A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
TO THE FOUNDATION OF THE GAZETTE
J. P \MS
WI TH 'RATIONS
LONGMA REEN, AND CO.
39 I i< ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK. BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA
TO THE FOUNDATION OF THE GAZETTE
J. B. WILLIAMS
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA
WITH very few exceptions all the seventeenth-century
periodicals are to be found in the British Museum
library, which contains collections of them unique in
their completeness. Apart from the general col-
lection at the Museum, the seventeenth -century
periodicals are divided into two great subdivisions,
the Burney Collection and the Thomason Collection.
For the early period up to 1641, and from the Ke-
storation of King Charles II. in the month of May,
1660, to the end of the century, the Burney Collection
must be relied on.
Charles Burney, D.D., prebendary of Lincoln and
chaplain to the King, was born on 4th December,
1757, and died on 28th December, 1817. He was
one of the most distinguished classical critics of his
day, and devoted the later years of his life to the
accumulation of a large and valuable library, which
was purchased at his death by the Houses of Parlia-
ment for 13,500 and deposited in the British Museum.
The collection of newsbooks and newspapers referred
to, which formed part of this, commences with a
"relation" of news dated 1603, and extends far
beyond the period covered in this book.
George Thomason, who died in the year 1666,
was a bookseller who carried on business at the sign
of the Rose and Crown in St. Paul's Churchyard.
On seeing the number of pamphlets which were
pouring from the press at the outbreak of the great
Rebellion, the idea occurred to him that a complete
collection of these would be valuable for future ages.
In the year 1641, therefore, he secured copies of all
that he could obtain which had appeared previously
to that date, and thenceforward collected copies of
every tract, broadside, book or newsbook which ap-
peared, whether licensed or surreptitiously, until the
year 1662. As he obtained each book or pamphlet
he dated it with the day of its appearance, occasion-
ally adding manuscript notes of his own, and even
went so far as to add to his pamphlets handbills
scattered about the streets. The result is a col-
lection which has no equal of its kind in the world,
for it contains a mass of fugitive and ephemeral
literature, much of which would otherwise have per-
ished. A complete catalogue of his collection in
chronological order has been recently (1908) printed,
prefaced with an excellent account of Thomason by
Dr. G. K. Fortescue, Keeper of the Printed Books
at the British Museum, who also relates the story of
the vicissitudes the collection underwent and the
means Thomason adopted for its secret preservation
until the Restoration. It was ultimately bought by
George III. for the absurd sum of 300 and pre-
sented to the British Museum in 1762. It is now
generally recognised that it is in fact priceless,
Thomason died a poor man.
For the periodicals which appeared between 1641
and the Kestoration therefore the Thomason Col-
lection is unrivalled. About half a dozen periodicals
only (and these with the exception of one French
periodical of the most ephemeral nature) seem to
have escaped Thomason's net. A few first numbers
of newsbooks, chiefly Royalist, and therefore secretly
printed and furtively sold, also escaped him, but on
the whole the present writer has come to the con-
clusion, that his collection up to the month of March,
1660, but not later, is fairly complete, and that the
last number of each periodical in his collection is
almost invariably the latest which appeared. A
comparison with the contents of other libraries has
borne out this conclusion ; therefore in the catalogue
of periodicals in the appendix the date of each last
number in the Thomason Collection has been adopted
as marking the date of extinction of the periodical
in question. Of the numerous counterfeits of the
Royalist Mercuries which appeared, notably Prag-
maticus, and Melancholicus, a good many are to be
found in the Burney Collection which are not in
Thomason's. There are, however, very little means
of identifying these, beyond the difference of the
matter which they contain and the style of the
The titles of periodicals which appeared between
November, 1641 and October, 1655 number about
320, and at first sight it would seem to be a hopeless
task to attempt to ascertain the names of their
writers, more especially as in all but a few cases they
seem to have valued their anonymity ; but on closer
analysis it will be seen, that of this list, 81 appeared
only once, 49 lasted for a period of over six months,
and only 33 for over a year. The remainder 190
did not extend beyond a few numbers in each case,
and the vast majority were either suppressed or failed
to find popular support. Changes in the titles account
for a yet further reduction, and thus the writers
of periodicals of real importance are reduced to a
comparatively small band. The task of ascertaining
who these writers were, and of collecting all available
information about them, has been both lengthy and
arduous, owing to the number of periodicals to be
examined ; and, if the present writer has not invari-
ably succeeded as thoroughly as he could have wished,
he trusts that he has presented a sufficiently accurate
account to enable his readers to judge the old news-
book authors and their periodicals at their true worth.
Their value as historical evidence depends very much
on the characters of their writers. Much of the harsh
criticism directed against them by contemporaries
was due to defective intelligence, the corrupt system
of licensing, or the even more shameful official press.
The liberty of the press was closely connected with
liberty in religious matters, and it is noteworthy that
in both, toleration appeared simultaneously. Free-
dom from the tutelage of an official licenser was not
obtained until the year 1695, and before the attain-
ment of that freedom this book ends.
The editors of the Nineteenth Century and After
and of the English Historical Review have kindly
given permission to incorporate in this book the sub-
stance of articles recently printed in those reviews.
INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS .... i
THE CORANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 ... H
THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14th JUNE, 1643 30
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31si DECEMBER, 1646 47
THE HISTORY OP ADVERTISING TO 1659 . . . . . . 158
1659 TO 1666 . .... . . . . . .172
APPENDIX A . . . ... . . '. . . . .200
APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . .211
APPENDIX C . . . ? * 215
APPENDIX D . . . . . .... . .218
LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS.
PORTRAIT OF KING CHARLES II. (Photogravure) . . . Frontispiece
From the print in the Thomason Collection.
" A PERFECT DIUBNALL "Title page .... To face page 35
"MEBCURIUS ClVICUS" ,,44
" THE SCOTISH DOVE " ,,55
"THE LONDON POST" ..... ,,70
" A TUESDAIES JOURNALL " 119
THE desire to know the events of the day, to be told what
distant friends are doing, and to hear of occurrences in far-
off countries is an instinct implanted in human nature.
Keener when those near and dear to us are concerned, it is
ever at its height when the tragedy of human life is involved,
and, as the climax of that tragedy has always been attained
in the time of war, so shall we find in war first abroad, and
then at home the origin of English newspapers.
No great exercise of the imagination is needed, to explain
how letters from friends and relatives, in days before printing
had been invented, would be supplemented by detailed ac-
counts of the events of the day, sent first of all by the retainer
of the great noble or influential statesman or churchman,
and lastly, as facilities of communication increased and roads
and posts were improved, by the professional writer of news.
England is rich in its stores of historical manuscripts, and
old letters abound to tell us their story. When printed
periodicals of news became firmly established among us in
the seventeenth century, it might well be supposed that the
profession of a writer of letters of news would come to an
end as no longer necessary ; therefore it is advisable to point
out at once that such was far from being the case. The
profession of writer of letters of intelligence existed concur-
rently with that of the " author " of a newsbook or newspaper
until the end of the century in the period from 1641 to 1655
as necessarily supplementing it, and in the latter half of the
century as absolutely supplanting and overwhelming it.
The "letters of news" or "of intelligence," as they were
2 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
uniformly called until the word "newsletter" was coined as
a complement to the word "newspaper," are more valuable
sources of history than the printed periodicals. The reason
of this is to be found in the fact, that throughout the century
there existed a stringent system of licensing that is, of com-
pelling everything that was printed to be first of all read and
approved by an official or officials deputed for the purpose,
before the writer was allowed to commit it to the press.
From this letters were exempt; hence their value.
If the law as regards the licensing of ordinary books was
strictly enforced, far more so was this the case with printed
news. The first great legislative enactment affecting printed
periodicals which it is necessary to notice is the Star Chamber
Decree of 23rd June, 1586, codifying all previous enactments.
Koughly summed up, this decree
1. Eestricted printing to London and the two universities.
2. Restricted the number of printers, and
3. Ordered all books to be perused, before being printed,
by the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Bishop of London
(the Lord Chief Justice, etc., for law books) a duty which
was performed by deputies.
The penalties for infringing these regulations were six
months' imprisonment for the printer and three months' for
The publication of printed news was liable to other re-
strictions than those affecting the printing of ordinary books.
To publish news was an interference with the affairs of State
and a matter of royal prerogative, so that, apart from the
licensing regulations to be complied with, royal permission
had directly or indirectly to be obtained before any news
could be published. In the thirty-sixth year of the reign of
King Henry VIII. a proclamation was issued prohibiting
" certain books printed of newes of the prosperous successes
of the King's Ma'ties arms in Scotland" which were to be
brought in and burned "within 24 houres after proclama-
tion made on pain of ymprisonment ".
INTRODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 3
In order to obtain the clearest evidence of this royal right
we must descend to the year 1680, after the newsbooks and
newspapers had come into being, when it is found in the unani-
mous opinion of the judges given to His Majesty King Charles
II. The licensing act had expired at that date, and there
were no regulations whatever affecting the licensing of books.
It was desired to stop the publication of newspapers com-
peting with the London Gazette, and the judges, when asked
to state what the sovereign's rights really were, stated " That
his Majesty may by law prohibit the printing and publishing
of all newsbooks and pamphlets of news whatsoever not
licensed by his Majesty's authority as manifestly tending to
the breach of the peace and disturbance of the kingdom ".
Whereupon a proclamation was ordered to be made prohibit-
ing all newsbooks for which the King's permission had not
been obtained. 1
The law of the matter here stated was thoroughly under-
stood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and prior to
the outbreak of the Great Rebellion the only permission to
print news ever granted was one to publish foreign news,
and that only towards the end of the reign of King James. 2
Although printed periodicals appeared at an early date on
the Continent, England was entirely without any printed
periodical of domestic news until the end of the year 1641 ;
the royal prerogative barred the way, and England was
behind the rest of the world. The first periodicals, therefore,
that have to be described in the history of English journalism
are merely translations and adaptations of foreign periodicals.
When the periodicals of domestic news really came into
being, they came with a rush a veritable deluge and, as if
to make up for the tardiness of their arrival, no other country
1 The London Gazette, No. 1509, 3rd-6th May, 1680. The proclama-
tion is set out in No. 1513, 17th-20th May, 1680.
2 The absurd legend of a newspaper entitled the English Mercurie, in
Queen Elizabeth's days, needs no notice. The forgery is to be found
among the manuscripts at the British Museum. The Commonwealth
Mercury of 1658 is an even clumsier fabrication.
4 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
in the world has anything at all comparable either in
number, matter or manner to the newsbooks which appeared
during the years 1643 to 1649 inclusive, a list of which is to
be found in an Appendix to this book.
We must commence, therefore, by ascertaining the origin
of the printed periodical of foreign news. This is to be found
in the stationers the publishers of their day to whose trade
printing had given birth.
A writer of the year 1689 says : " Printing though reckoned
among the new inventions is now become an old trade in
London, and has begot one or two more trades, the book-
seller and the stationer, which are all incorporated into a
body politick called the Company of Stationers no despicable
nor mean Company (or Hall) in this splendid city. One
stationer was enough for a city before printing came up, and
of booksellers there were none but scriveners." J
The scrivener also played a great part in the production
of the English periodical, but almost involuntarily as it were
and at a later date, and it is with the stationer that we have
first to deal, for the humble beginning of our printed news-
papers was the broadsheet " ballad " the song of some event
that had taken place, whether a battle, or the death or mis-
fortune of some great man, or even the hanging of a mur-
derer at Tyburn. The ballad singer, who was to be met
with everywhere in Stuart times, lingered long, and was
occasionally still to be encountered even in the nineteenth
century. Abraham Holland, in his Continued Inquisition of
Paper Persecutors (1626), sings of
the one legg'd varlet who doth sing
His roaring nonsense to a trivial ring
Of Prentices about some arrant sent
Or Boies, who then leave Jack-a-Lent 2
To heare the noise, or women who stand there
And at O-hone ring forth a readie teare,
1 " A Speech without Doors," by Edmund Hickeringill, Section V.,
Restraint of the Press.
2 Aunt Sally a descendant of the ancient but cruel sport of throw-
INTRODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 5
with direct allusion to the ballads of news of his day. Ac-
companying the ballad came the printed pamphlet, some-
times called a " discourse/' sometimes a " narration," and
finally settling down into the uniform term a " relation " of
some event or battle that had taken place. Of these Holland
again writes :
To runne through all the pamphlets and the Toys
Which I have seen in hands of Victoring boys
To rail at all the merrie wherrie books
Which I have found in kitchen cobweb nooks
To reckon up the verie titles which
Doe please the prentices, new maids, and rich
Wealth witti'd Loobies would require a masse
And volume bigger then would load an asse
Nor is't their fault alone they wisely poise
How the blind world doth only like such Toyes
A general folly reigneth and harsh Fate
Hath made the world itself insatiate
It hugges these monsters and deformed things
Better then what Johnson or Drayton sings
As in North villages where every line
Of Plumpton Parke is held a work divine.
If o'er the chimney they some ballads have
Of Chevy Chase or of some branded slave
Hang'd at Tyborne, they their Matins make it
And Vespers too, and for the Bible take it.
The " relations " of news are extremely numerous, as also the
references to them in contemporary literature, and numbers of
them are to be found entered in the Stationers' Eegisters. 1
When these "relations" became periodical, and when,
ing at cocks. Cf. Mercurius Fumigosus, 21st-28th February, 1655, p.
There is mirth and merriment
To fling at thin chapt' Jack-a-Lent
With leaden sticks for pins and casters
Regain their losses, and disasters
With trebble sticks and left hand blows
To venture all at twopence for three throws
And then at last an empty coxcombe flings
But neither touches the cock's taile or wings
Curses the sticks and when his coin is dry
The cockney fool sans cock away doth fly.
1 Arber's reprint of the Eegisters covers the whole period up to 1640.
6 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
instead of being confined to a single event, they carried on
continuously and at regular intervals the story of foreign
news, the first English " newsbook " came into existence.
Before describing how this came about, it is necessary to
explain the terminology of the time. We are accustomed to
employ what may most conveniently be termed a "catch-
word " to describe a modern newspaper^. l The Times, for
instance, has no other and no fuller title, and all the numbers
are connected together by this common catchword. This
device was a growth, and the earliest English periodicals
had no catchword at all. They happened to be the news of
the week because they were published weekly, and that fact
is frequently stated ; but their full titles were descriptive of
their contents and very often were wordy in the extreme
(the examples given in the Appendix show this very clearly).
All the earlier periodicals were books (i.e., pamphlets), and
were titled separately after the fashion of the books of the
day. The catchword was gradually evolved from the com-
mencing phrase of the full title, but not before the days of
the Great Kebellion, and it was not until the [Restoration
of King Charles II. that lengthy additions were aban-
doned and the catchword alone employed. The descriptive
name of the early printed periodicals of foreign news was
" coranto," vulgarly a " currant" of news, or a running
"relation". This word Italian in its origin is now of
course supplanted by the French version of it, " courant,"
which came into use at a far later date ; and until the year
1640 no other expression was used and no catchword employed.
An earlier term, also occasionally employed (as a survival)
to describe these periodicals, was " gazet," also Italian in
origin, and of course referring to the well-known Venetian
" gazetti " or written newspapers, circulated from about the
1 " Catchword " really means the word placed at the bottom of a page
in the right-hand corner of old books in order to connect one page with
another. It therefore may be justifiably used to describe the modern
newspaper titles used to connect one number with the rest.
INTKODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 7
middle of the sixteenth century. This term points unmis-
takably to the fact, that the Italians were the pioneers of
modern newspapers, otherwise the terms would not be found
in use in so far-off a country as Northern England.
Three alternative meanings have been assigned to the
word "gazzetta ". It has been held to refer to the ancient
Venetian coin of that name, about three farthings in value,
as either the price paid for the periodical or the fee for hear-
ing it read. Both conjectures are extremely improbable, and
the fee in each case is inadequate. The second meaning
assigned to it was a "magpie," which is clearly absurd as
the ancient periodicals are the reverse of chatterers. The
third is derived from the Greek word ydfc, a treasury. The
History of the Athenian Society, published in 1693, referring to
a periodical then published called the Athenian Gazette or
Casuistical Mercury, says: "Gaza signified a treasury and
therefore we reserve it for the general title of our volumes,
designing to entitle them the Athenian Gazette " ; and this early
explanation is the true one. The "gazetti" were written
treasuries of news collected from all quarters ; the " coranti,"
on the other hand, were printed running "relations," and
the term was introduced to differentiate the printed news
from the written news.
All English periodicals of news previous to the Oxford
Gazette (16th Nov., 1665) were pamphlets. The etymology
of the word pamphlet has not yet received a satisfactory
elucidation. However, a pamphlet in the seventeenth cen-
tury was a book of one or more sheets of paper folded into
quarto pages and if stitched together unbound. Hence
these pamphlets of news were invariably called "books,"
" books of news " and finally " news-books ". No such term as
" news-sheet " was ever employed with regard to the news-
books ; and though " sheet " is a term often employed, it
refers only to the fact, that in the early days of the Long
Parliament the pamphlets of news were restricted to one
sheet (i.e., eight pages). Later on two sheets (sixteen pages)
8 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
became the rule, and the early " corantos " usually consisted
of three sheets. The term " news-sheet," or newspaper, up
to the date of the Oxford Gazette, would have been taken to
refer to a letter of news. The proper term, therefore, for the
periodicals which appeared after the " corantos " is "news-
book " or " newsbook," though the names " coranto,"
" intelligence," "diurnal" (for journal)- and "pamphlet"
were also employed.
The Oxford Gazette and its continuation, the still existing
London Gazette, was, as Anthony a Wood states, " half a sheet
in folio " two pages and neither a pamphlet nor a sheet.
It could not, therefore, be called a " book " or " newsbook,"
and was at once dubbed a "paper" like the "letters of
news " or "of intelligence ". From this came into being,
by analogy with the old expression newsbook, the terms
' newes paper " and newspaper, that of "newsletter" being
afterwards applied to the written news, for which no other
expression than " letter of news " or " of intelligence," " sheet
of news" and "paper" can be found prior to the introduc-
tion of the word "newspaper". The Oxford Gazette, there-
fore, was the first English " newspaper ". 1
The word " publisher " was a term applied to the writer
and not to the vendor of the periodical. 2 "Editor" also is
quite a modern word, and the seventeenth century term for
the writer of a newsbook was "author," once more bringing
1 Examples : Thos. Swan to Henry Muddiman, privileged journalist
of the Restoration, who at the date given had been supplanted by
L' Estrange, and was then privileged writer of the letters of news only,
12th October, 1663 : " I received your l&st paper and give you many thanks
and I hope it will continue and that I shall have a renewal of your cor-
respondence " (S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 81, No. 64). " By this post I
send a letter franck with a gazett and a sheet of written news " (H.
Muddiman to a correspondent (S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 152, No. 38)). The
earliest known use of the term newspaper is contained in a letter to
Charles Perrot, second editor of the Gazette : ( ' I wanted your newes paper
Monday last past " (S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 278, No. 148, 10th September,
2 E.g., The Phcenix of Europe, No. 1, 16th January, 1646. Published
(i.e., written) by W. Pendred.
INTRODUCTION. DEFINITIONS 9
into relief the fact that it was a book. The copyright of a
newsbook also was the author's and not the stationer's or
bookseller's. The case of Dillingham and Mabbott in 1648
(detailed later on) is an illustration of this.
The subject of advertising and the terminology employed
with regard to it will be dealt with separately (Chapter IX.).
An important factor in the development of the " news-
books " was the establishment of regular postal services be-
tween London and the country, and the Continent and
London. In the year 1641 there was only one post a week.
Every Tuesday letters were sent into the country from
London. For a few years the war prevented any further
development. It is not quite certain on what day the letters
from the country and the Continent arrived, but it is prob-
able that they usually arrived on Wednesdays as the " news-
books" which made a speciality of foreign news were pub-
lished on Thursdays. Continental news seems to have
arrived chiefly through Harwich. At the end of the year
1647 or in 1648 a second post to the country was established,
for the first number of A Modest Narrative (7th April, 1649)
states, as the excuse for its appearance, that it was "by
Authority provided that Saturday as well as Tuesday shall
be a day for spreading letters by the post," adding that it
was designed "for the country" and promising not to inter-
fere with foreign news as that was published on Thursdays.
Some time previously to this date, however, the " news-
books" published on Fridays had assumed equal importance
with those published on Mondays, therefore the date of the
first number of the Modest Narrative must not be taken as
marking the date of the introduction of the second post.
From this time the postal arrangements continued to improve,
and after the Restoration they received an immense amount
of development, the modern postal system dating entirely
from the reforms carried into effect under Charles II. \
Until the institution of official journals, therefore, the
"newsbook" authors who wished to obtain " special corre-
10 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
spondents" with the army or elsewhere were bound to curry
favour with those in authority, in order to obtain the
privilege of seeing their letters of news, or to gain permission
to send their own letters with the Government expresses.
An additional motive for subservience to those in power was
thus supplied, and the newsbook author was only too glad
to send letters of news (uncensored) with his newsbooks in
return for any intelligence sent in this way.
Official journalism, that is periodicals published under the
supervision of the Secretaries of State, owes its origin to
Cromwell, and was accompanied by the total suppression of
all licensed periodicals.
It was this official journalism which gave such an im-
mense impetus to the circulation of the letters of intelligence,
for they could be relied on to tell what the official journals
carefully suppressed. Finally the liberty to report the pro-
ceedings of Parliament, which have always been the every-
day fare of English newsbooks and newspapers, formed the
staple of the newsbooks and the backbone of their prosperity.
When this liberty was withdrawn, as an infringement of the
privileges of Parliament, at the Eestoration, or when Parlia-
ment itself ceased to exist, as in the days when Cromwell
usurped all power, public interest in the newsbooks flagged
and they fell into disrepute.
THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641.
WHICH country in Europe is entitled to the honour of having
produced the first printed periodical of news has been a
matter of considerable dispute. There are Dutch and Belgian
claimants as well as French and German, and a discussion of
the subject lies outside the range of this book. There is,
however, no doubt as to which was the first foreign printed
periodical circulating in England and that long before any
printed English periodical of foreign news appeared. This
was Mercurius Gallobelgicus, a bound book printed at Cologne
and written in Latin, with the obvious object of circulating
throughout Europe, and detailing the story of the German
wars. The first number was a thick little octavo of 625
pages, with an index, published in March, 1594, and con-
taining a chronicle of events from 1588.
From this "newsbook" came the Latin title Mercurius
used on so many English periodicals in the first half of the
century. As Mercury was the messenger of the gods, so the
writers considered themselves to be the messengers of the
ruling powers narrating high matters of State ; and a peri-
odical styling itself Mercurius was invariably alluded to as
"he," and the full catchword was taken as a pseudonym.
The full title of the book was: Mercurius Gallo Belgicus
sive Eerum in Gallia et Belgio potissimum Hispania quoque Italia
Germania Polonia Vicinisque locis ab anno 1588 usque ad Martium
anni prasentis 1594 gestarum nuntius. It contained a preface
signed by its writer or " author/' M. Jansen, who describes
himself as a Frisian (German authorities state that the
12 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
writers of it varied), and was dedicated to two priests,
brothers John Detten, vicar and "coactor" of the cathed-
ral and monastery, and Henry Detten, canon of the old
church of St. Paul at Cologne.
It subsequently appeared in half-yearly volumes of 50 or
100 pages, up to the year 1635, was occasionally illustrated,
and enjoyed a great vogue. In 1614 Eobert Booth published
a translation and abridgment of a number which he called
" a discourse full of delight ". This evidently attracted the
attention of the Stationers to it as a mine for "relations".
On 18th October, 1623, Lord Keeper Lincoln wrote to Secretary
Calvert that he found a passage about the thirty-fifth page
thereof " so full of falsities and indignities towards his
majestie " that, although he knew in what "despicable
esteem" the "author" had been for many years together,
he had stayed the further publishing of it by express warrant.
This proves that it had an extensive circulation in England.
In 1613 James I.'s daughter, the Princess Elizabeth, had
married Frederic Prince Palatine of the Ehine, and the
nation had thus become keenly interested in the struggles in
Germany and Bohemia. Protestant England sympathised
with Protestant Germany. Amsterdam was at this time, as
Howell tells us, "the great staple of news," and penniless
English soldiers from the Low Countries were in great
request to make translations from " High Dutch " or " Low
Dutch" and write "relations" for the booksellers. Shirley,
in The Schoole of Complement, opens the play by giving a de-
scription of one of these " captains without book," who would
" write you a battle in any part of Europe at an hour's
warning," and says, "not a soldier shall lose a hair or have a
bullet fly between his arms but shall have a page to wait
upon him in quarto, nothing destroys 'em but want of a
good memory for if they escape contradiction they may be
The "relations" soon developed into a periodical. On
4th August, 1621, John Chamberlain informed his patron
THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 13
Dudley Carleton, Ambassador at the, Hague, that a proclama-
tion had been issued against discussing matters of State, but
it was disregarded, and " corantos published every week"
with all manner of news. No periodical, however, can be
traced, and Chamberlain's expression probably only has
reference to the fact that the " relations " were appearing so
frequently as to assume the character of a periodical.
A few months later, however, the following entry occurs in
the Stationers' Eegisters (18th May, 1622) : A Currant of
generall newes. Dated the lth of May last, and with this
entry commences the history of British journalism. No
copy of this pamphlet is in existence, but the next number
(dated the 23rd of May, and presumably entered in the
Stationers' books by mistake as dated the 21st), the second
of a series published every week by the same booksellers
Thomas Archer and Nicholas Bourne is to be found in the
Burney Collection. It was translated from the Dutch, and
calls itself : The 23 of May. Weekely Newes from Italy, Germanic,
Hungaria, Bohemia, the Palatinate, France, and the Low Countries,
etc. Of the succeeding numbers each bore a title, different
in nearly every case, giving a similar synopsis of its con-
tents. The dates were the very conspicuous commencement
of the titles.
The credit of publishing the first English periodical
therefore is due to Thomas Archer and Nicholas Bourne
alone, no one else before this period, or until the end of the
first week of the following September, being associated with
either of them. The name of the licenser was Cottington.
Thomas Archer lived in Pope's Head Palace over against
the Horse Shoe, at the corner of Pope's Head Alley and
Cornhill, and Nicholas Bourne at the Exchange. Thomas
Archer had commenced his career as a newsmonger, taking
priority of all his contemporaries, so far back as 19th March,
1603, when he entered in the Stationers' books A copie of
a letter touching a relacion of newes sent from Amsterdam the 21
of February 1603 concerning the fight of five Duche ships in the
14 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Easte Indies against the Portingall flete consistinge of 8 great
gallions and 22 gallies whereof was Admiral Don Andrew Tartailo
Mendoza. The title is illustrative of many others that fol-
In order to curtail an account which would otherwise
become tedious, it may be briefly stated that the weekly news
now issued bore a title descriptive of tne contents of each
number, which varied from week to week ; that other
stationers Nathaniel Butter, Newbery, Downes and Sheff-
ard associated their names in turn with Archer and Bourne ;
and that the "corantos" were numbered from the second
week of October, 1622. It seems perfectly clear that even at
this early date there was a system of advertising these peri-
odicals by contents bills displayed on the walls and posts.
Holland writes :
. . . But to behold the walls
Butter'd with weekly Newes composed in Pauls
By some decaied Captaine, or those Rooks
Whose hungry brains compile prodigious books
Of Bethlem Gabor's preparations and
How terms betwixt him and th' Emperor stand.
And adds :
To see such Batter everie week besmeare
Each publike post and church door and to heare
These shameful lies would make a man in spight
Of nature, turn satirist and write
Revenging lines against these shamelesse men
Who, thus torment both paper, presse, and pen
Th' imposters that these trumperies do utter
Are A.B.C.D.E.F.G. and (. . .)
A' nameless periodical of weekly news was thus in exist-
ence, with varying publishers' names attached, though all
those mentioned in it had a financial interest from time to
time. Only occasionally does there appear to have been any
competition between the various booksellers who published
" corantos," and once Butter is to be found remonstrating
with a competitor with whom he afterwards joined forces.
Sometimes the address of one bookseller will be found on a
THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 15
periodical when the names of other booksellers appear as
publishers, and occasionally the periodicals betray their
origin, as in the case of the "coranto" dated 29th August,
1623, which though numbered 46 is also marked "Ital.
Gazet. Nu. prio."
Nathaniel Butter, of the Pyde Bull, St. Austin's Gate,
St. Paul's Churchyard, was, however, the chief publisher,
and eventually, in 1624, he and Bourne were left as sole
publishers to compete with Thomas Archer, who became in
1625 the publisher of a periodical which carried the first run-
ning title, Mercurius Britannicus. These early news pamphlets
consisted usually of three sheets in twenty-four pages, and,
judging from the remark of the old woman who comes to buy
news in Jonson's " Staple of Newes," they would appear to
have been sold at a groat or fourpence each, a much higher rate
than the later newsbooks, which even when consisting of two
sheets were sold at a penny. Butter was only their pub-
lisher ; there is no evidence that he ever was a " news writer ".
In order to decide who wrote these "corantos" it is
necessary to consider, firstly, the known London newswriters
of the day, and, secondly, the works of Ben Jonson, who
continually recurs to the subject and has left a whole play
ridiculing a supposititious market or " staple " of news.
The leading London newswriters of the times were John
Chamberlain, John Pory and Thomas Locke, and it cannot
be supposed that they were the writers of the periodicals.
They did not write ''letters of news " to be posted all over
the country after the manner of clerks or scriveners, but
were attached to some great man as their patron.
Chamberlain has been called the Horace Walpole of his
times. He was born in 1554, educated at Trinity College,
Cambridge, had accompanied his patron, Dudley Carleton,
on his first embassy to Venice, and was a cultured and
observant man. His letters of news extend from 1598 until
just before his death in 1627.
Pory was born about 1570, was educated at Gonville and
16 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Cains College, and was possessed of eqnal attainments. He
had been a member of Parliament, had written a book on
Africa, and down to 1624 spent the bulk of his time in
travelling over Europe, towards the end residing at Constan-
tinople. His letters of news commence with his return to
end his days in England in 1624, and extend to the date of
Of Thomas Locke little is known, beyond the fact that
he managed Dudley Carleton's affairs during his absence
on his embassies, apparently being his steward, and that his
letters of news, written only to Carleton, reveal that he was
both intelligent and well educated. Thomas Locke is there-
fore the only one of the three who may have actually written
a "coranto ".
When Ben Jonson was young he joined the army in the
Low Countries for a short time. There he had that single
combat described by him to Drummond of Hawthornden.
As he himself is the only witness to this, the story is prob-
ably but the pot-valiant tale of a "tavern king". When
Jonson' s quarrel with the rival dramatist, Dekker, culmin-
ated in 1601 with the production of the " Poetaster," Dekker
revenged himself, in the following year, with " Satiro-Mastix ".
In this Jonson a "man of the sword" is represented as a
rank coward. There are grounds for stating that he did not
always tell the truth about his exploits, and Dekker 's accusa-
tion may be true. He had killed a player on his return from
Holland, in a duel he says, and though the latter' s sword
was ten inches longer a most improbable detail. Modern
research has established the fact, that he pleaded guilty to a
charge of felony for this, which militates seriously against
his story of a duel, escaped with his life by claiming the
" benefit of clergy," and was branded on the thumb with the
Tyburn " T". 1 He spent a short period of time in prison,
during which he showed his repentance by being converted
1 Middlesex County Records, vol. ii., by J. C. Jeaffreson.
THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 17
Catholicism, and he subsequently professed to have been
mstant for twelve years to the faith he then embraced.
It may be that Dekker received the idea of Jonson's
cowardice from a soldier from the Low Countries, who knew
the truth about Jonson's conduct there, and who had dis-
credited his story of the single combat. If so, Jonson's
savage " epigram " To Captain Hungry, a newswriter, with its
suggestion that the " Captain " was a spy, is explained.
Do what you come for, captain, with your news
That's sit and eat, do not my ears abuse . . .
Tell the gross Dutch those grosser tales of yours
Tell them . . .
What states you've gulled, and which yet keeps you in pay
Give them your services, and embassies
In Ireland, Holland, Sweden, pompous lies
In Hungary and Poland, Turkey too
Give your young statesmen . . .
Your Villeroys and Silleries, etc.
His next " epigram " is addressed To True Soldiers, and he
finds it necessary to write of the " great profession," and say
he " did not shame it by my actions any more than by my
pen," and he desires them not to be " angry for the Captain ".
The meaning of the reference to Turkey, and the date of
the "epigram" itself, are settled by the fact, that in 1613
Archer published a "relation" entitled: A true declaration of
the arrival of Cornelius Haga (with others that accompanied him)
Ambassador for the general States of the United Netherlands, at
the great city of Constantinople. Together with the entertainment
unto them given by the Turk, etc. 1 John Pory first went to
Turkey in 1613, and may have sent the account from which
this was taken.
The next reference to the " Captain " is in An Execration
upon Vulcan in 1623, after the weekly " corantos " had com-
menced. Jonson's library had been burned, and instead of
his beloved books, he writes that he would rather have seen
devoted to the flames
1 Reprinted in the Harleian Miscellanies.
18 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Captain Pamphlets horse and foot that sally
Upon the Exchange, out of Pope's Head Alley
The weekly Corrants with Paul's seal and all.
Here again the "Captain" is mentioned now in connec-
tion with Archer for Archer lived in Pope's Head Alley.
Printers of news had already been glanced at in the masque,
Newes from the World in the Moon, as being ready to " give
anything for a good copy now, be it true or false, so it be
newes ". More references to the " Captain " mark the period
of his death. In the Staple of Newes, when the old woman
comes to buy some news in the office of the staple, she is told :
" Do, good woman, have patience, it is not as when the
'Captain' lived". And in Fletcher's Fair Maid of the Inn,
in the writing of which play there is some reason to think
Jonson may have had a hand, occurs the passage :
FOE. : It shall be the ghost of some lying stationer, a spirit shall
look as if butter would not melt in his mouth, a new Mercurius Gallo-
Cox : O, there was a captain was rare at it, etc.
The " Captain " therefore was an actual person and not a
type, and an old soldier against whom Jonson had a grudge.
And this " Captain" was dead by 1625, when the Staple of
Newes and Fair Maid of the Inn were written. One of John
Chamberlain's letters now gives the key to his identification.
He wrote to Carleton on 4th September, 1624, and, in men-
tioning the deaths from plague during the previous week,
states that there was among them " Captain Gainsford our
newsmonger or maker of gazets ". 1
Excluding Thomas Gainsford the author, who was not a
soldier at all, the only Captain Gainsford who was likely to
have been the gazet-maker was Captain Francis Gainsford.
In 1598 Francis Gainsford wrote to the Earl of Essex : " I
make myself known to you as one that have continually
spent my time in service of Her Majesty in the Low
1 S. P. Dom., Jas. L, 172, No. 6. Both the Calendar and Birch's
Court and Times of James I. misspell the name as "Gainford". It is
very clearly Gainsford in the original
THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 19
Countries these ten or twelve years, as lately in following
your lordship in both your late voyages, being in your first
voyage corporal to your troop of horse at Calles, and the
last voyage I commanded a company of foot under Captain
Williams, being appointed by you as his lieutenant. For my
sufficiency I refer myself to the report of Sir Francis Vere,
Sir Nicholas Parker and Sir Oliver Lambert who have seen
the trial of my service as well on horseback as on foot.
Withal I entreat that I may have a company into Ireland." 1
The Irish State Papers then give an account of the rest
of his career. There are three accounts of how Captain
Francis Gainsford was shot and " sore wounded " at the camp
at Faher, on 5th October, 1605, and he is described as " a
very worthy officer of the field," by Lord Clanricarde. He
recovered from his wound, and on 9th March, 1606, is
described as " Francis Gainsford, recipient of a pension of
3.9d per diem in respect of a maim received in Her late
Majestiy's wars". And it is clearly he who is referred to in
the list of "knights, servitors and pensioners," applying for
land in the Ulster plantations in 1609. This he did not
obtain, for there is no cross affixed to his name in the list.
This brave old soldier, who had worked his way up from
the ranks, and had been "sore wounded," and whose prowess
is certified by every one under whom he had served
including the famous Sir Francis Vere, almost, if not quite,
the most celebrated general of the age, is therefore almost
certainly the man whom Jonson attacks as " Captain
Hungry," writing news for his bread. The "captain" was
often ridiculed, but he seems at any rate to have had a most
creditable past. To Francis Gainsford, soldier of Queen
Elizabeth, as writer, and to Thomas Archer, as publisher (for
it is evident that Bourne played a minor part), with their
"corantos " or "currants," may be attributed, therefore, the
first news periodicals, but the ultimate development of their
1 Calendar of the MSS. of the Marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield, vol.
8, p. 556.
20 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
modest little pamphlets into the modern English newspapers
would have been the wildest of chimeras to them.
Jonson's attack may be explained as having a secondary
cause quite apart from his quarrel with Dekker. Francis
Gainsford was not one of the Surrey Gainsfords, nor was he
of the Essex branch of the family. 9 In 1601 John Gray
received a grant of the benefits of the "recusancy" of
Margaret and John Gainsford of Idbury, Oxford, and in 1612
Sir Eichard Wigmore for the same reason received a grant
of two parts of the land of John Gainsford and Margaret
Gainsford, widow, both then described as of St. Dunstans,
London. If, as seems probable from his settling in London
and writing the "corantos," Francis Gainsford was a relation
of theirs, and had been driven to the wars for a living, the
reason why no land in Ulster was given to him is possibly
explained. According to his own account, Ben Jonson must
have become a Protestant about 1612, which would quite
explain a possible exposure of his stories of the war in the Low
Countries by Francis Gainsford, and the resulting " epigram "
addressed to " Captain Hungry ".
If Gainsford found a patron and helper in his work in
John Chamberlain, it would confirm all that is known of the
character of the latter. And it is equally in accordance with
what has already been said of Jonson, that he actually
should 1 have attacked Chamberlain. In his masque, Newes
from the New World, produced in 1620, he had described a
" factor " of news who wrote u a thousand letters a week
ordinary, sometimes twelve hundred," and who goes on to
say, " I have friends of all ranks, and all religions, for which I
keep an answering catalogue of dispatch wherein I have my
puritan news, my protestant news, and my pontifical news ".
Then he adds that he hopes " to erect a staple for newes " ere
long, thus forecasting the play which appeared five years
later. Here it is a writer of letters wh'o is satirised not the
writer of a printed periodical. Before the play appeared
Gainsford died. The fact that Chamberlain is attacked in
THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 21
the play therefore is noticeable, and argues some sort of
patronage and assistance rendered by him to the humbler
newswriters, for it would be only natural for Chamberlain
to employ Captain Gainsford as an "emissary" to pick up
news on Change.
Before the play appeared, however, the masque of Nep-
tune's Triumph for the Eeturn of Albion was written, and it
clearly attacked Chamberlain. It was not performed until
1626. In the dialogue between the " cook " and the " poet,"
the cook describes his " olla podrida" of personified dishes;
he says of the persons that they are "on quest of enquiry
after newes," and the boy, his son, adds "And of the Epicene
gender, hees and shees, Amphibian Archy is the chief".
(Chamberlain died unmarried. Archy Armstrong was the
Court fool, who had been to Spain with Prince Charles and
The cook goes on : " Good boy. The child is learned too ;
note but the kitchen. Have you put him into the pot for
garlic ? " Boy ; " One in his coat shall stink as strong as he,
sir, and his friend Giblets with him". Cook: "They are
two that give a part of the seasoning".
"Kitchen" was an expression for seasoning, and kitchen
for bread was butter. " Giblets " was a contemporary ex-
pression of contempt; therefore "kitchen" and "giblets"
evidently refer to Butter and Bourne, at that time in part-
nership. The " one in his coat," that is clothed with a
pseudonym, refers to Mercurius Britannicus. A few lines
farther on the cook, again referring to the contents of the
" olla podrida," says :
Grave Master Ambler, newes master o' Pauls
Supplies your capon ; and grown captain, Buz,
His emissary, under writes for Turkey.
Both the writer and the age justify the statement that
" Ambler " is a play upon Chamberlain's name. His "emis-
sary " now is Buz, who has "grown" to be "captain"
that is, has taken Gainsford' s place. Master Ambler is
22 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
once more introduced into the Staple of Newes, produced in
the same year: "A fine paced gentleman who walks in the
middle aisle at Pauls," and also "my froy Hans Buz, a
Dutchman, he's emissary Exchange". Hans Buz can be
easily identified as Mathew de Quester (an anglicised form of
one of the German or Dutch names " Coester " or " Koster ")
who was at the time Master of Foreign Posts. Butter is intro-
duced into the play, but quite openly, and simply as a rascal
"buttering" up and selling under new titles his seven-year-
old news. He is not the principal character, Cymbal,
who is opposed to printing, and is a writer. Finally, in the
fifth scene of the first act of the Staple of Newes the same
sneering reference recurs to "Eeformed news, Protestant
news, and Pontifical news," and the question is asked, "But
what says Mercurius Britannicus to this ? "
CYMBAL : O, sir, he gains by't half in half
FITTON : Nay more, I'll stand to't. For where he was wont to get
in hungry Captaines, obscure statesmen
CYMBAL : Fellows to drink with him in a dark room and eat a sausage
. . . now all that charge is saved.
Mercurius Britannicus, therefore, was the former employer
of the Captain, and at the time was publishing a periodical
under that name. Before describing Mercurius Britannicus
the first "newsbook" with a name it will be best to point
out a possible origin of the periodical.
Among the State papers is a draft memorandum or letter,
attributed (in the Calendar of 1619-1623) to Sir Thomas
Wilson, Keeper of the Eecords, and assigned to the year
1621 ; apparently because in the following year the first
periodical is known to have arisen, as we have seen. It is
not signed, dated, or addressed to any one, and most as-
suredly is not in the handwriting of Sir Thomas Wilson, nor
is there any evidence, either external or internal, to connect
it with him. It is clearly a draft, which has been altered, the
paragraphs of which are numbered out of their order, and
was probably sent or shown to Secretary of State Calvert or
THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 23
Conway for approval. The handwriting strongly resembles
that of Thomas Locke.
When writing to Dudley Carleton, Chamberlain and
Locke were in the habit of addressing him as " My lord,"
for Carleton was an ambassador though not yet a peer. The
document says towards the end, "my suit is that your lord-
ship would give me leave to be a suitor to the King that Mr
Pory and myself may receive a patent to be the Overseers of
all books of humanity that shall be printed, that he will give
unto us a fee of 20 per annum to each of us for our pains
and with all to give us leave to print the gazetts or weekly
occurrents which we shall get from other parts, that none
may print them without our licence, and for this we will
give his Majesty as much rent as he shall give us for over-
seeing books for 20 a year more, so that we may have a
patent of this to us and our assigns."
The w r riter winds up by pointing out that "procuring
advices from foreign parts is to me chargeable and nothing
profitable," and states that the course he proposes is "a
means that I should always be a historical memorial always
ready of whatsoever shall pass in the world ". The reference
to Pory fixes the date of this at about the time of his return
in 1624, which coincided with the date of Francis Gainsford's
Previously to making the above request, the writer
pointed out some extraordinary motives and inducements
for the setting up of an official British newsbook. It was
" to settle a way that when there shall be any revolt or back-
sliding in matter of religion or obedience (which commonly
grows upon rumours among the vulgar) to draw them in by
the same lines that drew such out by speeding amongst them
such reports as may best make for that matter to which they
never would have been drawn ". Of this he continues, " an-
cient times afford many precedents and for modern weekly
gazetts as from the centre of news" dispersed all "occur-
rents" to all parts of the world. "This sells Mercurius
24 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Gallo-Belgicus now in Germany, the ' advisoes ' in France
and the ' Novells ' in Italy and Spain. In which point no
country is so heavy as our Britain, which I have heard re-
proved in foreign parts for the negligence herein. From
Antwerp, Brussels, Hague, Bulloyn, Frankfort, Prague,
Vienna, Gratz, Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples, Genoa,
Spain, Paris and Lyons we have the occurrents every week."
And he asks why Britain should be behind the rest of the
world. Much good he thinks would come if the ploughman
and the artisan were to know the events of the day like their
continental brothers, though he acknowledges that his own
private benefit was the greatest motive to him in the matter.
Another inducement offered for setting up a British news-
book was "to establish a speedy and ready way whereby to
disperse into all the veins of the whole body of a State such
matters as may best temper it, and be most agreeable to the
disposition of the head and principal members upon all occa-
sions that shall afford ". *
Nothing more likely to appeal to James could be imagined.
The same idea was to occur in 1663 to Roger L' Estrange,
and to be described by him in his preface to the Intelligencer,
when he states that the " common people's affections are "
(more) " capable of being tuned and wrought upon by con-
venient hints and touches in the shape of a pamphlet than
by the strongest reasons and best notions imaginable under
any other and more sober form whatsoever " ; and it was put
into the most active practice during the Rebellion and so-
called " Protectorate ".
The existing periodical of weekly news did not extend so
far in scope as the journal thus outlined, and only published
translations of foreign news. What followed can only be in-
ferred. Probably the establishment of a Mercurius Britannicus
on the lines of a Mercurius Gallo-Belgicus was thought
too great a leap in the dark, and James I. died on the
27th March, 1625. No patent was granted, but a periodical
1 S. P. Dom., Jas. L, 124, No. 113 (Calendar of 1619-23).
THE COBANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 25
was now issued and stated to be " printed for Mercurius
Britannicus " " Mercurius Britannicus " being given in con-
spicuous type. Here then at last is the first " coranto " with
a name ; as the play, the Staple of Newes, testifies. Several
numbers of this are in the Burney Collection. The first in
existence is No. 16, dated 7th April, 1625; after No. 23,
issued on 24th May, there is a break in the collection ; there
is then a solitary, unnamed " coranto," issued by Thomas
Archer alone, dated 10th November, 1625, and called No. 5.
Mercurius Britannicus then reappears in the Burney Collection
with No. 2, 5th January, 1625-26 ; but whether it continued
longer than the last number in the collection, No. 7, dated
8th February, 1625-26, there is nothing to show. The
periodical gives evidence of being written by a writer of
better education than that of its predecessor ; it is no longer
a bare translation from the Dutch, and shows that it has a
private correspondence of its own all over Europe. It still
only deals with foreign news. No " corantos " marked
Mercurius Britannicus exist of a later date than February,
The Stationers' Eegister (not a very good guide) sheds abso-
lutely no light on this periodical, which is not entered in it at
all. A calculation of the dates backwards leads to the con-
clusion that the first number must have been issued on 23rd
February, 1624-25. That it had no connection with Butter and
Bourne is clear, for Butter's nameless periodicals are entered
in the Stationers' Kegister concurrently, as follows : No. 7,
entered on 8th February, and Nos. 10 and 11, entered on
After the entry of 7th March, 1624-25, no entry of any
news-pamphlet of any kind whatever occurs until 19th June,
1627. On that day the names of Butter and Bourne re-
appear, and the entry runs: " Keceived of them for all
currants of newes until the first day of August, 1627, xv. 8 /-"
Fifteen shillings was the payment for thirty numbers ; that
is to say, that Butter and Bourne then paid for their
26 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
periodicals from 3rd January, 1626-27, to the following-
Now John Chamberlain died in March of that year and
was buried in St. Olave's, Old Jewry, on 20th March. If,
then, the project of a true Mercurius Britannicus was his, his
wishes would seem to have been met by allowing him to super-
vise the writing of the Mercurius Britawiicus which, as has
been shown, existed at least during the years 1625 and 1626.
He was too old a man to publish it himself ; so probably it
lasted until the end of the year 1626, the year of Chamber-
lain's last illness. In fact, Thomas Locke, who may have
had something to do with the writing of it, also disappears,
altogether about the time of Chamberlain's death. The
question as to who " Mercurius Britannicus," the publisher,
was, can be settled with certainty. At the end of No. 6,
dated 1st February, 1625-26, is to be found the earliest ad-
vertisement (an isolated instance twenty-two years before
the introduction of newsbook advertising): "Here is this
present day published an excellent Discourse concerning the
match between our most Gracious and Mightie Prince
Charles Prince of Wales and the Lady Henrette Maria
daughter to Henry the fourth late King of France etc.,
sister to Lewis the thirteenth now king of these dominions.
Manifesting the Koyall ancestors of both these famous-
Princes and truly explaining the several interchanges of
marriages which hath been between France and England.
With the lively picture of the Prince and lady cut in
This can be easily identified (by comparison with the
book's verbose full English title) as the Epithalamium Gallo-
Britannicum, qtc., etc., of George Marcelline, published by
Archer. Archer, therefore, was the publisher of the second,
as he also was of the first, British periodical, and from this
periodical, and not from Butter's, the " Mercury women,"
who sold newsbooks in the streets, clearly derived their
THE COEANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 27
The interval between 1627 and 1641 shows a complete
absence of that journalistic activity which had been displayed
up to the time of John Chamberlain's death. Butter and
Bourne now retained the field unopposed still as publishers
of " corantos " of foreign news only.
Archer appears to have entered into competition with
them again in 1628, for two " corantos " printed for him are
in the Kecord Office No. 6, dated August 7; and No. 7,
dated August 15 ; but he also died in 1634.
Two interesting comments on the difficulties of the press
at the time are supplied by the State Papers. One is the
(undated) petition of William Phillips, who was committed
to the Gate House for translating a small French pamphlet,
for Newbery, one of the stationers associated with Butter.
He was very ill, and prayed for a release, which he obtained.
(Alas, the next document to this is " A petition " from Abigail,
his widow, a few weeks later, which states that she had been
left with " foure small children," and begs that Newbery,
as the person really guilty, might be ordered to contribute to
her support.) The other is the petition of William Stansby,
printer, for pardon and restitution to business. He had
printed some news for Butter, and as a result his printing
presses were broken down, and his printing house was nailed
up. Stansby afterwards printed the first complete edition of
Ben Jonson's works.
In the Coranto, No. 9, 16th July, 1630, the "Publisher"
addressed the reader with the statement that " we " had lost
money for ten months, " which was the cause we published
scarce one a moneth ". What the public desired was " action,"
which seldom fell out in the winter, and the publisher winds
up : " We presume we shall now fit their humour with action
enough every weeke if their purses be as ready to pay as we
shall be ready to publish, the greatest talkers of newes (as
the Pauls walkers) are the poorest buyers. Farewell ".
Unfortunately for Butter, it soon was farewell in good
earnest, for on 17th October, 1632, the Star Chamber pro-
28 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
hibited the printing of all " gazetts " and news from foreign
parts, as well Butter's and Bourne's as others.
On 30th September, 1633, Butter and Bourne petitioned
the King to be permitted to publish news again, but, though
a favourable endorsement appears on the petition, nothing
was done until 20th December, 1638, when, after six years'
silence, Butter and Bourne were given* the monopoly of
printing news still foreign news only by Eoyal Letters
Patent, for the term of twenty-one years, " they paying yearly
towards the repair of St. Paul's the sum of 10 ". About this
time (on llth July, 1637), the Star Chamber issued its second
set of decrees on licensing. These were on similar lines to the
decrees of Elizabeth, but ampler and fuller, and were aimed
at the Puritan pamphleteers. They also gave power to the
Vice-Chancellors and Chancellors of the two Universities to
license books, and restricted the number of London printing
presses to twenty. (This last restriction was not an unpopu-
lar one, and the Stationers' petition to the Long Parliament,
printed in 1643, asked for a similar restraint of the number of
It is curious that Butter and Bourne's monopoly should
have been granted only eighteen months later. They evi-
dently decided to begin again in good style, for No. 1 of their
new book of news, which was dated 20th December, 1638,
covered the news of six months, and consisted of no less than
ninety-six pages. It contained a preface" The Currantiers
to the Eeaders" and also the first illustration a full-page
picture of the eruption of a volcano at sea. Anthony a Wood
tells us that William Watts, of Caius College, Cambridge,
and D.D., Oxon., Eector of St. Alban's, Wood Street, and
afterwards chaplain to Prince Eupert (in the field), was
now their " author," and wrote more than forty of their
newsbooks "containing the occurrences done in the wars
between the King of Sweden and the Germans". But
Butter's periodicals were still without a catchword, obviously
because they had no competitor. He soon got into trouble
THE COKANTOS. 1622 TO 1641 29
with the licenser, and his periodicals were again suppressed,
and again permitted to reappear, on 9th January, 1640, with
another address, " The Printer to the Header," stating that
they had found a more " candid " licenser, and would for the
future be issued every week. Butter's name occurs several
times on periodicals among the crowd of "diurnals" dealing
with Parliamentary proceedings, that sprang up like mush-
rooms in 1642, but gradually he was lost sight of, and he died
on 22nd February, 1664, " very poor ". 1
Pamphlets of all kinds now " as numerously invaded and
infested the world as Flyes a great man's kitchen or a
butcher's shambles in the summer season, all of them con-
sisting of more words and iterations than either worth or
weighty matter". From these step by step was evolved the
1 Smith's Obituary, Camden Society.
CHAPTEE III. *
THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643.
THE struggle between King Charles I. and his Houses
of Parliament, which culminated with the meeting of the
Long Parliament, on 3rd November, 1640, led to a crisis in
the history of licensing. War, as has been seen, originated
the appearance of the periodical of foreign news the " cor-
anto" and though war in its most odious form, between
men speaking the same language and professing the same
faith, was to cause a development of the " newsbooks " which
followed the " corantos," to an extent which seems hardly
credible (all the main features of the modern newspaper
being found in them within seven years), it was not to be the
actual source of their origin. This is to be found in the pro-
ceedings of Parliament.
The political struggle was between the King and his
Parliament not between the King and his people. Although
the majority of the people were on the side of the Parlia-
ment when hostilities broke out, this was not the case when
they came to an end. Of this the story of the Royalist
Mercuries will afford overwhelming proof. The nation wished
to know what was being said and done in Parliament
the Cavalier no less than the Roundhead. The demand was
for news, nothing but news, and as a result the whole litera-
ture of the next year is confined to printed pamphlets of
"speeches" in Parliament or "relations" of this or that
incident connected with them. The points at issue between
the King and his Parliament were twofold political and
religious ; and therefore, as the religious side of the dispute
was the cause of all the bitterness and animus of the coming
THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 31
struggle, it is necessary, while expressly disclaiming, as
Thomasius says, any intention to "put one's sickle into the
field of dread Theology," to state roughly what the parties
In faith, as opposed to ritual and discipline, little differ-
ence existed between Puritan and Eoyalist. The bulk of the
clergy probably were Calvinists though Archbishop Laud
and his immediate followers were certainly not. One para-
doxical result of the judicial murder of the Archbishop and
of the success of the Eebellion has been, that Calvinism has
been practically rooted out of England by the reaction which
followed it. l This is a point which is often forgotten. What
the people wanted to get rid of was the tyranny of the
Bishops' Courts the Star Chamber, the High Commission,
and the rest. As to the bishops themselves they were indif-
ferent ; but a hatred of Catholicism had been implanted in
them by a steady educational process, carried on for a hun-
dred years by those very bishops who now, so they were told
by the Puritan preachers, intended to lead them back to
Rome. At the commencement of the Rebellion, therefore,
all the Puritans were combined into one great Presbyterian
body that is a church consisting of priests or presbyters
Socially as well as intellectually the strict Presbyterians
were the equals of the Cavaliers. These were not the
Independents ; they were the men who were called the
"Roundheads" would-be ascetics, who cut their hair
short, detested stage plays, wore .rusty black, and talked
in Scriptural phrases with a snuffle. Absolutely intoler-
ant, however, the Presbyterians were bent on enforcing
the entire submission of the nation to the rigid Genevan
mode of church discipline and government, as held (at
the time) in Scotland a system if anything even more
1 See the Articles of the Christian Religion, passed by Parliament on
21st June, 1648, for a short and clear exposition of the Calvinistic creed
held in those days. E. 449.
32 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
inquisitorial and interfering with domestic life than ever that
of the bishops had been. This brought into relief the fact,
that a large part of their supporters were the " Independents "
men who held that any congregation or collection of men
had the right to devise their own form of creed and church
government for themselves. It will be seen at once that the
Independent standard was so wide in its definition as to
render it possible for almost any sect to march under it ;
thus, though all were Presbyterians alike until the success of
the Parliamentary cause, yet with that success was bound to
arise a quarrel over the questions of church discipline and
toleration not toleration as we understand it, but a spurious
and derisory toleration limited to those Christians who were
neither Catholic nor Protestant Episcopalian. The con-
troversy between the Presbyterian and the Independent how-
ever did not affect the newsbooks until the year 1646. It
will not, therefore, be necessary to notice further the religious
question, until the date when the King surrendered himself
to the Scots.
On 5th July, 1641, the King gave his consent to the Act
abolishing the Star Chamber, and with this, at one fell
swoop, the whole of the licensing system was abolished.
For some time the literature of the day consisted of nothing*
but the speeches and " relations," most of which will be
found entered in the Stationers' Eegisters under the hands of
the different members of Parliament responsible for them.
One very serious effect, therefore, of this hasty abolition
the fact that copyright in the matter or title of a book was.
jeopardised was slow to become apparent. Whether such a
thing as copyright at Common Law existed at all was then
still an open question.
The published speeches were written by clerks or
scriveners, and revised by the members themselves before
being sent to the press. The art of " Tachygraphy or short-
writing" as it was called was in its infancy, and thus must
have received great impetus. " Clerk" and "scrivener" 1
THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 33
were synonymous terms, applied not only to the person who
filled the places occupied by the mortgage broker, the convey-
ancing solicitor or barrister, and the law stationer nowa-
days, but also to those who wrote the letters of news which
were circulated in the country. The great requisites for the
profession (which was prepared for by a long apprenticeship)
were good handwriting and knowledge of English; for a
knowledge of the law does not seem to have been necessary,
though no doubt it was desirable. l In November, 1641, a
whole volume of these speeches, etc., appeared under the
title of Diurnall Occurrences, dating from 3rd November, 1640,
to 3rd November, 1641, and printed for a bookseller called
William Cooke, who also published several smaller volumes
with similar titles.
In abolishing the Star Chamber, Parliament had not for
a moment thought of freeing the press, and still less of
conferring freedom from licensing ; for the abolition of the
bishops and their jurisdiction was their sole object. The
journals of the House of Lords show, that a committee must
have been at once appointed on the abolition of the Star
Chamber, to consider the question of regulating the press.
Of its actual appointment there is no record, but on 20th
October, 1641, the committee was ordered to " meet again on
account of the complaints made of printing pamphlets and
unlicensed books ". The breach between the King and
Parliament was widening day by day, and by the month of
November men's minds were in a very excited condition.
The tidings of a rebellion and massacre in Ireland added fuel
to the flames ; awful atrocities were laid at the door of the
1 The Compleat Clark and Scrivener's Guide (July, 1655), printed by
T. R. for H. Twiford, is a good-sized manual of precedents in conveyanc-
ing, which shows that indentures of all kinds were entrusted to scriveners.
The Scriveners' Company is the forty-fourth in rank of the City Guilds,
was originally known as the " Writers of the Court Letter," and incorpor-
ated in 1616. Being "reduced to low circumstances," it sold its hall in
Noble Street, Cheapside, to the Company of Coachmakers at the end of
the seventeenth century.
34 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
native Irish, and no falsehood was too gross and no story too
improbable to be believed about them.
On llth November, 1641, letters concerning the outrages
were read in Parliament, and at the end of the month the
first printed periodical of domestic news appeared. One of
the scriveners alluded to had seen his opportunity, and in-
stead of having his letter of news copied he had obtained
permission to have it printed. The author of A Presse full of
Pamphlets (April, 1642) writes: "The first inventors of the
Art of Printing Pamphlets in the last remarkable year of
Printing was clerks, or a clerk, as it is supposed, who being
but a single man could not be contented to live of 15/- the
week, which he might gain by writing the true proceedings
in Parliament and till printing were unquestionable, and
other passages concerning the same, which gentlemen of
good worth delighted in. But in hope of more gain to
himself by the undoing of others, put the first copy of
the Diurnall Occurrences that was printed to a printer, and
then came all other things true and false to the presse.
This was the first step to the ruinating of the tribe of
Accordingly, on 29th November, 1641, 1. T. (John Thomas)
published an eight-page pamphlet, having as outside title.
The Heads of Severall Proceedings in the Present Parliament.
This pamphlet appeared weekly, with variations of its title
according to its contents, and on 20th December the inside
title was transferred to the outside, and became Diurnal
Occurrences, etc., and the pamphlet was printed for J. T. and
T. B. Nathaniel Butter joined Thomas as publisher on 3rd
January, 1641-42, and on 10th January appeared another
Diurnall Occurrences, printed for William Cooke.
Ireland's True Diurnall, dealing with Irish affairs, and
printed and written by William Bladen, appeared on 3rd
February; but it was an intermittent and not a weekly
periodical, dependent for its news on Bladen's father a
O F T H E
Fro tk* *6jfDceemb.to the*.
the fame hand thai fortzerljtlrev uptfo Copy far William Cook
tifttlls lnne.betng,t)ovt printed fy I: Okes, Fr: Leach,^
Here come Letters to the Houfesfrom the
Earlcof Warwick informing that the
prifoncrs taken in Devon -ft!te at tlie
light neare Plymouth, were brought up
by Sea to.Gravc*nd, being fcaventccnc
of them Gentlemen and chlefc Comman-
ders* a Lift of their names he alfo fent to
the Houfe, defiling tbat they would take
a.ccmfe chat feme ot the MHuxt of Lon-
don mightbs appointed to guard them
from thence to London. Wnercupon ic
| was ordered thai there fhould be forty
Mufquetcets appointed to fetch them
from theaec> ami lhat they (hotfld be
Wiachcftcr and Lambeth houfe. and that the Keepers oi the
faidptifoAs(houldhave command to fecpc them in fafc cuftody, upon an
THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 35
Dublin alderman. 1 Other Diurnal Occurrences began also to
appear, and at last, on 31st January, was issued the first
periodical with an attempt at a " catchword," A Perfect
Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament, with no printer's name
attached to it, but also printed for William Cooke. A True
Diurnall Occurrences, " averred by E. P. clerke," also appeared
on 7th February, and was published by John Hammond, the
number for 14th February being " averred by I.B." (i.e., John
Bond hereafter mentioned). The success of the catchword, A
Perfect Diurnall, must have been immediate, as also that of A
Continuation of the True Diurnall, which numbered itself, and
appeared about the same time with no publisher's name
Both were immediately counterfeited, and their titles
were appropriated, particularly that of A Perfect Diurnall, of
which no less than eight different varieties, published by
different booksellers, can be counted during the year 1642.
"Now the wheeles of men's brains were turned round,"
writes A Presse full of Pamphlets, and " the eyes of their wits
were wandering over the earth to find a means of honest
subsistence by their industry, and at last perceiving their
wits must be the chief means of their livelihood, they betook
them to the same, and fearing the same for want of former
practice were grown somewhat rusty, they conceived it were
the more safest way to scour them with wine, beer, and
tobacco in some honest ale-house or tavern, and being of the
right nature or stamp of Englishmen, who think a thing to
be never well enough done till it be overdone and prove use-
lesse or hurtful, they, in scouring their braines, fill'd the pan
so full of liquor that they drown'd their wits, and so pro-
ducing them uncapable of good action, betook themselves to
fabulous invention, their wits being fluent with over much
J W. Bladen, the father, was sole printer in Ireland at the time.
The Irish gentry petitioned that no Irish news should be published but
what his son William had read and allowed (Historical MSS. Com-
mission, 4Ah Report, App., p. 113 6).
36 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
moisture . . . they have filled the City and countries with
the fruits of their taplush inventions". Then " they begin
to go beyond sea for new Newes from Ireland, France,
Spain, Italy, Denmarke, Portugal and part of Holland, but I
cannot find any of them have bin at Amsterdam or New
England. I hope these they reserve for their last refuge.
" And lastly, to conclude, this kind of new invented pro-
fession being growne to its last gaspe," they "come again to
proceedings of the Parliament, the which they have so
multiplyed, that in very Diurnals (some weeks) they can at
one prodigious birth bring forth fifteen at a time ".
All the various " diurnals " produced at this time were
issued to the public on Mondays, the reason for this being
the fact that Tuesday was the post day ; consequently com-
petition must have been intense, and we can well understand
the " ruinating of the tribe of clerks " to which our author
refers. All these "diurnals" also went through some pro-
cess of licensing at the hands of the clerks of one or the
other House, whose names frequently appear at the end or
Until the Restoration, the majority of the writers of
the "diurnals" or "newsbooks" seem never to have been
persons of repute. " Liar" was a term ordinarily applied to
them, and we have the testimony of Mrs. Hutchinson on the
Parliamentary side that they would deliberately write up a
soldier's reputation for money. Nevertheless, a good deal of
the hostile criticism was unjust, and defective intelligence
accounted for a great many of the falsehoods laid at their
A Royalist writer says : " A Diurnal maker is the sub
almoner of history, Queen Mab's register, one whom by the
same figure that a north country pedlar is a merchant, you
may stile him an author. . . . They call him a Mercury,
but he becomes the epithet like a little negro mounted on
the elephant just such another blot rampant. He defames
a good title as much as most of our modern noblemen those
THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 37
wens of greatness, the body politics most peccant humours
blistered into Lords." (This is an allusion to the "Com-
monwealths " lords a title conferred upon Bradshaw.)
