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Full text of "A History Of English Education In India ( 1781 To 1893)"

HISTORY 



ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA 



(1781-1893.2 



A 



IT I STORY 



ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

II K HIM DEVKLOPMENT, PEOGEBSS, PRESENT CONDITION AND PBOSPECT8, 



\ NAIIHAIIM OF Mil VAKIOliS PHASFS OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY 

MtUl'llli I \IH K 

nir BRITISH RULE FROM ITS BEGINNING TO THE PRESENT PERIOD. 

1781 to 1893) 

< IJMI'KlSfMt 

t 

IX'IIIMlh KIMIM P \IM.IAMKST\HV I'AlWftH. OhKiriAli RKPfiRTH, AUTHORITATIVK 
HKKI',\TI'IIKK MINI TKH AXI> WUITINMH *>K KTATKHMKN, 
*> KKSf'U'TlONS OK T^K ,C?OVKHNMKNT, 

(f 

STATISTICAL TABLES ILLUST^^JII COLOURED D1A0RAMS. 

iw 

SYBD MAHMOOD 



\l I \* , IfllfiW HI lilt IJMMkMMIS UC I AMCflU ANI> AITAUASAD, TITfVIVir AW1 
1 III** 



lit*'* nituii. n yUl ni thr*Cor>y^i(lHtor thir* BUition totho M A.-O. Collega, 
j>r<H'imi) of th* wUo will gt> to tho FundH of the Colltgo. 



AHU WiM T lllfl ItdkOIUar MCKHT^T Of IJtl 
M. A.-4I, (HlIiliMUN, 



rflpM rent**.) Acio* B* t. , 

I i 



t IMTITA PUCMM' A'l 1HI KIP1I1I MlhfltOK I'Klhh 



TO 

SIR JOHN STRACHEY, G.C.S.1. 



The illiufcnoiiH KtfiteHunii who, during hut lonff mid bnlhautly MUTCssful caroor in India aw u, mombor 
ol Uio gniiroini' Qovuiumcut and as LioutciuraWloviHuor of iho Nort.U-WoHt Provmcos, nppreciatod tho 
Horiail ami puhtionl drowbaoktt and cliffioultioH wluoh thwarioil iho (no^rc^H ol NngljHli oiliicntion 
Muhaiumadan^ uid whr>, with his tunoly Hytnpdtliy ivnd yootl wi]\, yojic k rouH HuppoH ,iuJ Itbnml 

t, liolpod thorn in thuir etidotivourF. ki si)jo*wl Jiiiowlodgp of tlio Ku^liHli Unguago, hionituro and 
among thoir ouuntt 7111011, 



THFH WORK T 

<th a token of ertteoiUj admiration an J gi-atitudo 



PREFACE. 

Towards tlio end of 1893, 1 wad invited by some of the leading members of the Mnhammodan Edu- 
Uonioitmre tu dolim a LBctiuo in Hindustani on tlio iiso, development, progress, and pi esent 
loiidituin of Illn^lisli Pjiluration in India with spouuil leferouce to the Muhanunodanb 1 accoidmgly 
A *<>mewhat riaboiate Leetuie which occujnod two ontiro sittings of the Eighth Session of the 
mi the 28lh IJeoombei 18<to, m tho Cential Hall of tlio Muhammadan Anglo-Oiioutal College, 
Aliaih, whore* iiiDio than GOO of the Mombois finm all paits of India hod assembled Nearly 2,ODO copieb 
ol that Iprtui o have been distiihulcd among tho mombois and ciiculated during tho last year I was again 
by thorn to dohvei, in continuation oi mj loctuio, another disoouibo doaling with the piosont 

ol jnuqiOBi oi Hnglibh education amoiur the Jtfuhatmnadaiu) and thoir Jutuie pioapnols in this lespoct 
I aicoidingly dohvuicil my wcoud Icctiuo dining tlio Ninth Sohsiou of that Conieionco, which asHomblod 
ut Ahgoih m Jtoopiiihn loht Theso two loctuies foim tho snbsbiatum ol this "work, but thou Bubstdiioe 
has un<l(3itfOiH l much alici.ition .ind amjjlihoaiiun, and many imp oil ant Fltatmtioal TahloSj and o^tracte from 
tho original hrmicos and iiutlioiitioh tolled on, have* been added to lender this work a usoiul book of 
and roleronce ioi thoso uitorestc k d in Lhc> ciuht oi Mnvhbh odu cation m India 

This wuik hw> no (Uiuiti to on^nidlity, tw my oljjecfc h,ts nrji been to wnto i book of my own, in the 
ol an obbo/y or diHsoi fcation, but to iuiiiish u lull histoiy ol tho oaily ongin, gradual growth, internal 
development, and piosont condition oi Knglish education among tho Natives of India, together with the 
vaiious ]>h<ihph ol policy which it has mnloigonej and thi3 Yanous moasurob which have been adopted, 
Horn iniu' Lo tune, m thifl behalf, by tlie Uo\ornmcnt The jinpoiUnco of tho subject may be said to be 
imivciNnllj rouofviiissod, and it ficrjut^tly lurnih the thome ol et>says 01 aitielen m tho peiiodical literature of 
tlio day Hut, I think, it may, without oxatfgoiution, bo Haul, that tho moans of obtaining accurate informa- 
tion iB to tho fafth and figuroH connected with the Biil]QOt aio vwy inaeoGsaiblo, and fao hcattoiod among 
Parliamentaiy Hluo-books utid Official Jinpoifch, that no onlmaiy leader can be cvpuctnd to ailoid tho time, 
tioublo, and expense of- collecting huoh a vatt mass of m.itciials to ciiable him to mahtoi the hubjoct and 
form an opinion of his own in rcgaid to a matter ol faucli ucknowlodgod importance to the moral, eooial, 
and political progrobs of Jiidia in tho futnio 

Ju IB'IB, Hir OhailoH Q Tiowlyan, thonayountf momboi ol tho Dongal Civil Service, published an 
owttiy on tho Education ol tho People of India, not long altoi tho contiovoirty, between the supporters of 
Oriental Luarmng ou the ono hand and the advooatoH oi Kuglmli Wducaiion on tho other, had boon decided 
in favour ol tho latter by Loid Maowilay'H celebrated Minute ol 2nd Jfrhiuaiy 1895, which was adopted 
by Ijoid William JJontinck'b (jorommont in its HcHolutioii of tho 7th March 1H35. Tlio osaay ia very in- 
teresting and jiwtructivo, an sotting forth tho contending aigUTnondh of tho two parties, and as dohoribmg 
tho Oftrhoflt) phiunon of the history of JfogliHh education Hut tho work ban long boon out of date and out 
of punt. There is ako another essay on Education m India, in the form of a letter to the Marquis of 
Bipon, when Viceroy and Uorernor-Qenerul of liidm, written by Dr. John Murdoch, Lit D , Indian Agent 
of The OhxiHtian Vomacular Education Society for India, and publiMhod at Madras in 1881 More recent 
in tho Le o8 Pwso Lfaiay ior 1890, on tho history and prospects oC Btitinh Kducatum ui India, wntten 
by Mr P W Thomas, Hoholar of Tnmty College, Cambridge, pnntcd and pubhwhed at that place in 
1891 I became acquainted with it only when nearly the whole manuscnpt oF thin work had gout 
to the Proflfl Tho Emay ui very interesting, and an able exposition of views eotoitamod by tho euayuit. 
PamphletH and aiticles on tho nubjoot of EJliiglmh education in India hare also been wntten ut different 
timen, doalinp with iHolatod ponitrt or ftootaiian imbjnuts, but suoh compositiona aie only transitory and 
are not uitonclod to supply tho roquiromontH or a poniuuotn, bource ol hmtoncal and Htatmtical infoiiAutioii 
upon the important subject of Kiitflibh education in Fndia, tokon as a whole and in ita Vcurions appeots 

The portent woik lute a different obj<ML for it* ann It floaku to avoid all controvert discussion or 
polamioal argumontH. >lts mm is io narrate OH fully, clearly, and simply aa possible all the rnrioafl fad*, 
opinions, and measures wJuoh any porHon, mtoroytod m tho cause of Ehiglish education m India, would like 



io knmr in oidei to >oim In q OAVU opinion ni ail opt iriM^ini's I'm piniiifH.m.; iind eilina-tinn id I 1-k liiuue 
Fu thib loason no facts ni SUtisbub liavo IDOOU stated m the* \\uik without lelerenti* ID l\u'ii i ui.ii> 
"BliK-Lnr S 01 Olfioial TiiOpoits^ ami wlioievoi loleiouco iu (juMJinijioiit It^uiiidiuiis, DI .Minnies *"iu'ded In 
Si uti' ,nurn, lias been ioand iHLesaiy, 1 Lave pioioiiod to uive a,inpl[ nhaiK iaLhei ilun iuh tin* Mih- 
Maiuo uiul puipoit ut tlion opiiuuits Tito figiue* cind htat MILS have 'M\anJ l\ IK 'MI Liken hoin Flnixeisity 
Cjleuiliii -j 01 othei aiithonLati\c official publiLa,tiuns ; thiiugli, 1m tln-'L oi tlir u.idei's un \emome 
0'id exposition oi the sub-jett, blio IigiueH thub ohtjiini il have been nu-Mlei \\>\\ ina,nipiila,1ed 1 1 jui lUilmu 
TtilniLn Statoniciits adapted to tin* piuposcife nl thih \vnik 

The subject oi pimiiuy <iiuL bconnilctiy EuglislL (uliiLailiou IMS UM a milv unlnutly LniuliMl ii|Km in 
ihr Avoil: Snoli utliuation iluui^h imp 01 taut iu iKrlf IH SD uuiiplLlil\ lilindul uiln \ oiu.u ill n iulu atiun 
IliiU iiii> altoiDpt to do justicu to it ^ oi i Id unduly ouLu^L' thr ni/c ril llu ^oik, ami ^*^^,^1(I i IH!( i |, IHOIP in 
tin" n i in IP oi a Dquitmi nUl puLUr <il,ioa than A Look loi tin ^iiitial ii,nlii inhMi-.Kil ti i' hm.ul 
Mili]0(tol English odiu ilion, iLs ]i.iiL, pic^'iiL, lUiil lutuii, A\iLli uUiiMiri 1 tit ils moial, soi nl, ii< r l jMihlual 
IK.UUI^H npon Llu' wollan'ol lln* piMiplu of Judui l[it>li Hiii>hsli CM! in alum I-*, 111 n'lnu, tin >>i tin Iliriut 
nl llusnoik f md if. is only .is suhsidhuy Uieiolu tli.i.1. Kiii^liili SCM miilai\ nliKaliiiii and it^ sl.uiMii , IM\< 
also IK'OU iiiouLiuiiod whi'in ii'lriiMitu tu Mioin luis Ixcn (on^irUii'il IK>M >s,n\ 

Tho Mib)ucl ui Hiii^libli iMluifbLiun .unmii^ tluj Mun^uan, Kiuasiaii, ,iud Nalivi (ImsiMii pnpi.l iinm i| 
foi ils ilia ushuin upini (iiusuUutbLioiis MI ni,iliiially dilli iciil honi (line illet lni(; ill > advanu nl 
lixhleinupiii cununu fclio Natives ol India^ ^lioLlii'i Hindu* <n Miilianini idan^, tlnl. it *\\a 
e \rluiloi] p\pio< sly iumi tlio nuihidi uUinn u! the Indian KiLiiuiliiiii ISnmiiiissiuii til 1HSJ, ol v, huh | haul 
tho hunnui ol bcni" <i MiMiiliri l^n snmlai HMSIIIIH I li.ive limited the srn|u> nl tin-, \\oik tn tli" -.iiljjKi 
ol Eai-lish odnrjitioii, a* alhulino the intiin hulk oi the nali\e po]iul,ition \\lni h rnn^ists ol IlimLu*, <tml 
Muli.tmm.MlanBj thuu^li in the hninei tetit^ Hikhs, Jams and otlin siinikti s M ts, denotninatinx Mieni^elvt s 
Hindus, hd,70 alsrj Loon indiulod Th( k HuddhisLs, who die .ilinnst entm>lv liniiUdtn Bninm, aind the 
Biuallor boctions ol the poimULnm ])Uy nn impoiUnl, p.ui, in hili Kui>lisli ( din ahun, hut A(atiitn* ieULiii<j 
to themaio inr-lndoil in the >iMieial ollicui.! irtiinn v\lieu^ri these have been ipinffd 

Aa<nn, English oduc.tkiun, es|)LLidlly oi t.ho hi>liei type^ has tnadi* tin p.Miepuhle pn>^K\^ a'noieji tin 
Native lorno-lo population ol India. In I'lPhiilruiu} t(i\\iih * lew Nalive } (\\i\\ larlie, have pur .ml llu 
Utnvoibity couiho, lint Ihen nninljoi ih so inlinitOAiinallv small that it H inlano.ihle in any ueiu lal i ah ula 
tiun oJ tlio flUtisLiCb ol hJt>h Mni-lisli ed uc.it ion, wlulht this wuik i^ noL unu i ined \\iLh Veinacnl.u edna 
tion Female edufa-tum theieltue han nnt heen uulnded ajnontj the snh|eil-i nl l.his vvnik 

According to the consns ol IdOl, the llnnlii pnpnUmn nl Judu .uiumnt'Ml tn ^()7,7!{|,7^7, ami the 
Muhammadan to B7;321,lbt Tho two Oinumiiiiilieh Hum form the main bulk ol (lie Inilun jifipnlation \vlut li, 
including all Bonte, has Iwoti Htatod in thu (Jwtul K^unl ol UIL Oi^iihus \\wjp 171), tu amount to H87 v ,itil Wl 
boanng a ratio to tho population ol tho wmltl, ,w a.t |iiesent ujinpnteil, ol .Uuiili oM>-/f/(A v fiml lit-intf tli< 
larpost apportanunjf to <uiy mulo oiuintry with tho ovceptioii ol Omia, The Hindus Mu teloie Imnr the 
v<VRt majouLy of the Imluii popiihtion, but aumiiK ollioiw, by Kir tins liuisli minonty tout isfs of Mulunn 
miuUna though tlieir propoitinn vane in dilleient PIOVUICCH AH piedeuhsoiH ol Hie liiili^h m (li< 
Miprextuusy of India, an alho in point ol tliou numoncaJ ^tieuitli, ah well aa MX ul ,tud pnliluM,! (oniliLir^h, 
the educational mU'rosts ol tbiH r oimnnnity, wlnoli niimbois moie than the (jeiiiian-^peakni" pupnlalioii nl 
'Europe, cannot bo umsidcicd iiiHi^mfioant To quoto tho woidH ol Lend Ma<,ujla.v in his \t lehmted 
ftpeooh* lu tho JTouHo of Oonnnons " Her Majesty in tho rnlei ol a. Ui^-r lienthen popnhhon Him tho 
woild ever saw oolleclod under tho horptro ol a Cluihthui wivoieifn smu* t.ho d.iy ol the I'Jinp-tor Then 
diMius What tho conduct ol rulern in Himh oircuuisUnooh <iujj>ht to be IH one ol tin nio it, nnp(ita.iit tuiual 
qaeations, one of tho raowt impoi Unit political quohtionn, thaL it in pu^hiMo to OIK eive Tli^ro AK MibjcM-i 
lo the British rulo in Abu a huuilrod mjllionn oi pooplo who do not piole^s (he ChiiHtuii iiuth Tl 
Muhammadans aie a ramonty but thuir impoi tawe IB much nioio than propni Lioued to Ui(,ir nuiuln fc r tw 
they are aa muted^ a gouLouHj an ambitious a, wail ike Hasn " 

Thoao words were spoken w long a 8 o ah tha Obb ol Miwcli, J8W, sinco wlu( h ti.no the Itntihli Ktnpire 
in India haa greatly expanded^ IJor Majohly luw booomo tho rulor of many mow* w(*rtH ol inilhojuH uml 

Sonuuuith 



PEBFAOH 111 

fills ths unique position of being the Sovereign of a larger Muhamznadon population than any other 
monaich in the woiltl including- even the Sultan of Tuikey According to the Q-enoiaJ Report of the* 
Centus ot 1801 (at p 174), " the M us aim an population of the world has bean xoughly estimated at vanniih 
amounts fioin 70 to 00 millions* so that whatevoi the loal fignio may bo between tlioso Inritfi, tlie 
Indian Einpne contains a laigo majonty ot the followeie of the PiopliBt" This oiioiuntUuoe hlumld 
nival bo lo^t hiijht ot in coiibidexin^ any measuiea affecting tho general wolfaie anil pionpenty nf hidui, 
and attrition has been mvitod to it Leie to explain tho reason why a conbidoiablo poitiori of this woik 
hah been demoted to giving an aocmnlu delineation of ths state of Ifingh-.li edutatiun amonif Muham- 
inarlitiis niul tho 1*1 oat and moment need which htill ovifets ten pioinoting it by feppcial eJIuttb in that com- 
muiiii} Ifpcju tho question, Tvhothoi tho pi LSKOII! condition of thiqhsh education among MuhamiiiadaiLb and 
thoiatohat \\hiclutlidBiDcuiitly been, pincfiossmtf aio satisfactuiy, much nnsappi ehen&ion i*xihtfl, although, 
hni&c the* Uducatiuii Cnmmi^hi'm ui l*H2, Hie Official Ropaita ol tho Educational DopaitnicMit aio icrjiiiicil 
io doM>tu a hcjwinto M'dinn 1o 11ns subject cvciy yoai Asan illiibbiation ol Mioh mihuppiulioiiBion the 
following pab*ai>u may bo quntod in>?n Alt F \V r rhoniab j lihsay, to which reJeieuce lias alicady been 
niado lie sa} s (*it pa<jn L Wj 

" Tho education ot the .Muhainmadcius can now ->caicoly Jjo snul to neod npocial oiicoiiia^einc k Tit Iji 
IS81-82, tho h( holaiH of this loli^ion wt'io in imrnbei h ss than a iumth ol tho iluiduh In 18^7-88, they 
mi nil 1 01 ovoi a thitrl^ and the pioprution of AfuhaTiiirunlan scholar* is griiM.ti'1 than the piopoitinn oi 
Miihaininadnn |inpula1ion How lai the aciiliimc'nls of Musalirians tnwaids ihon mlers haro ch.m^cd, is 
peih.ipb uiiccMtani Rn K>ed Ahmad Khan, who wai oiu ol Hu uluuf pioiuutcMh ol tho pdnralion movo- 
iiicut amontr his cn-itili<rioiinU, has alvvajh been \oi\ r fa\ r ouiabl\ inclined tmyaidi the Kn^lhOi atul towaidft 
Kn^lish ciliuataun Ids ^icat heivirt^ ha\e lon^ bi j 'ii recoguuud hv tho (Jovoininuiii , bul thu ofiDct on 
the i^eiuual bndj ol Midianiniail.uih is iiiidi'tonnniL'il " 

Mm h Mc^Vh ;uo HO plaiiiihli' th.it tin v in'<|iiontlv find rtnic m*v not only atuonir tho IQianpoan offioota 
ol (io\oitiiauiti and othoi ('duuduJiiihth, hut aUoamim# tho Muhanunadans thcniM-lvcs, Inidin^ to a rnuliiio^ 
of Hcll-sninc'itMic v an<l saliiAfaoUun at the ptosppcts ol Itjn^Ubh cdutation in that Lommuiuty Itut nuch 
Dpiniujis, thnii^h tho} rarnuit IK* douiunutd a* mi^iopu M^itatiniis, ato MJ \aiu' a nil i(<ncMil that lihry 
hrunno dolubivo lor want oi piocihiori Tin* incessant, efluits ol Hn Kjt'd Ahmad Khan and his Icllmv- 
\\oikeiii loi hpreadjni; lOni^hsh education ainoji^ Aluluinimadans, duunjf mou k flinn a r|uaiU'i ol a uwttny, 
have no doubt had beneficial ullottb on tho Miihamruud.in population of that jiait ol Upper India ol 
Ali^aih, wheit k the* Muharnmadan An^lo-Oucntnl ()olli'uf<> ihhiiuatcs nmy bo MM! Lo lie iho 
conlro, namoly, tho North- Wnstoin Provmroj, Rohilkhand, Oudh, Hehai, Pnuiftli.anil ftuch poitioiib ol Iho 
a LoiiitouuH fw) an 1 fundy accosRiblo by railways But though thr i^noial offocta ol the orluoa- 
nuivonioni, ab lopi osontod by tho Mubammad.tn An^lo-Ononlal Collogo and the Muhammadun lOducn* 
tional Uunloiouoo, may Iwvo boen lolt fai arid widu, tho Pio\ni(;os moludofl in tho MiosidouLiou of Madias 
wid Bombay, ut well as Beng<il > Abnain, and Burma, aic so jumoto lioia tho coiitio ol tho tnuvomont that its 
oftcctb cannot liul to bo very luint 

A^vm, in coiiflidoring educational qneRtions with rclcrenoo to tho Muhaminadan iiripuliitiianj it in 
supioinoly imjmi^Liit to boai in mind tluMhstmction botwoou tho variouH olaBbUM ami ^tados oi education 
included within Ibo scojio of tho l)opattrn( k nt of INiblu* fnutiuction It liut novoi ]>oon tho rrynitf ctiin- 
plamt ol tlu Mulmminadanh I/hat thy IUITO bnun backward either m TCI narnlar oi }>nmary education or 
o\on in I ho hi#lici kind of odunution ul ihu Oucutal ly]ic k A knowledge ol' tho Muhaimn,ulau VertucuUrB 
han alwa}i^ be<n piovtdout among Umt oonunuiuby^ and tlia Mahknlftor Puiuuiy boliooU touching tho Koran 
and oloiututh of I'cthian and Arubic, aio neat ten M I all r>\or tho country, and tho hitfhor ^rados of Muluim- 
inadan loaimng aro still inii^lit and cultivated by omnicab 3frrrt/iw, horo fund thcxo, who charge no foot* and 
dovotf Ihoir livoh to advanring Miiliainmiuliui loariuni? iiom motivob ol pioty und rob^ion TZL roupoct of 
tho oliMniMiiuitv triages oJ Kiiffhsh otliuutiou, alho, tho Muhamm,uUus liuvo duimg rcoont yours mivde a 
trjry nd\au((iy but such edm'utiun IH not Hiillioieutly purmiud furthor by tlioia up to tho higher 
of Mn^lihli hfaudards, and fallh far hliort. oi mooting tlie ooial, oconnmioaU, and political noouja of 
Mion population utulor Ilio u-MgonwioH oJ tho Hntihb Hulo For uny taupblo nooial ooonoznioal and poli- 
tical efluuU on a commuuit^, thu sprwul of highcir JBnglwb oduoutum la ueoobnary m Indm, whilst it IB 



IV PEETAUB 

obvious that foi all the highei walks of life nudei the Bntibh Bolo a competent knowledge of tlio English, 
language IB now indispensable 

The geneial advance of tha Huhanrmadans in India is thorefoie dependent upon the piogie&b of high 
English educatioii among them, and in the Chapters ot this work, bpecully devoted to the subject, 
the question of tho spiead uE Eluglihh education among them has beou extucatod iiom the conlusion wlncli 
aiibus tiom taking the statistics oi all classes ol education en mouse, and deducing gpuoial conclusions Itoni 
&uoh ]uuiblad statistics For the puipose of piocisely showing the facts, many Tab ulai Salomeuts ha\o 
been piopaied fiom official JiguiBS, and colouiei Diagrams have been msoitoil In illustiaio the qi U( it 
backwdiduoEib ot the Muharauiadaus in high English education It Ttill bo been, ioi instance, limn the 
abutraet Tabulai Htatemeut, at page 104 of thib \voik, thaL duimg tho 30 jcai& ol Univeihily education, 
fioni 1853 tD 1893, inclusive, the aggiegato iiumboi ol Hmrlu and. Mubainmadan qiadnaU'h in the 
FacultiPH of Lho Indian Univexbifcios amounted to 13,027, of which only 51<G woie AJuluumnadans, 
a pcic outage oi only 35 instead of 23 75, which is tho poicouUgc ol ilnlumiinadaii*. in iho total llnnln 
and Muliommdidati population Again, hum the caluulations shown, in Die Tabulai HLaLumonl al. p tci l f J8, 
it will be? obRQivod that in tho mattei ol Umvoibity Docfiios, the Mnhaminadans aie sl.ill su bar 1 waul thai 
oven auooi ding to the highlit tutu ol piogiobsyet ctchiovnl by thcuu, nu^ie than luill a ctmUuy i. ,ull 
Qoocss.uy fui taibin^ tho pL'iLQiiUgo ol Miiliauim.iJan giaduatu^ up to fhu levol ni tht i ]H*ufutii'" ut 
thon cci-i oligiouistH in the ttit.il Uuitlu t uid MuhammacLan populaiiinn r>| Inili.i 

A^.uu, ii gmicial unpu^siun piovails evpn in hii^li ((luul/oi-,, and <unrjiiL |i ediiuififini f- in LII UfM.il, ih.it, 
ciUlmuoh iu tho past thi> Muhaiiunaclaiib woro backwaul in Mnj;lisli CMliuatmn, l\w\ li,i\(Mluiiii'jr n*n ni 
ycaib 1*1*141 making voiy haLiaKiuLoiy pLO^iohB, leaving uo Jui blui UNJIII foi ,111x11!) , ni mcd <>| ,in\ t k \u |j- 
Lioual ulbiloi spooial oncrjuiagumout To oxposi 1 tlu> gi uai. (all.vcy ol such vu ws, is tho IILINI nhjin t of Uu 
Littei ])iutc>L Chaptoi XXX (pa^uu 10tt<> 1 ( )H), and ol iho whole ol ChapU'i XXXI, \vhit hshowi tin* prc onl 
ttde ol tho piogievd ol Kn^lish uduoatiou among MuliarnuiaLlaiih in LJolh^os ami S(M<m| ( u^ Mi honls f and 
thou lulnio piaspBctH in this lospocl/ (vidi* pp iiOl Lo 205) Fiom tho c.tliuil.iUnns criNt.iiiH*ii in I ho Tnl/nl,ii 
Ktatcmfutsj .ktpugoo 198, 203 and 205^ it will appeal /r/sf, thai tho a[)pK>Miiia1.i k iiunih( i I \i ,n , shll 
icquuod to raiso tho peicontago nl Muhanuibulan ^ladu.btoh in tho Indian Uimci ilu A In thr h \( I i) Iho 
piopmtiou ol Muhammadans in tho total Hindu and Muhaminadan pipulalHn v.uu^ in ililli>n nl Knulli^ 
ui loaiumgj but taking all tho University Facnltios to^thoi, ULO Muhammailaus UP in lo> lli.uj l!\<Mr t| 
or more than hall a contuiy, bohuul then Jollow-oomitiyiuon, wtundli/, Iliad ilioyuto nn h't* lh:in l. \c,u t 
bohuul Uiou coiLipatuots in tho Tnatlei ol Kn^lisli cMlntaliuii in Aits tinlli^s , and Ihutlly, that ovui in 
Kughbh Hocondary KolioulH thoir IjAckwatduoas is promuuml, ivnd thu dohoioncy i.iniuit bo t\]ioilr*d to l>o 
made up in lobH than lOyoais, oven acooidm^ to Liu most lavoiuable ctih ulaLinn^ based upun Lho hi^ho f 
j^-of piogiobsyotachiovoil by Muhammadaub dnnn-f any pound. Tlum tho Iniflic r tin s1 H iridaid ol 
uducaLion tho moro pionnncMtL bocomos Lho baokwai <lnr>hi of Muliatiiriiad<uih, a rnaltoi whudi fsonmi l\ 
affects thou Gcumumical, uooulj luid pohLicuJ wollaiu and prospects ah Mil](^jU ol Llu> liiiU'ih Kinpuo in India 
Another matt i3 1 of bupionio unpoiLancc, in connection with tlio hiibn'ot of tho spio.ul nl Knfli h IM|H- 
cntion among ATuhdiiuiiudanh, dohoiveb to bra mentioned h< 10 In estimating I lie piopurtifMtaio pjo^im 
of tho Muhammjvdanfo in English oducatiou, ihu IIHIU! molluul udopU'd in Official l(c>pr>rl.s 1.1 In rmnpaii* tli< 
|ioicetiLaf;o oi Mulmiruntwlatih iu tho toUl tjonoral )H)pulation with tho poroonlaifotil Miihaiuiuadan 
luudmif in Ifinijlihh CollogUH uiid Kdiools, and iho bu kwanlnoss ol Uio Miiliuimi.iiUnh ih o .tunalod aoo 
to tho deficiency in thou poicout^o umoufr tho tolal nmnlior oi htudonls in siuh o<ltMal.innal 
Thih nwthoil ol falrulaium which luw parthOil niLo fashion, luis alMi boon adoplod HI tho \\orlv in ( f haptor 
XXXI whiuh doulH wiLb tho piohont lute of tho |irojjt*hs of Kn<>]ihli od ma I ion aniont-; Mnlianiiiiiid.uiK, :utd 
thou lutupepiowpocta JJuL, m truLh, laach fallacy luiks in thin metliod ol (.ili'iiUinti, whon tho pant, 
political hibtoiy of tho MuliamtihwlaiiH and then prohont nocial and owinnnncal condihon und pnHiintu iti Un< 
popul&tiot) of India IH duly boine m iiuml Mr J A Bamcs of tho Indian (Jivil HIVVICP, in IIIH voiy j. 
ioioatuif?, able, and lucid Uwral ffyMt <m tho Oonwib of Jmlia in 1801, altar noticing (ut |wi^o H) f " iho 
vety high proportion m all parLB of tho country of thu popuUion living by ^nculLuns" KM* on to my* 
"Taking it an a whole, about too-JAmfe, and mdiroctly porlmpH nearly thirt~luMthu t of thu (joinrnuiuty arti 
wholly or paitaally dedicated to Mother Jflarth, and m thw CDAO tho umformity 10 renl, not ruuroly uoiuinal/' 



PEHFADK V 

This significant faot should nevei be lost bight of in cDnsideimg the import of any great political, social, ui 
educational meabuiB adopted foi the pro&peiity of India India is essentially an agiicultuial countiy, and 
discussions i elating to the spiead of English education in general, and high English education in pd.iticulj.ij 
do not apply to ague ultimata, bnt to tlie (Jiban population to whom Engli&h Colleges and Secoudaiy 
Schools, e&tabliBliod in cities and towns, are natm ally most accessible This fact is all the inoie impoiUnt 
in connection with foimmg an estimate of the pi ogress of Enghbh education among Muhammadans, owing 
to their past history and pohtico-economical position in the Indian Hmpue Fiom a piactical point oi 
view also, the significance of the dibtuiction between the peioeutage of the Mahammadanb in the tutal 
population ot India (including agiicultmiBts), and theii peiocntage in the Utlan population is prominent, 
aud worthy of bonous consideration Mi Bames, in his G-eneial Hepott on the Census of India in 13HI, 
(at paqe 175) , goes the length of suggesting that "BO far as legaidb tho laigo and heterogeneous clasb oi 
uiban Mu&alman& found all over tho oountiy, it is possible that that growth may have been actually nu- 
pediMl by the difficulty found in getting a living under tho new conditions of Biiti&k rule Foi thi* mini- 
mum ui hteiaiy mbliuGtinn ieqmi*od now ab a passpoit to even the lowei giadc& of middle-class public 
employ is decidedly higlici than it iued to be, whilbt the piojp B&H oF leammg aiuuuffbt this clusa ot Musal- 
iiiiUJ& hab not pi oportionately advanced, and with the coinpaiatively Hiuall numbei of leciuita 01 tho arm} , 
police, and menial effaces, that is now found suihcient, few outlets remain available " 

It seoms, tli EM d in G, clem, both in viow of tho past hibtoiy ot the ALuhanurMdans and thc?ir picsent 
(social, political, and economical condition, that tho piopuition of tho MuliainniarLanH in the C'lZiffttpopuLi'- 
tioiij jatlici than tliwi per cent ago in tho total population of India, IB tho best E>tandn>id Jor testing then 
protest in Kiiylish education Attontiou to this impoitant matter has beou uivitod afcpa^es Itil and 20 U and 
207 of Llnti \vf)ik, and tho Ciiloulatioiib havo boon illuntrated by Ihaufinui VI, niborted opposite to pago 200 , 
wlulnt tho ouoi al backwaidnesb ol Muhammadanb in the (Jmveisity E^aiiimatioua, with lofeionoe to thon 
poicoutaqo in tlio goneial total population m 1801, is illustiatud by Diagram VII, inserted opposite tu 
207 U will, liowovei, not bo out oi placo heie to give a succinct viow of tho condition ol Eu^hbli 
iiiou^ M uhainiiiddaus in lfcJOl-92, which is tlm latobt period of which statistics aio available, and 
tu diaw attc^niioii tv tho Hic^nificaut difh'Tonco betwoQii tho poicentnno oi tbo Muhanuiuidans in the geuoral 
totfU populaLjuu, aud tliuu p^ioontago m tho Uiban population at k coidmg to the Census of 1891 Foi this 
pinposo the following Tablo liati been piopaiod horn the Tabula) Statements at pago 177 and 181, ns well 
an 201 <uid 20JJ o{ thin wuik tho Jiguiob ui all those Tables having boon taken Jiom Oflioial Kepoifct 



IMIOVINGK 



Briniliiy 



N W 



(Jontiiil 
Bin ma 

AHWMU 
Comg 
Burnt 



l Oudh 



L>KIWJKNTAC1K OF MCT11AWMAJ)ANH JN 


UBFICJJENCr IN TUK rnROJOyTAQB O1T 

MUUAMMADAKH JN 


Trial 

)ll)UUtllJTl 


Uibaii 
inpidiiliou 


Eimlish 
AT IB 
Oullcjji 


Bn^liili 
Nptouil ur> 
tichoolB 


HMroiiisn ARTS OOLLIOIS 


JdVdlilSII RfCONJDAlLT 

Si xi 001 b 


A< oni tlmff to 
prtcont in 
ioULpdpula 
turn 


ACE oi rliiiK to 
f^ici'nt in 
Uihin popu 
Uhuu 


Aftoiclmfflo 
pcitunl m 
LoiciJ IM)]>U! i 
iioti 


A< c ordinpr ^ 

ppict'nt in 
Uilian irjpu- 
luliun 


OJ 


142 


IB 


'jJ 


46 


127 


10 


S'9 


1()J 


178 


20 


4') 


137 


162 


114 


128 


(2 ( ) 


27$ 


07 


135 


272 


218 


I'M 


140 


M 5 


339 


190 


21 <J 


-&G 


149 


-B* 


120 


53 H 


508 


18 


331 


370 


326 


227 


177 


21 


160 


r>G 


'J3 


-32 


104 


-1)0 


67 


1 i 

4 A 


I 108 





10 
63 


! 




-23 

-DB 


6-7 
50 


271 


288 




150 







131 


13*8 


7 * 


28 S 





10 


1* 




03 


22*8 


7 


207 

-.,. 




83 


La- - _,- ^--,. 





-11 


12*4 



VI FBXFADfl 

It will thus appear from the preceding Table that, backward as tho condition of tho Mahaiuniadaii E - 
ib m English education with tefeionoe to then piopoition in tho general total population of India, thru? 
decadence ib evon much more doploiable when the dgucultuial population of India (to whom Kutfh-h 
education does not apply) is excluded, and tho peicontago ol Muhammadan* in tho ZTibriift population is 
taken into consi delation ft ib obviou^ theioioi o, that if a loiOLcist ol Lho pi nsprrls of thu Muluminnd.Liih in 
tho matter of English education, especially oi tho hiqhoi typc k j wcio to be picpaml \t) call ulatincf tin 
appiorimate numbei of ycais lequucd to laise tho poiLLUia^o of .Miiliamniadaii htuduitb in Knulish 
Colleges anrl schools to tho lovcl oL tho poicontago oL tho Mulumiuadaiii in I lie* I ihtin population, tin* 
lOsulLu of the calculation would bo even mnie lamentable ilian thu rah illations, in Chaploi \\\I, 
which havo buoii matlu with i detente to the priconta^c of thu Miiluminadaiis in tin* tnial population 

Clnscl) comicctud \\ith tho spicacl ni Kulihh education in India, and alnu^t its <*u|in uu and <ail< mno 
<uo iho subjects ol ULD LibeiLyot Iho Vions, tho employment ol ilir Nati\L^ in the lui'lin lank- nl tli 
Public SeiMUj and tho qioulh ol KL'pLCscnfcati\o [iintitntwms, with as Muiiu ipalit it 1 -*, Ih tmi and Loial 
Knaids, (tiul Jjoi>isliiLiye Ciuiiicilb A hihtrnic.il nana.ti\u nf the lacls and Mutiislu H ((iniiMiiMl v ith HUM 
\\oultl no duubt bo inlou^fm^, and, it wnuld ,bl(md n fit oppnifuiuiy Iru di^i n 'HHI, \\uli 
to Idi lih and fic^uu'-, Uow lai the I5iif>li^h byt-tuius cil sullr itro 1>3 n pu'souLUinn, .uid di < tmn nl 
ioi I'ublic SCIVILC li^ r|iin tniupftilioUj aio ap|lu k alilc In I ho Hinal, K^M'KJH^ uid pnlit'r al 
coiidiLiuus <il India. , who 10, in addition fin the mulLilaumis divcihit.u^ ol i.iu and < M td, run nli i t illi 
difhrnltiob are luiblo to an so in coiisiTpioncc nl tlu> vasi dispanfy nlndi r*\i I- in tli< ni.iitn ni hifli 
English odiiL*atiDii anuni" vaunns hcrlmns dl the ]m]MLl.)iinu, o-pcuallv luUccn (lit Iliiidnv ,nul tin 
Muluimmadans U is Ioi tlio htalufeuu 11 and pohtici.ins io rmiMili'i IUUN tai the piinc iplc ul i jm r*iMa- 
tivo (joveinniuut aio ap])lic*iblo, to a coimtiy liki* India,, whom cl^oihitii's ol ian' and iili'jinn JIP fnni- 
phoatod with tho luiLhci dilficnltiUH aiihinif, itoni vast ilispauLy not only in point ol numh<i.nf Ilii* 
population but also in poiufc ot thr .iUndiiidh oi odiuat.ion aihiL'Vcd by l.b(> \aiions nahmuilitn>s ol ttu 
ppopli 1 KVCJII iho modem dcMiii-uml of douiocuuy, it*pul>lu aiiibiu and ic|>tc>n( k nla(i\ r ( (jJovtMiniK'ni, Jwrjili 
Altitun, m hih ulobi.\ied woik, * Onff lhihi\ nf Alan" doihiiol loso si:>lil nl I hi t nmlilinu . n <|iu HI 
lur Lho appluMfcion nl ifpiobcntaLivu ptinc i|)l l s ol (jrm iiitrirnl , and vhilct dur'llinu IIJHIII OH* inlioiui 
\Yu srr/ a <t>n\mon etlwittutn" ho ilnc^nut ini^t'tiu adtlu^sin^ las MMflct , in laii"iia*M> \\lin h ln> 
woirlsol eonvic ticm, maiiued by luiifr JPAIH ol htudy, ol rxpt'Li^iuo, and ol hoinnv/ 1 lo (.iininn 
them in tho following ienns 

"Doubtloga utiivuTq.il Hiiitr.v^n is dii eunlltMit tluno [t, is tlu 1 nnl\ Irnial HUMIII b\ wlurli ,1 pf uplr m iv 
{{OV&iii itbJl without iibk ol continual \iolouti cii^(s UHIVIM *.,il sulliauf in a ionnl,i\ !M\IIMI il h\ ,i 
common faibh 13 tho expiohsion oi Iho national \\ill , Inn in a rnimliy ili>|iii\(>il ol \\, iniiiiutni hi I id, \vli,ti 
c/au it bo but thomeio oxpiobbion ol the uttorusLs ol thoso UIUUCHK all} Llio ^tiniM'oi, to UiiMppH ion nl 
all tho rest?" 

The comparative Bproad of hit^lior EnnlisU rducal.inu ainoncf ilu Un inn I inifinrl.ini MM linn* nl I In 
population of India Jh thorofoio, ovon rntao mipnitant tli.vn pntoK rdiu siMnnal di ,i<u' > mn-,, anil <1uph i 
XXX of thih woik hah thoioloio boon devoted to a ^OTMM.I! suivoy o| tlir ronipaialixi' ,>l Hrlii oi In^Ji 
Eii^lihh education iiTium^ Hindus and JMuhiitnmadaiis fioin Iho cailicsti liino ol tln> i" l.ihli him lit nl Un 
Indian UmvorMtioB, m 1H57, to Ilif onil nl 1lit*yoai 18 ( l!i, loionii^.i, (UMUM! ol )><> \i,ns ('.ili'iil.ihnu h,tu 
bocii mudo m that Cluqitoi \viib loft'ifncv Lo the Census of IKHI, bcraiiM* llio 'lali (K I , o| iluil <Vfi u.an 
hotter culapiud Jor iostint^ vosiilth ol luifli Knli ,li < ducMdoi^ fivlmh otdinanly h IJUIM , ,i (inn <* ol IIM|\ 
radoiubnit ovoi ten OL twelve yrurn), than HIP sUlistu's ol Iho Ci IIMIA til IHUI 'IV pn.poiihiii 1>< (,wrru 
theiwo pnpuluiionh, Im^uvor^ IL&S undoitrono no (*lian<i( ilunni^ Hit* inlorvnl, and tlu*io 0.111 In* no l.tllnry 
m drawmg oonoluwcjiiH fui pui]M>si"i ol companson -is to tlio spirad of lii"h Knnli ,h (MliHMlmn u thr 
commuuitimR, wkiohovor Cousus Im taLi u as Ilio basis of rale illation Ln tlio n<*U I'liaploi, \\\l f tv 
to the proHont rate ol tho progi OSH ol Mnujln h filiimtum auiMiti^ MuluiiunJulan ,, an<| il'i Fiiiiuv \nn |M't , 
tho hUiiBttob of tho OoiiflUB oi 181*1, IMVI* beou tiki k u mlu itcuouul, with loltM'ruioo to Mio li^ni^t ouil,uu k il 
m the QflwuU EJduotttion Iltpf>rtb, Among Uioso, iho mn r , I important sir^ Hir Alfiod <!ioU'-. h'tntw nj 
Etkusiticft m India tit 1886, and Mr. A, M Ntwh'u titrond (4uuuiwnnnU llvww of UK IVo^u'i^ uf 
cation m ludu from 1887 to 1892, 



PEBPACH VU 

In Chaptci ^CXXII fat pp 208-13) of this woilc tlie latost available static tics of the general spread of 
education m India, hue Loon extia&ted fiom tho Crtneial Repot t uf the Census of India in JH9I 
by A* J A ttamos, and tlio Tabulai Statements Sfiven there &how m dulnil lhc htdtusitcs ol tho extent 
oi the Ku^lish lan^ua^o oanono \anous cLishos ol uho population From 11 1 it Tab!? it wilJ appoai that the 
c u ti it 1 iinmbci ol htoi itos m India, ab tlio tnno oi tho O^ii^ith, was 120,7 1, ^ M), ol wluiix only 5, >7j811 
WOK loti'inoil ai kiiuwiiiq 1 English ('itludini FSuiopeiiiiH, AmpiiciJis, .md Miu.ihians), aiid m it-vail to 
those llanos, tUu follow mj loiiuiiks of iMi JI.UILOS (at p*no 221 ol Ins I^pn.Li uui^t bo kept 111 vioxv 
41 Tin iH,iuii ul lluisoivho know lilnlisli sko\vs <i uitio ni 1 I< poi cent on il'i k ioUl liloritos Wo mast 
bnbliicK <i, kauovei, the Buiopodns and Euu^iaus iiom the ti-tuuiit, \\lnch then ammniis to 3 2 only, or 1 4 HI 
oscry ilioiisdiul ol the conimiimiy . The onluo niijub 1 1 ii'tmniid as knowing I0ii{j;hsh, 

im ludinc KiiiDpoaiiH and Hujasiciii^ was *>Vlfi\] 3 nr r }8<>,On^ J il tlio imiun olrmcnt bo excluded TiiiH^ ino, 
mi ludi^ <i CL'U.iin ])iopr)jti()ii rj| thoM \\Lo .uiMLcit \ot onuiiii ipriti'd (mm UK ' sLudiob" Ol tins a^if^tf 
amount, n , 1580,0 J2, ^vshioli is t,lu k niiiiibn oi tlio Kii(ili^li-kui)\viiit^ Nadvts ol IinLi, fmly 15,027 luvo t-ikt'ii 
dc^iooh cliuiiit, tho List %yiMi-,ol tho Indi.ui llnivcisifus, and out ol this Ust iiinuljLr, tlio inntibor of 
Midhiiiiuudiiu uind^ituh Wiis unly ">IO Knnu these ht>inos it in.ty bo |ii(l^od IIDVV I<LI Kii^lihh cdiiubtiun, 
CVOIL in its uidoht sonho, h.is ^>HM<i in India, noh, nL-,miiHliii4 n<>ail> it toiiduiy ril moio ot IOHK 
cnrrHu olloits in ilh liolui.ll , huv Kn tho Miiiill Mn^lnL-l novvnu* ^iiiiniMM?i he s.inl to IK* oap.ibln ot 
lepu ioniin r ; lho thnuf>htM, loolintj^, and aij)ii.ilinn , ul Iho vail nus-* ol n hl\ J i'7 imlhonn which inhabit 
I ndi i |arf niiliiio to tlio (Vnsus ol iH'Mj, uiiil also how lai miuloni iloni >< iali( in litutums^ which rely toi 
thon surct^siu Indi t upon tin pii^iossol I^uuhs 1 ! idoa-> ol <nliLhl*i mut'iil and no lal aiul political adv.uite- 
Tiioni, ai inl( '1 lo tho jiusonl, inndihous ol Hi In li*tn p ipiilatjinu ^n.f'nlidii lu-i ])oon invitud lieio tio 
Uir>i> bkoiil lufs il IJU'^b.h (MliuaLujn in Itnlitb .is Ilioy \vill )n k im K ln^ iliko Lo tho htatohiiun, tho 
pnbli i in, U 10 oilm itionist and tho phil.vnbhiopi^t who mi) bi conr eincd in tho pi^soiid woli.uo a>iid lutnn 1 
di.tiiht i nl tlu (iidian I4ni|,'i|i 

lu t nidi ion, I i<l,idl) ai knowluloLMn^ obligations (\\ tho oiiunrn|j il.ilo ni' M i anrl authoih Irom whoso 
woik I h.ivf bniiowod finipli O\M.I' U, t< inako tlK'ii vious upon Iho ini|iml till subjoct ol Un^lihh orlucai- 
Lion in lii'U 'j ^il u *i<(4'ossibK k to tno uvidoi I ha i 1 aUo him 'i plo.isui k in i \j> . k ^iu^ my hoHt th.uikn to 
my vMii'h> h i itil IS.tbu JaAw (li.uidi.i ( 1 hakiav*uti, M \ , holohsoi ol i\i ilh> matte, in thu Muhaminai<l.iii 
An"l>i-1 n n 'i'J I 'olloi^o .it AliLM.i li, U> whoto iiLti.liL'iiMtn .b] Uh at a- nd Uboui I au unit blud lor tbo ola.buid.to 
i.il dl itaia , r.pulaiuod in tho TabuLi HUUinf>nlH in (JhapLoi XXX ol thih ^nik y and .dwo ior tho roady 
a 1 i lni ^ .vliuh ho h.bi kuidly ^ivon DLO ui oaaiiooUon with athet sUl.ihiifi whon^vor I liavo haxl ucsca- 
sion Lo cnip nil him 

ALK.MH, \ KYUD MAIIMOUJ) 

Jfrni/i, lH!i j 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I 

iNTBODUOrOBY 



The subject proposed 
Its importance 
Its arrangement 



OFAPTBR 



HABLY WMOY OPPOSED TO TUB INTRODUCTION OP ENGWBH BDUOATION IN INDIA Ma OEABLBB Gtaure's TBHATISB WBITUN IK 

1782-97, A D , ON TBT MOBIL A&D iNvtiixacTVAt CONDITION or INDIA 

Bduoafaon no port of the oarly Administrative Pokoy . . ... 2 

The Right Honourable) Mr Ohorlei Grant, on eminent Director of Iho IDut India Company w 3 

Hw phalanthxopio troatue on the moral and intellectual condition of too Natives of India, written daring 1792-97, AD, ,i 

Hu noire ai to Indian Society ..* . . .... 4 

AH to the character of the Bengalis . M ... ... . ft 

Want of veracity . . , *6 

Betrayal of confidence .. . M .. .. ,. . n 5 

Venality of tho Native* of India in the difltnbution of justice . ... ... $ 

Tlioir Corruption, and Porjury . .... $ 

Solfl RhnoM and Avanoo . *~ ... M 5. 

dunning and hypoontusal obiequiouinew, mutual diaoord, malice, oalummei, 4 . m . ^ 

Eobbenei.thoft*, and othoriocr it cnmcim Bengal . $ 

Hmdua not really banerolent, but cruel ... ... .. .. . ... ft 

Abwnoo of patnotum ... ...... ... 7 

Qvoat moral and intollotual advanoe in Bengal N ... .. M. ^ .. f fr 

Mr Grant's vitwi M to tho qharaoter of Huhammadani . M .. . .. . M ^. 

Proud, Aeroo, IftirlMi, perndiooi! lioemtwui and cruel ,. .. ,. . .. . , ^. 

Eogard teoular burin** ureoonoilable into ikiot vlrtao emd rdigion ...., . , (. 

Vioog of Hmdm and MnhammadMii, on the whole, innilar, owing to tbJir intermuctuM .. . M , ... ^ 

Degeneracy of tho Native* of India * , **. . . ... . . *fr. 

Kemarki on Mr Grant 1 ! ottunoto of character of Miihanunadanf ... . M M . , $ 

JBlBgy t inth*formof * fftanZ, oompofed by Shah Aiwa after bwng deprived of hlieye-dghtin 1788, on the downfaU of th 

Mugal Bmpuro . *M M . *M ** fl {(. 

CHAPTfiB HL ' 

KB, OKiBWi CHum'i toxin ? OB m nmuuoyiuxk MMU&, UTD ooui- u^mEinov ot vu mm 01 Iwou, AJ 

IN HIS TBBAWW, 179JW7, AJD IwioiwwttoN or IVMVCIE ij)0oirio*c A UOBA& Jtvyr of *oi SIATJ, AND irot imAV 






M 10 
Hauling prmolpl* . . M. 



M. ... 

WlN)|^^oik1&^ ., - 

^, ^ 






~!,V<~ 'ft.'' 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS 

/W 

A true knowledge of Nature would break tho fabric of Hindu religion . l,t 

And fffthghtwi tbft "ff 7*1 Jug by prom piping mechanical inventions tb 

Improvement in AgnoulturO) <fco , would ensue "by introduction of machinery 1/1 
Most important oommniuoation to the Hindus through English, would bo Christianity supplanting Idolatry anil bnpontititni ... ib, 

Though such effects would bo gradual . , 11 

Objections to Mr Grant's Scheme the mam objection bouwp Political Danger 16 

English, language should be introduced, and failing thai, Indian languages nuy bo adopter! OH the* mcdinm of instruction . *b 

Kb Giant's summary of nin Thosu, and conclusions in regard to into eduction of JBnghsh education in India 15 

Improvement of India can bo effected by iho mtioiuotion of tho English language, and Ohnntianity 1/1 

ITrom which no political dangoi should be anticipated , 1/1 

And no reason* to the contraiy have boon shown Id 

It would be odious and unmoral to keep Indu ignorant, owing to apprehendc d rinks to British Rule ih 

Imparting knowledge and moral wati notion a uto lot duty of tho Bntish to India . , h 

Ertonftian of British coramoroo will ensno irom tho onlightonmout of India 17 

Hahammadans, though f 01 contunea mtormmtl with iho Hindus, produced no ladinil < h*uigo in thoir t harar t< t , ih 

Fox similar reasou, the PoitaguoM v tho Dutch, and tho Vronoli failed to pxodui u A immanent pfl(>d> upim Tnrha t ih 

Novolty of the Bduoahonal Scheme no valid objection against ita inttudnctiuii . IH 



OHAPTBfi JY 

K1FOBTB FOB Till 1 EDUCATION Ok TUB NATIVES 0V INDIA TlIH OAhCTTTIV MAIU^S4A P(M1MJ If IN 1781, 4NI) 111* S\%SkflII 
OOliLkGP AT BfcNABtS IN 1791 JLOUD MlNToN MlNITTI< ON KllM ATIOW, 1811 

Mr Fiihor's Itfomoir on Education in India written m 1827-32 IK 

Calcutta Kadxanfta founded in 1781 , .. . ih 

Boforms in 1788-91, and subjeots of study proionbod . . m 

Benares Sanaknt Oollege founded in 17D1, and tho aubjocts oC study prcsuiboa .. \t> 

Lord Kinto'i Minute on education, feted 6th March, Itill , . t/ f . 

Beoay of learning an India . , ... ,l> 

And its Oftuses, Want of Fatronago , ,. , t i t 

Ignoranoe of the Natives of India obstructs good Oovorianent, and ui oonduoivo to o) imo , 20 

Which can be rwaodied by oduoatam .. ^ 

Obwryaiions ai to Bovival of learning among tho MuhammadaiiB, in Loid Hindu's Minute of 1H11 , ,/, 



01IAPTBR V 

KlBHT IiBiOIJiLATlTP FBOTISION VOE ITIBIIO INATBUCTION IN INDIA Art OK I'AIUIAVfcNT, CA OM> HI, Ifift I>IMIUI1 dl Nil 
O? DlBBOTOBfl, DATVI) 3EI) JC7N*, 18U V ON BDUUATION -KABLY KDirMATIllNAh bKMUtlh OK PH MlsMUSAlllJ S UMh 
IDtJDATIOKAL MlNQTI OF 2ND OGTLWIIfe, 1815. 

