut and Soapberry 
(proper) families. Of the maples the most common are the sugar, 
the red and the white. The latter are the soft maples. Box-elder 
is sometimes called ash-leaved maple, and belongs to this family. 
The American bladdernut is a tree-like shrub about 10 feet high, 
producing large three-lobed, inflated seed pods. Two species of 
buck-eye are common in the river bottoms. 

MUku'ortx. — Seneca snakeroot and four other species of milkwort 
are found in this region. 

Pulse Family. — This large family is characterized by having 
seeds in pods like beans and peas, which are members of the family. 
The first in the list, according to the books, are the clovers — red 
and white. Two other species of this genus occur, indeed, but are 
too rare to enumerate here. Then the white sweet clover, more 
recently escaped from cultivation; then two species of prairie 
clover, almost extinct. Goat's rue, false indigo (Amorpha) and lead 
plant abound on dry, sandy loam in river bottoms. The common 
locust was introduced here, but this is too far north for it to be hardy 
enough to withstand our wiuds and the borer. A honey-locust 
occurs here and there. One milk vetch is frequent. Six species ot 
tick trefoil abound and nine others occur. These are those plants 
in the woods bearing " pods" of triangular, flat burs. Five species 
of bush clover are found here. Three vetclies (^ tares) and four marsh 
vetchlings, ground nut, kidney bean, false indigo (Baptisia) and 
■wild senna are found here and there. Hog peanut, called wild pea 
or bean by some, abounds everywhere in' the woods. Red-bud is 
an ugly little tree except in the spring before the leaves appear, 
when the whole top is of a beautiful purplish-red from the blos- 
soms. Partridge pea is abundant " in spots," grows like a weed in 
low places, 20 inches to two feet high, has leaves like a locust, and 
bears a very large, yellow flower. The sensitive plant may be found 
witiiin the bounds of this county, but if so, it is very scarce. The 
Kentucky coftee-tree is rare. It is famous for its beautiful com- 
pound leaves and glossy beans. 

Eose Family. — Most of our edible fruits come from this family 
of trees and herbs, as the apple, peach, plum, cherry, strawberr}', 
etc. The wild plum (yellow or red) is becoming very scarce; the 
wild red cherry is always rare; the wild black cherry is abundant; 
choke-cherry is a shrub occasionally found; dwarf cherry is com- 
mon on sandy ridges; nine-bark and goat's-beard are species of 
spirfea frequently found ; common meadow sweet and Canadian 
burnet, rare; agrimony is a coarse herb occasionally seen, having 
leaves resembling those of the strawberry, and bearing a kind of 
drooping bur, — a plant about two feet high. One species of avens 
is very common, and four other species are found. Common cinque- 
foil, or five-finger, resembles the strawberry very closely,' and 

^ JS&' 

If ^^ 



abounds in dry soil; Norwegian cinquefoil lias similar leaves, but 
the plant is coarse and grows three feet high, — not common ; silvery 
and several other species of cinquefoil are also found. One species 
of wild strawberry abounds in retired situations; it was common 
over the original prairie. The high blackberry and the raspberry 
prevail here as elsewhere, but their sylvan territory is narrowed to 
close limits by the encroachments of man; the low blackberry, or 
dewberry, and the running swamp blackberry also occur; the dwarf 
raspberry grows only a foot or two high. Of the roses proper, the 
dwarf wild rose is the most common, but its territory has also 
become very limited; the "early wild" rose may be found. Three 
species of red haw (hawthorn) occur; the black, or pear, thorn is 
the most common, then the scarlet-fruited thorn, and lastly the 
cockspur thorn. The crab apple and choke berry are well known. 
Several varieties of June berry are common. 

Saxifrages. — Two or three species of gooseberry are common; 
three species of currant grow here; and swamp saxifrage and two 
species of alum-root are sometimes met with. Mitre-wort, or 
bishop's cap, is common, flowering in early spring; this is an inter- 
esting little plant. 

Orpine Family. — Ditch stone-crop is common during wet 
seasons; can occasionally be found in the ditches during dry sea- 
sons; mossy stone-crop has escaped from cultivation to gravelly 
roadsides, etc.; one other species of stone-crop occurs. 

Witch Hazel is abundant, flowering in late autumn. 

Wider-Milfoil. — Two species. 

Evening Primroses. — Common evening primrose, enchanter's 
nightshade and two species of willow-herb are common. Seed- 
box, water-purslean and sun-drops are found here and there. 

Melasfoma Family. — Deer-grass, or meadow-beauty is a modest 
little purple-flowered plant growing in sandy swamps. 

Loosestrife Family. — One species of Ammannia, oneof Lytli- 
rum, one of swamp loosestrife (Nesaea) and clammy Cuphea are 
not infrequent. 

Cactus Fam,ily. — One species common on sandy ridges. 

Gourd Family. — Wild balsam apple is a common vine, well 
known, and in heavily wooded river bottoms one-seeded cucumber 

Parsley Family. — This family is characterized by having their 
seed-bearing tops like those of parsnips. Most of the poisonous 
plants growing in this country belong to this family. Two species 
of black snakeroot prevail in this county; water pennywort, poly- 
tfenia, cowbane, meadow parsnip, spotted cowbane (two species), 
rattlesnake master, water parsnip (two species), chervil and poison 
hemlock occur here and there, while smoother and hairy sweet 
cicely are abundant; even garden parsnip is becoming a common 
weed in open, protected places. Of the whole family the most 
poisonous are the spotted cowbane and poison hemlock. Cow pars- 
nip is the largest plant of this order, and grows in shaded bottom 


Ginseng 2*'amily.— Ginseng,, on account of its popular medical 
qualities, has been pretty well thinned out; dwarf ginseng, or 
ground-nut, is a modest little plant flowering in April. The true 
wild sarsaparilla (a plant of the appearance of a large ginseng) is 
sometimes found, and spikenard is common in the forest ravines. 

Dogivoods. — The most common dogwood is the white-berried, or 
panicled cornel, next the rough-leaved, the alternate-leaved, the 
flowering, the silky, red-osier, dwarf and round-leaved. Pepperidge, 
a middle-sized tree, occurs here and there. 

Honeysuckles. — Common elder and yellow honeysuckle are com- 
mon. Horse gentian, or fever-wort, is a forest weed bearing Ave 
to ten yellow berries in a circle around the stem at every'place 
where the two opposite leaves are attached. The true black haw is 
scarce, but sheep-berry, which is generally called black haw, is 
common. Two species of arrow-wood and the cranberry tree 
occur here and there. 

Madder FamUy. — The small bedstraw, two species of the rough 
and the northern bed-straw are abundant, and the sweet-scented is 
common, while occasionally may be found cleavers, or goose-grass. 
"Wild liquorice occurs rarely. These herbs are all of a flax-like 
appearance, having several beautiful little leaves in aAvhorl at each 
joint. Button bush is common in wet ground. Partridge-berry is 
common further north. 

Composites. — This order is by far the largest of all. Its flowers 
are compound, that is, there are several, sometimes many, small 
flowers crowded close together in a head, as sunflower, lettuce, 
dandelion, aster, chrysanthemum. May-weed, etc. Their time of 
flowering is generally late in the season. 

Iron-weed is common on flat ground; its summit in August is 
a beautiful royal purple. Four species of button snakeroot (one 
called also blazing star) are abundant on protected original prairie, 
and occur nowhere else. Five species of thoroughwort grow here, 
that called boneset being abundant. The species called trumpet, 
or Joe-Pye weed, is a tall, interesting weed, with 3 to 6 leaves in 
each whorl, that is, at each joint. Kuhnia is not rare; it resembles 
boneset. Mist-flower grows in our limits. Of the asters there are 
about 30 species growing within this county; about half of them 
are very common. The flowers have a starry appearance; hence 
the name. The most remarkable of them is the New England 
aster, a large purple flower along the roadsides in September. Five 
species of fleabane, similar to the asters in appearance, are common, 
namely: horseweed, which is abundant on waste and cultivated 
grounds, Robin's plantain, common fleabane, and two daisy flea- 
banes, one of them called also sweet scabious. About 20 species 
of golden-rod can be found in this county, only half of them com- 
mon, however. The most abundant is the Solidago Canadensis. 
From these much honey is made by bees in September. Four 
species of rosin-weed used to prevail on the original prairie, but 
their territory is very limited at the present day. The most noted 


of tliem has dvided leaves, and is also called compass plant, or 
polar plant, theleaves havin^ once been thought to point north and 
south. They do indeed stand with their faces somewhat parallel, 
but they are just as apt to have their edges toward other points 
of the compass. One species of rosin-weed has undivided leaves, 
large and rough, and is called prairie dock. This and the compass 
plant flourish on flat prairie soil which is not pastured. The 
species called cnp-plant grows along the banks of channeled sloughs. 
The leaves join together at the base so as to form a cup. It is a 
very large weed. Parthenium, a similar plant, is not rare. Rag- 
weed is the most common weed we have along the roadsides; called 
also hogweed, Roman wormwood, etc. Great ragweed is the largest 
weed that grows in this country: common along fences. Cockle- 
bur is on the increase. Ox-eye, Lepachys and six species of cone- 
flower are almost common. Six species of wild sunflower flourish 
along fences in unfrequented situations. They are tall weeds, but 
not troublesome. One kind has tuberous roots, and is really an 
artichoke. Three species of tickseed occur in this county. The 
true Spanish needle does not grow here, but three species of its 
genus abound here, especially during wet seasons, namely, common 
and swamp beggar ticks and the larger bur-marigold. The smaller 
bur-marigold is found in shallow running water. Fetid marigold 
is abundant in dry situations along the wagon roads. When struck, 
even lightly, it yields a rank, aromatic odor; called also false dog- 
fennel. Sneeze- weed, which looks somewhat like a Spanish needle, 
is abundant during wet seasons and exceedingly scarce at other 
times. May-weed, or dog fennel, every one is familiar with. So 
with yarrow. The ox-eye daisy or white- weed, a vexatious weed in 
the East, is just beginning to creep in along the railroads. Biennial 
wormwood is a comnron but harmless weed in waste places. Com- 
mon and plantain-leaved everlasting are common. Fire-weed, abun- 
dant. Golden rag- wort, several species of hawkweed and Cynthia 
here and there. The famous Canada thistle is seldom seen; the 
common thistle abounds more and more. Two other species are 
common, growing very tall. Burdock and dandelion are abun- 
dant. Wild lettuce and ftilse or blue lettuce are common milky 
weeds, growing very tall. Two species of sow thistle, compara- 
tively harmless, are modestly on the increase, 

Lohellas. — The celebrated medical lobelia, or Indian tobacco, 
flourishes along our garden fences. The great lobelia, or blue car- 
dinal flower, is abundant in moist ground. The cardinal flower is 
the most showy, dazzling-red flower we have growing wild: found 
in wet ground and on tlie banks of sloughs. A small and slender 
species of lobelia is common in protected situations. 

Cam,2xmula or Ballflower Faintly. — The tall bellflower is com- 
mon. Venus's looking-glass is found here and there. " Blue-bells " 
do not belong here; they are the smooth lungwort, belonging to the 
Borage family. 

Holly. — Mountain holly is common it; places. 


Heaths. — Large and small cranberry, black huckleberry, ano 
dwarf, low and swamp blueberries are found here, the first tliree in 
swamps. "^Creeping snowberry (in peat bogs), bearberry in sandy 
ground, creeping wintergreen, shin leaf, siieep laurel, Labrador 
tea, Indian pipe and pipsissewa are occasional!}' found. 

Plantain Family. — The common plantain of oiir door-yards. 
Two other species of this family may occur in this couat3% but 
they are exceedingly rare. 

Primrose. — Several species of loosestrife (Lysimachia), chickweed, 
wintergreen and one or two pimpernels occur. Moneywort is com- 
mon about some door-yards. 

Bladderworts. — Greater bladderwort, in ponds, is very common. 

Fii^ivorts. — Mullein, toad-flax (" butter-and-eggs "), fig-wort, 
beard-tongue, two species of Gerardia, two species of louse-wort 
and cow-wheat are common, while monkey-flower, hedge-hyssop, 
false pimpernel, purslane, Culver's root, water, marsh, purslane, 
common and corn speedwell and blue-hearts are sometimes seen. 
Toad-flax has persistent roots like witch-grass and threatens to 
become a pest. The snap-dragon of our gardens is a tig-wort. 

Vervains. — Verbenas belong to this order. The most abun- 
dant plant belonging to this family and growing wild is the hoary 
vervain; next are the bracted (prostrate), the white or nettle- 
leaved, and the blue. They all prefer dry, waste grounds, and are 
much inclined to hybridize. Fog-fruit is abundant in sandy 
ground along the rivers. Lopseed is common in woods. 

Mints. — Common are wood sage, or American germander, wild 
mint, bugle-weed, American pennyroyal, and hedge nettle (two 
species). Motherwort, catnip, heal-all, and wild mint are abundant. 
Here and there are water horehound, mountain mint, horse-mint, 
calaraintli, Biephilia, (two species), giant liyssop (two species), false 
dragon head, or lion's lieart, mad-dog skullcap and one other species 
of skullcap. Ground ivy, or gill-over-the-ground, is abundant 
about dwellings. What is generally' called "horse-mint" in the 
West is " wild bergatnot" according to the books. Wild mint 
is often taken for peppermint. True peppermint, spearmint, and 
horehound are scarce within our limits. Salvia, sage and Mexican 
sage are cultivated plants belonging to this order. 

Borageicorts. — Hairy and hoary puccoon, smooth lungwort, 
stick-seed, beggar's lice and common hound's-tongue are com- 
mon; all other species rare. Comfrey belongs to this family. 
Smooth lungwort is often called "blue-bells." It is common in 
early spring about door-yards and along fences near dwellings. 
Common hound's-tongue flourishes along the roads; flowers a dull 
purple, appearing in early summer. Beggar's lice is a species ot 

Water-leaf Family. — Two or three species of water-leaf and Ellisia 
appear in cool, shady places. The latter resembles small tomatoes 
in leaf and fruit. 


Poleinoniums or Phloxes. — Greek valerian, paniculate, hairy 
and divaricate phlox are frequent. The true wild sweet- William is 
very rare. Moss pink is more common in cultivation. 

Convolvulus or Morning-glory Family. — The most common 
plant of this order growing spontaneously beyond the bounds of cul- 
tivation is hedge bindweed or Rutland beauty. Eight species of 
dodder (" love-vine ") may be found, all rare but one which appears 
like orange- colored thread growing on the tops of weeds. Wild 
potato-vine is occasionally found on woody hillsides. 

Nightshade Family. — To this family belong Irish potatoes, 
tomatoes, eggplant, bitter-sweet, matrimony vine, tobacco and 
Jerusalem cherry. The most common weeds of this family are 
jimson-weed, horse-nettle ("bull nettles "), common or black night- 
shade and two species of grouud-clierry. The white-flowered jim- 
son-weed (Datura Stramonium) is called common Stramonium or 
thornapple by Dr. Gray, while the purple-flowered he calls purple 

Gentians. — One beautiful species of American centaury, Ameri- 
can Columbo and five-flowered, fringed, smaller fringed, whitish, 
yellowish white, and closed gentian are found within our limits. 
''Horse gentian " belongs to the Honeysuckle famil}'. Buck-bean 
is common in bogs. 

Dogbanes. — Spreading dogbane and Indian hemp, in the bor- 
ders of thickets, are common. 

Milkioeeds. — Common milkweed, or silkweed, is common; has 
large, boat-shaped pods of glistening cotton. Swamp milkweed, 
butterfly weed, or pleurisy-root, whorled milkweed and two species 
of green milkweed are common in places. 

Olive Family. — It would seem more natural to us Westerners 
to call this the Ash family, as we have no members of this order 
about use.xcept the five species of ash, — white, black, blue, red and 
green, the white being the most common. Some of these kinds 
are difficult for the beginner in botany to distinguish. 

Birthworts. — Wild ginger is common in deep, wooded ravines, 
"^he leaf is kidney-shaped, plant but few inches high, and the root 
tastes like ginger. 

Pokeweeds. — The common poke, with its purple-juiced clusters 
of berries, is well known. 

Goosefoots. — Lamb's-quarters, or pigweed, a common weed in 
our gardens, is the type of this order. Beet and spinach are culti- 
vated plants of this order. Next in abundance to lamb's-quarters 
are maple-heaved goosefoot, Jerusalem oak and Mexican tea. 
Wortnseed is a fetid plant, belonging to thegenns goosefoot. Orache 
is becoming abundant in the towns and cities. Bug-seed grows on 
the borders of the lakes. 

Am/iraniJis. — The cultivated coxcomb, globe amaranth and 
prince's feather (red, chafiy spikes) illustrate the characters of this 
family. Pigweed is one of the most common weeds in cultivated 


ground. The pigweed of the last paragraph should be called goose- 
foot only, or lamb's-quarters. White pigweed, generally known in 
the West as " tumble-weed," is abundant in some lields. Amaran- 
• tns blitoides has recently become very abundant in our towns. At 
a little distance it resembles common purslane. Acnida tamaris- 
cina is common in sandy soil near the rivers and lakes. 

Buckviheo-t Family or Knotioeecls. — Goose-grass is the most 
ubiquitous member of this order, forming a carpet in every door- 
yard. A taller variety with wider leaves also abounds under the 
shade trees about the premises. Two species of smart-weed, mild 
water-pepper, water Persicaria and two other species of knotweed 
are all common. Out of 14 species of what appears to be smart- 
weed, only two are biting to the taste. Arrow-leaved tear-thumb, 
black bindweed and climbing false buckwheat are common vines. 
Pie-plant, "yellow dock " and sheep-sorrel represent another divis- 
ion of the knotweed family. The most common member of tin's 
division in this county is curled, or " yellow " dock; then follow 
sheep-sorrel (abounding in sandy soil), pale, water, swamp and 
bitter docks. 

Laurel Family. — Sassafras is common along the bluffs and bot- 
toms of the rivers. Spice bush is common. 

Mesereum Family. — Leather-wood, with its remarkably tough 
bark, is not abundant anywhere. 

Sandal -wood Family. — Bastard toad-flax is rather scarce. 

Lizard''s-tail Family. — Lizard's tail is common in swamps. 

Spurges. — Spotted spurge, an herb growing more prostrate than 
all others, on cultivated ground; milky; no visible flowers. Three 
other species of spurge are almost common. Three-seeded mercury, 
known in former years to inhabit only the dark forest, has followed 
to our city residences where it can find a similar situation. 

Nettle Order. — Of the Elm family are the white and the slippery 
elm and the hackberry,— the first mentioned abundant, the other 
two scarce. Of the Bread-fruit and Fig family is the red mulberry, 
which is scarce. Of the Nettle family proper are the true nettle 
(rare), wood nettle (common), richweed, pellitory, hemp and hop. 
Kichweed, or clearweed, like the mercury of the last paragraph, has 
followed man to his artificial groves and is very abundant on flat 
ground under heavy shade-trees, in some places. It is remarkable 
that botanists have placed in this order the osage orange tree of 
our hedges, the bread-fruit tree of the Pacific isles, the fig and the 
banyan, and the poison upas of the East Indies. 

Plane-Tree Family. — *' Sycamore," or button-wood, or Ameri- 
can plane. The true sycamore of Europe is a different tree. 

Walnut Family.— B\ and white walnut (butternut) are well 
known. Three species of shell-bark and two of smooth-bark, are 
common in this country. The list comprises the shag-bark, the 
Western shell-bark, the mockernut or white-heart, the pig-nut or 
broom, and the bitter-nut or swamp hickories. 


Oah FamUy.—T\\\'& family comprises not only the oaks but also 
the chestnut, beech, hazel-nut and iron-wood. Some of the oaks 
hybridize so much that it is difBcult to keep track of the species 
and varieties. White oak, of course, takes the lead here as else- 
where, but the black jack is about as abundant. The latter is 
usually the " second gi-owth," and is as good as hickory for lire- 
wood. Bur-oak, scarlet oak and black oak (yellow-barked, or 
quercitron) are common. Laurel or shingle oak, yellow chestnut 
oak and red oak are occasionally met with. Laurel oak is so called 
on account of the shape of its leaves, and is also called shingle oak, 
on account of its being so good in pioneer times for cla]>boards. 
Two species of iron-wood flourish here. They belong to different 

fenera, one having seeds in clusters of involucres resembling hops; 
ence it is called liop hornbeam. The other iron-wood or horn- 
beam is also called blue or water beech. 

Birch Family. — The red, or river birch is sometimes found along 
the rivers and creeks, the dwarf birch in swamps. Paper birch is 
rather common. 

Willows. — The most common willow, as well as the largest, is 
the black; then thejirarie, glaucous, heart-leaved, shining and long- 
leaved. The black and the shining willows have tough twigs which 
are very brittle at the base. Several other species of willow occur, 
but are rare. The quaking asp, or American aspen, the cotton- 
wood. balm-of-Gilead, Lombardy poplar and silver-leaf, or white 
poplar, are well known. Glandular- leaved willow is common about 
the head of Lake Michigan. 

Pines. — The most common pines in this region are the white and 
northern scrub. Black and hemlock spruce and balsam fir may be 

Aru7n Family. — Indian turnip (Jack-in-the pulpit) abundant; 
skunk cabbage common in wet places supplied by spring- water; 
green dragon common; sweet flag rare. 

Duckweeds. — Two species common on the surface of ponds. They 
do not take root in the earth. 

Cat-tails. — Common cat-tail (a kind of flag) and a species of bur 
reed occur in wet places. 

Pondweeds. — Several species grow throughout this country. 
Their habitat is in or under water. 

Water- Plantain Family. — Arrowhead (two species, with several 
variations) is abundant. Has large, arrow-shaped leaves and white 
flowers in threes, and grows along the sloughs. AVater plantain 
and arrow-grass are sometimes found, growing in same situation 
as last. 

Orchids. — Showy orchis, eight or ten species of Habenaria, 
rattlesnake plantain, ladies' tresses, Pogonia, crane-fly orchis, adder's 
mouth, coral-root and five species of lady's slipper are found in 
this county, and Calopogon is common. The lady's slippers are 


being tiiinned out rapidly by parties shipping them East, for a 

Amaryllis FamUy. — Star-grass is common in prairies. It is a 
modest little grass-like ]ilant, putting forth its conspicious, yellow, 
three-petaled flowers in June. 

Irh Family. — The larger blue flag is becoming rare. Blue-eyed 
grass looks like the star-grass just mentioned, except that the 
flowers are white or pale blue. Its habitat is the prairie. 

Yam Family. — Wild yam-root is a green vine sometimes seen 
in the woods. 

Smilax Family. — Common green-brier, smilax hispida and car- 
rion flower are all not very rare. 

Lily Family. — Purple trillium, or three-leaved nightshade, and 
the large white trillium ai-e abundant: flower in May. One or two 
other species of trillium sometimes occur. Bellwort is an early 
flower in the woods. Smaller Solomon's seal and false spikenard 
are common. Wild orange-red lily is common in the margins of 
prairies which are not pastured and have never been broken. 
White dog's-tooth violet, white hellebore and great Solomon's seal 
are reported here. Yellow dog's tooth violet is abundant; it is a 
prominent flower in April, in the woods. Squill (eastern quamash, 
or wild hyacinth) is also found in this county. Wild garlic, having 
tops like our garden top-onions, and wild leek are common in low 
places not pastured. 

Bushes. — The bog-rush is a very common, yellowish, grass-like 
herb along roads and paths, especially those leading through the 
forest; but it is also found to some extent in all other situations. 
Common, or soft rush is common, and several other species are 
also common. 

Pickerel-weeds. — Water star-grass, growing under running water 
in the forest brooks, is common. Pickerel-weed is occasional. 

Spiderworts. — Common spiderwort is common. Day-flower is 

St'dges. — There are three or four dozen species of sedge growing 
within the limits of any one county, but they are all unimportant 
plants. They have a grass-like appearance, but can readily be dis- 
tinguished from the grasses by their having triangular stems and 
bur-like tops (seed clusters), while the grasses have rounder round- 
ish stems. What is generally called lake grass along the rivers is 
a true sedge, and its English name is great bulrush. It is by far 
the largest of the sedges. The river club-rush is next in size. 

Grasses. — Blue grass takes the lead for prevalence and utility. 
Next, two species of fox-tail. Besides these the most common 
grasses are white grass, rice cut grass, Indian rice or water oats, 
timothy, rush grass (two species), bent grass, wood reed-grass, 
dropseed (two genera); reed bent-grass, blue joint grass, porcupine 
grass, fresh-water cord-grass, Kceleria, Eatonia (two species), melic 
grass, fowl meadow grass and its congener, Glyceria fluitans, low 
spear-grass, red top, Eragrostis (three species), fescue (two species), 


chess, Bromus oiliatus, reed (a tall, broom-corn-like grass growiug 
in dense fields in the swamps of the river bottom), Hordenm pra- 
tense (a kind of wild barley), two species of lyme-grass or wild rye, 
bottle-brush grass, reed canary grass, Paspalum, wire grass, eight 
species of panic-grass, among them two kinds of tickle-grass, and 
one old-witch grass, crab-grass and barn-yard grass, sand-bur (in 
sand) and two species of beard-grass. About two dozen other 
kinds of grass can be found in the county, but they are all very 

Horse-tails. — Scouring rush and common horse-tail (especially 
along railroads) are common: two other species scarce. 

Ferns. — Maiden-hair, brake, a spleenwort, a shield fern, a blad- 
der fern, one species of flowering fern and the sensitive fern are 
commmon in the order here named, while two or three other ferns 
may be found. 

Cluh-Mosses. — Several species are found here, one being com- 
mon . 


My home ! the spirit of its love is breathing 
In every wind that plays across my track. 
From its white walls the very tendrils wreathing, 
Seem with soft links to draw the wanderer back. 

It has ever been considered a day of rejoicing when pioneers 
should meet, when old comrades should come together, to renew 
their memories and cheer up their souls. In the dim past, when, 
after Babel, the migrations of tlie peoples took an extensive form, 
the idea of periodical reunion was made practicable. On the land 
where Athens now stands such another meeting is said to have 
taken place as that which did honor to the pioneers of Elkhart in 
1859. Over two thousand years ago the spot on which is now built 
tlie city of Paris, the beautiful Lutetia of Julian, the early settlers 
united in their strength and sacrificed to the gods in honor of their 
meeting and in thanksgiving for the beautiful land they possessed. 
Three thousand years ago the Partholanians met at Howth and 
lighted the Pagan J5res of joy for giving them a home in Ireland, so 
far away from the assaults of their brother Greeks; and still later 
the warlike Milesians assembled on the same shore to celebrate the 
anniversary of their conquest of the island, and to meet in tnerry 
circle before separating for their homes. Revert to the olden 
times, to the history of every country, and the accounts of those 
happy reunions remind us of their utility. If then our barbarous 
ancestors of dim antiquity observed the custom, how much more 
becoming is it for the people of to-day, who may be said to have 
reached the highest pinnacle of civilization to be attained by the 
race at present inhabiting this globe? The fact is accepted and 
acknowledged. Throughout the length and breadth of this great 
land, the large-souled pioneers who have made this country great 
have assembled periodically to celebrate their advent and their stay, 
and to give thanks to their God for His mercy in leading them to 
peaceful and happy homes. The pleasure of such meetings is only 
known to pioneers. Their children can scarce conceive the feeling 
which such an assembly creates, or the happy memories which it 


awakens. For them alone it has an undying interest; and though 
the young may possibly share a little in the joy of the old, they 
never can summon up the same endearing memories as pertain to 
the latter, or entertain for the soil they tread that beautiful vener- 
ation which pertains to the heart of the old settler. He alone saw 
the virgin soil and married her. His industry tamed the beautiful 
wild land until it yielded returns a hundred fold; his hands deco- 
rated the farm with a modest and comfortable cottage, and now in 
his declining years he has that homestead to take pride in, and 
these happy meetings to yield him pleasure. Happy settlers! Good 
old settlers! "Well deserved are the honors you have ^won, — well 
merited the peace and joy that waits upon your age! 