" To call him an historian is to knight a mandrake, 'tis
to view him through a perspective and by that glass
hyperbole to give the reputation of an engineer to a maker of
mouse-traps. Such an historian would hardly pass muster
with a Scotch stationer in a sieve full of ballads and alman-
acks. . . . The word Historian imports a sage and solemn
author, one that curls his brow with a sullen gravity, like a
bull necked presbyter not such a squealing scribe as this
that is troubled with the rickets and makes pennyworths of
history. ... In sum a diurnal maker is the antimask of an
historian, he differs from him as a drill from a man or (if
you had rather have it in the ' Saints ' gibberish) as a
'Hinter' doth from a ' Holder forth'." 1
The author first in the field can be indicated with some-
thing more than probability. The first of the patriarchs of
English domestic journalism was Samuel Pecke, a scrivener
with a little stall in Westminster Hall. His claim to the
title of patriarch lies in the fact that he wrote not only the
newsbooks entitled Diurnal Occurrences, etc., but also A Con-
tinuation of Certain Special and Remarkable Passages Informed to
both Houses of Parliament (from 26th August, 1642, to 17th
September, 1647, and published on Fridays), and the differ-
ent Perfect Dlurnals, printed at first by William Cooke, and
afterwards by Okes, Leach and Coles, and others, from 31st
January, 1642, to 24th September, 1655, and published on
Mondays. These latter periodicals, up to the year 1648,
were the most important of all the newsbooks, and were the
Times of the day ; but in 1648 they became somewhat over-
shadowed by a rival entitled Perfect Occurrences, the import-
ance of which was in part due to the fact that Saturday had
1 A Character of a Diurnal Maker, 28th November, 1653, J.
Cleiveland. I have adopted this spelling of his name, as also the spelling
Berkenhead and Nedham, as being that used by the writers themselves.
38 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
been constituted a post-day as well as Tuesday. It appeared,
therefore, every Friday, as the Perfect Diurnal appeared every
Monday. Both pamphlets were twice the size of the others,
consisting ultimately of two sheets (i.e., sixteen pages) instead
of one like the rest.
Up to 1647, however, Samuel Pecke was without a peer
as newsmonger; it is regrettable, therefore, that we have
but a few Royalist allusions to him, and only a solitary
pamphlet to give an idea of his character. The industry
and the " large volumes," of which this pamphlet speaks,
point him out as the writer of the volume of Diurnal Occur-
rences from November, 1640, to November, 1641, already
mentioned, and, from the adoption of this title in the first
of the periodicals, as the writer of that also. The pamphlet,
which is entitled A Fresh Whip for all Scandalous Lyers; or A
True Description of the Two Eminent Pamphliteers, or Squibtellers of
this Kingdome (9th September, 1647), calls him a "petty-
fogging scrivener," and continues : " He was once a Stationer,
till he crept into the little hole in Westminster Hall where
indeed he began his trade of inditing or framing and so rose
at last to the stile of the Diurnall-writer. I must confess at
his first beginning to write he was very industrious, and
would labour for the best intelligence as his large volumes do
testifie, but when he found the sweetness of it, and how
easily he could come by his intelligence he fell to his sports
and pastimes, for you should hardly ever find him at home
all the weeke, till Saturday morning, and then you should be
sure to find him abed panting and puffing as if he had over
rid himselfe with riding too and agen from the Army, when
God wot hee hath not been out of the Lynes of Communica-
An accusation against his morals follows, coupled with
the charge that "that which he should do on Saturday he
must do on Sunday. This Merchant hath two printers to
attend his worke, whereof one hath a man, that rather than
it should be thought that he were not diligent enough for his
THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 39
master, he will content himself with a piece of Thursdays
newes for his prayers, Fridays intelligence for the first
Sermon, and Saturdays for the afternoon lecture, and if it
do not hold them over long, he will sit down and sing a
psalme, or take a pipe of tobacco, and think he hath done
God good service. 'Tis a shame such a Conventicle (I can
tearm it no otherwise) which tends to the dishonour of God
should be suffered."
In personal appearance his Eoyalist biographers say Pecke
was a " bald headed buzzard " and " a tall thin faced fellow,
with a Hawks nose, a meagre countenance and long runna-
gate legs, constant in nothing but wenching lying and drink-
ing" ; the last adding, that "he once made indentures with
his hands, you may meet him late in the night, he commonly
frequents Py-corner about mutton-time, and seldom walks
without his she-intelligencer".
On 29th January, 1642, the House of Commons found
time to pass an order, the first in a long series, levelled
against the press. Part of the order was intended to protect
copyright, but the most material portion was aimed at the
diurnals. It runs as follows : "It is ordered that the Master
and wardens of the company of Stationers shall be required
to take especial order that the printers do neither print nor
reprint anything without the consent and name of the author,
that he shall then be proceeded against as both printer and
author thereof and their names to be certified to this House ".
A second minatory order by the Lords on 21st March, recit-
ing that news had been printed as if by order of the House
and letters counterfeited as if from the King to the King of
France, etc., warned those who should do the like " to look
for no clemency " but " to expect a just severity ".
About this time the clerk of Sir Edward Littleton, the
Speaker of the House of Lords, having written Some Pas-
sages that Happened the 9th of March between the King and
the Committee when the Declaration was Delivered, came under
the censure of the House, and on 29th March, John Bond,
40 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
"a poor scholar having nothing else to live on," confessed
to having forged a letter from the queen, and with Richard
Broome, the author of the Danes Plot, and Bernard Alsop,
printer, he was committed, but released on 15th April.
In the meantime an Act of Parliament had been under
consideration. On 25th April, 1642, the Lords' Committee
already mentioned (it seems to have*been reappointed on
5th April at the Commons' request) reported that "they had
met the King's Counsel to hear what information they could
give them," and the latter had replied that "they had re-
ceived no instructions from his Majesty as yet. Hereupon
the Committee proceeded no further, but will be ready to
meet again when the kingdome shall have directions from
his Majesty". On 2nd May the judges cleared away a legal
difficulty, by giving the Lords their " opinion that printing
was publication ".
The events which led up to the battle of Edgehill (which
happened on 23rd October, 1642) are sufficient explanation of
the reasons why Parliament did not for the moment proceed
any further with its press legislation. The output of diur-
nals continued; but they were not creditable publications,
and were as dishonest and as abusive of the royal cause as
can well be imagined. In June Tobias Sedgwick, a Strand
barber, was in trouble for a letter which he had received from
a friend in Ireland called Pike, and had published under the
title of A Trite Relation of the Scots and English Forces in the
North of Ireland. With Leach and Coles his publishers, and
White their printer, he was sent to prison. White, it is in-
teresting to note, was paid eighteen shillings for printing
Up to January, 1643, not a solitary Royalist periodical
had appeared, for of course they stood no chance in London,
and the diurnals had been able to hoodwink the people to the
top of their bent.
By the end of the year 1642 the King's party at Oxford
had become quite aware of the danger the diurnals were to
THE LONG PAKLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 41
the royal cause and determined to publish an opposition
journal. On the second Saturday in the year and every
subsequent Saturday evening for Sunday (it must be sup-
posed in order deliberately to flout the Puritan conception of
the first day of the week as a " Sabbath") appeared Mercurius
Aulicus, A Diurnal Communicating the Intelligence and Affaires
of the Court to the Best of the Kingdome. There appears to have
been some hesitation as to a title for this periodical; the
first number for lst-7th January was called Oxford Diurnal,
but the next number (No. 1) ; which appeared for Sunday, 8th
January, 1643, was given the statelier Latin title of Mercurius
Aulicus, which was continued until the journal came to an end
in September, 1645.
This journal at once struck a higher literary note than
the rubbish which had poured out on the side of the Parlia-
ment. Its preface says : " The world hath long enough been
abused with falsehoods. And there's a weekly cheat put out
to nourish the abuse amongst the people and make them pay-
for their seducement. And that the world may see that the
Court is neither so barren of intelligence as it is conceived
nor the affairs thereof in so unprosperous a condition as these
pamphlets make them, it is thought fit to let them truly
understand the state of things so that they may no longer
pretend ignorance or be deceived with untruths. Which
being premised once for all we now go on with the businesse
wherein we shall proceed with all truth and candour."
More than one writer probably had a hand in this
journal ; the names of Dr. Peter Heylin, George Digby,
afterwards Earl of Bristol, and Henry Jermin, afterwards
Earl of St. Albans, and others are mentioned, but the bulk of
the work fell on the author-in-chief, John, afterwards Sir
John, Berkenhead, a graduate of Oriel College. 1
Aubrey writes of him: "He was exceedingly confident,
witty, not very gratefull to his benefactors, would lye dam-
1 Aubrey, Brief Lives, ed. by A. Clark, i., p. 104. Life in Wood's
Athence Oxonienses and The Spie.
42 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
nably. He was of a middling stature, great goggli eies, not of
a sweet aspect." This character does not appear to be quite
fair, and we would like to know the cause of Aubrey's hos-
tility. Berkenhead is also described by a hostile pen as
" being by profession a student in the law and a very apt
scholler, hath learned very well, and is become as good a
scholler as his Tutors and professors not only in the theorie
but also in the practicall part. For the greatest, and main
point of the Law which the new Oxford Doctors do teach is,
That it is lawful to devise what lies they can, and to publish
them even in print for the advancing of their cause. . . .
His fine rhetoricall words are like unto the flowers that
covereth a serpent lying under them. The Malignants do
pay sometimes as deare for that pamphlet as for a psalm
book, one of the last was sold for 18 pence a peece. We
know say the Malignants that what Aulicus writeth is
true." 1 ,
The last sentence reveals the fact that Aulicus was sold in
London as well as in Oxford, and as the price of all the pam-
phlets of news was but a penny (though the hawker got more
if possible) we can gather an idea of the risk then incurred in
The Lords, in the meantime, were busily engaged in
dragooning the press. On 7th January, 1643, Coles and
Leach, the printers of Pecke's Continuation of Certain Special
and Remarkable Passages, and Pecke himself, together with
Alsop and Fawcett, two other printers, were sent to the
Fleet. On the 12th Pecke was brought to the bar and con-
fessed his "authorship". He remained in prison until after
24th April, when he and his printers petitioned for the second
time for their freedom. The cause of this severe punishment
seems simply to have been the fact that he had commented
too freely on the presentation of petitions for a peace with
the King, presented by the apprentices of London and their
1 The True Character of M ercurius Aulicus, 1645. This pamphlet, sup-
posed to be lost, is in the Burney Collection.
THE LONG PAELIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 43
masters on 2nd January. His periodicals, however, were not
suppressed, and he and his booksellers were allowed to con-
tinue their publication.
Another printer, Eichard Herne, and his author, one
Glapthorne of Fetter Lane, also fell victims, on the 12th, for
a pamphlet entitled His Majesty's Gracious Answer to the Mes-
sage Sent from the Honourable City of London Concerning Peace.
In the meantime an important little periodical appeared
in reply to Aulicus, entitled The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer.
At the start it was not much better than the rest, and was
quite as abusive as any ; but the writer was evidently perfectly
honest, and as his periodical lasted until 1655 (being afterwards
continued as the Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth) it
is unfortunate that his name should not be known with
certainty. His initials are E. C., and he was a soldier who
was with the army at Windsor on the side of the Parliament
where he says he served the cause he had espoused with his
pen rather than his sword. It is more than probable that
he was the Eichard Collings whose name appears as the
publisher of A Declaration Concerning the King (23rd November,
1648, E, 473, 17), which is written by some one (presumably
Collings) who was evidently on the Parliamentary side, but
who nevertheless was loyal to the King personally ; and this,
as will afterwards be shown, was precisely the attitude of
Eichard Collings. The Weekly Intelligencer of the Common-
wealth also was printed for B.C., which means that he sold
it. He may also have been the Eichard Collins who took up
his freedom in the Stationers' Company on 30th January,
1628. One Eoyalist opponent calls him a " brother of the
whetstone" (i.e., a liar), and another says of him that "he
halted in his intelligence," qualifying the depreciatory re-
mark by adding that he was " an honest Trojan ". Sheppard,
who also alludes to his honesty in the Weepers, 1 says he was
a scholar, and writes of his poverty with regret.
On 21st February, 1643, the Lords committed his printer
J The Weepers or the Bed of Snakes broken by S.S., 13th September, 1652.
44 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
for putting on his pamphlet the headline "Cessation of
Arms," but the journals, unfortunately, do not give the
writer's name. On llth May he commenced a second news-
book, entitled Mercurius Givicus ; or, London's Intelligencer, and
published on Thursdays (the Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer
was published on Tuesdays). Mercurius Civicus was an in-
teresting little periodical, which contained a great deal of
valuable information about the city, and had two novel
features ; one being the exceedingly bad rhymes which occa-
sionally adorned its title-page, the other the infinitely worse
wood-cut portraits which invariably ornamented it. It was
the first regularly illustrated periodical.
On 9th March, 1643, an "ordinance" was passed, which
provided that the " Committee for Examinations," or any
four of them, were to have power to appoint persons to
search, and to commit to prison any one vending or selling
pamphlets scandalous to His Majesty or the Houses ; those
committed not to be released until those employed to search
were satisfied for pains and charges. On 28th March the
House of Commons resolved " that the Diurnal from the
14 March to the 21 printed by Bob. "Wood is false and
scandalous to the King's Majesty and the Parliament," and
" That what person soever shall print or sell any Act or
passages of this house under the names of a diurnal or other-
wise without the particular license of this house shall be
reputed a high contemner and breaker of the privileges of
Parliament and so punished accordingly". From this we
are justified in concluding that the diurnals had all along
been licensed although there had been no order or ordinance
for the purpose.
In April the Humble Remonstrance of the Company of
Stationers (written by Henry Parker) was presented. It
recited, that the Star Chamber and the High Commission
Court having been removed and sundry good temporary
orders made until a new bill could be passed, the orders were
not so successful as could be expected, and that as this was
The K I N o W QjU T. E N E
The Kwtijb wfiurefattd,
Our "Forces *rtunittd t
Truth impartially related from thence
to the whole Kingdome D to
From ihurf day July 1 5. to Tktrfdaj,j9ify 2O 1643*
Hereas it is the general! expedition anddeiireof mod
people co be informed of the true ftate of the Army un-
der the command of Ills Excellency the Parliaments
Lord General!; It will not therefore beamifle In the
firft place to impart fomethmg of the late intelligence
from thence, which was informed by letters frrm
Stony-flrttforA, tothisefk&, That on Saturday M, beingthci5of
THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO 14TH JUNE, 1643 45
to be imputed to the prosecutors, the Company itself asked
for the right to prosecute, adding very pertinently: "Pro-
priety of copies being now almost taken away and confounded;
if one Stationer prefer any complaint against another, the
complainant shall be sure to have his copy reprinted out of
spite, and so the ruin of himself and family is made the
reward of his zeal and forwardness". The address also
asked for the restriction of the number of presses and appren-
tices, and stated that the amount of printing done during
the past four years was enormous. On this, the preparation
of a formal ordinance to establish a body of licensers was
taken in hand.
Before this ordinance is described two more periodicals
require notice. One is Certaine Informations, of which the
first number appeared for 16th-23rd January (the first two
numbers are only to be found in the Record Office), and
which lasted until February of the following year. This
was written by William Ingler, probably a scrivener, of
whom nothing is known but his name, and that only because
he is one of the two solitary writers who entered their names
in the Stationers' Register (Pecke is the other writer). The
other periodical, which was entitled Mercurius Rusticus, ap-
peared on 20th May, and was a chronicle chiefly of the
sacking of Wardour and other castles, and of the desecration
of churches and cathedrals by the Puritan soldiers. This
was written by Bruno Ryves, D.D., chaplain to the King, and
rector of St. Martin's in the Vintry (he was to have a
successor in this benefice whom we shall have occasion to
describe later on). Dr. Ryves survived the Restoration, and
then became Dean of Windsor.
On 14th June, 1643, the ordinance establishing a board
of licensers was passed. For the Star Chamber was sub-
stituted the " Committee for Examinations " of the Par-
liament, and in a second ordinance, dated 20th June, the
names of a number of licensers were promulgated. Although
in this list Henry Walley, clerk to the Company of Stationers,
46 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
was appointed to license small pamphlets, it was not on this
authority that he acted as licenser of the newsbooks, but in
virtue of a special appointment by the " Committee for Ex-
aminations " (of which there is no record). He was a suitable
person for the office, for he came of a publishing family of
repute, and in years gone by had himself published Fletcher's
" Faithful Shepherdess" and Jonson's " Maske of Queens ".
With his advent, order was restored among the crowd of
diurnals, and we shall not find Parliament interfering with
them to any great extent until 1646. The House of Commons
again imprisoned Francis Cowles and Thomas Bates for
publishing a "relation" of Irish news (8th June) before
matters were placed in his hands ; and these were the last
newsbook victims for some time to come.
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646.
ONE of the first results of placing the control of the news-
books in the hands of one man, was the cessation of the
appropriation of the titles by rival writers. The Perfect
Diurnal was now definitely recognised as Pecke's property,
and other titles were equally protected. The catchword,
therefore, at once assumed its proper position, and each news-
book henceforward stands out distinctly by itself. In no case
does the printer or bookseller seem to have been held entitled
to the ownership of the title of the periodical he printed or
published, and a case will be mentioned in which such a claim
was put forward and at once disallowed. The newsbooks,
therefore, now become easier to describe.
Before considering them in their chronological order, one
new legislative enactment must be noticed. Oxford, where
the solitary Eoyalist periodical Mercurius Aulicus was pub-
lished, had been found too far away from London for those
sympathisers with the Cavaliers who wished to have the Court
news. Consequently means were found to have Aulicus
secretly reprinted in London. 1 Owing to the increase in the
number of printing presses, a solitary hidden press was now
difficult to find and suppress ; therefore measures were taken
to stop the sale of Aulicus. An enormous increase in the
number of the " mercuries " that is the hawkers and ballad
singers who sold pamphlets in the streets had taken place
since the Kebellion began ; hence an Act of the City Common
1 Thomason's note on a second Aulicus of even date for 14th October,
1643, " New printed at London ". Milton's Areopagitica quoted below.
It would be interesting to know who the printers were.
48 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM
Council was passed on 9th October, which revived and
ordered the putting into force of the city statutes against
unlicensed hawkers as rogues and vagabonds. Under these
Acts, the provisions of which were incorporated in the subse-
quent ordinances, women caught selling Boyalist pamphlets
were taken to the House of Correction at Bridewell and
whipped. The full effect of this Act Vill not be apparent
until we consider the periodicals of 1648, as up to the middle
of the year 1647 repression was as successful and as complete
as could be hoped for, and there was no Royalist competition
in London other than that of the secretly sold Aulicus.
In the meantime the Oxford Aulicus had produced one
good effect ; it had drawn attention to the necessity of secur-
ing opponents of a higher social and intellectual stamp than
the mean little band of scriveners. Yet the first periodical
to be licensed under the new Act was actually written by a
tailor, 1 one John Dillingham, who, as the writer first of the
Parliament Scout (until it was suppressed) and then of the
Moderate Intelligencer, occupies a considerable space in the
journalism of the Rebellion. George Wither, in his Great
Assizes holden in Parnassus by Apollo, sarcastically calls him
the " learned Scout," but it is not possible to say much more
of him than this and to describe the periodicals which he
wrote and their vicissitudes. He is the John Dillingham of
Whitefriars, who gave information against Archbishop Laud
in 1643, and to whose house Dr. Brownrigg was committed
in 1644. 2 The authorisation of his newsbooks was the re-
ward for services of this kind.
1 The Man in the Moon (No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649) caUs him
"A Prick louse vermin Taylor". Hinc illce Lachrymce (1648) calls him
" that botching * Moderate Intelligencer,' as nowadays he terms himselfe,
being by his own feare and shame whipt out of his former title the
* Parliament Scout ' ". The Second Character of Mercurius Politicus says
of Ned ham, " He is a very Moderate Intelligencer, now grown such a
Dillingham, such a taylour of News ". The references to his trade are
numerous and continuous. The Man in the Moon also alludes to his
living in Whitefriars.
2 Cal. State Papers.
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1646 49
Cleiveland writes of him at a later date as follows : " He
is the Countryman's chronicler and he sings ' lo Paeans ' to his
Muse as to the Rustic deities. He is the citizens' harbinger
and saveth him the labour of walking on the 'change to hear
the newes. He is the epitome of Wit, and is so contracted in
so small circumference that you may draw him through a
loophole or shoot him as a pellet out of an eldergun and
though he tells lies by the gross, yet he would have the book-
turners of this isle believe that he useth moderation. The
Diurnall and he are confederates, and resolve to utter nothing
but perfumed breath, and to make no narration but what
shall be pleasing to the close committee. With them as coad-
jutors join the two Empirique astronomers" (i.e., astrologers)
" Lillie and Booker . . . those two disciples of ' Erra Pater,'
that can make prediction of fair weather in harvest, and that
the sunne will lose some part of his light when he is eclipsed,
and have led the Commons of this kingdome as the beares are
led by the nose with bagpipes before them in the morning,
and in the afternoon are worried at the stake."
It is probably to Dillingham that the idea of a new
journalistic development of some importance is due that of
a diurnal in French for the benefit of foreigners in England,
and to be exported by them. French, as will hereafter be
noticed, was a feature in Dillingham's periodicals, and, as
the Man in the Moon in 1649 states that he was " coupled to
another of the same breed called Codgrave that can read
French and translate foreign news," it appears fairly certain
that Codgrave (who may be identified with John Cotgrave,
probably a son of Eandle Cotgrave, author of the French
Dictionary) was the writer of Le Mercure Anglois. This was
a little four-page periodical in French, which appeared every
Thursday, on the same day as Dillingham's Scout and
Moderate Intelligencer, and was at first printed by the printer
of these two journals, White.
Trial numbers of this periodical appeared on 7th June and
13th June, 1644, and on 10th July, before the publication of
50 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
the third number on llth July, the following bill was issued :
" These are to signifie, that all merchants and others that
are desirous weekely to impart beyond seas the certain con-
dition of affairs here and of the proceedings of the war, they
shall have it weekely published in print and in the French
tongue. And every Thursday at nine of the clocke in the
morning the Keader may have them (if he please) at Master
Bourne's shop at the Old Exchange the title of the thing is
Le Mercure Anglois, which a while since was begun and con-
tinued for two or three weekes, and finding it much desired
during these three weeks past, that the publishing of it
(through some occasions) was discontinued, it shall for the
future be continued according to the most certaine and im-
partiall relations of affaires here to come out at the time and
This is the earliest known newsagent's bill, and must
have been posted upon the walls and street posts in London. 1
Le Mercure Anglois lasted until the end of the year 1648, and
its history was quite uneventful.
The licensers, at any rate those who followed Eush worth,
could not read French. That Cotgrave was allowed to copy
and condense the matter appearing in Dillingham's periodi-
cals seems probable, and an inspection of the two sets bears
out this theory. In return he supplied Dillingham with the
translations of the foreign news, which throughout was the
special feature of his periodicals.
John Cotgrave published two books in 1655, The English
Treasury of Wit and Language ; and Wits Interpreter, the English
Parnassus, or a Sure Guide to those Admirable Accomplishments
that Compleat our English Gentry, both collections from the
writings of other authors, and compilations of more than
lf The expression the "name of the thing" has reference to the fact
that Le Mercure Anglois was not a pamphlet or newsbook. It was half a
sheet of four pages, and therefore a "newspaper". The writer of the
bill did not know what to call it. A copy of the bill is in the Thomason
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEK, 1646 51
Henry Walley, the licenser, appears to have written the
periodicals called the True Informer, Heads of Chiefe Passages
(in 1648), and the Kingdoms Weekly Account of Heads of Chiefe
Passages fs Collected B. HVVC." (i.e., By Henry Walley
Clerk). In November, 1647, and January, 1648, Pecke's
Perfect Diurnall was marked "Collected by S. P. G." (i.e.,
Samuel Pecke, Gentleman) ; the Kingdoms Weekly Post
" Collected by D. B. G. (i.e. Daniel Border, Gentleman) ; the
Perfect Weekly Account " Collected by B. D."; and the King-
domes Weekly Intelligencer " Collected by !R. C."
Each licenser in succession wrote a periodical, and,
though there is no direct statement to be found that Walley
wrote the True Informer, it is to be inferred, as all the others
can be accounted for, that he was responsible for this
one. The True Informer appeared on Saturdays, until 22nd
February, 1645, and he must have chosen the worst day of
the week in order not to interfere with the profits of others.
The licensers had no fixed salary, but of course it is not to be
supposed that they did their work for nothing. Henry Walker
tells us of the fees he paid to the licenser Mabbott, and that
the latter made 100 a year from them (infra p. 117). As
Koger 1'Estrange, in the year 1662, asked for a fee of one
shilling per sheet on everything he licensed, 1 this probably
was the customary fee paid to the licenser on each periodical.
The Weekly Account was written by D. Border, another
scrivener. Nothing is known of him except that at his
marriage in 1640 he was described as Daniel Border, gent.,
of St. Giles in the Fields, widower, aged 28 (Chester's " London
Marriage Licenses "), and that on a later periodical, the King-
domes Faithfull Scout, he describes himself as D. Border,
" cleric " (i.e., clerk or scrivener). After the first suppression
of the licensed press, he appears to have practised as a
physician and to have published a book entitled " 7ro\v(f)dppa-
#09 teal XU/UO-TT;? ; or, The English Unparalleled Physitian" (1651).
The reason for his knowledge of Greek will appear afterwards.
X S, P. Dom,, Charles II,, 39, No. 94,
52 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Sheppard in the " Weepers " calls his newsbook an " Augean
stable," and he certainly was the most inaccurate and ill-
informed of all the journalists of his day.
Part of the licenser's duties was to allot the days of the
week to each journalist ; and it is evident that Border, who
apparently was an Anabaptist and an opponent of the strict
Presbyterians, did not find favour with a later licenser, for on
29th March, 1647, a new periodical, entitled the Perfect
Weekly Account, appeared on the same days (Wednesdays) as
Border's Weekly Account a mean trick intended to drive him
from the field. The Perfect Weekly Account, moreover, was
actually printed by the same printer, Bernard Alsop. Border
tried to combat his rival by also adopting the adjective
" Perfect " from 5th May (sic 3), 1647, to 28th June, 1647,
but during this time was not licensed.
The Perfect Weekly Account was written by a writer who
reversed Border's initials, " B. D.," of whom nothing is
known. Border endeavoured to countermine his adversary
by reversing his initials also to " B. D." (on No. 1 of the
Kingdomes Weekly Post) ; but he was evidently ordered to
desist, for in the succeeding numbers he initialled his periodi-
cals "D. B. G." !
The changes in titles of periodicals are continuous,
and require attention, and the names of the writers often can
be traced through the printers. No wonder that Sheppard
later on wrote : " These fellows come flurting in, and
style themselves by new names, they flie up and down a
week or two and then in a moment vanish. Seriously I
could wish it were enacted that whosoever did betake himself
to this lying trade should be bound at least seven years to it,
and not start as these brazen faced fellows perpetually do.
There was a merry gentleman who called himself the Dutch
Spy'' (this is a periodical of 1652). " Twice or thrice I saw
1 The Man in the Moon (No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649) says the
Perfect Weekly Account was then written by B, D., without mentioning
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 53
him. that was a trim lad ! I believe that fellow by long
study had gained the very Elixir of Nonsense. If his bulk
and behaviour had been but as gross and fat as his pamphlet
he might have passed for a Dutch spy I dare say over all the
In September, 1643, the first formal and open opponent
of Mercurius Aulicus appeared in Mercurius Britanicus. A
mistake having been made in the spelling of the Latin at the
start, it is characteristic of Puritan obstinacy that the mistake
was persisted in throughout the whole of the periodical's
career ; and the dropped " n " serves to distinguish this news-
book from the other periodicals entitled Mercurius Britannicus
which appeared at later dates. The author was Captain
Thomas Audley, who lived in Bloomsbury, " near the great
cherry garden," and had been previously a "noted disperser
of Scotch pamphlets". He was a scurrilous writer, with a
genius for mean suggestion. Nevertheless he was considered
witty, and an astonished Eoyalist opponent cries : " What !
Wit in a Puritan? As monstrous as the title of the play
' Wit in a Constable ' ! " Audley, however, was not alone in
his editorship, for the Spie writes : " There are four or five,
or at least a Cinque or Quaternion of conspirators in wit
which aim at the destruction of Aulicus, and so have set on
wheels this grand engine called Britanicus . . . this Geffery,
James Giles and Jack . . . this motley curre of Wood Street ".
Dr. Daniel Featly, in his Sacra Nemesis (1st August,
1644), says to Audley: "Thou hast a patent to lye, and
whatsoever thou printest in thy weekly corrantos though
never so grossly absurd and palpably false, after thou hast
got M. White's (the printer's) hand to it no man can say
1 Black is thine eye '". As an example of the shameful false-
hoods with which he bespattered the Court and, to his
lasting dishonour, even the Queen herself, a letter, which he
avers was captured from the Eoyalists, may be quoted the
blanks are his own and are left, he states, for oaths.
1 Mercurius Mastix, No. 1, 20th-27th August, 1652.
54 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
"Jack . . . We have not left . . . one Woman
Lady Gentlewoman Way ting maid ... or other
honest . . . We have some Irish . . . and Frenchwomen
come to us ... We intend not to leave till we have . . .
sinned with all nations as well as our owne. Thine Carnar-
von." Eobert Dormer, Earl of Carnarvon, thus meanly
traduced, was an honourable and gallant soldier who was
actually killed on the day following the publication of this
vile libel (at the first battle of Newbury, 20th September,
A contemporary attack on Audley runs : " This is that
short swarthy chest-nut coloured captaine whose commission
hath not run like other mens, his employments (wary gentle-
man) have been less dangerous. Whilst others left a leg, an
arm, a life abroad he kept the City, and preserved his limbs
at home. He well knew how much safer it was to storm
towns in a thin quarto than to be engaged in onsets and
sieges. Unless it were the Captain who heretofore wrote
weekly intelligence from Pope's Head Alley, who usually
took townes in Cyder, and after his second draught in
metheglin still struck in with the Swedes, and in less than
two houres operation ordinarily over ran all the chief parts
of Germany, I never knew any professed swordsman but
this make gazets his trade of living. For methinks for
Captain Audley being a soldier to call himself Mercury, is as
if Serjeant Wild being a lawyer should call himself Mars, and
for the one to vex the press with his weekly pasquil currant-
oes, is as if the other should plead at the Bar in a long white
feather and buff." 2
The Scotish Dove was commenced in October, 1643. After
a few numbers, an illustration of a dove with its olive branch
1 Mercurius Britanicus was published with a license from the general
of the army (Essex). Historical MSS. Commission, 6th Report, p. 74.
Most of the newsbooks seem to have held similar licenses, or licenses
from the Lords or Commons.
2 Mercurius Anti- Britanicus ; or, The Second Part of the King's Cabinet
*Be Wife as Serpents, fnnocent as Doves.
Sent out, and Returning;
Bringing Intelligence from the Armies, and
makes fome Relations of other obfervable Paffages
of bothltingdoms, for Information and Inftruftion.
As an Antidote againft thepoifoned inpntttttions <?f Mercurms
Aulicus, and the errours of other intelligencers.
From Friday the 22. of Deeemb.to the ap.of the fame.
FO R as much as my Dove is fent outfor inftru&ion , and infor-
mation of mens judgements,aswelias'to bring intelligence of
News ; She at this time upon occafion , falling out this prefenc
feafon, is to relate fomething to reftifie the judgements of the
Ignorant,concerning the controverfie, and different opinions of the
obferving the Feaft of Chriftmas : a difcourie fe^fonawe, andfucable
to the time, L But
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1G46 55
and the legend "holy inocency is blessed" invariably ap-
peared as its frontispiece. Its " author's " name was George
Smith, and he writes of himself : " At the beginning of the
war, being driven from my Rurals and countrey for my cor-
diall affections to the service of the Parliament ... I was
forced to take Sanctuary in this great city, not being at that
time in a capacity to serve the publick in arms as I intended
. . . but impatient to live unprofitable I endeavoured to make
up by my pen what was deficient in my sword, and to that
end I first writ a treatise entitul'd ' the Protestant Informer,'
then . . . ' Great Britain's Misery with the cause and cure '
and ' The Three Kingdomes Healing plaister or explanation
of the solemn covenant '. But . . . our brethren of Scot-
land being in preparation of an army to come to our assist-
ance, I sent out my Dove for an intelligencer between England
and Scotland as once Decemus Brutus did from Madenna
when besieged by Antonius, to carry intelligence to the
Consuls camp ".
After this we are quite prepared to find Wither writing
of the "innocent Scotch Dove" :
In many words he little matter drest
And did laconick brevity detest
But while his readers did expect some newes
They found a sermon . . .
The Scotish Dove was a spiteful little periodical, and its spite-
fulness, coupled with the writer's oily hypocrisy, eventually led
to its suppression. Smith insulted the French so repeatedly,
calling them God's enemies, that, in consequence of the
French Ambassador's complaint to Parliament, he was or-
dered to be attached by the House of Lords on 22nd Sep-
tember, 1646. He did not improve matters in the Scotish
Dove of 23rd September, by adopting a process of equivoca-
tion indistinguishable from lying, and on 24th September
his " book " was ordered to be burnt by the hangman and he
himself to apologise to Monsieur Baleure, the French Am-
56 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
bassador. George Smith did not appear again as a journalist, 1
but he was probably the writer of New Christian Uses, the
Compleate Intelligencer and Besolver and the Compleate Intelli-
gencer and Resolver in Two Parts.
George Wither, the Puritan poet, commenced a Mercurius
Busticus on 26th October (Thomason's note), rather meanly
taking Dr. Eyves' title. With rueful humour he makes the
preliminary apology for possibly untruthful intelligence : "all
Mercuries having the planet Mercurie predominant at their
Nativities cannot but retaine a twang of lying".
In the Spie, the first number of which appeared on 30th
January, 1644, and was written, as Thomason's note on it
states, by Durant Hotham, fifth son of Sir John Hotham, the
Parliamentary Governor of Hull, we have a really witty
periodical, far superior to Britanicus, and a worthier op-
ponent of Aulicus.
Durant Hotham was the translator of the writings of
Jacob Boehme, the German mystic. His brother John was
beheaded by order of the Parliament on 1st January, 1645,
and his father on 2nd January, for negotiations partly on
their own account and partly tending to bring about an
accommodation between 'the King and Parliament. The
Spie came to an end on 25th June, 1644, probably on account
of these negotiations and family troubles. Durant Hotham
started it with the avowed object of attacking Aulicus, and
his appearance on the scene was very much resented by
Audley and was the cause of the first controversy between
two rival editors.
On 19th February Audley wrote in a rage : " I know not
where to begin. Whether at Oxford or London. For I
ever expected a checke from Oxford but I never thought of
a checke so near me but this is ordinary in a game of
1 Lords Journals : The Scotish Dove sent out the last time (Decem-
ber, 1646); The Scotish Dove, No. 132, 16th-23rd September, 1646,
E. 355 (5), and the passage complained of in No. 150, 2nd-9th September,
E. 353 (19), p. 31.
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 57
chesse ... so long as the City hath a drop of inke I shall
lay it out for their honour and the publicke service, and the
destruction of Popery and Prelacy and Evill Councellors.
... I must kicke away a little beagle that snarls and barks
at the legs of Britanicus, for he hath not so good fangs as to
bite, but to give him his due he is a Spie, and so calls him-
selfe, and he rides so weekly between Oxford and London that
he will come at length to the same preferment as his brother
spies and namesakes have done before him, either to be ex-
alted at the Old Exchange, or to be gibbetted over against
St. Maries at Oxford. This Spie is naturally a malignant by
To which the Spie replied :
" Britanicus was wrapped up the last weeke in abundance
of sheets and unawares stiffed in the sale so that he was al-
most quite condemned to Grocery and Tobacco shops, which
made the printers neither pay him nor feast him so cordially
asithey were wont. This puts him in a rage against our Spie
and to vent his spleen in angry language with immeasurable
bug-bear threatening impudence, which if any man will say
is wit to my thinking he utters a greater jest than this squib
cracker was guilty of. ... Oh the dull Ephesian is like to
lose his Diana, hee is not like to have so much gain as for-
merly and fears our Spie will have so much wit as to carry
away the money. This is it makes him baule so loud in the
street against the Spie and cry himself up in the market place :
'I am Britanicus' 'Here is Britanicus'. . . . Sirrah leave
thy snarling, or every page hereafter shall be a Britanico-
mastix, and every line of conceits shall be a whip and a bell
to lash and gingle thee out of thy (wits, I would have said but
mean) impudence. Farewell."
Britanicus returned to the charge with :
" Aulicus is this week but in one single Tiffany or Cobweb-
laune sheet. The truth is he and a young man in the towne
have parted stakes and divide the taske, and the supreame
affaire of communicating iniquitie to the kingdome. And
58 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Aulicus writes 'in one sheet and * Quoth I ' another. Now
this designe would be lookt into for it is a communicating
designe, an intelligencing designe, an Oxford designe, a
designe begun at a chandlers shop neere Newgate (an ill
Omen) by the help of Raisins and jug-beere and completed
next door to the Devill of St. Dunstanes, a victualling house
where the Spie resorts sometimes, and pampers his muse with
two cucumbers and halfe a loine of mutton, and that makes
the conceits a little greasier than usually wit should be at
this time of the yeare."
As a result of this tirade the licenser forced the Spie to
come out in the following week a day later than usual, and
then stifled the controversy ; no doubt pointing out to both
that their business was to attack Aulicus and not one another.
Intelligence from the Earl of Manchester's Army was written
chiefly by Simeon Ashe, Lord Manchester's chaplain. Some
account of this worthy will be found in Dr. John Barwick's
Querela Cantabrigiensis (frequently bound up with Bruno
Ryves' Mercurius Busticus). He does not seem to have acted
an amiable part towards the University of Cambridge.
About this time the affairs of the army began to assume
increasing importance, and the clerk to the Company of
Stationers was scarcely the person to know exactly what the
military authorities of the Parliament would wish not to
appear in the diurnals. Consequently Walley was superseded
on llth April, 1644, and John Rushworth, who was born in
1612, had been educated at Oxford, and was in every way
qualified for his post, was appointed. The bulky volumes of
his Historical Collections, which consist almost entirely of clip-
pings from the newsbooks and diurnals written by himself and
other authors, are a valuable source of history. Rushworth
had been appointed clerk assistant to the House of Commons
in 1640, had been sent many times as its messenger to York
and elsewhere, and was completely in its confidence. Un-
fortunately he soon obtained permission from the Committee
of Examinations to perform his duties of perusing the printers'
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1646 59
copy of each pamphlet of news by deputy. At the commence-
ment of September Captain Thomas Audley was this deputy ;
but later on he employed his clerk Gilbert Mabbott.
John Rushworth was the writer of the London Post, l which
appeared from 6th August, 1644, to 4th March, 1645, and
again from 31st December, 1646, to February, 1647.
On 9th September, 1644, Mercurius Britanicus tempor-
arily ceased publication with its fiftieth number, and it is
from this date and for this reason that Captain Audley's em-
ployment as Rushworth's deputy must be dated. The ex-
tinction of the periodical, however, was not to be allowed ;
and a new author was found for it in the person of Marcha-
mont Nedham, who recommenced it with No. 51 on the 30th
of the same month (the Lords Journals say No. 52, but this
is probably a mistake).
Marchamont Nedham, " that impudent and incorrigible
reviler" as Cleiveland calls him, "who while the world lasts
shall never be mentioned by any, but to his shame and
infamy," was a graduate of All Souls' College, Oxford, and
had been an usher at Merchant Taylors' school. At some
time he was apparently connected with the legal profession,
for the pamphlet which describes Audley also describes Ned-
ham as " a gentleman of Grayes Inne," adding, "perhaps he
may be of that house ". (He did not become a member until
1652.) " But sure his writings show him not to be a gentle-
man. If he were, he would never side so much with the rout
and scum of the people as to make them weekly sport by
railing at all that's noble. He was heretofore an under clerke
of that House. One who in times of peace, wrote a good
legible Court hand, earned his ten groats a week to himself
(besides what he got to his master) by eight faire lines to the
sheet, and the trick of the large dash. Out of which moder-
ate gains he was able to club his tester with his country
friend. And then with his pen in his ear, return in decent
equipage back to his little room furnished with no other
1 The Man in the Moon, No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649.
60 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
household stuff, but only his industrious self, desk, writing
tools, a bottle of checquer ink, and sometimes for hanging a
voluminous chancery bill, which he made still more volumin-
ous by the aforesaid swoop of his pen, to the great astonish-
ment of his masters clients, who seeing sheets multiply so
fast between the hands of the transcriber thought verily he
wrought miracles, a single skin of parchment transformed to
a ream of paper, which made him" (i.e., the client) " many
times forgive his adversary the debt he owed him as the way
to save charges."
At the time when he was thus described, Nedham must
have fallen in the social scale. He is the subject of a number
of pamphlets, and neither side has a good word to say for
him. His one motive and leading principle in life was to
earn money, and for the sake of this he was ready to write
for or against any one. He was the " great Goliah of the
Philistines," says Eoger 1'Estrange, " whose pen was like
a weaver's beam " in comparison with others, and the remark
is repeated by Anthony a Wood, the writer of his life. He
was a " man of low stature, full set, and black haired " states
one writer; another adds that he was bald " because hair is no
emblem of wit " ; and a third states that he had " trapstick "
legs and a huge stomach ; and he lived at the house of one
Kidder in Devereux Court, Temple (there are several refer-
ences to this fact). His own description of his style, ad-
dressed to the writer of Mercurius Academicus, the successor in
1646 of Aulicus, is : " My ink immediately destroys all paper
worms, and if need be I'll add aqua fortis and Bay salt to my
gals and Coperas. And now let them proceed what they
please," adding in a note at the side, "Nemo me impune
lacessit". A writer of this kind would not fail to "sell
best " of all the diurnals.
Mercurius Aulicus abandoned its former dignity and now
entered upon a long scolding wrangle with Mercurius Britani-_
cus, which only terminated with the extinction of the former
periodical at the end of the year 1645, and which is very
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 61
tiresome to read or to attempt to follow. According to
modern standards the wit in both periodicals is very sadly to
At the end of November, 1644, John Milton made his
well-known attack on the licensing system. During the pre-
vious year he had written a treatise on Divorce, which had
involved him in some controversy. It is a question whether
this pamphlet was in print so late after the ordinances
of June, 1643, as to require licensing, but, be this as it
may, Milton's subsequent pamphlets were duly perused and
licensed. These were the tract Of Education (5th June, 1644)
and the Judgment of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce (6th
August, 1644). Milton evidently found some difficulty in
getting permission to write everything he wished in this latter
treatise, 1 and must have had to carry his copy backwards
and forwards from the licenser to the printer in the manner
described in the Areopagitica. A Speech for the Liberty of Un-
licensed Printing to the Parliament of England, published, natur-
ally without a license, on 24th November.
As this work appeared nearly eighteen months after the
licensing system had been in complete and regular operation,
it was clearly provoked by Milton's own personal inconveni-
ences with the licenser and nothing else ; for it contains no
advocacy of any real liberty of the press and no plea for tolera-
tion. Milton contemplated no printing of Eoyalist publica-
tions ; " Do we not see," be writes (referring to Aulicus, and
his being reprinted in London), "not once nor oftner but
weekly that continued court libel against the parliament and
city, printed as the wet sheets can witness and disperst
among us for all that licensing can do?" He advocated
1 Bucer, Luther, Melancthon and the rest went so far as to sanction
and countenance the public introduction of polygamy. Milton may,
therefore, very easily have got into trouble with any licenser over quota-
tions from Bucer. See Johannes Janssen's History of the German People
at the Close of the Middle Ages (translated by A. M. Christie, 1903),
vol. vi., chap, xii., where Bucer's views and the whole story of Philip of
Hesse's bigamous marriage are set out in elaborate detail.
62 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
punishment after publication, and thought that the orders
and ordinances existing previously to that of June, 1643, were
sufficient to ensure the capture of the writers. For mis-
chievous books he considered " the fire and the executioner
will be the timeliest and the most effectual remedy ".
Milton's prose works are insufferably tedious to read, and
it is small wonder that the Areopagitica should be the only
one known and read nowadays. Assuredly in advance of its
times, it can be said with equal certainty that it was in
advance of Milton himself. He was contending for a spuri-
ous toleration, because he saw very plainly that religious views
were altering so much from day to day that scope must be
allowed for the moving on of dogma and discipline from
Presbyterianism to Independency and perhaps even farther
still ; but he did not seem to think the toleration of Catholi-
cism and Episcopalianism those old standards that had been
left behind possible, and here he was behind the standard
raised in his own book.
On 19th January, 1649, the Levellers petitioned for the
liberty of unlicensed printing, 1 and the statements they make
clear up in a very remarkable manner the real underlying
motive of the Areopagitica. They say : " A short time after the
beginning of this Parliament, at the solicitation of the Com-
pany of Stationers, the press was committed to the custody of
licencers, when though scandalous books from or in behalf of
the Enemy then at Oxford was the pretended occasion, yet
the first that suffered was Mr. Laurence Sanders for printing
without license a book intitled Gods Love to Mankind, and not
long after Mr. John Lilburn, Mr. William Larner, and Mr.
Eichard Overton and others about books discovering the then
approaching tyrannic" (i.e., of the Presbyterians). ''And if
you and your army shall be pleased to look back a little upon
1 The "Petition of firm and constant friends to the Parliament and
Commonwealth Presenters and promoters of the late large petition of-
Sept. 11, 1648 " (19th January, 1648-49, 669, f. 13, (75)). The petition
of llth September was of Lilburne's draftsmanship.
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEE, 1646 63
affairs you will find you have bin very much strengthened all
along by unlicensed printing.
" And generally, as to the whole course of printing, as
justly in our apprehensions may licensers be pat over all
publicke or private teaching and discourses in Divine, Moral,
Natural, Civil, or Political things, as over the press, the
liberty whereof appears so essential unto Freedom, as that
without it, it's impossible to preserve any nation from being
liable to the worst of bondage. For what may not be done
to that people who may not speak or write, but at the
pleasure of Licensers?" The punishment of whipping in-
flicted on the " Mercuries" was, they said, "fit only for
slaves or bondmen ' ' .
The second part of the conclusion of this petition ran :
" That you will precisely hold yourself to the supream end
the freedom of the people as in other things so as in that
necessary and essential part of speaking, writing, printing
and publishing their minds freely without setting of masters,
tutors and Controulers over them and for that end to revoke
all orders and ordinances to the contrary ".
This petition was occasioned by Fairfax's warrant against
the press of 9th January, 1649. Like the Areopagitica it was
utterly disregarded, but unlike the Areopagitica it was immedi-
ately followed by the most disgracefully repressive statutes
ever known. One of the main objects of the self-created and
self-styled " Commonwealth," during the first year of its exist-
ence (1649), was to suppress the Levellers the very men
that presented this petition.
In January, 1645, John Cleiveland also descended into
the arena, with an attack on the journalism of the day
entitled The Character of a London Diurnal. "A Diurnal
is a puny chronicle," he writes, "scarce pin feathered with
the wings of Time. It is an History in sippets, the English
Iliads in a nutshell, the Apocryphal Parliaments book of
Maccabees in single sheets. It would tire a Welch pedigree
to reckon how many ' ap's ' tis removed from an annual.
64 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
For it is of that extract, only of the younger house like a,
shrimp to a lobster. The original sinner in this kind was
Dutch " (i.e., German) " Galliobelgicus the Protoplast and the
moderne mercuries but Hans-en-Kelders " (unborn children).
"In the frontispiece of the old beldam Diurnall like the
contents of the chapter sits the House of Commons, judging
the twelve tribes of Israel " (this is a reference to the wood-
cut of the House on the older Perfect Diurnall). " It begins
usually with an ordinance, which is a law, still born, dropt
before quickened by the Royall assent.
" The next ingredient of a diurnal is plots horrible plots
. . . since the stages were voted down the only playhouse is
" Suitable to their plots are their informers. Skippers and
Taylours, Spaniels both for the land and the water. Good
conscionable intelligence. . . . Thus a zealous botcher in
Moorfields while he was contriving some querpo cut of
church government by the help of his outlying ears, and the
otacousticon of the Spirit discovered such a plot that Selden
intends to combat antiquity and maintain it was a taylours
goose that preserved the Capitol.
" In the third place march their adventures, the Bound-
heads legend, the Eebels romance. Stories of a larger size
than the ears of their sect, able to strangle the belief of a
Solifidian l . . . they kill a man over and over as Hopkins and
Sternhold murder the Psalmes with another of the same.
One chimes ' all in ' and then the other strikes up as the
Saints-bell. . . . But the Diurnal is weary of the arm of
flesh and now begins an Hosanna to Cromwell one that
hath beat up his drums clean through the Old Testament.
You may learn the' Genealogy of Our Saviour by the names
in his Kegiment. The muster-master uses no other list but
the first chapter of Matthew. With what face can they
object to the King bringing in of foreigners, when themselves
J One who maintains that faith alone without works is all that is
necessary to salvation.
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEK, 1646 65
entertain such an army of Hebrews? This Cromwell is
never so valourous as when he is making speeches for the
association, which nevertheless he doth somewhat ominously,
with his neck awry, holding up his ear as if he expected
Mahomets pigeon to come and prompt him. He should be
a bird of prey too by his bloody beak. His nose is able to
try a young Eagle whether she be lawfully begotten.
But all is not gold that glisters. What we wonder at in the
rest of them is natural to him, to kill without bloodshed, for
the most of his trophies are in a church window, when a
looking glass would show him more superstition. He is so
perfect a hater of images that he hath defaced God in his
Cleiveland was ever a bitter enemy of Cromwell, and we
shall encounter him, like Milton, later on as a journalist.
On 30th January, 1645, Dillingham gave umbrage to the
Lords in his Parliament Scout : " This day " (23rd January),
he wrote, "the House of Commons debated the business
of Church government whether it was ' jure divino ' (i.e.,
the Presbyterian method of Classes and so on) which was
answered in the 'negative,' whether subject to the 'civil
power ' which was answered in the ' affirmative,' and com-
mented on this: 'Indeed it were sad if discipline should
once be strecht ' to ' jure divino,' its true we had dayes in
which sometimes this then that was ' jure divino ' but now
we are growne wiser and set upon a form of Church govern-
ment that is alterable''.
From this it will be seen that Dillingham was anything
but a staunch Presbyterian. It is amazing in these days to
have to add, that for so trivial a matter he was immediately
arrested by order of the Lords and the Parliament Scout was
suppressed. On 22nd February he petitioned the Lords for
his discharge ; and apparently obtained it, for on 6th March,
1645, he commenced a fresh periodical in the place of the
Scout, which he entitled the Moderate Intelligencer.
Captain Audley's career as licenser now came to an end.
66 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
In Mercurius Britanicus, No. 92, for 28th July to 4th August,
Marchamont Nedham wrote as follows :
"Where's King Charles? What's become of him? it
were best to send Hue and cry after him.
" If any man can bring any tale or tiding of a wilful King,
which hath gone astray these four yeares from his Parliament,
with a guilty conscience, bloody hands, a heart full of broken
vowes and protestations. If these marks be not sufficient
there is another in the mouth " (Bos in lingua note at the
side), " for bid him speak and you will soon know him. Then
give notice to Britanicus and you shall be well paid for your
paines. So God save the Parliament."
Bos in lingua was a reference to a slight impediment in his
speech from which King Charles suffered. Never had such
an insult been offered to a King of England before ; and had
the Parliament ignored it they would have had an outraged
people to reckon with. The day after this appeared, White,
the printer of Britanicus, was brought to the bar of the House
of Lords, where he stated that he " had directions from Captain
Audley who he conceived had authority from Mr. Bush worth ".
He was sent to the Fleet, and Captain Audley was ordered
to be attached and was afterwards sent to the Gatehouse
Prison. Marchamont Nedham, however, escaped scot-free,
the licenser being held guilty. On 15th August, ten days
later, Audley was liberated and forbidden to license " books "
From this date Gilbert Mabbott acted as licenser. He
was the son of a Nottingham cobbler who, from working with
his awl and last in his father's shop, had come up to London,
and had found employment as John Rushworth's clerk, when
he learnt how to write a diurnal from acting as Eushworth's
"sub-author" on the London Post. 1 He possessed no other
x The Man in the Moon, No. 26, 17th-24th October, 1649 ; ibid., 21st-
30th May, 1649 ; Mercurius Elencticus, No. 44, 10bh-17th September, 1648.
On 14th July, 1646, the House of Commons voted him 20 for " engros-
sing the propositions" (i.e., to the Scots Commissioners' "and for divers
other services to the house ".
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBEK, 1646 67
qualifications for the office, and the appointment was a
distinct triumph for the Independent faction to which he
belonged. He was Fairfax's agent for the army, and this
was his qualification. Later on he became conspicuous as a
Leveller, who headed all the personal attacks on the King
whose death he desired.
Mercurius Academicus succeeded Mercurius Aulicus on 21st
December, 1645 ; and apparently it also was printed at Oxford
(Aulicus having come to an end on the preceding 7th Septem-
ber). This, from statements in Diutinus, seems to have been
written by a clergyman named Little, possibly Eichard Little,
son of the Mayor of Abingdon, a graduate of Pembroke
On 9th March, 1646, Eushworth's appointment as licenser
was revoked, and he was formally replaced by Mabbott hither-
to only his deputy. On 5th May, 1646, King Charles delivered
himself up to the Scots, and, had only the Presbyterians and the
Independents then agreed, a good deal of later history would
have to be written very differently. They did not agree, how-
ever, and the struggle between the two parties cost the King
his life and the people of England their liberties.
Nedham in Mercurius Britanicus now proceeded to revile
the King more than before, the climax being reached in the
number for llth-18th May, 1646, when he wrote: "Will
the Scots send the King to his Parliament or not? Ye shall
know more when 'tis determined in the Upper House what
to do, how he shall be demanded and how received," adding :
" Be resolved ye Commons of the kingdom, you have paid
dear for your liberties, and whosoever he was that endeavoured
to rob you of them is ipso facto a tyrant . . . the Scots have
smarted so much heretofore by the power of that brood of
Vipers" (the kings) "that they have little reason to make
their camp their court." Besides attacking the King, the
whole number attempted more or less to make mischief be-
tween the two Houses. An end, therefore, was put to Britani-
68 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
On the 21st of May, 1646, the House of Lords ordered the
attachment of Nedham and Captain Audley, and two days
later Nedham was brought to the bar. He then confessed to
the making of this number and of all from No. 52, a period of
eighty weeks, and stated that Britanicus was perused and
licensed by Audley as Eush worth's deputy which was un-
true. He was then committed to the Fleet, and White, his
printer, together with Audley, was ordered to appear.
Nedham wrote from prison to Lord Denbigh on the 28th of
May, begging him to have his petition for a release presented
and read to the Lords that day, and protesting his loyalty to
the House in spite of the errors of his pen. Lord Denbigh
seems to have interceded successfully, for on June 4th Ned-
ham was liberated on bail, himself in 200, his securities
being John Partridge, the stationer, and William Lipthorpe,
in 100 each, on condition that he should not write any more
pamphlets without leave.
Mercurius Britanicus thus came permanently to an end. On
the 13th of June Audley, who was not even in London, ap-
peared, denied that he had licensed Britanicus, and was released.
Whether he admitted it or not, it can thus be fairly con-
cluded that Gilbert Mabbott was the instigator of these
attacks on the King. He must have had powerful friends,
for he does not appear either to have been punished or called
On the 15th of October Samuel Pecke, with Blaicklocke,
one of his printers, was called before the House of Commons
and examined as to the printing of the papers of the Scots
Commissioners, and on the 3rd of November Henry Walker,
a printer, with one Westrop and Mabbott, the licenser him-
self, was called before the Lords for publishing some of the
Scots Commissioners' original letters; the Commissioners
having complained of their publication.
The author of Civicus and the Kingdomes Weekly Intelli-_
gencer now also turned round, and, staunch Presbyterian
he was, revealed himself as the champion of his King.
14TH JUNE, 1643, TO 31ST DECEMBER, 1646 69
Civicus, No. 180, 29th October to 5th November, 1646, he
writes : " I have now given you the heads of the papers lately
delivered by the commissioners of the Kingdom of Scotland,
what is omitted (for all the paper is full of brain) is conceived
to be too strong in sinews for public apprehension and Inde-
pendent digestion. I have travailed with my pen to satisfy
the kingdom and let no man throw more dirt upon me, which
will be inhumanly done, for I have found the way (by so
many years travailes) to be deep and troublesome enough,
neither do I hope my old Host will be angry (although I
hear he intends to stop my passage) if hereafter I shall
lodge at the Heart, or the sign of the King's Head. But
signes are signes and Hearts are Hearts."
From this it will be seen that this brave old fellow, who
apparently was an old lodger of Mabbott's, thinking his King
was likely to be wronged in the negotiations then on foot,
had boldly determined, regardless of the consequences, and
in despite of licenser, Parliament, and all, to speak his mind.
He had to suffer for his loyalty, for Mercurius Civicus was
suppressed, in spite of his apology in the Kingdomes Weekly
Intelligencer on 10th November and in Civicus on 12th
November. He stuck to his guns, however, and qualified his
apology by stating that the laws of the kingdom obliged him
to allegiance, and adding that he prayed for the King, " and
I believe few more oftener, with a more humble knee or a
more constant heart". And this was a soldier who fought
against the King when it was a question of religion ! Mer-
curius Civicus appeared for the last time on 10th December,
and its writer was deprived of half his income. The reason
of the regret which so avowed and doughty a Eoyalist as
Samuel Sheppard expressed later on for his poverty is apparent.
On 16th December, 1646, Captain Audley again appeared
as a journalist, with Mercurius Diutimis 1 carefully adding to
1 Mercurius Diutinus, No. 9, 20fch-27th January, 1646: "I have
always told you (both in Britanicus and in my Diutinus) that the Parlia-
ment is the most noble and Royal seat for the King ". Nedham was for-
bidden to publish anything at the time.
70 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
the title " (not Britanicus) ". This periodical lasted until the
following 10th February and does not call for any special
remark. On 31st December, 1646, John Kushworth also
revived his London Post for two months.
Communicating the High Counfels of both Pailia*
ments in England and Scotland, and all other
Remarkable paflages, both Civill and Mart&llin
his Weekly Travclls through the tbreeKirigdoms .
tprinted and entred according to order
From Tbt*rfda}jAtiHAvjihei& t*T&**fby February 4.
THE great bufineffc is now concluded* and what Forraigne King-
domes have fo long a trended, and aJmoftftood on tiptoe to be-
hold, this wcckc bath brought to pclfc, wych is the King
THE year 1647 ushered in one who was henceforth to share
Samuel Pecke's position of principal journalist to the Parlia-
Henry Walker was born at Derby and had commenced life
as apprentice to a London ironmonger called Holland, in
Newgate Market ; he then set up in business for himself,
failed, and on 28th October, 1639, went for a brief period to
Queens' College, Cambridge. 1 Thence, without taking any
degree, he proceeded to Bishop Williams of Lincoln, after-
wards Archbishop of York, armed with a certificate of fitness
from the college and another from Archbishop Laud's chap-
lain, and was ordained deacon. Subsequently he fell under
ecclesiastical censure and apparently was suspended.
After his short ecclesiastical experience Walker set up in
business as a bookseller and writer of puritanical and se-
ditious pamphlets, circulating, it was said by John Taylor,
as many as four or five hundred thousand copies. On 12th
March, 1641, the House of Lords committed him to the Fleet
for writing two libels, entitled The Prelates Pride and
Verses on the Wren and the Finch. Five days later he
was released on his own petition, as being " a poor man and
very sorry ". On 20th December, 1641, the House of Com-
mons also sent for him, as a delinquent, for the making of
a book entitled A Terrible Outcry against the Loytering Exalted
1 Information kindly furnished by W. M. Coates, Esq., Bursar of Queens'
College. Walker's university career must have been of the briefest pos-
72 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
He employed a "ragged regiment of tatterdemalions, Mer-
curies, and hawkers " to vend his pamphlets about the streets,
and his successive experiences as ironmonger, preacher, book-
seller and printer gave him a curious business capacity,
which actually made him the most successful journalist of
his day. The introduction of advertisements into newsbooks
was an innovation of which he was the originator, and,
though he was not the first in the field, he first realised the
practical advantages of establishing advertising offices. He
has thus left an enduring mark upon an important side of
For his early history we are indebted to the controversy
which he had with John Taylor one of the Eoyal Watermen,
and "Water-Poet" as he loved to call himself, a devoted
loyalist and Churchman. Walker had decidedly the worst
of the encounter, for Taylor's one weapon was ridicule the
deadliest and most effective that could be used against the
Puritans. A pamphlet published by Taylor in 1641 1 led to
An Answer by Walker, scurrilous in language, and foul in
the charges he made against his opponent, coupled with an
exhortation to repent in the most approved canting manner.
Taylor answered him with A Eeply as True as Steele. To a
Rusty, Rayling, Ridiculous, Lying Libell, which was Lately
Written by an Impudent, Unsoderd Ironmonger. In this he
pointed out that the verse in Walker's Answer was stolen
from Fenner, "the dead riming poet," and told a story of
Walker having pawned his Bible for a quart of metheglin at
the ' Owl ' in Kings Street. The frontispiece to this pamphlet
contained a disgusting woodcut, and for the anagram "V. B.
Heavenly K R," attached to Walker's Answer -, Taylor sug-
gested a new one " Knav, ' Keviler ' Hel ". Walker replied
with Taylor s PhysicJce has Purged the Divel (the rest of the
title is unquotable), illustrating the frontispiece of his pamphlet
with an infinitely worse woodcut than Taylor's, and after
several pages of scurrility he accused Taylor of being a thief
*A Swarm of Sectaries and Schismatiques, etc.
TO YOUR TENTS, ISRAEL 73
and predicted a sudden death for him. He also boasted of
his "pedegree" and the coat of arms which he said he pos-
sessed, asserting that Taylor's was " farre inferior". Taylor
replied to this in verse, without descending to Walker's level,
in The Irish Footman s Poetry the Author George Richard-
son an Hibernian Pedestrian. In this he lampooned Walker
unmercifully, ridiculing his claim to be of the ancient family of
Walker of Bredsall, and averring that he was the son of
Eichard Walker nicknamed "Cherry Lickam," who used to
travel about the country with a trained ape.
On 5th January, 1642, the day after he had unsuccessfully
attempted to arrest the five members in the House of
Commons, King Charles I. visited the city, and dined with
the sheriff Sir George Garrett. As the King drove home in
his coach with the Earl of Essex through St. Paul's Church-
yard, the crowd raised cries of "Privilege of Parliament,"
and there was a considerable amount of noise which
"troubled" the King. Walker, probably fancying that he
would be undiscovered, seized the opportunity to throw one
of his pamphlets into the coach, and into the King's face.
When the King arrived at Whitehall the pamphlet, which
bore the title To your Tents, Israel, was read and found
to be an open solicitation to rebellion. The Lord Chief
Justice was sent for the next day, and a warrant issued for
the arrest of Walker and the printer.
The uncomplimentary references to Walker's personal ap-
pearance are so numerous that, as will be easily understood,
there could be little difficulty in identifying him. He had a
round yellow face, and red hair, which, coupled with the
treacherous part he played against the King later on, pro-
cured him the nickname of "Judas". 1 When captured, he
asserted that he did not throw the pamphlet into the King's
l Mercurius Britanicus, His Welcome to Hell. See also the writer's
article in the Nineteenth Century and After, March, 1908, on "Henry
Walker, Journalist of the Commonwealth," for an account of Walker and
74 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
coach and denied that he had written it, adding that he had
bought it from a schoolboy in Westminster Hall for 2s. 6d.
This statement he signed. The printer was then captured
and examined, and confessed that the whole of the night
previous to the King's journey into the city had been spent
by Walker and himself in writing and printing the pamphlet,
and that his wife's Bible had been borrowed in order to find
the text for its headline. Both were then committed to the
King's Bench Prison in Southwark.
While being removed across the Thames for trial at the
sessions at Newgate a week later, they were rescued by a
mob at Blackfriars. Taken twice afterwards, Walker again
twice escaped. Once he preached in the Church of St. Mary
Magdalen, Bermondsey, causing a riot as the result. At last
Sir John Conyers, Lieutenant of the Tower, captured him in
a boat on the Thames, and he was tried at the Old Bailey on
12th July, 1642. If there was one thing that the Parliament
was anxious to prove in the eyes of the world at this time it
was, that it was not about to rebel against the King personally
but against his advisers. Consequently it is fairly certain
that Walker's incitement to take up arms, coupled with the
personal insult to the sovereign, would have led to the inflic-
tion upon him of the cruel punishment then in vogue for high
treason hanging, drawing and quartering. The King, how-
ever, wrote to the Parliament that Walker was not to suffer
in life or limb, and consequently he was only tried for misde-
meanour. He was convicted of writing, publishing, and re-
ceiving money for the sale of his libel ; he then begged the
King's pardon, retracted what he had written "with tears,"
and for punishment was condemned to stand in the pillory
Taylor seized the opportunity to publish a biography of
Walker, 1 and followed this up by a burlesque sermon entitled :
A seasonable lecture . . . as it might be delivered in Hatcham^
Barne . . . by Henry Walker. Taken in short writing by " Tliorny
1 The Whole Life and Progress of Henry Walker the Ironmonger.
HENEY WALKEK ALIAS "LUKE HAKKUNEY" 75
Atio" (Taylor's anagram). Walker was never to hear the
last of this sermon of his on "Tobies dogges tayle " as it
was called, and he never again entered into controversy
with a Eoyalist. On 23rd January, 1643, he published his
Modest Vindication, but in a very different style from that of
his pamphlet entitled Taylor's Physick. In this he made no
further attack on Taylor, and called down the blessings of
heaven on the King for his " gracious favour," which, he said,
"soared my affection so high to love and honour him that
could I lay down my life to do him service, I should think
my death a blessed sacrifice ". He again denied that he had
thrown the pamphlet into the King's coach, and that he was
either a Brownist or Anabaptist. In comparison with his
earlier pamphlets, the affectation of learning in this document,
with its Scriptural and classical quotations and wealth of
pious platitudes, is as curious as pretentious.
