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Full text of "A history of English journalism to the foundation of the Gazette"

A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 



A HISTORY 






MGLISH JOURNALISM 



TO THE FOUNDATION OF THE GAZETTE 



J. P \MS 




WI TH 'RATIONS 



LONGMA REEN, AND CO. 

39 I i< ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK. BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA 




A HISTORY 



OF 



ENGLISH JOURNALISM 



TO THE FOUNDATION OF THE GAZETTE 



BY 



J. B. WILLIAMS 




WITH ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA 

1908 




X 






*5 




p// 

S//5" 



PKEFACE. 

WITH very few exceptions all the seventeenth-century 
periodicals are to be found in the British Museum 
library, which contains collections of them unique in 
their completeness. Apart from the general col- 
lection at the Museum, the seventeenth -century 
periodicals are divided into two great subdivisions, 
the Burney Collection and the Thomason Collection. 
For the early period up to 1641, and from the Ke- 
storation of King Charles II. in the month of May, 
1660, to the end of the century, the Burney Collection 
must be relied on. 

Charles Burney, D.D., prebendary of Lincoln and 
chaplain to the King, was born on 4th December, 
1757, and died on 28th December, 1817. He was 
one of the most distinguished classical critics of his 
day, and devoted the later years of his life to the 
accumulation of a large and valuable library, which 
was purchased at his death by the Houses of Parlia- 
ment for 13,500 and deposited in the British Museum. 
The collection of newsbooks and newspapers referred 
to, which formed part of this, commences with a 
"relation" of news dated 1603, and extends far 
beyond the period covered in this book. 



vi PKEFACE 

George Thomason, who died in the year 1666, 
was a bookseller who carried on business at the sign 
of the Rose and Crown in St. Paul's Churchyard. 
On seeing the number of pamphlets which were 
pouring from the press at the outbreak of the great 
Rebellion, the idea occurred to him that a complete 
collection of these would be valuable for future ages. 
In the year 1641, therefore, he secured copies of all 
that he could obtain which had appeared previously 
to that date, and thenceforward collected copies of 
every tract, broadside, book or newsbook which ap- 
peared, whether licensed or surreptitiously, until the 
year 1662. As he obtained each book or pamphlet 
he dated it with the day of its appearance, occasion- 
ally adding manuscript notes of his own, and even 
went so far as to add to his pamphlets handbills 
scattered about the streets. The result is a col- 
lection which has no equal of its kind in the world, 
for it contains a mass of fugitive and ephemeral 
literature, much of which would otherwise have per- 
ished. A complete catalogue of his collection in 
chronological order has been recently (1908) printed, 
prefaced with an excellent account of Thomason by 
Dr. G. K. Fortescue, Keeper of the Printed Books 
at the British Museum, who also relates the story of 
the vicissitudes the collection underwent and the 
means Thomason adopted for its secret preservation 
until the Restoration. It was ultimately bought by 
George III. for the absurd sum of 300 and pre- 
sented to the British Museum in 1762. It is now 
generally recognised that it is in fact priceless, 
Thomason died a poor man. 



PKEFACE vii 

For the periodicals which appeared between 1641 
and the Kestoration therefore the Thomason Col- 
lection is unrivalled. About half a dozen periodicals 
only (and these with the exception of one French 
periodical of the most ephemeral nature) seem to 
have escaped Thomason's net. A few first numbers 
of newsbooks, chiefly Royalist, and therefore secretly 
printed and furtively sold, also escaped him, but on 
the whole the present writer has come to the con- 
clusion, that his collection up to the month of March, 
1660, but not later, is fairly complete, and that the 
last number of each periodical in his collection is 
almost invariably the latest which appeared. A 
comparison with the contents of other libraries has 
borne out this conclusion ; therefore in the catalogue 
of periodicals in the appendix the date of each last 
number in the Thomason Collection has been adopted 
as marking the date of extinction of the periodical 
in question. Of the numerous counterfeits of the 
Royalist Mercuries which appeared, notably Prag- 
maticus, and Melancholicus, a good many are to be 
found in the Burney Collection which are not in 
Thomason's. There are, however, very little means 
of identifying these, beyond the difference of the 
matter which they contain and the style of the 
writers. 

The titles of periodicals which appeared between 
November, 1641 and October, 1655 number about 
320, and at first sight it would seem to be a hopeless 
task to attempt to ascertain the names of their 
writers, more especially as in all but a few cases they 
seem to have valued their anonymity ; but on closer 



viii PBEFACE 

analysis it will be seen, that of this list, 81 appeared 
only once, 49 lasted for a period of over six months, 
and only 33 for over a year. The remainder 190 
did not extend beyond a few numbers in each case, 
and the vast majority were either suppressed or failed 
to find popular support. Changes in the titles account 
for a yet further reduction, and thus the writers 
of periodicals of real importance are reduced to a 
comparatively small band. The task of ascertaining 
who these writers were, and of collecting all available 
information about them, has been both lengthy and 
arduous, owing to the number of periodicals to be 
examined ; and, if the present writer has not invari- 
ably succeeded as thoroughly as he could have wished, 
he trusts that he has presented a sufficiently accurate 
account to enable his readers to judge the old news- 
book authors and their periodicals at their true worth. 
Their value as historical evidence depends very much 
on the characters of their writers. Much of the harsh 
criticism directed against them by contemporaries 
was due to defective intelligence, the corrupt system 
of licensing, or the even more shameful official press. 
The liberty of the press was closely connected with 
liberty in religious matters, and it is noteworthy that 
in both, toleration appeared simultaneously. Free- 
dom from the tutelage of an official licenser was not 
obtained until the year 1695, and before the attain- 
ment of that freedom this book ends. 

The editors of the Nineteenth Century and After 
and of the English Historical Review have kindly 
given permission to incorporate in this book the sub- 
stance of articles recently printed in those reviews. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS .... i 

CHAPTER II. 
THE CORANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 ... H 

CHAPTER III. 
THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14th JUNE, 1643 30 

CHAPTER IV. 
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31si DECEMBER, 1646 47 

CHAPTER V. 
1647 71 

CHAPTER VI. 
1648 90 

CHAPTER VII. 
1649 109 

CHAPTER VIII. 
1650-1659 129 

ix b 



x CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IX. 

PAGE 

THE HISTORY OP ADVERTISING TO 1659 . . . . . . 158 

CHAPTER X. 

1659 TO 1666 . .... . . . . . .172 

APPENDIX A . . . ... . . '. . . . .200 

APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . .211 

APPENDIX C . . . ? * 215 

APPENDIX D . . . . . .... . .218 

INDEX 267 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. 

PORTRAIT OF KING CHARLES II. (Photogravure) . . . Frontispiece 
From the print in the Thomason Collection. 

" A PERFECT DIUBNALL "Title page .... To face page 35 

"MEBCURIUS ClVICUS" ,,44 

" THE SCOTISH DOVE " ,,55 

"THE LONDON POST" ..... ,,70 

" A TUESDAIES JOURNALL " 119 



CHAPTEE I. 

INTBODUCTION. DEFINITIONS. 

THE desire to know the events of the day, to be told what 
distant friends are doing, and to hear of occurrences in far- 
off countries is an instinct implanted in human nature. 
Keener when those near and dear to us are concerned, it is 
ever at its height when the tragedy of human life is involved, 
and, as the climax of that tragedy has always been attained 
in the time of war, so shall we find in war first abroad, and 
then at home the origin of English newspapers. 

No great exercise of the imagination is needed, to explain 
how letters from friends and relatives, in days before printing 
had been invented, would be supplemented by detailed ac- 
counts of the events of the day, sent first of all by the retainer 
of the great noble or influential statesman or churchman, 
and lastly, as facilities of communication increased and roads 
and posts were improved, by the professional writer of news. 
England is rich in its stores of historical manuscripts, and 
old letters abound to tell us their story. When printed 
periodicals of news became firmly established among us in 
the seventeenth century, it might well be supposed that the 
profession of a writer of letters of news would come to an 
end as no longer necessary ; therefore it is advisable to point 
out at once that such was far from being the case. The 
profession of writer of letters of intelligence existed concur- 
rently with that of the " author " of a newsbook or newspaper 
until the end of the century in the period from 1641 to 1655 
as necessarily supplementing it, and in the latter half of the 
century as absolutely supplanting and overwhelming it. 

The "letters of news" or "of intelligence," as they were 

1 



2 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

uniformly called until the word "newsletter" was coined as 
a complement to the word "newspaper," are more valuable 
sources of history than the printed periodicals. The reason 
of this is to be found in the fact, that throughout the century 
there existed a stringent system of licensing that is, of com- 
pelling everything that was printed to be first of all read and 
approved by an official or officials deputed for the purpose, 
before the writer was allowed to commit it to the press. 
From this letters were exempt; hence their value. 

If the law as regards the licensing of ordinary books was 
strictly enforced, far more so was this the case with printed 
news. The first great legislative enactment affecting printed 
periodicals which it is necessary to notice is the Star Chamber 
Decree of 23rd June, 1586, codifying all previous enactments. 
Koughly summed up, this decree 

1. Eestricted printing to London and the two universities. 

2. Restricted the number of printers, and 

3. Ordered all books to be perused, before being printed, 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Bishop of London 
(the Lord Chief Justice, etc., for law books) a duty which 
was performed by deputies. 

The penalties for infringing these regulations were six 
months' imprisonment for the printer and three months' for 
the vendor. 

The publication of printed news was liable to other re- 
strictions than those affecting the printing of ordinary books. 
To publish news was an interference with the affairs of State 
and a matter of royal prerogative, so that, apart from the 
licensing regulations to be complied with, royal permission 
had directly or indirectly to be obtained before any news 
could be published. In the thirty-sixth year of the reign of 
King Henry VIII. a proclamation was issued prohibiting 
" certain books printed of newes of the prosperous successes 
of the King's Ma'ties arms in Scotland" which were to be 
brought in and burned "within 24 houres after proclama- 
tion made on pain of ymprisonment ". 



INTRODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 3 

In order to obtain the clearest evidence of this royal right 
we must descend to the year 1680, after the newsbooks and 
newspapers had come into being, when it is found in the unani- 
mous opinion of the judges given to His Majesty King Charles 
II. The licensing act had expired at that date, and there 
were no regulations whatever affecting the licensing of books. 
It was desired to stop the publication of newspapers com- 
peting with the London Gazette, and the judges, when asked 
to state what the sovereign's rights really were, stated " That 
his Majesty may by law prohibit the printing and publishing 
of all newsbooks and pamphlets of news whatsoever not 
licensed by his Majesty's authority as manifestly tending to 
the breach of the peace and disturbance of the kingdom ". 
Whereupon a proclamation was ordered to be made prohibit- 
ing all newsbooks for which the King's permission had not 
been obtained. 1 

The law of the matter here stated was thoroughly under- 
stood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and prior to 
the outbreak of the Great Rebellion the only permission to 
print news ever granted was one to publish foreign news, 
and that only towards the end of the reign of King James. 2 
Although printed periodicals appeared at an early date on 
the Continent, England was entirely without any printed 
periodical of domestic news until the end of the year 1641 ; 
the royal prerogative barred the way, and England was 
behind the rest of the world. The first periodicals, therefore, 
that have to be described in the history of English journalism 
are merely translations and adaptations of foreign periodicals. 
When the periodicals of domestic news really came into 
being, they came with a rush a veritable deluge and, as if 
to make up for the tardiness of their arrival, no other country 

1 The London Gazette, No. 1509, 3rd-6th May, 1680. The proclama- 
tion is set out in No. 1513, 17th-20th May, 1680. 

2 The absurd legend of a newspaper entitled the English Mercurie, in 
Queen Elizabeth's days, needs no notice. The forgery is to be found 
among the manuscripts at the British Museum. The Commonwealth 
Mercury of 1658 is an even clumsier fabrication. 

1* 



4 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

in the world has anything at all comparable either in 
number, matter or manner to the newsbooks which appeared 
during the years 1643 to 1649 inclusive, a list of which is to 
be found in an Appendix to this book. 

We must commence, therefore, by ascertaining the origin 
of the printed periodical of foreign news. This is to be found 
in the stationers the publishers of their day to whose trade 
printing had given birth. 

A writer of the year 1689 says : " Printing though reckoned 
among the new inventions is now become an old trade in 
London, and has begot one or two more trades, the book- 
seller and the stationer, which are all incorporated into a 
body politick called the Company of Stationers no despicable 
nor mean Company (or Hall) in this splendid city. One 
stationer was enough for a city before printing came up, and 
of booksellers there were none but scriveners." J 

The scrivener also played a great part in the production 
of the English periodical, but almost involuntarily as it were 
and at a later date, and it is with the stationer that we have 
first to deal, for the humble beginning of our printed news- 
papers was the broadsheet " ballad " the song of some event 
that had taken place, whether a battle, or the death or mis- 
fortune of some great man, or even the hanging of a mur- 
derer at Tyburn. The ballad singer, who was to be met 
with everywhere in Stuart times, lingered long, and was 
occasionally still to be encountered even in the nineteenth 
century. Abraham Holland, in his Continued Inquisition of 
Paper Persecutors (1626), sings of 

the one legg'd varlet who doth sing 
His roaring nonsense to a trivial ring 
Of Prentices about some arrant sent 
Or Boies, who then leave Jack-a-Lent 2 
To heare the noise, or women who stand there 
And at O-hone ring forth a readie teare, 

1 " A Speech without Doors," by Edmund Hickeringill, Section V., 
Restraint of the Press. 

2 Aunt Sally a descendant of the ancient but cruel sport of throw- 



INTRODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 5 

with direct allusion to the ballads of news of his day. Ac- 
companying the ballad came the printed pamphlet, some- 
times called a " discourse/' sometimes a " narration," and 
finally settling down into the uniform term a " relation " of 
some event or battle that had taken place. Of these Holland 
again writes : 

To runne through all the pamphlets and the Toys 
Which I have seen in hands of Victoring boys 
To rail at all the merrie wherrie books 
Which I have found in kitchen cobweb nooks 
To reckon up the verie titles which 
Doe please the prentices, new maids, and rich 
Wealth witti'd Loobies would require a masse 
And volume bigger then would load an asse 
Nor is't their fault alone they wisely poise 
How the blind world doth only like such Toyes 
A general folly reigneth and harsh Fate 
Hath made the world itself insatiate 
It hugges these monsters and deformed things 
Better then what Johnson or Drayton sings 
As in North villages where every line 
Of Plumpton Parke is held a work divine. 
If o'er the chimney they some ballads have 
Of Chevy Chase or of some branded slave 
Hang'd at Tyborne, they their Matins make it 
And Vespers too, and for the Bible take it. 

The " relations " of news are extremely numerous, as also the 
references to them in contemporary literature, and numbers of 
them are to be found entered in the Stationers' Eegisters. 1 
When these "relations" became periodical, and when, 

ing at cocks. Cf. Mercurius Fumigosus, 21st-28th February, 1655, p. 
309: 

There is mirth and merriment 

To fling at thin chapt' Jack-a-Lent 

With leaden sticks for pins and casters 

Regain their losses, and disasters 

With trebble sticks and left hand blows 

To venture all at twopence for three throws 

And then at last an empty coxcombe flings 

But neither touches the cock's taile or wings 

Curses the sticks and when his coin is dry 

The cockney fool sans cock away doth fly. 

1 Arber's reprint of the Eegisters covers the whole period up to 1640. 



6 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

instead of being confined to a single event, they carried on 
continuously and at regular intervals the story of foreign 
news, the first English " newsbook " came into existence. 

Before describing how this came about, it is necessary to 
explain the terminology of the time. We are accustomed to 
employ what may most conveniently be termed a "catch- 
word " to describe a modern newspaper^. l The Times, for 
instance, has no other and no fuller title, and all the numbers 
are connected together by this common catchword. This 
device was a growth, and the earliest English periodicals 
had no catchword at all. They happened to be the news of 
the week because they were published weekly, and that fact 
is frequently stated ; but their full titles were descriptive of 
their contents and very often were wordy in the extreme 
(the examples given in the Appendix show this very clearly). 
All the earlier periodicals were books (i.e., pamphlets), and 
were titled separately after the fashion of the books of the 
day. The catchword was gradually evolved from the com- 
mencing phrase of the full title, but not before the days of 
the Great Kebellion, and it was not until the [Restoration 
of King Charles II. that lengthy additions were aban- 
doned and the catchword alone employed. The descriptive 
name of the early printed periodicals of foreign news was 
" coranto," vulgarly a " currant" of news, or a running 
"relation". This word Italian in its origin is now of 
course supplanted by the French version of it, " courant," 
which came into use at a far later date ; and until the year 
1640 no other expression was used and no catchword employed. 
An earlier term, also occasionally employed (as a survival) 
to describe these periodicals, was " gazet," also Italian in 
origin, and of course referring to the well-known Venetian 
" gazetti " or written newspapers, circulated from about the 

1 " Catchword " really means the word placed at the bottom of a page 
in the right-hand corner of old books in order to connect one page with 
another. It therefore may be justifiably used to describe the modern 
newspaper titles used to connect one number with the rest. 



INTKODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 7 

middle of the sixteenth century. This term points unmis- 
takably to the fact, that the Italians were the pioneers of 
modern newspapers, otherwise the terms would not be found 
in use in so far-off a country as Northern England. 

Three alternative meanings have been assigned to the 
word "gazzetta ". It has been held to refer to the ancient 
Venetian coin of that name, about three farthings in value, 
as either the price paid for the periodical or the fee for hear- 
ing it read. Both conjectures are extremely improbable, and 
the fee in each case is inadequate. The second meaning 
assigned to it was a "magpie," which is clearly absurd as 
the ancient periodicals are the reverse of chatterers. The 
third is derived from the Greek word ydfc, a treasury. The 
History of the Athenian Society, published in 1693, referring to 
a periodical then published called the Athenian Gazette or 
Casuistical Mercury, says: "Gaza signified a treasury and 
therefore we reserve it for the general title of our volumes, 
designing to entitle them the Athenian Gazette " ; and this early 
explanation is the true one. The "gazetti" were written 
treasuries of news collected from all quarters ; the " coranti," 
on the other hand, were printed running "relations," and 
the term was introduced to differentiate the printed news 
from the written news. 

All English periodicals of news previous to the Oxford 
Gazette (16th Nov., 1665) were pamphlets. The etymology 
of the word pamphlet has not yet received a satisfactory 
elucidation. However, a pamphlet in the seventeenth cen- 
tury was a book of one or more sheets of paper folded into 
quarto pages and if stitched together unbound. Hence 
these pamphlets of news were invariably called "books," 
" books of news " and finally " news-books ". No such term as 
" news-sheet " was ever employed with regard to the news- 
books ; and though " sheet " is a term often employed, it 
refers only to the fact, that in the early days of the Long 
Parliament the pamphlets of news were restricted to one 
sheet (i.e., eight pages). Later on two sheets (sixteen pages) 



8 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

became the rule, and the early " corantos " usually consisted 
of three sheets. The term " news-sheet," or newspaper, up 
to the date of the Oxford Gazette, would have been taken to 
refer to a letter of news. The proper term, therefore, for the 
periodicals which appeared after the " corantos " is "news- 
book " or " newsbook," though the names " coranto," 
" intelligence," "diurnal" (for journal)- and "pamphlet" 
were also employed. 

The Oxford Gazette and its continuation, the still existing 
London Gazette, was, as Anthony a Wood states, " half a sheet 
in folio " two pages and neither a pamphlet nor a sheet. 
It could not, therefore, be called a " book " or " newsbook," 
and was at once dubbed a "paper" like the "letters of 
news " or "of intelligence ". From this came into being, 
by analogy with the old expression newsbook, the terms 
' newes paper " and newspaper, that of "newsletter" being 
afterwards applied to the written news, for which no other 
expression than " letter of news " or " of intelligence," " sheet 
of news" and "paper" can be found prior to the introduc- 
tion of the word "newspaper". The Oxford Gazette, there- 
fore, was the first English " newspaper ". 1 

The word " publisher " was a term applied to the writer 
and not to the vendor of the periodical. 2 "Editor" also is 
quite a modern word, and the seventeenth century term for 
the writer of a newsbook was "author," once more bringing 

1 Examples : Thos. Swan to Henry Muddiman, privileged journalist 
of the Restoration, who at the date given had been supplanted by 
L' Estrange, and was then privileged writer of the letters of news only, 
12th October, 1663 : " I received your l&st paper and give you many thanks 
and I hope it will continue and that I shall have a renewal of your cor- 
respondence " (S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 81, No. 64). " By this post I 
send a letter franck with a gazett and a sheet of written news " (H. 
Muddiman to a correspondent (S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 152, No. 38)). The 
earliest known use of the term newspaper is contained in a letter to 
Charles Perrot, second editor of the Gazette : ( ' I wanted your newes paper 
Monday last past " (S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 278, No. 148, 10th September, 
1670). 

2 E.g., The Phcenix of Europe, No. 1, 16th January, 1646. Published 
(i.e., written) by W. Pendred. 



INTRODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 9 

into relief the fact that it was a book. The copyright of a 
newsbook also was the author's and not the stationer's or 
bookseller's. The case of Dillingham and Mabbott in 1648 
(detailed later on) is an illustration of this. 

The subject of advertising and the terminology employed 
with regard to it will be dealt with separately (Chapter IX.). 

An important factor in the development of the " news- 
books " was the establishment of regular postal services be- 
tween London and the country, and the Continent and 
London. In the year 1641 there was only one post a week. 
Every Tuesday letters were sent into the country from 
London. For a few years the war prevented any further 
development. It is not quite certain on what day the letters 
from the country and the Continent arrived, but it is prob- 
able that they usually arrived on Wednesdays as the " news- 
books" which made a speciality of foreign news were pub- 
lished on Thursdays. Continental news seems to have 
arrived chiefly through Harwich. At the end of the year 
1647 or in 1648 a second post to the country was established, 
for the first number of A Modest Narrative (7th April, 1649) 
states, as the excuse for its appearance, that it was "by 
Authority provided that Saturday as well as Tuesday shall 
be a day for spreading letters by the post," adding that it 
was designed "for the country" and promising not to inter- 
fere with foreign news as that was published on Thursdays. 
Some time previously to this date, however, the " news- 
books" published on Fridays had assumed equal importance 
with those published on Mondays, therefore the date of the 
first number of the Modest Narrative must not be taken as 
marking the date of the introduction of the second post. 
From this time the postal arrangements continued to improve, 
and after the Restoration they received an immense amount 
of development, the modern postal system dating entirely 
from the reforms carried into effect under Charles II. \ 

Until the institution of official journals, therefore, the 
"newsbook" authors who wished to obtain " special corre- 



10 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

spondents" with the army or elsewhere were bound to curry 
favour with those in authority, in order to obtain the 
privilege of seeing their letters of news, or to gain permission 
to send their own letters with the Government expresses. 
An additional motive for subservience to those in power was 
thus supplied, and the newsbook author was only too glad 
to send letters of news (uncensored) with his newsbooks in 
return for any intelligence sent in this way. 

Official journalism, that is periodicals published under the 
supervision of the Secretaries of State, owes its origin to 
Cromwell, and was accompanied by the total suppression of 
all licensed periodicals. 

It was this official journalism which gave such an im- 
mense impetus to the circulation of the letters of intelligence, 
for they could be relied on to tell what the official journals 
carefully suppressed. Finally the liberty to report the pro- 
ceedings of Parliament, which have always been the every- 
day fare of English newsbooks and newspapers, formed the 
staple of the newsbooks and the backbone of their prosperity. 
When this liberty was withdrawn, as an infringement of the 
privileges of Parliament, at the Eestoration, or when Parlia- 
ment itself ceased to exist, as in the days when Cromwell 
usurped all power, public interest in the newsbooks flagged 
and they fell into disrepute. 



CHAPTEE II. 

THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641. 

WHICH country in Europe is entitled to the honour of having 
produced the first printed periodical of news has been a 
matter of considerable dispute. There are Dutch and Belgian 
claimants as well as French and German, and a discussion of 
the subject lies outside the range of this book. There is, 
however, no doubt as to which was the first foreign printed 
periodical circulating in England and that long before any 
printed English periodical of foreign news appeared. This 
was Mercurius Gallobelgicus, a bound book printed at Cologne 
and written in Latin, with the obvious object of circulating 
throughout Europe, and detailing the story of the German 
wars. The first number was a thick little octavo of 625 
pages, with an index, published in March, 1594, and con- 
taining a chronicle of events from 1588. 

From this "newsbook" came the Latin title Mercurius 
used on so many English periodicals in the first half of the 
century. As Mercury was the messenger of the gods, so the 
writers considered themselves to be the messengers of the 
ruling powers narrating high matters of State ; and a peri- 
odical styling itself Mercurius was invariably alluded to as 
"he," and the full catchword was taken as a pseudonym. 

The full title of the book was: Mercurius Gallo Belgicus 
sive Eerum in Gallia et Belgio potissimum Hispania quoque Italia 
Germania Polonia Vicinisque locis ab anno 1588 usque ad Martium 
anni prasentis 1594 gestarum nuntius. It contained a preface 
signed by its writer or " author/' M. Jansen, who describes 
himself as a Frisian (German authorities state that the 

11 



12 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

writers of it varied), and was dedicated to two priests, 
brothers John Detten, vicar and "coactor" of the cathed- 
ral and monastery, and Henry Detten, canon of the old 
church of St. Paul at Cologne. 

It subsequently appeared in half-yearly volumes of 50 or 
100 pages, up to the year 1635, was occasionally illustrated, 
and enjoyed a great vogue. In 1614 Eobert Booth published 
a translation and abridgment of a number which he called 
" a discourse full of delight ". This evidently attracted the 
attention of the Stationers to it as a mine for "relations". 
On 18th October, 1623, Lord Keeper Lincoln wrote to Secretary 
Calvert that he found a passage about the thirty-fifth page 
thereof " so full of falsities and indignities towards his 
majestie " that, although he knew in what "despicable 
esteem" the "author" had been for many years together, 
he had stayed the further publishing of it by express warrant. 
This proves that it had an extensive circulation in England. 

In 1613 James I.'s daughter, the Princess Elizabeth, had 
married Frederic Prince Palatine of the Ehine, and the 
nation had thus become keenly interested in the struggles in 
Germany and Bohemia. Protestant England sympathised 
with Protestant Germany. Amsterdam was at this time, as 
Howell tells us, "the great staple of news," and penniless 
English soldiers from the Low Countries were in great 
request to make translations from " High Dutch " or " Low 
Dutch" and write "relations" for the booksellers. Shirley, 
in The Schoole of Complement, opens the play by giving a de- 
scription of one of these " captains without book," who would 
" write you a battle in any part of Europe at an hour's 
warning," and says, "not a soldier shall lose a hair or have a 
bullet fly between his arms but shall have a page to wait 
upon him in quarto, nothing destroys 'em but want of a 
good memory for if they escape contradiction they may be 
chronicled ". 

The "relations" soon developed into a periodical. On 
4th August, 1621, John Chamberlain informed his patron 



THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 13 

Dudley Carleton, Ambassador at the, Hague, that a proclama- 
tion had been issued against discussing matters of State, but 
it was disregarded, and " corantos published every week" 
with all manner of news. No periodical, however, can be 
traced, and Chamberlain's expression probably only has 
reference to the fact that the " relations " were appearing so 
frequently as to assume the character of a periodical. 

A few months later, however, the following entry occurs in 
the Stationers' Eegisters (18th May, 1622) : A Currant of 
generall newes. Dated the lth of May last, and with this 
entry commences the history of British journalism. No 
copy of this pamphlet is in existence, but the next number 
(dated the 23rd of May, and presumably entered in the 
Stationers' books by mistake as dated the 21st), the second 
of a series published every week by the same booksellers 
Thomas Archer and Nicholas Bourne is to be found in the 
Burney Collection. It was translated from the Dutch, and 
calls itself : The 23 of May. Weekely Newes from Italy, Germanic, 
Hungaria, Bohemia, the Palatinate, France, and the Low Countries, 
etc. Of the succeeding numbers each bore a title, different 
in nearly every case, giving a similar synopsis of its con- 
tents. The dates were the very conspicuous commencement 
of the titles. 

The credit of publishing the first English periodical 
therefore is due to Thomas Archer and Nicholas Bourne 
alone, no one else before this period, or until the end of the 
first week of the following September, being associated with 
either of them. The name of the licenser was Cottington. 
Thomas Archer lived in Pope's Head Palace over against 
the Horse Shoe, at the corner of Pope's Head Alley and 
Cornhill, and Nicholas Bourne at the Exchange. Thomas 
Archer had commenced his career as a newsmonger, taking 
priority of all his contemporaries, so far back as 19th March, 
1603, when he entered in the Stationers' books A copie of 
a letter touching a relacion of newes sent from Amsterdam the 21 
of February 1603 concerning the fight of five Duche ships in the 



14 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

Easte Indies against the Portingall flete consistinge of 8 great 
gallions and 22 gallies whereof was Admiral Don Andrew Tartailo 
Mendoza. The title is illustrative of many others that fol- 
lowed. 

In order to curtail an account which would otherwise 
become tedious, it may be briefly stated that the weekly news 
now issued bore a title descriptive of tne contents of each 
number, which varied from week to week ; that other 
stationers Nathaniel Butter, Newbery, Downes and Sheff- 
ard associated their names in turn with Archer and Bourne ; 
and that the "corantos" were numbered from the second 
week of October, 1622. It seems perfectly clear that even at 
this early date there was a system of advertising these peri- 
odicals by contents bills displayed on the walls and posts. 
Holland writes : 

. . . But to behold the walls 
Butter'd with weekly Newes composed in Pauls 
By some decaied Captaine, or those Rooks 
Whose hungry brains compile prodigious books 
Of Bethlem Gabor's preparations and 
How terms betwixt him and th' Emperor stand. 

And adds : 

To see such Batter everie week besmeare 
Each publike post and church door and to heare 
These shameful lies would make a man in spight 
Of nature, turn satirist and write 
Revenging lines against these shamelesse men 
Who, thus torment both paper, presse, and pen 
Th' imposters that these trumperies do utter 
Are A.B.C.D.E.F.G. and (. . .) 

A' nameless periodical of weekly news was thus in exist- 
ence, with varying publishers' names attached, though all 
those mentioned in it had a financial interest from time to 
time. Only occasionally does there appear to have been any 
competition between the various booksellers who published 
" corantos," and once Butter is to be found remonstrating 
with a competitor with whom he afterwards joined forces. 
Sometimes the address of one bookseller will be found on a 



THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 15 

periodical when the names of other booksellers appear as 
publishers, and occasionally the periodicals betray their 
origin, as in the case of the "coranto" dated 29th August, 
1623, which though numbered 46 is also marked "Ital. 
Gazet. Nu. prio." 

Nathaniel Butter, of the Pyde Bull, St. Austin's Gate, 
St. Paul's Churchyard, was, however, the chief publisher, 
and eventually, in 1624, he and Bourne were left as sole 
publishers to compete with Thomas Archer, who became in 
1625 the publisher of a periodical which carried the first run- 
ning title, Mercurius Britannicus. These early news pamphlets 
consisted usually of three sheets in twenty-four pages, and, 
judging from the remark of the old woman who comes to buy 
news in Jonson's " Staple of Newes," they would appear to 
have been sold at a groat or fourpence each, a much higher rate 
than the later newsbooks, which even when consisting of two 
sheets were sold at a penny. Butter was only their pub- 
lisher ; there is no evidence that he ever was a " news writer ". 

In order to decide who wrote these "corantos" it is 
necessary to consider, firstly, the known London newswriters 
of the day, and, secondly, the works of Ben Jonson, who 
continually recurs to the subject and has left a whole play 
ridiculing a supposititious market or " staple " of news. 

The leading London newswriters of the times were John 
Chamberlain, John Pory and Thomas Locke, and it cannot 
be supposed that they were the writers of the periodicals. 
They did not write ''letters of news " to be posted all over 
the country after the manner of clerks or scriveners, but 
were attached to some great man as their patron. 

Chamberlain has been called the Horace Walpole of his 
times. He was born in 1554, educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, had accompanied his patron, Dudley Carleton, 
on his first embassy to Venice, and was a cultured and 
observant man. His letters of news extend from 1598 until 
just before his death in 1627. 

Pory was born about 1570, was educated at Gonville and 



16 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

Cains College, and was possessed of eqnal attainments. He 
had been a member of Parliament, had written a book on 
Africa, and down to 1624 spent the bulk of his time in 
travelling over Europe, towards the end residing at Constan- 
tinople. His letters of news commence with his return to 
end his days in England in 1624, and extend to the date of 
his death. 

Of Thomas Locke little is known, beyond the fact that 
he managed Dudley Carleton's affairs during his absence 
on his embassies, apparently being his steward, and that his 
letters of news, written only to Carleton, reveal that he was 
both intelligent and well educated. Thomas Locke is there- 
fore the only one of the three who may have actually written 
a "coranto ". 

When Ben Jonson was young he joined the army in the 
Low Countries for a short time. There he had that single 
combat described by him to Drummond of Hawthornden. 
As he himself is the only witness to this, the story is prob- 
ably but the pot-valiant tale of a "tavern king". When 
Jonson' s quarrel with the rival dramatist, Dekker, culmin- 
ated in 1601 with the production of the " Poetaster," Dekker 
revenged himself, in the following year, with " Satiro-Mastix ". 
In this Jonson a "man of the sword" is represented as a 
rank coward. There are grounds for stating that he did not 
always tell the truth about his exploits, and Dekker 's accusa- 
tion may be true. He had killed a player on his return from 
Holland, in a duel he says, and though the latter' s sword 
was ten inches longer a most improbable detail. Modern 
research has established the fact, that he pleaded guilty to a 
charge of felony for this, which militates seriously against 
his story of a duel, escaped with his life by claiming the 
" benefit of clergy," and was branded on the thumb with the 
Tyburn " T". 1 He spent a short period of time in prison, 
during which he showed his repentance by being converted 

1 Middlesex County Records, vol. ii., by J. C. Jeaffreson. 



THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 17 

Catholicism, and he subsequently professed to have been 
mstant for twelve years to the faith he then embraced. 

It may be that Dekker received the idea of Jonson's 
cowardice from a soldier from the Low Countries, who knew 
the truth about Jonson's conduct there, and who had dis- 
credited his story of the single combat. If so, Jonson's 
savage " epigram " To Captain Hungry, a newswriter, with its 
suggestion that the " Captain " was a spy, is explained. 

Do what you come for, captain, with your news 

That's sit and eat, do not my ears abuse . . . 

Tell the gross Dutch those grosser tales of yours 

Tell them . . . 

What states you've gulled, and which yet keeps you in pay 

Give them your services, and embassies 

In Ireland, Holland, Sweden, pompous lies 

In Hungary and Poland, Turkey too 

Give your young statesmen . . . 

Your Villeroys and Silleries, etc. 

His next " epigram " is addressed To True Soldiers, and he 
finds it necessary to write of the " great profession," and say 
he " did not shame it by my actions any more than by my 
pen," and he desires them not to be " angry for the Captain ". 

The meaning of the reference to Turkey, and the date of 
the "epigram" itself, are settled by the fact, that in 1613 
Archer published a "relation" entitled: A true declaration of 
the arrival of Cornelius Haga (with others that accompanied him) 
Ambassador for the general States of the United Netherlands, at 
the great city of Constantinople. Together with the entertainment 
unto them given by the Turk, etc. 1 John Pory first went to 
Turkey in 1613, and may have sent the account from which 
this was taken. 

The next reference to the " Captain " is in An Execration 
upon Vulcan in 1623, after the weekly " corantos " had com- 
menced. Jonson's library had been burned, and instead of 
his beloved books, he writes that he would rather have seen 
devoted to the flames 

1 Reprinted in the Harleian Miscellanies. 
2 



18 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

Captain Pamphlets horse and foot that sally 
Upon the Exchange, out of Pope's Head Alley 
The weekly Corrants with Paul's seal and all. 

Here again the "Captain" is mentioned now in connec- 
tion with Archer for Archer lived in Pope's Head Alley. 
Printers of news had already been glanced at in the masque, 
Newes from the World in the Moon, as being ready to " give 
anything for a good copy now, be it true or false, so it be 
newes ". More references to the " Captain " mark the period 
of his death. In the Staple of Newes, when the old woman 
comes to buy some news in the office of the staple, she is told : 
" Do, good woman, have patience, it is not as when the 
'Captain' lived". And in Fletcher's Fair Maid of the Inn, 
in the writing of which play there is some reason to think 
Jonson may have had a hand, occurs the passage : 

FOE. : It shall be the ghost of some lying stationer, a spirit shall 
look as if butter would not melt in his mouth, a new Mercurius Gallo- 
Belgicus. 

Cox : O, there was a captain was rare at it, etc. 

The " Captain " therefore was an actual person and not a 
type, and an old soldier against whom Jonson had a grudge. 
And this " Captain" was dead by 1625, when the Staple of 
Newes and Fair Maid of the Inn were written. One of John 
Chamberlain's letters now gives the key to his identification. 
He wrote to Carleton on 4th September, 1624, and, in men- 
tioning the deaths from plague during the previous week, 
states that there was among them " Captain Gainsford our 
newsmonger or maker of gazets ". 1 

Excluding Thomas Gainsford the author, who was not a 
soldier at all, the only Captain Gainsford who was likely to 
have been the gazet-maker was Captain Francis Gainsford. 
In 1598 Francis Gainsford wrote to the Earl of Essex : " I 
make myself known to you as one that have continually 
spent my time in service of Her Majesty in the Low 

1 S. P. Dom., Jas. L, 172, No. 6. Both the Calendar and Birch's 
Court and Times of James I. misspell the name as "Gainford". It is 
very clearly Gainsford in the original 



THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 19 

Countries these ten or twelve years, as lately in following 
your lordship in both your late voyages, being in your first 
voyage corporal to your troop of horse at Calles, and the 
last voyage I commanded a company of foot under Captain 
Williams, being appointed by you as his lieutenant. For my 
sufficiency I refer myself to the report of Sir Francis Vere, 
Sir Nicholas Parker and Sir Oliver Lambert who have seen 
the trial of my service as well on horseback as on foot. 
Withal I entreat that I may have a company into Ireland." 1 

The Irish State Papers then give an account of the rest 
of his career. There are three accounts of how Captain 
Francis Gainsford was shot and " sore wounded " at the camp 
at Faher, on 5th October, 1605, and he is described as " a 
very worthy officer of the field," by Lord Clanricarde. He 
recovered from his wound, and on 9th March, 1606, is 
described as " Francis Gainsford, recipient of a pension of 
3.9d per diem in respect of a maim received in Her late 
Majestiy's wars". And it is clearly he who is referred to in 
the list of "knights, servitors and pensioners," applying for 
land in the Ulster plantations in 1609. This he did not 
obtain, for there is no cross affixed to his name in the list. 

This brave old soldier, who had worked his way up from 
the ranks, and had been "sore wounded," and whose prowess 
is certified by every one under whom he had served 
including the famous Sir Francis Vere, almost, if not quite, 
the most celebrated general of the age, is therefore almost 
certainly the man whom Jonson attacks as " Captain 
Hungry," writing news for his bread. The "captain" was 
often ridiculed, but he seems at any rate to have had a most 
creditable past. To Francis Gainsford, soldier of Queen 
Elizabeth, as writer, and to Thomas Archer, as publisher (for 
it is evident that Bourne played a minor part), with their 
"corantos " or "currants," may be attributed, therefore, the 
first news periodicals, but the ultimate development of their 

1 Calendar of the MSS. of the Marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield, vol. 
8, p. 556. 



20 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

modest little pamphlets into the modern English newspapers 
would have been the wildest of chimeras to them. 

Jonson's attack may be explained as having a secondary 
cause quite apart from his quarrel with Dekker. Francis 
Gainsford was not one of the Surrey Gainsfords, nor was he 
of the Essex branch of the family. 9 In 1601 John Gray 
received a grant of the benefits of the "recusancy" of 
Margaret and John Gainsford of Idbury, Oxford, and in 1612 
Sir Eichard Wigmore for the same reason received a grant 
of two parts of the land of John Gainsford and Margaret 
Gainsford, widow, both then described as of St. Dunstans, 
London. If, as seems probable from his settling in London 
and writing the "corantos," Francis Gainsford was a relation 
of theirs, and had been driven to the wars for a living, the 
reason why no land in Ulster was given to him is possibly 
explained. According to his own account, Ben Jonson must 
have become a Protestant about 1612, which would quite 
explain a possible exposure of his stories of the war in the Low 
Countries by Francis Gainsford, and the resulting " epigram " 
addressed to " Captain Hungry ". 

If Gainsford found a patron and helper in his work in 
John Chamberlain, it would confirm all that is known of the 
character of the latter. And it is equally in accordance with 
what has already been said of Jonson, that he actually 
should 1 have attacked Chamberlain. In his masque, Newes 
from the New World, produced in 1620, he had described a 
" factor " of news who wrote u a thousand letters a week 
ordinary, sometimes twelve hundred," and who goes on to 
say, " I have friends of all ranks, and all religions, for which I 
keep an answering catalogue of dispatch wherein I have my 
puritan news, my protestant news, and my pontifical news ". 
Then he adds that he hopes " to erect a staple for newes " ere 
long, thus forecasting the play which appeared five years 
later. Here it is a writer of letters wh'o is satirised not the 
writer of a printed periodical. Before the play appeared 
Gainsford died. The fact that Chamberlain is attacked in 



THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 21 

the play therefore is noticeable, and argues some sort of 
patronage and assistance rendered by him to the humbler 
newswriters, for it would be only natural for Chamberlain 
to employ Captain Gainsford as an "emissary" to pick up 
news on Change. 

Before the play appeared, however, the masque of Nep- 
tune's Triumph for the Eeturn of Albion was written, and it 
clearly attacked Chamberlain. It was not performed until 
1626. In the dialogue between the " cook " and the " poet," 
the cook describes his " olla podrida" of personified dishes; 
he says of the persons that they are "on quest of enquiry 
after newes," and the boy, his son, adds "And of the Epicene 
gender, hees and shees, Amphibian Archy is the chief". 
(Chamberlain died unmarried. Archy Armstrong was the 
Court fool, who had been to Spain with Prince Charles and 
Buckingham.) 

The cook goes on : " Good boy. The child is learned too ; 
note but the kitchen. Have you put him into the pot for 
garlic ? " Boy ; " One in his coat shall stink as strong as he, 
sir, and his friend Giblets with him". Cook: "They are 
two that give a part of the seasoning". 

"Kitchen" was an expression for seasoning, and kitchen 
for bread was butter. " Giblets " was a contemporary ex- 
pression of contempt; therefore "kitchen" and "giblets" 
evidently refer to Butter and Bourne, at that time in part- 
nership. The " one in his coat," that is clothed with a 
pseudonym, refers to Mercurius Britannicus. A few lines 
farther on the cook, again referring to the contents of the 
" olla podrida," says : 

Grave Master Ambler, newes master o' Pauls 
Supplies your capon ; and grown captain, Buz, 
His emissary, under writes for Turkey. 

Both the writer and the age justify the statement that 
" Ambler " is a play upon Chamberlain's name. His "emis- 
sary " now is Buz, who has "grown" to be "captain" 
that is, has taken Gainsford' s place. Master Ambler is 



22 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

once more introduced into the Staple of Newes, produced in 
the same year: "A fine paced gentleman who walks in the 
middle aisle at Pauls," and also "my froy Hans Buz, a 
Dutchman, he's emissary Exchange". Hans Buz can be 
easily identified as Mathew de Quester (an anglicised form of 
one of the German or Dutch names " Coester " or " Koster ") 
who was at the time Master of Foreign Posts. Butter is intro- 
duced into the play, but quite openly, and simply as a rascal 
"buttering" up and selling under new titles his seven-year- 
old news. He is not the principal character, Cymbal, 
who is opposed to printing, and is a writer. Finally, in the 
fifth scene of the first act of the Staple of Newes the same 
sneering reference recurs to "Eeformed news, Protestant 
news, and Pontifical news," and the question is asked, "But 
what says Mercurius Britannicus to this ? " 

CYMBAL : O, sir, he gains by't half in half 

FITTON : Nay more, I'll stand to't. For where he was wont to get 
in hungry Captaines, obscure statesmen 

CYMBAL : Fellows to drink with him in a dark room and eat a sausage 
. . . now all that charge is saved. 

Mercurius Britannicus, therefore, was the former employer 
of the Captain, and at the time was publishing a periodical 
under that name. Before describing Mercurius Britannicus 
the first "newsbook" with a name it will be best to point 
out a possible origin of the periodical. 

Among the State papers is a draft memorandum or letter, 
attributed (in the Calendar of 1619-1623) to Sir Thomas 
Wilson, Keeper of the Eecords, and assigned to the year 
1621 ; apparently because in the following year the first 
periodical is known to have arisen, as we have seen. It is 
not signed, dated, or addressed to any one, and most as- 
suredly is not in the handwriting of Sir Thomas Wilson, nor 
is there any evidence, either external or internal, to connect 
it with him. It is clearly a draft, which has been altered, the 
paragraphs of which are numbered out of their order, and 
was probably sent or shown to Secretary of State Calvert or 






THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 23 

Conway for approval. The handwriting strongly resembles 
that of Thomas Locke. 

When writing to Dudley Carleton, Chamberlain and 
Locke were in the habit of addressing him as " My lord," 
for Carleton was an ambassador though not yet a peer. The 
document says towards the end, "my suit is that your lord- 
ship would give me leave to be a suitor to the King that Mr 
Pory and myself may receive a patent to be the Overseers of 
all books of humanity that shall be printed, that he will give 
unto us a fee of 20 per annum to each of us for our pains 
and with all to give us leave to print the gazetts or weekly 
occurrents which we shall get from other parts, that none 
may print them without our licence, and for this we will 
give his Majesty as much rent as he shall give us for over- 
seeing books for 20 a year more, so that we may have a 
patent of this to us and our assigns." 

The w r riter winds up by pointing out that "procuring 
advices from foreign parts is to me chargeable and nothing 
profitable," and states that the course he proposes is "a 
means that I should always be a historical memorial always 
ready of whatsoever shall pass in the world ". The reference 
to Pory fixes the date of this at about the time of his return 
in 1624, which coincided with the date of Francis Gainsford's 
death. 

Previously to making the above request, the writer 
pointed out some extraordinary motives and inducements 
for the setting up of an official British newsbook. It was 
" to settle a way that when there shall be any revolt or back- 
sliding in matter of religion or obedience (which commonly 
grows upon rumours among the vulgar) to draw them in by 
the same lines that drew such out by speeding amongst them 
such reports as may best make for that matter to which they 
never would have been drawn ". Of this he continues, " an- 
cient times afford many precedents and for modern weekly 
gazetts as from the centre of news" dispersed all "occur- 
rents" to all parts of the world. "This sells Mercurius 



24 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

Gallo-Belgicus now in Germany, the ' advisoes ' in France 
and the ' Novells ' in Italy and Spain. In which point no 
country is so heavy as our Britain, which I have heard re- 
proved in foreign parts for the negligence herein. From 
Antwerp, Brussels, Hague, Bulloyn, Frankfort, Prague, 
Vienna, Gratz, Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples, Genoa, 
Spain, Paris and Lyons we have the occurrents every week." 
And he asks why Britain should be behind the rest of the 
world. Much good he thinks would come if the ploughman 
and the artisan were to know the events of the day like their 
continental brothers, though he acknowledges that his own 
private benefit was the greatest motive to him in the matter. 

Another inducement offered for setting up a British news- 
book was "to establish a speedy and ready way whereby to 
disperse into all the veins of the whole body of a State such 
matters as may best temper it, and be most agreeable to the 
disposition of the head and principal members upon all occa- 
sions that shall afford ". * 

Nothing more likely to appeal to James could be imagined. 
The same idea was to occur in 1663 to Roger L' Estrange, 
and to be described by him in his preface to the Intelligencer, 
when he states that the " common people's affections are " 
(more) " capable of being tuned and wrought upon by con- 
venient hints and touches in the shape of a pamphlet than 
by the strongest reasons and best notions imaginable under 
any other and more sober form whatsoever " ; and it was put 
into the most active practice during the Rebellion and so- 
called " Protectorate ". 

The existing periodical of weekly news did not extend so 
far in scope as the journal thus outlined, and only published 
translations of foreign news. What followed can only be in- 
ferred. Probably the establishment of a Mercurius Britannicus 
on the lines of a Mercurius Gallo-Belgicus was thought 
too great a leap in the dark, and James I. died on the 
27th March, 1625. No patent was granted, but a periodical 
1 S. P. Dom., Jas. L, 124, No. 113 (Calendar of 1619-23). 



THE COBANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 25 

was now issued and stated to be " printed for Mercurius 
Britannicus " " Mercurius Britannicus " being given in con- 
spicuous type. Here then at last is the first " coranto " with 
a name ; as the play, the Staple of Newes, testifies. Several 
numbers of this are in the Burney Collection. The first in 
existence is No. 16, dated 7th April, 1625; after No. 23, 
issued on 24th May, there is a break in the collection ; there 
is then a solitary, unnamed " coranto," issued by Thomas 
Archer alone, dated 10th November, 1625, and called No. 5. 
Mercurius Britannicus then reappears in the Burney Collection 
with No. 2, 5th January, 1625-26 ; but whether it continued 
longer than the last number in the collection, No. 7, dated 
8th February, 1625-26, there is nothing to show. The 
periodical gives evidence of being written by a writer of 
better education than that of its predecessor ; it is no longer 
a bare translation from the Dutch, and shows that it has a 
private correspondence of its own all over Europe. It still 
only deals with foreign news. No " corantos " marked 
Mercurius Britannicus exist of a later date than February, 
1625-26. 

The Stationers' Eegister (not a very good guide) sheds abso- 
lutely no light on this periodical, which is not entered in it at 
all. A calculation of the dates backwards leads to the con- 
clusion that the first number must have been issued on 23rd 
February, 1624-25. That it had no connection with Butter and 
Bourne is clear, for Butter's nameless periodicals are entered 
in the Stationers' Kegister concurrently, as follows : No. 7, 
entered on 8th February, and Nos. 10 and 11, entered on 
7th March. 

After the entry of 7th March, 1624-25, no entry of any 
news-pamphlet of any kind whatever occurs until 19th June, 
1627. On that day the names of Butter and Bourne re- 
appear, and the entry runs: " Keceived of them for all 
currants of newes until the first day of August, 1627, xv. 8 /-" 
Fifteen shillings was the payment for thirty numbers ; that 
is to say, that Butter and Bourne then paid for their 



26 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

periodicals from 3rd January, 1626-27, to the following- 
August. 

Now John Chamberlain died in March of that year and 
was buried in St. Olave's, Old Jewry, on 20th March. If, 
then, the project of a true Mercurius Britannicus was his, his 
wishes would seem to have been met by allowing him to super- 
vise the writing of the Mercurius Britawiicus which, as has 
been shown, existed at least during the years 1625 and 1626. 
He was too old a man to publish it himself ; so probably it 
lasted until the end of the year 1626, the year of Chamber- 
lain's last illness. In fact, Thomas Locke, who may have 
had something to do with the writing of it, also disappears, 
altogether about the time of Chamberlain's death. The 
question as to who " Mercurius Britannicus," the publisher, 
was, can be settled with certainty. At the end of No. 6, 
dated 1st February, 1625-26, is to be found the earliest ad- 
vertisement (an isolated instance twenty-two years before 
the introduction of newsbook advertising): "Here is this 
present day published an excellent Discourse concerning the 
match between our most Gracious and Mightie Prince 
Charles Prince of Wales and the Lady Henrette Maria 
daughter to Henry the fourth late King of France etc., 
sister to Lewis the thirteenth now king of these dominions. 
Manifesting the Koyall ancestors of both these famous- 
Princes and truly explaining the several interchanges of 
marriages which hath been between France and England. 
With the lively picture of the Prince and lady cut in 
Brasse". 

This can be easily identified (by comparison with the 
book's verbose full English title) as the Epithalamium Gallo- 
Britannicum, qtc., etc., of George Marcelline, published by 
Archer. Archer, therefore, was the publisher of the second, 
as he also was of the first, British periodical, and from this 
periodical, and not from Butter's, the " Mercury women," 
who sold newsbooks in the streets, clearly derived their 
name. 



THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 27 

The interval between 1627 and 1641 shows a complete 
absence of that journalistic activity which had been displayed 
up to the time of John Chamberlain's death. Butter and 
Bourne now retained the field unopposed still as publishers 
of " corantos " of foreign news only. 

Archer appears to have entered into competition with 
them again in 1628, for two " corantos " printed for him are 
in the Kecord Office No. 6, dated August 7; and No. 7, 
dated August 15 ; but he also died in 1634. 

Two interesting comments on the difficulties of the press 
at the time are supplied by the State Papers. One is the 
(undated) petition of William Phillips, who was committed 
to the Gate House for translating a small French pamphlet, 
for Newbery, one of the stationers associated with Butter. 
He was very ill, and prayed for a release, which he obtained. 
(Alas, the next document to this is " A petition " from Abigail, 
his widow, a few weeks later, which states that she had been 
left with " foure small children," and begs that Newbery, 
as the person really guilty, might be ordered to contribute to 
her support.) The other is the petition of William Stansby, 
printer, for pardon and restitution to business. He had 
printed some news for Butter, and as a result his printing 
presses were broken down, and his printing house was nailed 
up. Stansby afterwards printed the first complete edition of 
Ben Jonson's works. 

In the Coranto, No. 9, 16th July, 1630, the "Publisher" 
addressed the reader with the statement that " we " had lost 
money for ten months, " which was the cause we published 
scarce one a moneth ". What the public desired was " action," 
which seldom fell out in the winter, and the publisher winds 
up : " We presume we shall now fit their humour with action 
enough every weeke if their purses be as ready to pay as we 
shall be ready to publish, the greatest talkers of newes (as 
the Pauls walkers) are the poorest buyers. Farewell ". 

Unfortunately for Butter, it soon was farewell in good 
earnest, for on 17th October, 1632, the Star Chamber pro- 



28 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

hibited the printing of all " gazetts " and news from foreign 
parts, as well Butter's and Bourne's as others. 

On 30th September, 1633, Butter and Bourne petitioned 
the King to be permitted to publish news again, but, though 
a favourable endorsement appears on the petition, nothing 
was done until 20th December, 1638, when, after six years' 
silence, Butter and Bourne were given* the monopoly of 
printing news still foreign news only by Eoyal Letters 
Patent, for the term of twenty-one years, " they paying yearly 
towards the repair of St. Paul's the sum of 10 ". About this 
time (on llth July, 1637), the Star Chamber issued its second 
set of decrees on licensing. These were on similar lines to the 
decrees of Elizabeth, but ampler and fuller, and were aimed 
at the Puritan pamphleteers. They also gave power to the 
Vice-Chancellors and Chancellors of the two Universities to 
license books, and restricted the number of London printing 
presses to twenty. (This last restriction was not an unpopu- 
lar one, and the Stationers' petition to the Long Parliament, 
printed in 1643, asked for a similar restraint of the number of 
presses.) 

It is curious that Butter and Bourne's monopoly should 
have been granted only eighteen months later. They evi- 
dently decided to begin again in good style, for No. 1 of their 
new book of news, which was dated 20th December, 1638, 
covered the news of six months, and consisted of no less than 
ninety-six pages. It contained a preface" The Currantiers 
to the Eeaders" and also the first illustration a full-page 
picture of the eruption of a volcano at sea. Anthony a Wood 
tells us that William Watts, of Caius College, Cambridge, 
and D.D., Oxon., Eector of St. Alban's, Wood Street, and 
afterwards chaplain to Prince Eupert (in the field), was 
now their " author," and wrote more than forty of their 
newsbooks "containing the occurrences done in the wars 
between the King of Sweden and the Germans". But 
Butter's periodicals were still without a catchword, obviously 
because they had no competitor. He soon got into trouble 






THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 29 

with the licenser, and his periodicals were again suppressed, 
and again permitted to reappear, on 9th January, 1640, with 
another address, " The Printer to the Header," stating that 
they had found a more " candid " licenser, and would for the 
future be issued every week. Butter's name occurs several 
times on periodicals among the crowd of "diurnals" dealing 
with Parliamentary proceedings, that sprang up like mush- 
rooms in 1642, but gradually he was lost sight of, and he died 
on 22nd February, 1664, " very poor ". 1 

Pamphlets of all kinds now " as numerously invaded and 
infested the world as Flyes a great man's kitchen or a 
butcher's shambles in the summer season, all of them con- 
sisting of more words and iterations than either worth or 
weighty matter". From these step by step was evolved the 
"newsbook". 

1 Smith's Obituary, Camden Society. 



CHAPTEE III. * 

THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643. 

THE struggle between King Charles I. and his Houses 
of Parliament, which culminated with the meeting of the 
Long Parliament, on 3rd November, 1640, led to a crisis in 
the history of licensing. War, as has been seen, originated 
the appearance of the periodical of foreign news the " cor- 
anto" and though war in its most odious form, between 
men speaking the same language and professing the same 
faith, was to cause a development of the " newsbooks " which 
followed the " corantos," to an extent which seems hardly 
credible (all the main features of the modern newspaper 
being found in them within seven years), it was not to be the 
actual source of their origin. This is to be found in the pro- 
ceedings of Parliament. 

The political struggle was between the King and his 
Parliament not between the King and his people. Although 
the majority of the people were on the side of the Parlia- 
ment when hostilities broke out, this was not the case when 
they came to an end. Of this the story of the Royalist 
Mercuries will afford overwhelming proof. The nation wished 
to know what was being said and done in Parliament 
the Cavalier no less than the Roundhead. The demand was 
for news, nothing but news, and as a result the whole litera- 
ture of the next year is confined to printed pamphlets of 
"speeches" in Parliament or "relations" of this or that 
incident connected with them. The points at issue between 
the King and his Parliament were twofold political and 
religious ; and therefore, as the religious side of the dispute 
was the cause of all the bitterness and animus of the coming 

30 



THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 31 

struggle, it is necessary, while expressly disclaiming, as 
Thomasius says, any intention to "put one's sickle into the 
field of dread Theology," to state roughly what the parties 
were. 

In faith, as opposed to ritual and discipline, little differ- 
ence existed between Puritan and Eoyalist. The bulk of the 
clergy probably were Calvinists though Archbishop Laud 
and his immediate followers were certainly not. One para- 
doxical result of the judicial murder of the Archbishop and 
of the success of the Eebellion has been, that Calvinism has 
been practically rooted out of England by the reaction which 
followed it. l This is a point which is often forgotten. What 
the people wanted to get rid of was the tyranny of the 
Bishops' Courts the Star Chamber, the High Commission, 
and the rest. As to the bishops themselves they were indif- 
ferent ; but a hatred of Catholicism had been implanted in 
them by a steady educational process, carried on for a hun- 
dred years by those very bishops who now, so they were told 
by the Puritan preachers, intended to lead them back to 
Rome. At the commencement of the Rebellion, therefore, 
all the Puritans were combined into one great Presbyterian 
body that is a church consisting of priests or presbyters 
without bishops. 

Socially as well as intellectually the strict Presbyterians 
were the equals of the Cavaliers. These were not the 
Independents ; they were the men who were called the 
"Roundheads" would-be ascetics, who cut their hair 
short, detested stage plays, wore .rusty black, and talked 
in Scriptural phrases with a snuffle. Absolutely intoler- 
ant, however, the Presbyterians were bent on enforcing 
the entire submission of the nation to the rigid Genevan 
mode of church discipline and government, as held (at 
the time) in Scotland a system if anything even more 

1 See the Articles of the Christian Religion, passed by Parliament on 
21st June, 1648, for a short and clear exposition of the Calvinistic creed 
held in those days. E. 449. 



32 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

inquisitorial and interfering with domestic life than ever that 
of the bishops had been. This brought into relief the fact, 
that a large part of their supporters were the " Independents " 
men who held that any congregation or collection of men 
had the right to devise their own form of creed and church 
government for themselves. It will be seen at once that the 
Independent standard was so wide in its definition as to 
render it possible for almost any sect to march under it ; 
thus, though all were Presbyterians alike until the success of 
the Parliamentary cause, yet with that success was bound to 
arise a quarrel over the questions of church discipline and 
toleration not toleration as we understand it, but a spurious 
and derisory toleration limited to those Christians who were 
neither Catholic nor Protestant Episcopalian. The con- 
troversy between the Presbyterian and the Independent how- 
ever did not affect the newsbooks until the year 1646. It 
will not, therefore, be necessary to notice further the religious 
question, until the date when the King surrendered himself 
to the Scots. 

On 5th July, 1641, the King gave his consent to the Act 
abolishing the Star Chamber, and with this, at one fell 
swoop, the whole of the licensing system was abolished. 
For some time the literature of the day consisted of nothing* 
but the speeches and " relations," most of which will be 
found entered in the Stationers' Eegisters under the hands of 
the different members of Parliament responsible for them. 
One very serious effect, therefore, of this hasty abolition 
the fact that copyright in the matter or title of a book was. 
jeopardised was slow to become apparent. Whether such a 
thing as copyright at Common Law existed at all was then 
still an open question. 

The published speeches were written by clerks or 
scriveners, and revised by the members themselves before 
being sent to the press. The art of " Tachygraphy or short- 
writing" as it was called was in its infancy, and thus must 
have received great impetus. " Clerk" and "scrivener" 1 



THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 33 

were synonymous terms, applied not only to the person who 
filled the places occupied by the mortgage broker, the convey- 
ancing solicitor or barrister, and the law stationer nowa- 
days, but also to those who wrote the letters of news which 
were circulated in the country. The great requisites for the 
profession (which was prepared for by a long apprenticeship) 
were good handwriting and knowledge of English; for a 
knowledge of the law does not seem to have been necessary, 
though no doubt it was desirable. l In November, 1641, a 
whole volume of these speeches, etc., appeared under the 
title of Diurnall Occurrences, dating from 3rd November, 1640, 
to 3rd November, 1641, and printed for a bookseller called 
William Cooke, who also published several smaller volumes 
with similar titles. 

In abolishing the Star Chamber, Parliament had not for 
a moment thought of freeing the press, and still less of 
conferring freedom from licensing ; for the abolition of the 
bishops and their jurisdiction was their sole object. The 
journals of the House of Lords show, that a committee must 
have been at once appointed on the abolition of the Star 
Chamber, to consider the question of regulating the press. 
Of its actual appointment there is no record, but on 20th 
October, 1641, the committee was ordered to " meet again on 
account of the complaints made of printing pamphlets and 
unlicensed books ". The breach between the King and 
Parliament was widening day by day, and by the month of 
November men's minds were in a very excited condition. 
The tidings of a rebellion and massacre in Ireland added fuel 
to the flames ; awful atrocities were laid at the door of the 

1 The Compleat Clark and Scrivener's Guide (July, 1655), printed by 
T. R. for H. Twiford, is a good-sized manual of precedents in conveyanc- 
ing, which shows that indentures of all kinds were entrusted to scriveners. 
The Scriveners' Company is the forty-fourth in rank of the City Guilds, 
was originally known as the " Writers of the Court Letter," and incorpor- 
ated in 1616. Being "reduced to low circumstances," it sold its hall in 
Noble Street, Cheapside, to the Company of Coachmakers at the end of 
the seventeenth century. 

3 



34 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

native Irish, and no falsehood was too gross and no story too 
improbable to be believed about them. 

On llth November, 1641, letters concerning the outrages 
were read in Parliament, and at the end of the month the 
first printed periodical of domestic news appeared. One of 
the scriveners alluded to had seen his opportunity, and in- 
stead of having his letter of news copied he had obtained 
permission to have it printed. The author of A Presse full of 
Pamphlets (April, 1642) writes: "The first inventors of the 
Art of Printing Pamphlets in the last remarkable year of 
Printing was clerks, or a clerk, as it is supposed, who being 
but a single man could not be contented to live of 15/- the 
week, which he might gain by writing the true proceedings 
in Parliament and till printing were unquestionable, and 
other passages concerning the same, which gentlemen of 
good worth delighted in. But in hope of more gain to 
himself by the undoing of others, put the first copy of 
the Diurnall Occurrences that was printed to a printer, and 
then came all other things true and false to the presse. 
This was the first step to the ruinating of the tribe of 
clerks." 

Accordingly, on 29th November, 1641, 1. T. (John Thomas) 
published an eight-page pamphlet, having as outside title. 
The Heads of Severall Proceedings in the Present Parliament. 
This pamphlet appeared weekly, with variations of its title 
according to its contents, and on 20th December the inside 
title was transferred to the outside, and became Diurnal 
Occurrences, etc., and the pamphlet was printed for J. T. and 
T. B. Nathaniel Butter joined Thomas as publisher on 3rd 
January, 1641-42, and on 10th January appeared another 
Diurnall Occurrences, printed for William Cooke. 

Ireland's True Diurnall, dealing with Irish affairs, and 
printed and written by William Bladen, appeared on 3rd 
February; but it was an intermittent and not a weekly 
periodical, dependent for its news on Bladen's father a 




PERFECT 

DIVRNALL 

O F T H E 

PASSAGES 

In Parliament: 

Fro tk* *6jfDceemb.to the*. 

the fame hand thai fortzerljtlrev uptfo Copy far William Cook 
tifttlls lnne.betng,t)ovt printed fy I: Okes, Fr: Leach,^ 



Here come Letters to the Houfesfrom the 
Earlcof Warwick informing that the 
prifoncrs taken in Devon -ft!te at tlie 
light neare Plymouth, were brought up 
by Sea to.Gravc*nd, being fcaventccnc 
of them Gentlemen and chlefc Comman- 
ders* a Lift of their names he alfo fent to 
the Houfe, defiling tbat they would take 
a.ccmfe chat feme ot the MHuxt of Lon- 
don mightbs appointed to guard them 
from thence to London. Wnercupon ic 
| was ordered thai there fhould be forty 
Mufquetcets appointed to fetch them 

from theaec> ami lhat they (hotfld be 

Wiachcftcr and Lambeth houfe. and that the Keepers oi the 
faidptifoAs(houldhave command to fecpc them in fafc cuftody, upon an 

accufation 




THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 35 

Dublin alderman. 1 Other Diurnal Occurrences began also to 
appear, and at last, on 31st January, was issued the first 
periodical with an attempt at a " catchword," A Perfect 
Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament, with no printer's name 
attached to it, but also printed for William Cooke. A True 
Diurnall Occurrences, " averred by E. P. clerke," also appeared 
on 7th February, and was published by John Hammond, the 
number for 14th February being " averred by I.B." (i.e., John 
Bond hereafter mentioned). The success of the catchword, A 
Perfect Diurnall, must have been immediate, as also that of A 
Continuation of the True Diurnall, which numbered itself, and 
appeared about the same time with no publisher's name 
attached. 

Both were immediately counterfeited, and their titles 
were appropriated, particularly that of A Perfect Diurnall, of 
which no less than eight different varieties, published by 
different booksellers, can be counted during the year 1642. 
"Now the wheeles of men's brains were turned round," 
writes A Presse full of Pamphlets, and " the eyes of their wits 
were wandering over the earth to find a means of honest 
subsistence by their industry, and at last perceiving their 
wits must be the chief means of their livelihood, they betook 
them to the same, and fearing the same for want of former 
practice were grown somewhat rusty, they conceived it were 
the more safest way to scour them with wine, beer, and 
tobacco in some honest ale-house or tavern, and being of the 
right nature or stamp of Englishmen, who think a thing to 
be never well enough done till it be overdone and prove use- 
lesse or hurtful, they, in scouring their braines, fill'd the pan 
so full of liquor that they drown'd their wits, and so pro- 
ducing them uncapable of good action, betook themselves to 
fabulous invention, their wits being fluent with over much 

J W. Bladen, the father, was sole printer in Ireland at the time. 
The Irish gentry petitioned that no Irish news should be published but 
what his son William had read and allowed (Historical MSS. Com- 
mission, 4Ah Report, App., p. 113 6). 



36 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

moisture . . . they have filled the City and countries with 
the fruits of their taplush inventions". Then " they begin 
to go beyond sea for new Newes from Ireland, France, 
Spain, Italy, Denmarke, Portugal and part of Holland, but I 
cannot find any of them have bin at Amsterdam or New 
England. I hope these they reserve for their last refuge. 

" And lastly, to conclude, this kind of new invented pro- 
fession being growne to its last gaspe," they "come again to 
proceedings of the Parliament, the which they have so 
multiplyed, that in very Diurnals (some weeks) they can at 
one prodigious birth bring forth fifteen at a time ". 

All the various " diurnals " produced at this time were 
issued to the public on Mondays, the reason for this being 
the fact that Tuesday was the post day ; consequently com- 
petition must have been intense, and we can well understand 
the " ruinating of the tribe of clerks " to which our author 
refers. All these "diurnals" also went through some pro- 
cess of licensing at the hands of the clerks of one or the 
other House, whose names frequently appear at the end or 
beginning. 

Until the Restoration, the majority of the writers of 
the "diurnals" or "newsbooks" seem never to have been 
persons of repute. " Liar" was a term ordinarily applied to 
them, and we have the testimony of Mrs. Hutchinson on the 
Parliamentary side that they would deliberately write up a 
soldier's reputation for money. Nevertheless, a good deal of 
the hostile criticism was unjust, and defective intelligence 
accounted for a great many of the falsehoods laid at their 
door. 