Pabho instruction not yet reoognuod as part of a sottbd Btatu Pohoy .. XI 

Inquiry by Parhfcmont mto Indian affaus, and ronowal of tho 1 I Oonijintiy'H (Jhartov, by Vut 59, Uw III , C Ift6 t in \H\l{ t ii< 

Htatutory rooogtuticm of the policy of education in India . , ^ 

Lord OastloreagVi Besolution rooogninng too duty of Cheat Britnui tci (tduoato i lin NuttviiN nl liiflitt, IMUMCK! by i'.n Imuumt tn 1818 A 

Heotiofu 43, Statute 53, Geo HI , 156, quotocl an nuuking a now opoch ., , t h 
The nvst Despatch of tho Court of Directors to tho Uovornoi Ouixcral, datml rcl Jumt, 1814, o*<ivtyinK ilinvbioriM nn HIM mili|m 

of education , . , t w 

Directions as to the mode of giving offoot to geo to, <if HLatato 53, floo, I II f (3 ICO .. , b 4 

Tiro objocfc* of tho Olauso in tho Act of Pwbanwnt, -oannnt bo Kunotl by ttsUUlwhiiiK OolliwH , ,ft, 

Pohtical aipeot of education with rospsot to tho foelluKN of tho Kttii VM as to tho muuiity rf llnimi iw t t> 

Sanikiifcloanxiiigtobo oncouraKort M n %| 

Tliree notteoabb points m the DoHpatoh of tho Court of Dliootorw, (laUul 3td Jutu>, W14 M , ',, ,/, 

On)iMbontoaatupcmiuoOhartorofl813 ......... M ........... ^ 

Missionary motoment in behalf of education ... ..... .......... , 6 , 

Ix^M<rtr*'iHauoi^cw^ w ( i M M> ^ 

OJUHTUH VI. 

OBIOIN ov flirs&m *fitWAoN^-THs FWyotoya" 01 Avou^fNiiuN Oowsan VOUNDMU v IfiNiius OF OAU'tmA IN MM. 
BAJA RAX HOHW Hoe's AnvaDAov or jflNauwu fluuoAtwN-UomutTiiji o* I>muw IvHTtttrcmOH JWTAHMiHSu IN 
m laaa^-b* noowuros 9* to THI mo ur 1831 






Mt 



TABLE 0V OOHTBNTS 

An advanced Hindu, Joynenun Qhossal, found* on English School afc Benares, in 1818 . ,26 

Inactivity of the Muhammad* aa to English education The Calcutta School Book Society formed in 1B17 27 

The Calcutta Sanskrit College founded by Government at the suggestion of Mr H H Wilson, m 1821 tfr 

Committee of Public Instruction appointed at Calcutta in 1829 ,} 
Moat ftiirmfaoant protest by enlightened Hindu, through Baja Ram Mohun Boy in 1A28, against expenditure of money on Sana 

kiit ledfmng instead of English education ri 

Bishop Hoboi's opinion oi Ha]a Bam Mohun Boy 28 

Raja Bam Mohun Boy's Memorial, in favour of English education, presented to Lord Amherst in 1928 . ib 

The Memorial disregarded hy Government 30 

View of tho Gourt oi Directors as to the nature of the studies, in their Despatch of 18th February, 1824 ,b 

Useful kiiowlodgo to bo encouraged % ^ 

Ouent.il sciences useless t& 
Observations on the above Despatch by the Committee of Pubho Instruction, in their letter to Government, datod 16th August, 

1824 8l 

Mo^aies adopted by Committee of Public Instruction Agra College founded in 1828, and a College at Delhi in 1829 ,& 

Flint indications of the policy of English education m the Court of Director's Despatch, dated 20th September, 1830 82 

tfcparatp Oollegnq for thr btudy of English ift 

English Science may be enouurifcod by translation . 88 

Native* to bo educated for Public Rorvioe . %b 

Kngluih to bo gradually adopted in official business tft 

Juntico to be atlnmuHtered in the language of the people ^ 

Pi mr ipbs of their proc eeirngu explained by the Commitfaee of Pubho Insti action m their report in December, 188 1 4 

hpioacl of Ktiglish ideas . ^ 



CHAPTHB Tit 

MIABOTUH FOB FDV01T10K IN TH1 MADBAB Pit Bf NOY SlR THOMAS MUKBO'S MlNUTVB ON 1DDCAT10N, IN 1822 AND 1826 

CoMMiTTir 01 PUBLIC INBTRTTCTION APPOINKA.D IN HAD&AB, IN 1826 

Marly odncaticraal moasorts m Madras f fi5 

Hir Thnmns Munro'fl Mmntos on Education, dated 26th Juno, 1822, and 10th March 1826 ' gg 

Uw Mtnta of TBducatiou in Madras %b 

Wndowmwit of flchools by ttovwnment .-... ( $b ' 

Committed of Public Instruction appointed m Madras, 1826 , t ^ 

Apiiroval by tho Ooart of Director* their Despatch of the 29th September, 1880, as to Bngluh education , ..87 

niKhnrbnuiPhescrfknowbd^tobeeTWOuragedbyPuD^^ . ^ 

Hughsh eduoatiOB to be encouraged on sanu> Prinoiptas at w Bengal ^ , ^ 



CSAPTH& y I'jfj 1 

vmAtrrftM rat BDVOATION nr VBB BOXBAT Praaroiwor DOTUM* 181B-28 Mivurvs BT vni HON*LI MoTnrmtrAftr 
rroifi Aim *nf UON'BM F, ^AWN, ON BAWAVXON, w 1B28 AND 1828 Sm JOHN MAKCOU-I nnri AOAtirav MN 
OAtiotr IN ANOJUSB, w mri KINITTB o? 1826 DIBPAMH ot VHB Oomw cv DIBBOTOBB TO THB BOIQAT GomutiCBNV, 
Slrr 8*BHum 1829, ifAVotnamg iitmt ot BifftLisH. flm JOHN MALooxAfs ICODIFHD ram. IN azs Huron, DAVBD lor* 

OWOBRB, 18W. JDWATCK Off VBB COtTW Of DlBBOTOB* *0 THB BOMBAY OOVIBNXBN!, DAVBO 29TS SlWMIBfB, 18BD, IN >JLTDtTB 
Of HlfftWIK BOTOAnON ^"TJIB BUBTimTONB IlTiSinTTXON FOR BJN0LXSB BBDOATION IN BOVBAT 



Botooty for Ptowotaon of idd^taon ift Bombiy, ftwaWL m 1815 ., 

gifoBoM^yooaajmWl ,., . 

foSohooVBaokSoolMT > fcniiMldml8B8 > , h 

Iflphm**^ 



^ 







Ml TAIiLR 0V CONTOIS 

Nativot oi Bomhny aid and onooroiffo riady of English, by lounding English Ptofworhhips m lionoru oi Mr 



fhflucmlionf opinions in logaid to piomciticin of English education in Bomli y J2 

Mi Wonli*n'<? Mural? ol 21th AfiiclL, 1888,111 fi\uin oi oncoui vgiuff Kuglifcli rh 

tioqluiLi hludy, piintiur) object oi Nfttmodm*itum rb 

Su John Mali oliu'h \U>WH aqoinit gonnal c ducat urn m Knffluh 1 i 

HID Minuti*, critic u m 1828, m lavoui ol Viiniculfti Kluiatiou ,1, 

Ktnmpk ot Kiiffhsli II ml my , ,r, 

fc'uifhu omiiloyiih ntoi Nairn sin Athmnifltrat ion . . ,/, 

* (rt Kiuchsh not riwuifuiy ioi >uili\< -t bojoiul the* It ("iidciir y ,fc 

cd tht'Coiukol Dmctoibul IBlslN pliiukioi, IHJMi, ID thr (Imi'innii'iit ol llumhay, f minimal IIP si udj ot Knijliili II 

fen Joliu U.ilcnlmN vit vtrtmodiliudmiitvoiu oi Knghsh cdiuutiou, iu his Mmiitr, cUfid KiLI> Otiolxi, Ib2 ( > if< 

i Kthoolh may \m i mnljlmtuKl . , ,f, 

tit tlwiCpuHof DucituiH in thr Mmnluy OovHinui'nt, da led 2*Uh H< pt< mlu i , 1830 in h 70111 id KnjilMli uhu dmn ^ 

K\ainplit tit Hnctcsshil Kuirlinh Htliu nioii in Idnual , tr; 

UK hlphuiHtonii Institiituni nu,> tx lit Ijxd, liktHlifi Aut(1(h!ndiiii <*illi*u< at Call ill In jh 
ttm KI|ikuuHtfim Instiliihnn TluM'oinl. ol Ihtit lots' IH'bpatih in tin IIotulM> llovdnmrnt, 

i tlu> liishtulum t 



01IAPTHK IX 



oi nit> VAKUKH Huris or mi MtAmiuis I.OK >DMATION oi TIII NAIHI^ oi |MU\, v \> 

iiif K\^i INIUA COMPANY iME f iLini ACT or PMIUAMKM, HIAITII CiJ, <uu ill Ciuni K 13.V IIMV 1HIH in IMti 

lli<* |Kln > of Kiliuntion in Indm Tlir* r ui licnf HUnni In,u iuily Hi 

Tlir ftul Hhic^ KiM'oumnotncnt of OIK mnl H(IK|H>K, 17H1 to 17*11 . <b 

Tln> 3rd HIA^O 17noif(amMid Individual f^joiln , M th 

Tin* 4bh AtAnn UgiHlativi) u-r^ution of otluftttKui M H dul^ of thr* Htatr, in THIS ., , h 

Tli4*ril.h Bluf(i> AiiaMtyof thi* Indian Oo\rjmvirnt icwjidh ndmatum , ... id 

The 6(h HUgd Appointment oi Committm! of Putdic IriHhur Lion, IHStt to !HtN ,. , 1/1 

Tuc qui'htion of Kii^liHli (duration M'mAinH unwtilpd , , , , r n 

K>|K-nditiuo cm criiu a turn m India, undfi Mi*t,Km 4 of Ait of PhrlmniPnL, B'f, OPI II! Ohojitoi !G5, 1HI3 hi IHJiO r'> 

AUual I'tiK'iidituio duubU* tlii^ inmmmm AuiounL tiHiunttd by tho At t <jt Ptuliamcui. , , 17 



OH A ITNIl X 

i* nil KAST INHM COMPANY*H liiiAnrnt IN 1838 AHHIVATJ oi Loitit MAI AUI.A\ is IMHV \ \ Mtviui m 1*1^ 

UOVLHVIH(|ISH\LN Cm'Nur,, IN 1HM ODNTUOVKUS^ AK 10 nil nMi'U\nvh MI KIM n> tunsr\i M UIMM* AM Il*dii u 

(.ITI KAI'Uai KCIH lti< UION tjtiKU WtJ.UAH lUKTIMK 1 *! hllUf ATlllNAb IUSOIJ 1MIS O(> IKiiTi 1'irtlll -II il Ml II VVUMilN M *|Sr I 

TIII UPHOMTIION 

Mont impottani ftPtuul m tho ITiNimy of cdmufioTi m Indln I8,t(l In IBR**! ... IN 

Hio Ka<it. India rontijni^VChiittu Ly l^ilMmi-nt,!!! INita A 

omiliihon in fiuout of t diiftihmr hulliv M .* * *'*. 

l*nmiitiouof nduialion t<>-(i)/mjK*d attduty ol (Jin (Jomjwny'H thiVfrnnMml AI)Hin(*ii of initial in Ituliau alluth in 1'iiilm 



Tin* Art ol I*atli.mH<iit foi ttii* IK tti* OrmirnniMil. i>f Imlia, and 4 Win, IV , (7. M5 f tucmtml Ro> it HiM'hi on ttmli \H"UNI, 

HifrhfH of i diuvitrd NrUivoM tit HUf r> ofliriw KlIlnniMl ., . . |fk 

Indm, in 1MI, nu uiijxulaut nvtint in uliipii toti.tl |mlu ir . , 1/1 

liti'tiitim* I%H|I Iv rtm^tnituilint IIH contiiiHffil wjLli Orii'tilHl liMinitifit ... . , ^, 

t of opiMon ninoiifr Mi'mlN'H of tho Ktlurntum (lommitu n M to c>piii|Htniti\r rttuma of HiiKlmli 4nil Unmilnl li+inumf IM Ji. 

in COOMf^iUMmc ,, .,. . , W) 

to divulr* thn IHKIK* Mwwn Kt^lwli urid Othintal ItuMing ... , M . *.. '*>> 

Mmuli* in f.ivout ol KiiKUiiti Hluralio 
HtJglWt Utemfcura pm fiuiiii'iit, and l^t hilled lor (KliKutiiw m InctLi 



Rf*rtvftl of Inttora In Hurifm at Oio rliMn nf th Jflth and (hi* httfcumhtx of Ut lAth utury , 



Uvd William (tatlnok dont fjord Macftiilay*a wwi OwtvomHjt I^dutlow. lUlmlt 7th Itoron, |tM. m favour of Ki^ilah 



it9tto 

... w ., 



TABLE OF CONTENTS II II 

Pay* 

Small fialo oE Oi icntal boota ... , . , 63 

Hindu BC hohii r ilnrafi rl in the Vulynlwa, pinpAopitp tnqte fur English Unqpaaffo nnd htrntaie tb* 
MuhMmuadnis opposo English education and inpumtialuo .ii^mrt the Uumamont, Ruaulution of 7tli lloicb, 1835 Testimony 

of Mi H ]) Wilson . . lb 

CHAPTE11 XT 

UltMfMHVCi ABM MINTS OF Till ADW iHS O> Es&USII kDUAPION, tMl ril* SUPIHJU PJFfth UK QUINTAL LhlRNING IN \BABH 1 INJ> 

R \\ShKl I 

The c nnlif ft ri *y tinfflmli Ediu of ion 1*1 sirs Oi icnt ,il Lpaimiitf * 54 

AiKiiiiiMils of ilu Ad>ocaicM of Kniflnh pdur.itum <6 

Jmpmtaiuc (if tin English laiitfu iflp 55 

hon-i to the* unly prod'Ldinip of tlie Bilur itioii Commit IPP id 

II If Wilson's uf ws m favnui ol 4hinil.il Wimiijr, ami (titiunm of thn CJovcinmiMii llcunlutimi ol 7lh Mauh, 1836 ib 

Tli< pi oniol ion ol Viiinuulni Kliicatirm not nvrlnihil by Iho UomnmpiLt llosfilndnu of 7tli Mdirli, 183? 5G 

Kiifll \nnualKopoiiol Ihc EiliiiMticin CJoniiniflfo K k <t^m/cs iiniwHt.uKC ol Vrrniiouliu Kiluuntion , j& 



xu 

iNsntrn IION NO r\ur 01 <!i>\'i IINMI NF iinrvnoNxh pout ^ MUO.I.JS 01 Twi riu>iiii 1 >i Mururv n ISJfk, IN AVOUJI 
f miai.imis iNsiKii IION, IHSAI'IMUVH> HI Cm KI fit DuutinitH Pi IHION w rn* NAIIVLS oi> MANUAS 10 PAHWAMIWI, 

IN lH5a, UN 1HI Siri.lhl r lllSULT 01 till <ONaKOVIPH\ 

*m lo Militfiims m utiilitv in iluiMt urn . M 57 

in filiiruhfiii mlnpiod ,IH Sditn Poluy , 5H 

in M (ill 1 1 (o mil mint thc> Hihlc HS n < I is lionk ., J 

Minuln of UH* Mm|iiiH n( TwiH^ilitalo, <i,ih'd 'Jllli AILXU*|, lHir, in I.tvmn itf the propond! /(, 

Mh ml mi i' mi lln llihli' i lash to IM* optional * , 50 

Mnial ni(iin lifin mwMHS.uy . . , ih 

lllitllKtion IflviHilillIn M M 

*4ohd imimlahon of inoi ihly inquinvl fot Pulilic flmirn, UJAII ihai to IK* fuuml in Die* Uinilii or Mutinmnuuluii frvith 4 ih, 
|)<*H|mt( li of flu* (Joint of IhifHiiiiMiothcdoviMiiniMibfif Mmlnia, tltOml 3Hrd Mai< h, IHtT, r'i l tinK the mttmluition of tbo 

HiMc in U ivwmnnnti rt*miruvn<4 ... . . ,. ib 
f'ftltion to Piuliiihmnt. ftoin Mm NaLivfw of MMdrftM, (latotl lOLh DttninbtT, 1R52, jirobfllinK ftipiioftt 



n|iptnpnn1 ion of wlucabionaJ fnniiH U Ohniiwn IuHtUution , , . , , . M 00 

Hdiif niwiml Omni houl<l not Uti rkivolacl to l'iowlvtuim . , , , ... M , tfr 

(lonipliunt XHitiHt llir* MtuquiM of 'Fw<Hfldaln*M Mmiiit* of iJith Auffimt, 1&4A (M ...... i&, 

(loinplniiit ii'flumit tli^ Mfitqum of Twintrlilaln'H uiMiilbiiiK liuigUHfii) towaulri thi> Nntivi' (lommuuity , 61 

Hlmlyot (lip Hibln no/irJMrwrrfor immoiality , ,. , ib. 

Atli*inp( i inhotliHMi Iho il)U in Mnwimau'iit H^mniftriwi not miulik in any ofhM |mii of India , ** &. 

Hit PiMilucU Uatlitlt^M ovidimMi bi'iom thn Htmwiof Ctimtmms, cm 3th July, IhH, ii^ainitfciho inirmluctton of IhtBiMom 

llovtHiimcnt Hf k mtnnrifW , ^ M* > . Ofl 

Thit Kihlfi not to IN* intMuml cwn iw MI optional ^intijckpt In (lontvnmnut H< !KK|H . .. ifr. 

ol Mi* John Cl irkn Mhrnhnwri HM to I^IIKUHIM wmtnUlty m Oovtnmtnt fluhooli ... .. < .. (18 

Mow tbn HOUA of Oomnaonip on Htb July, 1H5S . , , - . M. ... <* 



Mi Aithwr IIoi**irir vuifmon it>I^Unw tmulmllty in nduoatton Ml . *, . *. 64 

Kl by littrd Willtatn Btmtlnok . , *. . . * 

, . M(l H . , M * *. t^ 

.. ., ik 



xctt > 

OF ptnmtr Mrp&AH lOkroian* totwimir oir VKI Bbtmi jWtt. '\Vuiri Mr Ki, tfukfttiju* AKU Am OHA^LM 
A* M YUM (JtfwuttAKrttKa nnrbtfiMm or jtyrpumr d0uAtrow--Kl OowW ihtw A* w fKit rut^ rrw*t or 



OwtWwtt MMfetariff Ip fetaktoff IfogtlA ' * ** ' 

iririitf^lflrtitlillftttW nf <n|ffrti niTiifiiHin ' ..' Il ' (l ^ fi ' 1 



MV UBLB Of 

Pag* 

Ohmtiam/mflf mfluonoo of Rnfflinh pducntion a fallac) . * . 70 

tfnst c*ffUi ol English ami UIHUUIUA} toddling ... it* 

TLu Biuhino SWABJ niu\omoiit . ifc 



CHAPTER XfV 

VlIWS OF Till HlMSlONABIlis OPPOJUl PO BPUfllOVs KliUTRALITL IN Hltr'A FION -Till OKTK1S 0* THI tflSRIONABT EDUCAlKtHAJ* 

iNwrni IIONS BM A Dili*'* WAirMiNr nutoai- THI- Tluusw or LOKHS, IN 1833, \s to Vissnmnv iwn ivoiuh FOR inn A 

TION H| h yiEWh AS ro HI-MCTh 0> 1'LTfihlA SHVL\B FDUCATION - -OPINIONS Of TBL OF LfrVfcAlI 1> PHIl.OVH'UH a tUNk,Jt, Hi V 
BXITII, AS 10 TIT* fcUOBIS OF THV Ml^IONABIFB IN INIIZA 



Rolxjrion A m'Utialit y in ocluc atum iluapiir r>yod by Miftbionaa IOH . 71 

Krtv Ah*xnniliT UniTH qnnioii wlveiflo tc> tho whfpcjus m ntinlity in cMliitatum t t 

Tyjwtal VUWR oi the Miwuman^ OH to iriigioiui neatxahty m eduwbiim . ,/, 

Chnsfmnity Hliould not J WWM ihccd to nrurlilly oxpflilioncy M .. 72 

Uowrnwnl to pu^aKato thi Grwpul eluiuhl ourouia^ tbo Chnntian Ohutchpn to nncl<*rtako tho tatk t/i 

hmitcrl to MiHi(mwu"j and exceptionally ontUiuiaiiic Huz(iJoanb * ,/, 

thr* Miflsionauw , ,* * ,/> 

fltatanumt of Rev A Duff btifoio tho Kounfl oi Tx>jdn, on 3rd Juno, 1863 f <, 

Illnrln itudntitu in HrliH*tiiri(iry HrhtNila bocouno Kiadiwlly Ohnitimu/wl ;;( 

MwHimurv VIHWH UH io tlio (tftitii t^ |>moly ntculai KnKlwK education if ( 

r>|iuiitmii (>i thii Hcbutnl philoiorihio thinker, it^v Hydiioy flrnith, HH ir thr oltcnrs uf Un< MIH^IOIMI K*H in India *, | 

DuK<iiswaiin UM tu KiigliiiU udumliou tuku tui ipuDial noUou oi MuluutttnadaiiH, AH they loliamud honi uch fdutaUou ,. 7r, 



OIIAITBR 



PltOQETW Of BhOLUEZ Bl)UCiT10fc UNUB TRH FOLICJY OV IiORT) WlTttAK BKNTIMCR'H JWDrATIQNAKi EVWIMTTWH 01 7tH MAJU II, 

183B -Ijomu AocwAi)*H IIUOOATIUNAL MIKWTU or 1880 LORD HAIMIXNOK'M rniNATiuNAL KKHOLUTION in 1844 Pouit ny 

MAKINQ BSOUBIT THU LAfcOUAbfti 0> OniCIAlt JBUHINMb.^riwaUHH Of ttNOLlHH KUUCAMOH IN lilAiOAL Vltlh OK Kill 
IfALLinAl 



Ix>rd Auckland'* (Nlucatimial Kwnto of 24th Novpmbor, 1839, slightly modifying tho polity of otclumve KnffliHh wlufnhori 7<t 

f^ord EIardiuK*s (Nlutatioiial liwotutinu of 10th (k*tobur, 18H m favour of the fliuploytrimit of auccuraiul Nal f wo tud itfH , ih 

l\>lioy of making BnKliah the langim*!) of offtoial bnuzum, wan mdioatud m rarly an 1 BIO ,. 77 

[jotter ot tlio Oovwiunimt of Itongal, Oatod 20th Juna, 18, annattncniK Ibn f utam adoption of Biifflmh in pnhlii ofl*iw , ,/ 
Policy of adopting Bngliiih u tho latiffunfco of offloial buiunoM aunounood M eaily aBlB20, mid followmi m bud Kardmftfl'u 

l(iioluticm of lah Ootolwr, 1844 , M< Mi ... . .. . 7H 

IhtfuUuii nation oauHotl by thn }roooo(hngi of tho Bdnofltion OomnutUie undor that Jimolutirm . M tu 

PtujfitisM nuulo by JflngUHh u<luciUum, flptx>ially in Bengal .M.*. . id 

Qouoial SUtutlc* an to HnUnh nduoatum la Utf 8 , . . ... >W 

Sir fcockutak lialUda/N goanral vww aa to too condition of Knglnh education in 



OHAPTHR XVI 



INTO IMDIAN AVKAia( IN ]H5a PHtmr^ TO I'AUMAKIINT 

or ME, H, OAHMROH, rou K*frAiiLiAU[pi(i UNI\IKHITIMI w iNKiA^Vtirwii or 8m CuAabM TjtmribiAN, MK. 
II. H> Wiuioir, ANH Hi |CRKIIIMK* lUtum, QJI PAN 



flohtma of a Cfmvwuity at Oal^ulto, prdnnirKl In 1640 m , , ... . ... , , IM HO 

QMttttlrttonof the prorxwoU Ualwnnty at OatattU , M ... . ,., ,. M 

^wa^*iqpW from tlio pivpowtl 0m ... M . . M .., ft, 
i MahUikiag a Uulvamtp at OalcoUa mmaitti fa aboyaoor HU Pwllumiwfcary coaiinlfy In 185*, twmxJfng 

* IV H 0* M M * ** , iA 

. >4 

* fcftott th> Hm* cf tw^, M to MUMtehtog Untwdtto* to toll* ...... . ,*, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. * T 

OITAPTBH XVII 

ODIIPRFHFNSIVI DP WITCH o* THI OoLBr 01 DIBFCTOBI TO THP GOVIRWPNT OF INDIA, DATBD I<ITH Tnr/r, IBW, ow THI BTOJFCT 
01 BDUIVTION, KNO^H AS Sin CHARU-S Woou'i BDLLATIONAL DispAtrK op 1854 POBKATIOH cu THI- EDUCATION IfepABTMFvr 

Page 

Tho educational Despatch of the Com t of Uucctrira, elated lOtli July, 1854 34 

Ttipurpoit M 55 

Diieohona us to educational policy t ^ 

Policy of the educational Donpnich of 1854 ^ 

Formatinn of tho Education llppaitmont, 1865-07 t ^ 

Kfltimatod extant of colhffULte education at foiniation nf tho "Brine ation Di'pailmpufa in vniionfl PTOTIIICPB . ih 

Estimate of tho extent of Collcwiato Mduc it ion in tho Fust Dcpail mental yu,n, in tho vmuiiui E'invinooq of Riitiili India ifr. 



KSTAnHhHll?NT OV V1IK 1MUAN UtflVI RMP1I B f ANI> THV SI Ol'> AN[i I IIAKAI PI B OK TIH nir*ATIOW R>l'Of>Nl/>D Ai?l> I OHTBOM*?D 

TJIPV HTAII STICK oi UMVKKHIP^ OUM.K.UTI. KtntATiOh, 1837 TO 1882 



thn Indian UnuonntiM . . 1 1 H ; 

nciplou fot Indian UimonutieH , ,;, 

Ijouilon Univcitnty to lio tnkrm i*t mo<lfl * , ^ h 

Oonntttutioii of Imlmn UnncvhitioM ^ 

FumfciotiHof Inclwti Uiuvrimtns ...... . /A 

BcliKiouflAulijooiH to be me liulccl . . f> 

RpguUtionflforUiup\iimiiin1iimlin ihvcmos ... f ^ 

1'iofoFWoiHhiph in ciiniiwtiim wjlh UnivrmlioK, I*HPCN mllv in Uiw . ' $ 

Civil KiiKinwi IIIK may Im n *mbjor 1. foi (U-^ri IKMI , . ^ 

KaiiHln it, Arnlm , and Ponmn mny 1m im lutlwl dmnnff the iuh|not*f rnomHtonUv with n'hKioim nnutialiiy , 99 

nouni ita of oducHlum at Calcutta and Konihuy to lon^tiluU* tho Soaatm of 1h<i UmviMHitin, m|M*(*iivoly . . ^ 

AAditinniil Mombirtof Urn Hi'tiato, mcluduiff N'atwi^ of Incliii. . .. . M . ,/, 

Un^nwity to bo (owndod at Madnw itlwo, if c m.nmhtamww prnnit ..... j h 

<^>Ufff anil whootowibwdiary Ui tho UmTiniiti<4i M M ... , jA 



Tho Calcutta. [Jnitnvmltgr mcorpordtod in January, 1867 .. ... ,, f ,& 

Thn Bombay Univnraity Inooinontml m July, 1867, and tho Madnw DnivoiKity m fik^tombor, 1867 . , , , . 90 

OonNtitutum A! tho throe* Umvwmtiw > ...... , , M kM j& 

Oliik Pimiab UDivoniby, itM history ami oh|ntR . . ... ... . * , . t ( fc. 

Mownumb for a [Tnivmntty m tlw PnnjaU, 1855 09 ., *., ... .*. . , PM tt. 

Nataro of tho UniYPtmty cttmiandiHl by thn pn>motmw ... ... ,., .. .. . w 0) t 

Hyuipathy of Sir Donald MotacxL with thn m<mnftwit .. . * * , . , M ^91 

Dmnvn for a Ummmty in tho Kfirth-WiMtaro Pnnrlnom in IBftT , ,* .. ... *. , , t ?u 

A UnlwiHity piopomxl fui Uhorw In 1MB, htifc hkrarpcivatlun rrfuwnl by (lownimmit if India in 1HR8 , , *, Mv t* 

Thft Cfovornmrmt of hntta gtrn muwtmn to thn Punjab Uniwmity Collrfft) .. , .. M M 91 

Aplivowid by fihn HiicroUry of Rtatu . . ... ... .. ., ., ., . *A* 

KotlflMttun of Uavmuncmt of Iwllu. datHt fttii Uocutmbcir, 109, mtablUihing Ubor Unifciruty Oulloj^ ... . ^ 

Working of t*o riinJabXriUwnrftyOollo^fhnn 1870 to 1878 ... . . M . M 

Rtndy of <W<mtiU langtu^ii ... .*< ..* < . * M ^ 



Uw . Mi 04 

WovkEng of tho Paniab UnUntnIty Qotlow from 1877 to 1B89 , ... ~ . . . ., t*. 

InMtathmv amiiaUKi ... , . ... M. . .. tft 



liord RSpchVii aovornmtnt JMW tXA Vitnjab UuKtmfty Aet, XIX ot UtM 



.., 

.*', 



.......... .- ' ' , . , ft 

Aoi^ajUltfliavai^ >>' , ^ .. ^ , M ,/ A, 

9ow^ . ' v'f, '>*. 

.telMWtetMia , 1* 

' 



CVl TA.BLI 0? CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XIX 

THB INDIAN EDUCATION OOKMUBION or 1882, AND aom IHPOBTANT BAOTS AMD arAiiBTice OOLLBOTBD B* IT IN BBOABD TO 

EDUCATION 



Indian Education OommuBion of 1862 . W 

BcBolntion appointing the OommiHBion, dated 8rd February, 1882 , *6 

Duties assigned to the Oommimon *& 

Policy of enooniogina; tha Grant in-aid system to seouro gradual withdrawal from high English education 49 

Information aa to Oolleqidte education collected by the Ooxnmisaion tft 

Views of the Oommiuion is to academic discipline . HU> 

Statistics o* CoIlogLite induction, 1881-82 & 

Aveiage cost of Oollogioto education per student, 1881-82 , 101 

Tuition Foes in Arfci OollogOB in 1881-82 *& 

Appioumato SUtibtios of the after oareoi of Indian graduates, 1871-82 102 



CHAPTER XX 

Tm QRANT-IN-AID SYTOM INAUGURATED BY THB BDTTOATIDNAL DHSJPAICII OF 1854 AND uoftsnn&ni mr nit INDIAN 

OUMMIBHON 01 1883 

Object* or tho Despatch of 1854, as to tha Giant-in-oid aystom 1<W 

Scope and charactot ot tho Grant-in aid ayftfiDm I' 1 ** 

Kclatuma ot the fitato to private oifoit '* 

Noi rasity of enoouiaginft pnvato effort Limitations of tho pohoy of withdrawal . d> 

Limit fcfatm of Stabe etponditaro on higher oducalion 10 1 

Ultimate ohgeotfl of tho Chant-in aid ayBtom & 

Ganoiul nnanoioA rQBoli of pnvato effort ... . 1(M* 

Summary of the views of tho Education Oommueion as to private rfflcnui . tb 



XXI 

o? TOT INDIAN EDUCATION ComnstioN IN BFOABD TO Tn* WWHDBAWAL OF TD^D HUT* VIUIH HiaHitf BhCrUHii KiucArj<iN 

Withdrawal of tho Btatn from higher cdnoaiion Krti 

Oinniona of witnoam boforo the Oommiwion *. '/' 

B oaring of ULO policy ot withdrawal on Miuionary education 107 

VTitUdiawal in favoui of Miqsionanes to bo avoidoa . j/i 

Poeifcion of Kiflgionary ontorpneo in oduoataon ,. ^ 

JLnnit* oi oppoainff Tiowfl within tho Gommmion . ,1(18 

OonuiloratiDni for and against tho pohcy of withdrawal - * '* 

Genoial otmolunon OB to tho policy of withdrawal . . . <^* 

Roccimmondalaonaaiwmtlidiawalotplauiod .,. * * HH) 

Dzpootod roBuUf of withdrawal . i^ 

Goneial pnnoiplcu as to irannfor of State Oollogon to pnvuto m*naffctra<mt .. ,., if/ 

VIAWH of tho QommiMion as to its rotxraimondaliong rogarding tiamfor oi. Oullngtm to iiuvuto tiiunagouicut . , Hu 

Bspoctntioni of tho Commission as to trannfoi of Oollngm to bodu H of Nativo Gi'tiLloiuon * , , iA 

Rpe^mnumdaiiotii of tine OommiRsiun u to high oduoaticin nummttt unl . . . * h 

DBOisum oi flovox ainent as to jiolity of withdiawnl from high aluouUrin . . .. 1 1 J 



OHM'TOR 

MOBAL TRAINING AND BHIOIOIH rrAUIINO IN OontTOHB- VlFWB OP THB INDIAN 14nirr<ATI(lN COMMIT K>N -Ml' KAflfflNATH TttIM* 
BITK TltiANO'B D1ASMNTXBNX MlNVW VllWg OF TUH LOOAb (lUVKIUrMrNTH AKO THf IlKf fMIOfT OK TIIH (tVA,MrMNT Of iMllU 
UPON THB JUBTlOr 

Viows of tho Oomxnunon aa to moral and roligious mutruction , ..111 

MorU training inOollegos , . .. ,. , ,, f fc, 

fioligioni toaOuag 



Hr- Tolang's disionkoni Minuio agafnst tho preparation of a moral Tort-book and Lootum ... , , . 114 

Ixwbawicmthdntmtf*m*n^ , Mi , M M ^ 

CoottiroionthodatiA<rf a ottissm inadvisable . M . , Mi , ... M . . 115 

A moral Tt took will b* tvelw ^ .. . . M , w , Mt lja 



TADLB 07 OONTHNTS XVII 

faff* 

Views of the Local Governmental afi to introduction of a Moral Tart book .. 117 

Daemon of the Goroinmnnl of India as to too proposed Moral Text-book .. & 

Older* oi the Bcbiet-uy of SUto (Loxd Ciosa) as to piepaiation of a Moral Tatt-book Summary of the views on the inbjeot tft 
Btiiolubion cri the Govpiniatnt oi India, on tie anbje&t, dated 17th August, 1880 118 



OJIAPTEJB XXIII 

Sir ALJHTD ECU'S HMIDIV OF EDUCATION- iw INDIA IN 1886, AND ITS 

tho Orminmrat ot India layi^wincf tho Education Communion 1 ! Report 119 

flu \lfiorl Ci nit's Itaviow of Education m l&fib to 

GoUcgult' cdiu iLiou do/mod 4 

Gompai itive n( itidir * of Gollcgiatp education, 18S1 to 1885 120 

Coinii.ii iLn p cxppndiLiu e ou English Ai U Gollr ges, l&bl to 1885 , ib 

AVI i HJP Pi u oi c if h pupil, Ibbl 1 r> lbS5 121 

Inm isuiH <-uuoifi oi Kon Utpvtnuiit il Polity s m 1881 to 1885 tb 

^tii s of Uollotfiuf L due ilum in ISbu-Sli ta ,{, 

rs IBS") M> 122 

H\inudituru in Ait 4 Gullet?' H, 18S5-Sfj ^ 

I'lopoiddn.ito (i\|)indiliiu k IIOTII public* irirl hum pin lie fund ( rm Gollr Li<ite oduc vtioa, 1885-66 123 

Kxpnndiluii* funii KM in Uolli ^l% ]SS5-hO ^ 

Piopoi Lion nl Vi k it ti i f ipt -i to Irjldl c 0*1 in Oollf if<s, 1885-86 124 

ATOUII;!! cnsl. ni tlio i iJiK*ih(n ol LMth pii]>il in (lollr^s, ISba-Sb tft 

of Uiuvi iiiiy (\iiiuinitioiu in Ails, 1hHT> H( ^ 

( i PHI ill (luvi'ittuic nt uud oUni (JtiJli^t B in (j uivoi mty Mxarainatiuiis, 1883 85 . 125 



CIHFTHA 
UP Nvsn\ QiriNC/tjiNsuh RKVII w 01 rue pBOfinvss or Kuui AVION IN I Mir A, 1887-88 TO 1601-93, ANIMTS SATISTICH 

POSITION n PIVK IMIMAN UNIVI LSIHI S Rl SOLKTIIO^ OI Ufl CjtmUMlPM'Or UlIA (IW TttJh, 1AMI , UATVD 7rfl fiFPTIKDIB, 

ISO!* KIWI mnthTAvr Mini'us ir\ir virn IN mil Iti HOLUTIUK 

Mi Nuth'H KCVJMW ol Hhuntiuii in Inriu, 18H7 to IH'JI* ... 125 

Iiu if ,itm ol lli iiil,inro in AiU (lollcxiH, LSH7 t*> IHU2 125 

NuiiiliiM of Kji^liHh Ailrt Unlliw'H HI 1SS7 ,uul Lb<^ .. ^ 

OJaiwiluuJion ol AilH Ui>Hfw* IHb7 U> InUA , . " . 127 

ii|H)ilant <Jollot;i4 in India , . B> ^ 1^ 

AtfH (Jiilh^H, in 1HS7 1 IflOS , M ^ ^ 

('\pomJiinio mi AilH Oollfj^fl fiom publir nml privato fandtf, 1807 to 1893 ^ 

4vm,if;onnniMl IIUM pet pupil m Ails Ooll(^^ "i !Hb7 <uul IHOtf . .. n ^^ 

l*iiiril*ij(t ol i'\pi'iiiiitin< on Ailn Ciil^H fitiiu ioi'H in IHH7 J>inl IK 1 )!) . .180 

Avtnn^rMnst (Hit pupil HI AitH (liiUiwm . ^ 

Aviuritfi Junnml rHi t (jovuinnKuit pir pupil in (Juvorumont OoUoKM *, , .131 
Av<)HiK< k lUiriuiU f tint to (Jtn^inmPiiL in Aidotl 
BeHullHof llnivi'thilv Mviminntiims m 1HUJ-02 
Uiiniii<ir<iiUaiui* in liitflicr Kn^linh nliuntinn during 

Coitt|rtit4livri Hiin MHH til Ot)vcrnnanit nnil uthot OolhwH in UmvorwiLy oxanunftUoni, m 1697 and IB92 . ( ^ 

ftuummiy of o\ptwliUro an luuh Kntfli ih oiluuitiuu uu 1H87 ttud 1KUA , . , ,& 

Riunof ticm(JolliiKiHimliHf4Ufoty ..... .18) 

Kiridriicml poHttifin nf Urn Ijidinu UnivoifiiliOM ., , M ^ 

MfwJriM Uni%i*iHifey noil HiipiMjjIuiK . . > t A 

Uomhity UnwmKity H piufly dupnutlc nt on (Jnvfti nmimt , iE, 

Odlmlltt UuiviMiLy nidi p'mcimtUil Movmmmmt Urout in aid . , . A 

MipiiMlihiin on IJiu Punjab UuiviMhity . ^ 

FmwHtm ol ilio Alluhubul UiuvoMifcy , , t j 
KUNUitulumoJ IhMCJovonimontoi Indio^ datwl 7lh Hopietnbtir, 1801, Itoviemog Mr NoiuVii CtumqiMnniol Report on Kduoaixon, 



Qnivwwty Uollo^iiUo Kilncattun* and ito progreiw, 18H8 to IA03 .. , M4 . * tB 

Kdumifion HI IWW, uc pomiwi'rl with prououi yof ,., ... , . 134 

Uu. Allali^m<l Uiuvpruty m 1887 DujfKNtt jtroatod by Indian Unirwwiao*, uid thoir oondition . 115 

flout) imiwHwit luluctti umiil lrumi in tlm (iorwnmoot of ladift'i Boi olotiott, <Wed 7th 0ofplmboi- ISM .. M , ^ ( 

' 



UofttaGdl^ 



TABLE OF 

Page 



loi stir i turn cil School IjooJ * 
Pimnintm rimi atmn il ic sulH dining 1SI>7 to 1802 
Ktlu 11 ut inspvc iwm (il <udi rt uisuLiiiumq 111 LQB U AIJ 



Cll \ITHII \\V 
fii\i i isir Pi in i tsioMi, IBUHAIION IN tioiUMs IN IS^l 82 to 1ST." Sf* \ [i IN lSOSr id IS'H 02 

f* Ho >ionil ^uliiuK in I ho fiuluti Uiinoisitirs 
lj w llrpuinirnt , m 



i (VIU m 1 t t> 

Tin idi it ljii"iin i un Coll* 4ct /i 

KIIL'IIU 1 1 in* I 'olli ir A! hum i ifi 

fiul hii ',1111*1 m" t'nlltjri il Krrb|Hin m u C'aliulli in 

Tlixini m Ci\il tiii^uu i \\ii'j( t'cilh ui \\ \\t\\t\\ 01* I In 

I'riit. in.it Cnlh (fi ISM-hZi lo IbM H"i , ^ 

C'l^l ol Iioli>HOinl ( ( nll(< 4in IHSlNi 1(1 

Uiv ilt i < iliiioM stli iii|i|iniiiii<( It) <iili* uf tin* I njv< k i^ilj l^iimiiMtiiin'nii pinfi"iniul 'iiilijul i in 1SS1 IHHi c 

PIH|>I inniUnllcM s ISt,,-) hi! 1 1? 

nl l*iuii>stiiuiilUolK^i" 1KS1 Sli . . 

ullinl I'liiWHih I'ifitiHHiiiiil M ininiLitinrfi, IhM 8d lit 

<l Htiirh h li nii'Hi i rniil Kilu<iihim \*> 

r 1M7 .mil JVIJ . . in 

Nohir >tili iMt-if .isiMtL ULM Citllrp^ . Ill 

ljf>tril lllllllM llllHMll M If U|lHHfUlJf . , ifr 

nl 1i"it sludHMui 1847 ID 1S*^ , <// 

' oi Me tin il thnlh A ML 1HH7 1< 1M% t/* 

Ki.pi mhl ntf on MiNlnMl liiliif ifion in JSS7 .mil 1VJ2 1 1 . 

*M< 1 1' (MM i i in 1SS7 lo IH'L' I ( <' 

Kit^uu i mi" I Jollies in IHb7 iml JH<)3 . if 



CUIAPTHII \\\l 

()! Ml flAMMAI)\i^S IN hMrMMI IMH ' VflON Ml^ k IUI> MiOJ 1 1 l n (Iillll*1l * P I'M ^MH I V* I (lilillUiN Wl 

MUHHM\H\NSIV 1H71-7I Hi ouvs 1^1 1111 I'AMI MA M vnitA AiN(S7l luiMivnt \i'it<i< MKN KI tin \ln r L niit> tr i 

A1 IllMlMII.V 'Ml MlHUHVAIMN | III I ^TIOS IV Hi M, VI, 

Huly tip|H mil luii uf Miihiimm.ulaiiH IIP Kin'linh I'diifiilirpii , 1 17 

IVrHiH(i*ui .i| ilhv ol llio Mnli itiimiiiUiih lonatiN Kri^li J fi Hut ili(in, 1 702 ISIS . * r'< 

il <'*UM s ol tin* iMf I winliK'M ut Mull uniimdium in Nnj'lHli rdiMMhnn iiiiiininn/t rl hv HIM IMunitiMU CiMimn"it(n , ,/> 

i d HluliHfiis ol Miihainiiuilwi oiluf it urn in 1871 72 . ,. 14H 

Ihf* (lovitiimi'ui cl India, No MM .if H I 7l.Ii Aiiffiin, 1 87 1, on Miili,tiniadiin nlu^itnm ., if 

il i diidUion MuifiiKf MidiHiiiinudfLiiH tl<*|ilijal)li k MidiiUtiiii id m !if< Mfim iii.ii IH nmnui^i' 4 ' < "' 

rd Kiti'lmh lo 1u ip|ioinli>d .mil MiiliiiutiiiuUiiH imuitiu^d l*> i^iuil 1 in lutl In <mdi Ml.itfil nud 



Indi ui bun it HI! HH to lucent it^i 4ubi< ami IVISMM IiU'MiuK' t , i/ ( 

The lt('i]iiimvi<ipi"vnl by ihn hfc'iiliuy ui Sl.id m Im |)i'>|Hilth Nn l^dahd I III) IhninlH'i, Wl h 

KD^(C vlimm hf tin i (!<jviwiniii nt H Inrln n, to MiilmirimiifUn iiliiiuiiou in IS71, .tiiriim m/i>d , \l, 

Kdirilul/i)fi iI ihc (luviMimrml ol Indiii, dnlr'd Uftli Jum*, |h7l, nn HK t*oiidHi<ni of Iidiii.ihifM Mimm'f Muliirimndiii. ir. 

inimuitol lulling HMMdiifmnnl 7f)iAuHiiit, JWl,iui Muluimm.id<iu idiitiitiuii , ,., 16 

MithamnmdHii iMluMfidii n )HiihMl u]Mi , , j^j 
fduraiiiiA m Ilio ViniMdilnr I irMJ"'H < HIM trf ^imlli f Kmiiml,iij and lliflit'r Kiluinhoii .iniifiir MulmmmiiiirUiM nitu 

rti^ w iMiHtontcd lo lluidiiMlMii 01 Uulu f IIIII.K IKIH , ( i 
kwcuJnoHMof Mulmmmiiilnnmti Uuflini Colli^uduind Hnivi'mity Kdu<4fi<m mut.t icnuiUbh LiiMiiitiiliilih of thiMotuuM 

ot iiiHliuUimi iitujssiIdiMiiiiMi, il i ( iimiiHt biMOinMdud th 

IVOIIIH to rtMiw d\ Muliflriiiii,iduii mlitfiitimml bat kwhrdfU'sH fftahfyirif? tt M 1 1! 

Hipp* UiliMi in M.tdnm mid ltntnU> Tot Muliamiiuuian Hi Inx.U ind *nunn ( t;^m^l ol fVrMimi mid Arnhn ... ib 

ilo|dnil in lltuiffil In itrftun* Muhamnifuhn ulu^ttfm U/ aid ui lln> Molmm Kmlowmi'Titit M ib. 
Mlnfo liihlnipfmii in (ho N W duiinnw Mtd Omlh und in tbi Pim^h, n*i Uvouiitldi* tn Mutmmrwilnwi WH ( 

Hindu*. AtttiiiLum to Muhttmmatiwu udiw^iiun in tk* < Jim Hal huuiicH", Wywms OUOIK niui Hutu ,. , M ^, 



TABLE OF CONTENT! 

Principles on which Muhammedan education should be encouraged by the State . J 62 

Local Governments to encourage Uuhnmmaflau education 40001 dug to local oiraumrtwwes . tfr 

Summary pnipoit of the Goyornment of India's Resolution on Mnhammadm education, dated 13th June, 1873 ifr 

Reforms m the Oaloatta Jfodt reua m 1871-73 133 

Views of the Government of India upon the iubioot 18th Juno, 1878 4 

Application of tlio Mohsin funds to wards MuhammiuUn Education in general in Bengal 154 

Sir George Oampboll'a Resolution regaiding measure* adopted for Muhammodon education, 29th July, 1878 6 

Approval by the* Spcretrary of State of the ahownentionod mpofluiee, 18th November, 1878 tb 

CHAPTER XXVTI 

MttWB?b ADOPTFD BT THP VAMOUS LOOAL GOVHENHFHTS AS TO HUUAKKADAN 1DUCATIOW DffDFE TOT GbymrMBHT 0* INDIA** 

RMOitrnoH OF 1S71, AS srAin) IN THP BBPOBT o* rnt EDUCATION COMMISSION or 1882 
MoQinrpi taken in Madras for MnhammatUn wlucnhon under the Governmant of India's Ro*dnUon No 800, dated 7th August, 

1871 J55 

Results or mNMureq for Muh immddiu crlnoataim t ikon in M riiu igf; 

MQjflurcq for Muhammad education token in Bombay 357 

Results of mraqurrKf foi Muh animation education in Rnifiliay ]Bft 

Mo.wurw! for lluliammaiUu pclucition taken m Dniffdl 151) 

The MotiRin Bndowmont at ITooghly tpplitcl to Hnqhsh oduration amoncf Muhamm&dans in Bragal / 

Bemilts oi mcuqniM for MnhammafLm otliu itinn in Bongiil v> 10] 

M^asurtH inr Mull Hn.m,ul,wi f flnraiiim Ukon in the Notth Western Provnicoi t jt 

Rr'snltM of mrinuiM foi UnlmmnurUu oduc ^ion in the Kin Ih WpMoin ProTinrw ifta 

Independent pflorls mailo by tbe Muliammulan^ of the NorLJi Waitoni ProYinopu for Bnglnh education 4 16 

Tho Muhammulttn Anglo Oiinnlal Collogr, Aht^arh 753 

HoaHiipcs 1 01 Muh uninml m cduc^tinti takon in tho Panjab 104 

If oa^ui^A for MuhdianuwJan education taken in Oudh Kf5 

MOMUIOB for Muhammwiau odacjiLiou Ukon in the Central Province*, Mygore, Oooiff, and tho Benurf ( 167 

CIIAITBR XX7111 

CoNOIiUllOMTK AND UfbCOMMVNDATXONI Of VHI HlIlN ATIOH OOIIMISIION 188S, ON TUL SOBJTFCT 0V AfUBAIIIfADAN iDVOATlON AlPQftTB 
OF lllk LOCAt GoVtRNtflNTS TORAPOK VlBWS OF lift GQTfRNIiyMT 0V INDIA UPON TOP snBFPrT 

Oonditiori of Hnglmli odur.Uiim among ACuhammadann in Oolloges, and Sohooli, M mditatod by tho statintioe of 18B1 82, m the 

Kf'port of Uic* H duration CumnufiBion ol IBH^ 157 
T*bU Hlinwing tlin attontlancxs of MuiulmanM in tlio varioue Kduoatiooal Institution*, Oovornmeitt, Aidod anil Unaided, aj 

uuiiparod with HIP triUl attendance in 1881 89 . 108 
Nota wMe pomtn in TOgard to thrj low poioontogo of Muhamniadan etudonti in lOiigluh Oollogos and BciiooU &H ixtnpaiod with 

tho jKitnintMigti of Huhanimadaiu in tho population IQQ 

OnnnlumiHift tf Urn MilucAtinn OrvmmiHuion m to the condition of education among Muhammadwn in 18SA .. & 

KoromnicuidulioiiH of tho Mduoatjon Oommistion for promoting education, among Muhamtaadann ^ 

Tho rorummomlatimn fortnuUtod with icwiwmn in brief . , 17g 
U<iTornnnni of Incluk'n Ilcwlutiun dated UJrd OcLobor, 1884, reiervod gubjeeb of Muliammadan CM!UI ation f w ioimrak oon 

idomlion . . 171 

Hnnutiiftl of the National Muh<mmadait AMooation of Calcutta on Muhammadan. eduooiiou, <bc , m 18B2 t, 
JtMtilution nf tho Uorernoumt of Udia Oattd 16th July, 1880, renewing Muhaamadm education and declaring pvhoy of 

Uovertimont * ,., t6 

VIOWH 4f HIP fSorornrnftnt of Madras on Muhammadan education in 1884 . , 17JJ 

ObmtVAiionB <jf ihA Oomnrnmont of India therooa , *b 

VUIWH ol th<t (iuvflrnmont of Bombay on Mulummadan education, in 1884 t b 

Obsoivalionwol Uir> Clovernmont of India tbeiaon t ^ 

Vtowi cil Ibo GovMTxmnnt of Uongal on Mtthautmadan odueaiion, m 1884 , t ^ 

A(>pn)\al thereof by tho aownmoAt of laoUa 173 
of tbe Uovorunooi of the N, W P and Oodh on Muhammadwi edoofttion m 1884, and remarfei (if the Government of 



tho Punjab Omrnmont on Mubammadau oduoation xn 1884 . , a, 

Viewi of tt* Ohtor aommwlonop of the Dental Pienneet on MihammadM edaoatlon in 1884 . & 

Vim of the AdmmjftffttUoni of Awam, Ooorg, Benur and BnUih Burma, on Muhammadui edaoation, m 188i M ... ib* 

Vlewi &4 wafgeetoom* of MM floTWiimeub of Jbfa M to eftoon0mfat of Mohammad** edd*taoft m tho wioui pronaeei m 

geaowl M* o * M (* i i 174 

tU Ck>rerut>mt of fao^ dated Igth July, 1885 M & t 



i\ TABLE OT CDNTDNTfl 

Mahfttnmadani cannot advance without placing themaolm m line with the Hindu* in English education ... 17ft 
Unh&imnadins Lannob be exempt ad from qualifying tosta for public wivico Thou inloiobts in thii roapooc ahould be duly 

watohud ib 

The* Government u nob nacrloctful of the offrwti foi education il impiovcment amoiuj Mnhimm idins 175 

Lhe ttovt'iuuiLnt ol Indii, in ita Resolution of IGtli July, 1S85, on Muhainuiculm uilucition, nwmaiuod vb 



OHAPTKtt \XIX 
or KMTIMI MMTfAriof AMONI, MIJIIAIIMAI>ANS, 1SS1 83 tnlS'JI 93 RISOIITUONS ui IHI UorrviviM OF INDIA ON iur 

MMHI, IN IbtiS AND 1891- Dl HCJ1X M \ O> HlbU KNOLISII BllUAUON AMONC All IUMM VHANS, 18 hJ *J2 

Muhammad ins ii'LPivmcf Engliflh Collpguta education m 1881 83 17 1 

MM kw irilur si of Miihammadinq in Kncflihh Uallaqitita cdu<iihon in 1882 17ft 

HI mst UH oi tingled! IM!UI ril ion AUHIIKJ UuhtimmAil vim timing lbS^- r )2 177 
I Mil miry iu tli* 1 ]i)i>"ii in ol Kii'^Ush C!(jlltf(i ito oilut itiuii amimfr VuhamnutiUns dining 1882-Oii . id 
Km M HH ot Muh i mm itlum in Ijiiivri^ity Kv inunctions in 1HH7 and 1S 4 I2 W 

Si itMiinnb shonincr Ihf* niiiithci uf Mutuniirn ulins who p.LMMl the \ a turns Uni>oiHit> Ktiimiulions iu 1S% h7 .mil in 1VH r li ITS 

I>i In if my in I UP snor"4H <jl Muluimiii'uUns in Uni\c>isili(M, cnni])ji((l with ihou pr iu nfu^" in Uu> puiniUtu*!!, m I SMI UJ 170 
thii Oa\ ii nmiMil. of hull i on Muh.imin ulnii (slue ition, m 4h* l^,lutum il I!H| Ihtli Jinn 1SSH ,l> 

tlu rinvciriniintof Inilu on Muhunnudin c duration, in llui BtHiilntvui U*il 7lh Hi piinibn ISMi 1M> 
li |KtiniH in HM ilmvi* IU it>lution '' 

Slulish* < of liitfhi i i ilui ilion aniiMiff Muhamnin(l<mH crmsuIiiHl ipnt liiuu Mlif t i ilur ition in <t in lal !S| 
> n<ukvuiliiOHH of MuliiiinmatUiii Uilwu population in Kni;lish Collr^iiti i rlw'ulnm t' 



CHAPTKK \\X 

Oh E(1(,H WNf.riSM IIUlATKlM AUCIMi Mmi\HHAIANS \, ( OMI'\UMl UIMI IllMH-s 
IIIL MIAH!fSI[\K^T 01 Fill |MIAK llMl\I USlflFM 111 rill I'KI'SI M lbRlfl|l t*< \IAl"i 1KS III 1VM 

GmnpiuaUvf* KlntiHlu B ol Hindu anil Muliiiimn uhn ffiatluulcs of Indian [Jim i<i situ H, IS57^3 pn(HHi <l . IS ' 

Hull i Ui i<jusn<HB uM lu popnl.it inn ol I uihi . ,f' 

i of IhUmh Inilu iu \W\ i/ r 
'! fiint|jiiiitiv( MatiHiuB htuilod Lo Hindu <uul Muhamm.ului f-;*nliuli mtliMfui^nfi (IMHIII l lf*S( nxr 

Hl.ai.UicH, 1H57-IM 1 

Disii ihiitiinn ot Hindu and Muhuram ulan populnhon mho < wtcs, w i M, Af in 1NHI i* 

iMHhihubioii -i nd pnx[nla^ih<if I he Hindu And MiiliiimmuiUn pitjjidut.iou in Urn tannim pn\iiu*iH, in IHS1 IS1 

Hindu iMiil Mubimnud in pupid Uion clnsnitH d at i oidinff In pit IH<[I< lion <if huliiin I nm nalu / 

Pni** uta^i"! (Mil ubtod wifh inh n urn* 1o U toi.d Hindu and Muli unm id.iri pnpuiiitiiti mil\ is , 

*jm|rtwativr> HhibislKH of Hindu jnifl Muh*imui.uifyi tfi ^hull's pn>puid Jnm Call minis (d lndiun I ni\i r 'iin i<, IHf'H 'M dmdi*d 

lllfo OWOClH Ol Hit yt'AtH (WUll , ^ 

Httr*iuo nuiKUly uf Muhamin Mliin jfintliMtm dunn^ i\w lirnl ftnii ponods, I8TS (o IHM ( /. 

pmjfKP^R nmonjj Mutumrriadtin widiutfH dining Uu* 51 h uud hlli inrcoilH, IMa-iKl |M) 

ffrnrluflUw vuiiriMl in tiMpwt oi tho wkoU JHUU*!, lHTi8-0'( . ill 

Uiiifiuiiiid MuhnnmiMfl HIM in liHi MrHi'ihculiiciHion ISH <rt t^ 
UiuLwaidmMH <if high Hnirlwh odiKAtifin aiming Muhamm^Uns in fhi \KIIOUH pi ifiiwMH utiMfifmnln I'mvi'^iiv inM in/, 

IHIMMM . 1^7 
of ffr ulim^M per lOd^KlO of lint Hindu and Muhatmnadah prtpiiluftim, H M[HK tmdy, JK5H-'> t . ,16 
<(Jiowtiitf the numlx i of ^nuluiblot |H r ino/M) ul m \\ population, iunl tho niiiiili r of vat h |riipiiluii(iji <uiHinr *lu,ui um* IM 

fnadimNs fiom tin* < HlaNmbmcnt of th< iunou4 liuluu Univ< riiljuu to I IHI ycitr IH'ftl JKH 
ol liiyh Knirlwli i*diiftt1ion tuimny; llindiH f f n l,mM*iHKmd u Aimmfr MuhiimtiindiiiiH, *nlt (dnlml |H r MrtMirUMd thi 

of 4vu h rominimily, IM3H-W I^D 
in tlii iiunilic rnf MuliiuiiniiutiuiKifKtiutufi, acumhrib; tti Ihc ratio of flic U ulatmtniMlMi in iln Hindti |if*]mln4Hii r 



TUbln riwwiiifc Un numlN-r of Mulmirinmd<uiKtMliiai(nitu.fttoii^td (n IN* finordmv; l Uir* film t1 ih Muhummwhin hi On 

Hindu pufwlillmi, thi*mtu*il imiitfu'i of MulmnimadaJt Kinduau*H nnd thi* d^tJnnr> in lh<*ir numl^i.duiuiK IHfih It* IMUH Lnu 

Mxpl*naiMu>f tliopw^MmKT^JisuHiihowin^tlirotU'nLof thrulrttUunry nf thn ftluntiinm^iiui'i ui lu^h Kn^Mlt it<iur*tainii, 

iw tfcwfftiad with the fhndum iav*-0ft .*,,,,,., , 101 

i tiumbw of MulittmmmlnnBJwluoU-i, wt it nhould IIM* UIMI, arcimlmK tr tbn ratio of (hi< Mulmmmwlwi in tht 



Tool* iUuiring tho nnmbor of KnulaaUMi of Mu.h IBM pt*r HMI nf Ow iirtal Hindu noil MukainmnflMn KiAduiitf*, and thu 
tliiaatft number of Mvhumadia gmduftU'V, M tt nhmiia Uvo biHMi, tti^unlinff u* thi rotuuif HIM Mulmmtimntliw 
Ulndo population (M , . , M . 