Walker does not seem to have had much to do with jour-
nalism until 1647, when he appeared as the author of Perfect
Occurrences of Every Daies Journal, which, he states, had up
to that time been written by another hand. His vanity
forbade his publishing anonymously, yet he was afraid of
signing his weekly pamphlet with his own name. Conse-
quently he invented a false one by anagramatizing Henry
Walker into " Luke Harruney " probably the most success-
ful anagram on record, for it has led to " Luke Harruney "
being considered and catalogued as a separate person. Per-
fect Occurrences was one of the organs of the army, and conse-
quently of Independency, and the growth in power of the
latter faction can be traced by the increase in importance of
Walker's newsbook. By the end of 1647 it had not only
become important enough to be printed on the larger " tiffany"
or " cobweblaune " sheets, like the Perfect Diurnall, but it had
also doubled its size consisting of two sheets, i.e., sixteen
Gilbert Mabbott was temporarily removed from his post
of licenser some weeks before the month of September, 1647,
76 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
probably by the Presbyterians. Who then took his place is
not clear, for about this time Walker petitioned the House of
Lords that some one should read his Occurrences before he
printed them. On 27th September Walker had so far in-
gratiated himself with the Parliament, that he and Mathew
Simmons, " having been at great charges in printing all the
papers of the army in one volume," "were ordered by the
House of Lords "to have the sole printing of them for one
year " from the date thereof. He was thus brought into the
public view, and a Fresh Whip for all Scandalous Lyers de-
scribes him as " He whose face is made of brasse, his body of
iron and his teeth are as long as tenpenny nayles," and adds :
" I think he is a youth not unknown to most in the City
since the great preferment he had to stand in the pillory.
He is a great merchant in this way of writing and very excel-
lent for the framing a title for an old, or new lye. This is he
that when our men lay of one side of Shotover Hill against
Oxford, he got the favour to discharge a peece of Ordnance
against the City. When he had done, for London he came,
with a greater report and execution than ever the piece did,
that he had shot down one of the chiefest colleges in the
University and that he could perceive the very battlements to
fall. And after this great victory of his, because he would be
taken notice of, he causes his printer to set down the very
place where he lives, as for example London printed for
Thomas" (sic) "Walker living at a great brick house and
balcony as you turne up to St. James's, when-indeed the three
cornered house without a roofe turning up to Padington were
more fitter" (i.e., Tyburn gallows), "I must confesse he
doth take a great deale more pains than the other " (Pecke),
" in compacting his relations together, and it doth chiefly lye
in running up and down. He may well be called the Bell-
man of the City, for he is up all houres in the night, running
too and agen from the Post house. And when he is questioned
with * Who goes there ? ' ' My name is Walker, I am
about the States service, pray do not stop me' when he
"THE FOUKE DESTEOYING WOEMS" 77
hath been at a printing house laying his sower leven of ray-
lings and scandalisings against honest and reverend men, or
else compacting his damnable lyes together I wonder he
never met with the Divell, but indeed he was ever a favourer
of lyes, and I believe hath granted him a large Patten"
(patent) "for his profession. I do think that his and
many other scurrilous pamphlets, have done more mischief
in the kingdome, than ever all my Lord of Essex's or Sir
Thomas Fairefaxes whole traine of artillery ever did." The
private house referred to was the Fountain, Kings Street,
Westminster, in which street Cromwell lived ; and a close
connection with Henry Walker, through Cromwell's favourite
chaplain Hugh Peters, 1 may thus be inferred. I
One subdivision of the Independent party was that of
the Levellers, led chiefly by John Lilburne. They may be
roughly denned as a political party of pure Eepublicans, and
their opinions, tending to place all power in the hands of the
people and to reduce that of Parliament to a minimum, had
caused disputes and mutinies since 1645. Lilburne's amaz-
ing contentiousness and voluminous pamphlets, coupled with
his skill in legal resources and quibbles, render the Levellers'
controversy too complicated to be more than noticed here.
A Koyalist writer of the year 1650 sums up the great
parties in a very striking simile :
''They act their part like the armie of God's vengeance
and devoure like the foure destroying worms, the Palmer
worm, the Locust, the Cankerworm and the Caterpillar, these
may be alluded to in what is foul in our Westminster furies
and State harpies. First the Palmer worm is that united
Eebellion of the two Houses of Parliament against our King
which did eat up part of our fruits. Secondly the covenant-
ing brethren of Presbytery as the Locust which swarmed
and scaling the walls of loyalty eate up what the Palmer
worm left. Thirdly the Cankerworm, the levelling blas-
1 Hugh Peters' letter reporting the taking of Drogheda in 1649 was to
Walker (Mercurius Pragmaticus, 25th September to 2nd October, 1649).
78 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
phemous atheist, poysoned peoples hearts and eate up those
small fruits of loyalty which the Locust had left. Fourthly
and lastly, the Caterpillar, the Independent Kegicide, the
most devouring of all others, hath eaten up our fruits, des-
troyed our vines, killed the Lord of our Vineyard, scattered
his workmen and servants, taken all his possessions into
their hands, and have made themselves lords and rulers over
his inheritance." 1
The King a prisoner handed over to Parliament by
the Scots and the triangular conflict proceeding between
the Presbyterian, the Independent and the Leveller, the
Independent army became the arbiter of the nation's fate.
The people, citizen and Presbyterian alike, by this time were
longing for their King, and for the disbanding of the army.
" Their summum bonum is their profit and the goddess they
adore is ' dea moneta,' " remarks a Koyalist writer of the
army. ". . . How many poor hirelings who before these
warres fed on scraps and would have run a dozen miles for
an old jerkin, now doe ruffle it in silks and satins, now bravely
mounted and attended, fare deliciously, scorn their old
benefactors, insult and domineer over all. To set forth what
learned men are compelled to crouch and creep to a company
of thick skulled peasants. How many learned and grave
bishops and other Orthodox divines (the honour of our
nation and the glory of our Church) have been degraded,
ejected, persecuted, despised, reproached, imprisoned, banished,
destroyed ; and fools, brainless and scandalous livers pre-
ferred, encouraged, rewarded, and worshipped as so many
gods. That the kingdom is become a very chaos, a confusion
of manners, and ' domicilium infamorum ' the theatre of
hypocrisy a nursery of villainy, the scene of babbling, the
school of giddiness, the academy of Vice. ... If I declare
the army as Seditious, schismaticall, and cruel as ever, what
ne wes is it ? Know not all men that they are the scum of
1 Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II., 8th-15th January,
1649-50, p. 2. The text is from the prophet Joel, i. 4.
"ROYALIST MERCURIES" AND THE PEOPLE 79
the kingdom, an aggregate body of poor and bad fellows
' profligatae famae ac vitae '. Such and no other were the
followers of Cataline when he rebelled in Kome, of the same
extraction and lineage that Cade, Straw, and Kette came of.
Men of desperate and deadly principles." l
It was, however, the Presbyterian parson, disappointed in
the hoped-for supremacy of his own creed, that now led the
way in the universal dislike of the army the Presbyterian
described later on by Marchamont Nedham as " Temporis-
ing Adoniram, Geneva John, with his canonicall ruff about
his neck, snarling enough to set all the dogs in the Butcher
How upon his raw bones. He trips along the Change in his
trunk hose, and his satin doublet as old as the charter of the
City pinkt' with the equivocation of velvet sleeves and canvas
back." 2 After the abduction of the King from Holdenby,
the fear that the army intended to murder him was added
to all this a crime as odious equally to the Roundhead as to
No Royalist periodicals other than Aulicus and Academicus
had as yet appeared ; but, with thehearty good- will of thepeople,
London was now to be deluged with them. It was nominally
exempt from the power of the army, so a committee for
the militia was appointed on 2nd September. On the follow-
ing day the House of Commons gave this committee power
to suppress all pamphlets, diurnals and the like, and the
vending and dispersing of them. The answer of the Royal-
ists to this was the setting on foot of a series of Royalist
Mercuries, attacking and exposing the rebels and the leaders
of the army in a manner intended to render them odious to
The history of the press has nothing to parallel the efforts
now made by the Parliament to stamp out this hostile press
and suppress the Royalist writers, nor has it any such abject
l Mercurius Elencticus, No. 14, 23rd February to 1st March, 1648,
2 Mercurius Britannicus, No. 2, 26th July to 2nd August, 1652.
80 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
failure to record. There was no longer a band of scriveners
addressing the nation but a number of officers, clergymen
and ballad writers, both Royalist and Eoundhead, who treated
the tailors and cobblers officering the army and the trades-
men bent on enriching themselves in Parliament as rogues
and thieves, using the very plainest speech to describe their
enemies' failings and to comment on their aims and objects.
The first of the Royalist Mercuries, Mercurius Melancholicus ;
or, Newesfrom Westminster and other Parts, started by a Presby-
terian minister, John Hackluyt, D.D., who must have been a
descendant of the great geographer of that name, appeared on
4th September, 1647, and on its title-page were the following
verses the first constituting as will be noticed a chronogram
ReX CaroLe a te VaLeat Ita
per te VIgeat Hlbernla
Vt In te fLoreat In AngLI&
Legls, & paCIs gratia
Eheu ! quid feci misero mihi ? Floribus Austrum
Perditus & liquidis immisi fontibus apros
Woe is me, undone, with blasts the flowers doe fade
The chrystall springs by Swine, are puddle made.
This first number gave a picture of the state of mind of
those who had fought against the King, which was not cal-
culated to please either the Parliament or the army, and un-
fortunately for Dr. Hackluyt he also mortally offended the
Cavaliers by his opening sentences :
" The King now shall enjoy his owne againe and the Royall
throne shall be arraied with the glorious presence of that
mortall Diety " (sic), " but first let him beare his charge, for 'tis
said, his armies having lost the field, theil now charge him
home, there's a trivial thing called the innocent blood of three
kingdomes is first to be required and a few more such sleight
matters and then let him enjoy it if he can, but for your
further instructions herein you had better ask the Parlia-
"THE KING SHALL ENJOY HIS OWN AGAIN" 81
Language such as this could not be tolerated from any one
professing to call himself a Koyalist, as this Puritan preacher
now did, and his claim to write Melancholicus at all was
promptly challenged by the author of the famous old song
he had quoted, Martin Parker, the ballad writer, who is
chiefly known to us as the writer of " When the King shall
enjoy his own again," and "When the stormy winds do
Eventually Parker beat Hackluyt out of the field, and the
numbers of his Mercurius Melancholicus, which he persistently
declares to be the only true and original Melancholicus, can
generally be distinguished by the different style. Another
opponent to Hackluyt also promptly issued a counterfeit
Melancholicus, carefully choosing the day (Friday) preceding
that on which the others first appeared. His name is given
as Swallow Crouch, and either he or Hackluyt (which,
it is not clear) was said by Parker to have been an Irishman.
He was a printer and the writer of a large number of
counterfeits, and probably is to be identified with John
Hackluyt was frequently in prison for writing Melancho-
licus, and after one escape from prison he had again recom-
menced writing in opposition to Parker, and, as after due
warning he did not desist, Parker thus denounces him :
1 Martin Parker's exertions in the royal cause have not received the
attention they deserve. Prose tracts "by Melancholicus" are easily
identified, such as ' ' A Nose-gay for the House of Commons made up of
the Stincking Flowers of their Seven Years Labours " (15th August, 1648),
but the balkds require more care. " Troy-Novant Must not be Burnt "
(8th May, 1648), "Pratle your Pleasure (under the Rose)," "I Thanke
you Twice," and the like are probably his.
2 According to the Stationers' Register there were two John Crouches
who were printers. It may, however, be said with something like cer-
tainty that John Crouch the journalist and ballad writer was not the
John Crouch who wrote " A Mixt Poem," etc. Whether this last was
not a third John Crouch must be left to experts. For the statements as
to the three writers of Melancholicus see Mercurius Morbicus, No. 4,
20th-27th September, 1647, p. 7 ; also Mercurius Anti-Mercurius, No. 1,
12th-19th September, 1648.
82 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
"All you that love God and King Charles, in whose
eyes I have been acceptable. I shall desire you to take notice
of a couple of unclean beasts that (after fair warning) still do
abuse both with your purses and my patience by counter-
feits. The one is a Buffoon scoundrel Hackleite, I will not
say priest, least I more abuse that holy function than him-
self has done by his vile incontinency, having more wives
nay thrice as many as he hath suits to his back." He con-
tinues : " he was sometime chaplain to Ned Massey General-
issimo of Gloucestershire" (for the Parliament), "where he
was a long time fed out of the estate of Sir John Winter " (a
Catholic and the Queen's secretary). "He hath taken the
Covenant and been in actual rebellion against his King, he is
as religious as a windmill, and turns which way the wind
blows, a person so treacherous and courteous also, that were
the King here disguised, for 6 pence he would kisse him, cry
Hayle Master ! and deliver him up to his crucifiers at West-
minster. He will betray himself at any time to prison for a
pint of sack, and his friend for ' Thanks '. The other is a
blackmore 'mercury' that hath cunning enough (should
panphleting be put down) to turn gypsie, and get as many
hundreds as she hath lately by her trading."
If Martin Parker really produced an earlier number of
Melancholicus than the one I have described, it has yet to be
found. He terminates this denunciation with :
Although a shepherd of Arcadia
I never left my flock and run away
My pipe is sacred, dedicate to Pan
Cannot be broke by the rude hands of man
On yonder oake it hangs where Tytan plays
When Nymphs and Shepherds keep their Holy days
There with my sheep hook will I it defend
Or play with him dares against Pan contend
Whilst Meevius with loose and jigging rimes
Dance before Sin. I sing to cure the times. 1
1 Mercurius Melancholicus, No. 52, 14th-21st August, 1648. Burney,
CLEIVELAND AND SHEPPAKD 83
It will thus be seen that the different numbers of Melan-
cholicus require careful scrutiny, in order to decide who was
The first number of the second of the three "grand
Mercuries," as they were called, to distinguish them from
minor ones, appeared on 21st September, 1647, and was en-
titled : Mercurius Pragmaticus. Communicating Intelligence from
all Parts touching all Affaires, Designes, Humours and Conditions
throughout the Kingdome. Especially from Westminster and the
Head-quarters. Many different periodicals, with numerous
variations of this title, are comprised under the catchword
Mercurius Pragmaticus, which lasted until the middle of the
year 1650, and is of very varying authorship and merit.
Two poets are chiefly to be associated with Pragmaticus : the
one, the Cavalier and satirist John Cleiveland, the glory of St.
John's College, Cambridge, the other, the Kev. Samuel Shep-
pard, of whom little is known, but who states in Mercurius
Aulicus (of 1648) that he was a Lincolnshire man. He was
a past master of quaint description, and deserves careful
Aubrey in his Brief Lives says of Cleiveland : " He and
Sam Butler of Grayes Inne " (the author of Hudibras) "had
a clubb every night," and probably at these social evenings
in Gray's Inn a good many of the numbers of Pragmaticus
and other periodicals were put together. Mercurius Anti-Mer-
curius (4th April, 1648) states that Cleiveland was its author. 1
1 " This same Pragmaticus (alias J. Cleveland) was formerly a Uni-
versity chitton but now he is chief press whelp. I took him first for a
chilver Cavalier because he vented such loud feminine scoldings His
chief subject of jeering is Religion But sirrah Pragmaticus what's be-
come of your religious ballad singers, your devout bellows-blowers, your
divine fiddlers, your godly pipers, together with your heavenly Bawdy
Court (Star Chamber). Whats become of your wooden Doctors, your
leaden-headed Deans, your thundering Canons, your lazy prebends, your
simmonising chancellors, your sheep-biting bite-sheeps (Bishops I would
say), your treason plotting Arch-bite sheeps with the rest of that Divellish
84 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
His motto was "Nemo me impune lacessit " ; Sheppard's
motto was " Quis me impune lacessit ". 1
The Metropolitan Nuncio 2 also writes of Pragmaticus :
" Sam Shepheard that blasphemous clergy spot, being the
primo genitor of this accursed spawne, for the greater solem-
nity being invested in his pontificalibus with all the cere-
monies of the Babylonish smock " (i.e., surplice) " christn'd
the brat and called his name Pragmaticus". The first
number of the same periodical 3 also clearly states that I. C.
(i.e., Cleiveland) was then (6th July, 1649) the writer of it,
Sheppard that of Elencticus, and John Taylor the writer of
Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II., No. 1, 10th-
17th September, 1649, also commences as follows :
"Nay never cross the cudgels" (that is give up the
struggle). . . .
" Gentlemen ! I confess that I have refrained my pen some
time from writing this intelligence and suffered another to
imitate the piece I first began. . . . But since I gave it over
(finding impudence to become more bold and myself and the
piece much wronged by an impious hand that writ Britanicus
and a Hue and Cry against the King) " (i.e., Nedham). " Know-
ing the damage redounded to all the loyal readers as well as
my own reputation, I am resolved once more to enter the
1 Pragmaticus has been universally attributed to Marchamont Ned-
ham, but the writer wishes to point out that Anthony a Wood does
not say that Nedham originated it. In any case Nedham's connection
with it came to an end before June, 1649, when he was imprisoned and
recanted. Wood is totally wrong in saying that Nedham started Poll-
ticus in 1649, Nor is any confirmation to be found of his story of
Nedham's interview with the King. At the date of the Committee Man's
Complaint (? by Cleiveland) 26th August, 1647 Nedham is shown by the
references in it to him to have been still on the side of the rebels, and
on 21st September the first number of Pragmaticus appeared.
2 No. 3, 6th-13th June, 1649. This is the only number in the
Thomason Collection ; it is also the last. Sheppard remarks at this date :
" I broke his heart, and he his printer ".
3 The Metropolitan Nuncio, No. 1 (i.e., 2; No. 1 was Mercurius Mili-
taris), 30th May to 6th June, 1649. Burney, 34.
THE MEECUKIES AND THE PAKLIAMENT 85
lists against these monstrous Goliah's at Westminster, and
never give them over till I make their own swords their own
Cleveland's part was probably that of adviser or editor,
and Sheppard's that of working writer not only of Prag-
maticus but also of a number of the other Mercuries. It
is clear that the identity of the writers was concealed in order
to escape arrest. Pragmaticus served as a model for all
subsequent Mercuries, and Cleiveland may well have been un-
willing to own to the rough rhymes with which they invari-
ably commenced. Those on the first number are as follows :
When as we liv'd in peace (God wot)
A King would not content us
But we forsooth must hire the Scot
To all-be-Parliament us.
Then down went King and Bishop too
On goes the holy wirke
Betwixt them and the Brethren blue
T'advance the Crown and Kirke.
But when that these had reign'd a time
Robb'd kirk and sold the Crown
A more religious sort up climbe
And crush the Jockies downe.
But now we must have peace again
Let none with fear be vext
For, if without the King these reign
Then heigh down they goe next
" Nemo me impune lacessit."
General Fairfax wrote to the Speaker of the House of
Peers on 21st September, requesting Mabbott's reappoint-
ment as licenser, and desiring fresh legislation against the
stream of pamphlets which now began to issue against both
Parliament and army. On 28th September, therefore, an
ordinance was passed, which prescribed the following penalties
for the unlicensed periodicals. On the " author " 40s. or
40 days' imprisonment ; on the printer 20s. or 20 days ; on
the bookseller 10s. or 10 days. These penalties were
86 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
cumulative, and, in addition, the hawker, pedlar or ballad
singer was to be whipped and to have the whole of her or
his stock confiscated. Mabbott was also reappointed licenser
on 30th September. All that the Act succeeded in ac-
complishing was to elicit the following comment :
"What will become of me poor Pragmaticus ? For I
hear the vertuous -Earl of Manchester " (Speaker of the
House of Lords, who had turned Cleiveland out of his fellow-
ship of St. John's) "hath issued out a warrant and sent his
beagles abroad to hunt me out, which is the most dangerous
design he ever ventured upon since the time of King catch-
ing. For my motto is ' Nemo me impune lacessit,' and truly
I have a bottle or two of ink to bestow upon his lordship and
friends though (if I may use John Lilburn's language) I do
perish in the attempt."
On 5th November appeared the third of the "grand
Mercuries," entitled : Mercurius Elencticus. Communicating the
Unparallell'd Proceedings at Westminster, the Head Quarters, and
other Places, Discovering their Designs, Reproving their Crimes,
and Advising the Kingdome.
This was written by Captain, afterwards Sir George
Wharton, Bart., with the aid of Sheppard when he was in
prison, and is much the most valuable periodical of the three
owing to the detailed and exact biographical information of
the rebels and regicides which it aims at giving (an example
will be quoted and corroborated later on). Elencticus had no
counterfeits. Captain Wharton came of an ancient and
wealthy family in Westmorland. Educated as a sojourner
at Oxford, he was the sole Eoyalist who was an astrologer
and was the inveterate enemy of William Lilly, the chief
astrologer on the Parliament's side. He had spent the whole
of his patrimony in raising a troop of horse for the King's
service. He was the writer of A List of Members of Parlia-
ment, who were officers in the army contrary to the Self-
denying Ordinance, and gives in this List particulars of
the sums of money they had voted to themselves, and of a
WALKEE, HACKLUYT, AND MAETIN PAEKEK 87
Second List called also the Second Centurie. The two docu-
ments constitute a scathing exposure. 1
Naturally the writers of the licensed newsbooks did their
best in the hunt which now began, and the special object of
Henry Walker's rancour was John Hackluyt, as being a
Presbyterian who would not turn Independent. The castiga-
tion which he had received some years back at the hands of
John Taylor made him chary of interfering with Pragmaticus
and the rest ; but one of his own cloth was another matter,
so he even commenced a periodical Mercurius Medicus
against Hackluyt, and procured the writing of another en-
titled Mercurius Morbicus. In this, with characteristic men-
dacity, Hackluyt's name is described as being Hacket, and
Hackluyt himself as " descended of the ancient family, whereof
came that reverent hereticke " (William Hacket) " who blas-
phemed God upon the Gibbet in Cheapside, with the halter
about his necke, in Queen Elizabeth's days," and a " frenzie
Parker, however, promptly took up the challenge and
" The Eight Eeverend ironmonger (the same as is sus-
pected that preacht at Hatcham Barne the learned sermon
upon Tobies dogs tayle) would be trade fallen shortly if he
handled his text when he preached before the twelve bishops
in the Tower as well as he did Melancholicus in his last week's
intelligence. Sirrah you rogue, who told you Melancholicus
was a priest, or had you it from your father the everlasting
1 These important documents have as press marks 669, f. 12 (105)
and 669, f . 13 (10, 22). An " Answer " was published by Lilly in his
Astrological Prediction for 1648, 1649, etc. (E. 462 (I)}. The two former
are not taken from Clement Walker's History of Independency as Wood
states. Nor is there any reason to attribute the first document to Clem-
ent Walker in view of Wharton's distinct statements in Mercurius Elenc-
ticus that he wrote it. There is also a counterfeit of the Second Centurie
(E. 458 (12)).
88 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
" Martin Parker it seems hath penned a very doleful ballad
called Luke Harruney's confession and lamentation at the
gallowes, to the tune of the ' Earle of Essex last good-night ' ".
Finally he gave Walker's epitaph at the gallows :
Here hangs Walker in a string
That Judas like did hate his King
Faithless, fruitless he was e\ier
Except in lies, but loyal never
From hence h'as taken wings to be
Old Beelzebub's chief Mercury.
Walker's Mercuries appeared no more he was silenced.
The ordinance of September, 1647, was soon consigned to the
lumber room, and the Koyalist writers were simply committed
to prison during the year 1648 without warrant or form of
law until they escaped (as they invariably did). Before tell-
ing their story, the appearance, on 27th November, of a fourth
Mercury Mercurius Bellicus, or An Alarum to all Rebells, re-
quires notice. This was written by John Berkenhead, the
former author of Aulicus. 1
On 16th October the printer of Pragmaticus was captured
and sent to Newgate. On 19th October the printer of
Melancholicus was fined. Wharton had contracted the plague
at the commencement of August, 2 and so was not suspected
or captured until the following year.
On 27th November, 1647, the House of Commons, seeing
the failure of their ordinance and that the Mercuries still
went on, appointed a committee to inquire after the authors,
printers and publishers of Melancholicus, Pragmaticus, Elencticus
and Bellicus, which by this time were making direct personal
1 Mercurius Anti-Mercurius, 4th April, 1648 (written by John Harris
"Oxford Jack") says, "Make room for Mars his petty toe one of
Bellonaes Whiners sirnamed Bellicus, whose might lyes in his muzzle,
makes Crackers for the Cavaliers, and is the sole engine to crowne au.
thority into an atom, he looks like a Kentish pippin codled in the sinciput
of Tom Summers ". Then follows an unquotable verse with a reference
to his "goggle-eyes" which "Durst neer see sword in wrath". The
description recalls Aubrey's remark about Berkenhead's eyes.
2 Ashmole's Life.
THE MEECUKIES EXPOSE THE EEBELS 89
attacks upon all the ruling members of the two Houses and
the army, lampooning them in every possible way, and ex-
posing their private lives. A veritable chwnique scandaleuse
can henceforth be obtained from the Eoyalist Mercuries
concerning Marten, Weaver, Scot, Corbet, Mildmay and Ser-
jeant Wilde. No accusations of leading a licentious life are
made against Cromwell, though allusions to his debauched life
as a youth, when he was a brewer at Ely, are so frequent as
to carry conviction of a notorious truth. The blemishes at-
tributed to his character are lying and treachery, but beyond
the standing joke against his nose little else is said. 1
For intelligence of what was happening in the country or
abroad the pages of the Eoyalist Mercuries are almost value-
less ; since they had neither offices nor regular correspondents.
For what was happening around them in London day by day
they are, however, of the highest importance, and their com-
ments on the licensed newsbooks, side by side of which they
should be read, are at times quite illuminating.
1 The parish registers of St. John's, Huntingdon, contain the following
memoranda under the years 1621 and 1628 respectively: "Oliverus
Cromwell reprehendus erat coram tota Ecclesia pro factis," and " Hoc
anno Oliverus Cromwell fecit penitentiam coram tota ecclesia ". Both
entries have been tampered with, and an attempt made to scratch them
out. (Information kindly given by the Rector of All Saints.)
CHAPTEK VI. .
ON 6th January, 1648, an order was issued that the Committee
for the Suppression of " Scandalous" Pamphlets should sit
daily and that sums should be paid to those who discovered
" malignant " presses ; and the jailer of Peterhouse Prison was
at the same time reproved because prisoners had escaped. On
the 9th a fresh committee of the Commons was ordered to
sit, and consider a more effectual ordinance for preventing
Wharton thus comments on the proceedings of the House
(on 9th January) :
"Then they spent some idle minutes about scandalous
and unlicensed pamphlets and some gal'd hackneys kicked
and flung unluckily (Miles Ugly especially) who pressed hard
how much prejudiciall they had been and were yet to their
affairs (of murthering the king) and how dishonourable to the
nation, etc. . . . Is it not a sad thing that Miles Corbet cannot
hand a harlot to the water side unless he be both cudgelled
and robbed of his pleasure ? Is not Harry Martin to be pitied
that he cannot enjoy his mistresses (in his new buildings)
without the world be told of it ? Is it not lamentable that
the Keverend Justice Wild " cannot do the like but " have
it proclaimed on the Housetop? Indeed 'tis a pittiful thing."
The sting of all this lay in its absolute truth.
On llth January the House of Commons gave power to
the Committee for " Scandalous " Pamphlets to employ such
persons as they should think fit to prosecute, etc., and passed
a resolution to employ " honest able men to answer the scandal-
ous pamphlets and undeceive the people therein ". On 15th
THE DEKBY HOUSE COMMITTEE 91
January the Committee of both Kingdoms was abolished,
and the English members alone were retained with some
additions. Hereafter known as the Derby House Committee,
from the place at Westminster where they sat, these men
now became the virtual wielders of the sovereign power of
On the same day the Parliament voted that there should
be no further addresses to the King, and that none should be
presented to His Majesty by any one without leave, and that
if any should be presented to him without such leave the act
should constitute high treason. Two thousand horse and
foot had been ordered to London on the previous day (14th
January) to protect the Parliament from the people. London
and the nation were now on the side of the King, and, in its
struggle with both King and nation, the Parliament had to
rely on the Independent army, which it (or the Presbyterian
part of it) hated.
The Committee of Derby House (converted into the Coun-
cil of State in 1649) is thus described at the commencement
of the following year : " And now I speak of them ' vous avez '
Darby House the second ' modus habendi ' of this high, huge,
mighty, grand, great Council of State. These are the Court
Cards of the last order, that must do the feat which is to be
lengthened, like a sparrow's mouth from year to year, till all
our freedoms and liberties are swallowed up therein. Here
the Grandees power seems to be more contracted than in its
mother Mr. Speakers conventicle for let Carrot-nose com-
mand the beagles at Westminster anything to the Table men
of State the dispatch is of undisputed nature, when once the
light of his countenance hath been lifted upon it. I wonder
what such children of darkness have to do with candles in
the night, 'slid his nose would give them a better light and
lead them into all cruelty. But though he seems here like a
pillar of fire leading the rest of the kitling kings to their
imagined Canaan, yet is he here but in swadling clouts, in
respect of his perfect capacity in the Council of War. Here
92 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
he is in full stature of Prince. Here's the help at Maw, the
Pigeons to the feet, these are the Emperique politicians that
kill or cure by the minerall, the barberous surgeons of the
Commonwealth. When the father, son, and precious Harri-
son" (an attorney's clerk and son of a butcher at Newcastle-
under-Lyme) " are in this capacity, they are like the High
Priest in Sanctum Sanctorum where none of the wicked can
touch them. With the Council of State they cry 'Justice
for the people '. With the Parliament they cry a fig for the
Council of State, but with the Council of War they give de-
fiance to the People, Parliament and all. Here they are
armed ' cap-a-pe ' like lobsters, here they are in State of Grace,
in full meridian." l
On 25th February rewards were offered for the capture of
the writers of Melancholicus and Pragmaticus, and Martin
Parker is found exclaiming : " But 20 for Melancholicus !
Come along customers, who bids more he will yield a
better price than this in Turkie. Come on Mr. Selden the
other 20 and then he shall tell you more of his minde an
ordinance for it too ! "
The utmost efforts were now made to suppress the
Mercuries. Spies (their names are innumerable) and pur-
suivants were set in pursuit of the writers and the Mercury
women who sold their periodicals. In the Stationers' Com-
pany one Hunscot, a printer, with his "crew of rake-
shames," was the leader. John Partridge, also, with his
"pumpion red nose," who, as an almanac publisher, was par-
ticularly keen on capturing Wharton the inveterate enemy
of Lilly and the rest of thev" State necromancers " Booker,
Fisk, Lathom and others. The City Marshall and his " lub-
bards " joined in the hunt against the women hawkers, who,
when caught, were lashed and imprisoned until they
divulged the names of those who had given them the
1 Mercurius Militaris, No. 1, 24th April, 1649. The passage is
clearly by John Cleiveland and must be taken as a sample of his editor-
ship, for the rest of the periodical is of a very inferior literary stamp.
NEDHAM BECOMES A EOYALIST 93
pamphlets to sell. The inducement to them to sell the
Eoyalist Mercuries (which they carried in their "plackets,"
while selling the licensed newsbooks openly) was their
greater popularity, and the fact that these Mercuries sold for
double the price of the others, namely, twopence instead of a
penny ; an important point to remember when the price of
an " ordinary," or, as we should say, table d' hote dinner, was
" Melancholicus " writes on 22nd January: " There is a
generation called Peepers, creatures of the Committees now
beginning, who like the Devil (their chief Lord) thrust their
heads into every corner to finde out objects whereon to vent
their traiterous and base designs. I am sure any honest
man abhorres the thought of 'em, only the Honourable
Parliament allows them stipends to betray the innocent.
How many honest men have they abused in finding out
Pragmaticus and Melancholicus, as Mr. Shepheard, Mr. Hacklet
and others, yet the gentlemen are as innocent as the day"
(!); and " Elencticus " adds on the 2nd of February: "But
I feare I am too loud since so many whisperers attend me.
Thirty couple (a goodly pack) are appointed by the Houses
to listen and eavesdrop the city. The members allow them
52 10s. a week that's 2,756 per annum."
Marchamont Nedham appears at first to have written a
counterfeit Pragmaticus commencing in the middle of No-
vember, 1647. A parliamentarian Mercury, entitled Anti-
Pragmaticus, had been started from the first in opposition
to Pragmaticus, and this has no allusion to Nedham until
3rd February, 1648, when it remarks : " Thou wert once of
another temper Pragmaticus, and that, the whole Kingdom
who read thee by another name know gold what a
god art thou and O man what a devill art thou to worship
its illustrious hew ". The reason which led Nedham to turn
Eoyalist was simply his discovery that Eoyalist journalism
paid best. From this time to nearly the end of the year the
periodical appears to have been abandoned to him (Sheppard
94 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
was writing other Mercuries), and it assumes the scolding
and tiresome style familiar to readers of Britanicus his old
That the Eoyalist Mercuries, although they had neither
offices nor staffs, had sometimes good and unwelcomely truth-
ful information, is perfectly clear from the following anecdote
"Friday. Aug. 18. The first business that came in
play this day was a deep designe of that deadly spitfire Ned
Ashe " (a city linen-draper) " against Mercurius Pragmaticus,
whom he is resolved to spoil, it seems, by cutting off his con-
duit pipe of intelligence from Westminster. And therefore
he gave Mr. Speaker a good morrow with a timely admoni-
tion, telling him that he thought fit to present unto him what
he had brought in his pocket, which, said he, is that scurril-
ous pamphlet Pragmaticus. A Fellow, Mr. Speaker, which
comes abroad more exact and perfect than he ever did, and
relates all passages and whatever we say in the house. And
truly except some course be taken to prevent this, by finding
out him or his Intelligencer I conceive we shall quite lose the
freedom and privacy of our debates. And for my part Mr.
Speaker I know not whom to accuse but I suspect one of
our own clerks, a drunken debauched fellow with a red face,
and I conceive we might do very well to appoint a committee
to examine him. Well said, Ned Ashe! Thou hast hit
the naile on the head I warrant thee. It is he with the red
zealous face the Man in the Moon that drinks clarret, every
jot as wise a woodcock as thine own sweet self Mr. Speaker
being in his dumps, and the whole house in a laughter, it
was easily carried, and a committee packed to examine the
drunken debauched fellow with a red face that lives like
as very an Antinomian as Ashe himself."
The Calendars of State Papers give no account of the
numerous arrests and escapes that continually took place
during 1648, but Henry Walker chronicles in Perfect Oc-
currences the capture on each occasion of Dr. Hackluyt.
THE ESCAPES OF JOHN HACKLUYT 95
On llth March, 1648, he was captured for the second time
(he had been captured and had escaped at some uncertain
date in 1647), as well as the new printer of Pragmaticus,
and both were sent to Newgate. He promptly escaped again,
and on 25th March Walker writes : " Dr. (as the foole calls
himself) Hacklet the writer of Melancholicus who ran away
from the Committee was this day taken in Grayes Inne Lane
and all his wives but one have left him ". (On 4th April his
printer, Edward Crouch, was taken and sent to prison.)
Hackluyt again escaped, and as Sheppard, Parker and others
were also engaged in being imprisoned and escaping, " fresh
instructions for the punishment of those who wrote scandal-
ous pamphlets were now" (16th June) " passed in the House ".
Dr. Hackluyt was once more captured on 20th July, and
Walker's comment runs : "he was formerly a minister in
Gloucester for the Parliament before he had so many wives ".
There is no record of the imprisonments of Martin Parker or
Crouch, but the former appears on one occasion to have been
placed in the pillory. 1
Hackluyt was neither liked nor trusted, and with good
reason, by the band of Cavaliers with which he had chosen
to associate himself. On his third escape, finding that
Parker was writing Melancholicus (and alluding to the number
I have previously quoted), he suspected Sheppard to be the
writer of what he also termed counterfeits, and said he
would " break his pipe for him " though he was " a Shepherd
Sheppard happened to be writing the Royal Diurnall at
the time, and replied in it : "I have been once or twice
heretofore abused, yet winked at it as not willing to show
myself against one that pretends to that cause I honour, but
being a third time provoked by a Janus faced scribbler . . .
1 " Melancholicus with three heads whereof two are counterfeits, the
one studies the Lamentations in a cage, the second lately peep'd through
a pillory, the third lies Crouch-ing in every corner for fear of a catch poll "
(Mercurius Anti-Mercurius* No. 1, 12th-19th September, 1648).
96 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
by name Hacklet who exclaims of me as a supplanter of his
profit of which I am not the least guilty," proceeded to de-
nounce him very much as Parker had done and as he says
to " break his knaves pate for him ".
On 8th March, 1648, Wharton wrote in Elencticus ; " The
promise they" (the Derby House Committee) "have made
me of so honourable a reward as that of hanging me for
my loyalty to my King, hath very much encouraged me
to prosecute my work. I am resolved to deserve it at their
hands ; and therefore lest I might be accounted careless or
negligent of my duty, let them take this assurance from me,
that I will not fail them once a weeke to let them heare from
me. I will not give over till the deluded kingdome be fully
possessed of their villainies, or my life be sacrificed in main-
taining the cause of my soveraigne."
Before the next number appeared he was captured, 1 and
Sheppard writes in Elencticus on 15th March, in evident
alarm for his friend's life, and hoping to hoodwink the com-
mittee : " The news is that poore Elencticus is taken," and
" Do not imprison poor Elencticus till you can catch him,
at my entreaty let honest Wharton go about his astrologicall
affairs, that we may have a new almanack the next year".
Again on 23rd March : " Honest Wharton if thou knowest
Elencticus prithee calculate his nativity and send him word
when he shall enjoy that glory which thou by the Pytha-
gorean transmigration of the State Alchemists dost for a
time usurp," adding, "If Corbett have lost his little wit with
his less religion and will still say " Thou art ' Elencticus '
spit in his face and tell him he lyes like a Jewe ".
Wharton did not lose his life, but was committed to New-
gate, where he was' detained for nearly six months. He had
means and was kept in the precincts of the prison on parole,
with a special keeper, and must have contrived still to carry
on the writing of Elencticus with the aid of Sheppard. This
was discovered, and, warned of a " design his grand enemies
1 Ashmole's Life.
STAKVATION IN PETEKHOUSE PKISON 97
had to remove him out of the way," he effected his escape on
26th August, taking refuge at Brandspeth in Durham ; but
on 23rd September he was recaptured, says Walker in Perfect
Occurrences, "at an inn in Gracious Street with some other
malignant officers ". He again escaped, and 30 was offered
for him. At the time of the so-called trial of King Charles
he recommenced Elencticus (No. 1, 31st January to 7th Feb-
ruary) with an account of the murder of the King. 1
The numerous London prisons were now overcrowded ; so
that usually selected for the Eoyalist writers was Peterhouse
the Lord Petre's house in Aldersgate Street. On 12th
July, 1648, the committee had to report to Parliament that
it was dangerous to remove prisoners thence to Derby House
for examination, on account of the tumults that occurred,
and that it was not safe to bring any more prisoners to
London. The keeper of this prison was Henry Cymball, or
Symball, a "hard and cruel gaoler," whose name is reminis-
cent of the chief character in Jonson's Staple of Newes. The
prisoners had to pay him fees on committal, and he was not
bound to maintain them. Martin Parker writes of himself
as having got his ' ' foot out of the springe ' ' at Peterhouse on
26th June, where he was "neere starved to death by that
murdering villain Symball," and sends his " commendations to
his friends there, Mr. Shepheard, John Harrison, and the rest ".
Those Cavaliers who had no friends to supply them with
money or food had to rely on the "bag and basket". A
prisoner's basket was placed at the entrance to the prison for
the receipt of broken victuals, and at intervals men were
permitted to collect round the town with a bag. A supply of
food from these sources was precarious, and Sheppard makes
the following appeal in Elencticus : " The gentlemen that were
sent to Windsor, and many more that lie in Peterhouse, are
even ready to starve for want of common necessaries. It will
be very acceptable and well pleasing to God if such as love
1 Burney, 32. This number (supposed to be lost) is set out in full in
Appendix A, p. 200.
98 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
the King will according to their abilities, contribute a little for
their relief. There hath been some examples given of this
piety. And no question but those that have or shall extend
their charity this way will be undoubtedly rewarded by a
better master than those who are the cause of their
Occasionally the prisoners overpowered their guards and
escaped en masse. Once in the streets they were free,
and the provost-marshals or the soldiers did not dare to
touch them unless they themselves were in a position either
to overpower the crowd, or the crowd itself was friendly a
rare event. On one or two occasions when prisoners were
brought before the Committee for Examinations to be ques-
tioned, the badgering they then had to undergo, ended in a
committee-man being publicly beaten afterwards by some
enraged loyalist who had escaped. At the beginning of
October, 1648, Corbet himself was caught at Black Friars
stairs by a Cavalier, and publicly thrashed with a cane ; and
that his punishment was severe may be gathered from the fact
that, when he appeared in the House some days later to
complain (an "honest godly man," says Walker in giving
his version of the story), he was enveloped in bandages. 2
The great object of the Eoyalist writers was to keep the
three grand Mercuries, Melancholicus, Pragmaticus and Elenc-
ticus, going, even while their writers were in prison, and this
was successfully accomplished almost without a break for
two years. When a writer escaped from prison, he eith<
resumed his "editorial chair" or started a new periodical
under a new name, and the new name sometimes marked
an exceedingly exasperated temper. Hence Samuel She]
pard first appears as writing Mercurius Dogmaticus until th(
1 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 43, 13th-20th September, 1648. Robert
Lesly was pardoned on 27th June, 1663, for shooting Symball (Cal. S. P.
Dom., 1663-64, pp. 182 and 418).
2 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 45, 27th September to 4th October, 1648 ;
Perfect Occurrences, No. 92, 29th September to 6th October, 1648.
THE PKOVOST-MAKSHAL TO THE PAELIAMENT 99
end of January, 1 when the title appears to have been
changed ; possibly owing to a capture of his printer, for the
next number was a revival of Mercurius Aulicus under his
motto " Quis me impune lacessit " (No. 1, 3rd February,
1648), and he apparently left Pragmaticus to Nedham. He
was captured, and his periodical came to an end, but he
soon escaped. Again captured, he once more escaped and
commenced the Eoyal Diurnall (No. 1, 31st July). Thus the
lengthy list of Eoyalist periodicals appreciably narrows into
At the end of August so little progress had been made in
suppressing the Eoyalist Mercuries that their number had
actually increased, and Parliament was at its wits' end to
know what to do. Mabbott, the licenser, therefore came
forward with propositions for the appointment of a special
police, under a special provost-marshal. The Perfect Diurnall
(28th August to 4th September) writes under date 21st Au-
gust : "A proposition was made to the House by the said
Mr. Mabbott for suppressing all scandalous pamphlets which
tend so much to the dishonour of this nation. Provided he
may be enabled with power to perform the same. The House
did well resent the said overture and appointed a committee
to confer with and give encouragement to him therein, and
likewise to advise with the master and wardens of the Com-
pany of Stationers for the carrying on this work. And that
the Committee doe upon the whole bring in an ordinance
for that purpose."
On reflection, Mabbott declined the office Elencticus
1 "Surely Hell is broke loose, here is another shews his pallisadoes.
grinning and snarling like the true begotten of old Cerberus, ycleped
Dogmaticus who looks as like Sam Shepeard as if he had bin spit out of
his mouth, a right woolfe in sheep's clothing," etc. (Mercurius Anti-Mer-
curius, 4th April, 1648). It is noticeable that the opponents of the Royalist
Mercuries, though they heap abuse upon Sheppard, Wharton and others,
never attempt to deny either their biographies or the exceedingly grave
and serious moral charges made against men like Hugh Peters, Marten >
Scot and the rest.
100 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
says he was afraid. 1 Therefore on 13th September Francis
Bethen was appointed Provost-Marshal to the Parliament,
with power within twenty miles of the city of London to seize
upon all "scandalous" books and ballads, and their writers
and printers, and all actors of interludes and plays. He was
allowed 5s. a day for himself, a deputy with 3s. 4d. a day, and
twenty men with Is. 6d. a day each for their allowance. He
and his crew of " shakerags and rakeshames " do not seem
to have been more successful than the rest of the provost-
marshals and spies (also kept on foot) ; his most prominent
capture for some time being a poor Mercury woman, Eleanor
Passenger, who was lashed and kept in Peterhouse to betray
the Cavaliers there. 2
Turning from the Koyalist periodicals, in order to follow
the fortunes of tfie licensed press, we find the year 1648
equally noteworthy for the licenser Mabbott and the band of
writers under his supervision.
The first of the " honest " able men employed to answer
the Eoyalist pamphleteers was Henry Walker, who was also
commissioned (by Cromwell says one writer) to publish a
book which should justify the murder of the King. 3
For the contemplated murder some sort of a case had to
be prepared and precedents found, and these were discovered
in the writings of a famous Jesuit, Father Robert Persons.
Father Persons in 1594 had published, under the pseu-
donym of Doleman, A Conference about the Next Succession to the
Crown of England. Few people nowadays would be disposed
to question the conclusions of his book, which consisted
mainly of a learned historical and legal argument in favour
of the right of the people to alter the succession. His object
1 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 43, 13th-20th September, 1648.
2 Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer, No. 277, 12th-19th September,
1648 ; Cal. State Papers.
3 "This crop of villainy" (Severall Speeches, etc.) "was by perjur'd
Noll committed to the care of that saffron bearded Judas Walker " (Man
in the Moon, No. 12, 27th June to 4th July, 1649, p. 90, and Anthony &
Wood, Athence Oxonienses, vol. ii., c. 71-73).
WALKEE AS LITEEAEY PIEATE 101
was to support the claim of the Infanta of Spain to the throne
of England on the death of Elizabeth. By the vast majority
of English Catholics the book was received with dismay, and
there is no doubt it caused them much additional suffering
and persecution ; Parliament even made it high treason for a
copy to be found in a house.
The reasons and historical instances which had so skilfully
proved the right to alter the succession might, with very little
manipulation, be also used to prove the right of the people
to punish. But the arguments of a hated Catholic, and Jesuit
to boot, could never be acknowledged ; so accordingly, on 3rd
February, 1648, a piracy of Father Persons' book appeared
under the title of Severall Speeches at a Conference Concerning
the Power of Parliament to Proceed against the King for Mis-
government. No author's name was appended to this, and, of
course, no acknowledgment of the source from which it was
taken. One of the subheadings pointed out how kings had
been lawfully chastised by their Parliaments and Common-
wealths, and another, " The lawfulnesse of proceeding against
Princes how oaths do binde or may be broken by subjects ".
It is to be noted, that this book appeared nearly three months
before the famous three days' " prayer "-meeting at Windsor,
at which it was decided by the army officers to bring the
King "to an account " on their return.
For this piece of literary forgery Henry Walker received,
as Anthony a Wood says, the sum of 30. He therefore
showed his gratitude to his sovereign for preserving his life,
by taking the initiatory step which resulted in that sovereign's
death a year later, and his book was largely quoted by Brad-
shaw at the so-called trial. 1
1 Walker advertised a translation of Junius Brutus' Vindicice contra
Tyrannos on 25th February (Perfect Occurrences), "a peece suitable
for the times ". Another pamphlet published at this time accused the
King and Buckingham of poisoning his father King James (a falsehood
repeated by Milton). The Taomason Catalogue shows a number of similar
tracts designed to throw obloquy on the King.
102 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
On 7th April, 1648, Walker commenced a series of
absurd anagrams in his Perfect Occurrences. He was still
publishing his newsbook under the pseudonym of " Luke
Harruney Cleric " ; and apparently had been studying
Hebrew, for one of the Eoyalist journals tells us that
" Eabby Bungy pott lecturer for the Hebrew at London
House " was his teacher or confederate. Parliament was
about to decree new articles of religion (on 20th June,
1648), and No. 8 of Chapter I . of these articles ran as fol-
lows : " The Old Testament in Hebrew . . . and the New
Testament in Greek being immediately inspired by God and
by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages
are therefore authenticall ". This decree was the cause of a
study of Hebrew which bade fair even to beat the great
Puritan cult of astrology from the field, and Walker now
gave his readers a weekly Hebrew anagram of some leader's
He had been hopelessly unable to imitate the leading
articles which for a long time past had formed a feature of
other newsbooks, 1 and this claptrap device was an instance
of real journalistic enterprise which, although it made him
the butt of the Eoyalists, soon had imitators. Advertise-
ments (of which the second appeared in Perfect Occurrences
on 2nd April, 1647) were also now to be habitually found in
On 31st March Parliament at last succeeded in finding a
new writer in John Hall, a clever young man of twenty-one,
1 Two particularly absurd attempts of Walker's are as follows : Per-
fect Occurrences No. 19, 7th-14th May, 1647, starts: "Actions of subtle
wits, great and eminent are very attractive to the people. If Ulisses
returne and declare his wives guests to be Corivals (not so much as to
mention Eumseus the swineheard) but will joyne to drive them out.
The House of Peers received letters," etc. And No. 65, 24th-31st
March, 1648: "Mistakes oft produce sad effects to friends. Had
Pyramus been rightly informed of his dear Thisby they had not both
been so foolishly slain ". (All this is apropos of nothing). It is a pity
Walker did not live in Shakespeare's days, for Bottom the weaver might
have found a companion.
JOHN HALL, CKOMWELL'S WRITEK 103
who had had a brilliant career as a writer even at that early
age. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge,
and it is to be presumed that Wharton obtained his bio-
graphy of him from Cleiveland. Wharton had bitterly at-
tacked Lilly in Elencticus, and Lilly employed Hall at a
salary of 80s. a week, says Wharton -to write a journal
under the name of Mercurius Brittanicus. Mercurius Brit-
tanicus of 1648, and Mercurius Censorius, also written by
him, do little honour to Hall's genius, and Berkenhead dis-
gustedly remarks in Bellicus : "I wonder that Jack Hall of
Cambridge should so far lose himself as to justify the rebels
in a weekly gazet by the name of Britanicus."
Hall, however, had sunk very low indeed before he was
reduced to this. 1 Expelled from St. John's College for
" lewdness " and debauchery, he attacked in the first number
of Brittanicus the Fellows of the College that had trained
him, earning from Wharton the just epithets of "Viper"
and "apostate hireling". After his expulsion from St.
John's he had married, and, having spent his wife's fortune
in dissipation, he sent her back to her father. He then
entered himself at Gray's Inn, where he was living at the
time of his employment by Lilly, chiefly by the exercise of
his wits. Wharton publicly appealed to Lovelace and
others living in Gray's Inn, and, as a result they "un-
kennelled the vermine and made him shift his quarters " to a
house of bad repute in Bloomsbury. "Brought in," he
says, by Cromwell, Hall was appointed writer for the regi-
cides at a salary of 100 a year on 14th May, 1649, and it
is probably to him that The Nonsuch Charles his Character and
other books entered in the Stationers' Registers " by author-
ity of the Council of State " are due.
1 Mercurius Elencticus, No. 27, 24th-31st May; No. 28, 31st May-7th
June ; No. 29, 7th- 14th June, 1648 ; and No. 34, 12th-19th July (four
pages of biography in the last). Hall replies in Brittanicus and Censorius
of even dates, but makes no attempt whatever to refute or deny the allega-
tions against his character. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1654, p. 163.
104 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Up to the middle of the year 1648 there was no indication
of Gilbert Mabbott the licenser's views, and none of his real
nature. He then showed himself in his true colours. John
Dillingham, the author of the Moderate Intelligencer, and evi-
dently a moderate Presbyterian to whom the idea of any
personal attack on the King was abhorrent, had obtained a
scrap of French from Cotgrave and inserted it in his news-
book. It was " Dieu nous donne les Parlyaments brief e
Hois de vie longue". 1 After a time Mabbott had discovered
what this meant ; and refusing to license Dillingham' s copy, he
appropriated the title to himself and continued the Moderate
Intelligencer with the aid of Dillingham' s printer, Robert
White, under the name of the Moderate (No. 171, 23rd-29th
June), prefacing it with the deliberate falsehood, "I have
laid down my former title of Moderate Intelligencer, and do go
by another, viz., the Moderate ".
Dillingham then petitioned the House of Lords for relief,
complaining that he was in danger of his life as the supposed
writer of the Moderate, and Mabbott also petitioned that
Dillingham should be punished under the Act of 1647.
Robert White, the printer, petitioned as well, asking that
the title of Moderate Intelligencer might be pronounced his as
he had always possessed the "interest right and title in the
pamphlet," and it was registered in the Stationers' books
as his proper copy. (The Moderate Intelligencer was the only
periodical registered since the ordinance of 1647.) The House
of Lords decided that Dillingham alone was entitled to the
title of the Moderate Intelligencer, of which White in conse-
quence lost the printing, and Dillingham had his pamphlet
printed for the future by Leybourn. Nothing seems to have
been done with regard to the French phrase which was the
cause of the quarrel, and this is an indication of the growing
difference between the Lords and the Commons. The
Moderate, however, continued to appear on the same days
1 The Moderate Intelligencer, No. 164, 4th-llth May, 1648, p. 1314 ;
Hist. MSS. Commission, 7th Report, p. 33 a ; ibid., p. 53 6.
MABBOTT FOUNDS THE MODERATE 105
(Thursdays) as the Moderate Intelligencer, and with the same
numeration, No. 173 for 6th-13th July, containing at the end
the remark : " This is the true Moderate Intelligencer" .
Mabbott seems then to have been ordered to change his
day and not to counterfeit the numbering of the original
periodical, for the next issue was numbered No. 1 for Tues-
days, llth-18th July. This he commenced with the remark :
" Reader. I am desired by many to change my day from
Thursday to Tuesday, because the Kingdom hath much
wanted a satisfactory sheet to send that day by post into the
severall parts thereof," etc. From this unjust and untruthful
statement it is clear that Mabbott desired to attack the
King domes Weekly Intelligencer, also published on Tuesdays,
the writer of which was, as has been seen, a staunch de-
fender of his King. The temperate reply of its author goes
far to justify the estimate of him already given: " Eeader,
there was the last week a supernumerary Moderate Intelligencer
which was extant with this. At his first entrance, the better
to cry up his own intelligence, he made it his businesse to
cry down this, by which you may discern from what spirit it
proceeded. To do an injury and to add detraction to increase
it is double discourtesie."
The Moderate became known later on as the Levellers'
organ, and at the end of this year was the most infamous
periodical that had yet appeared. Mabbott not only clam-
oured for the King's death, but, in the cruel and foul accusa-
tions he dared to bring against the King at the time of his
death, 1 he exhibits himself as a shameless liar and an ignoble
and cowardly wretch, whose ultimate success in life it is not
pleasant to record the more so that he (of all men) was
singled out for reward by Charles II.
In September a curious little periodical appeared amongst
the crowd of strangely named Royalist Mercuries A Catholic
1 See the Moderate, 30th January to 6th February, 1649, pp. 289, 290.
It appears from this number that Dr. Juxon was deprived of a prayer-
book when ministering to the King.
106 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
priest evidently attempted to put in a word in season with
Mercurius Catholicus, Communicating his Intelligence from the most
Learned Protestant Writers to Simple People how they may know
which must needs be the True Christian Religion. The writer
was probably Father Thomas Budd, who is to be found
as a prisoner in Newgate in the following year, and who
remained in prison for four years, feis line of argument
was an anticipation of Bossuet's Variations des Eglises Pro-
testantes. It was, of course, not difficult to capture the vendor
(probably the writer himself) of a periodical of this kind.
On 10th October one more new writer appeared in the
person of John Harris, with Mercurius Militaris an organ
written on behalf of the army and also clamouring for the
King's death. John Harris " Oxford Jack " was originally
a poor players' boy of the Company of the Revels at Oxford, 1
who, on the abolition of stage plays, had become a printer,
entering into partnership with Henry Hills in Pennifarthing
Street, Oxford. Education was easy to obtain in his native
town, and Harris had subsequently written pamphlets under
the anagrammatic pseudonym of Sirrahniho. He and Hills
had then ingratiated themselves with the army, and had
carried a printing press about with it. 2
Mercurius Militaris came to an end on 21st November, and
at the time of the King's death John Harris was one of those
who stood on the scaffold. His wife did not apparently
share his views ; but was a Royalist, and after her death, on
31st October, 1649, Wharton wrote an elegy to her memory. 3
Harris, having been a printer to the army, naturally found it
easy to obtain the rank of a commissioned officer, a rank
which probably few English gentlemen would have accepted
l Me,rcwrius Impartialis, No. 1, 5th-12th December, 1648 ; the Eoyal
Diurnallfor King Charles II., No. 1, 25th February, 1650 ; and the Man
in the Moon, No. 48, 13th-20th March, 1650, p. 374.
2 For Hills' character see A View of the Actions of H. Hills, etc.,
3U In Memory of that Lively Pattern of True Piety and Unstained
Loyalty Mrs. Susanna Harris the Vertuous Wife of Capt. John Harris."
"LUKE HARRUNEY," LICENSER 107
in 1648 and 1649, and was afterwards known as Captain and
subsequently Major John Harris. In November, 1654, he was
convicted of forging Cromwell's signature and seal and of
obtaining 900 by it, 1 but he does not seem to have been
punished. After the Restoration, on Monday, 3rd September,
1660, he was hanged at St. Mary Axe for theft and burglary.
Wharton states that he was also the author of Mercurius
Anti-Mercurius, which appeared in 1648, and his testimony,
as an Oxford townsman, is valuable as to the authorship of
Bellicus and other periodicals.
In August, 1648, Henry Walker also fell foul of Mabbott.
The House of Lords had granted Walker a licence to print
his Occurrences on 30th June, probably owing to some
attempted interference with him on the part of Mabbott at
that time, and on 16th August Walker petitioned the House,
complaining that Mabbott, in contempt of their order, had
sent men to break his printers' presses and told them that he
would bear them out. Mabbott, he alleged in his petition,
" collected the intelligence of Mondays journal " (i.e., Pecke's
Perfect Diurnall) " and other sheets of news which was worth
much more, and being both writer and licenser had liberty to
make use of what he pleased to advance his own writing and
to leave out to disparage others. For these reasons, when
he licensed under his master John Rushworth the House of
Commons put him out."
Walker asked for a confirmation of the Lords' order, and
that they would consider whether Mabbott was fit to be con-
tinued as licenser. 2 He was thereupon authorised to license
his own pamphlet, and subsequently did so in a curious way,
by appending the name of " Luke Harruney " (as if licenser)
to Perfect Occurrences, professing to be " collected by Henry
Walker". The year closed with Walker triumphantly
1 Mercurius Fumigosus, No. 26, 22nd-30th November, 1654, pp. 224,
225 ; also No. 28, 6th-13th December, p. 241. This describes him as
" Oxford Jack " and identifies the Harris of military rank with the printer.
"The Speech of Major John Harris," etc., 1660.
" Hist. MSS. Commission, 7th Report, p. 70 b.
108 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM
issuing, besides supplements to his Occurrences in the shape
of Packets of Letters, an additional periodical, called Heads
of a Diarie, and utilising to the full the journalistic op-
portunities given him by the attack of the army on the King
and Parliament. He also published Collections of Notes at
the Kings Tryall. These are to be identified by the name
of his printer, Ibbitson.
IT might have seemed probable that one result of the occupa-
tion of London by the army in December, 1648, would have
been the total suppression of the Royalist Mercuries. Such,
however was not the case. Obviously beaten from pillar to
post, they still contrived to " hang out their flag of defiance,"
though one of the first things General Fairfax did was to
turn his attention to them. On 9th January, 1649, he issued
a warrant, printed and published, to Captain Richard
Laurence, Provost-Marshal-General of the Army, setting out
the Ordinance of 28th September, 1647, the House of
Commons Licensing Order of 14th June, 1643, and the Act
of the City Common Council dated 9th October, 1643, and
directing the provost-marshal to put them all into execution.
The Levellers on 19th January presented their petition
against the warrant and in favour of unlicensed printing,
but no concession was made. The result of this warrant was
that bands of soldiers broke into houses, sometimes with
forged warrants, robbing and stealing right and left, 1 and
brought such opprobrium upon Captain Laurence that he
eventually refused to act any longer. Henry Walker in his
Perfect Occurrences for 6th April makes the following not
particularly honest comment on the fact :
1 Mercurius Pragmaticus, No. 45, 13th-20th February, 1649 ; Perfect
Occurrences, No. 118, 30th March to 6th April, 1649, pp. 922, 923, 931 and
933. References to the outrages committed by soldiers are numerous and
continuous in all the newsbooks. On 13th February, 1648/9, Fairfax
issued a proclamation against his soldiers demanding money by threats
and seizing people without warrants (669, f. 13 (88)).
110 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
" The Marshall Generall seeing that some who were
imployed by him were put upon such things as tended rather
to private men's interests rather than to a publique good
acquainted the Lord Generall therewith and desired of his
Excellency that he might be discharged of the businesse
about printing, for the man is so gallant, that what tends
to a common good, he will ingage the last interest he is able
but not to prejudice the publique for any man's relations.
The generall hath granted his desire so that if any pretend
to act in the business concerning printing as under the
Marshall generall they have no authority from him to do it."
At the same time the order to the army against un-
licensed books was suspended, " thinking thereby to catch
the authors," says Pragmaticus, but "hould a blow some are
wiser than some. That scarlet cut-throat and scelestic
Regicide Bradshaw I hear hath desired to have the manag-
ing of that businesse and will take some such new course
as was never taken yet." *
The course taken was the passing of the " Treason " Act
on 14th May, confirmed by the Coining Act of 17th July,
and aimed directly at the Royalists and the Royalist Mer-
curies. This Act provided that "if any person should mal-
iciously or advisedly publish by writing, printing or openly
declaring " that the " Commonwealth " was " tyrannical, usurped,
or unlawful" or that " the Commons in Parliament assembled
were not the supreme authority of the nation," he should be
guilty of high treason. Hanging, drawing and quartering
were thus threatened the Royalist writers, who were not
slow in replying to the Act. One and all copied and parodied
its provisions in set terms, for the express purpose of com-
mitting the "crime" which it set up, and that in the most
offensive manner possible. 2
1 Mercwius Pragmaticus, No. 49, 3rd-10th April, 1649.
2 " I . . . advisedly and sincerely from my heart openly declare
protest before men and angels that the present government (by the pow(
of the sword) is tyrannical usurped and unlawful. And that the presei
juncto of Traytors and Regicids who falsely call themselves a Parliamei
NEW PKOVOST-MARSHALS 111
At the same time the number of Mercuries increased,
and quite a quantity of counterfeits of Pragmaticus and Elenc-
ticus sprang into existence.
In the meantime, on 16th April, one new Eoyalist perio-
dical of importance had made its appearance, called The
Man in the Moon, Discovering a World of Knavery under the
Sunne, the writer of which, John Crouch, the printer, 1 was
the last of all to be caught and suppressed. The Man in the
Moon was a coarse and vulgar but an amusing and witty
periodical, and the English in which it was written was
occasionally archaic even for those times. It catered for a
lower class than those for whom Pragmaticus and Elencticus
were written, and took the place of Melancholicus, which defin-
itely came to an end about the middle of the year. On 4th
May a new Mercurius Britannicus, written by Gilbert Mabbott,
made its appearance, but only lasted for a month. 2
A return was then made to the system of civil Provost-
Marshals. Provost-Marshal Zachary Bishop, appointed on
6th June, 1649, for the North side of the Thames (Provost-
Marshal Munk was appointed for the South), had a commis-
sion for one year, and was allowed 100 a year and twelve
assistants at twelve pence a day each ; and he was to have more
men if he required them. 3 He and his men were not popular ;
are not the supream authority but the very ofial of the Nation being com-
posed ' ex colluvie gentis ' of the very drosse and dreggs thereof. And
that therefore I will by the help of God and as in duty bound by all
means I can possible raise forces for the speedy and effectual destruction
... of those tyrants who call themselves the keepers of the liberty of Eng-
land and the Councell of State and to make the ' Saints ' of the Army cut
one anothers throats (to save us the trouble)," etc. (Mercurius Elencticus,
14th-21st May, 1649).
1 Crouch was ultimately in partnership with Thomas Wilson as
printers in Three Fox Court, Long Lane. As to his authorship, see the
Weepers; Mercurius Pragmaticus, No. 3, lst-8th June, 1652; also the
Faithfull Scout, No. 65, 9th-16th April, 1652.
2 Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II. 9 No. 4, 8th-15th May,
3 Perfect Occurrences, No. 126, 25th May to 1st June, p. 1051 ; andi&id.,
No. 127, lst-8th June, p. 1050 ; Man in the Moon, No. 9, 5th-13th June,
112 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
when the soldiers were not at hand, and the people outnum-
bered the " beagles," the latter were often cudgelled if they ar-
rested Mercuries caught selling Royalist newsbooks, and the
poor women were rescued. It is on record that, Alderman
Atkins having given a Mercury woman into the custody of
the city marshal and his assistants, on suspicion of selling
Royalist newsbooks, a crowd assembled, and rescued the
woman this was in the Exchange itself put the provost-
marshal and his assistants to flight, hustled the alderman,
" tore his ruff," and assailed him with opprobrious epithets. 1
A " Committee of Discovery " was also set up at the begin-
ning of June.
At the commencement of 1649 Dr. Hackluyt had been
recaptured and imprisoned in Peterhouse. This time he did
not succeed in making his escape. A great amount of
comradeship existed amongst the Cavaliers in Peterhouse
Prison, share and share alike being the rule, and Hackluyt, as
one that had written for the King, was admitted to partici-
pate in the the help they received. After fifteen weeks' im-
prisonment, however, he tired of this, and determined to
recant and offer his services to the Regicides. Accordingly he
commenced a new periodical which he entitled the Metropolitan
The title was a strange one for him to choose, and, one
would think, too suggestive of popery to be successful. This
remarkable periodical, written in prison to curry favour with
the Regicides, actually attempted to betray Cleiveland,
Sheppard and John Taylor. The Mercury woman he em-
ployed to sell it objected so much to the title, that she
changed the name of the first number to Mercurius Militaris
(22nd-29th May) before taking it to the printer. The Metro-
politan Nuncio then had a short career of two numbers ; it
1 Perfect Occurrences, No. 126, 25th May to 1st June, 1649 ; Mercurius
Pragmaticus for King Charles II., 5th-12th June ; and Mercurius Verax,
No. 1, 4th June, 1649. Atkins was the subject of jests which can not
be repeated. His name became an exclamation for street boys.
HACKLUYT CHANGES SIDES 113
quotes with approval Milton's " Doctrine and Discipline of
Divorce" as "having good tenents".
In the meantime Hackluyt drew up a petition to a Mr.
Whitaker, to be presented by him to the Council of State.