A Royalist writer says : " A Diurnal maker is the sub 
almoner of history, Queen Mab's register, one whom by the 
same figure that a north country pedlar is a merchant, you 
may stile him an author. . . . They call him a Mercury, 
but he becomes the epithet like a little negro mounted on 
the elephant just such another blot rampant. He defames 
a good title as much as most of our modern noblemen those 



THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 37 

wens of greatness, the body politics most peccant humours 
blistered into Lords." (This is an allusion to the "Com- 
monwealths " lords a title conferred upon Bradshaw.) 
" To call him an historian is to knight a mandrake, 'tis 
to view him through a perspective and by that glass 
hyperbole to give the reputation of an engineer to a maker of 
mouse-traps. Such an historian would hardly pass muster 
with a Scotch stationer in a sieve full of ballads and alman- 
acks. . . . The word Historian imports a sage and solemn 
author, one that curls his brow with a sullen gravity, like a 
bull necked presbyter not such a squealing scribe as this 
that is troubled with the rickets and makes pennyworths of 
history. ... In sum a diurnal maker is the antimask of an 
historian, he differs from him as a drill from a man or (if 
you had rather have it in the ' Saints ' gibberish) as a 
'Hinter' doth from a ' Holder forth'." 1 

The author first in the field can be indicated with some- 
thing more than probability. The first of the patriarchs of 
English domestic journalism was Samuel Pecke, a scrivener 
with a little stall in Westminster Hall. His claim to the 
title of patriarch lies in the fact that he wrote not only the 
newsbooks entitled Diurnal Occurrences, etc., but also A Con- 
tinuation of Certain Special and Remarkable Passages Informed to 
both Houses of Parliament (from 26th August, 1642, to 17th 
September, 1647, and published on Fridays), and the differ- 
ent Perfect Dlurnals, printed at first by William Cooke, and 
afterwards by Okes, Leach and Coles, and others, from 31st 
January, 1642, to 24th September, 1655, and published on 
Mondays. These latter periodicals, up to the year 1648, 
were the most important of all the newsbooks, and were the 
Times of the day ; but in 1648 they became somewhat over- 
shadowed by a rival entitled Perfect Occurrences, the import- 
ance of which was in part due to the fact that Saturday had 

1 A Character of a Diurnal Maker, 28th November, 1653, J. 
Cleiveland. I have adopted this spelling of his name, as also the spelling 
Berkenhead and Nedham, as being that used by the writers themselves. 



38 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

been constituted a post-day as well as Tuesday. It appeared, 
therefore, every Friday, as the Perfect Diurnal appeared every 
Monday. Both pamphlets were twice the size of the others, 
consisting ultimately of two sheets (i.e., sixteen pages) instead 
of one like the rest. 

Up to 1647, however, Samuel Pecke was without a peer 
as newsmonger; it is regrettable, therefore, that we have 
but a few Royalist allusions to him, and only a solitary 
pamphlet to give an idea of his character. The industry 
and the " large volumes," of which this pamphlet speaks, 
point him out as the writer of the volume of Diurnal Occur- 
rences from November, 1640, to November, 1641, already 
mentioned, and, from the adoption of this title in the first 
of the periodicals, as the writer of that also. The pamphlet, 
which is entitled A Fresh Whip for all Scandalous Lyers; or A 
True Description of the Two Eminent Pamphliteers, or Squibtellers of 
this Kingdome (9th September, 1647), calls him a "petty- 
fogging scrivener," and continues : " He was once a Stationer, 
till he crept into the little hole in Westminster Hall where 
indeed he began his trade of inditing or framing and so rose 
at last to the stile of the Diurnall-writer. I must confess at 
his first beginning to write he was very industrious, and 
would labour for the best intelligence as his large volumes do 
testifie, but when he found the sweetness of it, and how 
easily he could come by his intelligence he fell to his sports 
and pastimes, for you should hardly ever find him at home 
all the weeke, till Saturday morning, and then you should be 
sure to find him abed panting and puffing as if he had over 
rid himselfe with riding too and agen from the Army, when 
God wot hee hath not been out of the Lynes of Communica- 
tion." 

An accusation against his morals follows, coupled with 
the charge that "that which he should do on Saturday he 
must do on Sunday. This Merchant hath two printers to 
attend his worke, whereof one hath a man, that rather than 
it should be thought that he were not diligent enough for his 






THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 39 

master, he will content himself with a piece of Thursdays 
newes for his prayers, Fridays intelligence for the first 
Sermon, and Saturdays for the afternoon lecture, and if it 
do not hold them over long, he will sit down and sing a 
psalme, or take a pipe of tobacco, and think he hath done 
God good service. 'Tis a shame such a Conventicle (I can 
tearm it no otherwise) which tends to the dishonour of God 
should be suffered." 

In personal appearance his Eoyalist biographers say Pecke 
was a " bald headed buzzard " and " a tall thin faced fellow, 
with a Hawks nose, a meagre countenance and long runna- 
gate legs, constant in nothing but wenching lying and drink- 
ing" ; the last adding, that "he once made indentures with 
his hands, you may meet him late in the night, he commonly 
frequents Py-corner about mutton-time, and seldom walks 
without his she-intelligencer". 

On 29th January, 1642, the House of Commons found 
time to pass an order, the first in a long series, levelled 
against the press. Part of the order was intended to protect 
copyright, but the most material portion was aimed at the 
diurnals. It runs as follows : "It is ordered that the Master 
and wardens of the company of Stationers shall be required 
to take especial order that the printers do neither print nor 
reprint anything without the consent and name of the author, 
that he shall then be proceeded against as both printer and 
author thereof and their names to be certified to this House ". 
A second minatory order by the Lords on 21st March, recit- 
ing that news had been printed as if by order of the House 
and letters counterfeited as if from the King to the King of 
France, etc., warned those who should do the like " to look 
for no clemency " but " to expect a just severity ". 

About this time the clerk of Sir Edward Littleton, the 
Speaker of the House of Lords, having written Some Pas- 
sages that Happened the 9th of March between the King and 
the Committee when the Declaration was Delivered, came under 
the censure of the House, and on 29th March, John Bond, 



40 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

"a poor scholar having nothing else to live on," confessed 
to having forged a letter from the queen, and with Richard 
Broome, the author of the Danes Plot, and Bernard Alsop, 
printer, he was committed, but released on 15th April. 

In the meantime an Act of Parliament had been under 
consideration. On 25th April, 1642, the Lords' Committee 
already mentioned (it seems to have*been reappointed on 
5th April at the Commons' request) reported that "they had 
met the King's Counsel to hear what information they could 
give them," and the latter had replied that "they had re- 
ceived no instructions from his Majesty as yet. Hereupon 
the Committee proceeded no further, but will be ready to 
meet again when the kingdome shall have directions from 
his Majesty". On 2nd May the judges cleared away a legal 
difficulty, by giving the Lords their " opinion that printing 
was publication ". 

The events which led up to the battle of Edgehill (which 
happened on 23rd October, 1642) are sufficient explanation of 
the reasons why Parliament did not for the moment proceed 
any further with its press legislation. The output of diur- 
nals continued; but they were not creditable publications, 
and were as dishonest and as abusive of the royal cause as 
can well be imagined. In June Tobias Sedgwick, a Strand 
barber, was in trouble for a letter which he had received from 
a friend in Ireland called Pike, and had published under the 
title of A Trite Relation of the Scots and English Forces in the 
North of Ireland. With Leach and Coles his publishers, and 
White their printer, he was sent to prison. White, it is in- 
teresting to note, was paid eighteen shillings for printing 
three reams. 

Up to January, 1643, not a solitary Royalist periodical 
had appeared, for of course they stood no chance in London, 
and the diurnals had been able to hoodwink the people to the 
top of their bent. 

By the end of the year 1642 the King's party at Oxford 
had become quite aware of the danger the diurnals were to 



THE LONG PAKLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 41 

the royal cause and determined to publish an opposition 
journal. On the second Saturday in the year and every 
subsequent Saturday evening for Sunday (it must be sup- 
posed in order deliberately to flout the Puritan conception of 
the first day of the week as a " Sabbath") appeared Mercurius 
Aulicus, A Diurnal Communicating the Intelligence and Affaires 
of the Court to the Best of the Kingdome. There appears to have 
been some hesitation as to a title for this periodical; the 
first number for lst-7th January was called Oxford Diurnal, 
but the next number (No. 1) ; which appeared for Sunday, 8th 
January, 1643, was given the statelier Latin title of Mercurius 
Aulicus, which was continued until the journal came to an end 
in September, 1645. 

This journal at once struck a higher literary note than 
the rubbish which had poured out on the side of the Parlia- 
ment. Its preface says : " The world hath long enough been 
abused with falsehoods. And there's a weekly cheat put out 
to nourish the abuse amongst the people and make them pay- 
for their seducement. And that the world may see that the 
Court is neither so barren of intelligence as it is conceived 
nor the affairs thereof in so unprosperous a condition as these 
pamphlets make them, it is thought fit to let them truly 
understand the state of things so that they may no longer 
pretend ignorance or be deceived with untruths. Which 
being premised once for all we now go on with the businesse 
wherein we shall proceed with all truth and candour." 

More than one writer probably had a hand in this 
journal ; the names of Dr. Peter Heylin, George Digby, 
afterwards Earl of Bristol, and Henry Jermin, afterwards 
Earl of St. Albans, and others are mentioned, but the bulk of 
the work fell on the author-in-chief, John, afterwards Sir 
John, Berkenhead, a graduate of Oriel College. 1 

Aubrey writes of him: "He was exceedingly confident, 
witty, not very gratefull to his benefactors, would lye dam- 

1 Aubrey, Brief Lives, ed. by A. Clark, i., p. 104. Life in Wood's 
Athence Oxonienses and The Spie. 



42 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

nably. He was of a middling stature, great goggli eies, not of 
a sweet aspect." This character does not appear to be quite 
fair, and we would like to know the cause of Aubrey's hos- 
tility. Berkenhead is also described by a hostile pen as 
" being by profession a student in the law and a very apt 
scholler, hath learned very well, and is become as good a 
scholler as his Tutors and professors not only in the theorie 
but also in the practicall part. For the greatest, and main 
point of the Law which the new Oxford Doctors do teach is, 
That it is lawful to devise what lies they can, and to publish 
them even in print for the advancing of their cause. . . . 
His fine rhetoricall words are like unto the flowers that 
covereth a serpent lying under them. The Malignants do 
pay sometimes as deare for that pamphlet as for a psalm 
book, one of the last was sold for 18 pence a peece. We 
know say the Malignants that what Aulicus writeth is 
true." 1 , 

The last sentence reveals the fact that Aulicus was sold in 
London as well as in Oxford, and as the price of all the pam- 
phlets of news was but a penny (though the hawker got more 
if possible) we can gather an idea of the risk then incurred in 
selling it. 

The Lords, in the meantime, were busily engaged in 
dragooning the press. On 7th January, 1643, Coles and 
Leach, the printers of Pecke's Continuation of Certain Special 
and Remarkable Passages, and Pecke himself, together with 
Alsop and Fawcett, two other printers, were sent to the 
Fleet. On the 12th Pecke was brought to the bar and con- 
fessed his "authorship". He remained in prison until after 
24th April, when he and his printers petitioned for the second 
time for their freedom. The cause of this severe punishment 
seems simply to have been the fact that he had commented 
too freely on the presentation of petitions for a peace with 
the King, presented by the apprentices of London and their 

1 The True Character of M ercurius Aulicus, 1645. This pamphlet, sup- 
posed to be lost, is in the Burney Collection. 



THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 43 

masters on 2nd January. His periodicals, however, were not 
suppressed, and he and his booksellers were allowed to con- 
tinue their publication. 

Another printer, Eichard Herne, and his author, one 
Glapthorne of Fetter Lane, also fell victims, on the 12th, for 
a pamphlet entitled His Majesty's Gracious Answer to the Mes- 
sage Sent from the Honourable City of London Concerning Peace. 

In the meantime an important little periodical appeared 
in reply to Aulicus, entitled The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 
At the start it was not much better than the rest, and was 
quite as abusive as any ; but the writer was evidently perfectly 
honest, and as his periodical lasted until 1655 (being afterwards 
continued as the Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth) it 
is unfortunate that his name should not be known with 
certainty. His initials are E. C., and he was a soldier who 
was with the army at Windsor on the side of the Parliament 
where he says he served the cause he had espoused with his 
pen rather than his sword. It is more than probable that 
he was the Eichard Collings whose name appears as the 
publisher of A Declaration Concerning the King (23rd November, 
1648, E, 473, 17), which is written by some one (presumably 
Collings) who was evidently on the Parliamentary side, but 
who nevertheless was loyal to the King personally ; and this, 
as will afterwards be shown, was precisely the attitude of 
Eichard Collings. The Weekly Intelligencer of the Common- 
wealth also was printed for B.C., which means that he sold 
it. He may also have been the Eichard Collins who took up 
his freedom in the Stationers' Company on 30th January, 
1628. One Eoyalist opponent calls him a " brother of the 
whetstone" (i.e., a liar), and another says of him that "he 
halted in his intelligence," qualifying the depreciatory re- 
mark by adding that he was " an honest Trojan ". Sheppard, 
who also alludes to his honesty in the Weepers, 1 says he was 
a scholar, and writes of his poverty with regret. 

On 21st February, 1643, the Lords committed his printer 

J The Weepers or the Bed of Snakes broken by S.S., 13th September, 1652. 



44 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

for putting on his pamphlet the headline "Cessation of 
Arms," but the journals, unfortunately, do not give the 
writer's name. On llth May he commenced a second news- 
book, entitled Mercurius Givicus ; or, London's Intelligencer, and 
published on Thursdays (the Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer 
was published on Tuesdays). Mercurius Civicus was an in- 
teresting little periodical, which contained a great deal of 
valuable information about the city, and had two novel 
features ; one being the exceedingly bad rhymes which occa- 
sionally adorned its title-page, the other the infinitely worse 
wood-cut portraits which invariably ornamented it. It was 
the first regularly illustrated periodical. 

On 9th March, 1643, an "ordinance" was passed, which 
provided that the " Committee for Examinations," or any 
four of them, were to have power to appoint persons to 
search, and to commit to prison any one vending or selling 
pamphlets scandalous to His Majesty or the Houses ; those 
committed not to be released until those employed to search 
were satisfied for pains and charges. On 28th March the 
House of Commons resolved " that the Diurnal from the 
14 March to the 21 printed by Bob. "Wood is false and 
scandalous to the King's Majesty and the Parliament," and 
" That what person soever shall print or sell any Act or 
passages of this house under the names of a diurnal or other- 
wise without the particular license of this house shall be 
reputed a high contemner and breaker of the privileges of 
Parliament and so punished accordingly". From this we 
are justified in concluding that the diurnals had all along 
been licensed although there had been no order or ordinance 
for the purpose. 

In April the Humble Remonstrance of the Company of 
Stationers (written by Henry Parker) was presented. It 
recited, that the Star Chamber and the High Commission 
Court having been removed and sundry good temporary 
orders made until a new bill could be passed, the orders were 
not so successful as could be expected, and that as this was 



The K I N o W QjU T. E N E 
The Kwtijb wfiurefattd, 
Our "Forces *rtunittd t 
A p 







Mercurius Civicus* 



INTELLIGENCER- 

O R, 

Truth impartially related from thence 
to the whole Kingdome D to 

prevent misinformation. 

From ihurf day July 1 5. to Tktrfdaj,j9ify 2O 1643* 

Hereas it is the general! expedition anddeiireof mod 
people co be informed of the true ftate of the Army un- 
der the command of Ills Excellency the Parliaments 
Lord General!; It will not therefore beamifle In the 
firft place to impart fomethmg of the late intelligence 
from thence, which was informed by letters frrm 
Stony-flrttforA, tothisefk&, That on Saturday M, beingthci5of 

H 




THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 45 

to be imputed to the prosecutors, the Company itself asked 
for the right to prosecute, adding very pertinently: "Pro- 
priety of copies being now almost taken away and confounded; 
if one Stationer prefer any complaint against another, the 
complainant shall be sure to have his copy reprinted out of 
spite, and so the ruin of himself and family is made the 
reward of his zeal and forwardness". The address also 
asked for the restriction of the number of presses and appren- 
tices, and stated that the amount of printing done during 
the past four years was enormous. On this, the preparation 
of a formal ordinance to establish a body of licensers was 
taken in hand. 

Before this ordinance is described two more periodicals 
require notice. One is Certaine Informations, of which the 
first number appeared for 16th-23rd January (the first two 
numbers are only to be found in the Record Office), and 
which lasted until February of the following year. This 
was written by William Ingler, probably a scrivener, of 
whom nothing is known but his name, and that only because 
he is one of the two solitary writers who entered their names 
in the Stationers' Register (Pecke is the other writer). The 
other periodical, which was entitled Mercurius Rusticus, ap- 
peared on 20th May, and was a chronicle chiefly of the 
sacking of Wardour and other castles, and of the desecration 
of churches and cathedrals by the Puritan soldiers. This 
was written by Bruno Ryves, D.D., chaplain to the King, and 
rector of St. Martin's in the Vintry (he was to have a 
successor in this benefice whom we shall have occasion to 
describe later on). Dr. Ryves survived the Restoration, and 
then became Dean of Windsor. 

On 14th June, 1643, the ordinance establishing a board 
of licensers was passed. For the Star Chamber was sub- 
stituted the " Committee for Examinations " of the Par- 
liament, and in a second ordinance, dated 20th June, the 
names of a number of licensers were promulgated. Although 
in this list Henry Walley, clerk to the Company of Stationers, 

. 4 



46 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

was appointed to license small pamphlets, it was not on this 
authority that he acted as licenser of the newsbooks, but in 
virtue of a special appointment by the " Committee for Ex- 
aminations " (of which there is no record). He was a suitable 
person for the office, for he came of a publishing family of 
repute, and in years gone by had himself published Fletcher's 
" Faithful Shepherdess" and Jonson's " Maske of Queens ". 
With his advent, order was restored among the crowd of 
diurnals, and we shall not find Parliament interfering with 
them to any great extent until 1646. The House of Commons 
again imprisoned Francis Cowles and Thomas Bates for 
publishing a "relation" of Irish news (8th June) before 
matters were placed in his hands ; and these were the last 
newsbook victims for some time to come. 



CHAPTEK IV. 

14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646. 

ONE of the first results of placing the control of the news- 
books in the hands of one man, was the cessation of the 
appropriation of the titles by rival writers. The Perfect 
Diurnal was now definitely recognised as Pecke's property, 
and other titles were equally protected. The catchword, 
therefore, at once assumed its proper position, and each news- 
book henceforward stands out distinctly by itself. In no case 
does the printer or bookseller seem to have been held entitled 
to the ownership of the title of the periodical he printed or 
published, and a case will be mentioned in which such a claim 
was put forward and at once disallowed. The newsbooks, 
therefore, now become easier to describe. 

Before considering them in their chronological order, one 
new legislative enactment must be noticed. Oxford, where 
the solitary Eoyalist periodical Mercurius Aulicus was pub- 
lished, had been found too far away from London for those 
sympathisers with the Cavaliers who wished to have the Court 
news. Consequently means were found to have Aulicus 
secretly reprinted in London. 1 Owing to the increase in the 
number of printing presses, a solitary hidden press was now 
difficult to find and suppress ; therefore measures were taken 
to stop the sale of Aulicus. An enormous increase in the 
number of the " mercuries " that is the hawkers and ballad 
singers who sold pamphlets in the streets had taken place 
since the Kebellion began ; hence an Act of the City Common 

1 Thomason's note on a second Aulicus of even date for 14th October, 
1643, " New printed at London ". Milton's Areopagitica quoted below. 
It would be interesting to know who the printers were. 

47 4* 



48 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM 

Council was passed on 9th October, which revived and 
ordered the putting into force of the city statutes against 
unlicensed hawkers as rogues and vagabonds. Under these 
Acts, the provisions of which were incorporated in the subse- 
quent ordinances, women caught selling Boyalist pamphlets 
were taken to the House of Correction at Bridewell and 
whipped. The full effect of this Act Vill not be apparent 
until we consider the periodicals of 1648, as up to the middle 
of the year 1647 repression was as successful and as complete 
as could be hoped for, and there was no Royalist competition 
in London other than that of the secretly sold Aulicus. 

In the meantime the Oxford Aulicus had produced one 
good effect ; it had drawn attention to the necessity of secur- 
ing opponents of a higher social and intellectual stamp than 
the mean little band of scriveners. Yet the first periodical 
to be licensed under the new Act was actually written by a 
tailor, 1 one John Dillingham, who, as the writer first of the 
Parliament Scout (until it was suppressed) and then of the 
Moderate Intelligencer, occupies a considerable space in the 
journalism of the Rebellion. George Wither, in his Great 
Assizes holden in Parnassus by Apollo, sarcastically calls him 
the " learned Scout," but it is not possible to say much more 
of him than this and to describe the periodicals which he 
wrote and their vicissitudes. He is the John Dillingham of 
Whitefriars, who gave information against Archbishop Laud 
in 1643, and to whose house Dr. Brownrigg was committed 
in 1644. 2 The authorisation of his newsbooks was the re- 
ward for services of this kind. 

1 The Man in the Moon (No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649) caUs him 
"A Prick louse vermin Taylor". Hinc illce Lachrymce (1648) calls him 
" that botching * Moderate Intelligencer,' as nowadays he terms himselfe, 
being by his own feare and shame whipt out of his former title the 
* Parliament Scout ' ". The Second Character of Mercurius Politicus says 
of Ned ham, " He is a very Moderate Intelligencer, now grown such a 
Dillingham, such a taylour of News ". The references to his trade are 
numerous and continuous. The Man in the Moon also alludes to his 
living in Whitefriars. 

2 Cal. State Papers. 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1646 49 

Cleiveland writes of him at a later date as follows : " He 
is the Countryman's chronicler and he sings ' lo Paeans ' to his 
Muse as to the Rustic deities. He is the citizens' harbinger 
and saveth him the labour of walking on the 'change to hear 
the newes. He is the epitome of Wit, and is so contracted in 
so small circumference that you may draw him through a 
loophole or shoot him as a pellet out of an eldergun and 
though he tells lies by the gross, yet he would have the book- 
turners of this isle believe that he useth moderation. The 
Diurnall and he are confederates, and resolve to utter nothing 
but perfumed breath, and to make no narration but what 
shall be pleasing to the close committee. With them as coad- 
jutors join the two Empirique astronomers" (i.e., astrologers) 
" Lillie and Booker . . . those two disciples of ' Erra Pater,' 
that can make prediction of fair weather in harvest, and that 
the sunne will lose some part of his light when he is eclipsed, 
and have led the Commons of this kingdome as the beares are 
led by the nose with bagpipes before them in the morning, 
and in the afternoon are worried at the stake." 

It is probably to Dillingham that the idea of a new 
journalistic development of some importance is due that of 
a diurnal in French for the benefit of foreigners in England, 
and to be exported by them. French, as will hereafter be 
noticed, was a feature in Dillingham's periodicals, and, as 
the Man in the Moon in 1649 states that he was " coupled to 
another of the same breed called Codgrave that can read 
French and translate foreign news," it appears fairly certain 
that Codgrave (who may be identified with John Cotgrave, 
probably a son of Eandle Cotgrave, author of the French 
Dictionary) was the writer of Le Mercure Anglois. This was 
a little four-page periodical in French, which appeared every 
Thursday, on the same day as Dillingham's Scout and 
Moderate Intelligencer, and was at first printed by the printer 
of these two journals, White. 

Trial numbers of this periodical appeared on 7th June and 
13th June, 1644, and on 10th July, before the publication of 



50 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

the third number on llth July, the following bill was issued : 
" These are to signifie, that all merchants and others that 
are desirous weekely to impart beyond seas the certain con- 
dition of affairs here and of the proceedings of the war, they 
shall have it weekely published in print and in the French 
tongue. And every Thursday at nine of the clocke in the 
morning the Keader may have them (if he please) at Master 
Bourne's shop at the Old Exchange the title of the thing is 
Le Mercure Anglois, which a while since was begun and con- 
tinued for two or three weekes, and finding it much desired 
during these three weeks past, that the publishing of it 
(through some occasions) was discontinued, it shall for the 
future be continued according to the most certaine and im- 
partiall relations of affaires here to come out at the time and 
place aforesaid." 

This is the earliest known newsagent's bill, and must 
have been posted upon the walls and street posts in London. 1 
Le Mercure Anglois lasted until the end of the year 1648, and 
its history was quite uneventful. 

The licensers, at any rate those who followed Eush worth, 
could not read French. That Cotgrave was allowed to copy 
and condense the matter appearing in Dillingham's periodi- 
cals seems probable, and an inspection of the two sets bears 
out this theory. In return he supplied Dillingham with the 
translations of the foreign news, which throughout was the 
special feature of his periodicals. 

John Cotgrave published two books in 1655, The English 
Treasury of Wit and Language ; and Wits Interpreter, the English 
Parnassus, or a Sure Guide to those Admirable Accomplishments 
that Compleat our English Gentry, both collections from the 
writings of other authors, and compilations of more than 
ordinary importance. 

lf The expression the "name of the thing" has reference to the fact 
that Le Mercure Anglois was not a pamphlet or newsbook. It was half a 
sheet of four pages, and therefore a "newspaper". The writer of the 
bill did not know what to call it. A copy of the bill is in the Thomason 
Collection. 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEK, 1646 51 

Henry Walley, the licenser, appears to have written the 
periodicals called the True Informer, Heads of Chiefe Passages 
(in 1648), and the Kingdoms Weekly Account of Heads of Chiefe 
Passages fs Collected B. HVVC." (i.e., By Henry Walley 
Clerk). In November, 1647, and January, 1648, Pecke's 
Perfect Diurnall was marked "Collected by S. P. G." (i.e., 
Samuel Pecke, Gentleman) ; the Kingdoms Weekly Post 
" Collected by D. B. G. (i.e. Daniel Border, Gentleman) ; the 
Perfect Weekly Account " Collected by B. D."; and the King- 
domes Weekly Intelligencer " Collected by !R. C." 

Each licenser in succession wrote a periodical, and, 
though there is no direct statement to be found that Walley 
wrote the True Informer, it is to be inferred, as all the others 
can be accounted for, that he was responsible for this 
one. The True Informer appeared on Saturdays, until 22nd 
February, 1645, and he must have chosen the worst day of 
the week in order not to interfere with the profits of others. 
The licensers had no fixed salary, but of course it is not to be 
supposed that they did their work for nothing. Henry Walker 
tells us of the fees he paid to the licenser Mabbott, and that 
the latter made 100 a year from them (infra p. 117). As 
Koger 1'Estrange, in the year 1662, asked for a fee of one 
shilling per sheet on everything he licensed, 1 this probably 
was the customary fee paid to the licenser on each periodical. 

The Weekly Account was written by D. Border, another 
scrivener. Nothing is known of him except that at his 
marriage in 1640 he was described as Daniel Border, gent., 
of St. Giles in the Fields, widower, aged 28 (Chester's " London 
Marriage Licenses "), and that on a later periodical, the King- 
domes Faithfull Scout, he describes himself as D. Border, 
" cleric " (i.e., clerk or scrivener). After the first suppression 
of the licensed press, he appears to have practised as a 
physician and to have published a book entitled " 7ro\v(f)dppa- 
#09 teal XU/UO-TT;? ; or, The English Unparalleled Physitian" (1651). 
The reason for his knowledge of Greek will appear afterwards. 
X S, P. Dom,, Charles II,, 39, No. 94, 



52 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

Sheppard in the " Weepers " calls his newsbook an " Augean 
stable," and he certainly was the most inaccurate and ill- 
informed of all the journalists of his day. 

Part of the licenser's duties was to allot the days of the 
week to each journalist ; and it is evident that Border, who 
apparently was an Anabaptist and an opponent of the strict 
Presbyterians, did not find favour with a later licenser, for on 
29th March, 1647, a new periodical, entitled the Perfect 
Weekly Account, appeared on the same days (Wednesdays) as 
Border's Weekly Account a mean trick intended to drive him 
from the field. The Perfect Weekly Account, moreover, was 
actually printed by the same printer, Bernard Alsop. Border 
tried to combat his rival by also adopting the adjective 
" Perfect " from 5th May (sic 3), 1647, to 28th June, 1647, 
but during this time was not licensed. 

The Perfect Weekly Account was written by a writer who 
reversed Border's initials, " B. D.," of whom nothing is 
known. Border endeavoured to countermine his adversary 
by reversing his initials also to " B. D." (on No. 1 of the 
Kingdomes Weekly Post) ; but he was evidently ordered to 
desist, for in the succeeding numbers he initialled his periodi- 
cals "D. B. G." ! 

The changes in titles of periodicals are continuous, 
and require attention, and the names of the writers often can 
be traced through the printers. No wonder that Sheppard 
later on wrote : " These fellows come flurting in, and 
style themselves by new names, they flie up and down a 
week or two and then in a moment vanish. Seriously I 
could wish it were enacted that whosoever did betake himself 
to this lying trade should be bound at least seven years to it, 
and not start as these brazen faced fellows perpetually do. 
There was a merry gentleman who called himself the Dutch 
Spy'' (this is a periodical of 1652). " Twice or thrice I saw 

1 The Man in the Moon (No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649) says the 
Perfect Weekly Account was then written by B, D., without mentioning 
his name. 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 53 

him. that was a trim lad ! I believe that fellow by long 
study had gained the very Elixir of Nonsense. If his bulk 
and behaviour had been but as gross and fat as his pamphlet 
he might have passed for a Dutch spy I dare say over all the 
Netherlands." l 

In September, 1643, the first formal and open opponent 
of Mercurius Aulicus appeared in Mercurius Britanicus. A 
mistake having been made in the spelling of the Latin at the 
start, it is characteristic of Puritan obstinacy that the mistake 
was persisted in throughout the whole of the periodical's 
career ; and the dropped " n " serves to distinguish this news- 
book from the other periodicals entitled Mercurius Britannicus 
which appeared at later dates. The author was Captain 
Thomas Audley, who lived in Bloomsbury, " near the great 
cherry garden," and had been previously a "noted disperser 
of Scotch pamphlets". He was a scurrilous writer, with a 
genius for mean suggestion. Nevertheless he was considered 
witty, and an astonished Eoyalist opponent cries : " What ! 
Wit in a Puritan? As monstrous as the title of the play 
' Wit in a Constable ' ! " Audley, however, was not alone in 
his editorship, for the Spie writes : " There are four or five, 
or at least a Cinque or Quaternion of conspirators in wit 
which aim at the destruction of Aulicus, and so have set on 
wheels this grand engine called Britanicus . . . this Geffery, 
James Giles and Jack . . . this motley curre of Wood Street ". 

Dr. Daniel Featly, in his Sacra Nemesis (1st August, 
1644), says to Audley: "Thou hast a patent to lye, and 
whatsoever thou printest in thy weekly corrantos though 
never so grossly absurd and palpably false, after thou hast 
got M. White's (the printer's) hand to it no man can say 
1 Black is thine eye '". As an example of the shameful false- 
hoods with which he bespattered the Court and, to his 
lasting dishonour, even the Queen herself, a letter, which he 
avers was captured from the Eoyalists, may be quoted the 
blanks are his own and are left, he states, for oaths. 
1 Mercurius Mastix, No. 1, 20th-27th August, 1652. 



54 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

"Jack . . . We have not left . . . one Woman 
Lady Gentlewoman Way ting maid ... or other 
honest . . . We have some Irish . . . and Frenchwomen 
come to us ... We intend not to leave till we have . . . 
sinned with all nations as well as our owne. Thine Carnar- 
von." Eobert Dormer, Earl of Carnarvon, thus meanly 
traduced, was an honourable and gallant soldier who was 
actually killed on the day following the publication of this 
vile libel (at the first battle of Newbury, 20th September, 
1643). 1 

A contemporary attack on Audley runs : " This is that 
short swarthy chest-nut coloured captaine whose commission 
hath not run like other mens, his employments (wary gentle- 
man) have been less dangerous. Whilst others left a leg, an 
arm, a life abroad he kept the City, and preserved his limbs 
at home. He well knew how much safer it was to storm 
towns in a thin quarto than to be engaged in onsets and 
sieges. Unless it were the Captain who heretofore wrote 
weekly intelligence from Pope's Head Alley, who usually 
took townes in Cyder, and after his second draught in 
metheglin still struck in with the Swedes, and in less than 
two houres operation ordinarily over ran all the chief parts 
of Germany, I never knew any professed swordsman but 
this make gazets his trade of living. For methinks for 
Captain Audley being a soldier to call himself Mercury, is as 
if Serjeant Wild being a lawyer should call himself Mars, and 
for the one to vex the press with his weekly pasquil currant- 
oes, is as if the other should plead at the Bar in a long white 
feather and buff." 2 

The Scotish Dove was commenced in October, 1643. After 
a few numbers, an illustration of a dove with its olive branch 

1 Mercurius Britanicus was published with a license from the general 
of the army (Essex). Historical MSS. Commission, 6th Report, p. 74. 
Most of the newsbooks seem to have held similar licenses, or licenses 
from the Lords or Commons. 

2 Mercurius Anti- Britanicus ; or, The Second Part of the King's Cabinet 
Vindicated, 




*Be Wife as Serpents, fnnocent as Doves. 



THE 

SCOTISH DOVE, 

Sent out, and Returning; 

Bringing Intelligence from the Armies, and 
makes fome Relations of other obfervable Paffages 

of bothltingdoms, for Information and Inftruftion. 
As an Antidote againft thepoifoned inpntttttions <?f Mercurms 
Aulicus, and the errours of other intelligencers. 

From Friday the 22. of Deeemb.to the ap.of the fame. 

FO R as much as my Dove is fent outfor inftru&ion , and infor- 
mation of mens judgements,aswelias'to bring intelligence of 
News ; She at this time upon occafion , falling out this prefenc 
feafon, is to relate fomething to reftifie the judgements of the 
Ignorant,concerning the controverfie, and different opinions of the 
obferving the Feaft of Chriftmas : a difcourie fe^fonawe, andfucable 
to the time, L But 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1G46 55 

and the legend "holy inocency is blessed" invariably ap- 
peared as its frontispiece. Its " author's " name was George 
Smith, and he writes of himself : " At the beginning of the 
war, being driven from my Rurals and countrey for my cor- 
diall affections to the service of the Parliament ... I was 
forced to take Sanctuary in this great city, not being at that 
time in a capacity to serve the publick in arms as I intended 
. . . but impatient to live unprofitable I endeavoured to make 
up by my pen what was deficient in my sword, and to that 
end I first writ a treatise entitul'd ' the Protestant Informer,' 
then . . . ' Great Britain's Misery with the cause and cure ' 
and ' The Three Kingdomes Healing plaister or explanation 
of the solemn covenant '. But . . . our brethren of Scot- 
land being in preparation of an army to come to our assist- 
ance, I sent out my Dove for an intelligencer between England 
and Scotland as once Decemus Brutus did from Madenna 
when besieged by Antonius, to carry intelligence to the 
Consuls camp ". 

After this we are quite prepared to find Wither writing 
of the "innocent Scotch Dove" : 

In many words he little matter drest 
And did laconick brevity detest 
But while his readers did expect some newes 
They found a sermon . . . 

The Scotish Dove was a spiteful little periodical, and its spite- 
fulness, coupled with the writer's oily hypocrisy, eventually led 
to its suppression. Smith insulted the French so repeatedly, 
calling them God's enemies, that, in consequence of the 
French Ambassador's complaint to Parliament, he was or- 
dered to be attached by the House of Lords on 22nd Sep- 
tember, 1646. He did not improve matters in the Scotish 
Dove of 23rd September, by adopting a process of equivoca- 
tion indistinguishable from lying, and on 24th September 
his " book " was ordered to be burnt by the hangman and he 
himself to apologise to Monsieur Baleure, the French Am- 



56 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

bassador. George Smith did not appear again as a journalist, 1 
but he was probably the writer of New Christian Uses, the 
Compleate Intelligencer and Besolver and the Compleate Intelli- 
gencer and Resolver in Two Parts. 

George Wither, the Puritan poet, commenced a Mercurius 
Busticus on 26th October (Thomason's note), rather meanly 
taking Dr. Eyves' title. With rueful humour he makes the 
preliminary apology for possibly untruthful intelligence : "all 
Mercuries having the planet Mercurie predominant at their 
Nativities cannot but retaine a twang of lying". 

In the Spie, the first number of which appeared on 30th 
January, 1644, and was written, as Thomason's note on it 
states, by Durant Hotham, fifth son of Sir John Hotham, the 
Parliamentary Governor of Hull, we have a really witty 
periodical, far superior to Britanicus, and a worthier op- 
ponent of Aulicus. 

Durant Hotham was the translator of the writings of 
Jacob Boehme, the German mystic. His brother John was 
beheaded by order of the Parliament on 1st January, 1645, 
and his father on 2nd January, for negotiations partly on 
their own account and partly tending to bring about an 
accommodation between 'the King and Parliament. The 
Spie came to an end on 25th June, 1644, probably on account 
of these negotiations and family troubles. Durant Hotham 
started it with the avowed object of attacking Aulicus, and 
his appearance on the scene was very much resented by 
Audley and was the cause of the first controversy between 
two rival editors. 

On 19th February Audley wrote in a rage : " I know not 
where to begin. Whether at Oxford or London. For I 
ever expected a checke from Oxford but I never thought of 
a checke so near me but this is ordinary in a game of 

1 Lords Journals : The Scotish Dove sent out the last time (Decem- 
ber, 1646); The Scotish Dove, No. 132, 16th-23rd September, 1646, 
E. 355 (5), and the passage complained of in No. 150, 2nd-9th September, 
E. 353 (19), p. 31. 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 57 

chesse ... so long as the City hath a drop of inke I shall 
lay it out for their honour and the publicke service, and the 
destruction of Popery and Prelacy and Evill Councellors. 
... I must kicke away a little beagle that snarls and barks 
at the legs of Britanicus, for he hath not so good fangs as to 
bite, but to give him his due he is a Spie, and so calls him- 
selfe, and he rides so weekly between Oxford and London that 
he will come at length to the same preferment as his brother 
spies and namesakes have done before him, either to be ex- 
alted at the Old Exchange, or to be gibbetted over against 
St. Maries at Oxford. This Spie is naturally a malignant by 
constitution," etc. 

To which the Spie replied : 

" Britanicus was wrapped up the last weeke in abundance 
of sheets and unawares stiffed in the sale so that he was al- 
most quite condemned to Grocery and Tobacco shops, which 
made the printers neither pay him nor feast him so cordially 
asithey were wont. This puts him in a rage against our Spie 
and to vent his spleen in angry language with immeasurable 
bug-bear threatening impudence, which if any man will say 
is wit to my thinking he utters a greater jest than this squib 
cracker was guilty of. ... Oh the dull Ephesian is like to 
lose his Diana, hee is not like to have so much gain as for- 
merly and fears our Spie will have so much wit as to carry 
away the money. This is it makes him baule so loud in the 
street against the Spie and cry himself up in the market place : 
'I am Britanicus' 'Here is Britanicus'. . . . Sirrah leave 
thy snarling, or every page hereafter shall be a Britanico- 
mastix, and every line of conceits shall be a whip and a bell 
to lash and gingle thee out of thy (wits, I would have said but 
mean) impudence. Farewell." 

Britanicus returned to the charge with : 

" Aulicus is this week but in one single Tiffany or Cobweb- 
laune sheet. The truth is he and a young man in the towne 
have parted stakes and divide the taske, and the supreame 
affaire of communicating iniquitie to the kingdome. And 



58 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

Aulicus writes 'in one sheet and * Quoth I ' another. Now 
this designe would be lookt into for it is a communicating 
designe, an intelligencing designe, an Oxford designe, a 
designe begun at a chandlers shop neere Newgate (an ill 
Omen) by the help of Raisins and jug-beere and completed 
next door to the Devill of St. Dunstanes, a victualling house 
where the Spie resorts sometimes, and pampers his muse with 
two cucumbers and halfe a loine of mutton, and that makes 
the conceits a little greasier than usually wit should be at 
this time of the yeare." 

As a result of this tirade the licenser forced the Spie to 
come out in the following week a day later than usual, and 
then stifled the controversy ; no doubt pointing out to both 
that their business was to attack Aulicus and not one another. 

Intelligence from the Earl of Manchester's Army was written 
chiefly by Simeon Ashe, Lord Manchester's chaplain. Some 
account of this worthy will be found in Dr. John Barwick's 
Querela Cantabrigiensis (frequently bound up with Bruno 
Ryves' Mercurius Busticus). He does not seem to have acted 
an amiable part towards the University of Cambridge. 

About this time the affairs of the army began to assume 
increasing importance, and the clerk to the Company of 
Stationers was scarcely the person to know exactly what the 
military authorities of the Parliament would wish not to 
appear in the diurnals. Consequently Walley was superseded 
on llth April, 1644, and John Rushworth, who was born in 
1612, had been educated at Oxford, and was in every way 
qualified for his post, was appointed. The bulky volumes of 
his Historical Collections, which consist almost entirely of clip- 
pings from the newsbooks and diurnals written by himself and 
other authors, are a valuable source of history. Rushworth 
had been appointed clerk assistant to the House of Commons 
in 1640, had been sent many times as its messenger to York 
and elsewhere, and was completely in its confidence. Un- 
fortunately he soon obtained permission from the Committee 
of Examinations to perform his duties of perusing the printers' 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1646 59 

copy of each pamphlet of news by deputy. At the commence- 
ment of September Captain Thomas Audley was this deputy ; 
but later on he employed his clerk Gilbert Mabbott. 

John Rushworth was the writer of the London Post, l which 
appeared from 6th August, 1644, to 4th March, 1645, and 
again from 31st December, 1646, to February, 1647. 

On 9th September, 1644, Mercurius Britanicus tempor- 
arily ceased publication with its fiftieth number, and it is 
from this date and for this reason that Captain Audley's em- 
ployment as Rushworth's deputy must be dated. The ex- 
tinction of the periodical, however, was not to be allowed ; 
and a new author was found for it in the person of Marcha- 
mont Nedham, who recommenced it with No. 51 on the 30th 
of the same month (the Lords Journals say No. 52, but this 
is probably a mistake). 

Marchamont Nedham, " that impudent and incorrigible 
reviler" as Cleiveland calls him, "who while the world lasts 
shall never be mentioned by any, but to his shame and 
infamy," was a graduate of All Souls' College, Oxford, and 
had been an usher at Merchant Taylors' school. At some 
time he was apparently connected with the legal profession, 
for the pamphlet which describes Audley also describes Ned- 
ham as " a gentleman of Grayes Inne," adding, "perhaps he 
may be of that house ". (He did not become a member until 
1652.) " But sure his writings show him not to be a gentle- 
man. If he were, he would never side so much with the rout 
and scum of the people as to make them weekly sport by 
railing at all that's noble. He was heretofore an under clerke 
of that House. One who in times of peace, wrote a good 
legible Court hand, earned his ten groats a week to himself 
(besides what he got to his master) by eight faire lines to the 
sheet, and the trick of the large dash. Out of which moder- 
ate gains he was able to club his tester with his country 
friend. And then with his pen in his ear, return in decent 
equipage back to his little room furnished with no other 

1 The Man in the Moon, No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649. 
5 



60 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

household stuff, but only his industrious self, desk, writing 
tools, a bottle of checquer ink, and sometimes for hanging a 
voluminous chancery bill, which he made still more volumin- 
ous by the aforesaid swoop of his pen, to the great astonish- 
ment of his masters clients, who seeing sheets multiply so 
fast between the hands of the transcriber thought verily he 
wrought miracles, a single skin of parchment transformed to 
a ream of paper, which made him" (i.e., the client) " many 
times forgive his adversary the debt he owed him as the way 
to save charges." 

At the time when he was thus described, Nedham must 
have fallen in the social scale. He is the subject of a number 
of pamphlets, and neither side has a good word to say for 
him. His one motive and leading principle in life was to 
earn money, and for the sake of this he was ready to write 
for or against any one. He was the " great Goliah of the 
Philistines," says Eoger 1'Estrange, " whose pen was like 
a weaver's beam " in comparison with others, and the remark 
is repeated by Anthony a Wood, the writer of his life. He 
was a " man of low stature, full set, and black haired " states 
one writer; another adds that he was bald " because hair is no 
emblem of wit " ; and a third states that he had " trapstick " 
legs and a huge stomach ; and he lived at the house of one 
Kidder in Devereux Court, Temple (there are several refer- 
ences to this fact). His own description of his style, ad- 
dressed to the writer of Mercurius Academicus, the successor in 
1646 of Aulicus, is : " My ink immediately destroys all paper 
worms, and if need be I'll add aqua fortis and Bay salt to my 
gals and Coperas. And now let them proceed what they 
please," adding in a note at the side, "Nemo me impune 
lacessit". A writer of this kind would not fail to "sell 
best " of all the diurnals. 

Mercurius Aulicus abandoned its former dignity and now 
entered upon a long scolding wrangle with Mercurius Britani-_ 
cus, which only terminated with the extinction of the former 
periodical at the end of the year 1645, and which is very 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 61 

tiresome to read or to attempt to follow. According to 
modern standards the wit in both periodicals is very sadly to 
seek. 

At the end of November, 1644, John Milton made his 
well-known attack on the licensing system. During the pre- 
vious year he had written a treatise on Divorce, which had 
involved him in some controversy. It is a question whether 
this pamphlet was in print so late after the ordinances 
of June, 1643, as to require licensing, but, be this as it 
may, Milton's subsequent pamphlets were duly perused and 
licensed. These were the tract Of Education (5th June, 1644) 
and the Judgment of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce (6th 
August, 1644). Milton evidently found some difficulty in 
getting permission to write everything he wished in this latter 
treatise, 1 and must have had to carry his copy backwards 
and forwards from the licenser to the printer in the manner 
described in the Areopagitica. A Speech for the Liberty of Un- 
licensed Printing to the Parliament of England, published, natur- 
ally without a license, on 24th November. 

As this work appeared nearly eighteen months after the 
licensing system had been in complete and regular operation, 
it was clearly provoked by Milton's own personal inconveni- 
ences with the licenser and nothing else ; for it contains no 
advocacy of any real liberty of the press and no plea for tolera- 
tion. Milton contemplated no printing of Eoyalist publica- 
tions ; " Do we not see," be writes (referring to Aulicus, and 
his being reprinted in London), "not once nor oftner but 
weekly that continued court libel against the parliament and 
city, printed as the wet sheets can witness and disperst 
among us for all that licensing can do?" He advocated 

1 Bucer, Luther, Melancthon and the rest went so far as to sanction 
and countenance the public introduction of polygamy. Milton may, 
therefore, very easily have got into trouble with any licenser over quota- 
tions from Bucer. See Johannes Janssen's History of the German People 
at the Close of the Middle Ages (translated by A. M. Christie, 1903), 
vol. vi., chap, xii., where Bucer's views and the whole story of Philip of 
Hesse's bigamous marriage are set out in elaborate detail. 

5 * 



62 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

punishment after publication, and thought that the orders 
and ordinances existing previously to that of June, 1643, were 
sufficient to ensure the capture of the writers. For mis- 
chievous books he considered " the fire and the executioner 
will be the timeliest and the most effectual remedy ". 

Milton's prose works are insufferably tedious to read, and 
it is small wonder that the Areopagitica should be the only 
one known and read nowadays. Assuredly in advance of its 
times, it can be said with equal certainty that it was in 
advance of Milton himself. He was contending for a spuri- 
ous toleration, because he saw very plainly that religious views 
were altering so much from day to day that scope must be 
allowed for the moving on of dogma and discipline from 
Presbyterianism to Independency and perhaps even farther 
still ; but he did not seem to think the toleration of Catholi- 
cism and Episcopalianism those old standards that had been 
left behind possible, and here he was behind the standard 
raised in his own book. 

On 19th January, 1649, the Levellers petitioned for the 
liberty of unlicensed printing, 1 and the statements they make 
clear up in a very remarkable manner the real underlying 
motive of the Areopagitica. They say : " A short time after the 
beginning of this Parliament, at the solicitation of the Com- 
pany of Stationers, the press was committed to the custody of 
licencers, when though scandalous books from or in behalf of 
the Enemy then at Oxford was the pretended occasion, yet 
the first that suffered was Mr. Laurence Sanders for printing 
without license a book intitled Gods Love to Mankind, and not 
long after Mr. John Lilburn, Mr. William Larner, and Mr. 
Eichard Overton and others about books discovering the then 
approaching tyrannic" (i.e., of the Presbyterians). ''And if 
you and your army shall be pleased to look back a little upon 

1 The "Petition of firm and constant friends to the Parliament and 
Commonwealth Presenters and promoters of the late large petition of- 
Sept. 11, 1648 " (19th January, 1648-49, 669, f. 13, (75)). The petition 
of llth September was of Lilburne's draftsmanship. 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 63 

affairs you will find you have bin very much strengthened all 
along by unlicensed printing. 

" And generally, as to the whole course of printing, as 
justly in our apprehensions may licensers be pat over all 
publicke or private teaching and discourses in Divine, Moral, 
Natural, Civil, or Political things, as over the press, the 
liberty whereof appears so essential unto Freedom, as that 
without it, it's impossible to preserve any nation from being 
liable to the worst of bondage. For what may not be done 
to that people who may not speak or write, but at the 
pleasure of Licensers?" The punishment of whipping in- 
flicted on the " Mercuries" was, they said, "fit only for 
slaves or bondmen ' ' . 

The second part of the conclusion of this petition ran : 
" That you will precisely hold yourself to the supream end 
the freedom of the people as in other things so as in that 
necessary and essential part of speaking, writing, printing 
and publishing their minds freely without setting of masters, 
tutors and Controulers over them and for that end to revoke 
all orders and ordinances to the contrary ". 

This petition was occasioned by Fairfax's warrant against 
the press of 9th January, 1649. Like the Areopagitica it was 
utterly disregarded, but unlike the Areopagitica it was immedi- 
ately followed by the most disgracefully repressive statutes 
ever known. One of the main objects of the self-created and 
self-styled " Commonwealth," during the first year of its exist- 
ence (1649), was to suppress the Levellers the very men 
that presented this petition. 

In January, 1645, John Cleiveland also descended into 
the arena, with an attack on the journalism of the day 
entitled The Character of a London Diurnal. "A Diurnal 
is a puny chronicle," he writes, "scarce pin feathered with 
the wings of Time. It is an History in sippets, the English 
Iliads in a nutshell, the Apocryphal Parliaments book of 
Maccabees in single sheets. It would tire a Welch pedigree 
to reckon how many ' ap's ' tis removed from an annual. 



64 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

For it is of that extract, only of the younger house like a, 
shrimp to a lobster. The original sinner in this kind was 
Dutch " (i.e., German) " Galliobelgicus the Protoplast and the 
moderne mercuries but Hans-en-Kelders " (unborn children). 
"In the frontispiece of the old beldam Diurnall like the 
contents of the chapter sits the House of Commons, judging 
the twelve tribes of Israel " (this is a reference to the wood- 
cut of the House on the older Perfect Diurnall). " It begins 
usually with an ordinance, which is a law, still born, dropt 
before quickened by the Royall assent. 

" The next ingredient of a diurnal is plots horrible plots 
. . . since the stages were voted down the only playhouse is 
at Westminster. 

" Suitable to their plots are their informers. Skippers and 
Taylours, Spaniels both for the land and the water. Good 
conscionable intelligence. . . . Thus a zealous botcher in 
Moorfields while he was contriving some querpo cut of 
church government by the help of his outlying ears, and the 
otacousticon of the Spirit discovered such a plot that Selden 
intends to combat antiquity and maintain it was a taylours 
goose that preserved the Capitol. 

" In the third place march their adventures, the Bound- 
heads legend, the Eebels romance. Stories of a larger size 
than the ears of their sect, able to strangle the belief of a 
Solifidian l . . . they kill a man over and over as Hopkins and 
Sternhold murder the Psalmes with another of the same. 
One chimes ' all in ' and then the other strikes up as the 
Saints-bell. . . . But the Diurnal is weary of the arm of 
flesh and now begins an Hosanna to Cromwell one that 
hath beat up his drums clean through the Old Testament. 
You may learn the' Genealogy of Our Saviour by the names 
in his Kegiment. The muster-master uses no other list but 
the first chapter of Matthew. With what face can they 
object to the King bringing in of foreigners, when themselves 

J One who maintains that faith alone without works is all that is 
necessary to salvation. 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEK, 1646 65 

entertain such an army of Hebrews? This Cromwell is 
never so valourous as when he is making speeches for the 
association, which nevertheless he doth somewhat ominously, 
with his neck awry, holding up his ear as if he expected 
Mahomets pigeon to come and prompt him. He should be 
a bird of prey too by his bloody beak. His nose is able to 
try a young Eagle whether she be lawfully begotten. 
But all is not gold that glisters. What we wonder at in the 
rest of them is natural to him, to kill without bloodshed, for 
the most of his trophies are in a church window, when a 
looking glass would show him more superstition. He is so 
perfect a hater of images that he hath defaced God in his 
own countenance." 

Cleiveland was ever a bitter enemy of Cromwell, and we 
shall encounter him, like Milton, later on as a journalist. 

On 30th January, 1645, Dillingham gave umbrage to the 
Lords in his Parliament Scout : " This day " (23rd January), 
he wrote, "the House of Commons debated the business 
of Church government whether it was ' jure divino ' (i.e., 
the Presbyterian method of Classes and so on) which was 
answered in the 'negative,' whether subject to the 'civil 
power ' which was answered in the ' affirmative,' and com- 
mented on this: 'Indeed it were sad if discipline should 
once be strecht ' to ' jure divino,' its true we had dayes in 
which sometimes this then that was ' jure divino ' but now 
we are growne wiser and set upon a form of Church govern- 
ment that is alterable''. 

From this it will be seen that Dillingham was anything 
but a staunch Presbyterian. It is amazing in these days to 
have to add, that for so trivial a matter he was immediately 
arrested by order of the Lords and the Parliament Scout was 
suppressed. On 22nd February he petitioned the Lords for 
his discharge ; and apparently obtained it, for on 6th March, 
1645, he commenced a fresh periodical in the place of the 
Scout, which he entitled the Moderate Intelligencer. 

Captain Audley's career as licenser now came to an end. 



66 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

In Mercurius Britanicus, No. 92, for 28th July to 4th August, 
Marchamont Nedham wrote as follows : 

"Where's King Charles? What's become of him? it 
were best to send Hue and cry after him. 

" If any man can bring any tale or tiding of a wilful King, 
which hath gone astray these four yeares from his Parliament, 
with a guilty conscience, bloody hands, a heart full of broken 
vowes and protestations. If these marks be not sufficient 
there is another in the mouth " (Bos in lingua note at the 
side), " for bid him speak and you will soon know him. Then 
give notice to Britanicus and you shall be well paid for your 
paines. So God save the Parliament." 

Bos in lingua was a reference to a slight impediment in his 
speech from which King Charles suffered. Never had such 
an insult been offered to a King of England before ; and had 
the Parliament ignored it they would have had an outraged 
people to reckon with. The day after this appeared, White, 
the printer of Britanicus, was brought to the bar of the House 
of Lords, where he stated that he " had directions from Captain 
Audley who he conceived had authority from Mr. Bush worth ". 
He was sent to the Fleet, and Captain Audley was ordered 
to be attached and was afterwards sent to the Gatehouse 
Prison. Marchamont Nedham, however, escaped scot-free, 
the licenser being held guilty. On 15th August, ten days 
later, Audley was liberated and forbidden to license " books " 
again. 

From this date Gilbert Mabbott acted as licenser. He 
was the son of a Nottingham cobbler who, from working with 
his awl and last in his father's shop, had come up to London, 
and had found employment as John Rushworth's clerk, when 
he learnt how to write a diurnal from acting as Eushworth's 
"sub-author" on the London Post. 1 He possessed no other 

x The Man in the Moon, No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649 ; ibid., 21st- 
30th May, 1649 ; Mercurius Elencticus, No. 44, 10bh-17th September, 1648. 
On 14th July, 1646, the House of Commons voted him 20 for " engros- 
sing the propositions" (i.e., to the Scots Commissioners' "and for divers 
other services to the house ". 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEK, 1646 67 

qualifications for the office, and the appointment was a 
distinct triumph for the Independent faction to which he 
belonged. He was Fairfax's agent for the army, and this 
was his qualification. Later on he became conspicuous as a 
Leveller, who headed all the personal attacks on the King 
whose death he desired. 

Mercurius Academicus succeeded Mercurius Aulicus on 21st 
December, 1645 ; and apparently it also was printed at Oxford 
(Aulicus having come to an end on the preceding 7th Septem- 
ber). This, from statements in Diutinus, seems to have been 
written by a clergyman named Little, possibly Eichard Little, 
son of the Mayor of Abingdon, a graduate of Pembroke 
College. 

On 9th March, 1646, Eushworth's appointment as licenser 
was revoked, and he was formally replaced by Mabbott hither- 
to only his deputy. On 5th May, 1646, King Charles delivered 
himself up to the Scots, and, had only the Presbyterians and the 
Independents then agreed, a good deal of later history would 
have to be written very differently. They did not agree, how- 
ever, and the struggle between the two parties cost the King 
his life and the people of England their liberties. 

Nedham in Mercurius Britanicus now proceeded to revile 
the King more than before, the climax being reached in the 
number for llth-18th May, 1646, when he wrote: "Will 
the Scots send the King to his Parliament or not? Ye shall 
know more when 'tis determined in the Upper House what 
to do, how he shall be demanded and how received," adding : 
" Be resolved ye Commons of the kingdom, you have paid 
dear for your liberties, and whosoever he was that endeavoured 
to rob you of them is ipso facto a tyrant . . . the Scots have 
smarted so much heretofore by the power of that brood of 
Vipers" (the kings) "that they have little reason to make 
their camp their court." Besides attacking the King, the 
whole number attempted more or less to make mischief be- 
tween the two Houses. An end, therefore, was put to Britani- 
cus. 



68 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

On the 21st of May, 1646, the House of Lords ordered the 
attachment of Nedham and Captain Audley, and two days 
later Nedham was brought to the bar. He then confessed to 
the making of this number and of all from No. 52, a period of 
eighty weeks, and stated that Britanicus was perused and 
licensed by Audley as Eush worth's deputy which was un- 
true. He was then committed to the Fleet, and White, his 
printer, together with Audley, was ordered to appear. 

Nedham wrote from prison to Lord Denbigh on the 28th of 
May, begging him to have his petition for a release presented 
and read to the Lords that day, and protesting his loyalty to 
the House in spite of the errors of his pen. Lord Denbigh 
seems to have interceded successfully, for on June 4th Ned- 
ham was liberated on bail, himself in 200, his securities 
being John Partridge, the stationer, and William Lipthorpe, 
in 100 each, on condition that he should not write any more 
pamphlets without leave. 

Mercurius Britanicus thus came permanently to an end. On 
the 13th of June Audley, who was not even in London, ap- 
peared, denied that he had licensed Britanicus, and was released. 

Whether he admitted it or not, it can thus be fairly con- 
cluded that Gilbert Mabbott was the instigator of these 
attacks on the King. He must have had powerful friends, 
for he does not appear either to have been punished or called 
in question. 

On the 15th of October Samuel Pecke, with Blaicklocke, 
one of his printers, was called before the House of Commons 
and examined as to the printing of the papers of the Scots 
Commissioners, and on the 3rd of November Henry Walker, 
a printer, with one Westrop and Mabbott, the licenser him- 
self, was called before the Lords for publishing some of the 
Scots Commissioners' original letters; the Commissioners 
having complained of their publication. 

The author of Civicus and the Kingdomes Weekly Intelli-_ 
gencer now also turned round, and, staunch Presbyterian 
he was, revealed himself as the champion of his King. 



14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1646 69 

Civicus, No. 180, 29th October to 5th November, 1646, he 
writes : " I have now given you the heads of the papers lately 
delivered by the commissioners of the Kingdom of Scotland, 
what is omitted (for all the paper is full of brain) is conceived 
to be too strong in sinews for public apprehension and Inde- 
pendent digestion. I have travailed with my pen to satisfy 
the kingdom and let no man throw more dirt upon me, which 
will be inhumanly done, for I have found the way (by so 
many years travailes) to be deep and troublesome enough, 
neither do I hope my old Host will be angry (although I 
hear he intends to stop my passage) if hereafter I shall 
lodge at the Heart, or the sign of the King's Head. But 
signes are signes and Hearts are Hearts." 

From this it will be seen that this brave old fellow, who 
apparently was an old lodger of Mabbott's, thinking his King 
was likely to be wronged in the negotiations then on foot, 
had boldly determined, regardless of the consequences, and 
in despite of licenser, Parliament, and all, to speak his mind. 
He had to suffer for his loyalty, for Mercurius Civicus was 
suppressed, in spite of his apology in the Kingdomes Weekly 
Intelligencer on 10th November and in Civicus on 12th 
November. He stuck to his guns, however, and qualified his 
apology by stating that the laws of the kingdom obliged him 
to allegiance, and adding that he prayed for the King, " and 
I believe few more oftener, with a more humble knee or a 
more constant heart". And this was a soldier who fought 
against the King when it was a question of religion ! Mer- 
curius Civicus appeared for the last time on 10th December, 
and its writer was deprived of half his income. The reason 
of the regret which so avowed and doughty a Eoyalist as 
Samuel Sheppard expressed later on for his poverty is apparent. 

On 16th December, 1646, Captain Audley again appeared 
as a journalist, with Mercurius Diutimis 1 carefully adding to 

1 Mercurius Diutinus, No. 9, 20fch-27th January, 1646: "I have 
always told you (both in Britanicus and in my Diutinus) that the Parlia- 
ment is the most noble and Royal seat for the King ". Nedham was for- 
bidden to publish anything at the time. 



70 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

the title " (not Britanicus) ". This periodical lasted until the 
following 10th February and does not call for any special 
remark. On 31st December, 1646, John Kushworth also 
revived his London Post for two months. 



CONDON POST 




Communicating the High Counfels of both Pailia* 
ments in England and Scotland, and all other 

Remarkable paflages, both Civill and Mart&llin 

his Weekly Travclls through the tbreeKirigdoms . 

tprinted and entred according to order 
From Tbt*rfda}jAtiHAvjihei& t*T&**fby February 4. 

THE great bufineffc is now concluded* and what Forraigne King- 
domes have fo long a trended, and aJmoftftood on tiptoe to be- 
hold, this wcckc bath brought to pclfc, wych is the King 

D 



CHAPTER V. 

1647. 

THE year 1647 ushered in one who was henceforth to share 
Samuel Pecke's position of principal journalist to the Parlia- 
ment. 

Henry Walker was born at Derby and had commenced life 
as apprentice to a London ironmonger called Holland, in 
Newgate Market ; he then set up in business for himself, 
failed, and on 28th October, 1639, went for a brief period to 
Queens' College, Cambridge. 1 Thence, without taking any 
degree, he proceeded to Bishop Williams of Lincoln, after- 
wards Archbishop of York, armed with a certificate of fitness 
from the college and another from Archbishop Laud's chap- 
lain, and was ordained deacon. Subsequently he fell under 
ecclesiastical censure and apparently was suspended. 

After his short ecclesiastical experience Walker set up in 
business as a bookseller and writer of puritanical and se- 
ditious pamphlets, circulating, it was said by John Taylor, 
as many as four or five hundred thousand copies. On 12th 
March, 1641, the House of Lords committed him to the Fleet 
for writing two libels, entitled The Prelates Pride and 
Verses on the Wren and the Finch. Five days later he 
was released on his own petition, as being " a poor man and 
very sorry ". On 20th December, 1641, the House of Com- 
mons also sent for him, as a delinquent, for the making of 
a book entitled A Terrible Outcry against the Loytering Exalted 
Prelats. 

1 Information kindly furnished by W. M. Coates, Esq., Bursar of Queens' 
College. Walker's university career must have been of the briefest pos- 
sible description. 

71 



72 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

He employed a "ragged regiment of tatterdemalions, Mer- 
curies, and hawkers " to vend his pamphlets about the streets, 
and his successive experiences as ironmonger, preacher, book- 
seller and printer gave him a curious business capacity, 
which actually made him the most successful journalist of 
his day. The introduction of advertisements into newsbooks 
was an innovation of which he was the originator, and, 
though he was not the first in the field, he first realised the 
practical advantages of establishing advertising offices. He 
has thus left an enduring mark upon an important side of 
English journalism. 

For his early history we are indebted to the controversy 
which he had with John Taylor one of the Eoyal Watermen, 
and "Water-Poet" as he loved to call himself, a devoted 
loyalist and Churchman. Walker had decidedly the worst 
of the encounter, for Taylor's one weapon was ridicule the 
deadliest and most effective that could be used against the 
Puritans. A pamphlet published by Taylor in 1641 1 led to 
An Answer by Walker, scurrilous in language, and foul in 
the charges he made against his opponent, coupled with an 
exhortation to repent in the most approved canting manner. 
Taylor answered him with A Eeply as True as Steele. To a 
Rusty, Rayling, Ridiculous, Lying Libell, which was Lately 
Written by an Impudent, Unsoderd Ironmonger. In this he 
pointed out that the verse in Walker's Answer was stolen 
from Fenner, "the dead riming poet," and told a story of 
Walker having pawned his Bible for a quart of metheglin at 
the ' Owl ' in Kings Street. The frontispiece to this pamphlet 
contained a disgusting woodcut, and for the anagram "V. B. 
Heavenly K R," attached to Walker's Answer -, Taylor sug- 
gested a new one " Knav, ' Keviler ' Hel ". Walker replied 
with Taylor s PhysicJce has Purged the Divel (the rest of the 
title is unquotable), illustrating the frontispiece of his pamphlet 
with an infinitely worse woodcut than Taylor's, and after 
several pages of scurrility he accused Taylor of being a thief 
*A Swarm of Sectaries and Schismatiques, etc. 



TO YOUR TENTS, ISRAEL 73 

and predicted a sudden death for him. He also boasted of 
his "pedegree" and the coat of arms which he said he pos- 
sessed, asserting that Taylor's was " farre inferior". Taylor 
replied to this in verse, without descending to Walker's level, 
in The Irish Footman s Poetry the Author George Richard- 
son an Hibernian Pedestrian. In this he lampooned Walker 
unmercifully, ridiculing his claim to be of the ancient family of 
Walker of Bredsall, and averring that he was the son of 
Eichard Walker nicknamed "Cherry Lickam," who used to 
travel about the country with a trained ape. 

On 5th January, 1642, the day after he had unsuccessfully 
attempted to arrest the five members in the House of 
Commons, King Charles I. visited the city, and dined with 
the sheriff Sir George Garrett. As the King drove home in 
his coach with the Earl of Essex through St. Paul's Church- 
yard, the crowd raised cries of "Privilege of Parliament," 
and there was a considerable amount of noise which 
"troubled" the King. Walker, probably fancying that he 
would be undiscovered, seized the opportunity to throw one 
of his pamphlets into the coach, and into the King's face. 
When the King arrived at Whitehall the pamphlet, which 
bore the title To your Tents, Israel, was read and found 
to be an open solicitation to rebellion. The Lord Chief 
Justice was sent for the next day, and a warrant issued for 
the arrest of Walker and the printer. 

The uncomplimentary references to Walker's personal ap- 
pearance are so numerous that, as will be easily understood, 
there could be little difficulty in identifying him. He had a 
round yellow face, and red hair, which, coupled with the 
treacherous part he played against the King later on, pro- 
cured him the nickname of "Judas". 1 When captured, he 
asserted that he did not throw the pamphlet into the King's 

l Mercurius Britanicus, His Welcome to Hell. See also the writer's 
article in the Nineteenth Century and After, March, 1908, on "Henry 
Walker, Journalist of the Commonwealth," for an account of Walker and 
his anagrams. 

6 



74 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

coach and denied that he had written it, adding that he had 
bought it from a schoolboy in Westminster Hall for 2s. 6d. 
This statement he signed. The printer was then captured 
and examined, and confessed that the whole of the night 
previous to the King's journey into the city had been spent 
by Walker and himself in writing and printing the pamphlet, 
and that his wife's Bible had been borrowed in order to find 
the text for its headline. Both were then committed to the 
King's Bench Prison in Southwark. 

While being removed across the Thames for trial at the 
sessions at Newgate a week later, they were rescued by a 
mob at Blackfriars. Taken twice afterwards, Walker again 
twice escaped. Once he preached in the Church of St. Mary 
Magdalen, Bermondsey, causing a riot as the result. At last 
Sir John Conyers, Lieutenant of the Tower, captured him in 
a boat on the Thames, and he was tried at the Old Bailey on 
12th July, 1642. If there was one thing that the Parliament 
was anxious to prove in the eyes of the world at this time it 
was, that it was not about to rebel against the King personally 
but against his advisers. Consequently it is fairly certain 
that Walker's incitement to take up arms, coupled with the 
personal insult to the sovereign, would have led to the inflic- 
tion upon him of the cruel punishment then in vogue for high 
treason hanging, drawing and quartering. The King, how- 
ever, wrote to the Parliament that Walker was not to suffer 
in life or limb, and consequently he was only tried for misde- 
meanour. He was convicted of writing, publishing, and re- 
ceiving money for the sale of his libel ; he then begged the 
King's pardon, retracted what he had written "with tears," 
and for punishment was condemned to stand in the pillory 
in Cheapside. 

Taylor seized the opportunity to publish a biography of 

Walker, 1 and followed this up by a burlesque sermon entitled : 

A seasonable lecture . . . as it might be delivered in Hatcham^ 

Barne . . . by Henry Walker. Taken in short writing by " Tliorny 

1 The Whole Life and Progress of Henry Walker the Ironmonger. 



HENEY WALKEK ALIAS "LUKE HAKKUNEY" 75 

Atio" (Taylor's anagram). Walker was never to hear the 
last of this sermon of his on "Tobies dogges tayle " as it 
was called, and he never again entered into controversy 
with a Eoyalist. On 23rd January, 1643, he published his 
Modest Vindication, but in a very different style from that of 
his pamphlet entitled Taylor's Physick. In this he made no 
further attack on Taylor, and called down the blessings of 
heaven on the King for his " gracious favour," which, he said, 
"soared my affection so high to love and honour him that 
could I lay down my life to do him service, I should think 
my death a blessed sacrifice ". He again denied that he had 
thrown the pamphlet into the King's coach, and that he was 
either a Brownist or Anabaptist. In comparison with his 
earlier pamphlets, the affectation of learning in this document, 
with its Scriptural and classical quotations and wealth of 
pious platitudes, is as curious as pretentious. 

Walker does not seem to have had much to do with jour- 
nalism until 1647, when he appeared as the author of Perfect 
Occurrences of Every Daies Journal, which, he states, had up 
to that time been written by another hand. His vanity 
forbade his publishing anonymously, yet he was afraid of 
signing his weekly pamphlet with his own name. Conse- 
quently he invented a false one by anagramatizing Henry 
Walker into " Luke Harruney " probably the most success- 
ful anagram on record, for it has led to " Luke Harruney " 
being considered and catalogued as a separate person. Per- 
fect Occurrences was one of the organs of the army, and conse- 
quently of Independency, and the growth in power of the 
latter faction can be traced by the increase in importance of 
Walker's newsbook. By the end of 1647 it had not only 
become important enough to be printed on the larger " tiffany" 
or " cobweblaune " sheets, like the Perfect Diurnall, but it had 
also doubled its size consisting of two sheets, i.e., sixteen 
pages. 