T1BL1 Off CONTIVTS XXI 

Peg. 

Calculation! in the preceding Table explained . ,. , . 193 

Diagram I showing the oompirative progress of high English education in Art* among Hindu and Muhammadans, 1868-93 tt 

Figures necessary to understand the calculations in the Diagram I tfr 

The forcgoino; Diagram explained . 194 
Abstract Tabular Statement, showing comparative progress of Hindus and Hnhommadans in various branches of University 

education, 1858-03 tb 

Statistics of the baotaaidnpsB of HuhammadanB in all Departments of University education, 1858-93 195 

Success ot Muhmnmaddni in University degrees only ont tmth, of what it should have been in pioporhon to their population U> 

Rhowmg tho comparative progreu of Hindus and Huhammadans in the Degiees of the Indian Universities, m 

bi uuhLS ot leaimn?, duiin? 1858-08 198 

Rale of projects of Muhftnunadan graduates in vinous faculties of tho Indian Universities, during 1858-98 tb 

Progress of Muhammadans in Indian Universities, up to 1876, inconsumable 107 

Rail oi progi CM of MuhammatUn gi actuates m the faculty of Arts, 1881-03 * 

Rate of piogiBU ot Muh<vmmaLlan cp iduxtcB in tho faculty of Law, 1881-93 t&. 

Ratt of piogioss of Muhirum id in giaduatos in tho faculty of modiome and surgery, 1881-93 tfr 

Rate of piogiou oi Huhimmadan tpaduiitcH in the faculty of Engineu ing, 1881-98 tb 

Rate of vwtfipsa of Muhamm vlan i^iaduatr s in all the ftrulties of tho Indian. Universities, from IB SI to 1693 198 

Fut uro pi ospt 1 1 s r J the M uh imm idaiiq m i eg u il 1 o Dm vc ruty T Jr IJTPOS , *b 

Uiugiam JJI showing the rah of piogiobs ot Mubanimadana in Indian TTniYerMtios, from 1868 to 1898, explained tb 



CHAPTER XXXI 

Pf I SIT ION 01 MUll \MMAUANS KM Till GPtPBAI PflPDLAriON INJUA Til* PEIfiPNT tfffp 01 IHT PnniiK> SS ()E KNGMSir 
AHDNC. ATDIUMVAIIAAS lit CULLI tS AND fiJlCOHDARf tiCUOOLS, AMU Us IU1LBI lllUSl'Krs 

PoHiiion of iho Muhamm ulaiiR 111 Ihp ffont lal population of India 199 

Tuiutfinal distnliitum of tlm Muliammadans in India tfr 

Halt of i) KLIPS'- ol Ktitflish cdiuatinn among Muhammidans m At is CullcfffrH, 1K82-U2 2(1 L 

ttatt ul iJi[)iiiMh ul MuIiaitiRincUnH m Kngliih Aiis OolUffca in Madias, 18b2-UJ tf> 

Hah ol picnic ss of MukammadauB in Huglish Arts Colleges m Bombay, lS82-9ii 208 

ttatf oi inoffiiwH ol MuliAmmuiJans m Mn^inh Aiis Collt^*' m Bonppil, iH8J-Oa ib 

Ittti of pn^ioHH of MuliammudonB in Kuglmh \iiH College <i in Iho Ninth WtHloin F^tmnccB anil (Judh, 1882-32 , %b 

Itatt of IIIUKH us of Mull uum.ul.uiH in Kntfiflh ^I(B (Jo I log PB m tho I'uiijahf 1882-92 ib 

Itui? ot pioKicsH of MuliammatlajLH in Knglihli ArlH t'oll<-^8 in India, 1882-92 d 

KngliHli c ilut oi JOH among Muhainmadaub in Aits Colleges 2<J I 

JV oiiiltuncd . tb 

Rat< of itioffii I-H ti HiiffliHh cdut ation among Wuliawmadaua in Soooudary Schools, 1882-99 * 

Kalt of piogiiss of Muhttranudiuifl in Nngliali Suroudary He booh in .Madias, 18H2-03 SMM 

Kate of i u 0^1(44 of MuhammadAiiA in Knglinh hocondary Kchoola in Hominy, 18821-92 *6 

Bait of |UOKM k hB ol MubammiMlanii m KngliHh Noumdary HchooU in Bengal, 1882-92 tb 

fait rf |og)OHH of MuhummailtuiB m ECughsh AM otiilary Hchools in tho Nuiili Wcflteui Proymccs and Oudh, 18H2-02 tb 

Half of inogiohs of MulminmotlaiiH in Knglmh Hooondftry Hchoolii m tho Punjab, 1882-02 6 

Total Hate of |itogiMM of MuhanimadaiiH uri JOngliub Socxmdftty Hchoolfl m India, 1882-02 . 206 

ProspPCtH of Knglinh (HluruUon among MuhammniiaiiM in beooudiiry tiohooli ,. *t 

Diagram V otplomod . * 

Appanmt iiu lua^c of Hnghak Milncatum among Mahammsxlans m tho K -W Provinoos and Oudh explained 206 

UibOA imputation of Ituim, onnsidorod for educational questions . tb 

Proixirtion of Muhmnmuduni* m Urban population bout tost of progress of Hnglish education among them Diagram VI 

oiplomod ... , , b 

ftirwmtago of Muhammadans m tho Urban population of tho N -W Froyinoefl and Oudh 207 

Hit AiwklttiidOolvin'n viowias to tho luopttftiooato claims o MiOianttoadans m Mducation and Pubhc florvioo m the N W 

ProvinpoH anii Oudh ,. .... * . . ** 

Diagram VIJ oxplumod * 



xxxn 

OlMIXAIi SPftlAD Or BXGUHH IDUUkTION IK IMVIA, ACOOKWNO TO VHB OlKStTS Of 1891 

Statistics of tho general spread of English sduesatiou m 1891 * 

Table sUowing htenioy and knowlodg* of tho Mogliih language among tht ranous olassM of the population of India, according 

totheOo&nsaflBOl . M. > . M. 

Concentration of Utonwy, espooially English, in certain classes of tho population . .. .. ..* , 

. . M ... .. * - 



Ull TABtiF OF OONTllfll 

Pag* 

Literacy, especially English, omon^tho malw 211 

A batk&ot of slatiibios of English fjiLpifaloi * 212 

RcMturkB on the statibtira of BngUuh knowing Litnatei ft 

Genpi a! c \tant of Litoiacy 213 

Condition of Litniotuir fc 



01T \PTTBR XXX IT J 

EtPiciAiioss wn H7s or FVINEM VTATIWH HiflARTiiiiu tnr IMIIMHAI, OCIAI, vortt AMI rriToinis miou o MM, n HIT 
imcirioN AMONfr tin pinrn n> I>DIA OnMnv.oi un KIUCAIION t'ouvissms nt 1NSB n< mi si.irm 

Compiohfiisu i* wprH, of t lu rftVctn of Hiictfi di tdut ttmn m Inrti i ait 

Kflfi c < q of Kmjhsh CHUW at inn c lasiitirtL r 

|]IM 11 siou til l'iin;lish pilutMimri htlilt* in (nnltnvraqy , but \ipwsuf Pinmoni ^tati'iimn imnniiiint id 

\iilici|i iLiniiH of (lift Rt Ilun'hU (*liul( > Hunt M tn (Hilitn al fuVrl'i of hii Ush t du< 1(1011 , ^ IIUK ist, 1792 ')/ 'ilo 

oli|f>f turn 1u tin* spiMd itl Ntii;li> U i ilur itum imtiiul iLi*<i tb 

ir I'linn^ uis in India is i sc|hiiitp qu<Mitm firmi rihuaiioii if 

l'ic<'ifiu'< nf <L 11*1 lam iiiimht'i iif KuinpiMiiH fi Public Hmno 4il Cominowf <lr ,11111 l su\ in Iitcli*i,l 

Hlinillll !' (*M lilllul 

lni|)lo\nv' l tit ol NalutHi*) Military <omm.nul 
HiKifliH itnn KI itirftii'ii tloitiiiiKin Mud lUMtlum 

hlilir <il olijiu luin <o Kni'lnl) i iliu itum IH u IIIJH ly hypdlhotn il crmjochm oppom d 10 rim* tun pitm ipliM 
<r OhuMtiau luu IIIIIK tavtmis Hulmuu'nuii and K^HM! r*nlt i auiim^ tki*> inniplo 
i i of (ihimtnuut> <l< nnt, r<rirliotlf*> ^ny poHmhh' firilitKil CITI|H 

!' v4hlt iJoliUtiU ilaiifrnr from diffumiin of KtiMuih lititiihin, uuiui AIK\ 1 1 h<'iim ion rnmnfr foi pituiunl fmHiili i ilmn 
AtHilitiouof (Mtc |iti|mii(*Haiul im|iiti\rmut of M'li^iouH uul nwul fnhii}^ will IH wt '^iiulubt ih i* notjrilntt 
nr I'll hi* ftfjptwht uilf'd 

ilosiiiii)' <i (Kipnlar futm uf 

M tfl'l 

iiinoi mipmin itf I)H ilolnUt liintf c (Torts uf 1!<i il^in r luiuiti 1 < *< 

tuul .blmiiii( of maul uun twin inuon^ Lin Unuliis will < lus k mdi ut ili> wpw nf ind* pi>iirinif i 1'14 

Inilidi will not |jic unit lull in lent fni Kfu{lnh hlmi ty t' 

AlMhiu i k of n|Uf k Hf*!jUtiw n/'liM fnr (hi KiM'lmh iitli.bljiiiiitH in huliii uill pnai ul NutiviH fiom < Imnnii" niu h n"lm ifc 

Hntihli Amoiuim (olnnuM liimifrlii>ii im i uuiiplc fui lnlia imui); t ili^Jiiubntj' ni phjni tl iiihUiitn.il nut tmual 



l [tn tii Itiifish ptoloftum h mdi pi inlimo . , 

l)iffi<i<nio lnitMiM n Hi' \tinn< .in Kc volution niitl luHmliilitu's in India , 

tmwum tin Amriit,u] (ViluniHlHiLiid NadiuBui India * 

ntnoitK Urn (miul ftiitiiitisnivn piirpli ol Indn .,* 

KntflmU (uiliAaiuii will piomi^' |u*p>|M'iily, MM i])Hi(sd tinumniM', -md ninUli in liultn 

ibi ijmwtioii l Wlut un* I hit hi ut inHinn uf |M I'jwnnitiiitf tU< Kiitmh Kiiipin mlndiii &1> 
UahiunmoUuu cunt] in *M( nf India niadc hy Hiidu*iK ut fnrtuim 
liilitArir HmdiH tuid MuUamrnwlrviiH forut a gii a fltanilni)* lumy iif mw onfturw, mtid> to In, liuiil Im uiv *|^n. D tif 

irilh an oyu to plundur , , 

MjlitAiy dutnin*nr*y m indi ^ both Hindu ^nU UulumnuuUn f haH KHH taltut nliwisli ilinfHi*ibinti if llio (mpiil iinm in n H! M 
Fn'qunnt omMiuoih) if India ki> fntiiiKniH IWhihlt d UIK'IH tn liuliHli tttiu< fciuii uiiuKi HA kim>i of lutiuni i ,v I|,INI i M , 
loyalty of llui H<jx*y Uuiu^U tur|itismff f HI ithni itiit\|>lnMlln uiu immuluMts n&y Im nnduhKi IIH( liy <t UuA/liiir It nl* i f > 
ulLy nf Lki piiutlf nniMiklant and hi Kiiftvaijlo ly Hpiisutiru? Kin<lmli i nlt^litt nim nl m 

Ammil itwu and a wrnuum bond of uiiiim lMitw*in Uu* KnKtuili uiul Urn Ndtivitrt (ii^*'rfttiy ftir i^tinntK nn< nl UnttHli 



Alntandor Utf Orvufc m AWnmiU.iiiff AHialic* mihjiiU nthn riiwuui nynli'm iini wiimin*f thur ln^ilr> f 
foUowml by UM Knj;lmfa in India , 

Now prinelplM of aUwhnumt, uwlwity and mduMry amnnr Uin |Mipli f of India will In* cotntuiavu tn UK ir iMyiilly in HH* 



, 

Knawfodgo of Bnfflitb oltamcl.cr and nimc.r will onriAilial* tho l^ativni .. 

indlflfmm of Bftgli^tmon io ruli|ri<m will rimlr Nattvcm imliffMiitib to uvtry H>nt<m of rulywn 



IAOTMMI of Iowol Jteopowu in India liblo to amtainmoUk tint Nitwit, Ami nuwwwng pnwpeiay qf iauiil4irdi utudn U* 
iwrngtbon prtdt and dJtederlj propowuttti for wkiah KoKh 



wmoa on kh* ubjwt of Wttcatmg lttU>* m WI 



TABLE OF CONTFWTfl I1I 



the wibicet in. tna Oomt of Fiopriotoia of East India Stock in 1798 ... 229 

Objections nrgod in tho diSLaquon *& 

AigmncnU employed in iho cunii overfly ,. *& 

The* ob]OLlioiii <nid ai^nuicnis atiswratd ^ W 

Bh STV iitAiMudiLitiouof Mission aiy effort 331 

Novrltj ui tho issprtion tint tliL liujhoi Natives have puie nioiahiy md stiiot \ntnp t& 

Objection u to uvpiMLuipiu 1 ** ol tho scheme of edaoation uinvuuantad *& 

Opposition 1o CJhiriiim/iiiif India nn justifiable t& 

Hu ( 1 hailo^ Tir\ily ni's vn vr4 on I HP (diualion ol tho people of India, 1838 *& 

OppoHuni n< ss if inhoituLmi? English cilucUion ip [nilii, 1SJH 232 

N ilivoi n idy tn co opni li p nith fhivri mnniit in Bullish orluc Uiou & 

Kffnith nl Lin MJ*SIOILUIGS to spit id English odiiidtion ... *& 

Re. vl dpiiic ol Nitivfs to obi 1111 TCnqlisli Lihi' itiim *' J 

I'oliLir U It niloiK \ ol Bu^luh r iluc ition in Inili t a3t * 

oi JOn^l uul to ulm ilt ln<ln * ft 

nvli^lini' 11 tr> ulmimstt i fudiv foi thn Km (It of its proplc* ^ 

Thn AIuli imm ul in mil Ilinilu '>slinis ol fJo\(iinm ut riituisid *^ 

Nlluf ol Kii'jlisK lilnalinn I <\uiii ilih* io in nufcn inr L ol UnMiIi mil 1 -^1 

Inliisinn ol KiiiiiTK in nil Hnill n mid Niti\fs cli pr nih nf on Un^lish jiiolnctum *^ 

( 1 Dim oc lion ni Hu< Unil with liulu i inmtL IK inimiiuiiL * & 

NL|IVISM|,K ihrl HI K'ii"liih mil inniild then |i^iinm uniloi Riin k li ]iiolnlinn ^35 

(liaihidl null | n ndcnci nl Tndi i will In fiminily to Huli-li u>inni( n i<il infi n run ^r *^ 

Tin ( \ unijlc ul Uuiu ins in 1 1\ ili/ui": Kin ope ami < n> ititiLf iiuJt JK ndi'iiL tin mlly n ilim ilil w H miint he fulluvrcd ib 

l'r>hcyol lOnifii mi Al Int In IM uloptnl ^^ 

AinlMliiin ol Kii"lnli nl in iln I Nil in slm n n idnnil n pn s niilivr* iiumhv ffnuluilly UiminUmH Ihi KiiKhsli ltuli . tb 

l'<i|Hilu idur Hum \\ill H< i inn hv illy of NaliM Vimy ^ 
i^nii ncutialityuliht Blah Kiifflidi idunAiuunill <li fiat mippisitiimis \nu>\*i ill ol Iliiulus <iuil mollify 

I ln Mil In inni iflum - BM 
i ul Mliifalmn in hnlm umlil lw sulvml by 8|i aiding UK iiilnml. of only XM/UJQjOOf) .wiuiwlly, ami BUIUP 

of \ili\M In Hnli'li ltulr k .* 

Mil (Mi nh s Tin i ly \n\ ltni'i,nt oi Kn^lish f dm A! ion how l.u >rUi'i'd 
Unlnnnu i mil m i ih flu I ol Kipflnh i due .Uion up lo tho iJci id( rndiiiif in IHbh 

Kisi nl ItnlimiiiHiusupfi oiling II imlu pii |iidii<H mil supnsliliouH *. 
liilllit ( (!<( I nl (JljiHt.iuilv in Ilii' mi)H k iwlviuiii^d PIDMIHI-M 

Ui 1 pinpnlirM^Mdiully )ii'l<lin<f ... 
Nun* K*M inii'ri uid AhNii iifiiniH ' 
Hinpnsi of Muinpiiin h,ivi'llusuUhiMib'itni l i of mi< ial minimum* bflwwi lhi Mii'<lwh .md tho Kuluofi 
Alw4*'iu i ol i OIIIIIM nsiihly |II|HI>IMI Mm KiHinh and lln< N^livi'M pri i Imti M IIM! iiitini<u v 
Tin Kdm.itionOiiiiimisHion'Hopmiori.wloUioolfi'tL of Hiitflirtli ISilkwi<di ifisiiwUim iifMm tlii euliHlifcijmPDt oi 



ir* Wu|on(y rf KnliHh ediim4wl NliviH .ulopl. , , SIO 

imniliki HIIIUICIIIH ul KII M K WiwLicift Hu W WiiUmbuiii, iiml Hir Uhu IK Tui IHV fltt 

ut it . hi nIi>ul<M ol KtitfliHh (Jolk'K*^ <"i^ thntt cltoilH to itdv.ttif < I'tiliK^U itmrnt & 

uT Nnidihh mliudlwl Niilivmi iu UiftmnHH oi motrnm, couitiwy mil tfoud iniium>iM v fjcplttiiupd , 848 

il nu uu Ui wliolo "bonofic'iivl . ib 

Impottanou of Iho \IIIWH of omnicnt Indmn HLnL<>Muif*n *vi to tho jfohftifil i^i*oU oi HnKliHh (uluoftUoij fr 

Hir UK Inn d Tc mplnV VKIWH tui Lo i wly i flortfl of Nntflinh ( k di atioii * ^ 

Hu- Hinhtuo w ci HMUIII of nlui aUd NalivoH if ruling tho oountiy whilo tho Mimipoftiid went ti dofrmd it 2&3 

l KWlIlWUHtHH Of till' N ltlV(* I'lttf* .. , . .. ' lfr 

ln^h ndur^f ion * ' * f 

Iliiduo luid iliH|nripnriHmiiia ftttimtion ti> hiomtuii) aiul plulowiphy Lo Iho wftriUco of iomntiho and priwLioal iniinurtioa *Zr 

ImporUnl qiiCHlimiH <>unuiMa1o<l by Ku Richard Tumplu tu< to tho c ffiiot of Bntinh Uulo upon tho Itiduui pooplo tb 

flu KnpliHli fwliu ation olnvnLfil Nnttvo ohwaotor P M4 

Hnffluh du< it ion \\M \wwiil intimity and roimwMl nopoMition, cmd improrod mowJity and mtoUeotnri oapatnty * 

Rthml awl Moipniiflp miLruaiim, raibiaod with (pod otAmple of tho Bntwh Bale, have imporUnt iHlttOftMonifcl offnrte , * 

Uoi4 and HjihiLiml oftort ui Knghuh Utoifttura bonoOoiftl, ud omtei eathuntnim of hum*mfcy . . ^ 

Indian Art ,, M. . . ..* M * 

I>intinKuiiilifxlAdnimiiitiwU>niof Natifofltatoi ... .... '" *^ 

ThH Malir^itft tlrahiniru ptoAt 1> UitgliHli odnation , M - - < *" *: 

authon . , , , , * * 



ZZ1V TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Pagt 

New religion* sects iue to Hnguth oduDAtion 215 

Xkufhah education will not impiir the oiigmality of the Natiroi 6 

Foimle education m need of bouovolont effort SS4.Q 

Indian reznaoulai liteialmo enoouxaged & 

What eiort taa Bullish education on e\Ming religions * ib 
Ckrutoamty IUM not affaotod Mahammadamim.but tho oiluontod olmeq of Hindu q Adopt thusm, ind ChiHUimh is iipully 

adranomtf Among the nubscs, but not among the edue ited olauoa J 

CMte IB ihakm among educated olusoa but not among the mis&ofl . 2 17 

Aw educated N itivos discontented * tb 

Diaoontent oi crluoitLrl N itivos m British TcmtonoB QB diBtingmshod finin Native SUtoi ift 

UHoantent ot educated Natitaa cm ing to oxiluwon Tiom Kuiopoan Butioty in hidu, if 

DrnitVQLl by P ducat cd Nativus loi irapiovod std,tii, and omolamrata ifr 

Ininoibanra of educating n>u official tfntives to fool public apmt & 

fl vtiVLi will dcsu o iqu osontati\ e inBtitntiim? *'i 

Blcotivo ham luso ab oady allowed m Mimiu^iliiioi of Tndnn c ipiUl cities timy IK octrntliMl f vc u fox Irf "i*il it'tL C!uun< J i 2 Ih 

IliifU eduLution should not bo dlkuidonod onini? lo pnlihciil discontent u' 

Thn rduratnl i USSPI in India bioughl up imihi IltiLisli supw vi .ion follow \ uinim piokHMoim if 

tfiilj, inri loyiUy of odiu ilnd Nitlivos hUibiiM toiv on flic uhnlc '* 

of nvli\i 4 ofluuls oi thr uppoi ami tnuldlu gialos ti icodbli to mlluuicts rl Kn;li Ji ctliH ilnii ^ 

odiu iU rl N jiiies oi lowci ^udu UUf 

uid ini|iiuvuu( nh or thr U^U jinifpssinn ainunif N itivpu if* 

Lhu Post Oflicr* in in-,! uu c ol tlui iutnt,il ami motal JUDI^I qi of i lu< N L< i\i ' r 

ImprjitiTUOof thooDpcLh oi hluglinh c ditf AtiDii ^mniifr tho Nal/ivos wilh Kluinmr ti tliL Bui j li Kiilc Imii" i Tun n d vnn 



orlikaiod Notion Ith snll-Oovoinnu nt uidpnlihcal powoi il.0 

Pait Ukon liy the N.biitw m local * k ll (lovcmuii nt i/f 

Notivo Associalioiifl lot lojurhontm^ wmhi * 01 KJ WY inci's to tlio flovornninit U 1 

PoiHiHial LindnriK u bv^Able clutactPiiHtu of Lho Nutiron A 

CliwriUhla bonovolnmo ot lh( NihuH , ib 

BooogniLion by Umci iimnnt uf chiii ilible oinlowmonu by Nuf IVCH 1/1 

BducaljoiL m Iiulu doftu f ivo in 1 1 ^H c L ni \t\\\ MU ,a ami n.vtui tl HC icuri'S . i '. 

UtLlianim nUuihm ntiL sh tl IMI by Kn^li^i (due jtiiui, luit mlncaf i (I HiiirluH hi*r*(ini( 'w pin 1 1/1 

Oduaitod Nabwus dihuud Uindu MytlKilo^y witluiit hi coming uLbiihlH r>r tiuii'iulihlM Tim Itiuhiui^ or Mini , h-^l', to 

azpatid . **M 

Odiidfttod ninfluimvtstiKatplhoobliKsaiul pumoval rcli^um of UIMI pu> luflionr amM,iniii, cimt.uui'U in thn \ntti ^f, 

Uuwtisiiod ainbiiiuu ol < <luc UIM! N.ILIVMS IhtMo to (mil vi nt m tlnlojnll> of n ilivo iH 
o( diHiontciitdmrinjforliUiiitMl Nit]\i*H lot iv ,m I. of MiiUMtM'Uifilov mcnl 

j a.11 nJu*Mt<Ml Nai>oH f hut llit'in n nmin fur 
i 1 , Ac , .. 

Good dono by Iwuuroluit Hocu tH, Hiirlt im thn K.riKmal Iiuliaii AHH<X uf ion m Ku^Ktrul . 

HnKhftli wliir<itru)u tctidH (o licftU i< If alli<i UK n nl lir> NaUvos lowutils llu> Kn^lihh nation . 

Pionuun^ pionpiHt ui the* mimUl arid moral pin^ii'SH of tho Nulivoe . 
Mir Buohaid Toinplu's wwi OH to thu itui>,U mniut (urn k ,. 

Hir John HtiMbo/fl LcHuim ou Inrtu lKirno Liu UnuoiHity of (Umljuclm in 18S1 ,, 

IIno>itiDiatoof UoiaiMitdiluuion (>[luid,lioniu 1HS3 HO, utul MuM*xtf>it1 il hh'iv-f m India 
NiLmhin of highly oduiwh il K.iLivtH ovti fiiwly HIU ill , ^^t^toM hcimf IM tivr 6 t OlKl liutit^ JJO yn*n r nrluir with 
Hir Hi uiy Mainu'H t ' tuiutU* nl 25,000 * c 11 (<(lu< al i^l Jnduui p>ntli inna M mui h iaju it I In* ui t ual mimiM i 

knowmjc N.imwi fib for uidinaiy r Inital woik nunuioiH, am! Homo nun to huiliM iiinkii in tin mrfitnii ami |>ir>1i*Hiuim 

ra^M ol Intluui juruiuu4 m a gnul. lUi^t lit tbf, Itrikinli Riili 
Sttfliuoui owxiui^fomout not, yut KIVOII to Miimio amJ mijiwtml oiU Naiiro HUI^OAN tun! Xulivc Juii^m U 

Hiiigbfili i<(lu< lUtin . k( 

Btudy ol UaffhHh uglilly ii(oiiiafH foi Wtwtorn knowlt'(J^ hut OnunUl htoralurn mirluly lrm^I . 
Furthwr PMH.JKM <(M"t* '' Sir John Hii.n hi'y'n woik on Itnha , 

Huffli4hiiiMal(ingl)ouf(.aiHmippuitnitiiiumiuUAiH l totke Uatnuirmt of Uio ryok^ mill mimnpniwiit nionviof 



, , 

Abience of BytantAUy aimmg tinjrliHh Hjioaknuf Naiiw of Uitiftal towwcUi Ihnir h M iriMiiui IIK| country man , , 6 

Nairni Vttgbth uew^pcn of HIMIJ<H| r>Ucn chfiloyul, fooliHli, and nlumrl ully Mi'iiri ibu0 .. ,fc, 

(JTnomliwI oiwLomi nod h(Hnd and mini priK-U* UN fcUU provnlotit 10 hidm, m\\ not mpiobMuU by wlurnfc'il llmdiM . , t 

wicluwhood, yoi ttluuftUxl llmdufl iUi not /fpr^Mci tun ciuUm*. 



dnoaM Hfctmi, wbUt aiking | M poUtio*l ftiuiehifmttnt* ium BO tu! doura for ro/orw w iocttU rut<i ^UKUHW uwyw 



TABtP OF rtOVTKNTrf 

The Indian National Cotunei*, whilst putting forffa poliheil -npii it mn3, curlatle* all uncial reform*, and is cnmfly rompo8*l nf 

men of mill cdnrat urn *hn do nnMnw-r lit tho p oplr of India . fli , M t gvi 

Legitimate el 'imi of iht* Xaiivc ni lndi i to hold iniiKtit mt/ public otfur 4 should bo i ihflficiil . , 25 1 ) 

AppointmpnUslumldboKmn Intno Viti\n oi Indu nf .ippiirtoil mont uuJ ability, but tbo urnc U'ltb of qclwlitm nhioli 

apply to T3ni?li Inmn IIP nut ipplu ibl< tuthi \itiitsol Indu . f ^ 

Thogiettpi pintuliu pr*iiol tiotf nuiifzii i.inimt bp n.fiiiHtcil tn \ m\is, ovui^ in Mio pTigoncws of the BiiLwh doinuium \h 
Lepitimito rliim* fit Ku'/li^hmtm, niid tlu inlau ol i\u* Muh^wni uUn^ in umuuliou with iho ulmmiatiaiian i>i ItuliH r 

Bhoulfl not l)iMnoifd , M it g (| fl 

Voitlinn Inili.i uimillni<< (o hi* ^n "iiiMl if\ n< n'Mlnli^in t nHniM ^ 

Kn e4<nl Mininl kli in on l' 1 ' p ilihi il Fin,iiumot thi mi r illnl Vatumal rouj;KMS4'*i . ,,, , ^ 

Tho Tat nnfttunutt thr "iiiitc sr 1li ,iri' n lin i B ( 2f$| 

LoiilTiiwitnif i ^ i>inf'Hfo pnv)Niii\ til huh i iinli i HUM >n Ku<i t ^ ^^ 

oil <ii>v< imniMit not liKds ti lu {Hipul it MJ FiNln t ( ^ 

WuHn tin SHIM i iii ilini Pi, Hi li IP|M . ^ lft 

li'ilim loniiliiinii ?M ni IP]IF IIIHMO| i>nh '111* HIM! impiitM innm^ . ,/, 

Indu hboultl bn Ri>V(in(Ml on sniimi pm.MpIi v nt puhii/ il nihili'in *, i^iMll<Mmi llu* pnipidu'^s atttl Hiipt'irilihiliouK of tli< 



Kln]iluif4 \nwol Ilir puliiv i! ntiiili m of fUflun t\ jdm n. TMtiuti m lnili.i, <)iioti*il t- 

Ru Airifd lj> bll't viiu I <ui Uir mtlin in i nf IiinmiM nit lii|n nnl *n i iMu'pt'i 1 i 

Analogy bof \\IMH tin lJnintt r fiin|ii^M in r.iiojfi i*i>l 1*11 l.i, M li npMi in luiiu t ihtMl> it litres to run of Hit pii|i]i* 
Solid tinivci 1,1! IMMMM t (Mi lunl by HIM Hi if i li Cat* in MnluM! ,n M bnM* luiluu piMftM-i >iud iutillitual i^panMiiHi, but 

Iho (f mi MI I nf MHIIH hiiiilin" idi M ni 1 1 M^ 

ITnwiHilom nl ili'wnlislim" iM wml'l 1 ilun i Miiltlititv i'iii I lu'oli Mh*il in India , ( 

J)uijof (ln k Nii'Thili In iiiuiini "innl n\i i Iniln iliuin r Mn ti in itioiul JH itud 

Kdur Llrnl N ilni* i iitnmld n ili/iMbu ipi,nn>lh \\uli HIM CtHi <h liutcimuoiit iijtfm nlrniiiiMi i'ix< diUil',iH'riiiuiHlv prontatmo 
Hn Mimii'i \\illifiiiH' u b n mi <m\i Minimi I'lltu 'itmn in India , f 

Htlmalioud iMiHtiitildii> ol tlir KnHiib in Indin ^ 

UnKnlmfailoiy f^nnial iihiiln of lii|;lu*i Kii^lnlt i^hirution t ^ 

TrndiMit HH nl Hii'fh*ili (duuilinn , 

Abwnt'<Mii i flntm* 4Mlutni( loi iiluuihii'? tlm lower Ha^fi M M 

Hir UiiaiultM \ibutbinirH VII*IHU<I (n pnmpu l H ul Kntf UH!I nlti< 4 n inn t t M 



X\\IV 

\M i>UH,l>|IM 01 KtMI If I I H I U |HN In 

307 



IVott nt imlir y nf Ku^lish iHlutudmi, VuiM'd iipun tlm .tppiiii^d i*'ruriiiiiiwUii>mi f>f llii* MiHiiliim (;iiinnii>winn of IRHtt 

PmliiMtir SiMliy*rf vii^Him UKMinilunl inlliimiH' itC Kui'lnnd 'ind linlin , 4 , fl , b 

PfuVy of nnn m1i lirmuc wiib Inili.ni h!i nud thituHt itliutdnmd in IHlit ^ 

Policy of jtmriK Kn<:lihli i diii'ifinn wHth-d ni 18,15, HI td miprm*il in 1H5I , , 4 ^ 

Mi K W TIUHHU4 1 KH.iy on KiiirlnKt'iliiiuLitm iu hiditi, IHlHl * .. . a*V> 

Hutnmaiyiil Mi Tlimnitti 1 VIMWH ., , M , , . 4ft. 

ImpnrUmT ot primiry i^IunUinn m India . . MM tM , M| ( ^ 

KiiffiHb wlnrat,inn hu'uimiit v^iy lilt In Toi tlm IHIWHIH* ol th*> }Hiipli* , , , M . to Ma ^^0 

Klonumtory iNluml urn ulutuM be tnfi* wmidwl M , , , M< ' ' ^ 

1*lin hllnruiff flown HUM try of i<dui ution in l.tllm UMM M t ^ 

\ hiKhtj Him utt^i blHrmy rlww not nti ilni fm riix'ul M r|nuntniiuii ff Imllo, *nd pnr|ti4iw t\lm untniitt'd MHliKun >' ' 

IVhnM U uid pn>liiiNiiiiml i-rfuniiiun m t*M ffir man<iml pi unfn i liy of India, ami K*id iwHiuc wamMC *** ponulMimi . f? 

lip|Mi clnnHiMiiif Indtu IJHI kwnid m Kdufitluiii ., , M f / ' 

Thtifuluu piosiH*itMfi1 Km;lmb ixliKfttitm , t ^ ' 

No gnui. inipiovfniMdH <mn feu i^pivicd fell tbn ri(*bt*r cliuwim nui ftUrmtwl tii MnKludi Nimntioi* ,.. (1 , *, 

lm|Mnlanct' ot KnKltib iiduc ftUm t< tho Mmuu'ipflf.um of ftb<* lt>wtr alW4i , . M M ^ 

Brunt iHtmiMH'loi ilu hwiciry uf Ntifvltoh wduoatUm io ., fli 



HISTORY 

OF 

ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



CHAPTER I. 

I N'T 1UH) DOT OU\ r 

Tho in iqi n, LISI .ind pioiji'i'Hs i)l Knulicth odunilum in huh,^ uul its ji,wln.J cleulinmienLmtii uu important 
. hiamhnf 1lu>,LdimniF>1i,iinm ot flip Hl,it<>, innslitiiti'oui 1 of ibi* tuoit Hitfiii- 

TnoouDjootpropoflo . hiMiiiiipisiHlfs wilt only m tin- .unirilsut Indu, but, m tho hi*toiy of thu 

<*i\ ih/i'il \uiild "Tin* Hnlish tub* in India is llu*iunst \\oiuloilnl ph<'ni>mcnon 11u> woild hiih ovei KOMI Tlhit 
i hue li\in<( m iidisfijiit i<t{uni, (liHciuiK (mm iw in luiii;ii.vni, m jiuimriH, in rt liflioii, in hhurt, in .ill ttait 
distiimnislM'h 1hi inbiiliitriiilH ol one* (oimtiy fmin thusi" nf .uicitlipi, hhonhl ii uiiupli iV(>i iln Inn i n k t ^Inc li iuttiu k 
Ins pK.HMl ui ils way, ,ui<l niuiti unrlci itnc sccjjfto Liu Vdiioiis pi'oplrs ol MIIH vtsi uonimuni, IH in ilsill 
vioiuli'i'ul cuoi^k HiH' llmiiltry, \vlio lin,vr> Mi IIH bucmuo ihu uiasicisoi tliih Mill, hlnmlil inliMiH iiili.Jiitttnts, 
not, wild ilusi fc U't'linurs lunl iniiiiviiH wine h umpinMl Uio cfimiiiciHnii <1 WM* iiiu - iwil wuihl, but hlnmlil nuUco ii tin 
firs!, pi inc'i|ik nl ikon f(ovn'nimiiti4>iul\iitHH the kappuussol tin* niilliuiih ol ib hiib|i k rt HUH*, by entiiblihliiiiK 

I\ by .ulnniiiHf 01*1114 )iistuis b> HpnuiliiiK flncibfin v by nitioilniiiui !.! <'omliM^ of lilo wlneb nuulorn 
k.is (HKto\\rd upon m.uikiml, IK in UH n imuuruhtalum ol- the h<uul ol 1'iovulciuo, atui an dbHiuoiice ol 
hie In (lu k union ol Liu I nt with Kijglaml " 

Hni'b \vti-o ilii' wonlh iMiiplojcrl in M\ AililuitH pusonloil to Lend LjUnn, when Vitxtny ol Iiulia, nn 

tku Htb Jnniuuy, 1H77, on iliu ooaision oi IUH kiyniK ill(l l>ninla.tim htoiu ot thu 

imp0r ^ dn Miihomodai) AiiKkM )i loninl Oolk^o at Alifpu h, a w <layH aftv the Impel uJ 

nt Pcillii, lidil HI biniuur of Hov MaJoHty^H ttWiiiiuptimiof the Ulo oi "JJwjww "/ '^*'* M TI|B 
wronlh oi Ilio Acklicwi, whn wiioiwly nmhidcitil, have Denier hifpulloiUiHi than tht llRumtivo liuiKiuW 1 ul 
Ontmfnl riic'torla 01 all tho muwiinw whirli Uio JlntiHh rub 1m mki|itud lor tlio niintoi ml M^ iiiwiil iw#u 
and pionponty of ludim iiono IH uicm iinpaitiuit CJT inoro cmlaring in lih mimil, wxnal, awl iwlitiml cilectw than 
tlicnmuiiittlKinoftlie|Hilicyof nnpiu'tniff Ioiowlailf(o of iho WnghHh lanRimgo, liloratiins ami MCIWIOOH to tin- 
piH r >l( of India, Tim policy i itnujnu in ii natnro , it linw iiovoi* liom tiiod cm HUO!I ft giiwul Hwlo l>y tt"y "thei* 
n,t1ion f witkm tho nin^u of Mirwut r madeira kihtuty, tirttrl, iml6cd, tlioiiffb moio tlwn k.Jf . ooulary old, kiw not 
ynt [MSHi-d Uiu Hiftffu d wcpniiniiiit Tbut tho Hpraui ol HnMlinb oduc iiti(i unoiiff ilia puoplo of ladin li* ttluly 
pindHctil n viwt t'tliH't upon tkoir rohpioiih, umiul, Hooml, and pcilitinU iiloHH ami MpiialiouH, oannot Iw dcnuod 
by wiy oru nin|Uiuntml with UK? country Nor c*an it lio doniod, that, in oil thoho uvpoctm W"* 1 ' nl *Kl" hh 
wluwtujri will piwluixj von Kie*itp can0or|UouogB, mill iiw>ro jw>t(jut dtacU, upon tho moi'iJ and matoruU, boi'ul -wid 
poUtioal, wHicliiaon of India m tl&o appiwimiito future liui w> far w tko prowmt wntor w awaro, no attempt 
yot tNtc>n iiMflo by any author to dwtcribo, wifck rwiuwito iwcwaojr of dotaU, m what inwmor tho policy oC 
edaoationm India onginatod, whatworo thoobjooto with wWok it wa iMUffurotod , wluitvoro tlao 
ntHmwhwkitproooododinjtagrudual do^loimwut , howithw itowlily made pragma, and wbrt ita 
miloomulu* boon, with rtrfonmee togucli fttaLUUoal rqinlti a are nitUoi tho rowk of an Mirtanool aoouuut 
Writen* upon ta gonoral hutory of British India art naturally move oonownad with Write and 4mH*i cwiqawrtj 
and annokatfo^ iogidatiTd mMaamud ftwal 4mfatotiaow thwi wi* * wbj<x* aiibk w tha 



2 MTCLISH EDUCATION m 

English education among the people of India They could not bo expected to spare* time, or find ftpacp, fnr IT 
Mibjoct which, howovei impoitant and ondnnog its effects maybe, presents HO slow and giadual a giowih *vs tu 
escape tho notice of the wntois of political hi&toiy, anrl, not nnfroqnDiitly, tho attention evm of the fitaksmun u lit) 
aio naturally moie concerned with tho mgont work of piosont niiniiufiiantiou Lluvu i\itli the past histr/i} ol .'ir> 
hpecial branch of tho adminihtrativo policy Thns, whilst oven tho liost lnstonis of India nu ontiiolv, or almost 
entuoly, silent upon tbo suh]oct ol tha use and piogioss of English edmation in India, the ollinal and nilui 
infotmation npon tho hobject LR no scattoiod amonq Departmental Blno-lwukn nid I'diliaiiiHutaiv I'.qius, rlui 
no oidmaiy icadoi, hnwuvoi deeply interested, can fou expected to find uasy at n SH tu ilio-e letoirls, ni to spun 
time to .mange tht* mam facto, and leading foatnios and fctatisticH ol tin* snlijctt oi Ins ml nest Tin* nun] ha 
a hook winch wonhl iaimsh icady mfoimatinn npou Mich an nii|>oitant snhjcct soi ins hi lie mm\mi vtli MH 
iLdvanco oi Fiiqlish odnc ation, nud thp (>io\\th of intellectual and [luljtii'al tlioiiulit inunin the pioph of hull L 
and lhi b piQSL'nt i\oik 14 an attempt to Rnpply snch a nerd 

Jt \villlo i ouljly ob&eivcd, that in auromplihliniQ tho Usk Ihus Mt bpfmnnrio, nniiiln iWi- |MM<KJII il il'i- 

woiknmst hcMlpvoloil trnlpsnihnm thi iail> lnsiin\ ol Mir inim ,nnl nb|ii*i 



It Air nffem nt 

ol Eni^lish odncalinu in futh.t, tlic k inolnos \\itli ulmli it u is nnilcii iki n, KM! 



tho ]niu(iplus npuii -wlndi it has pi'o^edrd in ilh c*i<uliutl arUniucniuailf , Ilio t'si.ihlisliiiu nl nl (illi>( * unl r \\nni 
ah nidividnnl elioits in hclialf nt Kiuhsli odmitiimi , tin* dc'\clfi|iiK nt oi a s\s(c ni ol tnlm adtMi, m<l tltn ni n i,ii/,i(inti 
nl the Dcpaitniont of Public Insliiirtjun, OH a biMiich of the Kt lie iwhninisfiaium PI huh, i II toll rlini i 
1i jintsuo tlir hiilijrri laHbei, l>y tiviin* an aciounl ol Hit 1 Iniliin llniu i it us, ninl fisct 11 niuii^ fl'i 
oal JL^suHs ol the piocposh ol lnili Knnlmh ulndiluni, undi i MIC h}*i1c'iu tuloplnl fi\ ihrc i ( HIM i UK 
tluiitu> ilio hist thnfy-Mv yisws, that Is, Iroin ihpn osUIjIishincnt SHUT 1SW, down In the pn > nt |i iiml uifin,*' 
wiili tlu'^tar IK'U And in deal im> with tins naitnl MIC suhjcd, it uill lie IH> dih> Id mtroilun nof ,111 
invidiims Imta Jrirudly", (ompauson hrtwrcii tho |)ir>t>ussol lniili lOii'-hsli nlunimn .111101114 thr Ilinilii nul 
UK* Mibhoiiiuclaus, icHpcctivrly^fvin^ pmininonio Uhadi luls ami II^IIUH as vim> uialilc flirjsc inlctcstnl in (in 
intLlltotuul audmuml c^iowth, and thu MX ul ,tml pdliiical wrlliiic of Mil 1 Mii.linnii>(l.iipi uf Inili.i, inlonii Mitu 
a|ipin\uiiato estimate nl tlio fnt.iuv jn uspei tjM rf tlut ciniiniiinHy, mil tlu* iin'ans \\liuliniav lie iidoptul tm 
ib( Ji* atuolioi Oitiun uul [jmsjiunl-y, as (*oiLtL*iitc(L and loyal Mihjccts ul the Hi ihih I'U|L in huh i 



CHAPTER II. 

JMARLV POIJfJy OI'POHKD TO T1IK INTHOlHKtTION f)F KNCililHII KIM.l'\TION IN l\|l\ 

Mi. UJJAIILKH OIl-ANT'S TUHATIHK, \VKITTHN IN I7' '7, A II, ON TIIK MOIiAd 

AND INThhhMOTUAIj OOKDITION OF INDIA 

Uu tvulji | ind ol il,s ailiiiiuihliMlioiL, (lit K.wl. lii(liu( 4 oiii|mu,> diil mil ic<tK>iu/i> lln> |III'IIIII|IMI< nl 

iilmiiAwm ntnon^ ilic n.iiivi'H ol Indi.tiis |MI( l iH ilul> nr tinici'in l.il.i ,di 

DO DaVv Of vAO ' 

early AcUniniBtrafavo Policy '''""inw^wl'wniMiiMs H-. mum o||M, \\ns IHMHIIMM 41111 lv i nli in. I il 

liTiiUitial ncqiiisitiiniH \vt*iv III,H|I% it *IIH ukon* in I In* n.ilnii nf niw timni 

ol < ,i)i if. til than Uymi; thr fmmcktioiih Jii liujir ual doiniuiDii, IUVIIK; lor ils uli|iH MM* ppo-ni n , |ro|iiinv, nn.l 
oiiliulili-iiiiic'iili oi itsMiI)|<Hh In Ins Kttil(MiH'nilx*louMtKf'l(H ConuuitU^ol Mu* MOIIMMI! hmili., mi MM I >ilt .lifin 
la^Mionell-kuown hisiiHiauol Imli^ MJ John (?laiki Mai^luuan, K,<\I tin* Uillnwuit' p Ai'iilnil MIIMHI^ |ioli\ 
ol Kn^liHli iMliKMtioii in India - 

"Ifur .IP (Kiimi<lc'iit|jli> 1iiii( nflor Iliu lintish (Imrwjiijiimi li.nl IHI-II iviiiilrfjnliitil in liiflm, tlu-ir u,i , /n,it 
oppohition to any h>slcm of mstniH.ion lorllio Nftlivis Tin- fwlinh of 1ln* )ui!;lu jiuilmiiinu MI Ihi. t--innlr> 
first tiMfciHl uptiii flic MilijH't in the year 17B, whon Mr Williiu'loicv |injii)Mti fimliUwtM*liui^ tu Mu- 
Act of thai jvnr, fin suiting out school nmstiTH <r> liulia, MUH iMiiimiihwil tin ffit'titcht o||iiHihun in MM 
f ItoimdOT* anil it WHS round iiutBrnwiry Ui wllluliiw Uuirluiiniv4 Tlml jMitpuwil jwivc n ii1iu\i*r> 
mcmnubbi drbato, la whit-ii, for ilio firhi tiuu*, tlio vu-wb of tho Quint of Diiwton, UIKII tho Kul.jHt nl uluctiiion, 
altor wu luul obtatnod jKm^iou of tlw wmntiy, nvoni duvoIoixMl, (hi IbiitwmHimi imcifif lic Ihrn'turt, MM<1 
thafcivohttcl,|UHtloiAmoriuiL'ouiow tolly, uiliavuifr allwttwl tho iHiuhlmliiund of wfioolH and iiiltw*, HMC! 
it woold not tlw fw ub to wp<at Uiowttmiuistolfullymrogtti'atoludm, uudlluitil tlu NativuM 



r\riy piiMin nrmHrn in FffuuHn CDijrtTim ,1 



anything in the way uf iMhmitirm, tLej must oorao to England ioi it FCH 20 ycnrq aHn that peiioil, rloun to flu* 
>oai 1813, tho same ioolinq of opposition tr> tko iMliu.ihon of tliu Nativos continued to ]>io\,ul ainom> iho inliiiu 
authojitiog in ilus vomit jy In Hit yo.u 1811, Pnili.uimit, hn tlio hist iimo, oulciod tli it tin- sum of Cin,U!M) 
should bo appiojuiatodto i ho education of Lho Ndtiius, at all tlic thiou PJ esidonoioq lii 1H17, Lniil ILHtniqs 
aitu lie had faokini tlio prnvor ol tlio Mibluai Us, foi tlio fiisttnuo, announced tli.it tljc flr>\ui umont of India did 
nut c nnsidpi it utcostiuy to kopp tho Nainos ILL a, hfcaio of- Ji^noiiiiu is in unloi* to ictiini its o\\ii punn r imspi|n< nt 
on this animmiBcanont, tlio Calcutta Si huol-book Sooiof y rmd Hio Hindu Oullequ WLIG immcfli,itel> IcnuulcMl Liml 
Hastmos ,ilso o,i\otljulajcest oiiromaqemcntto VcnuuiLii Rilucatuni, <iinl o\on to Hie i-hUblidunc lit uJ N.iiiM- 
uiwipipi'is, hut tlioso win) j,t tli.it linif, dud for a oousiclfialilo liiuo .itioi, onpyoil tlic- crmhiliniro ni tin 
<io\oiiiiiLunt in Judi.i, A\OO iMiliiL'ly in f.uor ul (oiihumq 1ho ahsist.niLc fi\on in c'lliuatiou to tho ciiromai<c*ininit 
oi SaiiMiiL ami Ai ihic Lik'iahnf This st.iio u[ thiii[s cmiliimcrl I!O\MI in tlio yuai Iti>t5 f \\hin Loul William 
UiMitnuk, adu^ nuilei tlio aihipp of Mi ^LiranLiy and Sn Cliuli-s Tn'\il>m, dotoiJMinod to withdraw ihi 
<lo\cMiuuuit supjioit fiom ilii* fiiinsi nt and Aiahu lustiiuhnns, and io au|iu>piia1o all tho Inndh nlmli woio at Hs 
disposal vulusuoly tn Ijiiolihk nlmainm " 

Vtn tho piujNisis ( tin*, \\oik, liowc'U'i, it ism'coss,u> io It .ins in fulln dffail, aiul a 1 far haik as pnMsilili, 
1lii*lusloiH.il 11114111 (if the idi'a of spn idin<> ,b Liirmh'ikic of 1ln> Kiitthsli lai^na^o, liioi.iiiuo, and MIUIKUS 
aminii; 1ht> p[M>ph of India, .ind tin* \anous shadu^ i>J piililiral ((pinions v\lin li %vm<% fiom Limo to timo, I'liiuj 
upon tho hub jut 

Amomi ilu must noiahlc philanflnopic Hntisn iati-sinr-ji, ol tin l.iUn put ol iho last ii'iiimy a na^ilio 
Tlio EujUt Honourable Mu HiimniiaWi' (Miaili, (Irint, ih.iomlid linm u nohh* Hi^liland Inmil.v ol 
Chulos Giant, an iminent NmHaiid, the (iianK (tf S(lm\\"li " Hi- \\nil onil) to India, hrKanin un> ol 
Dnoc'lov ol tlio East India !ln< inosi, di t tiiij>ii^lurl Dinitoi^ nl iho Kast India. Company, lopioM'iihsl 
Company |(H n|i||| ^ >u||i| || u . p (HI ,,jj n | |II\PIIHSS in Pailnmcni, aiuU\as, aloi^ \\ith 

WilliitliiMiN Thninlnn, Xadiai> Mi4aiila>, and oilins, a hading uirnilHi of tin (Maphain Met, distilled li\ 
Hn IIIIIIH- HiPiiliin in Ins /Ar/rsir/%//r^/ Ksrrf/s Ih'diul ill lhj.1 aj^id 77 " f l)inin Ins loim, nsi lul and ilislui- 
^ui'.luMl cairn, Ilu 1 (onditiun ol tlio puiplrol India .ind fin it tiifnio piuspmty, \\i*n* tnnMois ol t> io.it 4*1 nirorn to 
him, and hi*, posifion as a Mi mix i ol I'atlmnii nl, and, at fho t ini<i tnin, one of tho inonilii'in ol UK* Oumf of Dno(- 
toit of Iho Kasl. India (Nnnpan), ciuMotl hint to t.iko paiin nlarl> nr*li\i nifin*st in tho .ill in-, of this oountiv In 
I7 g >2, ho wiotia IMIIIH|I i ihlo (nuti'i* "(HiMiiiiluntmin 1/n \tttfi ^ tin nhittnmmf lh< l*nittt tinhjnl ul (lirttJ ttitltini, 
jitnhiHliiili/ tttt/i it jwtl hi l/r*//r^s, initl nu flit ttmntMtl liufnnn^i tl" \ Tin-, ho.it ist% \\hii h appoais id him IHM-II 
kopt. l>) its autlior |ii MMIIO >oais loi unpiovomotit .tnd IOMMOII, \\as it la*.f snhniifful liy him to Ins oollori^iu ^ 
tln( f oiiit ol Uiiiu'friis lui the all'iins of tho Rist Indi.i ()oinp,in\, \\illi <i lotioi', dattd Ihlh Au^iiht, 17 ( )7, nhkinp 
(lioin (li nst hih mui \\onUj kt Thl ^yoii iua> ho ph a MM I to i* nivo this trad, on ilu> fnirimx (J ' '^c <d Mioso many 
l>ti/nth"l /Hfs//Mss with \\hioh iht k n<oidh nl >onr <lo\i'innionts have limi lumisluHl, l;\ tin ohsoivahon and otpo 
nonii (!' mui \\hosi tniio anil thoughts huvo hoon olnolly oinployod in (ho OOIUPIIIS of .ithvi Iifo" Tho tKMliso 
is a mo-it \alnahlo o^iy upon fho inoml, infolloitiul, and polHitMl ooudilinn uF Indin *iL Mini inm\ nnd al)oiindH in 
phihthophual hiiLiiiisiious philanMniipic* soninnonK iitid snnnd pnnoiploh of ndjiinusliativo finhry If nppcath, 
to ha\o loniainod Initiod in Pailnnnoniiuy IMiio-IiiNiks a^ MM nppomlit 1o tin Pniluunonhu 1 ,} Papotsol 
and I hhall tlioiofurn quoin <oriKidoiii.hlo passages fiimi it U (hmw h;iht upon iho oail> 411^111, irasruis, nml 
ol tho (Kihoy ol thu Hiitihh tulo, in uitnidiioiini <t knowU'il^c <1 tho Knqlish Jit n, Urn u and noioncon ainonur 
iho poipl(Ml Indhi 

Tho troatiso IK-^UIS nif h Iho following -- 

" VVh.ttovor divot-Hit.y of <ipinion niuy havo piovndml IVH pooling fho piihl con<hi[*t of fho Mi^hsli m tho Kast, 



Hi* Philanthropic TtoatlBO l" 11 I MU(K|H ^ lM WIIM>1 " in onohontiinont, I lint \voonht fo Mmly tlio 
on tho moral and Intellectual ^l* tlio vantluidy nf Kiih|oo<H \vhidi wo huvo aor|iiii'od thort) Upon this 
condition of tho Natives of ptwiLion, takon iifl a tiuUi ol ilui luglumtooiiainiy anil 
India, written during 1782-97, otoorvatumn, uow Hiilituittwl with yn-uL doloiviu^, HI o 

..... ... Although mthooiy it mv<*r <im havo hton 

ttmt tho wolJaro of our Afiiaiic Halijw*tH ought to ho tlio olijaot of out Holicitndo, yt*t t in ]>iui>tir*(s UUH 
truth lutM U'C'it Imt Rlowly followod up, and Homo of tlio infoi-oncow which tiro dodnc'iMo from it, 
remain, UK id nhoitld Huom, utill to ho dinuovorod Of kto, nndouhtodly nnioli haw bwu ciono, and oxoclluutly drmoi 

Printed Pttkftuuntaty Papira*-flaomi Bdpgrt o! the Sehot OommlfabM of tho flouw of Lordi [1801i 53) on lacimn 
p. 118 

t OhumbM'N Rnnjolopttxlift, Sap, Vol X., p 648. 