In this he begged for pardon in a "most slavish creeping
style," and stated that he was " daily abused and insulted by
a crew of Heathenish Cavaliers, though prisoners, represent-
ing your petitioner as a spie sent by the Parliament to inform
against them, whilst themselves dayly infect the very aire
with their horrid blasphemies ". Unfortunately for him his
petition was discovered behind his bed, read by his fellow-
prisoners, and subsequently published in full by John Taylor, 1
and the " bag and basket " henceforth became his sole source
of supply. He is never heard of again.
John Taylor, denounced by Hackluyt as the then writer
of Melancholicus, prudently left London on 21st June on his
journey to see the " Wonders of the West," which he after-
wards wrote about, and from this time Mercurius Melancholicus
definitely came to an end. He says the journey " was no-
thing to me being a youth of three score and ten, with a lame
leg and a half and there is an end of the Story ".
On 4th August he was back in London, and on 15th
August was arrested at his famous tavern the " King's Head "
a sign which he had to change to the u Poet's Head " his own
head in Phoanix Alley, Long Acre (now the " Ship," in
Hanover Court). He was afterwards released; died at
his house at the end of the year 1653, and was buried on 5th
December in the churchyard of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields.
Nothing is known of Martin Parker after this date, and he
may have died in prison.
Bradshaw, unscrupulous as he was, was nevertheless a law-
yer, and, as head of the Council of State, naturally had a pre-
dilection for the forms of law, so a number of warrants for the
arrest of Koyalists now appear in the State Papers. About the
1 Mercurius Melancholicus for King Charles II., No. 3, 31st. May
to 7th June, 1649 ; Mercurius Elenciicus, No. 9, 18th-25th June, 1649.
114 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM
12th of March Wharton was again captured and committed to
Newgate. He had so openly announced his intention of com-
passing Bradshaw's death, that it might be expected that he at
least would have been put to death. On the 12th of August,
however, he once more escaped, and, more truculent than
ever, resumed the writing of Elencticus, which in the interval
had been carried on by Sheppard, who* attached his motto
" Quis me impune lacessit " to the periodical.
On the 15th of June, 1649, a warrant was issued for the
arrest of Marchamont Nedham, who was captured and com-
mitted to Newgate. He made his escape, and another warrant,
directed to the Keeper of Newgate, on the 14th of August, re-
sulted in his final capture. Eager as the Council of State were
to obtain writers to defend them, there could be but little doubt
of the result once they had Nedham safely in hold. Brad-
shaw treated him fairly, Anthony a Wood tells us, and as
Milton, according to the same authority, afterwards became
his " crony," it was not long before he once more changed
his opinions, took the engagement to be faithful to the
Commonwealth, and, when released on the 14th of November,
definitely engaged himself to write for the very Eegicides
he had so bitterly reviled. History has no personage to
chronicle so shamelessly cynical as Marchamont Nedham,
with his powerful pen and his political convictions ever ready
to be enlisted on the side of the highest bidder. He even
wrote for Charles II. in later years.
On the 16th of April, 1649, a warrant was issued for the
arrest of Sheppard as author and William Wright as printer
of Elencticiis ; but it seems as if Sheppard also escaped, for an-
other warrant for his arrest was issued on the 29th of May.
He owed his final release (in May, 1650) to John Thurloe,
who ultimately became Cromwell's Secretary of State.
Leaving the Boyalist Mercuries for the moment, and re-
turning to the licensed newsbooks, we find Mabbott at the
commencement of the year 1649 an avowed Leveller with his
organ the Moderate under suspicion. On the 19th of January
MABBOTT A LEVELLEE 115
the Lords ordered that Henry Whaley, Colonel and Advocate-
General of the Army, and Theodore Jennings, or any one of
them, should be joined with Mabbott to license pamphlets
and books of news. In the result Theodore Jennings,
messenger and general factotum to the Council of State, 1
and, from a literary point of view, hopelessly unqualified for
his post, did the bulk of the work. To him may be attri-
buted the periodical entitled A Perfect Summary, or, A Perfect
Collection, of Exact Passages, commenced on 29th January, on
Mondays, in opposition to Pecke's Perfect Diurnall. Walker
was also opposed by The Kingdomes Faithfull Scout, written by
Border, and a great deal of characteristic quarrelling between
the two periodicals was the result. Border at first attempted
to imitate Walker's Hebrew, to the latter's disgust ; and after-
wards confining himself to Greek, vaunted the supremacy of
that language as a source of religion and philosophy.
The Levellers had been in open insurrection, and the
Council of State was doing its best to suppress them. On
7th May the Council appointed a committee to examine
Mabbott as to his having licensed a pamphlet called the
Agreement of the People, a pamphlet of Lilburne's reissued
by him on 1st May, and others, and directed Sir Henry
Mildmay to inform the House of Commons that, as divers
dangerous books and pamphlets had been printed with his
license, he should be discharged of his trust and care be taken
to suppress such books and pamphlets especially that known
as the Moderate. 2 On 22nd May accordingly Mabbott was
discharged, and the preparation of a new Act for the re-
gulation of the press ordered to be taken in hand. 3 They
do not, however, seem to have dared to entirely suppress the
Moderate, henceforth licensed by Jennings, until the month
of September, so dangerous had the Levellers become.
1 The references to him in the Calendars of State Papers are numer-
2 Cal. State Papers Dom., 1649-50, p. 127.
3 Commons Journals, 22nd May, 1649.
116 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
An effort was now made to conciliate Mabbott, who by
this time had become convinced that licensing was a mistake,
since it stopped the publication of his own views, by pretend-
ing that he had desired to be relieved of his office owing to
conscientious scruples. Border in the Kingdomes Faithfull
Scout writes : " Mr. Mabbott hath long desired severall mem-
bers of the House and lately the Counsell of State to move
the house that he might be discharged of licensing books for
the future for the reasons following viz., 1. Because many
thousands of scandalous and malignant pamphlets have been
published with his name thereunto as if he had licensed the
same, though he never saw them, on purpose as he conceives
to prejudice him in his reputation among the honest party
of the nation. 2. Because that employment as he conceives
is unjust and illegal as to the end of its first institution viz.,
to stop the presse from publishing anything that might dis-
cover the corruption of church and State in the time of
Popery Episcopacy and tyranny, the better to keep the people
in ignorance and carry on their Popish, Factious, Traitorous
and Tyrannical designs for the enslaving and destruction both
of the bodies and souls of all the free people of this nation.
3. Because licensing is as great a monopoly as ever was in
this nation in that all men's judgments reasons etc., are to be
bound up in the licensers (as to Licensing) for if the author of
any sheet, book, or treatise write not to please the fancie and
come within the compass of the licensers judgment, then he
is not to receive any stamp of authority for publishing there-
of. 4. Because it is lawful in his judgment to print any book
sheet etc., without licensing, so as the authors and printers
do subscribe their names thereunto that so they may be liable
to answer the contents thereof, and if they offend therein,
then to be punished by such laws as are or shall be for those
cases provided. A committee of the Councell of State, being
satisfied with these and other reasons of Mr. Mabbott's con-
cerning licensing, the Council of State report to the House
upon which the House ordered this day that the said Mr.
THE SCOUT SUPPKESSED 117
Mabbott should be discharged of licensing books for the
It is easy to be wise after the event, and, if Mabbott had
enunciated these views a year or two previously, he might
have been hailed as a champion of the liberty of the press.
As it is, his theories clearly were invented to " save his face,"
and to set against this there is the Council of State's own
note of what really took place.
A week later Henry Walker, the enemy of both Mabbott
and Border, the author of the Scout, replied: "I am desired
to insert here something in behalf of Mr. Whaley Judge
advocate to the Army whose name was last week printed to
not only malignant lyes of newes from beyond the seas in the
pamphlet called the Weekly Scout, but of his imprimatur
to some ridiculous vaine absurd proposition therein in the
name of Mr. Mabbott as that Licensing is a monopoly, and
his judgment to be delivered to the Council of State that
everyone may print what he list and the like. For my own
part I dare say Mr. Mabbott hath had 100 of me and my
acquaintance first and last for licensing, and it is the custome
of all countries, and those things were never so much as
showed to the judge advocate who hath made complaint to
the Councell of State about it." 2
Walker, who, as John Crouch amusingly remarks, " con-
stantly rubbed his face with a brasse candlestick to justify
the unjustest of his actions," then succeeded in inducing
Theodore Jennings to prohibit the Scout's appearance.
On 15th June the Scout appeared with an exposure of
Walker : " the said Walkers Occurrences are stuft up with
abundance of fallacious passages etc., and he formerly was
ashamed to subscribe his name thereunto, but instead thereof
gave it this badge or Cloak to cover his knavery collected
1 The Kingdomes Faithfull and Impartiall Scout, No. 16, 25th May to
1st June, 1649, p. 143. It will be noticed that all this is from the
2 Perfect Occurrences, No. 127, lst-8th June, 1649, p. 1051.
118 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
by Luke Harruney cleric ... he is not H. Walker cleric,
but Henry Walker the quondam ironmonger". This was
written by Wood, the publisher of the Scout, Border having
been frightened out of the field.
Perfect Occurrences for 22nd June contained the following
note at the end :
" I desire all people to take notice that I denie to give
any authority to a Pamphlet called the Kingdomes Weekly Scout
because the Commonwealth hath been so extremely abused
by it by Eob. Wood of Grub Street who contrives false in-
ventions at an ale house to adde to it what he fancies as news
after Mr. Border the author hath write it and the Licenser
perused it, and thus he hath abused the Judges advocate and
my selfe and the Commonwealth, and the author who did it
formerly doth now disclaim it, refusing any more to write it
for him and if he be so impudent as still to publish it I desire
all those whom it concerns to suppress it that the people may
not be cheated by it.
"Imprimatur, Theo. Jennings."
Wood, who must have been a Presbyterian, replying on
26th June, addressed Walker as :
" That invective apostate Luke Harruney alias Henry
Walker; who (to accomplish his own self interests and by ends)
takes upon him the impudence to carry on his design with
the Lord President and Counsell of State under this notion
or shadow ' That this sheete takes its derivation from the sin-
ewes of malignancy '. In consideration whereof I here make
my appeal to all rationall and judiciall men freely laying my-
self open to their favourable construction there being not
anything contained therein destructive or prejudiciall to the
present Government or authority. Therefore Sirrah know
that a'though I cannot nor will not lye by thee, yet I am re-
solved to live and stand near thee and instead of draining
out such an unsavoury and poysoned fountain at Westmin.
thy present habitation or going to Hell and purgatory (thy
A Tuefdaies Journall
Proceedings of the Cowcell of State : And other
Prom His Excellency the Lord Gencrall Fairfaxes Army, and othe* pares.
From Tuefday 17 fylj to Tutfday Jutj 2$ x 649.
Printed at London fas Robert Ittitfou dwelling in SmkhfieUI, 1649.
defcription of the Garden of H,den 9 as to the
Stfjming Ttttfd*i l-jjttlj.
A NdtbcGolelof 'that Land if good, Gen 2,12. 3ft3
+L\. This was iparc of the defcription of the Ga
An At>paflcd touching theMonies and Coynes of E N GLAND.
The Twenty (hillings lo s. and 5 s. pieces of Gold , (teinpeD ontye one ODe
loin) fte Croflc, and a Mm and Stature!, 1st 1*9 t^efe tea$, The Commonwealth
of EN c L A N D5SB5 cm tfje on)er Soe teitlj tlje Croffb and I5arp, toitfi t^sfe fc?^n,
God with us : aD fo? fitter monieSj pieces of If fte OiiUngs,and pieces cf 2Ctoo
HjtlUngs and fijr pence* aim pieces of SLtselbe pence^and pieces of0jt pence, fjsbins
t^efanieMlo^s, ^ntcctpttons, ^f(tunsand0rmSQU cscft fioe as t|je fojmcr;
Sift pieces of 2Ltoo pence, and fl>we penp, ftsbiiiff ft>e fame $N(tus and jSrstis Sf
WOOD DENOUNCES WALKEK 119
future and meritorious sanctuary) I shall apply myself to
such members of the army, from whence proceeds the most
true and certain intelligence, and know that if thou dost not
speedily desist from thy selfish and base actions I shall pre-
sent unto thee an object of t err our and repentance and de-
prive thee of Dick Brandon's place, the late Hang-man which
thou hast so earnestly importuned and solicited for to bestow
upon a friend of thy own, provided thou mayst have half
shares with him in all the dayes of his execution. Pure
Villain. Hast thou not had trades enough already, but thou
must still claim interest in one more ? Is it not apparent
that thou hast been a decayed ironmonger, a petty fogging
bookseller, a fantasticall Hackler, a schismatical conventicler,
and a most impudent lying and deceitful newsmonger both
against State and Commonwealth, by which means thou hast
defrauded the people of many hundred pounds and hast
turned thy threedbare coat to garments of silk and satins.
But the time may come when thou shalt pay for all notwith-
standing thy late impudency in saying, That if thy beagles
could but once catch me, thou wouldst fasten on and bite me,
and that I should lie under restraint a fortnight or three
weeks before I should come to a hearing."
He then sets out his petition to Bradshaw. In the result,
and in spite of a warrant having been issued for his arrest, he
gained his desire ; but Walker was allowed to publish another
newsbook on Tuesdays, entitled Tuesdaies Journall, in ad-
dition to his Friday's newsbook which was reduced to half
The great desire of Henry Walker's heart was gratified
in August, and his services to the Independent cause were
recognised by his being beneficed. On 15th July he preached
at the King's Chapel, Whitehall, what was evidently a trial
sermon, the printed copy of which is full of Hebrew quota-
tions, and chose with his usual infelicity the admirably ap-
propriate text " Beware of false prophets ". He was given a
120 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM
living at Uxbridge, within a convenient distance of London,
and did not stop the publication of his newsbooks. 1
By the end of September, 1649, the measures taken against
the Levellers had been so far successful, that the Act of
Parliament decided upon by the Commons on 22nd May
was passed, entitled " An Act against unlicensed and scandal-
ous books and pamphlets and for the better regulation of
Printing". It was dated 20th September, and was directed
against " Scandalous seditious and libellous pamphlets, papers
and pictures" (of which it gave no definition). The news-
books were also affected by it, though they were not its main
In this the Levellers' petition of 19th January for the
liberty of unlicensed printing was answered
1. By the order that all existing Acts and ordinances were
to be put into execution.
2. By the increase of all the penalties for " Scandalous
seditious and libellous," etc., books and pamphlets ; the
following fines were imposed :
(a) On the author 10 or 40 days' imprisonment.
(6) On the printer 5 or 20 days' imprisonment.
(c) On the bookseller 2 or 10 days' imprisonment.
(d) On the buyer 1 if he did not within 24 hours bring
any such document to the mayor or a justice of the peace and
disclose the vendor.
3. These penalties were also to apply to unlicensed news-
1 Crouch's comment is f ' That pillory earwigge Walker is benefic'd
(some say) about Uxbridge. ... Be it known to the parish where he
teacheth, That he is a ravening wolfe an impudent lyar and a cheat,
and if ye have no better pastor than Judas, the whole parish are more
liker to be cuckolds than converts. If upon sight hereof you kick him
not out of the church the next Sunday after or the Wednesday following
the Man in the Moon will send his blessing into the whole parish. What !
Must such rogues preach and orthodox learned divines perish for want of
food. O tempus ! O mores ! " (Man in the Moon, 30th August to 5th Sep-
tember, 1649.) As a result of this he really seems to have been driven-
out of the parish. He appears to have been occasionally mobbed by the
boys in the streets (Colchester Spie, No. 2, 10th-17th August, 1648).
OPPEESSION OF THE PEESS 121
books, all existing licences to which were revoked, and three
new licensers of newsbooks were appointed :
(a) The Clerk of the Parliament.
(6) Such person as should be authorised by the Council
(c) For so much as might concern the affairs of the Army,
the Secretary of the Army.
This Act lasted 'for two years only, and expired on
Michaelmas Day, 1651.
As this is one of the most oppressive of all English legal
enactments against the press, so also it is one of the lengthiest.
Two other sections must be noticed as affecting the news-
books. Every printer was to enter into a bond, with two
sureties in the sum of 300 by 1st October, that he would
not print anything " scandalous, treasonable," etc., against
the Government. Finally all hawkers, mercuries and ballad
singers (as such) were to be at once arrested, to have their
stock taken from them, and to be sent to the House of Cor-
rection to be whipped.
One measure that the Act did not contemplate was the
total suppression of licensed newsbooks : and it is necessary
to emphasise this in view of what followed. Strict as the
censorship of books had been hitherto, they were licensed
now with a rigour that had never been experienced before.
As the entries in the Stationers' Eegisters abundantly prove,
the Council of State became censors. The Man in the Moon
on 26th September exclaims: "This is liberty! Where be
the bishops now ? Who stops the mouth of the Press now ?
This is no tyranny, no persecution. No ! Liberty, Mercy,
Propriety, Justice ! Now must truth seek new corners, the
beagles are on the scent already."
The day after the Act was passed (on 21st September)
the following entry occurs in the Council of State's books :
"Ordered that Mr. Frost shall be the person whom the
Councell of State doth authorise to publish" (i.e., to write)
''intelligence every week upon Thursday according to an
122 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Act of Parliament for that purpose". 1 Frost was the Secre-
tary to the Council of State, and, as he was also spy-master
and manager of the "committee-hackneys" employed to
hunt down the Royalists, it is quite evident that he
would have had little time to spare for licensing the press
had the Council of State decided to appoint any one person
as a licenser. They did not, however, come to such a de-
cision, and Frost was not appointed licenser.
The new Act came into force on the 1st of October, and by
the 12th of October, without any special order for the purpose,
every one of the newsbooks had been swept out of existence.
The whole licensed press was thus abolished, and remained
suppressed until the middle of the following year 1650.
For the licensed newsbooks were substituted two official
journals ; and the oligarchy ruling England " by the power
of the sword " themselves turned newsmongers, a fact in it-
self sufficient to justify suspicion of the journals they published.
On Tuesday (Frost had been authorised to publish intelli-
gence every Thursday), 2nd October, and every subsequent
Tuesday, the first number of A Brief Relation appeared, bear-
ing the mark "Published by authority". The second
number (9th October) was marked "Licensed by Gualter
Frost Esquire secretary to the Council of State according to
the direction of the late Act ".
On 9th October appeared a second periodical, entitled
Severall Proceedings in Parliament, which stated that it was
"Licensed by the Clerk of the Parliament," at that time
Henry Scobell. The first three numbers of this also ap-
peared on Tuesdays, indicating some confusion in the
arrangements ; but the fourth and succeeding numbers ap-
peared on Fridays.
For the licensed newsbooks, therefore, one and sometimes
more of which had appeared every day, 2 were substituted
1 S. P. Dom., Interregnum, I. 63, p. 95.
2 The last dates of appearance of the newsbooks in the Thomason Col-
lection are as follows : the Impartiall Intelligencer, 19th September ; the
LICENSED NEWSBOOKS SUPPEESSED 123
two official periodicals. Of these, one, as it was concerned
during this year chiefly with parliamentary proceedings and
written by its "licenser" Scobell, need not further be
noticed; the other, giving all the news from Ireland and
outside London, was of course written, as the Council of
State's direction shows, by its secretary Frost. A third
periodical appeared on 17th December, and every Monday
after, and was entitled A Perfect Diurnall of some Passages and
Proceedings of and in Relation to the Armies, and was licensed
by John Eushworth, who then described himself as Secretary
to the Army. It should be noticed that the title of this peri-
odical was not the same as that of Pecke's Perfect Diurnall of
the Passages of Parliament.
The licensed press, as already stated, remained suppressed
until the end of June, 1650, and nothing but the three periodi-
cals mentioned appeared during the interval. The Eoyalist
Mercuries now become exceedingly valuable, not only as
confirming this but for the light they throw upon its cause.
" No Perfect Diurnall, no Moderate, no Weekly Intelligencer, no
Weekly Account, no Moderate Intelligencer, no Occurrences, no
Faithfull Scout, no Modest Narrative, all wafted away by the
breath of Jack Bradshaw and only A Briefe Relation of some
Affaires and Transactions Civill and Military, Forraigne and
Domestique tolerated. And that licensed by Long Gualter,
secretary to the Councill of Coxcombs," writes Mercurius
Elencticus (No. 25, for 15th-22nd October, 1649) in surprise,
and the Man in the Moon (No. 26, for 17th-24th October, 1649)
comments in a similar strain upon the writers.
Modest Narrative, 22nd September ; the Moderate Messenger, 24th Sep-
tember ; and the Moderate, 25th September. These may all be taken,
therefore, as written more or less in the Levellers' interests. The re-
mainder which survived the Act (which came into operation on 1st
October) were : A Perfect Summary, 1st October ; the Moderate Intelli-
gencer, 4th October ; the Perfect Diurnall, 8th October ; the Kingdomes
Weekly Intelligencer, 9th October ; the Perfect Weekly Account, 10th Oc-
tober ; and Perfect Occurrences, and the Kingdomes Faithfull and Impar-
tiall Scout, 12th October.
124 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Elenctious declares he will find out the writer of the all-im-
portant periodical A Brief Relation, evidently suspecting Ned-
ham, and in No. 27, for 29th October to 5th November, tells us,
" I have at length upon diligent inquiry found out the scribbler
of the Brief Relation, who is not (as once I was told) one of
our owne party, but even Long Gualter himself who is both
author and licenser for he puts it licensed by Gualter Frost
(the quondam manciple of St. John's in Cambridge if I bee
not deceived) who before he writ himselfe esquire, wrote two
almanacks every yeare, one in his owne name the other in
the same anagramatiz'd ' Stroff ' for which hee had four
pounds yeerly from the Company of Stationers but left of
that employment so soon as he found a more profitable in
the service of the rebels which he hath enjoyed ever since the
beginning of the first warre."
The only mistake in this account is, that Walter Frost
was servant at Emmanuel College, not St. John's, 1 and after
coming to London had been sword-bearer to the Lord Mayor
before entering the rebels' service. The Calendars of State
Papers contain numerous entries which show that he had
been engaged, in one capacity or another, since the year 1643,
in looking after the intelligencers or spies. The Koyalist
Mercuries all along furnish a running commentary on the
people he employed, and chronicle the fates of thieves and
coiners like Thomas Verney, Eud, Mathews, Holt and
others with an evident sincerity which leaves no doubt of its
absolute accuracy (a typical example is the scion of a noble
house like Verney).
Walter Frost, ex-menial servant, masquerading with a
Latinised Christian name and the title of " Esquire," and
posing as licenser of a journal which he himself wrote, does
not inspire confidence in his periodical A Brief Relation ; and
the extremely sinister fact that this periodical and its supple-
ments are the only official accounts of the admittedly appal-
1 George Atwell, The Faithful Surveyor, 1662, p. 81. Almanacs by
W. Strof and W. Frost are in existence for 1626 and 1627.
THE MASSACEE OF DEOGHEDA 125
ling slaughter committed by Cromwell in Ireland during the
months of September and October, 1649, at the taking of
Drogheda and Wexford, enhances the importance of the total
suppression of the licensed press in its bearing upon the ques-
tion of how far Cromwell's massacres extended. If he took
the towns by deliberate treachery, and also indiscriminately
slaughtered defenceless men, women and children, the only
estimate of him which can be made must be entirely de-
structive of the favourable one which has been drawn up in
later years with such laborious efforts. Furthermore, the
sudden and total suppression of the licensed press strongly
justifies the statement that material facts were concealed,
and gives an adequate reason for the sharp discrepancy be-
tween Frost's accounts and the terrible stories of slaughter
of defenceless women and unarmed men which all other
authorities, without exception, recount.
After the Act of 20th September, all the newsbooks which
appeared were licensed, prior to their suppression, by Eichard
Hatter as Secretary to the Army. Yet on 2nd October,
the Council of State wrote to Sir John Wollaston, stating
that they did not " know him to be secretary to the army and
if he were he hath no power to licence anything but those of
the Army ". 1 Six days after this letter he was, nevertheless,
still licensing, and on 8th October the last number of Pecke's
Perfect Diurnall appeared . This distinctly states that treachery
was used at the surrender of Drogheda, asserting that the
governor was "persuaded" to surrender and "to go into the
windmill on the top of the mount and as many more of the
chiefest of them as it could contain, where they were disarmed
and afterwards all slain". It also contains an account of the
slaughter of the people in the church, that is unarmed towns-
folk, for mass had been said there the previous Sunday.
1 This was not correct. Cf. "A Declaration of the Proceedings of his
Excellency the Lord General Fairfax," etc. " Appointed by his Excellency
and his Councell of War to be printed and published and signed by their
order May 22, 1649. Richard Hatter Seer." (E. 556 (1)). Rushworth
was evidently Cromwell's nominee.
126 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Samuel Pecke was never again permitted to have a news-
book of his own ; and was only employed as Eushworth's sub-
author, on the institution of the latter's Perfect Diurnal . . .
of the Armies. When, on the revival of the licensed news-
books in 1650, he attempted also to revive his Perfect Diurnall
of some Passages in Parliament, it appears to have been at once
suppressed, and for the rest of his career he was Eushworth's
On 8th January, 1650, the Council of State paid Thomas
Waring the large sum of 100 for "compiling a book of the
bloody massacres in Ireland," * and from this retelling of the
old tale of 1641 it is evident they felt the necessity of justify-
ing their own butcheries. On 3rd October, 1649, they pub-
lished A Declaration of the Parliament of England in vindication
of their Proceedings , etc., which can only be described as out-
rageous under the circumstances.
On 5th November, 1649, the last number of Mercurius
Elencticus appeared, and on 21st November Wharton was re-
captured and committed to the Gatehouse at Westminster.
Wharton had been so thorough-going and consistent an enemy
of Bradshaw, calling him a rogue and a thief, exposing his
perjury in taking the Serjeants' oath (on 12th October, 1648),
and announcing his own intention of killing him on sight and
urging others to do the same, that the latter was determined
to hang him; which he easily could have done under the
Treason Act. It is pleasant to record of Wharton's old
enemy Lilly, the astrologer, that, on the solicitation of Elias
Ashmole, the antiquary, he became with Sir Bulstrode White-
locke the means of obtaining Wharton's freedom in the
autumn of 1650. His own account of it was : " During
Bradshaw' s being- President of the Council of State it was
my happiness to procure Captain Wharton his liberty, which
1 Thomas Waring published A Brief Narrative, etc., on 19th March,
1650, in which he states that a large volume of "depositions " was getting
ready. Major Waring, ft son of the old cash-keeper Waring "; brother-
in-law to Major Salway, and Cromwell's sheriff in Shropshire, was com-
mitted to Black Rod in 1660 (Mercurius Publicus, July 12-19).
LILLY OBTAINS WHABTON'S LIBEKTY 127
when Bradshaw understood said 'I will be an enemy to
Lilly, if ever he come before me '. Sir Bolstrode Whitelocke
broke the ice first of all on behalf of Capt. Wharton, after
him the Committee unto whom his offence had been com-
mitted spoke for him, and said he might well be bailed and
enlarged. I had spoken to the committee the morning of his
delivery who thereupon were so civil to him, especially Sir
William Ermin" (Armine) "of Lincolnshire, but upon my
humble request my long continued antagonist was enlarged
and had his liberty."
George Wharton made his public acknowledgments to
Lilly in his almanac for 1651, and was befriended by Ashmole
until the Restoration, when he was appointed treasurer and
paymaster to the office of the Eoyal Ordnance. He continued
to publish almanacs (and bad verse), and was created a
baronet in 1677. He died at his home in Enfield, in August,
1681, and was buried in the chapel of the Tower of London.
At the end of the year 1649 Mercurius Pragmaticus for King
Charles II. and the Man in the Moon were the only Eoyalist
periodicals in existence.
The Massacres of Drogheda and Wexford. In addition to the docu-
ments set out in Gilbert's Contemporary History of Ireland, vol. ii.,
the Appendix to Lingard, and the account in Anthony a Wood's " Life "
in the Athence Oxonienses (vol. i., p. xx.), the Royalist Mercuries are
valuable as showing the steps taken to suppress private letters. Elencticus
prints two or three letters from a correspondent in Dublin.
Hugh Peters, who sent the first account of the taking of Drogheda
to Henry Walker (note to p. 77), was Colonel of a regiment of foot at the
time (Man in the Moon, No. 25, 10th to 17th Oct., 1649, and John Endecote
to John Winthrop, 28th April, 1650, in the Collections of the Massachusetts
Historical Society, vol. vi., p. 153). Earlier in the year Peters was out of
his mind (Mercurius Elencticus, No. 9, 18th to 25th June, 1649). He was
mad again in 1656 (Clarke Papers, vol. iii., p. 66).
The following letter from Mr. Buck to Ralph Verney shows Crom-
well's conduct in the worst possible light :
" Your brother and my deare friend, Sir Edmund Varny, who be-
haved himself with the greatest gallentry that could be he was slaine at
Drahoda, three dayes after quarter was given him, as he was walkinge w th
Crumwell by way of protection. One Ropier, who is brother to the Lord
128 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Ropier, caled him aside in a pretence to speak w* h him, beinge formerly
of acquaintance, and insteade of some frendly office wc h Sir Ed. might
expect from him, he barberously rann him throw w th a tuck, but I am
confident to see this act once highly revenged. The next day after, one
IA Col. Boyle, who had quarter likewise given him, as he was at dinner
w th mv Lady More, sister to the Earle of Sunderland, in the same Towne,
one of Cromwell's souldiers came and whispred him in the eare, to tell
him he must presently be put to deth, who risinge from the table, the
lady aske him whither he was goeinge, he answered, 'Madam to dye/
who noe sooner steped out of the roome but hee was shott to deth. These
are cruelties of those traitors, who noe doubt will finde the like mercie
when they stand in neede of it " (Memoirs of the Verney Family during the
Civil War, by Lady F. P. Verney, vol. ii., pp. 344-345).
" A Mixt Poem " (1660) by John Crouch (who was not Crouch the
journalist) has the following :
" But where is Cromwell, once so gay and brave
Thief of three kingdoms, now not worth a grave
Where's that prodigious Camel whose strong back
Carried three nations treasure for its pack
That Crocodile, that murtherer of Souls
The whale that shov'd men out o'th world by shoals
Whose rage spar'd no degree, no sex, whose pride
Would nothing that opposed it, abide.
Ask poor Tredah the number of her slain
Whose streets had only silence to complain
Where piles on piles of dead, wide breaches fill'd
Which cool blood butcher'd, and wild fury kill'd
One person (he a priest *) the storm did passe
To tell how kind the Sacrificer was."
* " Dr. Bernard " (Crouch's note at the side). Dr. Nicholas Bernard
was preacher at Gray's Inn, Cromwell's chaplain, and took sides in a con-
troversy against Heylin. These facts render it clear that this Irish Protes-
tant was neither an impartial, nor (as the last line of the quotation hints)
a truthful witness as to what took place at Drogheda.
IN 1650 only two new Eoyalist periodicals appeared, the
Eoyal Diurnall (for King Charles II.) and the misspelt Mer-
curius Elenticus (for King Charles II.) ; and since Her-
curius Pragmaticus asserts that the "States" were setting
their " Eusty nuncio Walker to fly the newes again through
the Kingdom as he hath done once or twice before," Walker
must have been acting for Scobell as "author" of Sever all
Proceedings. He appears to have filled this r61e henceforth
until the extinction of that newsbook in 1655. Pecke at the
same time acted as John Eush worth's " author," J and possibly
Frost may have employed Dillingham or Border, but there
is no evidence of this. The Brief Relation came to an end
on 22nd October, 1650.
Walker, after leaving Uxbridge, had been appointed to a
living in Wood Street, Cheapside, as compensation for the
loss of Perfect Occurrences, but had been no more a success
there than he was at Uxbridge, and had been "kicked out
of both" parishes, so that it was necessary for him to con-
tinue his journalism. Yet a third piece of preferment fell
to him in 1650, for he was appointed pastor at Knightsbridge,
and, though the inhabitants of that unfortunate hamlet
l Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II., 5th-12th February,
1649-50, p. 5 ; ibid., 30th April to 7th May; the Weepers; and Man in
the Moon, No. 57, 29th May to 5th June, 1650, p. 426. Walker's author-
ship of Severall Proceedings also appears later on in his controversy with
the Quakers, and it is to be dated from 31st January, 1650, on which day
Severall Proceedings commenced to be published on Thursdays in lieu of
Fridays. Probably Walker lost his second benefice about this time.
130 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
petitioned against his ministrations, he remained their pastor
for some time. 1
The Man in the Moons printer, Edward Crouch, had been
captured and imprisoned in 1649, and his brother writes
indignantly in that periodical on 16th January: "Two
women, as I am informed, Bradshaw committed close prisoners
to old Bridewell the last weeke . . . one of which hath her
husband Mr. Edward Crouch lying in Newgate about print-
ing the Man in the Moon and must there starve unless God
feed him as He did the prophet Elijah, for being both he and
his wife imprisoned all means of livelyhood is taken away from
them. Another poore woman named Eatcliffe they have
almost whipt to death and kept this quarter of a year in
Newgate till she is scarce able to stand or goe. Good God
is this the liberty promised ? Was ever the like persecutors ?
Lord heare the cryes of the poore and the prisoners, and
deliver them and this dying island from these ravening wolves
that are now devouring us and eating up the poore as bread,
excising and racking all commodities to that excessible rate
that a handicraft tradesman can at the best but earn bread
for himselfe, whilst his poore infants make their dumb com-
plaints and famish to death even in the sight of their parents,
that we may even now take up the sad complaint of the
prophet Nahum Chap. 3, and say unto London ' Woe unto
thee thou bloody citie that art full of lies and robbery the
prey departeth not,' etc. Yet in the 17 verse let this a
little comfort us ' That though our crowned are as locusts
and our captaines as the great grasshoppers that camp in
the hedges in the cold days, yet when the sun riseth they
shall flee away, etc., and their place is not known where
they are '. Our sun is arising to chase away these vermin,
if we cannot help him with our purses nor our hands, O let
our prayers never be wanting, let us turn from evil and
l Man in the Moon, 31st October to 7th November, 1649; ibid., 9th-
16th January, 1650, p. 303 ; Hist. MSS. Commission, 4th Report, p. 188 6,
and cover of Walker's sermon before Cromwell on 27th June, 1650.
" PABLIAMENT JOAN " 131
humble ourselves and we shall soon see that their destruction
ariseth suddenly. They will be caught in their own snare
and fall into that pit they have digged for those more righte-
ous than themselves."
This is an unusually serious vein for John Crouch, and
it is a pity the tone of some of his later periodicals is not
The chief agent now employed as a spy to capture the
Eoyalists was a woman called Elizabeth Alkin, who bore the
nickname of "Parliament Joan".
Though "Joan" was a name given to any ill-mannered
or ill-kempt rustic woman, or scullery-maid, who had to do
dirty work, Elizabeth Alkin did not earn the title of " Parlia-
ment Joan" because she was a " peeper" out of Eoyalists
and Koyalist writers, but by reason of the manner in which
she had pestered the House for relief. Her husband had
been a spy in the Parliament's service within the royal
lines, and had been detected and hanged at Oxford. She
was thus left without maintenance. On 2nd June, 1649,
the Commons ordered that a house should be provided
for "Elizabeth Alkeen a widdow," as her husband had
"died in the parliament's service," and that "some compe-
tent maintenance should be considered of for her and her
children for they are in a very low condition until relieved ".
By the end of the first week in July nothing, however, had
been done for her, and Pecke then records that " one Jone (a
clamorous woman) whose husband was hangd at Oxford for
a spie and she sometimes imployed in finding out the presses
of scandalous pamphlets," was ordered to be taken into cus-
tody because she had showed " great incivilities to Sir James
Harrington " (a member) and was " ordered to be sent to the
house of correction "- 1 Which meant a whipping !
In the entrapping of the Mercury writers "Parliament
Joan" soon took the lead, and it is quite clear that she
1 The Kingdomes Faithfull Scout, lst-8th June, 1649, p. 147 ; A
Perfect Diurnall, No. 310, 2nd-9th July, p. 2635.
132 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
became a Mercury woman herself for the purpose. She
soon became known : " Gentlemen," cries the Man in the Moon,
"pray have a care of a fat woman aged about fifty her
name I know not she is called by many ' Parliament Joan '
and one Smith a printer a tall thin chapt' knave, if any
such persons come pretending to search look to yourselves
and say Towzer gave you warning, there are some both male
and female of the gang, that receive moneys to betray me,
and then rob others by the same warrant "- 1
By March, 1650, "Parliament Joan" had regained her
place in the good graces of the authorities, and the question
of her dwelling was again taken up ; " either the slaughter
house belonging to the late king or some other dwelling of
equal value " being first suggested. Eventually, however, and
presumably in order that she might be near the Council of
State, she was actually given lodgings in Whitehall itself.
She had always received her instructions from Bradshaw,
through Frost, the Secretary, and had been at once christened
" Bradshaw' s doxy". Of Frost the Man in the Moon re-
marks: "I believe I shall go near the next week to break
the Ice for him, and his head to boot if he persists in his
design against me to hire Eogues and Queans to poach
after me for this week I give him a fair warning, the next
week (if I hear any more) ' ha,-vat ' him I have that in my
budget both against him and his little icicles shall thaw them
with a vengeance and make them more infamous to the
world than Walker himself".
It must have been Frost's idea that " Parliament Joan "
in her errands about the streets of London as a Mercury
woman should take the name of " Mrs. Strof " or " Stroffe,"
the anagrammatic. pseudonym under which in years gone by
he had written his almanacs. In the following story from
the Man in the Moon on 4th July, 1649, we have little difficulty
in recognising " Parliament Joan's " identity : " A hot combat
The Man in the Moon, No. 43, 13th-20th February, 1650.
" MRS. STROF," MERCURY WOMAN 133
lately happened at the Salutation Tavern in Holborn where
some of the Commonwealth's vermin called souldiers had
seized on an Amazonian virago called Mrs. Stroffe upon
suspition of being a loyalist and selling the Man in the
Moons books but she by applying beaten pepper to their eyes
disarmed them (and with their own swords) forced them to
ask her forgiveness and down on their mary-bones and pledge
a health to the king, and confusion to their masters the Re-
gicides, and so honourably dismissed them. for 20,000 such
gallant spirits to pepper the rogues you may see what
valiant puppies your new kings be when one woman can
beat two or three of them."
This story shows "Parliament Joan's" method of work-
ing, and her pretended conquest of the soldiers indicates that
the arrest was a mistake.
Her captures can be traced by the sums paid to her,
always through Frost ; for they are noted in the State Papers,
and usually amounted to 10. From posing as a " Mercury,"
and therefore necessarily running into danger of arrest where
she was not known, the idea naturally occurred to "Parlia-
ment Joan" of publishing and selling a newsbook with her
own name upon it as a protection. As a matter of course,
through her influence with the Council of State, she easily
obtained a license for her Mercurius Anglicus and Modern
Intelligencer, published at Henry Walker's address The
Fountain, Kings Street. The first numbers of Border's
Scout, when it was reissued in 1650, were also printed for her.
All the Royalist Mercuries now came to an end. The
Royal Diurnall had stopped on 30th April, 1650, and Mercurius
Pragmaticus and Elenticus ceased on 28th May and 3rd June
respectively ; the Man in the Moon indicating that they had
been frightened into silence rather than captured. After
5th June, however, John Crouch himself fell a victim, and
was sent to the Gatehouse Prison, and the Man in the Moon
appeared no more. A clean sweep had at last been made of
the whole of the unlicensed press.
134 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
In the meantime, on 8th May, Marchamont Nedham had
published a book on behalf of the Regicides, entitled The Case
of the Commonwealth Stated ; an absolutely shameless contro-
version of all the principles for which heretofore he had con-
tended. So delighted were his new patrons with this, that
on 24th May they ordered the sum of 50 to be paid to him
by Mr. Frost, and Frost was also instructed to pay him 100
a year as a pension, " whereby he may subsist while endea-
vouring to serve the commonwealth, this to be done for one
year by way of probation ". 1
Cromwell's series of butcheries in Ireland had long come
to an end, and he returned at the end of May, 1650. It was
then decided to allow the licensed newsbooks to reappear. Be-
fore this decision was carried out, however, a fourth official news-
book was commenced. Mercurius Politicus made its appear-
ance every Thursday, commencing with 13th June, 1650, and
continuing without a break until 12th April, 1660. It is
therefore a periodical of importance, the conception of which
must be attributed to John Milton, who was its editor prob-
ably from the end of the year 1650 (when the style of it
suddenly alters) until the beginning of March, 1652.
A modern editor is but the general of a large staff, and has
little to do with the writing of his periodical, but this term, as
opposed to " author," may be correctly employed to designate
the role now filled by Milton, Scobell and Rush worth with re-
gard to the newsbooks. Milton had little to do with the
writing of the periodical, reserving his energy for an occa-
sional passage or an indication for a leading article, and the
pamphlet as a whole was written by Hall or Nedham.
Mercurius Politicus and the other three official periodicals
for some reason are the only ones now entered in the
Stationers' Registers, and the first entry of Mercurius Politicus
is dated 19th September, 1650, when Matthew Simmons, the
printer, who was succeeded by Thomas Newcombe, entered
" three pamphlets called Mercurius Politicus by permission of
1 Cal. State Papers Dom., 1650, p. 174.
MILTON, LICENSEE OF THE PEESS 135
authority" (i.e., the Council of State). On 17th March,
1650-51, six copies were entered "by order of Mr. Milton,"
the entries running continuously in this manner until 29th
January, 1651-52, when the authority is not stated. It is
fairly certain, however, that Milton was the acknowledged
editor of this periodical, until it was taken over by John
Thurloe, who was appointed Secretary on Walter Frost's
Proof of the fact that Marchamont Nedham was not even
reputed to be the original author of Mercurius Politicals, is con-
tained in Samuel Sheppard's Weepers ; or, The Bed of Snakes
Broken (dated 13th September, 1652), an attack on certain
dishonest Eoyalists who were cheating people out of their
money under the pretence that funds given them were for the
late King's servants in distress. The Weepers terminates with
"six cupping glasses, clapt to the cloven feet of the six dae-
mons, who govern the times by turns from Monday to Satur-
day annually," and here Sheppard describes, in the plainest
and most unmistakable terms, the writers of the newsbooks
which appeared each day. Nedham is alluded to as writing
a periodical on Mondays, entitled Mercurius Britannicus (to be
described hereafter) ; and of Politicus, which appeared on
Thursdays, Sheppard writes as follows :
" Tacitus and the rest of the Eoman historians never in-
tended their annals as this gentleman's Aphorisms. I owe
much gratitude here I wish to live to retaliate his favours
My liberty was once won by his industry.
Charus erit Verri qui Verrem tempore quo vult
Verres even hugs and courts him that has power
To controvert his liberty each hour."
The only person to whom such a compliment could be
paid was John Thurloe, who had been appointed Secretary
on 29th March, 1652, after Walter Frost's death; and it
shows his character in an unexpectedly amiable light, for it
is quite evident that throughout Sheppard took no oaths and
136 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
surrendered no principle in order to obtain his liberty. He
writes in his Epigrams (Book 6, No. 16), under the heading
" My imprisonment in Whittington for writing Mercurius
Most strange it seems unto the vulgar rout
That, that which thrust me in, should guard me out
My soule with no engagements clog'd but thus
My gaining life, strook dead Elencticus.
Merourius Politicus is entered under the hand of John
Thurloe, commencing with 12th January, 1652-53 ; and of
the ordinary newsbooks, none of which are entered in the
Stationers' Eegisters, the licenser was John Eushworth, the
Secretary of the Army. When the Act of 20th September,
1649, was re-enacted by the Printing Act of 7th January, 1653,
the agent for the army was substituted for the secretary of the
army as licenser ; and the fact that it was found necessary
to do this is the clearest indication that the bulk of the work
fell on the army representative, and not on the clerk of the
Frost, as has already been shown, was never a licenser. 1
Another journalistic development in the year 1650 un-
doubtedly owes its origin to John Milton, amongst whose
friends was numbered William Du-Gard, Master of Merchant
Taylors' School. Du-Gard, who had a private printing press,
had been committed to Newgate for printing the Defensio regia
pro Carolo primo of Claude de Saumaise, and had been re-
leased at the petition of Sir J. Harrington, subsequently
becoming a printer to the Council of State. In 1651 he
printed a version in French of Milton's Eikonoclastes, styling
himself " Guill. Du-Gard Imprimeur du conseil d'etat," the
translation of which has been ascribed to John Dury; but
this is doubtful, for Milton translated French documents, as
the State Papers show. However this may be, towards the
1 Frost's name does not appear in the Stationers' Registers as licenser
except in the case of the Brief Relation, while Rush worth's and (at a later
date) Mabbott's names frequently are to be seen.
MILTON, LICENSEE OF THE PKESS 137
end of the month of June, 1650, Du-Gard commenced a new
journal in French (a "paper " of four pages), in imitation of
Le Mercure Anglois ; it is reasonable, therefore, to conclude
that the idea of this periodical proceeded from his friend
Milton, who must at the same time have been the licenser.
The periodical was entitled Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres,
and has almost entirely perished. Thomason evidently did
not consider it necessary to add it to his collection. As,
however, it actually attained 567 numbers and probably
many more, it had, next to the still existing Gazette, the
longest life of any seventeenth century journal. The
numbers for the year 1654 (Nos. 186 to 229) appear to be
the earliest in existence, and were alleged to be " Par Guil.
Du-Gard. Par autorite," and sold by Nicholas Bourne.
Whether Du-Gard was the writer, or printer, or both, is not
clear. The 567th number is amongst the State Papers in
the Eecord Office, and was printed in 1663, apparently after
a cessation for two years, by the famous Koyalist printer,
Brown of the Hague. Brown had returned to London at
the time, and established himself in business again with his
French partner, Jean de 1'Ecluse, who may then have written
the periodical. Henry Muddiman, the privileged journalist
of the Kestoration, had several correspondents, however, in
Belgium and France, and appears himself to have under-
stood French ; * the revival of the periodical, which probably
ceased for about two years with Nedham's Mercurius Politicus,
seems, therefore, to have been due to him. That Milton
should set on foot a periodical of the kind is quite what we
might expect, having regard to his controversy with De
Saumaise, and, should the earlier numbers be discovered, in-
teresting details as to his controversy may be expected.
The older licensed newsbooks were next allowed to recom-
mence by degrees. Border's Scout started afresh on 28th
June, under the name of The Impartial Scout, and Eob. Wood,
his printer, marked the first five numbers " printed for Eliza-
1 The Gazette, when founded, was itself translated into French.
138 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
beth Alkin". Perfect Passages of Every Daies Intelligence,
printed by John Clowes, was written, so Sheppard tells us in
the Weepers, by Henry Walker, and started on 5th July.
Walker, therefore, wrote two periodicals which were published
on successive days. Clowes and Ibbitson, the printer of
Severall Proceedings, were the printers of his older newsbook
Perfect Occurrences, and it is evident that they had parted
Of Walker Sheppard writes : " This red-bearded chronicler
hath found so happy a metamorphosis as from an Hebrew
Ironmonger to become a paradoxical divine. You would
think (if you heard him preach) that he had taken his text
from a Gazet, you heard so much of a curranto. 0, he's
excellent in private at Parlour sermons, and meeting houses,
and here commonly he is more Enthusiast than Scripturist.
His auditors believe his dreams , to be as canonicall as the
Eevelation. Like -those Melancton speaks of, ' Quic quid
somniant volunt esse spiritum sanctum '. But what have I
to do with this venerable man. Fames fingers are too foule
to touch such holy rites. He is very sententious, fluent and
sublime in his weekly intelligence, and so I leave him."
The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer was revived on 23rd
July 1 as the Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth.
The most salient feature to be noticed about all the
licensed newsbooks now is the shrinkage in their size ; but,
though their pages were not so large as formerly, their ap-
pearance was in every way improved. x x With the increase of
their respectability, however, and with improved typography
and style, came a decrease in interest, and they were obvi-
ously drilled into the most abject subjection. Pecke at-
tempted to imitate Walker by recommencing his old Perfect
Diurnall of some Passages in Parliament, but this revival was
number for 24th-31st December, 1650, is marked "Printed for
R. C. ," which shows that R. C. was a bookseller and indicates him to be"
the Richard Collings already mentioned. Possibly, like Pecke, he had a
stall in Westminster Hall.
WALKEE PEEACHES BEFOEE CEOMWELL 139
limited to two numbers, and so until 1655 he was only Eush-
worth's " author ".
Henry Walker's connexion with Cromwell has already
been noticed ; and he was now employed for a service which
should render manifest the truth of the Man in the Moons
accusation (4th July, 1649), that it was Cromwell who em-
ployed him to publish the pirated version of Father Persons'
book in order to justify the murder of King Charles.
In June, 1650, war with Scotland was inevitable, and it
was decided that Fairfax and Cromwell should both go as
generals. Both accepted their commands ; but in the end
Cromwell alone went, as also he alone went to Ireland.
That some intrigue excluded Fairfax from the leadership is
clear ; that the account of his refusal to go and of his relations
with Cromwell was untruthfully put before the public is
clearer still from the fact that the farewell sermon on 27th
June (the day before Cromwell started for Scotland), at the
valedictory service in the chapel of Somerset House, was
preached by Henry Walker. It was with the blessing of the
author of Taylor 's Physic has Purged the Divel that Crom-
well started for his victory at Dunbar, and he must have
smiled to himself as he heard the red-haired newsmonger
compare Fairfax and himself to Abraham and Lot separating
from one another without anger Cromwell of course being
compared to Abraham and the Divine promises being applied
to him. " Those that are only outward professors," said the
reverend preacher, " they may be often startled at transac-
tions of affairs by the Parliament, or by the Army, or persons,
or actings of men, but this is because their hearts are not
sound with God." Such sentiments could not but find ap-
proval with Cromwell and were quite in the style of his own
manifestoes. Walker, therefore, received the customary
authority to have his sermon printed.
Unfortunately for Walker he was not content with this,
and, swollen with a sense of his own importance as an apostle
of Independency and the inspired teacher of an army which
140 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
was to conquer a nation and subdue another faith, he added
a long dedication to his printed sermon, addressing it "To
his Excellency the Lord Generall and to the Honourable the
Collonels and the rest of the officers of the prosperous army
for the Parliament ". This supplementary exhortation com-
menced: "Gentlemen souldiers. Stand to your Armes, ye
have a good Cause, a good God, and glorious inducements."
The writer then contrived to thoroughly expose the fact that
there was a difference between Cromwell and Fairfax, by
lying so clumsily as to render it surprising that his falsehoods
should have ever been repeated, even in an altered form.
He attributed the cause of Fairfax's retirement to his
wife's persuasion. " What though your old Lord Generall
be not with you," wrote he, "he is not against you, he hath
signed the engagement with you, and hath promised to be faith-
ful to you, you have his heart still in the camp, though his
Spouse hath persuaded his wearyed body to take rest in her
Next, referring to Cromwell himself, he continued : " And
you have his Excellency still with you, now Lord Generall,
who was before, under God, the primum mobile of your
motions, and is still the myrrour of Hoasts, the Metropolitan
of Eeligion, and the Glory of this Nation " (!) " And though
your former general hath been persuaded to take a writ of
Ease to himself for his wife and her friends sake, yet do
not ye divide, but stand the more firme in your own union
grounded upon God, as you love your own lives, the Parlia-
ment, "(!) "and the English Nation, and desire the propoga-
tion of the Gospel of the Lord Jesus."
' And, no doubt anticipating that similar scenes of treachery
and murder would take place in Scotland, he alluded to the
terrible Irish campaign by saying: "The Lord hath been
seen in the English Mount and much manifested His pres-
ence in your Irish tents," and then urged them to treat the
Presbyterians of Scotland as they had treated the Catholics
of Ireland by adding: "If they" (the Scots) "love blood, let
CEOMWELL BUENS WALKEE'S SEEMON 141
them have it in their own land. It is better to crush the
Cockatrice in the Egge then to let him swell to a troublesome
As preface to the sermon a copy of the Act depriving
Fairfax of his command was next set out.
Cromwell was many things, but he was not a fool, and
when a copy of this compound of folly and impertinence
reached him at his headquarters in a market town in Nor-
thumberland, he had it burnt by the hands of the " common
officer" for abusing "both the late Lord Generall and his
Excellency that then was ".*
In June, 1651, Samuel Sheppard once more entered the
lists, as a licensed journalist, with Mercurius Pragmaticus Revived.
The title was disallowed, as he relates ; consequently he
changed it to Elencticus, with the like result after two or
three numbers, so in a fit of temper he entitled the next
number Scommaticus. It was then suppressed altogether.
The verses prefixed to these periodicals are of a much better
kind than those with which the older Eoyalist Mercuries
commenced, and are interesting as showing the state of
mind of a Cavalier trying to make the best of things. 2
1 A Perfect Diurnall, No. 33, 22nd-29th July, 1650, p. 391. Pecke's
delight is manifest. Fairfax's wife was not a Presbyterian but an Ana-
baptist (Mercurius Impartialis, No. 1, 5th-12th December, 1648, p. 6). It
has already been shown that Hatter and not Rush worth was Fairfax's
2 The following may be quoted from Sheppard's Mercurius Prag-
maticus, No. 3, lst-8bh June, 1652 :
Sorrow's a serious madness. Mirth
The darling of an hour
Sweet in conception and the birth
But in the parting sour.
Riches are precious in the gsowth
And relish in the spending
Till such time as they find the moth
And customary ending
Then care to usury. Salt tears
To widows, and opprest
If there be happiness in fears
'Tis better n'er be blest
142 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
In the month of September, 1651, "Parliament Joan"
appears to have resumed her remarkable role of Mercury
woman. The battle of Worcester was fought and lost on 3rd
September, and a reward of 1,000 was offered for the cap-
ture of King Charles II., who, as will be remembered, was a
fugitive for many days in England. Did the Commonwealth
authorities consider that the King was likely to conceal him-
self in London? They were experts in opening and reading
letters in cypher, and may have intercepted a communication
giving intelligence of some intention of the kind. The idea
certainly occurred to Charles himself to make his way on
foot to London ; and many Royalists succeeded in reaching it
The Act of 20th September, 1649, expired on Michaelmas
Day, and the Mercury women, all unlicensed newsbooks
having been suppressed, were allowed to ply their trade once
more ; so " Parliament Joan " had a fresh newsbook printed,
Mercurius Scoticus ; or, The Royal Messenger, impartially com-
municating the daily proceedings of the Armies in England, Ire-
land and Scotland and other remarkable occurrences from the
parliament's navy at sea, Prince Rupert's fleet in the Straits and
the Countess of Derby in the Isle of Man, etc., was the full title,
and it will be noted that the " catchword," Mercurius Scoticus ;
or, The Royal Messenger, was one which would be likely to sell
it at once to a Royalist.
It was printed by John Clowes for Elizabeth Alkin, and
No. 2 (possibly the only number) was dated 23rd-30th Sep-
tember, 1651. Its contents are anything but Royalist in
matter or manner, and they consist mainly of fulsome praise
Give me the freer heart and soul
Can melt a day in laughter
Whose spirits no sad thoughts control
And yet be merry after
For 'tis a prison to mine eyes
To meet my cronies crying
As though they mourned their obsequies
Before they were a dying.
"PARLIAMENT JOAN'S" NEWSBOOK 143
of Cromwell, in whose honour there is a doggerel Latin
acrostic by one Francis Nelson. "Parliament Joan," as
"Mrs. Stroffe," "Mercury" woman, was thus able to ap-
proach any persons noted as strangers and Eoyalists, get
them into conversation, extract all they knew from them, and
afterwards utilise the information thus gained. Naturally
the unlucky Eoyalist, thus stealthily approached, would at
once hide in his pocket a copy of this newsbook which he
had purchased in a tavern or elsewhere ; and his confidence
gained by the attractive title would hold a whispered con-
versation with the hawker, and not until reaching home and
drawing out his little " newsbook " would he discover that he
had been swindled. Even then, particularly if he were a
fugitive from Worcester fight, he might not think that matters
were worse than they seemed, and that the fat old woman
who had sold it to him, instead of being a poor and dishonest
Koyalist, was in reality the notorious "Parliament Joan"
" peeper " and " whisperer " to the Council of State. " Par-
liament Joan," therefore, has a place and a peculiar one in
the history of London publishers.
The revival of >hawking the newsbooks about the streets
led to a picture by Sheppard of the result in the Fleet Street
of his day, which (mutatis mutandis) might pass very well
for a sketch of our own times :
"0 the mysterie of a little inck and paper. What a
pannique feare possesses the soule of the Universe when the
hawkers come roaring along the streets like the religious
singers of Bartholomew Fayre. The high crown' d citizen
pricks up his eares and cranes his neck over the bulk till he
looks as blew under the gills as an eelskin to hear whether
there be any newes of the Publique Faith, which was eaten up
at a breakfast by the Solemn League and Covenant in Turn
againe Lane. But failing of his expectation, he shrinks in
his lanthorn soule againe, with a pitiful riveling up of the
nose and a Synodical ' Hem '. Then traversing Fleet Street
(the Lawyers Exchange) out comes a Petty fogger of the
144 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Threes with his profession in his ear and his tarbox at his
side, keeping touch with his pocket like Hopkins and Stern-
hold in marrying the Psalmes, and looking as big as a bag
pudding farmer of the long twelves. If his clerical gizzard
be not with him he calls out ' Sirrah ! Books? What Act's
on foot? No gingle to demurr to deceive to detract?
Away you noisemonger ! ' Alas, * good gentleman, his
buckeram pouch is never at peace longer than his lunges are
bellowing downe the sides of Westminster Hall. At last
comes by the Country Parson with his Canonicall breeches
run up the seames with the figure of a statute lace like the old
Letany interloyned with a ' Libera nos Domine,' who never
attempted to preach above once in his life time and that was
at the Wake day, for which he was sequestered. And he
rubs his elbows, and winks at the Mercury to convey him a
pennyworth of wit into his hawking bagg, and so goes trip-
ping along, to show it to his worshipful patron to bespeak him
a Sunday collation. Thus we please or displease, according
to the censure of the Court."
In another periodical Sheppard writes of the newsbooks
themselves: "No rest day or night with these cursed cater-
pillars, Perfect Passages, Weekly Occurrences, Scout, Spye,
Politicus, Diurnal, the Devil and his dam. If the States have
occasion for soldiers they may no doubt press a whole regi-
ment of these paper vermine. ... To see men grossly abused
in their beliefs, the whole Nation deceived and gulled oiit
of their money, by a company of impudent snakes, of whom
(one only excepted) I dare aver none of them was ever guilty
of writing three lines of sense They prey upon the Printer or
Stationer, the Stationer on the Hawker and the Hawker
on everybody. But the cream of the jest is, how they take
their times and rises, one upon Munday, t'other on Tuesday,
a third on Wednesday, and so come over one anothers backs
as if they were playing at leapfrog. ... It would much re-
fresh a man with laughter to consider how these Rake-
shames piece and patch up that above said account which
INDECENT PEBIODICALS 145
they weekly diffuse amongst the people ' Newes ' and this
week's News '. For they have more tricks in their Kotations
than a Cook of a three penny ordinary has with his cold meat.
First he boils it, if he miss of good custom he roasts it, if
that will not serve he stews it, and if he miss then too he
minces it, but if in case of hot weather he be prevented of
performing all his pleasure upon it, he casts it stinking and
full of maggots into the Prisoners basket, beseeching God to
mistake that necessity which he had to rid himself of stinking
meat for pure charity." l
By the commencement of the year 1652 John Crouch
had regained his liberty, and recommenced pamphleteering
as a licensed journalist. The wit and the coarseness of his
Eoyalist periodical, The, Man in the Moon, have been noticed.
He now, however, began to write a series of periodicals in
which the humour was of an infinitely more dubious kind,
and in which for the coarseness was substituted a deliberate
pornography impossible to match in English literature. In
Mercurius Democritus ; or, A True and Perfect Nocturnall, com-
menced on 8th April, 1652, and continued as the Laughing Mer-
cury, and again as Democritus until the end of February, 1654,
and in Mercurius Fumigosus, commenced in June, 1654, and con-
tinued without a break until 3rd October, 1655, there lies the
gravest indictment which it is possible to bring against Inde-
pendent morality. These periodicals, and they are not the only
Independent productions of a similar type, licensed regularly
from week to week, first by John Kushworth and secondly
by Gilbert Mabbott, the official licensers to the Common-
wealth and Protectorate not one single number being un-
licensed can only be described as abominable. The lack of
authority in religious matters had produced a corrosive
effect on family life, and a perusal of these duly authorised
periodicals leaves no possible room for doubt, that one
effect of keeping a standing army of 30,000 men in London
1 Mercurius Pragmaticus, No. 5, 15th-22nd June, 1652, and Mercurius
Mastix, No. 1, 20th-27th August, 1652.
146 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
had been the crowding of the outskirts of the city with
London was at least a cleaner and sweeter city for ordi-
nary folk to dwell in when Cromwell's army was disbanded
by Charles IL, whatever the life of the Court may have been
in his days, and John Crouch and John Garfield, the writer
of the Wandering Whore, were promptly " clapt up in
Newgate" in 1660, when they then attempted to circulate
literature of the kind they had issued under the rule of Crom-
The fact that an Act dated 10th May, 1650, prescribed
death as the penalty for adultery, and imprisonment for three
months as the punishment for simple incontinence, on the
face of it appears to conflict with what has been said above,
and requires explanation.
The abolition of the High Commission and other Courts
which punished cases of the kind caused the introduction of
this Act in the Presbyterian Parliament of 1644. Com-
mencing with the month of December in that year, it was
considered at various times in 1645 and 1647 until 1648, when
it was allowed to drop in the month of March.
No zeal for the public morals animated the Independent
leaders who revived the idea of the Act on 23rd March,
1649, for they had been exposed from day to day by the
Eoyalist Mercuries, and their private lives had been the sub-
ject of ribald ballads sung about the streets. They had the
rigid Presbyterians to conciliate, and the country-folk to
hoodwink, by exhibiting themselves as stern upholders of the
1 Names and places of these are continually mentioned. The casual
observer might think that Crouch's periodicals consist only of "horse
wit " or indecency. Mercurius Democritus, No. 47, 2nd-9th March, 1653,
p. 272 ; No. 62, 26th June to 6th July ; No. 65, 20th-27th July, 1653 ; ai
No. 56, llth-25th May, 1653, will at once dispel this idea. I refer chiefly
to the verse. As a ballad writer Crouch possessed great skill and some of
his verse is charming.
2 A Hue and Cry after "Mercurius Democritus " and the l " Wandering
Whore;' 1662. A list of the prisoners in Newgate. (S. P. Dora., Chas. II.,
vol. 43, No. 24.)
INDEPENDENT IMMORALITY 147
Divine moral law. Moreover, as a parliamentarian Mercury
remarks, with engaging frankness, in alluding to the Eoyalist
attacks, there was " a president for the future generations "
to set, in order that they might be thought other than what
they really were. Consequently the very men as regards whose
private lives there can be no doubt those who were notorious
for the sins the Act was to punish took the lead in promoting
it. It was to the care of the licentious Weaver that the
House committed the Act on 22nd March, 1650 ; and of the
five members to whom it was again remitted on 12th April,
Henry Marten, most notorious of all the members, was one. 1
The " Kitling Kings " were above all laws. No action could
be taken against any member of the House of Commons, and
none ever was taken under this Act. The Middlesex Sessions
Eolls give a complete list of all persons tried under this Act
in London. Only a few cases are recorded of the trial of per-
sons for the minor offence and always with an acquittal.
The Eolls, however, contain twenty-eight cases of persons ar-
raigned for adultery, the first being dated llth November,
1651, and the last 14th November, 1658. Of these cases
three were for repetitions of the offence, and only in eleven
instances were the men put on trial with their partners in
guilt. In all cases but one a verdict of "Not Guilty " was
1 Commons Journals under dates cited. For an account of Weaver's
and Marten's misdeeds see Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charles II.,
26th February to 5th March, 1649, and 9th-16th April, 1650. Marten's
"new buildings" and Weaver's house are described with perhaps wilful
exaggeration in the Man in the Moon, No. 14, 5th-12th September, 1649,
but that a third establishment mentioned at the same time really existed
appears from the abominable Mercurius Nullus of 13th March, 1654. See
also as regards one of Marten's mistresses and the high rank given her by
an ambassador, Hist. MSS. Commission, 5th Report, p. 192. The disgust-
ing Wandering Whore at the end of 1660 gives long catalogues of names
which show the existence of an astonishing amount of moral evil, such
as it would be absurd to deny required years to build up. Charles II. 's
proclamations against "vicious debauched and profane persons" of 30th
May and 13th August, 1660, acquire a very definite meaning in this con-
148 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
recorded obviously because the penalty was considered ex-
It is reasonable to conclude that all those who were thus
tried were really guilty, and had been selected because their
offences were peculiarly flagrant. A case, therefore, which
affords a pertinent comment, on the licensing of immoral
periodicals is that of Hester Griffin, acquitted on 20th Feb-
ruary, 1656, of the crime of adultery with Gilbert Mabbott
naturally Mabbott was not arraigned with her. 1
The solitary case of a conviction that of Ursula Powell
on 30th August, 1652 was probably occasioned by her being
a " Banter," that is a member of one of the strangely im-
moral sects springing up at the time. Although she was
respited on account of her condition at the time there is no
justification for the opinion that the death penalty was not
inflicted in her case. Religious rancour would be certain to
see to that. 2
Mercurius Democritus did not escape occasional suppres-
sion any more than the other licensed periodicals, and that
it actually should have been suppressed, not for pandering to
immorality, but for vilifying a rascal like Henry Walker, only
makes the matter worse. On 25th August, 1652, Crouch
wrote: "Walking lately by the chappel of Knightsbridge
1 Middlesex County Records, vol. iii., by J. C. Jeaflreson.
2 There is some confused jargon referring to her as a sectary in the
Laughing Mercury, No. 22, 25th August to 8th September, 1652, p. 170.
In the case of the equally rare victims in the country religious animosity
was also the cause of a conviction. At Taunton on 19th July, 1650, a
woman was sentenced for adultery with " a priest who had been hereto-
fore displaced from his Rectorship for his scandalous life" (Weekly Intel-
ligencer of the Commonwealth, No. 1, 16th-23rd July, 1650, p. 7). It is
strange that Mr. Inderwick in his Interregnum (p. 34) should have thought
that a Catholic priest was meant by the word " priest " (the account, how-
ever, was furnished him from another source) and not a clergyman or
Presbyterian minister. Whitelocke's Memorials, which also mention this
case, are open to the same misconstruction. The Act enriched the English
language by one word "trapan". "The Trap-Pannians, alias Trap-
Pallians, alias Trap-Tonians " (2nd August, 1653).