Gilbert Mabbott was temporarily removed from his post 
of licenser some weeks before the month of September, 1647, 



76 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

probably by the Presbyterians. Who then took his place is 
not clear, for about this time Walker petitioned the House of 
Lords that some one should read his Occurrences before he 
printed them. On 27th September Walker had so far in- 
gratiated himself with the Parliament, that he and Mathew 
Simmons, " having been at great charges in printing all the 
papers of the army in one volume," "were ordered by the 
House of Lords "to have the sole printing of them for one 
year " from the date thereof. He was thus brought into the 
public view, and a Fresh Whip for all Scandalous Lyers de- 
scribes him as " He whose face is made of brasse, his body of 
iron and his teeth are as long as tenpenny nayles," and adds : 
" I think he is a youth not unknown to most in the City 
since the great preferment he had to stand in the pillory. 
He is a great merchant in this way of writing and very excel- 
lent for the framing a title for an old, or new lye. This is he 
that when our men lay of one side of Shotover Hill against 
Oxford, he got the favour to discharge a peece of Ordnance 
against the City. When he had done, for London he came, 
with a greater report and execution than ever the piece did, 
that he had shot down one of the chiefest colleges in the 
University and that he could perceive the very battlements to 
fall. And after this great victory of his, because he would be 
taken notice of, he causes his printer to set down the very 
place where he lives, as for example London printed for 
Thomas" (sic) "Walker living at a great brick house and 
balcony as you turne up to St. James's, when-indeed the three 
cornered house without a roofe turning up to Padington were 
more fitter" (i.e., Tyburn gallows), "I must confesse he 
doth take a great deale more pains than the other " (Pecke), 
" in compacting his relations together, and it doth chiefly lye 
in running up and down. He may well be called the Bell- 
man of the City, for he is up all houres in the night, running 
too and agen from the Post house. And when he is questioned 
with * Who goes there ? ' ' My name is Walker, I am 
about the States service, pray do not stop me' when he 



"THE FOUKE DESTEOYING WOEMS" 77 

hath been at a printing house laying his sower leven of ray- 
lings and scandalisings against honest and reverend men, or 
else compacting his damnable lyes together I wonder he 
never met with the Divell, but indeed he was ever a favourer 
of lyes, and I believe hath granted him a large Patten" 
(patent) "for his profession. I do think that his and 
many other scurrilous pamphlets, have done more mischief 
in the kingdome, than ever all my Lord of Essex's or Sir 
Thomas Fairefaxes whole traine of artillery ever did." The 
private house referred to was the Fountain, Kings Street, 
Westminster, in which street Cromwell lived ; and a close 
connection with Henry Walker, through Cromwell's favourite 
chaplain Hugh Peters, 1 may thus be inferred. I 

One subdivision of the Independent party was that of 
the Levellers, led chiefly by John Lilburne. They may be 
roughly denned as a political party of pure Eepublicans, and 
their opinions, tending to place all power in the hands of the 
people and to reduce that of Parliament to a minimum, had 
caused disputes and mutinies since 1645. Lilburne's amaz- 
ing contentiousness and voluminous pamphlets, coupled with 
his skill in legal resources and quibbles, render the Levellers' 
controversy too complicated to be more than noticed here. 

A Koyalist writer of the year 1650 sums up the great 
parties in a very striking simile : 

''They act their part like the armie of God's vengeance 
and devoure like the foure destroying worms, the Palmer 
worm, the Locust, the Cankerworm and the Caterpillar, these 
may be alluded to in what is foul in our Westminster furies 
and State harpies. First the Palmer worm is that united 
Eebellion of the two Houses of Parliament against our King 
which did eat up part of our fruits. Secondly the covenant- 
ing brethren of Presbytery as the Locust which swarmed 
and scaling the walls of loyalty eate up what the Palmer 
worm left. Thirdly the Cankerworm, the levelling blas- 

1 Hugh Peters' letter reporting the taking of Drogheda in 1649 was to 
Walker (Mercurius Pragmaticus, 25th September to 2nd October, 1649). 



78 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

phemous atheist, poysoned peoples hearts and eate up those 
small fruits of loyalty which the Locust had left. Fourthly 
and lastly, the Caterpillar, the Independent Kegicide, the 
most devouring of all others, hath eaten up our fruits, des- 
troyed our vines, killed the Lord of our Vineyard, scattered 
his workmen and servants, taken all his possessions into 
their hands, and have made themselves lords and rulers over 
his inheritance." 1 

The King a prisoner handed over to Parliament by 
the Scots and the triangular conflict proceeding between 
the Presbyterian, the Independent and the Leveller, the 
Independent army became the arbiter of the nation's fate. 
The people, citizen and Presbyterian alike, by this time were 
longing for their King, and for the disbanding of the army. 
" Their summum bonum is their profit and the goddess they 
adore is ' dea moneta,' " remarks a Koyalist writer of the 
army. ". . . How many poor hirelings who before these 
warres fed on scraps and would have run a dozen miles for 
an old jerkin, now doe ruffle it in silks and satins, now bravely 
mounted and attended, fare deliciously, scorn their old 
benefactors, insult and domineer over all. To set forth what 
learned men are compelled to crouch and creep to a company 
of thick skulled peasants. How many learned and grave 
bishops and other Orthodox divines (the honour of our 
nation and the glory of our Church) have been degraded, 
ejected, persecuted, despised, reproached, imprisoned, banished, 
destroyed ; and fools, brainless and scandalous livers pre- 
ferred, encouraged, rewarded, and worshipped as so many 
gods. That the kingdom is become a very chaos, a confusion 
of manners, and ' domicilium infamorum ' the theatre of 
hypocrisy a nursery of villainy, the scene of babbling, the 
school of giddiness, the academy of Vice. ... If I declare 
the army as Seditious, schismaticall, and cruel as ever, what 
ne wes is it ? Know not all men that they are the scum of 

1 Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II., 8th-15th January, 
1649-50, p. 2. The text is from the prophet Joel, i. 4. 



"ROYALIST MERCURIES" AND THE PEOPLE 79 

the kingdom, an aggregate body of poor and bad fellows 
' profligatae famae ac vitae '. Such and no other were the 
followers of Cataline when he rebelled in Kome, of the same 
extraction and lineage that Cade, Straw, and Kette came of. 
Men of desperate and deadly principles." l 

It was, however, the Presbyterian parson, disappointed in 
the hoped-for supremacy of his own creed, that now led the 
way in the universal dislike of the army the Presbyterian 
described later on by Marchamont Nedham as " Temporis- 
ing Adoniram, Geneva John, with his canonicall ruff about 
his neck, snarling enough to set all the dogs in the Butcher 
How upon his raw bones. He trips along the Change in his 
trunk hose, and his satin doublet as old as the charter of the 
City pinkt' with the equivocation of velvet sleeves and canvas 
back." 2 After the abduction of the King from Holdenby, 
the fear that the army intended to murder him was added 
to all this a crime as odious equally to the Roundhead as to 
the Cavalier. 

No Royalist periodicals other than Aulicus and Academicus 
had as yet appeared ; but, with thehearty good- will of thepeople, 
London was now to be deluged with them. It was nominally 
exempt from the power of the army, so a committee for 
the militia was appointed on 2nd September. On the follow- 
ing day the House of Commons gave this committee power 
to suppress all pamphlets, diurnals and the like, and the 
vending and dispersing of them. The answer of the Royal- 
ists to this was the setting on foot of a series of Royalist 
Mercuries, attacking and exposing the rebels and the leaders 
of the army in a manner intended to render them odious to 
the people. 

The history of the press has nothing to parallel the efforts 
now made by the Parliament to stamp out this hostile press 
and suppress the Royalist writers, nor has it any such abject 

l Mercurius Elencticus, No. 14, 23rd February to 1st March, 1648, 
p. 102. 

2 Mercurius Britannicus, No. 2, 26th July to 2nd August, 1652. 



80 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

failure to record. There was no longer a band of scriveners 
addressing the nation but a number of officers, clergymen 
and ballad writers, both Royalist and Eoundhead, who treated 
the tailors and cobblers officering the army and the trades- 
men bent on enriching themselves in Parliament as rogues 
and thieves, using the very plainest speech to describe their 
enemies' failings and to comment on their aims and objects. 

The first of the Royalist Mercuries, Mercurius Melancholicus ; 
or, Newesfrom Westminster and other Parts, started by a Presby- 
terian minister, John Hackluyt, D.D., who must have been a 
descendant of the great geographer of that name, appeared on 
4th September, 1647, and on its title-page were the following 
verses the first constituting as will be noticed a chronogram 
-1647 : 

ReX CaroLe a te VaLeat Ita 

eVangeLIVM sCotla 

per te VIgeat Hlbernla 

Vt In te fLoreat In AngLI& 

Legls, & paCIs gratia 

Eheu ! quid feci misero mihi ? Floribus Austrum 
Perditus & liquidis immisi fontibus apros 
Woe is me, undone, with blasts the flowers doe fade 
The chrystall springs by Swine, are puddle made. 

I. H. 

This first number gave a picture of the state of mind of 
those who had fought against the King, which was not cal- 
culated to please either the Parliament or the army, and un- 
fortunately for Dr. Hackluyt he also mortally offended the 
Cavaliers by his opening sentences : 

" The King now shall enjoy his owne againe and the Royall 
throne shall be arraied with the glorious presence of that 
mortall Diety " (sic), " but first let him beare his charge, for 'tis 
said, his armies having lost the field, theil now charge him 
home, there's a trivial thing called the innocent blood of three 
kingdomes is first to be required and a few more such sleight 
matters and then let him enjoy it if he can, but for your 
further instructions herein you had better ask the Parlia- 
ment". 



"THE KING SHALL ENJOY HIS OWN AGAIN" 81 

Language such as this could not be tolerated from any one 
professing to call himself a Koyalist, as this Puritan preacher 
now did, and his claim to write Melancholicus at all was 
promptly challenged by the author of the famous old song 
he had quoted, Martin Parker, the ballad writer, who is 
chiefly known to us as the writer of " When the King shall 
enjoy his own again," and "When the stormy winds do 
blow". 1 

Eventually Parker beat Hackluyt out of the field, and the 
numbers of his Mercurius Melancholicus, which he persistently 
declares to be the only true and original Melancholicus, can 
generally be distinguished by the different style. Another 
opponent to Hackluyt also promptly issued a counterfeit 
Melancholicus, carefully choosing the day (Friday) preceding 
that on which the others first appeared. His name is given 
as Swallow Crouch, and either he or Hackluyt (which, 
it is not clear) was said by Parker to have been an Irishman. 
He was a printer and the writer of a large number of 
counterfeits, and probably is to be identified with John 
Crouch. 2 

Hackluyt was frequently in prison for writing Melancho- 
licus, and after one escape from prison he had again recom- 
menced writing in opposition to Parker, and, as after due 
warning he did not desist, Parker thus denounces him : 

1 Martin Parker's exertions in the royal cause have not received the 
attention they deserve. Prose tracts "by Melancholicus" are easily 
identified, such as ' ' A Nose-gay for the House of Commons made up of 
the Stincking Flowers of their Seven Years Labours " (15th August, 1648), 
but the balkds require more care. " Troy-Novant Must not be Burnt " 
(8th May, 1648), "Pratle your Pleasure (under the Rose)," "I Thanke 
you Twice," and the like are probably his. 

2 According to the Stationers' Register there were two John Crouches 
who were printers. It may, however, be said with something like cer- 
tainty that John Crouch the journalist and ballad writer was not the 
John Crouch who wrote " A Mixt Poem," etc. Whether this last was 
not a third John Crouch must be left to experts. For the statements as 
to the three writers of Melancholicus see Mercurius Morbicus, No. 4, 
20th-27th September, 1647, p. 7 ; also Mercurius Anti-Mercurius, No. 1, 
12th-19th September, 1648. 



82 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

" Gentlemen, 

"All you that love God and King Charles, in whose 
eyes I have been acceptable. I shall desire you to take notice 
of a couple of unclean beasts that (after fair warning) still do 
abuse both with your purses and my patience by counter- 
feits. The one is a Buffoon scoundrel Hackleite, I will not 
say priest, least I more abuse that holy function than him- 
self has done by his vile incontinency, having more wives 
nay thrice as many as he hath suits to his back." He con- 
tinues : " he was sometime chaplain to Ned Massey General- 
issimo of Gloucestershire" (for the Parliament), "where he 
was a long time fed out of the estate of Sir John Winter " (a 
Catholic and the Queen's secretary). "He hath taken the 
Covenant and been in actual rebellion against his King, he is 
as religious as a windmill, and turns which way the wind 
blows, a person so treacherous and courteous also, that were 
the King here disguised, for 6 pence he would kisse him, cry 
Hayle Master ! and deliver him up to his crucifiers at West- 
minster. He will betray himself at any time to prison for a 
pint of sack, and his friend for ' Thanks '. The other is a 
blackmore 'mercury' that hath cunning enough (should 
panphleting be put down) to turn gypsie, and get as many 
hundreds as she hath lately by her trading." 

If Martin Parker really produced an earlier number of 
Melancholicus than the one I have described, it has yet to be 
found. He terminates this denunciation with : 

Although a shepherd of Arcadia 

I never left my flock and run away 

My pipe is sacred, dedicate to Pan 

Cannot be broke by the rude hands of man 

On yonder oake it hangs where Tytan plays 

When Nymphs and Shepherds keep their Holy days 

There with my sheep hook will I it defend 

Or play with him dares against Pan contend 
Whilst Meevius with loose and jigging rimes 
Dance before Sin. I sing to cure the times. 1 

1 Mercurius Melancholicus, No. 52, 14th-21st August, 1648. Burney, 
32. 



CLEIVELAND AND SHEPPAKD 83 

It will thus be seen that the different numbers of Melan- 
cholicus require careful scrutiny, in order to decide who was 
their author. 

The first number of the second of the three "grand 
Mercuries," as they were called, to distinguish them from 
minor ones, appeared on 21st September, 1647, and was en- 
titled : Mercurius Pragmaticus. Communicating Intelligence from 
all Parts touching all Affaires, Designes, Humours and Conditions 
throughout the Kingdome. Especially from Westminster and the 
Head-quarters. Many different periodicals, with numerous 
variations of this title, are comprised under the catchword 
Mercurius Pragmaticus, which lasted until the middle of the 
year 1650, and is of very varying authorship and merit. 
Two poets are chiefly to be associated with Pragmaticus : the 
one, the Cavalier and satirist John Cleiveland, the glory of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, the other, the Kev. Samuel Shep- 
pard, of whom little is known, but who states in Mercurius 
Aulicus (of 1648) that he was a Lincolnshire man. He was 
a past master of quaint description, and deserves careful 
study. 

Aubrey in his Brief Lives says of Cleiveland : " He and 
Sam Butler of Grayes Inne " (the author of Hudibras) "had 
a clubb every night," and probably at these social evenings 
in Gray's Inn a good many of the numbers of Pragmaticus 
and other periodicals were put together. Mercurius Anti-Mer- 
curius (4th April, 1648) states that Cleiveland was its author. 1 

1 " This same Pragmaticus (alias J. Cleveland) was formerly a Uni- 
versity chitton but now he is chief press whelp. I took him first for a 
chilver Cavalier because he vented such loud feminine scoldings His 
chief subject of jeering is Religion But sirrah Pragmaticus what's be- 
come of your religious ballad singers, your devout bellows-blowers, your 
divine fiddlers, your godly pipers, together with your heavenly Bawdy 
Court (Star Chamber). Whats become of your wooden Doctors, your 
leaden-headed Deans, your thundering Canons, your lazy prebends, your 
simmonising chancellors, your sheep-biting bite-sheeps (Bishops I would 
say), your treason plotting Arch-bite sheeps with the rest of that Divellish 
hierarchy." 



84 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

His motto was "Nemo me impune lacessit " ; Sheppard's 
motto was " Quis me impune lacessit ". 1 

The Metropolitan Nuncio 2 also writes of Pragmaticus : 
" Sam Shepheard that blasphemous clergy spot, being the 
primo genitor of this accursed spawne, for the greater solem- 
nity being invested in his pontificalibus with all the cere- 
monies of the Babylonish smock " (i.e., surplice) " christn'd 
the brat and called his name Pragmaticus". The first 
number of the same periodical 3 also clearly states that I. C. 
(i.e., Cleiveland) was then (6th July, 1649) the writer of it, 
Sheppard that of Elencticus, and John Taylor the writer of 
Melancholicus. 

Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II., No. 1, 10th- 
17th September, 1649, also commences as follows : 

"Nay never cross the cudgels" (that is give up the 
struggle). . . . 

" Gentlemen ! I confess that I have refrained my pen some 
time from writing this intelligence and suffered another to 
imitate the piece I first began. . . . But since I gave it over 
(finding impudence to become more bold and myself and the 
piece much wronged by an impious hand that writ Britanicus 
and a Hue and Cry against the King) " (i.e., Nedham). " Know- 
ing the damage redounded to all the loyal readers as well as 
my own reputation, I am resolved once more to enter the 

1 Pragmaticus has been universally attributed to Marchamont Ned- 
ham, but the writer wishes to point out that Anthony a Wood does 
not say that Nedham originated it. In any case Nedham's connection 
with it came to an end before June, 1649, when he was imprisoned and 
recanted. Wood is totally wrong in saying that Nedham started Poll- 
ticus in 1649, Nor is any confirmation to be found of his story of 
Nedham's interview with the King. At the date of the Committee Man's 
Complaint (? by Cleiveland) 26th August, 1647 Nedham is shown by the 
references in it to him to have been still on the side of the rebels, and 
on 21st September the first number of Pragmaticus appeared. 

2 No. 3, 6th-13th June, 1649. This is the only number in the 
Thomason Collection ; it is also the last. Sheppard remarks at this date : 
" I broke his heart, and he his printer ". 

3 The Metropolitan Nuncio, No. 1 (i.e., 2; No. 1 was Mercurius Mili- 
taris), 30th May to 6th June, 1649. Burney, 34. 



THE MEECUKIES AND THE PAKLIAMENT 85 

lists against these monstrous Goliah's at Westminster, and 
never give them over till I make their own swords their own 
executioners." 

Cleveland's part was probably that of adviser or editor, 
and Sheppard's that of working writer not only of Prag- 
maticus but also of a number of the other Mercuries. It 
is clear that the identity of the writers was concealed in order 
to escape arrest. Pragmaticus served as a model for all 
subsequent Mercuries, and Cleiveland may well have been un- 
willing to own to the rough rhymes with which they invari- 
ably commenced. Those on the first number are as follows : 

When as we liv'd in peace (God wot) 

A King would not content us 
But we forsooth must hire the Scot 

To all-be-Parliament us. 

Then down went King and Bishop too 

On goes the holy wirke 
Betwixt them and the Brethren blue 

T'advance the Crown and Kirke. 

But when that these had reign'd a time 

Robb'd kirk and sold the Crown 
A more religious sort up climbe 

And crush the Jockies downe. 

But now we must have peace again 

Let none with fear be vext 
For, if without the King these reign 

Then heigh down they goe next 

" Nemo me impune lacessit." 

General Fairfax wrote to the Speaker of the House of 
Peers on 21st September, requesting Mabbott's reappoint- 
ment as licenser, and desiring fresh legislation against the 
stream of pamphlets which now began to issue against both 
Parliament and army. On 28th September, therefore, an 
ordinance was passed, which prescribed the following penalties 
for the unlicensed periodicals. On the " author " 40s. or 
40 days' imprisonment ; on the printer 20s. or 20 days ; on 
the bookseller 10s. or 10 days. These penalties were 



86 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

cumulative, and, in addition, the hawker, pedlar or ballad 
singer was to be whipped and to have the whole of her or 
his stock confiscated. Mabbott was also reappointed licenser 
on 30th September. All that the Act succeeded in ac- 
complishing was to elicit the following comment : 

"What will become of me poor Pragmaticus ? For I 
hear the vertuous -Earl of Manchester " (Speaker of the 
House of Lords, who had turned Cleiveland out of his fellow- 
ship of St. John's) "hath issued out a warrant and sent his 
beagles abroad to hunt me out, which is the most dangerous 
design he ever ventured upon since the time of King catch- 
ing. For my motto is ' Nemo me impune lacessit,' and truly 
I have a bottle or two of ink to bestow upon his lordship and 
friends though (if I may use John Lilburn's language) I do 
perish in the attempt." 

On 5th November appeared the third of the "grand 
Mercuries," entitled : Mercurius Elencticus. Communicating the 
Unparallell'd Proceedings at Westminster, the Head Quarters, and 
other Places, Discovering their Designs, Reproving their Crimes, 
and Advising the Kingdome. 

This was written by Captain, afterwards Sir George 
Wharton, Bart., with the aid of Sheppard when he was in 
prison, and is much the most valuable periodical of the three 
owing to the detailed and exact biographical information of 
the rebels and regicides which it aims at giving (an example 
will be quoted and corroborated later on). Elencticus had no 
counterfeits. Captain Wharton came of an ancient and 
wealthy family in Westmorland. Educated as a sojourner 
at Oxford, he was the sole Eoyalist who was an astrologer 
and was the inveterate enemy of William Lilly, the chief 
astrologer on the Parliament's side. He had spent the whole 
of his patrimony in raising a troop of horse for the King's 
service. He was the writer of A List of Members of Parlia- 
ment, who were officers in the army contrary to the Self- 
denying Ordinance, and gives in this List particulars of 
the sums of money they had voted to themselves, and of a 



WALKEE, HACKLUYT, AND MAETIN PAEKEK 87 

Second List called also the Second Centurie. The two docu- 
ments constitute a scathing exposure. 1 

Naturally the writers of the licensed newsbooks did their 
best in the hunt which now began, and the special object of 
Henry Walker's rancour was John Hackluyt, as being a 
Presbyterian who would not turn Independent. The castiga- 
tion which he had received some years back at the hands of 
John Taylor made him chary of interfering with Pragmaticus 
and the rest ; but one of his own cloth was another matter, 
so he even commenced a periodical Mercurius Medicus 
against Hackluyt, and procured the writing of another en- 
titled Mercurius Morbicus. In this, with characteristic men- 
dacity, Hackluyt's name is described as being Hacket, and 
Hackluyt himself as " descended of the ancient family, whereof 
came that reverent hereticke " (William Hacket) " who blas- 
phemed God upon the Gibbet in Cheapside, with the halter 
about his necke, in Queen Elizabeth's days," and a " frenzie 
priest ". 

Parker, however, promptly took up the challenge and 
wrote : 

" The Eight Eeverend ironmonger (the same as is sus- 
pected that preacht at Hatcham Barne the learned sermon 
upon Tobies dogs tayle) would be trade fallen shortly if he 
handled his text when he preached before the twelve bishops 
in the Tower as well as he did Melancholicus in his last week's 
intelligence. Sirrah you rogue, who told you Melancholicus 
was a priest, or had you it from your father the everlasting 
lyar?" 

And: 

1 These important documents have as press marks 669, f. 12 (105) 
and 669, f . 13 (10, 22). An " Answer " was published by Lilly in his 
Astrological Prediction for 1648, 1649, etc. (E. 462 (I)}. The two former 
are not taken from Clement Walker's History of Independency as Wood 
states. Nor is there any reason to attribute the first document to Clem- 
ent Walker in view of Wharton's distinct statements in Mercurius Elenc- 
ticus that he wrote it. There is also a counterfeit of the Second Centurie 
(E. 458 (12)). 



88 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

" Martin Parker it seems hath penned a very doleful ballad 
called Luke Harruney's confession and lamentation at the 
gallowes, to the tune of the ' Earle of Essex last good-night ' ". 

Finally he gave Walker's epitaph at the gallows : 

Here hangs Walker in a string 
That Judas like did hate his King 
Faithless, fruitless he was e\ier 
Except in lies, but loyal never 
From hence h'as taken wings to be 
Old Beelzebub's chief Mercury. 

Walker's Mercuries appeared no more he was silenced. 
The ordinance of September, 1647, was soon consigned to the 
lumber room, and the Koyalist writers were simply committed 
to prison during the year 1648 without warrant or form of 
law until they escaped (as they invariably did). Before tell- 
ing their story, the appearance, on 27th November, of a fourth 
Mercury Mercurius Bellicus, or An Alarum to all Rebells, re- 
quires notice. This was written by John Berkenhead, the 
former author of Aulicus. 1 

On 16th October the printer of Pragmaticus was captured 
and sent to Newgate. On 19th October the printer of 
Melancholicus was fined. Wharton had contracted the plague 
at the commencement of August, 2 and so was not suspected 
or captured until the following year. 

On 27th November, 1647, the House of Commons, seeing 
the failure of their ordinance and that the Mercuries still 
went on, appointed a committee to inquire after the authors, 
printers and publishers of Melancholicus, Pragmaticus, Elencticus 
and Bellicus, which by this time were making direct personal 

1 Mercurius Anti-Mercurius, 4th April, 1648 (written by John Harris 
"Oxford Jack") says, "Make room for Mars his petty toe one of 
Bellonaes Whiners sirnamed Bellicus, whose might lyes in his muzzle, 
makes Crackers for the Cavaliers, and is the sole engine to crowne au. 
thority into an atom, he looks like a Kentish pippin codled in the sinciput 
of Tom Summers ". Then follows an unquotable verse with a reference 
to his "goggle-eyes" which "Durst neer see sword in wrath". The 
description recalls Aubrey's remark about Berkenhead's eyes. 

2 Ashmole's Life. 



THE MEECUKIES EXPOSE THE EEBELS 89 

attacks upon all the ruling members of the two Houses and 
the army, lampooning them in every possible way, and ex- 
posing their private lives. A veritable chwnique scandaleuse 
can henceforth be obtained from the Eoyalist Mercuries 
concerning Marten, Weaver, Scot, Corbet, Mildmay and Ser- 
jeant Wilde. No accusations of leading a licentious life are 
made against Cromwell, though allusions to his debauched life 
as a youth, when he was a brewer at Ely, are so frequent as 
to carry conviction of a notorious truth. The blemishes at- 
tributed to his character are lying and treachery, but beyond 
the standing joke against his nose little else is said. 1 

For intelligence of what was happening in the country or 
abroad the pages of the Eoyalist Mercuries are almost value- 
less ; since they had neither offices nor regular correspondents. 
For what was happening around them in London day by day 
they are, however, of the highest importance, and their com- 
ments on the licensed newsbooks, side by side of which they 
should be read, are at times quite illuminating. 

1 The parish registers of St. John's, Huntingdon, contain the following 
memoranda under the years 1621 and 1628 respectively: "Oliverus 
Cromwell reprehendus erat coram tota Ecclesia pro factis," and " Hoc 
anno Oliverus Cromwell fecit penitentiam coram tota ecclesia ". Both 
entries have been tampered with, and an attempt made to scratch them 
out. (Information kindly given by the Rector of All Saints.) 



CHAPTEK VI. . 

1648. 

ON 6th January, 1648, an order was issued that the Committee 
for the Suppression of " Scandalous" Pamphlets should sit 
daily and that sums should be paid to those who discovered 
" malignant " presses ; and the jailer of Peterhouse Prison was 
at the same time reproved because prisoners had escaped. On 
the 9th a fresh committee of the Commons was ordered to 
sit, and consider a more effectual ordinance for preventing 
"scandalous" pamphlets. 

Wharton thus comments on the proceedings of the House 
(on 9th January) : 

"Then they spent some idle minutes about scandalous 
and unlicensed pamphlets and some gal'd hackneys kicked 
and flung unluckily (Miles Ugly especially) who pressed hard 
how much prejudiciall they had been and were yet to their 
affairs (of murthering the king) and how dishonourable to the 
nation, etc. . . . Is it not a sad thing that Miles Corbet cannot 
hand a harlot to the water side unless he be both cudgelled 
and robbed of his pleasure ? Is not Harry Martin to be pitied 
that he cannot enjoy his mistresses (in his new buildings) 
without the world be told of it ? Is it not lamentable that 
the Keverend Justice Wild " cannot do the like but " have 
it proclaimed on the Housetop? Indeed 'tis a pittiful thing." 

The sting of all this lay in its absolute truth. 

On llth January the House of Commons gave power to 
the Committee for " Scandalous " Pamphlets to employ such 
persons as they should think fit to prosecute, etc., and passed 
a resolution to employ " honest able men to answer the scandal- 
ous pamphlets and undeceive the people therein ". On 15th 

90 



THE DEKBY HOUSE COMMITTEE 91 

January the Committee of both Kingdoms was abolished, 
and the English members alone were retained with some 
additions. Hereafter known as the Derby House Committee, 
from the place at Westminster where they sat, these men 
now became the virtual wielders of the sovereign power of 
England. 

On the same day the Parliament voted that there should 
be no further addresses to the King, and that none should be 
presented to His Majesty by any one without leave, and that 
if any should be presented to him without such leave the act 
should constitute high treason. Two thousand horse and 
foot had been ordered to London on the previous day (14th 
January) to protect the Parliament from the people. London 
and the nation were now on the side of the King, and, in its 
struggle with both King and nation, the Parliament had to 
rely on the Independent army, which it (or the Presbyterian 
part of it) hated. 

The Committee of Derby House (converted into the Coun- 
cil of State in 1649) is thus described at the commencement 
of the following year : " And now I speak of them ' vous avez ' 
Darby House the second ' modus habendi ' of this high, huge, 
mighty, grand, great Council of State. These are the Court 
Cards of the last order, that must do the feat which is to be 
lengthened, like a sparrow's mouth from year to year, till all 
our freedoms and liberties are swallowed up therein. Here 
the Grandees power seems to be more contracted than in its 
mother Mr. Speakers conventicle for let Carrot-nose com- 
mand the beagles at Westminster anything to the Table men 
of State the dispatch is of undisputed nature, when once the 
light of his countenance hath been lifted upon it. I wonder 
what such children of darkness have to do with candles in 
the night, 'slid his nose would give them a better light and 
lead them into all cruelty. But though he seems here like a 
pillar of fire leading the rest of the kitling kings to their 
imagined Canaan, yet is he here but in swadling clouts, in 
respect of his perfect capacity in the Council of War. Here 



92 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

he is in full stature of Prince. Here's the help at Maw, the 
Pigeons to the feet, these are the Emperique politicians that 
kill or cure by the minerall, the barberous surgeons of the 
Commonwealth. When the father, son, and precious Harri- 
son" (an attorney's clerk and son of a butcher at Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) " are in this capacity, they are like the High 
Priest in Sanctum Sanctorum where none of the wicked can 
touch them. With the Council of State they cry 'Justice 
for the people '. With the Parliament they cry a fig for the 
Council of State, but with the Council of War they give de- 
fiance to the People, Parliament and all. Here they are 
armed ' cap-a-pe ' like lobsters, here they are in State of Grace, 
in full meridian." l 

On 25th February rewards were offered for the capture of 
the writers of Melancholicus and Pragmaticus, and Martin 
Parker is found exclaiming : " But 20 for Melancholicus ! 
Come along customers, who bids more he will yield a 
better price than this in Turkie. Come on Mr. Selden the 
other 20 and then he shall tell you more of his minde an 
ordinance for it too ! " 

The utmost efforts were now made to suppress the 
Mercuries. Spies (their names are innumerable) and pur- 
suivants were set in pursuit of the writers and the Mercury 
women who sold their periodicals. In the Stationers' Com- 
pany one Hunscot, a printer, with his "crew of rake- 
shames," was the leader. John Partridge, also, with his 
"pumpion red nose," who, as an almanac publisher, was par- 
ticularly keen on capturing Wharton the inveterate enemy 
of Lilly and the rest of thev" State necromancers " Booker, 
Fisk, Lathom and others. The City Marshall and his " lub- 
bards " joined in the hunt against the women hawkers, who, 
when caught, were lashed and imprisoned until they 
divulged the names of those who had given them the 

1 Mercurius Militaris, No. 1, 24th April, 1649. The passage is 
clearly by John Cleiveland and must be taken as a sample of his editor- 
ship, for the rest of the periodical is of a very inferior literary stamp. 



NEDHAM BECOMES A EOYALIST 93 

pamphlets to sell. The inducement to them to sell the 
Eoyalist Mercuries (which they carried in their "plackets," 
while selling the licensed newsbooks openly) was their 
greater popularity, and the fact that these Mercuries sold for 
double the price of the others, namely, twopence instead of a 
penny ; an important point to remember when the price of 
an " ordinary," or, as we should say, table d' hote dinner, was 
only threepence. 

" Melancholicus " writes on 22nd January: " There is a 
generation called Peepers, creatures of the Committees now 
beginning, who like the Devil (their chief Lord) thrust their 
heads into every corner to finde out objects whereon to vent 
their traiterous and base designs. I am sure any honest 
man abhorres the thought of 'em, only the Honourable 
Parliament allows them stipends to betray the innocent. 
How many honest men have they abused in finding out 
Pragmaticus and Melancholicus, as Mr. Shepheard, Mr. Hacklet 
and others, yet the gentlemen are as innocent as the day" 
(!); and " Elencticus " adds on the 2nd of February: "But 
I feare I am too loud since so many whisperers attend me. 
Thirty couple (a goodly pack) are appointed by the Houses 
to listen and eavesdrop the city. The members allow them 
52 10s. a week that's 2,756 per annum." 

Marchamont Nedham appears at first to have written a 
counterfeit Pragmaticus commencing in the middle of No- 
vember, 1647. A parliamentarian Mercury, entitled Anti- 
Pragmaticus, had been started from the first in opposition 
to Pragmaticus, and this has no allusion to Nedham until 
3rd February, 1648, when it remarks : " Thou wert once of 
another temper Pragmaticus, and that, the whole Kingdom 
who read thee by another name know gold what a 
god art thou and O man what a devill art thou to worship 
its illustrious hew ". The reason which led Nedham to turn 
Eoyalist was simply his discovery that Eoyalist journalism 
paid best. From this time to nearly the end of the year the 
periodical appears to have been abandoned to him (Sheppard 



94 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

was writing other Mercuries), and it assumes the scolding 
and tiresome style familiar to readers of Britanicus his old 
Eoundhead journal. 

That the Eoyalist Mercuries, although they had neither 
offices nor staffs, had sometimes good and unwelcomely truth- 
ful information, is perfectly clear from the following anecdote 
in Pragmaticus. 

"Friday. Aug. 18. The first business that came in 
play this day was a deep designe of that deadly spitfire Ned 
Ashe " (a city linen-draper) " against Mercurius Pragmaticus, 
whom he is resolved to spoil, it seems, by cutting off his con- 
duit pipe of intelligence from Westminster. And therefore 
he gave Mr. Speaker a good morrow with a timely admoni- 
tion, telling him that he thought fit to present unto him what 
he had brought in his pocket, which, said he, is that scurril- 
ous pamphlet Pragmaticus. A Fellow, Mr. Speaker, which 
comes abroad more exact and perfect than he ever did, and 
relates all passages and whatever we say in the house. And 
truly except some course be taken to prevent this, by finding 
out him or his Intelligencer I conceive we shall quite lose the 
freedom and privacy of our debates. And for my part Mr. 
Speaker I know not whom to accuse but I suspect one of 
our own clerks, a drunken debauched fellow with a red face, 
and I conceive we might do very well to appoint a committee 
to examine him. Well said, Ned Ashe! Thou hast hit 
the naile on the head I warrant thee. It is he with the red 
zealous face the Man in the Moon that drinks clarret, every 
jot as wise a woodcock as thine own sweet self Mr. Speaker 
being in his dumps, and the whole house in a laughter, it 
was easily carried, and a committee packed to examine the 
drunken debauched fellow with a red face that lives like 
as very an Antinomian as Ashe himself." 

The Calendars of State Papers give no account of the 
numerous arrests and escapes that continually took place 
during 1648, but Henry Walker chronicles in Perfect Oc- 
currences the capture on each occasion of Dr. Hackluyt. 



THE ESCAPES OF JOHN HACKLUYT 95 

On llth March, 1648, he was captured for the second time 
(he had been captured and had escaped at some uncertain 
date in 1647), as well as the new printer of Pragmaticus, 
and both were sent to Newgate. He promptly escaped again, 
and on 25th March Walker writes : " Dr. (as the foole calls 
himself) Hacklet the writer of Melancholicus who ran away 
from the Committee was this day taken in Grayes Inne Lane 
and all his wives but one have left him ". (On 4th April his 
printer, Edward Crouch, was taken and sent to prison.) 
Hackluyt again escaped, and as Sheppard, Parker and others 
were also engaged in being imprisoned and escaping, " fresh 
instructions for the punishment of those who wrote scandal- 
ous pamphlets were now" (16th June) " passed in the House ". 
Dr. Hackluyt was once more captured on 20th July, and 
Walker's comment runs : "he was formerly a minister in 
Gloucester for the Parliament before he had so many wives ". 
There is no record of the imprisonments of Martin Parker or 
Crouch, but the former appears on one occasion to have been 
placed in the pillory. 1 

Hackluyt was neither liked nor trusted, and with good 
reason, by the band of Cavaliers with which he had chosen 
to associate himself. On his third escape, finding that 
Parker was writing Melancholicus (and alluding to the number 
I have previously quoted), he suspected Sheppard to be the 
writer of what he also termed counterfeits, and said he 
would " break his pipe for him " though he was " a Shepherd 
of Arcadia". 

Sheppard happened to be writing the Royal Diurnall at 
the time, and replied in it : "I have been once or twice 
heretofore abused, yet winked at it as not willing to show 
myself against one that pretends to that cause I honour, but 
being a third time provoked by a Janus faced scribbler . . . 

1 " Melancholicus with three heads whereof two are counterfeits, the 
one studies the Lamentations in a cage, the second lately peep'd through 
a pillory, the third lies Crouch-ing in every corner for fear of a catch poll " 
(Mercurius Anti-Mercurius* No. 1, 12th-19th September, 1648). 



96 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

by name Hacklet who exclaims of me as a supplanter of his 
profit of which I am not the least guilty," proceeded to de- 
nounce him very much as Parker had done and as he says 
to " break his knaves pate for him ". 

On 8th March, 1648, Wharton wrote in Elencticus ; " The 
promise they" (the Derby House Committee) "have made 
me of so honourable a reward as that of hanging me for 
my loyalty to my King, hath very much encouraged me 
to prosecute my work. I am resolved to deserve it at their 
hands ; and therefore lest I might be accounted careless or 
negligent of my duty, let them take this assurance from me, 
that I will not fail them once a weeke to let them heare from 
me. I will not give over till the deluded kingdome be fully 
possessed of their villainies, or my life be sacrificed in main- 
taining the cause of my soveraigne." 

Before the next number appeared he was captured, 1 and 
Sheppard writes in Elencticus on 15th March, in evident 
alarm for his friend's life, and hoping to hoodwink the com- 
mittee : " The news is that poore Elencticus is taken," and 
" Do not imprison poor Elencticus till you can catch him, 
at my entreaty let honest Wharton go about his astrologicall 
affairs, that we may have a new almanack the next year". 
Again on 23rd March : " Honest Wharton if thou knowest 
Elencticus prithee calculate his nativity and send him word 
when he shall enjoy that glory which thou by the Pytha- 
gorean transmigration of the State Alchemists dost for a 
time usurp," adding, "If Corbett have lost his little wit with 
his less religion and will still say " Thou art ' Elencticus ' 
spit in his face and tell him he lyes like a Jewe ". 

Wharton did not lose his life, but was committed to New- 
gate, where he was' detained for nearly six months. He had 
means and was kept in the precincts of the prison on parole, 
with a special keeper, and must have contrived still to carry 
on the writing of Elencticus with the aid of Sheppard. This 
was discovered, and, warned of a " design his grand enemies 
1 Ashmole's Life. 



STAKVATION IN PETEKHOUSE PKISON 97 

had to remove him out of the way," he effected his escape on 
26th August, taking refuge at Brandspeth in Durham ; but 
on 23rd September he was recaptured, says Walker in Perfect 
Occurrences, "at an inn in Gracious Street with some other 
malignant officers ". He again escaped, and 30 was offered 
for him. At the time of the so-called trial of King Charles 
he recommenced Elencticus (No. 1, 31st January to 7th Feb- 
ruary) with an account of the murder of the King. 1 

The numerous London prisons were now overcrowded ; so 
that usually selected for the Eoyalist writers was Peterhouse 
the Lord Petre's house in Aldersgate Street. On 12th 
July, 1648, the committee had to report to Parliament that 
it was dangerous to remove prisoners thence to Derby House 
for examination, on account of the tumults that occurred, 
and that it was not safe to bring any more prisoners to 
London. The keeper of this prison was Henry Cymball, or 
Symball, a "hard and cruel gaoler," whose name is reminis- 
cent of the chief character in Jonson's Staple of Newes. The 
prisoners had to pay him fees on committal, and he was not 
bound to maintain them. Martin Parker writes of himself 
as having got his ' ' foot out of the springe ' ' at Peterhouse on 
26th June, where he was "neere starved to death by that 
murdering villain Symball," and sends his " commendations to 
his friends there, Mr. Shepheard, John Harrison, and the rest ". 

Those Cavaliers who had no friends to supply them with 
money or food had to rely on the "bag and basket". A 
prisoner's basket was placed at the entrance to the prison for 
the receipt of broken victuals, and at intervals men were 
permitted to collect round the town with a bag. A supply of 
food from these sources was precarious, and Sheppard makes 
the following appeal in Elencticus : " The gentlemen that were 
sent to Windsor, and many more that lie in Peterhouse, are 
even ready to starve for want of common necessaries. It will 
be very acceptable and well pleasing to God if such as love 

1 Burney, 32. This number (supposed to be lost) is set out in full in 
Appendix A, p. 200. 



98 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

the King will according to their abilities, contribute a little for 
their relief. There hath been some examples given of this 
piety. And no question but those that have or shall extend 
their charity this way will be undoubtedly rewarded by a 
better master than those who are the cause of their 
misery." l 

Occasionally the prisoners overpowered their guards and 
escaped en masse. Once in the streets they were free, 
and the provost-marshals or the soldiers did not dare to 
touch them unless they themselves were in a position either 
to overpower the crowd, or the crowd itself was friendly a 
rare event. On one or two occasions when prisoners were 
brought before the Committee for Examinations to be ques- 
tioned, the badgering they then had to undergo, ended in a 
committee-man being publicly beaten afterwards by some 
enraged loyalist who had escaped. At the beginning of 
October, 1648, Corbet himself was caught at Black Friars 
stairs by a Cavalier, and publicly thrashed with a cane ; and 
that his punishment was severe may be gathered from the fact 
that, when he appeared in the House some days later to 
complain (an "honest godly man," says Walker in giving 
his version of the story), he was enveloped in bandages. 2 

The great object of the Eoyalist writers was to keep the 
three grand Mercuries, Melancholicus, Pragmaticus and Elenc- 
ticus, going, even while their writers were in prison, and this 
was successfully accomplished almost without a break for 
two years. When a writer escaped from prison, he eith< 
resumed his "editorial chair" or started a new periodical 
under a new name, and the new name sometimes marked 
an exceedingly exasperated temper. Hence Samuel She] 
pard first appears as writing Mercurius Dogmaticus until th( 

1 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 43, 13th-20th September, 1648. Robert 
Lesly was pardoned on 27th June, 1663, for shooting Symball (Cal. S. P. 
Dom., 1663-64, pp. 182 and 418). 

2 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 45, 27th September to 4th October, 1648 ; 
Perfect Occurrences, No. 92, 29th September to 6th October, 1648. 



THE PKOVOST-MAKSHAL TO THE PAELIAMENT 99 

end of January, 1 when the title appears to have been 
changed ; possibly owing to a capture of his printer, for the 
next number was a revival of Mercurius Aulicus under his 
motto " Quis me impune lacessit " (No. 1, 3rd February, 
1648), and he apparently left Pragmaticus to Nedham. He 
was captured, and his periodical came to an end, but he 
soon escaped. Again captured, he once more escaped and 
commenced the Eoyal Diurnall (No. 1, 31st July). Thus the 
lengthy list of Eoyalist periodicals appreciably narrows into 
groups. 

At the end of August so little progress had been made in 
suppressing the Eoyalist Mercuries that their number had 
actually increased, and Parliament was at its wits' end to 
know what to do. Mabbott, the licenser, therefore came 
forward with propositions for the appointment of a special 
police, under a special provost-marshal. The Perfect Diurnall 
(28th August to 4th September) writes under date 21st Au- 
gust : "A proposition was made to the House by the said 
Mr. Mabbott for suppressing all scandalous pamphlets which 
tend so much to the dishonour of this nation. Provided he 
may be enabled with power to perform the same. The House 
did well resent the said overture and appointed a committee 
to confer with and give encouragement to him therein, and 
likewise to advise with the master and wardens of the Com- 
pany of Stationers for the carrying on this work. And that 
the Committee doe upon the whole bring in an ordinance 
for that purpose." 

On reflection, Mabbott declined the office Elencticus 

1 "Surely Hell is broke loose, here is another shews his pallisadoes. 
grinning and snarling like the true begotten of old Cerberus, ycleped 
Dogmaticus who looks as like Sam Shepeard as if he had bin spit out of 
his mouth, a right woolfe in sheep's clothing," etc. (Mercurius Anti-Mer- 
curius, 4th April, 1648). It is noticeable that the opponents of the Royalist 
Mercuries, though they heap abuse upon Sheppard, Wharton and others, 
never attempt to deny either their biographies or the exceedingly grave 
and serious moral charges made against men like Hugh Peters, Marten > 
Scot and the rest. 



100 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

says he was afraid. 1 Therefore on 13th September Francis 
Bethen was appointed Provost-Marshal to the Parliament, 
with power within twenty miles of the city of London to seize 
upon all "scandalous" books and ballads, and their writers 
and printers, and all actors of interludes and plays. He was 
allowed 5s. a day for himself, a deputy with 3s. 4d. a day, and 
twenty men with Is. 6d. a day each for their allowance. He 
and his crew of " shakerags and rakeshames " do not seem 
to have been more successful than the rest of the provost- 
marshals and spies (also kept on foot) ; his most prominent 
capture for some time being a poor Mercury woman, Eleanor 
Passenger, who was lashed and kept in Peterhouse to betray 
the Cavaliers there. 2 

Turning from the Koyalist periodicals, in order to follow 
the fortunes of tfie licensed press, we find the year 1648 
equally noteworthy for the licenser Mabbott and the band of 
writers under his supervision. 

The first of the " honest " able men employed to answer 
the Eoyalist pamphleteers was Henry Walker, who was also 
commissioned (by Cromwell says one writer) to publish a 
book which should justify the murder of the King. 3 

For the contemplated murder some sort of a case had to 
be prepared and precedents found, and these were discovered 
in the writings of a famous Jesuit, Father Robert Persons. 

Father Persons in 1594 had published, under the pseu- 
donym of Doleman, A Conference about the Next Succession to the 
Crown of England. Few people nowadays would be disposed 
to question the conclusions of his book, which consisted 
mainly of a learned historical and legal argument in favour 
of the right of the people to alter the succession. His object 

1 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 43, 13th-20th September, 1648. 

2 Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer, No. 277, 12th-19th September, 
1648 ; Cal. State Papers. 

3 "This crop of villainy" (Severall Speeches, etc.) "was by perjur'd 
Noll committed to the care of that saffron bearded Judas Walker " (Man 
in the Moon, No. 12, 27th June to 4th July, 1649, p. 90, and Anthony & 
Wood, Athence Oxonienses, vol. ii., c. 71-73). 



WALKEE AS LITEEAEY PIEATE 101 

was to support the claim of the Infanta of Spain to the throne 
of England on the death of Elizabeth. By the vast majority 
of English Catholics the book was received with dismay, and 
there is no doubt it caused them much additional suffering 
and persecution ; Parliament even made it high treason for a 
copy to be found in a house. 

The reasons and historical instances which had so skilfully 
proved the right to alter the succession might, with very little 
manipulation, be also used to prove the right of the people 
to punish. But the arguments of a hated Catholic, and Jesuit 
to boot, could never be acknowledged ; so accordingly, on 3rd 
February, 1648, a piracy of Father Persons' book appeared 
under the title of Severall Speeches at a Conference Concerning 
the Power of Parliament to Proceed against the King for Mis- 
government. No author's name was appended to this, and, of 
course, no acknowledgment of the source from which it was 
taken. One of the subheadings pointed out how kings had 
been lawfully chastised by their Parliaments and Common- 
wealths, and another, " The lawfulnesse of proceeding against 
Princes how oaths do binde or may be broken by subjects ". 
It is to be noted, that this book appeared nearly three months 
before the famous three days' " prayer "-meeting at Windsor, 
at which it was decided by the army officers to bring the 
King "to an account " on their return. 

For this piece of literary forgery Henry Walker received, 
as Anthony a Wood says, the sum of 30. He therefore 
showed his gratitude to his sovereign for preserving his life, 
by taking the initiatory step which resulted in that sovereign's 
death a year later, and his book was largely quoted by Brad- 
shaw at the so-called trial. 1 

1 Walker advertised a translation of Junius Brutus' Vindicice contra 
Tyrannos on 25th February (Perfect Occurrences), "a peece suitable 
for the times ". Another pamphlet published at this time accused the 
King and Buckingham of poisoning his father King James (a falsehood 
repeated by Milton). The Taomason Catalogue shows a number of similar 
tracts designed to throw obloquy on the King. 



102 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

On 7th April, 1648, Walker commenced a series of 
absurd anagrams in his Perfect Occurrences. He was still 
publishing his newsbook under the pseudonym of " Luke 
Harruney Cleric " ; and apparently had been studying 
Hebrew, for one of the Eoyalist journals tells us that 
" Eabby Bungy pott lecturer for the Hebrew at London 
House " was his teacher or confederate. Parliament was 
about to decree new articles of religion (on 20th June, 
1648), and No. 8 of Chapter I . of these articles ran as fol- 
lows : " The Old Testament in Hebrew . . . and the New 
Testament in Greek being immediately inspired by God and 
by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages 
are therefore authenticall ". This decree was the cause of a 
study of Hebrew which bade fair even to beat the great 
Puritan cult of astrology from the field, and Walker now 
gave his readers a weekly Hebrew anagram of some leader's 
name. 

He had been hopelessly unable to imitate the leading 
articles which for a long time past had formed a feature of 
other newsbooks, 1 and this claptrap device was an instance 
of real journalistic enterprise which, although it made him 
the butt of the Eoyalists, soon had imitators. Advertise- 
ments (of which the second appeared in Perfect Occurrences 
on 2nd April, 1647) were also now to be habitually found in 
his newsbooks. 

On 31st March Parliament at last succeeded in finding a 
new writer in John Hall, a clever young man of twenty-one, 

1 Two particularly absurd attempts of Walker's are as follows : Per- 
fect Occurrences No. 19, 7th-14th May, 1647, starts: "Actions of subtle 
wits, great and eminent are very attractive to the people. If Ulisses 
returne and declare his wives guests to be Corivals (not so much as to 
mention Eumseus the swineheard) but will joyne to drive them out. 
The House of Peers received letters," etc. And No. 65, 24th-31st 
March, 1648: "Mistakes oft produce sad effects to friends. Had 
Pyramus been rightly informed of his dear Thisby they had not both 
been so foolishly slain ". (All this is apropos of nothing). It is a pity 
Walker did not live in Shakespeare's days, for Bottom the weaver might 
have found a companion. 



JOHN HALL, CKOMWELL'S WRITEK 103 

who had had a brilliant career as a writer even at that early 
age. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and it is to be presumed that Wharton obtained his bio- 
graphy of him from Cleiveland. Wharton had bitterly at- 
tacked Lilly in Elencticus, and Lilly employed Hall at a 
salary of 80s. a week, says Wharton -to write a journal 
under the name of Mercurius Brittanicus. Mercurius Brit- 
tanicus of 1648, and Mercurius Censorius, also written by 
him, do little honour to Hall's genius, and Berkenhead dis- 
gustedly remarks in Bellicus : "I wonder that Jack Hall of 
Cambridge should so far lose himself as to justify the rebels 
in a weekly gazet by the name of Britanicus." 

Hall, however, had sunk very low indeed before he was 
reduced to this. 1 Expelled from St. John's College for 
" lewdness " and debauchery, he attacked in the first number 
of Brittanicus the Fellows of the College that had trained 
him, earning from Wharton the just epithets of "Viper" 
and "apostate hireling". After his expulsion from St. 
John's he had married, and, having spent his wife's fortune 
in dissipation, he sent her back to her father. He then 
entered himself at Gray's Inn, where he was living at the 
time of his employment by Lilly, chiefly by the exercise of 
his wits. Wharton publicly appealed to Lovelace and 
others living in Gray's Inn, and, as a result they "un- 
kennelled the vermine and made him shift his quarters " to a 
house of bad repute in Bloomsbury. "Brought in," he 
says, by Cromwell, Hall was appointed writer for the regi- 
cides at a salary of 100 a year on 14th May, 1649, and it 
is probably to him that The Nonsuch Charles his Character and 
other books entered in the Stationers' Registers " by author- 
ity of the Council of State " are due. 

1 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 27, 24th-31st May; No. 28, 31st May-7th 
June ; No. 29, 7th- 14th June, 1648 ; and No. 34, 12th-19th July (four 
pages of biography in the last). Hall replies in Brittanicus and Censorius 
of even dates, but makes no attempt whatever to refute or deny the allega- 
tions against his character. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1654, p. 163. 



104 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

Up to the middle of the year 1648 there was no indication 
of Gilbert Mabbott the licenser's views, and none of his real 
nature. He then showed himself in his true colours. John 
Dillingham, the author of the Moderate Intelligencer, and evi- 
dently a moderate Presbyterian to whom the idea of any 
personal attack on the King was abhorrent, had obtained a 
scrap of French from Cotgrave and inserted it in his news- 
book. It was " Dieu nous donne les Parlyaments brief e 
Hois de vie longue". 1 After a time Mabbott had discovered 
what this meant ; and refusing to license Dillingham' s copy, he 
appropriated the title to himself and continued the Moderate 
Intelligencer with the aid of Dillingham' s printer, Robert 
White, under the name of the Moderate (No. 171, 23rd-29th 
June), prefacing it with the deliberate falsehood, "I have 
laid down my former title of Moderate Intelligencer, and do go 
by another, viz., the Moderate ". 

Dillingham then petitioned the House of Lords for relief, 
complaining that he was in danger of his life as the supposed 
writer of the Moderate, and Mabbott also petitioned that 
Dillingham should be punished under the Act of 1647. 
Robert White, the printer, petitioned as well, asking that 
the title of Moderate Intelligencer might be pronounced his as 
he had always possessed the "interest right and title in the 
pamphlet," and it was registered in the Stationers' books 
as his proper copy. (The Moderate Intelligencer was the only 
periodical registered since the ordinance of 1647.) The House 
of Lords decided that Dillingham alone was entitled to the 
title of the Moderate Intelligencer, of which White in conse- 
quence lost the printing, and Dillingham had his pamphlet 
printed for the future by Leybourn. Nothing seems to have 
been done with regard to the French phrase which was the 
cause of the quarrel, and this is an indication of the growing 
difference between the Lords and the Commons. The 
Moderate, however, continued to appear on the same days 

1 The Moderate Intelligencer, No. 164, 4th-llth May, 1648, p. 1314 ; 
Hist. MSS. Commission, 7th Report, p. 33 a ; ibid., p. 53 6. 



MABBOTT FOUNDS THE MODERATE 105 

(Thursdays) as the Moderate Intelligencer, and with the same 
numeration, No. 173 for 6th-13th July, containing at the end 
the remark : " This is the true Moderate Intelligencer" . 

Mabbott seems then to have been ordered to change his 
day and not to counterfeit the numbering of the original 
periodical, for the next issue was numbered No. 1 for Tues- 
days, llth-18th July. This he commenced with the remark : 
" Reader. I am desired by many to change my day from 
Thursday to Tuesday, because the Kingdom hath much 
wanted a satisfactory sheet to send that day by post into the 
severall parts thereof," etc. From this unjust and untruthful 
statement it is clear that Mabbott desired to attack the 
King domes Weekly Intelligencer, also published on Tuesdays, 
the writer of which was, as has been seen, a staunch de- 
fender of his King. The temperate reply of its author goes 
far to justify the estimate of him already given: " Eeader, 
there was the last week a supernumerary Moderate Intelligencer 
which was extant with this. At his first entrance, the better 
to cry up his own intelligence, he made it his businesse to 
cry down this, by which you may discern from what spirit it 
proceeded. To do an injury and to add detraction to increase 
it is double discourtesie." 

The Moderate became known later on as the Levellers' 
organ, and at the end of this year was the most infamous 
periodical that had yet appeared. Mabbott not only clam- 
oured for the King's death, but, in the cruel and foul accusa- 
tions he dared to bring against the King at the time of his 
death, 1 he exhibits himself as a shameless liar and an ignoble 
and cowardly wretch, whose ultimate success in life it is not 
pleasant to record the more so that he (of all men) was 
singled out for reward by Charles II. 

In September a curious little periodical appeared amongst 
the crowd of strangely named Royalist Mercuries A Catholic 

1 See the Moderate, 30th January to 6th February, 1649, pp. 289, 290. 
It appears from this number that Dr. Juxon was deprived of a prayer- 
book when ministering to the King. 

8 



106 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

priest evidently attempted to put in a word in season with 
Mercurius Catholicus, Communicating his Intelligence from the most 
Learned Protestant Writers to Simple People how they may know 
which must needs be the True Christian Religion. The writer 
was probably Father Thomas Budd, who is to be found 
as a prisoner in Newgate in the following year, and who 
remained in prison for four years, feis line of argument 
was an anticipation of Bossuet's Variations des Eglises Pro- 
testantes. It was, of course, not difficult to capture the vendor 
(probably the writer himself) of a periodical of this kind. 

On 10th October one more new writer appeared in the 
person of John Harris, with Mercurius Militaris an organ 
written on behalf of the army and also clamouring for the 
King's death. John Harris " Oxford Jack " was originally 
a poor players' boy of the Company of the Revels at Oxford, 1 
who, on the abolition of stage plays, had become a printer, 
entering into partnership with Henry Hills in Pennifarthing 
Street, Oxford. Education was easy to obtain in his native 
town, and Harris had subsequently written pamphlets under 
the anagrammatic pseudonym of Sirrahniho. He and Hills 
had then ingratiated themselves with the army, and had 
carried a printing press about with it. 2 

Mercurius Militaris came to an end on 21st November, and 
at the time of the King's death John Harris was one of those 
who stood on the scaffold. His wife did not apparently 
share his views ; but was a Royalist, and after her death, on 
31st October, 1649, Wharton wrote an elegy to her memory. 3 
Harris, having been a printer to the army, naturally found it 
easy to obtain the rank of a commissioned officer, a rank 
which probably few English gentlemen would have accepted 

l Me,rcwrius Impartialis, No. 1, 5th-12th December, 1648 ; the Eoyal 
Diurnallfor King Charles II., No. 1, 25th February, 1650 ; and the Man 
in the Moon, No. 48, 13th-20th March, 1650, p. 374. 

2 For Hills' character see A View of the Actions of H. Hills, etc., 
1684. 

3U In Memory of that Lively Pattern of True Piety and Unstained 
Loyalty Mrs. Susanna Harris the Vertuous Wife of Capt. John Harris." 



"LUKE HARRUNEY," LICENSER 107 

in 1648 and 1649, and was afterwards known as Captain and 
subsequently Major John Harris. In November, 1654, he was 
convicted of forging Cromwell's signature and seal and of 
obtaining 900 by it, 1 but he does not seem to have been 
punished. After the Restoration, on Monday, 3rd September, 
1660, he was hanged at St. Mary Axe for theft and burglary. 
Wharton states that he was also the author of Mercurius 
Anti-Mercurius, which appeared in 1648, and his testimony, 
as an Oxford townsman, is valuable as to the authorship of 
Bellicus and other periodicals. 

In August, 1648, Henry Walker also fell foul of Mabbott. 
The House of Lords had granted Walker a licence to print 
his Occurrences on 30th June, probably owing to some 
attempted interference with him on the part of Mabbott at 
that time, and on 16th August Walker petitioned the House, 
complaining that Mabbott, in contempt of their order, had 
sent men to break his printers' presses and told them that he 
would bear them out. Mabbott, he alleged in his petition, 
" collected the intelligence of Mondays journal " (i.e., Pecke's 
Perfect Diurnall) " and other sheets of news which was worth 
much more, and being both writer and licenser had liberty to 
make use of what he pleased to advance his own writing and 
to leave out to disparage others. For these reasons, when 
he licensed under his master John Rushworth the House of 
Commons put him out." 

Walker asked for a confirmation of the Lords' order, and 
that they would consider whether Mabbott was fit to be con- 
tinued as licenser. 2 He was thereupon authorised to license 
his own pamphlet, and subsequently did so in a curious way, 
by appending the name of " Luke Harruney " (as if licenser) 
to Perfect Occurrences, professing to be " collected by Henry 
Walker". The year closed with Walker triumphantly 

1 Mercurius Fumigosus, No. 26, 22nd-30th November, 1654, pp. 224, 
225 ; also No. 28, 6th-13th December, p. 241. This describes him as 
" Oxford Jack " and identifies the Harris of military rank with the printer. 
"The Speech of Major John Harris," etc., 1660. 

" Hist. MSS. Commission, 7th Report, p. 70 b. 

* 



108 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM 

issuing, besides supplements to his Occurrences in the shape 
of Packets of Letters, an additional periodical, called Heads 
of a Diarie, and utilising to the full the journalistic op- 
portunities given him by the attack of the army on the King 
and Parliament. He also published Collections of Notes at 
the Kings Tryall. These are to be identified by the name 
of his printer, Ibbitson. 






CHAPTER VII. 

1649. 



IT might have seemed probable that one result of the occupa- 
tion of London by the army in December, 1648, would have 
been the total suppression of the Royalist Mercuries. Such, 
however was not the case. Obviously beaten from pillar to 
post, they still contrived to " hang out their flag of defiance," 
though one of the first things General Fairfax did was to 
turn his attention to them. On 9th January, 1649, he issued 
a warrant, printed and published, to Captain Richard 
Laurence, Provost-Marshal-General of the Army, setting out 
the Ordinance of 28th September, 1647, the House of 
Commons Licensing Order of 14th June, 1643, and the Act 
of the City Common Council dated 9th October, 1643, and 
directing the provost-marshal to put them all into execution. 
The Levellers on 19th January presented their petition 
against the warrant and in favour of unlicensed printing, 
but no concession was made. The result of this warrant was 
that bands of soldiers broke into houses, sometimes with 
forged warrants, robbing and stealing right and left, 1 and 
brought such opprobrium upon Captain Laurence that he 
eventually refused to act any longer. Henry Walker in his 
Perfect Occurrences for 6th April makes the following not 
particularly honest comment on the fact : 

1 Mercurius Pragmaticus, No. 45, 13th-20th February, 1649 ; Perfect 
Occurrences, No. 118, 30th March to 6th April, 1649, pp. 922, 923, 931 and 
933. References to the outrages committed by soldiers are numerous and 
continuous in all the newsbooks. On 13th February, 1648/9, Fairfax 
issued a proclamation against his soldiers demanding money by threats 
and seizing people without warrants (669, f. 13 (88)). 

109 



110 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

" The Marshall Generall seeing that some who were 
imployed by him were put upon such things as tended rather 
to private men's interests rather than to a publique good 
acquainted the Lord Generall therewith and desired of his 
Excellency that he might be discharged of the businesse 
about printing, for the man is so gallant, that what tends 
to a common good, he will ingage the last interest he is able 
but not to prejudice the publique for any man's relations. 
The generall hath granted his desire so that if any pretend 
to act in the business concerning printing as under the 
Marshall generall they have no authority from him to do it." 

At the same time the order to the army against un- 
licensed books was suspended, " thinking thereby to catch 
the authors," says Pragmaticus, but "hould a blow some are 
wiser than some. That scarlet cut-throat and scelestic 
Regicide Bradshaw I hear hath desired to have the manag- 
ing of that businesse and will take some such new course 
as was never taken yet." * 

The course taken was the passing of the " Treason " Act 
on 14th May, confirmed by the Coining Act of 17th July, 
and aimed directly at the Royalists and the Royalist Mer- 
curies. This Act provided that "if any person should mal- 
iciously or advisedly publish by writing, printing or openly 
declaring " that the " Commonwealth " was " tyrannical, usurped, 
or unlawful" or that " the Commons in Parliament assembled 
were not the supreme authority of the nation," he should be 
guilty of high treason. Hanging, drawing and quartering 
were thus threatened the Royalist writers, who were not 
slow in replying to the Act. One and all copied and parodied 
its provisions in set terms, for the express purpose of com- 
mitting the "crime" which it set up, and that in the most 
offensive manner possible. 2 

1 Mercwius Pragmaticus, No. 49, 3rd-10th April, 1649. 

2 " I . . . advisedly and sincerely from my heart openly declare 
protest before men and angels that the present government (by the pow( 
of the sword) is tyrannical usurped and unlawful. And that the presei 
juncto of Traytors and Regicids who falsely call themselves a Parliamei 



NEW PKOVOST-MARSHALS 111 

At the same time the number of Mercuries increased, 
and quite a quantity of counterfeits of Pragmaticus and Elenc- 
ticus sprang into existence. 

In the meantime, on 16th April, one new Eoyalist perio- 
dical of importance had made its appearance, called The 
Man in the Moon, Discovering a World of Knavery under the 
Sunne, the writer of which, John Crouch, the printer, 1 was 
the last of all to be caught and suppressed. The Man in the 
Moon was a coarse and vulgar but an amusing and witty 
periodical, and the English in which it was written was 
occasionally archaic even for those times. It catered for a 
lower class than those for whom Pragmaticus and Elencticus 
were written, and took the place of Melancholicus, which defin- 
itely came to an end about the middle of the year. On 4th 
May a new Mercurius Britannicus, written by Gilbert Mabbott, 
made its appearance, but only lasted for a month. 2 

A return was then made to the system of civil Provost- 
Marshals. Provost-Marshal Zachary Bishop, appointed on 
6th June, 1649, for the North side of the Thames (Provost- 
Marshal Munk was appointed for the South), had a commis- 
sion for one year, and was allowed 100 a year and twelve 
assistants at twelve pence a day each ; and he was to have more 
men if he required them. 3 He and his men were not popular ; 

are not the supream authority but the very ofial of the Nation being com- 
posed ' ex colluvie gentis ' of the very drosse and dreggs thereof. And 
that therefore I will by the help of God and as in duty bound by all 
means I can possible raise forces for the speedy and effectual destruction 
... of those tyrants who call themselves the keepers of the liberty of Eng- 
land and the Councell of State and to make the ' Saints ' of the Army cut 
one anothers throats (to save us the trouble)," etc. (Mercurius Elencticus, 
14th-21st May, 1649). 

1 Crouch was ultimately in partnership with Thomas Wilson as 
printers in Three Fox Court, Long Lane. As to his authorship, see the 
Weepers; Mercurius Pragmaticus, No. 3, lst-8th June, 1652; also the 
Faithfull Scout, No. 65, 9th-16th April, 1652. 

2 Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II. 9 No. 4, 8th-15th May, 
1649. 

3 Perfect Occurrences, No. 126, 25th May to 1st June, p. 1051 ; andi&id., 
No. 127, lst-8th June, p. 1050 ; Man in the Moon, No. 9, 5th-13th June, 
1649. 



112 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

when the soldiers were not at hand, and the people outnum- 
bered the " beagles," the latter were often cudgelled if they ar- 
rested Mercuries caught selling Royalist newsbooks, and the 
poor women were rescued. It is on record that, Alderman 
Atkins having given a Mercury woman into the custody of 
the city marshal and his assistants, on suspicion of selling 
Royalist newsbooks, a crowd assembled, and rescued the 
woman this was in the Exchange itself put the provost- 
marshal and his assistants to flight, hustled the alderman, 
" tore his ruff," and assailed him with opprobrious epithets. 1 
A " Committee of Discovery " was also set up at the begin- 
ning of June. 

At the commencement of 1649 Dr. Hackluyt had been 
recaptured and imprisoned in Peterhouse. This time he did 
not succeed in making his escape. A great amount of 
comradeship existed amongst the Cavaliers in Peterhouse 
Prison, share and share alike being the rule, and Hackluyt, as 
one that had written for the King, was admitted to partici- 
pate in the the help they received. After fifteen weeks' im- 
prisonment, however, he tired of this, and determined to 
recant and offer his services to the Regicides. Accordingly he 
commenced a new periodical which he entitled the Metropolitan 
Nuncio. 

The title was a strange one for him to choose, and, one 
would think, too suggestive of popery to be successful. This 
remarkable periodical, written in prison to curry favour with 
the Regicides, actually attempted to betray Cleiveland, 
Sheppard and John Taylor. The Mercury woman he em- 
ployed to sell it objected so much to the title, that she 
changed the name of the first number to Mercurius Militaris 
(22nd-29th May) before taking it to the printer. The Metro- 
politan Nuncio then had a short career of two numbers ; it 

1 Perfect Occurrences, No. 126, 25th May to 1st June, 1649 ; Mercurius 
Pragmaticus for King Charles II., 5th-12th June ; and Mercurius Verax, 
No. 1, 4th June, 1649. Atkins was the subject of jests which can not 
be repeated. His name became an exclamation for street boys. 



HACKLUYT CHANGES SIDES 113 

quotes with approval Milton's " Doctrine and Discipline of 
Divorce" as "having good tenents". 

In the meantime Hackluyt drew up a petition to a Mr. 
Whitaker, to be presented by him to the Council of State. 
In this he begged for pardon in a "most slavish creeping 
style," and stated that he was " daily abused and insulted by 
a crew of Heathenish Cavaliers, though prisoners, represent- 
ing your petitioner as a spie sent by the Parliament to inform 
against them, whilst themselves dayly infect the very aire 
with their horrid blasphemies ". Unfortunately for him his 
petition was discovered behind his bed, read by his fellow- 
prisoners, and subsequently published in full by John Taylor, 1 
and the " bag and basket " henceforth became his sole source 
of supply. He is never heard of again. 