At a very early period in the history of the county efforts were 
made to organize an association, in which all the pioneers would be 
embraced. For many reasons the progress made was very slow, so 
that so late as twenty-three years ago no regularly constituted 
organization had existence. Then the people, having emerged from 
the period of labor and careful guard, turned their attention to the 
good work, and without delay banded themselves together, and the 
union of the venerable citizens was complete. 

The iirst annual meeting of this association was held at Goshen 
May 11, 1857. J. H. Barnes presided, and E. W. H. Ellis was sec- 
retary. The following officers were then elected: President, Mat- 
thew Rippey; Yice-Presidents, Col. John Jackson, Geo. Nicholson 
and Wm. Waugh; Secretary, E. W. H. Ellis; Treasurer, Milton 
Mercer; Executive Committee, J. E. McCord, of Elkhart town- 
ship; Eobert A. Thomas, of Clinton; John D. Elsea, of Benton; 
Mark B. Thompson, of Jackson ; John Peppinger, of Union; Daniel 
McCoy, of Locke; Noah Anderson, of Harrison; John Davenport, 
of Concord; James Beck, of Bango; C. Terwilliger, of Olive; J. D. 
Carleton, of Cleveland ; Nathaniel Newell, of Osolo; Owen Coffin, 
of "Washington; Charles L. Murra}', of Jefferson; Lewis F. Case, of 
Middlebury, and A. B. Arnold, of York. 

Those gentlemen performed the work of organization entrusted 
to them in a most satisfactory manner, so that for many succeeding 
years the reunion of old settlers was an event looked forward to 
with extraordinary interest, not only by themselves, but also by 
their children and modern residents in the county. The aggregate 
meeting of old settlers held at Goshen the subsequent year proved 


an evidence of the care devoted to it by the organizers. It was a 
thorough literary and social success, nor was the recent reunion of 
1879 inferior to it. The " Pioneer'.s Song," by Dr. E. W. H. Ellis, 
written on the occasion of a similar reunion in 1858, was rendered 
in a very effffctive manner by Mrs. Frank Dennis, assisted by Mrs. 
Crary and D. W. Hattei. Tiie last chorus is not so cliaracteristic 
as the four preceding ones; but, as will be seen, was very appropri- 
ate to the occasion. 

So come along, couie along ; and this the toast shall be: 

" Honor to the pioneers and their posterity!" 

And when, like leaves in autumn, their time shall come to fall. 

May their virtues and their memories be cherished by us all. 

The author of that song had been both poet, writer and orator. 
He performed much also for his adopted county, and consequently 
took a very important part in the public events of the period, until 
he made for himself such an enviable reputation as to win even 
from the writer this brief notice, and a place for his simple yet glo- 
rious old song in history. 



AIR — " Uiide Sam's Farm." 

[Written for the Old Settlers" Meeting in Goshen, February S4, 1858. J 


Friends, let's pause a moment 

Amid good feeling's flow, 
To toast the lads and lasses 

Of thirty years ago, 
Who left their homes of plenty 

And broad Ohio's shore. 
The forests and the prairies 
Of Elkhart to explore. 
"Come along, gee along, now begin to go, 
Tow'rds the blooming prairies and the bright St. Jo — " 
Oh, the earth is very broad and her bosom rich and rare, 
Like the Goshen of old Egypt, it has milk and honey fair ! 


They " squatted" in the forests 

And on the prairies wide ; 
They built their humble cabins. 

And the tempests they defied; 


They tum'd the deep soil over, 

The richest ever found, 
And the seeds and sprouts they bro't along 
They run 'em in the ground! 
" Come along, gee along, Buck and Bright halloe! 
What you 'bout, you lazy dogs, pushing 'long so slow !" 
Oh, the land is full of riches as ever filled an urn, 
And a thousand sleeping furrows are waiting for their "turn !" 

Their true and trusty rifles 

Were hanging on their pegs, 
And their very rusty " trowsers " 

Were hanging on their legs; 
With muskets on their shoulders 

They hunted near and far. 
And home they brought a noble buck. 
And now and then a "ba'r!" 
"Come along, come along," rang the merry shout, 
"Molly bake the hoe-cake, shove the table out. 
Bring the pewter dishes, set the gourds around," 
While the song and story and meiTy jokes resound. 


Blooming like a garden 

In the summer's sun, 

Smiled the lovely prairie 

When their work was done; 
But of all the products 

That made their hearts rejoice. 
And the crop most certain. 

Was the crop of girls and boys. 
"Come along, come along, Tom, and Nell, and Joe, 
Jack, and Jim, and Peg, and Sal, don't you be so slow." 
Oh, the only way a man can do his duty to the nation 
Is to plow, and sow, and reap, and mow, and raise the population. 

Then honor to the hardy men, 

And noble women, too. 
Who planted here their happy homes 

Some thirty years ago; 
Whose daring hearts and sturdy arms 

First laid the forests low. 
And elbowed round and made the room 
For "sprouts" like us to grow. 
So come along, come along, and this the toast shall be: 
"Honor to the pioneers and their posterity!" 
And when, like leaves in autumn, their time shall come to fall. 
May their virtues and their memories be cherished by us all. 



Knmes Age. Dnltof Plnce of 
Iminlgi't'ii. NntWy. 

Albin, Moreland C2 1839 O. 

" Mrs 58 1838 Pa. 

Albright, Jouas 77 1837 N. C. 

Beane, Esler 70 183() Va. 

Beck, Sr., James 76 1830 Ky. 

Mrs 66 1830 Me. 

Butler, W. H 48 1831 Ind. 

Bunger, S 53 1838 O. 

Mrs 49 1835 Can. 

Browu, T. C 55 1837 Pa. 

Brown, II. K 83 1835 Tenn. 

Beard, Frederick 63 1831 O. 

Burns, Torrance 72 1834 Ky. 

Burns, Mrs. John .... 60 1833 O. 

Brown, Amos 63 1837 Pa. 

Beckner, Jacob 84 1834 Va. 

Boomersliire, S 66 1838 O. 

Braden, R. D 70 1834 O. 

Mrs 65 1834 O. 

Benner, Beni 75 1834 Pa. 

Mrs 66 1834 N.Y. 

Bauta, Mrs. E 63 1829 O. 

Bacliclor, Mrs 67 1835 O. 

Bowser, Wni 63 1833 O. 

Mrs 60 1831 O. 

Boyd, Thomas 66 1839 Pa. 

Bishop, D. C 63 1837 N. Y. 

" Mrs 58 1835 N. Y. 

Beclt, Noah 63 1834 Md. 

Beck, Albert 65 1833 O. 

Blue, Abner 60 1836 O. 

Butler, T. P 53 1831 O. 

Bowser, T SO 1832 O. 

Bowser, Elijah 58 1832 O. 

Bachelor, Daniel 71 1836 Me. 

Basher, Michael 70 1834 Pa. 

Back, Mrs 56 1833 O. 

Beane, W. A 51 1836 O. 

Beardsley, Mrs. Dr...73 1830 — 

Broderick, Mrs. N. F..64 1835 — 

Bachelor, Jlrs 67 1835 O. 

Cormary, Mrs 63 1834 Va. 

Caldwell, Robert 43 1836 Ind. 

Carmien, Wm 76 1831 Md. 

Cripe, Daniel T 58 1830 O. 

" B. C 59 1830 O. 

" J. M 54 1830 O. 

Crary, John L 59 1834 O. 

" Mrs. J. L — — 

Coon, Mrs 43 1833 Ind. 

Crary, James H — — 

Case, L. F 73 1836 N. Y. 

" Mrs 69 1836 N.Y. 

Cornell, B. F 65 1833 O. 

Case, Ettie 42 1837 Ind. 

Childs, Mrs. S 67 1830 N. Y. 

Corpe, E. H 43 1835 O. 

Cathcart, B. F 61 1830 Ind. 

Cline, Jacob 57 1839 Ger. 

Case, B. V 69 1S36 N. Y. 

Iinuilg'l'n. Nallv'y. 

Chamberlain,Mr8.P.A.63 1837 N. Y. 

Crary, C. W 49 1837 N. Y. 

Corey, Rev. C 80 1832 N. Y. 

Carmien, W. H 43 1836 Ind. 

Clark, D. J 83 1834 Vt. 

Cooper, John A 54 1839 O. 

Cowau, J. W 57 1834 O. 

Mrs 54 1837 Pa. 

Chamberlain, Mrs. E.G.60 1839 N. Y. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Elias. 74 1829 Va. 

Carlton, Mrs 57 1834 — 

Cornell, Mrs. B. F. ..60 1835 N. J. 

Defrees, JNIrs 58 1833 — 

Dodge, E. F 45 1833 Ind. 

DeCamp, Silas 58 1834 Ind. 

Mrs... 53 1834 Ind. 

Defrees, J. 11 67 1831 Ten. 

Dewey, Mrs. O. F. . . .48 1836 S. C, 

Darr, David 60 1830 O. 

Engl e, Andre w 57 1 833 O. 

" Mrs 60 1839 Va. 

Ellis, Joel 58 1830 N. Y. 

" J.W 54 1831 N. Y. 

Eby, David 60 1835 O. 

" Samuel 72 1837 O. 

Eldridge, David — 1835 O. 

Eisenbeis, Wm 53 1834 Md. 

Mrs 54 1835 O. 

Funk, Joseph 57 1823 O. 

Fetters, Peter 73 1833 Pa. 

Farber, C. S 68 1835 Va. 

Foster, C. E 50 1836 Ct. 

Gregory, E 63 1837 Ct. 

Garrison, A 53 1 838 N. Y. 

Garven, D 60 1835 O. 

Ganger, Samuel 73 1836 Pa. 

Gamberling, Geo 50 1846 O. 

Mrs... .47 1835 Va. 

Ganger, Daniel 72 1839 Pa. 

Grissamer, R 55 1836 Pa. 

Hubbell, A. L 63 1834 O. 

Ilockert, Mrs 48 1836 O. 

Hockcrt, J 55 1829 Ind. 

Hopkins, Mrs 44 1835 O. 

Hahn, — 54 1830 — 

Hawks, J. P 57 1837 N. Y. 

Mrs 55 1835 N.Y. 

Henry, Mrs. Dr 63 1840 — 

Hess, I 61 1829 O. 

Halstead, Elizabeth. ..53 1838 N. Y. 

Hively, Mrs 53 1835 O. 

Hendricks, "W. C. . . .77 1839 Ct. 

Heaton, P 70 1835 O. 

Hess, B 63 1829 O. 

•' E 68 1829 O. 

" Mrs 62 1833 O. 

Hascall, C. S 68 1837 N. Y. 

" Mrs 59 1835 N.Y. 

Howenstein, R 60 1838 O. 

Hawks, Cephas 67 1835 N. Y. 


Hawks, Mrs 61 1838 Vt. 

E 61 1887 N.Y. 

Hixon, S. L 73 18;!4 Pa. 

Hire, John 63 1830 O. 

" Mrs 40 1839 Ind. 

Hitchcock, H. H 63 1837 N. Y. 

Mrs 54 1837 N.Y. 

Irwin, E 53 1833 Pa. 

" R. D 55 1833 Pa. 

" Mrs 47 1835 Pa. 

Juday, J: 73 1830 — 

" B 43 1836 O. 

Jackson, F 65 1838 Ire. 

Mrs 58 1835 O. 

Jackson, Mrs. Ira 56 1838 N. Y. 

Jiiday, A 54 1838 — 

Johnson, G. C 56 1836 — 

Jackson, Ira 59 1829 O. 

Jacobs, Mrs. Henry. .. — — 

Kellogg, Mrs 73 1837 — 

King, M. D 68 1837 Pa. 

" Mrs 53 1839 O. 

Knapp, D. J 43 183G Ind. 

Kinnison, A 54 1837 O. 

" 58 1833 Va. 

Kitson, Mrs 71 1838 N. Y. 

Krupp, D. H 43 1837 — 

Koonce, Wm 60 1835 Va. 

Knox, J. D 73 1831 Va. 

Latta, James M 46 1834 Ind. 

Lake, 11. T 64 1837 Va. 

'■ Mrs 57 1830 O. 

Long, H 53 1839 

Larimer, Brice — 1835 O. 

Lmderman, John 63 1834 . Md. 

J. A 60 1833 Ger. 

Longacre, J. W 58 1839 Ind. 

T 48 1831 Ind. 

Mills, A. H 76 1835 Va. 

Matthews, E 60 1830 O. 

Mitchell, Mrs. E 53 1839 O. 

M'Cullough, Andrew.. 76 1838 Pa. 

" Mrs. Andrew. 71 1838 Pa. 

Manning, A! 63 1834 O. 

" Mrs 50 1835 Pa. 

Matthews, D 59 1839 O. 

Mitchell, Elizabeth...— 1830 

Mayfield, J. H 59 1834 D. C. 

Mrs 55 1830 O. 

McKibben, J 75 1838 Ire. 

McDowell, Mrs. S. . . .56 1835W.Va. 

McCloud, James 69 1834 O. 

Mercer, Mary 81 1839 Va. 

Martin, Ed 71 1833 Pa. 

Mrs 63 1833 O. 

Mercer, M ,59 1833 Pa. ' 

Miller, Rebecca 57 1831 Ind. 

McBride, Mrs 63 1831 Ind. 

Moore, John 59 1835 N. Y. 

" Thomas 47 1835 N. Y. 

Miller, Henry 57 1839 Pa. 

McNutt, Joseph 71 1835 Va. 

Miller, Sam R 60 1835 Pa. 

Name*. 4ge. Date of Pliice of 

Immlirt'i'n. Naliv'y 

Mills, J. W 44 1836 Ind.' 

McReynolds, Mrs Jas. — ■ 

McCumsey, Luke 53 1835 O. 

Mrs 50 1839 

Matthews, John 61 1831 O. 

Messick, Mrs. P. C. 43 1836 Ind. 

Newell, Joseph 45 1835 N. Y. 

Mrs 76 1831 Md. 

W. B 50 1838 N.B. 

Norton, A. A 76 1838 N. Y. 

Mrs 75 1838 N.Y. 

" W. H 43 1838 N.Y. 

Nihart, J 54 1835 Pa. 

" John — 

Newell, George 40 1839. Ind. 

Prickett, Thomas 47 1833 Ind. 

Pease, Warren 53 1830 O. 

Poorbaugh, P 63 1830 Pa. 

Powell, J. L 78 1839 Va. 

Mrs 66 1837 N.Y. 

Pickerel, John 59 1835 O. 

Purl, Mrs 60 1833 Md. 

" Gabe 67 1835 Va. 

Potter, Mrs 58 1836 N. Y. 

Price, M 49 1831 O. 

Pearman, B. F. 53 1839 Ind. 

Rowell, Mrs. Geo. P. .— 

Rohrer, Jos 47 1833 O. 

Mrs 63 1831 O. 

" John 53 1833 O. 

Mrs 53 1833 O. 

Rush, 1 51 1839 Ind. 

Rowell, Geo. P — 1835 N. H. 

Rippey, M 76 1831 O. 

Rush, R 53 1838 O. 

" Mrs 49 1836 N.Y. 

Rosenberger, Nancy. ..53 1833 Pa. 

Roller, P. M 77 1835 Va. 

Stillman, Mrs. ROX...75 1837 

" Frances. 63 1833-40 

Shuey, Mrs 76 1837 

" J. H 53 1837 O. 

Mrs 43 1837 N. Y. 

Simonton, D. S 61 1833 O. 

Mrs 54 1834 N.Y. 

Stockdale, John N 71 1834 O. 

Smith, C. J 65 1839 N. J. 

Mrs 55 1835 Md. 

Stillman, A. H 49 1833 N. Y. 

Stetler, John 80 1838 Pa. 

Mrs 73 1838 Pa. 

Starks, Philo 73 1833 Vt. 

Mrs 71 1833 Pa. 

Snyder, John 53 1835 O. 

Sunimcy, Eli 61 1839 Ind. 

Stephenson, D. S. . . .48 1833 O. 

Stephenson, Mrs 45 1 834 O. 

Summey, Malinda....68 1833 O. 

Stutz, Mrs 54 1835 O. 

Shaefer, W 58 1837 

Stump, A. D 56 1838 

Smith, T 67 1838 

Stevens, Mrs. B. F . . .46 1834 N. Y. 



Strong, S. F 62 

Stroup, R 74 

Smith, Con 49 

Swab, Wm — 

" " Mrs — 

Stonder, Sam 50 

Starks, N 47 

Stutsman, Sam 57 

Stiver, John 48 

Smith, Mrs. N 43 

Stroup, J 50 

Stancliff, Mary 63 

StaufCer, Mrs. J 57 

Stotts, Mrs 74 

Shrock, Mrs 64 

Sherwin, Leander 78 

Stutsman, Aaron 54 

Stetler, J. W 40 

Scranage, Samuel 68 

Suavely, Mrs. E 44 

Shoup, Noah 54 

Smith, Mrs. Conrad.. .86 

Stevens, Mrs. Ed 47 

Sparklin, John 45 

Mrs 41 

Stauffer, Margaret. . . . — 

Thomas, CM 45 

Thompson, J. E 51 

Tibbetts, Mrs 50 

Terwilliger, R 46 






1838:^. Y. ! 















1836 Mich. 









1837 N. Y. 











1838 N. Y. 













1837 N. Y. 1 

Thomas, W. A. ... 








Unrue, Isaac 






Van Frank, J 




Mrs. J.. 



R. 1. 

C. P 


1835 N.Y. 

Venaraou, Harvey. . 




Violett, Isdiah 




" JobnH.... 




Vail, J. D 




" Mrs 

. 51 



Weybright, D 




" M 




" Mrs 




Walburn, John 




" Mrs 

, 65 





Witmer, L. W 



" Mrs 


1837 S. Y. 

Weyburn, Mrs. S. H 
Walters, Geo 


1834 N. Y. 




Wilkinson, N 




Weddell, J. E 




Waugh, Wm .. .. 




Yeoman, Mrs. S. P. 




Zinn, Geo 




Zollinger, .Jos 




" Mrs 




The following list of septuagenarians is based upon inquiries 
addressed to a number of old settlers; .it is as complete as it is now 
possible to render, it and contains the great majority of names of 
old settlers who have arrived at the age of 70 : 

Isaac Unrue 
Johnson Quinn 
Samuel McDowell 
Samuel Rutherford 
Anna Quinn 
EUas Purl 
I. Sneider 
J. L. Powell 
Jas. McNutt 
Amasa Hascall 
Thomas Thomas 

C. P. Jacobs 
Robert McCrary 
I. D. Knox 
Sol. Yeoman 
Wm. Waugh 
Leander Sherwin 

D. Peppinger 
Wm. Strnmbeck 
Mrs. Dr. Beardsley 
Wm. Vesey 

Jlrs. Hannah Cripe 
Mrs. J. W. Violett 
Mrs. Azel Sparlin 
Mrs. Henderer 
Sirs. Eliz. Carpenter 
Mrs. Mary Mercer 
Mrs. J. H. Barns 
Mrs. Wolfgang 
Mrs. B. G. Williams 
Mrs. Ann Griffin 
Peter Tetters 
Harvey Venamon 
Samuel Stuttsman 
Mrs. Rox. StiUman 
Robert Brown 
Dr. Mallet 
James Beck 
Mrs, Kellogg 
James Burke 
Sam. Wolfgang 

Michael Yoder 73 

B. G. Williams 70 
Rev. Jacob Studebaker 85 

Wm. Wilkinson 76 

P. W.Roler 77 

Geo. Walters 74 

M. Rippey 76 

W. C. Hendricks 77 

J. McKibbm 75 

R. Stroup 74 

D. L. Hixon 73 

J. McCloud 70 

J. Vanfrank 71 

Mrs. Eliza Stutsman 82 

Mrs. Conrad Smith 86 

Mrs. Kelson 71 

Mrs. Stotts 74 

Geo. Culp 71 

Davenport 70 

Mrs. Shuey 76 






In the pages of this work will doubtless be mentioned the names 
of old settlers not given hitherto, and thus a full roster of the pio- 
neers will be retained. 


What a change has come over the land since they first saw it! A 
modern thinker has said that the metamorphosis from the sickle and 
the cradle to the modern harvester is not more wonderful than the 
changes which have been wrought in other branches of industry by 
the application of science; and he who brings up sad reminiscences 
of a hard day's work and a lumbago, caused by the swinging of his 
cradle or scythe, smiles at that semi-barbarous period that could neith- 
er produce a harvester nor a mower. To-day he mounts into the seat 
of the harvester as he would into his phaeton, and with the assur- 
ance that no matter what the condition of the grain, whether tang- 
led, lodged or leaning, he masters a quarter section of wheat field 
more thoroughly, more economically, more perfectly, than he could 
have managed a five-acre field a quarter century since. The change 
is material certainly. They realize it, but they look back to the never- 
to-be-forgotten past, when contentment waited on the work of the 
old cradle, plow and spade, and when the primitiveness of the 
implements of industry made all primitively happy. Then content- 
ment reigned supreme, and continued so to do, until knowledge 
created ambitions, and these ambitions brought with them in their 
train their proverbial and numerous little troubles. 

The change has been revolutionizing indeed. Then political meet- 
ings were called by messages passed from mouth to mouth, from 
neighbor to neighbor; now the columns of the newspapers, large 
posters, and a big drum with numerous shrill fifes call the electors to 
assemble. These bands are creatures of campaign excitement; they 
are called out during State and National elections, and discourse a 
peculiarly discordant music from early morning until the close of the 
first part of night. " The Girl I Left Behind Me " with " Yankee 
Doodle," and " Auld Lang Syne " with Pandeen O'Rafferty sum- 
mon up their musical repertoire, so that such tunes have become 
unmistakable evidences of the progress of election matters; and the 
more boisterous their rude musicians, the higher is the interest 
taken in the proceedings. On very special occasions the services 
of the silver cornet band are requisitioned; sometimes a concert 
party accompanies the orator in his round of the townships of the 
county, and in such cases a political meeting is a thing of beauty; 


but let ITS hope that the time is approaching wlien political life will 
cease to recLuire the aid of such terribly hideous noise as that which 
the precocious youth of our towns and villages render. Why, it does 
not come near the" tum-tum "of the red men in harmony, and it 
certainly exceeds that musical accompaniment of the " dog feast " 
in the variety and earnestness of its deafening noise. 


At a meeting of the old settlers of Elkhart county, held at 
Goshen on Wednesday, Feb. 24, 1S5S, the Hon. Joseph H. Defrees 
addressed his assembled friends. Every line of this great remem- 
brancer of the past is so replete with interest and historical truths 
that its .introduction in these pages cannot be otherwise than 
acceptable since it is at once the summary of Elkhart's history 
related by one of Elkhart's patriotic and oldest living children. He 
said : 

"The occasion which had called them together was a peculiar 
one, one calculated to excite the emotions and call up the remi- 
niscences of the past, which have lain dormant in the mind for 
many 3'ears. It was one also that did not require a great eflbrt ot 
oratory or any display of forensic power; but rather a sketch of 
the occurrences of the past, scenes with which most of his audience 
were familiar. He saw assembled that day, a few of those hardy 
pioneers, who, in the morning of their manhood, gathered up their 
all, and with their axes on their shoulders, pushed out upon the 
uninhabited wilderness of the West, and took up their abode in 
this beautiful country of ours. The first settlement of the St. 
Joseph country, of which this is a part, was commenced about 1828, 
a less period than 30 years ago, in the vicinity of Niles and South 
Bend. Emigrants were attracted to these points from the fact that 
some years before this the Baptist denomination, I believe, had 
established a mission post on the Portage Prairie near these places 
for the purpose of civilizing and Christianizi.ig the Indians, who at 
that day inhabited all this region of country-. 


" Yet, the great flood of emigration did not commence its out- 
pourings into the country until the years 1830-'31. Perhaps 
no country filled up more rapidly with inhabitants than did this, 
considering the means of migration, there being at that time no 
railroad, with its lightning speed, penetrating the far West from 


the Eastern or Middle States, the most common means used by the 
pioneer being that of the slow but faithful ox, to bear him and his 
family to the land of promise. 


" In the winter of 1S29 and 1830 an act passed the Legislature 
organizing the counties of St. Joseph and Elkhart, to which was 
attached for county purposes all the territory that now comprises 
the counties of Lake, Porter, La Porte, Lagrange, Steuben and 
Kosciusko. In July, 1S30, an election was held for the purpose 
of choosing a county clerk, sheriff, two associate judges, recorder 
and three justices of the peace. Thomas Thomas was elected 
Clerk; Eli Penwell, Sheriff; William Latta and Peter Diddj, Asso- 
ciate Judges; J. W. Violett, Recorder; James Mather, John Jack- 
son and Armenius Penwell, Justices of the Peace; as will appear 
by the following returns of the election: 


John W. Violett 35 votes 

James Morgan 16 " 


William Latta 63 votes 

Peter Diddy 51 " Th^marThomas'. '. ! ! ". ! ! '. ! ! ! ! 21 

Beniamin Gilbreath 37 " 

Scattering 3 " justices of the peace. 

James Mather 59 votes 

^^^'''^- A. C. PenweU 58 " 

Thomas Thomas 57 votes John Jackson 60 " 

Thomas Morgan 18 " James Friar 9 " 

Scattering 3 " 

" It will be observed that the whole vote polled at this election 
in the entire county, including the territory attached, out of which 
several counties have since been formed, was the number of 75. 
And it is to be presumed that the entire legal vote was cast, there 
being a number of aspirants to places of honor and profit, whose 
respective friends, no doubt, were active in their behalf. At that 
time the county business was transacted by the Board of Justices, 
instead of commissioners as is the law now. The place fixed by 
the Legislature at which courts were to be held, as well as the 
county business transacted, was at the house of Chester Sage, on 
the south side of the St. Joseph river, near where the late Dr. 
Beardsley's residence now stands. On the 2Sth day of June, 1830, 
the above named justices met at the place appointed by law, and 
were sworn in office by the clerk, and proceeded to the transaction 
of business. The first ofiicial act was to divide the county into two 
municipal townships as follows: 'AH that part of the county north- 
west of a line beginning at the western part of the county, between 


townships 36 and 37, and running thence east to the line between 
sections 6 and 7, thence north to the State line, to be called Con- 
cord township; and all tliat part of the county south and east of 
said lines above, to be called Elkhart township.' At the same 
session of the Board, James Friar was appointed County Treasurer, 
and James Beck, Constable for Elkhart township, and Azel Spark- 
liu. Inspector of Elections. The Sheriff was appointed County 

" Thus, the county having been fully organized, and all the 
necessary officers chosen to put the wheels of government in full 
operation, another question of importance, and one that occasioned 
considerable excitement, was still to be settled,^that of the 


"The Legislature in 1829 and 1830 appointed the following per- 
sons as commissioners to locate and establish the seat of justice for 
Elkhart county, viz: — Hugh Hannah, John Bishop, Samuel 
Fleming, Joseph Bennett and W. G. Ewing. The commissioner 
proceeded to discharge the duties assigned to them, and on the 
15th July, 1830, at a special session of the Board of Justices, they 
reported that they had selected the southwest quarter of section 24, 
town 3i north, of range 8 east, upon which to locate the county 
seat. This location is five or six miles northwest of Goshen, on 
the north side of the Elkhart river, a short distance above where 
Mr. DeCamp's mill-dam was afterward constructed. At this time 
the most populous part of the county was in Concord township, 
the first settlement having been made on Pleasant and Two-Mile 
Plains, wliicii fact, no doubt, influenced the commissioners in their 
selection. But in tliis instance, as in almost all cases of a similar 
character, the location did not give general satisfaction, as will be 
seen before we close this sketch. 