WALKEE AND PETEES ATTACKED 149
and enquiring how their pastor did, one of his sheep replyed
' That it had been well if he had been hanged before ever he
came there ' ". This was probably true, but Crouch went on
to accuse Walker of immorality. On 6th September an
attack on Hugh Peters, Walker's friend, appeared in A New
Hue and Cry after General Massey, and in reply to the two at-
tacks Walker wrote in Severall Proceedings that Peters " and
others of God's people" had been "thus abused yet some
will probably be made exemplary who have reviled Mr. Peters
and others by lying scandals to make others for the future
beware ". In the result, the writer of the pamphlet against
Peters, one Acton, had to abscond, and his printer Eobert
Eeles, a poor man who had been several times imprisoned,
was compelled to apologise ; but no retractation of the stories
against Peters was ever made. 1 Democritus also was sup-
pressed, and had to change its name to the Laughing Mercury.
At the end of July, 1652, Nedham commenced a new
Mercurius Britannicus, as Sheppard states in the Weepers ; the
authorship of the periodical can moreover be identified by
its style. His object now was to attack the Presbyterians
and those who did not favour Cromwell, of whom he is
henceforth to be noted as a thorough-going partisan. After
a few numbers, however, he discontinued it, and it was then
carried on, though probably not before the month of October,
1652, by one of those very Presbyterians he had attacked,
and was printed by the same printer, Cottrell.
This advocate of religious orthodoxy was a cooper by
trade, and had been one of the Hertfordshire excisemen. 2 He
was immediately opposed by Border in the Faithfull Scout, by
now an advocate of Anabaptism, and whole pages of his
Britannicus were copied and altered by the Scout. As a result
1 Severall Proceedings, 2nd-9fch September, 1652, p. 2419 ; and!6th-23rd
September, p. 2457. The stories against Peters were old, never denied,
and continually repeated from 1643 downwards.
2 The Faithfull Scout, 19th-26th November, 1652. That the Scout
was Anabaptist may be seen from the manifesto set out in No. 93, 22nd-
29bh October, 1652.
150 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
of their respectively too orthodox and too heterodox opinions,
both periodicals were soon in trouble. The author of Britanni-
cus had to flee, his printer being committed to the Gatehouse ;
and the Faithfull Scout was also temporarily suppressed. After
two or three days' imprisonment Cottrell was released. 1
In consequence of this and of one or two attempts at a
Presbyterian insurrection, the Act of 1649 was not only re-
vived, but the Stationers' Company was subjected to practical
suppression. The Printing and Printers Act was passed on
7th January, 1653, and not only made the Act of 1649 per-
manent, but dealt a heavy blow at printing itself. By it
1. The Council of State was ordered to inquire into the
number of printing presses, to suppress such as they thought
fit, and also to decide how many apprentices each master
printer should have.
2. The government of printers and printing was entirely
removed from the Stationers' Company to the Council of
3. No one was to be a printer (unless licensed by Parlia-
ment or the Council of State) who had not been an appren-
tice for seven years. And printers were to exercise their
calling in their own houses only, under a penalty of 40 a
4. The "agent for the army" was appointed with power
to license "intelligence concerning the affaires of the army,"
instead of the Secretary for the Army under the rules of the
Act of 1649. 2
The Agent for the Army was Gilbert Mabbott, who thus
became for the third time licenser of the press. This appoint-
* Cal. State Papers Dom., 1651-52, pp. 444, 464 ; Cal. of 1652-53, pp.
78, 88. " Britanicus that lately fled for his religion " (Mercurius Demo-
critus, No. 57, 1st June, 1653, p. 451).
2 W. Hughes' Exact Abridgment of Acts and Ordinances from 1640 to
1656 (1st July, 1657), p. 470. It is noticeable that this Act followed
Cromwell's conversation with Whitelocke about "What if a man took
upon himself to be King ? " The ordinance of 1655 also followed upon
a more open attempt to obtain the title.
CKOMWELL AND THE PEESS 151
ment is an eloquent commentary on Mabbott's contention,
when he was a Leveller in 1649, that licensing was wrongful,
and we can conclude, therefore, that he no longer belonged to
that faction. The reason of his conversion is easy to state.
George Monck, afterwards Duke of Albemarle, had as secre-
tary in Scotland one William Clarke a man of obscure
origin, whose services had been pressed on him by Cromwell
in order that he might act as a spy on Monck, for it was
" ever Cromwell's way to send a pilot fish " with his instru-
ments. We shall see that Monck, when planning the Eestora-
tion of King Charles II. did not trust Clarke. Mabbott had
married Clarke's sister and, owing to this circumstance and
to his having previously been employed by Fairfax, he filled
the office of Agent of the Armies in the three kingdoms. At
the [Restoration Mabbott succeeded through Monck's influ-
ence in obtaining a patent for the sale of licenses for " Wine
and strong waters" in Ireland, which he afterwards sur-
rendered for 4,800. So this fellow one of the enemies of
King Charles I. was actually rewarded by that monarch's
son, Charles II., who could not have been aware of the tenor
of the articles in the Moderate. 1
Cromwell was not long in putting his new Press Act into
operation, and nothing like the persecution of the printers
which took place at the end of the year 1653 has ever been
seen before or since. John Lilburne had returned to England,
and was tried on 20th August. Cromwell's object was to hang
him, but the jury acquitted him. Within about two months
eighteen printers were consigned to Newgate or the Gate-
house for printing pamphlets against Cromwell. The list of
printers giving security in 1649 shows that there were only
thirty-four in London in that year. Eichard Moon was
arrested on 27th August ; John Streater on 12th September ;
John Clowes and Eobert Austin on 17th September ; Eichard
Eoyston, Edward Dod and Eichard Tomlins on 30th Sep-
S. P. Dom., 1660-61, p. 397 ; Cal. S. P. Irish, 1660-62, pp. 92,
203, 349 ; and 1663-65, pp. 225, 235, 248, 278 and 409.
152 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
tember; William Band on 1st October; James Wayte,
Eobert Hannam, Thomas Locke and Henry Barnes on 5th
October ; William Huby on 12th October ; and Mrs. Clowes,
George Horton, John Perkins, Isaac Grey and Thomas
Spring on 21st October. Finalty, on 23rd December,
Robert Wood was also arrested for merely possessing an ab-
stract of the " instrument of government ". A general search
warrant was granted to the sergeant- at-arms on 13th January,
1654, and London must have been strewn with broken
printing presses. Huby and Clowes were kept in prison for
six months, Horton for five and a half, Streater for five, and
Grey and Hannam for about four ; of the others there is no
During the year 1653 no new periodicals of any importance
appeared. The Anabaptist Scout and the Post tried to
attract attention to themselves by frequent changes of
title, but evidently with small success. A still more marked
process of decadence is to be noticed in 1654. During this
year two ephemeral periodicals appeared, both written by
Nedham in support of Cromwell's designs, the one entitled
Mercurius Poeticus (it was not in verse), the other the Observator,
the chief object of which was to defend the maintenance of a
standing army of 30,000 men. Two other curious periodicals
also sprang into being, compiled by an unknown writer, ap-
parently on the principle of administering a powder in jam,
and entitled Observations on Aristotle's Politics and a Politick
Commentary on the lives of the Caesars, in which news was
sandwiched between classical learning of the most dubious
"Parliament Joan's" me'tier was gone. Her last appear-
ance as a spy was, however, a noteworthy one. At the end of
1 Most of these printers will be identified as printers of newsbooks,
and an account of nearly all of them will be found in A Dictionary of
Printers, etc., "between 1641 and 1667," published for the Bibliographical
Society (1907) by H. R. Plomer. Warrants for their arrest as well as
those of several writers are shown in the Calendars of State Papers under
the dates given.
"PAKLIAMENT JOAN," NUKSE 153
1653 the brother of the Portuguese Ambassador, by name
Dom Pantaleon Sa, killed an Englishman at the New Ex-
change in the Strand. The principle of international law,
that an ambassador's house is sacred and that messengers of
the law may not enter it, was violated, and Sa was exe-
cuted. Elizabeth Alkin was the person who actually laid
the information of the murder before the Council of State.
"Parliament Joan" was then granted a pension of 10 a
year by order of Parliament, and passed the rest of her life in
nursing the sailors wounded in the naval wars with the
Dutch. One or two kindly acts are now to be recorded of
On 4th February, 1653, she petitioned for the release
from custody of Thomas Budd, a poor Catholic priest, who
had been in prison for nearly four years and was ill ; possibly
he had been captured by her agency, and he may have been
the writer of Mercurius Catholicus in 1648. Her petition was
granted, so powerful had her influence become, and he was
given permission to stay three months in England in order
to recover before banishment. She next petitioned to be
allowed to nurse the seamen, and was sent first of all to
Portsmouth and then to Harwich, when, though she seems
to have done her best for the men, she recommenced
clamouring for money.
On 2nd July, 1653, she wrote to Eobert Blackburn,
Secretary to the Admiralty Committee, as follows : " Sir, you
have sent me down to Harwich with 5 but believe me it
hath cost me three times as much. Since my coming I have
laid out my monies for divers necessaries about the sick and
wounded men here it pities me to see poor people in distress.
I cannot see them want if I have it. A great deal of moneys
have I given to have them cleansed in their bodies and their
hair cut. I go often to Ipswich to visit the sick and
wounded there and return again to Harwich so that in
coming and going money departs from me. ... I pray you
sir send me some money speedily for I stand in great need
154 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
thereof for the satisfying of my diet and reckoning I am
owing. I have not been used to be so long behind for my
pains. I pray you remember me and send me a present
On 22nd February, 1654, she again wrote asking for
money, and reminding Blackburn that her infirmities and
sickness had been entailed "in the service of the Common-
wealth " (i.e., in her nightly watchings as spy). 1
One curious fact is to be recorded of her. She petitioned
to be buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey without
charge. There is no date to the petition, but it was probably
made during her last illness. Her name, however, is not to
be found in the Abbey registers. 2
Henry Walker was soon forgiven his injudicious dedica-
tion to his sermon, and his next work was again dedicated
to Cromwell. It was a little book of devotional meditations
which he entitled TPATHMATA. Sweetmeats or Resolves in
all Cases who are Beleevers. In which many Divine Delicates that
have been hid from Doubting Believers are Unvailed and Spread
before them and their Warrants made Plaine to have a Bight to that
Glory which Dazels their Eyes, etc. The book is dated June,.
1654, and it appears from its title-page that Walker was then
pastor of Dr. Bruno Ryves's old Church of St. Martin's Vin-
"As God hath made you great, so I doubt not but that
He hath made you good," wrote he to Cromwell and his
Council, and added, with a face of brass, that he was about
to set that which was sweet before their souls. " Here is both
Corn and Wine prepared for you. . . . You are come from
the Wars conquering as Gideon . . . and therefore such a
1 S. P. Dom. Interregnum, vol. 38, No. 5, etc. The account given of her
in the preface to the Calendar of 1653-54, as "the Florence Nightingale
in humble life of the times," is not justified. Mrs. Everett Green was
not aware of her earlier career, and has summarised the letters in the
Calendar too favourably. She was paid for her work and probably well
z Hist. MSS. Commission, 4th Report, App., p. 180 a, 56.
WALKEK'S " SWEETMEATS" 155
Banquet as this may not bee unseasonable. I hope to refresh
you. ... I am sure whosoever shall disturbe you whilst you
feed on these delicates God will bee avenged on them. Eate
therefore ye Friends of the Bridegroom and drink hereof
abundantly, and let the peace of God distribute your garlands
and the Word of the Lord bee the Cloudy Pillar to direct you
then you shall surely arrive at the promised land whither I
cannot doubt but you are travelling with your faithful ser-
vant and Orator to the throne of Grace for you. H. Walker."
The " Address to the Keader " which follows is even
more amazing than this, and the latter is most patronisingly
told that if there is any passage too hard for him to under-
stand he may pass it by, but a very plain hint is added that
if he does not appreciate the treatise he is no true believer
and will not obtain eternal bliss. The whole concludes with
an Hebrew and a Greek text, the former commencing, " He
brought me to the Banqueting House ".
Such pious loyalty could not but meet with a justly ap-
propriate reward. Cromwell was about to make another
attempt to obtain the Crown, and a hint of the fact slipped
into Walker's Perfect Proceedings in May of the following year
served as the forerunner to another literary effort on Walker's
part. The remark in question had no relation whatever to
its context and was simply, " I think we may beg his High-
ness to take the crown," l but is. the clearest possible indica-
tion that Walker was the author of A Treatise Concerning the
Broken Succession of the Crown of England. Inculcated about the
1 Perfect Proceedings, No. 293 J |3rd-10th May, 1655 (last page). The
following quaint denunciation places the fact beyond a doubt that Walker
was at the time the author of this periodical : "In that which is called the
Perfect Proceedings, a book of news which is printed for Robert Ibbitson
dwelling in Smithfield, which says in his book which comes from Walker,
one who professeth himself to be a Teacher, but it is of lyes " (A Declara-
tion from the Children of Light . . . called Quakers, etc., 14th May,
1655). The date of the reprint of Father Persons' book is 30th May,
1655. It was reprinted for a last time in 1683, under its original title, in
order to justify the exclusion of James II.
156 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM
Latter End of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. Not Impertinent for
the better Compleating of the General Information. This appeared
three weeks later and was none other than Father Persons'
book once more dressed up, but this time with the real
authorship acknowledged in a postscript. Another attack on
the press followed the appearance of this book.
In September, 1655, the licensed press finally disappeared.
Henceforth, until the return of the Eump to power, no one
but Marchamont Nedham was allowed to publish news of
any sort whatever. Walker's Proceedings were amalgamated
by Nedham with the Monday's edition of his Mercurius
Politicus and entitled the Publick Intelligencer communicating
the Chief Occurrences and Proceedings within the Dominions,
etc. The first number of this appeared on 8th October, 1655.
By an ordinance of the "Protector," with the advice of his
council, dated 28th August, 1655, John Barkstead, Lieutenant
of the Tower, Alderman John Dethick and George Foxcroft
were appointed commissioners for the regulating of printing.
The three were to
1. Inquire as to the number of printing houses, presses,
master printers, and their servants, workmen and apprentices
in London, Westminster and Southwark. "And of what
Fame Quality, Conversation or Condition each master printer
was and how he his servants and workmen stood affected to
the then government," and to certify the result twenty-eight
days after receipt of this order.
2. To suppress and prosecute all unlicensed printers.
3. To find out whether all printers had entered into bonds
with two sureties, and whether the conditions had been
broken, and if so to prosecute.
4. To take care that no "pamphlets, books of news, or
occurrences " whatsoever should be published unless licensed
by the "protector or his council". To prosecute those disre-
garding this order.
5. To put into speedy execution the previous Acts and the
Act against hawkers.
ABOLITION OF NEWSBOOKS 157
6. To send all offenders to Bridewell to undergo " cor-
poral and pecuniary punishment ".
7. To break open locks and doors, under a general search
warrant and a general warrant to arrest, of the widest possible
8. To appoint deputies (in writing) with all the above
powers and to reward prosecutors. 1
No license to any newsbook writer was ever granted by
Cromwell or his council, and none appeared during his life-
time other than Marchamont Nedham's official Mercurius
Politicals and Publick Intelligencer, issued every Thursday and
Monday respectively. The two periodicals constituted one
newsbook, but in a very curious way. Each was independent
of the other, and each contained the news for seven days pre-
ceding its date of issue. Consequently they overlapped very
much, and a person who wished to be promptly informed of
what was taking place would have to buy both ; though, of
course, he would be equally well served in the end if he only
purchased one newsbook a week. Each periodical consisted
of sixteen pages and was much smaller in size than Walker's
Perfect Occurrences, and it must be added, in justice to Walker,
was not nearly so interesting to read.
Thurloe, Secretary of State, was responsible for what
appeared in them. There is nothing further to record of
them until the return of the Kump Parliament to power.
1 W. Hughes, Exact Abridgment, etc., p. 594.
THE HISTORY OF ADVERTISING TO 1659.
EUROPEAN advertising offices owe their origin to an idea of
the father of the famous French essayist, Montaigne, 1 and
it is undoubtedly to French influence that the beginnings of
advertising in England must be ascribed.
Its history in this country commences at an earlier date
than that of the newsbooks and had far more distinguished
originators. The first steps are to be found in the institu-
tion of advertising offices by two gentlemen of the Court of
King James I., Sir Arthur Gorges and Sir Walter Cope.
Sir Arthur Gorges, poet and sailor, was the third son of
Sir William Gorges, Vice- Admiral of the Fleet, and his mother
was a cousin of Sir Walter Ealeigh. With Kaleigh, he was
one of the volunteers against the Spanish invasion, and on
four occasions he had been a member of Parliament. His
second wife brought him Sir Thomas More's property at
Chelsea, and in the chapel of More's house he was buried
on 10th October, 1625.
Sir Walter Cope was a member of Queen Elizabeth's
Society of Antiquaries, and became successively Chamberlain
of the Exchequer, Master of the Wards and Keeper of Hyde
He built Holland House, Kensington, in 1607, of which
the earlier name was Cope Castle. He died on 31st July,
1614, and was buried in Kensington. Unlike Sir Arthur
Gorges he did not die a rich man, but was 27,000 in debt
at the time of his death.
1 Montaigne's Essays, Book IV., chap. xxiv.
THE HISTOEY OF ADVEKTISING TO 1659 159
On 5th March, in the eighth year of his reign, King
James I. granted Letters Patent to Sir Arthur Gorges
and Sir Walter Cope, gentlemen of his privy chamber. 1 This
document recited that all trade and commerce consisted
" eyther in buying or selling or borrowing and lending. And
for that a great defect is daily found in the policie of our
State for want of some good trusty and ready means of
intelligence and intercourse between our said subjects in
that behalfe. By means whereof, many men oftentimes
upon occasion of necessity and sudden accident, are inforced
to put away and sell landes, leases, or other goodes and
chattels, to great losse and disadvantage for want of good
and ready meanes to give generall notice and publique intel-
ligence of such their intentions to many that would (if they
knew whereof) as willingly buy as the others would gladly
sell," and that the two patentees had " out of their carefull
endeavours found out and devised a most safe easy and
speedy way to the great advancement and helpe unto generall
Commerce and Trade . . . whereby to serve the turnes and
occasions as well of Borrowers as Lenders and of Buyers as
of Sellers by plaine and direct course of reciprocall intelli-
gence, and interchangeable correspondency, for the ready
notice and understanding of one anothers minds."
It then gave and granted " absolute full and free license
power and authority to them their executors, administrators
and assignes and to their Deputy and deputies for the term
of 21 years," to set up, in any places, cities and towns where
they thought fit, " a publique office roome or place of resort or
repaire of people for the notice of Borrowing and Lending of
moneyes and for the better knowledge of buying selling or
exchanging of lands tenements or hereditaments, leases or
any other goods or chattels whatsoever" which they should
1 "A True Transcript and Publication of his Majesties Letters Patient
for an Office to be Erected and called the Publicke Register for Generall Com-
merce, etc. Printed at Britain Bursse for John Budge and are there to
be sold at his shop, 1611."
160 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
" think fit to be entered and registered, and to keepe one or
more Kalender or Kalenders, Kegister or Registers, for the
registring of all and singular such," which office in every
place where it should be kept was to be called by the name-
of The Publique Register for generall Commerce.
For this privilege they were to pay an annual rent of 40
half-yearly. No man was to be compelled to make entry or
search in the said office at all nor to " pay any more for such
search or entry, then shall please himself". If Gorges and
Cope found that the office did not pay, they were to be at
liberty to determine their patent before Michaelmas, 1612, on
notice to the Lord Treasurer.
The office was duly set up in Britaines Burse, a kind of
Exchange, situate near Durham House in the Strand, at
Charing Cross ; it probably did not pay owing to the restric-
tion that no one was to pay more than pleased himself, and
the Letters Patent seem to have been terminated accordingly.
The printed copy of the Letters Patent contains "An Overture
and Explanation of the Purport and Use of this Office," from
which it is quite clear that, had it succeeded, it was the in-
tention of the promoters to set up offices of this kind all over
the kingdom " to holde correspondence with the Citie of
London ". It is also very evident that it was intended not
only to enter into competition with scriveners and brokers
for the lending of money, but to set up a kind of banking
business through correspondence between the London and
country offices, and thus save people from the danger of
robbery, owing to the necessity of carrying large sums of
money when they journeyed to London to make their pur-
chases. Altogether the whole scheme w r as far in advance of
Matters then remained dormant until the year 1637. The
first newsbook advertisement appeared, as has already beei
noticed, on 1st February, 1625-26, in Mercurius Britannicust
Coranto. On 13th December, 1637, Letters Patent were
granted by King Charles I. to Captain Eobert Innes for th(
THE HISTOEY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 161
term of forty-one years. By these an office was instituted
" whither masters or others having lost goods, women for sat-
isfaction whether their absent husbands be living or dead,
parents for lost children, or any others for discovering murders
or robberies, and for all bargains and intelligences might resort
if they pleased ". This office also was to be voluntary, and
Captain Innes was to receive " such recompense as the parties
would give ". Though not hampered, therefore, by any rent
to the Crown, this second patent still had the defect that it
gave the grantee no power to make definite charges. It is a
little difficult to see why so extraordinary a limitation should
have been placed upon him.
Captain Eobert Innes was a Scotsman, a Eoyalist, and
an opponent of Presbyterianism. 1 He had travelled in Turkey
and the Continent, and, if the rebellions in Scotland and Eng-
land had not broken out, some considerable development
might have arisen from this patent. As it was, he did not
act upon it, and died, presumably fighting on the King's side.
The patent then remained dormant until 1657.
The first practical realisation of these ideas was reserved
for Henry Walker. In his issue of Perfect Occurrences for
26th March to 2nd April, 1647, he had announced an Inde-
pendent book, in the following terms: "A book applauded
by the clergy of England called the Divine Eight of Church
Government Collected by Sundry Eminent Ministers in the Citie of
London. Corrected and Augmented in many Places, with a Brief
Reply to Certain Queries against the Ministers of England, is
printed and published for Joseph Hunscot and George
Calvert and are to be sold at the Stationers Hall and at the
Golden Fleece in the Old Change ". He probably made no
charge for this announcement, but inserted it to help his
friends. The idea, however, took root, and henceforth ad-
vertisements gradually crop up in all the newsbooks.
Samuel Hartlib, the Anglo-German, tendered propositions
to Parliament in 1648, asking to be appointed Superintendent-
1 Cal. S. P. Dom., 1637-38, pp. 19, 20 and 21.
162 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
General of Offices on the model of those already described,
and to be entitled " Offices of Addresse". 1 He asked to
have power to demand, for every entry or extract in registers
to be kept, the sum of twopence or threepence at the most,
and in addition that he should be allowed 200 a year for
his services, "either out of some place of profit in Oxford,
according to the express order of the House of Commons, or
out of the Revenues of Dean and Chapters lands," etc., and
that a "convenient great house" should be allotted unto
him to keep the said office in "with consideration for the
furniture thereof". This not very creditable attempt to
profit by other people's ideas was not successful.
Henry Walker now saw his opportunity, and stepped into
the breach, in the year 1649, with the following announce-
ment ; " There is an office of Entries to be erected on
Monday next for great profit and ease of the City's of
London and Westminster and parts adjacent, as it is in
France and other parts, where the people find great benefit
by it. And for 4d. any person may both search and re-
cord his entry and have notice of a Chapman or what is de-
sired. 1. Whether he be to sell, let, mortgage, Lands,
houses, leases, plate, jewels, chattells, goods, printed tickets
for public debts, and merchandise of all sorts whatsoever, or
such as will disburse money upon such securities. 2. To
be entertained as Gentlemen's Chaplaines, Secretaries,
Stuards etc. and also Gentlewomen nurses, servants etc. 3.
To make known the time of their setting forth of any ships
for what part they are bound and where passengers etc. may
repaire to the merchants or owners for commerce and con-
tract. And so coaches etc. 4. In sum, whatsoever is made
known to the publique by expensive way of Bills posted
or otherwise may be speedily known for the said 4d.
onely and no more charges. The office is to be opened on
1 His first publication seems to be lost, but the second is entitled A
Further Discoverie of the Office of Publick Addresse for Accomodations.
London, 1648. His Cornucopia of later date refers to it.
THE HISTOKY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 163
Munday morning next, at the Fountain in Kings Street and
so continually day after day, where the clerks are to be at all
times ready to make searches and entries." 1
Three weeks later' he informs his readers : " There are-
many things now daily brought to the Enterance at the
Fountain in Kings Street. All those who have tickets for
publique faith monies or printed tickets for soldiers " (the
two old grievances of " public faith " and " free quarter ")
"may be directed there where to have present monies for
them. Divers that have lands or houses to sell or mortgage
and others that buy come to the Enterance daily. And
divers that have household stuffe to sell, also others that
would lay jewels to pawn, gentlemen that want servants and
servants that want places for any business it is but 4 pence
the Enterance and doth much good in bringing the buyer
and seller speedily together though with that small sum of 4
pence onely." 2
Walker was not a man to allow the grass to grow under
his feet, and he now pushed his Office of Entries in a remark-
able way. Previously he had made vain attempts to set up
as an Hebrew lecturer, apparently more in order to satisfy his
vanity and thirst for notoriety than for any other reason, and
1 Perfect Occurrences, No. 137, 10th-17th August, 1649, p. 1216.
2 The Man in the Moon's comment on this is amusing if coarse : "Bee
it known unto all men by these presents. That a house of Entries is now
erected at Westminster where if any man want a ... Theefe to serve
him, hee may there find their names and lodgings recorded and this for
ease and benefit of the State. ... Be it known also, that at Bednal
Green Sir Balthazar Gerbier, a man that pretends to all arts and Sciences
yet no more master of any than Henry Walker his great companion is of
Hebrew opens the Academy (that is his store house of impertinences and
nonsence) on Wed. the 29th inst. where all may be welcome (for their
moneys) except only a friend of Sir John Danvers whom he suspects for
stealing his jewels. I am loath to name the partie because of the neare
relation that is betwixt them, but Henry Walker will tell you where
some of the rings were sold in Foster Lane, and for how much if he bee
not fee'd to hold his peace." Walker had received an invitation to the
opening of Gerbier's Academy, and was immensely proud of it, and ad-
vertised for Gerbier a theft of jewels which took place on the occasion.
164 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
he now announced a course of public Hebrew lectures "for
nothing at the Fountain, Kings Street in the Great
under the Enterance Office," 1 and, as the particulars of tl
good things to be found at his " Enterance Office " about thii
time include "many that want to rent livings within fifty mil<
of London," there is no doubt that he was adding a si
simoniacal practice to his many other occupations. He hj
actually recorded in 1648, in the following terms, an astound-
ing word of commendation given to him at one of these 1<
tures : " Dr. Waideson of both the Universities and Physitii
of the College of London in name of the whole company wi
pleased to give me this encouragement (for I read the lecture
every night my self e) Quod tu sinistre legis nos dextre accipimus ". 2
The fee charged for inserting an advertisement in a news
book at this time was sixpence. The Man in the Moon wril
of Walker's "Westminster catterwaule called Perfect Oocut
rences, bumbasted out with a bill of mortality and the sixpem
story of a man that lost a wall eyed mare at Islington whei
the thief himself" (Walker) "stool her to carry his fardle oi
nonsence heresy and blasphemy to Uxbridge to infect hi*
parish with the national sin of Atheisme " ; and the si
periodical, in alluding to "Peck the Perfect Diurnal maker,"
mentions " the last page which most commonly he lets out
to the Stationers for sixpence a piece to place therein th<
titles of their books the Most Famous History of Tom Tumb
Long Meg of Westminster or Mr. Cook's Dream, and are to
sold John an Oakes at the sign of the three Loggerheads in
Pudding-Py Lane where Walker pawned his bible for a pint
of heavenly metheglin, and Peck was beholding to his prinl
to pay for halfe a pound of pudding for his dinner after he hi
made a shift to reach ' Finis ' ". 3
1 Perfect Occurrences, No. 143, 21st-28th September, 1649, p. 1324.
2 Perfect Occurrences, 20th-27th October, 1648, p. 705. The lecti
took place, *' Not in the taverne as some mistake," (The Owle ?) "but
a private house next doore to it ".
3 Man in the Moon, No. 23, 26th September to 10th October, 1649, p.
200 ; and ibid., No. 57, 29th May to 5th June, 1650, p. 426.
THE HISTOKY OF ADVEKTISING TO 1659 165
In and after the year 1649, therefore, advertisements be-
came universal in the newsbooks ; but they were confined to
books, an occasional quack medicine, runaway servants and
apprentices, and things lost or stolen especially horses. For
other purposes advertising offices were used, and it is clear
that the author of a newsbook did not desire too many adver-
tisements for fear of being accused of " bumbasting it out ".
The terminology employed is interesting, and it is to be
noted that the word " advertisement," which meant special
notice, was not used in our modern sense until about 1660 or
later. The term adopted was " advice," and of this we shall
have to describe a very curious derivative. The terms " ad-
vertising " and "advertiser" are of a later date altogether,
" advertiser " not being known until the next century.
" Siquis " seems to have been occasionally employed for an
advertisement, being taken from the words "If any one,"
with which announcements, particularly of the " Hue and
Cry " order commenced. 1
The advertisements were as much a subject of derision
as the newsbooks and their authors themselves. " Besides
-all Iterations, Petitions, Epistles, News at home and abroad
rayling and praying in one breath (two grand helps which
they never want) they have now found out another quaint
device in their trading," writes Samuel Sheppard. 2 " There is
never a mountebank who either by professing of Chymistry,
or any other Art drains money from the people of the nation,
but these arch-cheats have a share in the booty, and besides
filling up of his paper (which he knew not how to do other-
wise) he must have a feeling to authorise the Charletan,
forsooth, by putting him in the News-book. There he gives
you a Bill of his Cures, and because the fellow cannot lye
1 For example ; " The Downfall of Mercurius Britanicus, Pragmaticus,
Politicus, that three headed Cerberus," in which it is said of Nedham and
his Hue and Cry after the King in " Britanicus "
His cursed Siquis ne'er will be forgotten
Against his Prince, when he is dead and rotten.
2 Mercurius Mastix, No. 1, 20th-27th August, 1652, p. 7.
166 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
sufficiently himself, he gets one of these to do't for him
and then be sure it passes for currant, just like those who-
being about to sell a diseased or stolen horse in Smithfield,
are fain to get a Voucher who will say or swear anything
they please for sixpence. But why should we be angry
with them for this ? For it is commonly truer than the rest
of their news. Nay they have taken the Cryers trade from
them, for all stolen goods must be inserted in these pam-
phlets the fittest place for them, all theirs being stolen
they do so filch from one another. I dare be bold to say
they confer notes. And then judge you whether this be not
fine cozenage, when we have that in ten or twelve pamphlets,
which would hardly fill up a page in one? "
In April, 1650, a second advertising agent appeared in
one Adolphus Speed, presumably because of the total sup-
pression of the licensed newsbooks at that time. He set up
his office, which he called an office of " Generall Accomoda-
tions by Addresse," "att Mr. Fisher's House in King Streete
within the Covent Garden," and issued an elaborate and
amusing prospectus l with a list of advertisements in it which
he called " Discoveries ". On 29th September, 1650, Henry
Robinson, a merchant and writer on economics of the city,
issued the prospectus of an office, which seems to have filled
the functions of a modern registry office for servants, entitled
" The Office of Adresses and Encounters " situated in
" Threadneedle St. over against the Castle Tavern, close to
the Old Exchange". He announces: "the poore" should
have all the services he promised done for them in charity,
and " all others for sixpence a time, or entry, so often as their
turn is served. And for this purpose, the said office shall
be kept open every day (except the Lords Day) from 8 of
the clock till 12 at noone, and from 2 to 6 in the evening."'
^'Generall Accomodations by Addresse," 26th April, 1650. The-
address is from a note in the author's handwriting on Thomason's copy.
2 " The Office of Adresses and Encounters where people of each Rancke
and Quality may receive directions," etc., 29th September, 1650, by
THE HISTOEY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 167
After the final suppression of the licensed newsbooks in
1655, Marchamont Nedham seems fully to have realised the
fact that he could charge advertisers in his newsbooks
exactly what he chose ; consequently he raided the price of
an advertisement from sixpence t*> half a crown, an excessive
sum for the times. 1
Complaints were probably frequent ; hence in the year
1657 a remarkable development took place, and it was de-
cided to publish a periodical consisting entirely of advertise-
On 14th May, 1657, a broadsheet prospectus was issued,
entitled " The Offices of Public Advice newly set up in
Several Places in London and Westminster. By Au-
This prospectus, after a preamble similar to those already
cited, announced a "book of Intelligence in print" wherein
all the " particular occasions " entered at the offices to be in-
stituted should be publicly sold every Tuesday morning at
any stationer's shop, and that fees in future would only be
taken of one of the parties to a bargain and not of both as in
" the blinde way of addresses heretofore made use of ". " The
undertakers" bound themselves "to print each advice so
entered four weekes together in the same book," after which
the fees were to be renewed.
The fees were distinctly heavy, and a curious fact is that
it does not seem to have occurred to the promoters to charge
for space or the number of words. Important " advices," or
those by important people, seem ipso facto to have been given
capital letters and more space, that is all.
l Mercurius Politicus. A Private Conference between Scot and Need-
ham Concerning the Present Affairs of the Nation, 1660. One of his nick-
names was the "Devil's half-crown newsmonger ".
2 Also advertised in Mercurius Politicus for 7th-14th May, 1657, p.
7796, and the Publick Intelligencer for llth-18th May. Date of prospectus
from the Publick Intelligencer, 18bh-25th May, p. 1373. See also an
article by the present writer in the Nineteenth Century and After,
November, 1907, on "The Early History of London Advertising".
168 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Advertisements of ships leaving port or to be sold, etc., were
charged for at the rate of 6s. per month's advices, and if the
ship was of more than 100 tons a penny per ton was the charge.
Those of ship's tackling, rigging, and furniture for sale,
if under 30 in value, 5s. ; if over, a penny per pound for the
For lands and houses to be sold, mortgaged, or purchased
a penny per pound in value was charged if to be let 5s. and
a penny per pound overplus if of more than 30 rent.
Also advertisements of any merchandise to be sold were
charged in the same way, 5s. being the ordinary fee and a
penny per pound for the overplus of 30 in value.
Those advertising for employment and miscellaneous
matters were charged as follows, a month's advertisements
being given for the fee :
Ships' Officers, and apprentices to any calling, etc. . . 6s.
Common Seamen . . . . . .3s.
" Petti" schoolmasters, nurses, workmen, journeymen, etc. 4s.
Physitians (i.e., including quack medicines) . . . 10s.
Books to be printed or intended to be printed . . 5s.
Professors of Sciences, teachers of Hebrew, Greek, Latin,
English, French, Italian, Dutch, or any other languages;
tutors and governors for noblemen or gentlemen ; school-
masters or schoolmistresses of the better sort; writing
masters, dancing masters, singing masters, lute or guittare
masters; stewards, bailiffs of manors; secretaries, gentle-
men ushers ; book-keepers, cash-keepers, clerks of counsel-
lors ; Justices of the Peace, Attorneys, solicitors, scriveners,
brewers, woodmongers, etc., were charged 10s.
Tiy proprietors of stage-coaches the charge was 8s. ; to
those of hackney-coaches, 6s. ; and for advertising runaway
servants and apprentices, 8s.
The following eight offices were set up :
1. In East Smithfield near St. Katherine's by the water-
side, at one Mr. Greens a chirurgion at the Signe of the Ham-
burgh Arms, over against the signe of the White Lion.
THE HISTOKY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 169
2. In Sherburn Lane's end, next to Lumbard St. at
one Mr. Gasses, over against the White Hart.
3. In Barbican, at one Mr. Peryam's, over against the
sign of the George, next door to the sign of the Pomegranate.
4. In Fullers rents in Holborn, at one Mr. Tho. Slay-
nets, at the Three Arrows.
5. In White-Friers, at the Entry, next to the Green
Dragon Tavern, at one Mr. Gee's over against the sign of the
Black Bull Head.
6. In the Strand, at one Mistress Salisburies, at the sign
of the White Swan with two necks, over against the sign of
the Cross Keys by York House.
7. In Westminster, In Kings Street, at one Mr. Hudsons,
at the sign of the Half Moon, between the Kose Crown and
the Black Bell.
8. In Southwark, at Mr. Newtons, at the sign of the
Queens Head Inn, on St. Margarets Hill.
Nos. 1 and 4 were open on Wednesdays and Fridays from
8 to 11 A.M. ; No. 2 from 12 P.M. to 4 ; and No. 5 from 2 to 5
P.M. on Wednesdays and Fridays ; Nos. 6 and 8 were open
on Thursdays and Saturdays from 8 to 11 A.M. ; and Nos. 3
and 7 were open on Thursdays and Saturdays from 2 to 5 P.M.
From this it is evident that two clerks were sufficient for all
On 26th May, 1657, No. 1 of the "book" appeared. It
had as catchword the Publick Adviser, probably a unique
use of the last word which was evidently adapted from " ad-
vice ". The Publick Adviser was exactly the same size (two
sheets = sixteen pages) as Nedham's newsbooks, and was
published at the same price a penny. It is a most in-
teresting periodical, and contains a variety of announce-
ments of all kinds which give a valuable picture of the life of
the time. Advertisements of nurses, stage-coaches, carriers,
schoolmasters, tutors, serving-men, valets, lodgings and
physitians (one describes himself as no mountebank or
rnercurialist) all appear, in addition to the predominating
170 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
notices of ships departing the port of London and houses to
be sold and let. No publication of equal importance appeared
again until near the end of the century, and it is remarkable
for containing the first trade advertisements, that of coffee
(on 26th May) and of chocolate (on 16th June). " An adver-
tisement of importance" (the contrast in terminology is
curious) tells its subscribers that there is no necessity to
enter their " occasions " in their own names.
In the meantime, Captain Eobert Innes's dormant patent
held good, and still had a lengthy period to run, since an Act
of Parliament in 1648, and an order in Cromwell's "Coun-
cil " of 1653 confirmed all King Charles I.'s grants. Captain
Innes's widow, therefore, found a purchaser for it in one Oliver
Williams, who was a buyer of speculations of the kind, and
who no doubt envied the high fees which the " Public Ad-
vice" Offices were charging for their monopoly. He and
others are many times mentioned in the State Papers with
reference to another assignment, that of a patent for ship's
ballast, which seems at last to have been declared legally in-
valid. There was, however, no doubt about Captain Innes's
patent ; therefore on 26th May he also issued a broadsheet,
"A Prohibition to all Persons who have set up any Offices
called by the names of Addresses, Publique Advice or Intelli-
In this he took the legal standpoint, that the fees charged
by the Offices of "Public Advice" were contrary to law,
as in his own grant they were to be voluntary ; and he also
denied their right to exist at all. On 16th June another
" advertisement " appeared in the Publick Adviser, denying pro
formd the claims of Oliver Williams, but in this the fees were
waived altogether, and the amount to be paid was left for
agreement between the office clerks and the clients. Williams
seems then to have issued a prospectus of his own, and on
13th July appeared his own book, the Weekly Information
from the Office of Intelligence, which set up the following six
11 Offices of Intelligence " :
THE HISTOEY OF ADVEETISING TO 1659 171
1. St. Katherines at one Mr. Streets, a corner house, near
the Hartshorn Brewhouse daily from 8 to 12 A.M.
2. Thredneedle St. next dore to the Ship Tavern daily
from 8 to 6.
3. At Bentley's Eents, Holborn Court in Grayes Inne at
one Mr. Nathaniel Littons house, daily from 8 to 6.
4. At Mr. Hunts house next to the Sun Tavern, over
against Chancery Lane end Holborn, from 2 to 6 P.M.
5. At Charing Cross at Mr. Bisakers house, next door to
Charing Cross Tavern from 8 to 12 A.M.
6. In Southwark at one Mr. Skirm's near the Talbot Inne,
over against St. Margaret's Hill from 2 to 6 P.M.
The hours of attendance show that three clerks would be
sufficient for the working of these offices.
Very probably legal proceedings now took place, and, if
so, it would seem reasonable to conclude, that the monopoly
of the " Public Advice " Offices must have been overruled and
Williams's patent declared valid. He was not, however, per-
mitted to publish a " book," and the Weekly Information was
limited to one number. All the offices eventually collapsed,
in spite of the gradual reduction of their number ; for two
years later, when Williams appeared as a journalist for the
Eump, he speaks of "reviving" his Office of Intelligence.
The restriction in his patent, that no definite fees were to be
charged, a restriction eventually acknowledged to be good by
the Publick Adviser, must have been fatal to the success of the
undertakings from a commercial point of view.
The remainder of the history of advertising is closely con-
nected with that of the newsbooks of 1660.
CHAPTEK X. 9
1659 TO 1666.
THE death of Cromwell on 3rd September, 1658, and the
calling of a Parliament by his son Richard on 27th
January, 1659, renewed the struggle between the army leaders
and the Commons. Marchamont Nedham had been so
thorough-going an advocate of Cromwell and his policy that
he could not hope to pass unscathed in the contest for su-
premacy which now ensued, and an end was at once put to
his monopoly. The majority in the " Eump " as the Parlia-
ment was now contemptuously termed was strongly Ana-
baptist, and this fact was marked by the reappearance of the
Faithfull Scout on 29th April, and the Weekly Post on 10th
May, both issued by the same bookseller, George Horton (one
of those imprisoned in 1653), and both apparently written by
Daniel Border. On 10th May the Weekly Intelligencer of the
Commonwealth was also permitted to reappear.
Nedham, who had made a good many enemies by his
partisanship of Cromwell, was now denounced as " a lying
railing Eabshakeh" and a " defamer of the Lord's people''.
Attacks were made on his moral character, and his removal
was demanded from his position as author of the official
diurnals. On 13th May, 1659, the Commons, accordingly,
discharged him from " writing the weekly intelligence," and in
his place appointed an old Anabaptist printer and preacher, one
John Canne. Nedham, as Anthony a Wood tells us, com-
menced a periodical of his own, the Moderate Informer,
published each Thursday, in opposition to Mercurius Politicus f
but apparently it was suppressed after the second number ;
and he then turned his attention to recovering his place in
LICENSED NEWSBOOKS KEVIVED 173
the good graces of the Parliament by writing a book in sup-
port of their cause.
Canne did not give satisfaction, and, from 16th and 19th
July respectively, the Scout and Post were marked " published
by special authority ' ' . Thomas Scot, the Regicide, now Secre-
tary of State in Thurloe's place, had the management of the
newsbooks, and may have salaried their writers in order to
prevent any Royalist competition. Nedham's disgrace was
Oliver Williams's opportunity, and, as he tells us, he at once
" revived" his Office of Intelligence "at the Old Exchange
in Cornhill," and commenced a biweekly periodical, entitling
the Friday's newsbook^l Particular Advice, etc., and Occurrences
from Foreign Parts, etc., and reversing the order of the two
titles for his Tuesday's edition. The two first numbers
were dated respectively 30th June and 5th July. From 29th
July they also were "published by authority", and at the
same time added to the " advices " and foreign news " a true
account of the daylie occurrences at Westminster". Ad-
vertisements naturally predominated in these periodicals ;
which Nedham, Williams tells us, attempted to suppress, con-
fident, probably, of his ability to regain his lost post, and they
contain some amusing leading articles in which, like Henry
Walker, he occasionally quotes Hebrew. Williams " kept
up a constant correspondence" with Thomas Scot, and these
two periodicals may now be considered as taking the lead so
long as the Eump Parliament remained in power.
On 17th August Nedham's book appeared. It was aimed
against any project of restoring King Charles II., and bore
the title Interest will not Lie. One Koyalist pamphleteer
amusingly remarked that it was its own confutation, for two
days previously he had ;been restored to his office and
Politicus and the Publick Intelligencer became his once more.
In the meantime, while the dispute for power between
the army leaders and the Kump proceeded on its way, the
strong man in Scotland, George Monck, was slowly forming
his plans. To his lasting honour it can be said, that he kept
174 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
steadily before his eyes as his main object the avoidance of
shedding any more blood, and to his skilfully concealed
plans is due the astounding fact that the will of the nation
was once more made to prevail, and that the King was
brought back to his throne, without the loss of a single
man's life. In the steps which he^took to effect this,
journalism played its part ; for General Monck had his own
periodicals, written by a writer whom he could trust.
Monck had married Anne, the widow of a Strand trades-
man called Eadford, and sister of Thomas Clarges, who
practised as an apothecary in the Strand. Both were de-
voted Eoyalists, and it is to them that the selection of a
writer for the royal cause was confided. Their choice fell
on Henry Muddiman, who was also the son of a Strand
tradesman, Edward Muddiman, and was thus evidently well
known to them. He was baptised at St. Martin' s-in-the-
Fields on 5th February, 1629, and was admitted a pensioner
at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1647. Up to the time
when he began to issue his Parliamentary Intelligencer and
Mercurius Publicus, in secret opposition to Nedham's Politicus
and Publick Intelligencer, he had been a schoolmaster, and, as
he states, " never writ anything of this sort before ". When
Clarges left Scotland at the end of November, 1659, it had
been decided by Monck and himself that the press should be
utilised, and that Henry Muddiman and not William Clarke,
Monck's secretary, should be the person to give the General's
documents to the world. From this date, therefore, the
plan was set in motion which was to restore to the King his
rights, and to make simple Anne Clarges a duchess, her
brother a baronet, and Henry Muddiman the privileged
journalist of the Eestoration.
Monck, at this juncture, evidently did not trust Crom-
well's nominee, and a literary adviser and amanuensis of
some sort was necessary ; for his education, as Clarendon
states, was but " Dutch and Devonshire ". Clarges's literary
acquirements, judging from his unacknowledged pamphlet
GENEKAL MONCK'S JOUENALIST 175
"Hypocrites Unmasked," also appear to have been of the
poorest kind. On the occasion when he met Muddiman,
Pepys remarked that he was a " good scholar," and Pepys
was proposed by him as a member of the Rota Club, though
it is clear that Muddiman did not trust Pepys with his reason
for adopting the career of journalist, since Pepys called him
also a rogue for speaking basely of the Hump though " he
wrote newsbooks for them ". Muddiman 's newsbooks, how-
ever, which had only been in existence a few days at the
time, were not official, and would have been suppressed
but for the fact that it was known who was behind him.
As they advocated a free Parliament, Pepys must soon have
discovered his mistake in thinking that he wrote newsbooks
for the Bump. 1
About the same time that the Parliamentary Intelligencer
was commenced in London, Captain Goodwin, one of Monck's
officers, appears to have commenced the Faithfull Intelligencer
from the Parliaments Army in Scotland, written at Edinburgh,
also with the object of attacking Nedham. This periodical
has the distinction of being the first purely Scottish news-
book, written as well as printed in Scotland. Clarges also
probably brought down with him from Scotland Giles Dury,
as assistant for Muddiman. Dury is never heard of again
after the [Restoration, when, as Wood writes, he " gave over "
writing the newsbooks, and he must have been employed as
assistant in order to leave Muddiman free to edit Monck's
The famous " Eemonstrance and Address of the Army,"
first presented to Monck on 9th April, 1660, by which the
1 For Muddiman's antecedents Williams's attack in An Exact Ac-
compt, No. 103, 22nd-29th June, 1660, and the former's reply in the
Parliamentary Intelligencer, No. 27, 25th June to 2nd July, 1660. That
the newsbooks were issued under Clarges's direction appears from his
letter to Gumble on 26th December, 1659 (the day of issue of the first
number) (Leyborne-Popham MSS., 1899, p. 137). Clarges's letter also
refers to Captain Goodwin. Pepys made Muddiman's acquaintance on
9th January. Pepys was Downing's clerk at the time.
176 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
officers pledged themselves to obey whatever the forthcoming
free Parliament should decide, and owing to which all blood-
shed was avoided, bears a direction on its title-page from
Monck to Henry Muddiman to publish it. As it seems clear
that the " Eemonstrance " was framed by Clarges, Henry
Muddiman must have settled its wording and final form, as he
did that of many other documents. It is for this reason that
his uncle, Sir William Muddiman, was given a place of
honour at the Coronation Eeview on 7th May, 1661, and
command of the Lord Mayor's "troop of horse," all citi-
zens ; l for this reason also, after the Eestoration, he became
sole privileged journalist of the kingdom, and was granted
the privilege of free postage for his letters like the officers of
State. 2 But he chiefly earned his reputation as a writer of
newsletters, of which an immense number (more than those
of all other writers put together) exists. 3 From the found-
ing of the Gazette, until his death in 1692, he was little less
than an institution, and the reason why up to the present he
has been forgotten is because he devoted himself entirely to
journalism, was not a pamphleteer, and engaged in no con-
troversies. One quarrel he had, and that entailed the decisive
and lasting discomfiture of a future Secretary of State Sir
Joseph "Williamson. He was the first editor, and practically
the founder, of one periodical still in existence the modern
Government organ entitled the London Gazette ; and there-
fore the story of this patriarch of English journalism is of
more than ordinary interest.
The Long Parliament came to an end on 16th March,
1 Historical MSS. Commission, 5th Report, App., p. 203.
S. P. Dom. Charles IL, 160, No. 149, para. 1, and 139, No. 61.
3 The Marquis of Bath has in his library at Longleat a complete col-
lection of Muddiman 's newsletters from 29th April, 1667, to 12th October,
1689, the dates being alternate days, contained in fourteen folio volumes,
formerly the property of Mrs. Muddiman. It is impossible to overesti-
mate the value of this collection, and it is to be hoped that Lord Bath
will permit their publication. For an example (chosen in order to show
the extent of the writer's correspondence) see Appendix B., p. 211.
NBDHAM DISCHAEGED 177
1660, and one of the first acts of Monck's Council of State,
which governed the kingdom pending the assembling of the
free Parliament that recalled the King, was to get rid of
The Parliamentary Intelligencer, No. 14, 26th March to 2nd
April, 1660, was marked "Published by order of the Council
of State," and commenced as follows :
" Whereas Marchamont Nedham, the author of the weekly
news-books called Mercurius Politicus, and the Publique Intelli-
gencer, is, by order of the Council of State discharged from
writing or publishing any publique intelligence. The reader
is desired to take notice, that by order of the said Council
Giles Dury and Henry Muddiman are authorised henceforth
to write and publish the said intelligence the one upon the
Thursday and the other upon the Monday which they do in-
tend to set out under the titles of the Parliamentary Intelli-
gencer and of Mercurius Publicus." l
The next number, published on 9th April, corrected the
mistake in the order of the two periodicals, giving Mercurius
Publicus its correct position as the Thursday's newsbook, and
contained the following addition : " At the Council of State.
Whitehall. Ordered. That the master and wardens of the
Stationers Company London are hereby required to take care
that no books of intelligence be printed and published on
Mondays or Thursdays weekly other than such as are put
forth by Mr. Henry Muddiman and Mr. Giles Dury, who have
an allowance in that behalf from the Council of State. Signed
by the Clerk of the Council."
Marchamont Nedham continued the publication of Politi-
cus and the Publick Intelligencer, in spite of the order dismissing
him, until 9th and 12th April respectively, when he absconded
and his journalistic career came to an end. He took refuge
1 Whitelocke's Memorials are wrong as to date. Dury has been re-
puted as the nominal writer of the Parliamentary Intelligencer owing to
the mistake in the order here quoted it was Publicus for which he was
178 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
in Holland, and Anthony a Wood states that a little later
" for money given to an hungry courtier obtained his pardon
under the great seal, which was his defence oftentimes, par-
ticularly at Oxford Act in 1661, when several set upon him
in St. Mary's Church to hale him before a justice, and so to
prison for treason. He afterwards exercised the faculty of
physic to his dying day among the brethren, which was a
considerable benefit to him. He was a person endowed with
quick natural parts, was a good humanitian, poet, and a boon
droll, and had he been constant to his cavaleering principles
he would have been beloved by and admired of all, but being
mercenary and valuing money and sordid interest rather than
conscience, friendship, or love to his prince, was much hated
by the royal party to the last."
He died in Devereux Court, Temple Bar, in 1678, and
was buried near the entrance to the chancel of the Church of
St. Clement Danes, Strand. He was no patriarch of journal-
ism, invented nothing, originated nothing, and his name is
chiefly to be associated with the retrogressive and decadent
Mercurius Politicus. Even Henry Walker was greater as a
journalist than Nedham.
Oliver Williams, however, thought that he saw another
chance in Nedham' s final ruin. Immediately appropriating
the catchwords of Mercurius Politicus and Publick Intelligencer,
he commenced two new periodicals with those names, in
which the full title of Nedham' s periodicals was varied, and
wMch now professed to communicate advertisements from the
three kingdoms, and were dated from Williams's "'Office of
Intelligence " near the Old Exchange. The fact that he was
able to do this without a week's delay points to some arrange-
ment in the matter. At the same time he announced an
advertising innovation, in the shape of " tables," or notice
boards, to be hung up in various parts of London and West-
minster. On 21st February, 1660, he had also commenced a
daily report of the proceedings in the House of Commons,
which he entitled the Perfect Diurnal. This lasted until
THE EOYAL PEEKOGATIVE 179
16th March the day of the Long Parliament's dissolution,
and was the first daily English news periodical.
Williams' s journalistic activity warrants the suspicion
that there was a good deal more in his plans than meets the
eye, for the advertising notice boards would have formed an
excellent means of communication for malcontents. The
Council of State's second order, prohibiting any competition
with Muddiman and Dury, was also disregarded by him
and, referring to his assignment of Captain Innes's patent,,
he marked his newsbooks " Published by authority," which
elicited a protest from Muddiman, who termed his newsbooks
"idle pamphlets". It will be remembered that Captain
Innes's patent contained no reference to newsbooks at all,
so that his claim in any case was a false one. Nevertheless,
when the King returned and the Council of State's authority
to Muddiman expired, Williams felt himself in a position to
attack him, and with considerable impudence raised a claim
under this very patent to the sole right of publishing
newsbooks, called his rival a " Priscianus verberans et
vapulans" because he had drawn attention to some of his
mistakes, and stated that he could not forget " his former
pedantick whipping occupation". 1 He also accused Muddi-
man of having styled the King, in the earlier numbers of his
newsbook, the ''pretended King of England," and of having
alluded to the " titular Dukes of York and Gloucester," 'and
expressed a hope that "in these better regulated times he
will want a Thurloe to support him in his unjust usurpa-
tions". From this it is fairly evident that Thurloe, on re-
turning to office as Secretary of State, had prevented Muddi-
man's newsbooks from being suppressed together with the
Scout, Post, etc.
Muddiman replied, terming Williams's attack "pittiful
foolery," and added : " To those that know me, I need make
no apology, to those that do not it will be easy enough to
1 An Exact Accompt, No. 103, 22nd-29th June, 1660, p. 1006, and the
Parliamentary Intelligencer, 25th June to 2nd July, 1660, p. 430.
180 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
tell them that I never writ anything of this sort till entreated
to it, for a just vindication of his Excellency and his army, to
give faithful intelligence of their transactions which were at
that time so basely and falsely represented by the Pam-
phleteers then in being. His Excellency was then pleased to
send me severall of his papers to commit to the press, which,
when known to the world, any sober discreet man may judge
with what cautiousness and design I must behave myself,
with what reluctancy to myself I was forced sometimes to
imitate this very fellow (I mean no further though than in
writing) to free myself from the inquisition of his prying
master" (Scot) "who imployed such busie instruments to
entrap men. How could I then safely represent the numbers
that desir'd a free Parliament if not in a disguise, which how-
ever was necessary should be done to balance those things he
so often foisted in and crowded week after week in his books,
such as his Barebones Petition and that pretended to be the
Watermens, which suspition might not a naked simplicity
have cast upon the master I wrote for. This, though his
shallowness cannot reach, wise men have thought meritori-
Referring to Williams' s patent he continued, " I confess I
have never yet seen his power, but I'le tell him my opinion
of it, that he may have power to keep a shop or stall to give
information of money to be laid out in Bomaria " (bottomry
bonds ships' mortgage) " or where a man may with most
security venture to have his corns cut, or what house is to be
let on the Bank side, where young men and old matrons may
hire maidservants and that bargains are to be made there,
but how this entitles him to Press work I leave it to himself
to make out ". Finally, comparing him to Nedham, whom
Williams had abused, he wound up with : " corruptio unius
est generatio alterius Sir Politick would be, might have been
civiller to his godfather for surely he gave him his name, but -
no wonder if he be irreverent to him, that shew'd so much
ingratitude to his late Patron ".
NEWSBOOKS SUPPEESSED 181
This was enough. Williams had drawn attention to his
proceedings, and to the other periodicals which were spring-
ing up Walker's Occurrences, and &Mercurius Veridicus, which,
with his own Votes of both Houses, had also attracted
the attention of the House of Commons as reporting their
debates inaccurately. The royal prerogative, already men-
tioned, in the circulation of news was evidently acted upon,
and all newsbooks other than the Parliamentary Intelligencer
and Mercurius Publicus were suppressed. Henry Muddiman
alone retained the field and continued to hold it until the
autumn of the year 1663.
It is to be noticed that in spite of the suppression of the
newsbooks, the press itself was now free. The whole of the
"Ordinances" and Acts since the abolition of the Star
Chamber had melted into thin air. Cromwell's Inquisition
of Three, under the order of 28th August, 1655, and his Act of
7th January, 1653, were now of no effect, and there were no
penalties. Some process of licensing was necessary, but the
newsbooks had greater liberty than Nedham's, which were
revised by a Secretary of State. 1
Sir John Berkenhead, the former writer of Aulicus, was
appointed Master of the Faculties on 2nd November, 1660,
and, as this was an ecclesiastical office, he appears henceforth
to have acted as a licenser, by analogy with the ancient juris-
diction of the Star Chamber. Until the passing of the Licen-
sing Act of 1662, people must have brought their books to
him, in order to protect their copyright, though, as we have
shown, there was considerable doubt as to their right to this at
Common Law. He licensed Henry Muddiman's newsbooks,
presumably under the royal prerogative, during the year
1660, from the date of his appointment as Master of the
Faculties, and probably continued to license them after that
1 " The Publick Intelligencer and Merc. Polit. . . . being revised by the
Secretary of State have many copies of my letters in them " (Hartlib to
Dr. Worthington, 20th November, 1655, Diary and Correspondence of
Dr. John Worthington, Chetham Society, vol. xiii., pp. 60, 61).
182 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
year. There is little, however, to show that he invariably
did this, for, although Muddiman's printers entered their
newsbooks in the Stationers' Kegisters during the year 1660,
in the following years they did not continue the entry. 1 The
Stationer's Registers now became quite valueless, as there
was no necessity to register anything.
But for one circumstance, therefore, Henry Muddiman
was in a far more enviable position as journalist than any of
his predecessors. This circumstance was the resolution of
the House of Commons passed on 25th June, 1660, that no
person whatsoever do presume at his peril to print any votes or
proceedings of this House without the special leave and order of
this House. 2 The newsbooks were thus deprived of their
mainstay, and, as no general permission to report parlia-
mentary proceedings in print was granted until the close
of the century, the reason for the valuelessness of the periodi-
cals printed in the reign of King Charles II. is apparent.
When Cromwell was in power similar circumstances had
given rise to a great development of the written intelligence
at the expense of the newsbooks ; as the numbers of letters
of news to be found among the Clarke Papers and the
value attached to them clearly prove. Not until two years
after Henry Muddiman's death were the newsletters also
placed under a ban by the House of Commons, and from the
fact that no such ban was placed on the newsletters during
his lifetime the commanding position which he held as jour-
nalist can be gauged. His privilege of free postage placed
would-be competitors at a hopeless disadvantage.
1 The only evidence of his continuing to license them is his statement,
that he "suffered nothing to come forth" in the newsbooks on the oc-
casion of Secretary Nicholas's retirement in October, 1662 (Egerton MSS.,
2538, ff, 186, 189. ) It is hardly necessary to say, that statistics of the output
of the press drawn up from the Stationers' Register after the Restoration
are of little use.
2 Commons Journals. On 9th July, 1662, the Irish Commons even
complained of reports of their proceedings in the Intelligencer (Irish
Commons Journals, ii., 91-95).
PKIVILEGED NEWSLETTEKS 183
Another cause of the exemption of the newsletters from
censure is to be found in their greater expense. This re-
stricted their circulation to the upper classes and the coffee-
houses (the clubs of the day), therefore there was less poli-
tical danger to be apprehended from them. 1 The reorganisa-
tion of the post office and the increase in the number of posts
were circumstances which also now contributed to the re-
vival of the newsletters, and Henry Muddiman's practical
monopoly of the whole news of the three kingdoms must
have been exceedingly profitable.
The Licensing Act was passed in the year 1662, and
came into force on 10th June for two years, afterwards
being renewed as it expired. This lengthy and lenient Act
did not mention the Mercury women and hawkers, who were
at last left in peace, and regulated printing and bookselling
besides other matters. One curious privilege was granted
by it ; as a special mark of favour John Streater, stationer,
one of Cromwell's victims in 1653, was expressly exempted
from its provisions.
The provision affecting the newsbooks was, that "all
books of history, concerning the state of the realm or other
books concerning any affairs of state shall be licensed by
the principal secretaries of state for the time being, or one of
them, or by their or one of their appointments ". When the
King came to the throne there were two principal Secretaries
of State, Sir William Morice, appointed at General Monck's
request, and Sir Edward Nicholas, an old Cavalier who had
been with the King in exile. It was to the latter that Henry
Muddiman attached himself, and to his Under- Secretary,
Joseph Williamson, that he gave intelligence ; he also received
news from him, and from this circumstance it is probable
that Williamson licensed Muddiman's newsbooks after the
1 Five pounds a year was Muddiman's charge for newsletters (S.P.
Dom., Charles II., 275, No. 39 (1670). The newsbooks cost a penny.
These sums should be multiplied by three and a half or four in order to
arrive at our own values.
184 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
passing of the Act. (Berkenhead was appointed a Master
of Requests in January, 1663.)
Henry Muddiman's office for his copying clerks at this
time was at the Seven Stars, in the Strand, and he sent out
his letters of news from that address, heading them " White-
hall" in order to show the privilege with which he wrote;
but after a time the bulk of the correspondence addressed to
him arrived at Williamson's office. 1 No doubt Williamson,
like the older licensers, was paid for his share in collecting
Muddiman's intelligence. He did not send out letters of
intelligence himself until his quarrel with the latter occurred
in 1666, but was certainly in a position to furnish him with
the foreign news. Probably for this reason the Nouvelles
Ordinaires de Londres was started afresh in 1663 ; for the first
mention of this periodical occurs in a letter to Williamson in
September of that year. The only post-Eestoration number
to be found among the State Papers is dated 3rd May. 2
In the following year Oliver Williams, with one Sack-
ville Greaves, was granted a small post at Bristol the office
of searcher in the Customs Office. 3 He appears, however,
to have carried on his "Office of Intelligence" at the Old
Exchange, for some of the City Mercuries that is advertise-
ment papers distributed gratis were issued from this office
about the year 1670. One Charles Wheler obtained the
mastership of an "Office of Inquiry" in 1660, but whether
this had anything to do with advertisements there is nothing
to show. 4 If so, it would appear that Williams' s " Intelligence
Office " was suppressed, at any rate for a time.
1 His later office was at the Peacock, in the Strand. His private house
was at Brompton (Earl's Court). These addresses are taken from the
numerous letters to him among the State Papers.
2 Gal. S. P. Dom., 1663-64, p. 276, 21st September, 1663, M. de Bacquoy
to Williamson, " Begs news of what passes and the Gazette printed in
S. P. Dom., Charles II. 34, No. 110.
4 S. P. Dom. 17, No. 14. The first of the City Mercuries was issued
in 1667 by Thomas Bromhall, whose office is described in S.P. Dom., Charles
II., 187, No. 265. Copies of this periodical are in the Record Office, News-
WALKEE'S LAST BOOK 185
Of the other journalists of the Rebellion there is almost
nothing to be said. They all sank into obscurity at the
Restoration. Henry Walker, however, had to undergo one
more attack from John Crouch. At the commencement of
August, 1660, Walker published his last work, Serious Observa-
tions lately made touching His Majesty King Charles II., with an
Hebrew anagram on the title-page " The King hath pre-
pared a refreshing, he hath crushed it out of the rock by
degrees. Published to inform the People. Per H. Walker
S.S.T.S." As might be expected, this document was of the
most fawning and servile kind, referring to the King as the
Hypostasis and Prosopon and to his royal father as one
"whom treacherous servants slew". Crouch at the time
was writing a new Mercurius Fumigosus, and immediately
held him up to derision, concluding with " this buffle pated
loggerhead, coming lately to Dunnington in Bishopgate
street meeting at Sarah's handmaid's," said that " His High-
ness was growne fat with eating of pease and bacon since
he came into England," upon which they cried out " Trea-
son," and frightened him into paying for a breakfast which
cost him 30s. by way of a bribe to hold their peace. A Henry
Walker was married at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on 5th
June, 1664, to Anna Lowden, both being of the same parish.
After undergoing an unjust imprisonment on suspicion,
Cleiveland had died before the Restoration. Of Sheppard
nothing is known, but if he survived he is not likely to have
been without preferment. Rushworth died a drunkard, in a
In 1663 a new journalist supplanted Henry Muddiman.
Roger 1'Estrange, a Cavalier, who had suffered imprison-
ment and had even at one time been honourably distinguished
paper collections. Bromhall's fee for an advertisement was 2s. 6d. (S.P.
Dom., Charles II., 450, No. 92). The office was situate at "The Peahen
next door to the Shears opposite Summerset House over against the
Maypole in the Strand ".
186 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
by being sentenced to death for his loyalty, was a Royalist
pamphleteer, with a most prolific and powerful pen, who
had not been rewarded at the Restoration as he deserved.