John Taylor, denounced by Hackluyt as the then writer 
of Melancholicus, prudently left London on 21st June on his 
journey to see the " Wonders of the West," which he after- 
wards wrote about, and from this time Mercurius Melancholicus 
definitely came to an end. He says the journey " was no- 
thing to me being a youth of three score and ten, with a lame 
leg and a half and there is an end of the Story ". 

On 4th August he was back in London, and on 15th 
August was arrested at his famous tavern the " King's Head " 
a sign which he had to change to the u Poet's Head " his own 
head in Phoanix Alley, Long Acre (now the " Ship," in 
Hanover Court). He was afterwards released; died at 
his house at the end of the year 1653, and was buried on 5th 
December in the churchyard of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
Nothing is known of Martin Parker after this date, and he 
may have died in prison. 

Bradshaw, unscrupulous as he was, was nevertheless a law- 
yer, and, as head of the Council of State, naturally had a pre- 
dilection for the forms of law, so a number of warrants for the 
arrest of Koyalists now appear in the State Papers. About the 

1 Mercurius Melancholicus for King Charles II., No. 3, 31st. May 
to 7th June, 1649 ; Mercurius Elenciicus, No. 9, 18th-25th June, 1649. 



114 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM 

12th of March Wharton was again captured and committed to 
Newgate. He had so openly announced his intention of com- 
passing Bradshaw's death, that it might be expected that he at 
least would have been put to death. On the 12th of August, 
however, he once more escaped, and, more truculent than 
ever, resumed the writing of Elencticus, which in the interval 
had been carried on by Sheppard, who* attached his motto 
" Quis me impune lacessit " to the periodical. 

On the 15th of June, 1649, a warrant was issued for the 
arrest of Marchamont Nedham, who was captured and com- 
mitted to Newgate. He made his escape, and another warrant, 
directed to the Keeper of Newgate, on the 14th of August, re- 
sulted in his final capture. Eager as the Council of State were 
to obtain writers to defend them, there could be but little doubt 
of the result once they had Nedham safely in hold. Brad- 
shaw treated him fairly, Anthony a Wood tells us, and as 
Milton, according to the same authority, afterwards became 
his " crony," it was not long before he once more changed 
his opinions, took the engagement to be faithful to the 
Commonwealth, and, when released on the 14th of November, 
definitely engaged himself to write for the very Eegicides 
he had so bitterly reviled. History has no personage to 
chronicle so shamelessly cynical as Marchamont Nedham, 
with his powerful pen and his political convictions ever ready 
to be enlisted on the side of the highest bidder. He even 
wrote for Charles II. in later years. 

On the 16th of April, 1649, a warrant was issued for the 
arrest of Sheppard as author and William Wright as printer 
of Elencticiis ; but it seems as if Sheppard also escaped, for an- 
other warrant for his arrest was issued on the 29th of May. 
He owed his final release (in May, 1650) to John Thurloe, 
who ultimately became Cromwell's Secretary of State. 

Leaving the Boyalist Mercuries for the moment, and re- 
turning to the licensed newsbooks, we find Mabbott at the 
commencement of the year 1649 an avowed Leveller with his 
organ the Moderate under suspicion. On the 19th of January 



MABBOTT A LEVELLEE 115 

the Lords ordered that Henry Whaley, Colonel and Advocate- 
General of the Army, and Theodore Jennings, or any one of 
them, should be joined with Mabbott to license pamphlets 
and books of news. In the result Theodore Jennings, 
messenger and general factotum to the Council of State, 1 
and, from a literary point of view, hopelessly unqualified for 
his post, did the bulk of the work. To him may be attri- 
buted the periodical entitled A Perfect Summary, or, A Perfect 
Collection, of Exact Passages, commenced on 29th January, on 
Mondays, in opposition to Pecke's Perfect Diurnall. Walker 
was also opposed by The Kingdomes Faithfull Scout, written by 
Border, and a great deal of characteristic quarrelling between 
the two periodicals was the result. Border at first attempted 
to imitate Walker's Hebrew, to the latter's disgust ; and after- 
wards confining himself to Greek, vaunted the supremacy of 
that language as a source of religion and philosophy. 

The Levellers had been in open insurrection, and the 
Council of State was doing its best to suppress them. On 
7th May the Council appointed a committee to examine 
Mabbott as to his having licensed a pamphlet called the 
Agreement of the People, a pamphlet of Lilburne's reissued 
by him on 1st May, and others, and directed Sir Henry 
Mildmay to inform the House of Commons that, as divers 
dangerous books and pamphlets had been printed with his 
license, he should be discharged of his trust and care be taken 
to suppress such books and pamphlets especially that known 
as the Moderate. 2 On 22nd May accordingly Mabbott was 
discharged, and the preparation of a new Act for the re- 
gulation of the press ordered to be taken in hand. 3 They 
do not, however, seem to have dared to entirely suppress the 
Moderate, henceforth licensed by Jennings, until the month 
of September, so dangerous had the Levellers become. 

1 The references to him in the Calendars of State Papers are numer- 
ous. 

2 Cal. State Papers Dom., 1649-50, p. 127. 
3 Commons Journals, 22nd May, 1649. 



116 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

An effort was now made to conciliate Mabbott, who by 
this time had become convinced that licensing was a mistake, 
since it stopped the publication of his own views, by pretend- 
ing that he had desired to be relieved of his office owing to 
conscientious scruples. Border in the Kingdomes Faithfull 
Scout writes : " Mr. Mabbott hath long desired severall mem- 
bers of the House and lately the Counsell of State to move 
the house that he might be discharged of licensing books for 
the future for the reasons following viz., 1. Because many 
thousands of scandalous and malignant pamphlets have been 
published with his name thereunto as if he had licensed the 
same, though he never saw them, on purpose as he conceives 
to prejudice him in his reputation among the honest party 
of the nation. 2. Because that employment as he conceives 
is unjust and illegal as to the end of its first institution viz., 
to stop the presse from publishing anything that might dis- 
cover the corruption of church and State in the time of 
Popery Episcopacy and tyranny, the better to keep the people 
in ignorance and carry on their Popish, Factious, Traitorous 
and Tyrannical designs for the enslaving and destruction both 
of the bodies and souls of all the free people of this nation. 
3. Because licensing is as great a monopoly as ever was in 
this nation in that all men's judgments reasons etc., are to be 
bound up in the licensers (as to Licensing) for if the author of 
any sheet, book, or treatise write not to please the fancie and 
come within the compass of the licensers judgment, then he 
is not to receive any stamp of authority for publishing there- 
of. 4. Because it is lawful in his judgment to print any book 
sheet etc., without licensing, so as the authors and printers 
do subscribe their names thereunto that so they may be liable 
to answer the contents thereof, and if they offend therein, 
then to be punished by such laws as are or shall be for those 
cases provided. A committee of the Councell of State, being 
satisfied with these and other reasons of Mr. Mabbott's con- 
cerning licensing, the Council of State report to the House 
upon which the House ordered this day that the said Mr. 



THE SCOUT SUPPKESSED 117 

Mabbott should be discharged of licensing books for the 
future." 1 

It is easy to be wise after the event, and, if Mabbott had 
enunciated these views a year or two previously, he might 
have been hailed as a champion of the liberty of the press. 
As it is, his theories clearly were invented to " save his face," 
and to set against this there is the Council of State's own 
note of what really took place. 

A week later Henry Walker, the enemy of both Mabbott 
and Border, the author of the Scout, replied: "I am desired 
to insert here something in behalf of Mr. Whaley Judge 
advocate to the Army whose name was last week printed to 
not only malignant lyes of newes from beyond the seas in the 
pamphlet called the Weekly Scout, but of his imprimatur 
to some ridiculous vaine absurd proposition therein in the 
name of Mr. Mabbott as that Licensing is a monopoly, and 
his judgment to be delivered to the Council of State that 
everyone may print what he list and the like. For my own 
part I dare say Mr. Mabbott hath had 100 of me and my 
acquaintance first and last for licensing, and it is the custome 
of all countries, and those things were never so much as 
showed to the judge advocate who hath made complaint to 
the Councell of State about it." 2 

Walker, who, as John Crouch amusingly remarks, " con- 
stantly rubbed his face with a brasse candlestick to justify 
the unjustest of his actions," then succeeded in inducing 
Theodore Jennings to prohibit the Scout's appearance. 

On 15th June the Scout appeared with an exposure of 
Walker : " the said Walkers Occurrences are stuft up with 
abundance of fallacious passages etc., and he formerly was 
ashamed to subscribe his name thereunto, but instead thereof 
gave it this badge or Cloak to cover his knavery collected 

1 The Kingdomes Faithfull and Impartiall Scout, No. 16, 25th May to 
1st June, 1649, p. 143. It will be noticed that all this is from the 
Areopagitica. 

2 Perfect Occurrences, No. 127, lst-8th June, 1649, p. 1051. 



118 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

by Luke Harruney cleric ... he is not H. Walker cleric, 
but Henry Walker the quondam ironmonger". This was 
written by Wood, the publisher of the Scout, Border having 
been frightened out of the field. 

Perfect Occurrences for 22nd June contained the following 
note at the end : 

" I desire all people to take notice that I denie to give 
any authority to a Pamphlet called the Kingdomes Weekly Scout 
because the Commonwealth hath been so extremely abused 
by it by Eob. Wood of Grub Street who contrives false in- 
ventions at an ale house to adde to it what he fancies as news 
after Mr. Border the author hath write it and the Licenser 
perused it, and thus he hath abused the Judges advocate and 
my selfe and the Commonwealth, and the author who did it 
formerly doth now disclaim it, refusing any more to write it 
for him and if he be so impudent as still to publish it I desire 
all those whom it concerns to suppress it that the people may 
not be cheated by it. 

"Imprimatur, Theo. Jennings." 

Wood, who must have been a Presbyterian, replying on 
26th June, addressed Walker as : 

" That invective apostate Luke Harruney alias Henry 
Walker; who (to accomplish his own self interests and by ends) 
takes upon him the impudence to carry on his design with 
the Lord President and Counsell of State under this notion 
or shadow ' That this sheete takes its derivation from the sin- 
ewes of malignancy '. In consideration whereof I here make 
my appeal to all rationall and judiciall men freely laying my- 
self open to their favourable construction there being not 
anything contained therein destructive or prejudiciall to the 
present Government or authority. Therefore Sirrah know 
that a'though I cannot nor will not lye by thee, yet I am re- 
solved to live and stand near thee and instead of draining 
out such an unsavoury and poysoned fountain at Westmin. 
thy present habitation or going to Hell and purgatory (thy 



23 fitly 




A Tuefdaies Journall 

ofPerfedlPaflages 
IN 

PARLIAMENT- 

Proceedings of the Cowcell of State : And other 

MODERATE INTELLIGENCE. 

Prom His Excellency the Lord Gencrall Fairfaxes Army, and othe* pares. 
From Tuefday 17 fylj to Tutfday Jutj 2$ x 649. 



Printed at London fas Robert Ittitfou dwelling in SmkhfieUI, 1649. 



Ninn 



defcription of the Garden of H,den 9 as to the 



Stfjming Ttttfd*i l-jjttlj. 

A NdtbcGolelof 'that Land if good, Gen 2,12. 3ft3 
+L\. This was iparc of the defcription of the Ga 
praJfeofit. 

An At>paflcd touching theMonies and Coynes of E N GLAND. 
The Twenty (hillings lo s. and 5 s. pieces of Gold , (teinpeD ontye one ODe 
loin) fte Croflc, and a Mm and Stature!, 1st 1*9 t^efe tea$, The Commonwealth 
of EN c L A N D5SB5 cm tfje on)er Soe teitlj tlje Croffb and I5arp, toitfi t^sfe fc?^n, 
God with us : aD fo? fitter monieSj pieces of If fte OiiUngs,and pieces cf 2Ctoo 
HjtlUngs and fijr pence* aim pieces of SLtselbe pence^and pieces of0jt pence, fjsbins 
t^efanieMlo^s, ^ntcctpttons, ^f(tunsand0rmSQU cscft fioe as t|je fojmcr; 
Sift pieces of 2Ltoo pence, and fl>we penp, ftsbiiiff ft>e fame $N(tus and jSrstis Sf 
i!?efo?nur,,toittjoutang^o^^3ifcripti8ns5au0t^^ 

A W* 



WOOD DENOUNCES WALKEK 119 

future and meritorious sanctuary) I shall apply myself to 
such members of the army, from whence proceeds the most 
true and certain intelligence, and know that if thou dost not 
speedily desist from thy selfish and base actions I shall pre- 
sent unto thee an object of t err our and repentance and de- 
prive thee of Dick Brandon's place, the late Hang-man which 
thou hast so earnestly importuned and solicited for to bestow 
upon a friend of thy own, provided thou mayst have half 
shares with him in all the dayes of his execution. Pure 
Villain. Hast thou not had trades enough already, but thou 
must still claim interest in one more ? Is it not apparent 
that thou hast been a decayed ironmonger, a petty fogging 
bookseller, a fantasticall Hackler, a schismatical conventicler, 
and a most impudent lying and deceitful newsmonger both 
against State and Commonwealth, by which means thou hast 
defrauded the people of many hundred pounds and hast 
turned thy threedbare coat to garments of silk and satins. 
But the time may come when thou shalt pay for all notwith- 
standing thy late impudency in saying, That if thy beagles 
could but once catch me, thou wouldst fasten on and bite me, 
and that I should lie under restraint a fortnight or three 
weeks before I should come to a hearing." 

He then sets out his petition to Bradshaw. In the result, 
and in spite of a warrant having been issued for his arrest, he 
gained his desire ; but Walker was allowed to publish another 
newsbook on Tuesdays, entitled Tuesdaies Journall, in ad- 
dition to his Friday's newsbook which was reduced to half 
its size. 

The great desire of Henry Walker's heart was gratified 
in August, and his services to the Independent cause were 
recognised by his being beneficed. On 15th July he preached 
at the King's Chapel, Whitehall, what was evidently a trial 
sermon, the printed copy of which is full of Hebrew quota- 
tions, and chose with his usual infelicity the admirably ap- 
propriate text " Beware of false prophets ". He was given a 

9 



120 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM 

living at Uxbridge, within a convenient distance of London, 
and did not stop the publication of his newsbooks. 1 

By the end of September, 1649, the measures taken against 
the Levellers had been so far successful, that the Act of 
Parliament decided upon by the Commons on 22nd May 
was passed, entitled " An Act against unlicensed and scandal- 
ous books and pamphlets and for the better regulation of 
Printing". It was dated 20th September, and was directed 
against " Scandalous seditious and libellous pamphlets, papers 
and pictures" (of which it gave no definition). The news- 
books were also affected by it, though they were not its main 
object. 

In this the Levellers' petition of 19th January for the 
liberty of unlicensed printing was answered 

1. By the order that all existing Acts and ordinances were 
to be put into execution. 

2. By the increase of all the penalties for " Scandalous 
seditious and libellous," etc., books and pamphlets ; the 
following fines were imposed : 

(a) On the author 10 or 40 days' imprisonment. 
(6) On the printer 5 or 20 days' imprisonment. 

(c) On the bookseller 2 or 10 days' imprisonment. 

(d) On the buyer 1 if he did not within 24 hours bring 
any such document to the mayor or a justice of the peace and 
disclose the vendor. 

3. These penalties were also to apply to unlicensed news- 

1 Crouch's comment is f ' That pillory earwigge Walker is benefic'd 
(some say) about Uxbridge. ... Be it known to the parish where he 
teacheth, That he is a ravening wolfe an impudent lyar and a cheat, 
and if ye have no better pastor than Judas, the whole parish are more 
liker to be cuckolds than converts. If upon sight hereof you kick him 
not out of the church the next Sunday after or the Wednesday following 
the Man in the Moon will send his blessing into the whole parish. What ! 
Must such rogues preach and orthodox learned divines perish for want of 
food. O tempus ! O mores ! " (Man in the Moon, 30th August to 5th Sep- 
tember, 1649.) As a result of this he really seems to have been driven- 
out of the parish. He appears to have been occasionally mobbed by the 
boys in the streets (Colchester Spie, No. 2, 10th-17th August, 1648). 



OPPEESSION OF THE PEESS 121 

books, all existing licences to which were revoked, and three 
new licensers of newsbooks were appointed : 

(a) The Clerk of the Parliament. 

(6) Such person as should be authorised by the Council 
of State. 

(c) For so much as might concern the affairs of the Army, 
the Secretary of the Army. 

This Act lasted 'for two years only, and expired on 
Michaelmas Day, 1651. 

As this is one of the most oppressive of all English legal 
enactments against the press, so also it is one of the lengthiest. 
Two other sections must be noticed as affecting the news- 
books. Every printer was to enter into a bond, with two 
sureties in the sum of 300 by 1st October, that he would 
not print anything " scandalous, treasonable," etc., against 
the Government. Finally all hawkers, mercuries and ballad 
singers (as such) were to be at once arrested, to have their 
stock taken from them, and to be sent to the House of Cor- 
rection to be whipped. 

One measure that the Act did not contemplate was the 
total suppression of licensed newsbooks : and it is necessary 
to emphasise this in view of what followed. Strict as the 
censorship of books had been hitherto, they were licensed 
now with a rigour that had never been experienced before. 
As the entries in the Stationers' Eegisters abundantly prove, 
the Council of State became censors. The Man in the Moon 
on 26th September exclaims: "This is liberty! Where be 
the bishops now ? Who stops the mouth of the Press now ? 
This is no tyranny, no persecution. No ! Liberty, Mercy, 
Propriety, Justice ! Now must truth seek new corners, the 
beagles are on the scent already." 

The day after the Act was passed (on 21st September) 
the following entry occurs in the Council of State's books : 
"Ordered that Mr. Frost shall be the person whom the 
Councell of State doth authorise to publish" (i.e., to write) 

''intelligence every week upon Thursday according to an 

9* 



122 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

Act of Parliament for that purpose". 1 Frost was the Secre- 
tary to the Council of State, and, as he was also spy-master 
and manager of the "committee-hackneys" employed to 
hunt down the Royalists, it is quite evident that he 
would have had little time to spare for licensing the press 
had the Council of State decided to appoint any one person 
as a licenser. They did not, however, come to such a de- 
cision, and Frost was not appointed licenser. 

The new Act came into force on the 1st of October, and by 
the 12th of October, without any special order for the purpose, 
every one of the newsbooks had been swept out of existence. 
The whole licensed press was thus abolished, and remained 
suppressed until the middle of the following year 1650. 
For the licensed newsbooks were substituted two official 
journals ; and the oligarchy ruling England " by the power 
of the sword " themselves turned newsmongers, a fact in it- 
self sufficient to justify suspicion of the journals they published. 

On Tuesday (Frost had been authorised to publish intelli- 
gence every Thursday), 2nd October, and every subsequent 
Tuesday, the first number of A Brief Relation appeared, bear- 
ing the mark "Published by authority". The second 
number (9th October) was marked "Licensed by Gualter 
Frost Esquire secretary to the Council of State according to 
the direction of the late Act ". 

On 9th October appeared a second periodical, entitled 
Severall Proceedings in Parliament, which stated that it was 
"Licensed by the Clerk of the Parliament," at that time 
Henry Scobell. The first three numbers of this also ap- 
peared on Tuesdays, indicating some confusion in the 
arrangements ; but the fourth and succeeding numbers ap- 
peared on Fridays. 

For the licensed newsbooks, therefore, one and sometimes 
more of which had appeared every day, 2 were substituted 

1 S. P. Dom., Interregnum, I. 63, p. 95. 

2 The last dates of appearance of the newsbooks in the Thomason Col- 
lection are as follows : the Impartiall Intelligencer, 19th September ; the 



LICENSED NEWSBOOKS SUPPEESSED 123 

two official periodicals. Of these, one, as it was concerned 
during this year chiefly with parliamentary proceedings and 
written by its "licenser" Scobell, need not further be 
noticed; the other, giving all the news from Ireland and 
outside London, was of course written, as the Council of 
State's direction shows, by its secretary Frost. A third 
periodical appeared on 17th December, and every Monday 
after, and was entitled A Perfect Diurnall of some Passages and 
Proceedings of and in Relation to the Armies, and was licensed 
by John Eushworth, who then described himself as Secretary 
to the Army. It should be noticed that the title of this peri- 
odical was not the same as that of Pecke's Perfect Diurnall of 
the Passages of Parliament. 

The licensed press, as already stated, remained suppressed 
until the end of June, 1650, and nothing but the three periodi- 
cals mentioned appeared during the interval. The Eoyalist 
Mercuries now become exceedingly valuable, not only as 
confirming this but for the light they throw upon its cause. 

" No Perfect Diurnall, no Moderate, no Weekly Intelligencer, no 
Weekly Account, no Moderate Intelligencer, no Occurrences, no 
Faithfull Scout, no Modest Narrative, all wafted away by the 
breath of Jack Bradshaw and only A Briefe Relation of some 
Affaires and Transactions Civill and Military, Forraigne and 
Domestique tolerated. And that licensed by Long Gualter, 
secretary to the Councill of Coxcombs," writes Mercurius 
Elencticus (No. 25, for 15th-22nd October, 1649) in surprise, 
and the Man in the Moon (No. 26, for 17th-24th October, 1649) 
comments in a similar strain upon the writers. 

Modest Narrative, 22nd September ; the Moderate Messenger, 24th Sep- 
tember ; and the Moderate, 25th September. These may all be taken, 
therefore, as written more or less in the Levellers' interests. The re- 
mainder which survived the Act (which came into operation on 1st 
October) were : A Perfect Summary, 1st October ; the Moderate Intelli- 
gencer, 4th October ; the Perfect Diurnall, 8th October ; the Kingdomes 
Weekly Intelligencer, 9th October ; the Perfect Weekly Account, 10th Oc- 
tober ; and Perfect Occurrences, and the Kingdomes Faithfull and Impar- 
tiall Scout, 12th October. 



124 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

Elenctious declares he will find out the writer of the all-im- 
portant periodical A Brief Relation, evidently suspecting Ned- 
ham, and in No. 27, for 29th October to 5th November, tells us, 
" I have at length upon diligent inquiry found out the scribbler 
of the Brief Relation, who is not (as once I was told) one of 
our owne party, but even Long Gualter himself who is both 
author and licenser for he puts it licensed by Gualter Frost 
(the quondam manciple of St. John's in Cambridge if I bee 
not deceived) who before he writ himselfe esquire, wrote two 
almanacks every yeare, one in his owne name the other in 
the same anagramatiz'd ' Stroff ' for which hee had four 
pounds yeerly from the Company of Stationers but left of 
that employment so soon as he found a more profitable in 
the service of the rebels which he hath enjoyed ever since the 
beginning of the first warre." 

The only mistake in this account is, that Walter Frost 
was servant at Emmanuel College, not St. John's, 1 and after 
coming to London had been sword-bearer to the Lord Mayor 
before entering the rebels' service. The Calendars of State 
Papers contain numerous entries which show that he had 
been engaged, in one capacity or another, since the year 1643, 
in looking after the intelligencers or spies. The Koyalist 
Mercuries all along furnish a running commentary on the 
people he employed, and chronicle the fates of thieves and 
coiners like Thomas Verney, Eud, Mathews, Holt and 
others with an evident sincerity which leaves no doubt of its 
absolute accuracy (a typical example is the scion of a noble 
house like Verney). 

Walter Frost, ex-menial servant, masquerading with a 
Latinised Christian name and the title of " Esquire," and 
posing as licenser of a journal which he himself wrote, does 
not inspire confidence in his periodical A Brief Relation ; and 
the extremely sinister fact that this periodical and its supple- 
ments are the only official accounts of the admittedly appal- 

1 George Atwell, The Faithful Surveyor, 1662, p. 81. Almanacs by 
W. Strof and W. Frost are in existence for 1626 and 1627. 



THE MASSACEE OF DEOGHEDA 125 

ling slaughter committed by Cromwell in Ireland during the 
months of September and October, 1649, at the taking of 
Drogheda and Wexford, enhances the importance of the total 
suppression of the licensed press in its bearing upon the ques- 
tion of how far Cromwell's massacres extended. If he took 
the towns by deliberate treachery, and also indiscriminately 
slaughtered defenceless men, women and children, the only 
estimate of him which can be made must be entirely de- 
structive of the favourable one which has been drawn up in 
later years with such laborious efforts. Furthermore, the 
sudden and total suppression of the licensed press strongly 
justifies the statement that material facts were concealed, 
and gives an adequate reason for the sharp discrepancy be- 
tween Frost's accounts and the terrible stories of slaughter 
of defenceless women and unarmed men which all other 
authorities, without exception, recount. 

After the Act of 20th September, all the newsbooks which 
appeared were licensed, prior to their suppression, by Eichard 
Hatter as Secretary to the Army. Yet on 2nd October, 
the Council of State wrote to Sir John Wollaston, stating 
that they did not " know him to be secretary to the army and 
if he were he hath no power to licence anything but those of 
the Army ". 1 Six days after this letter he was, nevertheless, 
still licensing, and on 8th October the last number of Pecke's 
Perfect Diurnall appeared . This distinctly states that treachery 
was used at the surrender of Drogheda, asserting that the 
governor was "persuaded" to surrender and "to go into the 
windmill on the top of the mount and as many more of the 
chiefest of them as it could contain, where they were disarmed 
and afterwards all slain". It also contains an account of the 
slaughter of the people in the church, that is unarmed towns- 
folk, for mass had been said there the previous Sunday. 

1 This was not correct. Cf. "A Declaration of the Proceedings of his 
Excellency the Lord General Fairfax," etc. " Appointed by his Excellency 
and his Councell of War to be printed and published and signed by their 
order May 22, 1649. Richard Hatter Seer." (E. 556 (1)). Rushworth 
was evidently Cromwell's nominee. 



126 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

Samuel Pecke was never again permitted to have a news- 
book of his own ; and was only employed as Eushworth's sub- 
author, on the institution of the latter's Perfect Diurnal . . . 
of the Armies. When, on the revival of the licensed news- 
books in 1650, he attempted also to revive his Perfect Diurnall 
of some Passages in Parliament, it appears to have been at once 
suppressed, and for the rest of his career he was Eushworth's 
deputy. 

On 8th January, 1650, the Council of State paid Thomas 
Waring the large sum of 100 for "compiling a book of the 
bloody massacres in Ireland," * and from this retelling of the 
old tale of 1641 it is evident they felt the necessity of justify- 
ing their own butcheries. On 3rd October, 1649, they pub- 
lished A Declaration of the Parliament of England in vindication 
of their Proceedings , etc., which can only be described as out- 
rageous under the circumstances. 

On 5th November, 1649, the last number of Mercurius 
Elencticus appeared, and on 21st November Wharton was re- 
captured and committed to the Gatehouse at Westminster. 
Wharton had been so thorough-going and consistent an enemy 
of Bradshaw, calling him a rogue and a thief, exposing his 
perjury in taking the Serjeants' oath (on 12th October, 1648), 
and announcing his own intention of killing him on sight and 
urging others to do the same, that the latter was determined 
to hang him; which he easily could have done under the 
Treason Act. It is pleasant to record of Wharton's old 
enemy Lilly, the astrologer, that, on the solicitation of Elias 
Ashmole, the antiquary, he became with Sir Bulstrode White- 
locke the means of obtaining Wharton's freedom in the 
autumn of 1650. His own account of it was : " During 
Bradshaw' s being- President of the Council of State it was 
my happiness to procure Captain Wharton his liberty, which 

1 Thomas Waring published A Brief Narrative, etc., on 19th March, 
1650, in which he states that a large volume of "depositions " was getting 
ready. Major Waring, ft son of the old cash-keeper Waring "; brother- 
in-law to Major Salway, and Cromwell's sheriff in Shropshire, was com- 
mitted to Black Rod in 1660 (Mercurius Publicus, July 12-19). 



LILLY OBTAINS WHABTON'S LIBEKTY 127 

when Bradshaw understood said 'I will be an enemy to 
Lilly, if ever he come before me '. Sir Bolstrode Whitelocke 
broke the ice first of all on behalf of Capt. Wharton, after 
him the Committee unto whom his offence had been com- 
mitted spoke for him, and said he might well be bailed and 
enlarged. I had spoken to the committee the morning of his 
delivery who thereupon were so civil to him, especially Sir 
William Ermin" (Armine) "of Lincolnshire, but upon my 
humble request my long continued antagonist was enlarged 
and had his liberty." 

George Wharton made his public acknowledgments to 
Lilly in his almanac for 1651, and was befriended by Ashmole 
until the Restoration, when he was appointed treasurer and 
paymaster to the office of the Eoyal Ordnance. He continued 
to publish almanacs (and bad verse), and was created a 
baronet in 1677. He died at his home in Enfield, in August, 
1681, and was buried in the chapel of the Tower of London. 
At the end of the year 1649 Mercurius Pragmaticus for King 
Charles II. and the Man in the Moon were the only Eoyalist 
periodicals in existence. 

The Massacres of Drogheda and Wexford. In addition to the docu- 
ments set out in Gilbert's Contemporary History of Ireland, vol. ii., 
the Appendix to Lingard, and the account in Anthony a Wood's " Life " 
in the Athence Oxonienses (vol. i., p. xx.), the Royalist Mercuries are 
valuable as showing the steps taken to suppress private letters. Elencticus 
prints two or three letters from a correspondent in Dublin. 

Hugh Peters, who sent the first account of the taking of Drogheda 
to Henry Walker (note to p. 77), was Colonel of a regiment of foot at the 
time (Man in the Moon, No. 25, 10th to 17th Oct., 1649, and John Endecote 
to John Winthrop, 28th April, 1650, in the Collections of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, vol. vi., p. 153). Earlier in the year Peters was out of 
his mind (Mercurius Elencticus, No. 9, 18th to 25th June, 1649). He was 
mad again in 1656 (Clarke Papers, vol. iii., p. 66). 

The following letter from Mr. Buck to Ralph Verney shows Crom- 
well's conduct in the worst possible light : 

" Your brother and my deare friend, Sir Edmund Varny, who be- 
haved himself with the greatest gallentry that could be he was slaine at 
Drahoda, three dayes after quarter was given him, as he was walkinge w th 
Crumwell by way of protection. One Ropier, who is brother to the Lord 



128 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

Ropier, caled him aside in a pretence to speak w* h him, beinge formerly 
of acquaintance, and insteade of some frendly office wc h Sir Ed. might 
expect from him, he barberously rann him throw w th a tuck, but I am 
confident to see this act once highly revenged. The next day after, one 
IA Col. Boyle, who had quarter likewise given him, as he was at dinner 
w th mv Lady More, sister to the Earle of Sunderland, in the same Towne, 
one of Cromwell's souldiers came and whispred him in the eare, to tell 
him he must presently be put to deth, who risinge from the table, the 
lady aske him whither he was goeinge, he answered, 'Madam to dye/ 
who noe sooner steped out of the roome but hee was shott to deth. These 
are cruelties of those traitors, who noe doubt will finde the like mercie 
when they stand in neede of it " (Memoirs of the Verney Family during the 
Civil War, by Lady F. P. Verney, vol. ii., pp. 344-345). 

" A Mixt Poem " (1660) by John Crouch (who was not Crouch the 
journalist) has the following : 

" But where is Cromwell, once so gay and brave 
Thief of three kingdoms, now not worth a grave 
Where's that prodigious Camel whose strong back 
Carried three nations treasure for its pack 
That Crocodile, that murtherer of Souls 
The whale that shov'd men out o'th world by shoals 
Whose rage spar'd no degree, no sex, whose pride 
Would nothing that opposed it, abide. 
Ask poor Tredah the number of her slain 
Whose streets had only silence to complain 
Where piles on piles of dead, wide breaches fill'd 
Which cool blood butcher'd, and wild fury kill'd 
One person (he a priest *) the storm did passe 
To tell how kind the Sacrificer was." 

* " Dr. Bernard " (Crouch's note at the side). Dr. Nicholas Bernard 
was preacher at Gray's Inn, Cromwell's chaplain, and took sides in a con- 
troversy against Heylin. These facts render it clear that this Irish Protes- 
tant was neither an impartial, nor (as the last line of the quotation hints) 
a truthful witness as to what took place at Drogheda. 



CHAPTEK VIII. 

1650-59. 

IN 1650 only two new Eoyalist periodicals appeared, the 
Eoyal Diurnall (for King Charles II.) and the misspelt Mer- 
curius Elenticus (for King Charles II.) ; and since Her- 
curius Pragmaticus asserts that the "States" were setting 
their " Eusty nuncio Walker to fly the newes again through 
the Kingdom as he hath done once or twice before," Walker 
must have been acting for Scobell as "author" of Sever all 
Proceedings. He appears to have filled this r61e henceforth 
until the extinction of that newsbook in 1655. Pecke at the 
same time acted as John Eush worth's " author," J and possibly 
Frost may have employed Dillingham or Border, but there 
is no evidence of this. The Brief Relation came to an end 
on 22nd October, 1650. 

Walker, after leaving Uxbridge, had been appointed to a 
living in Wood Street, Cheapside, as compensation for the 
loss of Perfect Occurrences, but had been no more a success 
there than he was at Uxbridge, and had been "kicked out 
of both" parishes, so that it was necessary for him to con- 
tinue his journalism. Yet a third piece of preferment fell 
to him in 1650, for he was appointed pastor at Knightsbridge, 
and, though the inhabitants of that unfortunate hamlet 

l Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II., 5th-12th February, 
1649-50, p. 5 ; ibid., 30th April to 7th May; the Weepers; and Man in 
the Moon, No. 57, 29th May to 5th June, 1650, p. 426. Walker's author- 
ship of Severall Proceedings also appears later on in his controversy with 
the Quakers, and it is to be dated from 31st January, 1650, on which day 
Severall Proceedings commenced to be published on Thursdays in lieu of 
Fridays. Probably Walker lost his second benefice about this time. 

129 



130 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

petitioned against his ministrations, he remained their pastor 
for some time. 1 

The Man in the Moons printer, Edward Crouch, had been 
captured and imprisoned in 1649, and his brother writes 
indignantly in that periodical on 16th January: "Two 
women, as I am informed, Bradshaw committed close prisoners 
to old Bridewell the last weeke . . . one of which hath her 
husband Mr. Edward Crouch lying in Newgate about print- 
ing the Man in the Moon and must there starve unless God 
feed him as He did the prophet Elijah, for being both he and 
his wife imprisoned all means of livelyhood is taken away from 
them. Another poore woman named Eatcliffe they have 
almost whipt to death and kept this quarter of a year in 
Newgate till she is scarce able to stand or goe. Good God 
is this the liberty promised ? Was ever the like persecutors ? 
Lord heare the cryes of the poore and the prisoners, and 
deliver them and this dying island from these ravening wolves 
that are now devouring us and eating up the poore as bread, 
excising and racking all commodities to that excessible rate 
that a handicraft tradesman can at the best but earn bread 
for himselfe, whilst his poore infants make their dumb com- 
plaints and famish to death even in the sight of their parents, 
that we may even now take up the sad complaint of the 
prophet Nahum Chap. 3, and say unto London ' Woe unto 
thee thou bloody citie that art full of lies and robbery the 
prey departeth not,' etc. Yet in the 17 verse let this a 
little comfort us ' That though our crowned are as locusts 
and our captaines as the great grasshoppers that camp in 
the hedges in the cold days, yet when the sun riseth they 
shall flee away, etc., and their place is not known where 
they are '. Our sun is arising to chase away these vermin, 
if we cannot help him with our purses nor our hands, O let 
our prayers never be wanting, let us turn from evil and 

l Man in the Moon, 31st October to 7th November, 1649; ibid., 9th- 
16th January, 1650, p. 303 ; Hist. MSS. Commission, 4th Report, p. 188 6, 
and cover of Walker's sermon before Cromwell on 27th June, 1650. 



" PABLIAMENT JOAN " 131 

humble ourselves and we shall soon see that their destruction 
ariseth suddenly. They will be caught in their own snare 
and fall into that pit they have digged for those more righte- 
ous than themselves." 

This is an unusually serious vein for John Crouch, and 
it is a pity the tone of some of his later periodicals is not 
so praiseworthy. 

The chief agent now employed as a spy to capture the 
Eoyalists was a woman called Elizabeth Alkin, who bore the 
nickname of "Parliament Joan". 

Though "Joan" was a name given to any ill-mannered 
or ill-kempt rustic woman, or scullery-maid, who had to do 
dirty work, Elizabeth Alkin did not earn the title of " Parlia- 
ment Joan" because she was a " peeper" out of Eoyalists 
and Koyalist writers, but by reason of the manner in which 
she had pestered the House for relief. Her husband had 
been a spy in the Parliament's service within the royal 
lines, and had been detected and hanged at Oxford. She 
was thus left without maintenance. On 2nd June, 1649, 
the Commons ordered that a house should be provided 
for "Elizabeth Alkeen a widdow," as her husband had 
"died in the parliament's service," and that "some compe- 
tent maintenance should be considered of for her and her 
children for they are in a very low condition until relieved ". 
By the end of the first week in July nothing, however, had 
been done for her, and Pecke then records that " one Jone (a 
clamorous woman) whose husband was hangd at Oxford for 
a spie and she sometimes imployed in finding out the presses 
of scandalous pamphlets," was ordered to be taken into cus- 
tody because she had showed " great incivilities to Sir James 
Harrington " (a member) and was " ordered to be sent to the 
house of correction "- 1 Which meant a whipping ! 

In the entrapping of the Mercury writers "Parliament 
Joan" soon took the lead, and it is quite clear that she 

1 The Kingdomes Faithfull Scout, lst-8th June, 1649, p. 147 ; A 
Perfect Diurnall, No. 310, 2nd-9th July, p. 2635. 



132 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

became a Mercury woman herself for the purpose. She 
soon became known : " Gentlemen," cries the Man in the Moon, 
"pray have a care of a fat woman aged about fifty her 
name I know not she is called by many ' Parliament Joan ' 
and one Smith a printer a tall thin chapt' knave, if any 
such persons come pretending to search look to yourselves 
and say Towzer gave you warning, there are some both male 
and female of the gang, that receive moneys to betray me, 
and then rob others by the same warrant "- 1 

By March, 1650, "Parliament Joan" had regained her 
place in the good graces of the authorities, and the question 
of her dwelling was again taken up ; " either the slaughter 
house belonging to the late king or some other dwelling of 
equal value " being first suggested. Eventually, however, and 
presumably in order that she might be near the Council of 
State, she was actually given lodgings in Whitehall itself. 
She had always received her instructions from Bradshaw, 
through Frost, the Secretary, and had been at once christened 
" Bradshaw' s doxy". Of Frost the Man in the Moon re- 
marks: "I believe I shall go near the next week to break 
the Ice for him, and his head to boot if he persists in his 
design against me to hire Eogues and Queans to poach 
after me for this week I give him a fair warning, the next 
week (if I hear any more) ' ha,-vat ' him I have that in my 
budget both against him and his little icicles shall thaw them 
with a vengeance and make them more infamous to the 
world than Walker himself". 

It must have been Frost's idea that " Parliament Joan " 
in her errands about the streets of London as a Mercury 
woman should take the name of " Mrs. Strof " or " Stroffe," 
the anagrammatic. pseudonym under which in years gone by 
he had written his almanacs. In the following story from 
the Man in the Moon on 4th July, 1649, we have little difficulty 
in recognising " Parliament Joan's " identity : " A hot combat 



The Man in the Moon, No. 43, 13th-20th February, 1650. 






" MRS. STROF," MERCURY WOMAN 133 

lately happened at the Salutation Tavern in Holborn where 
some of the Commonwealth's vermin called souldiers had 
seized on an Amazonian virago called Mrs. Stroffe upon 
suspition of being a loyalist and selling the Man in the 
Moons books but she by applying beaten pepper to their eyes 
disarmed them (and with their own swords) forced them to 
ask her forgiveness and down on their mary-bones and pledge 
a health to the king, and confusion to their masters the Re- 
gicides, and so honourably dismissed them. for 20,000 such 
gallant spirits to pepper the rogues you may see what 
valiant puppies your new kings be when one woman can 
beat two or three of them." 

This story shows "Parliament Joan's" method of work- 
ing, and her pretended conquest of the soldiers indicates that 
the arrest was a mistake. 

Her captures can be traced by the sums paid to her, 
always through Frost ; for they are noted in the State Papers, 
and usually amounted to 10. From posing as a " Mercury," 
and therefore necessarily running into danger of arrest where 
she was not known, the idea naturally occurred to "Parlia- 
ment Joan" of publishing and selling a newsbook with her 
own name upon it as a protection. As a matter of course, 
through her influence with the Council of State, she easily 
obtained a license for her Mercurius Anglicus and Modern 
Intelligencer, published at Henry Walker's address The 
Fountain, Kings Street. The first numbers of Border's 
Scout, when it was reissued in 1650, were also printed for her. 

All the Royalist Mercuries now came to an end. The 
Royal Diurnall had stopped on 30th April, 1650, and Mercurius 
Pragmaticus and Elenticus ceased on 28th May and 3rd June 
respectively ; the Man in the Moon indicating that they had 
been frightened into silence rather than captured. After 
5th June, however, John Crouch himself fell a victim, and 
was sent to the Gatehouse Prison, and the Man in the Moon 
appeared no more. A clean sweep had at last been made of 
the whole of the unlicensed press. 



134 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

In the meantime, on 8th May, Marchamont Nedham had 
published a book on behalf of the Regicides, entitled The Case 
of the Commonwealth Stated ; an absolutely shameless contro- 
version of all the principles for which heretofore he had con- 
tended. So delighted were his new patrons with this, that 
on 24th May they ordered the sum of 50 to be paid to him 
by Mr. Frost, and Frost was also instructed to pay him 100 
a year as a pension, " whereby he may subsist while endea- 
vouring to serve the commonwealth, this to be done for one 
year by way of probation ". 1 

Cromwell's series of butcheries in Ireland had long come 
to an end, and he returned at the end of May, 1650. It was 
then decided to allow the licensed newsbooks to reappear. Be- 
fore this decision was carried out, however, a fourth official news- 
book was commenced. Mercurius Politicus made its appear- 
ance every Thursday, commencing with 13th June, 1650, and 
continuing without a break until 12th April, 1660. It is 
therefore a periodical of importance, the conception of which 
must be attributed to John Milton, who was its editor prob- 
ably from the end of the year 1650 (when the style of it 
suddenly alters) until the beginning of March, 1652. 

A modern editor is but the general of a large staff, and has 
little to do with the writing of his periodical, but this term, as 
opposed to " author," may be correctly employed to designate 
the role now filled by Milton, Scobell and Rush worth with re- 
gard to the newsbooks. Milton had little to do with the 
writing of the periodical, reserving his energy for an occa- 
sional passage or an indication for a leading article, and the 
pamphlet as a whole was written by Hall or Nedham. 

Mercurius Politicus and the other three official periodicals 
for some reason are the only ones now entered in the 
Stationers' Registers, and the first entry of Mercurius Politicus 
is dated 19th September, 1650, when Matthew Simmons, the 
printer, who was succeeded by Thomas Newcombe, entered 
" three pamphlets called Mercurius Politicus by permission of 
1 Cal. State Papers Dom., 1650, p. 174. 



MILTON, LICENSEE OF THE PEESS 135 

authority" (i.e., the Council of State). On 17th March, 
1650-51, six copies were entered "by order of Mr. Milton," 
the entries running continuously in this manner until 29th 
January, 1651-52, when the authority is not stated. It is 
fairly certain, however, that Milton was the acknowledged 
editor of this periodical, until it was taken over by John 
Thurloe, who was appointed Secretary on Walter Frost's 
death. 

Proof of the fact that Marchamont Nedham was not even 
reputed to be the original author of Mercurius Politicals, is con- 
tained in Samuel Sheppard's Weepers ; or, The Bed of Snakes 
Broken (dated 13th September, 1652), an attack on certain 
dishonest Eoyalists who were cheating people out of their 
money under the pretence that funds given them were for the 
late King's servants in distress. The Weepers terminates with 
"six cupping glasses, clapt to the cloven feet of the six dae- 
mons, who govern the times by turns from Monday to Satur- 
day annually," and here Sheppard describes, in the plainest 
and most unmistakable terms, the writers of the newsbooks 
which appeared each day. Nedham is alluded to as writing 
a periodical on Mondays, entitled Mercurius Britannicus (to be 
described hereafter) ; and of Politicus, which appeared on 
Thursdays, Sheppard writes as follows : 

" Tacitus and the rest of the Eoman historians never in- 
tended their annals as this gentleman's Aphorisms. I owe 
much gratitude here I wish to live to retaliate his favours 
My liberty was once won by his industry. 

Charus erit Verri qui Verrem tempore quo vult 
Accusare potest 

Verres even hugs and courts him that has power 
To controvert his liberty each hour." 

The only person to whom such a compliment could be 
paid was John Thurloe, who had been appointed Secretary 
on 29th March, 1652, after Walter Frost's death; and it 
shows his character in an unexpectedly amiable light, for it 

is quite evident that throughout Sheppard took no oaths and 

10 



136 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

surrendered no principle in order to obtain his liberty. He 
writes in his Epigrams (Book 6, No. 16), under the heading 
" My imprisonment in Whittington for writing Mercurius 
Elencticus :" 

Most strange it seems unto the vulgar rout 
That, that which thrust me in, should guard me out 
My soule with no engagements clog'd but thus 
My gaining life, strook dead Elencticus. 

Merourius Politicus is entered under the hand of John 
Thurloe, commencing with 12th January, 1652-53 ; and of 
the ordinary newsbooks, none of which are entered in the 
Stationers' Eegisters, the licenser was John Eushworth, the 
Secretary of the Army. When the Act of 20th September, 
1649, was re-enacted by the Printing Act of 7th January, 1653, 
the agent for the army was substituted for the secretary of the 
army as licenser ; and the fact that it was found necessary 
to do this is the clearest indication that the bulk of the work 
fell on the army representative, and not on the clerk of the 
Parliament. 

Frost, as has already been shown, was never a licenser. 1 
Another journalistic development in the year 1650 un- 
doubtedly owes its origin to John Milton, amongst whose 
friends was numbered William Du-Gard, Master of Merchant 
Taylors' School. Du-Gard, who had a private printing press, 
had been committed to Newgate for printing the Defensio regia 
pro Carolo primo of Claude de Saumaise, and had been re- 
leased at the petition of Sir J. Harrington, subsequently 
becoming a printer to the Council of State. In 1651 he 
printed a version in French of Milton's Eikonoclastes, styling 
himself " Guill. Du-Gard Imprimeur du conseil d'etat," the 
translation of which has been ascribed to John Dury; but 
this is doubtful, for Milton translated French documents, as 
the State Papers show. However this may be, towards the 

1 Frost's name does not appear in the Stationers' Registers as licenser 
except in the case of the Brief Relation, while Rush worth's and (at a later 
date) Mabbott's names frequently are to be seen. 






MILTON, LICENSEE OF THE PKESS 137 

end of the month of June, 1650, Du-Gard commenced a new 
journal in French (a "paper " of four pages), in imitation of 
Le Mercure Anglois ; it is reasonable, therefore, to conclude 
that the idea of this periodical proceeded from his friend 
Milton, who must at the same time have been the licenser. 

The periodical was entitled Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres, 
and has almost entirely perished. Thomason evidently did 
not consider it necessary to add it to his collection. As, 
however, it actually attained 567 numbers and probably 
many more, it had, next to the still existing Gazette, the 
longest life of any seventeenth century journal. The 
numbers for the year 1654 (Nos. 186 to 229) appear to be 
the earliest in existence, and were alleged to be " Par Guil. 
Du-Gard. Par autorite," and sold by Nicholas Bourne. 
Whether Du-Gard was the writer, or printer, or both, is not 
clear. The 567th number is amongst the State Papers in 
the Eecord Office, and was printed in 1663, apparently after 
a cessation for two years, by the famous Koyalist printer, 
Brown of the Hague. Brown had returned to London at 
the time, and established himself in business again with his 
French partner, Jean de 1'Ecluse, who may then have written 
the periodical. Henry Muddiman, the privileged journalist 
of the Kestoration, had several correspondents, however, in 
Belgium and France, and appears himself to have under- 
stood French ; * the revival of the periodical, which probably 
ceased for about two years with Nedham's Mercurius Politicus, 
seems, therefore, to have been due to him. That Milton 
should set on foot a periodical of the kind is quite what we 
might expect, having regard to his controversy with De 
Saumaise, and, should the earlier numbers be discovered, in- 
teresting details as to his controversy may be expected. 

The older licensed newsbooks were next allowed to recom- 
mence by degrees. Border's Scout started afresh on 28th 
June, under the name of The Impartial Scout, and Eob. Wood, 
his printer, marked the first five numbers " printed for Eliza- 
1 The Gazette, when founded, was itself translated into French. 



138 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

beth Alkin". Perfect Passages of Every Daies Intelligence, 
printed by John Clowes, was written, so Sheppard tells us in 
the Weepers, by Henry Walker, and started on 5th July. 
Walker, therefore, wrote two periodicals which were published 
on successive days. Clowes and Ibbitson, the printer of 
Severall Proceedings, were the printers of his older newsbook 
Perfect Occurrences, and it is evident that they had parted 
company. 

Of Walker Sheppard writes : " This red-bearded chronicler 
hath found so happy a metamorphosis as from an Hebrew 
Ironmonger to become a paradoxical divine. You would 
think (if you heard him preach) that he had taken his text 
from a Gazet, you heard so much of a curranto. 0, he's 
excellent in private at Parlour sermons, and meeting houses, 
and here commonly he is more Enthusiast than Scripturist. 
His auditors believe his dreams , to be as canonicall as the 
Eevelation. Like -those Melancton speaks of, ' Quic quid 
somniant volunt esse spiritum sanctum '. But what have I 
to do with this venerable man. Fames fingers are too foule 
to touch such holy rites. He is very sententious, fluent and 
sublime in his weekly intelligence, and so I leave him." 

The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer was revived on 23rd 
July 1 as the Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth. 

The most salient feature to be noticed about all the 
licensed newsbooks now is the shrinkage in their size ; but, 
though their pages were not so large as formerly, their ap- 
pearance was in every way improved. x x With the increase of 
their respectability, however, and with improved typography 
and style, came a decrease in interest, and they were obvi- 
ously drilled into the most abject subjection. Pecke at- 
tempted to imitate Walker by recommencing his old Perfect 
Diurnall of some Passages in Parliament, but this revival was 



number for 24th-31st December, 1650, is marked "Printed for 
R. C. ," which shows that R. C. was a bookseller and indicates him to be" 
the Richard Collings already mentioned. Possibly, like Pecke, he had a 
stall in Westminster Hall. 



WALKEE PEEACHES BEFOEE CEOMWELL 139 

limited to two numbers, and so until 1655 he was only Eush- 
worth's " author ". 

! 

Henry Walker's connexion with Cromwell has already 
been noticed ; and he was now employed for a service which 
should render manifest the truth of the Man in the Moons 
accusation (4th July, 1649), that it was Cromwell who em- 
ployed him to publish the pirated version of Father Persons' 
book in order to justify the murder of King Charles. 

In June, 1650, war with Scotland was inevitable, and it 
was decided that Fairfax and Cromwell should both go as 
generals. Both accepted their commands ; but in the end 
Cromwell alone went, as also he alone went to Ireland. 
That some intrigue excluded Fairfax from the leadership is 
clear ; that the account of his refusal to go and of his relations 
with Cromwell was untruthfully put before the public is 
clearer still from the fact that the farewell sermon on 27th 
June (the day before Cromwell started for Scotland), at the 
valedictory service in the chapel of Somerset House, was 
preached by Henry Walker. It was with the blessing of the 
author of Taylor 's Physic has Purged the Divel that Crom- 
well started for his victory at Dunbar, and he must have 
smiled to himself as he heard the red-haired newsmonger 
compare Fairfax and himself to Abraham and Lot separating 
from one another without anger Cromwell of course being 
compared to Abraham and the Divine promises being applied 
to him. " Those that are only outward professors," said the 
reverend preacher, " they may be often startled at transac- 
tions of affairs by the Parliament, or by the Army, or persons, 
or actings of men, but this is because their hearts are not 
sound with God." Such sentiments could not but find ap- 
proval with Cromwell and were quite in the style of his own 
manifestoes. Walker, therefore, received the customary 
authority to have his sermon printed. 

Unfortunately for Walker he was not content with this, 
and, swollen with a sense of his own importance as an apostle 
of Independency and the inspired teacher of an army which 



140 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

was to conquer a nation and subdue another faith, he added 
a long dedication to his printed sermon, addressing it "To 
his Excellency the Lord Generall and to the Honourable the 
Collonels and the rest of the officers of the prosperous army 
for the Parliament ". This supplementary exhortation com- 
menced: "Gentlemen souldiers. Stand to your Armes, ye 
have a good Cause, a good God, and glorious inducements." 
The writer then contrived to thoroughly expose the fact that 
there was a difference between Cromwell and Fairfax, by 
lying so clumsily as to render it surprising that his falsehoods 
should have ever been repeated, even in an altered form. 

He attributed the cause of Fairfax's retirement to his 
wife's persuasion. " What though your old Lord Generall 
be not with you," wrote he, "he is not against you, he hath 
signed the engagement with you, and hath promised to be faith- 
ful to you, you have his heart still in the camp, though his 
Spouse hath persuaded his wearyed body to take rest in her 
bosome." 

Next, referring to Cromwell himself, he continued : " And 
you have his Excellency still with you, now Lord Generall, 
who was before, under God, the primum mobile of your 
motions, and is still the myrrour of Hoasts, the Metropolitan 
of Eeligion, and the Glory of this Nation " (!) " And though 
your former general hath been persuaded to take a writ of 
Ease to himself for his wife and her friends sake, yet do 
not ye divide, but stand the more firme in your own union 
grounded upon God, as you love your own lives, the Parlia- 
ment, "(!) "and the English Nation, and desire the propoga- 
tion of the Gospel of the Lord Jesus." 

' And, no doubt anticipating that similar scenes of treachery 
and murder would take place in Scotland, he alluded to the 
terrible Irish campaign by saying: "The Lord hath been 
seen in the English Mount and much manifested His pres- 
ence in your Irish tents," and then urged them to treat the 
Presbyterians of Scotland as they had treated the Catholics 
of Ireland by adding: "If they" (the Scots) "love blood, let 



CEOMWELL BUENS WALKEE'S SEEMON 141 

them have it in their own land. It is better to crush the 
Cockatrice in the Egge then to let him swell to a troublesome 
monster." 

As preface to the sermon a copy of the Act depriving 
Fairfax of his command was next set out. 

Cromwell was many things, but he was not a fool, and 
when a copy of this compound of folly and impertinence 
reached him at his headquarters in a market town in Nor- 
thumberland, he had it burnt by the hands of the " common 
officer" for abusing "both the late Lord Generall and his 
Excellency that then was ".* 

In June, 1651, Samuel Sheppard once more entered the 
lists, as a licensed journalist, with Mercurius Pragmaticus Revived. 
The title was disallowed, as he relates ; consequently he 
changed it to Elencticus, with the like result after two or 
three numbers, so in a fit of temper he entitled the next 
number Scommaticus. It was then suppressed altogether. 
The verses prefixed to these periodicals are of a much better 
kind than those with which the older Eoyalist Mercuries 
commenced, and are interesting as showing the state of 
mind of a Cavalier trying to make the best of things. 2 

1 A Perfect Diurnall, No. 33, 22nd-29th July, 1650, p. 391. Pecke's 
delight is manifest. Fairfax's wife was not a Presbyterian but an Ana- 
baptist (Mercurius Impartialis, No. 1, 5th-12th December, 1648, p. 6). It 
has already been shown that Hatter and not Rush worth was Fairfax's 
secretary. 

2 The following may be quoted from Sheppard's Mercurius Prag- 
maticus, No. 3, lst-8bh June, 1652 : 

Sorrow's a serious madness. Mirth 

The darling of an hour 
Sweet in conception and the birth 

But in the parting sour. 
Riches are precious in the gsowth 

And relish in the spending 
Till such time as they find the moth 

And customary ending 
Then care to usury. Salt tears 

To widows, and opprest 

If there be happiness in fears 

'Tis better n'er be blest 



142 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

In the month of September, 1651, "Parliament Joan" 
appears to have resumed her remarkable role of Mercury 
woman. The battle of Worcester was fought and lost on 3rd 
September, and a reward of 1,000 was offered for the cap- 
ture of King Charles II., who, as will be remembered, was a 
fugitive for many days in England. Did the Commonwealth 
authorities consider that the King was likely to conceal him- 
self in London? They were experts in opening and reading 
letters in cypher, and may have intercepted a communication 
giving intelligence of some intention of the kind. The idea 
certainly occurred to Charles himself to make his way on 
foot to London ; and many Royalists succeeded in reaching it 
safely. 

The Act of 20th September, 1649, expired on Michaelmas 
Day, and the Mercury women, all unlicensed newsbooks 
having been suppressed, were allowed to ply their trade once 
more ; so " Parliament Joan " had a fresh newsbook printed, 
Mercurius Scoticus ; or, The Royal Messenger, impartially com- 
municating the daily proceedings of the Armies in England, Ire- 
land and Scotland and other remarkable occurrences from the 
parliament's navy at sea, Prince Rupert's fleet in the Straits and 
the Countess of Derby in the Isle of Man, etc., was the full title, 
and it will be noted that the " catchword," Mercurius Scoticus ; 
or, The Royal Messenger, was one which would be likely to sell 
it at once to a Royalist. 

It was printed by John Clowes for Elizabeth Alkin, and 
No. 2 (possibly the only number) was dated 23rd-30th Sep- 
tember, 1651. Its contents are anything but Royalist in 
matter or manner, and they consist mainly of fulsome praise 

Give me the freer heart and soul 

Can melt a day in laughter 
Whose spirits no sad thoughts control 

And yet be merry after 
For 'tis a prison to mine eyes 

To meet my cronies crying 
As though they mourned their obsequies 

Before they were a dying. 



"PARLIAMENT JOAN'S" NEWSBOOK 143 

of Cromwell, in whose honour there is a doggerel Latin 
acrostic by one Francis Nelson. "Parliament Joan," as 
"Mrs. Stroffe," "Mercury" woman, was thus able to ap- 
proach any persons noted as strangers and Eoyalists, get 
them into conversation, extract all they knew from them, and 
afterwards utilise the information thus gained. Naturally 
the unlucky Eoyalist, thus stealthily approached, would at 
once hide in his pocket a copy of this newsbook which he 
had purchased in a tavern or elsewhere ; and his confidence 
gained by the attractive title would hold a whispered con- 
versation with the hawker, and not until reaching home and 
drawing out his little " newsbook " would he discover that he 
had been swindled. Even then, particularly if he were a 
fugitive from Worcester fight, he might not think that matters 
were worse than they seemed, and that the fat old woman 
who had sold it to him, instead of being a poor and dishonest 
Koyalist, was in reality the notorious "Parliament Joan" 
" peeper " and " whisperer " to the Council of State. " Par- 
liament Joan," therefore, has a place and a peculiar one in 
the history of London publishers. 

The revival of >hawking the newsbooks about the streets 
led to a picture by Sheppard of the result in the Fleet Street 
of his day, which (mutatis mutandis) might pass very well 
for a sketch of our own times : 

"0 the mysterie of a little inck and paper. What a 
pannique feare possesses the soule of the Universe when the 
hawkers come roaring along the streets like the religious 
singers of Bartholomew Fayre. The high crown' d citizen 
pricks up his eares and cranes his neck over the bulk till he 
looks as blew under the gills as an eelskin to hear whether 
there be any newes of the Publique Faith, which was eaten up 
at a breakfast by the Solemn League and Covenant in Turn 
againe Lane. But failing of his expectation, he shrinks in 
his lanthorn soule againe, with a pitiful riveling up of the 
nose and a Synodical ' Hem '. Then traversing Fleet Street 
(the Lawyers Exchange) out comes a Petty fogger of the 



144 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

Threes with his profession in his ear and his tarbox at his 
side, keeping touch with his pocket like Hopkins and Stern- 
hold in marrying the Psalmes, and looking as big as a bag 
pudding farmer of the long twelves. If his clerical gizzard 
be not with him he calls out ' Sirrah ! Books? What Act's 
on foot? No gingle to demurr to deceive to detract? 
Away you noisemonger ! ' Alas, * good gentleman, his 
buckeram pouch is never at peace longer than his lunges are 
bellowing downe the sides of Westminster Hall. At last 
comes by the Country Parson with his Canonicall breeches 
run up the seames with the figure of a statute lace like the old 
Letany interloyned with a ' Libera nos Domine,' who never 
attempted to preach above once in his life time and that was 
at the Wake day, for which he was sequestered. And he 
rubs his elbows, and winks at the Mercury to convey him a 
pennyworth of wit into his hawking bagg, and so goes trip- 
ping along, to show it to his worshipful patron to bespeak him 
a Sunday collation. Thus we please or displease, according 
to the censure of the Court." 

In another periodical Sheppard writes of the newsbooks 
themselves: "No rest day or night with these cursed cater- 
pillars, Perfect Passages, Weekly Occurrences, Scout, Spye, 
Politicus, Diurnal, the Devil and his dam. If the States have 
occasion for soldiers they may no doubt press a whole regi- 
ment of these paper vermine. ... To see men grossly abused 
in their beliefs, the whole Nation deceived and gulled oiit 
of their money, by a company of impudent snakes, of whom 
(one only excepted) I dare aver none of them was ever guilty 
of writing three lines of sense They prey upon the Printer or 
Stationer, the Stationer on the Hawker and the Hawker 
on everybody. But the cream of the jest is, how they take 
their times and rises, one upon Munday, t'other on Tuesday, 
a third on Wednesday, and so come over one anothers backs 
as if they were playing at leapfrog. ... It would much re- 
fresh a man with laughter to consider how these Rake- 
shames piece and patch up that above said account which 



INDECENT PEBIODICALS 145 

they weekly diffuse amongst the people ' Newes ' and this 
week's News '. For they have more tricks in their Kotations 
than a Cook of a three penny ordinary has with his cold meat. 
First he boils it, if he miss of good custom he roasts it, if 
that will not serve he stews it, and if he miss then too he 
minces it, but if in case of hot weather he be prevented of 
performing all his pleasure upon it, he casts it stinking and 
full of maggots into the Prisoners basket, beseeching God to 
mistake that necessity which he had to rid himself of stinking 
meat for pure charity." l 

By the commencement of the year 1652 John Crouch 
had regained his liberty, and recommenced pamphleteering 
as a licensed journalist. The wit and the coarseness of his 
Eoyalist periodical, The, Man in the Moon, have been noticed. 
He now, however, began to write a series of periodicals in 
which the humour was of an infinitely more dubious kind, 
and in which for the coarseness was substituted a deliberate 
pornography impossible to match in English literature. In 
Mercurius Democritus ; or, A True and Perfect Nocturnall, com- 
menced on 8th April, 1652, and continued as the Laughing Mer- 
cury, and again as Democritus until the end of February, 1654, 
and in Mercurius Fumigosus, commenced in June, 1654, and con- 
tinued without a break until 3rd October, 1655, there lies the 
gravest indictment which it is possible to bring against Inde- 
pendent morality. These periodicals, and they are not the only 
Independent productions of a similar type, licensed regularly 
from week to week, first by John Kushworth and secondly 
by Gilbert Mabbott, the official licensers to the Common- 
wealth and Protectorate not one single number being un- 
licensed can only be described as abominable. The lack of 
authority in religious matters had produced a corrosive 
effect on family life, and a perusal of these duly authorised 
periodicals leaves no possible room for doubt, that one 
effect of keeping a standing army of 30,000 men in London 

1 Mercurius Pragmaticus, No. 5, 15th-22nd June, 1652, and Mercurius 
Mastix, No. 1, 20th-27th August, 1652. 



146 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

had been the crowding of the outskirts of the city with 
brothels. 1 

London was at least a cleaner and sweeter city for ordi- 
nary folk to dwell in when Cromwell's army was disbanded 
by Charles IL, whatever the life of the Court may have been 
in his days, and John Crouch and John Garfield, the writer 
of the Wandering Whore, were promptly " clapt up in 
Newgate" in 1660, when they then attempted to circulate 
literature of the kind they had issued under the rule of Crom- 
well. 2 

The fact that an Act dated 10th May, 1650, prescribed 
death as the penalty for adultery, and imprisonment for three 
months as the punishment for simple incontinence, on the 
face of it appears to conflict with what has been said above, 
and requires explanation. 

The abolition of the High Commission and other Courts 
which punished cases of the kind caused the introduction of 
this Act in the Presbyterian Parliament of 1644. Com- 
mencing with the month of December in that year, it was 
considered at various times in 1645 and 1647 until 1648, when 
it was allowed to drop in the month of March. 

No zeal for the public morals animated the Independent 
leaders who revived the idea of the Act on 23rd March, 
1649, for they had been exposed from day to day by the 
Eoyalist Mercuries, and their private lives had been the sub- 
ject of ribald ballads sung about the streets. They had the 
rigid Presbyterians to conciliate, and the country-folk to 
hoodwink, by exhibiting themselves as stern upholders of the 

1 Names and places of these are continually mentioned. The casual 
observer might think that Crouch's periodicals consist only of "horse 
wit " or indecency. Mercurius Democritus, No. 47, 2nd-9th March, 1653, 
p. 272 ; No. 62, 26th June to 6th July ; No. 65, 20th-27th July, 1653 ; ai 
No. 56, llth-25th May, 1653, will at once dispel this idea. I refer chiefly 
to the verse. As a ballad writer Crouch possessed great skill and some of 
his verse is charming. 

2 A Hue and Cry after "Mercurius Democritus " and the l " Wandering 
Whore;' 1662. A list of the prisoners in Newgate. (S. P. Dora., Chas. II., 
vol. 43, No. 24.) 



INDEPENDENT IMMORALITY 147 

Divine moral law. Moreover, as a parliamentarian Mercury 
remarks, with engaging frankness, in alluding to the Eoyalist 
attacks, there was " a president for the future generations " 
to set, in order that they might be thought other than what 
they really were. Consequently the very men as regards whose 
private lives there can be no doubt those who were notorious 
for the sins the Act was to punish took the lead in promoting 
it. It was to the care of the licentious Weaver that the 
House committed the Act on 22nd March, 1650 ; and of the 
five members to whom it was again remitted on 12th April, 
Henry Marten, most notorious of all the members, was one. 1 
The " Kitling Kings " were above all laws. No action could 
be taken against any member of the House of Commons, and 
none ever was taken under this Act. The Middlesex Sessions 
Eolls give a complete list of all persons tried under this Act 
in London. Only a few cases are recorded of the trial of per- 
sons for the minor offence and always with an acquittal. 
The Eolls, however, contain twenty-eight cases of persons ar- 
raigned for adultery, the first being dated llth November, 
1651, and the last 14th November, 1658. Of these cases 
three were for repetitions of the offence, and only in eleven 
instances were the men put on trial with their partners in 
guilt. In all cases but one a verdict of "Not Guilty " was 

1 Commons Journals under dates cited. For an account of Weaver's 
and Marten's misdeeds see Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II., 
26th February to 5th March, 1649, and 9th-16th April, 1650. Marten's 
"new buildings" and Weaver's house are described with perhaps wilful 
exaggeration in the Man in the Moon, No. 14, 5th-12th September, 1649, 
but that a third establishment mentioned at the same time really existed 
appears from the abominable Mercurius Nullus of 13th March, 1654. See 
also as regards one of Marten's mistresses and the high rank given her by 
an ambassador, Hist. MSS. Commission, 5th Report, p. 192. The disgust- 
ing Wandering Whore at the end of 1660 gives long catalogues of names 
which show the existence of an astonishing amount of moral evil, such 
as it would be absurd to deny required years to build up. Charles II. 's 
proclamations against "vicious debauched and profane persons" of 30th 
May and 13th August, 1660, acquire a very definite meaning in this con- 
nection. 



148 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

recorded obviously because the penalty was considered ex- 
cessive. 

It is reasonable to conclude that all those who were thus 
tried were really guilty, and had been selected because their 
offences were peculiarly flagrant. A case, therefore, which 
affords a pertinent comment, on the licensing of immoral 
periodicals is that of Hester Griffin, acquitted on 20th Feb- 
ruary, 1656, of the crime of adultery with Gilbert Mabbott 
naturally Mabbott was not arraigned with her. 1 

The solitary case of a conviction that of Ursula Powell 
on 30th August, 1652 was probably occasioned by her being 
a " Banter," that is a member of one of the strangely im- 
moral sects springing up at the time. Although she was 
respited on account of her condition at the time there is no 
justification for the opinion that the death penalty was not 
inflicted in her case. Religious rancour would be certain to 
see to that. 2 

Mercurius Democritus did not escape occasional suppres- 
sion any more than the other licensed periodicals, and that 
it actually should have been suppressed, not for pandering to 
immorality, but for vilifying a rascal like Henry Walker, only 
makes the matter worse. On 25th August, 1652, Crouch 
wrote: "Walking lately by the chappel of Knightsbridge 

1 Middlesex County Records, vol. iii., by J. C. Jeaflreson. 

2 There is some confused jargon referring to her as a sectary in the 
Laughing Mercury, No. 22, 25th August to 8th September, 1652, p. 170. 
In the case of the equally rare victims in the country religious animosity 
was also the cause of a conviction. At Taunton on 19th July, 1650, a 
woman was sentenced for adultery with " a priest who had been hereto- 
fore displaced from his Rectorship for his scandalous life" (Weekly Intel- 
ligencer of the Commonwealth, No. 1, 16th-23rd July, 1650, p. 7). It is 
strange that Mr. Inderwick in his Interregnum (p. 34) should have thought 
that a Catholic priest was meant by the word " priest " (the account, how- 
ever, was furnished him from another source) and not a clergyman or 
Presbyterian minister. Whitelocke's Memorials, which also mention this 
case, are open to the same misconstruction. The Act enriched the English 
language by one word "trapan". "The Trap-Pannians, alias Trap- 
Pallians, alias Trap-Tonians " (2nd August, 1653). 