$ ftmtod PwMiMti7 ftpm itfttUog io Oe Wn rf tAdhi ammcV Appwdi. X , PrtUc (im) t pp. 9 to 89. 



^ ENGLISH EDUCATION IK INDIA 

to improve the condition of our BubjBHiS in the Bast , yet upon an attentive examination it may, pen kips, bo fraud, 
that much still remains to the performed " * 

After giving a shut nistoiioal sketch of the territorial acquisitions of the East India Company, and a butt 
ronow of the Butish adnuniatiation of those territones, the treatwo devotes Chaptei II to a " Vim of llw FlMe / 
tfnnrfy amonq flu Hudoo Butyntt, cf Meat Btitatn, particular ly ttrfjfflsperf to Monti*" and the following o\iruc.t. f 
taken from tho cailier pait of the chaptoi , represents Mr Ohaikn fliant'i opinions HIIOH the* siili|ict It is quoted 
heio, at thoiisk of pioh\ity, as deaeivmif rnteiohting consideiation, being tho view*, of <ui impoi tint btatesman cuii- 
neeted with tho aclnnnistiation of India, oipieshod a cpntnry ago He sa\s 

" In piosooutm? the piDposod inqnny, tho SUto of Society anil M.rnmis .nrionif ihopenph ol Hindustan, .m<I 
more luuticulaily aincrag those who inhabit oni tciiitoiieb, bocomus, in the fust pl.ice, J hpcuaJ nl>|( it of ati< nhon 
It is an object ulicli, poihaps, has UD\OI yot aoooived tho-t dihtina and particular eimwileiatiou, to vtlmli, horn it 
importance? UL a political and moial MOW, it is entitled 

* It Iia& smtprl the viewB oJ somo philosophas Lo icprosont tht people us uimalili' *'! n-spcc ialih , .mil u Tin 

^ ^ - Lttoixdjirilpibhavrruospii luihoi to iilaw 1 sonic 1 slli'i iiai^ ol lln n duiaiti i* 

His viBWs as to Indian Society j l ... . . Ml 

in an ou^ipmg li^lit, Uia-n lx> qm* a |usl. ilolinoahun of flic \\Iinlr r l In 

hD\\t*vei, of thofro who ln\o wjittunooncuinniff Ilmdocihtun, appeal 1 ha\c ^uuMiunl HI iHunmi" \\li ii 
osi tlouts theio hive .v* qiiipt .iilly thought, n.iy, -what thu natives theiiihdu's lic'rly aikiinnknlni* il null 
othc'i, tli.it thoy aio A poople ovcuudui^rly dopit^od 

' Jii pjDjw>ilrif)ii as wo Ii ivi bcenmo hottt*; acqunuted witli them, \vc lutu 1 fcmiul lln dt^tipfion ap;ln i 
lile, in u senhe, l)t l > mul ilie ("ouceptinneioiinl Ininioi tt.vvtlh'iH Tlicvuilci ol tlm piiioi, ,ilii'i' i |fMHlui" IIMIM \t u 
uiludia-, *tnd a consiilonthh' prniinn nl thi'in in Iho mtc k iu>r nf mn piDVinics, inlia)>i(iHl 'ilinnii cnliii'l} hv natui - v 
iowaids \\hinn, whilst aeknowled^mt? Ins VIUHS ol their guii'iiil th,uji<tri, IK al\\ri\h liv<d in tnll[(^ ol nnntl \MII 
is obliged to add his tohiamony to all prpccdii^ evidciuo, ami in .tvo\> ila<> ihcy < \liiln( liiirmin nalini* in a ury 
ili^taded, Lunu hating htate, <tml aio at onco ob|<ds of dis-i'storm anil of rriiininMralion DJM nmifi dion . in ,0 
viist .1 body bH tlio wholo Hindoo penpb, tlieie must bo, l.hon<^h the tfpn'.ii feafui'is iui \i iv Minil.u 

that people, thu imtives ol Jit'ii^il lank low, nurl tin se, as lii^t kiui\\n aiiiUiiimni'< llu*Ln"i | 
ilmsuni rifoni AhutifJ Hiil)|eHs, at( k held inoie p.ii'f iniljilj in in \ in tlin 



Ben^ahs ara ^ nSM * f ' 1 ' lp MdlniiiiUns irhu ue mixed uilh Ilieni, nia>, in MIMM| in 

n nil mot <ils, olf.eu be umipir lu'iidul uiird*i ilie vnm* nl> 1 1 \iitnur , hut 'mm . 
tlnn^ ilislnuL sliall afieru juris l>o Mil) joined coiiLcinnitf Mierti 

" Oi ilie 1 tcn. i lose, tluu, if. is true, must i>Mieiall}, l.htvi iliey air ili^hluii Iriu i\mi(Mfnl rl'm% nl HUM 
i|ii.i*liljes \vhi(lnue reipiitilc In tin 1 Mrunl.y mul eomlnH. nl SiKU'iy The \ wml hiilli^ IHMJI ,l t \, ,iml omul I.HUI, 
in an evtreino, nC nlutJi Kui*op(MTi Hot>ict) iurmsheH no o\uiiple In Mnnpi, Iliose |IIIH*J||IS an* fin l<iinf.nl n\ 
oluiaudoL* ami ciodit , niou whn hu\e thorn not are btill holn itouhi^* iiiain1<un tin* tepiifitfioiiirf OH in, ami Uo i \\lio 
4,10 known to hu dovmd of ilieni sink inii) oriufoiupt Id is not HO in Hcn^U Thi< ipiahfies (lirnist^vi's an* M <NH 
ndilly gone, that men do not found then puLenMinis in Ko0iel> ujinn Uieiu , tin) lake no (Mini 1 * In -jnjunr or fn 
fcrop *up theciedit of pOhMSHin^ them Thohe viiluw* ivro nut ilie iisls \ty whieli etmiun IKHII mul it niiualjitiH 
a.i e mn<tilak*(l , TKJJ* (Ioo4 HIP aljsrwu of them, hnwovoi* pUin mul Tiofrf>nrHis L(ie.iipl,\ lowc'i ant niif> in |ulili* < *Jima 
iion 1 nnr strip him of hm acifnaiuUnue Want of venwtiy, (<hpeei.il l^, is H<I li.blui.ual, Ilia! il n limn IIHM IritHi 
^<luf(nd, ho will ha,wlly iail t<> reeiu t*> Falsehood for il.s Hiip|Kt In mullet's of tuief***!, Mu u^i-nf Ijmif 
sooms so natuial, tli.it it tfiveH no pt nvi nation, it m treated iinan cveusuhln imlnlj^'iiee, a HJIM|I< i/l |>IINVM|IIII; 
fiDin ulurli tfrnciiil iuleraticm lias taken a^ay ciffnui*, iiml the pnutiee cf tlihaliu^, pilf<nii;% trwl 11% iiiul 
imposing, in the ordinal y liaimaetioiih ol hftt, aro HO comitum, tlniL the IliridiHN iier<in In iv^.ml iljr^tn -iu (|U<,Y do 
ijr.uiiHt whuh they will defimd iht k mhelve> an well M llwy (anjiuli t il* whieh j| v\(Hiltf Iwudl^ (o 
Very H.^imtt Ijioaehcs o( truth and Iioitoht.) pflhH vrithout any ili^cp rr ln*t\nx Nfam Tla- M'undafnu i 
ixmihit'tof Tippnf>, m itvently <U*u>iiiff to L>wl (loiuw.illjh, in tho fan* of tin* nm'ld, the c imfe'iur of ilwt 
cupitnlation wJnth ho had shamefully hrukmi, WAB merely in etuinple of ilio nunnerx nf tliu *iiuntr<y t nlu'nt Mich 
thintfH ouoiir in orjiiiinrm life every day 

" lu tho wotHt p^w-i* of Jdunqw, tlimvo no doubt ffwifc uumlH^nc of men who urn !U(T<J, api^lit, ami 
Want of YBWWity, orinnpuiimw In ItotiKul, a nuii of MM! veraeity and tnti^riiy IM ft jm-nl Jlti/. 

nomenon , ow WW/OT//<<M t w //w Mt/ir*/*' y A/A riwr/wr/, ii IN ti^ lin ft*aMil t in nn 
ankuown character Bvyrywhoro in thu quk*tnr of tho tflobc, Uioii* IM hi ill much wminmH tnmt And 
and men aro mivprnod when thuy fiml themwolvow decxnvotl In Ucuigai, clihtnu.1 IK awukd m nil 



Pnntod rorli.imottt7 Fttptn roUUng to the ftfltelm of Indw tfcAtiw^ Ajj^odU 1 , ?b/o (IMHIJb P* 



VB GnAHT'fl TIffWB OP INDUCT SOOJBTT & 

bargains and agi cement? are made with mutual apprehensions of bleach of faith, conditions and floounties aie 
multiplied, and failuie in them excites little or no snrpn&o* 

(C A tenons pioposal mnde to a Native, that ho should begmdedin all his intercourses and dealings by 
the pimcupleb of truth and justice, would be tegardad as weak and unpraoticabla l Do you know/ he would reply, 
'the charaotei of all tlioso with whom I have to act ? How can Isubustif I take advantage of nobody, while 
eveiy poison Likes advantage of mo ^ ' Rands, deception*, evasions, and piotsrastinations, in ovary lino of life, 
m all p oiossions, poi pctually occm, and foigoi IBS also axe often icsortod to with little scinple 

" If ccmhdrnco ib fium iiorcs&ity 01 ci odnlily at any timo lepnqcd, it is consuloiod by the othoi 1 party OH the 
Betraval of confidence Reason of harvest Fow mil omit to soizo such an oppoitumty ol piofit The 

chief <ig out 01 stewcucl of a landholder 01 of a jaoith<wit, will commonly cudoi- 

voui to tiansfoi to Inmsplf wli.it ho can Gradually pailoin of the piopoiiy and tho mJlaonco of his piuinpal , tlufl 
nqunt ih in tlio TucMntiniG piojod upon m <i simiLu way, though on a smaller HuaJc, by his dependents, e&pociaJly 
il piosppiiiy his icmloiul turnings \iwiUnt Bnb suppose him, by a slow, hilwit, ,uirl Nystpflutif puiMiil, to 
have attumulatccl a LLI^O loiimirs iurl to loavcjt OIL hih death to his son, tho Mm, imliaiul nulolout, if. in 
tm n inipojcc'ptibJy ilt'cced )>j Ins (Inmost its 

"Munul hiiv.i,nts wlm h.uc Inm lout* in place*, and luvo oven evinced a roal atUohmout to tlion nuistni'H, 
are noveithcluss in tho Inlnhul ju.irlLco n] ])il|['ini'4 ' lmn ^nii It a uopliow is imttustrd by an undo, 01 a son 
hj Ins iatlu k i, \vilh <lu inin n>( inoud i>i Ins onmvtus, iluii'is nu tcHainty that ho will not Hi fc t up a 
intrust dl Ins own Waitlslnjih .iml i\ini(ni^hi])H, tmsis ol tlio most iiccwisaj y itndfwiod kmd, whirh <ill 
l< t nviii< piopi'iiy and iiiliiiitoliililu 1 !! inusL iqiosom sin \i\mn liit'nds, inm tun m.niy niHtancos fti 
Tho cnnhiU'iu'r to \vhn h(lii k Hi k ii^.ilc>Hi ue inost true, is in thu castMjf illitit pu^iKcsh, on winch oiruaHioiw Lhey 
.itt upon a poinl ol hnnoiir 

"Muii tlio KuiniJt'inh, ihnu^li 111 ^i^iicinl possessed of powur and of nnnpanilivn stimi^irh of 
\v hit h inakos ihom to lio p*wtu ul.it ly ie.ired, )tiafl oif^n an thnyaiv tiiiulosH or tiuiluloiiH in tlii'ir 
willi Mic Dc'ii^ulcscs find Ihui ihoy have fa lion inio Lho liatuU of harpicH 

"Thioui>h tlio iiifliiC'iiri 1 ol Mnnliu' pnnciplos, jiowcr riilinstofl to n uativoof fhniloosLnn Fiilclnm luil^ of 

Vonuhly of tho Watives of ' )(kJll K t>xer * 1KO( ' tyttmnically, or poi VM tod to iho purpose ol ni)UHti< o Oillual 
India m tho distribution of 01* iriimsti'i ial cniployuunis of all bruin, ami in all gi',u!utjr>tw, ui'o^onci^lly 
Jtistioo nst<i as moans of peuulataon 

u Ithas alitiuly appeared that tho distribution of justices whonrver it lias l)ci k n comunUed to native*, wLipthoi 

M M ^ . ^ HiudoDH ot MahomcnlanN, lias commonly hccoiua n tmflir HI venality , tho boHt 

TboxtOorruptio^aiiaFeqixry , ,, ., , m jt 111.1* 

canHf* bcinj^ ouhg( k rl to pay lor SUCCN^S, and fhc WOIHL having the* opportunity of 

it Money luut prornrod aoqiLittanc^ cvon for rauuloi Hurh IH thi 1 jmwer of inrmny, tiiat no ornno IB 
i, haidly any lens thought of, than por jui y It JH no ovtmonlinai y tiling tr HOC t/wo hot* of wilnpsNH 
dntytly coutniry to ooch nth or, and io find, upon a mmiito luvi^tifpilion, that low, pi obubly, of the 
cither Htdo have a rompotont Inowlocl^o of tho Tiiattor in qiu^iinn Now, A th(*Ho con upturn H 
not in tho prarliro rH tho(/onrtbof Ij*tw f but liavcthoir oupm in tho character ol the pocjplo, it m pint to 
iiiilliifliruLioiiof that chaiactor , for although (lie logal rofoimH ititrdcluood by fjord OomwalliH will 
purify, it may bo liopod, tho foantaum of juHtico, yot tho lioMt aclmuuHtration of law will not wadioato the 
intoinal pnnciplcB of doinnviiy 

a flulfiHlmoMH, in u woitl, imrontnunod by principle, operatoa nnivorgally , anil money, tho grand mftiam(mt of 

_ ,- . _ . Holfihh pfratihctwmB,mfty ho called the mipremo idol of tho Ilnidom. Uofii'ivoil 

Bolnsnnass and A.VQXIOO. iv n J , . , , , 1111.1 n i i < f ^ ^ j. 

foi tho morit paH of political power, aiitldoHtituto of bnldnabfl of Hpint, hut 

fanuid (or buiUDMi, artful, frugal, atl pciwvoiinpf, they are abnorbod m sohomofl for tho gratilicaLiow of avarice 
l( Tlio icndoncy ol that abandoned holRshnoKfi IB to But * every man'H hand afpiniBt ovory man,' oitlior m pinjwtB, 

ox in ootiH of open force Vt oin violence, hovrovor, f^ir mtorpoflcfl to K^trani 

Ounnmg and 1 ^ lt tll<JWI Tho P M P l ot lhe Uwor ft^""* m Ittonlir f witt an exception of 

thfl militftt 7 * a*wl!j OB Ihfly arc unpnnoiplod They Book their 
etulfl by moan artificer, bw onnmng, tninguo, folBuhood, noiTility, and hypoorr- 
tioal ob*B<]uumiinow. To snponora they appear full of revoroneo, of humble oad willing nubmiBBion, and roodboAB 
to do ovory thing that may bo required of them , and an long aa they discern something either to cipoot or to 
foar, they are wonderfully patiottt of digltts, neglects* and injuries Bat nndor all thiB appaa*anfc passivoneBs 
and mcannuBS ol temper! tboy aora immovably persisting in thoir secret TIOWI. With mfeiiorm they indemnify 
Oafeselves by an wdnlgwoo of tho feelings which were controlled before \ and towards dependant** espeelally 
towavds those whom an ofirfal situation ftubjecte to thfe authority* they carry thetns01vei with th* mean pride 



I.PUCAIIUN IN mm 

at low xnindi In tlio inferior, and by far tlio most numoiouB dn.s& of tlio community, Tvlieie oa,oli 111011 is uu ulj 
on a lovol with ILLS neigliboai, the native ditiiactoi appeal s with less ihfiquiSG Tlio passions lu\c? a h uu J.umc, 
and new rouflocimmcob aio ftooii to icsnlt Ii run tlio alisunuo ol tlio pinnai) \ntuci, oi suciotv Discoid, luitiod 
almsp, sliindoTb, m^oiios, complamth, and hfci^itionfl, all Iho afreets oi scllisliuuss unicsti.uiKcl by piiuciplc, 
to a fcurpusmq doqioo They ovoispicad tlio land , thoy uonio pLipotiullv In tine all men in ant limit} Th 
, the i.ilsclmorl, tlio ralmniues, and tlio di\rni od enmity \utJi \\hulitht people pmsiu eadi othei, 
fiimi iatlioi to son, ottoi? avoiv inoitifyiiu; MOW erf Llio IIUIVMIL ihai ictm No shallow can sit 
down <uuniu{ tliom without bunt* frtniuk \utli this tompoi ol niixlcvuluiit cuiitiMitinn anil aminr^it\, as a. pimmnent 
leatni P 111 tlio di.CMttei ol tin* sopnjd) It is si k un m o\ciy village , thLiulialntdiits liM'.uaon^ i'irh nllioi in i siit ul 
iepulsi\o sii1o,nny, it ontniH jnto almost ovi'iy i.tiiiil> Hi'lilom is time iluuiMliuM ^lilinul ils inhirnl 
fh\ismiH uuL lasting onuni ics, mnsd Goniiiionly, loo, on the hcutu i>l iiilnust Tln \\ui 111*11 put tko of tins -.pint 
<il disr DM! llrhl in bliinsh sub]DLiion b> tlio inon, (Jit 1 ) usi k in runous IIISSKIUS a(^a.insl c'adi ntliM, ^ludi M'nt 
tUiMiisiUes in Riicli loud, viLulint, and uulorunt i*uln^s, ib AM* luidly to he luaid UL a.n\ otlui pail ol Hit \\nild 
"Thi)ut;li tlio Buucialoso, iu uuneidl, lui\(Miut Milhciwit usoluhou in \int Mini n scnlimiil 1 - .m.nn.i t M Ii otlu>i 

in opL'u Lomluti, )ot iol)l)( IIIN, 1 holts, Ijiuulaiics n\ci piiaf h"., .mil all 'nil ul 

aDDhoiios, tncfljfl, and otnor ( im )KM | (lllU | ls \>hiii fc d.ukiiL'hs, smi'iv, fii smpii 1 1 can "m ail\aii1a*i>, IK i\ 
sec] oi crimes in Bengal , _ _ . . . . . . . 

u 1 1 ill ni* I v ( man LOU, mid Ii i\i k MKII sit in cxm pist jMiinilol wlmli \n\ 'uimint 



is t\i.ini Tlirir 1 LKMasiis f)t ntlibois md tlnovoi, win) cimsuli i Ilii'tiiti L\t k H <utin^ in then ]iiit(i<i [iiolt > ion, itiil 
luiMiii* iiintfd iliun iiiiuilii's, tiain Ihni < lnlilii'U to it Ni>\\lui(' in tin 1 \\nilil .in Jiilhnii uuiir nlnil ni nnid 
lunduH'd Tioops ul tlioni 1 h.inditLi, it is \\i'll known, ait 1 ^(Mioi.b1l\ tni|>lo\ul oi liaihiuitrd \\\ llu V*\ ininil,u- n\ tin 
disbuds, \\hri ait 1 slnuuih in HMMI Imrity They IMN|IUMIM> niikr ilf n ks in Imilns, .mil nn lhn,i iut IMOIIS ninnlu 
is VIM) uMiLmon Hut hesnUs Ihisi* ietuUi u>ips, nuiliiliLilL's ul nulnnluaU iMiipluv tli(<nM ( l\i . in ill* puilip" ihi it 
iiLi^lilhiuis Nut is it niily in l.iitfi 1 tiid pnpuli)Uh plans, nml linn \Kinil) fliat iiu Ii VMtlrim^aii piailinl 
no p.ut of tin 1 oriimti\, no Mll.icii', is salo lioni ilicm IJoiiiplaints til dipinlahniii in cvci^ i|iuuti k i, on Ilii* 
ln^liwa ( \s, on Ilio water as \\rll <bs the Und, .IK* pi'iix'tnil Tliuiii^h llicsi m* Hit 1 (iinii> IIINII' nninnli id l ( > 
\utliin lhtM(m*li ol piul IK*, and tliunuji iiuinlifihol Liinntii1s lia\i i IKI n, anil .ui 1 , i \t>iuiul lliciviL till uli^ul 
I)t)iil>th'Sri, tlio (ouupt atditLinisthilioti ol (nnnii.bl |Usi,iiiMii llni'*al, Iiu inan\ Mai . iiit'lii llu aiillioiih nl ili< 
lias iiioally au^iavtdod disonk'ih of tins nalmi*, lull Uicy lia\i MINI oii'in Inun ilu- ri'inufn sfuni' 
s tVinoiii^ iliu lluuloos, anil iu'qiHiitly tluc\ri>4 also, ,111* ului ili^l liotn Mini nil nu v in llu Mu>t 
that Hi (Mi piolcisinn is a, ti>lil OILO N"u i.iy til insli'ui hun MMI lus MMMII li cuiiNinn MhMii nl MUM >iiiini s f 
and tin* lin'bli htiiiin(;sol nalinal i niiM'KMici tucsoiui ovoibonic ly <'s*mi|ili 'mil praifin* l< i |i MM, fli<'\ 
lioM, in iHiuiunti with other Huulor*, Mio piiiiuplo ul lilihiin \\lnt Ii in iJu'ii nti li.i nnni p> nut nu < Itn i 
Thu} MWM thai, ilioy .uu (It stimuli hy an mmUMo IUM (<hsil\ loMint 1 |IM|I*^MIII, ami l>all ili.il J- ill In t ill I In MI 
nut, Mioy iliMHim* ft i without coiiipnuctiiHi, andarc pii|Miu*(Mo ii'suiii lilt 1 , svlu IK vi i (In* ,ipjMUtihtJ |IMHH| 
Hluill I'imiis with iihtrmihlmuf uulifli^iMici*, coiihidiMMii" Hit 1 law Iliad n>nili>nnii limn, nnf a* llu m itinnu uf oi 
Justice 1 , but U4 tin* ]io\voi or it hiiimiin paily And lii'it 1 , a^ani, it HI \idini, Mini a nulinil <liaii*M k in pnnupli* 
must Ixi pKMliirtil, Moruuhpirit ol ],ipuu* HUM noui isluil can bi'iiiinL 

" Dune vulriif n hiiH IKTII t% pi (tilled tts.t Ifadint^ piui(i|ili> in MK mini Is ol (lit* Mmiluin, Imt Mm i-uhn nniLi'Mii , 

assi-idinii kiiriw liUlfMif Ilinrdiiii^lii 1 llcm 1 1 id jm^ilili Ilial. lii*iu*\nli*ni'ii 



* * 



niul 



butorueL 

CVitain niuili*s, indi'id, ot distnlmtiti> vitluulh lo int iiduiuiK niul n M i 



Innn Hrnm* soiis ol am niul lootl, ,uv |IIIMII|IM| liy tin* ivli^nm ot MIC HIIM|IMII Hut Mu o>,fi>nlnhiMis 
ilihLnlmlion ih rufjnriitly <(unnnila(i\c , an nllcnnt; tiom the ^1111 ol itni|iuly lii'ilimnl on idl< anil MMnl t \ JMM is 
Anil thoiiiflt ar Hindoo uonld Hliunk wiUi IIOIMIII hum lint M!;M of tlinn II) Hlajui" r a tow, uhn h d a ..inrd niuiuil 
Aiming tlioni, }t-i/ IK* who dtiM's urn* in his taH, ^illnl and cM'oimti'd as she ulti'ii is )>>' tlu yA>^ Inah litii uhtin'in- 
fully horn hourtu limn, without uny euro oi uMihidouttion of the KinhtH|UMico Tlionh t Mien loi^, I he HMhtiihun ot 
tlio two piwtiuM in <iu<t*tinn tiuty ho iii^tnl UH ,ui u^urnnit fot Ma oii^inully hem \oleut tuiu ol the vln;mu \vlinh 
t'rj|oinod thorn, it will not at till lollovv that milividiuN, \vlio in hiluiv iifti'M peiloiiu Iheiti, in uhnlieuiHt to tlui it'll- 
^iou, niuHt ftlHO Im boiuwolutii , ami ho who is cruol nvcu to that civaduiv lur vdnt h hi* IH (iiu^ht l) Im i-oli^iou | f 
cintx*i'tun thg In^lu^b i-ovoroucis gtvon tho hhojiK^hd piuot ot an mtfeelini; dm|Nihil nm It m ttMit>, thut in iniuiy UIM*H 
tkay ate ntnrt m obHorving toiuim Thosu uu, mdixwl, their i elision, and thu Itmndatiou ot thoif* hopw , tlu*U' 
unmupluatod in them, and m thmr oiwloH tliojp civil Htulo and itmiloi-t Hut. ol tho ht'iidnmmtH whu*h i\\tn 
would Hoeiu to mJicaU, tkoy uu totally rcgaidleHH Though iiom tho physical Hdiucdimi of tlioir Ixwluw Uwy 
flUHily 0aucKi)tLljlo al imimmians, yet that they havo littlu ival t*miliruuH of mind, HUIIIIM voi*y ovidi-tit from 
oirouia0tttaeo Tho firfb thflkt itall be xa^Uonod u ilu sliockiug bai^buity of tliua iuuinliiauutH. Tlio autUutf off 



arc nuANTd TITUS OF rroiAJir HOOJETI 7 

logs, handfi, noses nnrl oars, patting out of- eyes, and otlior penal inflictions of a similar kind, all performed 111 the 
coaiBObt mannei, abundantly -justify om arcpiracnt 

l< A sinuloi disposition to auolty is likewise diown in then tiratmcnt ni vnnrini&Lpcl niomw And m 
Absence of Patriotism pmoial a \\itnt ul sensibility Jor othcifl n a vwy eminent rhiUALtcnstir of tins 

pooplu Tho a path} with uhitli a Hmilno viovvs all poisujifl and intuchbn uu- 

coi net tod -with himself, is finch asc\citus flu* ludi^nitum nl Europeans At any rate, luhiojii(ls eUeuil Imt li 
a ven wan on niclo PatiJiilifim is ubsolulel) unknown in JhndoosUn "' 

Tti^ tint within thopiomiPLoi tlus nmk tn discus* how i,n tin ahovcMpinLocl \irv\s of llv OliAibh fhtn1. 

M , , in U'u ml to the rmirhtimi nJ Jlmilnrt sucn'ty. esiiecuilly in Uonual, in.iy In* 

Groat moral and intellectual , , 1( ,, . , , ,7 , , 

advance in Bongal |iistiliiililf UN UI>MS \\c'i u-rfitduil just ,Moutiu\ .^o, ,uid il lus cslim,itc 

nl flu* nididl ioinlihiiu ni tln k Iliniloi) popuLition (( Jiuli.i, I'sppciully of JJcni^al, 

hi taken to he even a]i|no\jn fl ifi l\ numf no one a< i|ii,unt<d ml IL UK jnesenl. niiulilimi oi Uu> llnn.ilis < ,111 help 
ailmn in tlie \ahtstniUr. Imv.ucU inidlHt.iwI, inrji.il, ^MI,I| V anil jiolitiutl pir^H'ss ninth Uu> li.ive ni.ulc diuint*^ 
ul Hiitisli Mih, and ni at 1> lull .1 (infinv tl (dmatinu in 1h< 1.111411,10^^, litci.tlnic, and Mic'iiciti nl 



^ I \\ill iiou <|int<* Mi Cli'iilis (li'aiil^ \n WM, \\nUMi in I he 

character oi Mahomotians ni 1( - n1 ' 1o ^ n lnfjM ' *nid MM M! u>ntlihfMi nl tin AlalunniMUnh ol India, 

ter lit* K*I\ 



k Ol ihr M ihmmnl ( u)s \\lrn im\ in uiij*.i(li>nlili ininilii'i - \vitli I In Innaci inli.ilulanls il all Ilic 

^ _ _ iiilNliii'il l\ fliiMi'.iinis in IIiinliHHi.iii H is nu'issuv a.lM In h^\ ti lew 

Proud* ftorco, Jawlosw, per- / M , ,, , . , , . , , ,..<., 

fldioua, lieontious and cruoJ < J "UalU hi tin* l.niu I.IK, inmuL limiv ami lawless, allaeheil alsn I 

su|n i slit inn, \Jui h r*lh nslifMl Hint native |)III|KIISI| us, I liey u CUM (mined hy 

snuM-s-, \el niiiie |iiniuL MII'UIH.M>, seiiMinl, and li'irtteil Then umi'iimn'iil, ilmnoli nn lioiad'd uinlci Mm House 
i>t Tiiuoin, \\a>> nniliiuljledly a- Mi)lent ilt"i|itiNu, ami flio<Me',ili fl iiilinuiihliahiMi nl if-, fntHi 
Nn.ikinn Hnoiii^li nil I lie nviliamtn oi mnials \\\\\\ li olstiueh<iMht n way \ \> puvvei, I IK > allerw.ii ils a 
IlKMiiM'Kts In the nio>L \iei<iii^ iniluli<eiicis 1 anil the niiHt nlini'iniu rr nellies Peindy in ilimi, \\as nnue hiitial 
tli.ui in I lie Miiuliios Kmtt^sive heat hi IM s, a intimations, f inil uaiip.iliniis, unnk then liihlory more, 
Minn ih.iL ol 1111^ olihet peuple The pinh^sion nl aims vvas siiuhed l^ them, and (hey nilhvafed the 
leaniiiit; Tiny niM-oduu'il \iilu law*, ionned Irn imh and iifiiuiMiif luln-s tiuil a* tliu .ulitiinisiiuLnui ol thenu 
as nmy IM* judged limn the specimen ,iliie ('\hilMlerl, \u>ie imisl iniiupf. 

"Kveiy \\nilrlly pi uiWion, nifleeil every fiiuiM* ol sieiilat husiness, \VILS in then* uvnwed ofntnon (an opinum 

Bognid soouliir biiflinos^ ir- w(llfjl *"<'} s<1 ^ hnhl), nrodun ihble svilh sh*u*t MI tun (3i>mmeiv<s md UN 

rooonoilablo with strict Virtue delukol tho linnmes lhe> lelliihiefly to the Hindoos, vtlmm they 

and Boligion. ami insiilteil Whei n Lheit inv<*iiinient ntill jitevnils, I lie t hanu Lei 

hnni their rm^inal trinpei iind siiperslitum, HL'4nivnli i <| hy ihe en|ujrnent ol power, i^iiiains in low hi tun pn- 

vineeH, Mhetv Ilieir .Mithonty IK suhvetted, and \vhoit k many of them (all Into the lower lines of hie, I hat elutraeter 

liecomeH lesh ohvions , hutr \\ith more Uno^lHl^e, and iiion* prclenhittuh to inU^eify, they niv us mi principled Uh the 

llmdonH* Then peilul,), him ever, unil heenliwiMiehh, are the pi'rliily itnd lifetitioiiMtu'hH of a holder people 

" Kniiu thu ^oveinineiit mid iiiltirmivture of ttw MaliomeiluiiH, (ho IIiudonH lutvo ei'H^uul} tlenvcil no 
Vioofl of HmdooA and Malio- ii|mvcmciil of <<lniiiu*ter* Tho uivarlern may fauly IH* huppoKetl to have 
modann, on tho wholo, mmilar, coiitrihuled UIIMI* hliiiti* to the ifeni'i al evilH, tinrl even tit have ineiciHrd them 
owing to thoir mtoriniacturo Hud Uuy did noL pwnluee (hosooviln, HOP could llu-j Imvo |ierp<tuuliMl idem, 
in opposition to the ueninH -Hid H|nul. of Iho NnidooH, vvhn ant m mmihei, probahly, MH eit^lH to <mo. Tiny 
may, Uiei<l(ir(N he nuiKidoretl nviJieras loHNlidulin^tui iiKVHhioTi, thmi an t;jviu^U(*huaelor Lot he jnasH The vices, 
howtvei, oi Ilio MalumiiMlanH iind Ihndooh JUL MJ homoi^euous tliai in hUimpf thcli* elloctw, it u> not jnaietuatc 
to HjK'-fck nl hotli hiHHus undo; tlu dene npdion of Uut ono collective body info whitJi they luo now lor men I 

t Upon I ho wlunV, UIHI, we uannot avonl twofftn/iiig m Urn firapli* cr Hindoimtau, u moo of mm hinunlnlily 

neniitj and hiwe, M4iiriintf but a foehlu Honnc of moral ohli^atuni, ye 
m ^ 0|l- iiunn^pmi () f w hat they know to bo right, ffoviiwfl hy 
and lioeuliouh piiNHioiiH, flUfuigly eu*mplifynif( tho ofloofH proilunnl on 

hy groat ami general uonupti(ti (jf mannoi-H, cuul flunk in imwry by thuir VIOOH, lit a eiMintry poouhai'ly 
by ith nftininl advuiitngoH, tci jnfmiote tlio ImppmoHH of UH inliubitHniw Tho dohtutation from which thin 
IK furuied, lion l*m u tusk HO painful, that uothmg oxuopt tko oouHoioufmena ol uiciuxiug to do good could 1m ve 

* PrintoU l>wll(vmoiitey p^pm Mteilfli to tho ufein ol ludk t 0#ntt l|0ootUx 1 1 FM* (1808), pp. 



8 ENGLISH DDIJOITTOH ET ITOIA 

induced the author to proceed in li Ho trusts he has an aXFootrag Fsnso of tho efonoial imperfootion of hninnii 
uabnio, and would abhor tho idea, of noodle&sly or contomptuonaly opposing tho defects of any man or hot of men 
It ho ha& given an nnfavDruablo dchciiption, his wish is not to excite dutcslatian, hut to engage compassion, and 
tomato it Apparent, that \vhat apocrolatian nay havo oeciibed to phybical and TLuchangoablo cantos, spunks 
liom mural soaiccfl cnpabla of collection "' 

This Gfetamato of tho chaiactoi of tho Mahnmedan population pi chonts, no doubt, a painful piotmc, bnt tlw 
Bemarks on Mr Grant's esti- ^ntlioi hiniholf has otpirssod his \iows in an aptiloijctio nrnnupr, and \\ o have no 
mate of the character of Ma- reason io doubt tho sincerity of philanthropic motives with -which lu appeal s in 
homeddns have icooidcd thorn Nor innh two Joiot that his opm inns wotc loinicd itnl 

Button about a century ago, botwoon tho yi?aiH 1702 and 1797 n ponoil wlicn 1ho hill nf Ihc Malminc'dan Km put 
liad pioilnecd waiioi o and anai rhy, devastating Lho coiuiiay and hiuakm^ up tlu 1 oniirn faht K of Mahomed in HOT u>f \ 
ami jjolitual cttftainaatum Constant lapino niulbluofchcd ha.il im homo time liiHiunqinq m iho Lmd, <u ilmu i 
stito of uisocuiil^ uud coiivtilsiou wlucb IN dostiactivu not only nl fctioial ouloi but also d all llu i aith of |)i k uo mil 
iho piflfftoss ot lituialme anil stimus, which r in tluivo only in |it\uv ami luuli'i 4001! c/iMiiiinoiH luilocd, <\ii, 
i. tmhoiy ML'Woi'thi' luslaiy ol [iulibo( t.hat pound will show thai, with lluMlo\Mil,ill o{ Iho Mah(incflin ^-v fun nl 
'4iiv<nim<n1, llii* puihiufcs a.n/1 cluu-wtn ot Uu ALiJunuedaiih luululso ili'diyirl OIK niri<lcui, aldiic sm-i Mtllu nut 
h illiTMtinU* ilie C'vtivnio auaicliy inul wivi k ol ilicnonal h^stcni nl UIL M tlinim'rlaus <liu 111:4 'It^t PIMIIK!, 4 \< n IM 1li 
< i j iitu k oi tin* UalmmiMliUi |{!ni])ui k at Dolhi, \iuL its neit^IilMnu in*; ]iio\uu IN ILinu^i. lM t i( | iiif t inlMMi k fl lliii it \\ is in (In 
\u.u 17SK tha.ttht AlahoniodausyHloiu nl ^oveiuuiuil 1i.ul surumjiMil) hioki'ti up, tlut llu KnhilU ilui'l, (iliiiluu 
K.tdn Kluni, loirni^ uion<iaiH'tMiih>11u k nuponnl ]>aliici at Ddln, put nut ihi'i v"-.ol lluilnn inoiutt'li, Sh ill Mini, 
anil fluit it \\as not bill tliojiMi IHO*), wlum Loiil Lake 1 , alter a \ci> hiKirsiliil ciiii|iiii^n tifjiinmt Hio MalirHl i , 
i.tplutul Dolhi rni Ix-half oi the Hlust India, (Jompauy, tliat ]n>an and nnln won Helmut in <hiMM|uJ,iI, nuI suil.iMi* 
piitvihion ^vns inatlu 1oi tlio )iliutli l d ctupoioi, ins Lmuly ami (lipi'iuluiis It iniiii IH^CI lit loi<iitlin lh.il (In 
ami downfall il any pcjliljiual h>Mein diritts aiiaic'hy, aiian hy punhu'is ili.i ii|ilmi i ol MKM! ht', .iti<l 
ioi k lniL>H, mill niDlni'H oL action , and it can IIPVW |x) climblcd thai, tho pnliirir.il ilnwnl.ill til iiu> iai'( hunt* 
with id luuwil, luUlletiual, and social tle^aiLition nnrh, IIM|UM|, li.MllwM'onii" (ho wuirlilion nt flic MtilioincfLin 
Hni*ioi.y f>l Imlia nixiti tho clownlall ol Lho Mni>lial Kmpnv, and il vvr (ini*lull> html) UK hHoiual <\nit^ nt tlnl 
ponod, in M>l)ii Ciunislut'ss, wt hh.Ul piohahl> iind that innchnl Mi ( 1 h,uh u > (iianf'H (cnHl^tiiiiiilru v tun,iti i^l 
tilt* miual and MX'uI (.unrliliiMi of i.lic Alahoiuod uis luul .ini|)h k CM^ISC ai ilu 1 linu* \\ln n In \vinli 

IVihaps, ni>ihiuti tliums ru moiu vivid ami piotmrsipio li^hl. upon flic polil.niil nnd ^rfi,il dfutli IHI' oi fin 

Mucilial himnno. ulKiui ilu> tinu> \\IIIMI Mi (!liailt"* Uiiuit wmh- Ins Tn afiM 

Blogy, in tho form of ar//jrr* ., m in n ( */</,, , .. 

wl oompobod by Shah Alum *" nuuw Klocyy (iMnprmi'd in IVisum, in llm fuiiu of a fiV/if a/, hy tm* IMM|HT<II 

aflorbQUigdopn^odof hinoyo- Khali ALvm himsull, hfKHi aflci lu had IM^II flqmvcd nl hin t^r-.c'li* in 
flight un 17H8, on tho down- 17HH Tin* pnorn IhW (wen pi mini in an \ppcndi\ Io il Tin llutmtt f f tn, 
iaU of ttw Mughal Umpire /lV(f/w ftj HM^ t i tntl hy (Japl.im W Framl lin, pnhlitJiril, * ' """ * fc 

I7JK, iviih H In-o traiiNlatirm in Kii>j>lish vam Tlio liihiononl im|K>ilann' mid ini>r(st nf tho poem |ii hi) if 

lioiu^ quoU'tl hci-o in tho oM^iniil, to^ctlu*! wiiL (Juptain Knint kliti'h Inuislalum uud 

U I 



&$ u *J tf 



u 

^ >i 



U 

U if*l*> ^^ o^ ^t_iJbr^ * UA x^ id^ ^< M 



* 




* frintud Pfirloimonfcaty Popotf nlattog to tlio otww of ladiA . Gfnural, AppondUx li fubfec (Idjtf), pj> 80 1. 



riVtt'H rtror n\ ini* DOWNFALL OF THB MUGHAL nv?mi! 



1 *,& 



U 
U 
U 

U 
U 



*j( u 



A *j(Jjj? 




In )in link, ton (i in mi'fl ininuiuli 



lui'jlii pomp tlio sltilflv domes <iiinP, 

(i in mi'fl ininuiuli 

l, hlnul, uplift uitli \\<i(s, 

trtsiiy 



hliulo 



Km loin, 

In it'iii h Ins loni'iaMe a^icc ( sin \\s, 

As (luouili Iholondv muili I hint in\ 

' I jo, t ho duo tempest' gallic 1 11114 IMHII alai, 
In dioaillul chuids has tlmnuM the nnpinal *tar , 
Has to the \tiiids and hioad o\|iansool hoa\en, 
Mv stite,ni\ io)iil() and kmi'dnm tri\on ' 
Tina \\,s, O kini* f uhoii ihillnd in pos\u*Mipiomo 
Th\ \oico \\.s heaid, and notions hadM (he fhoino, 
Now '..ill it seise for* son I id hist of gtdd, 
U\ liaiinifjii^ \\dos, thy llnoiioaiid Kmpnosold 
HIO.UIII lime AlKliiLii,t \\ilh inti'iupnate hasle, 
<lluims hkea iiH'teoi tluoii^h th(pala(( \Miste, 
Fiovvnin^ tiniln 1 , tliMnttcMih \\itli , 
Th\ |Jin<4en\, O TuiKior, ^irnl anil 
Yet, not (hetieatnieuL horn the inhnimm loo, 
Nul nil m) kmul} stale in dust laid 
Can to this Ineast suth tortunn^ (iinn 
\s does, O N.I/H\| thy detesfod iu*t. 
Hut tho' to< lato, tho day ol m'komiitf <OIIK% 
Tho tyiaut sslmm thon servMni has soaJM ih^ 
Iliishurh'd Ilioi', ieln'1, hi'tullon^ Inirn tho 
Of po*oi tihiisc'd, and dotio thy 

paMnc'i'H of my ht*d, and joys KOM>ni\ 
my delight, hut now how ohnn^ul tin* HCOIIO Y 
with mo in pltuniive Hltitum toiuouiii, 
Tho Htanty pitlanoo fioni otn tyllHpnn^ tom f 
Tho vijH'i, whom with losicrin^ e.irt) I uui*ht 

! tm\i* t liciUKlit Hio flint HIV UUUH, nine h nin n\m \y uitroilimtary and cannot >>n arc*oitniml any pftii of tlm oiifftnal, It* IM 

1 lit ^ve Hiitmhit llrm io Lho mwlw, iluui an abrupt cuMinujwomimt oi tlio olngy, iw m tho Km^B own word* 
* f (iliulauin (luntht Kluui 

JMrinHtidi Ah kliau Hupnnntonddfil of Uiu HoiwlifjlU, 
Tho Mi^iit nubility, who abmibmnd tho Klitfc on tlm mtjihwuh of tho rnhulu 
Tlwoor Hlmli, Km tif Unbu! on hu fntlHit, tho Ahitallro M, but viut to Dolbi, vai mivmtxl to a prmoowi of th loyal fumily, 
tfiviw ItiM win, Xaniiuiu HluUi, a c hum to tho thiono oi HindooNtan 
^ Anuf Al Itowlu, VWUM of lim Hmuuft 

** U IN munh to h<> Uniwitnd, thut tlm HtttUi of tMtlltiM at Onloutta Mnld not, at that tuna, adnU of OoviMnmntit ntnfi'rtn on 
tUi owAmoftfor Muoh WIM tho infliutnco of tho llritinb mimo, that had tha dutachinont ntftluwMKl ab Aaopnluus only maruhod ont ol 
rmitcmnuwtMi thu brutnl tyrant would barn dmNtod, arid Uio Jttntf* nunffirtuiHW been amrtfd. 
tt Jt my not bo amlmi U> nmuuk that Movt^ral MH oofiliM of ih* abto m^y hanng boon circulated lhton|(hotit India, ' 



iloom, 



m ni> hrsom pi, nits Ins stint* IHM orst , 
Hurts in bhiml, and lictMtlcss ol Ins uord, 
PnHs loi the iinn of Ins so\ci< 11411 loid 
Xtihli*s inuiaft 1 ,^ upht'lil by jxivu-i' mill pinJo, 
To v\hoin 0111 l.tvonth ncvc't WIMC d< nuuL, 
Hoc tii \\h if niihi'iy < LI ill duo (lih^iAttis 
>oiu pcilidv aiomsiMl, has Immt^lit a lojal 
nni>Ji( noifhiMii si, u tnrnt (VlniPH U'aliiih n 
ini|M'iiril Timoor || pnj^i HIM ^vcn^in^ laiin* 
On Huso \ilc (.jiiiiois ijintk diHtriMdoii pom, 
l{idi<ss nij v\uini;s, and Kindly ii^his 
Tlipiv too, O Sindiah, dliihfiions rhiol, 
Wliootii'i> rliiUt promise in iilloid 
Tin i 1 iiivoki^ L'xriLfliy i^'MmniH 
And o f ci ihnr hc.uls lii^h \\a\i 1 fclio 
And >o ( () iuifhtul pdlaisof 
Hy liifMulsIuji hound, auid h> my |MIWIM cla.t<s 
llasfcii, U AhuT,* and }i> Kittrhsh 
Nfr tdnsh Io sooth an nijuivd 
Hut hi ) ' tny soul, imwotthy nt^di 

to suifaln ilio loss >I w^lif. mill ilinmo 

ilmi impriial ptid( k ,<ind 
AM* hut the hVctuiK |w^tMii<4 oi nn hom , 
fn ihc f i mi rnicjlilo of duo diHtnw, 
Ptn^ofl of allo), thy HOUOWH HIIOII Hlmll 
Wlmt though tho Hun or output* and o 
Khcun ol I(H luiamM, mili^hitMm noLtho Juiul I 
Homo hnppfor day, a providential tim 
Again may rcmovain tho fulling Htat ( 
AK^II, King, NUHO up thy illiisti'iuiiH ruro f 
(Jhoui thy Had mind, and oloHc thy dn>s in IHJIUH* f * M ff 



Tho ono htro |iKwontcKl r ww obtalnftd by tb* author trhjUrt at Oalhi, nud 



npmNd to him 



<utcik> of 



bothinkMiiimavU boond to a^kiiowledgq ha hna zoad a pcmtlo towlon of tlwi aurno fllmr, whlo)i *f 
for May 17W ald to bo written by Captain tfymitfi from whoto vomoroliM Into tho hlrtory 
Uuifdom of Ara, tho imbllo wy 099161 to 4Mfi woh twafut ami luteuetiv* lafonuntioa. 



JO ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDTA 



CHAPTER III. 