He had intrigued to obtain Nedham's post of journalist, and
still continued his intrigues after the defeat of his hopes. A
sincere advocate of the theories of Divine right, he was also
a convinced High Churchman and bitterly opposed to tolera-
tion in any form. As the control of the press was ultimately
placed in his hands, he has attracted from writers of the
Puritan school a greater amount of obloquy than he deserves.
In particular he has been singled out for odium as having
obtained the condemnation of a printer named John Twyn
in 1664 for high treason. John Twyn, nevertheless, met the
just penalty of a crime with which the liberty of the press
was entirely unconnected. He had full knowledge of the
plot for a rising and for the extermination of the Royal
family in 1663, refused to save his life by disclosing his
author's name, and part of the document he printed is yet in
existence to condemn him as a peculiarly hypocritical and
dangerous criminal. 1
1 S. P. Dom., Charles II., vol. 88, No. 76, pages 25 to 32 inclusive of his
pamphlet. It, of course, has not the faintest resemblance to Milton's
" Tenure of Kings and Magistrates ". It was entitled a " Treatise of the
Execution of Justice," and advocated the assassination of King Charles
II., the Duke of York, and the rest of the royal family, by way of re-
taliation for the execution of the Regicides, justifying what was suggested
on Scriptural grounds. The following sentences are taken from it ;
"God hath not forbid us to cut off the yoke of this present tyrant. . . .
The execution of judgment is a duty incumbent on the people. If a
King hath shed innocent blood the law of God requires the people to put
him to death." "If the blood of righteous Naboth were avenged by the
Lord's people upon all the house of Ahab how much more reason is there
to avenge the blood of all those centuries (sic) of righteous souls which
these tyrants have shed since their possession of the government ... if
ever there were a season which required the Lord's people to sell their
garments and buy swords it is now." The Speeches and Prayers of the
Regicides, for the printing of which other printers were punished with
Twyn, is to be found in the Thomason Collection (E. 1053 (1) ), and is a
THE SUKVEYOE OF THE PEESS 187
On 24th February, 1662, L'Estrange was granted a
general warrant, empowering him to seize seditious books
and their writers. He also asked for a general search warrant
(one was drawn up but not executed), and was employed
after the Restoration in generally surveying the presses and
hunting out seditious books. At the same time he attracted
a great deal of attention to himself by his pamphlet warfare
with the Presbyterians, notably Edward Bagshawe, and con-
tinued to complain bitterly of the lack of preferment that had
befallen him. He soon became a famous writer, and after
the passing of the Licensing Act in 1662 was requested to
draw up proposals for the regulation of the press. He ac-
cordingly drew proposals, in which he again asked for a
general search warrant and for the control of all licensing,
with certain exceptions. By way of remuneration he de-
manded a grant of the right to publish the news, and all bills
and advertisements, with a fee, as licenser, of Is. per sheet
" on other works ". This, of course, was an open attempt to
supplant Muddiman, which he further supplemented by his
"Minutes of a Project for Suppressing Libels". By means
of this he proposed to bring also the written news within his
grasp through the insertion of a clause in the licenses of
coffee-house keepers. 1
These two written documents were followed by his printed
Considerations and Proposals in Order to the Regulation of the
Press, which displayed the same repressive tendencies. In
reward for his services his proposals were complied with,
and by Eoyal Letters Patent the office of " Surveyor of the
Press" was set up for him. Among a multitude of minor
grossly false and fictitious account, depicting them as martyrs. These and
other documents, either bearing no publisher's name, or the names of
Giles and Elizabeth Calvert, and Livewell Chapman, are all false and
fraudulent, and part of an organised campaign of seditious printing.
J S. P. Dom., Charles II., 39, No. 94, and 61, No. 101. Berkenhead
seems to have taken up the cudgels in Muddiman's behalf, for L'Estrange
attacked the former in his Considerations and Proposals. See also S. P.
Dom., Charles II., 70, No. 59, and 26, No. 97.
188 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
things, the patent granted him as his remuneration the sole
privilege of writing, printing and publishing newsbooks and
advertisements. 1 He was not, however, given the fee of Is. a
sheet on books, which he had also asked for, nor had he
power to interfere with manuscripts. Muddiman's privileged
newsbooks, therefore, came to an end, and henceforth he only
supplied the written news. As this patent placed the control
of the whole press of London into L'Estrange's hands, it is
clear that the work entailed was far too much for one man ;
but although his newsbooks were ill served with intelligence,
he made them pay.
His Monday's weekly pamphlet, the Intelligencer, and his
Thursday's newsbook, the Newes, at the end of the year 1663
were paged and numbered together and made consecutive, so
that it no longer sufficed to buy one, and the purchaser had
to obtain both. He also reduced their size by one-half, and
they only contained eight pages. No reduction in price was
made, and these means enabled him to state later on that he
had "trebled the value of the newsbook". Before he was
ejected from his editorship, however, he brought the news-
books back to their original size (when the Dutch war was
in progress), and could thus plead "in doubling the size I
doubled also the value ".
These devices, and his known and declared antagonism
to the publication of news, brought on him great unpopular-
ity, and the written news henceforth began to take first rank.
So great was the dissatisfaction, for L'Estrange had by now
ceased writing controversial pamphlets, that an overture was
even made to Nedham. 2
1 S. P. Dom., 78, No. 96, is a copy of the warrant directing the draw-
ing of the grant, and dated 15th August, 1663. L'Estrange was evidently
not allowed to interfere with Muddiman's newsletters, for the privilege of
free postage " was denied " him and he eventually obtained it by favour
of Lady Chesterfield, one of the farmers of the post office (S. P. Dom.,
Charles II., 139, No. 61).
2 L'Estrange's letter to Lord Arlington, S. P. Dom., Charles II., 135,
No. 8. I regret to add that the Calendar of State Papers for 1665-66 gives
SIR JOSEPH WILLIAMSON 189
In the meantime Muddiman still continued attached to
the Secretary of State's office. In October, 1662, Secretary
Nicholas was superseded, somewhat against his will, and
Henry Bennet, subsequently created Earl of Arlington, re-
placed him, Joseph Williamson remaining Under-Secretary
Sir Joseph Williamson, who was knighted in 1672, suc-
ceeded Arlington as principal Secretary in 1674 ; and was the
son of a North-country clergyman and a Fellow of Queen's
College, Oxford. He was a very able business man, with the
habit of keeping all letters and papers ; hence the mass of
documents he has left behind him among the State Papers
renders it easy to tell the complicated story of his relations with
Henry Muddiman. In character he was mean, greedy and
grasping ; no kindly acts are recorded of him, for he never
did anything with a disinterested motive, and that his con-
temporaries did not hold him in honour we know from Pepys,
Evelyn and Sir William Temple. Evelyn states that Lord
Arlington "loving ease more than business " "remitted all
to his man Williamson . . . and so by his subtlety dexterity
and insinuation he got to be principal secretary ". He was
poor when he started his career, and neglected no opportunity
of making money, whether by taking bribes or more legiti-
mately. From the first he had seen the importance of Henry
Muddiman's correspondence, and had noted the use it would
be to himself, not merely from the point of view of profit,
but also as a means of political and social advancement.
Hence Muddiman, up to the year 1665, is continually to be
found sending letters of intelligence at "Mr. Williamsons
neither an adequate nor even in some cases a truthful account of the
documents it professes to describe. The preface to it must be disregarded
altogether as in actual conflict with them. All the documents here re-
ferred to are described at greater length, in an article by the present
writer, in the English Historical Review for April, 1908, entitled the
" Newsbooks and Letters of News of the Restoration ".
190 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
L' Estrange' s unpopularity as a newsmonger suggested to
Williamson the idea of " getting the public intelligence into
his hands," and of retaining Henry Muddiman to write both
newsbooks and letters of news, under his directions ; William-
son of course to receive all profits, and to pay a salary to
Muddiman. He "several times" asked the latter "for a
list of his correspondents," but was "refused " ; and Muddi-
man himself related later on that he was perfectly well aware
of his motive in asking, and therefore had made up his mind
not to leave Lord Arlington's office, as, while he was with
him, and not with the other Secretary, Morice, Williamson
could not obtain a list.
Towards the end of the year 1665 Muddiman also ap-
pears to have taken steps to - have a good deal of his intelli-
gence sent to him privately. The Court was at Oxford at the
time on account of the great plague, and in October Lord
Arlington had received a grant of the office of Postmaster
General, therefore Williamson's influence over the post office
became greater than it had been before. James Hickes, a
clerk in the letter office, was one of his creatures, and could
be relied upon to do anything he wished. During the Puritan
times Hickes had been nine years in the post office, and on
the strength of an " aged father slain at Edgehill," and more
probably because he was actually necessary to the Govern-
ment had been continued in his post when the King re-
turned. He was a sycophantic hypocrite, who invariably
made professions of wishing to "live to God's glory" when
he was about to tell some lie or commit some mean or
treacherous act, and to those then in power he was a slavish
and subservient tool.
It was part of Hickes' s duties to sign Muddiman' s
letters as franked. Williamson, therefore, determined to get
the desired list of correspondents through him. With
Muddiman in London there was, of course, no opportunity
to carry out his design, but by engaging the latter to write
a new journal at Oxford, on pretext of the Court being there,
THE OXFORD GAZETTE 191
he would attain his double object, of attacking L'Estrange,
and of obtaining a clear field for Hickes to copy the ad-
dresses on Muddiman's letters as they were sent to the letter
office in London. The plan was all the more treacherous,
in that he himself had acted as L'Estrange's news-collector.
Having made his arrangements, he wrote to L'Estrange
from Oxford on 15th October, 1665 :
" I am sorry the distance in which we are from you de-
prives me of the occasion of helping and directing you in the
composing of the publick news as would be better for his
Majesty's service and your own reputation. I have often
advised you to agree with Mr. Muddiman in this matter,
who having had the good luck and opportunity of falling into
the channel of these things would have been very useful to
you and in despair of seeing this effected in the future I take
the freedom to propose to you that if you will relinquish to
me your whole right in the composing and profit of the
newsbook I will procure for you in recompense of it a salary
from his majesty of 100 per annum, which shall be paid
through my hands. ... If I place it too low you must
blame yourself for having told me several times that the
duty of it is very burthensome and the profit inconsiderable."
In the greatest alarm, L'Estrange wrote a series of
lengthy letters to Lord Arlington, protesting against the
terms offered as inadequate. The newsbook was, he alleged,
worth 400 a year, instead of the 200 at which he had
found it. The quality of his employment was to " teaze
and persecute the whole rabble of the faction " (that is the
political and religious dissenters) "which I have done to
such a degree that I have drawn upon my head all the
malice imaginable," and the newsbook " was given me to
balance my service about the press, and in doing my work
be judge my lord if I do not deserve my wages".
His letters were not answered, and on 16th November,
1665, No. 1 of the biweekly Oxford Gazette appeared ; licensed
by the Secretary of State, Lord Arlington, in accordance with
192 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
the Licensing Act ; written by Henry Muddiman ; printed
by the University printer Leonard Litchfield ; and reprinted
in London by Thomas Newcombe, the printer of the Intelli-
gencer, " for the use 'of some merchants and gentlemen who
desired them". Any question of infringement of L'Estrange's
patent would have been difficult to raise at Oxford, within
the privileges of the University.
The Gazette "half a sheet in folio" and exactly the
same size and shape as Muddiman's newsletters was clearly
designed by him to send by post with them. The news that
could not be printed, such as parliamentary proceedings and
the like, he intended to send in writing. It was an ingenious
device, and betrays the fact that in its origin the printed
"paper " of news was but auxiliary to the newsletters. Its
success was immediate, and the Gazette was received with
"general applause," Pepys remarking in his Diary, "Very
pretty, full of newes, and no folly in it".
Forgetful of the fact that he had no written correspond-
ence, L'Estrange even attempted, on 28th November, to
imitate it with a " paper " of his own, entitled " Publick Intelli-
gence. With sole Privilege," introducing it with the remarks :
" By this time you may perceive my masters that your in-
telligencer has changed his title, his form, and his day, for which
I could give you twenty shrewd reasons if I were not more
obliged to gratify a point of prudence in myself than a curi-
osity in others, and I do assure you there is both discretion
and modesty in the case. This short accompt will serve to
satisfie the wise, and I shall leave the rest to content them-
selves at leisure."
He had to resume his Intelligencer and News, however
(on 2nd and 4th and 7th December respectively), and then
appealed to the King in person ; a much wiser step than
taking legal proceedings. Charles II. ordered that, in addition
to the 100 a year for the newsbooks, which henceforth were
" taken into the Secretaries office," l and were to have this
1 Not given to Williamson. Ormonde MSS., vol. iii., N.S. , pp. 351-352.
THE LONDON GAZETTE 193
sum charged on their profits, 200 a year should be paid out
of the secret service money to L'Estrange for his services as
Surveyor of the Press. The arrangement was an equitable one
and probably the only person dissatisfied was Williamson.
The Oxford Gazette changed its title to the London Gazette
with No. 24, dated Monday, 5th February, 1665-66, and after
No. 25, dated 8th February, Henry Muddiman refused to
have anything further to do with it, transferred himself and
his correspondents to the other principal Secretary of State,
Sir William Morice, and ordered all his letters to be addressed
for the future to Morice's Under-Secretary John Cooke.
The reason of this is to be found in the intrigue by
which Williamson, with the aid of Hickes, had endeavoured
to gain over his correspondents. Each day, throughout the
week beginning Monday, 27th November, 1665, Hickes had
taken a list of their names and addresses, and, on sending
them to Williamson, remarked that he left to him the
" management " of them. The lists, which are still in exist-
ence, show a widespread correspondence of the utmost im-
portance. Muddiman was informed of what Hickes had
done, had sent his letters afterwards to another clerk to sign,
one Edmond Sawtell ; and at the same time had stopped a
gift of four copies of his newsletters, which he had been in
the habit of making to Hickes every week (Hickes had some
correspondence of his own). Several venomous letters from
Hickes to Williamson followed, and in the end, when he
returned to London, Muddiman, as already stated, quitted
Arlington's office. There is no doubt but that he had from
the first been fully prepared to leave. He was quite ready
for anything Williamson might do, and an attempt to stop
his letters had produced no effect.
Directly Williamson found out that Muddiman was
about to transfer himself to Secretary Morice, he employed
Hickes to issue a circular, not daring to do it openly himself,
to all the correspondents whose names had thus been
secretly obtained. In this Hickes stated that Muddiman,
194 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
whose letters had formerly come franked to their hands,
" Dismissed from the management of that correspondence
he formerly was instructed with for that he hath contrived
and managed that correspondence to his own particular ad-
vantage and not for the service of his majestie and those
persons of honour (Arlington and Williamson), as he ought
and they expected he should have done ".
This was about 15th February, consequently after Mud-
dirnan had left Arlington's office ; and therefore as untruth-
ful as can well be imagined.
Hickes also went to see Monck's Secretary, Sir William
Clarke, to whom he gave the same false account of a dis-
missal. He had no difficulty in enlisting him on William-
son's side. When Muddiman was told of what Hickes had
been doing, he went in a " great huff and heat," and ordered
him to recall his circular. When he saw Williamson, the
latter promptly "disowned" Hickes.
Muddiman then sent out (24th February, 1666) a
circular of his own in which he says :
" Upon a misunderstanding between Mr. Williamson and
myself about the Gazette which I wrote at Oxon and till the
last week at London I thought it most advisable to quit
that office wholly and turn my correspondents to Sir
William Morice, his Majesty's first principal secretary of
State. I shall write as fully and constantly as formerly and
with the same privilege and post free."
He adds that he had detected Hickes in " some practices,"
and had not entrusted him with his letters to sign, "nor
given him as formerly a copy of my letters to write after but
as he is disowned' in it by those he pretends orders from so I
shall make him sensible of the forgery ".
The forgery was the attempt of Hickes to pass off his
own letters of news, which he was now writing for William-'
son, in lieu of Muddiman' s privileged letters.
Hickes's reply to this was characteristic. He at once
THE GAZETTE IN DANGEK 195
drew up a petition to both Secretaries of State, asking that
Muddiman might be ordered to " repair " him for the charge
of forgery (which he extended in such a way as to make it
appear as if he had been accused of malpractices not con-
nected with the newsletters). He had discharged his duties,
he remarked, " as in the presence of Almighty God ".
Sir William Morice was not persona grata with the King,
like the favourite Arlington, and was clearly not expected
to interfere and perhaps not even to see the petition. He
did intervene, however, and Hickes was ordered to draw up
a statement of his case. In this document he contrived to
expose himself thoroughly ; l and changing his ground, accused
Muddiman of sending out letters of " other business in which
neither the King nor himself were concerned to the end that
they might go free," stating that there was "not one
letter in answer to most of those he sent receiving stipends
of from 40s. to 40 per person ".
All the time that this had been going on Williamson had
kept himself in the background, and it is only Hickes' s letters
to him that reveal the fact that he really was directing the
latter 's attack on Muddiman. Animus against Sir William
Morice was not wanting, and Muddiman was accused of
belittling Arlington by styling Morice "first" (i.e., original)
Secretary of State. Hickes's attempts to stop Muddiman's
letters, and Williamson's attempt to rescind his privilege of
free postage, had from the first been frustrated by Secretary
Morice' s special order, and another clerk in the letter office
Hall had signed Muddiman's letters as franked. In the
meantime Charles Perrot, of Oriel College, had been writing
the Gazette under Williamson's directions. 2
Secretary Morice at last administered a severe rebuff to
1 " Narrative of the Discourse betwixt Mr. Henry Muddiman and James
Hickes senior, concerning his Correspondence" (S. P. Dom., Charles II.,
160, No. 145).
2 Perrob arranged to see Williamson on 7th February, 1666, in
a lebter dated 4th February. Wood says that he wrote the Gazette, though
not constantly, until 1671.
196 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Williamson, and from the complete silence into which
Hickes then subsided we gather that he must have threatened
to punish the latter. Muddiman was authorised to issue a
second official "paper," in opposition to the Gazette, and on
the same days, entitled the Current Intelligence ; * and the
Gazettes position at once became precarious. Williamson
and Perrot, with few correspondents and not possessing the
public ear like Muddiman, could not hope to contend against
the latter, who was backed by a Secretary of State and in
all probability by General Monck, now Duke of Albemarle,
as well; and moreover there was L'Estrange's charge of
100 to be paid. L'Estrange must have been delighted at
The great fire of London came to the rescue. All the
printers in London were burnt out, including the printers of
the Gazette and Current Intelligence, and both papers ceased.
Williamson must have seized the opportunity to make terms,
for, when the Gazette reappeared after a week's interval,
Current Intelligence was conspicuous by its absence. His
troubles were not at an end, however. All his attempts to
compete with Muddiman as a newsletter writer were futile,
and his correspondence was unremunerative. Muddiman
organised his newsletter correspondence on a scale the like
of which had never been seen before. 2 ' When his newsletters
1 Hist. MSS. Commission, 10th Report, Appendix iv., p. 449 ; Fleming,
Cal., p. 40 (761).
2 <7/. The Man of Mode; or, Sir Fopling Flutter, Act III., scene ii.,
by Sir George Etherege, 1676 :
" LADY TOWNLEY : I pity the young lovers we last talked of though to
say truth their conduct has been so indiscreet they deserve to be unfor-
" MEDLEY : You've had an exact account from the great lady i' th' box
to the little orange wench.
" EMILIA : You're a living libel, a breathing lampoon. I wonder you
are not torn to pieces.
" MEDLEY : What think you of setting up an office of intelligence for
these matters ? The project may get money.
" LADY TOWBTLEY ; You would have great dealings with country ladies.
" MEDLJBY \ Mpre than. MMdinmn has with their husbands,"
STOLEN NEWSLETTEKS 197
appeared the Gazette was "never asked for". People "de-
clined the Gazette" in favour of them, and "persons of the
greatest quality" were "constrained to betake themselves
to them". Hickes wrote to Williamson on 27th December,
1667, that twenty dozen Gazettes less than formerly were sent
out. " The people so much slight them they having nothing in
them of the proceedings of Parliament, which Mr. Muddiman
writes at large."
Finally, Sir Joseph Williamson Secretary of State
was reduced to conniving at theft, and, in order to supply
the Gazette and his own newsletter clerks with intelligence,
actually employed Hickes to steal Muddiman' s newsletters
while in transit through the post ; for the numbers of ad-
dressed newsletters by Muddiman among the State Papers
alone disclose this fact, without Hickes's own guarded refer-
ences to what he was doing. 1
The Gazette remained alone for many years, and still re-
tains its official position, but until Henry Muddiman' s death
it held a secondary position to the newsletters. His privilege
of free postage seems never to have been withdrawn, and the
British Mercury in 1712 (30th July to 2nd August) writes of the
"famous Muddiman," and states that his newsletters gained
him "a plentiful subsistence". He died "at his house at
Coldhern near Earl's Court " in 1692, and was buried on 7th
March in Kensington Parish Church, on the left side of his
wife's grave, under " Lord Cambden's pew " by the " ally lead-
ing into the chancel from the North door". 2
See also Roger North's Life of Sir John North ; Wood's Life and Times,
by A. Clark, (numerous references) ; Hist. MSS. Commission, 4th Report,
p. 250 ; 5th Report, p. 318 ; 7th Report, p. 468 ; 12th Report, p. 77, etc.
*E.g., 7th September, 1668, S. P. Dom., Charles II., 245, No. 190 : " I
sent yesterday a letter for you with two enclosed of H. M. and desir'd Mr.
Francis " (then Williamson's newsletter clerk) " to send it to you without
opening it ". Every addressed newsletter to be found in the State Papers
is by Muddiman (whether attributed to Francis or no). They were not
signed, but are headed " Whitehall," and can be identified by the seals.
2 Kensington Parish Registers. The site of Coldhern is now occupied
by Coleherne Court, Earl's Court. The house was the residence of Sir
198 A "HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
The Gazette was not intended to contain advertisements,
and an announcement to this effect appeared in it in June,
1666, a similar notice appearing about the same time in Current
Intelligence. Both papers stated that " advertisements " were
not the business of a "paper of intelligence," and that they
would not insert them unless they were matters of State, but
would publish a paper apart for them. L'Estrange, however,
stopped this in virtue of his patent, and on 25th June issued
a pamphlet called Publick Advertisements. This seems to have
failed. Oddly enough the Gazette at the present day, though
it contains a large number of advertisements, is concerned
only with advertisements of State chiefly such as are re-
quired by Act of Parliament to be inserted in it. It is still
a biweekly folio, and has never succumbed to the modern
innovation of printing its "catchword" in Gothic letters.
William Lister, father-in-law to General Lambert, up to 1649. Lambert
is said by Lysons to have resided in it at the time of the Restoration, but
this is incorrect as he lived at Wimbledon.
NOTE. I think this is the only copy in existence of a Royalist periodical
describing events at the murder of King Charles I. It has escaped
notice owing to the fact that the date is 1648-49, and has been bound
up among the periodicals of 1648. It is important as settling the
identity of the man who spat in the King's face, and the meaning of
the word "Remember".
A KOYALIST MEECUKY.
MEECURIUS ELENCTICUS, Numb. 1.
COMMUNICATING the unparallell'd Proceedings at Westminster,
the Head-Quarters, and other Places, discovering their de-
signes, reproving their Crimes, and advising the Kingdome.
From Wednes. the 31 of January till Wed. the 7 of Feb-
. . . Ridentem dicere verum
Quid vetat ?
To kill the King eight yeares agon
was counted Highest Treason
But now 'tis deemed just, and Done
as consonant to Reason.
The Temple was esteemed then
Sacred and Venerable
Adorn'd with Grave and Godly Men
but now 'tis made a Stable.
'Twas Criminall to violate
the wholesome Lawes o' th' Nation
But (now we have a lawless State,)
'tis done by Proclamation.
APPENDIX A 201
Both Prince and People liv'd in Peace
The Land with Wealth abounded
But now these Blessings fade and cease
Thank es to the Cursed Roundhead.
Liberty, Liberty! Was once the Cry of the ambitious
Romans (as now it is of the degenerate English). But when
to gain this liberty they took the Liberty to murder their
lawful Princes (though they were Tyrants, yet) we know
what miseries and troubles befell the Roman Empire. Tacitus
speaking of the story he writ thereof saies? It was "Opus
plenum magnis casibus, atrox praeliis, discors seditionibus,
ipsa etiam pace saevum ". A work full of great misfortunes
terrible to behold for the many cruel Battailes, Repugnant
for the variety of Sedi-
tions many horrible in the relation even of Peace itselfe. If
then the Romans fared so ill for killing their evill Princes
(such as Nero, Otho, Galba, and Vitellius whom successively
they slew) what may the English look for, that now have
murdered their lawfull soveraign, no Tyrant, no Usurper, no
Encroacher, no Licentius, Lasivious or Covetous King, but the
most vertuous, Magnanimous, Renowned, bounteful, and
pious King of Christendome.
Tuesday, January 30.
That this day they did so, Let it be Writ in their Annals
of Shame in Letters of Blood, to the perpetuall Dishonour of
the English Nation, who could stand still and see their Sover-
aigne murthered only for maintaining their liberties. And
let the Justice of Heaven pursue those bloody regicides to the
Pit of Destruction, who so cruelly, so inhumanly shed his
innocent blood. In the interim yee champions of the Pro-
testant cause, who heretofore could boast (and that justly) of
your obedience to Kings, and brand the Church of Rome,
with the doctrine of deposing and murdering them. Be ye
henceforth silent lest she blame you as once Valerius and
202 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Horatius did the Tribunes of War, " Crudelitatem damnatis,
crudelitatem initis" You condemne cruelty and yet you use
To give you the compleat story of their proceeding to this
height of Impiety, or insert the severall full and solid answers
of his Majesty by way of exception to^the illegal jurisdiction
of that pretended new court which condemned him or to give
you his speech on the scaffold cannot (I hope) be expected in
this narrow roome, considering they are printed by themselves,
at large, though not without a manifest Track and continued
mixture of their malicious Glosses to corrupt and Clowd the
purer sense of his Majesty's expressions, arguments, and
reasons. And in deed who could expect, that those who let
not to fix any blemish upon him whilst he lived, should spare
to do him any wrong at his death ? But I hope you shall
shortly have the entire truth of them all, at large, published
by an impartiall Pen, and in that respect I am also the wil-
linger to forbear my Euder collections.
Only this, I shall desire the Eeader to take notice of some
circumstantial cruelties of his Persecutors from the time he
was brought from Hurst Castle to the houre of his death.
You must understand, that as they had ordained his neck to
the hatchet, before ever they heard him speak, so likewise it
was their indeavour i(if by any means they could) to perplex
and discomfit his soule, and this they supposed might the
best be done by distempering his body.
(for so much philosophy Mr. Peters was capable of.)
To this end whilst he was at Windsor they let the very
Eascallity of the Souldiery all the day long to revile and
buffet him with Eeproachfull language, of this a gentleman
of good quality was an eare-witnesse, who heard a centinel use
these words to him "You with a pox to you, must have
fifteen pound a day allow'd you for your table, but we poor
soldiers that stand in the cold must not have 15d. to releeve
APPENDIX A 203
us with. Well Stroaker " (for so they termed him in relation
to that gift which God had given him in curing the evill)
"we shall he quit of you ere long," with much other oppro-
brious and treasonable language and unseemly gestures think-
ing by that meanes to provoke and put him into passion.
But they found him of another temper, for of such incom-
parable patience he was, that they never moved him to
anything more than a princely scorn and neglect of their
When he had the happiness to enjoy the company of any
of their commanders, all the comfort he had in their society
was but the same our Saviour had of the Jews, Temptation,
rebuke and scorne. The day he was brought from Windsor,
one of them told him thus " Sir " (says he) " the Parliament
are setting up scaffolds in Westminster Hall for your tryall ".
" Well ! " (said the King) " it makes no matter. I perceive
then what they meane to do with me, and if they do murther
me, I shall die with good company." But the Wittall not
apprehending his meaning, desired to know what he meant
by good company? " I meane " (says the King) " Eeligion,
Lawes, Prerogative, Privilege, and Liberty, for these I think
are ' good company,' and I could wish they might out-live
me, but I feare they will not."
After he came to St. James's, and so all the time of his
Trial not to speak of the insolencies of Bradshaw and Cooke,
for these are notoriously known and will be remembered
they permitted I may rather say commanded, the soldiers
to revile him at their pleasure and as he passed from the Hall
(on Monday January 22) Col. Hewson 1 himselfe (for the
honour of the Gentle Craft) cry'd "justice, justice on the
tray tor," and withall spit in his face, whereat the King only
smil'd, took out his handkerchiffe, and patiently wyp'd the
venome off his face, saying, " Well, sir ! God hath justice in
store both for you and Me ".
All the night time he had a couple or more, of louzie
1 One of the " judges,"
204 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
souldiers that stood centinel in his bed-chamber who were
relieved every two houres and never rested either talking to
him or amongst themselves, or smoaking out his eyes with
their stinking Tobacco so that neither he could take his rest,
nor performe his devotion to Almighty God, but in their sight,
and not without their Expostulations and censure.
Thus, I say, they indeavoured to indispose him, that he
should not be able so to recollect himself, as to plead against
their pretended Authority, with that settled clearnesse of
reason and judgement which otherwise they feared, and
neverthelesse found he did, to their lasting infamy. At the
least wise so to distemper and amaze him that when he came
to execution he might dye like one of their Hothams, with
trouble and horror of conscience, fearfully, or so weakly that
he might not (if they could hinder it) leave that testimony
of his goodness at his death, which so much purity of life pro-
mised. But (to the glory of God be it spoken and with
honour and reverence to that blessed bishop and comforter
of his soule (next his Saviour) the Lord Bishop of London)
such was his Christian patience and undaunted valour to the
last moment of his sufferings, that he encountered boldly and
subdued effectually, all the assaults and temptations both of
Hell and Earth, and yielded up his spotless soule with that
Alacrity, courage, constancy, Faith, Hope and Charity, which
became the justness of the cause he dyed in and the great-
nesse of his Eoyall spirit.
Rest Blessed Saint ! Whilst these assassinates
Doe Triumph in thy fall, which terminates
Thy toilsome dayes, but does afresh begin
To huddle vengeance on them that did the Sin
Which loads their consciences, dries up their vaynes
And makes them tyrannise in shrunken straines
Alas fond Regicids ! thought they to speed
Ought better in their worke for this black deed ?
For every hundred hearts they had before
This dismal blow hath left them not a score
APPENDIX A 205
And as those valiant martyrs when they dy'd
Still Phoenix-like the Church with new supply' d
Even so, fresh troups shal from thy ashes spring
T' avenge the blood, Crowne second Charles their King
Whilst thou great Martyr dost possesse a Crown
Which Violence shall not touch, nor Treason owne
' ' Thus Charles the First hath gain'd immortal glorie
These traitors stinking names, to rot in storie."
When they had murdered him, such as desired to dip their
handkerchief es or other things in his blood, were admitted
for moneys. Others bought peeces of board which were dy'd
with his blood, for which the soldiers took of some a shilling
of others half a crowne, more or lesse according to the qual-
ity of the persons that sought it. But none without ready
money. And after his body was coffin'd as many as desi-
red to see it, were permitted at a certain e rate, by which
meanes the soldiers got store of moneys, insomuch that one
was heard to say "I would we had two or three more such
Majesties to behead, if we could but make such use of them ".
But that which renders them yet more odious was this.
The King (having nothing else to bestow upon his son the
Prince of Wales) had charged the Bishop of London to send
him his George, which they but suspecting (because he gave
it him on the scaffold with this word ' Remember ') Ordered
(in case the King had so disposed of it) " That his George
should not be sent to the Pr. and withall that those cabinets
which he had bestowed on the Bishop should be searched for
papers," which they did accordingly and carryed away such
papers as they thought fitting (some say all) But the George
for certain they took from him, and it was moved in the
house. That the Bishop might be required (and if occasion
were rack'd) to confess what private instructions the King
had given him concerning the Prince, or any other, and
what messages he had in charge to deliver him or the Queen.
But this was held not so necessary as destructive to their
proceedings in that (as was alleadged) it might incurre a
206 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
further odium, which they had no need of having already
crept to this height of wickednes for which they are every
moment in danger of their lives.
In this interim Proclamation is made all the city over
" That no person or persons should presume to proclaim the
Prince of Wales, or any other to be the King of England or
Ireland (for of Scotland they allow us) by colour of inherit-
cance succession election or any other claim whatsoever
under pain of High treason etc., By which we may clearly
see : That it was not so much for any personal misdemeanours
in the King that they murdered him, as to extirpate Mon-
archy Rout and Branch. For suppose (but it will never be
granted) that the King could have and have been guilty of all
those Tyrannies, treasons and murders, which they laid to
his charge, and that the utmost execution of that sentence
were lawfull, yet that therefore the Son should suffer for the
father's offences, will neither stand with good Divinity nor
reason. It may with their manner of Justice.
But I have a great fancy to be guilty of this peece of
treason and therefore I'le be so bold as play the champion
for once, though I hold no land by it.
yes ! yes ! Whereas the Rebells of England have by
the Arbytrary illegall and unjust power and force of a Tray-
terous and bloody army most barbarously murdered their
lawful King Charles the First of
that name, on Tuesday the 30th of Jan. 1648 about two of
the clocke in the afternoone, be it knowne unto all men by
these presents that Charles the Second son and heir apparent
of the aforesaid murdered King is the only undoubted true
and lawful King of England Scotland, France, and Ireland,
Defender of the Faith etc., from the very minute of his
Father's death. And all the people within his dominions are
accordingly bound by the lawes of God and this nation, and
hereby strictly required to acknowledge him for their lawful
APPENDIX A 207
Soveraigne and King and to bear true Faith and Alleagiance
to him upon paine of High Treason
God save the King.
This evening Duke Hambleton escaped forth of Windsor
Castle and came to London in a butcher's habit where
Wednesday, January 31.
Hee was taken knocking at an inne in Southwark whence
he was carry ed by water to Whitehall, and had there a strong
guard set upon him. If they chop off his head in good
earnest, I shall then believe he was not so treacherous as
This day also Sir Lewes Dives and Mr. Holder escaped
from Whitehall where they were prisoners, some think they
were drown' d in the Thames, but I hope and think they are
both alive, and that by this time their bodyes are cast up on
a safer shoare. These escapes put the regicides in debate of
bringing the rest to tryall whereupon it was ordered that a
committee should be appointed to bring in an act (for so they
call it) to constitute another High Court of Justice, who are
forthwith to murder the said Duke and others (whom they
call) the chiefe delinquents. And in order hereunto it was
voted that the Earle of Holland should be forthwith removed
to the tower.
Thursday, February 1.
This day the Eegicides at Westminster spent much wind
in debate of an Act (forsooth) which shall for the future
disable all those members from sitting in the House who
voted the late King's concessions to the propositions to be
a sufficient ground for settling the peace of the kingdome.
Which was assented to, and such members as sit in the
House are to enter their dissents from the said vote, and
those that be absent to declare theirs before they shall be
admitted to sit as members.
They voted that Duke Hambleton, the Earles Norwich
and Holland, the Lord Capell and Sir John Owen, should be
208 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
the next they would murder and the next day some of the
High Court of Injustice met in the painted chamber, where
they made some preparation to the tryall of them.
The Lord Capell this evening escaped forth of the Tower
but by the treachery of two watermen was unfortunately
met with and sent thither againe.
A message came from the Lords House to desire a con-
ference with the Commons touching the settlement of the
Nation. But though they were acquainted that the mes-
senger was at the doore, they would not vouchsafe him a
hearing, but instead thereof appointed a day to consider,
whether or no it may stand with their greatnesse to take any
notice of them.
And because the Judges commissions and all other that
run in the name of the King are void by his Death, and that
therefore some of them refuse to have any dealings with them
and others to sit until they have some authority from those
who have as little as themselves. It was ordered that the
tearms should be adjourn'd until Fryday the 9th of Feb. and
that in the meane while they consider and make choice of
such Traytors to make judges of as are fittest for their
Friday, February 2.
The committee of the Navy reported the state thereof
(viz.) that they found it in a tartar'd miserable posture, that
they had conferr'd with some merchants of their assistance
and found they will be so mad as advance some moneys
towards the setting out of the next Summers fleet. Where-
upon it was voted " That the number of ships for the fleet
should be 73 the Men 6000 and ordered the Victualling there-
of and moneyes to be raised for that service ".
That thing miscalled an Act for Triall of Duke Hamble-
ton and the rest was again reported and approv'd of, and
Commissioners names to the number of 63, whereof any 15
APPENDIX A 209
of them shall be a sufficient Court. Ordered to be inserted.
These are to consist of the scumme of the House, Army, and
Citty, Coblers, and Tinkers, Pedlars and Weavers, and such
are likely to be Duke Hambleton's Peeres. The Eegiment
of Horse that Harry Martin raised in Barkshire in defiance
of the members was this day voted Legitimate (so are not
many of his bratts) and had thanks given him for that
he would not disband when they bid him.
Saterday, Feb. 3.
The Act for Tryal of Duke Hambleton was againe re-
ported, with the commissioners names inserted who are to sit
on Monday next in the Painted chamber. And a large
Declaration was presented in answer to the Scots Commis-
sioners papers, wherein they intend to let them know by
what authority they murdered the King of Scotland without
their consent, and some amendments they made in it and
ordered to consider of it Tuesday next.
They rewarded the two watermen that betrayed the Lord
Capell with 40 of the hundred they promised. Their next
reward may be a halter.
Sunday, Feb. 4.
The pulpits roared against Covenant breakers, but not so
generally as before the King's death. Nor indeed is it out of
any affection they have to Monarchy that they raise against
their rebellious bretheren of the Army, but because they had
not the honour to butcher the King themselves, and that they
see their Tithes taken from them and no Provision made for
Monday, Febr. 5.
It was put to the Question whether the kingly office
should any longer be continued in this nation, and whether
the present house of Peers, as an Essentiall part of the
Supream authority? But the latter was most insisted on
210 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
and carried in the negative. Only this Priviledge they are
content to allow them. They may have liberty to sit and
give their opinions and advice, but not to have any more
negative voice than they would allow the king. And this
makes Pembrooke Double Damme himselfe. As for the
government of the kingdome they intend by no means a
kingly, only his excellency looks to be Constable of England,
and that in effect is all one, only the name of King is wanting.
Cromwell is to be Lord High Marshall of England, and Ire-
ton I know not what but a mighty great man. The Eevenue
of the Crowne is to be set apart for the maintenance of the
Army and the estates of those they shall please to make de-
linquents are to be disposed of amongst the officers of the
The High Court of Injustice met this day in the Painted
Chamber to elect their President and officers, but who they
are I cannot informe you. Some say none but Bradshaw
will serve their turnes, but I hope his turn will be served ere
he be much older. For,
Can Bradshaw look ought longer for to live
Then one of thousands can one Blow but give ?
Sure no. If ever Man were vowed to die,
'Tis Bradshaw. Where he falls, there let him lye
And write upon him thus, Hereunder lyes
Th' epitome of treason, perjuries
Rebellion, impudence, and other things
That do conduce to murdering of kings
Graies Inne bred him, may they this breeding have
As they passe by, to upon his Grave.
WHITEHALL, August 23, 1670.
WE doe now dayely expect Myn Heer Boreel in exchange of
Van Beuingen who goes home, if not before his arrival.
The Ld. Haward intends to take France and Spaine in
his way for England and the latest from Madrid dated 6th
tells us that he was arrived at Cadiz and suddenly expected
their. A great confusion might have followed at Madrid upon
a disorder lately their, the first was a quarrill which happened
in y e Plaza Mayor at the beginning of a Bull feast in the
presence of both their ma tia between y e Conde de Melger and
y e Garmon's Guards to w ch many p-sons of y e greatest qual-
litie ran out of their balcones and were much wounded,
especially the Marquess of Guerrarra who is like to dye of
them. Since the Conde and five or six of his companions are
bannished. The second from a resque of a woemans theife
w ch 4 soldy rs of the newe regemens would have made from 6
Alguazills, w ch upon y e killinge of one officer of y e guard so
inraged y e soldy rs for 3 daies togeather that they went to
seeke revenge ether without regard to their superior officers
or her mag 1 * till all the alguazill fled into Channles and cloystrs,
and yet in all this time but 10 killed, severall alguazill and
soldy rs are to be hanged about it.
The bishoprick of Killalough in Ireland beinge become
voyd Dr. Vaughan is elected to the place.
On y e 16th Ld Mayo r and Aldermen etc., in p-suance of
a message to that purpos attended his ma ty in Councill where
his ma 1 * was pleased to acquaint them y* he had Eesolved
212 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
for sometime to devarse himselfe in the countrey and ther<
fore commanded them to continue their care for preventioi
of tumults and to have a ptickl r eye upon such as shoul<
prsume to meete in conventicl 8 contrary to the late Act
y e Comons. Which done they were brought into
ma fcys ward roabe and then treated w th varieties of wines etc.
His ma ty has given order for a newe fregot to be built a<
Bristoll w th 70 peeces of ordinances.
The carriages went on the 19 and 20th to Windso r an<
Hampton Court where their mag tes removed on Monday
cording to their former resolution. His ma ty has been pies
to nominate the Comm rs to treat for y e kingdome of Scot!
conserning the Union. Vide, Lt. Comm r , Artch Bsp of Snl
Andrews, Ld Chancel r , Ld Privy Seale, E Atholl, E. Hume
E. Dunferline, E. Lothian, E. Tweedale, E Kincardin, Bp.
Dunblane, Bp. Galloway, Ld Kegester, Ld. Advocate, L<
Halton, Ld Staires, Ld Newbysh, William Erskine Esq r Sr.
Eobert Moray Sr Artchibald Morray, Sr Kobt. Sincler Sr.
Alexander Freaser, Sr William Bruce, Sr Andrew Ramse]
and Sr Patrick Moray.
They write from Paris da te Aug st 23rd that the Duke d<
Crecqui went in y* head of an army of 15000 men on
Wednesday towards Peron wh ch is a french frontier upoi
Flanders. The Duke of Buckingham they say was to hav<
an extraordinary treate and within 6 days to goe for Englan<
so that this weeke we may expect him here.
On y e 19th severall of y e justicis of peace in and aboi
Westmin r were before his ma ty in Councill where his ma*
as before he had done to y e Ld Mayor and Aldermen com-
mended to them the care of the people in his absence am
their diligence to suppressinge y e meeting houses.
On y e 20 th his ma ty by reason of his short stay here
give a dispatch to such mat rs as lay undetermined before tl
board was gratiously pleased to sit againe in Councill, whei
it was ordered that a proclamation should immediately
issued forth that all y e memb ra of both Houses might hai
APPENDIX B 213
notice that his Ma ts will and pleasure was that they should
all come up and make a full house accordinge to their adiourn-
ment on the 24th of October next.
On y e (torn) w th his Koyall Highness Prince went
to Windsor attended by a great number of y e nobilitie and
y e gentrey etc. The queene y e same day to Hampton Court.
The Deanery of Norage beinge become voyde by the
death of Dr. Crofts, Dr Herbert Astley is appoynted by his
ma ty to suckseed him.
His ma ty has given order for the buildinge of 3 newe
fregott at Hull.
They write from Florans da* August 12th that Mr.
Hammelton and Mr. Scaville invoys extraordinary from his
ma ty and Eoyall Highness were arrived their ; and having staid
some time with Sr John Finch his ma ties Resident till they
were conduckted to y e pallace, where y e Duke ordered them
to be intertained for 6 daies. The Venice let rs da fc 15th tells
us that the Grand Segn r was at Adrianople and had sent a
hye chiaux to y e vizer of Candea to attend him, who upon
y e mesage immediately left Candea havinge by his severitie
of impayling them that abused y e Venechanes and his
threates of y e like usage to all that should committ the like
offences settled a fare corrispondence amongst them. Severall
workmen were sent from Constantinople to Candea to build
places for such in the countrey who beinge not of y e Ma-
hometan religion had not y e privilege of liveinge in any
Citty or Garrison. By the French let rs da* 27th we are
advised that the campe are marched towards Flanders, partly
for want of forage, and partly to avoyd y e like inconveniences
that France lay under y e last yeare when y e troopes spoyled
the vintages in all places where they quartred. The Duke
of Buckingham had been at Paris 4 daies and lodged in the
Amb rs House. The Kinge had presented him with 4 of his
best horses and a sword was preparing for him to the vallue
of 20000 crownes.
His Ma ty beinge informed in Councill that notwithstand-
214 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
ing orders of the board, the one the 18th of May 1666 and th<
other the 16th of December 1668, for presenting such persoi
as coyned or vended farthings, halfpenies etc., not silver an<
that severall psons had accordingly been prosecuted y(
nevertheless that the evill p-tise of Coyning and ven<
such farthings was still continued ; did on y e 17th give fi
orders that all psones so offending, especially Corporatioi
and the stampers or coyners who have beene or shall
found guiltie shall (be) effectually prosecuted by the Attorney
Generall accordinge to law. The Councill adiourned ti]
September y e 9th. A yatch if y e wind offers this night
goes for France to bringe over the Duke of Buckingham.
(Written by a clerk, and probably dictated and takei
down in shorthand. The following is in Muddiman's hand-
writing:) Hasp will forget not the black mare etc., if you cai
tell me in a Line where a search may be made for the geldii
of Eichard (torn)
To MB. WM. SYMONDS
S. P. Dom., Chas. II., 278, No. 38.
SOME TITLES OF " COEANTOS " IN THE BUENEY
The 23 of May. Weekely Newes from Italy, Germanie, Hun-
garia, Bohemia the Palatinate France and the Low
Countries. Translated out of the Low Dutch copie.
London. Printed by I. D. for Nicholas Bourne and
Thomas Archer, and are to be sold at their shops at the
Exchange and in Pope's-head Pallace 1622. 8 pp.
The 18 of June. Same title with the addition of "with a
strange accident hapning about and in the City of Zitta
in Lusatia ". Translated out of the High Dutch copie.
London. Printed by I. D. for Nathaniel Newbery and
William Sheffard and are to be sold in Pope's-head
Alley. 8pp. 1622.
The %5th of September. News from most parts of Christ en-
dome etc. London. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and
William Sheffard 1622. 17 pp. (Fine woodcut coat of
The yiih of September. A relation of letters and other adver-
tisements of newes etc. Printed for Nathaniel Butter
and Thomas Archer 1622. 20 pp.
The 4 of Octob. 1622. A true relation of the affaires of Europe
etc. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas Bourne
1622. 37 pp.
(For numbers issued by Butter dated 2, 13 and 23 Aug.,
1622, see Notes and Queries, ser. xii., 22nd Aug., 1903, p. 153.)
October 15, 1622. No. 2. A continuation of the affaires of
216 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
the Low Countries and the palatinate etc. Printed for
Nathaniel Butter and Earth. Downes 1622. 22 pp.
October 15, 1622. Num. 2. A relation of the late Occurrents
which have happened in Christendome. Printed by B. A.
for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas Bourne 1622. 19 pp.
October 30, 1622. No. 4. A continuation of the weekly newes
from Bohemia Austria etc. Printed for Nathaniel But-
ter and Barth. Downes 1622. 20 pp.
(The inside heading commences " The Weekly Newes out
of ... ," etc.)
The 4 of November. The Peace of France or the Edict with
the Articles of Peace etc. Printed by I. D. for Nathaniel
Newbery and are to be sold at his shop under St. Peters
Church in Cornehill and in Pope's-head Alley at the
Starre 1622. 12 pp.
November 5, 1622. Numb. 5. A continuation of the News of
this present weeke etc. Printed for Bartholomew Downes
and Thomas Archer 1622. 22 pp.
November 7, 1622. Numb. 6. A Coranto. Relating Divers
particulars concerning the newes out of Italy etc.
Printed for Nathaniel Butter, Nicholas Bourne and
William Shefford 1622. 21 pp.
August 29. Numb. 46. Ital. Gazet. Nu. prio. More newes
from Europe etc. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and
Thomas Archer 1623. 22 pp.
EXAMPLES OF PERIODICALS ISSUED BY BUTTEB
November 11. Number 3. The wonderful resignation of the
Mustapha 6tc., 1623. 22 pp.
November 20. Numb. 4. The affaires of Italy etc., 1623.
December 2. Number 6. First from Constantinople etc., 1623.
December 13, Number 7, Weekly newes from Germanic etc.,
APPENDIX C 217
1623. 22 pp. (Weekly newes now becomes the most
The Last Known Copies.
Numb. 1. An abstract of Some speciall Forreigne Occurrences,
brought down to the weekly Newes of the 20 of December.
London. Printed for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas
Bourne. By permission. 1638. (Extends over several
months, 96 pp.)
Cent 3. Numb. 48. The continuation of the Forraine Oc-
currents for 5 weeks last past etc. London. Printed
January 11, 1640, for Nath. Butter dwelling at St.
Austin's gate (47 pp.).
CATALOGUE OF PEEIODICALS FEOM 1641 TO
NOTE. Except where otherwise indicated the following periodicals
all contained in the Thomason Collection up to the month of April,
1660. From April, 1660, onwards the Burney Collection should
consulted. The first and last existing numbers of each periodi
only are cited, and for reading purposes vol. ii. of the Catalogue
the Thomason Tracts, by Dr. G. K. Fortescue (1908), should be
suited. For the Burney Collection the manuscript catalogue
the Newspaper Room at the British Museum must be consult
For the biographies of the printers or booksellers A Dictic
of the Booksellers and Printers who were at work in Englai
Scotland and Ireland from 1641 to 1667, by H. R. Plomer,
printed for the Bibliographical Society (1907), is indispensabl
The full titles of the periodicals are set out when the
appeared for periods exceeding a year, or the titles themselves
interesting or important ; in other cases the catchwords only
The Heads of Severall Proceedings in the Present Parl
(from the 22 of November to the 29, 1641). Wherein
contained the substance of severall letters sent from
Ireland shewing what distresses and misery they are in.
With divers other passages of moment touching the
affaires of these kingdomes. No. 1. Nov. 22-29, 1641.
Mondays. London. Printed for I. T.
(The First of the Diurnals. The synopsis of the contents
differs in the succeeding numbers, but full title remains the
same.) No. 2. Nov, 29-6 Pec. No. 3. (?) 6-13 Dec.
Diurnal Occurrences or the Heads of Severall Proceedings in both
Houses of Parliament. Mondays (No. 4). Dec. 13-20, 1641.
Printed for J. T. and T. B. The Eoyal Arms on title
page. (No. 5 Printed for John Thomas. Royal Arms
omitted.) No. for Dec. 27-3 Jan. 164J. Printed for
Nath. Butter and Jo. Thomas.
(Continued as Diurnall Occurrences in Parliament. No. 1,
Jan. 2-10, 164J, published by William Cooke.)
By Samuel Pecke.
A Continuation of the True Diurnall of Passages in Parliament.
Numb. 6. Feb. 14-21. Mondays. 1641 (Lasted for 2
or 3 months.)
A True Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament. Numb. 10.
Mar. 14-21, 164|. Mondays. Signed at the end. Jo.
Browne. Cler. Parliamentor. (Ended in March.)
Diurnall Occurrences in Parliament (No. 1). Jan. 2-10, 1641/2.
Printed for William Cooke. Mondays. Continued as A
Perfect Diurnall. By Samuel Pecke.
The Diurnall Occurrences in Parliament (No. 1). Jan. 10-17,
1641/2. Mondays. Printed for F. Coules and T. Banks.
No. 2. Jan. 17-24, 1641/2. (Ended in March.)
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (No. 1). Jan.
24-31, 1641/2. Mondays. Printed for William Cook.
(Ended in March.)
By Samuel Pecke.
Ireland's True Diurnall or a continued relation of the chiefe
Passages that have happened there since the (llth of
January unto this (3 of Feb.) present) sent etc.
(No. 1) Jan. 11-3 Feb. 1641/2. Printed for William
Bladen, and are to be sold by Richard Royston in Ivie Lane.
A True Diurnall or a continued relation of Irish Occurrences
(No. 2). 12 Feb.-8 March 1641/2. Printed for William
220 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Bladen and to be sold by Francis Couls. (No more
By William Bladen.
The True Diurnall Occurrences or the Heads of the Proceedings
of Both Houses of Parliament. Averred by R. P.
Clerke. (No. 1 ? ) Jan. 31-7 Feb. 1642. Printed by
John Hammond. Mondays.
Diurnall Occurrences or the Heads of the Proceedings in both
Houses of Parliament. (Eoyal Arms on title page.)
Numb. 6. Feb. 7-14 (1641/2). Printed for I. G. Mon-
(Ended in March.)
A True Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament ( ? No. 2). Mar.
14-21, 1641/2. Mondays.
The Heads of All the Proceedings in both Houses of Parlia-
ment ( ? No. 1). May 23-30, 1642. Printed for J.
Smith and A. Coe. Mondays.
Some Special Passages from London Westminster Yorke, Hull
Ireland and other Partes. Collected for the satisfaction
of those that desire true information.
Number 1. May 24-2 June 1642. Thursdays. Printed
for Thomas Baker.
Diurnall Occurrances in Parliament (No. 1). May 30-6 June.
Remarkable Passages in Parliament (No. 1). May 13-6 June.
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (Numb.
1). June 13-20, 1642. Printed for Thomas Cook, some
numbers for William Cook. Mondays. (No. 9.) 8-1 5 Aug.
Printed by Tho. Fawcet for T. C. By Samuel Pecke.
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament. . . . More
fully and exactly taken then by any other printed Copies"
as you will finde upon comparing etc. Numb. 13. Sept.
5-12, 1642. Mondays. Illustration of House sitting.
APPENDIX D 221
Printed for Francis Coules.
By Samuel Pecke
A True and Perfect Diurnall of all the Chief e Passages in Lanca-
shire. . . . Sent to five shopkeepers in London from a
friend. Numb. 1. July 3-19, 1642. Mondays.
Printed for T. U.
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (No. 1). July
11-18, 1642. Printed for Kobert Williams. Signed Hen.
A Perfect Diurnall or The Proceedings in Parliament (No. 1).
July 11-19, 1642. Mondays.
A Perfect Diurnall or the Proceedings in Parliament. No. 1.
July 18-25, 1642. Mondays. Printed for John Thomas.
A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament (No. 1).
July 18-25, 1642. Printed for J. G. and E. W. (after-
wards Eobert Wood only). Mondays.
A Diurnall and Particula (r) of the last Weekes daily Occurrents
from his Majesty in severall places (No. 1). July 10-(26)
1642. Printed by T. F. for D. C. Tuesdays.
A True and Perfect Diurnall of the passages in Parliament from
etc. Numb. 11. Aug. 29-6 Sept. (1642). Mondays.
Printed by H. Blundell.
A Perfect Diurnall of the passages in Parliament. Numb. 7.
July 25-1 Aug. 1642. Mondays. Printed for John Jonson.
Some Special Passages from Hull Anlaby and Yorke. Number
10. 1 Aug. 1642. Printed for E. 0. and G. D. No. II.
1-9 Aug. 1642 "from London Westminster" etc.
A Continuation of the True Diurnall of Passages in Parliament.
Numb. 1. Aug. 8-15, 1642. Mondays. Printed by T.
Paine and M. Simmons.
An Exact and True Diurnall of the Proceedings in Parliament
(No. 1). Aug. 8-15, 1642. Mondays. Printed for Wil-
liam Cook (also Thomas Cooke).
Some Special and Considerable Passages from London Westminster
etc. Numb. 1. Aug. 9-16, 1642. Tuesdays. Printed
for H. Blunden.
222 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Special Passages from Divers parts of this Kingdome, as it
came to the hands of some of the Parliament, and divers
other persons of credit. Communicated for the satis-
faction of the well-affected Party. Numb. 2. Aug. 16-
23, 1642. Tuesdays. *
Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages from both Houses of
Parliament. Hen. Elsyng. Cler. Parl. D. Com. (No. 1.)
Aug. 22-26, Friday, 1642. Monday. Printed for Francis
Leach and Francis Coles.
Number 4 is continued as "A Continuation of etc., Thursds
Aug. 25-30 Tuseday 1642 ". By Samuel Pecke. (Until 27
Special Passages and certain Informations from severall places.
Collected for the use of all that desire to bee truly in-
formed. Numb. 3. Aug. 23-30, 1642. Tuesdays.
Printed for H. Blunden.
Remarkable Passages or a Perfect Diurnall of the weekly pro-
ceedings in both Houses of Parliament. Number 1.
Sept. 5-12, 1642. Mondays. Printed for Mathew Wai-
bank and J. W.
Englands Memorable Accidents (No. 2). Sept. 12-19, 1642.
Printed for Stephen Bowtell. Until Jan. 16, 1643.
A Perfect Relation or summarie. Numb. 1. Sept. 19-29 (Thurs-
day) 1642. Printed for Francis Coles.
A Continuation of True and Special Passages (? No. 1). Sept. 22-
29, 1642. Printed for William Cook.
A Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages.
Numb. 13. Oct. 3-8, 1642. Mondays. Printed for Eobert
A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages.
Number 1. Oct., Monday, 10-14, Friday, 1642. Printed
for Marke Wallace.
A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages '
(?No. 1). Nov. 12-18, 1642. Printed for John White.
APPENDIX D 223
Oxford Diurnal communicating the Intelligence and affaires
of the Court to the rest of the Kingdome. Oxford.
Henry Hall for William Webb. First week Jan. 1-7,
1643. One number In the Earl of Crawford and Bal-
The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer sent abroad to prevent mis-
information (No. 1). Dec. 27-3 January (1643). Tues-
days. Printed for G. Bishop and E. White, afterwards
by H. B. Until 9 Oct. 1649. By E. C. ?Eichard Col-
Mercurius Aulicus communicating the intelligence and affairs
of the Court, to the rest of the Kingdome (No. 1).
Jan. 8, 1643. Sundays. Printed by Henry Hall for
William Webb. Oxford. Until 7 Sept. 1645. By Sir
The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer or Special Passages. Numb.
24. Jan. 17-24, 1643. (One number. A counterfeit.)
The Daily Intelligencer of Court, City and Countrey. Eelating
the most remarkable passages in either which may save
much labour in writing of letters. Numb. 1. Jan. 30,
1643. Printed for John Thompson. One number.
Certaine Informations. Numb. 16. May 1-8, 1643. Mondays.
Printed for G. B. and E. W. Until 21 Feb. 1644. By
Mercurius Civicus. London's intelligencer or truth really im-
parted from thence to the whole kingdom to prevent
misinformation. Numb. 1. May 4-11, 1643. Thurs-
days. Printed by John Wright and Thomas Bates and
are to be sold in the Old Bayly. Until 10 Dec. 1646.
By E. C. ? Eichard Collings.
Mercurius Eusticus Or the Countries Complaint of the Murthers
Eobberies Plundrings and other Outrages committed by
the Eebells on his Majesties faithful Subjects (No. 1).
May 20, 1643. ?For about six months. By Bruno
224 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUBNALISM
A Coranto from Beyond the Sea. Number 1. June 9. 1643.
Printed for Humphrey Tuckey. One Number.
The Parliament's Scouts Discovery. Numb. 1. June 9-16, 1643.
Fridays. Printed for Bernard Alsop. By John Dilling-
ham. One number.
Wednesdays Mercury or speciall Passages and certain informa-
tions. Numb. 1. July 19, 1643. Wednesday. No. 2.
(The Speciall Passages continued.*) Printed by T. P. and
M. S. in Goldsmiths Alley. Until 2 August.
The Parliament Scout communicating his Intelligence to the
Kingdome. Numb.l. 20-27 June 1643. (No. 2. 29June-
6 July.) Thursdays. Printed by G. Bishop and K.
White. Until 30 Jan. 1645. By John Dillingham.
A Perfect Diurnall of some Passages in Parliament and from
other parts of this Kingdom. Numb. 1. June 26-3 July
1643. Mondays. Until 8 Oct. 1649. Printed for Francis
Coles and Laurence Blaikelock. By Samuel Pecke.
A Weekly Accompt or Perfect Diurnall. Numb. 1. 3-10 July
1643. Mondays. Printed for Robert Wood and John
Greensmith; afterwards by Bernard Alsop. Until 3
August. By Daniel Border.
The Weekly Account containing etc. No. 1. Sept. 6, 1634 (sic).
Wednesdays. Printed for Philip Lane, atGrayesInneGate
(afterwards for Bernard Alsop). Until No: 17. Ap. 21-29,
1647, then continued as The Perfect Weekly Account with No.
18. Ap. 28-5 May (in competition with another of the
same name) until 28 June 1647. By Daniel Border.
Mercurius Britanicus communicating the affaires of Great
Britaine. For the better information of the People.
Numb. 3. Sept. 5-12, 1643. Tuesdays. Printed by G.
Bishop and B. White. Until 18 May 1646. Nos. 1 to
51 by Captain Thomas Audley and the rest by March-
The True Informer Continuing a collection of the most speciall
and observable passages, which have bin imparted this
APPENDIX D 225
weeke from severall parts of his Majesties dominions
etc. Numb. 1. (MS. Sept. 23) 1643. Saturdays. Printed
for Tho. B. and I. W. junior. Until 22 Feb. 1645. By
Henry Walley. 1
New Christian Uses upon the Weekly true Passages. Numb. 1.
Oct. 7, 1643. Fridays. Printed for Laurence Chapman and
Laurence Blaiklock. (One number.) ? By George Smith.
The Scottish Mercury (No. 1). (MS. 13 Oct. 1643.) (One
number.) By George Smith.
The Scotish Dove Sent out and returning. Bringing intelligence
from their army and makes some relations of other
observable passages of both Kingdomes for information
and instruction. Numb. 1. Oct. 13-20, 1643. Fridays.
Printed for Laurence Chapman. Until 26 Nov. 1646.
By George Smith.
Mercurius Busticus or a Countrey Messenger (No. 1. Oct. 26,
1643). (One number.) By George Wither.
The Welch Mercury. Numb. 1. Oct. 21-28, 1643. Saturdays.
Printed by W. Ley and G. Lindsey. (One number.)
(Continued as Cambro Britannus.)
The Compleate Intelligencer and Besolver (No. 1). Nov. 2, 1643.
(One number.) ?By George Smith.
Informator Busticus. Numb. 1. Oct. 27-3 Nov. 1643. Fridays.
Printed by Kobert Austin and Andrew Coe. (One num-
ber.) ? By Henry Walker.
Britanicus Vapulans. Numb. 1. (MS. Nov. 4, 1643) (continued
as Mercurius Urbanus with No. 2). Nov. 9. (Two num-
bers.) ? By Daniel Featly, D.D.
The Compleate Intelligencer and Besolver In two parts. Numb.
2. Nov. 7, 1643. Tuesdays. Until Nov. 28. ?By
Bemarkable Passages. Numb. 1. Nov. 1-8, 1643. Wednesdays.
Printed for A. Coe. Until Dec. 29, then A Continuation
of etc. Until 2 May 1644.
lr The letters "MS." refer to Thomason's dates.
226 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
TJie Kingdomes Weekly Post with his packet of letters, publish-
ing his message to the City and Countrey. Numb. 1.
Nov. 9, 1643. Thursdays. Imprinted by John Ham-
mond. Frontispiece of a man on Horseback blowing a
horn. Until Jan. 10, 1644. ? By John Kushworth.
Mercurius Cambro Britannus. Numb. 6. Nov. 27-5 Dec. 1643.
Mondays. Printed by Bernard Alsop. (The last number.)
Newsbooks already in Existence from 1643.
Sundays Mercurius Aulicus. (Oxford). (Until 7 Sept. 1645.)
Mondays Certaine Informations. (Until 21 Feb.)
A Perfect Diurnall. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.)
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. (Until 9 Oct.
Mercurius Britanicus. 1643. (Until 18 May 1646.)
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. (Until 31 March 1647.)
A Continuation of Remarkable Passages. (Until
Thursdays Mercurius Civicus. (Until 10 Dec. 1646.)
The Parliament Scout. (Until 30 Jan. 1645.)
The Kingdomes Weekly Post. (Until Jan. 10.)
Fridays The Scotish Dove. (Until 26 Nov. 1646.)
Saturdays The True Informer. (Until 22 Feb. 1645.)
A Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages.
Informed to the Parliament and otherwise from divers
parts of this kingdom. Numb. 1. Dec. 29-5 Jan. 1644.
Fridays. Printed for F. Coales and F. Leach. Until 1
August 1645. By Samuel Pecke.
Occurrences of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages. Numb.
2. Jan. 5-12, 1644. Fridays. Printed for Andrew Coe.
Until 24 May.
Mercurius dc., Upon my life new borne and wants a name.
Troth let the Reader then impose the same. Veridicus
I wish thee, if not so bee Mutus for wee Lyes
enough doe know. (No. 1.) Jan. 17, 1643/4.
APPENDIX D 227
Continued as Mercurius &c. not Veridicus nor yet
Mutus But Cambro or if you please honest Bri-
tannus. No. 2. Jan. 31-6 Feb. Continued as Mercurius
Veridicus. No. 3. Feb. 6-13, 1644. Tuesdays. Until 10
April. Printed by Bernard Alsop.
The Spie. Communicating Intelligence from Oxford. No. 1.
Jan. 23-30. (Burney.) Mondays. Printed for I. F.
Until 25 June 1644. By Durant Hotham.
Anti-Aulicus (No. 1). (MS. Tuesday Feb. 6, 1643/4.) Printed
for H. T. (One number.)
Mercurius Anglicus or a Post from the North (No. 1). Jan. 31-7
Feb. 1644. Wednesdays. Printed for T. B. Until 20
The Military Scribe Describing his War-like Relations to the
People. Numb. 1. Feb. 20-27, 1644. Tuesdays. Printed
by W. E. and J. G. Until 2 April.
Mercurius Britanicus. Numb. 27 (sic). Mar. 12-18, 1644. Mon-
days. Printed by G. Bishop. (The counterfeit accord-
ing to Thomason's note the real one being printed by
Britaines Eemembrancer of the most Remarkable Passages in
both Kingdomes. Numb. 1. Mar. 11-19, 1643/4. Tues-
days. Printed for I F. Until April 2.
TJie Late Proceedings of the Scotish Army. Numb. 4. March
21, 1644 (Thursday). Continued as Intelligence from the
Scottish Army. No. 6. Ap. 14. Continued as Extract of
Letters. No. 7. Ap. 30 (end). Printed for Robert Bos-
tock and Samuel Gellibrand dwelling in Paul's Church-
yard. By Bowles.