WALKEE AND PETEES ATTACKED 149 

and enquiring how their pastor did, one of his sheep replyed 
' That it had been well if he had been hanged before ever he 
came there ' ". This was probably true, but Crouch went on 
to accuse Walker of immorality. On 6th September an 
attack on Hugh Peters, Walker's friend, appeared in A New 
Hue and Cry after General Massey, and in reply to the two at- 
tacks Walker wrote in Severall Proceedings that Peters " and 
others of God's people" had been "thus abused yet some 
will probably be made exemplary who have reviled Mr. Peters 
and others by lying scandals to make others for the future 
beware ". In the result, the writer of the pamphlet against 
Peters, one Acton, had to abscond, and his printer Eobert 
Eeles, a poor man who had been several times imprisoned, 
was compelled to apologise ; but no retractation of the stories 
against Peters was ever made. 1 Democritus also was sup- 
pressed, and had to change its name to the Laughing Mercury. 

At the end of July, 1652, Nedham commenced a new 
Mercurius Britannicus, as Sheppard states in the Weepers ; the 
authorship of the periodical can moreover be identified by 
its style. His object now was to attack the Presbyterians 
and those who did not favour Cromwell, of whom he is 
henceforth to be noted as a thorough-going partisan. After 
a few numbers, however, he discontinued it, and it was then 
carried on, though probably not before the month of October, 
1652, by one of those very Presbyterians he had attacked, 
and was printed by the same printer, Cottrell. 

This advocate of religious orthodoxy was a cooper by 
trade, and had been one of the Hertfordshire excisemen. 2 He 
was immediately opposed by Border in the Faithfull Scout, by 
now an advocate of Anabaptism, and whole pages of his 
Britannicus were copied and altered by the Scout. As a result 

1 Severall Proceedings, 2nd-9fch September, 1652, p. 2419 ; and!6th-23rd 
September, p. 2457. The stories against Peters were old, never denied, 
and continually repeated from 1643 downwards. 

2 The Faithfull Scout, 19th-26th November, 1652. That the Scout 
was Anabaptist may be seen from the manifesto set out in No. 93, 22nd- 
29bh October, 1652. 



150 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

of their respectively too orthodox and too heterodox opinions, 
both periodicals were soon in trouble. The author of Britanni- 
cus had to flee, his printer being committed to the Gatehouse ; 
and the Faithfull Scout was also temporarily suppressed. After 
two or three days' imprisonment Cottrell was released. 1 

In consequence of this and of one or two attempts at a 
Presbyterian insurrection, the Act of 1649 was not only re- 
vived, but the Stationers' Company was subjected to practical 
suppression. The Printing and Printers Act was passed on 
7th January, 1653, and not only made the Act of 1649 per- 
manent, but dealt a heavy blow at printing itself. By it 

1. The Council of State was ordered to inquire into the 
number of printing presses, to suppress such as they thought 
fit, and also to decide how many apprentices each master 
printer should have. 

2. The government of printers and printing was entirely 
removed from the Stationers' Company to the Council of 
State. 

3. No one was to be a printer (unless licensed by Parlia- 
ment or the Council of State) who had not been an appren- 
tice for seven years. And printers were to exercise their 
calling in their own houses only, under a penalty of 40 a 
month. 

4. The "agent for the army" was appointed with power 
to license "intelligence concerning the affaires of the army," 
instead of the Secretary for the Army under the rules of the 
Act of 1649. 2 

The Agent for the Army was Gilbert Mabbott, who thus 
became for the third time licenser of the press. This appoint- 

* Cal. State Papers Dom., 1651-52, pp. 444, 464 ; Cal. of 1652-53, pp. 
78, 88. " Britanicus that lately fled for his religion " (Mercurius Demo- 
critus, No. 57, 1st June, 1653, p. 451). 

2 W. Hughes' Exact Abridgment of Acts and Ordinances from 1640 to 
1656 (1st July, 1657), p. 470. It is noticeable that this Act followed 
Cromwell's conversation with Whitelocke about "What if a man took 
upon himself to be King ? " The ordinance of 1655 also followed upon 
a more open attempt to obtain the title. 



CKOMWELL AND THE PEESS 151 

ment is an eloquent commentary on Mabbott's contention, 
when he was a Leveller in 1649, that licensing was wrongful, 
and we can conclude, therefore, that he no longer belonged to 
that faction. The reason of his conversion is easy to state. 
George Monck, afterwards Duke of Albemarle, had as secre- 
tary in Scotland one William Clarke a man of obscure 
origin, whose services had been pressed on him by Cromwell 
in order that he might act as a spy on Monck, for it was 
" ever Cromwell's way to send a pilot fish " with his instru- 
ments. We shall see that Monck, when planning the Eestora- 
tion of King Charles II. did not trust Clarke. Mabbott had 
married Clarke's sister and, owing to this circumstance and 
to his having previously been employed by Fairfax, he filled 
the office of Agent of the Armies in the three kingdoms. At 
the [Restoration Mabbott succeeded through Monck's influ- 
ence in obtaining a patent for the sale of licenses for " Wine 
and strong waters" in Ireland, which he afterwards sur- 
rendered for 4,800. So this fellow one of the enemies of 
King Charles I. was actually rewarded by that monarch's 
son, Charles II., who could not have been aware of the tenor 
of the articles in the Moderate. 1 

Cromwell was not long in putting his new Press Act into 
operation, and nothing like the persecution of the printers 
which took place at the end of the year 1653 has ever been 
seen before or since. John Lilburne had returned to England, 
and was tried on 20th August. Cromwell's object was to hang 
him, but the jury acquitted him. Within about two months 
eighteen printers were consigned to Newgate or the Gate- 
house for printing pamphlets against Cromwell. The list of 
printers giving security in 1649 shows that there were only 
thirty-four in London in that year. Eichard Moon was 
arrested on 27th August ; John Streater on 12th September ; 
John Clowes and Eobert Austin on 17th September ; Eichard 
Eoyston, Edward Dod and Eichard Tomlins on 30th Sep- 



S. P. Dom., 1660-61, p. 397 ; Cal. S. P. Irish, 1660-62, pp. 92, 
203, 349 ; and 1663-65, pp. 225, 235, 248, 278 and 409. 

11 



152 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

tember; William Band on 1st October; James Wayte, 
Eobert Hannam, Thomas Locke and Henry Barnes on 5th 
October ; William Huby on 12th October ; and Mrs. Clowes, 
George Horton, John Perkins, Isaac Grey and Thomas 
Spring on 21st October. Finalty, on 23rd December, 
Robert Wood was also arrested for merely possessing an ab- 
stract of the " instrument of government ". A general search 
warrant was granted to the sergeant- at-arms on 13th January, 
1654, and London must have been strewn with broken 
printing presses. Huby and Clowes were kept in prison for 
six months, Horton for five and a half, Streater for five, and 
Grey and Hannam for about four ; of the others there is no 
record. 1 

During the year 1653 no new periodicals of any importance 
appeared. The Anabaptist Scout and the Post tried to 
attract attention to themselves by frequent changes of 
title, but evidently with small success. A still more marked 
process of decadence is to be noticed in 1654. During this 
year two ephemeral periodicals appeared, both written by 
Nedham in support of Cromwell's designs, the one entitled 
Mercurius Poeticus (it was not in verse), the other the Observator, 
the chief object of which was to defend the maintenance of a 
standing army of 30,000 men. Two other curious periodicals 
also sprang into being, compiled by an unknown writer, ap- 
parently on the principle of administering a powder in jam, 
and entitled Observations on Aristotle's Politics and a Politick 
Commentary on the lives of the Caesars, in which news was 
sandwiched between classical learning of the most dubious 
kind. 

"Parliament Joan's" me'tier was gone. Her last appear- 
ance as a spy was, however, a noteworthy one. At the end of 

1 Most of these printers will be identified as printers of newsbooks, 
and an account of nearly all of them will be found in A Dictionary of 
Printers, etc., "between 1641 and 1667," published for the Bibliographical 
Society (1907) by H. R. Plomer. Warrants for their arrest as well as 
those of several writers are shown in the Calendars of State Papers under 
the dates given. 



"PAKLIAMENT JOAN," NUKSE 153 

1653 the brother of the Portuguese Ambassador, by name 
Dom Pantaleon Sa, killed an Englishman at the New Ex- 
change in the Strand. The principle of international law, 
that an ambassador's house is sacred and that messengers of 
the law may not enter it, was violated, and Sa was exe- 
cuted. Elizabeth Alkin was the person who actually laid 
the information of the murder before the Council of State. 

"Parliament Joan" was then granted a pension of 10 a 
year by order of Parliament, and passed the rest of her life in 
nursing the sailors wounded in the naval wars with the 
Dutch. One or two kindly acts are now to be recorded of 
her. 

On 4th February, 1653, she petitioned for the release 
from custody of Thomas Budd, a poor Catholic priest, who 
had been in prison for nearly four years and was ill ; possibly 
he had been captured by her agency, and he may have been 
the writer of Mercurius Catholicus in 1648. Her petition was 
granted, so powerful had her influence become, and he was 
given permission to stay three months in England in order 
to recover before banishment. She next petitioned to be 
allowed to nurse the seamen, and was sent first of all to 
Portsmouth and then to Harwich, when, though she seems 
to have done her best for the men, she recommenced 
clamouring for money. 

On 2nd July, 1653, she wrote to Eobert Blackburn, 
Secretary to the Admiralty Committee, as follows : " Sir, you 
have sent me down to Harwich with 5 but believe me it 
hath cost me three times as much. Since my coming I have 
laid out my monies for divers necessaries about the sick and 
wounded men here it pities me to see poor people in distress. 
I cannot see them want if I have it. A great deal of moneys 
have I given to have them cleansed in their bodies and their 
hair cut. I go often to Ipswich to visit the sick and 
wounded there and return again to Harwich so that in 
coming and going money departs from me. ... I pray you 

sir send me some money speedily for I stand in great need 

11* 



154 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

thereof for the satisfying of my diet and reckoning I am 
owing. I have not been used to be so long behind for my 
pains. I pray you remember me and send me a present 
supply." 

On 22nd February, 1654, she again wrote asking for 
money, and reminding Blackburn that her infirmities and 
sickness had been entailed "in the service of the Common- 
wealth " (i.e., in her nightly watchings as spy). 1 

One curious fact is to be recorded of her. She petitioned 
to be buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey without 
charge. There is no date to the petition, but it was probably 
made during her last illness. Her name, however, is not to 
be found in the Abbey registers. 2 

Henry Walker was soon forgiven his injudicious dedica- 
tion to his sermon, and his next work was again dedicated 
to Cromwell. It was a little book of devotional meditations 
which he entitled TPATHMATA. Sweetmeats or Resolves in 
all Cases who are Beleevers. In which many Divine Delicates that 
have been hid from Doubting Believers are Unvailed and Spread 
before them and their Warrants made Plaine to have a Bight to that 
Glory which Dazels their Eyes, etc. The book is dated June,. 
1654, and it appears from its title-page that Walker was then 
pastor of Dr. Bruno Ryves's old Church of St. Martin's Vin- 
try. 

"As God hath made you great, so I doubt not but that 
He hath made you good," wrote he to Cromwell and his 
Council, and added, with a face of brass, that he was about 
to set that which was sweet before their souls. " Here is both 
Corn and Wine prepared for you. . . . You are come from 
the Wars conquering as Gideon . . . and therefore such a 

1 S. P. Dom. Interregnum, vol. 38, No. 5, etc. The account given of her 
in the preface to the Calendar of 1653-54, as "the Florence Nightingale 
in humble life of the times," is not justified. Mrs. Everett Green was 
not aware of her earlier career, and has summarised the letters in the 
Calendar too favourably. She was paid for her work and probably well 
paid. 

z Hist. MSS. Commission, 4th Report, App., p. 180 a, 56. 



WALKEK'S " SWEETMEATS" 155 

Banquet as this may not bee unseasonable. I hope to refresh 
you. ... I am sure whosoever shall disturbe you whilst you 
feed on these delicates God will bee avenged on them. Eate 
therefore ye Friends of the Bridegroom and drink hereof 
abundantly, and let the peace of God distribute your garlands 
and the Word of the Lord bee the Cloudy Pillar to direct you 
then you shall surely arrive at the promised land whither I 
cannot doubt but you are travelling with your faithful ser- 
vant and Orator to the throne of Grace for you. H. Walker." 

The " Address to the Keader " which follows is even 
more amazing than this, and the latter is most patronisingly 
told that if there is any passage too hard for him to under- 
stand he may pass it by, but a very plain hint is added that 
if he does not appreciate the treatise he is no true believer 
and will not obtain eternal bliss. The whole concludes with 
an Hebrew and a Greek text, the former commencing, " He 
brought me to the Banqueting House ". 

Such pious loyalty could not but meet with a justly ap- 
propriate reward. Cromwell was about to make another 
attempt to obtain the Crown, and a hint of the fact slipped 
into Walker's Perfect Proceedings in May of the following year 
served as the forerunner to another literary effort on Walker's 
part. The remark in question had no relation whatever to 
its context and was simply, " I think we may beg his High- 
ness to take the crown," l but is. the clearest possible indica- 
tion that Walker was the author of A Treatise Concerning the 
Broken Succession of the Crown of England. Inculcated about the 

1 Perfect Proceedings, No. 293 J |3rd-10th May, 1655 (last page). The 
following quaint denunciation places the fact beyond a doubt that Walker 
was at the time the author of this periodical : "In that which is called the 
Perfect Proceedings, a book of news which is printed for Robert Ibbitson 
dwelling in Smithfield, which says in his book which comes from Walker, 
one who professeth himself to be a Teacher, but it is of lyes " (A Declara- 
tion from the Children of Light . . . called Quakers, etc., 14th May, 
1655). The date of the reprint of Father Persons' book is 30th May, 
1655. It was reprinted for a last time in 1683, under its original title, in 
order to justify the exclusion of James II. 



156 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM 

Latter End of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. Not Impertinent for 
the better Compleating of the General Information. This appeared 
three weeks later and was none other than Father Persons' 
book once more dressed up, but this time with the real 
authorship acknowledged in a postscript. Another attack on 
the press followed the appearance of this book. 

In September, 1655, the licensed press finally disappeared. 
Henceforth, until the return of the Eump to power, no one 
but Marchamont Nedham was allowed to publish news of 
any sort whatever. Walker's Proceedings were amalgamated 
by Nedham with the Monday's edition of his Mercurius 
Politicus and entitled the Publick Intelligencer communicating 
the Chief Occurrences and Proceedings within the Dominions, 
etc. The first number of this appeared on 8th October, 1655. 

By an ordinance of the "Protector," with the advice of his 
council, dated 28th August, 1655, John Barkstead, Lieutenant 
of the Tower, Alderman John Dethick and George Foxcroft 
were appointed commissioners for the regulating of printing. 
The three were to 

1. Inquire as to the number of printing houses, presses, 
master printers, and their servants, workmen and apprentices 
in London, Westminster and Southwark. "And of what 
Fame Quality, Conversation or Condition each master printer 
was and how he his servants and workmen stood affected to 
the then government," and to certify the result twenty-eight 
days after receipt of this order. 

2. To suppress and prosecute all unlicensed printers. 

3. To find out whether all printers had entered into bonds 
with two sureties, and whether the conditions had been 
broken, and if so to prosecute. 

4. To take care that no "pamphlets, books of news, or 
occurrences " whatsoever should be published unless licensed 
by the "protector or his council". To prosecute those disre- 
garding this order. 

5. To put into speedy execution the previous Acts and the 
Act against hawkers. 



ABOLITION OF NEWSBOOKS 157 

6. To send all offenders to Bridewell to undergo " cor- 
poral and pecuniary punishment ". 

7. To break open locks and doors, under a general search 
warrant and a general warrant to arrest, of the widest possible 
character. 

8. To appoint deputies (in writing) with all the above 
powers and to reward prosecutors. 1 

No license to any newsbook writer was ever granted by 
Cromwell or his council, and none appeared during his life- 
time other than Marchamont Nedham's official Mercurius 
Politicals and Publick Intelligencer, issued every Thursday and 
Monday respectively. The two periodicals constituted one 
newsbook, but in a very curious way. Each was independent 
of the other, and each contained the news for seven days pre- 
ceding its date of issue. Consequently they overlapped very 
much, and a person who wished to be promptly informed of 
what was taking place would have to buy both ; though, of 
course, he would be equally well served in the end if he only 
purchased one newsbook a week. Each periodical consisted 
of sixteen pages and was much smaller in size than Walker's 
Perfect Occurrences, and it must be added, in justice to Walker, 
was not nearly so interesting to read. 

Thurloe, Secretary of State, was responsible for what 
appeared in them. There is nothing further to record of 
them until the return of the Kump Parliament to power. 

1 W. Hughes, Exact Abridgment, etc., p. 594. 



CHAPTEK IX. 

THE HISTORY OF ADVERTISING TO 1659. 

EUROPEAN advertising offices owe their origin to an idea of 
the father of the famous French essayist, Montaigne, 1 and 
it is undoubtedly to French influence that the beginnings of 
advertising in England must be ascribed. 

Its history in this country commences at an earlier date 
than that of the newsbooks and had far more distinguished 
originators. The first steps are to be found in the institu- 
tion of advertising offices by two gentlemen of the Court of 
King James I., Sir Arthur Gorges and Sir Walter Cope. 

Sir Arthur Gorges, poet and sailor, was the third son of 
Sir William Gorges, Vice- Admiral of the Fleet, and his mother 
was a cousin of Sir Walter Ealeigh. With Kaleigh, he was 
one of the volunteers against the Spanish invasion, and on 
four occasions he had been a member of Parliament. His 
second wife brought him Sir Thomas More's property at 
Chelsea, and in the chapel of More's house he was buried 
on 10th October, 1625. 

Sir Walter Cope was a member of Queen Elizabeth's 
Society of Antiquaries, and became successively Chamberlain 
of the Exchequer, Master of the Wards and Keeper of Hyde 
Park. 

He built Holland House, Kensington, in 1607, of which 
the earlier name was Cope Castle. He died on 31st July, 
1614, and was buried in Kensington. Unlike Sir Arthur 
Gorges he did not die a rich man, but was 27,000 in debt 
at the time of his death. 

1 Montaigne's Essays, Book IV., chap. xxiv. 
158 



THE HISTOEY OF ADVEKTISING TO 1659 159 

On 5th March, in the eighth year of his reign, King 
James I. granted Letters Patent to Sir Arthur Gorges 
and Sir Walter Cope, gentlemen of his privy chamber. 1 This 
document recited that all trade and commerce consisted 
" eyther in buying or selling or borrowing and lending. And 
for that a great defect is daily found in the policie of our 
State for want of some good trusty and ready means of 
intelligence and intercourse between our said subjects in 
that behalfe. By means whereof, many men oftentimes 
upon occasion of necessity and sudden accident, are inforced 
to put away and sell landes, leases, or other goodes and 
chattels, to great losse and disadvantage for want of good 
and ready meanes to give generall notice and publique intel- 
ligence of such their intentions to many that would (if they 
knew whereof) as willingly buy as the others would gladly 
sell," and that the two patentees had " out of their carefull 
endeavours found out and devised a most safe easy and 
speedy way to the great advancement and helpe unto generall 
Commerce and Trade . . . whereby to serve the turnes and 
occasions as well of Borrowers as Lenders and of Buyers as 
of Sellers by plaine and direct course of reciprocall intelli- 
gence, and interchangeable correspondency, for the ready 
notice and understanding of one anothers minds." 

It then gave and granted " absolute full and free license 
power and authority to them their executors, administrators 
and assignes and to their Deputy and deputies for the term 
of 21 years," to set up, in any places, cities and towns where 
they thought fit, " a publique office roome or place of resort or 
repaire of people for the notice of Borrowing and Lending of 
moneyes and for the better knowledge of buying selling or 
exchanging of lands tenements or hereditaments, leases or 
any other goods or chattels whatsoever" which they should 

1 "A True Transcript and Publication of his Majesties Letters Patient 
for an Office to be Erected and called the Publicke Register for Generall Com- 
merce, etc. Printed at Britain Bursse for John Budge and are there to 
be sold at his shop, 1611." 



160 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

" think fit to be entered and registered, and to keepe one or 
more Kalender or Kalenders, Kegister or Registers, for the 
registring of all and singular such," which office in every 
place where it should be kept was to be called by the name- 
of The Publique Register for generall Commerce. 

For this privilege they were to pay an annual rent of 40 
half-yearly. No man was to be compelled to make entry or 
search in the said office at all nor to " pay any more for such 
search or entry, then shall please himself". If Gorges and 
Cope found that the office did not pay, they were to be at 
liberty to determine their patent before Michaelmas, 1612, on 
notice to the Lord Treasurer. 

The office was duly set up in Britaines Burse, a kind of 
Exchange, situate near Durham House in the Strand, at 
Charing Cross ; it probably did not pay owing to the restric- 
tion that no one was to pay more than pleased himself, and 
the Letters Patent seem to have been terminated accordingly. 
The printed copy of the Letters Patent contains "An Overture 
and Explanation of the Purport and Use of this Office," from 
which it is quite clear that, had it succeeded, it was the in- 
tention of the promoters to set up offices of this kind all over 
the kingdom " to holde correspondence with the Citie of 
London ". It is also very evident that it was intended not 
only to enter into competition with scriveners and brokers 
for the lending of money, but to set up a kind of banking 
business through correspondence between the London and 
country offices, and thus save people from the danger of 
robbery, owing to the necessity of carrying large sums of 
money when they journeyed to London to make their pur- 
chases. Altogether the whole scheme w r as far in advance of 
the age. 

Matters then remained dormant until the year 1637. The 
first newsbook advertisement appeared, as has already beei 
noticed, on 1st February, 1625-26, in Mercurius Britannicust 
Coranto. On 13th December, 1637, Letters Patent were 
granted by King Charles I. to Captain Eobert Innes for th( 



THE HISTOEY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 161 

term of forty-one years. By these an office was instituted 
" whither masters or others having lost goods, women for sat- 
isfaction whether their absent husbands be living or dead, 
parents for lost children, or any others for discovering murders 
or robberies, and for all bargains and intelligences might resort 
if they pleased ". This office also was to be voluntary, and 
Captain Innes was to receive " such recompense as the parties 
would give ". Though not hampered, therefore, by any rent 
to the Crown, this second patent still had the defect that it 
gave the grantee no power to make definite charges. It is a 
little difficult to see why so extraordinary a limitation should 
have been placed upon him. 

Captain Eobert Innes was a Scotsman, a Eoyalist, and 
an opponent of Presbyterianism. 1 He had travelled in Turkey 
and the Continent, and, if the rebellions in Scotland and Eng- 
land had not broken out, some considerable development 
might have arisen from this patent. As it was, he did not 
act upon it, and died, presumably fighting on the King's side. 
The patent then remained dormant until 1657. 

The first practical realisation of these ideas was reserved 
for Henry Walker. In his issue of Perfect Occurrences for 
26th March to 2nd April, 1647, he had announced an Inde- 
pendent book, in the following terms: "A book applauded 
by the clergy of England called the Divine Eight of Church 
Government Collected by Sundry Eminent Ministers in the Citie of 
London. Corrected and Augmented in many Places, with a Brief 
Reply to Certain Queries against the Ministers of England, is 
printed and published for Joseph Hunscot and George 
Calvert and are to be sold at the Stationers Hall and at the 
Golden Fleece in the Old Change ". He probably made no 
charge for this announcement, but inserted it to help his 
friends. The idea, however, took root, and henceforth ad- 
vertisements gradually crop up in all the newsbooks. 

Samuel Hartlib, the Anglo-German, tendered propositions 
to Parliament in 1648, asking to be appointed Superintendent- 
1 Cal. S. P. Dom., 1637-38, pp. 19, 20 and 21. 



162 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

General of Offices on the model of those already described, 
and to be entitled " Offices of Addresse". 1 He asked to 
have power to demand, for every entry or extract in registers 
to be kept, the sum of twopence or threepence at the most, 
and in addition that he should be allowed 200 a year for 
his services, "either out of some place of profit in Oxford, 
according to the express order of the House of Commons, or 
out of the Revenues of Dean and Chapters lands," etc., and 
that a "convenient great house" should be allotted unto 
him to keep the said office in "with consideration for the 
furniture thereof". This not very creditable attempt to 
profit by other people's ideas was not successful. 

Henry Walker now saw his opportunity, and stepped into 
the breach, in the year 1649, with the following announce- 
ment ; " There is an office of Entries to be erected on 
Monday next for great profit and ease of the City's of 
London and Westminster and parts adjacent, as it is in 
France and other parts, where the people find great benefit 
by it. And for 4d. any person may both search and re- 
cord his entry and have notice of a Chapman or what is de- 
sired. 1. Whether he be to sell, let, mortgage, Lands, 
houses, leases, plate, jewels, chattells, goods, printed tickets 
for public debts, and merchandise of all sorts whatsoever, or 
such as will disburse money upon such securities. 2. To 
be entertained as Gentlemen's Chaplaines, Secretaries, 
Stuards etc. and also Gentlewomen nurses, servants etc. 3. 
To make known the time of their setting forth of any ships 
for what part they are bound and where passengers etc. may 
repaire to the merchants or owners for commerce and con- 
tract. And so coaches etc. 4. In sum, whatsoever is made 
known to the publique by expensive way of Bills posted 
or otherwise may be speedily known for the said 4d. 
onely and no more charges. The office is to be opened on 

1 His first publication seems to be lost, but the second is entitled A 
Further Discoverie of the Office of Publick Addresse for Accomodations. 
London, 1648. His Cornucopia of later date refers to it. 



THE HISTOKY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 163 

Munday morning next, at the Fountain in Kings Street and 
so continually day after day, where the clerks are to be at all 
times ready to make searches and entries." 1 

Three weeks later' he informs his readers : " There are- 
many things now daily brought to the Enterance at the 
Fountain in Kings Street. All those who have tickets for 
publique faith monies or printed tickets for soldiers " (the 
two old grievances of " public faith " and " free quarter ") 
"may be directed there where to have present monies for 
them. Divers that have lands or houses to sell or mortgage 
and others that buy come to the Enterance daily. And 
divers that have household stuffe to sell, also others that 
would lay jewels to pawn, gentlemen that want servants and 
servants that want places for any business it is but 4 pence 
the Enterance and doth much good in bringing the buyer 
and seller speedily together though with that small sum of 4 
pence onely." 2 

Walker was not a man to allow the grass to grow under 
his feet, and he now pushed his Office of Entries in a remark- 
able way. Previously he had made vain attempts to set up 
as an Hebrew lecturer, apparently more in order to satisfy his 
vanity and thirst for notoriety than for any other reason, and 

1 Perfect Occurrences, No. 137, 10th-17th August, 1649, p. 1216. 

2 The Man in the Moon's comment on this is amusing if coarse : "Bee 
it known unto all men by these presents. That a house of Entries is now 
erected at Westminster where if any man want a ... Theefe to serve 
him, hee may there find their names and lodgings recorded and this for 
ease and benefit of the State. ... Be it known also, that at Bednal 
Green Sir Balthazar Gerbier, a man that pretends to all arts and Sciences 
yet no more master of any than Henry Walker his great companion is of 
Hebrew opens the Academy (that is his store house of impertinences and 
nonsence) on Wed. the 29th inst. where all may be welcome (for their 
moneys) except only a friend of Sir John Danvers whom he suspects for 
stealing his jewels. I am loath to name the partie because of the neare 
relation that is betwixt them, but Henry Walker will tell you where 
some of the rings were sold in Foster Lane, and for how much if he bee 
not fee'd to hold his peace." Walker had received an invitation to the 
opening of Gerbier's Academy, and was immensely proud of it, and ad- 
vertised for Gerbier a theft of jewels which took place on the occasion. 



164 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

he now announced a course of public Hebrew lectures "for 
nothing at the Fountain, Kings Street in the Great 
under the Enterance Office," 1 and, as the particulars of tl 
good things to be found at his " Enterance Office " about thii 
time include "many that want to rent livings within fifty mil< 
of London," there is no doubt that he was adding a si 
simoniacal practice to his many other occupations. He hj 
actually recorded in 1648, in the following terms, an astound- 
ing word of commendation given to him at one of these 1< 
tures : " Dr. Waideson of both the Universities and Physitii 
of the College of London in name of the whole company wi 
pleased to give me this encouragement (for I read the lecture 
every night my self e) Quod tu sinistre legis nos dextre accipimus ". 2 
The fee charged for inserting an advertisement in a news 
book at this time was sixpence. The Man in the Moon wril 
of Walker's "Westminster catterwaule called Perfect Oocut 
rences, bumbasted out with a bill of mortality and the sixpem 
story of a man that lost a wall eyed mare at Islington whei 
the thief himself" (Walker) "stool her to carry his fardle oi 
nonsence heresy and blasphemy to Uxbridge to infect hi* 
parish with the national sin of Atheisme " ; and the si 
periodical, in alluding to "Peck the Perfect Diurnal maker," 
mentions " the last page which most commonly he lets out 
to the Stationers for sixpence a piece to place therein th< 
titles of their books the Most Famous History of Tom Tumb 
Long Meg of Westminster or Mr. Cook's Dream, and are to 
sold John an Oakes at the sign of the three Loggerheads in 
Pudding-Py Lane where Walker pawned his bible for a pint 
of heavenly metheglin, and Peck was beholding to his prinl 
to pay for halfe a pound of pudding for his dinner after he hi 
made a shift to reach ' Finis ' ". 3 

1 Perfect Occurrences, No. 143, 21st-28th September, 1649, p. 1324. 

2 Perfect Occurrences, 20th-27th October, 1648, p. 705. The lecti 
took place, *' Not in the taverne as some mistake," (The Owle ?) "but 
a private house next doore to it ". 

3 Man in the Moon, No. 23, 26th September to 10th October, 1649, p. 
200 ; and ibid., No. 57, 29th May to 5th June, 1650, p. 426. 



THE HISTOKY OF ADVEKTISING TO 1659 165 

In and after the year 1649, therefore, advertisements be- 
came universal in the newsbooks ; but they were confined to 
books, an occasional quack medicine, runaway servants and 
apprentices, and things lost or stolen especially horses. For 
other purposes advertising offices were used, and it is clear 
that the author of a newsbook did not desire too many adver- 
tisements for fear of being accused of " bumbasting it out ". 

The terminology employed is interesting, and it is to be 
noted that the word " advertisement," which meant special 
notice, was not used in our modern sense until about 1660 or 
later. The term adopted was " advice," and of this we shall 
have to describe a very curious derivative. The terms " ad- 
vertising " and "advertiser" are of a later date altogether, 
" advertiser " not being known until the next century. 
" Siquis " seems to have been occasionally employed for an 
advertisement, being taken from the words "If any one," 
with which announcements, particularly of the " Hue and 
Cry " order commenced. 1 

The advertisements were as much a subject of derision 
as the newsbooks and their authors themselves. " Besides 
-all Iterations, Petitions, Epistles, News at home and abroad 
rayling and praying in one breath (two grand helps which 
they never want) they have now found out another quaint 
device in their trading," writes Samuel Sheppard. 2 " There is 
never a mountebank who either by professing of Chymistry, 
or any other Art drains money from the people of the nation, 
but these arch-cheats have a share in the booty, and besides 
filling up of his paper (which he knew not how to do other- 
wise) he must have a feeling to authorise the Charletan, 
forsooth, by putting him in the News-book. There he gives 
you a Bill of his Cures, and because the fellow cannot lye 

1 For example ; " The Downfall of Mercurius Britanicus, Pragmaticus, 
Politicus, that three headed Cerberus," in which it is said of Nedham and 
his Hue and Cry after the King in " Britanicus " 

His cursed Siquis ne'er will be forgotten 
Against his Prince, when he is dead and rotten. 

2 Mercurius Mastix, No. 1, 20th-27th August, 1652, p. 7. 



166 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

sufficiently himself, he gets one of these to do't for him 
and then be sure it passes for currant, just like those who- 
being about to sell a diseased or stolen horse in Smithfield, 
are fain to get a Voucher who will say or swear anything 
they please for sixpence. But why should we be angry 
with them for this ? For it is commonly truer than the rest 
of their news. Nay they have taken the Cryers trade from 
them, for all stolen goods must be inserted in these pam- 
phlets the fittest place for them, all theirs being stolen 
they do so filch from one another. I dare be bold to say 
they confer notes. And then judge you whether this be not 
fine cozenage, when we have that in ten or twelve pamphlets, 
which would hardly fill up a page in one? " 

In April, 1650, a second advertising agent appeared in 
one Adolphus Speed, presumably because of the total sup- 
pression of the licensed newsbooks at that time. He set up 
his office, which he called an office of " Generall Accomoda- 
tions by Addresse," "att Mr. Fisher's House in King Streete 
within the Covent Garden," and issued an elaborate and 
amusing prospectus l with a list of advertisements in it which 
he called " Discoveries ". On 29th September, 1650, Henry 
Robinson, a merchant and writer on economics of the city, 
issued the prospectus of an office, which seems to have filled 
the functions of a modern registry office for servants, entitled 
" The Office of Adresses and Encounters " situated in 
" Threadneedle St. over against the Castle Tavern, close to 
the Old Exchange". He announces: "the poore" should 
have all the services he promised done for them in charity, 
and " all others for sixpence a time, or entry, so often as their 
turn is served. And for this purpose, the said office shall 
be kept open every day (except the Lords Day) from 8 of 
the clock till 12 at noone, and from 2 to 6 in the evening."' 

^'Generall Accomodations by Addresse," 26th April, 1650. The- 
address is from a note in the author's handwriting on Thomason's copy. 

2 " The Office of Adresses and Encounters where people of each Rancke 
and Quality may receive directions," etc., 29th September, 1650, by 
Henry Robinson. 



THE HISTOEY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 167 

After the final suppression of the licensed newsbooks in 
1655, Marchamont Nedham seems fully to have realised the 
fact that he could charge advertisers in his newsbooks 
exactly what he chose ; consequently he raided the price of 
an advertisement from sixpence t*> half a crown, an excessive 
sum for the times. 1 

Complaints were probably frequent ; hence in the year 
1657 a remarkable development took place, and it was de- 
cided to publish a periodical consisting entirely of advertise- 
ments. 

On 14th May, 1657, a broadsheet prospectus was issued, 
entitled " The Offices of Public Advice newly set up in 
Several Places in London and Westminster. By Au- 
thority." 2 

This prospectus, after a preamble similar to those already 
cited, announced a "book of Intelligence in print" wherein 
all the " particular occasions " entered at the offices to be in- 
stituted should be publicly sold every Tuesday morning at 
any stationer's shop, and that fees in future would only be 
taken of one of the parties to a bargain and not of both as in 
" the blinde way of addresses heretofore made use of ". " The 
undertakers" bound themselves "to print each advice so 
entered four weekes together in the same book," after which 
the fees were to be renewed. 

The fees were distinctly heavy, and a curious fact is that 
it does not seem to have occurred to the promoters to charge 
for space or the number of words. Important " advices," or 
those by important people, seem ipso facto to have been given 
capital letters and more space, that is all. 

l Mercurius Politicus. A Private Conference between Scot and Need- 
ham Concerning the Present Affairs of the Nation, 1660. One of his nick- 
names was the "Devil's half-crown newsmonger ". 

2 Also advertised in Mercurius Politicus for 7th-14th May, 1657, p. 
7796, and the Publick Intelligencer for llth-18th May. Date of prospectus 
from the Publick Intelligencer, 18bh-25th May, p. 1373. See also an 
article by the present writer in the Nineteenth Century and After, 
November, 1907, on "The Early History of London Advertising". 

12 



168 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

Advertisements of ships leaving port or to be sold, etc., were 
charged for at the rate of 6s. per month's advices, and if the 
ship was of more than 100 tons a penny per ton was the charge. 

Those of ship's tackling, rigging, and furniture for sale, 
if under 30 in value, 5s. ; if over, a penny per pound for the 
overplus. 

For lands and houses to be sold, mortgaged, or purchased 
a penny per pound in value was charged if to be let 5s. and 
a penny per pound overplus if of more than 30 rent. 

Also advertisements of any merchandise to be sold were 
charged in the same way, 5s. being the ordinary fee and a 
penny per pound for the overplus of 30 in value. 

Those advertising for employment and miscellaneous 
matters were charged as follows, a month's advertisements 
being given for the fee : 

Ships' Officers, and apprentices to any calling, etc. . . 6s. 
Common Seamen . . . . . .3s. 

" Petti" schoolmasters, nurses, workmen, journeymen, etc. 4s. 
Physitians (i.e., including quack medicines) . . . 10s. 
Books to be printed or intended to be printed . . 5s. 

Professors of Sciences, teachers of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
English, French, Italian, Dutch, or any other languages; 
tutors and governors for noblemen or gentlemen ; school- 
masters or schoolmistresses of the better sort; writing 
masters, dancing masters, singing masters, lute or guittare 
masters; stewards, bailiffs of manors; secretaries, gentle- 
men ushers ; book-keepers, cash-keepers, clerks of counsel- 
lors ; Justices of the Peace, Attorneys, solicitors, scriveners, 
brewers, woodmongers, etc., were charged 10s. 

Tiy proprietors of stage-coaches the charge was 8s. ; to 
those of hackney-coaches, 6s. ; and for advertising runaway 
servants and apprentices, 8s. 

The following eight offices were set up : 

1. In East Smithfield near St. Katherine's by the water- 
side, at one Mr. Greens a chirurgion at the Signe of the Ham- 
burgh Arms, over against the signe of the White Lion. 



THE HISTOKY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 169 

2. In Sherburn Lane's end, next to Lumbard St. at 
one Mr. Gasses, over against the White Hart. 

3. In Barbican, at one Mr. Peryam's, over against the 
sign of the George, next door to the sign of the Pomegranate. 

4. In Fullers rents in Holborn, at one Mr. Tho. Slay- 
nets, at the Three Arrows. 

5. In White-Friers, at the Entry, next to the Green 
Dragon Tavern, at one Mr. Gee's over against the sign of the 
Black Bull Head. 

6. In the Strand, at one Mistress Salisburies, at the sign 
of the White Swan with two necks, over against the sign of 
the Cross Keys by York House. 

7. In Westminster, In Kings Street, at one Mr. Hudsons, 
at the sign of the Half Moon, between the Kose Crown and 
the Black Bell. 

8. In Southwark, at Mr. Newtons, at the sign of the 
Queens Head Inn, on St. Margarets Hill. 

Nos. 1 and 4 were open on Wednesdays and Fridays from 
8 to 11 A.M. ; No. 2 from 12 P.M. to 4 ; and No. 5 from 2 to 5 
P.M. on Wednesdays and Fridays ; Nos. 6 and 8 were open 
on Thursdays and Saturdays from 8 to 11 A.M. ; and Nos. 3 
and 7 were open on Thursdays and Saturdays from 2 to 5 P.M. 
From this it is evident that two clerks were sufficient for all 
the offices. 

On 26th May, 1657, No. 1 of the "book" appeared. It 
had as catchword the Publick Adviser, probably a unique 
use of the last word which was evidently adapted from " ad- 
vice ". The Publick Adviser was exactly the same size (two 
sheets = sixteen pages) as Nedham's newsbooks, and was 
published at the same price a penny. It is a most in- 
teresting periodical, and contains a variety of announce- 
ments of all kinds which give a valuable picture of the life of 
the time. Advertisements of nurses, stage-coaches, carriers, 
schoolmasters, tutors, serving-men, valets, lodgings and 
physitians (one describes himself as no mountebank or 

rnercurialist) all appear, in addition to the predominating 

12* 



170 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

notices of ships departing the port of London and houses to 
be sold and let. No publication of equal importance appeared 
again until near the end of the century, and it is remarkable 
for containing the first trade advertisements, that of coffee 
(on 26th May) and of chocolate (on 16th June). " An adver- 
tisement of importance" (the contrast in terminology is 
curious) tells its subscribers that there is no necessity to 
enter their " occasions " in their own names. 

In the meantime, Captain Eobert Innes's dormant patent 
held good, and still had a lengthy period to run, since an Act 
of Parliament in 1648, and an order in Cromwell's "Coun- 
cil " of 1653 confirmed all King Charles I.'s grants. Captain 
Innes's widow, therefore, found a purchaser for it in one Oliver 
Williams, who was a buyer of speculations of the kind, and 
who no doubt envied the high fees which the " Public Ad- 
vice" Offices were charging for their monopoly. He and 
others are many times mentioned in the State Papers with 
reference to another assignment, that of a patent for ship's 
ballast, which seems at last to have been declared legally in- 
valid. There was, however, no doubt about Captain Innes's 
patent ; therefore on 26th May he also issued a broadsheet, 
"A Prohibition to all Persons who have set up any Offices 
called by the names of Addresses, Publique Advice or Intelli- 
gence". 

In this he took the legal standpoint, that the fees charged 
by the Offices of "Public Advice" were contrary to law, 
as in his own grant they were to be voluntary ; and he also 
denied their right to exist at all. On 16th June another 
" advertisement " appeared in the Publick Adviser, denying pro 
formd the claims of Oliver Williams, but in this the fees were 
waived altogether, and the amount to be paid was left for 
agreement between the office clerks and the clients. Williams 
seems then to have issued a prospectus of his own, and on 
13th July appeared his own book, the Weekly Information 
from the Office of Intelligence, which set up the following six 
11 Offices of Intelligence " : 



THE HISTOEY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 171 

1. St. Katherines at one Mr. Streets, a corner house, near 
the Hartshorn Brewhouse daily from 8 to 12 A.M. 

2. Thredneedle St. next dore to the Ship Tavern daily 
from 8 to 6. 

3. At Bentley's Eents, Holborn Court in Grayes Inne at 
one Mr. Nathaniel Littons house, daily from 8 to 6. 

4. At Mr. Hunts house next to the Sun Tavern, over 
against Chancery Lane end Holborn, from 2 to 6 P.M. 

5. At Charing Cross at Mr. Bisakers house, next door to 
Charing Cross Tavern from 8 to 12 A.M. 

6. In Southwark at one Mr. Skirm's near the Talbot Inne, 
over against St. Margaret's Hill from 2 to 6 P.M. 

The hours of attendance show that three clerks would be 
sufficient for the working of these offices. 

Very probably legal proceedings now took place, and, if 
so, it would seem reasonable to conclude, that the monopoly 
of the " Public Advice " Offices must have been overruled and 
Williams's patent declared valid. He was not, however, per- 
mitted to publish a " book," and the Weekly Information was 
limited to one number. All the offices eventually collapsed, 
in spite of the gradual reduction of their number ; for two 
years later, when Williams appeared as a journalist for the 
Eump, he speaks of "reviving" his Office of Intelligence. 
The restriction in his patent, that no definite fees were to be 
charged, a restriction eventually acknowledged to be good by 
the Publick Adviser, must have been fatal to the success of the 
undertakings from a commercial point of view. 

The remainder of the history of advertising is closely con- 
nected with that of the newsbooks of 1660. 



CHAPTEK X. 9 

1659 TO 1666. 

THE death of Cromwell on 3rd September, 1658, and the 
calling of a Parliament by his son Richard on 27th 
January, 1659, renewed the struggle between the army leaders 
and the Commons. Marchamont Nedham had been so 
thorough-going an advocate of Cromwell and his policy that 
he could not hope to pass unscathed in the contest for su- 
premacy which now ensued, and an end was at once put to 
his monopoly. The majority in the " Eump " as the Parlia- 
ment was now contemptuously termed was strongly Ana- 
baptist, and this fact was marked by the reappearance of the 
Faithfull Scout on 29th April, and the Weekly Post on 10th 
May, both issued by the same bookseller, George Horton (one 
of those imprisoned in 1653), and both apparently written by 
Daniel Border. On 10th May the Weekly Intelligencer of the 
Commonwealth was also permitted to reappear. 

Nedham, who had made a good many enemies by his 
partisanship of Cromwell, was now denounced as " a lying 
railing Eabshakeh" and a " defamer of the Lord's people''. 
Attacks were made on his moral character, and his removal 
was demanded from his position as author of the official 
diurnals. On 13th May, 1659, the Commons, accordingly, 
discharged him from " writing the weekly intelligence," and in 
his place appointed an old Anabaptist printer and preacher, one 
John Canne. Nedham, as Anthony a Wood tells us, com- 
menced a periodical of his own, the Moderate Informer, 
published each Thursday, in opposition to Mercurius Politicus f 
but apparently it was suppressed after the second number ; 

and he then turned his attention to recovering his place in 

172 



LICENSED NEWSBOOKS KEVIVED 173 

the good graces of the Parliament by writing a book in sup- 
port of their cause. 

Canne did not give satisfaction, and, from 16th and 19th 
July respectively, the Scout and Post were marked " published 
by special authority ' ' . Thomas Scot, the Regicide, now Secre- 
tary of State in Thurloe's place, had the management of the 
newsbooks, and may have salaried their writers in order to 
prevent any Royalist competition. Nedham's disgrace was 
Oliver Williams's opportunity, and, as he tells us, he at once 
" revived" his Office of Intelligence "at the Old Exchange 
in Cornhill," and commenced a biweekly periodical, entitling 
the Friday's newsbook^l Particular Advice, etc., and Occurrences 
from Foreign Parts, etc., and reversing the order of the two 
titles for his Tuesday's edition. The two first numbers 
were dated respectively 30th June and 5th July. From 29th 
July they also were "published by authority", and at the 
same time added to the " advices " and foreign news " a true 
account of the daylie occurrences at Westminster". Ad- 
vertisements naturally predominated in these periodicals ; 
which Nedham, Williams tells us, attempted to suppress, con- 
fident, probably, of his ability to regain his lost post, and they 
contain some amusing leading articles in which, like Henry 
Walker, he occasionally quotes Hebrew. Williams " kept 
up a constant correspondence" with Thomas Scot, and these 
two periodicals may now be considered as taking the lead so 
long as the Eump Parliament remained in power. 

On 17th August Nedham's book appeared. It was aimed 
against any project of restoring King Charles II., and bore 
the title Interest will not Lie. One Koyalist pamphleteer 
amusingly remarked that it was its own confutation, for two 
days previously he had ;been restored to his office and 
Politicus and the Publick Intelligencer became his once more. 

In the meantime, while the dispute for power between 
the army leaders and the Kump proceeded on its way, the 
strong man in Scotland, George Monck, was slowly forming 
his plans. To his lasting honour it can be said, that he kept 



174 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

steadily before his eyes as his main object the avoidance of 
shedding any more blood, and to his skilfully concealed 
plans is due the astounding fact that the will of the nation 
was once more made to prevail, and that the King was 
brought back to his throne, without the loss of a single 
man's life. In the steps which he^took to effect this, 
journalism played its part ; for General Monck had his own 
periodicals, written by a writer whom he could trust. 

Monck had married Anne, the widow of a Strand trades- 
man called Eadford, and sister of Thomas Clarges, who 
practised as an apothecary in the Strand. Both were de- 
voted Eoyalists, and it is to them that the selection of a 
writer for the royal cause was confided. Their choice fell 
on Henry Muddiman, who was also the son of a Strand 
tradesman, Edward Muddiman, and was thus evidently well 
known to them. He was baptised at St. Martin' s-in-the- 
Fields on 5th February, 1629, and was admitted a pensioner 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1647. Up to the time 
when he began to issue his Parliamentary Intelligencer and 
Mercurius Publicus, in secret opposition to Nedham's Politicus 
and Publick Intelligencer, he had been a schoolmaster, and, as 
he states, " never writ anything of this sort before ". When 
Clarges left Scotland at the end of November, 1659, it had 
been decided by Monck and himself that the press should be 
utilised, and that Henry Muddiman and not William Clarke, 
Monck's secretary, should be the person to give the General's 
documents to the world. From this date, therefore, the 
plan was set in motion which was to restore to the King his 
rights, and to make simple Anne Clarges a duchess, her 
brother a baronet, and Henry Muddiman the privileged 
journalist of the Eestoration. 

Monck, at this juncture, evidently did not trust Crom- 
well's nominee, and a literary adviser and amanuensis of 
some sort was necessary ; for his education, as Clarendon 
states, was but " Dutch and Devonshire ". Clarges's literary 
acquirements, judging from his unacknowledged pamphlet 



GENEKAL MONCK'S JOUENALIST 175 

"Hypocrites Unmasked," also appear to have been of the 
poorest kind. On the occasion when he met Muddiman, 
Pepys remarked that he was a " good scholar," and Pepys 
was proposed by him as a member of the Rota Club, though 
it is clear that Muddiman did not trust Pepys with his reason 
for adopting the career of journalist, since Pepys called him 
also a rogue for speaking basely of the Hump though " he 
wrote newsbooks for them ". Muddiman 's newsbooks, how- 
ever, which had only been in existence a few days at the 
time, were not official, and would have been suppressed 
but for the fact that it was known who was behind him. 
As they advocated a free Parliament, Pepys must soon have 
discovered his mistake in thinking that he wrote newsbooks 
for the Bump. 1 

About the same time that the Parliamentary Intelligencer 
was commenced in London, Captain Goodwin, one of Monck's 
officers, appears to have commenced the Faithfull Intelligencer 
from the Parliaments Army in Scotland, written at Edinburgh, 
also with the object of attacking Nedham. This periodical 
has the distinction of being the first purely Scottish news- 
book, written as well as printed in Scotland. Clarges also 
probably brought down with him from Scotland Giles Dury, 
as assistant for Muddiman. Dury is never heard of again 
after the [Restoration, when, as Wood writes, he " gave over " 
writing the newsbooks, and he must have been employed as 
assistant in order to leave Muddiman free to edit Monck's 
documents. 

The famous " Eemonstrance and Address of the Army," 
first presented to Monck on 9th April, 1660, by which the 

1 For Muddiman's antecedents Williams's attack in An Exact Ac- 
compt, No. 103, 22nd-29th June, 1660, and the former's reply in the 
Parliamentary Intelligencer, No. 27, 25th June to 2nd July, 1660. That 
the newsbooks were issued under Clarges's direction appears from his 
letter to Gumble on 26th December, 1659 (the day of issue of the first 
number) (Leyborne-Popham MSS., 1899, p. 137). Clarges's letter also 
refers to Captain Goodwin. Pepys made Muddiman's acquaintance on 
9th January. Pepys was Downing's clerk at the time. 



176 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

officers pledged themselves to obey whatever the forthcoming 
free Parliament should decide, and owing to which all blood- 
shed was avoided, bears a direction on its title-page from 
Monck to Henry Muddiman to publish it. As it seems clear 
that the " Eemonstrance " was framed by Clarges, Henry 
Muddiman must have settled its wording and final form, as he 
did that of many other documents. It is for this reason that 
his uncle, Sir William Muddiman, was given a place of 
honour at the Coronation Eeview on 7th May, 1661, and 
command of the Lord Mayor's "troop of horse," all citi- 
zens ; l for this reason also, after the Eestoration, he became 
sole privileged journalist of the kingdom, and was granted 
the privilege of free postage for his letters like the officers of 
State. 2 But he chiefly earned his reputation as a writer of 
newsletters, of which an immense number (more than those 
of all other writers put together) exists. 3 From the found- 
ing of the Gazette, until his death in 1692, he was little less 
than an institution, and the reason why up to the present he 
has been forgotten is because he devoted himself entirely to 
journalism, was not a pamphleteer, and engaged in no con- 
troversies. One quarrel he had, and that entailed the decisive 
and lasting discomfiture of a future Secretary of State Sir 
Joseph "Williamson. He was the first editor, and practically 
the founder, of one periodical still in existence the modern 
Government organ entitled the London Gazette ; and there- 
fore the story of this patriarch of English journalism is of 
more than ordinary interest. 

The Long Parliament came to an end on 16th March, 

1 Historical MSS. Commission, 5th Report, App., p. 203. 

S. P. Dom. Charles IL, 160, No. 149, para. 1, and 139, No. 61. 

3 The Marquis of Bath has in his library at Longleat a complete col- 
lection of Muddiman 's newsletters from 29th April, 1667, to 12th October, 
1689, the dates being alternate days, contained in fourteen folio volumes, 
formerly the property of Mrs. Muddiman. It is impossible to overesti- 
mate the value of this collection, and it is to be hoped that Lord Bath 
will permit their publication. For an example (chosen in order to show 
the extent of the writer's correspondence) see Appendix B., p. 211. 



NBDHAM DISCHAEGED 177 

1660, and one of the first acts of Monck's Council of State, 
which governed the kingdom pending the assembling of the 
free Parliament that recalled the King, was to get rid of 
Marchamont Nedham. 

The Parliamentary Intelligencer, No. 14, 26th March to 2nd 
April, 1660, was marked "Published by order of the Council 
of State," and commenced as follows : 

" Whereas Marchamont Nedham, the author of the weekly 
news-books called Mercurius Politicus, and the Publique Intelli- 
gencer, is, by order of the Council of State discharged from 
writing or publishing any publique intelligence. The reader 
is desired to take notice, that by order of the said Council 
Giles Dury and Henry Muddiman are authorised henceforth 
to write and publish the said intelligence the one upon the 
Thursday and the other upon the Monday which they do in- 
tend to set out under the titles of the Parliamentary Intelli- 
gencer and of Mercurius Publicus." l 

The next number, published on 9th April, corrected the 
mistake in the order of the two periodicals, giving Mercurius 
Publicus its correct position as the Thursday's newsbook, and 
contained the following addition : " At the Council of State. 
Whitehall. Ordered. That the master and wardens of the 
Stationers Company London are hereby required to take care 
that no books of intelligence be printed and published on 
Mondays or Thursdays weekly other than such as are put 
forth by Mr. Henry Muddiman and Mr. Giles Dury, who have 
an allowance in that behalf from the Council of State. Signed 
by the Clerk of the Council." 

Marchamont Nedham continued the publication of Politi- 
cus and the Publick Intelligencer, in spite of the order dismissing 
him, until 9th and 12th April respectively, when he absconded 
and his journalistic career came to an end. He took refuge 

1 Whitelocke's Memorials are wrong as to date. Dury has been re- 
puted as the nominal writer of the Parliamentary Intelligencer owing to 
the mistake in the order here quoted it was Publicus for which he was 
responsible. 



178 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

in Holland, and Anthony a Wood states that a little later 
" for money given to an hungry courtier obtained his pardon 
under the great seal, which was his defence oftentimes, par- 
ticularly at Oxford Act in 1661, when several set upon him 
in St. Mary's Church to hale him before a justice, and so to 
prison for treason. He afterwards exercised the faculty of 
physic to his dying day among the brethren, which was a 
considerable benefit to him. He was a person endowed with 
quick natural parts, was a good humanitian, poet, and a boon 
droll, and had he been constant to his cavaleering principles 
he would have been beloved by and admired of all, but being 
mercenary and valuing money and sordid interest rather than 
conscience, friendship, or love to his prince, was much hated 
by the royal party to the last." 

He died in Devereux Court, Temple Bar, in 1678, and 
was buried near the entrance to the chancel of the Church of 
St. Clement Danes, Strand. He was no patriarch of journal- 
ism, invented nothing, originated nothing, and his name is 
chiefly to be associated with the retrogressive and decadent 
Mercurius Politicus. Even Henry Walker was greater as a 
journalist than Nedham. 

Oliver Williams, however, thought that he saw another 
chance in Nedham' s final ruin. Immediately appropriating 
the catchwords of Mercurius Politicus and Publick Intelligencer, 
he commenced two new periodicals with those names, in 
which the full title of Nedham' s periodicals was varied, and 
wMch now professed to communicate advertisements from the 
three kingdoms, and were dated from Williams's "'Office of 
Intelligence " near the Old Exchange. The fact that he was 
able to do this without a week's delay points to some arrange- 
ment in the matter. At the same time he announced an 
advertising innovation, in the shape of " tables," or notice 
boards, to be hung up in various parts of London and West- 
minster. On 21st February, 1660, he had also commenced a 
daily report of the proceedings in the House of Commons, 
which he entitled the Perfect Diurnal. This lasted until 



THE EOYAL PEEKOGATIVE 179 

16th March the day of the Long Parliament's dissolution, 
and was the first daily English news periodical. 

Williams' s journalistic activity warrants the suspicion 
that there was a good deal more in his plans than meets the 
eye, for the advertising notice boards would have formed an 
excellent means of communication for malcontents. The 
Council of State's second order, prohibiting any competition 
with Muddiman and Dury, was also disregarded by him 
and, referring to his assignment of Captain Innes's patent,, 
he marked his newsbooks " Published by authority," which 
elicited a protest from Muddiman, who termed his newsbooks 
"idle pamphlets". It will be remembered that Captain 
Innes's patent contained no reference to newsbooks at all, 
so that his claim in any case was a false one. Nevertheless, 
when the King returned and the Council of State's authority 
to Muddiman expired, Williams felt himself in a position to 
attack him, and with considerable impudence raised a claim 
under this very patent to the sole right of publishing 
newsbooks, called his rival a " Priscianus verberans et 
vapulans" because he had drawn attention to some of his 
mistakes, and stated that he could not forget " his former 
pedantick whipping occupation". 1 He also accused Muddi- 
man of having styled the King, in the earlier numbers of his 
newsbook, the ''pretended King of England," and of having 
alluded to the " titular Dukes of York and Gloucester," 'and 
expressed a hope that "in these better regulated times he 
will want a Thurloe to support him in his unjust usurpa- 
tions". From this it is fairly evident that Thurloe, on re- 
turning to office as Secretary of State, had prevented Muddi- 
man's newsbooks from being suppressed together with the 
Scout, Post, etc. 

Muddiman replied, terming Williams's attack "pittiful 
foolery," and added : " To those that know me, I need make 
no apology, to those that do not it will be easy enough to 

1 An Exact Accompt, No. 103, 22nd-29th June, 1660, p. 1006, and the 
Parliamentary Intelligencer, 25th June to 2nd July, 1660, p. 430. 



180 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

tell them that I never writ anything of this sort till entreated 
to it, for a just vindication of his Excellency and his army, to 
give faithful intelligence of their transactions which were at 
that time so basely and falsely represented by the Pam- 
phleteers then in being. His Excellency was then pleased to 
send me severall of his papers to commit to the press, which, 
when known to the world, any sober discreet man may judge 
with what cautiousness and design I must behave myself, 
with what reluctancy to myself I was forced sometimes to 
imitate this very fellow (I mean no further though than in 
writing) to free myself from the inquisition of his prying 
master" (Scot) "who imployed such busie instruments to 
entrap men. How could I then safely represent the numbers 
that desir'd a free Parliament if not in a disguise, which how- 
ever was necessary should be done to balance those things he 
so often foisted in and crowded week after week in his books, 
such as his Barebones Petition and that pretended to be the 
Watermens, which suspition might not a naked simplicity 
have cast upon the master I wrote for. This, though his 
shallowness cannot reach, wise men have thought meritori- 
ous." 

Referring to Williams' s patent he continued, " I confess I 
have never yet seen his power, but I'le tell him my opinion 
of it, that he may have power to keep a shop or stall to give 
information of money to be laid out in Bomaria " (bottomry 
bonds ships' mortgage) " or where a man may with most 
security venture to have his corns cut, or what house is to be 
let on the Bank side, where young men and old matrons may 
hire maidservants and that bargains are to be made there, 
but how this entitles him to Press work I leave it to himself 
to make out ". Finally, comparing him to Nedham, whom 
Williams had abused, he wound up with : " corruptio unius 
est generatio alterius Sir Politick would be, might have been 
civiller to his godfather for surely he gave him his name, but - 
no wonder if he be irreverent to him, that shew'd so much 
ingratitude to his late Patron ". 



NEWSBOOKS SUPPEESSED 181 

This was enough. Williams had drawn attention to his 
proceedings, and to the other periodicals which were spring- 
ing up Walker's Occurrences, and &Mercurius Veridicus, which, 
with his own Votes of both Houses, had also attracted 
the attention of the House of Commons as reporting their 
debates inaccurately. The royal prerogative, already men- 
tioned, in the circulation of news was evidently acted upon, 
and all newsbooks other than the Parliamentary Intelligencer 
and Mercurius Publicus were suppressed. Henry Muddiman 
alone retained the field and continued to hold it until the 
autumn of the year 1663. 

It is to be noticed that in spite of the suppression of the 
newsbooks, the press itself was now free. The whole of the 
"Ordinances" and Acts since the abolition of the Star 
Chamber had melted into thin air. Cromwell's Inquisition 
of Three, under the order of 28th August, 1655, and his Act of 
7th January, 1653, were now of no effect, and there were no 
penalties. Some process of licensing was necessary, but the 
newsbooks had greater liberty than Nedham's, which were 
revised by a Secretary of State. 1 

Sir John Berkenhead, the former writer of Aulicus, was 
appointed Master of the Faculties on 2nd November, 1660, 
and, as this was an ecclesiastical office, he appears henceforth 
to have acted as a licenser, by analogy with the ancient juris- 
diction of the Star Chamber. Until the passing of the Licen- 
sing Act of 1662, people must have brought their books to 
him, in order to protect their copyright, though, as we have 
shown, there was considerable doubt as to their right to this at 
Common Law. He licensed Henry Muddiman's newsbooks, 
presumably under the royal prerogative, during the year 
1660, from the date of his appointment as Master of the 
Faculties, and probably continued to license them after that 

1 " The Publick Intelligencer and Merc. Polit. . . . being revised by the 
Secretary of State have many copies of my letters in them " (Hartlib to 
Dr. Worthington, 20th November, 1655, Diary and Correspondence of 
Dr. John Worthington, Chetham Society, vol. xiii., pp. 60, 61). 



182 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

year. There is little, however, to show that he invariably 
did this, for, although Muddiman's printers entered their 
newsbooks in the Stationers' Kegisters during the year 1660, 
in the following years they did not continue the entry. 1 The 
Stationer's Registers now became quite valueless, as there 
was no necessity to register anything. 

But for one circumstance, therefore, Henry Muddiman 
was in a far more enviable position as journalist than any of 
his predecessors. This circumstance was the resolution of 
the House of Commons passed on 25th June, 1660, that no 
person whatsoever do presume at his peril to print any votes or 
proceedings of this House without the special leave and order of 
this House. 2 The newsbooks were thus deprived of their 
mainstay, and, as no general permission to report parlia- 
mentary proceedings in print was granted until the close 
of the century, the reason for the valuelessness of the periodi- 
cals printed in the reign of King Charles II. is apparent. 

When Cromwell was in power similar circumstances had 
given rise to a great development of the written intelligence 
at the expense of the newsbooks ; as the numbers of letters 
of news to be found among the Clarke Papers and the 
value attached to them clearly prove. Not until two years 
after Henry Muddiman's death were the newsletters also 
placed under a ban by the House of Commons, and from the 
fact that no such ban was placed on the newsletters during 
his lifetime the commanding position which he held as jour- 
nalist can be gauged. His privilege of free postage placed 
would-be competitors at a hopeless disadvantage. 

1 The only evidence of his continuing to license them is his statement, 
that he "suffered nothing to come forth" in the newsbooks on the oc- 
casion of Secretary Nicholas's retirement in October, 1662 (Egerton MSS., 
2538, ff, 186, 189. ) It is hardly necessary to say, that statistics of the output 
of the press drawn up from the Stationers' Register after the Restoration 
are of little use. 

2 Commons Journals. On 9th July, 1662, the Irish Commons even 
complained of reports of their proceedings in the Intelligencer (Irish 
Commons Journals, ii., 91-95). 



PKIVILEGED NEWSLETTEKS 183 

Another cause of the exemption of the newsletters from 
censure is to be found in their greater expense. This re- 
stricted their circulation to the upper classes and the coffee- 
houses (the clubs of the day), therefore there was less poli- 
tical danger to be apprehended from them. 1 The reorganisa- 
tion of the post office and the increase in the number of posts 
were circumstances which also now contributed to the re- 
vival of the newsletters, and Henry Muddiman's practical 
monopoly of the whole news of the three kingdoms must 
have been exceedingly profitable. 

The Licensing Act was passed in the year 1662, and 
came into force on 10th June for two years, afterwards 
being renewed as it expired. This lengthy and lenient Act 
did not mention the Mercury women and hawkers, who were 
at last left in peace, and regulated printing and bookselling 
besides other matters. One curious privilege was granted 
by it ; as a special mark of favour John Streater, stationer, 
one of Cromwell's victims in 1653, was expressly exempted 
from its provisions. 

The provision affecting the newsbooks was, that "all 
books of history, concerning the state of the realm or other 
books concerning any affairs of state shall be licensed by 
the principal secretaries of state for the time being, or one of 
them, or by their or one of their appointments ". When the 
King came to the throne there were two principal Secretaries 
of State, Sir William Morice, appointed at General Monck's 
request, and Sir Edward Nicholas, an old Cavalier who had 
been with the King in exile. It was to the latter that Henry 
Muddiman attached himself, and to his Under- Secretary, 
Joseph Williamson, that he gave intelligence ; he also received 
news from him, and from this circumstance it is probable 
that Williamson licensed Muddiman's newsbooks after the 

1 Five pounds a year was Muddiman's charge for newsletters (S.P. 
Dom., Charles II., 275, No. 39 (1670). The newsbooks cost a penny. 
These sums should be multiplied by three and a half or four in order to 
arrive at our own values. 

13 



184 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

passing of the Act. (Berkenhead was appointed a Master 
of Requests in January, 1663.) 

Henry Muddiman's office for his copying clerks at this 
time was at the Seven Stars, in the Strand, and he sent out 
his letters of news from that address, heading them " White- 
hall" in order to show the privilege with which he wrote; 
but after a time the bulk of the correspondence addressed to 
him arrived at Williamson's office. 1 No doubt Williamson, 
like the older licensers, was paid for his share in collecting 
Muddiman's intelligence. He did not send out letters of 
intelligence himself until his quarrel with the latter occurred 
in 1666, but was certainly in a position to furnish him with 
the foreign news. Probably for this reason the Nouvelles 
Ordinaires de Londres was started afresh in 1663 ; for the first 
mention of this periodical occurs in a letter to Williamson in 
September of that year. The only post-Eestoration number 
to be found among the State Papers is dated 3rd May. 2 

In the following year Oliver Williams, with one Sack- 
ville Greaves, was granted a small post at Bristol the office 
of searcher in the Customs Office. 3 He appears, however, 
to have carried on his "Office of Intelligence" at the Old 
Exchange, for some of the City Mercuries that is advertise- 
ment papers distributed gratis were issued from this office 
about the year 1670. One Charles Wheler obtained the 
mastership of an "Office of Inquiry" in 1660, but whether 
this had anything to do with advertisements there is nothing 
to show. 4 If so, it would appear that Williams' s " Intelligence 
Office " was suppressed, at any rate for a time. 

1 His later office was at the Peacock, in the Strand. His private house 
was at Brompton (Earl's Court). These addresses are taken from the 
numerous letters to him among the State Papers. 

2 Gal. S. P. Dom., 1663-64, p. 276, 21st September, 1663, M. de Bacquoy 
to Williamson, " Begs news of what passes and the Gazette printed in 
French". 

S. P. Dom., Charles II. 34, No. 110. 

4 S. P. Dom. 17, No. 14. The first of the City Mercuries was issued 
in 1667 by Thomas Bromhall, whose office is described in S.P. Dom., Charles 
II., 187, No. 265. Copies of this periodical are in the Record Office, News- 



WALKEE'S LAST BOOK 185 

Of the other journalists of the Rebellion there is almost 
nothing to be said. They all sank into obscurity at the 
Restoration. Henry Walker, however, had to undergo one 
more attack from John Crouch. At the commencement of 
August, 1660, Walker published his last work, Serious Observa- 
tions lately made touching His Majesty King Charles II., with an 
Hebrew anagram on the title-page " The King hath pre- 
pared a refreshing, he hath crushed it out of the rock by 
degrees. Published to inform the People. Per H. Walker 
S.S.T.S." As might be expected, this document was of the 
most fawning and servile kind, referring to the King as the 
Hypostasis and Prosopon and to his royal father as one 
"whom treacherous servants slew". Crouch at the time 
was writing a new Mercurius Fumigosus, and immediately 
held him up to derision, concluding with " this buffle pated 
loggerhead, coming lately to Dunnington in Bishopgate 
street meeting at Sarah's handmaid's," said that " His High- 
ness was growne fat with eating of pease and bacon since 
he came into England," upon which they cried out " Trea- 
son," and frightened him into paying for a breakfast which 
cost him 30s. by way of a bribe to hold their peace. A Henry 
Walker was married at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on 5th 
June, 1664, to Anna Lowden, both being of the same parish. 

After undergoing an unjust imprisonment on suspicion, 
Cleiveland had died before the Restoration. Of Sheppard 
nothing is known, but if he survived he is not likely to have 
been without preferment. Rushworth died a drunkard, in a 
debtors' prison. 

In 1663 a new journalist supplanted Henry Muddiman. 
Roger 1'Estrange, a Cavalier, who had suffered imprison- 
ment and had even at one time been honourably distinguished 

paper collections. Bromhall's fee for an advertisement was 2s. 6d. (S.P. 
Dom., Charles II., 450, No. 92). The office was situate at "The Peahen 
next door to the Shears opposite Summerset House over against the 
Maypole in the Strand ". 