" That some idea may be had ot the population and wealth ot 
the county in 1830, I will state that the whole amount of revenue 
collected was $198, and the whole disbursement was $183.43, leav- 
ing a balance in the treasury of $14.57. The Board of Justices 
paid for taking the census of the whole county the full sum ot 
$4.50. The county clerk's bill for postage and stationery, the 
first half year after the organization of the county, was $1.87. 

" It will be observed that even if the treasury was not -(jlethoric, 
our county fathers so managed the finances that a surplus was left 
on hand at the end of the year. It may be a lesson might be 


learaed from this exhibit by those who have now or may hereafter 
have control of the fiscal concerns of the county. In the fall of 
this year the first county court was held at the house of Mr. Sage, 
by the Associate Judges, Peter Diddy and William Latta. The 
action of the court was wholly confined to a few appeal cases from 
justice's dockets and recognizances to keep the peace. It was in 
this year also, that 


was commenced in this vicinity, if not in the county, by John 
Carpenter, Sr., on the south bank of Rock run, near where the 
present lower bridge crosses that stream; and notwithstanding that 
the burro that were used in this mill wei-e of native growth, they 
cracked corn pretty lively, and ground wheat as fast as a boy could 
bolt the flour, by doing ' circular work ' at the end of a large 
wheel on the shaft of the bolt. This mill was of great convenience 
to the whole neighborhood and county, fur prior to this time what 
few grists there were to be ground had to be carried to Mr. Lacy's 
mill, on the Dowagiac, a short distance below Niles. Most of the 
provisions, however, of that early day, both of flour and meat, 
were brought from Detroit by way of Lake Michigan and the St. 
Joseph river. 


" In the winter of 1S30-'31 the Legislature passed an act author- 
izing a review for the location of the county seat of Elkhart county. 
According to said act, David Miller, Anthony E. Davis and L. G. 
Thompson proceeded, IMarch 21, 1S31, to examine the difl'erent 
sites proposed on which to locate the seat of justice, together 
with the point which the former commissioners appointed for that 
purpose had selected for its location. After due examination and 
reflection they vacated the former location and selected the 
ground upon which Goshen now stands as the most suitable 
point, taking into consideration its central position and the fact 
that the land yet belonged to the general Government. By an act 
of Congress in 1824, new counties- had the privilege of p:e-empting 
160 acres of land upon which to locate county towns, could such 
suitable land be found unoccupied. Accordingly on the 23d of 
March, 1831, these commissioners reported the action they had 
taken in the premises to the Board of Justices, who had called an 
extra session of court for this purpose. 



" At a special meeting of the Board of Justices held in June, 
1831, the land having been secured, they ordered Oliver Crane, 
whom they had previously appointed county agent, to proceed, as 
soon as convenient, to lay off said land into lots, and to advertise 
thera for sale on the 20th of July, ensuing. Accordingly Mr. Geo. 
Crawford was employed as surveyor to do this work, and the sale 
was made on the day appointed. 


"The Legislature at the session of 1830-'31, changed the mode 
and law of doing county business from a Board of Justices to that 
ot county commissioners. The county was divided into three 
districts, and Edward Downing, Geo. McCnllom and John Jackson 
were elected the first County Commissioners and held their first 
session at the house of Thomas Thomas on Two-Mile Plain, in 
September. At this session the county agent made his report of 
the number of lots sold at the sale, together with such as had been 
subsequently disposed of. The whole number sold was 44, which 
brought the aggregate sum of $2,607.75, being an average of a 
fraction over $48 a piece. In this sale were included many of the 
best lots in the village. 


"Soon after the sale of lots several log houses were erected in 
town, the first of which was bnilt, I believe, by Mr. "William Bis- 
sel upon the southeast corner of Sixth and Washington streets 
immediately south of the present residenceof Peter Tetters. Wil- 
liam Waugh and his family were the first persons that settled on 
the town plat. John II. Violett was, I understand, the first cliild 
born in Elkhart township that is now living, — his age being 28 
years and three months. 


held in Goshen was held in the fall of 1S31, in a log house owned 
by Mr. Duzenbury, which stood on the lot now occupied by Mr. A. 
B. Grubb as a saddler shop. This building was about 12x15 feet, 
and when the court was in full session, the judges at one end of 
the building and the jury at the other, it is said that the members 


of the Bar while addressing the jury, if they desired to make a 
law point to tjie court, had to go out of the house in order to turn 
round and re-enter facing the judges, and vice vers". 

"The sixth judicial circuit, in which this county was placed, 
extended as far south as Wayne county. The Hon. Charles Test 
was the first president judge that held a court in this county. 
Charley, as he is familiarly called by his friends, has filled since 
that day many honorable positions, having served in the Congress 
of the United States and frequently represented his district in both 
branches of the Legislature. A few years ago he was Secretary of 
State, and in every position that he has been placed, has discharged 
his duty with marked ability. He is now president judge of the 
Lafaj-ette Circuit Court. 

" In looking over the names of those who composed the first 
grand and petit juries, I find but one man that is still among us, 
and that is our old friend Matthew Boyd, whose absence I regret 
very much to-day. The first indictment found and tried in court 
was against a person for selling one pound oi coffee without license, 
against the law in such cases made and provided. Members of the 
Bar at that time, as near as I can ascertain, were Henry Cooper, 
D. Colerick, Gustavus A. Everts, G. W. Ewing and John B. I^ew- 
man. In the fall of 1S31 J. D. Defrees and your humble speaker 
established a printing-press in the village of South Bend, a town 
that had been laid ofi" but a few months previous by Messrs. Haha 
and Taylor and A. Coquillard, in St. Joseph county. From this 
press we issued a sheet called the 

"northwestern pioneer, 

a name indicative of the fact that it was the first and only paper 
issued northwest of Piqua, Ohio, north of Indianapolis or west of 
Detroit. At this day an enterprise of this character would seem 
foolish; for the ' red man of the woods' outnumbered the ' pale- 
faces' almost two to one. But being full of ardor, and having 
selected St. Joseph county for our future home, we labored assid- 
uously to bring it into notoriety, — and you must pardon me for 
saying that I believe this one circumstance did more to cause immi- 
gration to flow in upon us than anything else sa\e the beauty of 
the country. 



" In this connection I must relate an anecdote. A short time 
after we got the press in operation, about midwinter, a young man, 
apparently about the age of 19 or 20 years, came into the office and 
remarked that after awhile he wanted to get a piece in the news, 
and would pay for it in maple sugar. Inquiry was made of him 
about the character of the article which he wished published. 
After considerable hesitancy and confusion, he said that he 
intended soon to get married, and wanted when it took place, to 
have it printed in the paper. Quizzing the young man awhile, and 
finding out that he and his intended blue-eyed companion lived on 
Elkhart 'Prairie, we told him we made no charge for publishing 
news of that character, — and in due time the notice was sent us. 
That young man, notwithstanding that he seemed to be a little 
' verdant ' in reference to the rules of printers, made one of the 
best citizens that lived on that beautiful prairie. He has gone to 
his long home; his widow is still among us. 


" In the spring of 1832 what is commonly called the ' Sac "War ' 
took place. The inhabitants of the whole country were alarmed ; in 
imagination the tomahawk and scalping knife gleamed before us, 
red with gore; scouting parties were sent out in every direction; 
people left their farms and homes; some went back to the 'settle- 
ments ' and others congregated at Niles, South Bend and 
Goshen, these being the principal villages in the country. 
Forts were erected. Fort Beane, as it was called, in honor of 
Captain Henry Beane, stood out prominent to view on Elkhart 
Prairie, on the land of Oliver Crane, for some time after the 
war. Colonel Jackson was dispatched to Indianapolis to solicit 
aid from the Government, and the citizens generally manifested a 
courage and bravery worthy of their sires. A few weeks, however, 
dissipated all of our fears; it was soon ascertained that no hostile 
Indians had been nearer than 100 miles west of the then village 
of Chicago. This whole circumstance that Black Hawk with a por- 
tion of his tribe and a few of the Fox Indians were in the habit 
annually of passing around the southern bend of Lake Michigan 
on their way to Maiden, in Canada, where presents were distributed 
to them by the British government; and upon their trip this 


spring they had some difficulty with a few pioneers in the territory 
that now comprises the State of Iowa, the Indians having made 
their reprisals on the provisions of the settlers. Their march north, 
however, was soon checked by a few volunteers sent out by the 
government of Illinois. Notwithstanding, the North- Western Pio- 
neer was sending out its weekly issue to the people in the country, 
and advising them not to be alarmed, — and to those who contem- 
plated removing here not to stay back or direct their steps else- 
where ; still the ' Sac War ' retarded, to a great degree, the 
improvement of and immigration into the country that year. In 
this year (1832) the authorities determined upon building a 

"court house. 

" The making and laying of the brick were contracted to Henry 
Davis, the carpenter work to Jacob Studebaker. This was the first 
court-house built in Northern Indiana. The first court was held 
in the spring of 1S33, Gustavus A. Everts, president judge. The 
house was not fully completed, however, until the fall of that year. 
In the fall of 1832 the first meeting-honse (Methodist) was built 
in Goshen, on the lot now occupied by Peter Peter: ssize 40 feet 
square. You must not suppose from this that the word of God 
was not dispensed amonw us at an earlier day; for it is a common 
saying that the first thing you discover on immigrating to a new 
country is a ' Methodist preacher and dog fennel;' why it is that 
they should be coupled togetlier I know not, unless they are re- 
garded as the first evidences of civilization. The Ohio Methodist 
Conference",had this country attached to her for religious purposes, 
and as early as 1829 and 1830 they sent out two men to labor in 
this part of the vineyard. lu the tall of 1834 the Indiana Confer- 
ence sent Mr. Griffith to preach here every four weeks, and the first 
sermon was delivered in the bar-room of Mr. Geo. McCullom's 
tavern, standing on the lot now occupied by Messrs. Marsh & Kin- 
dig. Dr. I. Latta's office, a small frame building, was frequently 
used as a place of worship. This meeting-house was also used as a 
school-house for many years. 


" In 1831 the Legislature passed an act granting Jacob Stude- 
bakerthe privilege of damming the Elkliart river at or near Goshen, 
which was the first mill-dam thrown across the stream. The river 


having been declared navigable by the United States authorities, 
the Legislature required Mr. Studebaker to construct a suitable 
lock in his dam for the purpose of passing and repassing boats. It 
was supposed at an early day that the river would be extensively 
used as a means of carrying off the productions of the country, and 
importing into it such necessaries as the wants of the people de- 
manded. In the spring of this year, 1S31, I think it was, 

"a mail route was established 

between Fort Wayne and Niles, the mail to be carried over it once 
in four weeks. In the fall of the same year, the Postoflice Depart- 
ment increased the speed from once in four weeks to that of once 
in two weeks; many of you, no doubt, well remember how elated 
you felt, when you heard the sound of the old tin horn, blown by 
' Old Hall ' as he came wending his way through the grove east ot 
the village, with his ' tantrum ' sorrels, himself astride of one, and 
the mail bags, containing news from the • settlements,' on the other, 
with a ' string' fastened to the bits of the leader in order to guide 
him in the right path. That old horn, with its music, discoursed 
sweeter strains to its hearers than did ever Hall and Arnold's in 
their palmiest days. 

'• political reminiscences. 

>' It may not be amiss to refer to some of the politicians who had 
the honor of representing this county in the Legislature of the State. 
The first election for Representatives took place in August, 1S31, 
and Samuel Hanna, of Fort Wayne, — this county being attached to 
Allen for representative purposes, — was elected. In 1S32 the Rep- 
resentative district was composed of Allen, Elkhart, St. Joseph, 
La Porte and Lagrange, and Geo. Crawford, of this county, was 
chosen its member. In 1S33 David H. Colerick was elected from 
the same district. In 1834 John B. Chapman was elected. In 
1835 E. M. Chamberlain, and in 1S36 Elkhart county was entitled 
to a Representati%'e alone, and Col. Jackson was honored with being 
her first Representative. The Senatorial district was represented by 
each of these individuals, except Messrs. Chapman and Jackson — 
beginning in 1832 with Judge Hanna, and ending in 1S39 with 
Judge Chamberlain. It is a singular fact that all those members 
of the Legislature are still living, and within the territory that 
formed the original district, enjoying the fruits of their labors, save 
one, J. B. Chapman, who is now a resident of Kansas. 



" It was at the session of 1834 that the Buffalo & Mississippi 
railroad. charter was granted, which is now used by the Northern 
Indiana road. John B. Chapman has the honor of originating that 
cliarter, the object of which being to ' connect the two hemispheres,' 
as he said in a speech wliile canvassing the next year for re-election, 
as it is said; but I do not vouch for its correctness. The measure, 
however, was an important one, and was looked upon at that early 
day as a means that would soon be in operation to carry off the sur- 
plus produce that was beginning to accumulate in the country. 
Instead of having to ' ark ' down the Elkhart and St. Joseph rivers, 
exposed to the dangers of sand-bar and mill-dam, the surplus pro- 
ductions of the country, and ' keeling' back the merchandise from 
the lake consumed by the people, or hauling it from Michigan City, 
we anticipated a direct route east, saving the dangers of circuitous 
navigation, and speeding the time to market. Accordingly in 
1836 a company was organized under the charter, and the work 
commenced, subscriptions having been liberally made along the 
line of the contemplated route; but in this instance, as in a great 
many others, we commenced at the ' wrong end,' and ruiu was the 
result, after having digged down a few sand hills between Michigan 
City. and La Porte. 

" It was about this time also that the State of Indiana embarked 
in a mammoth scheme of internal improvements, which was to 
bring a canal or railroad almost to every man's door, and to make 
all her citizens prosperous. In that great scherte we were provided 
for in the shape of a northern canal, to be constructed from Fort 
Wayne to Lake Michigan. This enterprise was surveyed and 
located through our village, which raised the expectations of our 
people to anticipate that a few years of time would convert our 
quiet little village into a noisy and bustling city. Town lots 
situated along the line of the canal, which ran along the Bluff, 
Bank of Reck Hun, became more valuable in the imagination of 
their owners than property in any other part of the town, and a 
number of citizens were induced to invest their means there, but 
were disappointed in the end. After having expended a consider- 
able sum of money in work upon this canal, it proved a failure, as 
did the whole internal improveme'nt system of the State. 



"The elections in this county prior to 1S36 did not partake of a 
party character to any considerable extent, men being chosen to 
positions npon their personal merits. But with the increase of 
population a new order of things was incorporated into onr elec- 
tions, and candidates for office had to connect themselves with 
party organizations in order to be successful. The parties at this 
time were known generally as Jackson men and Adams men, they 
being the great leaders of the two classes of politicians into which 
the American people had divided. Accordingly, to advance their 
cause, the Adams men established at Goshen a weekly paper, called 


edited by Charles L. Murray, being the first newspaper published 
in Elkhart connty. A few months later the other party purchased 
a printing press and located it also in Goshen, from which was 
issued a sheet called the Goshen Democrat, and edited by Thomas 
H. Basset. The editors of these respective sheets advocated their 
peculiar politics with energy and ability. Some years afterward 
the Express was removed to Warsaw, and the D.'mocrat has con- 
tinued its labors here up to the present time. 


•• The whole number of votes polled in Elkhart county in 1832 
for President of the United States was 189. The number polled 
for the same purpose in 1836 was 759, and in 1810, 1,236, an 
increase of nearly 1,700 per cent, since the first election held in 
July, 1830. 


"I have no means of ascertaining the amount of products raised 
prior to the year 1840: consequently I can give no statistics earlier 
than that year. The following figures will give the amount of the 
principal productions for that year: wheat, 44,501: bushels; corn, 
98,862 bushels; oats, 45,787 bushels; hay, 2,0'12 tons; maple sugar, 
73,697 lbs. Considering that a large portion of our county is 
heavily timbered, and requires an immense amount of labor to 
bring the soil to a state of productiveness, the showing is a good 
one to be produced in ten years of its first settlement. But in 
order that we may have some idea of the improvement and industry 


in the county for the next ten years, I will give the showing of the 
same articles of production in the year 1850 : wheat, lTi,716 bushels ; 
corn, 370,973 bushels; oats, 184,940 bushels; hay, 8,287 tons; 
maple sugar, 155,971 lbs.; making a net increase of nearly 400 
per cent, over that of the year 1840. It is fair to suppose that the 
census of 1860 will show the same rates of increase, if not greater 
than that shown between the years 1840-'50, and if so, what an 
immense amount of money these articles alone, if sold at present 
prices, would produce, making in aggregate over one million 

" Thus, fellow citizens, I have very hastily sketched a few of the 
early incidents connected with the organization and settlement of 
this count}'; but it may not be out of place now to refer to our 
present condition, and anticipate somewhat of the future. 


"Look around us and see what changes time has produced, not 
only in the physical appearances of the country, but in its social, 
educational and moral aspect. Instead of the foot path or Indian 
trail leading from one neighborhood to another, we have township 
and county roads crossing each other at almost every section corner; 
the forests have given way before the strong arm of the axman; 
the bosom of the prairie that was so luxuriantly covered with the 
wild flowers, has been made to blossom with the fruits that sustain 
life, and the red-oak openings made to yield profusely to reward 
the labors of the husbandman. Kivers have been spanned with 
bridges, towns have sprung up as if by magic, and the busy hum 
of industry is heard all around us. Instead of the old ' corn- 
cracker ' on Eock run, elegantly finished grist-mills have been put 
in operation in almost every part of the county; instead of using 
'puncheons' made with the broad ax, for flooring, the tall poplar 
and majestic oak is converted into such uses by saw-mills; in place 
of venison 'jerk' and 'corn-dodgers,' our tables are crowned with 
richest edibles, and our sons and daughters, instead of being smoked 
to ' sooty black' in the old log huts reared for school-houses, have 
neat white frame ones placed at almost every cross-road. The 
spire of the church meets the eye in every village.and every neigh- 
borhood; the surplus produce crowds your barns instead of your 
stock yards, and our citizens look indeed like ' Man is the noblest 
work of God.' We are no longer compelled to ' ark ' upon.the river, 


or draw by torce of animal power, the surplus products of the coun- 
try; instead of the old 'tantrum' sorrels briugino; the mail once in four 
■weeks, it is now received dail \- ; in place of the music of the tin horn, 
we hear the shrill whistle of tlie locomotive as it comes dashing 
along with lightning speed on tlie iron-rail; tiie telegraph, with its 
wondrous power, puts us within speaking distance of the seaboard 
cities, and evidences of progress meet us on every hand. Elkhart 
county, from a population of 300 when organized, has advanced to 
that of 20,000; instead of 189 votes polled, as at the Presidential 
election of 1832, she gave at the last Presidential election, 1856, a 
vote of nearly 4,000; instead of one little village in the center of the 
county, there are seven thriving towns. She has become the most 
populous county north of the Wabash, save one; exports more grain 
and flour than any other county through which the I^orthern Indi- 
ana railroad passes; has the best built county town of any county 
in the State of the same number of buildings; her citizens support 
three weekly newspapers established within her borders; her school- 
houses are thronged with happy children, and her churches are 
filled every Sabbath with an enlightened and grateful people, return- 
ing thanks to the God of the universe for the abundant mercies 
bestowed upon them. 

" Such are a few of the advantages that we as a people can boast 
of, and what may we not anticipate in the future? If so great a 
change has been produced with so many disadvantages at the begin- 
ning, within a period of 25 years, what may we not reason- 
ably expect with all the present facilities that now surround us, in 
the next quarter century? Although many of us who are here 
to-day may not live to see that time, yet it requires no prophet's ken 
to predict the future. "With a body of land unsurpassed in the valley 
of the St. Joseph, with less than one-eighth of our tillable land 
brought under cultivation, scarcely an eighty-acre lot not capable of 
sustaining a family of ten persons, the water-power of our beauti- 
ful streams but partially improved, the mechanical skill of our peo- 
ple not fully developed, is it too much to say that Elkhart county 
will not be surpassed in point of wealth, population and moral 
influence by any of her sister counties in the State of Indiana? 
But what has produced this mighty change, and what will it 
require in order to realize our anticipations? No supernatural 
or magnetic power has been called in to eflTect this change; nature 
has not stepped aside from her ordinary course to bring it about; no 
fabled genii have been among us to aid in this work. "What then 


has proditced it? LABOR, iucessant, unwearied toil has crowned 
us with these blessings. For this, long days and sleepless nights 
have been spent; the sinews of tlie strong arm have well nigh been 
palsied for its accomplish aient. Labor, that fiat of the Almighty 
to man, that by the sweat of his brow he shall live. Labor, 
that power that moves the Universe, and causes the planets to keep 
step with the spheres. Labor, dignified by God in the creation 
of the world. Labor, intelligent indefatigable, untiring labor will 
ever produce such great changes. 

"Let us then teach our sons and daughters to labor. Let us 
impress upon them the fact that an idle person is always in league 
with the devil; that a \&zj man is abhorred bj' the Almiglity, and 
that He looks upon such as worse than infidel. Teach them that 
in order to be prosperous and happy, some useful occupation 
must be pursued; that to play their part in the great drama of 
life they must be virtuous, intelligent, educated and governed by 
the principles of justice and righteousness." 

The existence of such a man as J. H. Defrees, who 21 
years ago laid open the glorious little history which he and 
the strong minds and arms of his neighbors built up, cannot 
have proved otlierwise than most beneficial. He was then a practi- 
cal man in every sense; apart from his distinguished connection 
with the early journals of the country, he in later years made the 
work of the future historian light by his collection of legends and 
historical facts, and his happy memory. In this course even, he 
has taken a share in contributing to human happiness, and it must 
be a pleasure to all to see that man who came here, nearly half a 
century ago, with the clear head and honest heart of a young jour- 
nalist, now one of the strongest pillars supporting the commerce of 
the country. There are others to whom special honors are due, — 
a hundred names that shine in the records of the time. It is only 
allowed us here to quote from their eloquent essays. In other 
pages their good works are noted, their political and business 
actions reviewed, and thus their names are transmitted in enduring 
history for the admiration of those who are to succeed them. 

Dec. 13, 1S72, Mrs. J. H. Defrees entertained many of the old 
settlers who inhabited Goshen in 1835. Invitations were issued to 
a large number; but on account of illness, and many other causes 
only 28 were present on the festive occasion. Among the 
guests were Mrs. Mercer, 74 years of age; David B. Pippenger, 


73; Bishop Waugb, Edward Martin, Geo. P. Rowell and W. A. 


The old settlers' meeting of 1879 was replete in good results. 
Though many of those who participated in the pleasures of the 
first great meeting of 1S5S had passed away, quite a large number 
still remained to join together in admiration of the rewards which 
waited upon their toil and celebrate the forty-ninth anniversary of 
the establishment of their county. Many of the ancient people 
were called upon to relate the incidents of pioneer life, or review 
the history of the past, and as each utterance of those great old 
men must claim attention, an effort has been made to collect their 
addresses on that occasion. 

Wm. P. Martin said that he had been through this country as 
early as lS22-'3 and '24, before any houses had been erected in 
Goshen, and had camped on his several trips on the hill or spot 
where G. P. Eowell's foundry now stands. He drove always a four- 
horse team. 

Geo. Nicholson stated that he settled in Washington township, 
August 31, 1829, four months after the first settlement had been 
made in that township, by Aaron Brown, and three others, on 
April 27, 1829. He has been a resident of Washington township 
ever since; was one of the voters in Concord township at the first 
election ever held in the county ; had to go with his grist to Ford's 
mill on tlie Dowagiac, and in his route had to ford the St. Joseph's 
river with an ox team, and be careful to select, in the winter, a time 
when the ice was not running. 

At the close of Mr. Nicholson's remarks a call was made for all 
persons present, who had voted at the first election in the county, 
to rise, whereupon John W. Violett, H. Staufter, John Jackson, 
William Carmein, E. Carpenter and Mark B. Thompson, in addi- 
tion to Mr. Nicholson, rose up. 

Col. John Jackson said that he had lived in the county 23 years; 
•was a lieutenant in the army at the age of 22, in the war of 1812; 
was sent to assist Hull ; had reached Urbana, where his company 
lay two weeks, and heard while there that Hull had surrendered. 
Col. Meigs heard that Fort Wayne was besieged, and made a prop- 
osition for volunteers to go and relieve it. His company went, 
and found the fort in charge of Gen. Harrison, and the Indians all 
dispersed. Troops were sent after them, among them his company, 



Wy/^/ ^ 7^///P^^z, 


and tiiey followed them to this county. They crossed Elkhart 
river at Benton, and made preparations to attack the Pottawatomie 
village situated where Mr. Thompson's farm now is; were divided 
into two detachments, one to approach the village tlirongh the 
woods, tlie other by the prairie. He belonged to the woods divi- 
sion. They found the village deserted. When he first entered on 
the prairie he thought it the most beautiful country he had ever 
seen, and resolved when the war should close, in case the Govern- 
ment should purchase the land of the Indians, he should come and 
make it his home. He heard in 1827 that the Indians had sold 
their lands to the Government, and, with a neighbor, came here to 
select a home. When he arrived he could hear nothing of the sale 
by the Indians, and went down to Beardsley's Prairie to see if he 
could find other country as beautiful as Elkhart Prairie, but was 
disappointed and came back. He had been told by one Eousseau, 
a Frenchman, that a treaty of purchase had been held at Carey 
mission with the Indians. He selected the spot where he now 
lives, and went to Ohio; he returned with his family, drove three 
yoke of oxen, crossed the Elkhart on the ice where the Benton now 
is, and found that Riggs was settled on his chosen land; he chose 
another place near by; Riggs concluded to sell to him, because he 
wanted a farm where he could have a sugar camp. He bought, and 
was to cook in the house and sleep on the floor for awhile. In the 
spring they made a large field in the prairie, and drew a dividing 
line by agreement. He commenced plowing with three yoke of 
cattle; had a large and wide plow, and it would not do. Hackert 
had two yoke of cattle, and put them with his, and they plowed 
finely. They turned their cattle out at night to graze on the blue- 
grass which grew abundantly around the Indian village. They 
were plowing corn about the i2tli or 15th of May, when, looking 
along to the sky, they discovered a storm coming up, heard thunder 
and expected to be delayed with rain; but they continued up their 
furrow until they met the sturm, which proved to be fierce flakes of 
snow, and it fell to the depth of three inches or more. He then began 
to think that this was a poor countrj', but has since changed his 
mind. After awhile the air became filled with little horse-flies 
which troubled the oxen so that they had to unhitch them. Mr. 
Hess went to Ft. Wayne, and heard there that many cattle had 
been killed by the flies. Finally a storm of rain came and killed 
all the flies, or, at least, they were go!ie after that. He went forty 
miles to mill, and the nearest blacksmith shop was at White 


Pigeon. They used to have religious meetings at Riggs' house. 
Some one asked him to request of Riggs the use of liis house for 
this purpose, and he did so, and found Mrs. Riggs very much 
rejoiced, she being a member of the Church, tliough he was not 
aware of it before. They had meetings there often — prayer-meet- 
ings — and he attended them. Once he had some work to be done, 
and he went to White Pigeon, to the blacksmith shop, on Sunday, 
instead of attending the meeting. 