MR CHAHLBS GKANT'S SCHEME FOR THE INTELLECTUAL, MORAL AND SOCIAL REGENERA- 

TION OP THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, AS PROPOUND*]!) IN HIM TBMATIHH, 1702 W A D 

INTRODUCTION OF ENflLWir KDUOATION A MORAL DUTY OK TIM HTATH, 

AND NOT jntAUUliT WITH POLITICAL DANUKIl 

Evon mme mtorastnu} tlion tlio p<tfhnqc4 quoted Jii tlio preceding cluiptoi, in Cli'iptcr IV, uf Mi Chilli"* 
Mr Giant's Scheme for the " liWlV<fc r ^^ 1 ^ Ullllui illt * liwdmg u luquni/ uttu tin ,1/wsrnrs w/inJi nnqhl I* 



improvement of the Natives tulaptul toy Mi/ Jhtlntn, fw* the Impimpuwiit t*J flu fmnfitutn nf hit A 

of India ropieflent? typical yr/s, aW J/<swr/s /o {Jftycfrnus " T nuv quote tho (ollanni^ pats.ios horn it 

notions of eaily English phi- ^ ilcsuiptivpof thee,ulipstirliMs ol British plulanthiopir slattern n 



lantniopiflts, ^I 1(| ni t lo j, K ^ um r j Kni^lihh education in India. The) uo aJl (lie- num \alii ill 



its aflei tlio liquif oC aroiiinr> nf Iintu.li mlo, tlu fc > fn^bli 1 lift In (imi|Mit' ihc jusi, \M\\\ 1lu pitsdil ^t,t(i k it tlm 
jinlmyoi Knghsli odneation in ludu, in<l ihoy niu rlooply niicuNtin^, as JutuisluiLi* Mn> miMiisnl HM|OIII^ |HJV\ tut tlic 
aTitui[Miirms ol HUtcMiiLti, in ie^<brd to tin 1 pi n^u SH unl iiliit nl Kiii^lislMMliu ilnm utioiic> I he p(np)tM>l Inili.i, 
have boon imluK'cI Mr (lhuluh tlt.uit Iw^nis tlic 1 iliapin with tho inllimum ohsci\,il inns 

" W* 1 now pi'iMwd to the iu*un riljoct ol tins wrk, fiu I lie h.ikc ol >\liuli .ilMiic |IMUM|III^ 1opicsuirl dis 
liuvt* Loim Ijiout^ht foiwanl, an inquiry into tho IIKMIIH ol rcnicdpn^ dihuuli'is, \\hidiliavr iH'crnnr 
invcU'tnto in tlio Htat^ ol RCN u iy a-iniui^ uiu Asutit hnbicrU, \v\iwl\ ili'shoy tliuu 1 liappumss, .tiul ohriiiutl 
evoiy hpiH icH of impiwoment aninn^ tlioin 

"That it is m tbo lughcst do^iec 1 (It'huablis IhuL A liL k alini> junir iplc shnnlil 1>r* intniilnoocl, no man, suich, mil 
HsahjQJC T>rmoiDlO ( ' <in ^ Hup|jOhiiM( it to J* in 0111 priwoi io convince them dl ilnMnuiin,tlil,\ <f 

tlio annn.il HUcnfiCL* nl so nuny I nun mi vuf inih on the f uncial pile , ol (he pin. 

foflfnon of loltbciy, cnmpioliomhn^iiiuKlor , ol thu indnl'fiiKO ut oncMlasn nl people in the wlmJi <ul,ilo^nc ol 
tiotiH cnmi'H, withnut any aduquato pimislitnr nl, of tlu iorloitnio ol the lives ol othns, tuuoiulin^ to Him 
foi tlio mnost trifles, of the dibilnuj iinposilirxi ol l>niflienhimie nioh, devnnl ol all inoial \\oith, if the 
nJ i(VL b n^, 1>> oiloiint^s to \intliLJivu (loiUs, oi tluMsLililishmdit ol IMHI, lalst evidenns ^.uuiri'^ and other irn- 
by U\v , ol tho paidon of rapiUl oilences loi mone) , ol ti\ini( In piuehase (lie tA|ii,idon ol ivillnl ntd 
iniquity^ by coioininiul obsei Vtint os , and ot the \\oiHlnp or hi oiks, stones, impure mid malevolent duties, 
no nun living, siuoly, would uffitm tliut wo ou^lils tlut wo aio ui lihei(>>, to withhold doni (hem tins uinviofmn 
u Aio wo bounil Inr ovur Io piesorve all iho onoimitioh in the Hindoo H\H(OIII f Have wo be^mu the uu.utlums 
Ghreat Britain not bound to ol OV(li y w<^itth pnnc-iplo ami piaiiiro whirh il. iuiif f iiiisf Aiv wo plodui d 
preserve the onornutiefl in the lowipjioit, foi J1 tfi'winl,iriiiH, liy tbo anlbojity ol our i^overnitiont and fin 
Hindoo system powoi ol 0111 arms the mihi'iioh wlndi ii>nmane( ami kiuiveM lmu> so lout; 

ontflilinl u])rm a huge prntitni of tbu human rm*o? lh thin iho pmt winch a Tree, 'i humane, itud mi oidi'>hlenel 
tmiioii, a nation itsoll piofcssin^ pimoipluH dmmctnuilly opposite Io thoso in quistion, bus (n^tit>ed to at't louuids 
its own Hii)|U(*t4 ^ It would \w I^H> ubsunl and o\trava.tf.uit to nuinitiun, Unit any nnifiitp'mrrit ol Mus kind r \isls , 
thu* fliudt Buta.ui IH undri ntty obliu;ainn, dnoit or inipbeil, to upludd onoiH and nsa^eh, ppnihs and liindammilii^ 

of the Ihht pjinciplos ol loa^on, imtr.ilitv, innl reliuiiMi 
"Jf we liad I'oinjnoiod wuoh a Kin^donuis MeMon^ whoroa number ol Inmmn \irliniM were leijiiliu'ly ollei(>d 



Xxamplo of Moxioo l MllUl 

hoi nil mode ol buieheiy V Yol, Inr near Unity yc'nrh, wo ha,vo, with |H*rleot 

woon ntoH, in loality moto ciuol arid jilmrimis, pitictiHod in our Indian iouiluiios If hnnuin life must be 
to mipoisliition, at lo.iHti tho moio iwolow*, woitbloss, oi uncormootod tmimborM ol tho Honoty might 1m 
ilovoted ButniIlimliKJHttti^innthorflof fiinnhos a,rolukou fioin tho iriulst ol their children, who havo jUHtloht 
tliL'ir (atlicn aim), and Ly a mubt <liabolital eumpboutiori ol foi t*o and JNuid, uio drivun into tbo fUmpH 

" Khali wo bo in all time to uoino, as wo lutliuito have biK>n, passive HpootittoiN of thin unnatural wiokodmwH V 

Ho attempt mads to recall I^may, nidood, vroll apfuitrHurpMhinfr iliat in tho long poriod dining which 

tho Hindoos to the dictates of wc^havo holdthHotpiwtncH, wt> bavo mado no HtddiiB attompt torn-all fcho 

Truth and Morality, Hmdooa to tlio riiutatou of Truth and Morality Thin IH a mortifying proof 

bow little it hiuibee&qoniidartd} that tho end* of gorcmmont, and tho good oi aooioty, UTO MX ituioparabli 



MR CHARLES (HUNT'S bOHJOMB M 

connection <*ith light piinciple* We have boen satisfied ^itli Iks apparent submibsn encf,s of these people, and have* 

attended ohiofly to tho maintenance of Dm antkoiity ovei the countiy, and the augmentation of om oommeroe and 

revenues , but have never, with a view to the promotion of then happiness, looked thozoughly into their internal state 1 . 

"If, then, we ought to wish fin the coirention of tho*e criminal habits and ptaoticos which prevail among- 

them, it cannot reasonably he questioned, that we on^ht also to make alluw- 
Beason to be able attempts for thi* end , and it remains, therefore, only to oonwdei in what 

manner this design may be best pursued 

Shnll wo lesnrt to the power we possess, to dostioy their distinctions ot caslofl, and to demolish their idols V 
, not "Pnrpo, instead of convincing thorn of their onoi, would foitify them in the persuasion of borne; 
and tho use of it, oven if it piomisod happiez consequences, would still bo ultogeiher un]ust 
" To tho two of ie,won and aiprumeiit, however, in exposing their eirois, there ran bo no objection There is, 
indeed, the ft fci oncost obligation to make those enois minifest, smoo they geuuidte and tend to poipotnate all tho 
nnsciics which have beon sot foith, and which our duty, a* mleifl, instead of pei nutting us to viow with fiileut 
iiLchffei'enec, calls nprm us by ovei> piopra method to pi o \cnfc 

M The ti ue cui o ot darkness, is tho uitiudaktifm of light Tho Hindoos err, bocnuso they arc* tgnoiant, ,md 

llun cnoih liue no vet F.mly been liiirl before thorn The cnmrnnnuditimi if 

mSS UI llftllt aiul kll lci|| K fr> Ul ' im ' ^Upiw ttohohl ieincily ioi tiim fhs- 

oidcns, imd HUH mneilv is pioposed, finin a full coimuiion, that if judiciously 

and patiently applied, it would lu\ e i>i cat and liapp\ (fleets upon thctn i llc<c is limioui able aiul advtuitocpims For IH 
"The*c aio two wa>s of making UIIH ofmnniniiiivdmi the fnu 1 js, by tin* mi'dnim of tho lauffuaqwi of those 
Whether through fheii own (>oun ^ 11 ^ * illc * (jtnt ' J ^ >>V *^ U1 nuMlnnu oi nnr own Tn geneiil, when foiui^n 
Languagos, or through Xing- teaihpis bavc pnpnserl trMiisitud the inhabjiantH of any coimbiy, they htivc 1 

usnl tlii' V< inaniUr Ifin^ui* r>i Llmt pi'oplt% TDI u nattmil mill iioocHsaiy t'0dsoii 

they could not linpo 1o makn any other modus of c nrumnim atuin jnLollicpblc* in tliotu ThiH is not our t'oao jv 
rospoct ol oin liistrMiMh^onilpni K? Tlny aicour own, wo liavo jiMm^ctl thorn Itmp, many Enphshinon toaido 
th( Nutiv(% our lan^na^ 1 IH not unknown tlioio, nnd it in piactimMo to diffimoit tnoro widely Tlio choice, 
(if cither motlcj, IICH opcti to UH , arul we ate at liborty to consider which m oniiUorl to [Jivfcrunco Upon 
HUH fliib|< k ( t, it IH nod ink ndcd to paqs an cvilnsivo dpfisitm here v tlio points absolutely k> bo contended for are, that 
wp outfit to ini]ait out Kuiionni* lii^litn, and Ui.tt ilns IH prooticaihU 1 fhdfi it IH piaotwaljle Ijy two wuyh, oan IIPVPI bo 
an ai^nnc k iit why ncilhoi hhould lie atti'mptid fntWd, no^icat roahon ftppcarfl why t-ithiT slionld bo 
tioully inionlirkMl, HIIICC jiaitinilar (MiSOH may JOCMJininond, oven that wluoli in, in guni'in] loa^t oh^ihlu 
" Tho <i< ijuiHitum ol A Jiin^n lan^nn^* m, to inm of cultivated imndn, a natUi of TIO ^reaiiliffioulty 

tf^rhci'H could, t/licrpfoiv, ho flormer ((iialiiiwl to oJTor iiiHtmction ni tho native 

Bngiish Tiangruigo tho su- i ttl | ffuft ^ t , ^ lan f r ] lo fndiann wciulil b< pioiMuoil to iowi \iMlmottni This 
penor xnodium or mroniotion .. ; ,,, , . ,.,,,,,, 

moMiod won Id hnnco cr>mo into opcratidn more flpoedily than tho othor t nn<l it 

would U!HO bi attended with tho advance ol a moto ciucfnl fielortion of tho matter of iiiftto notion Hut it would 
bo far moro wmfmcd and IOHH effectual , ifc inny bo termed a npeoirfl of deeipIuniTiff Tho doriphorei IB rortuirod to 
unfold, in mtolhtfible words, whab WUH before* hidtlon TTpou oveiy now oouwion, liu lion a Himilai* labour to perform, 
and the information obtain oil from lum ifl hinitil to tlio Aingle commumoiition theri made All other wiitni^g, m 
tho Baino cdiaiuotei*, fltill remain, to thoHO who are i^noiutit ol it, anknowu ; but if tbuy ttro taught tho ohavootor 
f, thoy oun at otieo i*oad ovory writing m which it IK uned Tliuw, suponor m point of ultimate advantage) 
tho employment of tlio Tflnghuh lanp^ago appoar ; and upon this ground, we givo a praforonoo to that znodo 
proponing liei e, that tlio eommuTiicatum of our knowledge hall bo made by tho medium of onr own langua^o. 
Thlfl proposition will bring at onc*o to tiial, both tho piitioiple of gnoh oommnnioation, and iliai modo of convoy* 
anoo which ean alono bo quontionocl , for Urn afhuutnon of tlio principle mnnt, at loaHt, include in it tlio 
admiwimn of tlio narrowest moann Hiiilod to Uio and, which wo OOTIOOIVO to bo tlio native lanjpiagen The princi- 
ple, however, and tho mode, arc Htill diHtmot qnofitionn, and any opinion wliioh may be ontwtaincd of the latter 
cannot affect tlie former \ but it IB hopod^ that wliat sliall be offerod bore oonoornmg thorn, will bo found sufficient 
tojnilifyboth. 

41 We proceed, then, to observe, that it ia poifeetly in tho power of this country, by degrees, to impart to the 

Hindoos our language , afterwords, through that medium, to make tbra oc- 
* 110 qtttod with our easy litomry compositions, upon a vwwriy of subjeoto \ and, 

1^0^ progrt**voly with tlio Bimpl* elements of 



oar arts, our philosophy, and rohgioa TbcNle aoaulsltio&s would silently uflornund, aixd at knogtli subvert^ the 
latejUkof enwrMd 
capable of 



nrOLIBH 1DUC1TTOX IK IVJIIi 

" The first commnnicatian, and the instrument of introducing the rest, must "be the English language , thu IB 
a key which 'will open to them a world of new ideas, and policy alone might hare impelled us, long fcince, to put it 
into their hands 

" To introduce the language of the Conquerors, seems to be an obvious means of assimilating a conquered people 
Example of Mahomedon *them Tho Mahometan? bom the beginning of their power, employed th 
Conquerors introducing Per- Persian language in the Affairs of government, and in tho public departments 
81BZL< This pi aotioe aided them ui maintaining' thmi ttipexioiity, and enabled thorn, 

instead of depending blindly on native amenta, to look into the conduct anil duUih of public business, AS well A* 
to keep intelligible registers of the income and expenditure of the SUte Natives leaililj learnt tho Uugnnc?o 
of Gnveinmont, finding that it was necessary in every concern oi Ravenno mul oi Justice, they nevt became 
tmcheis of it, and in all tho ptovmcos over which tho Mogul Empno extended, it is still undoistrx)d ami 
taught* by numbois of Hindoos 

It would have boon our inteiost to have followed their example, and hod wo done HO, on tho awuuiiptum of 
Should have been followed tho Dww or *&** yca* attewnnh, tho English Uncfuacfo would mm 
by the British, with much bene- havo boon spoken and &tudicd bj multitadoh ui JJmdooH rhiniu?hnut mn 
fit to Adminutration piovmcoq Tho details of tho revenue would, horn tho hopnnmq, havo bent 

ofjon to GUI inspection, and by facility oi examination on our part, and difficulty of hbnaition on that nf 
tho natives, manifold impositions o & gi CMS lutaxc, which have been practioorl upon UH, would have been pic- 
cludpd An easy channel of oomrmmu ation ilso, would always have boon open between the inlers and tho niib- 
jrote, and numberless grievances would have bison icprcRpnteil, lodiewod, or picvcnlcd, whtJi tho icpinnuiu' of tho 
femur in the country languages, and tho hinder anoos cxpenenoul by thu Uttei m nuvkirig thoir *ppioachr*s, have 
ornetimoft suffered to pass with impunity, to tho enooutagemoiit of now abuses Wo wore long hold in tho dark, 
both m Indu* and in Europe, by tho use of a technical Hrvenue language , and a man oi consideiable judgment, 
who was a inombsr of tho Bengal Adnnnifatiatum near twenty yuais HIIHO, publicly auimadveiteil on tho absurdity 
of our Hubuiiltang to employ the unknown |aiqon oi a contiuoiud piMtpla It IH coi Lun, that tho HmduoH \vouhl ouhily 
hare crmformuil to tho ubi* of En^lihh , and they would fitill bu glad to prwBQhb tin* language of tluni muNtc k >H f the 
language whuh idwayH gives weight and consequence to tho NaiivoM who havo any acquaintance with it, and which 
would enable every Native to make his o\miepiosout,ition ducctly lo thr QovpTiun-Ucncral Limscli, who, it may 
bo presumed, will not Cfjmnumly, houcuioi th, be chosen fiom (>hc luio ni ilu Oinnjj.vny'H h<nvani<H , and tliriuim p, inay 
nut hpuak tho duth'ith oi tho ouuiiir} 01* what importance 1 it raifrlit ho to the |iu1>ln inteiusi, that a man in thai 
hlatiim hhoulcl not lx> obhqcd in ilcpund on a modiuiu vith which ho IH iniaujuftniUul, may natlil) lu k roiKcivi'd 

44 It would bo uvUumoly oub} loj Uovcinmtsnt to OHtabhbh, at a mcHU'iuti' nvjicnsc, in vaiioim fiuils of tho pio- 

Faodity of imparting Eng- vmccs, places of gi-ataitouh ini,trurtum m t pailuiff and wuiiiiff Hiifflwh , multi- 

lish. Education gratuitously, to tndos, onpocially nf tho young, woulrl fluuk to thorn, and tho tvwy hnokti nsori in 

supplant Persian m Admuua- tpaohnig, might at tho samo Lima ccmvoy (ibvioiiH li'ulhs on differ out huhjucfs, 

tra1:M>ZL Tho toarhurH Hhoiilit bo pc^Hous of kiiowlcclgo, innrals, anrl diHd otitm , and men 

of this character could impart to thoir pupiln mnoh unof ul anfoimaiion in dihumtho lunl to lucihl.ato the uttaiumoriL 

trf that obioct, tboy might, at fiiflt, mako some u&o of tho Honraloso tonguc k Tho limdooH wtnihl, in tiiwy, bommo 

leachora of Hn^lwh theraselvoB , and tho employment of oar language in public bnttmotw, for wlnoh (Tory pnhiioul 

rnanon roruamH in full fiiroe, would, m tho com so of annihor gouoiation, mako it vwy gonoml throughoiiti tho coutitry. 

Thoro is noiLing* wanting to the uaccess of ULIH plan, bat the hoaifcy patronngu ril (Joyonununt If ihoy wish it to 

saoeceil, it cim and must sacctiod Tho introdiHtion of Knglibh in tlio AdininiHirahon of Uio Kovcmuo, m JuiLcial 

pnx,oiJmgrt, and in other busmoHH ot aorwumimt, whcrom IVraian IM now maul, anrl tliu (KUhliHhmcnt of trw 

sohtMilH, f oi insir uctum in this langnftge, woulrl innui o its diffuHion ovor tho cminbr y, for the roaMoti already Baggufciml, 

that ihr* inLoitHtoi tho Natives would induce them lo arquuo it Noithra would inadi confiiHion anvo, OVOD ai 

fiwt, upon huoh . oliango , for thvra are now a groat number of Pui tuguoHo arid Jicngnlt HO olorkH an tho piovinooH, 

who andw stonrl both tho llmdoofttanny and Eugliflh languages To employ thorn in drawing up petition* to 

Uovornmont, or itn olhooni, -would bo no additional hardship U]K>n tho puoior pooplo, vho aro now asjuitod in that 

way by Porsum clorkfl , and tho oppra bnmty affortlod to othero who havo HufllcifuL loiwaro, (f looming iho languuKu 

of tho Government gratmtouHly, would be an advantage novcr enjoyed undor Mahonodan Itolrs< 

94 With our laogoago, much of our useful literature might, and would, in tuno, lio oomtnixniaatod. Tho art of 

Art of Etinfong great help Ptff wW enablo us to dunoxouiato our wiltinffM m a way tho Persians 

to dissemination of Snglish never could have done, though thoir compositions hod boon an numorouM aw 

14*M* <mr Hence the Hindoos ironld nee tho groat use we mito of roatoit oa 

all subjects, And ut all aflaui *, tibr alao would lewm to mson, they wauld booome acquainted wifib tbe Mttory 



ME CHARLES GRANT'S 8CHBXI Jfl 

of their own species, the put and present 6 tate o the world, their affections would gradually become interested 
by various engaging works, competed to recommend vntne, and to deter from vice, the general mass of their 
opinions would be isctifiod , and above all, they would see a better system of pnnaplas and morals New views 
of duty, as lotional csreatures, would open upon them, and that mental bondage in which they Lave long been 
holdon would giadnally dissolve 

" To this change, tho truo knowledge of Natnre would conliibute , and some of our easy explanations of natural 

A true knowledge of Nature Philosophy might undoubtedly, by pioper means, bo made intelligible to 

would break the febrick of them Except a few Biahmins, who consider the concealment of their loaimnQ 

the Hindu Behgion M pait of ^^ 1Q]lglonj ^ people JUQ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

and phenomena oi Nature and then ouois m this branoh of science, upon which divots important concJusions 
ioRt, may bo moio easily dcmonsti ated io them, than the absuidiiy and falsehood of then mythological legends 
Piom tho domunstiation ot the truo cauho oJfc eclipses, the stniy of Eagoo aud Kttoo, tho diagons, who when tho 
hunandthoiiiormaioobsonrod,aiOBupposwlto bo assaulting them, a stoiy which has hithuHo been an aiticlo 
(.lichpiODhhut^pioductncDiiQli^oassDiviccs among tho Hindoo*, would fall to thu giounrl, the i em oval of 
one pillar, ^oulil weaken tho iatoiok ot lalsohoorl, tho dwnvoiy of ono palpable oiioi, would open tho mind 
fnfaithct conviction, anilthi piog<*Kive iliscovoiy of tiuthb hithoito unknown, would dibwpati* an many suptn- 
hUtious clunu'ias, tho pai mis of Use feaiB, anil f Use hopes Evory bianch oJ natuial philosophy might in Lime be 
introduced and dilhispd amon^ tho Hindoos Their audeihUndmsrs would thoncsc be strengthened, aH well as their 
minds mioTinul, and enoi be dispelled in propoi tit in 

"But, peihap*, no aoquihilion m xialuial philosophy would HO effoctnally enlighten the mats of the penplo, aa 

And enlighten tho Hindus tho "itinductiun of the pnmiploi of Mushamcs, aud then application to ft^ii- 

by promoting moohanioal in- cultnio and the useful aith Not that tho llmdooh ai>c wholly dostituto of 

vonUona Himr) ] fl modianwal contrivances Some manutaLturcs, which dopond upon 

pnlipni aitentioii and dehe-xey of hand, aro t-atnoil to a ecmhidaable doynecol peifuciiim aiuon^ tliem , but for a 

MM ii* ol atjes, jioi haps for two UiouHand > eai , they dD nut appear to havo made any conbiduiable addj<j<m to tho 

ai Is ol life hm ntion WHTOB wholly Unpul amouor thoin , m a low thuigf,, iliey have impiovwl by tliwi jnioioourao 

HiUi MuiupmnK of whose nurnenso sapoiioniy they aiu at lonpftlMiinvinccd , but thih efloct IH partial, aud not 

iliHeci ruhh' in tho hulk of tho poo pic* Thi scope for impiovemont, m thiH i cwppci, tb prodi^ioiu 

(fc What prrcut aeeeflHiuuH of wealth wvmhl Jienpfal dwive from a people? inkaiiffcjnt m the pnucjploM of agpied- 

Improvomont in Agnoul- iurtl Hkl ' Iod to muko tho miidt o> soils and seasons, to improvo tlio existing 
two, too, would ensuo by modow ot onltinc, of pustuiagu, of roaunc; eattlc, oi deitmooiiffanist o\oessofl 
introduction of machinery. <,f ihon^ht, anil ol ram , ami thus to meliorate thu quality oi all tho pioduoe 
of tho rcniniif All throe arts aro Hiill m mfaney. The Jiusbundtnaii of Jkiiffal just tuius up the soil vnth 
ttdirnimitivr plough, diawn by awmple oi iniHetahlc eattb, and if dt ought paichuh, oi tho nun mundato iho 
rio|>, ho hah no riwmreo , ho thmkH ho IM duHtmod to ibis Huftormg, and IB tar ULUIO hkoly ia die from want, than 
to ivhou' himw'lf by any iow or oxtrnoi diuwy vButi Hatiwultuu'o is also in its first btcigti tho van o us fmiis and 
owjuloni herliH, with which Jlmdootftan abounds, aro noarly ma flUto of nature, thoagh tliey aio plantod in inclosed 
p^rdoDN, little nkill m employed to roclaun them In ibju respoot, hkowino, wo might communicate information 
rf material ue to tho comfort ot life, and to tho prevention of Jainine In tulk, indigo, Hugor, ami in many othor 
aHiclciH, what vtwt iinprovomcmts nught ba ottuctod by tho miroduction ot inaoliinery Tho skilful application of 
fire*, of water, and of steam, improvomoutR whioh would thoa immediately concern tha intu^ost of tho oommon 
people, would awttlcon thorn horn Ihoir toxpwr, irndglve activity to Iheir minds At pxesont, it is wonderful to 
tteo how entirely thuy rewgn theniHolves to procodont cation IH tho stiengost law to them Following mplwitly, 
NMniH 1o be HiHtmcitivo with them, m Hmall things us weU as gxeat Wie path which tho fitHt passengor butt 
marked over the soft flojl, is tit>dUon so uudovmtmgly m all ita curves, by every succeeding traroltar, that wboo 
it w porloctly l>oftton, it has still only tho width of a mglu tiack 

" Kut, undoubtedly, tlw most nopcniaat commtmicaUon which the Hindoos could reooiTc, ILiongh the medium of 

Montimportant oommtmioa- ottpl ^K w ^' TOuWbotteku ^ 1 ^o 

tton to tho Hindus, through explained in a clear, easy waj, in vanons tnusts circulating among UH, and A 
Snghali, would be Olunetiani- eomplotely contained in the inostixaoble volume ot Soiiptuio. Thoaootkir 

^ffi^i"* 1 * 01 ** 017 "** ^^fc 11 ^^**^^*^ One Tnw Gofl, M d IA 

euperBmoon thoreeJ lustoiy of man his creation, lapsed tate p and the mow* of his rs- 

oovery, cm all wbeh points they hold false ad extravagant opinions , they would see a puro, complete, wd parfeofc 
of monOi sal of duly, onforood by the mo*t s>wlol tiwotwiw, wad reoommeudod by tko ftiott Intemttng 
; tboy would learn the aoooutitablflneifl of m*&, the final judgment he IB to undergo, wad tb* &*&&*&* 



11 EV.LIHII EDI i 1 mi of PI i sou 

which IH f follow \Vlierpvei this kno^lcd^e should ho iw uu'd, Idulati >, with all the iahl1u oi its impure rltiiLir>s, 
its monsters of wood ami stnuo, lU ii1si pimripleH awl rininpt [itatfiris, its del usi\e hnjwb anil \amiuaih iln 
iidicnlnus corcmrmiei and dogiadrnGT ftupeisimons, its hinj legends and li .unluh-iit inipciMiirras, urmlil Lill The 
rtaumtihlp wvicc of thr only, and the minutely peih-ct Clad, \vould In' cstahlisin d Imo to Him, pea,u uid good- 
will towutdh men, wiuld hi* felt as ohlu^itriH piumples 

"Lt is nnt assorted, that surli efhvts would bo immeiliafr or um\eis'il hut adniiltmn them in be piuqipssm , 

anil pail nil oid\, \oi how uieat would (he ihanife In*, and him happ\ at length 



offoota would | 01 ihtMuiiwaid iiin^iHN, anil inU'inal |M art- ol M.cict^ niiini^ the Hindiujs ' 



Wen wiMild be nstoied to (In use ol then le.isrm, rill (lu a(l\aniai(s oi happv 
fioil, rfjinnic, and siiiuinin, ttoiild 1* ubsi md and nii]no\iMl , ilu* i mnldits mid lonMiiunu^ of hlc \\nuld ho 
tiKNiiscHl , ihr* culin ihon ol tin* mind, ami iafiun.il infi'inmMfs \ilufd, Mic pinplc unuM ns( in Ilic sialooi 
hninan IXMU^S, ami as flu\\ found then charnciii, ihru siati% aiul tlii'it nmiloits impin\oi, ihi'\ \\nuhl pti/r 
mou* iiiufily i,1if socmif^ iind tlu* h.ippinr ^ ol a we ll-cndtwd Kucu'ty Suoh ,v < hjnjjc >\unld i uiicd tlmso s.ul 
wliuh ha\i> IH'CII dc^riilM'il uiul lot \\lihli no illn k i ic'im i d> lias In I>H piopo^il, THM is in llti* n.ihiit ol 
> hi 1 lound " ^ 

thus pti[Mmnilo(I his stlicim* Im* i<*iMMM>ratiii^ India .mil .mn liui.ihiiu (he intclltctual, snrnl, ami moial 
Objootionn to Mr. Qrant'tt ^oudilton ol ili* inhnlntauK Mi (lli.itlt , (li ml li.it, di \ninl a mu idi'i ihlc pm- 
Sohonio- tho main objection lion ol lus tivalisi- lofliodiMMivumaiid ii'liii.iflifiu ni i^hi pnni'ipa! oh|i>c innis, 
bomg Political Danger UI^IM! nn iho OIJMHI(I* M|< In HIO.I* who IK Id dillniMit \u \\^ a-t lu (lu ami^ 

oh|u(s^fiml [HUM ipb i ol 1hi k Uniisli Kulc in liuh-v Ol Ilioii* ol|u iunii, Ilicrcii niu k wliu h disuxi i ^spt'c'ial ini'ii- 
(un !M I M, as il is closely uMiiU'Hod \\j(h (hi' pio^tcss oi Kii'>h,)i idiu.tfion in India, .ind hi a dni'M IMMMIIIT upon 
itsdlit'lsMi lai as slny Imvn hhowti IhnnisrUis in ihr piopaicuml i ol I In* political afMlatmn in Itulia* uliich hns 
duimir rfMf*iiiy'aih lunui <,imt'd on liy ihr " Imlwu Ntihnnttl i W//M*." Pn( in its shtm"f> f and .iinph -.( ttini'^ tin 
objtM^iun wns thus (*\pi(^hCd '* 11 (lu k Kn^lmh luniru.i^o, if Knhsh opinions^ and miprnvi'ini'iit' , uc* intiffdticr'd in 
our Asiifcin 1 possushi nrts, into Flcninil, lot ttisduins il (>linsliniii1>\, cspci lall), is <>.ful)li<Jn r| in thai (jUtiilu , and if, 
tofH \wv witili th( i S4Mliauprr i H, m.uiy Nni?lisliim k u <*oloni/.i tlu'if, vill nol thr> pi'uplt' Irurn lo dosiio Wnt^hsh lilu i rl\ 
and dlir Klu^Iish forni of (lov^rnnii'iit, ihliair in \\\< k h'^isl, v( inn ol IhriroNvn (oimlij, and nninu^iuiM in (In nniiy 
muin<tnu k d m ihal (*onn1r) ^ Will no( ihi'aimy thrnrr liuoirus in Innt', wholly piovim ial, olhni(Mi \\y unlives uf 
India, \\ithoul u((a< hinoni to fh<* tSo\<*M'itn iSiain*^ Will not the* people ad IdiHh nnnp to Hunk it a lumMnp to hi* 
et, find fo pay ii'ilml^s to a lriini<ii iiiunJiy ^ And linull}, will (ln> nnt. ta.lfdl (li.il sultjiu liuu, and ii'iseji fhur 



Tin . question is dist'iisscd at cirisid( rahli* li'mjUi hy iho u<hor,f and h< iiuU his rli (tissiun upon fh 
wiih llu* lillimin^ohsi b ivaiitins miv#.ml (o tin* intiodihdou rd I he Kn^liih liui^uiw fc (lie tm ilium oi mstniclmri 
lei the pi^ipliMd Indiib 

** la tfmiiri^, n tti> now dr t to UK* done of Hie answer hi Hie last ,uid tuo l i(. ntatenal of Hu 1 f>i|eHuiih i\Ineh ate 
Bnfflifih Lanfruafto Bhcmld bo f riMIS(ltl111 ^Vw^sl Hie pmptuul whcme, (hat cih|etinm nhteh i[m slum-* ihe i>\- 
antrodu cod, and failing that, In puheneyol usin^ Hie Kn^lish hni^inipe, it will bi> pitipn tu enll lo ireolh*i* 
dian Languages may bo adopt lion what wash(ad*d in Hie hcni (i|H'iun^ol i(, thai iho jwum/ttf of eom 
odOAtno medium or inBtruotxon muna*nlnii( our It^ht mid knowled^, and \hv rlMunrl oi MM/I' oi coiimiiitura-* 
trion, wrre two diMtinrf* l.liint;s , that the inlininsicni oi Hut drnu t did noli depend on Hio choiee whieli mi^ht Ini made 
of Hi [i Utk'i*, urn! was rilimealisoluidy loidended lor The elmnnel ol the Kn^linh IIUIKIM^S liowever, IIUH bitt'n 
pn'fened, in tlui pu^rnt plan, as IHMII^ deiMiiinl HIM must ample and eflei dial , lUid though new, II.IKII wif< and highly 
fldvufni((oiiK A^ainhlf this Hiamu*!, hnwever, the vuiter ilimkH it iMiMHililo t Hint roluHuneitm may remiim whon 
ar^umenls are nhviibfed Stion^ly UK ho H luiiiHelf pethiuwied, (hat ^n*nl' and pet iihni iulviiiila^ ( M W4>uld flow from 
it, he tiovwi tholehh would do miustiee io Hie CUUNU fir whieh ho pluulu, if ho wore lo Hiihpend it* Hiu^ctwh enhndy 
upon tho tulopllon ol tins mode Thi* Hmmicl of tho (Hmntiy Untciai^^H, thiMi^h IL^H Hpa< l iouH, !<^ elear t ICM oal* 
culatcd to traiiHinit the tfouejul light of oar opiuiouH, our -viis aud HoiimeeH, IOHH fm U!HO lor tho oonvcjumf) of the 
light of rdlifion itmdf, IH ncvhi'theleMi HO iar wijmble of txtmloriiifc UHH liuit urnl imwt nupwUnt Morvicu, in which nm 
bittlly iurolvtiil all the* nthw propowd mobonitionHf that it thc> qiuwLicin woi4 IietwiK^n making uo attompfc, or 
H> IB thto way, umloulifiKlly, thwu could bo no lumUtiiMi, Thin ruodo ought l>y no moaiw to bo duclined or 
l, if thore irare no othftr, TLruuffh tlw mixlium of tbo ooanlry laTiguu^ufl, though muro amtruutorl, mom 



* MD W ParliMttentwy ftpon mtoUng to Uw AMxt of Into i O ff wrf, Appmdu 1 1 /'uttw (18ft), pp. 00-OS. 

t tt. p W. 

t TIM NiMKfct of Kir, Otertai Gfwi m M inUrwUnff M* iaiiraotlM, lht thiy taw tain oitr*otd vg>a^ u4 prloM to 



MR CHABLEd b&A&l'b bL'HFHE 1 > 

dun and distant, still something may bo done, and that in a ccmroin which is nf tho la^t iinpm tancp to piescnt and 
to futuie happiness Bat in choofliiu* tln& inothod, moie mstium raits ought iiccessanlj/ to be employed, and then 
the mehoiations wluuh die so much wanted, may in time bo paitly affected, and tho appieheiiftions which soinu 
may entoiUm iioui tho ditfusion of the English language, \\ill havo no place But fetill 16 mubt be maintained, 
that foi oveiy gieat pniposo ol tho pioposod scheme, the inti od notion and u&0 of that language woulrl bo 
most; dtoctual , and tho exclusion ot it, tho loss ot unspoakablu bouohte, and a ju=t Rubjoot ot o\ttoiiLo 
logict" 1 

In humming up his tioatiso, an to the moans of impio\iiu> the nitulloLtual, moial, and social condition oi thf 

Mr Grant's Summary of his 1 ICO I J ^ <J * -hdia, ^ r Oluilts Hunt hog mado roilaiu obsci rations an tho con- 

Thosis, and conclusions in re- Ending poition ot his thusia Thoso obsoivdtions avu highly mteiohtmg, as 

gard to introduction of Stag- show inof tho eaily policy of- tho scheme ioi spiiMilmq Jtiuplish education in 

lish Education mlndia India, and -v\bat waj> at tlut tiinu oipoctal liom it The passages may bo 

(jnotod hoio, as they ait* not easily accossiblu, boniq in uu old Paihjmcntaiy Bluo-hr>olc, punted so lon^ aqo nH Ih \ 

Thoy dosi'ivo peinsal, both owinij to thon intnnsic \\oiUi diid hisloiLcal impoitanto, ui nai idling tho oaily phases 

of tho policy oL English otliuiitnm in India Altoi st.itui^ hii lojsniih, tho authoi obsfi vos 

"Q^JjuH, wotinbt, iL has boon ovintod, tluiti altboui;h many oxcollrut unpi ovoinenis ha\o ol lait fc yoaiH bi k on 

Improvomontoflndiaootibo lll<wh IM tllci f ^'V(nimoul ol om Indian tuiiiUnipH, thouioial <lui,utoi and 

effected by tho introduction nniclilion ol tho Natncsol Hum IH r\fn moly ilLpiavoil, and that tho slat o 

of Iho English Language, and ol souof\ aniriiE; ibai poopb 1 is, in IOIISUIJUOIIIT, wiotihod Thi'hu ovdrt ha\o 

Ohnstioniiy, IKUIII sho\Mi to ho boyond Iho Kitihol oin it^ulatioim, inoioly, politnil, 

howovoi tpmil , Iho) ha \o boon liar od to t hut n\il and 11 li^uim institutions, lhfy liuvo boon pio\od to mhoio 

in tho i^-onoiul sjiinl and in my positive oiudnionts ol thin* la\\h , and innio iiowdlnllv still m tho talM 1 , comijit, 

impiiio, oxl.iav luant, ami Jiilniiloiis |ninoijdos and tonds ol tluu id^ion Upm any ol UIPM* points, it is 

OOIK 01 \<d, that pi'i sons \\hooithoi loiiuthon opinion, fiom ititnal i.bsorvation, in lumi Iho rniionl ol 

wdl uol nmtly dilii i , shad<s ol diKl.nut.nm tluu ina.y bo bof, \\oon Uiooi, buL no substantial, iadi<,tl 

A M mody has boon pioposod for Ihoso ovilh , tho iniimliu turn cd 0111 l^ht and kmwlodi(i anion^ Ui.il I 

pooplo, ospimally iho puns sal uUiy, wise piinoiplos ol uui ilmm* iohi<ion That tomody 1ms iijinoaiod to bo, m 

its natiiH, suilnblo and tMlo(|iiii.tiO, iho pnictiioabilil.y ulso ol appl>ingiti, h.bs boon sullmonfly rstiiblihhod, uui 

oblit^ahon UMtii|iaii id has boonu^nod, ^o \\ouldbnpo, convim inuly, liom tho past, olioits ol 0111 ailiJiuiisiiatioTi 

in lliitaCMimniiiiNl i cmi iho nioro unpotioiis tonsi dotation ol t>ho<lntioh w<> owe to tin* jiooplcol thorn as out Mih|oilh, 

and Irrmi (iu n\vu ovulftit. intoioht, an invoUod and oimsultod m Iboir *ollaio Our obh^ttion has boon, likuwino, 

m^od limit anct hoi" tii'uumoiif, tbo authoi ity and t'ommiiwl ol ihatl.tiio Lolij^ion wlnoli wo hiiu* ourht'lvoH iho 

lia|>|inosHl*o (Mi|oy and pi^l^Hf As tbo loading sul)|t'< t oi thiH I4ssy has boon mloEtlmmilly tivatod, tluofly n|on 

noli In ill ffroniirls, Iho m^iiTuoiif' now inontionod has not bi'ou jusisiiMl upon at* i^ioai lon^th , but all its just n^ht^ 

uio ihiiniod Ioi it, und it. IK tianhoondiuit and (ondnsivo 

u Nothing it would M'oiu, bohidos thoso intunhio ptopoitios id t.ho PIOJIDMK! IIUMHIUI', and thohn powoi lul 

oxti'aiiotMiH motivoh, (an bo nooossiuy to toooininontl tho adoption ot li Vet 

From whioh no political fcj||w- W||||(l p l|HIMIS J MUI , H |>p ta ioil to Mnuk, I hat Uio iinptovtmouL which ility 
danger snou a o ip ft |j ow ^ j )n j^piy f, om tho pinsHMition ol iho su^ost^d M houus might, by 
pmlucinfc a OOHI-HO ol iniroahintf pmhpontfy, at lenfcilu opon tho way to ooiihiHiiioacos unlavoiuabl to tho Mobility 
ol our Indian posnoHMons, tlioHo coiiooivod oonwquoimoH buvoulw* IMHMI larpdy oxaminwl , and if fcho wlioloof tho 
UHOil by tho writer ImH not Iwon OIIOIIOOUM, thr>y bavo boon found't^ lowdvo tbomsolves, at laht, into 
1'iiHioim, con|ootiiruM,und p;onoiitl HiiinuKOh, whioh tho caiihOH aHHii^nod Ioi thorn HOOUI so httio to wauiuit, 
thai- in iji*n[Mnii(m to tliodo^ioo in which thoho OUIIHOH may aduiilly oiciht, olloitH pwpiiiouH to tho jjoimanonto, 
an woll <is i>iN>spiirity of our MubUim Doiuimrui, oflcotK iniiiHi piopitiouH than oin piosiMit NyHioru din Adioialo, 
mayrathoi bo n\pocto<l from ill cm; an indood, it would not bo I^H a pliuiunutmon 111 tho political than in tin 
nutural woild, Ihftt liom aioot tho inowtoxoollont-, tho worst (nut Hhoultl bo piodnood TIiu prmiiplo also upon 
which Niioh owww|uoti(JoH ato objoc'tod, and tho impiovoimml tf our lloathon wubjootB oppumii , tbo piiuoiplo 
of koopnii( thorn for ovoi in darknos* and cwor, lost our mtoiont nliould nullor !y a oiia{to, IH&H Iwon sbown to bu 
uttovly inaclmthhiblo in a moral viuw, a* it ib hluwjtio cotittury to all just policy 

* Printed Parliamentary Papnri mlating to tho Attain of Todl* Qtnml, Apponda I, ?ib/r (K812J, pp B5, G 

f To dxHfcllow (rftlvor th fitnoa of our raligum a a jomcdy, or our oblitfufctou to pioaaobo tba kuovrlodKU <* >t would bf to difTiu 

roMOtunff ol thii Idmft m fltifc pnnoipkf , tad iMh a ditforao* if luiy und waio mUuomrttl by 16 to rouit tho projootcnl 

Mbtumt ov^ht, to Qpttdtfur, to bo ftTimtO. 



L<> PNOLIHH FDUOATTO> IN INDIA 



"In ipasanmq about thing* future and contingent, the Tmtoi would wish to stand remote flora wlmti\ or 

bhoTild have the appeaianoo of dogmatical decision, which, indeed, IB nnt the 



* f Qven "T 01101 ponoliaiion, and to speak with that diffidence of him- 



Holf, and doteiwice lor nthcn, \\huh po wall her amp him , ho would wnh to 
fipeak for no came fmther than the truth Tvill hear him out , but t.hp IICWR ho ontprtams oi tho present Ru])]cc i i, 
aft-ord him no other ernichwions than thosp lip has athanrcd, and in thoin ho thinks ho is voll Mippmtpd Tint a 
qioat i pmedy IH wanted , th it wt 1 hat o an rxcellont one in our hands , ih.it it is nm duty, mi noneial and bppcial 
sionndfl, to jpply it, all those mo, in his appiohennirm, positions up,uh M'lf-oiidrnt fj nm ihe^e alone a strong 
IM D sumption, lio concents, ausos, that it mnst IIP 0111 inkiest in mal e tlip appliui.tuni , and il roqciii, 
IIP fmllipi ndclncod, to piovr that otu intoiest uoulil, in (act, ilius hp piomnted imposition to tins 
, in IIH npmirm, tu be |nsiifipd by aiflpimpiits vciy cleat and \eiy ninu'ifnl , and null, ho innht honestly 
lip has Tini bnon nljlo to disc rwei 

11 This snh|pi l t has not hifcheito iprpived n loitnnl ronsidtralinn , lint tlu oh|oriirm ivludi nnnlil ip'-isl nil 
It would bo odious and im- lln l >imil||UI|l ' ' |IS ^' '"^i 11 * 1 IIUHIIUPIHMICO hluiuhl tinsi* hi mi iL t nicpss,nih 
moral to feoep India ignorant, im ^ Ils iliMisi\r> qiusi.ion, vlictlici ^p shall, in .ill iiinc to cnnio 
owinp; to approhondod nslcs to hM\coiu hnh|prts nt thp daiknpss, cnni, uid mwal lurpilndp in \\lmh llu\ 
British Aula 1|(nv ^ |W(l j^ 0|l s | l(l |j coimnunuale <r> llioni tin* lit^hi o( Ti nth, ;uul i lu> me ins ni 

ineliohblujii, mid of liappinoss, pprwrnal and Mitial v The i|iusti(m nui^ mr>M' piopoil) bf*, Whcilit'i ui slitmlil tn/i 
our hiil)|Lils in Hun pii'M'nti stiit^ Kor if imjiiDVPiiUMit rmulidnriti in hcMonniuuucafiMl i*\ HIIMII, \\o slimilil tint 
ImmiMol} passive, but liiMaii lul to nxolii'U 1 it, us, on tlip oilior Iiiiurl, il it oimlid In IIP miiniiunKaifMl , <u il it i. 
prssil)lo Uiafj nit) ta>s oi lit>lit nitty foitiutously brcsbk in npnn Micin, UP should not loavp tlip iask to nlhois, m d 
( II.UKC, hut bi> nut solves ilu- ilispruM'Vs of tlip now priiioiplrs thpy IKMMVP, and ip^ulaiptlioiidiuinihliatiuii nl ilu'iti 
This question thi'n i** to dptpimino thp c^iainl imual anil pnlitiiMl piinoiplp, liy ivhiih \\Phhull hpiuploith, .unl in 
ill liilutofifiu'i'atirnm, "oveiii ami deal with oui Asntn sol^ccis \Vhr'(hiM \\pshallinakpiioiLpstiuly in inipnii 
hi them kno\vlcHlu;[, hi^ht, and hiippiiKKs, or, inulm ilu k not ion nl hnldiiic; them nioii 1 (|iin tl> in hiihp'dnm, shall 
<-i'k to kppp tli cm i^noianl, romipL, ,uul tiuiiiialh inpii unts, ns tlu^ aip imw p Thp ijiustinn is nni \\hctlii i v\<* 
sliall luHoit tu tiny ^'r^i'dition, to an\ (umpulhimi, to un> snustci HUM us No, Hit* H!IM h.u IIPPII iipi|iipiitl\ tlis- 
iluiinLtl, it H mi otliims idpii, ahluiiinil hum thp spuit oi hup ii'lminn , lull \vhifhpi, 1 im\untj us \vc <hi (he 
liilsi'liomL aiul unpipty nl iilolatmiis pithtilipistit hiipPMtiiiinns, kuiinin^ thr uiu'll.iiN, tln iininoi.iliiiis, flu r(i"U'luiv 
* \tia\a^aniMi i s nnd nupu^iiions of thp llmilnr> s\stpin 1 \\P sh.ill silpullv tind pilinly Icaxc Hum in nil tin lulius* 
i>* tlipn nfK'iiiLi(i, \\ithimb t^llnin oiu suli|p( Is, \\h <niht t*i hp nm phiMn n, Iliad iltc\ <IIP \\IDIIU, that tlm <m 
di'ludrd, unil lu i m L> phLiit>Pil inlii iiiany JinhPi nh ^ Wlu-tliiT, msti .id ol i ilion.ilh, imlilh t \pl.inniiL' to llu ru f hi* 
diviup print I])|PSO( nun al ami ipliNiims liuth, \\hicli hitvo IMISI-I! us in HIP sculp ol U>ini<, and an- HIP loiuuluttmi ol all 
u<nl uiiodiifss anil huppinpss, ^i> shall wink at thp hliipulny \\hipli HP dpc'in piohtahlp Inns, anil us ^ovcuiois, IIP 
in pffwi, Lhp cciiiHPrvaiuis ol tha( s)sipin whuh (hupixpslho jyinipli*^ Wlu'tlicr, in u wniil, we shall do nil Him 
wiM-oly d*oui liMr, Ic^t in pmpipn^ finin i^norauuu and puur, they hhuuld I>p IPSS eas> tuiulp, tunl oui' dominion 
ovoi thc l in ho p\pospd to anj risk 

" Thp wisdom, as wpll us ilip fannpMs of Midi a ptiicppiliuif, must also IIP ilH.pi'iniiipd, \vhptlu'i\ nn flip whole, it 
would bo iliti liPht policy lor our own miorost, evmi it WP look only to tin* nnl<unil oiMMiil-ioii of things* itml IIIMV, 
at Ktist, wo Hliould IP nu'pful and cleat , fonf WP nusUkt* nut III(PIPK(, we lrhP oui'svll, the very llun^ to wluih 
vM k saPiilicp otlior ooiHicIpnitiuiiH , csppcmlly, it HliouliI ho pondi'ioil, whpthei, iM'luwin^ the mnml ^i\ei'inneuiof thn 
v, orhl, WP 1*1111 expert ihp njipi ohut ion and prmtiimcd su]pfu't ol thp Hupivnip Ruler ol it, hy vii limply at ({iiM'hcmg in HO 
iiiudi PIIOP, so miiph moral and pulitual evil, when HO many just nipaiiM lot- the alleviation oi Mum ,m in onr pimii* 
"These ate thu impimuH \vliuh thiH hiih|(H't |)i<*h[nt4i f the jtupimtH ^ihieh firlehty to if, and to nil (Im 

HiitWHtH involvitl in it, voulil not* pennid the wufpi to niippiVKH when IIP 

Imparting Knowlodgo and O ii tf ]nally conHidpied it, ami tho MIDO tnntives, to wlneh ho may add, the 
Moral Induction a Htsriot duty . , . ;. , . , , . . . .. . . . , , , , , 

of the Bntiflh to ladia nuty ol thp httvtiou whet <un lui nan hinen luwl Uut hrnour to be phtu'd, hniml 

him to Leop thorn Wk now Hufc (Immhe, in hUttiij^ them t tneau to point 

them offonwvoly to uny uidnidnal or body of tnwi ** No, fui from it , they were, at h rat, poimvd, OH they UIH> 
now dolivorotl, in good will ami with a /^OTUJWI! aim , m this ^rcnt <juohtiou hi* Htriven mUuu k to abHtroot Ins mnul 
fixn jwiMwal recollection!* 3 and ifitgluncos uivolunUvi'iIy at the idea ol imy omi nho ho few* may nob nuxnil 
with IIIR FiontimontB, if ho nliould espueially druacl to ttnd among HUO!I any whom lio |trtieulaily riwiuwtM mid 
tovow, it IH a painful -wound to hit* fcelmgw IIo onuiuvt wwh to offoud or to depute, -ho ban nu objootM to mitvo 
hy wuolimcunM; and aHBttfflc<mtly awuio ot IhoHituation iniYhielin work of thm nuturo may plooo him, both 
in Kuiopo and in India, uovw to luivo brought it forward, but from MOIILO otiuiu neuso of duty, Thli qtMWtlcm in * 



Mlt OHVRLRS IIBAfcT'a B01IBVB 17 



one , if it aaem to cairy in it any letiospoctive cenbnre, thai oeusnro applies to the oonuiiy and to the 
havo now called foi araoio paiticulai consifhnatiou of it, and of tka lesnlt of that con BI delation 



onteitams enctrax aging hopes Ho will not allow himself to believe, that when so many noblo and bonuficial end* 
may be geited by oni possession of <in Empiie in tho East, wo shall content omeelvoB with tho raeanobt and tlie Uaflt, 
and foi tho sako of this frustrate all tho lost He tiusts wo shall dare to do justice, Lbot jl )ustieo, and be poi- 
Miadod, that thw pimaplo will cany us to gi eater heights of prospeiity, than tho precautions ot a holfihh pobej 
FatuzpevuntstooinfltiuUble to the keenest speculation, but the path of duty u opoii, tho time pn*nit it our* 
By planting our language, otu knowledge, oiu opinions, and onrielicfi cm, moui Asiatic ten lixuioa, we bliall put a gi cat 
work beyond tho leach of contingencies , wo shall piobably have wedded tho inlinbitduUi of those tomtoms to this 
uMiiitiy , but, at any late, wo shall have dune an act of stiict duty to thum, and a lasting wi VJGO to mankind 

"In coiKideung the affaiis of the voild, ab wider tho oontiol of tlie Snpiomc Ditpohcx, and thofio 
teuitones, M by stianijo events, providentially put into oui hands it it not loahonable, in it not HOCOHM,I>, 
conclude that they ware given to us, not meiely that *o might draw an annual pioflt hom them, but timt wo 
UiiJ use among then inhabitants, long hunk in daiknoss, vice and nuswy, tho light and the benign influcnti-H of 
Tiutli, the WesBinep of well-n^nUtoil see ut), the improvements anil the comloits oi ai-itve nulnsliy P And that, 
in pmdfntly anil bint 01 L!> mdwvnuimif to aiisntpi these ends, wo nuv not only humbly hiipu lor wuae imMhiiw oi 
HIP h.wno HHPPPSS, wluuh has usually dlc'iiiled st'iiuuh and intimul atlenipMor the pHpnaiimi ol tluii pm e aiiit 
Mibhmo loh^ion whiili comes fiom rjml, lint, bcsi secnio the piotortion ol Ins pi nvulwitul fpivintiwoiifc, ul whuh 
wc k now sec* snoli awful matks m tlie c\i)iK (F iho woi Id 

u In rvei v prugu*sm> hU*p ol tlim \vik, Me hhull alsr SM vo ihe orignul chsit,ni \villi \\hich wo vihiii'il India, 
Extonfl n of B ti h lJut <lllw * 11 s<1 " w) '"P 1 *** 11 * * * luh cwaili}- ilie evtoiisum ol 

moroo will eneuo ftom tho *'^ H ! * *' lil * lSO ^ <IW ' oll|i itiainiliwUiios and 



onlightonmonl of India. ^ (li nii*iply U-caime the Uiste of the ]ic>i>jile is mil #<>!i<'i<jlly torn KM! Ui tho iwe 

ol iliMii, but beeauHe they have not the miuiib ol |nu choMiiK limn Tlit- pro- 

pcjHeil jiiijjjN>v*'nieiitH would mtuxlaee hoili As it js, oiu woollon**, our manufiu'LuiuH tn JKHI, er|>per, and stwl, out 
fliK kh, notches IUH! toys ol dilleient kinds , uur ^lush-ware, and vunmiB oilier at liriw -ueaclminNl tln-ie, uiul would 
sell in Kii-fti quantities if the people weie noli enouli to buy them Ut invuiiiim lio rnioi* amuLcni-il animiK ^"'rn* 
let them lui i-oused to intpioveinents at Inane, let thorn lit) led by nnlantiy to mnltiply, iw Uiey 111113 iwiwlintfly, tho 
4*\eIuiiiKi*Hblo iHinlnrtioiis of Un-n wmntry , let th(mu|uneareljhli ir the ingenious t'\eitioiihol Uiolnmun ninidin 
HHMI]N% for the beauties und leHiienients widhiwly diveihihed, of Knrupean aiiaiulseienee,und we Hliall hem-e obtain 
foi* oiiihelv*s the Riipply ol fciiiMuiil-fcwmity unllioiiH ol distant hubjuels Llow ffioally will our countiy bo tluih aidcsfl 
in imiiitfht.ilUiipeiioi toallbtii diflieulLieh , ami how Htablv, art wull as nnrjvalletl, may wohofieour (omnovoo 
will IMS whew wo tluiH mil it mi ntfhl pniwipleH, and iniiJco it. Uio inenaiM of their flttetisiim' Ft might IK- too 
hanc^umeto lonn into ,b wish, an id(,iiiu>ht ||<MMIIK "' dpHimlilo in itwU, that our i elision and out kiumled^o 
might be dittuM*! OVM othi> dark porliouH of tho fflohs whim Nat.uie IIUH been itujie kiwi than liuni.in nistitnllonn 
Thm IH tho noblest nper-ies ol compieM, and whewvoi, wo may ventiuu to wiy, our pnneijiloB ami bxiffiifiU aio 
intitxIiH id, out eoimni'iet will follow 

' To j eht in the pmioiit Htati> oi thm^H, or to clatot m mo that tlui Hituation of cmr Abiatie imhji'r tB, and our eontior- 
tion with them, aro nueh UK thoy ought to bo for all tmiu t( eome, HI^DIH too daring u eoTidiiHioii , .Hid if a ohtuiffv, a 
groat ehangs bo mi-Muity, im wmm ean bo aiMignod for it* eomiuoneomunt, at any futmo perlnd, which will not 
finally, nay, more Htrongly, raeommoml I(A ctmmioncoujcnt now To way, that things may ie left to thoii own 
< imiws or that our Himipnui HottleinentH may prove a Hiiflleient nnmery of mot al anil lollgiouH mHtnioticm for tho 
NativuH, will be, in efloet, to draUtii that then* Hhall bo no ^lloraiiuu tit leant no offw'tuul and hafo tmo 

" Tho MahmnodwiH, living for oentiiruw nitorinixrHl in gVe*it numbers with tlio llmrlooH, pioduned miudiml 
though for t ' lHn K ( Ul ^'^ir uhahiot^r, notinitoly bocaiiho they reiiduuil thuniholveti dm- 



oentutios mtormteod with the ugnxublo i/<) then HubjeetH, but buoatiuo thoy loil thono wubjoctn, during that 

Hindus, P^ 1110 ^ ^fcm* 10 * 1 Wll ' n '" >rit " 11 (w " inHt '^<l w Phflontml pom is a thoy found tbew Woain* 

Ohftngoia u ohujuotor ^jj^i ^jj^^, um^totha Ronnvn (Jonquoioi*, who emliaotl utid impi^vwl 

tho natlonrt whom thoy nubduml ; and wo are called to UUH, not only by tlio obvioiu wiudoni which tlireetod tbcur 

poboy bat by local oircuumtancon, OH woll on by Houmlor pHnoplcm and highor mo tiros than tbey poHHcmud. 