186 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

by being sentenced to death for his loyalty, was a Royalist 
pamphleteer, with a most prolific and powerful pen, who 
had not been rewarded at the Restoration as he deserved. 
He had intrigued to obtain Nedham's post of journalist, and 
still continued his intrigues after the defeat of his hopes. A 
sincere advocate of the theories of Divine right, he was also 
a convinced High Churchman and bitterly opposed to tolera- 
tion in any form. As the control of the press was ultimately 
placed in his hands, he has attracted from writers of the 
Puritan school a greater amount of obloquy than he deserves. 
In particular he has been singled out for odium as having 
obtained the condemnation of a printer named John Twyn 
in 1664 for high treason. John Twyn, nevertheless, met the 
just penalty of a crime with which the liberty of the press 
was entirely unconnected. He had full knowledge of the 
plot for a rising and for the extermination of the Royal 
family in 1663, refused to save his life by disclosing his 
author's name, and part of the document he printed is yet in 
existence to condemn him as a peculiarly hypocritical and 
dangerous criminal. 1 

1 S. P. Dom., Charles II., vol. 88, No. 76, pages 25 to 32 inclusive of his 
pamphlet. It, of course, has not the faintest resemblance to Milton's 
" Tenure of Kings and Magistrates ". It was entitled a " Treatise of the 
Execution of Justice," and advocated the assassination of King Charles 
II., the Duke of York, and the rest of the royal family, by way of re- 
taliation for the execution of the Regicides, justifying what was suggested 
on Scriptural grounds. The following sentences are taken from it ; 
"God hath not forbid us to cut off the yoke of this present tyrant. . . . 
The execution of judgment is a duty incumbent on the people. If a 
King hath shed innocent blood the law of God requires the people to put 
him to death." "If the blood of righteous Naboth were avenged by the 
Lord's people upon all the house of Ahab how much more reason is there 
to avenge the blood of all those centuries (sic) of righteous souls which 
these tyrants have shed since their possession of the government ... if 
ever there were a season which required the Lord's people to sell their 
garments and buy swords it is now." The Speeches and Prayers of the 
Regicides, for the printing of which other printers were punished with 
Twyn, is to be found in the Thomason Collection (E. 1053 (1) ), and is a 



THE SUKVEYOE OF THE PEESS 187 

On 24th February, 1662, L'Estrange was granted a 
general warrant, empowering him to seize seditious books 
and their writers. He also asked for a general search warrant 
(one was drawn up but not executed), and was employed 
after the Restoration in generally surveying the presses and 
hunting out seditious books. At the same time he attracted 
a great deal of attention to himself by his pamphlet warfare 
with the Presbyterians, notably Edward Bagshawe, and con- 
tinued to complain bitterly of the lack of preferment that had 
befallen him. He soon became a famous writer, and after 
the passing of the Licensing Act in 1662 was requested to 
draw up proposals for the regulation of the press. He ac- 
cordingly drew proposals, in which he again asked for a 
general search warrant and for the control of all licensing, 
with certain exceptions. By way of remuneration he de- 
manded a grant of the right to publish the news, and all bills 
and advertisements, with a fee, as licenser, of Is. per sheet 
" on other works ". This, of course, was an open attempt to 
supplant Muddiman, which he further supplemented by his 
"Minutes of a Project for Suppressing Libels". By means 
of this he proposed to bring also the written news within his 
grasp through the insertion of a clause in the licenses of 
coffee-house keepers. 1 

These two written documents were followed by his printed 
Considerations and Proposals in Order to the Regulation of the 
Press, which displayed the same repressive tendencies. In 
reward for his services his proposals were complied with, 
and by Eoyal Letters Patent the office of " Surveyor of the 
Press" was set up for him. Among a multitude of minor 

grossly false and fictitious account, depicting them as martyrs. These and 
other documents, either bearing no publisher's name, or the names of 
Giles and Elizabeth Calvert, and Livewell Chapman, are all false and 
fraudulent, and part of an organised campaign of seditious printing. 

J S. P. Dom., Charles II., 39, No. 94, and 61, No. 101. Berkenhead 
seems to have taken up the cudgels in Muddiman's behalf, for L'Estrange 
attacked the former in his Considerations and Proposals. See also S. P. 
Dom., Charles II., 70, No. 59, and 26, No. 97. 



188 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

things, the patent granted him as his remuneration the sole 
privilege of writing, printing and publishing newsbooks and 
advertisements. 1 He was not, however, given the fee of Is. a 
sheet on books, which he had also asked for, nor had he 
power to interfere with manuscripts. Muddiman's privileged 
newsbooks, therefore, came to an end, and henceforth he only 
supplied the written news. As this patent placed the control 
of the whole press of London into L'Estrange's hands, it is 
clear that the work entailed was far too much for one man ; 
but although his newsbooks were ill served with intelligence, 
he made them pay. 

His Monday's weekly pamphlet, the Intelligencer, and his 
Thursday's newsbook, the Newes, at the end of the year 1663 
were paged and numbered together and made consecutive, so 
that it no longer sufficed to buy one, and the purchaser had 
to obtain both. He also reduced their size by one-half, and 
they only contained eight pages. No reduction in price was 
made, and these means enabled him to state later on that he 
had "trebled the value of the newsbook". Before he was 
ejected from his editorship, however, he brought the news- 
books back to their original size (when the Dutch war was 
in progress), and could thus plead "in doubling the size I 
doubled also the value ". 

These devices, and his known and declared antagonism 
to the publication of news, brought on him great unpopular- 
ity, and the written news henceforth began to take first rank. 
So great was the dissatisfaction, for L'Estrange had by now 
ceased writing controversial pamphlets, that an overture was 
even made to Nedham. 2 

1 S. P. Dom., 78, No. 96, is a copy of the warrant directing the draw- 
ing of the grant, and dated 15th August, 1663. L'Estrange was evidently 
not allowed to interfere with Muddiman's newsletters, for the privilege of 
free postage " was denied " him and he eventually obtained it by favour 
of Lady Chesterfield, one of the farmers of the post office (S. P. Dom., 
Charles II., 139, No. 61). 

2 L'Estrange's letter to Lord Arlington, S. P. Dom., Charles II., 135, 
No. 8. I regret to add that the Calendar of State Papers for 1665-66 gives 



SIR JOSEPH WILLIAMSON 189 

In the meantime Muddiman still continued attached to 
the Secretary of State's office. In October, 1662, Secretary 
Nicholas was superseded, somewhat against his will, and 
Henry Bennet, subsequently created Earl of Arlington, re- 
placed him, Joseph Williamson remaining Under-Secretary 
as before. 

Sir Joseph Williamson, who was knighted in 1672, suc- 
ceeded Arlington as principal Secretary in 1674 ; and was the 
son of a North-country clergyman and a Fellow of Queen's 
College, Oxford. He was a very able business man, with the 
habit of keeping all letters and papers ; hence the mass of 
documents he has left behind him among the State Papers 
renders it easy to tell the complicated story of his relations with 
Henry Muddiman. In character he was mean, greedy and 
grasping ; no kindly acts are recorded of him, for he never 
did anything with a disinterested motive, and that his con- 
temporaries did not hold him in honour we know from Pepys, 
Evelyn and Sir William Temple. Evelyn states that Lord 
Arlington "loving ease more than business " "remitted all 
to his man Williamson . . . and so by his subtlety dexterity 
and insinuation he got to be principal secretary ". He was 
poor when he started his career, and neglected no opportunity 
of making money, whether by taking bribes or more legiti- 
mately. From the first he had seen the importance of Henry 
Muddiman's correspondence, and had noted the use it would 
be to himself, not merely from the point of view of profit, 
but also as a means of political and social advancement. 
Hence Muddiman, up to the year 1665, is continually to be 
found sending letters of intelligence at "Mr. Williamsons 
direction". 

neither an adequate nor even in some cases a truthful account of the 
documents it professes to describe. The preface to it must be disregarded 
altogether as in actual conflict with them. All the documents here re- 
ferred to are described at greater length, in an article by the present 
writer, in the English Historical Review for April, 1908, entitled the 
" Newsbooks and Letters of News of the Restoration ". 



190 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

L' Estrange' s unpopularity as a newsmonger suggested to 
Williamson the idea of " getting the public intelligence into 
his hands," and of retaining Henry Muddiman to write both 
newsbooks and letters of news, under his directions ; William- 
son of course to receive all profits, and to pay a salary to 
Muddiman. He "several times" asked the latter "for a 
list of his correspondents," but was "refused " ; and Muddi- 
man himself related later on that he was perfectly well aware 
of his motive in asking, and therefore had made up his mind 
not to leave Lord Arlington's office, as, while he was with 
him, and not with the other Secretary, Morice, Williamson 
could not obtain a list. 

Towards the end of the year 1665 Muddiman also ap- 
pears to have taken steps to - have a good deal of his intelli- 
gence sent to him privately. The Court was at Oxford at the 
time on account of the great plague, and in October Lord 
Arlington had received a grant of the office of Postmaster 
General, therefore Williamson's influence over the post office 
became greater than it had been before. James Hickes, a 
clerk in the letter office, was one of his creatures, and could 
be relied upon to do anything he wished. During the Puritan 
times Hickes had been nine years in the post office, and on 
the strength of an " aged father slain at Edgehill," and more 
probably because he was actually necessary to the Govern- 
ment had been continued in his post when the King re- 
turned. He was a sycophantic hypocrite, who invariably 
made professions of wishing to "live to God's glory" when 
he was about to tell some lie or commit some mean or 
treacherous act, and to those then in power he was a slavish 
and subservient tool. 

It was part of Hickes' s duties to sign Muddiman' s 
letters as franked. Williamson, therefore, determined to get 
the desired list of correspondents through him. With 
Muddiman in London there was, of course, no opportunity 
to carry out his design, but by engaging the latter to write 
a new journal at Oxford, on pretext of the Court being there, 



THE OXFORD GAZETTE 191 

he would attain his double object, of attacking L'Estrange, 
and of obtaining a clear field for Hickes to copy the ad- 
dresses on Muddiman's letters as they were sent to the letter 
office in London. The plan was all the more treacherous, 
in that he himself had acted as L'Estrange's news-collector. 

Having made his arrangements, he wrote to L'Estrange 
from Oxford on 15th October, 1665 : 

" I am sorry the distance in which we are from you de- 
prives me of the occasion of helping and directing you in the 
composing of the publick news as would be better for his 
Majesty's service and your own reputation. I have often 
advised you to agree with Mr. Muddiman in this matter, 
who having had the good luck and opportunity of falling into 
the channel of these things would have been very useful to 
you and in despair of seeing this effected in the future I take 
the freedom to propose to you that if you will relinquish to 
me your whole right in the composing and profit of the 
newsbook I will procure for you in recompense of it a salary 
from his majesty of 100 per annum, which shall be paid 
through my hands. ... If I place it too low you must 
blame yourself for having told me several times that the 
duty of it is very burthensome and the profit inconsiderable." 

In the greatest alarm, L'Estrange wrote a series of 
lengthy letters to Lord Arlington, protesting against the 
terms offered as inadequate. The newsbook was, he alleged, 
worth 400 a year, instead of the 200 at which he had 
found it. The quality of his employment was to " teaze 
and persecute the whole rabble of the faction " (that is the 
political and religious dissenters) "which I have done to 
such a degree that I have drawn upon my head all the 
malice imaginable," and the newsbook " was given me to 
balance my service about the press, and in doing my work 
be judge my lord if I do not deserve my wages". 

His letters were not answered, and on 16th November, 
1665, No. 1 of the biweekly Oxford Gazette appeared ; licensed 
by the Secretary of State, Lord Arlington, in accordance with 



192 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

the Licensing Act ; written by Henry Muddiman ; printed 
by the University printer Leonard Litchfield ; and reprinted 
in London by Thomas Newcombe, the printer of the Intelli- 
gencer, " for the use 'of some merchants and gentlemen who 
desired them". Any question of infringement of L'Estrange's 
patent would have been difficult to raise at Oxford, within 
the privileges of the University. 

The Gazette "half a sheet in folio" and exactly the 
same size and shape as Muddiman's newsletters was clearly 
designed by him to send by post with them. The news that 
could not be printed, such as parliamentary proceedings and 
the like, he intended to send in writing. It was an ingenious 
device, and betrays the fact that in its origin the printed 
"paper " of news was but auxiliary to the newsletters. Its 
success was immediate, and the Gazette was received with 
"general applause," Pepys remarking in his Diary, "Very 
pretty, full of newes, and no folly in it". 

Forgetful of the fact that he had no written correspond- 
ence, L'Estrange even attempted, on 28th November, to 
imitate it with a " paper " of his own, entitled " Publick Intelli- 
gence. With sole Privilege," introducing it with the remarks : 
" By this time you may perceive my masters that your in- 
telligencer has changed his title, his form, and his day, for which 
I could give you twenty shrewd reasons if I were not more 
obliged to gratify a point of prudence in myself than a curi- 
osity in others, and I do assure you there is both discretion 
and modesty in the case. This short accompt will serve to 
satisfie the wise, and I shall leave the rest to content them- 
selves at leisure." 

He had to resume his Intelligencer and News, however 
(on 2nd and 4th and 7th December respectively), and then 
appealed to the King in person ; a much wiser step than 
taking legal proceedings. Charles II. ordered that, in addition 
to the 100 a year for the newsbooks, which henceforth were 
" taken into the Secretaries office," l and were to have this 
1 Not given to Williamson. Ormonde MSS., vol. iii., N.S. , pp. 351-352. 



THE LONDON GAZETTE 193 

sum charged on their profits, 200 a year should be paid out 
of the secret service money to L'Estrange for his services as 
Surveyor of the Press. The arrangement was an equitable one 
and probably the only person dissatisfied was Williamson. 

The Oxford Gazette changed its title to the London Gazette 
with No. 24, dated Monday, 5th February, 1665-66, and after 
No. 25, dated 8th February, Henry Muddiman refused to 
have anything further to do with it, transferred himself and 
his correspondents to the other principal Secretary of State, 
Sir William Morice, and ordered all his letters to be addressed 
for the future to Morice's Under-Secretary John Cooke. 

The reason of this is to be found in the intrigue by 
which Williamson, with the aid of Hickes, had endeavoured 
to gain over his correspondents. Each day, throughout the 
week beginning Monday, 27th November, 1665, Hickes had 
taken a list of their names and addresses, and, on sending 
them to Williamson, remarked that he left to him the 
" management " of them. The lists, which are still in exist- 
ence, show a widespread correspondence of the utmost im- 
portance. Muddiman was informed of what Hickes had 
done, had sent his letters afterwards to another clerk to sign, 
one Edmond Sawtell ; and at the same time had stopped a 
gift of four copies of his newsletters, which he had been in 
the habit of making to Hickes every week (Hickes had some 
correspondence of his own). Several venomous letters from 
Hickes to Williamson followed, and in the end, when he 
returned to London, Muddiman, as already stated, quitted 
Arlington's office. There is no doubt but that he had from 
the first been fully prepared to leave. He was quite ready 
for anything Williamson might do, and an attempt to stop 
his letters had produced no effect. 

Directly Williamson found out that Muddiman was 
about to transfer himself to Secretary Morice, he employed 
Hickes to issue a circular, not daring to do it openly himself, 
to all the correspondents whose names had thus been 
secretly obtained. In this Hickes stated that Muddiman, 



194 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

whose letters had formerly come franked to their hands, 
was 

" Dismissed from the management of that correspondence 
he formerly was instructed with for that he hath contrived 
and managed that correspondence to his own particular ad- 
vantage and not for the service of his majestie and those 
persons of honour (Arlington and Williamson), as he ought 
and they expected he should have done ". 

This was about 15th February, consequently after Mud- 
dirnan had left Arlington's office ; and therefore as untruth- 
ful as can well be imagined. 

Hickes also went to see Monck's Secretary, Sir William 
Clarke, to whom he gave the same false account of a dis- 
missal. He had no difficulty in enlisting him on William- 
son's side. When Muddiman was told of what Hickes had 
been doing, he went in a " great huff and heat," and ordered 
him to recall his circular. When he saw Williamson, the 
latter promptly "disowned" Hickes. 

Muddiman then sent out (24th February, 1666) a 
circular of his own in which he says : 

" Upon a misunderstanding between Mr. Williamson and 
myself about the Gazette which I wrote at Oxon and till the 
last week at London I thought it most advisable to quit 
that office wholly and turn my correspondents to Sir 
William Morice, his Majesty's first principal secretary of 
State. I shall write as fully and constantly as formerly and 
with the same privilege and post free." 

He adds that he had detected Hickes in " some practices," 
and had not entrusted him with his letters to sign, "nor 
given him as formerly a copy of my letters to write after but 
as he is disowned' in it by those he pretends orders from so I 
shall make him sensible of the forgery ". 

The forgery was the attempt of Hickes to pass off his 
own letters of news, which he was now writing for William-' 
son, in lieu of Muddiman' s privileged letters. 

Hickes's reply to this was characteristic. He at once 



THE GAZETTE IN DANGEK 195 

drew up a petition to both Secretaries of State, asking that 
Muddiman might be ordered to " repair " him for the charge 
of forgery (which he extended in such a way as to make it 
appear as if he had been accused of malpractices not con- 
nected with the newsletters). He had discharged his duties, 
he remarked, " as in the presence of Almighty God ". 

Sir William Morice was not persona grata with the King, 
like the favourite Arlington, and was clearly not expected 
to interfere and perhaps not even to see the petition. He 
did intervene, however, and Hickes was ordered to draw up 
a statement of his case. In this document he contrived to 
expose himself thoroughly ; l and changing his ground, accused 
Muddiman of sending out letters of " other business in which 
neither the King nor himself were concerned to the end that 
they might go free," stating that there was "not one 
letter in answer to most of those he sent receiving stipends 
of from 40s. to 40 per person ". 

All the time that this had been going on Williamson had 
kept himself in the background, and it is only Hickes' s letters 
to him that reveal the fact that he really was directing the 
latter 's attack on Muddiman. Animus against Sir William 
Morice was not wanting, and Muddiman was accused of 
belittling Arlington by styling Morice "first" (i.e., original) 
Secretary of State. Hickes's attempts to stop Muddiman's 
letters, and Williamson's attempt to rescind his privilege of 
free postage, had from the first been frustrated by Secretary 
Morice' s special order, and another clerk in the letter office 
Hall had signed Muddiman's letters as franked. In the 
meantime Charles Perrot, of Oriel College, had been writing 
the Gazette under Williamson's directions. 2 

Secretary Morice at last administered a severe rebuff to 

1 " Narrative of the Discourse betwixt Mr. Henry Muddiman and James 
Hickes senior, concerning his Correspondence" (S. P. Dom., Charles II., 
160, No. 145). 

2 Perrob arranged to see Williamson on 7th February, 1666, in 
a lebter dated 4th February. Wood says that he wrote the Gazette, though 
not constantly, until 1671. 



196 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

Williamson, and from the complete silence into which 
Hickes then subsided we gather that he must have threatened 
to punish the latter. Muddiman was authorised to issue a 
second official "paper," in opposition to the Gazette, and on 
the same days, entitled the Current Intelligence ; * and the 
Gazettes position at once became precarious. Williamson 
and Perrot, with few correspondents and not possessing the 
public ear like Muddiman, could not hope to contend against 
the latter, who was backed by a Secretary of State and in 
all probability by General Monck, now Duke of Albemarle, 
as well; and moreover there was L'Estrange's charge of 
100 to be paid. L'Estrange must have been delighted at 
Williamson's difficulties. 

The great fire of London came to the rescue. All the 
printers in London were burnt out, including the printers of 
the Gazette and Current Intelligence, and both papers ceased. 
Williamson must have seized the opportunity to make terms, 
for, when the Gazette reappeared after a week's interval, 
Current Intelligence was conspicuous by its absence. His 
troubles were not at an end, however. All his attempts to 
compete with Muddiman as a newsletter writer were futile, 
and his correspondence was unremunerative. Muddiman 
organised his newsletter correspondence on a scale the like 
of which had never been seen before. 2 ' When his newsletters 

1 Hist. MSS. Commission, 10th Report, Appendix iv., p. 449 ; Fleming, 
Cal., p. 40 (761). 

2 <7/. The Man of Mode; or, Sir Fopling Flutter, Act III., scene ii., 
by Sir George Etherege, 1676 : 

" LADY TOWNLEY : I pity the young lovers we last talked of though to 
say truth their conduct has been so indiscreet they deserve to be unfor- 
tunate. 

" MEDLEY : You've had an exact account from the great lady i' th' box 
to the little orange wench. 

" EMILIA : You're a living libel, a breathing lampoon. I wonder you 
are not torn to pieces. 

" MEDLEY : What think you of setting up an office of intelligence for 
these matters ? The project may get money. 

" LADY TOWBTLEY ; You would have great dealings with country ladies. 

" MEDLJBY \ Mpre than. MMdinmn has with their husbands," 



STOLEN NEWSLETTEKS 197 

appeared the Gazette was "never asked for". People "de- 
clined the Gazette" in favour of them, and "persons of the 
greatest quality" were "constrained to betake themselves 
to them". Hickes wrote to Williamson on 27th December, 
1667, that twenty dozen Gazettes less than formerly were sent 
out. " The people so much slight them they having nothing in 
them of the proceedings of Parliament, which Mr. Muddiman 
writes at large." 

Finally, Sir Joseph Williamson Secretary of State 
was reduced to conniving at theft, and, in order to supply 
the Gazette and his own newsletter clerks with intelligence, 
actually employed Hickes to steal Muddiman' s newsletters 
while in transit through the post ; for the numbers of ad- 
dressed newsletters by Muddiman among the State Papers 
alone disclose this fact, without Hickes's own guarded refer- 
ences to what he was doing. 1 

The Gazette remained alone for many years, and still re- 
tains its official position, but until Henry Muddiman' s death 
it held a secondary position to the newsletters. His privilege 
of free postage seems never to have been withdrawn, and the 
British Mercury in 1712 (30th July to 2nd August) writes of the 
"famous Muddiman," and states that his newsletters gained 
him "a plentiful subsistence". He died "at his house at 
Coldhern near Earl's Court " in 1692, and was buried on 7th 
March in Kensington Parish Church, on the left side of his 
wife's grave, under " Lord Cambden's pew " by the " ally lead- 
ing into the chancel from the North door". 2 

See also Roger North's Life of Sir John North ; Wood's Life and Times, 
by A. Clark, (numerous references) ; Hist. MSS. Commission, 4th Report, 
p. 250 ; 5th Report, p. 318 ; 7th Report, p. 468 ; 12th Report, p. 77, etc. 

*E.g., 7th September, 1668, S. P. Dom., Charles II., 245, No. 190 : " I 
sent yesterday a letter for you with two enclosed of H. M. and desir'd Mr. 
Francis " (then Williamson's newsletter clerk) " to send it to you without 
opening it ". Every addressed newsletter to be found in the State Papers 
is by Muddiman (whether attributed to Francis or no). They were not 
signed, but are headed " Whitehall," and can be identified by the seals. 

2 Kensington Parish Registers. The site of Coldhern is now occupied 
by Coleherne Court, Earl's Court. The house was the residence of Sir 



198 A "HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

The Gazette was not intended to contain advertisements, 
and an announcement to this effect appeared in it in June, 
1666, a similar notice appearing about the same time in Current 
Intelligence. Both papers stated that " advertisements " were 
not the business of a "paper of intelligence," and that they 
would not insert them unless they were matters of State, but 
would publish a paper apart for them. L'Estrange, however, 
stopped this in virtue of his patent, and on 25th June issued 
a pamphlet called Publick Advertisements. This seems to have 
failed. Oddly enough the Gazette at the present day, though 
it contains a large number of advertisements, is concerned 
only with advertisements of State chiefly such as are re- 
quired by Act of Parliament to be inserted in it. It is still 
a biweekly folio, and has never succumbed to the modern 
innovation of printing its "catchword" in Gothic letters. 

William Lister, father-in-law to General Lambert, up to 1649. Lambert 
is said by Lysons to have resided in it at the time of the Restoration, but 
this is incorrect as he lived at Wimbledon. 



APPENDICES 



14 



APPENDIX A. 

NOTE. I think this is the only copy in existence of a Royalist periodical 
describing events at the murder of King Charles I. It has escaped 
notice owing to the fact that the date is 1648-49, and has been bound 
up among the periodicals of 1648. It is important as settling the 
identity of the man who spat in the King's face, and the meaning of 
the word "Remember". 

A KOYALIST MEECUKY. 

(1) 
MEECURIUS ELENCTICUS, Numb. 1. 

COMMUNICATING the unparallell'd Proceedings at Westminster, 
the Head-Quarters, and other Places, discovering their de- 
signes, reproving their Crimes, and advising the Kingdome. 
From Wednes. the 31 of January till Wed. the 7 of Feb- 
ruary 1648. 

. . . Ridentem dicere verum 
Quid vetat ? 

To kill the King eight yeares agon 

was counted Highest Treason 
But now 'tis deemed just, and Done 

as consonant to Reason. 

The Temple was esteemed then 

Sacred and Venerable 
Adorn'd with Grave and Godly Men 

but now 'tis made a Stable. 

'Twas Criminall to violate 

the wholesome Lawes o' th' Nation 
But (now we have a lawless State,) 

'tis done by Proclamation. 
200 



APPENDIX A 201 

Both Prince and People liv'd in Peace 

The Land with Wealth abounded 
But now these Blessings fade and cease 

Thank es to the Cursed Roundhead. 

Liberty, Liberty! Was once the Cry of the ambitious 
Romans (as now it is of the degenerate English). But when 
to gain this liberty they took the Liberty to murder their 
lawful Princes (though they were Tyrants, yet) we know 
what miseries and troubles befell the Roman Empire. Tacitus 
speaking of the story he writ thereof saies? It was "Opus 
plenum magnis casibus, atrox praeliis, discors seditionibus, 
ipsa etiam pace saevum ". A work full of great misfortunes 
terrible to behold for the many cruel Battailes, Repugnant 
for the variety of Sedi- 

(2) 

tions many horrible in the relation even of Peace itselfe. If 
then the Romans fared so ill for killing their evill Princes 
(such as Nero, Otho, Galba, and Vitellius whom successively 
they slew) what may the English look for, that now have 
murdered their lawfull soveraign, no Tyrant, no Usurper, no 
Encroacher, no Licentius, Lasivious or Covetous King, but the 
most vertuous, Magnanimous, Renowned, bounteful, and 
pious King of Christendome. 

Tuesday, January 30. 

That this day they did so, Let it be Writ in their Annals 
of Shame in Letters of Blood, to the perpetuall Dishonour of 
the English Nation, who could stand still and see their Sover- 
aigne murthered only for maintaining their liberties. And 
let the Justice of Heaven pursue those bloody regicides to the 
Pit of Destruction, who so cruelly, so inhumanly shed his 
innocent blood. In the interim yee champions of the Pro- 
testant cause, who heretofore could boast (and that justly) of 
your obedience to Kings, and brand the Church of Rome, 
with the doctrine of deposing and murdering them. Be ye 
henceforth silent lest she blame you as once Valerius and 

14* 



202 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

Horatius did the Tribunes of War, " Crudelitatem damnatis, 
crudelitatem initis" You condemne cruelty and yet you use 
it yourselves. 

To give you the compleat story of their proceeding to this 
height of Impiety, or insert the severall full and solid answers 
of his Majesty by way of exception to^the illegal jurisdiction 
of that pretended new court which condemned him or to give 
you his speech on the scaffold cannot (I hope) be expected in 
this narrow roome, considering they are printed by themselves, 
at large, though not without a manifest Track and continued 
mixture of their malicious Glosses to corrupt and Clowd the 
purer sense of his Majesty's expressions, arguments, and 
reasons. And in deed who could expect, that those who let 
not to fix any blemish upon him whilst he lived, should spare 
to do him any wrong at his death ? But I hope you shall 
shortly have the entire truth of them all, at large, published 
by an impartiall Pen, and in that respect I am also the wil- 
linger to forbear my Euder collections. 

Only this, I shall desire the Eeader to take notice of some 
circumstantial cruelties of his Persecutors from the time he 
was brought from Hurst Castle to the houre of his death. 
You must understand, that as they had ordained his neck to 
the hatchet, before ever they heard him speak, so likewise it 
was their indeavour i(if by any means they could) to perplex 
and discomfit his soule, and this they supposed might the 
best be done by distempering his body. 



(for so much philosophy Mr. Peters was capable of.) 
To this end whilst he was at Windsor they let the very 
Eascallity of the Souldiery all the day long to revile and 
buffet him with Eeproachfull language, of this a gentleman 
of good quality was an eare-witnesse, who heard a centinel use 
these words to him "You with a pox to you, must have 
fifteen pound a day allow'd you for your table, but we poor 
soldiers that stand in the cold must not have 15d. to releeve 



APPENDIX A 203 

us with. Well Stroaker " (for so they termed him in relation 
to that gift which God had given him in curing the evill) 
"we shall he quit of you ere long," with much other oppro- 
brious and treasonable language and unseemly gestures think- 
ing by that meanes to provoke and put him into passion. 
But they found him of another temper, for of such incom- 
parable patience he was, that they never moved him to 
anything more than a princely scorn and neglect of their 
insolencies. 

When he had the happiness to enjoy the company of any 
of their commanders, all the comfort he had in their society 
was but the same our Saviour had of the Jews, Temptation, 
rebuke and scorne. The day he was brought from Windsor, 
one of them told him thus " Sir " (says he) " the Parliament 
are setting up scaffolds in Westminster Hall for your tryall ". 
" Well ! " (said the King) " it makes no matter. I perceive 
then what they meane to do with me, and if they do murther 
me, I shall die with good company." But the Wittall not 
apprehending his meaning, desired to know what he meant 
by good company? " I meane " (says the King) " Eeligion, 
Lawes, Prerogative, Privilege, and Liberty, for these I think 
are ' good company,' and I could wish they might out-live 
me, but I feare they will not." 

After he came to St. James's, and so all the time of his 
Trial not to speak of the insolencies of Bradshaw and Cooke, 
for these are notoriously known and will be remembered 
they permitted I may rather say commanded, the soldiers 
to revile him at their pleasure and as he passed from the Hall 
(on Monday January 22) Col. Hewson 1 himselfe (for the 
honour of the Gentle Craft) cry'd "justice, justice on the 
tray tor," and withall spit in his face, whereat the King only 
smil'd, took out his handkerchiffe, and patiently wyp'd the 
venome off his face, saying, " Well, sir ! God hath justice in 
store both for you and Me ". 

All the night time he had a couple or more, of louzie 

1 One of the " judges," 



204 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

souldiers that stood centinel in his bed-chamber who were 
relieved every two houres and never rested either talking to 
him or amongst themselves, or smoaking out his eyes with 
their stinking Tobacco so that neither he could take his rest, 
nor performe his devotion to Almighty God, but in their sight, 
and not without their Expostulations and censure. 

(4) 

Thus, I say, they indeavoured to indispose him, that he 
should not be able so to recollect himself, as to plead against 
their pretended Authority, with that settled clearnesse of 
reason and judgement which otherwise they feared, and 
neverthelesse found he did, to their lasting infamy. At the 
least wise so to distemper and amaze him that when he came 
to execution he might dye like one of their Hothams, with 
trouble and horror of conscience, fearfully, or so weakly that 
he might not (if they could hinder it) leave that testimony 
of his goodness at his death, which so much purity of life pro- 
mised. But (to the glory of God be it spoken and with 
honour and reverence to that blessed bishop and comforter 
of his soule (next his Saviour) the Lord Bishop of London) 
such was his Christian patience and undaunted valour to the 
last moment of his sufferings, that he encountered boldly and 
subdued effectually, all the assaults and temptations both of 
Hell and Earth, and yielded up his spotless soule with that 
Alacrity, courage, constancy, Faith, Hope and Charity, which 
became the justness of the cause he dyed in and the great- 
nesse of his Eoyall spirit. 

Rest Blessed Saint ! Whilst these assassinates 
Doe Triumph in thy fall, which terminates 
Thy toilsome dayes, but does afresh begin 
To huddle vengeance on them that did the Sin 
Which loads their consciences, dries up their vaynes 
And makes them tyrannise in shrunken straines 
Alas fond Regicids ! thought they to speed 
Ought better in their worke for this black deed ? 
For every hundred hearts they had before 
This dismal blow hath left them not a score 



APPENDIX A 205 

And as those valiant martyrs when they dy'd 

Still Phoenix-like the Church with new supply' d 

Even so, fresh troups shal from thy ashes spring 

T' avenge the blood, Crowne second Charles their King 

Whilst thou great Martyr dost possesse a Crown 

Which Violence shall not touch, nor Treason owne 

' ' Thus Charles the First hath gain'd immortal glorie 
These traitors stinking names, to rot in storie." 

When they had murdered him, such as desired to dip their 
handkerchief es or other things in his blood, were admitted 
for moneys. Others bought peeces of board which were dy'd 
with his blood, for which the soldiers took of some a shilling 
of others half a crowne, more or lesse according to the qual- 
ity of the persons that sought it. But none without ready 
money. And after his body was coffin'd as many as desi- 

(5) 

red to see it, were permitted at a certain e rate, by which 
meanes the soldiers got store of moneys, insomuch that one 
was heard to say "I would we had two or three more such 
Majesties to behead, if we could but make such use of them ". 
But that which renders them yet more odious was this. 
The King (having nothing else to bestow upon his son the 
Prince of Wales) had charged the Bishop of London to send 
him his George, which they but suspecting (because he gave 
it him on the scaffold with this word ' Remember ') Ordered 
(in case the King had so disposed of it) " That his George 
should not be sent to the Pr. and withall that those cabinets 
which he had bestowed on the Bishop should be searched for 
papers," which they did accordingly and carryed away such 
papers as they thought fitting (some say all) But the George 
for certain they took from him, and it was moved in the 
house. That the Bishop might be required (and if occasion 
were rack'd) to confess what private instructions the King 
had given him concerning the Prince, or any other, and 
what messages he had in charge to deliver him or the Queen. 
But this was held not so necessary as destructive to their 
proceedings in that (as was alleadged) it might incurre a 



206 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

further odium, which they had no need of having already 
crept to this height of wickednes for which they are every 
moment in danger of their lives. 

In this interim Proclamation is made all the city over 
" That no person or persons should presume to proclaim the 
Prince of Wales, or any other to be the King of England or 
Ireland (for of Scotland they allow us) by colour of inherit- 
cance succession election or any other claim whatsoever 
under pain of High treason etc., By which we may clearly 
see : That it was not so much for any personal misdemeanours 
in the King that they murdered him, as to extirpate Mon- 
archy Rout and Branch. For suppose (but it will never be 
granted) that the King could have and have been guilty of all 
those Tyrannies, treasons and murders, which they laid to 
his charge, and that the utmost execution of that sentence 
were lawfull, yet that therefore the Son should suffer for the 
father's offences, will neither stand with good Divinity nor 
reason. It may with their manner of Justice. 

But I have a great fancy to be guilty of this peece of 
treason and therefore I'le be so bold as play the champion 
for once, though I hold no land by it. 

yes ! yes ! Whereas the Rebells of England have by 
the Arbytrary illegall and unjust power and force of a Tray- 
terous and bloody army most barbarously murdered their 
lawful King Charles the First of 

(6) 

that name, on Tuesday the 30th of Jan. 1648 about two of 
the clocke in the afternoone, be it knowne unto all men by 
these presents that Charles the Second son and heir apparent 
of the aforesaid murdered King is the only undoubted true 
and lawful King of England Scotland, France, and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith etc., from the very minute of his 
Father's death. And all the people within his dominions are 
accordingly bound by the lawes of God and this nation, and 
hereby strictly required to acknowledge him for their lawful 




APPENDIX A 207 

Soveraigne and King and to bear true Faith and Alleagiance 
to him upon paine of High Treason 

God save the King. 

This evening Duke Hambleton escaped forth of Windsor 
Castle and came to London in a butcher's habit where 

Wednesday, January 31. 

Hee was taken knocking at an inne in Southwark whence 
he was carry ed by water to Whitehall, and had there a strong 
guard set upon him. If they chop off his head in good 
earnest, I shall then believe he was not so treacherous as 
cowardly. 

This day also Sir Lewes Dives and Mr. Holder escaped 
from Whitehall where they were prisoners, some think they 
were drown' d in the Thames, but I hope and think they are 
both alive, and that by this time their bodyes are cast up on 
a safer shoare. These escapes put the regicides in debate of 
bringing the rest to tryall whereupon it was ordered that a 
committee should be appointed to bring in an act (for so they 
call it) to constitute another High Court of Justice, who are 
forthwith to murder the said Duke and others (whom they 
call) the chiefe delinquents. And in order hereunto it was 
voted that the Earle of Holland should be forthwith removed 
to the tower. 

Thursday, February 1. 

This day the Eegicides at Westminster spent much wind 
in debate of an Act (forsooth) which shall for the future 
disable all those members from sitting in the House who 
voted the late King's concessions to the propositions to be 
a sufficient ground for settling the peace of the kingdome. 
Which was assented to, and such members as sit in the 
House are to enter their dissents from the said vote, and 
those that be absent to declare theirs before they shall be 
admitted to sit as members. 

They voted that Duke Hambleton, the Earles Norwich 
and Holland, the Lord Capell and Sir John Owen, should be 



208 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

the next they would murder and the next day some of the 
High Court of Injustice met in the painted chamber, where 
they made some preparation to the tryall of them. 

(7) 

The Lord Capell this evening escaped forth of the Tower 
but by the treachery of two watermen was unfortunately 
met with and sent thither againe. 

A message came from the Lords House to desire a con- 
ference with the Commons touching the settlement of the 
Nation. But though they were acquainted that the mes- 
senger was at the doore, they would not vouchsafe him a 
hearing, but instead thereof appointed a day to consider, 
whether or no it may stand with their greatnesse to take any 
notice of them. 

And because the Judges commissions and all other that 
run in the name of the King are void by his Death, and that 
therefore some of them refuse to have any dealings with them 
and others to sit until they have some authority from those 
who have as little as themselves. It was ordered that the 
tearms should be adjourn'd until Fryday the 9th of Feb. and 
that in the meane while they consider and make choice of 
such Traytors to make judges of as are fittest for their 
turnes. 

Friday, February 2. 

The committee of the Navy reported the state thereof 
(viz.) that they found it in a tartar'd miserable posture, that 
they had conferr'd with some merchants of their assistance 
and found they will be so mad as advance some moneys 
towards the setting out of the next Summers fleet. Where- 
upon it was voted " That the number of ships for the fleet 
should be 73 the Men 6000 and ordered the Victualling there- 
of and moneyes to be raised for that service ". 

That thing miscalled an Act for Triall of Duke Hamble- 
ton and the rest was again reported and approv'd of, and 
Commissioners names to the number of 63, whereof any 15 




APPENDIX A 209 

of them shall be a sufficient Court. Ordered to be inserted. 
These are to consist of the scumme of the House, Army, and 
Citty, Coblers, and Tinkers, Pedlars and Weavers, and such 
are likely to be Duke Hambleton's Peeres. The Eegiment 
of Horse that Harry Martin raised in Barkshire in defiance 
of the members was this day voted Legitimate (so are not 
many of his bratts) and had thanks given him for that 
he would not disband when they bid him. 

Saterday, Feb. 3. 

The Act for Tryal of Duke Hambleton was againe re- 
ported, with the commissioners names inserted who are to sit 
on Monday next in the Painted chamber. And a large 
Declaration was presented in answer to the Scots Commis- 
sioners papers, wherein they intend to let them know by 
what authority they murdered the King of Scotland without 
their consent, and some amendments they made in it and 
ordered to consider of it Tuesday next. 

(8) 

They rewarded the two watermen that betrayed the Lord 
Capell with 40 of the hundred they promised. Their next 
reward may be a halter. 

Sunday, Feb. 4. 

The pulpits roared against Covenant breakers, but not so 
generally as before the King's death. Nor indeed is it out of 
any affection they have to Monarchy that they raise against 
their rebellious bretheren of the Army, but because they had 
not the honour to butcher the King themselves, and that they 
see their Tithes taken from them and no Provision made for 
their livelihood. 

Monday, Febr. 5. 

It was put to the Question whether the kingly office 
should any longer be continued in this nation, and whether 
the present house of Peers, as an Essentiall part of the 
Supream authority? But the latter was most insisted on 



210 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

and carried in the negative. Only this Priviledge they are 
content to allow them. They may have liberty to sit and 
give their opinions and advice, but not to have any more 
negative voice than they would allow the king. And this 
makes Pembrooke Double Damme himselfe. As for the 
government of the kingdome they intend by no means a 
kingly, only his excellency looks to be Constable of England, 
and that in effect is all one, only the name of King is wanting. 
Cromwell is to be Lord High Marshall of England, and Ire- 
ton I know not what but a mighty great man. The Eevenue 
of the Crowne is to be set apart for the maintenance of the 
Army and the estates of those they shall please to make de- 
linquents are to be disposed of amongst the officers of the 
Army. 

The High Court of Injustice met this day in the Painted 
Chamber to elect their President and officers, but who they 
are I cannot informe you. Some say none but Bradshaw 
will serve their turnes, but I hope his turn will be served ere 
he be much older. For, 

Can Bradshaw look ought longer for to live 

Then one of thousands can one Blow but give ? 

Sure no. If ever Man were vowed to die, 

'Tis Bradshaw. Where he falls, there let him lye 

And write upon him thus, Hereunder lyes 

Th' epitome of treason, perjuries 

Rebellion, impudence, and other things 

That do conduce to murdering of kings 

Graies Inne bred him, may they this breeding have 

As they passe by, to upon his Grave. 

FINIS. 



APPENDIX B. 

A NEWSLETTEK. 

WHITEHALL, August 23, 1670. 

WE doe now dayely expect Myn Heer Boreel in exchange of 
Van Beuingen who goes home, if not before his arrival. 

The Ld. Haward intends to take France and Spaine in 
his way for England and the latest from Madrid dated 6th 
tells us that he was arrived at Cadiz and suddenly expected 
their. A great confusion might have followed at Madrid upon 
a disorder lately their, the first was a quarrill which happened 
in y e Plaza Mayor at the beginning of a Bull feast in the 
presence of both their ma tia between y e Conde de Melger and 
y e Garmon's Guards to w ch many p-sons of y e greatest qual- 
litie ran out of their balcones and were much wounded, 
especially the Marquess of Guerrarra who is like to dye of 
them. Since the Conde and five or six of his companions are 
bannished. The second from a resque of a woemans theife 
w ch 4 soldy rs of the newe regemens would have made from 6 
Alguazills, w ch upon y e killinge of one officer of y e guard so 
inraged y e soldy rs for 3 daies togeather that they went to 
seeke revenge ether without regard to their superior officers 
or her mag 1 * till all the alguazill fled into Channles and cloystrs, 
and yet in all this time but 10 killed, severall alguazill and 
soldy rs are to be hanged about it. 

The bishoprick of Killalough in Ireland beinge become 
voyd Dr. Vaughan is elected to the place. 

On y e 16th Ld Mayo r and Aldermen etc., in p-suance of 
a message to that purpos attended his ma ty in Councill where 
his ma 1 * was pleased to acquaint them y* he had Eesolved 

211 



212 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

for sometime to devarse himselfe in the countrey and ther< 
fore commanded them to continue their care for preventioi 
of tumults and to have a ptickl r eye upon such as shoul< 
prsume to meete in conventicl 8 contrary to the late Act 
y e Comons. Which done they were brought into 
ma fcys ward roabe and then treated w th varieties of wines etc. 
His ma ty has given order for a newe fregot to be built a< 
Bristoll w th 70 peeces of ordinances. 

The carriages went on the 19 and 20th to Windso r an< 
Hampton Court where their mag tes removed on Monday 
cording to their former resolution. His ma ty has been pies 
to nominate the Comm rs to treat for y e kingdome of Scot! 
conserning the Union. Vide, Lt. Comm r , Artch Bsp of Snl 
Andrews, Ld Chancel r , Ld Privy Seale, E Atholl, E. Hume 
E. Dunferline, E. Lothian, E. Tweedale, E Kincardin, Bp. 
Dunblane, Bp. Galloway, Ld Kegester, Ld. Advocate, L< 
Halton, Ld Staires, Ld Newbysh, William Erskine Esq r Sr. 
Eobert Moray Sr Artchibald Morray, Sr Kobt. Sincler Sr. 
Alexander Freaser, Sr William Bruce, Sr Andrew Ramse] 
and Sr Patrick Moray. 

They write from Paris da te Aug st 23rd that the Duke d< 
Crecqui went in y* head of an army of 15000 men on 
Wednesday towards Peron wh ch is a french frontier upoi 
Flanders. The Duke of Buckingham they say was to hav< 
an extraordinary treate and within 6 days to goe for Englan< 
so that this weeke we may expect him here. 

On y e 19th severall of y e justicis of peace in and aboi 
Westmin r were before his ma ty in Councill where his ma* 
as before he had done to y e Ld Mayor and Aldermen com- 
mended to them the care of the people in his absence am 
their diligence to suppressinge y e meeting houses. 

On y e 20 th his ma ty by reason of his short stay here 
give a dispatch to such mat rs as lay undetermined before tl 
board was gratiously pleased to sit againe in Councill, whei 
it was ordered that a proclamation should immediately 
issued forth that all y e memb ra of both Houses might hai 



APPENDIX B 213 

notice that his Ma ts will and pleasure was that they should 
all come up and make a full house accordinge to their adiourn- 
ment on the 24th of October next. 

On y e (torn) w th his Koyall Highness Prince went 
to Windsor attended by a great number of y e nobilitie and 
y e gentrey etc. The queene y e same day to Hampton Court. 

The Deanery of Norage beinge become voyde by the 
death of Dr. Crofts, Dr Herbert Astley is appoynted by his 
ma ty to suckseed him. 

His ma ty has given order for the buildinge of 3 newe 
fregott at Hull. 

They write from Florans da* August 12th that Mr. 
Hammelton and Mr. Scaville invoys extraordinary from his 
ma ty and Eoyall Highness were arrived their ; and having staid 
some time with Sr John Finch his ma ties Resident till they 
were conduckted to y e pallace, where y e Duke ordered them 
to be intertained for 6 daies. The Venice let rs da fc 15th tells 
us that the Grand Segn r was at Adrianople and had sent a 
hye chiaux to y e vizer of Candea to attend him, who upon 
y e mesage immediately left Candea havinge by his severitie 
of impayling them that abused y e Venechanes and his 
threates of y e like usage to all that should committ the like 
offences settled a fare corrispondence amongst them. Severall 
workmen were sent from Constantinople to Candea to build 
places for such in the countrey who beinge not of y e Ma- 
hometan religion had not y e privilege of liveinge in any 
Citty or Garrison. By the French let rs da* 27th we are 
advised that the campe are marched towards Flanders, partly 
for want of forage, and partly to avoyd y e like inconveniences 
that France lay under y e last yeare when y e troopes spoyled 
the vintages in all places where they quartred. The Duke 
of Buckingham had been at Paris 4 daies and lodged in the 
Amb rs House. The Kinge had presented him with 4 of his 
best horses and a sword was preparing for him to the vallue 
of 20000 crownes. 

His Ma ty beinge informed in Councill that notwithstand- 



214 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

ing orders of the board, the one the 18th of May 1666 and th< 
other the 16th of December 1668, for presenting such persoi 
as coyned or vended farthings, halfpenies etc., not silver an< 
that severall psons had accordingly been prosecuted y( 
nevertheless that the evill p-tise of Coyning and ven< 
such farthings was still continued ; did on y e 17th give fi 
orders that all psones so offending, especially Corporatioi 
and the stampers or coyners who have beene or shall 
found guiltie shall (be) effectually prosecuted by the Attorney 
Generall accordinge to law. The Councill adiourned ti] 
September y e 9th. A yatch if y e wind offers this night 
goes for France to bringe over the Duke of Buckingham. 

(Written by a clerk, and probably dictated and takei 
down in shorthand. The following is in Muddiman's hand- 
writing:) Hasp will forget not the black mare etc., if you cai 
tell me in a Line where a search may be made for the geldii 
of Eichard (torn) 

(Unsigned.) 

To MB. WM. SYMONDS 
Lanceston 
Cornwall. 

S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 278, No. 38. 



APPENDIX C. 

SOME TITLES OF " COEANTOS " IN THE BUENEY 
COLLECTION. 

The 23 of May. Weekely Newes from Italy, Germanie, Hun- 
garia, Bohemia the Palatinate France and the Low 
Countries. Translated out of the Low Dutch copie. 
London. Printed by I. D. for Nicholas Bourne and 
Thomas Archer, and are to be sold at their shops at the 
Exchange and in Pope's-head Pallace 1622. 8 pp. 

The 18 of June. Same title with the addition of "with a 
strange accident hapning about and in the City of Zitta 
in Lusatia ". Translated out of the High Dutch copie. 
London. Printed by I. D. for Nathaniel Newbery and 
William Sheffard and are to be sold in Pope's-head 
Alley. 8pp. 1622. 

The %5th of September. News from most parts of Christ en- 
dome etc. London. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and 
William Sheffard 1622. 17 pp. (Fine woodcut coat of 
arms inside.) 

The yiih of September. A relation of letters and other adver- 
tisements of newes etc. Printed for Nathaniel Butter 
and Thomas Archer 1622. 20 pp. 

The 4 of Octob. 1622. A true relation of the affaires of Europe 
etc. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas Bourne 
1622. 37 pp. 

(For numbers issued by Butter dated 2, 13 and 23 Aug., 
1622, see Notes and Queries, ser. xii., 22nd Aug., 1903, p. 153.) 
October 15, 1622. No. 2. A continuation of the affaires of 

215 15 



216 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

the Low Countries and the palatinate etc. Printed for 
Nathaniel Butter and Earth. Downes 1622. 22 pp. 

October 15, 1622. Num. 2. A relation of the late Occurrents 
which have happened in Christendome. Printed by B. A. 
for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas Bourne 1622. 19 pp. 

October 30, 1622. No. 4. A continuation of the weekly newes 
from Bohemia Austria etc. Printed for Nathaniel But- 
ter and Barth. Downes 1622. 20 pp. 

(The inside heading commences " The Weekly Newes out 
of ... ," etc.) 

The 4 of November. The Peace of France or the Edict with 

the Articles of Peace etc. Printed by I. D. for Nathaniel 

Newbery and are to be sold at his shop under St. Peters 

Church in Cornehill and in Pope's-head Alley at the 

Starre 1622. 12 pp. 
November 5, 1622. Numb. 5. A continuation of the News of 

this present weeke etc. Printed for Bartholomew Downes 

and Thomas Archer 1622. 22 pp. 
November 7, 1622. Numb. 6. A Coranto. Relating Divers 

particulars concerning the newes out of Italy etc. 

Printed for Nathaniel Butter, Nicholas Bourne and 

William Shefford 1622. 21 pp. 
August 29. Numb. 46. Ital. Gazet. Nu. prio. More newes 

from Europe etc. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and 

Thomas Archer 1623. 22 pp. 

EXAMPLES OF PERIODICALS ISSUED BY BUTTEB 
AND BOURNE. 

November 11. Number 3. The wonderful resignation of the 

Mustapha 6tc., 1623. 22 pp. 
November 20. Numb. 4. The affaires of Italy etc., 1623. 

22pp. 
December 2. Number 6. First from Constantinople etc., 1623. 

22pp. 
December 13, Number 7, Weekly newes from Germanic etc., 






APPENDIX C 217 

1623. 22 pp. (Weekly newes now becomes the most 
usual commencement.) 

The Last Known Copies. 

Numb. 1. An abstract of Some speciall Forreigne Occurrences, 
brought down to the weekly Newes of the 20 of December. 
London. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas 
Bourne. By permission. 1638. (Extends over several 
months, 96 pp.) 

Cent 3. Numb. 48. The continuation of the Forraine Oc- 
currents for 5 weeks last past etc. London. Printed 
January 11, 1640, for Nath. Butter dwelling at St. 
Austin's gate (47 pp.). 



15 



APPENDIX D. 



CATALOGUE OF PEEIODICALS FEOM 1641 TO 
1666 INCLUSIVE. 

NOTE. Except where otherwise indicated the following periodicals 

all contained in the Thomason Collection up to the month of April, 
1660. From April, 1660, onwards the Burney Collection should 
consulted. The first and last existing numbers of each periodi 
only are cited, and for reading purposes vol. ii. of the Catalogue 
the Thomason Tracts, by Dr. G. K. Fortescue (1908), should be 
suited. For the Burney Collection the manuscript catalogue 
the Newspaper Room at the British Museum must be consult 
For the biographies of the printers or booksellers A Dictic 
of the Booksellers and Printers who were at work in Englai 
Scotland and Ireland from 1641 to 1667, by H. R. Plomer, 
printed for the Bibliographical Society (1907), is indispensabl 
The full titles of the periodicals are set out when the 
appeared for periods exceeding a year, or the titles themselves 
interesting or important ; in other cases the catchwords only 
given. 

1641. 

The Heads of Severall Proceedings in the Present Parl 
(from the 22 of November to the 29, 1641). Wherein 
contained the substance of severall letters sent from 
Ireland shewing what distresses and misery they are in. 
With divers other passages of moment touching the 
affaires of these kingdomes. No. 1. Nov. 22-29, 1641. 
Mondays. London. Printed for I. T. 
(The First of the Diurnals. The synopsis of the contents 
differs in the succeeding numbers, but full title remains the 
same.) No. 2. Nov, 29-6 Pec. No. 3. (?) 6-13 Dec. 






APPENDIX D 

Continued as 

Diurnal Occurrences or the Heads of Severall Proceedings in both 
Houses of Parliament. Mondays (No. 4). Dec. 13-20, 1641. 
Printed for J. T. and T. B. The Eoyal Arms on title 
page. (No. 5 Printed for John Thomas. Royal Arms 
omitted.) No. for Dec. 27-3 Jan. 164J. Printed for 
Nath. Butter and Jo. Thomas. 

(Continued as Diurnall Occurrences in Parliament. No. 1, 
Jan. 2-10, 164J, published by William Cooke.) 
By Samuel Pecke. 

1642. 

A Continuation of the True Diurnall of Passages in Parliament. 

Numb. 6. Feb. 14-21. Mondays. 1641 (Lasted for 2 

or 3 months.) 
A True Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament. Numb. 10. 

Mar. 14-21, 164|. Mondays. Signed at the end. Jo. 

Browne. Cler. Parliamentor. (Ended in March.) 
Diurnall Occurrences in Parliament (No. 1). Jan. 2-10, 1641/2. 

Printed for William Cooke. Mondays. Continued as A 

Perfect Diurnall. By Samuel Pecke. 
The Diurnall Occurrences in Parliament (No. 1). Jan. 10-17, 

1641/2. Mondays. Printed for F. Coules and T. Banks. 

No. 2. Jan. 17-24, 1641/2. (Ended in March.) 
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (No. 1). Jan. 

24-31, 1641/2. Mondays. Printed for William Cook. 

(Ended in March.) 

By Samuel Pecke. 
Ireland's True Diurnall or a continued relation of the chiefe 

Passages that have happened there since the (llth of 

January unto this (3 of Feb.) present) sent etc. 

(No. 1) Jan. 11-3 Feb. 1641/2. Printed for William 

Bladen, and are to be sold by Richard Royston in Ivie Lane. 

Continued as 

A True Diurnall or a continued relation of Irish Occurrences 
(No. 2). 12 Feb.-8 March 1641/2. Printed for William 



220 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1642. 

Bladen and to be sold by Francis Couls. (No more 

issued.) 

By William Bladen. 
The True Diurnall Occurrences or the Heads of the Proceedings 

of Both Houses of Parliament. Averred by R. P. 

Clerke. (No. 1 ? ) Jan. 31-7 Feb. 1642. Printed by 

John Hammond. Mondays. 
Diurnall Occurrences or the Heads of the Proceedings in both 

Houses of Parliament. (Eoyal Arms on title page.) 

Numb. 6. Feb. 7-14 (1641/2). Printed for I. G. Mon- 
days. 

(Ended in March.) 
A True Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament ( ? No. 2). Mar. 

14-21, 1641/2. Mondays. 

The Heads of All the Proceedings in both Houses of Parlia- 
ment ( ? No. 1). May 23-30, 1642. Printed for J. 

Smith and A. Coe. Mondays. 
Some Special Passages from London Westminster Yorke, Hull 

Ireland and other Partes. Collected for the satisfaction 

of those that desire true information. 

Number 1. May 24-2 June 1642. Thursdays. Printed 

for Thomas Baker. 
Diurnall Occurrances in Parliament (No. 1). May 30-6 June. 

Mondays. 
Remarkable Passages in Parliament (No. 1). May 13-6 June. 

Mondays. 
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (Numb. 

1). June 13-20, 1642. Printed for Thomas Cook, some 

numbers for William Cook. Mondays. (No. 9.) 8-1 5 Aug. 

Printed by Tho. Fawcet for T. C. By Samuel Pecke. 

Continued as 
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament. . . . More 

fully and exactly taken then by any other printed Copies" 

as you will finde upon comparing etc. Numb. 13. Sept. 

5-12, 1642. Mondays. Illustration of House sitting. 



APPENDIX D 221 

1642. 

Printed for Francis Coules. 
By Samuel Pecke 

A True and Perfect Diurnall of all the Chief e Passages in Lanca- 
shire. . . . Sent to five shopkeepers in London from a 
friend. Numb. 1. July 3-19, 1642. Mondays. 
Printed for T. U. 

A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (No. 1). July 
11-18, 1642. Printed for Kobert Williams. Signed Hen. 
Elsing. Mondays. 

A Perfect Diurnall or The Proceedings in Parliament (No. 1). 
July 11-19, 1642. Mondays. 

A Perfect Diurnall or the Proceedings in Parliament. No. 1. 
July 18-25, 1642. Mondays. Printed for John Thomas. 

A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (No. 1). 
July 18-25, 1642. Printed for J. G. and E. W. (after- 
wards Eobert Wood only). Mondays. 

A Diurnall and Particula (r) of the last Weekes daily Occurrents 
from his Majesty in severall places (No. 1). July 10-(26) 
1642. Printed by T. F. for D. C. Tuesdays. 

A True and Perfect Diurnall of the passages in Parliament from 
etc. Numb. 11. Aug. 29-6 Sept. (1642). Mondays. 
Printed by H. Blundell. 

A Perfect Diurnall of the passages in Parliament. Numb. 7. 
July 25-1 Aug. 1642. Mondays. Printed for John Jonson. 

Some Special Passages from Hull Anlaby and Yorke. Number 
10. 1 Aug. 1642. Printed for E. 0. and G. D. No. II. 
1-9 Aug. 1642 "from London Westminster" etc. 

A Continuation of the True Diurnall of Passages in Parliament. 
Numb. 1. Aug. 8-15, 1642. Mondays. Printed by T. 
Paine and M. Simmons. 

An Exact and True Diurnall of the Proceedings in Parliament 
(No. 1). Aug. 8-15, 1642. Mondays. Printed for Wil- 
liam Cook (also Thomas Cooke). 

Some Special and Considerable Passages from London Westminster 
etc. Numb. 1. Aug. 9-16, 1642. Tuesdays. Printed 
for H. Blunden. 



222 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

1642. 

Special Passages from Divers parts of this Kingdome, as it 
came to the hands of some of the Parliament, and divers 
other persons of credit. Communicated for the satis- 
faction of the well-affected Party. Numb. 2. Aug. 16- 
23, 1642. Tuesdays. * 

Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages from both Houses of 

Parliament. Hen. Elsyng. Cler. Parl. D. Com. (No. 1.) 

Aug. 22-26, Friday, 1642. Monday. Printed for Francis 

Leach and Francis Coles. 

Number 4 is continued as "A Continuation of etc., Thursds 

Aug. 25-30 Tuseday 1642 ". By Samuel Pecke. (Until 27 

Feb. 1646.) 

Special Passages and certain Informations from severall places. 
Collected for the use of all that desire to bee truly in- 
formed. Numb. 3. Aug. 23-30, 1642. Tuesdays. 
Printed for H. Blunden. 

Remarkable Passages or a Perfect Diurnall of the weekly pro- 
ceedings in both Houses of Parliament. Number 1. 
Sept. 5-12, 1642. Mondays. Printed for Mathew Wai- 
bank and J. W. 

Englands Memorable Accidents (No. 2). Sept. 12-19, 1642. 
Printed for Stephen Bowtell. Until Jan. 16, 1643. 

A Perfect Relation or summarie. Numb. 1. Sept. 19-29 (Thurs- 
day) 1642. Printed for Francis Coles. 

A Continuation of True and Special Passages (? No. 1). Sept. 22- 
29, 1642. Printed for William Cook. 

A Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages. 
Numb. 13. Oct. 3-8, 1642. Mondays. Printed for Eobert 
Wood. 

A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages. 
Number 1. Oct., Monday, 10-14, Friday, 1642. Printed 
for Marke Wallace. 

A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages ' 
(?No. 1). Nov. 12-18, 1642. Printed for John White. 






APPENDIX D 223 

1643. 

Oxford Diurnal communicating the Intelligence and affaires 
of the Court to the rest of the Kingdome. Oxford. 
Henry Hall for William Webb. First week Jan. 1-7, 
1643. One number In the Earl of Crawford and Bal- 
carres's, Collection. 

The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer sent abroad to prevent mis- 
information (No. 1). Dec. 27-3 January (1643). Tues- 
days. Printed for G. Bishop and E. White, afterwards 
by H. B. Until 9 Oct. 1649. By E. C. ?Eichard Col- 
lings. 

Mercurius Aulicus communicating the intelligence and affairs 
of the Court, to the rest of the Kingdome (No. 1). 
Jan. 8, 1643. Sundays. Printed by Henry Hall for 
William Webb. Oxford. Until 7 Sept. 1645. By Sir 
John Berkenhead. 

The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer or Special Passages. Numb. 
24. Jan. 17-24, 1643. (One number. A counterfeit.) 

The Daily Intelligencer of Court, City and Countrey. Eelating 
the most remarkable passages in either which may save 
much labour in writing of letters. Numb. 1. Jan. 30, 
1643. Printed for John Thompson. One number. 

Certaine Informations. Numb. 16. May 1-8, 1643. Mondays. 
Printed for G. B. and E. W. Until 21 Feb. 1644. By 
William Ingler. 

Mercurius Civicus. London's intelligencer or truth really im- 
parted from thence to the whole kingdom to prevent 
misinformation. Numb. 1. May 4-11, 1643. Thurs- 
days. Printed by John Wright and Thomas Bates and 
are to be sold in the Old Bayly. Until 10 Dec. 1646. 
By E. C. ? Eichard Collings. 

Mercurius Eusticus Or the Countries Complaint of the Murthers 
Eobberies Plundrings and other Outrages committed by 
the Eebells on his Majesties faithful Subjects (No. 1). 
May 20, 1643. ?For about six months. By Bruno 
Eyves D.D. 



224 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM 

1643. 

A Coranto from Beyond the Sea. Number 1. June 9. 1643. 

Printed for Humphrey Tuckey. One Number. 
The Parliament's Scouts Discovery. Numb. 1. June 9-16, 1643. 

Fridays. Printed for Bernard Alsop. By John Dilling- 

ham. One number. 



Wednesdays Mercury or speciall Passages and certain informa- 
tions. Numb. 1. July 19, 1643. Wednesday. No. 2. 
(The Speciall Passages continued.*) Printed by T. P. and 
M. S. in Goldsmiths Alley. Until 2 August. 

The Parliament Scout communicating his Intelligence to the 
Kingdome. Numb.l. 20-27 June 1643. (No. 2. 29June- 
6 July.) Thursdays. Printed by G. Bishop and K. 
White. Until 30 Jan. 1645. By John Dillingham. 

A Perfect Diurnall of some Passages in Parliament and from 
other parts of this Kingdom. Numb. 1. June 26-3 July 
1643. Mondays. Until 8 Oct. 1649. Printed for Francis 
Coles and Laurence Blaikelock. By Samuel Pecke. 

A Weekly Accompt or Perfect Diurnall. Numb. 1. 3-10 July 
1643. Mondays. Printed for Robert Wood and John 
Greensmith; afterwards by Bernard Alsop. Until 3 
August. By Daniel Border. 

The Weekly Account containing etc. No. 1. Sept. 6, 1634 (sic). 
Wednesdays. Printed for Philip Lane, atGrayesInneGate 
(afterwards for Bernard Alsop). Until No: 17. Ap. 21-29, 
1647, then continued as The Perfect Weekly Account with No. 
18. Ap. 28-5 May (in competition with another of the 
same name) until 28 June 1647. By Daniel Border. 

Mercurius Britanicus communicating the affaires of Great 
Britaine. For the better information of the People. 
Numb. 3. Sept. 5-12, 1643. Tuesdays. Printed by G. 
Bishop and B. White. Until 18 May 1646. Nos. 1 to 
51 by Captain Thomas Audley and the rest by March- 
amont Nedham. 

The True Informer Continuing a collection of the most speciall 
and observable passages, which have bin imparted this 



APPENDIX D 225 

1643. 

weeke from severall parts of his Majesties dominions 
etc. Numb. 1. (MS. Sept. 23) 1643. Saturdays. Printed 
for Tho. B. and I. W. junior. Until 22 Feb. 1645. By 
Henry Walley. 1 

New Christian Uses upon the Weekly true Passages. Numb. 1. 
Oct. 7, 1643. Fridays. Printed for Laurence Chapman and 
Laurence Blaiklock. (One number.) ? By George Smith. 

The Scottish Mercury (No. 1). (MS. 13 Oct. 1643.) (One 
number.) By George Smith. 

The Scotish Dove Sent out and returning. Bringing intelligence 
from their army and makes some relations of other 
observable passages of both Kingdomes for information 
and instruction. Numb. 1. Oct. 13-20, 1643. Fridays. 
Printed for Laurence Chapman. Until 26 Nov. 1646. 
By George Smith. 

Mercurius Busticus or a Countrey Messenger (No. 1. Oct. 26, 
1643). (One number.) By George Wither. 

The Welch Mercury. Numb. 1. Oct. 21-28, 1643. Saturdays. 
Printed by W. Ley and G. Lindsey. (One number.) 
(Continued as Cambro Britannus.) 

The Compleate Intelligencer and Besolver (No. 1). Nov. 2, 1643. 
(One number.) ?By George Smith. 

Informator Busticus. Numb. 1. Oct. 27-3 Nov. 1643. Fridays. 
Printed by Kobert Austin and Andrew Coe. (One num- 
ber.) ? By Henry Walker. 

Britanicus Vapulans. Numb. 1. (MS. Nov. 4, 1643) (continued 
as Mercurius Urbanus with No. 2). Nov. 9. (Two num- 
bers.) ? By Daniel Featly, D.D. 

The Compleate Intelligencer and Besolver In two parts. Numb. 
2. Nov. 7, 1643. Tuesdays. Until Nov. 28. ?By 
George Smith. 

Bemarkable Passages. Numb. 1. Nov. 1-8, 1643. Wednesdays. 
Printed for A. Coe. Until Dec. 29, then A Continuation 
of etc. Until 2 May 1644. 

lr The letters "MS." refer to Thomason's dates. 



226 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

1643. 

TJie Kingdomes Weekly Post with his packet of letters, publish- 
ing his message to the City and Countrey. Numb. 1. 
Nov. 9, 1643. Thursdays. Imprinted by John Ham- 
mond. Frontispiece of a man on Horseback blowing a 
horn. Until Jan. 10, 1644. ? By John Kushworth. 

Mercurius Cambro Britannus. Numb. 6. Nov. 27-5 Dec. 1643. 
Mondays. Printed by Bernard Alsop. (The last number.) 

1644. 

Newsbooks already in Existence from 1643. 

Sundays Mercurius Aulicus. (Oxford). (Until 7 Sept. 1645.) 
Mondays Certaine Informations. (Until 21 Feb.) 

A Perfect Diurnall. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.) 
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. (Until 9 Oct. 

1649.) 

Mercurius Britanicus. 1643. (Until 18 May 1646.) 
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. (Until 31 March 1647.) 
A Continuation of Remarkable Passages. (Until 

2 May.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Civicus. (Until 10 Dec. 1646.) 

The Parliament Scout. (Until 30 Jan. 1645.) 
The Kingdomes Weekly Post. (Until Jan. 10.) 
Fridays The Scotish Dove. (Until 26 Nov. 1646.) 
Saturdays The True Informer. (Until 22 Feb. 1645.) 

A Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages. 
Informed to the Parliament and otherwise from divers 
parts of this kingdom. Numb. 1. Dec. 29-5 Jan. 1644. 
Fridays. Printed for F. Coales and F. Leach. Until 1 
August 1645. By Samuel Pecke. 

Occurrences of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages. Numb. 
2. Jan. 5-12, 1644. Fridays. Printed for Andrew Coe. 
Until 24 May. 

Mercurius dc., Upon my life new borne and wants a name. 
Troth let the Reader then impose the same. Veridicus 
I wish thee, if not so bee Mutus for wee Lyes 
enough doe know. (No. 1.) Jan. 17, 1643/4. 



APPENDIX D 227 

1644. 

Continued as Mercurius &c. not Veridicus nor yet 
Mutus But Cambro or if you please honest Bri- 
tannus. No. 2. Jan. 31-6 Feb. Continued as Mercurius 
Veridicus. No. 3. Feb. 6-13, 1644. Tuesdays. Until 10 
April. Printed by Bernard Alsop. 

The Spie. Communicating Intelligence from Oxford. No. 1. 
Jan. 23-30. (Burney.) Mondays. Printed for I. F. 
Until 25 June 1644. By Durant Hotham. 

Anti-Aulicus (No. 1). (MS. Tuesday Feb. 6, 1643/4.) Printed 
for H. T. (One number.) 

Mercurius Anglicus or a Post from the North (No. 1). Jan. 31-7 
Feb. 1644. Wednesdays. Printed for T. B. Until 20 
Feb. 

The Military Scribe Describing his War-like Relations to the 
People. Numb. 1. Feb. 20-27, 1644. Tuesdays. Printed 
by W. E. and J. G. Until 2 April. 

Mercurius Britanicus. Numb. 27 (sic). Mar. 12-18, 1644. Mon- 
days. Printed by G. Bishop. (The counterfeit accord- 
ing to Thomason's note the real one being printed by 
Robert White.) 

Britaines Eemembrancer of the most Remarkable Passages in 
both Kingdomes. Numb. 1. Mar. 11-19, 1643/4. Tues- 
days. Printed for I F. Until April 2. 

TJie Late Proceedings of the Scotish Army. Numb. 4. March 
21, 1644 (Thursday). Continued as Intelligence from the 
Scottish Army. No. 6. Ap. 14. Continued as Extract of 
Letters. No. 7. Ap. 30 (end). Printed for Robert Bos- 
tock and Samuel Gellibrand dwelling in Paul's Church- 
yard. By Bowles. 

Mercurius Aulico-Mastix. Numb. 1. Ap. 12, 1644. Fridays. 
Printed by G. Bishop. (One number.) (A continuation 
of the Counterfeit Britanicus.) 

A True and Perfect Journall of the Warres in England. To pre- 
vent erroneous information. Numb. 1. Ap. 16, 1644. 
Tuesdays. Printed by G. Bishop. Until 30 April. 



228 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1644. 

The Weekly Newes from Forraigne Parts Beyond the Seas, con- 
tinued as " from severall parts beyond the seas ". 

Numb. 1. May 1, 1644. (Wednesdays.) 
(Three numbers.) 

The Flying Post (illustration of a man on Horseback blowing 
a horn). Printed by Bernard Alsop. (One number.) 

Chief e Heads of Each Dayes Proceedings in Parliament (No. 1). 
May 8-15, 1644. Wednesdays. Printed by Francis 
Leach. (One number.) 