Mercurius Aulico-Mastix. Numb. 1. Ap. 12, 1644. Fridays.
Printed by G. Bishop. (One number.) (A continuation
of the Counterfeit Britanicus.)
A True and Perfect Journall of the Warres in England. To pre-
vent erroneous information. Numb. 1. Ap. 16, 1644.
Tuesdays. Printed by G. Bishop. Until 30 April.
228 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
The Weekly Newes from Forraigne Parts Beyond the Seas, con-
tinued as " from severall parts beyond the seas ".
Numb. 1. May 1, 1644. (Wednesdays.)
The Flying Post (illustration of a man on Horseback blowing
a horn). Printed by Bernard Alsop. (One number.)
Chief e Heads of Each Dayes Proceedings in Parliament (No. 1).
May 8-15, 1644. Wednesdays. Printed by Francis
Leach. (One number.)
An Exact Diurnall. Numb. 1. May 15-22, 1644. Wednesdays.
(One number.) Continued as
A Diary, or an Exact lournal Faithfully communicating the
most remarkable proceedings in both Houses of Parlia-
ment. As also delivering the true intelligence from all
the armies within his majesties Dominions. Numb. 2.
May 24-31, 1644. Fridays. Printed for Mathew
Walbancke. Until 5 March 1646.
The Continuation of the Intelligence from the Right Honourable,
the Earl of Manchester s Army etc. By Sim. Ash and
William Goode. Numb. 2. June 13, 1644. Printed for
Thomas Underbill. Until 16 August.
Le Mercure Anglois. Numb. 1. (MS. June 7, 1644.) Thursdays.
Printed for Eobert White and sold by Nicholas Bourne.
With No. 33. Jan. 30-6 March 1644. Printed by Thomas
Forcet. Until 14 December 1648. By John Cotgrave
The Court Mercurie communicating the most remarkable
Passages of the King's Armie. Numb. 1. June 22-2
July 1644. Sat. to Tues. Printed by Tho. Forset. Until
16 Oct. ? By John Cotgrave.
The London Post. Numb. 1. Aug. 6, 1644. Tuesdays. Printed
by G. B. Afterwards F. L. Until 4 March 1645. By
John Bush worth, sub-author Gilbert Mabbott.
The Countrey Foot-Post. Numb. 1. Oct. 2, 1644. Wednesdays.
Printed for G. B. and T. B. (One number.) Continued as
The Countrey Messenger. Number 2. Oct. 4-11, 1644.
APPENDIX D 229
Fridays. Printed by G. Bishop. One number. By
Perfect Passages of Each Dayes Proceedings in Parliament.
Numb. 1. Oct. 16, 1644. Wednesdays. Printed for
B. Austin. Until 4 March 1646. ? By Henry Walker.
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Sundays Mercurius Aulicus. 1643. (Oxford. Until 7 Sept.)
Mondays A Perfect Diurnatt. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.)
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until
9 Oct. 1649.)
The London Post. 1644. (Until 4 March.)
Mercurius Britanicus. 1643. (Until 18 May 1646.)
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. 1643. (Until 31 March
Perfect Passages of Each Dayes Proceedings.
1644. (Until 4 March 1646.)
Thursdays Mercurius Civicus. 1643. (Until 10 Dec. 1646.)
The Parliament Scout. 1643. (Until 30 Jan.)
. Le Mercure Anglois. 1643. (Until 14 Dec. 1648.)
Fridays The Scotish Dove. 1643. (Until 26 Nov. 1646.)
A continuation of certain Special and Remarkable
Passages. 1644. (Until 1 August.)
A Diary or an Exact Journal. 1644. (Until 5
Saturdays The True Informer. 1643. (Until 22 Feb.)
The Monthly Account. No. 2. (MS. Mar. 1, 1644/5.) Printed
for Bichard Harper. (Two numbers.)
The Moderate Intelligencer Impartially communicating Martiall
Affaires to the Kingdome of England. Numb. 1. Feb.
27-6 Mar. 1645. Thursdays. Printed by B. W. (Until
4 Oct. 1649.) By John Dillingham.
The General Account. (Monthly). (No. 1). (MS. March 31)
1645. Printed by B. Austin for B. H. (One number.)
The Weekely Post-Master. Numb. 1. Ap. 8-15, 1645, Tuesdays,
Printed by G. B. (until 6 May).
230 A HISTOBY OP ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Mercurius Veridicus or True Informations. Numb. 1. Ap. 12-
19, 1645. Printed by Bernard Alsop. Saturdays (until 7
A Perfect Declaration. Numb. 1. Ap. 26, 1645. (Continued as)
The True Informer containing a perfect collection of the
Proceedings in Parliament ancl true information from
the armie. No. 2. 26 April-3 May 1645. Saturdays.
Printed by Thos. Bates and J. W. J. (until 7 March 1646).
By Henry Walley.
The Parliaments Post. Numb. 1. May 6-13, 1645. Tuesdays.
Printed by G. B. (until 7 Oct.).
The Exchange Intelligencer. Numb. 1. May 15, 1645. Wednes-
days. Printed by T. Forcet (until 18 July).
Heads of Some Notes of the Citie Scout. Numb. 4. 19 Aug.
1645. Tuesdays. Continued as The City Scout. No. 11.
Sept. 30-7 Oct. (Until 11 Nov. 1645.) Printed for
E. A. and J. C.
A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages.
Number 1. Sept. 19-26, 1645. Fridays. Printed for
F. L. (Until 27 Feb. 1646.) By Samuel Pecke.
The Kingdomes Weekly Post (No. 1). Oct. 15. Wednesdays.
Printed by I. H. (One number.) By John Harris.
Mercurius-Academicus. (Note : Thomason marks this " 1st
and 2nd week," but it starts with p. 9.) ( ? No. 2.)
Dec. 21,1645. Sundays. ? Printed at Oxford. (Until
the end of 1646 ? In Thomason Collection until March
21, 1646.) ? By Kichard Little.
TJie Citties Weekly Post (No. 1). Dec. 15-22, 1645. Mondays.
Printed by F. L. (Until 3 March 1646.)
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Sundays Mercurius Academicus. 1645. (? Oxford. ? Until
the end of the year.)
Mondays .4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.)
The Citties Weekly Post. 1645. (Until 3 March.)
APPENDIX D 231
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until
9 Oct. 1649.)
Mercurius Britanicus. 1643. (Until 18 May.)
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. 1643. (Until 31 March
Perfect Passages of each dayes proceedings.
1644. (Until 4 March.)
Thursdays Mercurius Civicus. 1643. (Until 10 Dec.)
Le Mercure Anglois. 1644. (Until 14 Dec. 1648.)
The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct.
Fridays The Scotish Dove. 1643. (Until 26 Nov.)
A Continuation of Certain speciall and Remarkable
Passages. 1644. (Until 27 Feb.)
A Diary or an exact Journal. 1644. (Until 5 March.)
A Continuation of certain speciall and Remarkable
Passages. 1645. (Printed by F.L.) (Until 27 Feb.)
Saturdays Mercurius Veridicus. 1645. (Until 7 March.)
The True Informer. 1645. (Until 7 March.)
The Phoenix of Europe or the Forraine Intelligencer. Numb.
1. Jan. 16, 1645/6. Fridays. Published by W. Pend-
red a well-wilier to his countrey. Printed by T. Paine
for B. A. (One number.)
The Moderate Messenger. Numb. 1. Jan. 27-3 Feb. 1646.
Tuesdays. Printed by K. A. and J. C. (Until 3 March.)
An Exact and True Collection of the Weekly Passages (No. 1).
(Feb. 26, 1645/6). (Monthly.) Printed by B. A. to be sold
by W. H. (Two numbers.)
The Westerne Informer. No. 1. March 7, 1645/6. (Printed
for Thomas Underbill.) (Brit. Mus. 102 a, 69. The
only number. 4 pages.)
Perfect Occurrences of Both Houses of Parliament and Martiall
Affairs. No. 11. Mar. 13, 1646. Fridays. Printed by Jane
Coe. (Ended Jan. 1, 1647. Possibly by Henry Walker.)
Generall Newes from All Parts of Christendome. Turkie and
other dominions adjacent. Num. 1. (May 6) 1646.
232 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Wednesdays. Printed by T. F. for Nicholas Bourne.
The Packet of Letters (No. 1). June 26 (1646). Printed for
Thomas Bates. (Supplements to the Perfect Diurnall.)
(One or two numbers.) By Samuel Pecke.
The Military Actions of Europe. Numb. 1. Oct. 20-27, 1646.
Tuesday. (Thomason's MS. note " Independant ".)
Printed by J. M. for Giles Calvert. Until 2 Nov.
Papers Sent from the Scotts Quarters, and A Continuation &c.
No. 1. Oct. 14, 1646. (Burney Vol. 25 A.) Numb. 2.
Oct. 28, 1646. Printed for F. L. (A supplement to the
Perfect Diurnall, suppressed after the second number.)
By Samuel Pecke.
Mercurius Candidus. Numb. 1. Nov. 11-20. Wed. to Fri. (1646).
Printed by T. Forcet. Until 20 Nov. ? By John Harris.
Diutinus Britanicus. Numb. 1. Nov. 25-2 Dec. 1646. Wednes-
days. Printed for John Jones. Continued as Mercurius
Diutinus (not Britanicus) Collector of the affaires of Great
Britaine and Martiall proceedings in Europe. Numb.
3. Dec. 8-16, 1646. Tuesdays. No. 5. Wednesdays.
Printed by Francis Leach. Until 10 Feb. 1647. By
Captain Thomas Audley.
The London Post. Numb. 1. Dec. 14-31, 1646. Thursdays.
Printed for H. B. Until 26 Feb. 1647. By John Eush-
worth, sub-author Gilbert Mabbott.
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays ,4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.)
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until
9 -Oct. 1649.)
Wednesdays The Weekly Account. 1643. (Until 31 March.)
Mercurius Diutinus. 1646. (Until 10 Feb.)
Thursdays Le Mercure Anglois. 1644. (Until 14 Dec. 1648.)
The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct.
The London Post. 1646. (Until 26 Feb.)
APPENDIX D 233
Fridays (Perfect Occurrences of 1646 ended Jan. 1.)
Perfect Occurrences of Every Dayes lournall in Parliament and
other Moderate Intelligence. Numb. 1. Jan. 1-8, 1647.
Fridays. Collected by Lu. Harruney Cleric. Printed for
I. Coe and A. Coe, afterwards Robt. Ibbitson and John
Clowes. (Until Oct. 12, 1649.) By Henry Walker.
England's Remembrancer of London's Integritie or Newes from
London of which all that fear God or have any desire of
the Peace and safety of this Kingdome ought to be
truely informed. Numb. 1. (MS. Jan. 19, 1646/7.)
Printed by John Macock for Thomas Underhil. (Strongly
Presbyterian and anti-Independent.) One number (? sup-
Mercurius Candidas. Numb. 1. Jan. 20-28, 1646/7. Thurs-
days. Printed for Francis Coles and Laurence Blaik-
locke (one number). By Samuel Pecke.
The Moderate Messenger. Numb. 22. Feb. 16-23. Tuesdays.
1647. (A solitary number.)
The Perfect Weekly Account containing Certain Special and
Eemarkable Passages from both Houses of Parliament,
the general assembly of the Kingdome of Scotland and
the state and condition of the King's majesty, the army
and Kingdome. Numb. 1. Mar. 22-29, 1647. Wednes-
days. (Printed by Bernard Alsop.) (Until Oct. 10, 1649.)
By B. D.
Mercurius Britanicus. Numb. 1. June 17-24, 1647. Thurs-
day. Printed by B. W. (Until 8 July.)
The Armies Post. Numb. 1. July 1-8, 1647. Thursdays. (One
A Continuation of Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages
(No. 1). July 9-17, 1647. Fridays. (Until Sept. 17.)
By Samuel Pecke.
A Diarie or an Exact Journall of the Proceedings of the Treaty
betwixt the Parliament and the army as also the other
234 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
severall debates orders and Counsels of Parliament. To-
gether with a full narration of the affaires both Civill and
Martiall in the two kingdomes of Scotland and Ireland.
Numb. 1. July 10-17, 1647. Saturdays. Drawn by the
same hand which composed the diary at first. Printed
for H. B. (Three numbers.)
A Perfect Summary (No. 1). July 19-26, 1647. Mondays. Printed
by M. B. and are to be sold at the king's head in the Old
Bayly. (Until Oct. 6.)
The Moderne Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Aug. 12-19, 1647. Thurs-
days. Printed for George Lindsey. (Until 30 Sept.)
Mercurius Melancholicus or Newes from Westminster and other
parts. No. 1. Sept. 4, 1647. Saturdays, afterwards
Mondays (until June 1649 with a varied title). No. 1, in
Burney 14 A. Thomason Collection commences with
No. 3. Sat. Sept. 11-18 and a counterfeit dated Sept. 11-
17. By John Hackluyt D.D. Two competing counter-
feits, the one by Martin Parker with John Taylor, and
the other by Swallow (? John) Crouch.
Mercurius Morbicus or Newes from Westminster and other
parts. Numb. 1. 2. 3. (MS. Sept. 29th) 1647. Mondays.
No. 4. Sept. 20-27. (Two numbers.) By Henry Walker.
Mercurius Pragmaticus communicating intelligence from all
parts touching all affaires designes Humours and Condi-
tions throughout the Kingdome. Especially from West-
minster and the Head-Quarters. " Nemo me impune
lacessit." Numb. 1. Sept. 14-21, 1647. Tuesdays. Until
28 May 1650. Variations of title. By John Cleiveland and
Samuel Sheppard, by Marchamont Nedham during 1648,
various writers in 1649 and to the end. Counterfeits.
Mercurius Anti-Melancholicus. Numb. 1. Sept. 18-24, 1647.
Fridays. Printed where I was and where I will be.
(One number. Royalist.)
Mercurius Clericus or Newes from Syon communicated to all
who love (and seek) the Peace of Jerusalem : Ad. Syno-
dem Grave Rabbins, if the Spirit can't unfold A Newe
APPENDIX D 235
Beligion, lets enjoy the Old. Numb. 1. Sept. 17-24,
1647. Fridays. (One number.)
Mercuricus Clerlcus or Newes from the Assembly of their III. last
years in the Holy Convocation, at Westminster. To-
gether with Jockey's farewell, death, and Epitaph to all
the Presbyterian faction. " Amicus Plato amicus Socrates.
Sed magis arnica veritas." Illustration of a bee on title
page. Num. 1. (MS. Sept. 25) 1647. Printed for S. F.
Mercurius Medicus or a Soveraigne salve for these sick times.
The Vizard which deformed them plucked off, and they
rendered no better nor worse than they are. The bug-
beares that affright some beaten to nothing, and the
Angells that allure others proved incompatible with re-
ality. Numb. 1. (MS. Oct. 11) 1647. Continued as
Mercurius Medicus or a Soveraign salve for the cureing mad-
men and fools, the one of phrenzie the other of follie, also
prescribing medicines for those that are otherwise dis-
eased, whether with a vertigo in the braine, or a worme
in the tongue, etc. Numb. 2. Oct. 15-22, 1647. Fridays.
Printed for William Lay. By Henry Walker.
Mercurius Anti-Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. Oct. 12-19, 1647.
Thursdays. Printed for William Lay. With No. 2 on
Tuesdays. (Until 3 Feb. 1648.)
Mercurius Elencticus. Communicating the unparallell'd pro-
ceedings at Westminster, the Head-Quarters, and other
places, discovering their designes, reproving their crimes,
and advising the kingdome. (No. 1.) Oct. 29-5 Nov.
1647. Fridays. " Eidentem dicere verum quid vetat."
Until 5 Nov. 1649. By Sir George Wharton and S.
Mercurius Populus. No. 1. November 11, 1647. (Thursdays)
(one number). Independent.
Mercurius Eusticus (No. 1). (MS. November 12, 1647.) (Until
236 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Mercurius Bellicus or an alarum to all Rebels. Num. 1. Nov.
13-22,1647. Mondays. (Until 29 Nov.) By Sir John
Mercurius Vapulans Survaying and recording the choysest
Actions and results of the Parliament, Synode, Army,
City, and Countrey. "bilem aut risum fortasse quibus-
dammovero" (MS. Novemb. 27, 1647.) Satur-
day. (One number.)
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays ,4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct. 1649.)
Mercurius Melancholicus. 1647. (UntilJune 1649.)
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until
9 Oct. 1649.)
Mercurius Pragmaticus. 1647. (UntilMay 28,1650.)
Mercurius Anti-Pragmaticus. 1647. (Until 3 Feb.)
Wednesdays The Perfect Weekly Account. 1647. (Until Oct.
Thursdays Le Mercure Anglois. 1644. (Until 14 Dec.)
The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct.
Fridays Perfect Occurrences. 1647. (Until Oct. 12, 1649.)
Mercurius Elencticus. 1647. (Until Nov. 5, 1649.)
The Kingdoms Weekly Post. Numb. 1. Dec. 29-5 Jan. 1647.
Wednesdays. Collected by B. D. (No. 2 by D. B. G.)
(Until March 9.) By D. Border.
Heads of Chief e Passages in Parliament Collected B. HWC.
Numb. 1. Jan. 5-12, 1647/8. Wednesdays. Printed by
B. Alsop. Continued as the Kingdoms Weekly account of
Heads etc. with No. 4, Jan. 25-Feb. 2. Until 22 March.
By Henry Walley, Clerk to the Company of Stationers.
Mercurius Dogmaticus. Numb. 1. Jan. 6-13, 1647/8. Thurs--
days. (Until 3 Feb.) By Samuel Sheppard.
Mercurius ^ulicus againe Communicating Intelligence, " Quis me
APPENDIX D 237
impune lacessit ". Numb. 1. Jan. 25-3 Feb. 1648.
Thursdays. (Until May 18.) By Samuel Sheppard.
Mercurius Bellicus or an allarum to all Eebels " Tarn Marte,
quam Mercuric ". Numb. 3. Feb. 8-14, 1648. Tuesdays.
(A Eevival, until July 26.) By Sir John Berkenhead.
A Perfect Summarie of Chief e Passages in Parliament. Numb. 1.
Feb. 12-19, 1647/8. Saturdays. Printed by John Clowes.
Packets of Letters. (Frequently at irregular dates.) Printed by
Eobt. Ibbitson. No. 1, 18 March 1648. Supplements to
Perfect Occurrences. By Henry Walker.
Mercurius Insanus Insanissimus. Numb. 2. (March 28th) 1648.
Seven numbers. No. 7 in the Guildhall Library, London.
Mercurius Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. Mar. 28-4 Ap. 1648. Tues-
days. (The re-numbering may only be occasioned by
the arrest of the former printer.) By ? March amont
Nedham until the end of the year.
Mercurius Anti-Mercurius communicating all Humours, Condi-
tions, Forgeries, and Lyes of Mydas-eared newsmongers.
(No. 1 ? ) (MS. Ap. 4, 1648.) (One number.) By John
Mercurius Brittanicus. Numb. 1. Mar. 31-7 April 1648. Fri-
days. Continued as Mercurius Britanicus. No. 3. May
25-30. Until 16 August. By John Hall.
Mercurius Critticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 6-13, 1648. Thursdays.
(Three numbers. No. 3 "communicating intelligence
from the Hypocrites at Westminster, the Sectaries in
the Army, and the Moone calves of the City ".)
Mercurius Academicus, communicating the intelligence and
affairs of Oxford to the rest of the Passive party through-
out the Kingdom. Numb. 1. Now in Easter week to
Sat. Ap. 15, 1648 " Et Spes et Eatio studiorum in Csesare
tantum". (One number.)
Mercurius Veridicus. Numb. 1. Ap. 14-21, 1648. Fridays.
Until 8 May (Eoyalist).
238 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Mercurius Urbanicus (No. 1). May 2-9, 1648. Tuesdays.
Mercurius Gallicus. Communicating the sense of the Protestants
of France as touching the present condition of affairs in
England. To all Englishmen as well Eebells as Eoyal-
ists. No. 3. (MS. May 12, 1648.)" (Three numbers.)
Mercurius Poeticus Discovering the treasons of a thing called
Parliament. Num. 1. May 5-13, 1648. Fridays. (One
The Parliament-Kite or the Tell Tale Bird. Numb. 1. May
10-16, 1658. Being the Eoundheads Thanksgiving Day for
17 colours taken at the Taylors, as they were a Hemming.
" Quis me impune lacessit." Printed for the good of the
Kingdome. (Until Aug. 31.)
Mercurius Honestus or Newes from Westminster. Touching the
unfolding of Elencticus and Pragmaticus, the distemper-
ing of the members, the beating of the pulses, the under-
hand working of the frenzie brains, and the sudden
visitation of a Welch Plurisie, with the danger of their
Disease, and the opinion of their great Doctors. Numb.
1. (MS. May 19th) 1648 (Friday). Printed for E. 0.
Mercurius Publicus communicating emergent occurrences, and
severall passages of these times, for the further discovery
of that Mystery of Iniquity, the present Parliament at
Westminster and the timely information of the abused
People of England. Num.3. 22-29 May 1648. Mondays.
" Si natura negat, facit indignatio versum." (Three
Mercurius Censoriu's. Numb. 1. 1 June 1648. Tuesdays.
(Until 20 June.) By John Hall.
Mercurius Domesticus. Numb. 1. (MS. June 5, 1648.) (One
Westminster Projects or the Mystery of Iniquity of Darby
House discovered. Numb. 5. (MS. June 6th) 1648.
Friday. Printed nobody knows where, licensed nobody
APPENDIX D 239
knows when, and sent into the world by the appoint-
ment of the said committee, because they could not help
it, in this yeare of their vexation 1648. (Until June 23.
Six numbers at irregular dates.)
New News, Strange News, True News, and upon the matter no
news. Eead it or let it alone. Take it or leave it. " Si
Fortuna me Tormenta, Esperanza me Contenta. If
Fortune Torment me Hope shall content me." Ex-
cudissimo Anno millesimo Sexcentesimo Quadricesimo
Octavo. (No. 1.) June (?15) 1648. (One number.)
Mercurius Psitacus or the Parroting Mercury. No. 1. June
14-21, 1648. Wednesdays. Printed in the last year of the
high and mighty states at Westminster. (Until July 24.)
The Parliaments Vulture. Numb. 1. June 15-22 (1648).
Thursdays. (One number.)
A Perfect Diary of Passages of the King's Army. (No. 1 ? ) June
10-26,1648. (? Printer Ibbitson.) (One number.) By
? Henry Walker.
The Moderate, Impartially communicating martial affaires to
the Kingdome of England. Numb. 171. June 23-29,
1648. Thursdays. After No. 173 July 6-13, No. 1
begins on Tuesdays July 11-18. Printed for Robert
White. (No. 171 is the first number.) (Until 25 Sept.
1649.) By Gilbert Mabbot, licenser of the Press.
The Parliaments Scrich-Owle. Her singing before death, " Quis
vetat hoc verum ? " Numb. 1. (MS. June 29th) 1648.
Thursdays. Printed in the first yeare of the decease of
King Oliver. (In verse. Until 14 July.)
A Wonder. A Mercury without a Lye ins Mouth (No. 1. MS.
6 July 1648). (One number.)
Mercurius Scoticus. Numb. 1. (MS. July 19, 1648.) (One
number.) By Sir George Wharton.
Mercurius Melancholicus. Num. 1. July 21-28, 1648. Fridays.
By John Crouch.
The Royall Diurnall. Numb. 1. July 25-31, 1648. Mondays.
(Until August 29.) By Samuel Sheppard.
240 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
Mercurius Anglicus. Numb. 1. July 25-3 Aug. 1648. Thurs-
days. (One number.)
Mercurius Aulicus (No. 1. MS. Aug. 7) 1648. Mondays.
(Until Aug. 28.)
Mercurius Aquaticus (No. 1). 4-11 August 1648. Fridays.
The Colchester Spie. Truly informing the kingdome of the
estate of that gallant town. Numb. 1. (MS. Aug. 11)
1648. Fridays. (Two numbers.)
Hermes Straticus or a scourge for Elencticus and the Royall
Pamphleteers " Virtus repulsa nescia sordida intamina-
tis fulget honoribus nee sumit aut ponit secures, Arbitrio
Popularis aurae ". Numb. 1. Aug. 17, 1648. Thurs-
days. (One number.)
Mercurius Fidelicus. Numb. 1. Aug. 17-24 (1648). Thurs-
days. (Two numbers.)
The Parliament Porter or the Door Keeper of the House of
Commons. Informing the kingdome of the plots and
stratagems of the headless thing sitting at Westminster
under the name of a Parliament. Numb. 1. Aug. 28-
4 Sept. 1648. Mondays. (Until Sept. 25.)
Mercurius Catholicus communicating his Intelligence from the
most learned Protestant writers to simple people how
they may know which must needs be the true Christian
Keligion. No. 1. (15 Sept. MS.) 1648. Kough wood-
cut of a Cross and a Rosary on title page. No. 2 on
Dec. 11. (No more.) By ? Father Thomas Budd.
Mercurius Anti- Mercurius Impartially communicating truth,
correcting falsehood, reproving the wilfull, pitying the
ignorant, and opposing all false and scandalous aspersions
unjustly cast upon the two Honorable Houses of Parlia-
ment. Numb. 1. Sept. 12-19, 1648. Tuesdays. Printed
for H. H. and R. J. (Until 2 Oct.) By John Harris.
The Treaty Traverst. Numb. 1. Sept. 19-26, 1648. Tues-
days. ( One number.)
Mercurio Volpone or the Fox. Prying into every Junto, pro-
APPENDIX D 241
claiming their designes, and refining all intelligence for
the better information of His Majesties Loyall Sub-
jects. Numb. 1. Sept. 28-5 Oct. 1648. Thursdays.
A. Perfect Summary (No. 1). Oct. 2-9, 1648. Mondays. (One
Mercurius Militaris. Numb. 1. Oct. 10, 1648. Tuesday.
(Until Nov. 21.) By John Harris.
Mcrcurius Pacificus. His lectures of Concord Seasonably read
to our destructive discords from smal sparks to great
flames, now in hopes to be quencht by a Treaty of Peace
(No. 1. MS. Nov. 8th). (Wednesdays.) (One num-
ber.) By John Taylor.
The True Informer or Monthly Mercury being the certain intelli-
gence of Mercurius Militaris or the Armies Scout.
Numb. 1. Oct. 7-Nov. 8, 1648. Tuesdays. Printed for
Josiah White (24 pp.). (One number.) By John Harris.
Mercurius Militans with his hags haunting Cruelty and his
Bays crowning clemency. Historically suited to our
longwished peace. By Hieron Philalethes. (No. 1.
MS. Nov. 14) 1648. (Tuesday.) (One number.)
Martin Nonsence. His Collections which he saw with his
Brains, and heard with his eyes, of the witty follies,
peaceably fought for, in the poore flourishing kingdome
of England. Chiefly in the Parliament, Court, City and
Army. Numb. 1. Nov. 20-27, 1648. Mondays. (One
A Declaration Collected out of the Journals of both Houses of
Parliament. Numb. 1. Nov. 29-6 Dec. 1648. Wednes-
days. (Printed by Kobert Ibbitson in Smithfield near
the Queen's Head Tavern.) (Until Dec. 20.) By Henry
Mercurius Impartialis Or an Answer to that Treasonable Pam-
phlet Mercurius Militaris. Together with the Moderate.
Num. 1. Dec. 5-12, 1648. Tuesdays. (One number.)
By Sir George Wharton.
242 A HISTOBY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Heads of a Diarie. Numb. 4. Dec. 20-27, 1648. Wednesdays.
Printed by Eobert Ibbitson. (Until Jan. 9, 1649.) By
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays 4 Perfect Diurnall. 1643. (Until 8 Oct.)
Mercurius Melancholicus. 1647. (Until June.)
Tuesdays The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. 1643. (Until
Mercurius Pragmaticus. 1647. (Until May 28, 1650).
The Moderate. 1648. (Until 25 Sept.)
Wednesdays The Perfect Weekly Account. 1647. (Until Oct. 10.)
Heads of a Diarie. 1648. (Until Jan. 9.)
Thursdays The Moderate Intelligencer. 1645. (Until 4 Oct.)
Fridays Perfect Occurrences. 1647. (Until Oct. 12.)
Mercurius Elencticus. 1647. (Until Nov. 5.)
Mercurius Melancholicus. Numb. 1. Dec. 25-1 Jan. 1649.
Mondays. (Until Jan. 12.) By John Hackluyt D.D.
The Armies Modest Intelligencer. ? No. 1. Jan. 19-26, 1649.
Fridays. No. 4. Feb. 8-15. Continued as The Armies
Weekly Intelligencer. Printed for C. Brook. Until Feb. 22.
A Perfect Summary of exact passages. Numb. 1. Jan. 22-29
(1648/9). Mondays. Continued in No. 2 as A Perfect
Collection of exact passages and No. 3 as a Perfect Sum-
mary again. With No. 7 A Perfect summary of an
exact Diurnall. With No. 10 A Perfect Summary of an
exact Dyarie of some passages of Parliament etc. With
No. 22 A Pefect (sic) Summay (sic) of exact passages of
Parliament etc., and so on. (Until Oct. 1.) Printed by
B. Ibbitson. By Theodore Jennings.
The Kingdomes Faithfull Scout. No. 1. Jan. 26-2 Feb. 1648/49.
Fridays. Printed by Eobert Wood. Until Oct. 12. By
The Irish Monthly Mercury. Number 1. Feb. 6, 1649/50.
APPENDIX D 243
Printed at Corke. Reprinted at London by T. N. for
Giles Calvert. (One number.) ? By William Bladen.
Mercurius Elencticus. Numb. 1. Jan. 31 -Feb. 7, 1648/9.
Wednesdays. By Sir George Wharton.
The Irish Mercury Monethly. From the 25 Jan. to 25 Feb.
(MS. 1649.) (One number.)
The Impartiall Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Feb. 28-Mar. 7, 1648/9.
Wednesdays. Printed by J. C. (Until 19 Sept.)
A Modest Narrative of Intelligence, Fitted for the Republique
of England and Ireland. Numb. 1. March 31-7 April,
1649. Saturdays. Printed by J. M. (Until Sept. 22.)
Mercurius Elencticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 4-11, 1649. Wednesday.
"Quis me impune lacessit." By S. Sheppard.
The Man in the Moon Discovering a world of knavery under
the Sunne Both in Parliament the Counsell of State, the
Army, the City, and the Country. With Intelligence
from all parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland (No. 1)
Die Luna Ap. 16, 1649. Mondays. Printed at the full
of the Moon, and are to be sold at the sign of Scorpio,
for the good of the State. (Until 5 June 1650.) By
Mercurius Philo Monarchicus. Numb. 1. Ap. 10-17, 1649. Tues-
days. (Until 21 May irregularly.)
Continued Heads of Perfect Passages. Numb. 1. Ap. 13-20, 1649.
Fridays. Printed for Andrew Coe. (Until May 18.)
Mercurius Elenticus (For King Charls II.). Numb. 1. Ap. 22,
Mercurius Pragmaticus (For King Charls II.}. (2 pars. No. 1.
Ap. 17-24, 1649. Tuesdays.)
Mercurius Militaris or the People's Scout Discovering the de-
signes interests and humours of the Civil and Martial
Conventicles of Westminister Darby House and White-
hall etc. Numb. 1. Ap. 17-24, 1649. Tuesdays. (One
England's Moderate Messenger. Numb. 1. Ap. 23-30, 1649.
Mondays. Printed for E. W. (Until 9 July.)
244 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Mercurius Elenticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 24-1 May 1649. Tues-
Mercurius Brittanicus communicating intelligence from all
parts and touching and handling the humours and con-
ceits of Mercurius Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. Ap. 24-4
May 1649. Tuesdays. (Until 5*June.) By Gilbert Mab-
Mercurius Elencticus (For King Charts II.). (Pars 2.) Numb.
1. Ap. 30-7 May 1649. Mondays.
Mercurius Philo-Monarchicus. (Pars 2?) May 14-21, 1649.
Numb. (?1). Mondays.
A Moderate Intelligence. Numb. 1. May 17-24, 1649. Thurs-
days. Printed for Kobert White. (Two numbers.)
Mercurius Pacificus. No. 1. Mayi 17-25, 1649. Thursdays.
Mercurius -Eepublicus. Numb. 1. May 22-29, 1649. Tuesdays.
Printed for K. Ley bourn. (One number.)
Mercurius Militaris or Times only Truth-Teller Faithfully un-
deceiving the expectations of the vulgar (who are daily
abused by a Crew of brainlesse and brazen faced News-
Scriblers (whether Eoyall, Martiall, or Parliamentall)
who have sold themselves for a penny to doe wickedly ;
relating the most perfect transactions both forraigne and
domestick collected with much labour from divers par-
ticulars and here presented in one bundle to the reader.
Numb. 1. May 22-29, 1649. Tuesdays. Continued as
The Metropolitan Nuncio etc. Byl.H. No. 1. May 29- June
6. No. 3. June 6-13. (No more.) By John Hackluyt
Mercurius Melancholicus for King Charls the Second. Against
those bloody usurpers Tyrants and Traitors of the Juncto
and Army. Numb. 1. May 24-31, 1649. Thursdays.
(One number.) By John Taylor.
Mercurius Verax or Truth appearing after Seaven Yeares
Banishment. (No. 1.) (MS. June 4th, 1649.) Vide
Perlege, Fie aut Eide. (One number.)
APPENDIX D 245
The Moderate Intelligencer. Numb. 1. May 29-5 June 1649.
Tuesdays. Printed for R. Leybourn in Monkswel Street.
(Until Oct. 4.) By John Dillingham. (A change of day
in order to attack Mabbott's The Moderate.)
A Book without a Title (No. 1). MS. 12 June 1649. (One
A Perfect Diurnall of Passages in Parliament. Mondays. Numb
1. July 9-16, 1649. Printed by Kobert Wood. Sup-
pressed. A counterfeit. (Two numbers.)
The Moderate Mercury Faithfully communicating divers re-
markable passages both forreign and domestique. Where-
by the Truth will manifestly appear, and the mouth of
Wilful Malignancy be utterly stopped. Numb. 1. June
14, 1649. Thursdays. Printed for W. L. (Two
The First Decade of Useful Observations. Raised out of modern
experience. Scientiae Mater Experientia Temporis filia
Veritas. Numb. 1. (MS. 28 June 1649.) Printed for
T. M. (One number.)
A Tuesdaies Journall (title page illustrated with Common-
wealth Coat of Arms). Numb. Fol. 1. July 1649. Tues-
days. Printed for Eobert Ibbitson. (Until August 21.)
By Henry Walker.
Mercurius Carolinus Written by Alethophilus Basiluphus,
Britannophilus. Printed at Darby House for the Com-
pany of State Traitors at Westminster. Numb. 1. July
19-26. Thursdays. (One number.)
The Armies Painfull-Messenger. Numb. 1. July 25-2 Aug.
Thursdays. Printed for F. L. (One number.)
Great Britaines Paine-full Messenger Af-Fording true notice of
all affairs. Numb. 1. Aug. 9-16, 1649. Thursdays. No.
2. Printed for G. E. (Three numbers.) ?By A. Ford.
Mercurius Aulicus (For King Charts II.) . Numb. 1. Aug. 14-21,
1649. Tuesdays. (Until 4 Sept.)
Mercurius Hybernicus. Discovering the Senates fraud, the
246 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Cities folly, and the voracious imperiousness of the
soldiery. Numb. 1. Aug. 30-6 Sept. 1649. Thursdays.
Mercurius Pragmaticus for King Charts II. Numb. 1. Sept.
10-17. Mondays. (Until 29 Jan. 1650.)
A Briefe Relation of some affaires and transactions, Civill and
Military, both Forraigne and Domestique. Numb. 1.
Oct. 2, 1649. Published by authority. Tuesdays. Printed
by M. Simmons. No. 2 Licensed by Gualter Frost
Esquire secretary to the Council of State according to
the direction of the late Act. (Until Oct. 22, 1650.) By
Severall Proceedings in Parliament. Hen. Scobell Cleric Parlia-
ment. Numb. 1. Sept. 25-9 Oct. 1649. Tuesdays.
Printed by Eobert Ibbitson. No. 2. Licensed by the
Clerk of the Parliament. No. 4. Fridays, and size in-
creased. No. 18. Jan. 25-31, 1650. Thursdays. Until Ap.
21, 1653. From 21-28 April 1653 to 7 Sept. 1654 entitled
General Proceedings of State Affairs. From 28 Sept.
1654 to 25 Jan. 1655 Several Proceedings of State affairs.
From 22 Feb. to 27 Sept. 1655 Perfect Proceedings of
State affairs. By Henry Scobell, "Sub-author" com-
mencing January 1650 (about) Henry Walker.
A Very Full and Particular Relation. Numb. 6. (MS. date Oct.
31,1649. Wednesdays). Printed by Matthew Simons for
J. 0. (Supplements to the Official Brief Relation in
1649.) By Walter Frost.
A Perfect and more Particular Relation. Numb. 2. (MS. Nov.
19) 1649. Printed for Francis Leach. Supplements to
A Brief Relation. By Walter Frost.
A Perfect Diurnall of some Passages and Proceedings of and in
Relation to the Armies. Licensed by the Secretary of the
Army under his Excellency the Lord Fairfax. Numb. 1.
Dec. 10-17, 1649. Mondays. Printed by Edw. Griffin.
(Until Sept. 24, 1655.) By John Eushworth, sub-author
Samuel Pecke (commencing about January 1650).
APPENDIX D 247
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies.
(Official). 1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.)
The Man in the Moon. (Until 5 June.)
Tuesdays Mercurius Pragmaticus. 1647. (Until May 28.)
ABriefeBelation. (Official.) 1649. (Until Oct. 22.)
Thursdays Severall Proceedings. (Official, the first three
numbers on Fridays). 1649. (Until 27 Sept.
The Irish Mercury Monethly (No. 1). Jan. 25 - Feb. 25
(1649/50). Printed at Cork and reprinted at London for
Thos. Brewster and Gregory Moule. (One number.)
? By William Bladen.
The Irish Monthly Mercury. Numb. 1. (Feb. 6, 1649/50.)
Printed at Corke and reprinted at London by T. N.
for Giles Gal vert. (One number.)
The Boy all Diurnall (for King Charls the 1 1.). Numb. 1. Feb.
25, 1650. Mondays. (Until April 30.)
Mercurius Elenticus (for King Charles the II.) . Numb. 1. Ap.
22, 1649. Mondays. (Until June 3.)
Mercurius Politicus Comprising the Summ of all intelligence
with the affairs, and designs now on foot, in the three
nations of England, Ireland and Scotland. In defence
of the Commonwealth and for information of the People.
Ita vertere Seria Ludo (Hor. de Ar. Poet). Numb. 1.
June 6-13, 1650. Thursdays. Printed by Mathew Sim-
mons, afterwards Thos. Newcombe. (Until 12 April
1660.) By Marchamont Nedham or John Hall until the
end of 1650, then by John Milton with Hall or Nedham
as writers until January 1653. Then by Nedham under
the supervision of John Thurloe. (Until May 1659.)
From 13 May 1659 to 16 Aug. 1659 by John Canne,
and then to April 12, 1660, by Nedham.
Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. June. (Commenced about
this time.) The only known copies in existence are as
248 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
follows : No. 186 "5 to j^ January g Thursdays.
A Londres. Par Guil. Du-Gard. Par autorite. Et se
vendent par Nicholas Bourne a la porte meridionale de la
vieille Bourse. Until No. 229 * 1654. (British
Museum P.P. 3398.) (This periodical appears to have
been discontinued for about two years at the Eestora-
tion, for the following number contains an account of
the Coronation of Charles II.) No. 567. Du Jeudi
jg Avril jusqu'au Jeudi 33 1663. A Londres.
Par Samuel Broun. Par autorite. Et se vendent par
lui aus armes de la Eeine proche de la petite porte
septentrionale de 1'eglise de St. Paul. Et par Tho.
Clark, a la porte meridionale de la vieille Bourse. (In
the Eecord Office. S. P. Dom., Chas. II, vol. 72, No.
24.) ?By John Milton in 1650-1652. ? By Jean de
recluse at the Eestoration.
The Impartial Scout. Numb. 53. June 21-28, 1650. Fridays.
Printed by Eobert Wood for E. Alkin and are to be sold
in Corn-hil near the Eoyal Exchange. (Until Sept. 27.)
By D. Border.
Perfect Passages of Every Daies Intelligence. Numb. 1. June
28-5 July 1650. Fridays. Printed by John Clowes
over against the lower pump in Grub Street without
Cripplegate. (Until Dec. 31, 1652, then continued as
The Moderate Publisher of every dayes Intelligence, with No.
81, Jan. 14-21 until 20 Jan. 1654, then No. 2, Jan.
20-27, 1654, entitled Certain Passages of Every Dayes
Intelligence to 28 Sept. 1655. By Henry Walker.
The Perfect Weekly Account. (Begins p. 527.) July 10-17,
1650. Wednesdays. Printed by B. Alsop. (Until %
Sept.) By B. D.
A Perfect Diumall of Some Passages of Parliament. Numb. 324.
APPENDIX D 249
July 15-22, 1650. Mondays. Printed by W. Hunt for
F. Coales, L. Chapman, and L. Blaiklock. (Two
numbers.) By Samuel Pecke.
The Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth. Faithfully com-
municating all affaires both Martiall and Civill. Numb.
1. July 16-23, 1650. Tuesdays. Collected by the same
hand which heretofore drew up the Kingdomes Weekly
Intelligencer. Printed by E. Austin. Printed for E. C.
(Until 25 Sept. 1655.) By ? E. Collings.
True Intelligence from the Head Quarters. Numb. 1. July 16-
23, 1650. Tuesdays. Printed by J. Clowes for N.
Brooks. (Three numbers.)
The Best and most Perfect Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Aug. 1-8,
1650. Thursdays. Published by William Huby. (One
The Moderne Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Sept. 10-18, 1650. Tues-
days. Printed for Elizabeth Alkin at the Fountain in
King Street. (Two numbers.) By Henry Walker.
Mercurius Anglicus. Numb. 1. Sept. 24-1 Oct. 1650.
Tuesdays. Printed for E. Alkine. (One number.) ? By
Ncwsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies.
1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.)
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth.
1650. (Until 25 Sept. 1655.)
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.)
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres 1650.)
Severall Proceedings. 1649. (Until 27 Sept. 1655.)
Fridays Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Dec. 28, 1655.)
The Faithfull Scout. Non sumus sub rege sibi quisque se
vindicet. Numb. 1. Dec. 27-3 Jan. 1651. Fridays.
(Until Dec. 31, 1652.) Eevived on 1 Feb. 1653 to 18
March. Continued as The Armies Scout, with No. 14,
250 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Ap. 23-30, 1653, until 27 May-3 June 1653, then again
as The Faithfull Scout, No. 115, 3-10 June 1653 to 28
Sept. 1655. Printed by Kobt Wood. (Until Sept. 28,
1655.) By D. Border.
A Perfect Account. Numb. 3. Jan. 22-29, 1651. Wednesdays.
Printed by Bernard Alsop. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.) ByB.D.
Mercurius Pragmaticus Revived And from the shades of his
Ketirement return'd again. Numb. 1. June 3-10, 1651.
Tuesdays. Continued as Mercurius Elencticus. Numb. 2.
June 10-17, 1651, to No. 4, June 24-1 July. Then
continued as Mercurius Scommaticus. Numb. 1. July
1-8, 1651. Tuesdays. Printed by James Moxon. (No
more.) By Samuel Sheppard.
The True Informer. Numb. 1. Aug. 20-28, 1651. Wednes-
days. Printed for F. N. (One number.)
The Modern Intelligencer. Numb. V. Aug. 26-3 Sept. 1651.
Tuesdays. Printed by I. Clowes for E. Alkin. (? The
only number.) ? By Henry Walker.
The Diary. Numb. 1. Sept. 22-29, 1651. Mondays.
Printed by Bernard Alsop. (Until 3 Nov.)
Mercurius Scoticus or the Royal Messenger. Numb. 2. Sept.
23-30, 1651. Tuesdays. (Burney.) Printed by John
Clowes for Elizabeth Alkin. (? One number.) ? By
Perfect Particulars of Every Dales Intelligence. Numb. 39.
Oct. 24-31, 1651. Fridays. Printed by F. Neile. (This
was a single number of Perfect passages etc., printed by
Neile, hence the mistake in the title.)
The French Intelligencer. Numb. 1. Nov. 18-25, 1651. Tues-
days. Printed by Eobert Wood. (Until 18 May 1652.)
? By D. Border.
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies.
1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.)
APPENDIX D 251
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept.
The French Intelligencer. 1651. (Until 18 May.)
Wednesdays ,4 Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.)
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.)
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.)
Severall Proceedings. 1649. (Until 27 Sept. 1655.)
Fridays Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.)
The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.)
Mercurius Bellonius. Numb. 1. Jan. 28-4 Feb. 1652. Wednes-
days. Printed by J. C. (Until March 3.) ?By John
The Dutch Spy. Numb. 1. March 1652. Wednesdays.
Printed by Eobert Wood. (Three numbers.) ?By D.
Mercurius Democritus or a true and perfect Nocturnall com-
municating wonderfull news out of the World in the
Moon, The Antipodes, Tenebris, Fary-land, Egypt, Green-
land, and other adjacent countries. Published for the
understanding of all the Madmerry-People of Great Bed-
lam. Numb. 1. Tuesday night, Ap. 8, 1652. Wednes-
days. Until 25 Aug., then continued as The Laughing
Mercury. No. 22. Aug. 25-8 Sept. 1652 to 3 Nov. 1653.
Then as Mercurius Democritus again until Nov. 9, 1653.
By John Crouch.
Mercurius Phreneticus. No. 1. July 12-19. Numb. 2. (MS.
April 8, 1652.) Until April 22. By Samuel Sheppard.
Mercurius Zeteticus Hebdomad as prima. " The Theme Scoto
Presbyter." (MS. April 22, 1652.) (One number.)
The French Occurrences. Numb. 1. May 10-17, 1652. Mon-
days. Printed for George Horton. (Until 3 Jan. 1653.)
Mercurius Pragmaticus. Numb. 1. May 18-25, 1652. Tues-
days. (Until 6 July.) By Samuel Sheppard.
Mercurius Heraclitus or The Weeping Philosopher, Sadly be-
moaning the distractions of the times, communicating
252 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
true news from Wet eyes, sad hearts and perplexed minds
concerning the agrievances of the people. Numb. 1.
June 28, 1652. Mondays. Printed by J. C. and D. W.
dwelling at the Three Foxes in Long Lane. Introductory
verse in deep mourning border.^ (Until 12 July.) By
Mercurius Pragmatious. Numb. 1. June 29-6 July 1652.
Tuesdays. (One number.) By Marchamont Nedham.
Mercurius Britannicus. Numb. 1. July 19-26, 1652. Mon-
days. Printed by J. Cotterel and J. Moxon. (Until Aug.
23. No. 5.) (Five numbers.) By Marchamont Nedham.
Mercurius Cinicus or a true and perfect Intelligence com-
municating admirable news out of the air, in the Sun,
the Sea, and the Earth. Published for the right under-
standing of B ds Q s, Wh s, Small-coal-men,
and chimney-sweepers. Numb. 1. Aug. 4-11, 1652.
Wednesdays. (One number.)
Mercurius Mastix. Faithfully lashing all Scouts, Mercuries
Posts, Spys, and others who cheat the Commonwealth
under the name of intelligence and discovering their base
cheats and unworthy tricks, whereby they purloyn money
out of all honest mens pockets. Numb. 1. Aug. 20-27,
1652. Fridays. (One number.) By Samuel Sheppard.
Mercurius Britannicus etc. No. 14. Oct. 19-26. Until No.
23. Dec. 21-28. (A Counterfeit printed by Eob. Wood
of No. 21, Dec. 7-14, 1652, by the writer of the Faith-
full Scout.) Printed by Jas. Cottrell.
The Flying Eagle. Communicating Intelligence both farre and
neere. Numb. 1. Nov. 27-4 Dec. 1652. Saturdays.
Printed by T. Fawcet for A. P. Illustrated title page.
(Until 1 Jan. 1653.) (To advocate the claims of those
to whom money was owing on the " Public Faith ".)
TJie Moderate Intelligencer. Numb. 166. Dec. 1-8, 1652.
Wednesdays. Printed by Eobert Wood. (A Continua-
tion from 1649.) (Until Dec. 29.) By John Dillingham.
APPENDIX D 253
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies.
1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.)
The French Occurrences. 1652. (Until Jan. 3.)
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept.
Wednesdays^ Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.)
Mercurius Democritus. 1652. (Until 9 Nov.)
Thursdays Severall Proceedings. 1649. (Until 27 Sept. 1655.)
Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.)
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.)
Fridays The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.)
Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.)
The Moderate Publisher of Every Dales Intelligence. No. 81.
Jan. 14-21, 1652/3. Fridays. Printed by John Clowes.
(Until 20 Jan. 1654.) (Continuation of Perfect passages
of Every dayes Intelligence. No. 80. Dec. 24-31, 1652.)
By Henry Walker.
The Moderate Messenger. Numb. 1. Jan. 31-7 Feb. 1653.
Mondays. Printed for George Horton. (Until March 14.)
The iFathful Post. No. 89. March 25-1 April 1653. Fri-
days. Printed for George Horton, B. Eels and T.. L.
(Until ? Sept. 1653.) Opposition copies published by all
three during June to Sept. 1653. Continued as Great
Britain's Post, No. 136, Nov. 2-9 to Dec. 28, 1653
Then as the Politique Post, Jan. 4-11, 1653/4, afterwards
the Grand Politique Post, until 11 April 1654, and the
Weekly Post, No. 174, Ap. 11-18, 1654, to 19 June
1655. All printed for G. Horton and commencing with
the year 1654. Always on Tuesdays.
Moderate Occurrences. Numb. 1. March 29-5 April 1653.
Tuesdays. Printed for George Horton. (Until 31 May.)
The Moderate Intelligencer. Numb. 1. May 2-9, 1653. Mon-
days. Printed by Eobert Wood. (Until 26 April 1654.)
254 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
Mercurius Britannicus. Numb. 2. May 16-23, 1653. Mon-
days. Printed for G. Horton. (Until 20 June.)
Mercurius Pragmaticus taking a serious view of the present
condition proceedings and conspiracies of the distracted
part of the world. Impartially communicating Publique
affairs and gently correcting Domestique Errours.
Numb. 1. May 16-25. Wednesdays. 1653. Printed
for Matthew Mede. (Until July 13.)
The Daily Proceedigs (sic). (No. 1.) (MS. June 17, 1653.)
Mercurius Radamanthus. The chiefe judge of Hell, his Circuit
throughout all the Courts of Law in England, discovering
the knaveries of his brethren, and the briberies cruelties
oppressions and extortions of their officers, and of Jaylors
Sheriffs, Bayliffs, Serjeants, Catch poles, etc. (No. 1.)
(MS. June 27, 1653.) (Until July 25.)
The True and Perfect Dutch Diurnall. Numb. 1. June 27-3 July.
Mondays. Printed for Tho. Lock. (Until 22 May 1654.)
Severall Proceedings of Parliament. No. 1. 26 July 1653.
Tuesdays. Printed by John Field. (Until Dec. 13.)
The Loyal Messenger. No. 1. Aug. 3-10, 1653. Wednesdays.
Printed for G. Horton. (One number.)
The Newes or the Ful Particulars of the Last Fight. No. 1.
Aug. 5-12, 1653. Fridays. (One number.)
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies.
1649. (Until Sept. 24, 1655.)
The Moderate Intelligencer. 1653. (Until 26 Ap.)
The True and Perfect Dutch Diurnall. 1653. (Until
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept. 1655.).
Wednesdays^ Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept. 1655.)
Thursdays Severall Proceedings. 1649 and 1653. (Until 27
APPENDIX D 255
Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.)
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.)
Fridays The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.)
The Moderate Publisher. (1652) 1653. (Until 20
Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28, 1655.)
The True Informer. No. 1. Dec. 30-Jan. 6, 1653/4. Fridays.
Printed by T. Lock.
The True and Perfect Dutch Diurnatt. No. 3. Jan. 3-10,
1653/4. Tuesdays. Printed by T. Lock. (Until
The Moderate Publisher of Every Dayes Intelligence. Numb. 1.
Jan. 13-20, 1653/4. Fridays. Continued as certain pas-
sages of Every Dayes Intelligence etc., with No. 2. Printed
by F. Neile. (Until 28 Sept. 1655.)
Mercurius Democritus etc. No. 82. Jan. 9-25, 1653/4. Wed-
nesdays. Printed for G. Horton. (A Revival.) (Until
The Loyal Intelligencer etc. Numb. 73. (?) Jan. 23-30, 1653/4
Mondays. Printed for George Horton. (One number.)
The Politique Informer. Numb. 1. Jan. 23-30, 1654. Mon-
days. Printed by Eob. Wood. (Until 6 Feb.)
Perfect Occurrences. Numb. 1. Jan. 39 (sic)-6 Feb. 1654.
Mondays. (Until June 23.)
The Moderate Intelligencer etc. No. 165. Feb. 16-22, 1654.
Wednesdays. Printed for G. Horton. (Until 10 May.)
Mercurius Poeticus. Numb. 2. March 1-8, 1654. Wednesdays.
(Not in verse. Five numbers.) By Marchamont Nedham.
Mercurius Nulhis or the invisible Nuncio. Most partially
comprising the sum of all intelligence between Well-close
and Westminster. (No. 1.) From to-morrow morning
till yesterday at noon. 1654 (March 13). (One number.
Mercurius Aulicus. Numb. 1. March 13-20, 1654. (Until 3
256 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
The Loyal Messenger or Newes from White-hall, March 4.
April 3-10, 1654. Mondays. (Four numbers.)
Observations Historical Political and Philosophical Upon Aris-
totle's First book of Political government, together with
a narrative of State affaires in England, Scotland and
Ireland. Numb. 1. April 4-11, 1654. Tuesdays.
Printed for E. Moon. (? About six numbers.) (Burney,
Perfect Diurnall Occurrences. Numb. 1. May 1-8 (1654).
Mondays. Printed for F. Coles. (Until 30 Oct.)
A Politick Commentary on the Life of Gains July Casar. Written
by Caius Suetonius Tranquilius. Numb. 1. (MS. May
23, 1654.) (Comprises Perfect and Impartial Intelligence.)
Printed by E. Moon. (Until 2 June.) By the author
of Observations on Aristotle's Politics.
The Weekly Abstract. No. 1. May 27- June 3. Saturdays.
? 4 numbers. (Burney.)
Mercurius Fumigosus. No. 3. June 14-21, 1654. Wednes-
days. Until 3 Oct. 1655. By John Crouch.
Mercurius Jocosus or the merry mercurie. Bringing news of
the best concets from the most refined fancies as well
ancient as modern, choise, various, and delightful, Com-
prizing Merry tales witty jests, quaint questions, quick
answers, and overgrown buls, whereof some are Publicke
others private never yet extant. Wherein you have
mirth without danger, wit without dross, Profit without
pains. Together with the heads of all the remarkable
news. (No. 1.) July 14-21, 1654. Fridays. Printed by
Tho. Lock. (Until Aug. 4.) By Thomas Lock.
The Observator with a summary of Intelligence. " Semel in-
sanavimus omnes." Numb. 1. Oct. 24-31, 1654.
Tuesdays. Printed by Thomas Newcombe. (Until
Nov. 7.) By Marchamont Nedham.
(For the Politique Post, the Grand Politique Post and the
Weekly Post, see 1653, The Faithful Post.)
APPENDIX D 257
Neivsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays A Perfect Diurnal ... in relation to the Armies.
1649. (Until Sept. 24.)
Tuesdays The Weekly Intelligencer. 1650. (Until 25 Sept.)
The Weekly Post. 1654. (Until 19 June.)
Wednesdays A Perfect Account. 1651. (Until 5 Sept.)
Mercurius Fumigosus. (Until 3 Oct.)
Thursdays Severall Proceedings. 1649 and 1653. (Until 27
Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.)
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.)
Fridays The Faithfull Scout. 1651. (Until Sept. 28.)
The (Moderate Publisher) of Certain Passages. (1652)
1653. (Until 20 Jan.)
Perfect Passages. 1650. (Until Sept. 28.)
The Publick Intelligencer. Communicating the chief Occurrences
and proceedings within the dominions of England, Scot-
land and Ireland. Together with an account of affaires
from severall parts of Europe. Numb. 1. Oct. 1-8, 1655.
Mondays. (Until 9 April 1660.) By Marchamont Ned-
ham under the supervision of John Thurloe until May
1659. From May 13, 1659, to Aug. 16, 1659, by John
Canne and then to April 9, 1660, by Marchamont Ned-
1656 to 1658 inclusive.
Mondays The Publick Intelligencer. 1655. (Until 9 Ap. 1660.)
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.)
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.)
No others were permitted to appear until 1659.
The following advertising periodicals appeared in 1657 :
The Publick Adviser weekly communicating unto the whole
nation the several occasions of all persons that are in
258 A HISTOKY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
any way concerned in matter of Buying and Selling or
in any kind of Employment or dealings whatsoever, ac-
cording to the intent of the Office of Public Advice newly
set up in several places in and about London and West-
minster; for the better accomodation and ease of the people
and the universal benefit of the commonwealth in point
of Publick Intercourse. No. 1. May 19-26. Tuesdays.
No. 6. June 22 to June 29. Mondays henceforth.
Until Sept. 28. Printed by Thos. Newcombe. By
Marchamont Nedham and others.
The Weekly Information from the Office of Intelligence established
in several places in and about the cities of London and
Westminster, by authority granted under the great seal
of England, and conferred upon Oliver Williams etc.
No. 1. July 13-20, 1657. Mondays. Printed for the
author and are to be sold at the sign of the Sun in Paul's
Churchyard. (One number.) By Oliver Williams and
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays The Publick Intelligencer. 1655. (Until 9 Ap. 1660.)
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap. 1660.)
(Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. 1650.)
The Faithftdl Scout. No. 1. 22-29 April. Fridays. Printed
for George Horton. With No. 12 called The National
Scout, with No. 14 The Loyall Scout. Until 6 Jan. 1660.
Published by 4< special authority " commencing with 16
July. ? By D. Border.
Mercurius Democritus communicating faithfully etc. No. 2.
Ap. 26-3 May 1659. Tuesdays. (Ephemeral.)
Mercurius Democritus or a perfect Nocturnal etc. No. 1. May
3-10, 1659. Tuesdays. Printed for J. J. by J. C. Until
August 10. By John Crouch.
The Weekly Post. No. 1. 3-10 May 1659. Tuesdays.
APPENDIX D 259
Printed for G. Hoi-ton. Until 6Dec. Published by "special
authority " commencing with 19 July. ? By D. Border.
The Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth. No. 1. 3-10
May 1659. Tuesdays. Printed by W. Godbid. Until
6 Dec. By ? E. Collings.
The Moderate Informer. No. 1. May 12-19. Thursdays.
Printed for William Gilbertson in Guiltspur St. (Two
numbers.) By Marchamont Nedham.
The Weekly Account. No. 1. May 25-1 June. Wednesdays.
Printed by E. Alsop. (One number.)
Mercurius Pragmaticus (20 June 1659). (One number.)
A Particular Advice from the office of Intelligence etc., etc.
No. 1. June 23-30, 1659. Fridays. Printed by J.
Macock dwelling on Addle Hill near Baynards Castle.
Title altered to An Exact Accompt on Jan. 6, 1660. Until
6 July 1660. By Oliver Williams and others.
Occurrences from Foreign Parts. No. 1. 28 June-5 July
1659. Tuesdays. Printed by J. Macock. Until 13
March 1660. By Oliver Williams and others.
Mercurius Pragmaticus communicating his weekly intelli-
gence. No. 1. Aug. 30-6 Sept. Printed for H. Marsh.
The Faithfull Intelligencer from the Parliaments Army in Scotland.
No. 1. Nov. 29-3 Dec. 1659. Edinburgh. Printed by
Christopher Higgins. (One number.) By Capt. Goodwin.
The Parliamentary Intelligencer comprising the sum of for-
raign intelligence with the affairs now in agitation in
England Scotland and Ireland. For information of the
People. No. 1. 19-26 Dec. 1659. Mondays. Printed
by John Macock, by Tho. Newcombe etc. Marked
"Nunquam sera est ad Bonos mores via " and on 9 Jan.
" Facile est imperium in bonis". On 20 Feb. "Non
sic minantia pila. Quam tutatur amor." No. 14. 26
March-2 Ap. 1660. Published by order of the Council of
State. Continued from No. 1, Dec. 31-7 Jan. 1661 as
260 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUKNALISM
The Kingdoms Intelligencer etc. Published by authority.
Until 31 August 1663. By Henry Muddiman, assisted
until the Restoration by Giles Dury.
Mercurius Pragmaticus. Impartially communicating the true
state of affairs etc. No. 2. Dec. 23-30. Published by
authority. (? Ephemeral.)
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays The Publick Intelligencer. 1655. (Until 9 Ap. 1660.)
The Parliamentary Intelligencer. 1659. (Until 31
Tuesdays Occurrences from foreign parts. 1659. (Until 13
Thursdays Mercurius Politicus. 1650. (Until 12 Ap.)
(Nouvelles ordinaires de Londres. 1650. (? Until April).)
Fridays The Loyall Scout. 1659. (Until 6 Jan.)
An Exact Accompt. 1659. (Until 6 July.)
The Monethly Intelligencer. No. 1. Jan. 1. Printed by Thomas
Johnson for Francis Cossinet at the Anchor and Mariner
in Tower St. (One number.)
Mercurius Publicus comprising the sum of forraign Intelli-
gence with the affairs now in agitation in England
Scotland and Ireland. For information of the people.
No. 1. 29 Dec.-5 Jan. 1660. Thursdays. Until 3 Sept.
1663. (The first 14 numbers are in Wood's collections
at the Bodleian library, Oxford.) Printed by John Ma-
cock, by Tho. Newcombe etc. By Henry Muddiman
assisted by Giles Dury. By Dury (nominally) from Ap. 2
until the Restoration and thenceforward, until 1663, by
Mercurius Fumigosus or the Smoaking Nocturnal. No. 1.
Jan. 11-18, 1660. No. 1. March 28, 1660. Wednes-
days. Printed for J. J. (Ephemeral.) By John Crouch.
Londons Diurnal. No. 1. Feb. 1-8, 1660. Printed for G.
APPENDIX D 261
The, Perfect Diurnal No. 1. 21 Feb. 1660. Daily, except
Sundays, until 16 March inclusive. Published at the
office of Intelligence. By Oliver Williams and others.
Mercurius Phanaticus or Mercury temporizing. No. 1. March
7-14. Printed for John Lambert at the sign of the Dis-
tressed Commander in Wimbleton court. (Burney, 18*.)
No. 2. May 14-21. Printed by Praise God Barebones
at the sign of the anabaptist rampant in Fleet St.
A Perfect Diurnal or the daily proceedings in the Conventicle
of the Phanatiques. No. 1. March 19, 1659/60.
Mercurius Honestus or Tom tell-truth. No. 1. March 14-21,
1660. ? By Sir George Wharton.
The Phanatick Intelligencer. No. 1. March 24, 1659/60.
Mercurius Aulicus or the Court Mercury. No. 12. June 18-25,
1660. (P.P. 3410 ab.) Printed for G. Horton living in
Figg Tree Court in Barbican. (Ephemeral.)
(Note. From April, 1660, the Thomason Collection is of
little use and incomplete.)
Mercurius Politicus communicating . . . advertisements from
the three kingdoms . . . and a particular advice from
the Office of Intelligence over against the Conduit near
the Old Exchange. Published by Authority (sic). No. 1.
12-19 April 1660. Thursdays. Until July 5. Printed
by John Redmayne. After a few numbers numbered
alternately with the Publick Intelligencer. By Oliver
Williams and others. (Nos. 16 to 22 in the Collection of
the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres.) (Burney Collection.)
The Publick Intelligencer communicating . . . advertisements
from the three kingdoms . . . and a particular advice
from the Office of Intelligence. No. 1. 9-16 April
1660. Printed by John Eedmayne. After a few num-
bers numbered alternately with Mercurius Politicus.
262 A HISTOEY OF ENGLISH JOUENALISM
Mondays. Until June 25 ? By Oliver Williams and
others. (Burney Collection.)
Mercurius Civicus or The Cities Intelligencer etc. Published
by order o^the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen. No.
4. May 1-8, 1660. Tuesdays. Printed by Tho. New-
combe, John Eedmayne, Jas. Cofterell etc. (Ephemeral.)
(To No. 11 in the Collection of the Earl of Crawford and
Balcarres.) (One number in Burney Collection.)
Perfect Occurrences of the most remarkable passages in Parlia-
ment with other moderate Intelligence. No. 4. May
11-18, 1660. Fridays. Printed by John Clowes.
(Ephemeral.) By Henry Walker. (Burney Collection.)
The Man in the Moon. No. 1. 19-26 April.
Merlinus Phanaticus. No. 1. May 23, 1660. Printed for
Mercurius Veridicus. No. 1. June 5-12, 1660. Tuesdays.
Printed by D. Maxwell living in Thames St. near
Baynard's Castle. (One number.)
Mercurius Democritus in Querpo. No. 9. June 14. (Burney.)
The Votes of both Houses. No. 1. 13-20 June. Printed by
John Eedmayne in Lovells Court in Paternoster Eow
and are to be had at the Office of Intelligence. By Oliver
Williams and others. (One number.)
The Man in the Moon. No. 1. August 13-20, 1660. Mon-
days. Printed for John Johnson. (Ephemeral.)
The Wandering Whore. No. 2. Dec. 5, 1660. (Four numbers.)
By John Garfield.
Newsbooks already in Existence.
Mondays The Kingdoms Intelligencer. (The Parliamentary
Intelligencer. 1659.) (Until 31 August, 1663.)
Thursdays Mercurius Publicus. 1660. (Until 3 Sept. 1663.)