Hon. E. M. Chambeelaix. — Mr. Chamberlain came to Indiana 
in 1S32, and settled in Goshen in the fall of 1S33. He emigrated 
from ^[aine. Goshen was then an incorporated town, and the 
county seat of Elkhart county. The main body of the court-house 
was erected but unfinished. There is now remaining but one frame 
building in the village, which was here then, and that is the main 
portion of the Xational Hotel, which was built by James Cook, in 
the fall of 1833 or the spring of lS3i. When he came to Goshen 
there were no bridges across the Elkhart river. He crossed it as 
a foot passenger on a sycamore tree which had fallen across the 
stream near where the best bridge now stands. There was a ford 
for teams one mile and a half northwest of town, close to the then 
farm of Thos. Thomas, and now the property of Hon. Robert 
Lowry. Since then many bridges have been built, and many had 
gone away. Chicago at that time was hardly known to the history 
of the country. It was only an old Indian trading post. Now it 
rivals the cities of both the new and old worlds. He had been told 
that Balser Hess had been 21 days in coming from a point in 
Ohio to Goshen, a time sufficient now to accomplish a journey to 
Liverpool and back. * s * 

The meeting now adjourned for one hour tc discuss the elegant 
and abundant supper which the settlers had brought in their bas- 
kets. Though the occasion was one called to celebrate the primi- 
tive tastes and early habits of the pioneers, yet it must be asserted, 
that nothing was seen in this supper that approached anywhere 
near to these, except the quantity of food devoured by the partakers 
of its bountiful delicacies. * * « 

T. G. Harris, the secretary, called for all persons who were 
entitled to membership to come forward and sign the constitution. 
During the signing, Hon. T. G. Harris was called for, and said 
he had been here 25 years. He saw Wm. Waugh, Joseph D. 
Knox, Joseph H. Defrees, W. A. Thomas, Judge Chamberlain, 
Ed. Martin and Dr. Cornell, who was Assessor in 1S36, the only 


persons present who were in Goshen when he came. He said that 
Elias Carpenter was Assessor in 1S40. Col John Jackson, who he 
had no doubt was a brave man, for when he had command of the 
militia in early times, had he been so required to do, would have 
fought valiantly, and himself, in 1S72, were candidates for the Leg- 
islature. The Colonel and he electioneered through the county; 
they did a great deal of it. Once he approached one of the Cripes 
to ask him for his vote, but the old gentleman told him it was no 
use. " Why." says he, " Col. Jackson laid the first worm fence on 
Elkhart Prairie, and I am going to vote for him." The Colonel 
was elected. He had heard Joseph H. Defrees say that he had been 
ten days in coming from Shobe's to Benton, that he went back at 
night for fire to the camp of the night before. This was different 
now. He taught school in 1836 or 1837 in a school-house which 
had neither a nail nor a light of glass in it. They used greased 
papers for windows. This country had been very unhealthy in 
early times. He had known a family of ten persons sick with the 
same disease, to each of whom medicine had to be administered 
once in two hours during the night. He knew of other similar 

Dr. Cornell said he came to the county in June, 1S34. Had 
been Assessor, as Mr. Harris stated, and presumed that why the 
people elected him to that office was that he had once seen a deer, 
took after it on horseback, and caught it after running six hours. 
They had confidence in his fleetness. His education was confined 
to that obtained in school-houses with greased papers for windows. 

Mr. Elias Hess said that he supposed tliat he was at present 
the oldest settler on Elkhart Prairie, having settled there on April 
5, 1829. He came from Ohio with an ox-team, and was 21 
days making the trip. They had mostly to cut their own road. 
They were not four days free from rain during the entire trip. 
When he first entered upon Elkhart Prairie he thought it, in size, 
a large farm. As he pushed onward over it he found it larger. 
He settled where he now lives, and they had to pastnre their cattle 
on the bottom, across the river from there. They tried to plow 
with one yoke, two and three yoke of cattle, but conld not succeed. 
They had to go to Fort Wayne to have a nose put on the coulter 
of their plow, and a nigger's heel, and other repairs made. Then 
they attached seven yokes of cattle to the plow and it did very well. 
When they desired to find their cattle they had to rise early to hear 
the bell. Thev waded the river and launched out into the woods 


with ears erect to catch its tinklings, and crowded on uutil the 
crackling brush would draw their attention to a deer, and then a 
turkey would gobble, and further on a wolf would howl, but no 
bell was to be heard. Thus days were consumed and much ground 
traveled over before their cattle would be found. He had traveled 
a good deal, over most of the United States, Cuba, New Grenada, 
Upper Canada and California. He was in the latter place for some 
time, and "was making more than an average of five dollars per day, 
bnt he thought he would come back to Elkhart Prairie, where 
■women and vegetables grew. He thought he would rather live 
here, and of all the country he had seen, none of it was equal to 
Northern Indiana, and Elkhart township was the best of it. 

Dr. M. M. Latta said that he had lived in this county only 
since 1S40, Jaut his father had come to the Hawpatch 25 years ago. 
The first time he came to Goshen he rode on a woman's saddle; 
there was no other kind in his neighborhood. He passed the other 
day a bridge that he had helped to build more than 20 years 
ago, and now there was a railroad embankment covering it. a cir- 
cumstance that he little expected at that early day, and which to 
him was an illustration of the progress tliat had been made in the 
country since then. The only thing that he ever drew in a lottery 
was some stumps in the public square. 

Mr. John W. Irwin said that he came to this country the fifth 
day of May, 1S32. He used to do the milling on horseback, carry- 
ing the grist to McConnell's mill, on tiie east side of town, on the 
land owned now by Henry Pierce. Father Pease, who was there 
near him, had built it. He usually carried two bushels of grain 
for a grist, and it was a whole day's grinding. "Wolves were plenty 
in those days, and premiums were oftered on their scalps. One 
man had a large trap made out of logs, and set with triggers to 
catch them in, and once when he went to examine it he found some- 
thing wrong, stepped into it, sprung the triggers by accident and 
caught himself, where he must have perished had not some of his 
neighbors come to his relief He had gone to school, also, where 
greased papers were the windows, and the whole side of the house 
was used as the chimney. 

Dr. E. "W. H. Ellis said that he was 23 years of age when he 
came to this country; he settled and practiced medicine in Elkhart; 
the country was infested with disease then; he had known 11 
persons sick in one room 15 feet square, yet now there was no 
healthier countrv in the world. He came to Goshen in 1S39, to 


take charge of tlie Goshen Democrat, which had been published 
there for over one year by Tliomas H. Bassett, a man of talent and 
eccentric habits. In ISil he -was a candidate for Connty Auditor 
against Charley Murray; it was called the pony race; he outwinded 
Charley and was elected. He had published the Democrat 11 
years, and had associated with him M. B. Hascall. After he left 
the concern his brother. "W. R. Ellis, published it, and afterward 
Judge Lowry acquired a full interest in it. 

The reminiscences of bygone times are made doubly interesting 
by being the living utterances of the pioneers. Thej' are really 
historical, and the labor exercised in a search for them has been 
well rewarded in the quantity and quality of the matter brought to 



Now, my co-mates, and brothers in exile, 

Hath not old custom made this life more sweet 

Than that of painted pomp? Are not these woods 

More free from peril than the envious court ? 

Here feel we but the penalty of Adam, 

The season's difference , as the icy fang 

And churlish chiding of the winter's wind. 

Which, when it bites and blows upon my body, 

Even til! I shrink with cold, I smile, and say 

This is no flattery: these are counsellors. 

That feelingly persuade me what I am. 

Sweet are the uses of adversity. 

Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous, 

Wears yet a precious jewel in its head ; 

And, this our life, exempt from pubhc haunts. 

Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks. 

Sermons in stones, and good in everjthing. 

In their own circle, ■within St. Joseph county, the pioneers have 
done much that deserves honorable mention. It is true that the 
fame of a Washington and the terribly earnest patriotism of a 
Montgomery have not been their share; but there is no reason what- 
ever to suppose tliat, did circumstances create an opportunity, those 
courageous men, who battled with all the obstacles which life in 
this "Western wilderness presented, and conquered them, would not 
have risen to the highest grades in military affairs, and carved for 
themselves a name as proud and enviable as that which pertains to 
our greatest heroes from the period of Independence down to the 
present. Providence ordained another, and, perhaps, more useful, 
career for the pioneers. Their fathers fought the good fight for 
liberty, and in after years, when the old tyrant, aided by this fierce 
and ignorant Indian ally, attacked the integrity of the Eepublic, 
those very pioneers rushed to arms, and dismantled every position 
held by their unprincipled and barbarous opponents. A term of 
peace ensued, and in accordance with divine economy, they hung 
up their war accoutrements and entered upon the paths which lead 
to a country's greatness. 



The late Dr. E. W. H. Ellis has, in his enjoyable prose, shown 
very precisely the gradual development of this district, the indus- 
trial characteristics of the first settlers, and the appropriate names 
which they bestowed upon these beautiful gardens or prairies which 
gave them subject for congratulation. His descriptions of those 
early days have been often quoted by many writers, and yet con- 
tinue to present to modern querists much information that is not 
only sound, but also very acceptable. An attempt to paraphrase 
the writings of that good man would form a subject to meet with 
condemnation, since the honest chronicler deems it a high point of 
honor to give justice where justice pointeth. Therefore, by way 
of introduction to the first tide of immigration, his complete rem- 
iniscences of the period immediateh' preceding the organization of 
Elkhart county are thus given, 

Northern Indiana is celebrated for the beautiful chain of prairies 
which extend across the State, through the northern tier of conn- 
tics, and adds so much to the beauty of the country and helps to 
swell the statistical tables of production. For wherever is'a prairie, 
there is a spot of land, every inch of which is under cultivation; a 
garden spot of wealth and loveliness. Thus we find Brushy Prairie, 
in Steuben county; English, Pretty and Mongoquanong, in La- 
grange; Elkhart Prairie, Two-Mile and Pleasant Plains, in Elkhart; 
Portage and Terre Coupee, in St. Joseph; Rolling and Door Prai- 
ries, in La Porte. The prairies have been named commonly from 
some circumstance connected with their a^spearance or history. 
Brushy Prairie was covered with a low brush instead of the usual 
green-sward, and hence its name. Pretty Prairie was thus named 
by reason of its exceeding loveliness, and English Prairie on account 
of its early settlement by a few English families. Mongoquanong 
was the name of an Indian town near where Lima now stands. 
Under this name Lagrange and Steuben counties were once 
attached to Elkhart county as a township, and Ephraim Seeley, of 
that territory, was a member of our County Board. Elkhart Prai- 
rie was named from the Elkhart river which skirts its southern and 
western lines. The origin of the name Elkhart is not certainly 
known, but is said to be derived from the Indian name of the 
island at the mouth of the river which was thought to resemble the 
heart of an Elk. Elk horns were frequently found in the vicinity 
of the river, one of which, picked up near Benton, once adorned 
the ofiice of the Goshen Democrat^ standing up some six feet in 
height. Many of our readers will also remember the tavern sign 


which swung in the wind for many j-ears at the " Hoosier's Rest," 
as Billj' Wilkinson's hotel on the prairie was then termed. Its 
name was the " Elkhart Inn," and it was illustrated with a fat and 
thrifty elk, and beneath it what the painter designed for a heart, 
evidently copied from some ancient pasteboard used in the delect- 
able game of old sledge. 

Two-Mile Plain, directly east of the town of Elkhart, was so called 
for its length up and down the St. Joseph. Pleasant Plain is that 
pleasant little garden spot, containing a little over a section of land 
immediately south of the city of Elkhart. Portage Prairie was so 
termed because at its eastern end was the portage, where the early 
French missionaries and the Indians transported or carried their 
canoes from the St. Joseph river to the head waters of the Kanka- 
kee. Terre Coupee was so named from its richness of soil, a land 
of plenty. Rolling Prairie is a high, rolling ground, an unusual 
feature in our chain of prairies, and therefore distinguished by this 
appellation. Door Prairie is only a translation of the term La Porte, 
and is the name given to two prairies, or a double prairie, separated 
by a thin belt of wood with a natural opening of a few rods in 
width, like a door passing from one prairie to the other. At an 
early da}- this feature was well marked, and attracted wide atten- 

The prairies were greedily pounced upon by the settlers, nothing 
being required for the opening of a farm but to turn over the green 
sward and plant the crops, thus preparing the way for the hardy 
pioneers who hewed down the old forests, and carved out by their 
strong arms the homes of beauty and thrift now scattered through 
the land. The first settlers all concur in describing the virgin 
prairies as spots of surpassing loveliness. The ground was covered 
with a thrifty growth of grass, and embellished with flowers of 
every hue, and of entrancing beauty. Onr old •' prairie chieftain," 
Col. John Jackson, was so captivated with the beauty of Elkhart 
Prairie, when in 1S15, under the command of old Mad Anthony 
"Wayne, he aided in the destruction of the Indian villages at the 
head of the prairie, that he selected a location for his future domi- 
cil, and nearly 15 years afterward came to reside upon it as one 
of our first settlers. 

An Indian trail from FortiWayne to St. Joseph came through the 
Elkhart bottom, passed along the eastern side of the prairie and 
through the present site of Goshen. The remains of the Indian 


corn fields were visible at the southern and northern ends of the 

Most of the early settlers of Elkhart Prairie have passed to their 
final resting places in the invisible land. Among those we recol- 
lect of 35 years ago were Col. John Jackson, still hale and 
vigorous, at the age of 83; Mark B. Thompson, his nearest 
neighbor; Elias Riggs, an old man even then; Hiram Morehouse, 
the second husband of Mrs. Weddell; the Widow Irwin, her nearest 
neighbor; "William Wilkinson, mine host of the Elkhart Inn ; Sam- 
uel Stutsman, who always came to town barefoot; James Frier, 
who owned the most acres on the prairie, and died in California; 
Christopher Myers; Elias Purl; Oliver Crane, who, coming from 
the vicinity of Goshen, New York, gave name to the town, and 
was the first county agent for sale of lots in the new county seat; 
Christian Shoup, the sturdy old Jackson Democrat, who, if alive, 
would still vote for Old Hickory; the Cripes, a remnant of whom 
are still with us; Rev. Balser Hess, and a numerous family of lusty 
boys; Major John W. Violett, the first Recorder of Elkhart county, 
and his sons; Azel Sparklin, a worthy local preacher of the Metiio- 
dist Church ; Judge James Latta, one of the first Associate Judges, 
who aided in holding the first court in the county, and Mr. Wey- 

Oil Two-Mile Plain there were at that date one of the Comp- 
tons; Sterne Bronson, the well-known nursery man; Abel Randolph, 
his neighbor; James Middleton; Allen Tibbits, father-in-law of Col. 
Henry G. Davis, a shrewd, enterprising man; Jacob Ellis, a worthy 
Presbyterian Elder, who hung out his shingle for the enter- 
tainment of man and beast, and who a few years since departed for 
his long home, full of years and beloved by all. 

On the northeast corner of Pleasant Plain, in a very humble log 
cabin, lived Wm. Ivinzie, whose wile was a noted fortune-teller, 
and was visited by lads and lasses from far and near. He was a 
brother of Major John H. Ivinzie, the first white child born in 
Chicago, and the proprietor of the old Lake House. West of him 
was the farm and residence of Samuel Harris, who, .with his rich 
freehold of half a section, was regarded as a king among the far- 
mers, and cultivated more extensively than any others in that 
region. He was a man of reading and observation, much respected 
for every good quality. He died suddenly in 1810, and was buried 
on the old homestead, which has since passed into the hands of the 
well-known financier, Levi Smith. Horace Cook lived on the south 


side of the plain, on what was known afterward as the Coquillard 
farm. Several branches of the Meader family occupied tenant houses 
around the prairie, and one of them, David Meader, afterward 
became the owner of a beautiful farm on the school section. 

Ah! those were the glorious old times; and happy ones, too, 
" if rightly we remember." 

In 1S28 Thomas Thomas arrived in the district. The country 
was wild then, and comparatively unsettled by white men. The 
Miamis and Pottawatomies were actually masters of the situation; 
but possessing a peculiar knowledge of the power of the coming 
race, those savages did not venture into acts of hostility. George 
Crawford )-esided at the bend of the river, near Elkhart; Chester 
Sage built his home on the north bank of the St. Joseph river, and 
John iS'^icolls located a short distance west of Elkiiart. At this 
time a patriarchal man was known in the neighborhood, but like 
Noffsinger, to whom reference has been already made, he was a 
hermit, who did not associate with the settlers, nor seem to admire 
their advances. He, too, vanished without leaving even his name 
behind. Toward the close of the year 1828 and the beginning of 
1S29 the settlements of Elkhart met with a few additions in the 
persons of Major Yiolett, W. Chance, Thomas Smith, Mrs. Tail, Ira 
Jackson, J. E. Thompson, R. Rush, J. Hess, B. F. Pearman, B. 
Hess, S. Bunger, Mrs. E. Banta, D. Mattiiews, Eli Summey, Daniel 
Ganger, and perhaps three others whose names have escaped the 
memories of the representative old settlers now living. It is not 
too much to say that each and every one of them acted well his 
part and prepared a way for those who were destined to follow the 
trail which they had blazed or marked. In 1S29 the pioneers 
learned that the Legislature had organized the northern portion of 
the State into representative districts, and annexed their territory 
to Allen county for judicial purposes. This ordinance of the State 
was prolific with good results. Though nothing of a discordant 
character existed among the first settlers to call for legal super- 
vision, the weekly additions to their numbers led them to conclude 
that the time had come for the introduction of a legal tribunal, and 
accordingly they hailed the action of the Legislature with joy. 
Seeing that their labors in the north were appreciated by the 
collective wisdom of the State and dispositions made for the regular 
government of their territory, those industrious harbingers of 
prosperity settled down to the cultivation of their farms; so that 
during the fall of 182!' all the beautiful characteristics of the 


people of early days were to be witnessed and the innocency of 
their institutions to be admired. When we look back to those com- 
paratively happy days ot the past, when man may be considered to 
have lived in the enjoyment of primeval bliss, the words of the old 
cynical poet, " As science advances, men decay," are brought out in 
relief, and tell us after all that peace and happiness are not synony- 
mous with science. 

We will take a synopsis of the manners and customs of those 
early settlers. In the first instance many came with only moderate 
means; they had to clear the forest and erect their log cabins; 
before a thought could be given to the cultivation of the land so 
cleared, and even afterward, when the fertile soil began to yield 
bountiful fruits, man}' deemed it wise to sell their squatter's claim 
to some immigrant, and push westward still through forest and 
prairie, oftentimes repeating a settlement followed by a sale, until 
one family could boast of being the first colonist in many town- 
ships, and perhaps in a few States. An old settler, in reviewing 
the earlier years of his life in Northern Indiana, speaks of the 
unanimity which then existed, and ascribed the happiness of the 
society of that period to their dependence upon one another. In 
regard to the manners and customs of the pioneers, he says: "As 
little use was then made of cattle or horses in rolling logs, it 
required manyjmen to do so; so that between log-rolling and cabin- 
raisings, we were together several days in each week, for a month 
or two in the spring of the year. There was another cause of 
gathering us together in the fall season. These fresh bottoms 
yielded such amounts of corn as the natives of older and poorer 
parts of the LFiiion would have been astonished to see. I know 
this was the case with myself. This corn was pulled from the 
stalk, and it required a tall man to reach many of the ears, and if 
he were a low man or a boy he had to pull the stalk down to him- 
self. After being pulled it was hauled into large long piles, to be 
stripped of its husks at night; hence every night in the week except 
Sunday night we were at a ' husking bee' in the corn-gathering 
time. At these corn huskings there was much good feeling and 
innocent humor. Generally the corn heap was divided into two 
parts, by laying rails or poles across it, as nearly equal as could be 
guessed at, and two respectable men constituted captains, who, bj' 
alternate choice, divided the men and boys into two equal companies, 
and then we went to woi'k with as much earnestness as the French 
and allied armies at the battle of Waterloo, but with none of their 


unkind feelings and murderous purposes. This good-natured strife 
■would last without intermission from three to six hours; for some- 
times, when tliere was a prospect of finishing a large pile, we would 
work till near midnight. Another thing which made these spring, 
and fall gatherings most interesting and pleasant, was the number 
of females who attended tliem; not, however, to roll the logs, raise 
the cabins, husk the corn, but to assist in preparing the food for 
those who were doing the outdoor work; so that when the men and 
boys came in at meal time they found the long temporary table 
spread, and smiling women and girls to welcome them to whole- 
some and plain food. Although there was but little of that shyness 
and restraint imposed by the conventional rules of what is called 
refined society, yet, I must say, I fully believe there never was a 
greater number of truly virtuous men and women, lads and lasses, 
in any settlement of the same size on this green earth. 

•' One thing more made our fall meeting most delightful. In the 
early settlement of the country, the luxuriant vegetation in a state 
of decay and the dense fogs in August and September gave many 
of us the ague, which we generally permitted to take its course and 
leave us of its own accord. Sometinaes, however, we used to take 
pills, made from the inner bark of the white walnut, or butternut 
as some call it, and drink a kind of herb tea. Did you ever have a 
long siege of the ague, when you could have the chill or shake in 
the morning, the fever about noon, and toward evening eat like a 
half- starved dog? If you have never had this experience, you never 
knew what a pleasure it is to eat fat pork, wild turkeys, venison 
hams, pumpkin pies, and corn bread, after the ague has wholly 
gone, about corn-husking time. It will be perceived I say nothing 
about harvest-gathering, and for this good reason,^we had none, or 
nearly none; for our lands, while fresh, though they would bring 
cords of straw, would not yield good wheat. The aristocratic feel- 
ings produced by unsanctified wealth on the one hand, and the envy 
and jealousy of the evil part of the indignant on tlie other, which 
make two castes in older communities, and that hateful political 
chasm, as deep, as wide and vile as ever intervened between the 
Jews and Samaritans, and which now divides the Whigs and Dem- 
ocrats of our day, were then unknown ; so that when we met at any 
of our business, social or religious meetings, we met as a band of 
brothers and sisters. If the males could get good wool hats, good 
common shoes (I suppose there was not a pair of fine boots in the 
settlement! and home-spun clothes, we felt as contented, perhaps 


more so, than in the ricliest costume of the present day. If the females 
could get good calico sun bonnets, or something a little in advance 
of tliese, good cotton gowns, in most cases tlie work of their own 
hands, from the picking, carding, spinning, dyeing and weaving, up 
to the making, and other things in keeping with these, tliey would 
have felt themselves prepared for the respectful attentions of any 
gentleman in these United States. Indeed, I have seen the most 
worthy of both sexes at meeting with moccasins on their feet. The 
most perfect in the symmetry of their persons, and most accom- 
plished in their minds, — for to some extent they had mental accom- 
plishments, — would havesoon have thought of drowning themselves 
as to have cramped the free breathing of their lungs, and the healthy 
flow of their heart's warm blood, by the present foolish, wicked, 
and most suicidal practice of tight-lacing and other kindred vices 
of modern times. And be it remembered they enjoyed the com- 
fort and utility of their wise course; for many of them, when they 
became mothers, could spin, weave, mend, wash, sew, and knit for 
large families, and be cheerful and merry at night, and vigorous 
and lively in the morning. When I see many poor languid females 
of the present day that are mere apologies for wives and mothers, 
who, if they have to take care of one or two children without a 
nurse, and make a few calico gowns, and some of them not even 
these, and do a few other small matters, seem to think that they are 
about to die with hard times, I feel almost irrepressible emotions 
of indignation and pity — indignation at the injury which folly and 
false kindness have -done them, and pity for the i-eal suiferings of 
the poor, unfortunate and unhappy creatures. Let the thoughtful 
reflect and avoid misery by avoiding its cause; for none can do vio- 
lence to nature without suffering the penalty of that violence; 
nature will ever avenge her injured rights." 

There is more truth than poetry in this vivid description of the 
earlier settlers; but in many respects the latter part may be con- 
sidered transcendental ; because, though there is much to be deplored 
in the habits and customs of modern times, it will be found that the 
ladies who are treated so very severely by this old conversationalist, 
are actually urged to an indulgence in the evils of fashion by the 
men, and cannot very well cast aside their allegiance to the pet 
conventionalities of the times in whidj they live. Yet there are 
far too many ladies who worship the god of fashion as there are 
men who adore mammon. From the moment a lady begins to 
live under the fascinating influence of such a worship, she becomes 


simply an animated figure out of a milliner's fashion sheet, and so 
by degrees her mind is alienated from the true pursuits of woman, 
and she is only capable of dreaming of gaudy habiliments, of dis- 
turbing family harmony, o-, as is often the case, of urgin;^ on a 
simple, loving husband, or kind, indulgent father to bankruptcy 
with all its consequent miseries and evils. The foolish woman, 
who at short intervals receives dress bills similar to the one sub- 
scribed, scarcely deserves recognition, and when she falls from her 
high state, as she generally does, years of burning anguish and 
thoughts of parted magnificence lead her to a grave. 

8 yards of silk at $3 a yard f 54 00 1 2 yards of satin at $3 a yard 4 00 

yards of velvet at i|4 a yard. . 20 00 I 

6 yards cambric 72 

2 yards silesia 50 

1 yard sleeve-lining 20 

3 yards of crinoline 30 

2 yards of wiggan 20 

1 piece silk braid 40 

Sewing silk and twist 50 

4 sticlvs of whalebone 50 

1 ball of cord 10 

2 yards lining silk, trimmings. . . 1 50 

10 yards passementerie 7 50 

6 yards French lace 2 40 

3 dozen buttons 3 00 

Making 25 00 

Total $120.82 

Fashion has proved the ruin of many. The foregoing bill 
becomes terribly grotesque in its varied items, but when we make 
a survey of some "Belle Helene " as she does the promenade, sur- 
rounded with all the gay trappings of a costly dress, we are led to 
inquire further into modern styles. 