An Exact Diurnall. Numb. 1. May 15-22, 1644. Wednesdays. 
(One number.) Continued as 

A Diary, or an Exact lournal Faithfully communicating the 
most remarkable proceedings in both Houses of Parlia- 
ment. As also delivering the true intelligence from all 
the armies within his majesties Dominions. Numb. 2. 
May 24-31, 1644. Fridays. Printed for Mathew 
Walbancke. Until 5 March 1646. 

The Continuation of the Intelligence from the Right Honourable, 
the Earl of Manchester s Army etc. By Sim. Ash and 
William Goode. Numb. 2. June 13, 1644. Printed for 
Thomas Underbill. Until 16 August. 

Le Mercure Anglois. Numb. 1. (MS. June 7, 1644.) Thursdays. 
Printed for Eobert White and sold by Nicholas Bourne. 
With No. 33. Jan. 30-6 March 1644. Printed by Thomas 
Forcet. Until 14 December 1648. By John Cotgrave 
or Codgrave. 

The Court Mercurie communicating the most remarkable 
Passages of the King's Armie. Numb. 1. June 22-2 
July 1644. Sat. to Tues. Printed by Tho. Forset. Until 
16 Oct. ? By John Cotgrave. 

The London Post. Numb. 1. Aug. 6, 1644. Tuesdays. Printed 
by G. B. Afterwards F. L. Until 4 March 1645. By 
John Bush worth, sub-author Gilbert Mabbott. 

The Countrey Foot-Post. Numb. 1. Oct. 2, 1644. Wednesdays. 
Printed for G. B. and T. B. (One number.) Continued as 
The Countrey Messenger. Number 2. Oct. 4-11, 1644. 



APPENDIX D 229 

1644. 

Fridays. Printed by G. Bishop. One number. By 
John Bushworth. 

Perfect Passages of Each Dayes Proceedings in Parliament. 
Numb. 1. Oct. 16, 1644. Wednesdays. Printed for 
B. Austin. Until 4 March 1646. ? By Henry Walker. 

1645. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Sundays Mercurius Aulicus. 1643. (Oxford. Until 7 Sept.) 
Mondays A Perfect Diurnatt. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.) 
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until 

9 Oct. 1649.) 

The London Post. 1644. (Until 4 March.) 
Mercurius Britanicus. 1643. (Until 18 May 1646.) 
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. 1643. (Until 31 March 

1647.) 
Perfect Passages of Each Dayes Proceedings. 

1644. (Until 4 March 1646.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Civicus. 1643. (Until 10 Dec. 1646.) 

The Parliament Scout. 1643. (Until 30 Jan.) 
. Le Mercure Anglois. 1643. (Until 14 Dec. 1648.) 
Fridays The Scotish Dove. 1643. (Until 26 Nov. 1646.) 

A continuation of certain Special and Remarkable 

Passages. 1644. (Until 1 August.) 
A Diary or an Exact Journal. 1644. (Until 5 

March 1646.) 
Saturdays The True Informer. 1643. (Until 22 Feb.) 

The Monthly Account. No. 2. (MS. Mar. 1, 1644/5.) Printed 

for Bichard Harper. (Two numbers.) 
The Moderate Intelligencer Impartially communicating Martiall 

Affaires to the Kingdome of England. Numb. 1. Feb. 

27-6 Mar. 1645. Thursdays. Printed by B. W. (Until 

4 Oct. 1649.) By John Dillingham. 
The General Account. (Monthly). (No. 1). (MS. March 31) 

1645. Printed by B. Austin for B. H. (One number.) 
The Weekely Post-Master. Numb. 1. Ap. 8-15, 1645, Tuesdays, 

Printed by G. B. (until 6 May). 



230 A HISTOBY OP ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

1645. 

Mercurius Veridicus or True Informations. Numb. 1. Ap. 12- 
19, 1645. Printed by Bernard Alsop. Saturdays (until 7 
March 1646). 

A Perfect Declaration. Numb. 1. Ap. 26, 1645. (Continued as) 
The True Informer containing a perfect collection of the 
Proceedings in Parliament ancl true information from 
the armie. No. 2. 26 April-3 May 1645. Saturdays. 
Printed by Thos. Bates and J. W. J. (until 7 March 1646). 
By Henry Walley. 

The Parliaments Post. Numb. 1. May 6-13, 1645. Tuesdays. 
Printed by G. B. (until 7 Oct.). 

The Exchange Intelligencer. Numb. 1. May 15, 1645. Wednes- 
days. Printed by T. Forcet (until 18 July). 

Heads of Some Notes of the Citie Scout. Numb. 4. 19 Aug. 
1645. Tuesdays. Continued as The City Scout. No. 11. 
Sept. 30-7 Oct. (Until 11 Nov. 1645.) Printed for 

E. A. and J. C. 

A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages. 
Number 1. Sept. 19-26, 1645. Fridays. Printed for 

F. L. (Until 27 Feb. 1646.) By Samuel Pecke. 

The Kingdomes Weekly Post (No. 1). Oct. 15. Wednesdays. 

Printed by I. H. (One number.) By John Harris. 
Mercurius-Academicus. (Note : Thomason marks this " 1st 
and 2nd week," but it starts with p. 9.) ( ? No. 2.) 
Dec. 21,1645. Sundays. ? Printed at Oxford. (Until 
the end of 1646 ? In Thomason Collection until March 
21, 1646.) ? By Kichard Little. 

TJie Citties Weekly Post (No. 1). Dec. 15-22, 1645. Mondays. 
Printed by F. L. (Until 3 March 1646.) 

1646. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 
Sundays Mercurius Academicus. 1645. (? Oxford. ? Until 

the end of the year.) 

Mondays .4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.) 
The Citties Weekly Post. 1645. (Until 3 March.) 



APPENDIX D 231 

1646. 
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until 

9 Oct. 1649.) 

Mercurius Britanicus. 1643. (Until 18 May.) 
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. 1643. (Until 31 March 

1647.) 
Perfect Passages of each dayes proceedings. 

1644. (Until 4 March.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Civicus. 1643. (Until 10 Dec.) 

Le Mercure Anglois. 1644. (Until 14 Dec. 1648.) 
The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct. 

1649.) 
Fridays The Scotish Dove. 1643. (Until 26 Nov.) 

A Continuation of Certain speciall and Remarkable 

Passages. 1644. (Until 27 Feb.) 
A Diary or an exact Journal. 1644. (Until 5 March.) 
A Continuation of certain speciall and Remarkable 
Passages. 1645. (Printed by F.L.) (Until 27 Feb.) 
Saturdays Mercurius Veridicus. 1645. (Until 7 March.) 
The True Informer. 1645. (Until 7 March.) 

The Phoenix of Europe or the Forraine Intelligencer. Numb. 

1. Jan. 16, 1645/6. Fridays. Published by W. Pend- 

red a well-wilier to his countrey. Printed by T. Paine 

for B. A. (One number.) 
The Moderate Messenger. Numb. 1. Jan. 27-3 Feb. 1646. 

Tuesdays. Printed by K. A. and J. C. (Until 3 March.) 
An Exact and True Collection of the Weekly Passages (No. 1). 

(Feb. 26, 1645/6). (Monthly.) Printed by B. A. to be sold 

by W. H. (Two numbers.) 
The Westerne Informer. No. 1. March 7, 1645/6. (Printed 

for Thomas Underbill.) (Brit. Mus. 102 a, 69. The 

only number. 4 pages.) 
Perfect Occurrences of Both Houses of Parliament and Martiall 

Affairs. No. 11. Mar. 13, 1646. Fridays. Printed by Jane 

Coe. (Ended Jan. 1, 1647. Possibly by Henry Walker.) 
Generall Newes from All Parts of Christendome. Turkie and 

other dominions adjacent. Num. 1. (May 6) 1646. 

16 



232 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

1646. 

Wednesdays. Printed by T. F. for Nicholas Bourne. 
(Two numbers.) 

The Packet of Letters (No. 1). June 26 (1646). Printed for 
Thomas Bates. (Supplements to the Perfect Diurnall.) 
(One or two numbers.) By Samuel Pecke. 
The Military Actions of Europe. Numb. 1. Oct. 20-27, 1646. 
Tuesday. (Thomason's MS. note " Independant ".) 
Printed by J. M. for Giles Calvert. Until 2 Nov. 
Papers Sent from the Scotts Quarters, and A Continuation &c. 
No. 1. Oct. 14, 1646. (Burney Vol. 25 A.) Numb. 2. 
Oct. 28, 1646. Printed for F. L. (A supplement to the 
Perfect Diurnall, suppressed after the second number.) 

By Samuel Pecke. 

Mercurius Candidus. Numb. 1. Nov. 11-20. Wed. to Fri. (1646). 
Printed by T. Forcet. Until 20 Nov. ? By John Harris. 
Diutinus Britanicus. Numb. 1. Nov. 25-2 Dec. 1646. Wednes- 
days. Printed for John Jones. Continued as Mercurius 
Diutinus (not Britanicus) Collector of the affaires of Great 
Britaine and Martiall proceedings in Europe. Numb. 
3. Dec. 8-16, 1646. Tuesdays. No. 5. Wednesdays. 
Printed by Francis Leach. Until 10 Feb. 1647. By 
Captain Thomas Audley. 

The London Post. Numb. 1. Dec. 14-31, 1646. Thursdays. 
Printed for H. B. Until 26 Feb. 1647. By John Eush- 
worth, sub-author Gilbert Mabbott. 

1647. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays ,4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.) 
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until 

9 -Oct. 1649.) 
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. 1643. (Until 31 March.) 

Mercurius Diutinus. 1646. (Until 10 Feb.) 
Thursdays Le Mercure Anglois. 1644. (Until 14 Dec. 1648.) 
The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct. 

1649.) 
The London Post. 1646. (Until 26 Feb.) 



APPENDIX D 233 

1647. 
Fridays (Perfect Occurrences of 1646 ended Jan. 1.) 

Perfect Occurrences of Every Dayes lournall in Parliament and 
other Moderate Intelligence. Numb. 1. Jan. 1-8, 1647. 
Fridays. Collected by Lu. Harruney Cleric. Printed for 
I. Coe and A. Coe, afterwards Robt. Ibbitson and John 
Clowes. (Until Oct. 12, 1649.) By Henry Walker. 

England's Remembrancer of London's Integritie or Newes from 
London of which all that fear God or have any desire of 
the Peace and safety of this Kingdome ought to be 
truely informed. Numb. 1. (MS. Jan. 19, 1646/7.) 
Printed by John Macock for Thomas Underhil. (Strongly 
Presbyterian and anti-Independent.) One number (? sup- 
pressed) . 

Mercurius Candidas. Numb. 1. Jan. 20-28, 1646/7. Thurs- 
days. Printed for Francis Coles and Laurence Blaik- 
locke (one number). By Samuel Pecke. 

The Moderate Messenger. Numb. 22. Feb. 16-23. Tuesdays. 
1647. (A solitary number.) 

The Perfect Weekly Account containing Certain Special and 
Eemarkable Passages from both Houses of Parliament, 
the general assembly of the Kingdome of Scotland and 
the state and condition of the King's majesty, the army 
and Kingdome. Numb. 1. Mar. 22-29, 1647. Wednes- 
days. (Printed by Bernard Alsop.) (Until Oct. 10, 1649.) 
By B. D. 

Mercurius Britanicus. Numb. 1. June 17-24, 1647. Thurs- 
day. Printed by B. W. (Until 8 July.) 

The Armies Post. Numb. 1. July 1-8, 1647. Thursdays. (One 
number). 

A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages 
(No. 1). July 9-17, 1647. Fridays. (Until Sept. 17.) 
By Samuel Pecke. 

A Diarie or an Exact Journall of the Proceedings of the Treaty 
betwixt the Parliament and the army as also the other 
16* 



234 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1647. 

severall debates orders and Counsels of Parliament. To- 
gether with a full narration of the affaires both Civill and 
Martiall in the two kingdomes of Scotland and Ireland. 
Numb. 1. July 10-17, 1647. Saturdays. Drawn by the 
same hand which composed the diary at first. Printed 
for H. B. (Three numbers.) 

A Perfect Summary (No. 1). July 19-26, 1647. Mondays. Printed 
by M. B. and are to be sold at the king's head in the Old 
Bayly. (Until Oct. 6.) 

The Moderne Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Aug. 12-19, 1647. Thurs- 
days. Printed for George Lindsey. (Until 30 Sept.) 

Mercurius Melancholicus or Newes from Westminster and other 
parts. No. 1. Sept. 4, 1647. Saturdays, afterwards 
Mondays (until June 1649 with a varied title). No. 1, in 
Burney 14 A. Thomason Collection commences with 
No. 3. Sat. Sept. 11-18 and a counterfeit dated Sept. 11- 
17. By John Hackluyt D.D. Two competing counter- 
feits, the one by Martin Parker with John Taylor, and 
the other by Swallow (? John) Crouch. 

Mercurius Morbicus or Newes from Westminster and other 
parts. Numb. 1. 2. 3. (MS. Sept. 29th) 1647. Mondays. 
No. 4. Sept. 20-27. (Two numbers.) By Henry Walker. 

Mercurius Pragmaticus communicating intelligence from all 
parts touching all affaires designes Humours and Condi- 
tions throughout the Kingdome. Especially from West- 
minster and the Head-Quarters. " Nemo me impune 
lacessit." Numb. 1. Sept. 14-21, 1647. Tuesdays. Until 
28 May 1650. Variations of title. By John Cleiveland and 
Samuel Sheppard, by Marchamont Nedham during 1648, 
various writers in 1649 and to the end. Counterfeits. 

Mercurius Anti-Melancholicus. Numb. 1. Sept. 18-24, 1647. 
Fridays. Printed where I was and where I will be. 
(One number. Royalist.) 

Mercurius Clericus or Newes from Syon communicated to all 
who love (and seek) the Peace of Jerusalem : Ad. Syno- 
dem Grave Rabbins, if the Spirit can't unfold A Newe 



APPENDIX D 235 

1647. 

Beligion, lets enjoy the Old. Numb. 1. Sept. 17-24, 
1647. Fridays. (One number.) 

Mercuricus Clerlcus or Newes from the Assembly of their III. last 
years in the Holy Convocation, at Westminster. To- 
gether with Jockey's farewell, death, and Epitaph to all 
the Presbyterian faction. " Amicus Plato amicus Socrates. 
Sed magis arnica veritas." Illustration of a bee on title 
page. Num. 1. (MS. Sept. 25) 1647. Printed for S. F. 
(One number.) 

Mercurius Medicus or a Soveraigne salve for these sick times. 
The Vizard which deformed them plucked off, and they 
rendered no better nor worse than they are. The bug- 
beares that affright some beaten to nothing, and the 
Angells that allure others proved incompatible with re- 
ality. Numb. 1. (MS. Oct. 11) 1647. Continued as 
Mercurius Medicus or a Soveraign salve for the cureing mad- 
men and fools, the one of phrenzie the other of follie, also 
prescribing medicines for those that are otherwise dis- 
eased, whether with a vertigo in the braine, or a worme 
in the tongue, etc. Numb. 2. Oct. 15-22, 1647. Fridays. 
Printed for William Lay. By Henry Walker. 

Mercurius Anti-Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. Oct. 12-19, 1647. 
Thursdays. Printed for William Lay. With No. 2 on 
Tuesdays. (Until 3 Feb. 1648.) 

Mercurius Elencticus. Communicating the unparallell'd pro- 
ceedings at Westminster, the Head-Quarters, and other 
places, discovering their designes, reproving their crimes, 
and advising the kingdome. (No. 1.) Oct. 29-5 Nov. 
1647. Fridays. " Eidentem dicere verum quid vetat." 
Until 5 Nov. 1649. By Sir George Wharton and S. 
Sheppard. 

Mercurius Populus. No. 1. November 11, 1647. (Thursdays) 
(one number). Independent. 

Mercurius Eusticus (No. 1). (MS. November 12, 1647.) (Until 
Dec. 10.) 



236 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

1647. 

Mercurius Bellicus or an alarum to all Rebels. Num. 1. Nov. 
13-22,1647. Mondays. (Until 29 Nov.) By Sir John 
Berkenhead. 

Mercurius Vapulans Survaying and recording the choysest 
Actions and results of the Parliament, Synode, Army, 
City, and Countrey. "bilem aut risum fortasse quibus- 
dammovero" (MS. Novemb. 27, 1647.) Satur- 
day. (One number.) 

1648. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 
Mondays ,4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.) 

Mercurius Melancholicus. 1647. (UntilJune 1649.) 
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until 

9 Oct. 1649.) 

Mercurius Pragmaticus. 1647. (UntilMay 28,1650.) 

Mercurius Anti-Pragmaticus. 1647. (Until 3 Feb.) 

Wednesdays The Perfect Weekly Account. 1647. (Until Oct. 

10, 1649.) 
Thursdays Le Mercure Anglois. 1644. (Until 14 Dec.) 

The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct. 

1649.) 

Fridays Perfect Occurrences. 1647. (Until Oct. 12, 1649.) 
Mercurius Elencticus. 1647. (Until Nov. 5, 1649.) 

The Kingdoms Weekly Post. Numb. 1. Dec. 29-5 Jan. 1647. 

Wednesdays. Collected by B. D. (No. 2 by D. B. G.) 

(Until March 9.) By D. Border. 
Heads of Chief e Passages in Parliament Collected B. HWC. 

Numb. 1. Jan. 5-12, 1647/8. Wednesdays. Printed by 

B. Alsop. Continued as the Kingdoms Weekly account of 

Heads etc. with No. 4, Jan. 25-Feb. 2. Until 22 March. 

By Henry Walley, Clerk to the Company of Stationers. 
Mercurius Dogmaticus. Numb. 1. Jan. 6-13, 1647/8. Thurs-- 

days. (Until 3 Feb.) By Samuel Sheppard. 
Mercurius ^ulicus againe Communicating Intelligence, " Quis me 






APPENDIX D 237 

1648. 

impune lacessit ". Numb. 1. Jan. 25-3 Feb. 1648. 
Thursdays. (Until May 18.) By Samuel Sheppard. 

Mercurius Bellicus or an allarum to all Eebels " Tarn Marte, 
quam Mercuric ". Numb. 3. Feb. 8-14, 1648. Tuesdays. 
(A Eevival, until July 26.) By Sir John Berkenhead. 

A Perfect Summarie of Chief e Passages in Parliament. Numb. 1. 
Feb. 12-19, 1647/8. Saturdays. Printed by John Clowes. 
(One number.) 

Packets of Letters. (Frequently at irregular dates.) Printed by 
Eobt. Ibbitson. No. 1, 18 March 1648. Supplements to 
Perfect Occurrences. By Henry Walker. 

Mercurius Insanus Insanissimus. Numb. 2. (March 28th) 1648. 
Seven numbers. No. 7 in the Guildhall Library, London. 

Mercurius Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. Mar. 28-4 Ap. 1648. Tues- 
days. (The re-numbering may only be occasioned by 
the arrest of the former printer.) By ? March amont 
Nedham until the end of the year. 

Mercurius Anti-Mercurius communicating all Humours, Condi- 
tions, Forgeries, and Lyes of Mydas-eared newsmongers. 
(No. 1 ? ) (MS. Ap. 4, 1648.) (One number.) By John 
Harris. 

Mercurius Brittanicus. Numb. 1. Mar. 31-7 April 1648. Fri- 
days. Continued as Mercurius Britanicus. No. 3. May 
25-30. Until 16 August. By John Hall. 

Mercurius Critticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 6-13, 1648. Thursdays. 
(Three numbers. No. 3 "communicating intelligence 
from the Hypocrites at Westminster, the Sectaries in 
the Army, and the Moone calves of the City ".) 

Mercurius Academicus, communicating the intelligence and 
affairs of Oxford to the rest of the Passive party through- 
out the Kingdom. Numb. 1. Now in Easter week to 
Sat. Ap. 15, 1648 " Et Spes et Eatio studiorum in Csesare 
tantum". (One number.) 

Mercurius Veridicus. Numb. 1. Ap. 14-21, 1648. Fridays. 
Until 8 May (Eoyalist). 



238 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

1648. 

Mercurius Urbanicus (No. 1). May 2-9, 1648. Tuesdays. 
(One number.) 

Mercurius Gallicus. Communicating the sense of the Protestants 
of France as touching the present condition of affairs in 
England. To all Englishmen as well Eebells as Eoyal- 
ists. No. 3. (MS. May 12, 1648.)" (Three numbers.) 

Mercurius Poeticus Discovering the treasons of a thing called 
Parliament. Num. 1. May 5-13, 1648. Fridays. (One 
number.) 

The Parliament-Kite or the Tell Tale Bird. Numb. 1. May 
10-16, 1658. Being the Eoundheads Thanksgiving Day for 
17 colours taken at the Taylors, as they were a Hemming. 
" Quis me impune lacessit." Printed for the good of the 
Kingdome. (Until Aug. 31.) 

Mercurius Honestus or Newes from Westminster. Touching the 
unfolding of Elencticus and Pragmaticus, the distemper- 
ing of the members, the beating of the pulses, the under- 
hand working of the frenzie brains, and the sudden 
visitation of a Welch Plurisie, with the danger of their 
Disease, and the opinion of their great Doctors. Numb. 
1. (MS. May 19th) 1648 (Friday). Printed for E. 0. 
(Two numbers.) 

Mercurius Publicus communicating emergent occurrences, and 
severall passages of these times, for the further discovery 
of that Mystery of Iniquity, the present Parliament at 
Westminster and the timely information of the abused 
People of England. Num.3. 22-29 May 1648. Mondays. 
" Si natura negat, facit indignatio versum." (Three 
numbers.) 

Mercurius Censoriu's. Numb. 1. 1 June 1648. Tuesdays. 
(Until 20 June.) By John Hall. 

Mercurius Domesticus. Numb. 1. (MS. June 5, 1648.) (One 
number.) 

Westminster Projects or the Mystery of Iniquity of Darby 
House discovered. Numb. 5. (MS. June 6th) 1648. 
Friday. Printed nobody knows where, licensed nobody 






APPENDIX D 239 

1648. 

knows when, and sent into the world by the appoint- 
ment of the said committee, because they could not help 
it, in this yeare of their vexation 1648. (Until June 23. 
Six numbers at irregular dates.) 

New News, Strange News, True News, and upon the matter no 
news. Eead it or let it alone. Take it or leave it. " Si 
Fortuna me Tormenta, Esperanza me Contenta. If 
Fortune Torment me Hope shall content me." Ex- 
cudissimo Anno millesimo Sexcentesimo Quadricesimo 
Octavo. (No. 1.) June (?15) 1648. (One number.) 

Mercurius Psitacus or the Parroting Mercury. No. 1. June 
14-21, 1648. Wednesdays. Printed in the last year of the 
high and mighty states at Westminster. (Until July 24.) 

The Parliaments Vulture. Numb. 1. June 15-22 (1648). 
Thursdays. (One number.) 

A Perfect Diary of Passages of the King's Army. (No. 1 ? ) June 
10-26,1648. (? Printer Ibbitson.) (One number.) By 
? Henry Walker. 

The Moderate, Impartially communicating martial affaires to 
the Kingdome of England. Numb. 171. June 23-29, 
1648. Thursdays. After No. 173 July 6-13, No. 1 
begins on Tuesdays July 11-18. Printed for Robert 
White. (No. 171 is the first number.) (Until 25 Sept. 
1649.) By Gilbert Mabbot, licenser of the Press. 

The Parliaments Scrich-Owle. Her singing before death, " Quis 
vetat hoc verum ? " Numb. 1. (MS. June 29th) 1648. 
Thursdays. Printed in the first yeare of the decease of 
King Oliver. (In verse. Until 14 July.) 

A Wonder. A Mercury without a Lye ins Mouth (No. 1. MS. 
6 July 1648). (One number.) 

Mercurius Scoticus. Numb. 1. (MS. July 19, 1648.) (One 
number.) By Sir George Wharton. 

Mercurius Melancholicus. Num. 1. July 21-28, 1648. Fridays. 
By John Crouch. 

The Royall Diurnall. Numb. 1. July 25-31, 1648. Mondays. 
(Until August 29.) By Samuel Sheppard. 



240 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

1648. 

Mercurius Anglicus. Numb. 1. July 25-3 Aug. 1648. Thurs- 
days. (One number.) 

Mercurius Aulicus (No. 1. MS. Aug. 7) 1648. Mondays. 
(Until Aug. 28.) 

Mercurius Aquaticus (No. 1). 4-11 August 1648. Fridays. 
(One number.) 

The Colchester Spie. Truly informing the kingdome of the 
estate of that gallant town. Numb. 1. (MS. Aug. 11) 
1648. Fridays. (Two numbers.) 

Hermes Straticus or a scourge for Elencticus and the Royall 
Pamphleteers " Virtus repulsa nescia sordida intamina- 
tis fulget honoribus nee sumit aut ponit secures, Arbitrio 
Popularis aurae ". Numb. 1. Aug. 17, 1648. Thurs- 
days. (One number.) 

Mercurius Fidelicus. Numb. 1. Aug. 17-24 (1648). Thurs- 
days. (Two numbers.) 

The Parliament Porter or the Door Keeper of the House of 
Commons. Informing the kingdome of the plots and 
stratagems of the headless thing sitting at Westminster 
under the name of a Parliament. Numb. 1. Aug. 28- 
4 Sept. 1648. Mondays. (Until Sept. 25.) 

Mercurius Catholicus communicating his Intelligence from the 
most learned Protestant writers to simple people how 
they may know which must needs be the true Christian 
Keligion. No. 1. (15 Sept. MS.) 1648. Kough wood- 
cut of a Cross and a Rosary on title page. No. 2 on 
Dec. 11. (No more.) By ? Father Thomas Budd. 

Mercurius Anti- Mercurius Impartially communicating truth, 
correcting falsehood, reproving the wilfull, pitying the 
ignorant, and opposing all false and scandalous aspersions 
unjustly cast upon the two Honorable Houses of Parlia- 
ment. Numb. 1. Sept. 12-19, 1648. Tuesdays. Printed 
for H. H. and R. J. (Until 2 Oct.) By John Harris. 
The Treaty Traverst. Numb. 1. Sept. 19-26, 1648. Tues- 
days. ( One number.) 
Mercurio Volpone or the Fox. Prying into every Junto, pro- 



APPENDIX D 241 

1648. 

claiming their designes, and refining all intelligence for 
the better information of His Majesties Loyall Sub- 
jects. Numb. 1. Sept. 28-5 Oct. 1648. Thursdays. 
(Two numbers.) 

A. Perfect Summary (No. 1). Oct. 2-9, 1648. Mondays. (One 
number.) 

Mercurius Militaris. Numb. 1. Oct. 10, 1648. Tuesday. 
(Until Nov. 21.) By John Harris. 

Mcrcurius Pacificus. His lectures of Concord Seasonably read 
to our destructive discords from smal sparks to great 
flames, now in hopes to be quencht by a Treaty of Peace 
(No. 1. MS. Nov. 8th). (Wednesdays.) (One num- 
ber.) By John Taylor. 

The True Informer or Monthly Mercury being the certain intelli- 
gence of Mercurius Militaris or the Armies Scout. 
Numb. 1. Oct. 7-Nov. 8, 1648. Tuesdays. Printed for 
Josiah White (24 pp.). (One number.) By John Harris. 

Mercurius Militans with his hags haunting Cruelty and his 
Bays crowning clemency. Historically suited to our 
longwished peace. By Hieron Philalethes. (No. 1. 
MS. Nov. 14) 1648. (Tuesday.) (One number.) 

Martin Nonsence. His Collections which he saw with his 
Brains, and heard with his eyes, of the witty follies, 
peaceably fought for, in the poore flourishing kingdome 
of England. Chiefly in the Parliament, Court, City and 
Army. Numb. 1. Nov. 20-27, 1648. Mondays. (One 
number.) 

A Declaration Collected out of the Journals of both Houses of 
Parliament. Numb. 1. Nov. 29-6 Dec. 1648. Wednes- 
days. (Printed by Kobert Ibbitson in Smithfield near 
the Queen's Head Tavern.) (Until Dec. 20.) By Henry 
Walker. 

Mercurius Impartialis Or an Answer to that Treasonable Pam- 
phlet Mercurius Militaris. Together with the Moderate. 
Num. 1. Dec. 5-12, 1648. Tuesdays. (One number.) 
By Sir George Wharton. 



242 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1648. 

Heads of a Diarie. Numb. 4. Dec. 20-27, 1648. Wednesdays. 
Printed by Eobert Ibbitson. (Until Jan. 9, 1649.) By 
Henry Walker. 

1649. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays 4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct.) 

Mercurius Melancholicus. 1647. (Until June.) 
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until 

9 Oct.) 

Mercurius Pragmaticus. 1647. (Until May 28, 1650). 
The Moderate. 1648. (Until 25 Sept.) 
Wednesdays The Perfect Weekly Account. 1647. (Until Oct. 10.) 

Heads of a Diarie. 1648. (Until Jan. 9.) 
Thursdays The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct.) 
Fridays Perfect Occurrences. 1647. (Until Oct. 12.) 

Mercurius Elencticus. 1647. (Until Nov. 5.) 

Mercurius Melancholicus. Numb. 1. Dec. 25-1 Jan. 1649. 
Mondays. (Until Jan. 12.) By John Hackluyt D.D. 

The Armies Modest Intelligencer. ? No. 1. Jan. 19-26, 1649. 
Fridays. No. 4. Feb. 8-15. Continued as The Armies 
Weekly Intelligencer. Printed for C. Brook. Until Feb. 22. 

A Perfect Summary of exact passages. Numb. 1. Jan. 22-29 
(1648/9). Mondays. Continued in No. 2 as A Perfect 
Collection of exact passages and No. 3 as a Perfect Sum- 
mary again. With No. 7 A Perfect summary of an 
exact Diurnall. With No. 10 A Perfect Summary of an 
exact Dyarie of some passages of Parliament etc. With 
No. 22 A Pefect (sic) Summay (sic) of exact passages of 
Parliament etc., and so on. (Until Oct. 1.) Printed by 
B. Ibbitson. By Theodore Jennings. 

The Kingdomes Faithfull Scout. No. 1. Jan. 26-2 Feb. 1648/49. 
Fridays. Printed by Eobert Wood. Until Oct. 12. By 
D. Border. 

The Irish Monthly Mercury. Number 1. Feb. 6, 1649/50. 



APPENDIX D 243 

1649. 

Printed at Corke. Reprinted at London by T. N. for 
Giles Calvert. (One number.) ? By William Bladen. 

Mercurius Elencticus. Numb. 1. Jan. 31 -Feb. 7, 1648/9. 
Wednesdays. By Sir George Wharton. 

The Irish Mercury Monethly. From the 25 Jan. to 25 Feb. 
(MS. 1649.) (One number.) 

The Impartiall Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Feb. 28-Mar. 7, 1648/9. 
Wednesdays. Printed by J. C. (Until 19 Sept.) 

A Modest Narrative of Intelligence, Fitted for the Republique 
of England and Ireland. Numb. 1. March 31-7 April, 
1649. Saturdays. Printed by J. M. (Until Sept. 22.) 

Mercurius Elencticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 4-11, 1649. Wednesday. 
"Quis me impune lacessit." By S. Sheppard. 

The Man in the Moon Discovering a world of knavery under 
the Sunne Both in Parliament the Counsell of State, the 
Army, the City, and the Country. With Intelligence 
from all parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland (No. 1) 
Die Luna Ap. 16, 1649. Mondays. Printed at the full 
of the Moon, and are to be sold at the sign of Scorpio, 
for the good of the State. (Until 5 June 1650.) By 
John Crouch. 

Mercurius Philo Monarchicus. Numb. 1. Ap. 10-17, 1649. Tues- 
days. (Until 21 May irregularly.) 

Continued Heads of Perfect Passages. Numb. 1. Ap. 13-20, 1649. 
Fridays. Printed for Andrew Coe. (Until May 18.) 

Mercurius Elenticus (For King Charls II.). Numb. 1. Ap. 22, 
1649. Mondays. 

Mercurius Pragmaticus (For King Charls II.}. (2 pars. No. 1. 
Ap. 17-24, 1649. Tuesdays.) 

Mercurius Militaris or the People's Scout Discovering the de- 
signes interests and humours of the Civil and Martial 
Conventicles of Westminister Darby House and White- 
hall etc. Numb. 1. Ap. 17-24, 1649. Tuesdays. (One 
number.) 

England's Moderate Messenger. Numb. 1. Ap. 23-30, 1649. 
Mondays. Printed for E. W. (Until 9 July.) 



244 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

1649. 

Mercurius Elenticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 24-1 May 1649. Tues- 
days. 

Mercurius Brittanicus communicating intelligence from all 
parts and touching and handling the humours and con- 
ceits of Mercurius Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 24-4 
May 1649. Tuesdays. (Until 5*June.) By Gilbert Mab- 
bot. 

Mercurius Elencticus (For King Charts II.). (Pars 2.) Numb. 
1. Ap. 30-7 May 1649. Mondays. 

Mercurius Philo-Monarchicus. (Pars 2?) May 14-21, 1649. 
Numb. (?1). Mondays. 

A Moderate Intelligence. Numb. 1. May 17-24, 1649. Thurs- 
days. Printed for Kobert White. (Two numbers.) 

Mercurius Pacificus. No. 1. Mayi 17-25, 1649. Thursdays. 
(One number.) 

Mercurius -Eepublicus. Numb. 1. May 22-29, 1649. Tuesdays. 
Printed for K. Ley bourn. (One number.) 

Mercurius Militaris or Times only Truth-Teller Faithfully un- 
deceiving the expectations of the vulgar (who are daily 
abused by a Crew of brainlesse and brazen faced News- 
Scriblers (whether Eoyall, Martiall, or Parliamentall) 
who have sold themselves for a penny to doe wickedly ; 
relating the most perfect transactions both forraigne and 
domestick collected with much labour from divers par- 
ticulars and here presented in one bundle to the reader. 
Numb. 1. May 22-29, 1649. Tuesdays. Continued as 
The Metropolitan Nuncio etc. Byl.H. No. 1. May 29- June 
6. No. 3. June 6-13. (No more.) By John Hackluyt 
D.D. 

Mercurius Melancholicus for King Charls the Second. Against 
those bloody usurpers Tyrants and Traitors of the Juncto 
and Army. Numb. 1. May 24-31, 1649. Thursdays. 
(One number.) By John Taylor. 

Mercurius Verax or Truth appearing after Seaven Yeares 
Banishment. (No. 1.) (MS. June 4th, 1649.) Vide 
Perlege, Fie aut Eide. (One number.) 






APPENDIX D 245 

1649. 

The Moderate Intelligencer. Numb. 1. May 29-5 June 1649. 
Tuesdays. Printed for R. Leybourn in Monkswel Street. 
(Until Oct. 4.) By John Dillingham. (A change of day 
in order to attack Mabbott's The Moderate.) 

A Book without a Title (No. 1). MS. 12 June 1649. (One 
number.) 

A Perfect Diurnall of Passages in Parliament. Mondays. Numb 
1. July 9-16, 1649. Printed by Kobert Wood. Sup- 
pressed. A counterfeit. (Two numbers.) 

The Moderate Mercury Faithfully communicating divers re- 
markable passages both forreign and domestique. Where- 
by the Truth will manifestly appear, and the mouth of 
Wilful Malignancy be utterly stopped. Numb. 1. June 
14, 1649. Thursdays. Printed for W. L. (Two 
numbers.) 

The First Decade of Useful Observations. Raised out of modern 
experience. Scientiae Mater Experientia Temporis filia 
Veritas. Numb. 1. (MS. 28 June 1649.) Printed for 
T. M. (One number.) 

A Tuesdaies Journall (title page illustrated with Common- 
wealth Coat of Arms). Numb. Fol. 1. July 1649. Tues- 
days. Printed for Eobert Ibbitson. (Until August 21.) 
By Henry Walker. 

Mercurius Carolinus Written by Alethophilus Basiluphus, 
Britannophilus. Printed at Darby House for the Com- 
pany of State Traitors at Westminster. Numb. 1. July 
19-26. Thursdays. (One number.) 

The Armies Painfull-Messenger. Numb. 1. July 25-2 Aug. 

Thursdays. Printed for F. L. (One number.) 
Great Britaines Paine-full Messenger Af-Fording true notice of 
all affairs. Numb. 1. Aug. 9-16, 1649. Thursdays. No. 
2. Printed for G. E. (Three numbers.) ?By A. Ford. 

Mercurius Aulicus (For King Charts II.) . Numb. 1. Aug. 14-21, 

1649. Tuesdays. (Until 4 Sept.) 
Mercurius Hybernicus. Discovering the Senates fraud, the 



246 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

1649. 

Cities folly, and the voracious imperiousness of the 
soldiery. Numb. 1. Aug. 30-6 Sept. 1649. Thursdays. 
(One number.) 

Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charts II. Numb. 1. Sept. 
10-17. Mondays. (Until 29 Jan. 1650.) 

A Briefe Relation of some affaires and transactions, Civill and 
Military, both Forraigne and Domestique. Numb. 1. 
Oct. 2, 1649. Published by authority. Tuesdays. Printed 
by M. Simmons. No. 2 Licensed by Gualter Frost 
Esquire secretary to the Council of State according to 
the direction of the late Act. (Until Oct. 22, 1650.) By 
Walter Frost. 

Severall Proceedings in Parliament. Hen. Scobell Cleric Parlia- 
ment. Numb. 1. Sept. 25-9 Oct. 1649. Tuesdays. 
Printed by Eobert Ibbitson. No. 2. Licensed by the 
Clerk of the Parliament. No. 4. Fridays, and size in- 
creased. No. 18. Jan. 25-31, 1650. Thursdays. Until Ap. 
21, 1653. From 21-28 April 1653 to 7 Sept. 1654 entitled 
General Proceedings of State Affairs. From 28 Sept. 
1654 to 25 Jan. 1655 Several Proceedings of State affairs. 
From 22 Feb. to 27 Sept. 1655 Perfect Proceedings of 
State affairs. By Henry Scobell, "Sub-author" com- 
mencing January 1650 (about) Henry Walker. 

A Very Full and Particular Relation. Numb. 6. (MS. date Oct. 
31,1649. Wednesdays). Printed by Matthew Simons for 
J. 0. (Supplements to the Official Brief Relation in 
1649.) By Walter Frost. 

A Perfect and more Particular Relation. Numb. 2. (MS. Nov. 
19) 1649. Printed for Francis Leach. Supplements to 
A Brief Relation. By Walter Frost. 

A Perfect Diurnall of some Passages and Proceedings of and in 
Relation to the Armies. Licensed by the Secretary of the 
Army under his Excellency the Lord Fairfax. Numb. 1. 
Dec. 10-17, 1649. Mondays. Printed by Edw. Griffin. 
(Until Sept. 24, 1655.) By John Eushworth, sub-author 
Samuel Pecke (commencing about January 1650). 






APPENDIX D 247 

1650. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies. 

(Official). 1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.) 
The Man in the Moon. (Until 5 June.) 

Tuesdays Mercurius Pragmaticus. 1647. (Until May 28.) 
ABriefeBelation. (Official.) 1649. (Until Oct. 22.) 

Thursdays Severall Proceedings. (Official, the first three 
numbers on Fridays). 1649. (Until 27 Sept. 
1655.) 

The Irish Mercury Monethly (No. 1). Jan. 25 - Feb. 25 
(1649/50). Printed at Cork and reprinted at London for 
Thos. Brewster and Gregory Moule. (One number.) 
? By William Bladen. 

The Irish Monthly Mercury. Numb. 1. (Feb. 6, 1649/50.) 
Printed at Corke and reprinted at London by T. N. 
for Giles Gal vert. (One number.) 

The Boy all Diurnall (for King Charls the 1 1.). Numb. 1. Feb. 
25, 1650. Mondays. (Until April 30.) 

Mercurius Elenticus (for King Charles the II.) . Numb. 1. Ap. 
22, 1649. Mondays. (Until June 3.) 

Mercurius Politicus Comprising the Summ of all intelligence 
with the affairs, and designs now on foot, in the three 
nations of England, Ireland and Scotland. In defence 
of the Commonwealth and for information of the People. 
Ita vertere Seria Ludo (Hor. de Ar. Poet). Numb. 1. 
June 6-13, 1650. Thursdays. Printed by Mathew Sim- 
mons, afterwards Thos. Newcombe. (Until 12 April 
1660.) By Marchamont Nedham or John Hall until the 
end of 1650, then by John Milton with Hall or Nedham 
as writers until January 1653. Then by Nedham under 
the supervision of John Thurloe. (Until May 1659.) 
From 13 May 1659 to 16 Aug. 1659 by John Canne, 
and then to April 12, 1660, by Nedham. 

Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. June. (Commenced about 
this time.) The only known copies in existence are as 

17 



248 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

1650. 

follows : No. 186 "5 to j^ January g Thursdays. 

A Londres. Par Guil. Du-Gard. Par autorite. Et se 
vendent par Nicholas Bourne a la porte meridionale de la 



vieille Bourse. Until No. 229 * 1654. (British 

20 Uct. 

Museum P.P. 3398.) (This periodical appears to have 
been discontinued for about two years at the Eestora- 
tion, for the following number contains an account of 
the Coronation of Charles II.) No. 567. Du Jeudi 

jg Avril jusqu'au Jeudi 33 1663. A Londres. 



Par Samuel Broun. Par autorite. Et se vendent par 
lui aus armes de la Eeine proche de la petite porte 
septentrionale de 1'eglise de St. Paul. Et par Tho. 
Clark, a la porte meridionale de la vieille Bourse. (In 
the Eecord Office. S. P. Dom., Chas. II, vol. 72, No. 
24.) ?By John Milton in 1650-1652. ? By Jean de 
recluse at the Eestoration. 

The Impartial Scout. Numb. 53. June 21-28, 1650. Fridays. 
Printed by Eobert Wood for E. Alkin and are to be sold 
in Corn-hil near the Eoyal Exchange. (Until Sept. 27.) 
By D. Border. 

Perfect Passages of Every Daies Intelligence. Numb. 1. June 
28-5 July 1650. Fridays. Printed by John Clowes 
over against the lower pump in Grub Street without 
Cripplegate. (Until Dec. 31, 1652, then continued as 
The Moderate Publisher of every dayes Intelligence, with No. 
81, Jan. 14-21 until 20 Jan. 1654, then No. 2, Jan. 
20-27, 1654, entitled Certain Passages of Every Dayes 
Intelligence to 28 Sept. 1655. By Henry Walker. 

The Perfect Weekly Account. (Begins p. 527.) July 10-17, 
1650. Wednesdays. Printed by B. Alsop. (Until % 
Sept.) By B. D. 

A Perfect Diumall of Some Passages of Parliament. Numb. 324. 




APPENDIX D 249 

1650. 

July 15-22, 1650. Mondays. Printed by W. Hunt for 
F. Coales, L. Chapman, and L. Blaiklock. (Two 
numbers.) By Samuel Pecke. 

The Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth. Faithfully com- 
municating all affaires both Martiall and Civill. Numb. 
1. July 16-23, 1650. Tuesdays. Collected by the same 
hand which heretofore drew up the Kingdomes Weekly 
Intelligencer. Printed by E. Austin. Printed for E. C. 
(Until 25 Sept. 1655.) By ? E. Collings. 

True Intelligence from the Head Quarters. Numb. 1. July 16- 
23, 1650. Tuesdays. Printed by J. Clowes for N. 
Brooks. (Three numbers.) 

The Best and most Perfect Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Aug. 1-8, 
1650. Thursdays. Published by William Huby. (One 
number.) 

The Moderne Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Sept. 10-18, 1650. Tues- 
days. Printed for Elizabeth Alkin at the Fountain in 
King Street. (Two numbers.) By Henry Walker. 

Mercurius Anglicus. Numb. 1. Sept. 24-1 Oct. 1650. 
Tuesdays. Printed for E. Alkine. (One number.) ? By 
Henry Walker. 

1651. 
Ncwsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies. 
1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.) 

Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth. 
1650. (Until 25 Sept. 1655.) 

Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.) 
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres 1650.) 
Severall Proceedings. 1649. (Until 27 Sept. 1655.) 

Fridays Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Dec. 28, 1655.) 

The Faithfull Scout. Non sumus sub rege sibi quisque se 

vindicet. Numb. 1. Dec. 27-3 Jan. 1651. Fridays. 

(Until Dec. 31, 1652.) Eevived on 1 Feb. 1653 to 18 

March. Continued as The Armies Scout, with No. 14, 

17* 



250 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1651. 

Ap. 23-30, 1653, until 27 May-3 June 1653, then again 
as The Faithfull Scout, No. 115, 3-10 June 1653 to 28 
Sept. 1655. Printed by Kobt Wood. (Until Sept. 28, 
1655.) By D. Border. 

A Perfect Account. Numb. 3. Jan. 22-29, 1651. Wednesdays. 
Printed by Bernard Alsop. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.) ByB.D. 

Mercurius Pragmaticus Revived And from the shades of his 
Ketirement return'd again. Numb. 1. June 3-10, 1651. 
Tuesdays. Continued as Mercurius Elencticus. Numb. 2. 
June 10-17, 1651, to No. 4, June 24-1 July. Then 
continued as Mercurius Scommaticus. Numb. 1. July 
1-8, 1651. Tuesdays. Printed by James Moxon. (No 
more.) By Samuel Sheppard. 

The True Informer. Numb. 1. Aug. 20-28, 1651. Wednes- 
days. Printed for F. N. (One number.) 

The Modern Intelligencer. Numb. V. Aug. 26-3 Sept. 1651. 
Tuesdays. Printed by I. Clowes for E. Alkin. (? The 
only number.) ? By Henry Walker. 

The Diary. Numb. 1. Sept. 22-29, 1651. Mondays. 
Printed by Bernard Alsop. (Until 3 Nov.) 

Mercurius Scoticus or the Royal Messenger. Numb. 2. Sept. 
23-30, 1651. Tuesdays. (Burney.) Printed by John 
Clowes for Elizabeth Alkin. (? One number.) ? By 
Francis Nelson. 

Perfect Particulars of Every Dales Intelligence. Numb. 39. 
Oct. 24-31, 1651. Fridays. Printed by F. Neile. (This 
was a single number of Perfect passages etc., printed by 
Neile, hence the mistake in the title.) 

The French Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Nov. 18-25, 1651. Tues- 
days. Printed by Eobert Wood. (Until 18 May 1652.) 
? By D. Border. 

1652. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies. 
1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.) 



APPENDIX D 251 

1652, 
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept. 

1655.) 

The French Intelligencer. 1651. (Until 18 May.) 
Wednesdays ,4 Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.) 
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.) 
Severall Proceedings. 1649. (Until 27 Sept. 1655.) 
Fridays Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.) 
The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.) 

Mercurius Bellonius. Numb. 1. Jan. 28-4 Feb. 1652. Wednes- 
days. Printed by J. C. (Until March 3.) ?By John 
Crouch. 

The Dutch Spy. Numb. 1. March 1652. Wednesdays. 
Printed by Eobert Wood. (Three numbers.) ?By D. 
Border. 

Mercurius Democritus or a true and perfect Nocturnall com- 
municating wonderfull news out of the World in the 
Moon, The Antipodes, Tenebris, Fary-land, Egypt, Green- 
land, and other adjacent countries. Published for the 
understanding of all the Madmerry-People of Great Bed- 
lam. Numb. 1. Tuesday night, Ap. 8, 1652. Wednes- 
days. Until 25 Aug., then continued as The Laughing 
Mercury. No. 22. Aug. 25-8 Sept. 1652 to 3 Nov. 1653. 
Then as Mercurius Democritus again until Nov. 9, 1653. 
By John Crouch. 

Mercurius Phreneticus. No. 1. July 12-19. Numb. 2. (MS. 
April 8, 1652.) Until April 22. By Samuel Sheppard. 

Mercurius Zeteticus Hebdomad as prima. " The Theme Scoto 
Presbyter." (MS. April 22, 1652.) (One number.) 

The French Occurrences. Numb. 1. May 10-17, 1652. Mon- 
days. Printed for George Horton. (Until 3 Jan. 1653.) 

Mercurius Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. May 18-25, 1652. Tues- 
days. (Until 6 July.) By Samuel Sheppard. 

Mercurius Heraclitus or The Weeping Philosopher, Sadly be- 
moaning the distractions of the times, communicating 



252 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1652. 

true news from Wet eyes, sad hearts and perplexed minds 
concerning the agrievances of the people. Numb. 1. 
June 28, 1652. Mondays. Printed by J. C. and D. W. 
dwelling at the Three Foxes in Long Lane. Introductory 
verse in deep mourning border.^ (Until 12 July.) By 
John Crouch. 

Mercurius Pragmatious. Numb. 1. June 29-6 July 1652. 
Tuesdays. (One number.) By Marchamont Nedham. 

Mercurius Britannicus. Numb. 1. July 19-26, 1652. Mon- 
days. Printed by J. Cotterel and J. Moxon. (Until Aug. 
23. No. 5.) (Five numbers.) By Marchamont Nedham. 

Mercurius Cinicus or a true and perfect Intelligence com- 
municating admirable news out of the air, in the Sun, 
the Sea, and the Earth. Published for the right under- 
standing of B ds Q s, Wh s, Small-coal-men, 

and chimney-sweepers. Numb. 1. Aug. 4-11, 1652. 
Wednesdays. (One number.) 

Mercurius Mastix. Faithfully lashing all Scouts, Mercuries 
Posts, Spys, and others who cheat the Commonwealth 
under the name of intelligence and discovering their base 
cheats and unworthy tricks, whereby they purloyn money 
out of all honest mens pockets. Numb. 1. Aug. 20-27, 
1652. Fridays. (One number.) By Samuel Sheppard. 

Mercurius Britannicus etc. No. 14. Oct. 19-26. Until No. 
23. Dec. 21-28. (A Counterfeit printed by Eob. Wood 
of No. 21, Dec. 7-14, 1652, by the writer of the Faith- 
full Scout.) Printed by Jas. Cottrell. 

The Flying Eagle. Communicating Intelligence both farre and 
neere. Numb. 1. Nov. 27-4 Dec. 1652. Saturdays. 
Printed by T. Fawcet for A. P. Illustrated title page. 
(Until 1 Jan. 1653.) (To advocate the claims of those 
to whom money was owing on the " Public Faith ".) 

TJie Moderate Intelligencer. Numb. 166. Dec. 1-8, 1652. 
Wednesdays. Printed by Eobert Wood. (A Continua- 
tion from 1649.) (Until Dec. 29.) By John Dillingham. 



APPENDIX D 253 

1653. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies. 

1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.) 
The French Occurrences. 1652. (Until Jan. 3.) 
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept. 

1655.) 
Wednesdays^ Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.) 

Mercurius Democritus. 1652. (Until 9 Nov.) 
Thursdays Severall Proceedings. 1649. (Until 27 Sept. 1655.) 
Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.) 
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.) 

Fridays The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.) 
Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.) 

The Moderate Publisher of Every Dales Intelligence. No. 81. 
Jan. 14-21, 1652/3. Fridays. Printed by John Clowes. 
(Until 20 Jan. 1654.) (Continuation of Perfect passages 
of Every dayes Intelligence. No. 80. Dec. 24-31, 1652.) 
By Henry Walker. 

The Moderate Messenger. Numb. 1. Jan. 31-7 Feb. 1653. 
Mondays. Printed for George Horton. (Until March 14.) 

The iFathful Post. No. 89. March 25-1 April 1653. Fri- 
days. Printed for George Horton, B. Eels and T.. L. 
(Until ? Sept. 1653.) Opposition copies published by all 
three during June to Sept. 1653. Continued as Great 
Britain's Post, No. 136, Nov. 2-9 to Dec. 28, 1653 
Then as the Politique Post, Jan. 4-11, 1653/4, afterwards 
the Grand Politique Post, until 11 April 1654, and the 
Weekly Post, No. 174, Ap. 11-18, 1654, to 19 June 
1655. All printed for G. Horton and commencing with 
the year 1654. Always on Tuesdays. 

Moderate Occurrences. Numb. 1. March 29-5 April 1653. 
Tuesdays. Printed for George Horton. (Until 31 May.) 

The Moderate Intelligencer. Numb. 1. May 2-9, 1653. Mon- 
days. Printed by Eobert Wood. (Until 26 April 1654.) 



254 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1653. 

Mercurius Britannicus. Numb. 2. May 16-23, 1653. Mon- 
days. Printed for G. Horton. (Until 20 June.) 

Mercurius Pragmaticus taking a serious view of the present 
condition proceedings and conspiracies of the distracted 
part of the world. Impartially communicating Publique 
affairs and gently correcting Domestique Errours. 
Numb. 1. May 16-25. Wednesdays. 1653. Printed 
for Matthew Mede. (Until July 13.) 

The Daily Proceedigs (sic). (No. 1.) (MS. June 17, 1653.) 
(One number.) 

Mercurius Radamanthus. The chiefe judge of Hell, his Circuit 
throughout all the Courts of Law in England, discovering 
the knaveries of his brethren, and the briberies cruelties 
oppressions and extortions of their officers, and of Jaylors 
Sheriffs, Bayliffs, Serjeants, Catch poles, etc. (No. 1.) 
(MS. June 27, 1653.) (Until July 25.) 

The True and Perfect Dutch Diurnall. Numb. 1. June 27-3 July. 
Mondays. Printed for Tho. Lock. (Until 22 May 1654.) 

Severall Proceedings of Parliament. No. 1. 26 July 1653. 
Tuesdays. Printed by John Field. (Until Dec. 13.) 

The Loyal Messenger. No. 1. Aug. 3-10, 1653. Wednesdays. 
Printed for G. Horton. (One number.) 

The Newes or the Ful Particulars of the Last Fight. No. 1. 
Aug. 5-12, 1653. Fridays. (One number.) 

1654. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies. 

1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.) 
The Moderate Intelligencer. 1653. (Until 26 Ap.) 
The True and Perfect Dutch Diurnall. 1653. (Until 

22 May.) 

Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept. 1655.). 
Wednesdays^ Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.) 
Thursdays Severall Proceedings. 1649 and 1653. (Until 27 
Sept. 1655.) 



APPENDIX D 255 

1654. 

Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.) 
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.) 
Fridays The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.) 
The Moderate Publisher. (1652) 1653. (Until 20 

Jan. 1655.) 
Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.) 

The True Informer. No. 1. Dec. 30-Jan. 6, 1653/4. Fridays. 
Printed by T. Lock. 

The True and Perfect Dutch Diurnatt. No. 3. Jan. 3-10, 
1653/4. Tuesdays. Printed by T. Lock. (Until 
May 22.) 

The Moderate Publisher of Every Dayes Intelligence. Numb. 1. 
Jan. 13-20, 1653/4. Fridays. Continued as certain pas- 
sages of Every Dayes Intelligence etc., with No. 2. Printed 
by F. Neile. (Until 28 Sept. 1655.) 

Mercurius Democritus etc. No. 82. Jan. 9-25, 1653/4. Wed- 
nesdays. Printed for G. Horton. (A Revival.) (Until 
Feb. 22.) 

The Loyal Intelligencer etc. Numb. 73. (?) Jan. 23-30, 1653/4 
Mondays. Printed for George Horton. (One number.) 

The Politique Informer. Numb. 1. Jan. 23-30, 1654. Mon- 
days. Printed by Eob. Wood. (Until 6 Feb.) 

Perfect Occurrences. Numb. 1. Jan. 39 (sic)-6 Feb. 1654. 
Mondays. (Until June 23.) 

The Moderate Intelligencer etc. No. 165. Feb. 16-22, 1654. 
Wednesdays. Printed for G. Horton. (Until 10 May.) 

Mercurius Poeticus. Numb. 2. March 1-8, 1654. Wednesdays. 
(Not in verse. Five numbers.) By Marchamont Nedham. 

Mercurius Nulhis or the invisible Nuncio. Most partially 
comprising the sum of all intelligence between Well-close 
and Westminster. (No. 1.) From to-morrow morning 
till yesterday at noon. 1654 (March 13). (One number. 
Abominably scurrilous.) 

Mercurius Aulicus. Numb. 1. March 13-20, 1654. (Until 3 
April.) Unlicensed. 



256 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

1654. 

The Loyal Messenger or Newes from White-hall, March 4. 
April 3-10, 1654. Mondays. (Four numbers.) 

Observations Historical Political and Philosophical Upon Aris- 
totle's First book of Political government, together with 
a narrative of State affaires in England, Scotland and 
Ireland. Numb. 1. April 4-11, 1654. Tuesdays. 
Printed for E. Moon. (? About six numbers.) (Burney, 
46.) 

Perfect Diurnall Occurrences. Numb. 1. May 1-8 (1654). 
Mondays. Printed for F. Coles. (Until 30 Oct.) 

A Politick Commentary on the Life of Gains July Casar. Written 
by Caius Suetonius Tranquilius. Numb. 1. (MS. May 
23, 1654.) (Comprises Perfect and Impartial Intelligence.) 
Printed by E. Moon. (Until 2 June.) By the author 
of Observations on Aristotle's Politics. 

The Weekly Abstract. No. 1. May 27- June 3. Saturdays. 
? 4 numbers. (Burney.) 

Mercurius Fumigosus. No. 3. June 14-21, 1654. Wednes- 
days. Until 3 Oct. 1655. By John Crouch. 

Mercurius Jocosus or the merry mercurie. Bringing news of 
the best concets from the most refined fancies as well 
ancient as modern, choise, various, and delightful, Com- 
prizing Merry tales witty jests, quaint questions, quick 
answers, and overgrown buls, whereof some are Publicke 
others private never yet extant. Wherein you have 
mirth without danger, wit without dross, Profit without 
pains. Together with the heads of all the remarkable 
news. (No. 1.) July 14-21, 1654. Fridays. Printed by 
Tho. Lock. (Until Aug. 4.) By Thomas Lock. 

The Observator with a summary of Intelligence. " Semel in- 

sanavimus omnes." Numb. 1. Oct. 24-31, 1654. 

Tuesdays. Printed by Thomas Newcombe. (Until 

Nov. 7.) By Marchamont Nedham. 

(For the Politique Post, the Grand Politique Post and the 

Weekly Post, see 1653, The Faithful Post.) 






APPENDIX D 257 

1655. 

Neivsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies. 

1649. (Until Sept. 24.) 
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept.) 

The Weekly Post. 1654. (Until 19 June.) 
Wednesdays A Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept.) 

Mercurius Fumigosus. (Until 3 Oct.) 
Thursdays Severall Proceedings. 1649 and 1653. (Until 27 

Sept.) 

Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.) 
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.) 
Fridays The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28.) 

The (Moderate Publisher) of Certain Passages. (1652) 

1653. (Until 20 Jan.) 
Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28.) 

The Publick Intelligencer. Communicating the chief Occurrences 
and proceedings within the dominions of England, Scot- 
land and Ireland. Together with an account of affaires 
from severall parts of Europe. Numb. 1. Oct. 1-8, 1655. 
Mondays. (Until 9 April 1660.) By Marchamont Ned- 
ham under the supervision of John Thurloe until May 
1659. From May 13, 1659, to Aug. 16, 1659, by John 
Canne and then to April 9, 1660, by Marchamont Ned- 
ham. 

1656 to 1658 inclusive. 

Newsbooks. 

Mondays The Publick Intelligencer. 1655. (Until 9 Ap. 1660.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.) 

(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.) 
No others were permitted to appear until 1659. 
The following advertising periodicals appeared in 1657 : 
The Publick Adviser weekly communicating unto the whole 
nation the several occasions of all persons that are in 



258 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1658. 

any way concerned in matter of Buying and Selling or 
in any kind of Employment or dealings whatsoever, ac- 
cording to the intent of the Office of Public Advice newly 
set up in several places in and about London and West- 
minster; for the better accomodation and ease of the people 
and the universal benefit of the commonwealth in point 
of Publick Intercourse. No. 1. May 19-26. Tuesdays. 
No. 6. June 22 to June 29. Mondays henceforth. 
Until Sept. 28. Printed by Thos. Newcombe. By 
Marchamont Nedham and others. 

The Weekly Information from the Office of Intelligence established 
in several places in and about the cities of London and 
Westminster, by authority granted under the great seal 
of England, and conferred upon Oliver Williams etc. 
No. 1. July 13-20, 1657. Mondays. Printed for the 
author and are to be sold at the sign of the Sun in Paul's 
Churchyard. (One number.) By Oliver Williams and 
others. 

1659. 

| 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays The Publick Intelligencer. 1655. (Until 9 Ap. 1660.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.) 
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.) 

The Faithftdl Scout. No. 1. 22-29 April. Fridays. Printed 

for George Horton. With No. 12 called The National 

Scout, with No. 14 The Loyall Scout. Until 6 Jan. 1660. 

Published by 4< special authority " commencing with 16 

July. ? By D. Border. 
Mercurius Democritus communicating faithfully etc. No. 2. 

Ap. 26-3 May 1659. Tuesdays. (Ephemeral.) 
Mercurius Democritus or a perfect Nocturnal etc. No. 1. May 

3-10, 1659. Tuesdays. Printed for J. J. by J. C. Until 

August 10. By John Crouch. 
The Weekly Post. No. 1. 3-10 May 1659. Tuesdays. 



APPENDIX D 259 

1659. 

Printed for G. Hoi-ton. Until 6Dec. Published by "special 
authority " commencing with 19 July. ? By D. Border. 

The Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth. No. 1. 3-10 
May 1659. Tuesdays. Printed by W. Godbid. Until 
6 Dec. By ? E. Collings. 

The Moderate Informer. No. 1. May 12-19. Thursdays. 
Printed for William Gilbertson in Guiltspur St. (Two 
numbers.) By Marchamont Nedham. 

The Weekly Account. No. 1. May 25-1 June. Wednesdays. 
Printed by E. Alsop. (One number.) 

Mercurius Pragmaticus (20 June 1659). (One number.) 

A Particular Advice from the office of Intelligence etc., etc. 
No. 1. June 23-30, 1659. Fridays. Printed by J. 
Macock dwelling on Addle Hill near Baynards Castle. 
Title altered to An Exact Accompt on Jan. 6, 1660. Until 
6 July 1660. By Oliver Williams and others. 

Occurrences from Foreign Parts. No. 1. 28 June-5 July 
1659. Tuesdays. Printed by J. Macock. Until 13 
March 1660. By Oliver Williams and others. 

Mercurius Pragmaticus communicating his weekly intelli- 
gence. No. 1. Aug. 30-6 Sept. Printed for H. Marsh. 
(Ephemeral.) 

The Faithfull Intelligencer from the Parliaments Army in Scotland. 
No. 1. Nov. 29-3 Dec. 1659. Edinburgh. Printed by 
Christopher Higgins. (One number.) By Capt. Goodwin. 

The Parliamentary Intelligencer comprising the sum of for- 
raign intelligence with the affairs now in agitation in 
England Scotland and Ireland. For information of the 
People. No. 1. 19-26 Dec. 1659. Mondays. Printed 
by John Macock, by Tho. Newcombe etc. Marked 
"Nunquam sera est ad Bonos mores via " and on 9 Jan. 
" Facile est imperium in bonis". On 20 Feb. "Non 
sic minantia pila. Quam tutatur amor." No. 14. 26 
March-2 Ap. 1660. Published by order of the Council of 
State. Continued from No. 1, Dec. 31-7 Jan. 1661 as 



260 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM 

1659. 

The Kingdoms Intelligencer etc. Published by authority. 
Until 31 August 1663. By Henry Muddiman, assisted 
until the Restoration by Giles Dury. 

Mercurius Pragmaticus. Impartially communicating the true 
state of affairs etc. No. 2. Dec. 23-30. Published by 
authority. (? Ephemeral.) 

1660. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 

Mondays The Publick Intelligencer. 1655. (Until 9 Ap. 1660.) 
The Parliamentary Intelligencer. 1659. (Until 31 

Aug. 1663.) 
Tuesdays Occurrences from foreign parts. 1659. (Until 13 

March.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap.) 

(Nouvelles ordinaires de Londres. 1650. (? Until April).) 
Fridays The Loyall Scout. 1659. (Until 6 Jan.) 

An Exact Accompt. 1659. (Until 6 July.) 

The Monethly Intelligencer. No. 1. Jan. 1. Printed by Thomas 
Johnson for Francis Cossinet at the Anchor and Mariner 
in Tower St. (One number.) 

Mercurius Publicus comprising the sum of forraign Intelli- 
gence with the affairs now in agitation in England 
Scotland and Ireland. For information of the people. 
No. 1. 29 Dec.-5 Jan. 1660. Thursdays. Until 3 Sept. 
1663. (The first 14 numbers are in Wood's collections 
at the Bodleian library, Oxford.) Printed by John Ma- 
cock, by Tho. Newcombe etc. By Henry Muddiman 
assisted by Giles Dury. By Dury (nominally) from Ap. 2 
until the Restoration and thenceforward, until 1663, by 
Henry Muddiman. 

Mercurius Fumigosus or the Smoaking Nocturnal. No. 1. 
Jan. 11-18, 1660. No. 1. March 28, 1660. Wednes- 
days. Printed for J. J. (Ephemeral.) By John Crouch. 

Londons Diurnal. No. 1. Feb. 1-8, 1660. Printed for G. 
Horton. (Ephemeral.) 




APPENDIX D 261 

1660. 

The, Perfect Diurnal No. 1. 21 Feb. 1660. Daily, except 
Sundays, until 16 March inclusive. Published at the 
office of Intelligence. By Oliver Williams and others. 

Mercurius Phanaticus or Mercury temporizing. No. 1. March 
7-14. Printed for John Lambert at the sign of the Dis- 
tressed Commander in Wimbleton court. (Burney, 18*.) 
No. 2. May 14-21. Printed by Praise God Barebones 
at the sign of the anabaptist rampant in Fleet St. 
(Ephemeral.) 

A Perfect Diurnal or the daily proceedings in the Conventicle 
of the Phanatiques. No. 1. March 19, 1659/60. 
(Ephemeral.) 

Mercurius Honestus or Tom tell-truth. No. 1. March 14-21, 
1660. ? By Sir George Wharton. 

The Phanatick Intelligencer. No. 1. March 24, 1659/60. 
(Ephemeral.) 

Mercurius Aulicus or the Court Mercury. No. 12. June 18-25, 
1660. (P.P. 3410 ab.) Printed for G. Horton living in 
Figg Tree Court in Barbican. (Ephemeral.) 
(Note. From April, 1660, the Thomason Collection is of 

little use and incomplete.) 

Mercurius Politicus communicating . . . advertisements from 
the three kingdoms . . . and a particular advice from 
the Office of Intelligence over against the Conduit near 
the Old Exchange. Published by Authority (sic). No. 1. 
12-19 April 1660. Thursdays. Until July 5. Printed 
by John Redmayne. After a few numbers numbered 
alternately with the Publick Intelligencer. By Oliver 
Williams and others. (Nos. 16 to 22 in the Collection of 
the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres.) (Burney Collection.) 

The Publick Intelligencer communicating . . . advertisements 
from the three kingdoms . . . and a particular advice 
from the Office of Intelligence. No. 1. 9-16 April 
1660. Printed by John Eedmayne. After a few num- 
bers numbered alternately with Mercurius Politicus. 



262 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM 

1660. 

Mondays. Until June 25 ? By Oliver Williams and 
others. (Burney Collection.) 

Mercurius Civicus or The Cities Intelligencer etc. Published 
by order o^the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen. No. 
4. May 1-8, 1660. Tuesdays. Printed by Tho. New- 
combe, John Eedmayne, Jas. Cofterell etc. (Ephemeral.) 
(To No. 11 in the Collection of the Earl of Crawford and 
Balcarres.) (One number in Burney Collection.) 

Perfect Occurrences of the most remarkable passages in Parlia- 
ment with other moderate Intelligence. No. 4. May 
11-18, 1660. Fridays. Printed by John Clowes. 
(Ephemeral.) By Henry Walker. (Burney Collection.) 

The Man in the Moon. No. 1. 19-26 April. 

Merlinus Phanaticus. No. 1. May 23, 1660. Printed for 
Daniel White. 

Mercurius Veridicus. No. 1. June 5-12, 1660. Tuesdays. 
Printed by D. Maxwell living in Thames St. near 
Baynard's Castle. (One number.) 

Mercurius Democritus in Querpo. No. 9. June 14. (Burney.) 
(Ephemeral.) 

The Votes of both Houses. No. 1. 13-20 June. Printed by 
John Eedmayne in Lovells Court in Paternoster Eow 
and are to be had at the Office of Intelligence. By Oliver 
Williams and others. (One number.) 

The Man in the Moon. No. 1. August 13-20, 1660. Mon- 
days. Printed for John Johnson. (Ephemeral.) 

The Wandering Whore. No. 2. Dec. 5, 1660. (Four numbers.) 

By John Garfield. 

1661. 

Newsbooks already in Existence. 
Mondays The Kingdoms Intelligencer. (The Parliamentary 

Intelligencer. 1659.) (Until 31 August, 1663.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Publicus. 1660. (Until 3 Sept. 1663.) 

Mercurius Caledonius comprising the affairs now in agitation 
in Scotland with a survey of forraign intelligence. No. 






APPENDIX D 263 

f 

1661. 

1. Dec. 31 - Jan. 8, 1661. Edinburgh. Printed by a 
Society of Stationers and reprinted at London. (For two 
or three months.) By Thomas Sydserf. 

Mercurius Democritus or the smoaking Nocturnal. No. 1. 
May 22, 1661. Printed for J. J. (One number.) By John 
Crouch. 

1662. 

Newsbooks in Existence. 

Mondays The Kingdoms Intelligencer. (The Parliamentary In- 
telligencer. 1659.) (Until 31 Aug. 1663.) 
Thursdays Mercurius Publicus. 1660. (Until 3 Sept. 1663.) 

A Monthly Intelligence Relating the Affaires of the People 
called Quakers. No. 1. August- September 1. (The only 
number.) Printed for the author. (Brit. Mus. 4151. 
bb. 4.) 

1663, 

Newsbooks in Existence. 

Mondays' The Kingdoms Intelligencer. (The Parliamentary In- 
telligencer. 1659). (Until 31 August.) 

Thursdays Mercurius Publicus. (Until 3 Sept.) 

The Man in the Moon. No. 2. May 5-12, 1663. Printed for 
J. Jones. (Ephemeral.) 

Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. Revived (?) at the beginning of 
the year. 

The Intelligencer. Published for the satisfaction and informa- 
tion of the people. With Privilege. No. 1. Aug. 31, 
1663. Mondays. 

(Note. At the commencement of the year 1664 this was 
made consecutive with the Newes, both periodicals being num- 
bered and paged together as if the same periodical, and no 
longer being independent of one another.) 

Until 29 Jan. 1666. Printed by E. Hodgkinson. (The final 
numbers in Wood's Collections at the Bodleian Library.) By 

Sir Koger L' Estrange. 

18 



264 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM 

1663. 

The Newes. Published for the satisfaction and information of 
the people. With Privilege. No. 1. 3 Sept., 1663. 
Thursdays. (See note to the Intelligencer.) Until 29 
Jan. 1666. Printed by R. Hodgkinson. (The final 
numbers are only to be seen at the Bodleian Library.) 
By Sir Roger L' Estrange. 

1664. 

Newsbooks in Existence. 

Mondays 'the Intelligencer. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.) 
Thursdays The Newes. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.) 
(? Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres.) 

1665. 

Newsbooks in Existence. 

Mondays The Intelligencer. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.) 
Thursdays The Newes. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.) 

(? Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres.) 

The Oxford Gazette. No. 1. (16) November 1665. Thursday. 
Twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays. Printed at 
Oxford by Leonard Litchfield and reprinted in London 
by Thomas Newcombe. With No. 24, Monday, 5 Feb. 
1665/6, title changed to The London Gazette. By Henry 
Muddiman to No. 25, inclusive, afterwards by Charles 
Perrot to about 1671. 

Publick Intelligence. With sole Privilege. No. 1. 28 Nov. 1665. 
By Sir Roger L'Estrange. (One number.) Printed by 
R. Hodgkinson. 

1666. 

Newspapers and Newsbooks in Existence. 
Mondays The Intelligencer. 1663. (Until 29 Jan.) 

The Oxford Gazette. 1665. (Now The London Gazette.) 
Thursdays The Newes. 1663. (Until 29 Jan.) 

The Oxford Gazette. 1665. (Now The London 
Gazette.) 




APPENDIX D 265 

1666. 

The Current Intelligence. Published by authority. No. 1. June 
4-7. Thursday. Every Monday and Thursday until 
August 20. Official opponent of the Gazette. A separate 
slip of advertisements of books with Nos. 19 and 20. 
(Burney Collection.) By Henry Muddiman. 

Publick Advertisements (with Privilege). No. 1. 25 June 
1666. "Fortnightly" or "oftner". Printed by Tho. 
Newcomb. (? One number.) By Sir Roger L'Estrange. 
(Brit. Mus. 8630. d. 33(2).) 

From 1667 and to the present day The London 
Gazette, twice a week (now on Tuesdays and Fridays). 



FINIS. 



18 



INDEX. 

(Pages 215 to 265 refer to titles of periodicals and names of printers, book- 
sellers and authors only. Whenever possible, the names of printers and book- 
sellers have been supplied to their initials.} 

A., B. (Alsop, Bernard). 

A., R. (Austin, Robert). 

Acton, a writer, 149. 

Adultery, convictions for, 148 and n. 

Act, 146-48. 

Advertisements, the first, 26 ; charges for, 164, 167, 168, 169, 185. 
Advertising ridiculed, 165, 166. 

offices, due to French influence, 158 ; "Publique Register for generall 
Commerce," 160; " Offices of Addresse," 162 ; "Office of Entries," 
162; "Generall Accomodations," 166 ; "Adresses and Encounters," 
166 ; addresses of offices, 168, 169, 171 ; prohibition of, 170 ; collapse 
of, 171 ; " Office of Intelligence," 170, 171, 184 ; " Office of Inquiry," 
184. 

<; Advice," meaning of, 167. 

Advisoes, 24. 

Alkin, Elizabeth, nicknamed "Parliament Joan," 131; whipped, 131; 
personal appearance, 132 ; apartments in Whitehall, 132 ; " Bradshaw's 
doxy," 132 ; " Mrs. Stroffe," 132, 133 ; her newsbooks, 138, 142, 143 ; 
captures Sa, 152, 153 ; pensioned, 153 ; a nurse, 153 ; petitions for 
release of Catholic priest, 153 ; clamours for money, 153 ; wishes to 
be buried in Abbey cloisters without charge, 154 ; Mrs. Everett Green's 
mistaken account of, 154 n. ; 248, 249, 250. 

Alsop, Bernard, 40, 52 ; 215, 216, 224, 226, 227, 228, 230, 231, 233, 248, 
250, 259. 

Amsterdam, 12, 36. 

Anabaptist periodicals, 149, 152. 

Anagrams, of John Taylor, 75 ; of Henry Walker, 72, 75, 102 ; of John 
Harris, 106. 

Answer, An, by Walker, 72. 

Anti-Aulicus, 227. 

Archer, Thomas, his first " relation," 13, 14 ; first publisher of a period- 
ical, 13; competes with Butter, 15 ; publishes a Turkish "relation" 
in 1613,17; was "Mercurius Britannicus, " 25,26; again competes 
with Butter, 27 ; periodicals, 215, 216. 

Areopagitica, motive of, 61-63 ; alluded to, 117. 

267 



268 INDEX 

Arlington, Earl of, succeeds Secretary Nicholas, 189 ; leaves business to 

Williamson, 189 ; licenses Gazette, 192. 
Armies Modest Intelligencer, 242. 

Painefull Messenger, 245. 

Post, 233. 
- Scout, 249. 

Army, the Independent, described, 78 ; its immorality, 145, 146. 

Articles of the Christian Religion, 31. 

Ashe, Simeon, 58 ; 228. 

Ashmole, Elias, 127 ; his Life cited, 88, 96. 

Athenian Society, History of the, 7. 

Atkins, Alderman, 110 and n. 

Atwell, George, 124 n. 

Aubrey, John, his Brief Lives quoted, 41 n., 83. 

Audley, Captain Thomas, 53 ; his falsehoods, 54 ; quarrels with Hotham, 
56-59 ; deputy licenser, 59 ; forbidden to license, 66 ; attachment 
ordered, 68 ; writes Diutinus, 69 ; periodicals, 224, 232. 

Aunt Sally, 4 n. 

Austin, Robert, 151 ; 225, 229, 230, 231, 249. 

B., G. (Bishop, G.) 

B., H. (Blunden, Humphrey). 

B., I. (Bond, John). 

B., M., 233. 

B., T. (Bates, Thomas). 

Baker, Thomas, 220. 

Baleure, Monsieur, French Ambassador, 55. 

Ballads precede periodicals, 4. 

Ballad-singers, Holland on, 4, 5. 

Banks, T., 219. 

Barebones, Praisegod, 180, 261. 

Barnes, Henry, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152. 

Bates, Thomas, 46 ; 219, 223, 225, 227, 228, 230. 

Bath, Marquis of, collection of newsletters, 176 n. 

Berkenhead, Sir John, author of Aulicus, 37, 41 ; character of, 42 ; author 

of Bellicus, 88 ; on John Hall, 103 ; licenser of the press, 181, 182 ; 

Master of Faculties, 181 ; Master of Bequests, 184 ; periodicals, 223, 

236, 237. 

Bernard, Dr. Nicholas, discredited, 128. 
Best and most Perfect Intelligencer, 249. 

Bethen, Francis, Provost-Marshal to the Parliament, 99, 100. 
Bill, a newsagent's, 50. 
Birkenhead, Sir J. (see Berkenhead). 
Bishop, G., 223, 224, 227, 228, 229, 230. 

Zachary, Provost-Marshal to the Parliament, 111. 
Bladen, William, 34, 35 ; 219, 220, 243, 247. 
Blaicklocke, Laurence, 68 ; 224, 225, 249. 
Blundell, H., 220. 




INDEX 269 

Blunden, Humphrey, 222, 223, 232, 234. 

Bond, John, 39. 

Book without a Title, 245. 

Books, all early periodicals books, 6. 

Booth, Robert, 12. 

Border, Daniel, periodicals by, 51 ; a scrivener, 51 ; his marriage, 51 ; a 

physician, 51 ; his book, 51 ; an Anabaptist, 52 ; his Greek, 115 ; 

alluded to, 129, 133, 137, 149, 172 ; 224, 236, 242, 248, 250, 251, 258, 259. 
Bostock, Robert, 227. 

Bourne, Nicholas, 13, 21, 25, 27, 28, 29, 50, 137 ; 216-18, 228, 232. 
Bowles, Master, 227. 
Bowtell, Stephen, 222. 
Bradshaw, John, President of Council of State, 110, 113 ; life threatened, 

114, 119 ; a perjurer, 126. 
Brewster, Thomas, 247. 
Bridewell, House of Correction, 48, 131. 
Brief Narrative, 126. 
- Relation, origin of, 122 ; sinister periodical, 125 ; writer of, 124, 125 ; 

246, 247. 

Britaines Bursse, 159, 160. 
Britaines Remembrancer, 227. 
Britanicus Vapulans, 225. 

BromhalL, Thomas, 184 ; his charge for advertisements, 185. 
Brook, C., 242. 
Brooks, Nathan, 249. 
Broome, Richard, 40. 

Brothels, caused by Cromwell's army, 145, 146. 
Broun (Brown, Samuel). 
Brown, Samuel, 137 ; 248. 
Browne, John, 219. 
Brownrigg, Dr., 48. 

Bucer, Martin, on divorce and polygamy, 61 and n. 
Budd, Father Thomas, writer of Catholicus, 106, 153 ; 240. 
Budge, John, 159. 

Butter, Nathaniel, 14, 15, 21, 25, 27 ; prohibited by Star Chamber, 28 ; 
given monopoly of foreign news, 28 ; quarrels with licenser, 29, 34 ; 
216-18. 
Buz, Hans, character in Staple of Newes, 21, 22. 

C., D., 221. 

C., J. (Coe, Jane, 1645-46), 230, 231, 233, 243. 

C., J. (Crouch, John, 1650-65), see Crouch. 

C., R. (Collings, Richard ?). 

C., T. (Cook, Thomas). 

Calvert, Elizabeth, publisher of seditious and forged literature, 187 n. 

- Giles, 161, 187 n. ; 232, 243, 247. 

- Secretary, 12, 22. 
Calvinism, 31. 



270 INDEX 

Canne, John, printer and preacher, 172, 173 ; 248, 258. 

" Captain," the, 14 ; mentioned by Jonson, 17 ; dies, 18, 54 ; and see 

Gainsford, Francis. 
Carleton, Dudley, 13, 16, 23. 
Carnarvon, Earl of, slandered by Audley, 54. 
Case of the Commonwealth Stated, 134. 
tl Catchword," meaning of, 6 and n.; early periodicals without, 6 ; not in 

Gothic letters, 198. 
Certaine Informations, author of, 45 ; 224, 226. 

Passages of Every Dayes Intelligence, 248. 

(1654), 255. 

Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages, etc., 223. 

Chamberlain, John, 12 ; biography, 15 ; tells of death of gazet-maker, 18 ; 

attacked by Jonson, 20-22 ; dies, 26. 
Chapman, Laurence, 225. 

Livewell, publishes fraudulent and seditious literature, 187 n. ; 249. 
Character of a Diurnal Maker quoted, 37. 

London Diurnal quoted, 63. 

Charles I., insulted by Nedham, 66; by Walker, 73; intercedes for 
Walker, 74 ; abduction of, 79 ; tracts against, 101 n. ; account of 
events at murder of, 200-10. 

II., proclamations against vice, 147 n. ; rewards Mabbott, 151 ; Twyn 

executed for his share in plot to assassinate, 186 ; protects L'Es- 

trange, 192. 

Chesterfield, Lady, gives free postage to L'Estrange, 188 n. 
Chief e Heads of Each Dayes Proceedings, 228. 
Chocolate, first advertisement of, 170. 
Chronogram on Royalist periodical, 80. 
Citties Weekly Post, 230. 
City Common Council, Act of, 47. 

Marshal and Mercury woman, 92. 

City Mercury, or advertisements concerning trade, 184 n. 

- Scout, 230. 

Clarges, Anne, Duchess of Albemarle, 174. 

Sir Thomas, directs Muddiman to write a newsbook, 174, 175 and n. ; 

his pamphlet, " Hypocrites Unmasked," 175. 
Clark, Thomas, 248. 
Clarke, Sir William, Monck's secretary, 151 ; brother-in-law of Mabbott, 

151 ; not trusted by Monck, 151, 174, 194. 
" Papers" quoted, 128; mentioned, 182. 
Cleiveland, John, quoted, 36, 37, 49, 63, 92 ; editor of Pragmaticus, 83 ; 

his motto, 84 ; example of editing, 92 ; alluded to, 112, 184 ; 234. 
Clerks (see Scrivener). 
Cleveland, John (see Cleiveland). 
Clowes, John, printer, 138, 142 ; imprisoned by Cromwell, 151 ; 233, 237, 

248, 249, 250, 253, 262. 

- Mrs., imprisoned by Cromwell, 152. 
Codgrave, John (see Cotgrave). 



INDEX 271 

Coe, Andrew, 220, 225, 226. 
(junior), 233, 243. 

Jane (see C., J.). 

Coffee, first advertisement of, 170. 

Colchester Spie, 120 ; 240. 

Coles, Francis, imprisoned, 40 ; again imprisoned, 42 ; again imprisoned, 

46 ; 219, 220, 221, 222, 224, 226, 249, 256. 
Collections of Notes at the King's Tryall, 108. 
Collings, R., writer, 43, 68, 69, 70, 138 ; 223, 249, 260. 
Committee of both Kingdoms, 91. 

Examinations, 45, 58. 

Committee Man's Complaint, 84. 

Committee of militia to suppress diurnals, 79. 

- House on Royalist Mercuries, 88 ; to sit daily, 90. 
Commonwealth Mercury of 1658 a forgery, 3 n. 
Compleat Clark and Scrivener's Guide, 33 n. 
Compleate Intelligencer and Resolver, 56 ; 225. 

in two parts, 56 ; 225. 

Continent, news from the, 9. 

Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages, author of, 37 ; 
mentioned, 222, 226, 229. 

- of Certain Special and Remarkable Passages (1645), 230, 231, 233. 

- of the True Diurnall, 35 ; 219, 221. 

Intelligence from the Earl of Manchester's Army, author of, 58 ; 228. 

- of Papers . . . from the Scots Quarters, 232. 
True and Special Passages, 222. 

Continued Heads of Perfect Passages, 243. 

Inquisition of Paper Persecutors quoted, 4, 5, 14. 
Conyers, Sir John, Lieutenant of the Tower, 74. 
Cook, Thomas, 220. 

Cooke, John, secretary to Sir William Morice, 193. 

- (or Cook), William, 33, 34, 35 ; 219, 222. 

Cope, Sir Walter, his patent for advertising offices, 158-60. 

Copyright, of newsbooks in authors, 9 ; confounded by abolition of Star 

Chamber, 45 ; at Restoration, 181. 
"Coranto," meaning of word, 6 ; the first, 13 ; usually in three sheets, 15 ; 

examples of, 215-17. 
Corantofrom Beyond the Sea, 224. 
Corbet, Miles, Chairman of Committee of Examinations, 89 ; exposed, 9Q ; 

publicly thrashed, 98. 
Cornucopia of Samuel Hartlib, 162 n. 
Correction, House of (see Bridewell). 
Cossinet, Francis, 260. 

Cotgrave, John, partner with Dillingham, 49 ; writes Le Mercure Anglois, 
49, 50 ; 228. 

- Randle, author of French Dictionary, 49. 
Cottrell, James, 149, 150 ; 252, 262. 
Coules, F. (see Coles). 



272 INDEX 

Council of State, 1649, described, 91 ; declaration by, at Massacre of 

Drogheda, 126. 
(Monck's) discharges Nedham and appoints Muddiman and 

Dury, 177. 
Countrey Foot-Post, 228. 

Messenger, 228. 
Country parson described, 144. 

" Courant," meaning and use of word, 6. 

Court Mercuric, 228. 

Cowles, F. (see Coles). 

Crawford and Balcarres, Earl of, collection of newsbooks, 223, 261, 262. 

Cromwell, Oliver, cause of official journalism, 10 (and see Drogheda, 
Massacre of) ; his nose, 64, 65, 89, 91 ; his method of speaking, 65 ; 
his connexion with Walker, 77, 139, 153-55 ; his debauchery in 
youth, 89 and n. ; in Council of State, etc., 91, 92 ; employs Walker 
to pirate a book, 100 ; newsbooks suppressed to conceal facts as to 
his Irish massacres, 122-26 ; accomplice in the murder of Sir 
Edmund Verney, 127, 128 n. ; returns from Ireland, 134 ; employs 
Walker to preach, 139 ; his quarrel with Fairfax, 139-41 ; has Walker's 
sermon burnt, 141 ; suppresses jurisdiction of the Stationers' Com- 
pany, 150 ; conversation with Whitelocke, 150 n. ; tries to obtain the 
crown, 150 n., 155 ; wholesale arrests of printers, 151. 152 ; Walker 
dedicates a book to him, 154; again employs Walker, 155, 156; abolishes 
the licensed press, 156 ; dies, 172. 

Cromwell, Richard, calls a Parliament, 172. 

Crouch, Edward, 95, 130. 

John (the printer), counterfeits Melancholicus, 81, 95, 111, 117 ; on 

Walker's being beneficed, 120 n. ; imprisoned, 133 ; his immoral 
periodicals, 145 ; again imprisoned in 1660, 146 ; 234, 243, 251, 
252, 256, 258, 260, 262. 
(author of " A Mixt Poem "), 81 n. ; poem quoted, 128. 

Swallow (see Crouch, John (the printer)). 
" Currant " or " Curranto " (see " Coranto "). 
" Currantier," 28. 

Current Intelligence, the author of, 196 ; 265. 
Cymball, Henry (see Symball). 

D., B., 51, 52 ; 233, 248, 250. 

D., G. (Dexter, Gregory), 221. 

D., L, 215, 216. 

Daily Intelligencer of Court, City and Countrey, 223. 

Proceedigs (sic), 254. 
Danes Plot, 40. 

Declaration Collected out of the Journals, etc., 241. 

Concerning the King, 43. 

"Declaration of the Parliament of England concerning their Proceed- 
ings," 126. 
' Proceedings of ... Fairfax," 125 n. 



INDEX 273 

Defensio regia pro Carolo primo, 136. 

Dekker, Thomas, quarrels with Jensen, 16, 20. 

Denbigh, Lord, intercedes with Parliament for Nedham, 68. 

Derby House Committee (see Council of State). 

Diary (1651), 250. 
- or an Exact Journal, 228, 229. 

of the Proceedings of the Treaty betwixt the Parliament and 
the Army, etc., 233. 

Dictionary of Printers, 1641-67, quoted, 152, 218. 

Digby, George, 41. 

Dillingham, John, a tailor, 48 and n. ; his newsbooks, 48 ; gives informa- 
tion against Laud, 48 ; promotes diurnal in French, 49 ; imprisoned, 
65 ; Mabbott's attempts to supplant, 104 ; his French phrase, 104 ; 
petitions Lords successfully against Mabbott, 104, 105 ; periodicals, 
224, 229, 245, 252. 

Discourse (see Relation). 

Discoveries (i.e., advertisements), 166. 

Diurnal, 8, 36. 
maker, description of, 36, 38 ; and see Scriveners. 

Diurnall Occurrences, volumes of, 33, 34, 38 ; author of, 34, 35, 37- 

- in Parliament, 219, 220. 

or the Heads of Generall Proceedings, 219. 
the Proceedings in both Houses of Parliament, 220. 

Diutinus Britanicus, 232. 

" Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce " (Milton's), 61, 113. 

Dod, Edward, imprisoned by Cromwell, 151. 

Downes, Bartholomew, 14 ; 216. 

" Downfall of Mercurius Britanicus, Pragmaticus, Politicus," etc., 165. 

Drogheda, Massacre of, 77 n. ; newsbooks suppressed to conceal facts, 
122-27 ; note as to authorities on, 127, 128. 

Du-Gard, William, his French periodical and Milton, 136, 137 ; 248. 

Dury, Giles, assistant to Muddiman, 175 ; ordered by Monck's Council to 
write Mercurius Publicus, 177 ; " gives over," 175 ; 260. 

Dutch, the, circulators of news, 12. 

Dutch Spy, 52 ; 251. 



E.,W.,227. 

Editor, a modern word, 8, 134. 

Education, Milton's tract on, licensed, 61. 

Eeles, or Eels, Robert, prints pamphlet against Peters, 149 ; 253. 

Elsing, Henry, clerk to House of Commons, 221, 222. 

England's Memorable Accidents, 222. 

Moderate Messenger, 243. 

Remembrancer of London's Inteqritie, 233. 
English Mercurie, a forgery, 3 n. 

- Treasury of Wit and Language, 50. 
Epithalamium Gallo-Britannicum, 26. 



274 INDEX 

Essex, the Earl of, present at Walker's insult to the King, 73 ; gives a 

license to Britanicus, 54 n. 
Etherege, Sir George, play by, quoted, 196 n. 
Exact Abridgment of Acts and Ordinances, 1640-56, cited, 150, 157. 

Accompt quoted, 175, 179 ; 259, 260. 

and True Collection of the Weekly Passages, 231. 

Diurnall, 228. 
Exchange Intelligencer , 230. 
Extract of Letters, 227. 

F., I. (John Field or John Franck), 227. 

F., T. (see Fawcet, Thomas). 

Fair Maid of the Inn quoted, 18. 

Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, warrant against the press, 63, 109 ; writes to 

Speaker about Royalist pamphlets, 85 ; his quarrel with Cromwell, 

139-41 ; 246. 

Lady, an Anabaptist, 141 n. 
" Faithful Shepherdess," 46. 

Faithfull Intelligencer from the Parliaments Army in Scotland, 175 ; 

259. 
- Post (1653), 253. 

Scout, 149 ; 249, 251, 253. 

(1653), 255, 257. 

(1659), 172 ; 258. 

Fawcet or Forcet, Thomas, 220, 221, 228, 230, 232, 252. 

Featly, Daniel, D.D., 53 ; 225. 

Field, John, 254. 

Fire of London, the great, 196. 

First Decade of Useful Observations, 245. 

Fleet Street, described in 1652, 143, 144. 

Fletcher, John (dramatist), 18, 46. 

Flying Eagle, 252. 

Post, 228. 
Forcet, T. (see Fawcet). 
Ford, A., writer (?), 245. 
Foreign news, periodicals of, 3. 

"Four wormes," Puritan political parties described as, 77. 

Frederic, Palatine of the Rhine, 12. 

French Ambassador apologised to, 55. 

French Intelligencer, 250, 251. 

French newsbooks, 49, 50, 136, 137. 

French Occurrences, 251, 253. 

" Fresh Whip for all Scandalous Lyers," etc., quoted, 38, 76. 

Frost, Gualter (see Frost, Walter). 

Walter, ordered to write news, 121 ; spy-master to rebels and re- 

gicides, 122 ; his biography given by Wharton, 124 ; biography cor- 
roborated, 124 n. ; mentioned, 129, 132, 133, 135, 136 ; 245. 
" Further Discoverie of the Office of Publick Addresse," etc., 162. 



INDEX 275 

G., I. or J. (John Greensmith ?), 220, 221, 224, 227. 

Gainsford, Captain Francis, gazet- maker, the first editor, 18 ; his letter 

to the Earl of Essex, 18 ; in Ireland, 19 ; pensioned, 19 ; possibly 

Jonson's enemy, 20. 

- Thomas, not a soldier, 18. 

Garfield, John, imprisoned for writing Wandering Whore, 146 and n. ; 262. 

Garrett, Sir George, alderman and sheriff, 73. 

Gazet, 6 ; and see Gazette. 

Gazette, meaning and origin of word, 7. 

Gellibrand, Samuel, 227. 

" Generall Accomodations by Addresse," 166. 

General Account, 229. 

Proceedings of State Affairs, 246. 

N ewes from All Parts of Christendome, 231. 

Gerbier, Sir Balthazar, Crouch on his Academy and Walker, 163 n. 
Gilbertson, William, 259. 

Glapthorne, , writer, imprisoned, 43. 

Godbid, William, 259. 

Goode, William, 228. 

Goodwin, Captain, writer of first Scottish periodical, 175 ; 259. 

Gorges, Sir Arthur, patentee for advertising offices, 158-60. 

Grand Politique Post, 253, 256 n. 

Great Assizes holden in Parnassus by Apollo quoted, 48, 55. 

"Great Britain's Misery with the Cause and Cure," 55. 

Great, Britain's Painefull Messenger, 245. 

Post, 253. 

Greaves, Sackville, searcher of Customs, 184. 
Greek, Border's use of, 51, 115. 
Grey, Isaac, 152. 
Griffin, Edward, 246. 
Gumble (chaplain to Monck), 175 n. 

H., I. (see Harris, John). 

H., R. (see Harper, Richard). 

H., W. (William Huby ?), 231. 

Hackluyt, John, D.D., 80-82 ; his history, 82, 93 ; his imprisonments 

and escapes chronicled by Walker, 94-96 ; last imprisonment and 

petition, 112 ; 234, 242, 244, 
Hall, Mr., clerk in Letter Office, 194. 

Henry, Oxford publisher, 223. 

- John, his antecedents, 103; employed by Lilly to write Brittanicus 

and Censorius, 103 ; brought in by Cromwell to write for Council of 
State at 100 a year, 103 ; possible writer of Politicus, 134 ; 237. 

Hammond, John, 35 ; 220, 226. 

Hannam, Robert, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152. 

Harleian Miscellanies, reprint, 17. 

Harper, Richard, 229. 

Harris, John, 88 n. ; his antecedents, 106 ; writes pamphlets under name 



276 INDEX 

of Sirrahniho, 106 ; author of Militaris and Anti-Mercurius, 106, 
107 ; forges Cromwell's signature, 107 ; hanged for burglary at St. 
Mary Axe, 107 ; 230, 232, 237, 240, 241. 

Harris, Susanna, wife of John Harris and a Royalist, 106. 

Harrison, John, 97. 

Harruney, Luke (see also Walker, Henry (anagram)), 75, 118. 

Hartlib, Samuel, 161, 181. 

Harwich, port for Continental news, 9. 

Hatter, Richard, Fairfax's Secretary to the A*my, 125 and n., 141 n. 

Hawkers and Mercury women, to be whipped for selling Royalist news- 
books, 47 ; the Levellers on whipping of, 63 ; whipped under Ordin- 
ance of 1647, 86 ; hunting of, 92, 93, 100, 112 ; suppressed, and to be 
whipped under Act of 1649, 121 ; abolished by Cromwell, 156 ; left 
in peace by Licensing Act, 1662, 183 ; description of crying the news- 
books in Fleet Street in 1652, 143, 144. 

Heads of All the Proceedings in both Houses, etc., 220. 

a Diarie, 108 ; 242. 

Chiefe Passages, 51 ; 236. 

Severall Proceedings, etc., 34 ; 218. 

Some Notes of the Citie Scout, 229. 

Hebrew, Walker's Hebrew anagrams, 102 ; Border imitates him, 115 ; 
much quoted by Walker, 119 ; lectures on, by Walker, 164 ; equivocal 
compliment at Walker's lectures, 164 ; quoted by Williams, 173. 

Henry VIII., proclamation against printing news, 2. 

Hermes Straticus t 240. 

Herne, Richard, printer, imprisoned, 43. 

Hesse, Philip of, bigamy sanctioned by Bucer, 61 n. 

Hewson, " Colonel," spits in King Charles's face, 204. 

Heylin, Peter, D.D., helps to write Aulicus, 41 ; opposed by Dr. Nicholas 
Bernard, 128 n. 

Hickeringill, Edmund, on printing and stationers, 4. 

Hickes, James, clerk in Letter Office, his character, 190 ; takes list of 
Muddiman's correspondents, 193 ; his untruthful circular, 194 ; 
petitions Secretaries of State, 195 ; rebuked, 196 ; steals Muddiman's 
newsletters, 197. 

Higgins, Christopher, 259. 

High Commission Court, 31, 44, 146. 

Hills, Henry, his character, 106. 

"Hinc illse Lachrymae," 48. 

" His Majesty's Gracious Answer . . . Concerning Peace/' 43. 

Historian, Cleveland's description of an, 37. 

Hodgkinson, Richard, "263, 264. 

Holdenby House, 79. 

Holland, Abraham, quoted, 4, 5, 14. 

Horton, George, Anabaptist bookseller, 152, 172 ; 251, 253, 254, 255, 258, 
260, 261. 

flotham, Durant, author of the Spie, 56 ; his quarrel with Audley, 56-58 ; 
227. 



INDEX 277 

Hotham, Sir John, 56. 

- John, 56. 

Howell, James, quoted, 12, 

Huby, William, imprisoned, 152 ; 248. 

* l Hue and Cry after 'Mercurius Democritus,' " etc., 146. 

- the King," Nedham's, 66, 165. 
Hughes, W., collection of statutes quoted, 150, 157. 
41 Humble Remonstrance of the Company of Stationers," 44. 
Hunscot, Joseph, printer and spy, 92, 161. 
Hunt, William, 248. 
" Hypocrites Unmasked," pamphlet by Sir T. Clarges, 175. 

41 1 THANKE you Twice," 81 n. 

Ibbitson, Robert, 108, 137 ; 233, 239, 241, 242, 245. 

Impartiall Intelligencer, 243. 

Impartial Scout, 137, 149 ; 248. 

Independents denned, 32; Royalist description of, 77; immorality of, 

145-48. 

Inderwick, F. A., Interregnum corrected, 148 n. 
Informator Rusticus, 225. 
Ingler, William, writer, 45 ; 223. 
Innes, Capt. Robert, his advertisement offices patent, 160, 161 ; patent 

sold and revived, 170, 179. 
Intelligence from the Earl of Manchester's Army, 58; 228. 

Scottish Army, 227. 

Intelligence, letters of, 2 ; and see Newsletters. 

Intelligencer, the, 24 ; author of, 188 ; consecutive with the Newes and a 

failure, 188 ; 263, 264. 
"Interest will not Lie," by Nedham, 173. 
Ireland, Massacres of, 1641, 33 ; story of, retold, as set-off to Massacres of 

Drogheda and Wexford, 126. 
Ireland's True Diurnall, 34 ; 219. 
" Irish Footman's Poetry," 73. 
Irish Mercury Monethly (1649), 243. 
- (1650), 247. 

- Monthly Mercury, 242. 

Italians, the pioneers of newspapers, 7. 

J., J. (see Jones, John). 

J. W. J. (see Wright, John, junior). 

Jack-a-Lent, 4 ; explanation of, 4, 5 n. 

James I., 12 ; grants patent for advertising offices, 158. 

Jeafireson, J. C., Middlesex County Records, 16, 148 n. 

Jennings, Theodore, licenser of the press, 115, 117 ; prohibits the Scout, 

118 ; 242. 

Jermin, Henry, 41. 

Johnson, John, 262. 

Thomas, 260. 



278 INDEX 

Jones, John, 232, 258, 260, 263. 

Jonson, Ben, 15 ; his single combat, 16 ; a coward and a felon, 16 ; con- 
verted to Catholicism, 17 ; epigram To Captain Hungry, 17 ; "Exe- 
cration upon Vulcan," 17 ; " Newes from the "World in the Moon," 
18 ; " Staple of Newes," 15, 18 ; becomes a Protestant, 20 ; attacks 
Chamberlain, 20, 22; " Neptune's Triumph for the Return of 
Albion," 21 ; " Maske of Queenes," 46. 

John, 221. 

Judges' opinions, on royal prerogative in news, 2, 3 ; that printing is 

publication, 41. 

*' Judgment of Martin Bucer concerning Divorce " (Milton), 61. 
Juxon, Bishop, deprived of prayer-book when ministering to the King, 

105 n. 

KIDDBR, Mr., Nedham's landlord, 60, 178. 
Kingdomes Faithfull Scout, 115, 117 ; 242. 

Weekly Account of Heads of Chief Passages, 51 ; 236. 

Intelligencer, author of, 43, 51, 68 ; its continuation, 138 ; 223, 226 r 

229, 231, 232, 236, 242. 

or Special Passages, 223. 

Post, 51, 52 ; 226. 

. _ (1645), 230. 

(1648), 236. 

Kingdoms Intelligencer, 260, 262, 263. 

Knightsbridge, the inhabitants of, petition against Walker, 129, 130. 

L., F. (see Leach, F.). 

L., T. (Thomas Leach ?), 253. 

L., W. (see Ley, W.). 

Lambert, General John, 197 n., 260. 

Lane, Philip, 224. 

Late Proceedings of the Scotish Army, 227. 

Laud, Archbishop, evidence against, by Dillingham, 31 ; his chaplain gives 
certificate to Walker, 71. 

Laughing Mercury, origin of title, 149 ; 251. 

Laurence, Captain Richard, Fairfax addresses his warrant against the 
press to, 109 ; refuses to act against press, 110. 

Lay, William (see Ley). 

Leach, Francis, imprisoned, 40 ; again imprisoned, 42 ; 222, 226, 228, 230, 
232, 245, 246. 

, Jean de, partner with Brown, 137 ; 248. 

Lesly, Robert, shoots Symball, 98 n. 

L'Estrange, Sir Roger, 24, 60 ; his antecedents, 185 ; and Twyn, 186 ; 
intrigues for Nedham's post, 16 ; draws proposals for regulation of 
press, 187 ; asks for right to publish news, 187 ; wishes to suppress 
written news, 187 ; his printed Proposals, 187 ; created Surveyor of 
Press, and ousts Muddiman, 188 ; his Intelligencer and Newes, 188 ; - 
receives letter from Williamson and writes Arlington, 191 ; his com- 
plaints, 191, 192 ; starts (f paper " in opposition to the Gazette, 192 ; 



INDEX 279 

appeals to King and is pensioned, 192, 193 ; his advertising periodical, 
198 ; 263, 264, 265. 

Levellers, 62, 63 ; petition for unlicensed printing, 63, 109 ; denned, 77, 
115, 120. 

Ley, William, 225, 235, 245. 

Leybourn, Robert, succeeds White as printer of the Moderate Intelligencer, 
104 ; 244, 245. 

Licensers, of books Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London, 2, 
45 ; of periodicals Henry Walley, 1643, 45, 46 ; John Rush worth, 
1644, 58 ; Captain Thomas Audley, deputy, 1644, 59 ; Gilbert Mabbott, 
deputy, 1645, 66; Gilbert Mabbotb (first appointment), 1646, 67; 
Mabbott's second appointment, 1647, 85 ; Theodore Jennings and 
Henry Whaley, 1649, 115 ; John Rushworth again, 1649, 136 ; Mab- 
bott's third appointment, 1653, 150 ; Sir John Berkenhead, 1660, 
181 ; Sir Joseph Williamson, 182, 183 ; Sir Roger L'Estrange, 187, 188 ; 
Lord Arlington, 1665, 191. 

Licensing of books, 2 ; Decree of 1586, 2 ; committee of Lords on, in 1641, 
33, 40 ; before Ordinance of 1643, 44. 

Lilburne, John, Leveller, 62, 77, 86, 115 ; Cromwell tries to hang, 151. 

Lilly, William, 49 ; answers Wharton's List, 87 n. } 92 ; secures Wharton's 
liberty, 126, 127. 

Lincoln, Lord Keeper, Bishop of, 12, 71. 

Lindsey, George, 225, 234. 

Litchfield, Leonard, publisher of Oxford Gazette, 192. 

Little, Richard, 67 ; 230. 

Littleton, Sir Edward, clerk of, censured, 39. 

Lock, Thomas, imprisoned, 152 ; 254, 255, 256. 

Locke, Thomas, 15, 16 ; possible writer of State paper, 23. 

London, moral state of, under Commonwealth, 146. 

London Gazette, 8, 137 ; translated into French, 184 n. ; auxiliary to news- 
letters, 192; existence jeopardised, 196; not intended for adver- 
tisements, 198 ; 264, 265. 

- Post, by Rush worth, 59 ; 228, 229, 232. 
Londons Diurnal, 260. 

Lords' Committee on printing, previous to Ordinance of 1643, 33, 40. 
Lovelace, Richard, appealed to by Wharton to turn Hall out of Gray's 

Inn, 103. 
Loyal Intelligencer, 255. 

- Messenger, 254, 255. 
Loyall Scout, 258, 260. 

M., J. (John Macocke ?), 231. 

M.,T., 244. 

Mabbott, Gilbert, Rushworth's clerk and deputy - licenser, 59, 66 ; a 
cobbler's son, 66 ; " sub-author " of London Post, 66 ; Fairfax's agent 
and a Leveller, 67 ; attacks the King, 67, 68 ; appointed licenser, 67 ; 
called before Lords, 68, 69 ; removed, 75 ; reappointed, 86 ; pro- 
posals by, 99 ; his falsehoods, and writer of The Moderate, 104, 105, 

19 



280 INDEX 

114 ; removed as a Leveller, 115 ; pretended views against licensing, 
115-117 ; licenses immoral periodicals, 145 ; an adulterer, 148 ; third 
time licenser, 150 ; obtains profitable patent at Restoration, 151 ; 
228, 232, 239, 244, 245. 

Macocke, John, 233, 259, 260. 

Man in the Moon, 48, 49, 52, 59, 111 ; its author, 111, 120, 121, 127, 130, 
132, 133, 139, 145, 163, 164 ; 243, 247. 

- (1660), 262. 

- (1663), 263. 

" Man of Mode " (play by Etherege), quoted, 196 n. 
Marcelline, George, 26. 
Marsh, Henry, 259. 

Marten, Henry, 89 ; exposed, 90 ; his evil life, 99, 147 n. 
Martin Nonsence, 241. 
" Maske of Queenes," 46. 

Massey, Major-General Edward, his chaplain turns Royalist, 82. 
Maxwell, David, 262. 
Mede, Mathew, 254. 

Mendoza, Don Andrew Tartailo, a "relation " concerning, 14. 
Mercure Anglois, 49, 50, 137 ; 228. 229, 231, 232, 236. 
" Mercuries " (see Hawkers). 
Mercurio Volpone or the Fox, 240. 
Mercurius Academicus (1645), 60, 67 ; 230. 
(1648), 237. 

- Anglicus (1644), 227. 

- (1648), 240. 

- (1650), 133 ; 249. 

" Anti-Britanicus ; or, The Second Part of the Kings Cabinet Vindi- 
cated," quoted, 54, 59, 60. 

Anti-Melancholicus, 234. 

Anti-Mercurius (Ap. 1648), 81, 88 n., 237. 
(Sept. 1648), 240. 

Anti-Pragmaticus, 93 ; 235, 236. 

Aquaticus, 240. 

Aulico-Mastix, 227. 

Aulicus (1643), 41 ; sold and reprinted in London, 42, 47, 56, 61, 67 ; 

223, 226, 229. 

- (1648), 83, 99 ; 240. 

- (1654), 255. 

- Aulicus againe Communicating Intelligence, 236. 

- Aulicus or the Court Mercury (1660), 261. 

- Aulicus (For King Charls //.), (Aug. 1649), 245. 

- Bellicus (1647), 88 ; 235. 

- Bellicus (1648), 88 ; 237. 

- Bellonius, 251. 

- Britanicus (1643), 53 ; author, 53 ; license, 54 n. ; quoted, 54, 56, 57, 

58 ; by Nedham, 59 ; Hue and Cry in, 66 ; stopped, 68 ; 224, 
226, 229, 231. 






INDEX 281 

Mercurius Britanicus (counterfeit), 227. 

"his Welcome to Hell," 73 n. 

- (1647), 233. 

- Britannicus (1625), 15, 22, 24-26, 160. 
(1652), 149, 150 ; 252. 

- (1653), 254. 

Brittanicus (1648), 103 ; 236. 

(1649), 243. 

- Caledonius, 262. 

- Cambro-Britannus, 224, 225. 

- Candidus (1646), 232. 

(1647), 233. 

Carolinus, 245. 

- Catholicus, 106 ; 240. 

- Censorius, 103 ; 238. 

Cinicus, 252. 

- Givicus (1643), 44, 68, 69 ; 223, 226, 229, 231. 

- (1660), 262. 

- Glericus, 234. 

or N ewes from the Assembly, 235. 

- Critticus, 237. 

- Democritus (1652), 145, 146 n., 148 ; 251, 253. 

- (1653), 251. 

(1654), 255. 

- (1659), 258. 

- (1661), 263. 

Democritus in Qiterpo, 262. 

- Diutimis, 69 ; 232. 

- Dogmalicus, 98 ; 236. 

- Domesticus, 238. 

- Elencticus (1647), 86, 90, 93, 97, 111, 113, 133, 136 ; a number set out 

in full, 200-10 ; 235, 236, 422. 

- (Feb. 1649), 243. 

- (Ap. 1649), 243. 

- (1651), 250. 

- (For King Charts II.), (May 1649), 244. 

- Elenticus, 244. 

- (For King Charls //.), (Ap. 1649), 243. 

- (1650), 129 ; 247. 

- etc., 225. 

- Fidelicus, 240. 

- Fumigosus (1654), 5, 107, 145 ; 256, 257. 

- (1660), 260. 

- G-allicus, 238. 

- Gallobelgicus, 11, 24, 64. 

- Heraditus, 251. 

- Honestus (1648), 238. 

- (1660), 261. 

19* 



282 INDEX 

Mercurius Hybernicus, 245. 

Impartialis, 241. 

Insanus Insanissimus, 237. 

Jocosus, 256. 

- Mastix, quoted, 53, 142, 145, 165 ; 252. 

Medicus, 81 ; 235. 

Melancholicus (1647), 80-83, 88, 92, 93, 95, 113 ; 234, 236, 242. 
(1648), 239. 

- (1649), 242. 

(For King Charles the Second), 244. 

Militans, 241. 

Militaris (1648), 106 ; 241. 
(1649), 92 ; 243. 

or Times only Truth-Teller, 84 ra., 112 ; 244. 

Morbicus, 81 ; 234. 

Nullus, 255. 

PacificusKlteS), 241. 
(1649), 244. 

Phanaticus, 261. 

or Mercury temporizing, 261. 

Philo-Monarchicus (1649), 243. 

- (Pars. 2), 244. 

Phreneticus, 251. 

Poeticus (1648), 238. 
(1654), 152, 255. 

Politicus (1650), 134, 135, 167, 172, 173, 181 ; 247, 249, 251, 253, 

257, 258, 260. 

- " A Private Conference," etc., etc., 167. 

(1660), 178 ; 261. 

Populus, 235. 

Pragmaticus(164X), 82, 88, 92, 93, 95, 110, 111, 112, 127, 129, 133, 145, 

147 n. ; 234, 236, 242, 247. 

- (1648), 237. 

- (1652), 251. 

- (counterfeit by Nedham, 1652), 252. 

- (1659), 260. 

_ _ Revived (1651), 250. 

(For King Charls //.), (Ap. 1649), 243. 

- (Sept. 1649), 246. 

taking a serious view (1653), 254. 

Psitacus, 239. .- 

Publicus (1648), 238. 

(1660), 126 n., 174, 181 ; 260, 262, 263. 

Radamanthus, 254. 

Republicus, 244. 

Rusticus (Bruno Ryves), 45, 58 ; 223. 

(1647), 235. 

or a Countrey Messenger, 56 ; 225. 



INDEX 283 

Mercurius Scommaticus, 250. 

Scoticus, 239. 

- Scoticus, or the Royal Messenger, 142 ; 250. 

Urbanicus, 238. 

Urbanus, 224. 

- Vapulans, 236. 

. Verax, 112 n. ; 244. 

- Veridicus (1644), 226, 227, 230, 231. 

- (1648), 237. 

- (1660), 181 ; 262. 

- Zeteticus, 251. 

Mercury Women, derive name from Mercurius Britannicus the publisher, 

26 ; (see Hawkers). 
Merlinus Phanaticus, 262. 

Metropolitan Nuncio, 84 ; origin and author of, 112, 244. 
Middlesex County Records, quoted, 16, 147, 148 and n. 
Mildmay, Sir Henry, accusations against, 89. 
Military Actions of Europe, 232. 

- Scribe, 227. 

Milton, John, 47, 61 ; his Areopagitica, 61, 62, 63, 101, 113, 114, 117 ; an 
"editor," 134, 136; "Tenure of Kings and Magistrates," 186 n.', 
247, 248. 

" Mixt Poem," by John Crouch, 81 ; quoted, 128 n. 

Moderate, the, its origin, 104 ; infamous periodical, 105 ; a Levellers' 
organ, 114 ; to be suppressed, yet still licensed, 115, 151 ; 239. 

Moderate Informer, 172 ; 259. 

- Intelligence, 244. 

- Intelligencer, 48, 49 ; commenced, 65 ; Mabbott attempts to steal title 

of, 104, 105 ; 229, 231, 232, 236, 242. 
(1649), 245 ; (1652), 252 ; (1653), 253, 254 ; (1654), 255. 

- Mercury, 245. 

- Messenger, 231, 233, 253. 

- Occurrences, 253. 

- Publisher of Every Dayes Intelligence, 248, 253, 255 ; (1654), 257. 
Modern Intelligencer, 133 ; 250. 

Moderne Intelligencer, 234, 249. 

Modest Narrative of Intelligence, 243. 

Modest Vindication of Henry Walker, 75. 

Monck, George, Duke of Albemarle, 151 ; his skilfully concealed plans 

and journalist, 173, 174. 
Monethly Intelligencer, 260. 
Montaigne's Essays, 158. 
Monthly Account, 229. 

- Intelligence Relating the Affaires of the People called Quakers, 263. 
Moon, Richard, imprisoned, 151 ; 256. 

Morice, Sir William, Secretary of State, 183, 193, 194, 196. 
Moule, Gregory, 247. 
Moxon, James, 250, 252. 



284 INDEX 

Muddiman, Edward, 174. 

Henry, birth and educated at Cambridge, 174 ; General Monck's 
journalist and editor, 174-76 ; his privilege of free postage, 176, 
181 ; immense number of his newsletters, 176 ; replaces Nedham by 
order of Monck's Council, 177 ; controversy with Williams, 179, 180 ; 
attaches himself to Secretary Nicholas, 183 ; his offices and house, 
184 and n. , 197 n. ; displaced by L'Estrange, 188 ; quarrel with 
Williamson, 189-93 ; his Oxford and London Gazette, 191-93 ; slandered 
by Hickes, 194, 195 ; protected by Sir William Morice, 195, 196 ; 
defeats the Gazette, 196, 197 ; Hickes steals his letters, 197 ; death, 
197 ; 260, 264, 265. 

- Sir William, 176. 
Munk, Provost-Marshal, 111. 

N., F. (Neile, Francis). 

N., T. (Thomas Newcombe ?), 243. 

Narration (see Relation). 

National Scout, 258. 

Nedham, Marchamont, 37 ; his antecedents, 59, 60 ; his " Hue and Cry " 
against the King, 66 ; reviles King and Lords, 67 ; imprisoned, 68 ; re- 
leased on bail, 68 ; description of Presbyterian parson, 79 ; turns 
Royalist, 93, 99 ; captured, escapes and is recaptured, 114 ; writes a 
book for regicides and is pensioned, 134 ; not author of Politicus in 
1651 and 1652, 135, 149 ; writes Poeticus and Observator, 152 ; sole jour- 
nalist, 156 ; his charges for advertisements, 167 ; dismissed by the 
Rump, 172, 173 ; finally discharged by Monck, 177 ; obtains pardon, 
178 ; his periodicals carried on by Oliver Williams, 178, 150 ; 224, 
234, 237, 247, 252, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259. 

Needham (see Nedham, and 37 n.). 

Neile, Francis, 250, 255. 

Nelson, Francis, 143 ; 250. 

"Nemo me impune lacessit," usedjby Nedham, 60; Cleveland's motto, 
84, 86. 

New Christian Uses, 56 ; 225. 

News, Strange News, True News, 239. 
Newbery, Nathaniel, 14, 27 ; 215, 216. 

Newcombe, Thomas, 134, 192; 247, 256, 258, 260, 262, 264, 265. 

Newes, The, author of, 188 ; consecutive with Intelligencer, 188 ; a failure, 

188 ; 264. 

Newes, or the Ful (sic) Particulars Oj the Last Fight, 254. 
News, early terms for printed and written, 7 ; Royal prerogative in, 3. 

letters of, 2 (and see Newsletters). 

News-books or Newsbooks, 3 ; definition of, 7 ; copyright in, 47 ; abo- 
lished, 122-26; contemporary description of, 144; charge for, 183; 
second abolition of, 157 ; third abolition, 181. 

Newsletters, origin of, 1 ; not censored and more valuable than printed 
periodicals, 2 ; privileged to give proceedings of Parliament, 10, 182, 
183 ; privileged newsletters of Restoration, 176, 182-84 ; charge for, 



INDEX 285 

183 n. ; crush the Gazette, 196, 197 ; an example of the year 1670, 211- 

14. 
" Newspaper/' origin of the word, 8 ; early instance, 50 n. ; and see 

Newsbook. 

" News-sheet/' no such term existed, 7 ; written news, 8. 
Newswriters, early, 1, 15. 

Nicholas, Sir Edward, Secretary of State, 182, 183. 
North, Roger, Life of Sir John North, 197. 
" Nose-gay for the House of Commons," etc., 81 n. 
Notice boards, for advertising purposes, 178. 
Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres, origin of, 136, 137 ; its writers, 137 ; 

extent and importance of, 137, 184 ; 247, 249, 251, 253, 254, 257, 258, 

263, 264. 
Novells, The, 24. 

O., R. (Richard Oulton or Olton), 221. 
Observations on Aristotle's Politics, 152 ; 256. 
Observator, The, by Nedham, 152 ; 256. 
Occurrences from Foreign Parts, 173 ; 259, 260. 

- of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages, 226. 
" Office of Addresse," 162. 

- Adresses and Encounters," 166. 
" - - Entries," 162, 163. 

- Intelligence, 170, 71, 178. 

- Inquiry, 184. 

" _ _ Public Advice," 167 ; prospectus of, 167. 

Official journalism, origin of, 10 ; a State Paper advocating, 22, 23 ; under 

Cromwell, 157 ; and see Drogheda, Massacre of. 
Orders of Parliament (see Statutes). 
Ordinances of Parliament (see Statutes). 
" Ordinary," an, price of, 145. 
Oxford Diurnal, 41 ; 223. 

- Gazette, origin of and author, 7, 190-93 ; 264. 
Oxford University, privileges of, and Gazette, 192. 

P., A., 251. 

P., R., clerke (i.e., scrivener), 35 ; 220. 

P., T. (see Paine, Thomas). 

Packet of Letters, 232. 

Packets of Letters, 108; 237. 

Paine, Thomas, 221, 224, 231. 

Pamphlet, what it was in seventeenth century, 7. 

Paper, A, meaning of, 8 and n. 

Papers Sent from the Scotts Quarters, 232. 

Parker, Henry, 44. 

- Martin, opposes Hackluyt and writes Melancholicus, 81, 82 ; imprisoned 

and in the pillory, 95, 97, 113 ; 234. 



286 INDEX 

Parliament, proceedings of staple fare of newspapers, 10 ; Long Parliament 

meets, 30 ; Free Parliament, 175. 
" Joan " (see Alkin, Elizabeth). 
Parliament Kite, or the Tell Tale Bird, 238. 

Porter, 240. 

Scout, 48, 49 ; suppressed, 65 ; 224, 226, 229. 

Scouts Discovery, 224. 

Parliamentary Intelligencer, published under direction of Sir T. Clarges on 

behalf of General Monck, 174, 175, 179; 259, 260. 
Parliaments Post, 230. 

- Scrich-Owle, 239. 

Vulture, 239. 

Parsons, Father Robert (see Persons). 

Particular Advice, 173 ; 259. 

Passenger, Eleanor, mercury woman, 100. 

Pecke, Samuel, patriarch of the press, 37 ; pamphlet on, 38 ; personal 
appearance, 39 ; imprisoned, 42, 45, 47, 51 ; called before Lords, 68 ; 
no longer leads, 71 ; and Mabbott, 107 ; and massacre of Drogheda, 
125, 126 ; attempts to revive his own Diurnal, 138 ; his charge for 
advertisements, 164 ; 219, 220, 221, 222, 224, 226, 230, 232, 233, 246, 
249. 

Pendred, W., 8, 231. 

Pepys, Samuel, mistake about Muddiman, 175 ; praises Gazette, 192. 

Perfect Account (1651), 250, 251, 253, 254, 257. 

and more Particular Relation, 246. 

Declaration, 230. 

Diary of passages of the King's Army, 239. 

- Diurnal (1660), 178 ; 261. 

Diurnall Occurrences, 256. 

- of the Passages in Parliament, author of, 35, 37, 47, 51, 64, 115, 

125, 138, 164 ; 219, 220, 221, 226, 229, 230, 232, 236, 242, 248. 
of some passages . . . of the Armies, authors of, 123 ; 246, 247, 249, 250, 
253, 254, 257. 

Diurnal or the Proceedings in Parliament, 221. 

Occurrences (1654), 255. 

- of both Houses, 231, 233. 

of every Daies Journall, etc., 37 ; author of, 75, 110, 111, 112, 117, 

138, 163, 164 ; revived and suppressed in 1660, 180; 233, 236, 
242. 
- (1660), 262. 

- Particulars of every Daies Intelligence, 250. 

- Passages of each Dayes Proceedings, 229, 231. 

every Dayes Intelligence, 248, 249, 251, 253, 255, 257. 

- Proceedings, written by Walker, 155. 

- of State A/airs, 246. 

Relation or Summarie, 222. 

Summarie, 237. 

Summary, 115 ; 234. 



INDEX 287 

Perfect Summary, 241. 

of exact passages, 242. 

- Weekly Account, 51, 52 ; 224, 233, 236, 242, 248. 
Perrofc, Charles, 8 n., 195 and n. ; 264. 

Persons, Father Robert, 100, 139, 155. 
Peters, Hugh, 77, 99, 127, 126, 149. 
Philalethes, Hieron, 241. 
Phillips, William, translator of French, 27. 
Phoenix of Europe, 8; 231. 
Pike, , an Irishman, 40. 

Plomer, H. R., Dictionary of Printers, 152 ; 218. 
" Poetaster," the, 16. 

Politick Commentary, on the lives of the Caesars, 152 ; 256. 
Politique Informer, 255. 
Post, 253. 

iro\v(f)dpp,aKos nal Au/LuoTTjy, 51. 

Pory, John, his antecedents, 15, 16 ; journalist (?), 23. 
Posts, days of arrival and departure, 1641 and 1649, 9. 
Powell, Ursula, 148 and n. 
" Pratle your Pleasure (under the Rose),'' 81. 
"Prelates Pride," 71. 
Prerogative, Royal, in news, 2, 3, 41. 
Presbyterianism, included all Puritans at first, 31, 65 ; Royalist simile 

as to the parties, 77 ; presbyterian parson described under Cromwell, 

79. 

Pressefull of Pamphlets, quoted, 34, 35. 
Printers, imprisoned by Cromwell, 151, 152. 
Prohibition to all persons who have set up offices, etc., 170. 
" Protestant Informer," book by George Smith, 55. 
Provost-Marshals to the Parliament (see Bethen, Francis ; Bishop, 

Zachary ; and Munk). 
Public Faith, the, 143, 163 ; 252. 
Public Advertisements, 198 ; 265. 

- Adviser, 169-171 ; 257. 

- Intelligence, 192 ; 264. 

- Intelligencer, 156, 167, 172 ; 257, 258, 260. 

- (1660), 178, 181 ; 261. 

" Publique Register for Generall Commerce," 159, 160. 
Publisher, ancient meaning of term, 8. 
Puritans, not the Independents, 31. 
Pyramus and Thisbe, Walker on, 102. 

QUAKERS denounce Walker, 155 n. 

Quester, Mathew de, 22. 

"Quis me impune lacessit," Sheppard's motto, 84, 114. 

R., G., 245. 

Rand, William, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152. 

Ranters, 148. 



288 INDEX 

Ratcliffe, Mercury woman, whipped, 130. 

Record Office, collection of newspapers, 137, 184 ; 248. 

Redmayne, John, 261, 262. 

Relations, of news, 5 ; end in a periodical, 5, 6, 12. 

Remarkable Passages, 225. 
in Parliament, 220. 
or a Perfect Diurnall, 222. 

" Remember," meaning of King Charles's word, 205. 

" Remonstrance and Address of the Army," 1600, 175. 

" Reply as true as Steele," etc. (John Taylor), 72. 

Robinson, Henry, his registry office, 166. 

Royalist Mercuries, crusade of, begun, 79 ; price of, 93 ; unwelcomely 
truthful information, 94, 99, 100 ; writers of, 80 ; neither offices nor 
staflfe, 89; their value, 89; an example in full, 200-10. 

Boyall Diurnall, 95, 99 ; 239. 

- for King Charls the II. , 129 ; 247. 

Royston, Richard, imprisoned, 151 ; 218. 

Rud, , a coiner, 124. 

Rushworth, John, licenser, 58 ; his London Post, 59 ; appointment re- 
voked, 67 ; not Fairfax's secretary, 125 n., 140 n. ; alluded to, 134, 
136, 141, 145, 185 ; 226, 228, 229, 232, 246. 

Ryves, Bruno, D.D., author of Mercurius Rusticus, 45 ; 223. 

S., M. (Simmons, Mathew). 

Sa, Dom Pantaleon, information against, by Parliament Joan, 153. 

Sacra Nemesis, 53. 

" Satiro-Mastix," 16. 

Saumaise, Claude de, Milton's controversy with, further information pos- 
sible, 136. 

Sawtell, Edmond, clerk in letter office, 193. 

" Scandalous " pamphlets, committee appointed, 88 ; to sit daily, 90 ; a 
fresh committee, 90 ; offers rewards for capture of Royalist writers, 
92, 146. 

"Schoole of Complement," quoted, 12. 

Scobell, Henry, his newsbook, 123, 124, 134 ; 246. 

Scot, Thomas, his evil life, 89, 99 ; Secretary of State, 173. 

Scotish Dove, 54, 55, 56 ; " sent out the last time," 56 n. ; 225, 226, 229, 
231. 

Scots Commissioners' Papers, 66, 68. 

Scottish Mercury, 225. 

Scriveners, precede booksellers, 4; " clerk," a synonym for, 33; write 
letters of news, 33 ; Scriveners' Company and Hall, 33 n. ; the first to 
write English domestic periodicals, 34, 35. 

"Seasonable Lecture ... by Henry Walker," etc., 74. 

" Second Character of Mercurius Politicus," 48. 

Sedgwick, Tobias, Strand barber and author, 40. 

Selden, John, chairman of Committee of Examinations, 92. 

'* Serious Observations lately made touching His Majesty," etc., 185. 







INDEX 289 

Severall Proceedings of Parliament (Field, 1653), 254. 

- in Parliament, 122; its authors, 123, 129, 138, 149 ; 246, 247 249 

253. 

- of State A/airs, 246, 251, 255, 257. 

- Speeches delivered at a Conference, etc., 100, 101. 
Sheffard, William, 14 ; 214, 215. 

Sheppard, Samuel, a Lincolnshire man, 83 ; writes Pragmaticus, 83, 84, 
69, 95, 96, 97 ; his final arrest and release, 114, 135, 136 ; quoted, 43, 
52, 95, 112, 135, 138, 184; 235, 235, 236, 237, 239, 243, 250, 251, 252. 

Shorthand, 32, 214. 

Simmons, Mathew, 139 ; 221, 224, 246, 247. 

" Siquis," advertising term, 165 and n. 

Sirrahniho, 106 ; and see Harris, John. 

Smith, George, his books and Scotish Dove, 55 ; 225. 

- John, 220. 

Some Passages that happened . . . when the Declaration was Delivered, 39. 

Special and Considerable Passages, etc., 221. 

- Passages from Hull, Anlaby and Yorke, 221. 

- London, Westminster, etc., 220. 
Special Passages and certain Informations, 222. 

continued, 224. 

- from Divers parts, etc., 221. 
Speech of Major John Harris, 107 n. 

- without doors (Hickeringill), 4. 

Speeches and Prayers of the Regicides (forged), 186 n. 

Speed, Adolphus, 166. 

Spie, The, 41 n. ; by Durant Hotham, 56 ; 227. 

Spies on the Royalists, 92, 93. 

Spring, Thomas, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152. 

Stansby, William, 27. 

Staple ofNewes, quoted, 15, 18, 22, 25. 

Star Chamber, Decrees of, 1586, 2 ; prohibits Butler and Bourne, 27 ; 
Decrees of 1637, 28, 31 ; abolished, 32, 33, 44, 45. 

Stationers, Company of, 4 ; remonstrance of, 44 ; registers quoted, 13, 25, 
134, 136 ; registers useless at Restoration, 182. 

Statutes (Orders, Ordinances, Acts, etc.), 29th January, 1642, 39; 21st 
March, 1642, 39 ; 9th March, 1643, 44 ; 14th June, 1643, 45 ; 20th 
June, 1643, 45 ; Act of City Common Council, 47 ; 28th September, 
1647, 85 ; llth January, 1648, 90 ; Fairfax's warrant, 1649, 109 ; 14th 
May, 1649, 110 ; 6th June, 1649, 111 ; 20th September, 1649, 120 ; 
17th January, 1653, 150 ; 28th August, 1655, 156 ; 25th June, 1660, 
182 ; Licensing Act, 1662, 183. 

Streater, John, printer, imprisoned by Cromwell, 151 ; exempt from the 
Act of 1662, 183. 

Strof or Stroffe, Walter, 125 n. ; and see Frost, Walter. 

" Swarme of Sectaries and Schismatiques," 72 and n. 

Sydserf, Thomas, 263. 

Symball, Henry, gaoler of Peterhouse, 97 ; shot, 98 n. 



290 INDEX 

T., H. (see Tuckey, Humphrey). 

T., I. (Thomas, John), 34 ; 218, 219, 221. 

Tables or Notice Boards, introduction of, 178. 

Taylor, John, Water Poet, 72 ; controversy with Walker, 72-75, 84 ; writes 

Melancholicus, 113 ; 234, 241, 244. 

" Taylor's Physicke has Purged the Divel," etc., by Walker, 72. 
" Tenure of Kings and Magistrates," Milton's, 186 n. 
" Terrible Outcry against the Loytering Exalted Prelats," 71. 
Thomason, George (see Preface), 56, 137 ; 218. * 
Thompson, John, 223. 
"Three Kingdoms Healing Plaister," 55. 
Thurloe, John, Secretary of State, 135, 157, 173 ; 247, 257. 
Titles of periodicals, and catchwords ; early "corantos " without, 6. 
" To your Tents, O Israel," story of, 73. 
Toleration, religious, 31, 32. 
Tomlins, Richard, 151. 

Trapan ; " Trap-Pannians, alias Trap-Pallians, alias Trap-Tonians, " 148 n. 
" Treason " Act of Regicides, 110 and n. 

''Treatise Concerning the Broken Succession to the Crown," etc., 155. 
" Treatise of the Execution of Justice " (Twyn's), 186 and n. 
Treaty Traverst, 240. 
Troynovant must not be burnt, 81 n. 
True and Perfect Diurnall of all the Chief e Passages, etc., 221. 

- Journall of the Warres in England, 227- 

- Dutch Diurnall, 254 (1653-54), 255. 

(t True Character of Mercurius Aulicus," 42 and n. 

True Diurnal Occurrences or the Heads of the Proceedings, 220. 

Diurnall, or a continued relation of Irish Occurrences, 219. 
of the Passages in Parliament, 219, 220. 

- Informer, 51 ; 224, 226, 227, 230, 231. 
(1651), 250. 

- (1654), 255. 

or Monthly Mercury, 241. 

- Intelligence from the Head Quarters, 249. 

Relation of the English and Scots Forces in Ireland, 40. 

True Transcript and Publication of His Majesty's Letters Patent, 157. 
Tuckey, Humphrey, 224, 227. 
Tuesdaies Journall, 119, 245. 

Twyn (or Twine), John, prints book advocating King's assassination, 186 
and n. 

TL, T. (Underwood, Thomas), 221. 
Underbill, Thomas, 228, 231, 233. 

Verney Memoirs, quoted, 127 n. 

Verney, Thomas, 124. 

" Verses," by John Hackluyt, 80 ; by Martin Parker, 82 ; do. " Walker's 

Epitaph," 88 ; on first number of Pragmaticus, 85 ; by Sheppard in 

1652, 141 n. 



INDEX 291 

" Verses on the Wren and the Finch," 71. 
Votes of Both Houses, 181 ; 262. 

W., B., 233. 

W., D. (Thomas Wilson ?), 252. 

W., J. (John Wright), 222, 225. 

W., K (see Wood, Robert). 

Walbank, Mathew, 222, 228. 

Walker, Henry, 68 ; early history, 71 ; controversy with Taylor, 72-75 ; in- 
sults the King, 73 ; Taylor's burlesque sermon by, 74 ; in the pillory, 
and his Modest Vindication, 74, 75 ; writes Perfect Occurrences, 75 ; prints 
papers of Army and petitions for licenser, 76 ; friend of Hugh Peters, 
77 and n. ; his house, 76, 77; attacks Hackluyt and silenced by 
Parker, 87, 88 ; employed by Cromwell to pirate a Jesuit's book, 100, 
101 ; translates Vindicice contra Tyrannos, 101 n. ; his false names, 
102; absurd leading articles, 102; quarrels with Mabbott and ap- 
pointed his own licenser, 107 ; dishonest comment by, 109, 110, 115 ; 
on liberty of Press and gets Scout suppressed, 117 ; denounced by 
Wood, 117-19 ; first benefice, and his text, 119, 120 ; second and 
third benefices, 129, 130, 133, 138 ; preaches before Cromwell, 130 ; 
adds lying dedication to sermon, 140 ; sermon burnt by Cromwell, 
141 ; gets De'mocritus suppressed, 148, 149 ; defends Peters's character 
as well as his own, 149 ; fourth benefice, 154 ; dedicates devotional 
book to Cromwell and his Council, 154 ; again employed by Crom- 
well to publish a book, 155, 156 ; his newsbooks amalgamated with 
Nedham's, 156; originator of advertising, 161; his " Enterance " 
office, 162-64 ; a Hebrew lecturer, 163, 164 ; equivocal compliment 
paid him, 164 ; his charge for advertisements, 164 ; toadies King 
Charles II., 185 ; attacked by Crouch, 185 ; 225, 229, 231, 233, 235, 
237, 239, 241, 242, 245, 246, 248, 249, 250, 253, 262. 

Wallace, Marke, 222. 

Walley, Henry, licenser of the press, 45 ; periodicals by, 51 ; removed, 58 ; 
225, 230, 236. 

Wandering Whore, 146, 147 n. ; 262. 

War, cause of origin of periodicals, of foreign news, 12 ; of domestic, 
30. 

Waring, Thomas, employed to compile a book concerning Irish massacres, 
126 ; his biography, 126 n. 

Wayte, James, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152. 

Weaver, John, his evil life, 89, 147 and n. 

Webb, William, 223. 

Wednesdays Mercury, 224. 

Weekety Post-Master, 229. 

Weekly Abstract, 256. 

- Accompt, 224. 

- Account, 51, 52 ; 224, 226, 229, 231, 232. 
(1659), 259. 

Information from the Office of Intelligence, 170, 171 ; 258. 



292 INDEX 

Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth, 43, 138 ; 249, 251, 253, 254, 
257. 

(1659), 172 ; 259. 

- Neivesfrom Forraigne Parts, 228. 

- Severall Parts, 228. 

Post, 253, 257. 

(1659), 172 ; 258. 

"Weepers on the Bed of Snakes broken," quoted, 43, 52, 111, 135, 138. 
Welch Mercury, 225. 
Westerne Informer, 231. 
Westminster Hall, stalls in, 37, 38. 
Westminster Projects, 238. 
Westrop, , 68. 

Wexford, massacre of (see Drogheda and 127, 128 n.). 
Whaley, Henry, licenser, 115. 
Wharton, Sir George, 84 n. ; origin, 86 ; his Lists, 86-87 ; has the plague, 

88, 92 ; captured and to be hanged, 96 ; escapes, 97 ; recaptured, 97 ; 

again escapes, 97, 106 ; again captured and escapes, 114 ; final capture, 

126 ; release through Lilly, 127 ; burial place, 127 ; Mercury by, set 

out, 200-10, 235, 239, 241, 243, 261. 
Wheler, Charles, master of Office of Inquiry, 184. 
White, Daniel, 262. 

- John, 222. 

Robert, imprisoned, 40, 44, 53 ; again imprisoned, 68 ; 223, 224, 227, 

228, 239, 244. 

Whitelocke's Memorials, misconstruction of, 148 ; mistake in, 177. 
"Whole Life and Progress of Henry Walker," 74. 
Wilde, Serjeant, 54, 89, 90. 
Williams, Bishop, 12, 71. 

- Oliver, assignee of Capt. Innes' patent, 170 ; his offices, 171 ; revived 

his office, 173 ; carries on Nedham's journals, 178 ; attacks Muddi- 
man, 179 ; exposed and suppressed, 179-81 ; searcher in Custom's 
office, 184. 

- Robert, 221. 

Williamson, Sir Joseph, Under-Secretary of State, 189, 190 ; attempts to 
oust L'Estrange and engages Muddiman to write Oxford Gazette, 190- 
92; his letter to L'Estrange, 191; defeat by L'Estrange, 193; at- 
tempts to stop Muddiman's privileges, 193-94 ; engages Perrot, 195 ; 
his newsletter correspondence a failure, 196 ; connives at thefts of 
newsletters, 197. 

Wilson, Thomas, printer and partner of Crouch, 111 n. 

Wither, George, cited, 48, 55, 56 ; 225. 

"Wits Interpreter," 50. 

Wood, Anthony a, his Athence Oxonienses quoted, 41 n., 60, 84 n., 87, 114, 
174 n., 178, 195. 

- Robert, printer, 117-19, 137 ; imprisoned by Cromwell, 152 ; 221, 
222, 229, 242, 243, 245, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254. 

Wood's Life and Times, by A. Clark, 197, n. 



INDEX 293 



Wonder, A, a Mercury without a Lye in's Mouth, 239. 
Worthington, Dr. John, his diary quoted, 181 n. 
Wright, John, 223. 

(junior), 230. 

William, 114. 



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