^Tlttt'OxamplM ttlno of modorii European NationH }WH in roviuw boforo ouv We arc tho lourtlt of thow who 

Fotr iiraOar r6iotu, tho P- hftro PW* 011 *^ J&** w Mmpiro That ot tbo PortngwMie, though luxpuwxl 

tugUM f tht Datohi and the ty roinautio bravury, woa anflyatematio and rupaoiouH ; HID abort ono ot ihu 

fttttth filled to papodtw^apwr- Vronoh wa* fclw metoor ot a rain ambition , tho Dutch acted upon tho pnn- 

manntefltootttponla<Ua, oipl^of anelflahoomnweWpoUoyi and Owio, ondor wliioh ttoy 



Ih ENGLTMI rnuciTiCKN is 

fLonusliod for a time, have been the cause of their decline and fall None of those nations Bought to establish them* 
belvefa in the a/ituctions of thon acquired snbiect*, or to asmmilato them to their mannois , and those subjects, Ur 
from supposing tlicm, ie]DiDLd m their defeat , some attomptb tlioy nuidp to i life ti net the Nahvob, -which had then 
nbo, "but boidid vio*s a\Giwliolmod then effects It icmaius lor us to show how we sliall bo disianqnisLoil fiom 
these nations m the histoij of mankind 3 whether conriaost shall have boon m mu hands the means, not merely of 
displaying a Govotumont nnocinallod in India foi aduuuisti ativo juslu P, kiwlnpss, and inoiloi ation , not mraolj of 
ittoi oftbmfif tlio bocm.it) ol the subject and piospciily ol the tnunti} , but ot Adducing social happmusft, oi; molioiat- 
1113 the uinial stato oi men, and of oxtondni" a huppuoi liqht, iiuihui than the Unman Mat>le e\ DI flow 

bf If tlic nrmltv, this impiactiuiMity, tin? dani^i til tho jnoposeil scheme, lx unreel .14 viusb it, tliuso objections 

cannot all be consistent , ami the I ist, v,\m \i ih ibo only one tluit ( uuld lia\e 

Jwovojty of ttio Eauoational ^ OI ] 1 ^ p 1 o-simnusis sucioss hi sauosh \sniilil lie nm silpty.ui)t om dancrcr 
Sohemo no valid objection ^,, , , , 

against its introduction " m ( ^ lllt t 11 must lie m imisumif, horn uiifteueinus <nds, a ionise nmii .11 tvii 

ami ilhliciul, but in lollowni" ,ui opposite UMIISO, in <nnuuhimalni^ hihl, 

p, a i nl nnpi i^OTiiciit, wo shall ubov llu 1 duLatos ol ilui>, uL [ilnldiilliiopy, anil ol poln\ , NX rt li<jll iaki UK 
iiiiioiiul iniMtis In ienm\e inliiienl, ifioat disunhis, iu attach i lie Hindoo people lo oiithilu-,, to ensuie ihc* 
oi din possiihsifms, iu t'lilnnro cuufimutll^ Lliou* \aluu L< us, lo laisc a Ian and dutahle niuunnitiil L< tlu 
ttl<iy oi this couuli}, and io men <ihe Lhc> happnioss ol tliu human i.uo n & 



CHAPTER IV. 

VPFORTR FOR T1IE EDITOATION OK TIFM NVriVMfi OP INWK TriK riAL(lirrr\ 
MADIUKHA KOITNDH1) IN 17hl, AND THM HANHKRIT (iOliLKflH AT BHNAKHH, 

JW 1701 LOUD MINTO'H MINUTH ON HimilATIOIT, 1H11 

WhiM opinions anil sentiments, hut li us thnsp ol M> (llmilis (Imifc, i|iiotuI m Uie JMLTC ilniL,' (liifit<>i, 
Mr Fisher's Memoir on Edu- ' I(IIII K niU*iiuinl ami (liscusscrl li> philanthiitpu llni^li K(,ifesini>n of the 
cation in India written in nioie odvamorl tjpo, 111 then di'hhciatinnh Msiieflin^ ihe lutute nionil ,iml 
1827-32. intolluciiiial proffiosh oi tlio N.HIVCH oi Imliu, id is im|mi'Unii to (Ninsnlei nliat 

bail actually bo(n done* by the nn\enimont of the Kast India Company in u^tud to Hie HjniMfJ <i KiliualKm in 
fudm Dpini 1hiH|Mi till the flidijeif. full aaul valualilo infonnaiitm is umtamod m an eLibopaio Afrtunn, da led, 
7tlt Kubruaiy^, 1H27 V with a Hupplument, dated 2tfid Pohruaiy, IKU, propan^l imiliM (ITIc'iat nicteit<, hv Mr Thomas 
1 , who then held iJio offtro oi " Hftinknr of the /frt ru rfs," at the Must India HIMISI, in Londrm This 
hah bc(n puntedf iu, an Appendix to the I'urliamentai) PnpeiH ol lH:t2, anil I \vill biniow extiacls htni 
it lot the puseiit put PIJHOS a* it is Uie nif>si aiithoiitiitive hiniKoof inldiiuatioti availahlo 

U<ilttt(la Muibtwi, or Afo/wMnZrm (hlfnfi*, was inuinlH at the m|itvHt ot Hovcrnl Maliomedans of 
twin, in the year 17H1, by the nvernm^(Jeueral, Waneii Ilithtiiich, 

r-i 



* ~ 

LftCu&i0Sft XOTinQDd, i i i i i t j i i 

- vhi> provided n kiulilmtf lor it, at hm own o\penhe, amouutintf to RH. 



bnt wlurh waw aftcrwmdH chantMl to (ho Oompftny The Iten^al (loveinmeiit, 
alsr, at the rc^ornntonclation of Mr Jlastuu>H, assi^netl lands of tin* 4*1 1 mat wl valm of Ik a'MKJO pt-r annum, For 
tho Hupixji L ol the liiMiii.Mtion Tlu* oti^mal nilention ol tho Pimmlcr app(aki4 to have hecii, hi prf>niotc* iho 
HLudy of (he Aruhit and Pot si, in Ungu^H, anil ol the Muhornedati Law, with a vios\, more cHpci'ially, in the pisi- 
ductaon ol wclUqiiahfU'il nllieeih for tlie (JomiH ol Justus In l7K r \ ihe lau<lH whieh luul hccu ^mnti'd ToriUiMipiMirt 
wera popfulatly tushi^ried by titinuudi io he held dining tho pleaHimi ol (iovernmenl, io Mahomed Maus-otHdoen, who 
Imd boon appointed Supunoi T or Ouarrlian ol tho Institution, and to IIIH Hiict chHrtm In thw offtct k r WUH veHi^xl the 
immoclmto inann^i'ment ol all the attaint oi tho MuUriHHa, anil the AilininiHtratum ol I(M it'venneH He w<w clirootcul to 
deliver in to the Committee of Ucwenne, monthly Htatumenth of tho numlwi oi fltu(ltn<H antnally maint4kiri(Kl cm tho 
wtahhshiucnt, vrith thuir ruvmoH and MiloticH A Memboi of tfai) Gommittoo of Kovomw WOH authonxod ami un- 
joined, onco in ovory throo numtiw or oJtU'iior, to viHit tho MadrihWi, iti orcloi to BOO that tho building wan leapt \u 

* Printed Pnrliiimontaxy tperi rclatiiig to the Aftm of IndLx . tftnwl, Appendix I , PMtc (1882), pp 86-60 



EAUIT BWDBTS FOB 1H3D EDTJOATION OP NAOT1ES 19 

proper repeal, and that, in all other respects, the efficiency of the Institution was maintained The Naib NCUMTL, or 
principal officer of the Native Courts of Law, was also instructed that, whenever vacancies should aiiae in the 
Poty dairy eouits, they should he filled from the students of the Madnssa, upon the production of certificates from 
the Supanoi, that the individuals nominated by him were duly qualified for their respective appDintments "* 

In 1788 and 1791 ceitain lefoims were introduced, as to the management and working of the College, and the 

coniaol of the Institution was placed in the handfl of a Committee, and the 
foUoTO WWB * Poipal subjects piesonbed for study - Natuial Pkdo- 
sophy, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Q-eometiy, Aiithmetio, Logic, Ehetonc, 

Oi atory and Grammar Subsequently, rof urms and changes in tho management of the Institution continued, but 
it is needle to entci into the details, beyond saying that the English language was not intioduoed as one of tho 
subjects of &tudy, although consumable sums of money were spent upon the Madrasa, the amount appropriated 
lor its expenses, fiom its foundation in 1781 to tha end of the year 1824, being no less than Rs 12,20,479 f 

Tfo Hindoo tiand,nt College at Benww was pzojocted by Mi Jonathan Duncan, the Resident at Benares, in 
Benares Sanskrit College 1791, as a moans of employing, beneficially fox the country, some part of a 
founded in 1701, and the sub- ampins which the public revenues yielded over then estimated amount 
jeots of Btudy prescribed T i 10 e * pen cj f or the hiat yoai was limited to Rs 14,000 but an the 

following yuai it was augmented to Rs 20,000 Tho ob]cct of thi* Institution was the preservation and cultivation 
of the Laws, Lituiaturo, and Robgion of the Hmiloos (anil moio paitiGuLnty ol them laws) in their sacrod city, a 
modfltuto which it was conceived would bo equally ad vauLogcrms to the Natives and honourable to tho Butiib 
Government aiuoniy them Tha inteixul dihciplino WAS to bom all lOHjiects conformable to the Uhnnnti BJuv*lta, 
in thp Cluptoi on Education, and the prosuiborl courso of studies m tho Oolite compiohondod Theology and 
Ritual, Ucdiuiip, including Botany, &c, Mubic, Meclifinicf,, Aits, Oiammna, Piorady, and Sacred Lexicogiaphy, 
MathcmalieH, MoUpliysiob, Logic, Law, ITistoiy, Ethics, Philnsq>liy and Poetry 

Cli<ui((os anil i L^oimn woio mado from time to time in thife Institution, and a considerable .imount of money wan 
spout upon li, tho nocuinury Mil givon by Government, from itb foundation in the yoar 1791 to tho ond oi the yoar 
1821, hung no lot* than 1b 0,74,000 J 

Onlhufith. of Marah, 181J, Loid Minto, tho then Oovcannr-Oenoral, wnito a Minnie on the subject of 

Education m India, and, at it funnfc <in uupottant document connected with 
tho oaily policy of the Bnfcish Rule in toward to Bducation, some signihcant 
pasnagos may bo q,nntod from it, aa showing tho boneucont spirit which then 
(Jouiuola of Govonnnont The Govoinoi -General obsorvod 

is a wiunon i uraurk, that scionco and litoiatnie aio in a piogicHMvo state of decay among the Natives of 

India From eveiy niqany winch T hftvu boon enabled to make on ifaifl 

Dooay of Loorniag in India. ^^^^^ flub|oot, that remark appeals tu mo but too well founded The 
number of tho IcatiicMl is not only dinuiushod, but the circle of looming, evou among thone who siill devote thorn- 
tu it, ui)j>oftTH to bo coTiHideiably ountiactod Tho abbtiact jupnoeB are abanrbnDd, polite liter aim o neglected, 
branch ol low nmfc cultivated but what is connootod with tho peculiar religious dock in oe of tho people 
Tho unniodmU) oonH^jatince of HUH state of things ifl, the (litinno, and even acttml low, of many valuable books ; 
and it JH to bo appi-ohtmdod, tliat onlosfl Qovranroent interpose with a JoRtoimg hand, tho nvival of Lettoi-s may 
Hborlly biHNnno liopoUfifl, from a want of books, or of poiflonH capable of erplaimng thow 

" Tho pnnciplo c*auuo of tho proHrat negloototl state of Literature in India is to bo traced to tho want of that 

eno6urogonientwbich woRfoimorly affotdodto it by Pnncos, Ohioftauu, and 

And it* CwiflWr-'Wtart Of ^1^ individuals under tho Native flfovornmont Rnoh encooragement 
Patronage TAW ^ iftwAys opOTato as a stiong inoeiiiivu to fliudy and htciary oiortionw, bnt 

offpocially in India, whoro the lAfnod pwilrtHions navo little, if oay, other support The justness of those observa- 
tion* mifcnt bo illustrated by a detailed conflidoration of tho former and present state of Soionoo and Litoratuvo 
at tho throe pnutsipal floatw of Hindoo learning, M , Bonaies, Tnhoot, and Nuddca Such a review would bring 
before an fcho liborol patronage which ww formerly bestowed, not only by Princes, and others in power and 
auttwrifcy, Imt atao by tho ZommdorB, oa persons who had diHtinguiflhed thomselvos by the Bucoeaflf al cultivaiaon 
of Lettaru at thwo plocofl It would t^Ully bung to our view the present neglected state of learning at thoM 
oooft-oftlobratal plow* ; and wo should hava to remark with regret that the cultivation of Utters was now confined 
to the few rarviviug persona who hod boon patronised by the Naiave Prmoee and othertt, under the former Gtrrern* 

y P*pm ritwg to tha AAtm f India , O^oZ, Appindk I f Puilio (1S82), pp f 390, $97. 



20 BNGILlfllT FDUCATTON IN INDIA 

monti, or to fluoh of tho immediate descendants of tliose persona a& had imbibed a love of science from then 
parents 

" It ifl seriously to bo lamented thai ct nation pai tiraloily distinqnishod lor its lovo, and sncrohsfnl cultivatmii 
of Letters in other parts ol the Empue, hhonld liavo Lirilcul Lo evtinul its fostemitf CCLIO to tho Litciatuio of the 
Hindoos, and to aid in opening to tho loaned in Eninpo tlio iLposifconos of tli it lihn attire 

11 ft is not, honcnui, the LI edit alone of tho national Lha-iMctut which is .iflufiil by tho pi usont neglected stati 

T JA. 4. . * J loajJium in tho Wast The luimiaiKP nl thi' Nairn's in the dill Limit (lasses 

Ignorance 01 tne datives or . . . , . , , . 

India obstiuots good Govern- * inneijr, lUisnifi hum the want ! piopei tun rating is neiuiallj adium- 

mant, and IB oonduoive to lud^c>il This dtlcrt not onl\ <-\< link's tluiuas imli\i(liuU fumilhi L k ii]uv'i iH 

fl** ol .ill thoso eomlnits ami licni hl.s \\hii h Mu cnlh\ tiion n( ktti is is natm ill\ 

L,tlcul,v<ul to aJFonl, hut npin.itm^, dh it tUx's, thiiHit>linuL alitiosL the whole mass rt tin pfi|iiil.th'>n, tends iutp/i<ill\ 

to [tbstiutl the iiLu.isut'i'- ,ido[>ieil ioi their Inifei Uou'iimitnt LiLtk dunht ( in k* eni< it.uiu>il that the 

nf the (rinu'soi pei | in 4 \ .iinl tih'en, so linjiiiiiilv nuMeeil in UK (Ulinal llepiiil'i, is in a r ^iu<l TIM a-nie 

}>i>Hi in tlu* MahoiiHHlaiis ,nid IlmiluH, tn tliL nnnl. ol <lnt k insli iioiion in ilie initial iiii'l icli^iuns ttni'ts ol tli<u 

ivspei'tivo i.ntlis It lia > IJCM 11 e\on sii<i^r slinl, ami appaientl> unt \Mlhoiit li>iiiiilaliuii, that to the- uiir nlln.ili I 

il iti ol Ihe iiuntls ul tin Nati\r>s is in a i>nat (h'^iee <>o he asit ihetl ihe [J< \ali IICIMI! thnsi ( MUMS \\lui h \vi n 

ucLHitly so t(Ur(i tisinui'je In I hi <tiuiili\ 

41 The laltei (illenee^ t \*\ nnst tlie |H b .u*e tbinl li.ippiness (if HiM k iet> lia\i , iwleej, lii th< pit i'lil, lieen main i ill 

^^ . ^ ., m . h(*ketl h\ the \ioi| ( iiin< anilciith'V ol Ihe pnlii e, hi'i it h jiinhaltl\ uil\ lt\ 

Which can be remedied by .. . . (I , , , . , j i n 

Edao<ition the inoii* oeneial ililliision nl kmv h le anionu (In uitat hoilv nl the ptnplc 

thaL (he MM!H til Ihest xils laii In'rlit** ( it.ilK (httui^ir 

The (!r*UMimi-(umn,irh Minuif 1 , .illei sii"i sliuu Uii 1 ptiin iph ^ ol a lienii* Ioi piniuoiinur <unl "luniil iiniii" 
Obftorvifcionsfts tollovvnl i '* lllulll n 'i'iM " Hnnlus, (imtiiin 1 llu lulliiuin^ nine Mittinns 111111^.11 il ti 
Learning omoi'R tho Muhomo- M<ihonuMlai^ in p H in ulai - 

Mniuto u It \\ill he cjh- ei vwl thai, in the Ion 'rmi', uniatk 1 *, I ha\e iinilintil ni\hill 
<ilninst. iM'lusivtlv tit Ihe film neee >ii} lube ulopleil ini I In iesl(iiat.iili ol 
fliiiilu sc'iencf 1 tbiiil literadnie (lonsiileiiitjiiMis Minilai In I hose \\hnh luxe \M>i'<lieil u'lli me in lediiiiniuulin;,! lhit 
phi u, wimhl tiatni.illv inihue me to pinpost hinul ir aiiani,enii nt . iui tli" i"\iv,il ol Ltlleis .ininii'j inn M ilinninlan 
snh|iKH, itiiil (la* inoie {^eiieial ililhision (it knowleil^o .unnii'j thill |Mii> nl tin ninniiinil\ \\illi Ihe ilillii'iiu 
imly in the population ol llnnlim and M Unineilitn^ all Ihe ai^nnienl'i \vhn h ha\e IWM n ilm\( staled in suppoit ol 
tJn iiiiiini{emtiifs pioposeiliu be nrlopteil Ioi' HH> piofM<>atiim ol kni\vleil^i aiiithMj Ihe toiuiei, wiJiihl eipiilh uppl\ 
1osiniil.ii in^l it niioiis lii flu* U'nelit ol the Mahrnnedaiiih A MMilmu ut i>r ilel< INMI, Inmovei, ioi Ihe llononnilih 
Oouit ol DmdniH iisM<uiiH me honi iciDinuuMid 11114 any <\!uisnm nl tho plan iintiltheii onlds Hhatl ha\i lH>en 
i iMHMU'il nil Hie sul)|ei't tfeneiall) oi this Minuie I deem it, therHnre, hiillu unt to aihl, on Ihn pnM nl. IHU< ion 4 
Hint MnlunniMlaii CJolle^H imtjht l>e l^'iieiicuilly ehluhlihluMl a.t Hha,iii>nl|Kiie f .Inunpoie (\\heiePnMunaiul Aniltn 
hletutuu* iniineily ihiuihluMl), uiul at srnm pi, lie in the (Juleil M\\\ (Jouijiieieil l'in\iineh, line) th.tl it. mi^lit h 
In lelmni thu MauYissan <n Malinmoilan (Jolli^mtt' liihhtiiimn at (\il(MiliH, <m the* pnnujiles 
to the Jluttlu Ooll^eH 11 f 



Piuiti^il I'lilinmuiUiy PapoiH U'Liln^ to the AlUiiH of India 6V n </<//, \ppi ndiv I , /'uWif (IKiti), p 484 



PC DUG IIWTBUCTION Afl STATE POLICY 21 



CHAPTER V. 



FIRST LEG TSLATIVE PROVISION FOE PUBLIC JNSTETTOTION IS INDIA ACT OF PArtLTAlITilNT, 
5J GEO in,, 155 DESPATCH OF THE COUBT OF DIREOTOBS, DATED 3u. JUNE, 
isy, ON KDUOATION KABLY EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS OF THE MISSIONARIES 
LORD MOIKA'S EDUUATJONAL MINUTE OF NJ> OCTOBER, 1815 

It will be obseived, horo the naiiativo couUmod m the picc-edin^ cLaplei, that, whilst duiing tho tluity 
Public instruction not yet J **w s h DMI thu fouuiUtiou of tho Oa.lon.iU M uli un,i, m 17H1, tlowu to the time 
recogmeod as pait of a octLlod TV lien Licud Hmtn i uwmled Ins Mmuto ul tith ALuoli, 18] I, individuals o( In^li 
State Pohoy f llcM | Iank m iu( Admimstntion ot hulu WLSJC not .iltoqethw oblivion* ol cho 

nim,i) rlui-yani 1 jdiiiiinsliati\y notcsMi^ nf sintMdmu ko\\lede ainony tlio people oi Turin, no HyHtuiiuiic uilcnt 
w,is m.ide to phut tlm oihu bUon ol Hit* N.iUts n^nn i In MI cinil oi^am/i il looting ,n a ji.ut nl the Htite 
Policy Time \\ is nirlKMl, <v ^*ist inil |iciweiiiil SL-rtinn ol Au^ln-rmlun Admiuihiriluis, wlir> wt'io Ui Jjimj 
Iliai I'uhlii InsM ur iiuii slionld t itlioi I>L mnlcii tl i>u liy tin 1 HUto, m, vr^ Jioc Jiom si iioii'-i |M>hLif,k] 
in tlio MMimiy ol HiiiislMlrnninioii in Intli<t Tlic onl> olli it >cl o| U >n ^ i,| a , p,,ln y | u(luiM(jn' Iht- 
<miii .Icil HI !ln loniiilaliuuof MIL (\il< utia Uiuh.is^a li> W.imn U.isiin^s, UL L781, a>ml of Lku 
ai Hi n ms, by Mi Jfjii.iih.in DIIIH ,nu in J70J Hu( both tlnsr Iiisiiiliil.iuiis wiMO,nn tljp NIIL> hand 
(hiuii.il 111 tlii'ii iMiiiiso ul siniliis (as IMS limi tUsuibul in tliu pun uln^ i li,i|iluj, ,unL on tliu ollu'i li.iuil 
lliiMt iii.nii nb|ii I was lo pfoviih 1 a n'miUi FiU|pl> fti i|iulifiiMl IInulu <uul MalimniMUn l,t,\>-nlIiriH^ iur tin* inihci.il 
Hliuini*il.i.i1ioii Tin* |ii ijM)s,i,lh (*ciiilaiiic | il m IJDH! Minii>V Mi mi tool (>lh ALiuh, IMJ, in II'X.M(| to tho 
incut, nl Ilimlii ('nllo^'s, m tfiujilca uiil Tuliooi, JIIIM^H^I U|MU jn UK iplos hinuKu in (.hnsr nltlio Hinskiit 

<ll. IJLMI.IH^, Vllli f llOSl) |JlO|MlSalh hCLMIl (^ Jl,VV( ILMIkillK'd 111 <iln^.UI(l tdl H Oil M' ) t'tU -,, *|S Will IjU K 

jtnl liu.ill>, ihi^ Itiok Uu loim ul ilic cstiihlishiniMit ol a Hindu San ski it Collide <il (UltMitl.v 

Men -i nli i Its imjHJiliinlivvt'iitH woio Liking |il.ii'o in Kn^laiirl in ioii.u*il to ihu it'iu \val ul tin* K,nt India 

Inauirv by Piirliumotit into |WII>IH tj|llllt<11 h > M " 1 1JntlhI I'-wluiiMiil, .hid MIII* tiny iwvo.m 
Indi in ailairN, 4UJdrouour.il of IHWHII^ upon the i^uuial .uU.uirpmeni til Indui, and nuuk nu I'podi in the 
tho 3 I Company 'HO hail or, hihioiy ul the cilucdtiimul i)liiy ul tlu* ItnLish nil( k in ludu, a hhoit account 
by Act 63, Goo 111,0 155, m u j tl. tiansutiuns ui tlut pw itid mil not ho unt ol pLce liort' AH uailyr .is 

tho >uu 1M)S, ^kdc the House ol Commims .^poniU'd a Heleet Uomiuitteo io 

rni|iun i niliu the ht.tte uf fllliUis of the Must fiuli.ii (Wipatiy, Mi k DuuiLts, on the ]iiut ol the Hand of Oontitil anil 
tin* C'limn, hii^ehted to tho DnecdoiH the piopnety ol eudeuvounu^, without deluy, to eniriu to an undoist.uidiuu on 
the hiih]u t ul a new Chattel, in older that jt nu^ht ho hubttuttud to the u<tily oimhidi'i ntiuii of I 'ail lament 
hetweoti tho (loveniuumt and the UiteotoiH tit the Company endod in I ail me, and u OJL tJio iSJud ol 
Lord Oahtlei eimli Hubiuittod to Ui' llousu o OotnmouH a boi-i(H of thii*tocn ioHolatmiiH r ooiiUuung tho leading 
win eli it was pi^pofeed Lo embody in an Aut 10 now nig tliu CoTiijiiUiy'H (Jliai'tur Most of thu (|ueBtiorm 
were* then novel, ami both thu (Unjoin approhonded hy tho onoj)iu*ty v and too (ntpuotatioiib 
by tho othur, mado it nuooHhary foi tho Lf^iHlatiu^ to proceed with tho utmost caution Init>i*niation was 
hiitu all ({narterH, aurl whole volumes oi ovnk'nco wuio Ukiui Ii*om thoHo who woxe Hiipponed mont oompotout to give 
it In thu dchatett which aitoiwaulw eiibiicxl, thuro woro low Hptmkat'H of ommonuo in o it hop IICHIHO who dul ni>t 
dolivov thoii Hentiuiotit0 f and dooui UIQJU of DO umuli impoituuoo <w to jiiHlafy tho bnbfluqpunt luvanal and imhlioafcjoTj 
of thuit h]>e(KjheH Ho giout, kowovoi, IIOM bi'uu iho piogratw of Political Kuoaomy an u auonco, and DO stiong tlie 
Li^ht which hAH Loon thrown npou it by oxpynonco, biucu thu fftmooH dobato, thd>t many of the proportions 
oUboraioly ^r^uod, aio now rogai'dod a* truiwrnw, luiil muoh of tho alarm &oaudod IB folt to bo more 
Tho roBnlt in t thorotore, the only thing vhioh now JWBWWBXW xnooh hutoriodl itifcaragt, and Aothing moio IB 
here tbdn to ffivo ft vory bnot analysui of the most important sqotxona of the Act, CS Deo III, o 155, which, while 
atftntuhlly modifying and ourtadiog tho privileges foraorly poaamsod by the Company, rouowod thou 1 Uhaxtor for 
mother poriotl ol twonty yeaov, to be computed from the ID It day of Apnl 1814" * 

* Bmiidgot Zvtory ef ftdfc To), m, v pp 8 f 4 



22 BNULISH EDUCATION 1 5 IffDIA, 

It is not necessary for tlio present pm poses to give an account of the various provisions of the Act rolatmg to 

the a imini station and tiade of India, but it is definable to doscubo ilio pro- 

BM rf *' ** 8 *" M ** l^t D tUoed nfl at,onInd^asthoy 
maak the first definite step token "by the State in thib diicction, in tho sliapu 
of legislative animation of tho educational policy of the Biitish Knle in InOio a pohc> which till then was iai 
from boiTig founded on a sound and htablo basis A passage fir>m Mr Bevendae'h llibtuij of India (vol ITT, p 5) 
may bo quoted horu as containing the requisite intoimation Speaking of tho provisions of tho Act 53, Qoo 
Til, o 155, \\hioh was pawed in 1813, ho goes on to say 

" Tho above piovisiotih for opening and regulating the tzado with Indw coiibtitiilc* tho main fcatmcs m the 

Act ' ^ u * ^ I0l1 WOTO ut ^ elb uo * of a w"ameiu,il natnio whiuh met with hti wiu- 



! d Cast! reach's Resold- 
tion recognizing the duty of ous opposition, and woie dniouiusoil by many as daiiQcions m tho cxti onio, 
Great Britain to educate the if not absolutely incompatible wibh the cxistoiico ol the* tfntiHh puwi'i in 
Natives of India, passed by India AfUi i coding the eainest and \nulcnt (loelamation duii'lcil against 
Parliament mlBld tbo Ittth Jlasolu turn proposed by Lend Cafltlojcaflh, nuo is Miipnsid, nnd at 

the flAtno tnao lohuvcil, on hndin^ that, both an it was oiisjiiiull} expiensod and as it now stands tinfjnthctl in tin* 
4 h d Kootum oi thu Act, it plodded Uiu Lioqihlatiii t 1 to natliing 111010 tliuu tho following hiiuph 1 pi npohitum TbaL ' it 
is the (laty at this ooaniiy to pi imioto ibc k intcu'st anil happiuobs of tbonainc iiibalniantH r>( Ilio Hnlish 
us Jndvi, and hiioli lupasuivs out^ht to bo ailuptod as may trnd to tbo intindiKtion among tlioitt ol useful k 
and ol ichgirms and inotal nnpurvemoiit, and in luitliDiancp of tlu* alntvo objects, sulhinul, huMliius <m^hi tci IK* 
afioivlud by law topoihons dosiirmsof (fuing to and loniaiiuii^ 111 India, lui tliu pui|)4>s( of acfoiuphKliin^ tliriso 
benevolent dohitfiis, ho UH tho autlnnity of tho Loin I Govoinmc'iitH, icsptn i/intf ihf mtommHi' ol KmopiMiis willi tin* 
interior of tho countiy, bo ptohi'ivod, and tho pnnci|ilu4 ol tho OuLiHli Ciovcinuioiii, on whiili tbo nalivcs ol India 
have hitluTto iiliod for tbeiiei 1 onoL( k ihO of tbon uOi^ion, bo invu>lal>ly niaintiunod ' In onlor tf> ^ivt k olii'di io 
this dcoloration, tho Section piocc^odb to oimeb, that ' [iwsoim dosuous oi ^)iiij In and nmamin# in India fm tlio 
alxrvo puiposob,' or 'forothoi lawflul pin poscH/ Nhoiild apply 1oi poi mission to tho Com t of Ditootuis, who sliouM 
either gmnt il, ois m tlio uvont of tufnsal, ti'anhinit tho application, within one* nimiib ol tho jocvipt of it, to the 
Uoaidot Contitil, who WOT pompoworal finally to flwpobo oJ it All poisoim obtainnit; peiiuishMm, whithor hotn 
tho Ouwt or fiom the Butird, woioto be rnrniHluxi by tho Duootois wiUi <oiiifuatos, rntiMin^ Uiom, l o loninis 
ihoy uhall propoily cniuluot thomsolvos, 1o tho countcnanoo and piutoUmn of tbo si a voral (lovonmiiMLf s ol tho MU<| 
Company in tbo East 1 ml i (fl, and pints uiuititiaiil, in thon luspoctivo pui'siiith, Hubjoit to all suoh pi nvihions and 
restni'tioim as aio now miorco, oi may liOK^uitor bo (adqod necohHary with ropud to pciHorm n'sidin^ in India 1 
The only pncnmary pw>viflion mado m oonnootion with thiH Hoction, wan bho allolmout ol a Hum til not IOHH than 
10,000 annually, for tho ' fovivalaud unpi nvomont ol litoiainie, anil tho oncouia((oinoiilr ol thu loainod nativoH 
of India, ami foi tho intiwluoiion and pi oiuotion of u knowlodgts ol tho hini-ncoM among tho mhabifanlH of tho 
Biituth toitiloiioR in India' Snoh a HUTU, paltry a it was, was not poimitUul to do thu tforirl which uii^ht havt Iwori 
cipootod fioin it, and matoad of bojnif pmployod in iimtructmg tho NuiivoH ^onoiully, ovininiuod for many yoars 
to bopai*tly paid away to loariud Muhuinodanh ami IlmdiiH, for uxplairun^ unit inoulc k atin^ their itHfH>[*i.ivL* 
and pattly allowed to autiuiiiiilato t as it t'tpoudiLuvo for native oiluoaLion wo to inipraotirahlo or uncli^H * " 
Tho abovomontionod Buetion, 43, of the Aot oi I'arliaiutmt, Kt M (luo III, Uliujj lift, may IMS Haul 

tho bo^iniun^ of a now opocli m tho hntoi^ ol nubho odiication in In tint, anrl, 

Section 48, Statute 88 V Q-eo. | Jtiinff y, ups ^ loginlatwo cimotmouL in that bohalf, inwHiWHcw biHtonoal vuluo 
** mait " and mtwrit afl mdioatin^ m formal htngniitfo, tho (iiwly jxilioy of public 
lUHbruotiuu OH part of tlio (Mlmiumttiition of thu KnliHli Rulo* Tho Huetion 
mnn m tho following woidn 

"And Ixut fuitherenM^tod, tliatitHhalllKJ lawful foi* tho (jovornor-Uomiial JTI Oounril to direct that out 
of any fliiipliiH which may itnuaui oi tho rontH, xovonuofl, and profito wiHiiitf lioni ilio Haul U>rn<onul iux|uiHjtionH, 
after defray ing iho oxpeuBowof tho military, civil, and cominoicial OHtabliHhniontH, and uajin# tho mtoiOHt of the dobi, 
in nuuuner horwiDaftci provided, a flmn of not low than ODO Ittc of rupoua m uthoh year Hlmll be not apart and apphod 
to the revival and iiniirovomont of Literature, and tho encouragement of tho loamcd nati VOH of India, and for tho 
introduction and promotion of a knowledge of tho BCIODOW among the mhabitantH of tho Uvitinh ton ttoi ION in India ; 
and that any schooU, public loofcuroa, or other mntitutionfl f for the purpoHOR aforesaid, whioh flhall be foonded at 
the Ptoeidonoiefl of Port William, Fort St George, or Bombay, or in any other part* of tho Bntwh tomtoiiOB m 
India, in vurtoe of fbt Act, shall bo governed by atich Bogulfttiona OH may from time to time bo mado by the said 

Bsvondtf* HUtory of India, Vol. Ill,, pj> 4, 0, 



EDUCATIONAL DE WATCH OF TEX COURT OP DIBTCTOP^ 3 

Governor-General m Gounod, Bnlrjoct, nevarfchelesB, to such powers as aro herein vested in the said Board of 
Commi&sionei? for the Aihuis of India, respecting colleger and sozninanos , piovided always, that all appointments 
to offices in such schools, lootuichhipB, and othei institutions, shall be made by or under the authoiity of the 
Govexnnaonts -within which tho same shall be situated " 

In a lottci dated tho Gth September, 1813, the Court of Directors called tho attention of the Qorernar- 

_ * -> j.i_,- Qtmeial in Oonncil to the above Section of the new Aotof Pfuhorraont, and 
The first De spat on or tne , , , , * e j_ .* ^ * 

Court of Directors to the Go- promised to take an enily oppoi trinity of communioatiTig their inFitmctioiH 

vernor-Q-eneral, dated 3rd a& * *^e mo ^ m which " the wise and hboial intention of tho LegislatuiD 
June, 1814, conveying dueo- in this respect should bo accomplished" -Atcoidingly, on the 3id Jane, 1814, 
tuns on the subset of eduoa- th oy despatched a latter to tho Goranoi-Gonoial m Council upon tho 

subject That lottci appeais to bo the first Official Despatch addrosserl by 

tho CoTiit ot Duortois to tho anthoi itic?q in India, on the subject of education, id posflOHW* nmoh Instoiical 
intoiest, ,is showing tho oai liost boqumms of tlie Slate policy m logaid to tho natmo oi the measmcs \\lncli rauyht 
bo uduptiHl liii tlio education ol tho people of Inrlu Some postages fiom tho lottei may bo quoted hoic with 
adwntagu 

"In oiu luttri ol tho <Hh Hoptombcr last, in tho Public Department, wo diiCLtod yrnii attention ffonraully 

Directions as to the m d f * ^ IB ^ 3 * ^ lfiuso m tl10 ^ ct "* tlie ^ L ^ ^ tlic ^ U1 ^ by winch oui Oovomoi- 
gmng offbot to Sac 4#,ofSta- ^ un(lt 1 ' J11 Oouncil is ompowoi pd trj dnpct that a sum ol not lohs th.wi one lut 
tate 53, Goo III 9 C 155 ol in poos, ont of any Miiplu. ICVOILHLS that may icmaiii, shall bo annually 

applied ti) the 1 lovival and impio^cinciit oi Litoiaimo, and tho oiicxiiuft^'nicnt 

of Lho IMIIUU! iialivtH ol India \Vi k puiposp in this Dospattli lo convey to you oui sontimrutfl as to iho mode in 
win rli it will ln k ailvinalilc >ou should pnioot'tl, anil tho moasuics it may k k piopL 1 ! you hlioulil adopt with icJoroncc 
to that hiiljp'i't/ In tlio consult i atmu ol it, WL have kopi in VIQW UMISO jioi uliiii (iiniiiihtiincos oi our political! 
with India whuh, ha\in^ ucussanly tiniihlciicd all puwor aiul pi CH imiu'iur lintu N.iti\o to lijnTojioaii 
, Iw\i iiMidiMOil id inuinihiMit upon us, fiom indtiv us ol policy as \icllus hrjrn a ptmciplo of jastico, to 
consult iho fcolin^s, and ovon to jiolil to tho piC]udiooB, ol tho Natives, whimovi'i it i an bo dimes with fruLoty tr> our 
clrminiions 

* b Tiu' olnuho |>iosr k iiiici two dihlmot jifopohitioim lor eonMilniftlnm A/s^thu onnouiacfomcnii of ihp Joavnod 

Two obioots of tho Clause in Naii/uHol In ilia, and thou'vival and itu]]iiAtinu k nt ut Litoiniaio, 9frwwrf/y,tlie 

tbe Aot oi Parliament, can- pitniiolwm of a knr>wMg< k oi tho HCIOILDOS amoii^bt Uio iiihabiUnfiS oi tliat 

not bo gained by establishing oonntiy NeitLci ol tliou* objccbH in, wo approht'ud, it) bo obtained through 

Oollogos. ^ e mo jj Ulu O j public Oolli^os, if wUblifcluHl uiiclov iho inlt% aiul upon a plan 

hinnlui* ic> Ihoho ihat have botii fimncliMl at our Univoi silu% hecauso tlu Natives ol cWnto and of rc*imiatin will not 

HuliTuili In iho HU hm ilinul ion and diHCJplino ol aOollo^o, livid wo doubt wliofchot it would bi pnu'Lioubh* to derive 

tiny hfioi ilu* plan whu h would pvoiiimo tho Miccofthiu! UJLmii]>lihliiiioni of tku r>bjuots undoi onnhidoiation Wo nro 

UK lined tci think ih,it tho inodo by which iho learned Hindoo* might 1m diHposod to mix iu ^ith IIFI jn 

thfiso oh|ciis f would ho by oui 1 leaving ihom to tho puu'tico oi an uha#e, lon^ osUhliKhud uniongni thorn, of 

niHiinictuui .it lluui own IIOUHOH, and by our om our o^in^lhoin in the OMHL'HO ami ciiHuration of thon- tiiloutH, by 

Uio HtmiuliiH ol lirmoiniy aniuks ol diHtnietirm, and in Rome insianuOH by f^'auLn of jicramaiy asMstanio 

(< In a ]ir>hiu'iil point of viow, oonsidonvhlo (ulviniluguH might, wo cmironrp, bo marlo to flow frutu tlio rnoamiro 

t> liti 1 aflvoot of Education P l P OHK 'i ^ ! * h l |<)l| ld wo c-onducted with duo atlciitioii Lii tin* IIMI^OH and Imbita 

with tOBpoot to tho foolmgn of ot ilic NaUww Thoy ai'o known trj attach a imtion of smn iity to the noil, iho 

iho Natives as to tho sanctity biuldmps and uihoi ob)ootH of ilovoui w^or-t, tuid paitiouluily to tiiut at 

of Bunuros IJonaioH, which IH Top^iilod afl tho c k ontml point ol Uioit idi^ioiiH woi'flhiji, and 

AH iho Ki eai roiKWiUny of thoir loamuiff Tho poHHOSHion of thin vonciatoil oity, to which ovoi y olww and iank of 

the Himhnm IH <H o.iHumally attraOod, )ia placed in tho hanclH of tho llritmh (Jovoiiinioni a powetful inHtrumont of 

connexion and fni(iliaiion, oflpoc'ittlly with tho Mahraitas, who aro inoit> stiongly aitaohod than any nihcr to tho 

BVplKHtd sanctity of HOIUUOR JlJcojily imiftCHwd wiUi thoBO flontmioutfl, wo dflwro that your allciitmtt rouy bo 

diwotod in an ebpcxiftl inimnor to IJonaroa, and thai you call npori your publics roproHontativos thoi-o to roport io yoa 

what ancient iwliililiHhinoiitH aro fliill oxwting tor tho dittitfion of knowlertgo in ihat wty , what biwhui o( Nolenee 

and litorfttoi* aro iaughi ihore , by what moans tho p-ofoBBore and toaohoro aro Bupportod , and in what way thoir 

proHont oHlabltahmontH nuglib bo improved to moit ad^ftntago In the paiBuit of this mf onnutaon ihoy will liave 

opportuiti<w of obfcttbmg a knowledge <rf individual olwuwtaw, which may enablo them to point out to your noiiee 

thofle naliven witU whom it mifc ht bo desimble you should coMuii, od through whoBo infltnunentaHty tho liboral 





24 ENGLISH EDUOAHOa IX 1NDII 

" We are informed that there aro m the Sanscrit lanifuage many excellent Hystcnife of ethics, -with Codes of 

LOME* and compendium^ of tho duties relating to oveiy class of the people, 

Sanskrit Learning to be en- tllo fetr|dy of ^^ jmght be useful tr> thoqo nrfno* who may be destined lot 
oouraged ^ e j n j lcm | Q paitmont of Government Thuo aio ako many tiacts of 

merit, wo aio told, on tho vutne* ot plants and diusfft, and on tho application of thorn la medicine, the knowledge 
of which might piove desinble to tho Bmopean pi actitionot , and thorp .no tieitises on Astiuiiamy oiid Mathemo- 
tu% inrhuliiiii Gemnctjy and Algobu, wliioh, tlionflh they may noj. .ulil now hfiflits to Km npean science, might lie 
m.ule to ioim links ol cimiinuni cation between, the nativub and the gentlemen in oui s< i \ue, who ate Attached to 
the Obsei \atoiy audio tho Dop.utmont of Butsineotfi, and hy such intaic'niiisi- the N.itnes miqlit ciaduaHy be 
led to ddopt the modem impio\ cmonts in thnso and othoi fioioucos With a vuw to tin so seveial objects, we 
havo determiner! that duu uw mil ligament should bo %ivim to hnch ot otu htivauLs, in .my oL those drpattmcnts, is 
may bc> (lisposcHl to apply Ihenuulvoh tu tho hindy cil thu Souskut bugnaip, anil vie disne th,it tho teacheis, who 
be employed niidei 1 yrmi diilliniity ioi this pnipos( k , ma} Lo hi'lofttMl iinm tlicjsr n molest Un Natives ^ hi > 
lu\t lUiulu Mime juniiuioiuy in dho sciences in ((motion, .mil that bhon i e< ornpc use sluiulrl he libfi \\ 
"We enumiai^u oiuselvnH to hope, that, a Inundation may in tins \\ ly hi laid !m m\uiq full ciiLMt. in fhe 
ci)Uih( k oi I line to tke liberal iuix k ntirms ot tho Legislature , and we shall (onsnliM tlu k innney ihal may be allotteil io 
thin hei\n*e as benefit tally emplnynl, if it should ptiuc tbo muius, hyau nupinved inleKmusiMif the FJUIM|K.MLS \\iili 
ibe ^fati\es, Io pmdme tlnwf tceipjiK'al iooluit>s ui u^attl and iespo<li \\1utli aie ossctiluil Io Lbe jtei inanent inkMi sis 
of the Diriish KJH|IIU in India 1 ' ' 

Hitch \VCML Hit eailiisl instnu lions jsMU'd by tbo OouH, of Dirudois io ibe aiiibiuilics in India on the suh|ei't 

Three notioeablo points in ^ oducatnm They lepn-senL the enibi^nim 01 nii.iiiiilo sinui 1 ill the pnhry 

tho DeHpatoh of tho Court of n* spioadinq Kdiu nii(n and onlu^hU'iinniil amonti thi peiiple ol India Thiee 

Dtrootore, dutod 3rd June, impoTUntpumtHare, brmevei, nuiueiible m Hum /''us/, Hiat they un confined 

1 ^^* to tho pi munition ol Mansknt leai in j^ ammifl ilu* llinilus, wrttudli/, ibat they 

cntuel> 1^1101*0 (ho mterohlis of the JMahomoduu Oorauniuit), mid of then UMMUII and *>i icmes, fonL,vin<'d in Arahu 

and IVisuui works, ami, tltiHlly, that thuy do Tioir allntd the least inrlKiifioii of any iiil.enti(m to uittndiut' a 

kiiowhMlt^e ri Lite Un^lish laii^tLii^e, liiettitni'e, and HI iene<>s auumq tlm people of India 

At the Lnnc* when Llie Despatch mnvod, the Ooveuiinent ol huha was oni(ai*(d in (.he \\IIT wiili Nepal, .mrl 

hulmwiuiJiiMy ui ti<ini|iulisiNK Oential India, and ihe <>\perise and financial 

Omission to act upon the mnj^inMnnptitH nnlivilud l>y these measuies, pj rented iniiiiediiiie attention 
Ohartoi of 1818 _ . . .. , ., f1 , . .. . . . . . 

|ji fc ui> paid to tho viewH ol tin* Uouit cjl Dneetois in liquid to i ducat ion, and 

tho Indian (Icm'miuuuL, iiuruu| tbiu period, bConiH to havo bad no settled policy or oven intuition on the nuhjert 
oJ education 

tbiH tune u now ntimuluH liot^m to bo applied to tlm cause orodueation in India, of a natuie whieb lum 
been sttwldy iiutcusin^ IH powei I nun tbad day to tins, whirli m tfiowintf, 

^ 1 "^ 011 * 111160 " ami of whifh it IH impassible to Lorehee the result It would auniiHimalily 
lialf of odaoation , A . __ . , * . . . . . . - . J 

pmlmi^ Ibis Noto to attompt to ^ive any history of MiMsioimiyentmpnse in 

this cjtmntry, exc^fc in so lui iw it hcarH upon (Hluciitional pi-o^OHH, but the ullunee of the two bad been celebiuted 
in IHlii, Mid tho Inuta ol the alluuico woiv mm to appeal TciwanN bliu end ol I7W, two lUptist Mihsioiiiii'ii% 
MatslnniLii ami Wivrd, of Hniall means and limnlik 1 origin, bwideil m Oahntta, with tlio intention ol joining Ah 1 
Oaroy, wlio httfl lx k (iiMlepnt(Hl thithei* by the s.uae Honoiy ubrmt si\ yeat*H previounly IJ(Mnq provided with no 
lirotiso liorn tbo Knst India Company, niirl feaiful ol hein^ sent bark in Kj^lund^ tbny settled MiemselveH in the 
Daninh Hettleuicmt ol Heiainpiu Then* jolessed object wax tonversion, and if, inluulet in Itiiiftlund 01 diw- 
in Jmliu tould have tli\vaited them, their eflott.4 would Juive been shoii-hvi'd Not tbatlbe (iovornoi* 
Gouowl pt'i-sonully WUH iiirlmed to tn*ai (hem wilh 11^0111 On Ibe <*witru>, Ijord Wcllesh'y apfioniLed Mr (Jatuy 
Haniorit INxifc^ssoi m the nowly-ostuhlished Oolle^ oi Frrt. WillmriMind i>eni*nblly snoniH io huvo held an ovon Imlnnen 
between tbo aeution implemented by Mi Obai'JeH (Iranfc and Kir Jobn Hhote on tho one hand, um I l,ho anti-oduratlcmal 
parfcy on tho other In 18(17, bowuvor, tho little uolony hud a immw escape 0( k rUin addtH^Hefl to the Ilitulus and 
MuHHaltnanH t publuhod at Herampoie, and marked by TUOIO fei vour than dmr*r>eiion y attiacitod ti\v attention oi Ijord 
MIUUI'H Uovonunout, and an oidoi wa psmiod that tho I'rosH, anil thosn who mauLtaui^t it, wliould bo loiuovrd to* 
piurvuilknco at OiJoutta Tho oinlor wa withdrawn at Llio nuitanco of tbo Dnuwh (Jovornwc'Tit, uud mi Ui 
receipt of a toxnpoubto i.nd roapootiol momoriiil from thu miHHioiuurtc^ who rogrotfcod thu publioationH 

* Pnatad PmhaworjUry ?ftpi roIotJuK to tho Afeu0 of India ft m <U, Appoiulu I , ftfftkc. ( 1832}, pp. 480, 48? 
t Boo JWwto ok Jhvwu^" tote* ifuwon*/' JBOb 



THE " ymAHTi. " OB JLVGLO-DTOIAJT DOLLEM 25 



of, andpiomiseil to issue no more of a similar character But the warning was tumufltakeable, and the pro- 
ceedings of the Govoinment ware appioved by the Oonrt of Diiectors, in a despatch (dated 7th September, 1808) 
Tihich contains then fiist declaration of fitiict lehgions neutrality, and of the refusal to add the influence of 
nuthoiity to any attempt made to piopagate the Ghii&tian religion From that date until the renewal of the 
Chaitor in 1813, the Misbion was oontomptuou&ly tolerated by the local authoiitiea , but its labours wore incessant, 
it continued the Pimtmg Frosa, and edited a sen as of Yeinaoular works for educational purposes, and by 3815, it 
had ustihlishcd no loss than 20 schools in tho neighbourhood of Calcutta, containing about 800 native bhildien 
Tho Calcutta Uonevoleut Institution, founded in 1809, foi the instruction of poor Chiisiaan and. othoi obildien, 
btill roiiicuns as a monument of the Mission's oxcifcions 

" On las letuinfrom tho Noith-Wostom Fioyinces, Loid Moua issued, on the 2nd October, 1815, a Minute 

9 doclaiing his solicitude fra the moial and intellectual condition of the Nativos, 

Minute of 2nd October 1815 an ^ ^ 1S anxi ty * soe established oud maintained some system of pubbo 

education He thought that the humblo but valuable class of village school- 

ni.istois claim od the fiist plane m tho discussion, and that tho efforts of Oovornmejit should bo dnectod to the 
impiovi'mont of existing tuibion, and to tho diliu&ion ol it to placet* and pei&on? now out of its leach Tho Minute 
\\.ih followed liy a cliiect application to tho Cuuit of Diiectois toi poimibsion to oncouiage schools formed on 
principles altniothci (liltoioiit iiom ilio Oi jontal Institutions, which alone 1 , up to that dates, had enjoyed tha regular 
sn]tpoil of (jr)\onnntitit In NoyoinbQi, J81 1 ), Loid Moua visited the little colony at Soiampoio, a stop woith 
ic i cntiliuc>, as ilio hist kind fjf duoct ontuuiafiomout, which Mibbionaiy olfoitm behalf of elaoaiiou hadieceivad 
a (jovoinrn-Uoncial ui luilia "* 



CHAPTER VI 

ORIOIN OP KiraLTHTI EDUCATION-- THIS "VIDYALAYA" OR AlfGLO-INniAN OOLLMQB 

b'OUNDEI) BY HLNUUS OF CALCUTTA IN 1816 RAJA RAM MOHUF ROT'S 

ADVOCACY OF KNnLISH EDUCATION COMMITTEE OP PUBLIC 

INSTRUCTION ESTABLISHED IN CALCUTTA IN 1823 ITS 

PROOHKUINOS UP TO THE END OF 1831 

The hiil)|i i ol of Kdtu'fttum sceiUB to liavo "bom legflrcloil with much apalliy by iio autbonfaoa in India at the 

_ lamp Trkni tlio Court of DirootoiH sent thoir first Bdaotioual Dodnatoh. of 

Anathvaf tho Indian GOTora- , /., . . . ... r * 

ment towurd English Bdu- 1814 ana ll0 M fim^oant moaHureB worn to liuve boon adoptutl for flome years 
cation, ondaoal of the advanced **> fulfil the intontionfl of tho Act of Parliament abovomentionod The more 
Hindus who founded the advanced Beotion ol tho Hindu community, however, soom to have boon alive 

ttitlio ttjqieclionoy and besneflt oi introdnoinff a knowledge of the Bnghah 
lik-rotoro and HOIOUOOB among thoir oDnnteyinen, and in the year J818 fiome 
of i.hc* naiivo gi^nilomon of (Jalcutf^t, poflHChsing woolth, lutolligenoo, and public spirit, associated together and 
HubflculxMl 11 capital man oJ lia 113,179, to found a SenauHwy for the uiBtruotion of the Rons of Hindus in tho 
liuiu]>i>aii nnd Ahiuiio langoagpfl and fwionucs Tbe ]HHtitntjon wan called the Vidyalaya or Anglo-Indian College, 
and ivpri^cniH the flint ofloiHb mode by tho natnon of India them0olvoR, for tho education of thoip ohiljien in the 
Kiighhh luTigutiKt 1 and htoatuto Tbe origin of tho nwtitation 10 eztromoly intorestmg, and may be described in 
tho WOI^IH of Kov A Duff, I) I) , in hfe evidence before a Select Oomzoitioe of the Honse of Lords, on tho 3rd 
Howml 

Ndueation was in d manner forced upon the British Goveramont ; it did not itself spontaaeously 
of Bttglish Xduoatioa originate it Tho system of English Education commenced m the following very 
In India Mr David Here simple way m Bengal. There were two persons wno had to do witi it^ one was 
mndBjg*BaMohunBcy. Mr. David Haft, and tho other was a Nafava, Bam MohunBoy. a the year 

pp B,9. 