Mercurius Caledonius comprising the affairs now in agitation
in Scotland with a survey of forraign intelligence. No.
APPENDIX D 263
1. Dec. 31 - Jan. 8, 1661. Edinburgh. Printed by a
Society of Stationers and reprinted at London. (For two
or three months.) By Thomas Sydserf.
Mercurius Democritus or the smoaking Nocturnal. No. 1.
May 22, 1661. Printed for J. J. (One number.) By John
Newsbooks in Existence.
Mondays The Kingdoms Intelligencer. (The Parliamentary In-
telligencer. 1659.) (Until 31 Aug. 1663.)
Thursdays Mercurius Publicus. 1660. (Until 3 Sept. 1663.)
A Monthly Intelligence Relating the Affaires of the People
called Quakers. No. 1. August- September 1. (The only
number.) Printed for the author. (Brit. Mus. 4151.
Newsbooks in Existence.
Mondays' The Kingdoms Intelligencer. (The Parliamentary In-
telligencer. 1659). (Until 31 August.)
Thursdays Mercurius Publicus. (Until 3 Sept.)
The Man in the Moon. No. 2. May 5-12, 1663. Printed for
J. Jones. (Ephemeral.)
Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres. Revived (?) at the beginning of
The Intelligencer. Published for the satisfaction and informa-
tion of the people. With Privilege. No. 1. Aug. 31,
(Note. At the commencement of the year 1664 this was
made consecutive with the Newes, both periodicals being num-
bered and paged together as if the same periodical, and no
longer being independent of one another.)
Until 29 Jan. 1666. Printed by E. Hodgkinson. (The final
numbers in Wood's Collections at the Bodleian Library.) By
Sir Koger L' Estrange.
264 A HISTORY OF ENGLISH JOURNALISM
The Newes. Published for the satisfaction and information of
the people. With Privilege. No. 1. 3 Sept., 1663.
Thursdays. (See note to the Intelligencer.) Until 29
Jan. 1666. Printed by R. Hodgkinson. (The final
numbers are only to be seen at the Bodleian Library.)
By Sir Roger L' Estrange.
Newsbooks in Existence.
Mondays 'the Intelligencer. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.)
Thursdays The Newes. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.)
(? Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres.)
Newsbooks in Existence.
Mondays The Intelligencer. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.)
Thursdays The Newes. 1663. (Until 29 Jan. 1666.)
(? Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres.)
The Oxford Gazette. No. 1. (16) November 1665. Thursday.
Twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays. Printed at
Oxford by Leonard Litchfield and reprinted in London
by Thomas Newcombe. With No. 24, Monday, 5 Feb.
1665/6, title changed to The London Gazette. By Henry
Muddiman to No. 25, inclusive, afterwards by Charles
Perrot to about 1671.
Publick Intelligence. With sole Privilege. No. 1. 28 Nov. 1665.
By Sir Roger L'Estrange. (One number.) Printed by
Newspapers and Newsbooks in Existence.
Mondays The Intelligencer. 1663. (Until 29 Jan.)
The Oxford Gazette. 1665. (Now The London Gazette.)
Thursdays The Newes. 1663. (Until 29 Jan.)
The Oxford Gazette. 1665. (Now The London
APPENDIX D 265
The Current Intelligence. Published by authority. No. 1. June
4-7. Thursday. Every Monday and Thursday until
August 20. Official opponent of the Gazette. A separate
slip of advertisements of books with Nos. 19 and 20.
(Burney Collection.) By Henry Muddiman.
Publick Advertisements (with Privilege). No. 1. 25 June
1666. "Fortnightly" or "oftner". Printed by Tho.
Newcomb. (? One number.) By Sir Roger L'Estrange.
(Brit. Mus. 8630. d. 33(2).)
From 1667 and to the present day The London
Gazette, twice a week (now on Tuesdays and Fridays).
(Pages 215 to 265 refer to titles of periodicals and names of printers, book-
sellers and authors only. Whenever possible, the names of printers and book-
sellers have been supplied to their initials.}
A., B. (Alsop, Bernard).
A., R. (Austin, Robert).
Acton, a writer, 149.
Adultery, convictions for, 148 and n.
Advertisements, the first, 26 ; charges for, 164, 167, 168, 169, 185.
Advertising ridiculed, 165, 166.
offices, due to French influence, 158 ; "Publique Register for generall
Commerce," 160; " Offices of Addresse," 162 ; "Office of Entries,"
162; "Generall Accomodations," 166 ; "Adresses and Encounters,"
166 ; addresses of offices, 168, 169, 171 ; prohibition of, 170 ; collapse
of, 171 ; " Office of Intelligence," 170, 171, 184 ; " Office of Inquiry,"
<; Advice," meaning of, 167.
Alkin, Elizabeth, nicknamed "Parliament Joan," 131; whipped, 131;
personal appearance, 132 ; apartments in Whitehall, 132 ; " Bradshaw's
doxy," 132 ; " Mrs. Stroffe," 132, 133 ; her newsbooks, 138, 142, 143 ;
captures Sa, 152, 153 ; pensioned, 153 ; a nurse, 153 ; petitions for
release of Catholic priest, 153 ; clamours for money, 153 ; wishes to
be buried in Abbey cloisters without charge, 154 ; Mrs. Everett Green's
mistaken account of, 154 n. ; 248, 249, 250.
Alsop, Bernard, 40, 52 ; 215, 216, 224, 226, 227, 228, 230, 231, 233, 248,
Amsterdam, 12, 36.
Anabaptist periodicals, 149, 152.
Anagrams, of John Taylor, 75 ; of Henry Walker, 72, 75, 102 ; of John
Answer, An, by Walker, 72.
Archer, Thomas, his first " relation," 13, 14 ; first publisher of a period-
ical, 13; competes with Butter, 15 ; publishes a Turkish "relation"
in 1613,17; was "Mercurius Britannicus, " 25,26; again competes
with Butter, 27 ; periodicals, 215, 216.
Areopagitica, motive of, 61-63 ; alluded to, 117.
Arlington, Earl of, succeeds Secretary Nicholas, 189 ; leaves business to
Williamson, 189 ; licenses Gazette, 192.
Armies Modest Intelligencer, 242.
Painefull Messenger, 245.
- Scout, 249.
Army, the Independent, described, 78 ; its immorality, 145, 146.
Articles of the Christian Religion, 31.
Ashe, Simeon, 58 ; 228.
Ashmole, Elias, 127 ; his Life cited, 88, 96.
Athenian Society, History of the, 7.
Atkins, Alderman, 110 and n.
Atwell, George, 124 n.
Aubrey, John, his Brief Lives quoted, 41 n., 83.
Audley, Captain Thomas, 53 ; his falsehoods, 54 ; quarrels with Hotham,
56-59 ; deputy licenser, 59 ; forbidden to license, 66 ; attachment
ordered, 68 ; writes Diutinus, 69 ; periodicals, 224, 232.
Aunt Sally, 4 n.
Austin, Robert, 151 ; 225, 229, 230, 231, 249.
B., G. (Bishop, G.)
B., H. (Blunden, Humphrey).
B., I. (Bond, John).
B., M., 233.
B., T. (Bates, Thomas).
Baker, Thomas, 220.
Baleure, Monsieur, French Ambassador, 55.
Ballads precede periodicals, 4.
Ballad-singers, Holland on, 4, 5.
Banks, T., 219.
Barebones, Praisegod, 180, 261.
Barnes, Henry, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152.
Bates, Thomas, 46 ; 219, 223, 225, 227, 228, 230.
Bath, Marquis of, collection of newsletters, 176 n.
Berkenhead, Sir John, author of Aulicus, 37, 41 ; character of, 42 ; author
of Bellicus, 88 ; on John Hall, 103 ; licenser of the press, 181, 182 ;
Master of Faculties, 181 ; Master of Bequests, 184 ; periodicals, 223,
Bernard, Dr. Nicholas, discredited, 128.
Best and most Perfect Intelligencer, 249.
Bethen, Francis, Provost-Marshal to the Parliament, 99, 100.
Bill, a newsagent's, 50.
Birkenhead, Sir J. (see Berkenhead).
Bishop, G., 223, 224, 227, 228, 229, 230.
Zachary, Provost-Marshal to the Parliament, 111.
Bladen, William, 34, 35 ; 219, 220, 243, 247.
Blaicklocke, Laurence, 68 ; 224, 225, 249.
Blundell, H., 220.
Blunden, Humphrey, 222, 223, 232, 234.
Bond, John, 39.
Book without a Title, 245.
Books, all early periodicals books, 6.
Booth, Robert, 12.
Border, Daniel, periodicals by, 51 ; a scrivener, 51 ; his marriage, 51 ; a
physician, 51 ; his book, 51 ; an Anabaptist, 52 ; his Greek, 115 ;
alluded to, 129, 133, 137, 149, 172 ; 224, 236, 242, 248, 250, 251, 258, 259.
Bostock, Robert, 227.
Bourne, Nicholas, 13, 21, 25, 27, 28, 29, 50, 137 ; 216-18, 228, 232.
Bowles, Master, 227.
Bowtell, Stephen, 222.
Bradshaw, John, President of Council of State, 110, 113 ; life threatened,
114, 119 ; a perjurer, 126.
Brewster, Thomas, 247.
Bridewell, House of Correction, 48, 131.
Brief Narrative, 126.
- Relation, origin of, 122 ; sinister periodical, 125 ; writer of, 124, 125 ;
Britaines Bursse, 159, 160.
Britaines Remembrancer, 227.
Britanicus Vapulans, 225.
BromhalL, Thomas, 184 ; his charge for advertisements, 185.
Brook, C., 242.
Brooks, Nathan, 249.
Broome, Richard, 40.
Brothels, caused by Cromwell's army, 145, 146.
Broun (Brown, Samuel).
Brown, Samuel, 137 ; 248.
Browne, John, 219.
Brownrigg, Dr., 48.
Bucer, Martin, on divorce and polygamy, 61 and n.
Budd, Father Thomas, writer of Catholicus, 106, 153 ; 240.
Budge, John, 159.
Butter, Nathaniel, 14, 15, 21, 25, 27 ; prohibited by Star Chamber, 28 ;
given monopoly of foreign news, 28 ; quarrels with licenser, 29, 34 ;
Buz, Hans, character in Staple of Newes, 21, 22.
C., D., 221.
C., J. (Coe, Jane, 1645-46), 230, 231, 233, 243.
C., J. (Crouch, John, 1650-65), see Crouch.
C., R. (Collings, Richard ?).
C., T. (Cook, Thomas).
Calvert, Elizabeth, publisher of seditious and forged literature, 187 n.
- Giles, 161, 187 n. ; 232, 243, 247.
- Secretary, 12, 22.
Canne, John, printer and preacher, 172, 173 ; 248, 258.
" Captain," the, 14 ; mentioned by Jonson, 17 ; dies, 18, 54 ; and see
Carleton, Dudley, 13, 16, 23.
Carnarvon, Earl of, slandered by Audley, 54.
Case of the Commonwealth Stated, 134.
tl Catchword," meaning of, 6 and n.; early periodicals without, 6 ; not in
Gothic letters, 198.
Certaine Informations, author of, 45 ; 224, 226.
Passages of Every Dayes Intelligence, 248.
Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages, etc., 223.
Chamberlain, John, 12 ; biography, 15 ; tells of death of gazet-maker, 18 ;
attacked by Jonson, 20-22 ; dies, 26.
Chapman, Laurence, 225.
Livewell, publishes fraudulent and seditious literature, 187 n. ; 249.
Character of a Diurnal Maker quoted, 37.
London Diurnal quoted, 63.
Charles I., insulted by Nedham, 66; by Walker, 73; intercedes for
Walker, 74 ; abduction of, 79 ; tracts against, 101 n. ; account of
events at murder of, 200-10.
II., proclamations against vice, 147 n. ; rewards Mabbott, 151 ; Twyn
executed for his share in plot to assassinate, 186 ; protects L'Es-
Chesterfield, Lady, gives free postage to L'Estrange, 188 n.
Chief e Heads of Each Dayes Proceedings, 228.
Chocolate, first advertisement of, 170.
Chronogram on Royalist periodical, 80.
Citties Weekly Post, 230.
City Common Council, Act of, 47.
Marshal and Mercury woman, 92.
City Mercury, or advertisements concerning trade, 184 n.
- Scout, 230.
Clarges, Anne, Duchess of Albemarle, 174.
Sir Thomas, directs Muddiman to write a newsbook, 174, 175 and n. ;
his pamphlet, " Hypocrites Unmasked," 175.
Clark, Thomas, 248.
Clarke, Sir William, Monck's secretary, 151 ; brother-in-law of Mabbott,
151 ; not trusted by Monck, 151, 174, 194.
" Papers" quoted, 128; mentioned, 182.
Cleiveland, John, quoted, 36, 37, 49, 63, 92 ; editor of Pragmaticus, 83 ;
his motto, 84 ; example of editing, 92 ; alluded to, 112, 184 ; 234.
Clerks (see Scrivener).
Cleveland, John (see Cleiveland).
Clowes, John, printer, 138, 142 ; imprisoned by Cromwell, 151 ; 233, 237,
248, 249, 250, 253, 262.
- Mrs., imprisoned by Cromwell, 152.
Codgrave, John (see Cotgrave).
Coe, Andrew, 220, 225, 226.
(junior), 233, 243.
Jane (see C., J.).
Coffee, first advertisement of, 170.
Colchester Spie, 120 ; 240.
Coles, Francis, imprisoned, 40 ; again imprisoned, 42 ; again imprisoned,
46 ; 219, 220, 221, 222, 224, 226, 249, 256.
Collections of Notes at the King's Tryall, 108.
Collings, R., writer, 43, 68, 69, 70, 138 ; 223, 249, 260.
Committee of both Kingdoms, 91.
Examinations, 45, 58.
Committee Man's Complaint, 84.
Committee of militia to suppress diurnals, 79.
- House on Royalist Mercuries, 88 ; to sit daily, 90.
Commonwealth Mercury of 1658 a forgery, 3 n.
Compleat Clark and Scrivener's Guide, 33 n.
Compleate Intelligencer and Resolver, 56 ; 225.
in two parts, 56 ; 225.
Continent, news from the, 9.
Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages, author of, 37 ;
mentioned, 222, 226, 229.
- of Certain Special and Remarkable Passages (1645), 230, 231, 233.
- of the True Diurnall, 35 ; 219, 221.
Intelligence from the Earl of Manchester's Army, author of, 58 ; 228.
- of Papers . . . from the Scots Quarters, 232.
True and Special Passages, 222.
Continued Heads of Perfect Passages, 243.
Inquisition of Paper Persecutors quoted, 4, 5, 14.
Conyers, Sir John, Lieutenant of the Tower, 74.
Cook, Thomas, 220.
Cooke, John, secretary to Sir William Morice, 193.
- (or Cook), William, 33, 34, 35 ; 219, 222.
Cope, Sir Walter, his patent for advertising offices, 158-60.
Copyright, of newsbooks in authors, 9 ; confounded by abolition of Star
Chamber, 45 ; at Restoration, 181.
"Coranto," meaning of word, 6 ; the first, 13 ; usually in three sheets, 15 ;
examples of, 215-17.
Corantofrom Beyond the Sea, 224.
Corbet, Miles, Chairman of Committee of Examinations, 89 ; exposed, 9Q ;
publicly thrashed, 98.
Cornucopia of Samuel Hartlib, 162 n.
Correction, House of (see Bridewell).
Cossinet, Francis, 260.
Cotgrave, John, partner with Dillingham, 49 ; writes Le Mercure Anglois,
49, 50 ; 228.
- Randle, author of French Dictionary, 49.
Cottrell, James, 149, 150 ; 252, 262.
Coules, F. (see Coles).
Council of State, 1649, described, 91 ; declaration by, at Massacre of
(Monck's) discharges Nedham and appoints Muddiman and
Countrey Foot-Post, 228.
Country parson described, 144.
" Courant," meaning and use of word, 6.
Court Mercuric, 228.
Cowles, F. (see Coles).
Crawford and Balcarres, Earl of, collection of newsbooks, 223, 261, 262.
Cromwell, Oliver, cause of official journalism, 10 (and see Drogheda,
Massacre of) ; his nose, 64, 65, 89, 91 ; his method of speaking, 65 ;
his connexion with Walker, 77, 139, 153-55 ; his debauchery in
youth, 89 and n. ; in Council of State, etc., 91, 92 ; employs Walker
to pirate a book, 100 ; newsbooks suppressed to conceal facts as to
his Irish massacres, 122-26 ; accomplice in the murder of Sir
Edmund Verney, 127, 128 n. ; returns from Ireland, 134 ; employs
Walker to preach, 139 ; his quarrel with Fairfax, 139-41 ; has Walker's
sermon burnt, 141 ; suppresses jurisdiction of the Stationers' Com-
pany, 150 ; conversation with Whitelocke, 150 n. ; tries to obtain the
crown, 150 n., 155 ; wholesale arrests of printers, 151. 152 ; Walker
dedicates a book to him, 154; again employs Walker, 155, 156; abolishes
the licensed press, 156 ; dies, 172.
Cromwell, Richard, calls a Parliament, 172.
Crouch, Edward, 95, 130.
John (the printer), counterfeits Melancholicus, 81, 95, 111, 117 ; on
Walker's being beneficed, 120 n. ; imprisoned, 133 ; his immoral
periodicals, 145 ; again imprisoned in 1660, 146 ; 234, 243, 251,
252, 256, 258, 260, 262.
(author of " A Mixt Poem "), 81 n. ; poem quoted, 128.
Swallow (see Crouch, John (the printer)).
" Currant " or " Curranto " (see " Coranto ").
" Currantier," 28.
Current Intelligence, the author of, 196 ; 265.
Cymball, Henry (see Symball).
D., B., 51, 52 ; 233, 248, 250.
D., G. (Dexter, Gregory), 221.
D., L, 215, 216.
Daily Intelligencer of Court, City and Countrey, 223.
Proceedigs (sic), 254.
Danes Plot, 40.
Declaration Collected out of the Journals, etc., 241.
Concerning the King, 43.
"Declaration of the Parliament of England concerning their Proceed-
' Proceedings of ... Fairfax," 125 n.
Defensio regia pro Carolo primo, 136.
Dekker, Thomas, quarrels with Jensen, 16, 20.
Denbigh, Lord, intercedes with Parliament for Nedham, 68.
Derby House Committee (see Council of State).
Diary (1651), 250.
- or an Exact Journal, 228, 229.
of the Proceedings of the Treaty betwixt the Parliament and
the Army, etc., 233.
Dictionary of Printers, 1641-67, quoted, 152, 218.
Digby, George, 41.
Dillingham, John, a tailor, 48 and n. ; his newsbooks, 48 ; gives informa-
tion against Laud, 48 ; promotes diurnal in French, 49 ; imprisoned,
65 ; Mabbott's attempts to supplant, 104 ; his French phrase, 104 ;
petitions Lords successfully against Mabbott, 104, 105 ; periodicals,
224, 229, 245, 252.
Discourse (see Relation).
Discoveries (i.e., advertisements), 166.
Diurnal, 8, 36.
maker, description of, 36, 38 ; and see Scriveners.
Diurnall Occurrences, volumes of, 33, 34, 38 ; author of, 34, 35, 37-
- in Parliament, 219, 220.
or the Heads of Generall Proceedings, 219.
the Proceedings in both Houses of Parliament, 220.
Diutinus Britanicus, 232.
" Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce " (Milton's), 61, 113.
Dod, Edward, imprisoned by Cromwell, 151.
Downes, Bartholomew, 14 ; 216.
" Downfall of Mercurius Britanicus, Pragmaticus, Politicus," etc., 165.
Drogheda, Massacre of, 77 n. ; newsbooks suppressed to conceal facts,
122-27 ; note as to authorities on, 127, 128.
Du-Gard, William, his French periodical and Milton, 136, 137 ; 248.
Dury, Giles, assistant to Muddiman, 175 ; ordered by Monck's Council to
write Mercurius Publicus, 177 ; " gives over," 175 ; 260.
Dutch, the, circulators of news, 12.
Dutch Spy, 52 ; 251.
Editor, a modern word, 8, 134.
Education, Milton's tract on, licensed, 61.
Eeles, or Eels, Robert, prints pamphlet against Peters, 149 ; 253.
Elsing, Henry, clerk to House of Commons, 221, 222.
England's Memorable Accidents, 222.
Moderate Messenger, 243.
Remembrancer of London's Inteqritie, 233.
English Mercurie, a forgery, 3 n.
- Treasury of Wit and Language, 50.
Epithalamium Gallo-Britannicum, 26.
Essex, the Earl of, present at Walker's insult to the King, 73 ; gives a
license to Britanicus, 54 n.
Etherege, Sir George, play by, quoted, 196 n.
Exact Abridgment of Acts and Ordinances, 1640-56, cited, 150, 157.
Accompt quoted, 175, 179 ; 259, 260.
and True Collection of the Weekly Passages, 231.
Exchange Intelligencer , 230.
Extract of Letters, 227.
F., I. (John Field or John Franck), 227.
F., T. (see Fawcet, Thomas).
Fair Maid of the Inn quoted, 18.
Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, warrant against the press, 63, 109 ; writes to
Speaker about Royalist pamphlets, 85 ; his quarrel with Cromwell,
139-41 ; 246.
Lady, an Anabaptist, 141 n.
" Faithful Shepherdess," 46.
Faithfull Intelligencer from the Parliaments Army in Scotland, 175 ;
- Post (1653), 253.
Scout, 149 ; 249, 251, 253.
(1653), 255, 257.
(1659), 172 ; 258.
Fawcet or Forcet, Thomas, 220, 221, 228, 230, 232, 252.
Featly, Daniel, D.D., 53 ; 225.
Field, John, 254.
Fire of London, the great, 196.
First Decade of Useful Observations, 245.
Fleet Street, described in 1652, 143, 144.
Fletcher, John (dramatist), 18, 46.
Flying Eagle, 252.
Forcet, T. (see Fawcet).
Ford, A., writer (?), 245.
Foreign news, periodicals of, 3.
"Four wormes," Puritan political parties described as, 77.
Frederic, Palatine of the Rhine, 12.
French Ambassador apologised to, 55.
French Intelligencer, 250, 251.
French newsbooks, 49, 50, 136, 137.
French Occurrences, 251, 253.
" Fresh Whip for all Scandalous Lyers," etc., quoted, 38, 76.
Frost, Gualter (see Frost, Walter).
Walter, ordered to write news, 121 ; spy-master to rebels and re-
gicides, 122 ; his biography given by Wharton, 124 ; biography cor-
roborated, 124 n. ; mentioned, 129, 132, 133, 135, 136 ; 245.
" Further Discoverie of the Office of Publick Addresse," etc., 162.
G., I. or J. (John Greensmith ?), 220, 221, 224, 227.
Gainsford, Captain Francis, gazet- maker, the first editor, 18 ; his letter
to the Earl of Essex, 18 ; in Ireland, 19 ; pensioned, 19 ; possibly
Jonson's enemy, 20.
- Thomas, not a soldier, 18.
Garfield, John, imprisoned for writing Wandering Whore, 146 and n. ; 262.
Garrett, Sir George, alderman and sheriff, 73.
Gazet, 6 ; and see Gazette.
Gazette, meaning and origin of word, 7.
Gellibrand, Samuel, 227.
" Generall Accomodations by Addresse," 166.
General Account, 229.
Proceedings of State Affairs, 246.
N ewes from All Parts of Christendome, 231.
Gerbier, Sir Balthazar, Crouch on his Academy and Walker, 163 n.
Gilbertson, William, 259.
Glapthorne, , writer, imprisoned, 43.
Godbid, William, 259.
Goode, William, 228.
Goodwin, Captain, writer of first Scottish periodical, 175 ; 259.
Gorges, Sir Arthur, patentee for advertising offices, 158-60.
Grand Politique Post, 253, 256 n.
Great Assizes holden in Parnassus by Apollo quoted, 48, 55.
"Great Britain's Misery with the Cause and Cure," 55.
Great, Britain's Painefull Messenger, 245.
Greaves, Sackville, searcher of Customs, 184.
Greek, Border's use of, 51, 115.
Grey, Isaac, 152.
Griffin, Edward, 246.
Gumble (chaplain to Monck), 175 n.
H., I. (see Harris, John).
H., R. (see Harper, Richard).
H., W. (William Huby ?), 231.
Hackluyt, John, D.D., 80-82 ; his history, 82, 93 ; his imprisonments
and escapes chronicled by Walker, 94-96 ; last imprisonment and
petition, 112 ; 234, 242, 244,
Hall, Mr., clerk in Letter Office, 194.
Henry, Oxford publisher, 223.
- John, his antecedents, 103; employed by Lilly to write Brittanicus
and Censorius, 103 ; brought in by Cromwell to write for Council of
State at 100 a year, 103 ; possible writer of Politicus, 134 ; 237.
Hammond, John, 35 ; 220, 226.
Hannam, Robert, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152.
Harleian Miscellanies, reprint, 17.
Harper, Richard, 229.
Harris, John, 88 n. ; his antecedents, 106 ; writes pamphlets under name
of Sirrahniho, 106 ; author of Militaris and Anti-Mercurius, 106,
107 ; forges Cromwell's signature, 107 ; hanged for burglary at St.
Mary Axe, 107 ; 230, 232, 237, 240, 241.
Harris, Susanna, wife of John Harris and a Royalist, 106.
Harrison, John, 97.
Harruney, Luke (see also Walker, Henry (anagram)), 75, 118.
Hartlib, Samuel, 161, 181.
Harwich, port for Continental news, 9.
Hatter, Richard, Fairfax's Secretary to the A*my, 125 and n., 141 n.
Hawkers and Mercury women, to be whipped for selling Royalist news-
books, 47 ; the Levellers on whipping of, 63 ; whipped under Ordin-
ance of 1647, 86 ; hunting of, 92, 93, 100, 112 ; suppressed, and to be
whipped under Act of 1649, 121 ; abolished by Cromwell, 156 ; left
in peace by Licensing Act, 1662, 183 ; description of crying the news-
books in Fleet Street in 1652, 143, 144.
Heads of All the Proceedings in both Houses, etc., 220.
a Diarie, 108 ; 242.
Chiefe Passages, 51 ; 236.
Severall Proceedings, etc., 34 ; 218.
Some Notes of the Citie Scout, 229.
Hebrew, Walker's Hebrew anagrams, 102 ; Border imitates him, 115 ;
much quoted by Walker, 119 ; lectures on, by Walker, 164 ; equivocal
compliment at Walker's lectures, 164 ; quoted by Williams, 173.
Henry VIII., proclamation against printing news, 2.
Hermes Straticus t 240.
Herne, Richard, printer, imprisoned, 43.
Hesse, Philip of, bigamy sanctioned by Bucer, 61 n.
Hewson, " Colonel," spits in King Charles's face, 204.
Heylin, Peter, D.D., helps to write Aulicus, 41 ; opposed by Dr. Nicholas
Bernard, 128 n.
Hickeringill, Edmund, on printing and stationers, 4.
Hickes, James, clerk in Letter Office, his character, 190 ; takes list of
Muddiman's correspondents, 193 ; his untruthful circular, 194 ;
petitions Secretaries of State, 195 ; rebuked, 196 ; steals Muddiman's
Higgins, Christopher, 259.
High Commission Court, 31, 44, 146.
Hills, Henry, his character, 106.
"Hinc illse Lachrymae," 48.
" His Majesty's Gracious Answer . . . Concerning Peace/' 43.
Historian, Cleveland's description of an, 37.
Hodgkinson, Richard, "263, 264.
Holdenby House, 79.
Holland, Abraham, quoted, 4, 5, 14.
Horton, George, Anabaptist bookseller, 152, 172 ; 251, 253, 254, 255, 258,
flotham, Durant, author of the Spie, 56 ; his quarrel with Audley, 56-58 ;
Hotham, Sir John, 56.
- John, 56.
Howell, James, quoted, 12,
Huby, William, imprisoned, 152 ; 248.
* l Hue and Cry after 'Mercurius Democritus,' " etc., 146.
- the King," Nedham's, 66, 165.
Hughes, W., collection of statutes quoted, 150, 157.
41 Humble Remonstrance of the Company of Stationers," 44.
Hunscot, Joseph, printer and spy, 92, 161.
Hunt, William, 248.
" Hypocrites Unmasked," pamphlet by Sir T. Clarges, 175.
41 1 THANKE you Twice," 81 n.
Ibbitson, Robert, 108, 137 ; 233, 239, 241, 242, 245.
Impartiall Intelligencer, 243.
Impartial Scout, 137, 149 ; 248.
Independents denned, 32; Royalist description of, 77; immorality of,
Inderwick, F. A., Interregnum corrected, 148 n.
Informator Rusticus, 225.
Ingler, William, writer, 45 ; 223.
Innes, Capt. Robert, his advertisement offices patent, 160, 161 ; patent
sold and revived, 170, 179.
Intelligence from the Earl of Manchester's Army, 58; 228.
Scottish Army, 227.
Intelligence, letters of, 2 ; and see Newsletters.
Intelligencer, the, 24 ; author of, 188 ; consecutive with the Newes and a
failure, 188 ; 263, 264.
"Interest will not Lie," by Nedham, 173.
Ireland, Massacres of, 1641, 33 ; story of, retold, as set-off to Massacres of
Drogheda and Wexford, 126.
Ireland's True Diurnall, 34 ; 219.
" Irish Footman's Poetry," 73.
Irish Mercury Monethly (1649), 243.
- (1650), 247.
- Monthly Mercury, 242.
Italians, the pioneers of newspapers, 7.
J., J. (see Jones, John).
J. W. J. (see Wright, John, junior).
Jack-a-Lent, 4 ; explanation of, 4, 5 n.
James I., 12 ; grants patent for advertising offices, 158.
Jeafireson, J. C., Middlesex County Records, 16, 148 n.
Jennings, Theodore, licenser of the press, 115, 117 ; prohibits the Scout,
118 ; 242.
Jermin, Henry, 41.
Johnson, John, 262.
Jones, John, 232, 258, 260, 263.
Jonson, Ben, 15 ; his single combat, 16 ; a coward and a felon, 16 ; con-
verted to Catholicism, 17 ; epigram To Captain Hungry, 17 ; "Exe-
cration upon Vulcan," 17 ; " Newes from the "World in the Moon,"
18 ; " Staple of Newes," 15, 18 ; becomes a Protestant, 20 ; attacks
Chamberlain, 20, 22; " Neptune's Triumph for the Return of
Albion," 21 ; " Maske of Queenes," 46.
Judges' opinions, on royal prerogative in news, 2, 3 ; that printing is
*' Judgment of Martin Bucer concerning Divorce " (Milton), 61.
Juxon, Bishop, deprived of prayer-book when ministering to the King,
KIDDBR, Mr., Nedham's landlord, 60, 178.
Kingdomes Faithfull Scout, 115, 117 ; 242.
Weekly Account of Heads of Chief Passages, 51 ; 236.
Intelligencer, author of, 43, 51, 68 ; its continuation, 138 ; 223, 226 r
229, 231, 232, 236, 242.
or Special Passages, 223.
Post, 51, 52 ; 226.
. _ (1645), 230.
Kingdoms Intelligencer, 260, 262, 263.
Knightsbridge, the inhabitants of, petition against Walker, 129, 130.
L., F. (see Leach, F.).
L., T. (Thomas Leach ?), 253.
L., W. (see Ley, W.).
Lambert, General John, 197 n., 260.
Lane, Philip, 224.
Late Proceedings of the Scotish Army, 227.
Laud, Archbishop, evidence against, by Dillingham, 31 ; his chaplain gives
certificate to Walker, 71.
Laughing Mercury, origin of title, 149 ; 251.
Laurence, Captain Richard, Fairfax addresses his warrant against the
press to, 109 ; refuses to act against press, 110.
Lay, William (see Ley).
Leach, Francis, imprisoned, 40 ; again imprisoned, 42 ; 222, 226, 228, 230,
232, 245, 246.
, Jean de, partner with Brown, 137 ; 248.
Lesly, Robert, shoots Symball, 98 n.
L'Estrange, Sir Roger, 24, 60 ; his antecedents, 185 ; and Twyn, 186 ;
intrigues for Nedham's post, 16 ; draws proposals for regulation of
press, 187 ; asks for right to publish news, 187 ; wishes to suppress
written news, 187 ; his printed Proposals, 187 ; created Surveyor of
Press, and ousts Muddiman, 188 ; his Intelligencer and Newes, 188 ; -
receives letter from Williamson and writes Arlington, 191 ; his com-
plaints, 191, 192 ; starts (f paper " in opposition to the Gazette, 192 ;
appeals to King and is pensioned, 192, 193 ; his advertising periodical,
198 ; 263, 264, 265.
Levellers, 62, 63 ; petition for unlicensed printing, 63, 109 ; denned, 77,
Ley, William, 225, 235, 245.
Leybourn, Robert, succeeds White as printer of the Moderate Intelligencer,
104 ; 244, 245.
Licensers, of books Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London, 2,
45 ; of periodicals Henry Walley, 1643, 45, 46 ; John Rush worth,
1644, 58 ; Captain Thomas Audley, deputy, 1644, 59 ; Gilbert Mabbott,
deputy, 1645, 66; Gilbert Mabbotb (first appointment), 1646, 67;
Mabbott's second appointment, 1647, 85 ; Theodore Jennings and
Henry Whaley, 1649, 115 ; John Rushworth again, 1649, 136 ; Mab-
bott's third appointment, 1653, 150 ; Sir John Berkenhead, 1660,
181 ; Sir Joseph Williamson, 182, 183 ; Sir Roger L'Estrange, 187, 188 ;
Lord Arlington, 1665, 191.
Licensing of books, 2 ; Decree of 1586, 2 ; committee of Lords on, in 1641,
33, 40 ; before Ordinance of 1643, 44.
Lilburne, John, Leveller, 62, 77, 86, 115 ; Cromwell tries to hang, 151.
Lilly, William, 49 ; answers Wharton's List, 87 n. } 92 ; secures Wharton's
liberty, 126, 127.
Lincoln, Lord Keeper, Bishop of, 12, 71.
Lindsey, George, 225, 234.
Litchfield, Leonard, publisher of Oxford Gazette, 192.
Little, Richard, 67 ; 230.
Littleton, Sir Edward, clerk of, censured, 39.
Lock, Thomas, imprisoned, 152 ; 254, 255, 256.
Locke, Thomas, 15, 16 ; possible writer of State paper, 23.
London, moral state of, under Commonwealth, 146.
London Gazette, 8, 137 ; translated into French, 184 n. ; auxiliary to news-
letters, 192; existence jeopardised, 196; not intended for adver-
tisements, 198 ; 264, 265.
- Post, by Rush worth, 59 ; 228, 229, 232.
Londons Diurnal, 260.
Lords' Committee on printing, previous to Ordinance of 1643, 33, 40.
Lovelace, Richard, appealed to by Wharton to turn Hall out of Gray's
Loyal Intelligencer, 255.
- Messenger, 254, 255.
Loyall Scout, 258, 260.
M., J. (John Macocke ?), 231.
Mabbott, Gilbert, Rushworth's clerk and deputy - licenser, 59, 66 ; a
cobbler's son, 66 ; " sub-author " of London Post, 66 ; Fairfax's agent
and a Leveller, 67 ; attacks the King, 67, 68 ; appointed licenser, 67 ;
called before Lords, 68, 69 ; removed, 75 ; reappointed, 86 ; pro-
posals by, 99 ; his falsehoods, and writer of The Moderate, 104, 105,
114 ; removed as a Leveller, 115 ; pretended views against licensing,
115-117 ; licenses immoral periodicals, 145 ; an adulterer, 148 ; third
time licenser, 150 ; obtains profitable patent at Restoration, 151 ;
228, 232, 239, 244, 245.
Macocke, John, 233, 259, 260.
Man in the Moon, 48, 49, 52, 59, 111 ; its author, 111, 120, 121, 127, 130,
132, 133, 139, 145, 163, 164 ; 243, 247.
- (1660), 262.
- (1663), 263.
" Man of Mode " (play by Etherege), quoted, 196 n.
Marcelline, George, 26.
Marsh, Henry, 259.
Marten, Henry, 89 ; exposed, 90 ; his evil life, 99, 147 n.
Martin Nonsence, 241.
" Maske of Queenes," 46.
Massey, Major-General Edward, his chaplain turns Royalist, 82.
Maxwell, David, 262.
Mede, Mathew, 254.
Mendoza, Don Andrew Tartailo, a "relation " concerning, 14.
Mercure Anglois, 49, 50, 137 ; 228. 229, 231, 232, 236.
" Mercuries " (see Hawkers).
Mercurio Volpone or the Fox, 240.
Mercurius Academicus (1645), 60, 67 ; 230.
- Anglicus (1644), 227.
- (1648), 240.
- (1650), 133 ; 249.
" Anti-Britanicus ; or, The Second Part of the Kings Cabinet Vindi-
cated," quoted, 54, 59, 60.
Anti-Mercurius (Ap. 1648), 81, 88 n., 237.
(Sept. 1648), 240.
Anti-Pragmaticus, 93 ; 235, 236.
Aulicus (1643), 41 ; sold and reprinted in London, 42, 47, 56, 61, 67 ;
223, 226, 229.
- (1648), 83, 99 ; 240.
- (1654), 255.
- Aulicus againe Communicating Intelligence, 236.
- Aulicus or the Court Mercury (1660), 261.
- Aulicus (For King Charls //.), (Aug. 1649), 245.
- Bellicus (1647), 88 ; 235.
- Bellicus (1648), 88 ; 237.
- Bellonius, 251.
- Britanicus (1643), 53 ; author, 53 ; license, 54 n. ; quoted, 54, 56, 57,
58 ; by Nedham, 59 ; Hue and Cry in, 66 ; stopped, 68 ; 224,
226, 229, 231.
Mercurius Britanicus (counterfeit), 227.
"his Welcome to Hell," 73 n.
- (1647), 233.
- Britannicus (1625), 15, 22, 24-26, 160.
(1652), 149, 150 ; 252.
- (1653), 254.
Brittanicus (1648), 103 ; 236.
- Caledonius, 262.
- Cambro-Britannus, 224, 225.
- Candidus (1646), 232.
- Catholicus, 106 ; 240.
- Censorius, 103 ; 238.
- Givicus (1643), 44, 68, 69 ; 223, 226, 229, 231.
- (1660), 262.
- Glericus, 234.
or N ewes from the Assembly, 235.
- Critticus, 237.
- Democritus (1652), 145, 146 n., 148 ; 251, 253.
- (1653), 251.
- (1659), 258.
- (1661), 263.
Democritus in Qiterpo, 262.
- Diutimis, 69 ; 232.
- Dogmalicus, 98 ; 236.
- Domesticus, 238.
- Elencticus (1647), 86, 90, 93, 97, 111, 113, 133, 136 ; a number set out
in full, 200-10 ; 235, 236, 422.
- (Feb. 1649), 243.
- (Ap. 1649), 243.
- (1651), 250.
- (For King Charts II.), (May 1649), 244.
- Elenticus, 244.
- (For King Charls //.), (Ap. 1649), 243.
- (1650), 129 ; 247.
- etc., 225.
- Fidelicus, 240.
- Fumigosus (1654), 5, 107, 145 ; 256, 257.
- (1660), 260.
- G-allicus, 238.
- Gallobelgicus, 11, 24, 64.
- Heraditus, 251.
- Honestus (1648), 238.
- (1660), 261.
Mercurius Hybernicus, 245.
Insanus Insanissimus, 237.
- Mastix, quoted, 53, 142, 145, 165 ; 252.
Medicus, 81 ; 235.
Melancholicus (1647), 80-83, 88, 92, 93, 95, 113 ; 234, 236, 242.
- (1649), 242.
(For King Charles the Second), 244.
Militaris (1648), 106 ; 241.
(1649), 92 ; 243.
or Times only Truth-Teller, 84 ra., 112 ; 244.
Morbicus, 81 ; 234.
or Mercury temporizing, 261.
Philo-Monarchicus (1649), 243.
- (Pars. 2), 244.
Poeticus (1648), 238.
(1654), 152, 255.
Politicus (1650), 134, 135, 167, 172, 173, 181 ; 247, 249, 251, 253,
257, 258, 260.
- " A Private Conference," etc., etc., 167.
(1660), 178 ; 261.
Pragmaticus(164X), 82, 88, 92, 93, 95, 110, 111, 112, 127, 129, 133, 145,
147 n. ; 234, 236, 242, 247.
- (1648), 237.
- (1652), 251.
- (counterfeit by Nedham, 1652), 252.
- (1659), 260.
_ _ Revived (1651), 250.
(For King Charls //.), (Ap. 1649), 243.
- (Sept. 1649), 246.
taking a serious view (1653), 254.
Psitacus, 239. .-
Publicus (1648), 238.
(1660), 126 n., 174, 181 ; 260, 262, 263.
Rusticus (Bruno Ryves), 45, 58 ; 223.
or a Countrey Messenger, 56 ; 225.
Mercurius Scommaticus, 250.
- Scoticus, or the Royal Messenger, 142 ; 250.
- Vapulans, 236.
. Verax, 112 n. ; 244.
- Veridicus (1644), 226, 227, 230, 231.
- (1648), 237.
- (1660), 181 ; 262.
- Zeteticus, 251.
Mercury Women, derive name from Mercurius Britannicus the publisher,
26 ; (see Hawkers).
Merlinus Phanaticus, 262.
Metropolitan Nuncio, 84 ; origin and author of, 112, 244.
Middlesex County Records, quoted, 16, 147, 148 and n.
Mildmay, Sir Henry, accusations against, 89.
Military Actions of Europe, 232.
- Scribe, 227.
Milton, John, 47, 61 ; his Areopagitica, 61, 62, 63, 101, 113, 114, 117 ; an
"editor," 134, 136; "Tenure of Kings and Magistrates," 186 n.',
" Mixt Poem," by John Crouch, 81 ; quoted, 128 n.
Moderate, the, its origin, 104 ; infamous periodical, 105 ; a Levellers'
organ, 114 ; to be suppressed, yet still licensed, 115, 151 ; 239.
Moderate Informer, 172 ; 259.
- Intelligence, 244.
- Intelligencer, 48, 49 ; commenced, 65 ; Mabbott attempts to steal title
of, 104, 105 ; 229, 231, 232, 236, 242.
(1649), 245 ; (1652), 252 ; (1653), 253, 254 ; (1654), 255.
- Mercury, 245.
- Messenger, 231, 233, 253.
- Occurrences, 253.
- Publisher of Every Dayes Intelligence, 248, 253, 255 ; (1654), 257.
Modern Intelligencer, 133 ; 250.
Moderne Intelligencer, 234, 249.
Modest Narrative of Intelligence, 243.
Modest Vindication of Henry Walker, 75.
Monck, George, Duke of Albemarle, 151 ; his skilfully concealed plans
and journalist, 173, 174.
Monethly Intelligencer, 260.
Montaigne's Essays, 158.
Monthly Account, 229.
- Intelligence Relating the Affaires of the People called Quakers, 263.
Moon, Richard, imprisoned, 151 ; 256.
Morice, Sir William, Secretary of State, 183, 193, 194, 196.
Moule, Gregory, 247.
Moxon, James, 250, 252.
Muddiman, Edward, 174.
Henry, birth and educated at Cambridge, 174 ; General Monck's
journalist and editor, 174-76 ; his privilege of free postage, 176,
181 ; immense number of his newsletters, 176 ; replaces Nedham by
order of Monck's Council, 177 ; controversy with Williams, 179, 180 ;
attaches himself to Secretary Nicholas, 183 ; his offices and house,
184 and n. , 197 n. ; displaced by L'Estrange, 188 ; quarrel with
Williamson, 189-93 ; his Oxford and London Gazette, 191-93 ; slandered
by Hickes, 194, 195 ; protected by Sir William Morice, 195, 196 ;
defeats the Gazette, 196, 197 ; Hickes steals his letters, 197 ; death,
197 ; 260, 264, 265.
- Sir William, 176.
Munk, Provost-Marshal, 111.
N., F. (Neile, Francis).
N., T. (Thomas Newcombe ?), 243.
Narration (see Relation).
National Scout, 258.
Nedham, Marchamont, 37 ; his antecedents, 59, 60 ; his " Hue and Cry "
against the King, 66 ; reviles King and Lords, 67 ; imprisoned, 68 ; re-
leased on bail, 68 ; description of Presbyterian parson, 79 ; turns
Royalist, 93, 99 ; captured, escapes and is recaptured, 114 ; writes a
book for regicides and is pensioned, 134 ; not author of Politicus in
1651 and 1652, 135, 149 ; writes Poeticus and Observator, 152 ; sole jour-
nalist, 156 ; his charges for advertisements, 167 ; dismissed by the
Rump, 172, 173 ; finally discharged by Monck, 177 ; obtains pardon,
178 ; his periodicals carried on by Oliver Williams, 178, 150 ; 224,
234, 237, 247, 252, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259.
Needham (see Nedham, and 37 n.).
Neile, Francis, 250, 255.
Nelson, Francis, 143 ; 250.
"Nemo me impune lacessit," usedjby Nedham, 60; Cleveland's motto,
New Christian Uses, 56 ; 225.
News, Strange News, True News, 239.
Newbery, Nathaniel, 14, 27 ; 215, 216.
Newcombe, Thomas, 134, 192; 247, 256, 258, 260, 262, 264, 265.
Newes, The, author of, 188 ; consecutive with Intelligencer, 188 ; a failure,
188 ; 264.
Newes, or the Ful (sic) Particulars Oj the Last Fight, 254.
News, early terms for printed and written, 7 ; Royal prerogative in, 3.
letters of, 2 (and see Newsletters).
News-books or Newsbooks, 3 ; definition of, 7 ; copyright in, 47 ; abo-
lished, 122-26; contemporary description of, 144; charge for, 183;
second abolition of, 157 ; third abolition, 181.
Newsletters, origin of, 1 ; not censored and more valuable than printed
periodicals, 2 ; privileged to give proceedings of Parliament, 10, 182,
183 ; privileged newsletters of Restoration, 176, 182-84 ; charge for,
183 n. ; crush the Gazette, 196, 197 ; an example of the year 1670, 211-
" Newspaper/' origin of the word, 8 ; early instance, 50 n. ; and see
" News-sheet/' no such term existed, 7 ; written news, 8.
Newswriters, early, 1, 15.
Nicholas, Sir Edward, Secretary of State, 182, 183.
North, Roger, Life of Sir John North, 197.
" Nose-gay for the House of Commons," etc., 81 n.
Notice boards, for advertising purposes, 178.
Nouvelles Ordinaires de Londres, origin of, 136, 137 ; its writers, 137 ;
extent and importance of, 137, 184 ; 247, 249, 251, 253, 254, 257, 258,
Novells, The, 24.
O., R. (Richard Oulton or Olton), 221.
Observations on Aristotle's Politics, 152 ; 256.
Observator, The, by Nedham, 152 ; 256.
Occurrences from Foreign Parts, 173 ; 259, 260.
- of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages, 226.
" Office of Addresse," 162.
- Adresses and Encounters," 166.
" - - Entries," 162, 163.
- Intelligence, 170, 71, 178.
- Inquiry, 184.
" _ _ Public Advice," 167 ; prospectus of, 167.
Official journalism, origin of, 10 ; a State Paper advocating, 22, 23 ; under
Cromwell, 157 ; and see Drogheda, Massacre of.
Orders of Parliament (see Statutes).
Ordinances of Parliament (see Statutes).
" Ordinary," an, price of, 145.
Oxford Diurnal, 41 ; 223.
- Gazette, origin of and author, 7, 190-93 ; 264.
Oxford University, privileges of, and Gazette, 192.
P., A., 251.
P., R., clerke (i.e., scrivener), 35 ; 220.
P., T. (see Paine, Thomas).
Packet of Letters, 232.
Packets of Letters, 108; 237.
Paine, Thomas, 221, 224, 231.
Pamphlet, what it was in seventeenth century, 7.
Paper, A, meaning of, 8 and n.
Papers Sent from the Scotts Quarters, 232.
Parker, Henry, 44.
- Martin, opposes Hackluyt and writes Melancholicus, 81, 82 ; imprisoned
and in the pillory, 95, 97, 113 ; 234.
Parliament, proceedings of staple fare of newspapers, 10 ; Long Parliament
meets, 30 ; Free Parliament, 175.
" Joan " (see Alkin, Elizabeth).
Parliament Kite, or the Tell Tale Bird, 238.
Scout, 48, 49 ; suppressed, 65 ; 224, 226, 229.
Scouts Discovery, 224.
Parliamentary Intelligencer, published under direction of Sir T. Clarges on
behalf of General Monck, 174, 175, 179; 259, 260.
Parliaments Post, 230.
- Scrich-Owle, 239.
Parsons, Father Robert (see Persons).
Particular Advice, 173 ; 259.
Passenger, Eleanor, mercury woman, 100.
Pecke, Samuel, patriarch of the press, 37 ; pamphlet on, 38 ; personal
appearance, 39 ; imprisoned, 42, 45, 47, 51 ; called before Lords, 68 ;
no longer leads, 71 ; and Mabbott, 107 ; and massacre of Drogheda,
125, 126 ; attempts to revive his own Diurnal, 138 ; his charge for
advertisements, 164 ; 219, 220, 221, 222, 224, 226, 230, 232, 233, 246,
Pendred, W., 8, 231.
Pepys, Samuel, mistake about Muddiman, 175 ; praises Gazette, 192.
Perfect Account (1651), 250, 251, 253, 254, 257.
and more Particular Relation, 246.
Diary of passages of the King's Army, 239.
- Diurnal (1660), 178 ; 261.
Diurnall Occurrences, 256.
- of the Passages in Parliament, author of, 35, 37, 47, 51, 64, 115,
125, 138, 164 ; 219, 220, 221, 226, 229, 230, 232, 236, 242, 248.
of some passages . . . of the Armies, authors of, 123 ; 246, 247, 249, 250,
253, 254, 257.
Diurnal or the Proceedings in Parliament, 221.
Occurrences (1654), 255.
- of both Houses, 231, 233.
of every Daies Journall, etc., 37 ; author of, 75, 110, 111, 112, 117,
138, 163, 164 ; revived and suppressed in 1660, 180; 233, 236,
- (1660), 262.
- Particulars of every Daies Intelligence, 250.
- Passages of each Dayes Proceedings, 229, 231.
every Dayes Intelligence, 248, 249, 251, 253, 255, 257.
- Proceedings, written by Walker, 155.
- of State A/airs, 246.
Relation or Summarie, 222.
Summary, 115 ; 234.
Perfect Summary, 241.
of exact passages, 242.
- Weekly Account, 51, 52 ; 224, 233, 236, 242, 248.
Perrofc, Charles, 8 n., 195 and n. ; 264.
Persons, Father Robert, 100, 139, 155.
Peters, Hugh, 77, 99, 127, 126, 149.
Philalethes, Hieron, 241.
Phillips, William, translator of French, 27.
Phoenix of Europe, 8; 231.
Pike, , an Irishman, 40.
Plomer, H. R., Dictionary of Printers, 152 ; 218.
" Poetaster," the, 16.
Politick Commentary, on the lives of the Caesars, 152 ; 256.
Politique Informer, 255.
iro\v(f)dpp,aKos nal Au/LuoTTjy, 51.
Pory, John, his antecedents, 15, 16 ; journalist (?), 23.
Posts, days of arrival and departure, 1641 and 1649, 9.
Powell, Ursula, 148 and n.
" Pratle your Pleasure (under the Rose),'' 81.
"Prelates Pride," 71.
Prerogative, Royal, in news, 2, 3, 41.
Presbyterianism, included all Puritans at first, 31, 65 ; Royalist simile
as to the parties, 77 ; presbyterian parson described under Cromwell,
Pressefull of Pamphlets, quoted, 34, 35.
Printers, imprisoned by Cromwell, 151, 152.
Prohibition to all persons who have set up offices, etc., 170.
" Protestant Informer," book by George Smith, 55.
Provost-Marshals to the Parliament (see Bethen, Francis ; Bishop,
Zachary ; and Munk).
Public Faith, the, 143, 163 ; 252.
Public Advertisements, 198 ; 265.
- Adviser, 169-171 ; 257.
- Intelligence, 192 ; 264.
- Intelligencer, 156, 167, 172 ; 257, 258, 260.
- (1660), 178, 181 ; 261.
" Publique Register for Generall Commerce," 159, 160.
Publisher, ancient meaning of term, 8.
Puritans, not the Independents, 31.
Pyramus and Thisbe, Walker on, 102.
QUAKERS denounce Walker, 155 n.
Quester, Mathew de, 22.
"Quis me impune lacessit," Sheppard's motto, 84, 114.
R., G., 245.
Rand, William, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152.
Ratcliffe, Mercury woman, whipped, 130.
Record Office, collection of newspapers, 137, 184 ; 248.
Redmayne, John, 261, 262.
Relations, of news, 5 ; end in a periodical, 5, 6, 12.
Remarkable Passages, 225.
in Parliament, 220.
or a Perfect Diurnall, 222.
" Remember," meaning of King Charles's word, 205.
" Remonstrance and Address of the Army," 1600, 175.
" Reply as true as Steele," etc. (John Taylor), 72.
Robinson, Henry, his registry office, 166.
Royalist Mercuries, crusade of, begun, 79 ; price of, 93 ; unwelcomely
truthful information, 94, 99, 100 ; writers of, 80 ; neither offices nor
staflfe, 89; their value, 89; an example in full, 200-10.
Boyall Diurnall, 95, 99 ; 239.
- for King Charls the II. , 129 ; 247.
Royston, Richard, imprisoned, 151 ; 218.
Rud, , a coiner, 124.
Rushworth, John, licenser, 58 ; his London Post, 59 ; appointment re-
voked, 67 ; not Fairfax's secretary, 125 n., 140 n. ; alluded to, 134,
136, 141, 145, 185 ; 226, 228, 229, 232, 246.
Ryves, Bruno, D.D., author of Mercurius Rusticus, 45 ; 223.
S., M. (Simmons, Mathew).
Sa, Dom Pantaleon, information against, by Parliament Joan, 153.
Sacra Nemesis, 53.
" Satiro-Mastix," 16.
Saumaise, Claude de, Milton's controversy with, further information pos-
Sawtell, Edmond, clerk in letter office, 193.
" Scandalous " pamphlets, committee appointed, 88 ; to sit daily, 90 ; a
fresh committee, 90 ; offers rewards for capture of Royalist writers,
"Schoole of Complement," quoted, 12.
Scobell, Henry, his newsbook, 123, 124, 134 ; 246.
Scot, Thomas, his evil life, 89, 99 ; Secretary of State, 173.
Scotish Dove, 54, 55, 56 ; " sent out the last time," 56 n. ; 225, 226, 229,
Scots Commissioners' Papers, 66, 68.
Scottish Mercury, 225.
Scriveners, precede booksellers, 4; " clerk," a synonym for, 33; write
letters of news, 33 ; Scriveners' Company and Hall, 33 n. ; the first to
write English domestic periodicals, 34, 35.
"Seasonable Lecture ... by Henry Walker," etc., 74.
" Second Character of Mercurius Politicus," 48.
Sedgwick, Tobias, Strand barber and author, 40.
Selden, John, chairman of Committee of Examinations, 92.
'* Serious Observations lately made touching His Majesty," etc., 185.
Severall Proceedings of Parliament (Field, 1653), 254.
- in Parliament, 122; its authors, 123, 129, 138, 149 ; 246, 247 249
- of State A/airs, 246, 251, 255, 257.
- Speeches delivered at a Conference, etc., 100, 101.
Sheffard, William, 14 ; 214, 215.
Sheppard, Samuel, a Lincolnshire man, 83 ; writes Pragmaticus, 83, 84,
69, 95, 96, 97 ; his final arrest and release, 114, 135, 136 ; quoted, 43,
52, 95, 112, 135, 138, 184; 235, 235, 236, 237, 239, 243, 250, 251, 252.
Shorthand, 32, 214.
Simmons, Mathew, 139 ; 221, 224, 246, 247.
" Siquis," advertising term, 165 and n.
Sirrahniho, 106 ; and see Harris, John.
Smith, George, his books and Scotish Dove, 55 ; 225.
- John, 220.
Some Passages that happened . . . when the Declaration was Delivered, 39.
Special and Considerable Passages, etc., 221.
- Passages from Hull, Anlaby and Yorke, 221.
- London, Westminster, etc., 220.
Special Passages and certain Informations, 222.
- from Divers parts, etc., 221.
Speech of Major John Harris, 107 n.
- without doors (Hickeringill), 4.
Speeches and Prayers of the Regicides (forged), 186 n.
Speed, Adolphus, 166.
Spie, The, 41 n. ; by Durant Hotham, 56 ; 227.
Spies on the Royalists, 92, 93.
Spring, Thomas, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152.
Stansby, William, 27.
Staple ofNewes, quoted, 15, 18, 22, 25.
Star Chamber, Decrees of, 1586, 2 ; prohibits Butler and Bourne, 27 ;
Decrees of 1637, 28, 31 ; abolished, 32, 33, 44, 45.
Stationers, Company of, 4 ; remonstrance of, 44 ; registers quoted, 13, 25,
134, 136 ; registers useless at Restoration, 182.
Statutes (Orders, Ordinances, Acts, etc.), 29th January, 1642, 39; 21st
March, 1642, 39 ; 9th March, 1643, 44 ; 14th June, 1643, 45 ; 20th
June, 1643, 45 ; Act of City Common Council, 47 ; 28th September,
1647, 85 ; llth January, 1648, 90 ; Fairfax's warrant, 1649, 109 ; 14th
May, 1649, 110 ; 6th June, 1649, 111 ; 20th September, 1649, 120 ;
17th January, 1653, 150 ; 28th August, 1655, 156 ; 25th June, 1660,
182 ; Licensing Act, 1662, 183.
Streater, John, printer, imprisoned by Cromwell, 151 ; exempt from the
Act of 1662, 183.
Strof or Stroffe, Walter, 125 n. ; and see Frost, Walter.
" Swarme of Sectaries and Schismatiques," 72 and n.
Sydserf, Thomas, 263.
Symball, Henry, gaoler of Peterhouse, 97 ; shot, 98 n.
T., H. (see Tuckey, Humphrey).
T., I. (Thomas, John), 34 ; 218, 219, 221.
Tables or Notice Boards, introduction of, 178.
Taylor, John, Water Poet, 72 ; controversy with Walker, 72-75, 84 ; writes
Melancholicus, 113 ; 234, 241, 244.
" Taylor's Physicke has Purged the Divel," etc., by Walker, 72.
" Tenure of Kings and Magistrates," Milton's, 186 n.
" Terrible Outcry against the Loytering Exalted Prelats," 71.
Thomason, George (see Preface), 56, 137 ; 218. *
Thompson, John, 223.
"Three Kingdoms Healing Plaister," 55.
Thurloe, John, Secretary of State, 135, 157, 173 ; 247, 257.
Titles of periodicals, and catchwords ; early "corantos " without, 6.
" To your Tents, O Israel," story of, 73.
Toleration, religious, 31, 32.
Tomlins, Richard, 151.
Trapan ; " Trap-Pannians, alias Trap-Pallians, alias Trap-Tonians, " 148 n.
" Treason " Act of Regicides, 110 and n.
''Treatise Concerning the Broken Succession to the Crown," etc., 155.
" Treatise of the Execution of Justice " (Twyn's), 186 and n.
Treaty Traverst, 240.
Troynovant must not be burnt, 81 n.
True and Perfect Diurnall of all the Chief e Passages, etc., 221.
- Journall of the Warres in England, 227-
- Dutch Diurnall, 254 (1653-54), 255.
(t True Character of Mercurius Aulicus," 42 and n.
True Diurnal Occurrences or the Heads of the Proceedings, 220.
Diurnall, or a continued relation of Irish Occurrences, 219.
of the Passages in Parliament, 219, 220.
- Informer, 51 ; 224, 226, 227, 230, 231.
- (1654), 255.
or Monthly Mercury, 241.
- Intelligence from the Head Quarters, 249.
Relation of the English and Scots Forces in Ireland, 40.
True Transcript and Publication of His Majesty's Letters Patent, 157.
Tuckey, Humphrey, 224, 227.
Tuesdaies Journall, 119, 245.
Twyn (or Twine), John, prints book advocating King's assassination, 186
TL, T. (Underwood, Thomas), 221.
Underbill, Thomas, 228, 231, 233.
Verney Memoirs, quoted, 127 n.
Verney, Thomas, 124.
" Verses," by John Hackluyt, 80 ; by Martin Parker, 82 ; do. " Walker's
Epitaph," 88 ; on first number of Pragmaticus, 85 ; by Sheppard in
1652, 141 n.
" Verses on the Wren and the Finch," 71.
Votes of Both Houses, 181 ; 262.
W., B., 233.
W., D. (Thomas Wilson ?), 252.
W., J. (John Wright), 222, 225.
W., K (see Wood, Robert).
Walbank, Mathew, 222, 228.
Walker, Henry, 68 ; early history, 71 ; controversy with Taylor, 72-75 ; in-
sults the King, 73 ; Taylor's burlesque sermon by, 74 ; in the pillory,
and his Modest Vindication, 74, 75 ; writes Perfect Occurrences, 75 ; prints
papers of Army and petitions for licenser, 76 ; friend of Hugh Peters,
77 and n. ; his house, 76, 77; attacks Hackluyt and silenced by
Parker, 87, 88 ; employed by Cromwell to pirate a Jesuit's book, 100,
101 ; translates Vindicice contra Tyrannos, 101 n. ; his false names,
102; absurd leading articles, 102; quarrels with Mabbott and ap-
pointed his own licenser, 107 ; dishonest comment by, 109, 110, 115 ;
on liberty of Press and gets Scout suppressed, 117 ; denounced by
Wood, 117-19 ; first benefice, and his text, 119, 120 ; second and
third benefices, 129, 130, 133, 138 ; preaches before Cromwell, 130 ;
adds lying dedication to sermon, 140 ; sermon burnt by Cromwell,
141 ; gets De'mocritus suppressed, 148, 149 ; defends Peters's character
as well as his own, 149 ; fourth benefice, 154 ; dedicates devotional
book to Cromwell and his Council, 154 ; again employed by Crom-
well to publish a book, 155, 156 ; his newsbooks amalgamated with
Nedham's, 156; originator of advertising, 161; his " Enterance "
office, 162-64 ; a Hebrew lecturer, 163, 164 ; equivocal compliment
paid him, 164 ; his charge for advertisements, 164 ; toadies King
Charles II., 185 ; attacked by Crouch, 185 ; 225, 229, 231, 233, 235,
237, 239, 241, 242, 245, 246, 248, 249, 250, 253, 262.
Wallace, Marke, 222.
Walley, Henry, licenser of the press, 45 ; periodicals by, 51 ; removed, 58 ;
225, 230, 236.
Wandering Whore, 146, 147 n. ; 262.
War, cause of origin of periodicals, of foreign news, 12 ; of domestic,
Waring, Thomas, employed to compile a book concerning Irish massacres,
126 ; his biography, 126 n.
Wayte, James, imprisoned by Cromwell, 152.
Weaver, John, his evil life, 89, 147 and n.
Webb, William, 223.
Wednesdays Mercury, 224.
Weekety Post-Master, 229.
Weekly Abstract, 256.
- Accompt, 224.
- Account, 51, 52 ; 224, 226, 229, 231, 232.
Information from the Office of Intelligence, 170, 171 ; 258.
Weekly Intelligencer of the Commonwealth, 43, 138 ; 249, 251, 253, 254,
(1659), 172 ; 259.
- Neivesfrom Forraigne Parts, 228.
- Severall Parts, 228.
Post, 253, 257.
(1659), 172 ; 258.
"Weepers on the Bed of Snakes broken," quoted, 43, 52, 111, 135, 138.
Welch Mercury, 225.
Westerne Informer, 231.
Westminster Hall, stalls in, 37, 38.
Westminster Projects, 238.
Westrop, , 68.
Wexford, massacre of (see Drogheda and 127, 128 n.).
Whaley, Henry, licenser, 115.
Wharton, Sir George, 84 n. ; origin, 86 ; his Lists, 86-87 ; has the plague,
88, 92 ; captured and to be hanged, 96 ; escapes, 97 ; recaptured, 97 ;
again escapes, 97, 106 ; again captured and escapes, 114 ; final capture,
126 ; release through Lilly, 127 ; burial place, 127 ; Mercury by, set
out, 200-10, 235, 239, 241, 243, 261.
Wheler, Charles, master of Office of Inquiry, 184.
White, Daniel, 262.
- John, 222.
Robert, imprisoned, 40, 44, 53 ; again imprisoned, 68 ; 223, 224, 227,
228, 239, 244.
Whitelocke's Memorials, misconstruction of, 148 ; mistake in, 177.
"Whole Life and Progress of Henry Walker," 74.
Wilde, Serjeant, 54, 89, 90.
Williams, Bishop, 12, 71.
- Oliver, assignee of Capt. Innes' patent, 170 ; his offices, 171 ; revived
his office, 173 ; carries on Nedham's journals, 178 ; attacks Muddi-
man, 179 ; exposed and suppressed, 179-81 ; searcher in Custom's
- Robert, 221.
Williamson, Sir Joseph, Under-Secretary of State, 189, 190 ; attempts to
oust L'Estrange and engages Muddiman to write Oxford Gazette, 190-
92; his letter to L'Estrange, 191; defeat by L'Estrange, 193; at-
tempts to stop Muddiman's privileges, 193-94 ; engages Perrot, 195 ;
his newsletter correspondence a failure, 196 ; connives at thefts of
Wilson, Thomas, printer and partner of Crouch, 111 n.
Wither, George, cited, 48, 55, 56 ; 225.
"Wits Interpreter," 50.
Wood, Anthony a, his Athence Oxonienses quoted, 41 n., 60, 84 n., 87, 114,
174 n., 178, 195.
- Robert, printer, 117-19, 137 ; imprisoned by Cromwell, 152 ; 221,
222, 229, 242, 243, 245, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254.
Wood's Life and Times, by A. Clark, 197, n.
Wonder, A, a Mercury without a Lye in's Mouth, 239.
Worthington, Dr. John, his diary quoted, 181 n.
Wright, John, 223.
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