The most recent caprice, and one whose antecedents will be easily 
recalled, is the nearly full skirt, simply hemmed and tucked. A cos- 
tume with such a skirt is made of navy blue, and is extremely stylish. 
The front and sides of the body portion are cut in basque shape, 
with its side-back skirt inclining to the coat-tail efl:ect, and with 
the front skirt falling over the front and side gores, like those of 
an ordinary skirt. The backs, however, extend from neck to hem 
in princess style, and near the waste-line seam extra tuUness is cut 
on and folded under, so as to produce the eifect of two double box 
plaits, this disposal of the fullness in all the skirts or dresses of this 
description being more popular than the earlier plan of shirring at 
the back. Another feature in the costume is the adjustable hood, 
a style said to have been introduced by the celebrated English 


beauty, Mrs. Langtry, or the "Jersey Lily," as she has been appro- 
priately called. A handsome cord ornament extends from the hood 
point to the left side-back seam. The end upon the hood is hooked 
in place, and a loop is made at the right side-back seam, so that 
when the hood is not worn the Brandenbourg or cord ornament 
may cross the back. The skirt of this costume is finished at the 
bottom with three wide tucks and a hem of the same width. To 
add decoration to this costume would destroy its style, and there- 
fore we suggest none. If personally desired, however, any trim- 
ming preferred may be added. 

An elaborate short costume of the real princess order, with added 
draperies, is made of fine camel's hair, with decorations of a hair- 
striped corduroy of a light texture. The costume fabric is linden 
green, and the corduroy is bottle green. Chenille fringe, matching 
the latter shade, is used upon the side draperies. The fitting is 
done in the manner usual to princess garments, a perfect adjust- 
ment being the result. Just now the glove fit is a desideratum, in 
consequence of the knitted and clinging Jersey waists first intro- 
duced by the " Jersey Lily," and taking the name from her pet 
title. Two sets of plaited draperies, each having corduroy revers, 
are added to the sides and slope away from the center, leaving a 
space that is overlaid with three double box plaits of corduroy. 
The lower scarfs extend only to the side-back seams, and while the 
upper ones are also tacked at this seam, an extra length allowed on 
each falls in careless points at the back, after being lined with cor- 
duroy. A vest, collar, lapels, and cufl" facings of corduroy, with a 
band of corduroy at the bottom of a box plaiting applied to the 
skirt back of the outer corduroy plaits, complete this stylish cos- 
tume in a very liandsome manner. 

Now it is true that such bills are too prevalent. That they have 
even a small share in fostering national industries is very doubtful, 
while it is acknowledged that they entail financial ruin on thou- 
sands, and a proportionate moral and physical ruin on the chief 
actors. These facts, as it is hoped, will become generally accepta- 
ble in the near future, and after the long term devoted to the follies 
and busy activities of the time, men and women will regain some 
of that knowledge which insured a moral and physical greatness 
to their progenitors, and thus become endowed with all these fac- 
ulties of mind and body that may possibly lead to results — to deeds 
at present undreamed of. Those early settlers possessed many 
proud reminiscences. Within a very brief period after settlement. 


and while yet their unfeneed iields showed no signs of the budding 
grain, which their industry consigned to the fertile soil, the atten- 
tion of the pioneers was turned to more scientific, though less eco- 
nomical, labors. Nothing less than the weird remembrancers of the 
aborigines claimed their leisure hours, and as such were abundant, 
their examination offered to the settlers sufficient grounds on which 
to base their speculative philosophy. Israel Hess opened an Indian 
mound near the Nine-Mile Lake and found therein the cheek-bone 
of a Caucasian with teeth intact, remnants of burned bones, ashes 
and cinders, which at the time were considered by him to be the 
remains of some white men burned at the stake. Near his resi- 
dence are many more such monuments, with which he has not 
interfered; but he presumes they were formed by the Indians, and 
therefore do not claim a prehistoric character. That over-zealous 
missionaries and rash explorers have met death at the hands of the 
Miamis and Pottawatomies is conceded; that many of such men 
entered the territory of those savages and never returned to their 
people are facts established; but who the victims were, and thepi-e- 
cise dates of their fatal visits to the villages of the red men, will 
forever remain blanks in the pages of history. The shocking cru- 
elty, of their executioners shall be stamped indelibly upon the 
same pages, and break upon the wondering gaze of future genera- 
tions as a record of a race long vanished into well-merited oblivion. 
Not all the kindnesses which the country may shower upon them 
can efifectually tend to prolong their presence here. The last 
prayers for vengeance, escaping with the last breaths of a thousand 
brave but helpless pioneers of civilization, have been heard by the 
God of Nature, and He has meted out the terrible trials which now 
pursue the Indian through life, and opens up for him the immedi- 
ate dreary prospect of witnessing the total annihilation of his race. 
It is true that the early settlers of Elkhart suftered few material 
wrongs from the bands of savages surrounding them; but yet no 
thanks are due to the barbarians for this grace, because even at that 
early date they looked on the swift advance of the sons of civiliza- 
tion, and being powerless to retard it, awaited calmly the good or 
evil which the Great Spirit might bestow upon them. If a man 
may judge so far as human reason leads him to think, the Great 
Spirit of the tribes disdained to accept their offerings of blood, lis- 
tened to the death shrieks of their victims instead, and by degrees 
banished the Indian bands from their Edenic villages into the 

■^^ ^ 

^^^, y^fS'^^^.^. 


unknown wilds, where hunger, hardships and miasmas became their 
daily attendants. 

Every legend of the iliamis, every reminiscence of our pioneers, 
point out the St. Joseph country as a happy valley. Fish swarmed 
in its lakes and rivers, deer and bears in its forests, wild fruits 
flourished upon its prairies, and primeval happiness dwelt in its 
villages; but the hour at length came when the child of art arrived 
to possess himself of all these. Then the untamed children of the 
forest were driven to seek other homes, and with their departure 
the fish and forest animals may be said to migrate; for where Nature 
supplied her worshipers hitherto, she willed that the white man 
should only be rewarded in proportion to his industry, and thus 
left him to extract from the soil just so much as his labor warranted, 
and little of that great all which was shared by the lazy and bar- 
barous aborigines. That he has succeeded in improving upon nature 
in this respect is manifest. Though the rivers do not contain myr- 
iads of large fish, or the forests wild animals, or the prairies do not 
yield wild fruits now as in days long past, it will be seen that the 
waters, turned into other channels, set a hundred mill-wheels turn- 
ing; the trees of the forest have been converted into substantial 
buildings, substructures for the iron rail or devoted to other 
branches of industry, and the prairies bend, as it were, under the 
weight of golden grain, the seeds of which were planted by man 
and reared up a hundred-fold to perfection by nature. Romance 
alone can feel any sorrow for the change. It is progress pure and 
simple, and in its advance the pioneers were the principal actors. 



Seest thou my home ? 'tis where yon woods are waving, 

In their dark richness to the summer air ; 
Where yon blue stream, a thousand flower banlvs laving, 

Senas down the hills, a vein of light— 'tis there ! 


General Brown, who with others made an exploratory trip in 
1S26 from Tecumseh in Michigan, to tlie Gary mission on the St. 
Joseph, opposite the location of the present city of Niles, in reca- 
pitulation of his reminiscences of those early times, says the Gary 
mission was a rather noted point at that time, and the party were 
anxious to see for themselves what the character of the intervening 
country was, there being diflerent rumors as to its capability for 
settlement and cultivation. The party consisted of Gen. Brown; 
his brother-in-law, Musgrove Evans; Dr. Caleb N. Ormsbj', then in 
Tecumseh as a physician, and Horace Wolcott, from Gonnecticut, 
who had come to Michigan the year before to settle as a merchant 
or Indian trader. They set out in the month of May on horseback, 
with ten days' provisions, taking the Indian trail on the north side 
of Evans' creek. After passing tlie lake at the head of the creek, 
which had previouslj- been named after Mr. Evans, they came upon 
another small lake, which they all thought was the prettiest sheet 
of water for its size and surroundings they had ever seen. They 
had some discussion as to what it should be named, and finally 
agreed upon calling it " Sand Lake." They were about (as was the 
habit then) to christen it by that name, in some tonic they had 
taken along as inedicine, but by some mishap their tonic-bottle had 
all leaked out, and that part of the ceremony was omitted. They there 
took the Chicago trail, on or near the present line of the Chicago 
road, intending to follow it to the Gary mission. None of the land 
west of Lenawee county was then in market, nor was the country 
even laid off into counties for more than three years afterward. 
They crossed the upper part of the St. Joseph river about where the 
village of Jonesville now is. After leaving Tecumseh they found 


no settlers or white persons until they came to White Pigeon 
Prairie, where they found a man by the name of Hale, located there 
as a ■' squatter," there being no land there to be purchased at that 
time. The first land offered for sale in what is now the counties of 
Hillsdale, Branch and St. Joseph being in October, 1828, and in 
Cass and Berrien in June, 1829, and in 1S31. 

At the time of the Sauk war, in 1832, when Gen. Brown went 
west, he found the same Mr. Hale on Door Prairie, Indiana, having 
a well-cultivated farm and good buildings, and was invited to staj' 
over night with him, which he did. 

Further on in their trip they found a Mr. Beardsley, on what 
they called Beardsley's Prairie; he had come up from Indiana with 
cattle, horses, sheep, etc. Whilst the party were there they saw a 
flock of sheep come running for home with some wolves chasing 
them. Mr. Beardsley and his boys set their dogs after the M'olves, 
and they kept them oflt from the sheep, and then went oiF after the 
wolves and had not returned when Gen. B. and the'party went on. 
Here they turned aside a little from tlie direct Chicago trail, in 
order to call upon an Indian trader named Coutieau, a Frenchman, 
living near or a little south of where the village of Bertrand is now, 
and who had been at Tecumseh on an Indian trading expedition, 
and had there met Gen. B. and some of the others. They took din- 
ner with Mons. Coutieau and his wife, both French Catholics, and 
friendly and polite people. From this trading post they went on 
in the afternoon to Cary mission, a distance of about ten miles. It 
happened to be Sunday when they arrived there, and they found 
about one hundred Indian boys enjoying themselves outdoors, who 
were pleased to see four white men ride up on horseback; and they 
expressed their delight in Indian boy fashion, hooting and yelling, 
and taking'hold of the bridles and stirrups, and even of the ponies' 
tails, which they were allowed to do, as the party knew they meant 
no mischief, but rather friendship by it. Gen. Brown rode a large 
saddle-horse, which he had brought from the East, and the boys did 
not seem to want to take hold of his tail, as they did of those of 
the Indian ponies, which the rest of the party rode, and to which 
kind of horses they were more accustomed. The party stayed some 
time at the mission, enjoying the hospitality of Mr. McCoy, the 
principal of the station, and his wife. They and the other mission- 
aries and their wives, and the assistants, seemed to live in common 
with the Indians — only that there was some diflPerence between the 
supply of the table " above the salt " for the whites at their end of 


the table, from what it was " below the salt " for the Indians at their 
end, as well as some difference in manners and fashion of eating. 
The mission had a large, well-cultivated farm, with twelve milch 
cows on it, and other stock in proportion. The part}' saw a large 
batteau on the river, and upon inquiry as to whose it was, they were 
told that it was Mr. Coutieau's, which he had lent to them to bring 
some goods up the river. The mission was a Baptist institution, 
established for the conversion and civilization of the Indians. They 
had a large store full of goods and supplies, getting, however, most 
of their living from the farm, and plenty of game from the Indians. 
After the treat}' held there in 1S2S the Indians moved west, and 
Mr. McCoy and some of the missionaries went with them. Whilst 
the party were there Mr. McCoy liad inquired of Gen. Brown if he 
knew of any young man who could be got to come out there, and 
who would make a good business manager ibr them. Gen. B. re- 
plied tliat he thought perhaps he could iind some one, and on his 
return homo he spoke to Calvin Britain, then a young man in his 
own employ, and induced him to go out to the mission in the ca- 
pacity wanted. Mr. Britain remained there some time, and after- 
ward moved down to the mouth of the St. Joseph river, and became 
a prominent business man and politician, serving as State Senator 
in the first and second State Legislatures, and in other public po- 

On their return to Tecumseh the party came back direct bj' 
the Chicago trail, until they came to the last crossing of the St. 
Joseph river, near where Jonesville now is, finding Messrs. Beards- 
ley and Hale still the only white settlers on the route. On the 
way back, near the above crossing, they encountered a severe rain 
storm, and their punk and everything being wet, they found it 
impossible to make a fire, and so they slept with their heads on 
their saddles and covered themselves with such blankets as they had 
along with them. Here they were told of a trail to Tecumseh, said 
to be shorter and better than the one by which they came out. This 
went round by lake Manitoo, as the Indians called it, or Devil's 
lake, as it was afterward named by the white settlers, as tliey 
thought the Manitoo of the Indians was more of a devil than of a 
good spirit. When they came to the passage between the two lakes, 
as they thought that their horses would not wander off' very far, 
they all took off" their saddles and bridles, so as to rest their horses 
better. In the morning they found them all gone, but getting on 
their tracks, they found them about a mile off". As soon as possible 


they got under way, and put for home by the most direct and 
quickest route tliey could find. 

The year 1830 opened up a scene of rural happiness to the pass- 
ing traveler, as well as offered subject for congratulation to the 
thrifty settlers. Hundreds of acres were already' fenced in, and 
at intervals might be seen the log cabins of the pioneers, with 
the stacked harvest of the preceding years ranged adjacent. The 
country was then replete in its beauty ; the singularly interesting 
monotony of the wild woods was varied by the tracts of cultivated 
prairie, and the presence of the dark-eyed Indian was relieved by 
the proximity of the white man. Never in the history of man, 
was man so favored as he of those early days. Solidarity of inter- 
ests joined all the settlers in a bond of brotherhood, the strength of 
whose ties tended to render their loves paternal and their friend- 
ships lasting. On the completion of their spring farm labors the 
pioneers did not seek a rest, but at once turned their attention away 
from manual work and set the mental powers in motion, so that 
their political condition might advance hand in hand with that 
social pre-eminence which they held even then. They perused the 
statutes of the State with all the industry of the studious, and 
having made such deductions therefrom as led them to believe that 
their settlements were up to the standard required for organization 
into a county, they at once claimed their rights, and before the 
ripening grain recalled them to their fertile fields, had actually suc- 
ceeded in establishing for themselves a county and a local govern- 
ment. In reviewing the history of those old days, it is well to 
permit the doings of the local governors to hold a place among the 
reminiscences of the times. That the first statesmen of the county 
labored faithfully in the interest of their neighbors, will appear 
from such a record; and as it is summarized in these pages from the 
venerable old books, kept by Thomas Thomas, the first Circuit 
Court Clerk, it may prove as interesting to the reader as it seems 
interesting and valuable to the writer. 


for man}- years after the organization of the Territory and for long 
after its admission to the sisterhood of States, by no means kept 
pace with the lower portion of the State. Settlements sprung up 
along the Ohio, the Wabash and other streams, and immigration 
followed the then natural channels of transportation. But with the 


advent of railroads a great cliange was effected. The fertile prairies 
of Northern Lidiana attracted the attention of thousands of hardy 
pioneers, settlements multiplied, a greater and greater area of 
virgin soil was subjected to cultivation. In the forests the wood- 
man's ax, and on the prairies the settler's plow were the harbin- 
gers of a glorious day, a future whose realization has in part been 


this development had fairly begun. The emigrants' wagons, drawn 
by patient, weary oxen that had plodded the many miles separating 
the cultivated fields and thriving, jjrosperous villages and cities of 
Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York, or of the remoter East, dotted 
the way; the camp-tires marked countless resting places, and the 
gmoldering ashes of wayside fires were fruitful in their after re- 

As long ago as 1S2S the first settlement was made in the terri- 
tory now comprised in Elkhart county. A few adventurers had 
followed an Indian trail, and had encamped on the edge of Elkhart 
prairie. " Adventurous, indeed, was such an expedition, and 
numerous were the trials and hardships endui'ed by the participants. 
But they found this a goodly land; the earth teemed with fatness, 
and the hardy pioneer, whose wants were few and simple, soon 
began to rejoice in the comforts of life, and were rapidly followed 
by friends, who had but recently warned them against the perilous 

In the early organization of tlie State the counties were princi- 
palities in themselves. Allen county, from which Elkhart, La- 
grange and Noble counties were subsequently created, embraced 
a wide area of territory, and it, Randolph, Delaware and Cass 
counties, with all the territory north, constituted a senatorial dis- 
trict in 1829. Under an act of the Legislature of the State, passed 
during the session of 1829-'30, the county of Elkhart was organized 
and its boundaries defined. After it had been divested of its original 
greatness as regards area, Elkhart county was subdivided into 16 
townships. Nine of these townships are six miles square; the 
others are of lesser proportions, and the total area of the county is 
462 square miles. 

The first study of the pioneers was that relating to the organiza- 
tion of tlie State. They learned that an act of Congress, approved 
April 19, 1812, enabling the people of the Indiana Territory to 


form a State government, and for the admission of the State 
thus formed into the Union on an equal standing with the original 
thirteen States, was availed of by the inhabitants or settlers of the 
State, and at a meeting of representatives of the people, held at 
Corydon June 10 following, they declared as follows: "That we do, 
for ourselves and our posterity, agree, determine, declare and ordain, 
that we will, and do hereby, accept the propositions of the Congress 
of the United States, as made and contained in their act of April 
19, 1S16."' This declaration was given effect shortly after, and 
a constitution adopted. Eegulations for the organization of the 
State into counties, and an act of the General Assembly, passed 
subsequently (1830), defined the boundaries of Elkhart. Within 
the limits so .defined, the townships, as at present known, were or- 
ganized. The act says: 

" The district of country within the following boundaries shall 
form and constitute the county of Elkhart, to wit: Beginning on the 
north line of the State, where the center line of range 4 strikes 
the same, thence east to the line dividing ranges Y and 8, thence 
south to the line diving townships 34 and 35 north, thence west to 
central section line of range 4 east, thence north to the place of 

All this being accomplished by the State, the people of Elkhart 
were not slow in seeking administrative powers, for on June 28, 
1830, the following evidence of tlieir progress in this matter, is thus 
recorded in the pages of the ancient book named hitherto: "The 
Board of Justices for the county of Elkhart met at the house of 
Chester Sage, in said county, the place appointed by law for doing 
county business. Whereupon came James Matthers, and pro- 
ducing his commission as justice of the peace from His Excellency, 
James B. Ray, Governor of Indiana, bearing date June 11, 1830, 
with the oath of office, as the law directs, in tliis form: 

James B. Ray, Oovernor of Indiana : 

To all who shall see these presents. Greeting: Whereas it has been certified to me 
by the proper authority, that James Matthers is elected to the office of Justice of the 
Peace for the county ot Elkhart, therefore know ye, that in the name and by the 
authority of the State of Indiana, I do hereby commission liim, the said James 
Matthers, Justice of the Peace for the said County of Elkhart for the term of five 
years from the date hereof. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused to be affixed 
the seal of the State, at Indianapolis, the 11th day of June, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty, tlie 14th year of the State, and of the 
Independence of the United States the fifty-fourth. 


Ja.mes MoRKis, Secretary of State. 


Mr. Matthers had yet to undergo a more terrible ordeal, which 
the genial Thomas could scarcely lighten. He had to take the oath 
of office and enter on its duties. These facts are thus placed on 
record in the usual form, thus: " Be it remembered that on the 
28th day ot June, in the year 1830, personallj- came James Matthers, 
within commissioned before me, Thomas Thomas, Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court, and subscribed the following oath: 

You do solemnly swear that you will support the Constitution of the United 
States, and of the State of Indiana, and that you will, to the best of your abilities 
and jutlgment, discharge the duties of your office as Justice of the Peace in the 
County of Ellihart faithfully, and that you have not since the first day of January, 
Eighteen Hundred and Nineteen, either directly or indirectly, knowingly given, ac- 
cepted, carried a challenge to any person or persons to fight with any deadly weapon, 
and that you will not knowingly give, accept or carry a challenge to any person or 
persons to fight with any deadly weapon in single combat, either in or out of this 
State during 3^our continuance in office, so help you God. Given under my hand 
and seal on the 28th of June, 1830. 

Thomas Thomas, Clebk C. C, [seal.] 
of Elkhart County. 

And [also comes John Jaclison, and produces his Commission, as Justice of the 
Peace, from His Excellency James B . Ray, Governor of Indiana, bearing date June 
11, 1830, with the office endorsed thereon as the law directs. 

A gubernatorial proclamation and oath of office follow. Both 
docnments are similar to those quoted, with the necessary exception 
that Col. Jackson's name holds a relative position to that occupied 
by Mr. Matthers' name in the premier legal forms. There is such 
a peculiarity connected with the original record, now in possession 
of Auditor Ilenkell, that a few changes have been made. That very 
little attention was bestowed upon orthoepy intlie earlier yeirs ot 
the county is evident. Throughout the documents quoted there is 
only to be found one comma; but as a set off to this negligence in 
composition, the patriotic spirit of the C. C. Clerk manifests itself 
in the monster capital letters with which such words as Independ- 
ence, United States, State, Elkhart and Indiana are written. There 
can be no doubt whatever in regard to Mr. Thomas's enthusiasm in 
his patriotic work, and that this militated against the observance 
of grammatical rules and forms, is to be supposed. June 28, 1830, 
a special meeting of justices was held, at which were present, 
James Matthers, John Jackson and Arminius C. Penwell, who pro- 
ceeded to elect a president. This fact is set forth in the County 
Kecords of the period thus: 

Whereupon, above named now proceeded to the election by ballot of a president 
according to law. and after canvassing the votes given they were as follows: J. 


Matthers received two votes; John Jackson, one vote, and James Matthers is declared 
to be duly elected President of the Board of Justices of the County of Elkhart, who 
take the charge, as such, and a session of the board is thereupon now holden. 
Present, James ^Matthers, President, 

Members . 

John Jackson, } 
Arminuis C. Penwell,)" 

Tlieir work was entered upon without much ceremony, and the 
formation of townships proceeded with. "Concord township," 
ordained the Board," shall include all that part of the county between 
townships 36 and 37, and running thence east to the line between 
6 and 7, thence north to the State line; and all that part of the 
county southeast shall be included in Elkhart township." 

At this meeting James Frier was appointed County Treasurer; 
John Frier, Lister for the county; Howel PInntsman, Constable 
for Concord township; James Beck, Constable for Elkhart town- 
ship; Benjamin Gilbreath, Inspector of Elections for Concord, 
and Azel Sparklin, another Inspector for Elkhart township, and 
the Sheriff, Eli Penwell, Collector for the county. It was also 
ordered, during the same session, that Mr. Thomas Thomas be 
allowed §25.50 to furnish blank books. The next meeting of the 
Board of Justices was held on July 13, 1830, when the following 
business was transacted: 1st. The formation of the territory' east 
of Elkhart count}' into the township of Mong-go-qua-nong. 2d. 
The report of William G. Ewing, Hugh Hanna, John Bishop and 
Samuel Flemming, a quorum of Commissioners, appointed under 
the act for the formation of St. Joseph and Elkhart counties, was 
accepted. This report was as follows: 

To the Board of Justices of Elkhart County, State of Indiana : 

The midersigned Commissioners who were appointed by an act of the General 
Assembly of the State aforesaid, entitled an act for the formation of the counties of 
St. Joseph and Elkhart, approved January 2i), 18.30, to select a site for the Seat of 
Justice of said couuty, agreeable to an act entitled an act for fixing the Seats of 
Justice in all counties hereafter to be laid off; Report : That they met at the house 
of Chester Sage, in the said county of Elkhart, on the fourth Monday, being the 
24th day of May, A. D. 1830; and after being duly sworn according to law, pro- 
ceeded to examine the different sites for a town in which to establish the seat of said 
county of Elkhart. And after having made full and satisfactory examination as 
aforesaid, they have selected southwest quarter of section 24, township 37, and 
range ."i east,|now attached to the district of land sold at the Fort Wayne land 
office, which said land they discover, and further report has never been offered for 
sale by the United States. 

The undersigned have further selected the name of as a suitable 

name for said town as aforesaid. 


In witness whereof we have here unto set our hands and seals this 26th day of 
May. A. D. IS^O. 

JoHX BiSHor, [Seal.] 

H. Haxxa. [Seal.] 

Sasttel Flesooxg, [Seal.] 
Joseph Besxett. [Seat] 
W. G. EwrsG. [Seal.] 

And the nnderagned Commisioners aforesaid, adjourned until the second 
Monday, being the 13lh day of July. A. D. 1S30. to meet again at the house of the 
said Chester Sage, in said county of Elkhart, as aforesaid, and then proceed to 
deliver the aforesaid report to the said Board of Justices of said county aforesaid; 
said adjournment being in consequence of a want of a proper Board of Justices or 
Commi^oners in said cotmty. to whom to deliver said report according to law. 
Elkhart Ccuniy. May 2«. 1S30. 

This postscript to the report is duly signed by the commissioners. 
It appears from an entry made subsequently in the Kecord Book, 
that these gentlemen were sworn into office by Jnstice M. H. 
Tailor, of Fort Wayne, on May 21 and 22, 1530. In compensation 
for the work and expenditures of these commissioners, the Board 
of Justices did, on July 13, 1S30, order the following amounts to 
be paid them by the county treasurer out of the first moneys aris- 
ing from the sale of town lots in the proposed county seat, viz. : — 
Hugh Hanna, $36: Samuel Flemming, $S1: Wm. G. Ewing, $36: 
Joseph Bennett, #15 : John Bishop, 0S1. John C. Frier was voted the 
sum of $12 at the same time for listing the county. After this round 
of important business was finished, the Board ordered the sheriff to 
notify all qualified electors of the county to assemble at the regular 
polling booths in their respective townships on the first Monday 
in August, and proceed to elect by ballot a county representative, 
a sheriff and a coroner. The sheriff" was also instructed to 
cause the people of the new township of Mong-go-qua-nong to 
assemble at the house of Moses Price, for their choice of a justice 
of the peace. The elections in Concord and Elkhart townships 
were subsequently held in the houses of Chester &ige and in the 
school-house on Elkhart Plain respectively. The members of this 
energetic Board next proceeded to draw a grand and petit jury, 
who would serve during the 2s ovember terra of the Elkhart Circuit 
Court. Their labors in this regard resulted in the selection of the 
following panel : Grand Jury: — Ben Bennett, Geo. Peoples, Geo. 
"Wilkinson. Dan Clarke. Peter Rnpel, James Bennett, Hiram 
Parker. J. Skinner, Jepe Ensh, John Rupel, John Youncr. Jacob 
Pnterbaugh. Henry Carmaney, Elias Parker, Dominique Kosseau, 
Matt Bovd, Adam Teale and Bob Hamilton. Traverse Jurors: — 


Aaron Brown. Jonathan Morgan, Allen F. Ott. Henrv Jacobs, "^m 
Skinner, Jacob Roop, James Tuley. "Washington Traiunell, J. L. 
Powers. John Bonham. John Xeehason. Geo. Huntsman. Chester 
Sage, Wni. M. Thompson, D. Xicholson, James Alcilurray, John 
Pool, John Carpenter, Ben Gilbreath, Edward Downing, James 
Blair, Henry Edgell, Ephraim Seeley, Anthony Xelson. It is pre- 
sumed that all the electors of the county were thus empanelled, so 
that if a member of the community was placed before the court his 
case was certain to meet witli deep consideration and justice. 