111 JM>1A 

Hi), tiioy wore in oonsnltatiOD one ovQirmq \viLli a fow fnuails, as to wh.it hhould bo dono with a view 

tlio elevation ui tho nativo mind and Lhaiactei Ram Mukuii Roj's jnopuhitum was tliat thuy should 

tabhsh an Ahscmbly, 01 Convocation, m winch, what aie callul tlio hiijluM MI pmci dogmas ot Vodautism 

ancient Hmdnjhm, might bo taught, in hlioit, tlio Pantheism oi iko \'nlt^ OL ihi'ii Ujwmihriik, but wli.it 

auiMolmn Ro> deh^hfodto call by tlio inuio goiual titlo oi Monotheism Ui Dtvud IfaiD ^as a, watch-maker 

iCaku.ttji iu oulm.u y illitoj ato man Imnsdi , but boing a in on ol nir.it ciK k ii>} and stioui* piautiial heiito, he 

Lid the plan bhould bo tn institute au Eiiglisk School, 01 Collide, 1m the insliiuliou t>l nati\e ^uuth Auoid- 

ulj, liu huuii diow np, and ihbUDiL a uitMiUi uii tho buhject, whuh yi.ulii.tll) at! M Lied the aUtntion oi the leading 

2uLiopoaiis, diitl jrUinuii otliois, oi tlu 1 UbiuJ: Justnu, tin HydoEast Jiuii> lid to cmiiulu ihu piopnsi'tl imasiuu, 

1C L'llU'lLlLJlLiUUl) Ultl> it, .Uld got a T1lOOtl31(r ot EuiUpUaU m'lltkuit'll assiMILlllLMl 111 AI.I) 1SJI Ho lll\ltlMl ,l1sr 

oiiL( k ol tho uillitcutial Native io dtttud Thur it was im.innjuaisl> I^U'LM! tlut ^lu>\ hhmild cnnmirnu.' an jn- 
Jiintiun tut the io^uhm^ oi Ei^lisk io tlu> ckildion oi tlu lughci il^tssis, to ht drsi^n.iitd 'The Hindu. Tolh v ni 
\ilculU' A ULU Jui ut UuuiuiiUce nl Iflin opu LUS ,iuil N,iii\t i s \vas <ppi>iu!i il ID i uij ihi ill siun juto oflt'c t 
u thu l)Ltiiiiuiii^ ni 1817 Liu? Culler 01 i.illiei hi liuol, was upiMiod , ami it vv L-> the \i k i\ IIIN! Ki^lisli Htmiii.u\ in 
Htin-cil, or L'vtMi in India, ah t,u as \ kuo\\ In tlio Joint (Jiuiini Hi ot tlitiL w.is a ]n |*i>inItM<nn c ol 
iiiuJ piiitl) finui tlu u inc\]iLiicnu k and inaptitude, anil [jutly lioiu ilitu alisiud pn^uilKts, .ind 
was iiiit \wy well uiaiui^cil 1101 vuiy MUL'i'sfelul Inth^l, kail it> not lurn Ini tin 1 iiiilninu prisi M I I,UM i ul Mi ILut*, 
it \\ould hii\ufiOim onuiL Io nn cud Tho uiituljci ol jjujuls duollul .it ii-> lust i|u iun U,H Inil snull, nul i^diil- 
Miq 20 , mil O\IH, all cilun*4, lot the hubscqnunt fi\i en six >t',ns, the IIIIIU)H i did not IIM ili>u M)IM 70 Thru il 
was, when llic) wen* \\L11 iui>li in a state ol total HUM k, and most ui thi 1 Kuio|i ni< li.ul U'inril IMHII lln* niaiia'ji 
incni in disgust, ihat JMi ILur and a kw oUii'ih lo-iohiHl io a|>|il\ to fht k (iovi'Minu'iii I MI ln k l|i, as iln ruilv IIM.IIH 
4il iiiiniEi the sinking Institution fiuin itiL.tiio\.d>lu nun Tin* (IDVI 'intuMii, \\lif i thus ij>|MMli'il In, did I-IHIK 
lot waid and pi nih\ its aid, upon PCI tarn ioasimalh> Uims and ciMulitioiiN , anil il was m llus \>a> tli.il Ihi* Mi ill h 
<jovLiuniuut; \\<ib liiHt luou^lit into active [uu tn i]>aium in the caini' ol Kii(;li *h Kilm atinn 11 * 

Tin 1 Institution KICW m |M>j>uLu ity, and suon ilaiiacil supfiiontv nvci ati> ollifi Kiininarv (surli as Miisnmaiy 

Popularity and suocoss oi Hthoolh, Ar k ) illoidini* insdiu'lHin Io I lie Nairn's in the lin^h Ji laii^uatie The 

the " I utufilftijdi'' oi 1 Indian lle]ioiti)l 1HJ"> iius a slill nmie fa\nnial>Ie \ir\\ ol ihi* IJIIHM U < haiadir ol 

GollOgO d )0 Institution, the hrnehls ui wlueli Hn ino^> lespetlahh t L .se.i ol ilie 

iiati\iM[)iMiiiiinily til ( 1 alouUali.uLevuiL'(d a disposilion Ui MCMIIH Io llu'ii clnhhui, h> si>iuJni'; lliintt(jpa\ loi 

tlioit edut tlj[in,--.h sl.ito ol things iihUilnMl piinnpally to " the ihlliisinu ol liheial idea*, mil to ihe (iiiilnh nee tell. 

b} tho [laii'ittb (il the ]upilH Io tin* pieM'utt^hlcin ol inana^i nienl " The iiinnlH'i ol siholaii \\ H st MIM| ai 200, 

and iL was addi'd that, so lon^ as hiu'h <i uuinhei, all esptt I alily omitted, <l i an hi ti lined in n a full nowlitly.e 

and tin Kn^lish l.uii>iiai>4 t , a f>ieat unprovnneiil/ may lie umlidently antieipaU'il in ||u inl^llei lual i liainelei ol the 

pniKipal nihakntiiiiU ol Oaltutt<i"t > The II>|KU(S ol LHU7 and I.SJK hlale Miat * Tin sludiei IN (Ins lu.hiulnm \\eir 

nafuial unil ovjieu menial philosophy, theimstiy, mathejiiatii's, alc-il*n, T^tleiV Kleiiiint.* ol (inn lal 

HuhsdTh Mod oi n Kumpo, \vitli Miltou und Klmki^iKMic 1 , tluit the pio';tissol Ihe stiulenli hail liein 

that it IUM! momisc'd ^taiUi Uly, and WOH 111 thu >uvr ItijX, ifiealu' than in any pieieilin; jiai " Ih 

BLadtnifcs having (^iu<lually ineu (o *\fi<>i 

Nor W.IH OalnitU the only pla$e wlu>ie Urn HnidiiH evinwd tin IP ilesne (o ailvaiite Kn^litih Kilneadon 

An advanood llmdu, Jovnu- Ll ^ H (onnfi\ui(iL ' fc Whi-ii UioUo\uiiiiHliiiii*uil vMiiiHIn 

rain GUioaflal, ioundB un Bng- m IK1 K Jn t >naiain flho^il, Jin niluihilant (J JJeiiam* 1 , pi<scnleilu pilihun (o 

liah, School at Bouuros, ml81tt ) ns j^iHlslui), \\ilh jnopohiils lor i^t-ihiishin't a M hool in the in i<'lilioui hood ol 

thnteity, and K'tiuestini; that Uovcumient wimld J^vivo in di>|osit the hum ol Us tJO,OW, !hi> IMM| md ieM i>f 

whu k, ti^etlun with tin levcnucinisui^ fi*oin eeitaiu lands, lie wishid Io IM appi*i>|/niit(Ml (a (In* v\\n Hit of ihe 

liwtitutinn The I!<SIJJ;H inettin^ wilh (he appt*obulion ol (ioveitniMitt, Joviiarain (llnis^irl \\iis neqniMiilii 

with, Accoidini;!), in July Ihlh, ho iouudoil IIIH si hool, tippointint; to the maim^reineiit Iheieol, ilie lh>\, \) 

UorroHpoudiii^ Menilxr of the (/aluuttu Clhuich Mihsunuiy Kutietj, nticl a nieinht r of Hun* (/tmiutitlee, and ul Ilie 

Hiuue time ouuhtiluf MM," Uu, inomlxjrH of that Oouuuif let 1 tnthte(*H *' In (Ins M hool (hit Mulish, Pefsuiu, JHtuluMiUii 

and J)onttli laiigu|^'rt woje taught, utid m Appjil 1H2B, t/ho w>n of tlu- ioiuulei 1 enhanced iho endowment h^ u douu- 

tiou ol Jin W,000, 

* PnntMl PaihiimatitAty I'ajwn* (1882 58) Httttnd H]iuit of thtt Hcluu Oouuuittoe cl thu Hauwt ul Undu m 
4 
Vrmttid PailuuiiouUbrj L'ftpon tobitmg to tho AITuiu oi lutim tlinrmt t Aiipencti\ 1, I'M* UBBZJ, fi 110. 



urivMiim u* PI MIC INKIH ciiu* 4T CALUTTPK J7 

Thus whilst the Hindus woxo showing leadings, Heal, and gcneiohity towaarb iho spread of Engliflh Edut.i- 

Inaotivity of the Mahome- * i0n dmonl ? ^cii conntijuipii, ovon at such &n eaily pound, the Mahomodaus 

dans as to English Education &OGTII to ln\o ic.mai.nad complctolj doiinant, and ludood, took up a hostile 

The Calcutta School-book So- attitude Imvaids tliu ptogiosq tjf Huqhsh education among ihcra, <ifl *ill In 

oiety formed in 1817 filirjwll lcltlM un Amou othin efrnits whioh wcie made on behalf of oclm.i- 

iaoii was tho foundation oi llio Oalfttltti Hrhnnl-btirik tint irfij u Tin* institution hail its otigiii in tlio yem 18J7, 

.iiul \vu,s foinicd with a viuw tr> tho junmotmii ul thu moia] and nil dice tual iinpin^oznent oi the Natives, by fhe 

diffusion, anioiii? thorn ni useful elenKMilaiy knowledge* Tho pUu ot the ficieioty uucfull/ excludes all means 

ral&ulatud to o \citc iriurioas < nnti o\ <>i s\ , md its afhuis aio coiulnrtcd by a CoinmiHoo com posed of- English 

i^LMitlcintMi, M.i1ir>m(Mlins and ITinilus, in ilr>ut e i(nal pinpoitions In ALa), 1K21, tlie Sociolv, having- a( tbat hmi 

put iiitn uicuUlioiL 12f5,tH> topuN of WJIOHS useful noiks, found its finances ni so low a stale as to ion do \i 

iiLTOssai} to si'i'V dssistiiuo li(tn the (ii>\ I'lnmcni, \vlnch ,issisianu wjs iiuitKMliatrly giaTilcd, to tho extent 111 

Ri 7,Of)D An annual j*i 1116 ui Us (>,()()[), in .ud ot tho Institution, Mas nlsr> oidti^d, arcompamud l)} r the mtKl 

unicsi3i\L(l p\pn>hsi<>ii iJ ih< k Un\ninni'ii1\ vilisf ution uttli the plnti ami iib|L k (t oJ tho Smioty, and \\ith the 

inoilc in wbuh lib allans .ippcMinl to luxi' lici-n nmdm tod n f 

Tho most Mi<iiili(aiif' IUIMSIIH ailoplcil 1>\ (imt inniiMif, jt that prMioil was tho ionuilatum <1 tho Calcutta 
Tha Oilcutta Sannkiit Col- " 1I|I ^ U ^- s ^nfc (Nilli^t*, in lieu of the two (/olli^ts in Nudilca and Tnlinot, 
legoioundod by Govonimout uluih h,id bei'ii piojr'dnl in Loid Mnifos Minute oi 1HJI, lioin whuli pas 
at the saggostion of Mr H H ^HC.IJJM .ilic.id; liu n quofrd inihis\v<nk to On the* 21s* ol An^iiHt, Wl\ 
Wilson, in Ib21 tin- (lovuuoi-Cii'iH'i.il in Cuiuitil liavniuf l.il (n iiii4) ronsidiMatiDii t*li4 stato nl 

Ui( k pn]0(tit k d Insl/itntioiiM liii* tbc id\*MM eiiM'tit oi Iliinlu Litt i.itinr in Xuddca and Tu limit, flic hnlnic* of wliu h 
ippoaiiii!? (o arlinii nl nodnnht, it was (iinsiili'ii'd thai the* (JriMMimn i nt wis uluviMl IHJTII the plidije i^ivcu in 
1S1I, lot \\\\ k establi^hiiH'iii of tbosi* institutions A (onmiiimrafirm lioni MJ II H Wilwm, <i nictnlici oi (hi* 
Hcuaic'h (JninmitlMs >\s .H the siune lime hitm^lit u|Mn H'ioid, (niifniiiiti^ s<v<ial ivasnns fni aliaTiilonin^ the 
<lesii>n ul funning Collins in Nudiha nml Ti hoot, and sn^ufi'siin^ mstoafl tlicKMtl, tho loundntion at l.lir Pin^i- 
ilen<'\ ol a sunilai Institaihnn lo fhatot IJen.nis, but upon a liuip'i siah> The necessity IIM Kiiiojican Hnputin 
ti nih'nre, tlie hw ilitv with \\hit b ii nii^bt. be nhtaiiitMl in Oalc ulla, (lie ncussibilHi} oi filial nt.y h> all |iuis ol 
India, lot; ell it 1 1 \\ith sexeial olliei leasoiis sunm'sled by Mi Wilson, fhtenmned tin* <ln\4Miioi-t)f i rieiul in (Hiiuni il 
i\t adopt 1 he ineasinv pntposcd \\y that i^'iitl^nnm, and est ihhsli in Caleuttri, a llnuhi (tollc^o siniilai to ibnl ut 
JJeiuu es, undei* u ()fMinnittKe <l Supei intondence "f 

Dunn^ this |)4notl the snbfeet ol education appiais 1^) have enpra^'d special aiteniioii of tin* (InvciTitnctil, 

and nelive nieasunw U(ie udoptnl to place jublu nistruc'tion upon au orj^ti- 

OommittooofPubUoTuHtruo- IIIWM | | 4HI | lllir as (4 |m ,t n | || H , h | fl u. ailiniiiisliatmn "On tlio I7tb July 
turn appomtud at uaicmtti* m Js ^ (|||i (!(m , rlloM j (l|H , lu , |n ( i (>ull(ll ((Mlk ll|lu ^^.aiioH a Note .u 

Mcnioiaiidiiin, on IhcsubjrH ot Kdurutitmandol theiiiifunveiiicntof 

ol iho NniivoH ol India, wbn b had bmi jM<|aH'<l and submitted tothent by Mi lltjlt Miuken/ie, tlu'ir 
in the Ten i tonal Depatlnient, and wbirli IH leeorrled on the jH i ocee<litiis ol ihat date In pursmmce ol 
49ontnimd in tlio pupit abovemont f ioiu<d, the Bengal Uovi'Minient I'esolvtvl tiHWm it Ucnciul OtmitniUpo ol Pnbln 
InstructitML at Uu l*iesnU'iu \, lor tlw* puipohc ol asi tM'laiiini^ tint nUto of mliuahon in the tem torus under the 
Hentfal I'ltJHideney, and ol the public uiKfaf.utioiM, desi^iuMl for iU promotion, and of *<)wisHh*mitf, and fnim 
timtj tot HMO MibiniUnitt in (iuvcinmcnUJto HII ingest ion of HU< b ineivhuieH IIH it miifbt ujipetir i)\pKlicnt io alopt 
with a view to tlio lMtt(a nihtnution oi the pt^oplrs io the inhinluetm uniun^ them of useful knowlcMVfe, 
and to tho impiovemenl ol their inorul eluviaetei 1M ^ *^w annual Hum oi one Ittf of mpeph, \\hith by tho Act. oi 
Pailiament, V), (liM> III, 1! l<Vi, waH Mppntpnafed to the ptupiiM'H oi idu(*iiiion, was pliut'd at tho 
itf tho Oommillois HliH-h fiiim tlun piMiod nniht 1m n^aidid us tlio Nulo oj^ui ol tbn (lowuimout in 
that <onM'nH public inuti ut'Lioji 

HCKIU itlfrf'i the OomnuttcK) had ontoiTd upon itn (inlibnatioiiH, u inoHt Higniflcanb ovfiit occurnul, wlnclj, tm UK 

ono hand, HIKJWH H^lit upon thiMxmditjou if udvancuTtiout and cnhi^hteinntint 
^l Hindu* throuSi ^ whioh Homo of tho inoro pioininoTit HtnduHof KongiJ hud Hiuved, in ru#ard 



BajaBamMohuxiBoy 9 ULlH28 v tolhoir diwmi to acquire a kiiuwlocl^ ot Wnglmh liteiatujv find 

agftiMt expenditure of Money and, on tiiu other liaml, H!IOWH Iho (wmparativc apntliy oi tho (lowrimont 

^ii'SSh 1 !!? Bar 5 mg lllrtaa<l towardH tho mtrfnl notion of tin* Hnfflbk \WK\KW and liLoratum amrmff tho 

of BEgUtt Bwuoation. ^^^ rf j^^ ^ ^ ^ iu tt di of Oaloutte wore toroniort In 



2b ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA 

the Vvlyalaya, or Anglo-Indian College, in 1616, foi educating thoir sous in tho English language, literature and 
sciences, BO they \\eie now foiemost in pioto&ting against the measnios which iho Govoinmcnt was thon adopting 
to devote farthei funds to thu promotion of Sanskrit luaminq iix tho Siinskut College at Calcutta " In December 
1823, (Ea] a) Ram MohuuRoyaddiOTsel the GtovciDoi-CJcneial,intlioTuinioof his Lountnynion, expiring an opinion 
advcn.be to the supposed object of the BiitiBh Qovoinmont, 111 tho ioundatiou oi this College in Calcutta, which he 
uousidorol as calculated only to poipotuato a hpooics of litciatuio, which was, iiihis judq input, anil that of those 
whom he lopiesontotl, uttuily ivoillihns, and LOGonuneudrnQ, instead thoi cot, thii employment of Eui i>pt.ms oi 
tharactoi to mstiuct (he Natives ot India in mathumatics, uatuial philiisoph} , chunnsli}, .uiatuin}, and those 
nthot useful sciences, which tho nations ol Haiopo Liad Laiiuil bo i pitch of peiloLtum, that hail L<usod thc.ni abu\o 
tho mhuhitants ot othci paits oi tho -wen Id (Lla>|a) lUin Miilum Ko> pat bn ulai l> oiUcitud to that pcnuil m the 
hislniy oi Qioat Biitam, \\hen Loid Bacon IK considciod, as hauwi b> his \uilimjh, set asiilf tlir kgcudai) lojo ot 
the lUii aqns, and intiudncud tine science in its htoad " 

Raja Ham Mobun Roy nah a distini^uishoil patnut, ha\insi tht impioyoment oE liii rouiiii>tncn Miicnd) at 

hunt, md Wtis huiluiintl^ ^vill acf|ii,tuitod, buth with Oihiital.uid 

o ho ftllt ' lo loiln ft mu ' cfc ' )II1U)I1 of llim Ullaliui v llll(l 
him, and i>J Ins addicsh to IJOK! Anihnsi, Hi;dinM Oi ieni.il studios, 

IMjpi, m u loiln to Ku \Vilmot Ilnton, d.itod Matcli, 1HJ1-, publish oil in thi k ApiKMidix, to]iik,faHtmtt, s.uil 
*' Uiiin Muluni Rn\, a loiuiu il Nttivo, who Las himu times boon called, though, I Icai, with nut ica^nn, a CMuisiian, 
uruonshati d a^tinsb this sysl.oui l.nt )oui, in a pajxa which he stub mo t< bo put 111(11 Ijnjrl A in heist's hands, uid 
\* Inch, im its tfr)d Mni^Ush, ^OIK! sousi*, and Itituhle ai^ununts, H a nal <uui>sit\, as toiiiui^ honi an Asiatic if 
Tho Mcniotial Jully disenos tho euhj(>iiLm bohtowii tin it by Ihshup Hi hoi, ami, us it is an im}imtiu! iloi umi'tit, 
thiDwin^ lii^ht upon tht> mode oi thought iui<l oducatumil aunn, it m iy bo <| initial hue with advantage, in t^tni^t 

The MoiiKiiial inns Hi us - 

11 To Hut K\uolleiuy bho Ui^ht Hunociiable Ijuul Amheist, Ou\oiiH)r-(loti(3ial 111 Ouuneil 



Humbly Toluctant as the naliven of India are to obhuilr 141011 tho nnluo of (iovii'nmeiit the 

thny entertain mi any public mosaic, thcj o aiu oirt umstanoos when mlcuci would bo IMI i j tn# this lohpoi iful lot 1- 

Eaja Bam Mohun Boy's Me- m # * tt nilpaWo OVOHS Tboptehont ruloiH ot India, cimiuu? iiom a distant 

monal, in favour of English of ninny thouwind milos, to uoveiu a pooplo \\lnwo lanc,'iiiuo, littintuio, 

Education, prononted to Lord maiineiH, oustonib, atul idouh, aro almost entiwly now and siraii^o In Ihom, 

Amnerst in 1829. cannot ennily boromo HO intimately ae*iiuainiod with then teal iiicMimHtaiuos 

as tho native* of th? country 01*0 thomholros Wo whouliL, tliowfoic, bo tfiulty of a^x^H deifliotion of duty to 

ourBtilvcfl, mid nftnnl om rnlois just ground ot onmplamt at our apathy, did wuomit, on omthioiiH ul imporianco 

liko tho piOHont, to supply thorn with Huch acc k uiato nilranmtion as nu^ht onuble thoni ti> devise und adopt 

moanuics ealoalated to bo beu^doial io tho oouutiy, and thuH Bocond, by uur local kuuwlodtfo and oxpoi u*n< e, their 

devlftiod bouDvnlont iuteuti(>iiH lor itw impiovcTjiokita 

11 Tin* oHtttblislimont of a now NausLvit Soluxil in Calcutta ovinooB tho laudable doHiro oi Oovevnmont to im- 
provo tho nativoB oi Lidmby odn<ntion, -i& ItleHsingfor which they must over 1x k ^iatiful , and ovory wolUwihhor of 
tho human raro muHt 1m doturoaB that thu olLorts mado to prnmolo it hhould bo guidutt by thu RioHt oiih^btonfd 
prm&iplrft, fif> thai tho Htroam ol mtelligcmoo may flow in the most u HO I ill eliautielA, 

11 When tliiR neminaiy of learning was proposed, wo uiidorbtouU that tho (loverninont in Kti^land hud finloied 
a ccm^idemblo Hum of money to bo annually devoted to the mnii uction of it* Indian Hub]oott Wo wexu lillcnl with 
bangnino ho])CH that thih Hum would bi laid out in employing Kuropoan ffoutlcinc'ii oi UUoutu and odumtion io 
inntruol tho nativeH ol India in muthoniatKH, natural philoHopby, tJiemihtry, anatmiy 9 and othoi uHoful fionrtiU'H, 
which the natioim of Kuw^po Imvo uanied to a do^ioo of perfection that ban taiHud tliem above tho inhabitant*) of 
other parts of tho wot Id 

11 Whdo vo looked forward with pletwuntf Iiopo to the dawn r>f knowledge tlinw prominod to tho nwupf gone- 
ration, our heurtA woro tilled with mingled foolmguof dohght aud pfintitude, wo already offoiud up thankH to 
?roviden<*e for inipiruig Uio most gonottmh and onlightonod nataonw of the Wont with tho glonoun ambition of 
planting m Ada tho u*t and noionoos of modern Kuiope 

"Wo find that tho Qovorantent aro ohtablulung a Saiwknt School undor Hindu Punditn, to impart such 
knowledge as is already current in India This Reminary (similar in character to thowo which oztetod in Boiopa 



BAJA B1H MOHTO EOT*S 1UEHOBIAL 29 

before the time of Loid Baoon) can only be expected to load the minis of youth with grammatical "niceties and 
metaphysical distinctions, of little 01 no practical use to the possessors or to Society The pupils -will there acquire 
what was known two thousand years ago, with the addition of yarn and empty subtdtiea since produced by 
speculative men, such as is already commonly taught in all paits of India 

" The Sanskiit language, so difficult that almost a lifetime is necessary for its acquisition, is well-known to 
have been foi ages a lamentable chock on the diffusion of knowledge , and the learning concealed undei ^hifr 
almost impel vioub veil, is fai bom sufficient to lewaid the laboui of acqniimg it But if it weie thought neoes- 
saiy to peipetuate this language for the sake of the poition of valuable information it contains, this might be 
much moj o easily aDcompluhod by othei means than the ebtablishment of a new Banskiit College , foi there have 
been alwa^b, ami aie now, numeious piofessors of Sanskiit in the diiEeient paits of the country, engaged in teaching 
this lanofuogo <u> well a& the othei blanches of hteratuie which aze to be the object of the new Seminary Theits 
inio, then moio diligent cultivation, if definable, would be effectually piomoted by holding out premiums, and grant- 
ing cut tain cdlovi ances to then most eminent pi of essois, who have akeady undei taken, on then own account, to teach 
them, nncl would by such lewoidfe be stimulated to still gi eater exeitions 

11 ft oin these considoi ati on&, as the sum set apart ioi the inbti notion of the natives of India was intended 
b\ the Ootciiuncmt in England foi the impiovemeut of its Indian sublets, I beg leave to state, with due deference 
to jru Loidslup's exalted situation, that if the plan now adopted be followed, it will completely defeat the 
nlijiHl pioposod, Him o no nnpj ovemont con be expected fzom inducing young men to consume a do/on of yeais 
ril the most; valuable poziod of thcii lives in acquuing the mcoties of Bycd,a)an y oi Sanskrit giammai Foi in- 
stance, in loaimug to dihouss such points as the following khad, signifying to oat, Icliadui^ ho, 01 she, 01 it eatb , 
qnpi), whothei duos Ihtiduh, taken as a whole, convey the meaning he, she, 01 it oats, 01 aie sepaiate paits of this 
meaium* cimveyeil by distinctions of the woids P As if, in tho English language, it weio asked, how much mean- 
ing is theiu in tho rut, how much in tho s p and is the whole meaning of tho woid conveyed by these two poitions 
i>l it distill ell), DL by thorn takon jointly P 

" NeiLhei can innih impiovomont aiiso ftom such speculations as the following, which arc the themes suggested 
by the Fir riant In whut maimci is the soul absorbed into the Deity P What relation does it bear to tha divine 
essence v Nor t\iU youths bo iitted to be bettor members of Society by tho Vedantic doctrines, which teach them 
to believe that all visible things have no real existence, that afl fathoi, biothoi, Ac, have no actual entity, they con- 
sequently di soi vo no i'eu.1 affection, and, theiefcie, tho soonoi wo o&cape fiom them, and leave tho woild, the bottei 
Atfani, no os^ntial lien out can be doiived by the student of the tfvmangsa, from knowing what it is that makes the 
killoi l agmitsuilesHonpionciunung ceitoin passages of the Vedant, and what ifl the zeal natuie and operative 
influence oi pasMtgoh of tho l^eZas, <fcu 

u Tha htudont of tho JV?yatyuh7w^/a cannot bo said to havo improved his mind after he has learned fiom it into 
how imui) ulou.1 chvHHOH tho ob]ec1* in tho Universe ore divided, and what speculative relation the soul bears to the 
lxul>, the body to tho houl, the oyu to tlio oai, Ac 

" In nnliu* to oimblo your Loi dship to approoiato the utihty of encouraging such imaginary looming as above 
character i&oil, T bfg youi L/ordhhip will be pleased to compote tho state ol science and htoiatuto in Euiope befoie 
the tune of [JOH! Uoonn with tho piog]*ess ol knowledge mode since he wioto 

" II it ha<l boon intended to kocp tho Bntish nation in ignorance of real knowledge, the Baconian philosophy 
would not have boon allowed to diRplaco tho system of the school-men, which was the best calculated to perpetuate 
ignorance In tho numo manner tho Sanskrit system of edaoainon would be the best calculated to keep this country 
in daikiiMH, if Rtioh had boon tho policy of tho Butish Legislature But as the improvement of tho native population 
IH the object of tho Government, it will consequently promote a more hbeial and enlightened system of ins ti action , 
embiaump mathomatics f natural philosophy, chemistry, anatomy, with other useful sciences, which may be oooom- 
plwhed with the Hum proposed, by employing a few gentlomon of talents and looming, educated ui Europe, and 
piuviding a Oollogo fnrniahod with the nooessary books, instruments, and other apparatus 

" In roproHontmg this flub]oct to your Loidship, I oonooivo myself discharging a solemn duty which I owe to 
my ooimtomon, and alflo to that enlightened sovereign and legislature which have extended then benovolent oare 
to this distant land, actuated by a doaire to improve its inhabitants, and, therefore, humbly trust yon will ezouse 
tho htxaty I havo takon in thus expreaoag my eentimentB to your Lordship 

" I have the honour, <ba, 

(Signed) Buc MOEUH BOT/'* 

i 

tUMuca*iorf 



30 



EDUDAT1UN IK 1KDIA 



The Grmunment of Bengal logardod this lottci as having beon penned unrlcT a fiomowliai enrmoomim- 

pinqsion lospccting tlio views of Govinnmeiit in tho establishment of tin 
daiiresaxded Bwwknt College, but foiwaidedtho lolin to the CoimmtteD of Pubhu hi- 
sti action foi tlien mCoimntinii Tlio Ufco it mot with may bo conjectuiod lioiu 
tho spu it which then aminntod that body The Memonal i emaincd unanMM.'iod, and tho design ot founding a m-w 
Sa/nslcnt Gollpqv nas cuiicd into oxcrutiou 

The qnostitm AS to tlio natnie of tho studio* to be en com aged in India, ippeais to IIMP boon tho snb|oit of 

Views of the Court of Di- crm sidei.it ion by tho Court of Ihieetrns, on an OIL as inn whon the Uriur.il 

rectors as to the nature of the Gu\eiumont had ippmtod ceit,un nuMsmph adopted |>\ it Irn the irfnim ut 

studies in thoii Despatch of the e\ihtmiy Onontal Colleges, nntl tliu establishment ni ll u . new Nansknf 

18th February, 1824 Collpqe, at Calcutta Tho Uospatuh 1 of tho Comi oi Ihu-clnis in tl.o 

Bimqal flovmnnwnt, dated the IHth Fi'biuai), 1H21 T contains obseivations, as follows - 

"Tin, 1 ond& pinpnsod in thu institution ul fclio Hindoo Dollop, anrl tho saino ma) be afliniHMl nl <Iic Mahniucil in, 

^LK l\\n ihi k (list, to ntitko a i,v\ r tmi Abli* impiessiim, Ii\ oiu rnictui IUIMIUII! 

ol <1|P " llfctUAtnio n l" )n ihp imncls (>l t! " 1 N * lil ^ s ""! 'I" 1 s """"li ' piomiiti 
useful leaning You ackiiowlc'<l(>e1luit il Ibc plan IMS bid .tnv I'lh'ci nt thf 
fitttnui kind, it lus harl none ol tlio UUcr, and yonuld, that ( it must bo hMtod iliullii* disnulil atiaf IIIIILI io smli 
ii failuru has GIDUO liti 1 1) dosiioy Hit 1 mlliioni? wbuJi lln 1 liboiality oi ilie enrlowiuoiit \\diibl U(|MI\MM* lia\o liail 

" We havo lioiu Mine to timu litvn assui icl that ihoso Otillo^os, tliout>li (hc> hail nol lill tin n IM^OII u a I til, 
wrir>, in CDusi^iiiLMiu 1 tf [MOpnsoil aiMiigiirionts, jusi ahunl tr loi*oiiio so, ami w< h.i\t IOMIM tl fn>m )nii u sunilar 
|)UMlidion on tlio piosetil (xoasKin 

" Wo xteb> nit uiLMiis sanguine 1 in nm oxpcHation that ihn sliuliti lofninis wliuli \ou liau 1 pifi|Hsn( io nihn- 
dmo will be lollimid by nnn h impiuvi'incut, anil \%e IIQIOO ^il.li you in roitain ilnuhfs, \\hothoi a moaloi diuiii> 
nl iu'ijviiy, ovon ii it wen* pirjduood, nulhc* pait of tho mast4>rs, would, in pu'sonl UK innsliiuis, In 1 ailourlul 
with tho most disuablo losulis 

"With nspoutlif> tlio NCUIICSOS, it is ftuiso than a\v^stor>l d mo to iMiiplnv poisons m I hoi to t(Mih i to li ai n 

them, in Iho htaiii 1 in which ilioy aio Inuiul in tho OIK nf il l>ni)k^ As Lit a^ 



Onental BOienoos useless ^ lustxiiual dotumonts m,i> bo ionnd in tho OIK ntal latiiua^s, what M 



iloflii'ahle H, UuUlny Rhould bo LranslaUnl, and thirt, it is ovuloni, will bosl bo a oniplish( ii h\ Muiupo.ins, whn 
acijiiirod iho tiHjinsito kiiowli'd^o Ite>und tlieso InandioH, what lOTiiams mOiiorilal hioi.ihiio is pnohj, hill it 
has ILOVOI boon thought iiL(ost>ai> ti ostJilish Ci)llou;os toi tho uillivafion ni poofn , nor is H loitain thai fins 
wunld lio the most cfloaual (^podiout lot tho aitainmout nl tbe onii In f*ho ino.nilimo, wo wish V" 1 ' I" hi* Inllv 
appi usi'rl oi out 7oal tni tho pinjit'ss mill imprnvomwnt of education amnnt? UioNafi\oho( Itulia, ami nl uui \vill- 
inctiLOsnto maku (mihiiIiMMlIo haiulnos Ui that, important oml, il juiipor moans loi tho attiiinin nl ot it could lo 
pointed out to us Jiut wu app roll OIK 1 that tho plan of tho institutions, to tho impnnofnoiil r>| \\lut h mil n\U ntimi 
ih now tluvrtod, w.vs originally ami luTidamt'iiUlly ouonuouH The t^toatonil shoiihl mt ha\o hoon h; touoh Ilitnloo 
Iciumnifi m Mali4ini(Mlan leiu-nuuj, but usolul liMirnin^ No dmiht, in tiMohin^ iiholiil Irwiiiiiic in I In* Hindoos 01 
Malimm'daiH, IhiuliM) Mwhti or MaliouuHlaii nwtlM t as i.vr iw thoy wotu ioiiiid inoHt oiloi tu.iL would havo boon pitipor 
to bo omployi'il, <M| Hindoo and Malumiodan pi^juditioH would havo uootlod Io ho unisulioil, wluloo\ orj 1 tiling 
wluth WUH uHciul in Hnidno or Mahomodan hti'iatuw, it would haw* IKTII piopoi to ioLun , nor would thoio Imvi 
boc'ii auy mtmpoMblo <liih< ulty in nitivHlut me:, unrloi* thoso i o i vat MHIH, a H)st*Mii of insti'iiMaon linui which ;4tH>at 
advantago iin^hti hivo boen ilonviMl In piofo^sin^, on tboothor luuul, to onltililihli MiruMant'H lri thopurposonf 
ioaolnii^ mo) Ilindnt^ 01 IIKML* Mahomorlui litoiatun*, you bound ytmi^Ivcs ir tiaoh a ^ioat <lt.il ol what wan in- 
vnloiut, Tint a. liltlo o( what w.u puioly uuscliiovous AMI! a HI nail loinaimloi*, IIII|O<H|, in wind) utility was in iui> wa,v 
oouoornod Wo think lhat you havo taken, upon thowholo, a tational viow ol what is bosi. in IH tluno In tho 
niHtitutiotiH whu h 4 vist on u particular iooimtf. ulU'talions should jioL hf uitrvHluiod iiioro nipnll\ ih.nt fi duo i^anl 
io offfating liitoLotiliH anil h^lui^H will dictato, at tlio H^UIIO tinio, tluit irioosnant umltiavours hhoiihl IK* usoil t<o sup<r- 
what IB uHulohH or woiho, in thn pi^oni OOUIHO of ntudy, ly what ycn lMtU*i knowlcil^o will tvcommcml "f 
lottor of tho (JmiH) ol Diroctot-h, front which those 1 oxtnwlM ha\o |MWI tiiknit, wiw comiuuiucatHl bj tho 
Uovrniniont to thn Oonnnittuo oi Ihibho JiiHtnioUoii, who inroply, milmnttoil Homo obHorvaiioiiH, whtclt 
may bo quoted hero, EM showing tho VIUWH then ontortftinocl by tiioum u^aitl to thn ptinoiplctH audmitiuo 



* Tho DciRptttcb u wad to taro boon diuitwi by Mr. June* Mill, ULU iihiloiopliiQiU liiMturmn rf llrituli liiUm, who WHH them 
employed m tho India OfBoe 

t PnnM PwUttnwniw/ P*pwt rating Io tho Aftun oi ladm </<mmf, Appowitf 1 , VMx (Utt), p 480, Uo il, p, *>& 



COLLEULS FOUNDED AT AUE4. AND DELHI SI 

if (lio education entrusted to then supervision and control They defend their views in a letter,* lated the 
Observations on the ab v -18th August, 2824, addi eased to Loot dAmhei&t, Qovornor-Gteneral in Council 
Despatch by the Committee of Tne y oUoiro 
Piiblio Instruction, in then * L In the first place, without denying 1 that the object of introducing Eoiu- 

lath Au rtl824 n8nt ' dat8d P6ajl hteraiuie daid 6DlenDe m *7 k* been wmewhit too long overlooked, it 
1 may be questioned whether tlie Government oould originally have louuded 

any othoi semmauos than those which it actually established, va , the Madiera, to teach Mahomedan literature 
anil law, atii the Benares College, to teach Sanscrit liteiatuie and Hindoo law Thoso Colleges were founded foi 
Mahimicdaus and Hindoos, respectively, and would have been oi Little \alue to either, if they had proposed to teach 
wli.it neither woi o dibpusod to leain It may be added What else had the Gtoveinmont to off ei on any extensive 
icalu ^ What means existed of commumoating anything but Mahomedan and Hindoo literature, either by teachci& 
01 books * It was, thorofoie, a case of necessity , and almo&t all that the Government, in instituting a bumndLy 
hu tlio ILIE>IIQI classes, coull give, 01 the people would accept, thiough such a channel, was Oriental litoratuie, 
.Mciilioineridu tu Hiuduo Libia action in the English language and liteiatuio could have bean attempted only on the 
most limited scale, a-ul as they could not, we apprehand, have been at all introduced into seminaries designed lor 
llu* qouc'ial instruction ol tho educated and influential olab&B* of tho Natives, the buocobs of the attempt may well 
be doubted > ' * * * * * * * 

"Ju piopoMnq tko ixnprovuiuont of mon's minds, it is fust necossaiy to booure thorr oouyiotion that sue h 
impiuvMiiuiit is ilesiicible Now, ho \vevoi satisfied we may feol that the Native subjects of this G-uvonimcnt 
hUnd 111 iKMHluL impiDved instruction, yot overy une in tho habit of communicating with both the laai nod ami 
uiilciiiupil il.issPH, must be well awaio that they continue to hold European literature aud science in voiy blight 
estimation A knnwloil^c oi Rii^libh, f or tho purpose of gaining a livelihood ifl, to a oeitain extent, a popular 
i , aud a lew ol the Natives employed by Europeans, acctubtomed to an intimate inter coui&e with thoir 
may pot coivo Uuit their ouuntryiuen havo bomothmg in the way of practical science to learn These impres- 
sions, hcmcvi'i, aie still vovy partial, and tire Maulavi and Pundit, satisfied wiiih his own learning, is httle mqui - 
sil.iv( .ihlrfi .uiytlunn boy oud it, and is not disposed to regaid the kteiatura and scienoo of the West as worth 
Llu k liihoin ot .ittruntrient Ah long as this it the case, and wo cannot anticipate tho very near extinction of auch 
pic I ml ii i 1 , liny attcmpL to unhnoo an aokriowledginant of the super unity of mtelleotual produce amongst the Natives 
ol flu* Wt'hl, cmilil only citato dusatihfacUon, and wo a Id deter those whose improvement it is most important to 
pinnmtc, as thu bust means oT bocuring a more goneial amelioration, the mcmbeib of the hteiaiy classes, trom 
-iv.viliui; tlicmsulvos ol tho bBuoticeuoo ol the Government, by placing thomselvoa within the reach of instruction 



wislunn to unlrunco tho valno of Orreutal studies boyond a fan and just standard, we must beg 
|MM mission to slate, tluitin oar ]uilgmi3nt the Honourable Court has been led to form an estimate of theu 
i' \truti mil iniMiii not btnotly aociuato Tho Honourable Court are pleased to observe, that 'it is worso than 
A \\asfi 1 nl dnu ' lo cniplovpoisoiw oither to toach or loain the sciences, ia tho state in which they ore found in 
OncnUl hrjoks This position is ol fto t'omprchonbivo a uatma, that it obviously rotjuues a considerable modih- 
f.t(nm,4i.iul UifMlilli'ii'iitbiiUU'lios lA BCIOIIOO intended to be nrcludod in it, must bo particularised, before a ooireot 
appiiMUtiou ('.in IK* lonucd of: then abfloluto and comparatrvo value The motaphysiool sciences, as found in 
Sanskrit, ami Vi .duo wi ituiftH, m-o, m> behove, fully as worthy oi being studied in those languages as in any other 
Thn Aniliniviic *uA A lipluu ol tlio Hindoos load to tho aamo lesults, and are grounded on the &ame piuroiples 
<IH||IOM nl Huinpn, MA n\ tin* Mailiessa, the olomonts of mathamatical siaenoes which arc taught, are those of 
Nmliil, Kiwr, ,i priwip.il cibjettnl htudym all the institutions, w one ol vital importance to the good government 
ut UiiM-nunky, cfiiul langiiii^i* w the (fuonml-woik Bpon which all tutruo improvomentb must materially depend 
To iliflusi* a kimvrloclip of thono thnrga, laTrGfUAijo and law ospoorally, cannot thoretoie be considered a waste of 
time', ttiul, with itnliMffnoil tloroionco to tho Honourable Couit, we most respectfully bung to ihoirmore deliberate 
ntti'titicm, iliat, in I ho Httttod Dstimato of the valao oi the Oriental sciences, several important branches appear to 
tow iwcapwl tluir oonHidoraljoa " f 

Whilst holding 1 these views, iho first meainues of the Oommitfcee of Public Instruction were to complete the 

Mewuree adopted by Com- organization of the Sanskrit College, then lately established by the Govern- 

mittoe of PttWio Instrootion. monij at Oalcuita, to take under their patronage and greatly to improve the 

^SuSSoSS 1SS ^^^ * Anglo-Indiiar College, which, a* Iras already been slated, had been 

Printed Pwhuwnlwr Papon **** Boport of tha Saloot Oonvuitea of UL* House of Oommona on Indwa Temtone. (1868J, 



Iciundnd so fai lack as 1810, by the rolnulaiy contiibutions of tho Hindoo gently for th0 education of then 3 oath 
in English htoidluic and bcicnce Tho Committoo also founded two ciitucly nuw CJulliach, one At Afcna m 1H2'I 
and anothei about tbo some timo at Delhi, foi t ho cultivation oJt 0110111,1111101,111110 Its fiuthw measuios *eu 
11 to commence tho piiutiug ofr Sansla it and Aiabic boots on a gioat f-calc, besides lihcinll} oncocuai,ntj Mich 
undertaking bjrotheife <nul to crapluy an occomphshod Oi itmtul sdioUi Jii ti,iiis1ahm EuiopiMii scientific i\ or ks 
into Aiilju, upon TvhiLh nndoitaking laige 6unu TVCIO suhso<ituiitly cr^pciulpd Itin^hsh classt s TUTI a(tcii\nnU 
ustahlishul in connection -\\ith tlio Mahomcdan and Sajifekiit Colleges at (Jahutla the Wanskiit Collide a,t Jlenaics 
and the Agia Ciriluiii' , ami a, sopaiate institution vrnslrraiuUcl.it Delhi, m 1K20, Im tin uillnaliniioL Westnii 
lidinms, m compliance iiuth the ingm! solu itatiun of ilio diithuntics at thai plan 1 ' 1 ' 

At this htaqu it is impoiUnt to cimsidw the c\att natui o ol t ho (Mlncutiuii.il pnli<^ uhuh the Tumi (it Diiec- 

First indication B of the Policy to is li.ul in MOW It has aliuuU Leon sliuuii, tliai in tlu it taihc'i Dcsp.itt In > 

of English. Eduoation in tne nostiPSB 'was laid npuii tlio juntnul ij.it inn nl l']iit;Ii-l) nlm almn nuoi^ tin 

5T^J^t B 10< ? 01 l' DOSpatQl1 ' ll ' lil ^ s Cli Twl * Almiisl thL' lust iiKlii.ilum of HUMI i haiim* (.1 iM.luv m 
datod 29tli fioptombor, 1B30 . . , , i, 

Jtnoiii ol liiM^lihh ediM.iiiou is to lu lounil in a litior* auilu snl lv tin m lo 

tlit riouiiioi-Cli'iu'ial in Coumil oi EJLn>a1, dated the iiOili Sqitomhri IK JO, limn ulixli UK lulliiuinsf i^hacls air* 
su11i(ionfl> iinjKutant to luM|ii(iti>(1 AHci ,i KMO\V ol tlio stoic ni flic hLVOi.il ('olhoM nlmh hail In in plarcd 
unikrilK Mipt'VVHiuu and nnitml uf tlio (Wnutluc oi Piihlu Insinu him, the li't.tci urn s on to KI ( \ 

"Huch h.ivuio INHII the hunrss ol tln fc senini 1111 s toi naiivr islur itnm alu ul\ i*st,ililrlif i|, anil lht> piofit iriu \ 
as iuHl ,is tin* tiinnbd nl tin* simh'iits at c,n h, iwcnimf i\ciy yc.u i iniiHiliiiihl' MKMI < ihoM in 1 tiiutinii , muM 
tinw amiuilly scnil Inifh a iiuinl)n o( stiuli nts, vvlio h i\( liainnl all \\liu h (In (Stlli M *. \\ln K ili^s \MMI uhir.ihit 
1U(> .uUijuaU, on tlii'ii pusiMiL l<H>Linn, to liMili , anil it. is thon IIHIMI! llu ^u.ili tim|iminnt ill il In tlic i intl fr 
ni t.lu> uativo >niith l tin* IIIIMUS should IIP ifimilrd i <uhivaliM!> ilu l<]ni>l^li Lni'Mi i"i* ,iuil hid Him , .mil 
A knn\v Icilot' of Kuioppun SCUMKC, and a lamih<iii(y with Kniopciui nli is, in a lii"ln i di "M>( lli.ui |io> ( M t 
-n within llun pi^i>i Tlio dmmnciits now umliM nvu^v iiltmil most i>ia(ilMnu piouls tli.it .1 M In uu ni tin . \ 
iMiiuonoiihl im\? be wuiml) ^C|(MIHHH| liy tlio h^lin jauk- nl (lu N.idvis iinilu \DIII tiovcittiiH tit (f 
ihospiut whi(*h ]i trails in tlu k LO^CT PiOMan^ tluM'ht.ihlishmnil, and suin^.^ ol tlio Aimlo Imlun C<ilh<M is 
hiiHicicnit avvloiiou And \\o ItMin with c>Aii<iuo pliMhiuc thoDpnunn ol (lit* Hi nri.il ('lunniiltto <tl I'liMit histiut. 
turn, [Mitly foinnlod on the poiMm.tl obsoiv.ttum und nu|uiiics ol sivuulo! (licit ntt'inlii is, lh.il Mln him* has 
aimed when Hiu>lish tuition will Ix* widely .iri-c'ptahle to the Natncs iti tlu< dppi'i PifiMurps' 

fct Youi attcMitiun lias bc>ni aimmihl) duitti'd lo the nuans nl arnxufili .lnn UN > olipi I, and, in funhiiiLir, 
to thotonipai^tivooxpodjicjuy oi c*htuhlishiti^ sopatato Ki^hhh (MfMi'^>, f \\\ nl * nlnm{ l.hi phut itl tin <<\j,linif 
inhtitntions, ho as in lender them odequaie totlut nuuo o\U>nsive |nnpost \(\\\ luive liMiihinifiid tu u . S 
most intwc'sldiift cMUiuun ual ions liom thu General OimmntU> of Puhlio lnslinilnm v ami hmu (lie LIMM! ( 
uuttrool t.ho Uolln College, on MUH (juehtion 

''UothiheCouimitteoH ^ivu a deudc^l pr^fen>non to t.ho plan of fhUblitlmiK M|MIIII|O (Vlh^-s for ihes 

ol Kii(liNh, ninl Inr thu eultivatmii of MUII^KMUI knrml^l^*, lluoii^h 
IIIH|IUI " ol u "' Hnglihli lan^ua^e Tluy iu/,e, flun, a Mminnvl 
ol I0ui;hhli can mil) heaujimed hy Nittueh thnm^li n. coin ^ nl Mnily, |jein- 

nff oaily in lilc and contjimed for many yeais, ilat thi> knowledge ol mil hnH;u,i^n .iml ol Kiutipeun hiienie, 
ho a^uiied m a com hool C(liitit.uti mainly <liiveti>(l f.o ot.hu* oliprts, would nut umti'ibute in liny 
ilio inipi iivomi'tiL cif the lutivo ilumutur and int,tlhit t while the uatiu* lui^utitf(s ami hleniluie 
muy hu <idi'([uair>ly puisLied, AH a subonlnmU* hiaitch ol ediualKin, in nn Kn^lmh collide, utid Ihal 
beyond th( k mei^u ek-iuontK of Knropeau kno^vled^c* m m<mt iiilvau1 4 i^*oiihl> tmifthd thitiui;h the KiiMpuui liini 
with the additional ueornmeTiduhim, that, when hu laa^ht, it etjnuh into lew* durel n>llihitm with Uu* K,M ted 
oi the Mahoinwlaiih and IIimlorjH 

41 tty thcho 4i^ninontH you havo lx.cn oorivnircd, and you lutvc meonlnitfly autlionsct'd (lie <htul>hhhment of 
English collect* nL Delhi, and another <it Bonnie Tho pmjuut of OHtaMinliiu^ one at ('alt'iitta msiuH (o havo 
tacitly ftbandkmud , the Auglo-Iudian College, under ith pJiMTii Hiipunntomleiur, U tn^ fcuitul i-upaljlu 
tho porpcwr 

11 Wlulo we attach much mom importance than ifl atlnrlirHl hy thn two Cormiutiewi, to tho amount of unful 
instruction which can bo roxniuuiiicatpcl to tbo NativoH, tlmn^h tlu<ir nun htuMiuifteH, wu full^ etn.iir with than* m 
thinking it highly adviiablo to onablo and anoonwgft a lai^nnuulKirof Uc Nativcw in Miiilni A UuruuKh know- 
U&gluh ) being oonvmcod that tho higher fcono and U*ttor spirit ol Ku>pc>au Htoi'ttturo, eau produce thoir 

* Twretytn, on the ttdooaiiOA of tho Tevplu of lull* pp. S, 4. 