A Board of Justices who could push through such an amount of 
business in one day, was not likely to forget any just source from 
which money could be enticed into the pockets of the county, 
treasury. Therefore, and without ceremony or hesitancy, they 
granted licenses to the local traders in the following manner: 

Ordered that a license to vend foreign merchandise, and the same is hereby granted 
to Dominique Rosseau for one year from the date hereof, iind he p.ay therefore the 
amount to the county treasury the sum of §10. 
July 13. 1S30. 

Ordered that a license to vend foreign merchandise and the same is hereby granted 
to (.'lark and Mather for one year from the date hereof, and that they pay into the 
County Treasury the sum of ten dollars for same. 
July 13. 1830. 

Ordered that the following rates of taxation for county purposes be assessed as 
follows: on each poll 37 'i cents, on each horse thirty -seven and a half cents, on each 
work oxen eighteen and three-fourth cents, on each silver watch twenty-five cents, 
on each brass clock one dollar, on each four-wheeled carriage one dollar, on each 
two-wheeled carria^ seventy-five cents. 

The work of the session was now closed and the weary but very 
faithful justices of the old Board adjourned until September follow- 
ing. On the 6th of that month the members were again at their 
post of duty, and though the session did not entail so much severe 
work as that one just chronicled, there were three orders issued 
that brought a ray of sunshine to these industrious citizens. "Wil- 
liam Latta was ordered to be paid l-l.SO for bringing the hua from 
Fort "Wayne, and delivering them to the county of Elkhart. Ici 
F. Eice received 83 for his services as returning judge in the case 
of the Mong-go-qua-nong township election; and David Penwell 
received the muniticent appropriation of fifty cents for similar ser- 
vices rendered in the case of the Concord election. 

The special session of Xovember. 1S30, ordered that James Cotnp- 
ton be acquitted of the payment of 37i cents for one horse wrong- 
fully assessed. James McMurry was relieved of the payment of 
$1.37^. The sheriff of Allen couutv was allowed *3 for notifying 


the commissioners to locate the county seat, and the sheriifof Elk- 
hart county $43 for services rendered up to the 1st of November, 


opened under peculiarly pleasant auspices. The county legislation 
for the preceding months was decidedly beneficial, and the institu- 
tion itself popular, so that the members of the Board of Justices 
imbibed a singular courage from their confidence in the fact that 
county government had now raised itself to a degree of utility where 
its trial was over and its permanency insured. 

In January Ephraim Seeley presented himself with his commis- 
sion before Mr. Thomas, was sworn in as Justice of the Peace, was 
added to the Board and under the presidency of Arminius C. Pen- 
well, J. P., took part in the session of that month. The business 
transacted then may be summed up briefly as follows: A license to 
vend foreign merchandise granted to lea F. Rice, for wliich he paid 
$10. The collector was ordered to receive $1.50 for taking the cen- 
sus of the county in 1830. The clerk was voted $1.87-J- for postage 
and paper furnished for county purposes, and a further sum of $30 
for extraordinary services rendered the Board and court during the 
six months ending Dec. 22, 1830. Elias Riggs, Rinehart Gripe and 
Azel Sparklin were appointed "'fence viewers " for Elkhart town- 
ship; Adam Teale, James Tucoly and John Bannen, for Concord 
township; John Alney, W. A. McNeil and Jason Thurston, for 
Mon-go-qua-nong. The overseers of the poor for these townships, 
appointed at the same time, were Jacob Roop and Allen Tibbits for 
Concord; Sam. Goode and Wilson McConuell for Elkhart, with 
Ben Jones and Moses Rice for Mon-go-qna-nong. John N. Pen- 
well was given the position of County Assessor; and Howel Hunts- 
man, James Beck and Sam. Anderson were appointed Constables 
for the townships in their written order. The County Treasurership 
was voted to James Frier, and the Inspectorship of Elections con- 
ferred on Wm. Skinner, David Clark and Ben. Blair, who were to 
act during 1831 in Concord, Elkhart and Mon-go-qua-nong respect- 
ively. Two sets of grand and petit jurors were chosen to try any 
causes which might come before them during the May and Novem- 
ber sittings of the Circuit Court. 

In reponse to a demand made by the Board for a statement of 
county receipts and expenditures, from the time of its organiza- 
tion up to date of this demand, the following figures were furnished : 


Total amonnt of fees, dues and taxes received from the organiza- 
tion of the county to January, 1831, $198. 80|. Tlie report of the 
treasurer showed that he received $.5.65 commission in compensa- 
tion for his labor in receiving and paying out this amount, while 
the collector received $10.46 as his percentage, or pay for trouble 
and expenses incurred in the collection, which sums with various 
other disbursements, formed up a total disbursement of $183.43^, 
and left in the hands of the treasurer a surplus of $15.37i. From 
this balance the sum of $8 was voted to the associate judges for 
their services iu the Circuit Court during the November term of 

1830, and $2.45 to the sheriff for sunamoning tliree juries to try 
causes before the court in that terra. 

At a special session of the Board of Justices, held in March, 

1831, the commissioners appointed to re-locate the county seat, and 
set aside the action of former commissioners in the matter, pre- 
sented the following report: — 

The undersigned commissioners who were appointed by an act of the General 
Assembly of the State aforesaid, entitled an act to re-locate the county seat of 
justice for said county agreeable to an act entitled an act for fixing the seats of 
justice in a'l counties hereafter to be laid off, Report that they met at the house of 
Thomas Thomas in said county of Elkhart, on the third Monday, being the twenty- 
first day of March, 18.31. And after being duly sworn according to law proceeded 
to examine the different sites for a town in which to establish the seat of justice for 
said county of Elkhart ; and after having made full and satisfactory examination as 
aforesaid, as well the former site selected as others, they are of opinion that the 
present site should be vacated, and have selected the south fraction of the northeast 
quarter and the north fraction of the southeast quarter of section nine, in township 
thirty-six north, of range six east of the second principal meridian line the Fort 
Wayne land office district; Provided the two fractions does not exceed the maximum 
quantity of one hundred and sixty acres to which the county has right of pre-emp- 
tion by an act of Congress, 34th of May, 1824, by locating the county seat thereof 
on the same: and, farther, should said fractions exceed the quantity of acres above 
described, then, in that case, we select the first above described fraction and recom- 
mend the purchase of the other bj- the County C'ommissioner.s, and the undersigned 
have further selected the name of Goshen as a suitable name for said town as afore- 
said, all of which is respectfully submitted to your Honorable Board. 

David Miller, 
Anthony L. Davis, 
March 83, 1831. L.G.Thompson. 

The work of the session concluded with an appropriation vote 
granting the sum of $24 each to Commissioners A. L. Davis and 
L. G. Thompson, and $15 to David Miller, to be paid by the treas- 
urer from moneys realized by the sale of lots in Goshen. 


In the May session the business was inaugurated by granting a 
trader's license to Thomas M. Morrison. A revolution of the tax 
on horses, oxen, carriages and watches was effected. The appoint- 
ment of county officers, disbursements, and an order for a bench 
and screw for the clerk's office, closed the proceedings of the 

Township 35 north, range 6 east, of the orignal congressional 
survey was organized for civil purposes and named Jackson town- 
ship in November, 1833, and an election of a justice of the peace 
ordered in the ordinary form, which election resulted in Col. John 
Jackson being chosen Justice, and in his subsequent acceptance of 
a position on the Board of Commissioners. Early in May the com- 
missioners divided the county into three commissioners' districts. 
No. 1 included all that part of the county lying north of a line 
drawn east and west through the center of township No. 37. No. 
2 included the district lying immediately south of No. 1., and 
north of a line running east and Avest, one mile south of the center 
of township 36, with Mongoquanong, and No. 3 comprised all the 
remaining part of the county, 

The June session was brief, but the business was of a most 
important character. Oliver Crane, who was appointed county 
agent in May, was ordered to lay out the town of Goshen into lots 
for building, and to advertise a sale of half such laid-out lots, to be 
held July 20, 1831. The sheriff was ordered to direct an election of 
school commissioners to be held on the first Monday in August. 
"William Williams was appointed Constable for Concod township, 
vice Howel PInntsman, who failed to give bonds, and James Beck 
was appointed Collector of countj^ and State revenue, vice Eli Pen- 
well, who resigned. 

The July session was inaugurated by a grant of $1 to James Frier 
for his services as returning officer in the elections of August, 1830. 
Geo. McCoUum was granted a like sum for similar service in Elk- 
hart township in April, 1831. Tlie county agent was empowered 
to pay off the men employed in surveying the county seat, and to 
George Crawford was made a special vote of $50 for his services in 
surveying the town of Goshen, laying it out in lots, and presenting 
the county with a map of his work in that connection. 

The efficient clerk, Thomas Thomas, was granted a sum of $35 
for paper and extra services rendered from Dec. 22, 1830, to June 
22, 1831. The sheriff was allowed $46 for his extra services from 
Nov. 1, 1830, to July 4, 1831. 



In September, 1831, Edward Downing and Geo. McCollum 
received their commissions under the enactment of Jan. 19, 1831, 
entitled " an act to regulate the mode of doing county business." 
Sept. 5, these gentlemen met at the clerk's'house, and having taken 
their seats as commissioners, proceeded to deal with any business 
which might suggest itself to them. The reports of Justice Jackson 
and Penwell were received and adopted, but as their nature places 
them under the category of " criminal," they will claim a notice in 
connection with the records of criminals, brought before the Circuit 
Court in later years. It may, however, be claimed for the justices 
and their victims, that the former were tlioroughly impartial, and 
the latter thoroughly merited the light punishment inflicted. 

The close of the session was occupied in the appointment of 
Wilson McConnell Trustee for the county seminary; of George 
Crawford County Surveyor; the establishment of an $8 license on 
venders of wooden cJoeks, and the granting of a license to William 
Bissel, at the rate of $6 per annum, for his grocery store in the 
town of Goshen. The following payments were also ordered: James 
Matthers for his services in procuring land from Henry Jacobs for 
the county seat and said city, $4; Henry Blair, services as returning 
officer 1831, ^3; Oliver Crane, for services as county agent, $56; 
James Beck, Constable, for boarding and conveying a prisoner to 
Fort Wayne, $11.50. 

An order to hold elections for school trustees in the three town- 
ships issued from the Board, and having received the report of 
Oliver Crane the industrious members adjourned, as they stated 
"because there is nothing else to do." This report is a very precious 
document, since it deals in a very yjractical manner with the pio- 
neers, and the financial standing of their county in 1830-'31. 
Being so, it is here given in extenso as it appears upon the records: 

In pursuance to an act of the Legislature of the State of Indiana, I make this my 
first return as agent for Elkhart county, Indiana, this 5th day of September, 1831. 
Under the direction of the county commissioners have sold the following; lots, 



No. of Lot. 

Purchased by. 

sold lor. 

Xo. 01 Lot. 

Purchased bv. 

sold tor. 


Samuel Good 

S 26 25 


Geo. Crawford 

S41 00 


Jacob Sneltzer 

31 00 


W. G. & G. W. 


Richard Britton 

31 25 


151 00 


Jesse C. Charlton 

55 00 


Jos. Carpenter 

25 00 


Hugh Hannah 

63 00 


Wm. Latta 

105 00 


William Runvan 

103 00 


Wm. Bissel 

25 35 

154-189-209 Jacob Studebaker 

195 00 



30 00 


Luke Hulit 

40 00 


Isaac B. King 

25 00 


CTiristopher Mires 

55 00 


Thomas Powers 

.50 00 


John Jackson 

40 00 


Wm. Waugh 

35 00 


Isaac B. King 

35 50 


Wm. Hagle 
Henrv White 

30 00 


Geo. ^rcColhim 

72 50 


40 00 


Elias Carpenter 

41 00 


Thomas G.Hall 

60 00 


Jamos lUsh^'ii and 


Thomas Powers 

30 00 

Gio. Me(-'.>l!um 

83 00 


Wm. Bissel 

50 00 


Catherine Bishop 

45 00 


Alexander L. Morri- 


John W. Violett 

102 00 


30 00 


Nicholas Carpenter 

55 00 


John Miller 

35 00 


David Baruhazel 

30 25 


John Jliller 

30 00 


John McCouneU 

30 25 


Elias Ciirpenter 
Mathias Dawson 

30 00 


Rinehart Cripe 

21 50 


40 00 


Richard L. Britton 

54 75 


Henry Matthew 

57 00 


WiUiam G. Cambell 

1 55 50 


A. Galentine 

45 00 


Marv Blair 

82 50 


Wm Hasle 

30 00 


Madison William 


James L.^'Smith 

30 00 


115 00 


Thomas Reece 

30 00 


John Carpenter 
Samuel Modi 

28 50 


Washington Modi 30 00 


35 50 


Isiiac B. King 

30 00 


Isaac Hagle 
Thomas Thomas 

27 35 


41 00 

.*2,607 75 

Cash received on sales 


Br services rendered and allowed by the Commissioners. §56: for paying 


id and labor done for 

lajing out 

the town, 8152.98 



Deduct 10 

per cent, for seminal 

. 55.59 


Which leaves in my hands the sum of two hundred and ninety four dollars and 
ninety-eight cents, which I have deposited with the County Treasurer. 

O. CRAXE. Agent. 

Tlie Xovember session of the commissioners was signalized by 
the addition of John Jackson to their body, and the election of 
Edward Downing to the presidency. The first order of the reor- 
ganized Board granted a bonus of $2 to the slayer of a wolf over six 
months old, and $1 to him who scalped a younger one. This was 
100 per cent. Increase on the bonns hitherto offered by the Board 
of Justices. Balser Hess, Azel Sparklin and Wilson AlcConnell 
were appointed School Trustees for township 37. A license was 


granted to John Cook, recognizing his right to sell foreign mer- 
chandise, and imposing a fee of $10 per annum. James Mathers, 
J. P., presented his report of lines levied. This document shows 
forth very clearly that Peter Tetters was relieved of $16 by order 
of the court, for his recognized ability in the art of profane swear- 
ing. The new seal of the commissioners was adopted; the resig- 
nation of Justice Mathers received; Messrs. John Penwell, Jacob 
Puderbaugh and John Andrews were appointed " Road Viewers," 
and received instructions to lay out a road from Pleasant Plain to 
South Bend. Geo. Crawford, the County Surveyor, was elected 
Road Commissioner for the county, and the following statement of 
seminary funds was laid on the table: 

The fines assessed and collected by Squire Penwell $ 5.00 

" " " " " " " Jackson 10.00 

■' '■ " " " " " Mathers 16.00 

" '• " " " " Circuit Court 5.50 

Replevined of Squire Jackson's fines 8 . 00 


All this business occupied only the first day of the November 
session of 1831. The remaining days were devoted to the appoint- 
ment of road viewers; reports from such as were formerly ordered 
to lay out highways; appropriations for the payment of county 
officials, and instructions to Geo. McCollura "to procure a set of 
standard weights and measures, on the best terms, for the regulation 
of any weights or measures now in use or to be used in the county 
of Elkhart." 

A special session of the Board was held Nov. 31, to receive the 
second report of Oliver Crane, to issue licenses and order an elec- 
tion of school trustees in township 38. Accordingly C. W. Singer 
on payment of $13, and Thomas Morrison, on payment of $10, were 
authorized to engage in the sale of foreign merchandise. The elect- 
ive body in township 38 were ordered to assemble at the house 
ofWm. Boget, Dec. 15, 1S31, and make a choice of trustees for 
the proposed schools of that district; and the following statement 
was read and adopted: 

Nov. 21, 1831, I, this day make this my second return to the honorable Commis- 
sioners of Elkhart county, Indiana, which is as follows to-wit : 





sow tor. 

Lot No. 


sow for. 


1 20 00 


John Potter 

25 00 


Madison W.Cornwel 

20 00 


Levi Beck 

20 00 


Michael Young 

100 00 


Jeremiah Beck 

20 00 


20 00 

Remained on James 


20 00 


20 00 


Samuel Dungan 

20 00 


Joseph D. Nose 

20 00 


20 00 


Jlorris Harris & Co. 

51 00 

150-151 Moses Modie 

TO 00 


James Callison 

35 00 

21 R 

I. T.Wilson (sold sec- 


Phillip Matthews 

20 00 

ond time through mis- 


Received on Henry 


White's lot 

30 00 


Jacob Replogle 

25 00 


Samuel Modie 

20 00 


Daniel Keplogle 

25 00 


Moses Modie 

25 00 


20 00 


Wm. Waugh 

30 00 


Isaac B. King 

GO 00 


Charles Awrin 

50 00 


Robt. P. Handle 

25 00 


Henry White 

20 00 


D. G. Dungan 

25 00 


Claton Comton 

20 00 


Charles Murray 

25 00 


Washington Modie 

20 00 


Jloses Jlodie 

25 00 


Samuel Reynolds 

55 00 


Samuel Modie 

30 00 


Samuel Reynolds 

50 50 

The cash received on account of these sales amounted to $129.12^, 
of which $15 were allowed County Agent Crane as his commission, 
leaving a net sum of $114. 12|- in the treasury. 

In the Mav session of 1832, a license to keep tavern in the town 
of Goshen, was granted Abner Stilson for a consideration of $12 to 
be ]iaid into the county treasury. A license was also granted 
Havilla Beardsley to establish a ferry on the St. Joseph river at the 
mouth of the Elkhart river, in consideration of a payment of $i 
per annum, and that the boat used as a ferry-boat should be -10 feet 
long bj' 9 broad. The following charges were also arranged : 

Each wagon with six horses or oxen 75 

" four " " 62i 

■• three" " .50 

" two " " 37^ 

" one " " 25 

horse and rider 12A 

footman 06^ 

single loose horse 06:1 

head of neat cattle 04 

" of sheep, hog or goat 01 

The count}' treasurer's report, laid on the table at an earlier 
session, showed the following receipts and disbursements for 1831: 

Received from the varied sources of revenue $^271 28:}^ 

Expended 8535 81^ 

Deficiency $264 53 

From this it will be evident that notwithstanding the economy 
exercised by the Boards of Justices and Commissioners in 1831, the 


county was in debt at the beginning ofl832, and continued so until 
the end of tlie January season, when all debts hitherto contracted 
were paid off, and a balance in favor of the next year of $16.32 
reported in tiie treasurer's hands. 

In March, 1832, J. Frier was dismissed from office of treasurer 
on account of not being naturalized. Aug. 18, 1832, the lirst con- 
tested election petition was tried before the county commissioners 
and M. Ilippey declared eligible. 

Having treated the very interesting period extending over the 
years 1830-'31 and a portion of 1832, as fully as the record permit- 
ted, it will now be only necessary to review the important events 
and figures suggested by the years immediately succeeding. Begin- 
ning with the county treasurer's report for 1832, presented to the 
Board at its lirst session in January, 1833, a review of the financial 
condition of the county at that time will prove valuable. This- 
report takes the following form ; 


For permits and license to taverns and groceries. f 29 10 

" •■ " " venders of merchandise 38 95 

Amount on duplicate and collected 425 00 

of jury fees collected 22 75 

' ' assessed and " .■ 12 75 

" of delinquent tax 55 65 

" of collector's fees 22 93 

" collected and paid into treasury 462 90 

" of balance after collector's fees 439 57 

" treasurer's percentage 13 87 

" after percentage 436 10^ 


Amount for wolf scalps flOl 00 

" " grand jurors 78 75 

" petit " 108 75 

" " viewing and laying out roads 39 00 

paid commissioners for locating State road from Fort 

Wayne to South Bend, through Elkhart county 23 00 

" for Geo. Crawford for surveying State road 20 00 

" " hands employed on State road 36 00 

" " assessor's services 30 00 

" " associate judges for holding courts 40 00 

" " bailiffs to the coiuts and juries 17 00 

" " house rent for county purposes 23 00 

" " sherifl for extra services. . . 70 00 

" clerk " " ■• 70 00 

" " postage and stationery 5 G2i 

" " sheriffs election returns 16 50 

" " returning judges of elections 3 50 

" " commissioners' services 38 00 

Total amount expended f 789 12i 

Total amount received 426 10| 

Leaving a deficiency of $363 

Deficiency of 1831 264 

Total amount of deficiency *627 

424 HiSTOEY or elkhart county. 

In tliis account tliere were so many erasures, so man v incongruous 
entries, and yet such a beautiful blending of everything that could 
tend to revolutionize all modern ideas of bookkeeping, that there is 
no existing intention on the part of the writer to vary from the 
style laid down in the original record. Notwithstanding the con- 
fusion of items and figures, it must be taken for granted that the 
resulting figures are correct, since the report was duly received and 

There is one thing assured as certain, and that is, that the early 
settlers were determined to have roads and schools and officials, no 
matter where or when the revenue to meet expenditures entailed 
by such enterprise was to be raised. They were undoubtedly a 
most progressive people, and the early exercise of their liberties 
led to these great results, which many of them live to see in opera 
tion. The attention of the commissioners was given to the open- 
ing up of the county by the erection of highways and schools, unti' 
March, 1834, when it became their duty to organize another town 
ship, to be known as Middlebury. Their ordinance in this connec 
tion was in the following form: " Ordered that all that part o; 
Concord township lying in ranges 6 and 7 be set apart and known 
by the name of Middlebury township, and that Willis G. Wright 
be and is hereby appointed Inspector of Elections in said township, 
and that one justice of the peace be elected on the first Monday 
of April next, and that the election be holden at the house of Geo- 
Buffems, and that the sherifi' advertise the same. 

In January, 1833, the commissioners granted a tavern license to 
Horace Eoot for the town of Elkhart, for which he paid $2.50; and 
in May of the same year the township of Turkey Creek, south of 
the county of Elkhart, was organized. The order of the commis- 
sioners in this connection takes this form, viz. : " Ordered that all 
the territory lying south of Elkhart and attached thereto be desig- 
nated and set apart and known by the name of Turkey Creek 
township, and that the annual election be holden at the house of 
Charles Irwin, and that Hyram Summy be appointed Inspector of 
Elections for said township, and that one justice of the peace be 
elected in said township at the annual election, and that the sheriff 
advertise the same." It now became evident that the strange 
adjunct of civilization known as a prison, then commonly termed 
a "coop," was necessary, and accordingly the commissioners 
ordered that the contract for building a jail be entered into and 


given to the lowest bidder who would receive town lots in Goshen 
as pay for his work when reported complete. 

The November session of lS3i began on Monday, the 3d, and 
concluded on the 5th. During these three days a vast amount of 
business was transacted, and only concluded by a lengthy statement 
of county finances. This document shows that at that time the 
revenue account amounted to .$797.23^, and the expenditures for 
the year to $84:0.81, leaving a deficiency of S43.67f to be added to 
the collective deficiency of 1832-'3 of 8829. 95i, aggregating a total 
deficiency to date of $870.63 1-6. 

The January session of 1835 was i)rincipally devoted to the con- 
sideration of accounts, many of which were ordered to be paid. 
The commissioners held a long and very important session in March, 
and issued an ordinance, among others, for the organization of 
Cleveland township. This order is couched thus: " Ordered that 
all that part of Concord township lying north of the St. Joseph 
river to form one township, and to be known by the name of Cleve- 
land townsliip; and that Samuel Simmington be appointed Inspector 
of Elections in and for said township, and that an election be holden 
in and for said township on the first Monday of April next, for the 
purpose of electing two justices of the peace in and for said town- 
ship, said election to be holden at the house of Ilirara Ormsby, and 
that the sheriflp advertise the same." 

On Tuesday, May 5, 1835, the Commissioners ordered that that 
portion of the recently organized township of Middlebury, in range 
0, be constituted a township, to be called Washington, and that the 
election of inspector and justices beheld at the house of E. Denisou 
on the first Saturday in June. 

Joseph II. Defrees was appointed County Agent during the same 
session, vice Oliver Crane, but resigned subsequently, and the posi- 
tion was given to K. P. Eandall. Randall made a full report of 
mone^-s received from purchasers of town lots since the first sale, 
and supplied to the commissioners in session during November, 
1835, a statement regarding lots sold by him since he entered upon 
the duties of county agent. This statement, in conjunction with 
former references to the town lots of Goshen, will almost complete 
the list of early settlements in and about the county seat. 


.ot No. 

Piirchnsed by 



rurcUftSPd Dy Prtce. 


Robcil Frame 



William Wau-h 



.lohiiston Latta 



Shiilial M. Teas,' 



Henry Beaue 



Oliver Ciaiie 



Johnston Latta 



J..lm W. Uiuris 



!S. M. Pease sold a 

2d time 


L. S. Cording 



Flemming Risht 


Daniel Shoemaker 





Josiah Shoemaker 



John G. Nagle 



Isaac Hagle 
John G. Hagle 



James Irwin 




William Irwin 



Hubbard Henderson 



H. W. Willdnson 



David McCollum 



Petri- T.. Pvunyan 



John F. Wilson 



AVillis (1. Wii-lil 



Banks Hull 



noinini.|U,' linssci, 

u 50 


Trustees M. E. Church 



l>»vi,l 1!. ('aip.ntc 

■V 45 


Kennel H. Z. Haden 



David Mr( nlluiu. 

1 .V 2 

Josias Hockert 






.hunes F. Young 



AVilliam Felkiirr 



.Alatthew D. Springer 



Jeremiah Ilvsei- 



.lohn (iilmore 



K. L. Britton 



John Gilmore 



Azel Sparlin 



Robert Frame 



Henry Davis, fraction 10 


Robert Frame 



Peter h. Runyan 



Richard H. Lansdale 



John F. Wilson 



John Wincland 



James E. Randall 



Benjamin Crary 



William Felkner 



Matthew D. Springer 


The sales effected by County Agent Det'rees dnrina; his term of 
office comprised the following lots referred to in County Agent 
Randall's report: 




Purchased Dy 
William Clark 
John A. Craig 
J. Fellows and G. 










Pin-cU:ised by 
J. Fellows and G. ^ 

Jos. H. Dcfrees 
Jeremiah Banning 

Moses Bails 


'.." 45 

350 251 

" 50 


Tiie county agent, in continuation of his report, stated the sum 
realized on account of all these sales up to date to be !?8,374..">()i. The 
county treasurer, Peter L. Eunyan, reported the receipt of $93(i.(5S, 
and the disbursement of $005.84, with amount of treasurer's com- 
mission S'2S.10 additional, leaving $2.72 to credit of county. The 
sum actually paid into the treasury on account of lots in the town 
of Goshen uj) to that date was $1,126,161. 

The Commissioners, at their meeting Nov. 2, IS:)."), ordered that 
"All that part of Jackson township in congressional township No.SS, 
in range 7, be known by the name of Benton township; that on the 
third Saturday of December, A. D. 1835, an election be held in the 
town of Benton, at the store of F. W. Taylor in said town, for the 
purpose of electing a justice of the peace for the townshipof Benton, 
atid that .loseph Cowan be appointed inspector." The treasurer 


furnished a detailed report to the Board of Commissioners, sum- 
ming up the financial state of the county to the 7th of that month, 
showing the net revenue to be $l,2i8.23, and the expenses of the 
previous year to be $1,119.88^, and the deficiency carried down from 
former years to equal $750.28^. 

The work of organization made great progress during this period. 
In March, 1836, the commissioners issued an ordinance for the 
formation of a new township in the ordinary legal form then in use, 
viz.: " Ordered that all that part of Elkhart county west of range 
5 east, and south of the Elkhart river, be set apart and known by 
the name of Baugo township, and that Wilcey S. Jones be ap- 
pointed Inspector of Elections of said township, and that the elec- 
tions of said township be holden at the house of James Town." 
Toward the close of the same session Jefferson township was organ- 
ized out of that part of Washington township, known as town- 
ship Xo. 37 north, range 5 east. Isaac Decamp was appointed In- 
spector of Elections, and the people ordered to meet for selection 
of a justice of the peace, on the first Monday in April, 1836, at 
the liouse of Isaac Hagle. The following school lands were 
reported sold during the previous month by Deputy Recorder John 
Gilmore, viz: 

Lot. Acres. Purcliasecl by 


Lot. Acres. 

Purchased by 


1 51 

George Crawford $ 770.61 

5 66.39 

Azel Sparklin 

232 36 


Geo. Crawford 


6 80.12 

Oliver Crane 


3 43-52 

Daniel Weybright 

383 64 

7 102.53 


4 54.35 

Daniel Cripe 


8 121.43 

" '• 


County Agent Handall 

's repoi 

•t of a f 

urther sale of town lots 

followed thus: 

Lots NO. 



Lots No. 




Lewis L. Gording 

$ 40 


Jas. Hilliard 



Ben Crary 



Jas. HilliardaudR. 


Sam. J. Young 


Jas. McReynolds 



Samuel Yarnell 





Jacob Stutsman 





Daniel Stutsman 



Wm. Vail 



Richard Hathaway 



James Cook 



Richard Hathaway 



Geo Howell 



Abner Stillson 



L. D. Hovey 


223-197-169JOS. S. Jernigan 



J. R.Mc Cord and Leon- 

175-196-233JamesS. Stilson 


ard Harris 



Thomas Thomas 



Milton Mercer 


Emanuel Bell 


43-44-45-1 65 James Cook 



Geo. Rumsey 



Luke Hulett 



James Gilmore 




James Blair 
Abram B. Lyons 



Eandall pointed but in his statement of results, that the sum of 
$3,880.36 liad accrued from the sale of those lots up to the present, 
and he also expressed in very prophetic terms, that many years 
would not elapse before the very lots which he was then selling 
would be disposed of at a premium of 1,000 per cent. 

In May, 1836, the following order issued from the Board for the 
organization of still another township, to be called Clinton. It directs 
" that a portion of Elkhart township in range 7 be set apart 
and be known by the name of Clinton." William Denny was 
appointed Inspector, and a meeting was called at the house of Isaac 
Smith, for the purpose of electing a justice of peace to represent 
the township on the Board ot Commissioners. During the month 
of September, 1836, the commissioners ordered the erection of that 
part of Elkhart county in township 36 north, and of range 5 east, 
into Harrison township, appointed William Stewart, Inspector, and 
directed the election of a justice of the peace to be held at the 
house of Daniel Bowser, on the first Monday of October following. 
Henry H. Fowler, who laid out the town of Bristol, was ordered to 
vacate the same, on condition " that he shall proceed to survey and 
record the new plat as a part of the said town in some different 
manner within six months." 

In January, 1837, an ordinance was issued by the Board of Com- 
missioners for the erection of a district north of the St. Joseph river, 
in township 38, of range 5 east, into Osolo township. Henry John- 
son received the appointment of Inspector of the Election, of justice 
of the peace, to be held at his house on the last Saturday of that 
month. It was likewise ordered by the Board that township 37, 
range 5 east, of Elkhart county be included in Concord township. 
The organization of Union township was ordered by the commis- 
sioners in March, 1837. They directed its erection out of that part 
of Elkhart county in township ISTo. 35 north, range 5 east; and 
having appointed Josiah Elston Inspector, instructed the sheriff to 
advertise the date of election of a justice of the peace for the first 
Monday in April, to be held at the house of Samuel Drake. York 
township was erected in March, 1837, out of township No. 38 north, 
range 7 east, in Elkhart county. A. Brown was appointed Inspec- 
tor, and an election of a justice of the peace ordered to be held at 
the house of F. Curtis on the first Monday in April. 

The county treasurer presented a statement of receipts and dis- 
bursements for 1836, to the commissioners, at their January ses- 
sion. This statement is as follows: 



Tavern and grocery license $ 330 30 

Foreign merchandise license 165 89 

Jury fees 18 00 

Duplicate in the hands of thecollector 1,156 12>^ 

Amount of delinquents 27 SQ^ 

Balance after delinquents deducted 1,128 22;!^ 

The sum of 1,420 IS^ 

The peculiarly arranged exhibition of revenue is followed by 
another from the collector, setting forth a total receipt of $2,092; 
a total disbursement of $1,959.44^-, and balance in favor of the 
county of $132.56i. 

The township of Olive was organized under an order of the 
commissioners dated Nov. 5, 1839, directing that the fractional 
township 36 north and of range 4 east be detached from Baugo 
township and named Olive. Cornelius Terwilliger was appointed 
Inspector of the election of justice of the peace, to be held Dec. 
7 ensuing. 

Ten years after the organization of the county the amount due 
for county taxes was $2,798.19. The number of polls, 1,116. The 
value of land, $429, 433; personal property, $114,972; town lots, 
$96,221 ; total amount, $640,226. Number of acres of land, 77,401. 
In the June session of 1841 the commissioners issued the follow- 
ing ordinance: " That the Congressional fractional township No. 35 
north, range 4 east, in the county of Elkhart, and State of Indiana, 
be, and the same is hereby, set off as a civil township to itself, for 
the purposes of transacting township business; and it is further 
ordered that said township be known by the name of Locke town- 
ship; audit is further ordered that the election be held in said 
township on Saturday, 24th day of July, A. D. 1841, for the pur- 
pose of electing a justice of the peace for said township; and it is 
further ordered that the sheriff of Elkhart county give notice of 
said election by putting up three written notices in three of the 
most public places at least 20 days before said election." 
" Such a close attention to the old record of the county has been 
made indispensable, on account of the slow but sure progress in 
the organization of the townships, the changes in the administra- 
tion from the old Board of Justices to the Board of Commissioners^ 
and the various and sometimes quaint reports of the first county 
officers. To deal with such important items in the ordinary style 
would be to transmute the interesting language of ancient lawyers, 



statesmen and public officials from its original purity to modern 
form, and tliereby destroy these peculiar characteristics, which 
endear it to the surviving pioneers, and attract even the attention 
of their children and new settlers. That the chapter will interest 
and instruct is to be hoped. It is a record singularly gratifying, 
and one of which all who ennoble themselves by cherishing the 
memories of honest men may be proud. 



The skill tliat conquers space and time, 
That graces life, that lightens toil. 
May spring from courage more sublime 
Than that which makes a realm its spoil. 

Wliatever is found Ijeautiful in nature coinineiids itself at once 
to nature's ca]iitalnian. Nutiiing but the beauties of nature could 
lead liim over oceans, and through the solitudes of continents. lu 
his travels westward he always met some object to attract his 
attention, and beyond, toward the setting sun, was still some open- 
ing in the forest or some grove upon the prairie to lure him 
onward from one spot of beauty to another more lovely, until, 
wearied with the extent and variety of landscape, he lay down to 
repose upon the bosom of a land which next day he would call his 
own. Here willing toil brought to his hearth that primitive happi- 
ness wiiich men in other walks of life have often wished for. The 
prairie, grove and river opened wp a vista before him, pointing out 
the site of a beautiful home, where no dissonance jjromised to inter- 
fere with the ])revailing harmony; free alike from the marvelous 
struggles of ])eople inhabiting the old Eastern settlements, and 
from their political and military aspirations, he could exhaust a 
term of comparative ease before the time of immigration floated 
toward him new neighbors; so that, when they came, the tirst set- 
tler welcomed them, and often under his guidance and following 
his advice they selected the neighborhood as their home. Soon a 
busy stream of life swept over and peopled the land; the tempo- 
rary shanty or log cabin began to give way to more pretentious 
structures, and the echoes of happy human voices rolled over forest 
and prairie and lake and river, until the little world which centered 
in their midst was one of peace and joy. Then, as is oi'ten the 
case in worldly affairs, whisperings of anticipated disturbance 
seemed to travel on the genial breeze, and at a moment's notice the 
hap[)y people were roused to arms by another Paul Revere, and 
their dream of continued rest was temporarily broken. The Sac 


war oxoitiMiUMit toi.k imssossion of tlio scttli-imMits, but lisippily 
its rosnlts wore boiiolioinl, since thov only provini what _u;allant 
honrts nro proparod to do iind suiVor in dotonso of llienisolves, 
tlunr neijjhbors and tlioir land. That period in the history of 
Elklmrt county is well renienihered hy many of the old pioneers. 
The Hon. Joseph 11. Defrees was then anuing them, an. 1 thouo;h 
ho exerted nil his powers o\' mind and body to allay the intense 
excitement of the people, iiis sound reasonitio' passed by unheeded 
by the greater number, and thus entailed upon tlio brave people 
ft term of mental and physical trouble, unexampled in the history 
ot tl>e Uepublic. The action of the settlers, however, was most 
commendable. AVhen it is remembered that they mustered into 
service under the veteran Ool. Jucksou, prepared to march to the 
defense of Niles in the neighborina; State, a point then reported 
to be threatened by the savage Sacs, their order of courage and fra- 
ternity become heroic, and their actions such as the ancients would 
deem worthy of their gods. 

Wiien the savage cliaracter of the Sacs and the eiiually barbarous 
luiture of the I'ottawotamiesnre consideretl. the settlers were justi- 
tied in their anxiety. Tlio terrible white sog feast, or thirst 
dance was being carried out in the villages of the aborigines. 
Ihuids of Indians had encamped there for several weeks, making 
preparations for the festival, which is partly of a penitential and 
partly of a propitiatory^ character, the peculiarity of the cere- 
monial being that the dancers must not eat. drink or sleep until it 
is over — a length of time varying from two to tour days. On this 
occasion it was only for two days. 

In order to fully carry out the festival it was necessary to erect 
H temple, and tl\is was eiVected with the ceremonies usual to savage 
sprees of this description. As tlie tirst duty was to procure a center- 
pole, between 40 and 50 warriors, each on horseback, with hissinuiw 
behind him, set out for the woods in search of one. Preceding 
then\ was the nu\lieine man, in a ragged United States military 
coat, probably brought fron\ one of the posts south of the lino, his 
head ornamented with a mass of porcupine skin and swan feathers, 
lie carried in his hand a tin pan, which he beat with a stick, while 
he and the chief who followed him, n\ade hideous noises to drive 
away the evil spirits. .V tree suitable to their purpose was at last 
chosen, and was approached with wlioops and the tiring of guns. In 
a very sliort time it was felled, and the warriors ranging them- 
selves on each side of the trunk, attached their lariats to it, and 

iiisroitv OK la.KiiAkT c'diiNTV. -!;!;{ 

drow it, iiilo c.iuiiii, iuiuM l.lie }'(!11k dI' lliu Havuf^eH. A Kolect I'liw 
a])|)()iMlo(l !iy tlio iiiodiciiiu iium iJiuii rairtoil it in ])(),siti()ii, ;iiid tlie 
])rocecdiiif(s huinif iiccoinpiiiiiod hy iiic.iiiitatioiiB and miicli noise — tlic 
one for invoking idcssingrt and tlic other for driving away ovil 
6])irit.s. 'I'luj temple, or tent, was tiion erected around tlie ])olo. It 
was circular in form, 60 feet in diameter, with walla six feet liigh, 
tlie apex of the I'oof being 30 feet from the ground. Tlie sidoH and 
roof were conijiosod ol' luillalo skins. IiiHido four pews were eon- 
Btructed with walls about three feet iiigli, two for the male and two 
for tlie fei'nale dancers, who are usually young people, who liad, 
when in imminent danger ot their lives, vowed to ])crform tliis 
service out of gratitude to the Great Spirit. The dance is merely 
a jerk of tiic body and a series of contortions, without any motion 
of the feet. 

The niediciiie man announces everything ready, and the dancers, 
to the number ol' aiiout 40, male and female, took positions in tlio 
])e\v8. The bucks woi'e feathers in the Hcal])locks, and disjjlayod a 
style of costume not yet adopted in civilized society. They had 
nothing on but a coat of paint. Some of them were frescoed 
gcjrgeonsly and tastefully, but others, ])r()bably the married men, 
had put on their color carelessly and hideously, as if they cared 
not whether the girls smiled upon them or Bj)urned them. The 
squaws, however, had completed their toilets with much care, and 
appeared (jii the scene with their iiiu^ry dis|)layed to the bestudvan- 
lage. They moved about among the painted braves with ])orfoct 
indill'erence, and gave no sign that the airiness of their lover's dress 
offended them in the least. The orchestra, composed of iialf a 
dozen chiefs armed with drums made of deer skin, took its place 
at 10 o'clock Thursday night, and, to the grunting of the medicine 
man, chief musicians and head men, and a wild song from the 
dancers, the ball opened. Each dancer was provided with a whistle 
made from the wing-bone of a goose, ornamented with feathers 
and cohjrs. As they jumped about they sounded shrill notes u])on 
their instruments, which, blended with the whoojis, yells and mo- 
notonous druminiiig, fell upon the civilized ear with startling effect. 
Hour after hour the dance was kept up, the only intermission being 
at the will of the drummers, who were relieved at intervals. At 
times the surging and noise subsided, and a wise man in a see-saw 
tone recited tales of heroism for the eilificiitiiMi iukI emulation of 
the young. 


During Friday and Saturday the warriors gave many exhibitions 
of their powers of endurance. A muscular warrior stood uncon- 
cerned while a couple of cliiefs stuck long skewers through the 
flesh of his shoulders. The lines of a horse were attached to the 
skewers, and the warrior was told to lead the animal around until 
the flesh gave way. With blood streaming down his back and 
breast, and mingling with the paint upon his dusky body, the 
enduring savage walked around for a couple of hours without a 
murmur. Though the flesh upon his shoulders tore in the direc- 
tion of the neck, yet it did not give way, and the medicine man, 
with much ceremony, unloosed the hero, who sauntered ofi" with a 
grunt of satisfaction. 

The next act on the programme was more startling than the last. 
A young buck was introduced and allowed two skewers to be thrust 
through the flesh of his breast without wincing; two lariats 
suspended from the roof-pole of the tent were fastened to the 
skewers. He then began to swing around the tent as far as the 
lines would allow him, throwing his whole weight upon the lines 
in his endeavor to break loose. The dancers danced and the 
drummers drummed with renewed vigor while the exhibition was 
in progress. After several hours' exercise he demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of all that he was a tough young man, and was loosed 
amid grunts of approval. Another heroic scalper had three pegs 
driven into him^two in his back and two in the back part of his 
arms. Four guns were hung upon the pegs, and he walked around 
and flirted with the girls as if nothing bothered him. A party of 
Assiniboines, painted to the eyes and armed to the teeth, appeared, 
and gave an exhibition of how they killed their enemies. They 
threw their knives and guns about so carelessly and attacked each 
other so fiercely that the few white spectators began to think that 
the fight might spread, and felt uneasy for their scalps. The cock- 
of-the-walk was a young Miami chief. Over his shoulders he wore 
the skin of an American lion killed single-handed by himself. 
Pendant from the skin were ten lariats, showing that he had cap- 
tured or stolen the horses. Pie strutted proudly around with his 
ten tails dragging behind him, and received with composure the 
admiration of his companions. Horses, blankets, knives, fire-arms, 
fancy lariats, skins and other articles were given as oflferings to 
propitiate the Great Spirit, many giving all they possessed, that their 
children might be brought into the tent and blessed. The dauce 


was kept up from Thursday night until Saturday, when the medi- 
cine man made " medicine " for rain, and in an liour it came, a 
perfect down-pour, testifying tliat the Great Spirit was pleased 
with festival. 

After the dance came the dog feast. It is supposed by the inno- 
cent roamers of the plains that the eating of a dog's liver, without 
regard to the quality of the dog, makes them strong-hearted. The 
temple used in the " thirst" dance was taken down, with the 
exception of the center-pole, around which the warriors seated 
themselves in a circle and enjoyed a social smoke. Suddenly a cry 
was given, and tlie M'arriors sprang to their feet and commenced 
circling around to the dismal beating of a drum. The quiver- 
ing carcass of a dog was thrown within the circle by a woman, and 
the men whooped in ecstasy. The carcass was cut open, the liver 
torn out and hung by a thong from the pole. The warriors, one 
by one, stepped up and took a bite of the yet warm liver, and 
marched off happy. As soon as one liver was consumed a fresh 
dog was thrown into the circle and the stock of liver replenished. 
This continued to the end, until, perha|)s, 100 dogs were thus 
disposed of No wonder it is then that a few pioneers caught up 
the cry of alarm, and prepared to defend themselves against the 
attacks of the barbarians. 

The following stoi-y has been told by De Witt Mulinix, and is 
based upon'the experiences of one of Colonel Jackson's neighbors, 
so that its value in this connection cannot be overestimated, or its 
veracity questioned: "It was a warm July afternoon," said the 
writer; "from the door-3'ard of a country house, situated upon a 
little eminence, where prairie and timber land intersect, could be 
seen the finely cultivated farms of perhaps twenty lords of the soil, 
while scattered over the broad plain before me could be seen the 
adjoining proprietors, with laborers and teams, actively storing away 
the fruit of a summer's labor, while just to the left, nestling amid 
shrubs and trees, was a quiet, and from my point of observation, 
|)retty, little village. An occasional flash of lightning and the 
muttering of distant thunder gave evidence of an approaching 
storm; just before me, looking out upon the beautiful scene, with 
memories of the past evidently flitting across his mind, sat an old 
gentleman, full of years, and in the enjoyment of those high 
f[ualitie8 of mind and soul that come from a well-spent life. Intend- 
ing to obtain a recital of early incidents, I observed: 'You were 
here very early in the history of this locality were you not?' He 


replied: 'Yes, before the count}' was organized or a single white 
settler was in all this region, 1 visited this prairie for the first time. 
I was an early settler of Elkhart Prairie and lived near the river of 
that name, upon the farm now owned by Matthew Eippey and 
occupied by Mr. Graham, formerly a Methodist minister near 
here. One morning very early, — for we did not sleep late in those 
days; muscle, pluck and patience were all we had then out of which 
to make a living for those dependent on us, — Col. J. Jackson, my 
nearest neighbor, greatly excited and in haste, came to my house. 
As he approached he cried out: "Get your gun, and ammunition, 
and provisions, and meet us at Goshen at 11 o'clock; the Indians 
are near Niles, murdering the whites, and they want our aid." I 
wanted him to stop and give me more particulars, but he would not 
even pause for a moment; replying that he must hurry and notity 
the neighbors, he passed out of view. It seemed to me the Colonel 
was unnecessarily alarmed, but concluding to meet them at Goshen, 
we set about getting ready. 

" While I half-soled my shoes for the trip, my wife prepared 
some provisions and molded bullets to enable me to do service. 
While so engaged John Elsea, my nearest neighbor, came over and 
proposed to stay and look after both families while I went. My 
shoes now being repaired, we got out ray old knapsack, which had 
seen service in the border Indian wars, and with ammunition, 
provisions and my rifle, I started on foot for Goshen. We had no 
roads then. It was across the country or upon Indian trails, just 
as you chose to go. Arriving at Goshen the first man I met was 
Col. Jackson. "If you want any Indians killed, just bring tliem 
along now, Colonel," was my salutation. With a hearty laugh and 
strong old-fashioned shake-hands, which made one feel better for it, 
the Colonel greeted me. By this time many had arrived, armed 
with shot-guns, muskets, rifles, a few old-fashioned horse-pistols, 
butcher-knives, etc., etc., ready to march out to the aid of the 
pioneers, who, like ourselves, had left the comforts of civilization to 
hew out homes for their wives and little ones, from the wilds of a 
new country. We met together and then details of various reports 
were given. Col. Jackson produced a letter which had been written 
to him from Niles and sent in haste by an express rider, asking 
him to call out the militia and come to their rescue, as the Indians 
were near them, coming from the West, murdering the people. We 
concluded to send two messengers at once to Niles to get more spe- 
cific information. They were to return the next day. We did so, and 

/^ 0/0-^ M ClyOC<5y?'rL.iObt/i^ 


the town was full. Men, women and children had heard the reports 
and came flocking into town in every conceivable way, — some cry- 
injj, others swearing. To add to the confusion, it was said at the 
meeting that the Indians on and around this prairie were prepar- 
ing for war; that they were having war dances every night, and had 
bushels of bullets already molded. It was determined for safety 
to build a fort at Goshen, into which the women and children could 
he gathered, and a day was fixed for its commencement. 

'• In the meantime the men sent out to JS'iles returned with the 
information that it was a false alarm, that there were no hostile 
Indians east of Chicago; but at that place they were perpetrating 
outrages, and it was expected hostilities would open over the whole 
frontier. There were no contradictions, however, of the rumors of 
hostile demonstrations among the Indians in what is now Kosciusko 
count}'; so it was determined to go on with the fort. I had made 
up my mind that the whole story was a fabrication, and determined 
to visit the Indians on this prairie, in person, and ascertain the 
truth. I was wholly unacquainted with the country. There were 
no roads, no settlers that I knew of, no white men with them of my 
knowledge, the reports were alarming in the extreme, yet I did not 
believe them. If they were true it was important to know the 
worst at once, and prepare to meet the enemy. If untrue it was 
important to allay the excitement and alarm, so that people could 
again go quietly to their work. John Elsea promised to accompany 
me, but he was too ignorant of the country, of the tribes we were 
about to visit, of their language, and what to us was more impor- 
tant than all, of their intentions. Whether we were to come upon 
these barbarians in their haunts, painted for the war dance, with 
murder in their hearts, was to us a very serious question. 

" We determined, however, to go, and bidding farewell to those 
nearest and dearest to us, we crossed the river and started out alone 
into the wilderness. There was no road, no improvement, no 
human habitation between Elkhart river and the east side of Big 
Turkey Creek Prairie. With nothing to guide us but an Indian 
trail, which we finally came upon, we moved forward. As we 
approached the prairie the trail became more and more beaten, until 
at last we arrived in sight of an Indian village. It was located on 
what was for a long time known as the Rosseau farm, subsequently 
owned by Charles Rippey; fartiier south was another village called 
Waubee Papoose. Waubee was the chief of this tribe and lived at 
the village first mentioned. We were a little way off when the sav- 


ages first saw us; they became greatly excited at our api)roach; 
immediate confusion was the result. Hurriedly they commenced 
to assemble. Being satisfied I could pacify them, if I was able to 
reach them before hostile demonstrations commenced, we both put 
spurs to our horses, and at full gallop dashed into their camp, thus 
placing ourselves in their power. The whole population, squaws, 
dogs and all, were in a tumult of excitement, and gathering around 
us demanded to know our business. We told them we were after 
seed corn to plant. The old chiet Waubee informed us they had 
none; but we could get it at another village some six miles away 
to the southeast, and directed us on our trail. Spending an hour 
•or two with the barbarians looking for war paint, clnlis and bul- 
lets, we took our departure. 

"Traveling up another trail, we now came to a second village, 
where the town of Oswego now stands. Squabach was the head ot 
this village. The noble savages here formed a semi circle, squatted 
down on their haunches and remained perple.xingly silent for over 
an hour. Tiieir toilet was not very elaborate. The young ladies 
nowadays who go into ecstacy over the latest novel and think it so 
romantic, and who faint at the sight of a rat, would not have fol- 
lowed theirs as the most becoming fashion . We could neither please 
uor anger them. Perfectly motionless and expressionless, they sat 
for over an hour. Disgusted, we were about to depart, when the 
chief spoke to a little Indian, who suddenly dartedoff into the woods. 
We concluded to await the result of this movement. Presently an 
Indian came forward and in fair English gruffly said: ' What you 
want here?' Instantly we spoke the magic word ' seed-corn,' and 
then the dusky savages all arose, talked and gave us a cordial wel- 
come. Their Sipiaws had been planting, and after au hour or two 
of loitering round their wigwams we departed. Everything gave 
evidence of quiet. We camped near what is now Leesburg. Mr. 
Elsea got four logs together in the shape of a foundation for a house, 
near where the old ^letcalf Beck store-house stands, and formally 
made his claim to the land, intending next fall to move his family 
to that spot of mother earth. Before he returned others jumped 
his claim and became owners of the land. We went back to our 
homes, reported the Indians all ]>eaceful, and this allayed the excite- 
ment. They settled at Goshen, however, to build a fort, got the foun- 
dation laid and disagreed as to its name, and so the work was aban- 
doned. Now all those who were then young men in the prime of 
manhood, full of energy and activity, are either gathered to their 


fathers or are in the decline of life. The mothers of tlic daughters who 
now live in ease, and many of whom pride themselves on white hands 
and pretty feet, rather than clear heads and hrave hearts, are now 
gone or hroken in health. We shall all pass away soon to some 
other land, but it is a ha])py thought that we have set a good exam- 
ple for our children . We have laid the foundation of future prosper- 
ity strong and deep, and those now in tlic prime of life need only 
build upon it." 

Notwithstanding the excitement of the times, the Fourth of July 
was celebrated throughout this northern part of the State. Jos. H. 
Defrees was the orator. Each corner of the county heralded the anni- 
versary of that day, which the Declaration of Indeiiendence bright- 
ened np with a ray as brilliant as the summer eun, and made blessed 
in the calendar. Even prior to this, on the 22d of February, they 
assembled at South Bend in honor of Washington's natal day, and 
having listened to the oration of Antiiony Defrees, who recapitu- 
lated the glories of the Union soldier, gave up a few hours to fes- 
tivity and returned to their homes, in the conciousness that, even 
in this M^atter, they had ]ierpotuated the memory of a great man, 
and done their duty to the Ilepublic. 

Tlie same month the Postmaster General established an office at 
Goshen, and appointed Wm. Bisscll postmaster. 

The iirst attempt at political party organization was carried out 
in April of the same year, by the election of Elias Carpenter, Asa 
Crook, Mark B. Thom])son, Wm. Skinner and David Rodibaugh to 
jilaces on the Democratic executive committee of the county. 

The terrible enmity which sprang up between the Miamis and 
the Pottawatomies created some attention toward the close of the 
year. In December, 1832, the chiefs of the latter tribe held a 
meeting to consider the murder of one of their people by a Miami. 
The chiefs concluded that a tribute of $100,000— the sum of the 
(iovernmental annuity to the Miami nation for two years — should be 
])aid over to the Pottawatomies, and in case of their non-com- 
pliance decreed to wager a war of extermination against their old 
allies until the murder would be well avenged by the destruction 
of that tribe to which the assassin belonged. Fortunately for the 
Indians concerned, as well as for the white inhabitants, reason took 
up the place of the rille and tomahawk and adjusted the matter 
betbre the savages donned their war accoutrements and paint. 

Previous!}', the " ten mile strip " contention between Ohio and 
Michigan almost led to a serious rupture of State relations. The 


strip of land in question was within two and one-half miles of the 
present northern line of this county, and would undoubtedly have 
led to internecine struggle had not the designs of the impetuous 
Gov. Lucas, of Ohio, been frustrated by the presence ot the troops of 
the United States. 


We have learned much regarding the Sac war excitement in 
Elkhart county. Now we will regard the situation at Niles and 
throughout St. Joseph county in the neighboring State of Michigan. 

At the commencement of the first settlement of St. Joseph county 
the Nottawa tribe of Pottawatomies acknowledged the sway of 
Pierrie Morreau as chief. 

Morreau was a white man, and was once an educated and accom- 
plished French gentleman; whether a native of France or the 
descendant of one of the old French families of Canada is not known. 
In early life he commenced business in Detroit as a mercantile 
trader. After some misfortune in business, with the remains of a 
stock of goods he sought this secluded retreat on the banks of the 
St. Joseph river. Here he established a trade with the Indians, 
which he continued until his stock of goods was exhausted. He 
then married an Indian woman, adopted the Indian costume and 
habits of life. In his character as a savage he seemed to have 
merged every reminiscence of civilization and to have lost every 
vestige of its conduct and manners. When the settlements began 
to gather around Nottawa prairie he was ninety years old, superan- 
nuated, decrepid, infirm, and disfigured. 

Morreau by his Indian wife had seven children who attained adult 
age: Sau-au-quett, the oldest of four sons; Mo-niss, Isadore and 
Wau-be-gah, and three daughters: Betsy, Min-no-wisaud Min-nah. 

Sau-au-quett figured coiispicously in this tribe of Pottawatomies. 
After his father became so dissipated and imbecile as to be unable 
to exert his influence over the tribe as their chief or head, Sau-au- 
quett disputed the right to govern with Cush-ee-wes, the legiti- 
mate chief of the tribe, whose father, now deceased, had been 
supplanted by Morreau many years before. 

Sau au-quett was a shrewd and wily man. He possessed won- 
derful powers as an orator. His competitor, Cush-ee-wes, was a 
modest and imassumiug man. Each had his partisans and adherents. 
While the warmest friends of Sau-au-quett admitted the rightful 
claim of Cush-ee-wes, the fascinating eloquence, the winning man- 


ners and impressive presence of San-au-qiiett carried a majority of 
the tribe, contrary to their better judgment and equitable convic- 
tions, to support his pretensions. 

Sau-au-quett was an extraordinary man. He measured six feet 
and three inches in his moccasins. He was straight and well pro- 
portioned; he possessed a commanding presence and most imposing 
and winning address; his features were classical, of the pure Eoman 
mold; when the writer of this article, in 1833, made a crayon 
sketch of his head, he then thought, and still thinks, he never gazed 
upon a more perfect model of manly beauty, commanding dignity and 
perfection of human form. It was this noble form and command- 
ing eloquence that was the secret of his great power over his 

This tribe of Pottawatomies was continually involved in internal 
dissensions while the pioneers supplied them with intoxicating 
drink, until the frontier war, known as the Black Hawk war, com- 
menced, at which period the members of the tribe had sunken into 
the most abject poverty and dissipation. They had ceased to hunt 
the forests for game and furs; they traded their ponies, their guns, 
and even their blankets for whisky, and left their children to starve- 
in their wigwams. The once proud warriors had sunken into piti- 
able mendacity, and like a pack of hungry wolves, clung around the 
new settlement howling for more " fire-water." 

At this crisis the notes of Indian war were sounded along the 
frontier settlement. The southern line of the Pottawatomie Re- 
serve traversed ?f Ottawa Prairie east and west near its center. That 
portion of the prairie south of the reservation line was among the 
first lands to be located by the emigrants to the northern portion of 
the county. Here, then, when the alarm of the Black Hawk war 
was given, the huts of the settlers were scattered along the southern 
margin in the shadows of the beautiful groves and islands of this 
portion of the prairie, in close proximity with this band of debased 

It is not to be wondered at that the settler felt sensations of 
alarm, and that the mother drew her child closer to her bosom, 
as they were aroused from their slumbers in their cabin by the wild 
shrieks of the besotted Pottawatomie as he galloped across the 
prairie to his wigwam steeped in drunkenness. 

A panic seized the new settlement. Some families fled in haste 
while others prepared for defense. 


Many are the anecdotes and traditions still current of the inglo- 
rious flight of man}-, while others remained to meet the emergencies 
and grapple with the vicissitudes and dangers of frontier life. 

Goods and valuables were concealed; cattle were sold at half their 
value, or abandoned and turned totlie commons; crops left unculti- 
vated and ungathered. 

A family from New England tliat had settled at Sturgis Prairie, 
in order to preserve their valuables, consisting of plate, china-ware, 
mirrors and other relics of fashionable Eastern life, which could not 
be made sufficiently portable for a liasty flight, carefully packed 
these goods in a large box, and in the dead of night, when there 
•was no human eye to note where these relics of former domestic 
luxur}- were to be deposited, the whole family gathered around the 
well hard by their log cabin, having the box in their midst. Then, 
with many low whispers, the well rope was attaclied to the box, the 
windlass received a fresh supply of soft soap to preclude the remotest 
possibility of its tell-tale creak, the crank was seized by the men, 
and steadily, yet quietly turned, the box of valuables softly yielded 
to their motive power. When the all-important box swung clear 
above the well that yawned to receive it, the rope suddenly parted, 
the box was precipitated to the bottom of the well with a crash like 
the discharge of a cannon, causing the earth to tremble and the 
contents of the box to shatter to atoms. Loud shrieks from the 
several females who were gathered around the well arose upon the 
midnight air, and was echoed from the adjacent cabins whose tenants 
had been aroused by the crash of the unlucky box of goods. The 
alarm -was sounded along the prairie settlement; shout answered 
shout, shriek replied to shriek, and the prairie was awake. The 
scream of females on the night air struck alarm into the hearts of 
the bravest, and deeming that the Sac warrior was at their doors a 
general fliglit, with a few exceptions, followed. 

With all this alarm there were those who a!)peared to fear noth- 
ing, and could not be persuaded that the settlements were in danger. 
Such were the venerable Judge Sturgis, on the southern boundary 
of the county, whose cognomen the prairie bears; Martin G. Schell- 
hous and his brothers, near Nottawa Prairie; and the Defrees 
Brothers, of Goshen. 

These men, as well as several others, pursued the even tenor 
of their ways, and while they became counselors and guides to 
the more restless and excitable heroes in the hour of fancied dan- 
ger, they also became the subjects of indignant reprehension and 


outriglit curses, because they could not participate in the fear and 
panic of their neighbors. They were denounced as fools because 
they showed no sensations of alarm when the whole country, as it 
was fancied, was on the eve of being overrun by hordes of preda- 
tory savages. 

The militia were ordered out on Nottawa Prairie and duly organ- 
ized under the territorial law. Patrols wei-e appointed and senti- 
nels placed. The shrill fife and rattling drum echoed along the 
borders of the late peaceful prairie, and the martial feather flaunted 
proudly on the breeze. Couriers were dispatched to the adjacent 
settlements to sound the tocsin of war. Marvelous were the advent- 
ures of those redoubtable heroes in the discharge of their various 
momentous trusts. Some of these, returning, swollen with the 
importance of their positions, and flushed with the glory of their 
missions, gathered wondering crowdS around them to drink in the 
story of the signs of war, the preparations for deadly conflict, and 
their own individual hair-breadth escapes. 

It was certain, from the various reports of these daring couriers, 
that the Pottawatomie Indians on the Nottawa reservation were 
instruments in the hands of Black Hawk, and that they also w'ere 
collecting the implements and munitions of war, and would soon 
prove formidable foes in the approaching dangers which were to 
"try men's souls." . These Pottawatomies. it was true, could only 
muster about fifty warriors, enervated, enfeebled and trembling with 
dissipation and its concomitant diseases and infirmities; and 
although they had no arms, nor the means to procure them, still, 
their war-whoop might prove fearful. 

Thus the attention of the heroes of Xottawa was withdrawn from 
the seat of war in the "West, and directed toward dangers and perils 
awaiting them in the immediate vicinity of their once quiet homes. 

The hostile intentions of these Nottawa Indians, by indubitable 
evidence, had been reduced to a certainty. Many facts existed, and 
were commented upon, which were sufficient to carrj' conviction to 
the minds of a majority of the settlers of the murderous purposes 
of the Pottawatomies. The premises and deductions which led to 
this ultimate conviction, to say the least, were curious to those who 
could not participate in the apprehension of danger to the settlers, 
and ran in this manner: If the Nottawa Indians have no hostile 
intentions, why do they avoid all intercourse with their white 
neighbors? One young man related that he was almost fired upon 
by one of the blood-thirsty savages, and that his own presence of 


mind and indomitable bravery was all tbat saved his scalp. He 
was on the margin of the prairie in pursuit of his pon}-, when sud- 
denly turning an angle of a dense hazel copse he saw old Muk-a-moot, 
an Indian well known to the whole settlement as an inofl'ensive 
old man. The wary savage darted into the hazel brush, as the 
intrepid young man assumed, lor the purpose of securing a cover 
from which to fire. He did not see his gun, but he knew he had 
one, or why should he dodge into the brush? In this emergency a 
light pair of heels and a stout heart to keep up their action soon 
delivered him from the vicinity of danger, while the enfeebled 
Indian, trembling with fear, crippled away in the opposite direc- 
tion. " Fortune always favors the brave." 

Min-no-\vis, the sister of Sau-au-quett, was detected in stealth- 
ily approaching the cabin of one of the settlers to ascertain, by 
espionage, the strength of the white enemy and the means of defense. 
It was in vain that she endeavored to conceal her treachery under 
the plausible story that her children were starving, and that she 
came to beg a morsel of bread to save their lives. All knew this 
to be a fabrication, for if lier purposes were honest wh^' should she 
skulk? Sure, the suffering wretches had received no means of sub- 
sistence from the whites, as was their usual custom since the war 
alam had been sounded, forr both parties, from some cause, had 
maintained a respectful distance from each other; but, if it was 
only bread she wanted, why did she not come up boldly, and offer 
her bead-work for it, as she had formerly done, instead of stealing 
along under cover of a brush fence to the back door of the log cabin ? 
In vain she said she was afraid the white man, alarmed and 
incensed, might misapprehend her intentions and ill treat her, and 
that, therelbre, she sought the interview with the white man's wife 
alone. If lier purpose was honest, why endeavor to avoid the white 
man, and seek the white man's wife alone? In vain she told them 
that the white woman was a mother as well as she, and could feel 
for the starving papoosie, while the white man could not know how 
the Indian mother pitied her child. In vain, when bread was 
refused, the tears mounted to her eyes as she threw down the little 
beaded moccasins which she had nicely guessed to fit the tiny foot 
of the white man's child. When ordered to take them and leave, 
her piteous reply, " Keep them, they are no good to poor squaw if 
they will not buy bread," was absolutely interpreted into the most 
indubitable evidence of nefarious intentions. 


The intrepid and fearless white man added new laurels to his 
brow by forcibly driving the poor creature from his door with the 
threat that, if she did not leave he would hano; her upon the nearest 
oak; nor was the valor of this hero diminished as the Indian mother 
replied, " Hang me up, white man, and then Min-no-wis will not 
see her children starve." 

This circumstance, with others of a like character which trans- 
pired about the time that the helpless and starving natives were 
driven by hunger and want from their retreat, were the crowning 
proofs of their hostile intentions. These incidents were poured 
into the ears of the settlers by those who participated in them, 
with such an emphasis and such an enhancement of their details 
as to arouse a perfect tumult of fear from one end of the settle- 
ment to the other. 

What was to be done in this crisis of danger? The number of 
the guards were increased, the patrols were strengthened, and a 
meeting of the entire settlement was demanded to deliberate upon 
the public safety, and to devise ways and means of securing it 
against the inevitable attacks of the Nottawa Indians. Already 
women fancied themselves burning at the stake, while their hus- 
bands, the brave militia, fancied their names enrolled in the pages 
of history, surrounded by a halo of living glory among tbe heroes 
of the battle-field. A momentous day, fraught with daring deeds, 
was rapidly approaching, and the book of fame was about to receive 
an accession of illustrious names to be transmitted to the ceaseless 
ages of posterity. 

Tlie meeting was called, and " there was mounting in hot haste." 
The strong men of the neighborhood came together. The assembly 
was held at the house of Captain Powers, who commanded the 
valiant militia. 

The meeting was duly organized and presented a formidable 
array of citizen soldiers, armed with rusty cavalry swords, shot- 
guns, rifles and muskets, all of which, from their appearance, had 
seen service in former wars. There was to be seen, also, soiled and 
tattered uniforms, crushed and tarnished epaulettes and dimmed 
bullion lace. 

Elaborate and eloquent addresses were poured forth, replete with 
invocations and appeals to the patriotism of the lukewarm, and 
glowing with entlmsiastic bursts of encouragement to those who 
were awake to the dangers which surrounded the neighborhood . 


After many speeches and the most solemn deliberation, it was 
determined to erect a strong fortification on the lands of Daniel 
Hogan, located near the east end of Nottawa Prairie, to be known 
as Fort Hogan. Andrew McMillan now owns and occupies this 
farm ; the walls of Fort Hogan, which had received the labor of 
one day and a half from about 40 settlers, have long since been 
leveled by the plowshare of the husbandman. 

At this time a large body of militia, under the command of 
General Brown, was massed at Niles, in Berrien county, slowly 
advancing toward Chicago, the rendezvous of the operative military 
forces under General Atkinson. 

Among other decisions, by a vote of this meeting it was deter- 
mined to send an express messenger to Kiles to beg General Brown 
to send a detachment of his volunteers and militia to Fort Hogan 
to guard and protect the frontier settlement on Nottawa Prairie. 
Then arose an important question: Who was to be that messenger? 
It was improper, unjust, cruel, nay, inhuman, to force, by stern 
military discipline, one of the citizen soldiers into the imminent 
danger of the perilous mission, perhaps to return after a thousand 
hair-breadth escapes; perhajis to leave his bones to bleach in some 
solitary dell of the wilderness between Centerville and Niles. 
Where was the man who would volunteer on this all-important 
mission, pregnant with danger at every step? Who would accept 
the hazard? 

At this crisis of anxiety Benjamin Sherman (whose name is 
associated with the earl}' history of this county, and who, as Col. 
Sherman, has been widely and favorably known until his recent 
decease) arose in the meeting, in which he had been a silent auditor 
up to this juncture of emergencies. Every eye rested upon Col- 
Sherman, and every one sat in breathless silence as he addressed 
the meeting. 

" Gentlemen," said the speaker, in his sententious style, " I 
planted the first apple-tree west of the meridian line in Michigan, 
and I have abundant reason to believe that I have as good a knowl- 
edge of the disposition of the Nottawa Indians as any one. I do 
not believe there is the least danger of their disturbing any of us; 
I believe the poor cusses are more scared than you are. But, to 
cut a long story short, if you must send an express to Niles, a man 
can be found to go; 'though its my humble opinion you will send 
him on a fool's errand. I am always ready to face the music. So 
make out your dispatches and I'll be off." 


The welkin rang with huzzas as the Colonel resumed his seat. 

" Arm yourself to the teeth, Squire Sherman," said one. " Here; 
take ray horse pistols," said another. 

*' Shaw, nonsense," said the Colonel, impatiently, at the same 
time grasping a large hickory cane, " I want no better protection 
than this. I cut this at Mount Morris in York State, in 1829, and 
have carried it ever since. I have carried it over a thousand miles- 
It's the true blue. I wouldn't give it for all your footy pistols, in 
a hand-to-hand skrimmage.^^ 

Captain Powers delivered to Col. Sherman his dispatch |to 
General Brown, and just as tiie sun sunk in the west the Colonel 
mounted his pony and departed on his mission. 

On the day following this memorable meeting the work com- 
menced upon Fort Hogan. Plows, scrapers and ox teams were in 
requisition. Manual labor was lustily applied until sunset, and the 
northeast angle of Fort Hogan had arisen in an earth work of black 
prairie soil about two feet in height, extending west most three rods, 
and south some two rods. 

There were those among the settlers who unequivocalh* refused 
to contribute by labor or otherwise to the erection of this fortifi- 
cation, and who persisted in the opinion that no danger threatened 
the neighborhood from the inoflensive Nottawa Indians. Cyrus 
Schellhous was one of these. Mr. Schellhous was then an active 
young man whose nature was strongly imbued with a vein of wag- 
gish humor. Since then Mr. Schellhous' name has been inter- 
woven with the history of St. Josejih county. He was a man of 
enterprising habits of life, generous impulses and humane instincts. 
He filled many honorable positions in the official responsibilities of 
the county, and died at Constantino but a few years since, honored 
for his integrity and usefulness as a citizen. 

While the labor was progressing at Fort Hogan, Cyrus Schell- 
hous stole away to the Indian village on the reservation. He found 
the Indians almost destitute, and laboring under a false apprehen- 
sion that their white neighbors, taking advantage of the Black 
Hawk excitement, meditated an attack upon their village with the 
purpose of driving them from their reservation and appropriating 
it to their use. He could not prevail upon them to send some of 
their leading men with him to the settlers to assure them of their • 
peaceable intentions, and to receive assurances from their white 
neighbors that their intentions were misapprehended by the Indians. 
After a brief council of the Indians, in which the partisans of Cush- 


ec-wes and Sau-aii-quett united, it was determined that if they were 
invited to an interview with the settlers by Captain Powers they 
would send a deputation to such an interview. 

It was with difficulty that Mr. Schellhous could sufficiently coun- 
teract the excitement that prevailed among the settlers to take 
a rational view of the situation and accept the proposition of 
a truce and an interview between the belligerents. But this 
measure was finally adopted at noon of the second day's labor on 
Fort Hogan. The interview was appointed to take place at the 
cabin of Captain Powers. 

At 10 o'clock in the forenoon of the day following a large gath- 
ering of the settlers had assembled at the place appointed in 
anticipation of the interview. 

The redoubtable Captain paced back and forth in front of his 
cabin with a quick and nervous step; his plume nodded on the 
air as he suddenly turned his head from side to side iu anxious ex- 
pectation of the approach of the Indian deputation with which he 
was to confer. This worthy officer suddenly halted as liis eyes 
were fixed upon a distant object upon the level prairie. He seized 
his sword scabbard with his left hand, and, grasping the hilt with 
his right, after several lusty efforts that were sufficient to start a 
sapling from its hold in the earth, the war-worn and trusty weapon 
leaped from its scabbard with a military flourish. 

All eyes at once turned in the direction of the Captain's gaze, 
when was observed the approach of the expected deputation, con- 
sisting of Cush-ee-wes, with two others of his tribe and an inter- 
preter, under the escort and protection of Cyrus Schellhous. 

Thus these humbled and depressed representatives of a once nu- 
merous and proud people met the descendants of those who had 
driven them from their homes and run the iron plowshare over 
the graves of their fathers. 

While there was a marked humanity mingled with suspicion in 
the countenances of those Indians as they approached, there was 
firmness in their step, and pride and dignity in their bearing. 

Cush-ee-wes was below the middle stature, but of strong and 
heavy mold. He was a man of great equanimity and indomitable 
firmness. He was above the middle age. In his habits he had not 
been so incorrigibly addicted to inebriation as were a majority of 
his tribe, and preserved in his personal manners and appearance 
traces of that native grace and dignity which, in their intercourse 
with civilized man, appears to be a national characteristic of the 


imtutored red man. Whatever may have been the habits of Cush- 
ee-wes, or those of his people, the non-intercourse between them 
and their white neighbors, which had now continued for several 
days, had interdicted the use of strong drink among the Indians; 
consequently they were all sober, for the reason that the poor In- 
dians were dependent upon their friendly relations with their 
civilized neighbors for the means of their most brutal degradation. 

There must be many melancholy reflections to cloud the memory 
of the white man as he looks back to the past relations between him 
and the red man. In view of the logic of philosophy, the ethics of 
civil government and equities of humanity, he can find no sophism 
of civilization to serve as a sufficient apology for making the red 
man what he is: degraded and grovelling in drunkenness, shorn of 
his honor, robbed of his heritage, and driven forth a pitiable men- 
dicant. No genial reminiscences arise in this picture of reflections 
to soften and palliate its stern and severe inhumanity. 

It is diflicult to say what the Indian might not have been had his 
feeble efi'orts to conciliate the white man and to cultivate his 
friendship been requited and met by efforts in kind on the part of 
the white man, instead of cruelty and repeated acts of injustice. It 
is diflicult to say whether civilized man could have played the sav- 
age more aptly had their lessons of barbarity been taught in the 
wild-wood forest by lawless heathen chieftains, instead of the philos- 
oph}' of peace on earth and good will among men, as taught them 
in Christian sanctuaries by surpliced priests. 

The small party of Indians advanced to within a few paces of the 
spot occupied by the Captain of the militia. Cush-ee-wes ap- 
proached thatoflicer and presented his hand in token of friendship, 
then retired a pace or two with easy grace, and thrusting his 
thumbs between his person and his belt of wampum, stood facing 
the bold commander with an ease and unaffected dignity which 
contrasted strangely with the fidgety manner of the Captain. Thus 
he stood several minutes, motionless and silent, awaiting the an- 
nouncement of the wishes of his white neighbors, though the Cap- 
tain was as silent as the Indians. 

!'• At length, Cush-ee-wes, through the interpreter, said: "What 
does the white man want ! He has sent for his red brother. Let 
the pale-face speak." 

" We want to know," returned the Captain, '' what we have done 
to induce you to set about cutting our throats and scalping our 
women and children." 


" The pale-face," returned Cush-ee-wes, " does not speak the 
words of wisdom, or he would not ask the red man what the pale- 
face has done. The red man could say, that when the pale- face 
came to the hunting grouiuh of the red man, our hunters showed 
him the haunt of the wild dijer, and the place where the honey-bee 
made comb. He showed him the otter's slide and the places wiiere 
the wild fowls built their nests. The white man killed many of our 
deer, and drove many from our hunting grounds; he followed the 
bee from his cornfield to its home in the forest tree and carried 
away our honey; he traced the otter to its burrow and robbed us of 
his fur; he scared the wild fowl from our waters and the red man 
had nothing to eat; his squaws and children were starving in the 
wigwam. Then the red man asked the pale-face for bread, and the 
white man poured fire-water down the throats of our warriors, and 
our strong men became squaws and trembled. The white man 
wanted our little reservation of land; and when our warriors were 
few and hungry; when they were weak with drinking the fire-water of 
the white man; when they had no strength in their limbs, no bravery 
in their hearts; when they had no arms to shoot with, no voice to 
shout the war-whoop, no breath to shriek the battle-cry, then the 
paleface struck the war-path; he beat his drum and called all his 
strong warriors together to drive the Pottawatomie from his little 
reservation and take it for himself The red man did not wish to 
disturb the pale-face. The red man was weak, the white man was 
strong. The red man few, the pale-face many. The pale-face speaks 
not the words of .visdom. "What has the pale-face to say ? Why 
does he want the red man's land? Why does he call his warriors 
together to drive the red man from his wigwam and the graves of 
his fathers? Let the white man speak." 

The redoubtable commander was brought to a dead stand. For 
the first he learned that the Indians had misinterpreted his patriotic 
operations for (he defense of the settlement into the preliminaries 
of an oftensive attack upon the Indian village, with the intention of 
driving them away and seizing their reservation. He knew not 
what to reply to the touching appeal of Cush-ee-wes. 

" Did 3'ou not receive messengers from Black Hawk?" inquired 
Captain Powers, " and did you not arm yourselves in order to aid 
the Sacs, intending to murder all the settlers?" 

" The pale-face speaks not tlie words of wisdom," replied Cush-ee- 
wes, and continued : '• "We are weak, you are strong. The weak are not 
fools to dare the strong. The Sac is the enemy of the .Pottawato- 


mie. There never was friendship between our nations. There 
were never good words between our people and the Sac nation. "We 
had many wars, and the tomahawk was never buried between us. 
The Pottawatomie hates the Sac as the eagle hates the filthy crow. 
The paie-face speaks not the words of wisdom. We wish the pale- 
face to take many scalps of our old enemy, the cunning Sac. The 
few young wari'iors of our tribe wiio could still follow the war-path 
and not make a crooked trail, went with the white chief, Captain 
Hatch, to fight with our white brothers against our old enemies, 
the lying Sacs. We thought that if the Sac would come to Nottawa- 
sippi to sound tlie war cry among our wigwams, our pale-face 
brother would be our friend, and tiiat together we would go on the 
war-path against him. We were weak, you were strong. We were not 
wise, for when the pale-tace saw that our few, strong young war- 
riors had gone with the white chief. Captain Hatch, to fight the 
Sac, then our white neighbors made war upon us. Then we feared 
the Sac, far away, and the pale-face near our own wigwams. Our 
men fled to tlie woods and our women and children hungered for 
food. The pale-face speaks not the words of wisdom. Tlie red 
man would be the friend of the white man, and would fly to his 
cabin for shelter when danger comes, but the white man would not 
let us come; he raised the tomahawk against us. What has the 
pale-face to say? Let our wliite brother speak." 

After a few in(|uiries of the interpreter and otiier French settlers 
who had mingled with the assembly, it was ascertained to a cer- 
tainty that a few of the Pottawatomies of the reservation had 
volunteered, with Capt. Hatch, a trader among them, and several 
days before had gO(ie to join the war forces at Chicago, under Gen. 

Here, then, was a denouement which at once stripped the war 
with the Nottawa Indians of all its impending dangers, and its 
valiant and redoubtable heroes of their transient honors. 

This denouement was hailed by the crowd with a loud shout of 
relief, in which no small degree of ridicule was manifested in deri- 
sive hisses. The assembly dispersed, and the memorable occasion 
was one to impress upon the mind of tiie illustrious Captain of the 
Nottawa militia a deep sense of the evanescent brilliancy of mili- 
tary honors, and the vanity of martial renown. Crest-fallen and 
disappointed in his ambitious aspirations, he retired to his quiet 
cabin, doffed his military })lume and martial habit, and hung his 
trusty sword upon the wall, there to rest forever; for, as theassem- 


bly dispersed, Col. Sherman returned from Xiles with the welcome 
news of the capture of Black Hawk and the termination of the 
Sac war. 

Those who now occupy and enjoy the highly cultivated and pro- 
ductive farms of St. Joseph county, and especially the broad acres 
of Nottawa Prairie,embraciug the reservation alluded to in this 
article, may not readily realize that their own quiet homesteads 
were so recently the scenes of the stirring incidents here related. 
Indeed, the contrast is great. Industry and enterprise, by the 
touch of their magic'wand, have developed the richest resources of 
agricultural wealth and luxury. The once unbroken prairie has 
changed into fertile fields laden with cereal products. The wig- 
wams of the savage have changed into tasteful mansions, crowned 
with peace and plenty. Where the council-fire of the red man was 
kindled rears the district school-house, and where the smoke from 
the midst of the war-dance ascended, now points up the white 
spire of the village church. The war-whoop is heard no more, and 
the midnight orgies and savage wails of the red man have ceased 

The beautiful and enterprising village of Mendon, with its 
sumptuous hotels, its factories, stores and workshops, stands where 
the Pottawatomie was wont to chase the wild deer. But where is 
the Pottawatomie now, that once claimed this spot as his heritage? 
Like a storm-rifted pine, he has sunk to decaj'. Like the withered 
leaf of autumn, he has been swept by