ENGLISH TO BIB THH OFPIClil LAJTBUlGl S3 

full effect only on those who become familiar with them in the original languages While, too, we agiee with the 
Committee that the highei branches of science may be more advantageously studied in the languages of Europe, 
than in translations into the Onental tongues, it is also to be consideied that the fittest poisons for tianslatmg 
English scientific books, 01 f 01 putting their substance into a shape adapted to Asiatic students, are Natives who 
have studied piofonndly the oiigmal woiks 

" On these giounds we coucui with yon in thinking it desirable that the English COUISP of education should be 
kept separate fiom the couise of Onontal study it the native Colleges, and should be attended for the most part 
by a difiuieiit sei ot fltudents Thu, howevei, does not necessoiily imply that the two coui&es of study should be 
pioflecutod in two separate institutions At the Agia College the Persian and the Hindoo blanches aie peiiectly 
distinct, and though some of the students aie attached to both departments, the gieatei numbei confine themselves 
to one OT the othoi II an English department were similarly attached to that College, or to the College at Delhi, 
the Enqlish language and liteiatuie might be taught classically, and the sciences might be taught in English, not- 
withstanding that studies of another ohaiacter weia pursued within the game walk ****** 
" While wo thus appiovc ani sanction the measures which you piopose for diffusing a knowledge of the Eng- 

lish language, and the study of European science thiough its mailman, we 

English Science may be en- mnfi t a ^ ^ e aame tune put you on yom ffaaid against a disposition oi which 
oouraged by translations. . in,,, ^ -. *_ ^ i i 

we peroQivQ some uaces in the Grenoral Oommittoe, and still moio m the looBil 

(Jnmunttco of Dollu, to undeuato the impoitance of what may be dono to spiead useful knowledge among the 
Natives tin out* h the medium oi books and oial uistiuctiou 111 thoii own languages That xnoie complete education 
which is to commence by a thoi oiujh study of the Enfjlifih language, can bo placed within tho loacb. of a veiy small 
pKjpmtmii oi the Natives of India, but uitclhqent Natives who have boon thus educated, may, as toacheis in 
.ind schools, 01 as the wiitois 01 tiaufilatoiH of useful books, contubute m an eminent degiea to tho more 
oxiipiision amung then couniaymen at a poiinon of the acquiiemeuts whioh they have themselves gamed, 
and may communicate in some rtegiee to the native liteiature, and to the minds of tho native community, that im- 
fjiou'd spin! wbich it ib to bo hoped they will themselves have imbibed fiom the influence of Euiopean ideas and 
MiitimpntH You should cause it to bo geneially known that evoiy qualified Native who will zealously devote hun- 
holf to this task, will bo bold m high honour by you , that eveiy assistance and encouiagoznont, peouuiaiy 01 othei- 
wis( k , ^ huh the 1 Ciisr* may requite, will bo libeially alt 01 ded, andtliatiio SQL vice which it 16 m tho powei of a Native 

t(i luudt'i Id the Butihh bvoinmont, will be inoie highly acceptable "t * * * "* 

til* i *** 

L( In the mean km o wi k wish }ou to bo fully aftsuied, not only of oui anxiety that the prhoial offices to which 

Natrvus aie at piesent eligible should be pioporly hllsd, but of our eoinest 
MTafeivos to be educated ^^ ^ nd ^^ ^ floe ^^ quoLned for gituationb of highoi impoitanoe and 

ti ufat Thoi o is no point of view m which we look with gieatei interest at th 

yon au k now makinft fox tho instiuction of the Natives, than as being calculated to zaise up a class of 
qualiflod, by thiui nitelhpouco and moiality, for high employments in tho Civil Adminifatiatioii of India As 
the moaiiH of In mtfinff about thih moht dowittblo ob]eot, wo icly chiefly on thoir booominft thiough a famihazity 
with Huiupuiui litcnittuo and RCionoo, imbued with the ideas and feelings of civilized Eui ope, on the general cultiva- 
tion of then umlciHliuichngR, and gpooincally on their instruction on tho pimciples of m Dials and genoi*al ]uiispzu- 
Wt* WIH!L you to oonhidot thm OH OLU dohborate viow ol tho scope and end to which all om endeavonis with 
to tlio oduc-tttion thi> Natives hhould ipfoi And the active bpuit of bonevolenoc, guided by ludgment, 
WH liilihjnici<liM*rtfliiwd>oui oxoitionb, as&aies us oi yoai ieadyand zealous co-opoiation towaids an end 

vvliuth iu have w> dc*eply al hoait 

u Wiih a viow to givo tho NaUvos an additional motive to tho acquisition of tho English language, you have it 

m contemplation gradually to mtioduce English as the language of public 

English to be gradually buhiuosh in all itb departments , aud yoa have deteimmed to begin at oiioe by 
adopted m ottoial business ^^^g thu piaotico of oonespondmg in Hngbsh with all Native Princes 01 
porHcma oi Piwik wlio are known to tmdorHland that language, or to have persona about them who understand it 
BVom the inoclitated change in tho language of public business, including judicial proceedings, you anticipate 
Hovowl >llatoiiil ailvautagos, tho principal of which w, thai ihe judge, or other European officer, being thoroughly 
acquainted with iho language in which ihe piooooOings are held, wiU be, and appear to be, loss dependent upon the 
Native* by vLora lie w Hmioanded, and those Natives will, in consequence, enjoy fewer opportunities of bribery or 
otber undao omolomont 



t Printed Pavliiwntaiy Ppm mafemg to th Aftfttri of India flwroZ, Appanduc I , Fu&Zio (1882), pp 



4 TKUHSn EDUCATION IK IVPU 

" If the question wero solel} between lotauung tlio Pcisian as the language of public Imsinchfi and icplacmg it 
by iJie BugliBli, the change Tvcrald not be pvnul ftttw doeidully objectionable, and we should willingly iclj upon 
your pdgmont and Hupciioi local knowledge as a senility that itb advantages and mcom micniccs would bo dull 
wcngluid But il any change bo made in tho oxiRting practice, it is deserting nl t>iua,t coiiudm atitm, whethei that 
thouga ought not lather to bo the adoption of the Veinaculdj. UngiuiQu than of oiu own, its tho language at lodtt uh 
judicial pioceefhngh 

"It is highly important that pwtiGe hhoold bo admiiiistoi cd inn Luiqnnqe faimhar to tho jiulqc, Imt it i*. ot 

noloF.sinipoitamothiititf.honl(l be .Mlmimstcicrl m a lanqTiaqo familial to the 

in tL language oif tte^oople. htl H aul P-*-"S * lhci1 HrA" 7s, and to the people at laiio , and it is uasioi hn 

thojml^G to acqime the language of tho puoplo than tin ilie peopb to acquit* 

tho lan^aaflfo at tho -jud^o Toa atcnidocd pa.it!} influenced h) a dosuo to lender tins last au|imement inuit 
common, but tho pooici elates, whu aio tho putips compiniHL in the if tea I mAjoiity "1 ^ IU (*IMS wlndi cumi 
tiofoio nm ooiuth, cannot bo expocti'd to learn a lnuMn Lmuii'igL, and we, thcuh>io, au> nf opinion, Hut at. has! 
tho piiKUodmqs nl tlio ( 1 ouili of Jnhtifc slumlil bo L\(iptt d liom thu piactno \\huli >ou pioposp maihullv in in- 
iujiliKO, nid IJQ nnulu< ted in the Vuinarnlai Un^ia^c* u( tht* pditiiul.ii silltth, ni disiiui,, unli'ss, upim (oiisulda- 
iicu, v^ should soo ood j oasuns Joi a-illuMinu, to tin* piesont piacticc ' 1X 

Wlulo sudi ^va^ the policy HI icgaid to cilu(,ition laid fhnv n li\ 1 lie Tom t ol Ihiodrus in HHMI Dcspairh 

Prinoinlos of their prooeod- ' *' IP *'*'' 1 ^T* 1 * 1111 ' 101 ' 1W *'N ' wmi * ' llr ' *' M| ifoive i \l i ad -* liavo hi en ijuni i d, 
ings explained by tho Com- it IN unpoiUnt tn <nnsidci thi pnniiplts nhiHi niinh'il flu pioi iM'flum^il ilu 
mittoo of Public Instruction (Join mi Hoe ol Public htslmctimi snucits isl Uilislimi tit, undii tin* (inviMnoi- 
in thoir report inDooomber, OciiJ\ ru>s(luiuiu nl 17th ,lul>, IH2JI Tlios.* pniKipIrs wen* <xplamrMl 

l>y thi k UoiunuttLH) in then puuleil iqiini daloil m l)ri ciubi'i, 1H Jj, <u ,il llje 

follow mi? o\tmctH fiom it may be* quoi^daH Ihi owing liiiEil upoa ono unpojinut Hla^c ot ilu fnii>iiss of (Mliuatum 
in India The Report ol tho Committee vans thus 

" r rhi introduction of useful knowledge m the c;ioat object which thi<y lucvo piojjiM'd us tiietndot Mu 
or TGi l (mimund( k il by them, koupuiff m vifw thr* nuecssity of loiihiiltniK tho hdn^s andcuu- 
the eoufideuco of thoso ioi whoae advantiige thfir ineasuios are dosiqm'tl 

"Thu (Joinmitiot* lias, tlioiofoio, continued bo ennmra^ tho acrjuiienicnt of tJi< nati\( hldaluic ol Initli 
Ifahtimodiuis and Hindoos, in the iiuitituttonN wlndi they hiuTid eslablishinl foi these pm puses, as Uio M,iiliiss.i n[ 
CftlnitU and fi*nsluit CMli'#p of BOIIUIOK Theyhuvo alnr> pndoavoiued tn piomote tlieai tivit.y ut hinnlai estah. 
lislmiciiis, fif which Imal considoiatioim dioUted tlio Inrmtktiou, JVM the Saiihknt Onlletfe of ( 1 almfla, and the 
Atpa and Delhi, OR it IK to Mich alone, even HI Lho pvespnt day, thai the iiifliieiitinl and leained 
ihiiM 1 who aie by Imtlmght or proicHhiuu toadierb uml uvptmudetM ol lileialuie, law, niul iHi^mn, Mau- 
IUVIH and INuuhis, willingly rcmotl 

*' In tlie nliHmoo of tiiwr natuiat pairoiw, tlio noh and powoilnl ol ihoir own rreedh, ihe fJominitfee lta\< 
fciU it uinnnibent uprm them to contnlmto to tlui Mippnil of th< leaLiiod elasseH of India, by literal y eiMltmiiient.s, 
which phivide, tint only difeotly foi a certain nnmboi, 1ml iiuliieclly Foi many moic, wko deiive I nun collcqmu* 
.cniiii'( | nimitH,uciniHi(leiatjoii and 4uhHiHUncc amimpjsi Uieu cuunttymen. As far alhis an MaliDinedan and Hmd<Hi 
law ai n eomeioied, tiki avonuc IH thuH opened tor them to pulilu cmjilo^itotit, and llio SUt^ is pio\idetl with 11 
Mippl} ot ablo Mwants and valuable Hiibicc'ts, for there in net doubt that, mipuifeet as OnmiUI leaning may 
br* rn niuny n'sptM^, ycdi the lughor tho dei^tuct ul Lho aiUnunentH evi'ti in il., pfmscHSinl bj/ any Natuis ihe tuoie 

i and hboial ho will provu, and the beltc't (pialihnl loapprumli* the .irt.M and designs ol the (jinirmiiciit. 
11 Itui whilht evmy roohonablo oncoun^'uieut IK given to mdip'ttous native ediuution, no <jpjMii([iiui,v ims IKI n 
by l,lu Dmnmittee ol mipiovin^ itH quality and adiling- to itH viilue In all Ilu OdJIc^es I ho 

Kniopeun, tuul thm cm uiitHtatice IH of ilell auevMh'iueand a eitiihi* ol vi't> 

In tho MaduHsa of (Jalciitta, and tlio Hindoo (3olUKP of Jtonaros, itiHtitnLunm dl csu liei d*ijH, Hiuopean hujn inLiiiiflcnn* 
was far many years Htnniu)UHly and HueioHHlully mmiioil Thw oppiihition hwi Jon^ ceased Tim coimeipieiM es 
ftt^c a HyHtumatio wui-so of Htwly, rhh^nt and icwulur habits, undan jinpaitml apjuijeiation ul monlH, wluth m> 
uihtitnlion loft to Natiro Hnpennbenrlenoo alone lias ovoi* heni known to maintain 

" Tht* plan o sfcufly adopted ui the College* IB, in gezionil, an impnm'iiintt upon tho Niitivo tnfidt*, and is 
ixitendod to ocmroy a wall-founded knowledgo u tho lautfuaKOH fttuiliwl, with a wuli*i imngo of MMjuiiimioni than 
IB oomnion, and to effect thin in tho leant poHBiblo bimo AffrwanMy to Uu> Nativo mtxltj ol luhlruotton, I IN* inHtaiuK.% 
a Hindoo or Matomedan lawyer devote tho bout yoara of bi hfo t<> tho unpumiitmt of IUM nloiio, uiul JH vary 
I^liUQMi^^ 



IABLT BDUCATION1X MHASUBEB IN MIDEJLfl 35 

mperfeotly acquainted with the language which tieats of the subject of his studies In the Madiissa and Sanskrit 
College the fast port of tha course 19 now calculated to form ft really good Arabic and Sanskrit scholar, and a 
competent knowledge of law is then aoquiied, with comparative facility, and contemporaneously with other branches 
of Hindoo 01 Mahoinedan learning 

" Again, the improvements effected have not been limited to a reformation in the course and scope of native 
study, bat whenever opportunity has favoured, new and better instruction has been grafted upon the original plan 
Thus in the Madnsna, Euclid has been long studied, and with considerable advantage Emopean anatomy has 
also been introduced In the Sanskrit College of Calcutta, European anatomy and medicine have nearly supplant- 
ed the native bystBUH At Agra and at Delhi the elements of geography and astronomy, and mathematics, are alM> 
pait of the College course To the Madnasa, the Sanskrit College of Calcutta, and the Agra College, also, English 
classes are attached, whilst at Delhi and Benares distinct schools have been formed for the dissemination of the 
English language Without off oimg therefore any violence to native prejudices, and whilst giving Jibeial en- 
couragement to purely native education, the piinciple of connecting it with the introduction of real knowledge has 
never been lost sight of, and the foundation has been laid of gieat and beneficial change in the minds of those who, 
by thou choiacter and pioiossion, direct and influence the intellect of Hindustan 

11 In addition to the measures adopted tor the diffusion of English in the provinces, and which ai e yet only m 

their infancy, the enQouiaqoment of the Vidyalai/a, or Hindoo College of 

Spread o Engns eas Calcutta, haq always been one of tho chief objects of the Committee's atten- 

tion The coiiBoqnoTice has surpassed expectation A command of the English language, and a fazniliaiity with 
its litoratuio and science havo been acquired to an extent raiely equalled by any schools in Euiope A taste 
hn. English hafl boon widely din&oininated, and independent schools, conducted by young men i eared in the Vidyalaya, 
<uo spungmg up m cveiy direction The mozd effect has been equally icmarkable, and an impatience of tho 
icHtiirticmn o( Hinduism, and a disiegatd of its coieinoniBS are openly avowed by many young men of respectable 
birth and talents, and onteitauiod by many more who outwardly conform to the practices of their countrymen 
Another generation will probably witness a reiy mateiial alteration in the notions and feelings of the educated 
i o( the Hindoo community of Calcutta " * 



CHAPTER VII. 

KARLY MEASURES FOR EDUCATION IN THE MADRAS PRESIDENCY SIR THOMAS 

MUNHO'S MINUTES ON EDUCATION, IN 1822 AND 1826. COMMITTEE OF 

PUBLtO INSTRUCTION APPOINTED IN MADRAS IN 1826 

Ft will not bo ont of place hero to take a bnef survey of what had in tho meantime boon done in the Presi- 
dencies ol M<i(hoh and Bombay, in regard to tho education of tho Natives of thoflo teintoiioB 

In Lhu Pu'Hiclonuy of Madras it appeats that feom a very early period, " flie Piotestant Mission, under the pa- 

tounage of the Soonrfy for Promoting Christian Knowledges, had schools at their 

Early Educational Mewmres BHV oval Htations, of Madron, Ouddalore, Tanjoie and Tiiohinopoli, in whirli 
in Madras tf ^ ^^^4 tte jfati vos, and m aid of wluuh they obtained occasional grantn 

Ironi Uic- torul Oovcjrnmonth, awl poimiHMon Iiom tho Oouitof Duwtois to reoeivo fiom the Society in England 
vauouh HU(iplu4i hoe oi fiOJ^lit In J787 tho Oouit of Duectorfl authoiiaed a permanent annual grant 
towftidh tho Huppoil of three nchoolm whioh had been established with tho sanction of tbe mpeotivo Rajas, at Tan- 
pro, KmiiraoilaiKnain and Shovagunga* ol 260 pagodas each These schools wero under thedueotionof Mi 
Hwarto Tho Oonri TuitUor dneotod that a Bimilar allowance should bo granted to any other schools which might 
ho openwl ft* the wuno puipose " f Accordingly, a Protestant School was Dpened at Combaconum, and in January 
W12, u Hunday Hchool was ostabhhhed at St, Thomas' Mount, at tiw suggestion and undw the diiectiOTi of th* 
Militwy Ohaplam at that owitontncnt, and by the voluntary contnbutMms of several Europeans oi the Presidency 
Tbo obpofc ol thi school was to afford elementary mstinction to the half-caste and native duldien of the military 
and other* resident there In J817 and 1818, the Reverend Mr Hough, Chaplain at Palamcottah, established a Free 

4-0 

aa 



,16 ENGLISH EDTjCJLriON IN 

tiohool there, and anotlier at Tmnevellj, undoi tho anhpices ol tho Madi^b Coiiespoiuhnq Commiltoo of the Church 
Mi&siouaty Society, foi tho irustiuctiim ol natrvo youth in loading, wilting, arithmetic , aud the clomuirls of English 
giammai, but those weie not suppoifccd by the QovQinmont 

No systematic eoit, hoi/vovoi, vppoaib to have boon made in Madras by tho Govoinmeiittill Su Thomas Mtuuo, 

Bur Thomas Munro's Minutes Uovunioi ok tho Picsidtmcy, wiotc a Mnuilc x on iho bubject, on tho 2oth Jniia 

on Education, d.i ted 25th June 1822, irconimondm^, as an olqoufanL nitou-st cindimpnitaiiu*, that the bust mlm- 

1622, and 10th March 1826 nuition should bo obtained ol tho actual stal c oi rd HIM turn in itH \ auuuhbi auchos 

imou!* the nalivo mh.ibit.uits ot the piovmcos iindii tho Madias tlovoimimit A Cmiilai Lottui was auuidiugl} 

u1dus4ud to tho hovoial Cullm tens, icqim 11117 *hpm * lunnsh inloimatioii upon u*i1am spoLilieil points, ,md on trt 

10th Mai ch, 18*2b, Su Thoiius Jthunn loooidod a,notlui Mnmto-t miownitf ihc 111(01 iu.it inn \\liu h li id UILH IHLII col- 

lottrd,aiid Rome pasHOROh ma\ bo quoted hum il., as hhu\vnit tho i>dmatiimal condition nl (hi puipd'al ih.it tunes and 

tho na,tnio oi tho moa.suius whuh th.xt (Mniucnli si lUsnun pioponod lot tlic pioq>uss <i( oiliuaiirm Ifc <>bsd\i>d 

* Tin* sLito ol oduLatiou hou 1 uxhibil id, lo^ as it is ionpa.itiiMvitli that oi oiu nun lountn, is liii^liiM ihan 

it \\tis in niiht Kuiop(.kii (imutiics at no \Tiy disland p( nod It lias no dtmhi 
Low state of BdTication in hmi ]j(llilll m ll|Ulm illil(Sj I J|HJ it)7 ih(l | asi crtl |i n> ,i d.n^ not appiai in 

luvc utidcii>(iiio un> oilici (han^( k than \vhut Aioho limn ihc niinilM i nl st l 



diminishmc: in oiu 1 pla<t) and m(KMsini> \\\ aimflui in irmsorjucni o oJ Un* hhilt.ini> oi bho |inpulatiiiiijuiui \>ai, 
and oUicr lauscs Tho threat, i until ur ol Mliuols lia.s bocn huppostMl to oonti ihuto lo the kiupin^ oi cdmaf i n in .1 luu 
sUU', Ix'tMHs** \i does not qw 1 a.MiQicirnt' nuinlMT of srhoUts to SLMMIIO tin* soivuo oi .tblo icat IKIS Tlir uionthl\ 
lain paid b/ t'.U'li sdiolai H iiom iinu, lo HI\ oi riqhfj anins TiadiPih, in qdiftal, do tiol tain nuno than < i\ 
01 hcvcii lupccs monthly, which is not AH allowance siilliciculi to itiduu 1 moii piopnly quahhi k il to ioihm tin* 
pioh'ssion It uuiy a.lho bu haid that tho griuM.il innotaiui oi the Usuliois thi'iiiholvos is ono taiiso wli\ inmo nl 
ihvm diii.w a Ui#r body of schoUis tonothoi , hut thr* in.un r,iusi>s ol tho low htido ol (duration .no tho little 

wlnoh it loooives, Tiom thoio honiir but little doniuul lot it, and bho povoity ol tho jicoplo 
(bilScultios may Iw giadiull) sutinountod tho hindtiuui 1 wlui h is ^ivon io oduoaliun hy ibo povoily of 
tho pooplo, may in ApusiJi di^ioo, ho IOTIIOVCM! by tin* oinlo\\iiu ut ci s<*h<Mils 



Endowment or BonoolB oy ^^n^i^^^ ^] l( wuil iiy hy (Jovonnnont, and fho wdiri ol iMoui'a( m< nt \vill bo 



by tyncul oilut ation bi in^ londirod rooio OIIN) and i< nil if, and \t$ tho 
piofoiiuco which will ihUiiually bo ufivon iiO will-odwutod mon in .ill pulilu ollioos No ptomoss, Imiiiwii, i*ui JM 
inadd without a body ol botloi-iiihinntNl ti^lioih than wo havo at piosont , Imi sudi a bod) rannot. IN* had with- 
out an nuomo siifl&nont lo aflonl a toinioi LUilo livelihood lo oaoh individual holont;!!!^ to it, u tnoiloiato alhmanio 
should, ihiMoioio, bo wvurod to thorn by Government, snflitiont to pla<o llioin abovo want, tho lost, should bo 
clot i red limn thoirown indiiHtiy It thoy aio miponot, both in kuowli*dgn and dilifpiut*, to tbo common village 
hcholmahU*i'B, H<hohvtH will iltwk to thorn mill au^nioni thou 1 income * * * * * * * 
Wlmtuvur oxponsu Government may mi tu in tho oduoation nt tho pooplo, will ho amply to paid hy Uu< iinpinwuioiit 
of tho L*(uutiy , for tho tfonoial difluHion oF knowledge IH uihopaiably (olio wed by mon* oidoily hal)ith, by inoiiamn^ 
indimtry, by a tOHto for the* comforts of file, by ox or turn to acquire f.hom, and by tho glowing piospotiL^ ol tho 
propln 11 will 1)0 odviftablo to aiipomt a Committee of Vuhljo IimttuoLion, in or dot Lo Hii|K k nntxnd Lho ostablmhin^ 
of tho publics Hchooln , to fix on tho pluorn irnwl propor loi thorn, and tho bcnkH to bo unod in thotn , lu asooitmn in 
what niunnor tho mhtruotion of tho NTativob miy bo bt'Ht promoted, arid to roport lo (Jovotninont iho losuii ol Mirir 
iziutiiiii'H on thin important wubjoot *'f 

Kir Thomuft Munro'H viewn wore aooo|)tod by ihoMadiM Council, with vory hlight TnodifloutioiiH, und n Oommit- 

Oommittoo of Public Instruo- ^ ( ' f l> " Wl <* inhtpuclimi wiw npiNnnU^l at Madrun, and tho inombtTH WHO 

tion, appointed in Madras, lufotmwl that tho ol>ictoi iluni app<jintmorit wn* tbo ^uoral iiriprovomont 

1826. of tho education of tho poopln HI iho iointonoh Hubjoot io KoitKt Uourgt* 

TKoy WOID dirootnd io acquaint tlumiftolreB fully with itrt actual Htivto, and to oouhi<kr and to HJJIOI I to Uovuiiummt, 

from time to timo, the ronuItA of UUMV onqumcH and doliboiatioiiH rohpcotmg iho bout moanH of impiovin^ it Tlmy 

wore alwi inforaod that it wan mtondod to commit to them tho duty of directing and Huponnttmlififf the cotirluoi of 

euch xneMnrofl miffht bo domod propor to adopt wiib reference to that great objoot Detatlod inntructtonH wont 

given to them, founded on tho fluggoatioxu contained in tho Minuto by Mir Thoman Munro, arid nearly m the tomix 

of thab Minute, and the Committee submitted its preliminary report on tho JOth May 1880, A Hdml^Dook tiociriy 

waa ftUo entabluhed m Madras, the constitution of which was nmilar to that at Calcutta, f 



^ Gf^mt, AppwOli I, JWw (ISM), p, 000. 



ENCOURAGEMENT TO HIGH EDUCATION JOB PUBLIC SHBVIDM 37 

Phe measures adopted by the Goveinment of Madras, and especially the appointment of the Committee of 

Aunroval bv the Court of ^* a ' 1 ^ 10 Instmction, weie approved by the Court of Diiectois, but the Coxnmit- 

Direotors their Despatoh of tee hnuted its effoits to pi unary or elementary education The Court ot 

the 20th September, 1830, asto Direotois, however, in a Despatoh, dated the 29th September, ISdO, oommuni- 

Bngllah Education Oftted ^0^^ instructions to the Government of Madias, and the following 

paqaage? may be quoted from it, as showing the impiovement which the Educational Policy had undeigone in favoui 

uf higher education of the English type 

1 By the measures oiigmally contemplated by yom Government, no piovision was made for the induction of 
Higher branches of Know- an 7 poition of the Natives in the highei blanches of knowledge A fuithei 
ledge to be encouraged for extension of the elementary education which alieady existed, and an 
Public Service. impiovement of its quality, by the multiplication and diffusion of useful 

book* in the native languages, was all that was then aimed at It was, indeed, pzoposed to establish at the Pie&i- 
donc) , a oential school for the education of teachers , but the teachers were to be instructed only in those elemental y 
acquirements, which they weie afteiwaids to teaoh in the Tehsildary and Oolleototate Schools The impiovements 
iti education, howavet, which most effectually contiibute to elevate the moial and intellectual condition of a people, 
<ti o thoflo which concorn the education of the higher elates ot tha peisong poes Basing leisure and natuial influent o 
ovi 1 ! the minds of then oountiymon By laising the standard of instruction among these classes, you would even- 
tually pioduoe a much gieatex and moie bonenoial change in the ideas and feelings of the community than you uan 
hope to pioducobyaotmg diiootly on tho mi)io numoious claas You ore, moieover, acquainted with out anxious 
ik'sn c 1o havo at out disposal a body of Natives, riuahned, by their habits and acquuements, to take a laigei shaie, 
and occupy hiqhei wtuatious in the Oivil Admmiqtiation of thou country, than has hitheito been the practice 
undui om Indian Qovoi runouts The meafluiefi ioi native education, which have as yet been adopted 01 planned 
at youi Pieqidoncy, have had no tendency to pioduco such persons 

"Moafliues havo boon adopted by the Supreme Government foi placing within ihe teach of the highoi closes 

English Education to been- <> r Natives, under the Presidency of Bengal, induction in the English lan- 

oouraged on same Principles guago and in European liteiatuie and science These measures have boen 

as in Bengal attended with a degree of success, which, coniideung the shoit tame during 

wluch they havo been in opeiation, is in the highest dogieo Ratisfactory, and justifies the most sojignine hopesi 

with lonpoot to tho piaolicabihty of spieadmg ubeful knowledge among the natives of India, and difiusing among 

thorn the idcaH and sentiments prevalent in amazed Europe We aie de&uoufi that similar measuiea should be 

adopted at yom Piobidonoy 

lfc Wo have duooted tha Supiome Qoverament to put you in possession of such paal of their pioeeedmgs, and of 
lhf inlormation which they havo oollocted, as i& calculated to aid you in giving effect to our wishes , and in mdei 
to )>laco you gonei'ally in possession of our views on the course which ought to be pursued, we enclose (as numbem 
in tho packet) two Despatches, which we have addressed to the Supreme Government, under date, the 5th Septembei, 
1827, and 20th September, No 89, of 1830 We wish you to taJce into consideration the expediency of enlarging 
tho plan of the Oential School for the education of teachers, and rendering it a seminary for the instrastion of 
the NativoH generally, in the highei branches of knowledge We wish that there should be an English teaehei 
at tho Fnntitution, who should not only give instruction mthe English language to such students aa maybe 
of acquiring it, but who may, likewise, be capable of assisting them m the study of European science fl * 



* Printed Parliamentary Papers relating to the Attain of ID&IA GmroZ, Appendix I, PuftZte (1832), PP 



1NGLIBB EDUCATION FIT INDIA 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EAELT MEASURES FOR EDUCATION IN THE BOMBAY PTlByiDKNOY DURING 1815-23 MINUTES 
BY THE HON'BLE MOUNTSTUART ELP1IINSTONE AND THE! HON'BLB H 1 WARDEN, ON 
EDUCATION, JN 1823 AND 1828 SIR JOHN MALCOLM'S VIEWS ArtAINNT CRNERAL EDUCA- 
TION IN ENGLISH, IN HIS MINUTE OF 182H DESPATCH 0V THE COURT Ob 1 DTRECTCWK 
TO THE BOMBAY GOVERNMENT, DATED 21hi SMPTBMBKR 1820, FAVOURING STUDY OF 
ENGLISH KIR JOHN MALOOLM'H UODIP1H1) V1KWS, LM CTTS MTNUTK, DATKD Klin OOTO- 
BHft, 1K2< DESPATCH QV TILE COURT OF IHKKC'TORH TO THK UOUJIAY (IOVKKNMKNT 
IUTHIJ 2'JriiSIflPTKMHMJl, 1K!U, IN PAVOUII OF HNdLIHII HIWOATION-TJIK KhlMIINHTONK 
INSTITUTION FOR HHTflLIHH HDUUATION IN I1OUHAY 

In tliL PtaMflimt y ol Bombay also, ,is in Mulias, tlu t.uiM' ol irluc btum luil a small and uiirn'jnni/i'tl lKiinnm 

The* iii<unt< II.UICP ol Ghaut) Helmuts hu qcnridl rdtuiiiiou appeals 1u him 



in Bombay bium i [Mil o thi? dutj 1 tin* l<Ust India ()ompim}'s Chapl'iimi, leu which 

they ouasioiullj ictnxMl s]L>(ial <il]m\.im<s 01 fi,iiui1u's In Manh, I7li, 

two additional Ohifcplains WOIHJ iqpmnt( k il hi 1Vlli(lu k uy ami An|(ii^), U t1iai UM'j^iri^i^cniM.dion mitfht lir- insliiulcd 
in iliu PtotusUut luligion " Thu Oimit ol Uiic'itors, in I7r>0, alsn icrrmimt'mli><l in (he DumUty CioM-ininciiL "the 
M'ttintf 141 Mill uhtablwlunR Oli.tuty Hchooln, wlicMiun the <ln)(lu h ti of soldicrH, iiiaiinorKYinpassuh, aitnl tiilicis, niiflil 
ho odiiontc^l, as w<*ll at the Mul>oi<liiuti*s as ti Hnnibay," cuul pMnniscd Hit (!iin|Niny f H assistance in Ihc i MI niton nl 
Any pliUi which might l>c iimuil pi iuiu.vlile It} a hiik(H|uont milci, liaslunls, am) the dnhlu'ti <>I h!a\<K on one 
Mile, wow to be urlmiUtHl in ihu sdinolh, li Ihv diildieii \\ould nn\ with Ibi m v 

Noiliin^fii impotUnrc, howovoi, app^iis In havo (uriuiiHl iill I lie St^tli Jununn, ISIT*, \\lnn a \oliiutni) <<ssriii 
Society for Promotion of 1>h ^ "u inluiliitiinls <ii Itimilmv tonk phui 1 in tht Vchii^-iiMnn, ad ninth 
BduoaUonui Bombay, founded a Hot w\\ wih i(n mid, iiinln fhc cleM mil inn ol " Htmily l*u ritnwttHt/ tht r/w- 

tttliim ttj llw I'M* mfhm tin tlmtintnt'ttt <tj //nm/jr/// 1 * Tlu |ilin 

.ulnptcd by ilio &H>wiy Wiis lluii \vlnch lutdlM^u asmlwd to l)r ]$rll, anil umloi its ,iuspici>s a (JMiii.il 
w.is (stablishcfl ii Homlxvy, anil m iHlKand IRK), lour tiaiivo srhrxils WIMV also CNtuMihlicd m lluticiiy, vshils! HI 
IH17, it luul phiabliHliifl h(JuKlH at Km at, Twmah, and linmch Oi'iUun Itc^inunU1 H(licN>lh \vou k also plmcil under 
xnmnu^'tiUMit of thi* Hcxiciy, which ICHUIVIK! hx)m iho BomUvj (jovcrnuiunt, quints ol giouiul fur the sit(<M r>f iU 



By fin tho mohi im]iot*tant oduc*ation,il incaHiue udoptol at that iiino was Iho irmmUtion of tlio HindiK> 

ai Poimti, whic li wan pmjiH'ted l\y Mi (Jluphn tin* OomrniHMom 1 !' in iht* I)t*r run, 



g by mitlmrity o Mu* Honibay (lovminifni, on tin- 7ib 



i', IHiil, ai <tn annuul cliar^u lt f.lio HUH! India (Jotnpany ol afunit 
Us 15,250, which wan coufnniod Ity iho OtniiLol DucrUns Tlu Collcgi* WH dcM^utMl to ttmlani lOOHlwlcnN, 
di\ul( k d iut.o IfltLiMHi's tin rt k ol divnuiy, onool nuHlKino, oii[> til indaphysith, CMKI ol inailicnhiiuM itnd aMioiinmy, 
oui h ui Ia^ t OTM* of Ui^u^ oi)i k ol Ml** h(tnitMn\ i hotoi'io, atul one t)i ^i a rut nut Ai tlu* insUnrt* of Mr Wtmlwi, u 
1 was inmlti ioUiiK (lolhffb m IKJ**), di'suing io LJIOW wlietliM ihoy WC>H willing lo havt 1 a branch <i 
eduuiium abided to the iiisliiution, and ]j<ldm^ out the pimMpwi of bcinff hitpplu'd wHh a bbinry ol Uu 
uwrful woiks Hcmorriaiy ami pnu'Lu-al, - in all dcpatinicnlH of lilnaiuiu, ttitH, and Munmi Tho piopoKiil 
at'codvcl to with iu<uLini>hS t 

The Bornlxiy Natvw BihwWHKik wl Hrktul H<tru*hk wan funncil at Hoinl^y, in tho jiw IHSJU, for Ihfl puriK^c of 

piomoUn^ education HmoiiK tlu Naiivos , hy tho c*HbiMiHhmunt of H( k b(iolH T nml 

Qoaety founded m 1828 " "V patioiilzuiff amlowciiwi^mgUu* compdation of tdcuifntary lictokn in tlti) 

native lan^uaffOH, OH woll .wby pui rlnwing and diHSornuiaim^ mioh H8 might 
bo judged worthy of tho ooantoiumco of thu Bocioty It WIIH cmo of tho fumlatuontfrl principluH of tho Hooluty h 



* Pnntod Parlittattttwy ^pm elating to the Aibin of India Utwut, Appctutlx 1 , KM* (1881), p, 417, 
t 



BOMBAY EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY ft 

adhers to the piimaples and rules an winch education u conducted by tho Natives themselves In October, 182A 
the Society applied to the Goveinoi in Council toi pecuniary aid in fnrtheiaaice of then plans, and obtained a grant 
of Eg 12,720 pei annum The Bombay Goremment also supplied the Society, giatmtously, with a lithographic 
pi ess, and i Bcommended the publication of several useful works, paitioulaily elomentaiy books in geomotiy and in 
ethics, so wnttenas to discouutonance the nuiiiage of infants, expensive leasts, and othei nioneDUS practices ol 
tho Hindoos * fn 182-1-25 a hbeial contiibution was made by certain native gentlemen towards mooting buildings 
tm tho uso of tho Society, and elamontaiy woiU weze pnnted and published, Dompiehondinggiammdis, dictionaries 
and spoiling books of the Mahiattoo, Goojiatee, and Hmdoostonoe languages, with some elementary books of Arith- 
inuliu, Quomotiy and Geography and a few books of tables and tales 

Tho hist measuie of my impoiUiioe, howavei, in behalf of education in tho Bombay Pie&idency, appears to 

Hon'ble Mr Elphinatone's havo 01J <? m ated ^ * Minute, dated the 13th Dooembci, 1823, locoaded by the 

Minute on Education, dated Ilonouiablo Hountstuait Elplunfitono, then Govoinor of Bombay The yiows 

1 8th. December, 182S cxpiessed by thiit eminent statesman may be quotod hoio, aa tbi owing light 

upon tho then state of education in Bombay, and also as indicating the sketch oi tho plan which he pioposcil lor its 

nnpjoveniimt Heobsoivos 

11 1 IUVP ikttondcil, as fu <*> was in my powoi, SIIICP I have boon in Bombay, lo the means ol pi omoting educa- 
tion <unnng tho Nativeb, and ft om .ill tli.it I luvu observed, and luauioil by loiiespondencu, 1 am perfectly convinced 
thai, wilihnui tjtMi Assistance Iiom Uovc'iiimcut, nr> piu^icss tan bo iruuio mthatiinpoiUnt uudiutakm^ A gicm/t 
(!CM! a]ipiMih tu have boon pi'iloiiuud by the KiluiMtioii Hrjciot} in Bci^al, an<L it may bo expectod that tho samo 
oJicc'th shoiihl hi 1 pituliKC'd by tlu samu UTLMIIS at this Piuhidcnty Bui tho number oC Euinpcana hoie is su Hmall, 
<ind oui touiii'tijuii willi tlu 1 Ifativun ho tuiLnt, that iaui k h gi^atci <\ej lions arc loqmsito on tins sido of Jnilia than 
on the oihi t 

u Tho citoumsUmi' ol oui having lately succeeded to a Brahuim Oovoinmont, likewise, by making it iLuigoruuH 
in piHouitiqc tho labours oi tho raishioiui ION, dopnvos lht O.UIHU ol Education of tho &CJVKN ol * body oi mun whu 
lidvo luuro zv<\\ A\\d iiwno iimo to duvoio to the object, tluui any other class oi EuiupuaiiH can, bo ovpp&iod tii 



u lt li In* adiuiiicKl thai tho assiHtancn oi (jovemmont is neccsh.uy, tho novt quohtion i&, how it o.\n bent hu 
The Bombay Education So- Voided, and thuu* vu* two ways whuh piosout tljomselvow ioi crmsirlezatioii 
oioty to be holped by Govern* The Quvoiiimoni may take tht odiu riiitm oi the Natives cniiioly on itbelf, oi 
nion * ii niuy increase tlio ineaius ami htuuuUto the oxoi'tioiis ol iho Society ali'cady 

f DI uitMl for thai pnrpoHC ThrboMireHuli wdl p tub ably bu produced by a comhinatiou of thoso two modes ol 
Many oi tlu niuasuioH noooHsaiy fot iho disunion o education must depend 011 iho hjrantauoouH 
of individuals, and could not bt) clFuotud by any loHolaiionn of thu Qovornmoni The promotion of those 
ihcicfmn, yhould be comnuitod t> iho Society , but thoio uro othoin wluch require an oi^uu^ed syRtoni, 
uufla giuair>i dogi^o of tognlanty and pormancmoe than can bo expected from any pUn, the BUOOOHH of which 
is to (Iq)ond upon poiHOnjvl cluw actor ThiB hutt hcanoh, tlitn^foro, must bo undottakcn by the Oovoinxnont 

"Ii would, howovoi, Iw requisite, whon BO much was ontrohtod by Oiivoiumwit to the Society, that oil tho 
matorial procowlni^H of that Ixxly hhould bo nmdc known to Qovommont, and that it nhould bo oluui'ly uudoratood 
ibai neither religion nor any topic likely to oroito diacouLout among ilio Natives should ovoi bu toucliod on in 
liH fulioolH rn iMiblieaiionh 

"Tlu> following aro iho ])nncifml moaHurcm ivifuuod for ilu k diffuKiou of kuowlurlgc among thn Naiivos Fwf, 

To mpnw iho modo of teaching at tho native M'hoolR, and to we i eats thu 

gesSd measu w W- numbor of H riiouln S<md, To Nu P ])ly thorn with Hchool-booka Thud, To 

hold out Homo onocraragoruMit totholoww <udoi*fl oi nativw to avail tliuniHolvcs 

oi iho moan of niHinioium ihiu ftffmdodthonu Fwutk, To oHiabliHh Hohoolh iov ioaolim^ tho European ncicncus and 
irnprovemouiH in iho higher branch OH of education JfyLh, To pTovido for tho preparation and publication nt 
booka of moml and ]iliyHioal floionco in naiivo lun^ua^oH ^w?/7i, To cfltublifch HohoolH id* tho purpobo oi ioachnig 
fOiiKluh to thoflc dinpoHcnl to PUTHUO at ana clasmcal IttTignage, and AH u means ol acquinnga knowledge of the 
European duoovoriw AfwriWA, To bold forth onoonrugQinont to the Nativoe in tho punuii oi thono lant luimchos of 

knowledge >( f 

*. ^^ dwonahiug thoao vauoufl headji of enquiry, tho Minnto onds in tbp 
foUowing deolBvation of educational policy, aad rclitficutt ncutralily m auch 



K^mn Indm ^wr^ ippmdtf I , PuN* (1838), p. 410 t^ t pp 



40 XHTGLI8H EDUCATION I* JKDIA 

c( Tcan conceive BO objection that can be uuged to the^o pi opoaals, except the cpreatnosB of the expense, to 
-winch I would oppose tha ma^nituilo of the oljjoct It is difficult tn imagine an tuidci taking in -which out duty, 
oui mteiCbt, and om honcmi AID mme immcNliAtoly toncrinod It is now \vell nndci stood, that in all countiieft the 
happiness of tho pool depends in a- i>ii?at IIUMHUU on thi'ii otliuMtioii It is hy niemih of it alone that they can 
acquire tlioho habits oi piudcnco anil siiH-i pspcc.1 hoiii \\huli Uill otliti IIIMM.! qualities spiinc*, and if UVUL tlioie was 
.1 countiy whoie much habits aio ipi|uiie?il, it is this Wo ha\c ill i>lhn heaidol tho ills of t l dil> ina-maqLS and 
oMjiflfwinii population , oi thp sa-\iiiu;b ol a hk srpiandeud on some HUP occasion ni It sin it) , ot tliu helplessness 
oi tho r>ots, which luult i s thorn apu> io UK me \-Lurli is , of thin tnililii u-iue to good c lullips oi houses, ntlutli 
Las hocu inqed nn some occasions .is an uqimii'iit against lmuimc> tlu k pulilu dtmands \m them , anil, fiiiill\, 
tA tho ViUiiL} dl all Uws to piol ucl them, \vhru nt imliMthiiil ran |jt ioiuid \\lio has spn it enough in lake adAan- 
tas>o of thosi 1 tiuictul in tlun litvmu tlu'ic is luii CMH 1 1 mi d\ lot all tins, whit h is I'llmatuin 

U I( Llu'io bt a 'vtish to cmitiilnito 1< (hr Jiohf imi nf llu Injunih nf sill-iiniiinlaUim and ni iniaulii nlo, ami ulii- 
iiMho (h sti m i ion o1 sn[Kisti(ioii in Iniln, it is siaui'l) lani'ssiiiy 110^ In pion 1 tliali llu 1 unlv nuausut 
lie lu llu> dillusniii c>1 kmwkrliii 

u Iti tlic uuNvntnno the. 1 daiiiji'is in \\huli \\r an 1 c\|icisiil huiu llu sonsilivi iliaiaitu nl tlu nliiiin ol the 

tiiul ilu 1 hlip|h k i\ iiiuriiliiliun nl CHU (Jnvi'iiutu'iit, O\MIIU <n the (nhl 



A *. SOttSiuvoBOflS or M p lUl ^| 0n lu.i \\tiMi us anil run SII!IHI Is . mmui tin 4i(loiilinn til SI/UK nn.iHii 

the ITativee . l t . t . t , , . , , 

to ( oiiuli'iar i IniMii .nul MIC inl> out' is, lu icnmu 1 tlu u |nii|iiiliri s, and 



t* (im own principles and ojniuons h\ tin (liHusum nl a i.iliMii.il cilut afinn 
u IthiH biM'ii niL^l .iiiinit OKI Indian (i(\( i niiM nl, thai \\t IIIM "iihscili dlhc Slal<^(il tlu Mas I and 1ml ii| 

all tin* '-iniiti's li(rtt \\liic h th in mnifiu mi 1 nl the unti\ \\iis I|IMI\I>I|, and 

Wogleot of Bduoation, a ro- t)lli W(1 , |i|u> nrfj (III|SC | US (im , lnll | U | ,, hlllt ,|, ^k ll( | l(l| u | uh | lfv fll 
proao u to title BnuBH BiUlo* . . .. . ., , 

hpuMiiIni It mav l>i 4ilii'iiJ, \\itli Hunt |iihdtc, (hat \w* haM*din*ii uptli< 

limnlamof uutivr k talinit, and thai, iinni tin* natnii 1 ol IMII riMiijiii-,1, nul mil} all IMUIIIII i^cmtni tn tlu> ailvauu*- 
j tont uf LnowlfMl^ is ^itlidi.^vn, 1ml I*M>II Mir ailn.il IIMIIUH^ ol flu* naiinn is Iiki l\ in IK lii>|,,uul tiic piodiK (mn- 
oj iurinn (onuih to l loic*ilt(Ui HimiMliuii^ should siui'Iv In dimMon-mou this K pioaih 



u Ti> 11u k nii\tiiii fe of M'li^ion, o\m in UK* hliulitcsl (Uriels \Mfluini plans nf filuo itnm, I iniisf -tion^K CJ|IJM I 

I (anitnt iij^n i> tn < ln \vi1li ,in\ additional diflit ulh a jilin \\liuli has ah(Mi{\ 

BoliglOUfl noutrautyin. Edu- S|| I||an ^ n |,^| n u|,mns ti MuniiMint I UN nniMiiu'il that tin IOPM rHonnl llu" 
c&t/ion 

Natives ninsl uifallill> losnll finin (!n> tliifii^inn n( knoAlcrl^' ainuiii; (ln>in 

Kudwitl) 11n i > nic not. ,uviu of UK i onm< tiun, ni .ill attuks on tlu it I'IIHIIJIIM wnnlil IM as \i'ininuhl\ iiMslril a^ 
il tin 4 ) niMMm dliMi ic'Iij^inn Thcoith dl(Mtt>f nidhdiiiiii^ ( 1 hnst.i,init> min nui si honls \Miiild IM ti sound Mu> 
a I a nn, nui t.( MUII tlu 1 Dialnuins ol tho a()pHai k liin^ (laniu'i t oxen that \vaiiunj; nii^ht (icilups |K> luuKn t,id as 
lotii^ as m ronvdis wore m,ulo , ImL it js t KullitMent fU^uineiLL auaiusl. the plan, thai id ran nnlj he sale us Inni; ith 
it ihiiifliiM t.ual, a.nii in this iimUtu 1 ! 1 , UuM(a.ngt>i invnlv(*s not. tinly Liilnri' n( our plaiih ol education, Imd Uiodisno- 
lutiou of our Hnifmo " * 

Hmiuwliiit (Iillru-iii VICWH ncic rak>i UIIIIM! li ( \ Mi Fiancis W,uili n Mi-inhei o( the (Jovcvnoi^H (Iriiuic il ut Horn- 
DJosontiont Minuto of '^i * UI ^ f>11 1''"' ^1' l>c I'lufwi, IH^-J, he recoidiMl ii dishPiiUcnti MiiiuU* fimu 
Hon*blo 1* Wnidon, dated whu h ilu> inllowni^ passai^i s | may IK> ({iind d as thtnwuuj; li^lil. uptn tlu> na.tute 
39th December, 1823 1 iln i-niniu-is> Mi \Vaiiluinlisn\iil 

" 1 miMoi to (on I end that India is nut \\iUinut the inians <i mippl>in^> am nU, nnt only lot MMMiftairri ol the* 
Government should not nn* Clnvciuiui'iil, hut alsn foi tlu*ul\aiir't>ini'iif ol nulmdiul intctcHUi I ijuwtiou 
dortako too groat roBponoibi whelliei the inMh'tt ni (lie mass of MIC p(|julation is in a mine de^nwh^l 
hty in EdiiodtJon K ( ai(l in | IJ( | U t | mn t | lllt it f 1 | lii n l|l<( ,| Knimlnm Mud it, IK t,lm luiMieHt fioiu 

MMmiuuHhrbt u hit^lm oi(U k i ot educatnm, a,ml in jiartieulat 1 it hcHci, a. pnin, itml moi^ p<n Jrd 
of morality JH nnt indispoiihahl) n< t^snaiy DuL iho nu>aim h ( v ^liich fluit inifkinvcninnt IH tr bo uMuinod, IH 
Hd( k li(utc and diflicult quowtion I must Mj)wit my opinion Uiat. tin* Clnveruiiuut, hhould nut IK* too lorwainl in 
tuknijf tim odauation of tho KativeB oiutsulf, nor intdrlero loo iiiuc'b in llu instituiinnH thaii uxiht in tho country, 
inipOT'lcH.L M thoy muy ba 

" Though awMCs of tho impolicy of tho fcnmur incaKtuis tho Oov(Minn**N pi*opOHititiih yci uppmr tonifnngo 
on both, thufco pomtumfi tn too ftruvA a it^roo Fnmi un ovoi ivimcly tn tnmpleUt HO good a* work, wo run tho 



ParHamentwy Pupmi mlatiiig io tho Affnim of ludm ftnata/, Appendix Jt f PM\c [1833), pp C17-HO 



ENGLISH, TUB BUST MEANS OF HDTTOATKHT 41 

danger of attempting too much at once, and defeating our object I would leave the native village schools 
untouched and unnoticed, -without attempting to institute examinations, or to distribute piuos, on the part of the 
Govemment I question whether this interfeience, even if maotioable through so extensive a range of country, 
would not be prejudicial The schools to be established on a bettei model, in addition to these, should be few in 
number, but efficient in the means of instruction, and of producing schoolmasters 

" I would not ostensibly, but mduectly, give every encouragement to the Missionaries , for although J 

ICusionaneB should be in- entirely concur with the Goreinor in the expediency of abstaining fiom all 

directly encouraged and help- attempts at religious improvement, yet so long as the Natives do not corn- 

ed by Government plain of the interference of the Missionaries with their piejudices, and so 

long as they pros acute their labours with the caution and judgment they have hitherto manifest ad, their exertion*, 

cannot fail of being profitable , even if they combine isligious with mozal instruction, no danger will azise out ot 

their agency The beneficial result may not be immediately conspicuous, yet it must ultimately appear, even 

if limited to the education of the lower classes of the Natives If education should not pioduce a lapid change 

111 then opinions on the fallacy of Jfrfln* own religion, it will at least lender them moie honest and industrious 

subjects 

**4*41 **** 

" If types aie to bo bought and distiibuted throughout the countiy, boys ought to be attached to the cbfEnent 

Presses at Bombay to loam the duty of campositois Whatever may be my 

OTiirfciM in Indi " UOinS own views on the subject, a most important question, which has been 

much di&oussed undoi the Presidency of Bengal, piesente itself, what would 

he the otteots of the power and influence of the Press in the pie&ent stato of the country, if the Natives are to be 
ting lit tho ait of punting P The dissemination of whatever they choose to publish, would, of course, immediately 
toll(w If we could contiol the Press, which a distribution of types would necessarily establish and multiply, by 
publishing only what the local anthontiea might approve, it would be well , but such a pieoaution would manifest 
to the cliHCiimmation of the Natives, so great a dtead of the effect of our own policy in facilitating the means nt 
diftusinq knowledge, that we should excite a spirit of enquiry and of agitation under a controlled sy&tom, which 
would not bo very favourable to our character for consistency, 01 to any confidence m the stability of our supie- 
niiicy Tho distribution ot typos throughout tho conntiy demands tho giavost consideration 

kt No ilonbt the progress of knowledge can be most elfoctually and economically promoted by a study o the 

English language, wherein, in eveiy branch of science, we have, ready com- 

BngliBh Language the beat ^ tne mo6t ^^ wordfl whlo]l oannot be 00^0^4 m tracts and 
moans or jficLTLoauion j j* * 

translated in the native languages, without great expense and the labour ot 

yoarh A classical knowledge of English ought to constitute the chief object of the Bombay Seminary AB far as 
T haw couveiftod with tho Natives, they are anxious that their childien should be thoroughly grounded in the Eng- 
lish LuupuKO , somo uf tho woalthie&t would be glad to send their children to England foi education, weio it not 
tor tho clamorous ob]oction of them mothers , nothing can bo moio favourable fox commencing, or for the establish- 
ment of a good uystom of education, than such a disposition " * 

Tlio dessiro lor English education appears to have rapidly increased in the Bombay Pi osidency among tho 

Natives of Bombay .id and ^'POP^on "In Novemboi, 1827, when Mi> Elphinstono was aboutto 

encourage study of English, by 10B1 ffn *"* ofiws a * Prewdont of the Bombay Council, the principal native 

founding English Professor- pnnoes, chieftains, and gentleman connected with the West of Tnrha, a&sem- 

ships in honour of Mr Elphin- y^ ^4 ieB olved to aubboi ibo a uum of money to ho invested as an endowment 

stone, 1827 iop fluM p ra f oaflolH ^ the English language and European aits and sciences, 

mil to w|nuhl that tho Government would permit a part of the Town Hall to be appropiiatod for the several e*tab- 

lihlnncnlH lift native education, and solicit tic Ooorl of Directors to allow pioperly qualitod portons to prooeeH to 

KomlM), thci* to i-osiilo ui the capacity of teachers. Tho ffubscaiption and proposed Institution wcao declared to be 

in honour ill tlio Qoveinor, then about to rsturn to Euiope, attei whom they woie to be designated, ( The Btyhwstom 

Pitfewonttij*' Tlio Bombay O&ranment acquiesced in the euggestaon, and committed to the Native Education 

Society tho measures winch might be considered proper for carrying the proposal into effect That Society imme- 

diately look charge of ttiB subscription, which thon aanounted to Bs 120,000, composed of Bums of money of which 

the largest smgloBubsetaptitm was Bs 17,800 and the smallest B0 300, and which had been collected withm the 

space of three months The Education Sooaeiy also proposed that iio persons to be selected should be truly 

eminent men, selected from other candidates ( by public ezamanation as to their fitness, and on no aeoouixt to be 



* Printed FtriiraitBtay PiflOT rtWog to ths 4far rf Xnto . Qwal, Ipproto 1 . Pt**Z*o (1832), pp 
6 



iniCATicrs ra HTOIA 

nominated by inivatc choice or paticmagQ The sphere of ono Piofossni to bo latignn^os and genciol litciatmo , of 
aiiotlioi, mathematics and iiatrual philosophy, mcluling astionomy, ckmcntaiy and physical , of thu thud, oht.mis- 
ti), inelnrlmg geology and botany, tho knowledge ol the two Idht Piofessuts to Le paihcaVLuly impaited ^itli loU- 
inuu to the iiBcial aits and tho f utiu P pi editable employ incut ol it b> tho Naii\ LS 111 hio ' " * 

Thoso proposals Ucl to a disGUShion h) tho Grn eminent oi Bombay on thu subject of ii.itivo edauitirm qcuDia.ll}, 

Dissentient opinions in re- aTl cl ondwlin ,1 dillciunu u( opinion .uaonn thu uicnibcisnl HIL Ho\ eminent 

gard to piomotion of English Mi Fiancis \Va.iikn, ono ol tlu AUmhoisoL the Council, takmq <i viirv\ cnliitl} 

Education UL Bombay ni f Avaui ,,i Enilisli Kilm iliuii, whilst flu John. Malcolm, the (imuiiun of 

IJmiilur, and !&L ClnofUtiii, auoUioi mumbcM oL Council Likiuq A ihlLoiont MO\\ They ii'MiidiML hcpaiati* Minutes on 

the siilijeLt, and MIICO they icUte lo somu of tho iailic.il pi muples ol iiliuationa,l imln \ .ii thai. linu% sonic 

may with diUantaiit bo qiiiilud tirmi tluun ]Ui Wanlm's Miiiuli, lUlcdlliL- 2Uh Uauli, IKJh, his Uu 

" yu-Iilini* t(j no individual in n unmctiiiiinf the ail\.intaiLs ol C'diualion to f\ci> nniiiflM, I 1u\i >il. iliili nd 
Mr Warden's Minute of 24th ivid<l> m ii'S|iul to tho host means of hiuuhsfiill} ]>ioso( ulint' Ilial <l]<ii I 
March, 1828, in favour of en un so In tnnu abandoning ilio "louiuls nl Ui.it opinion, Ihaf c\t'i^ vi u\ c\- 
urafsmg BngliBh. JKMMMIU* lalrhiM (inilnins mi' in its hDUiulncss I lia\i ui^uMlio pulu \ nl 

oiii cluol (Unit to ono uh|(ri, to a diffusion of L kuosvlod^o ol the Nni>lisli Li^nai<ts as best dilnilattMl in 
tai ilil,ii* the mtcllntiial unl mntal iiniiiDXi'tiicnl. ol Indu Wo luv< as >i'i. mail* flial. (inl> ttsoiniulan objoil 

u 1 must tonliss (hat 1 did not ovpi'tt toicMoivc 1 ho uni|ualifioil a* {oiiolxnciiioii of the populaiify at lui^i of that 
opinion .niLOUi; flu NTitiMs, as is affonU'd Ii} the li'itti lioiu <Iit i Icadnif^ nictnlH'is oi tlu* nati\i k i inmuiiiuit <l Ioin- 
ba), hiui^incr Irjiuanl a ]nnposit.ion lot os(aliliihint pmhssoi ships lo ln tlcnonnn,ii'il L Th< /'//jj///j/s/ri/u J'ntJ* <vn- 
s^//js,' ini 1,1 10 piiipuso of harhini> the Maii\os, tho Kiii>lisli ian^uai>i k , nul (lie uiK, siioim anil litoiatmo of 
Kiitupo, to l>o hold, in tin* In si mstibiuo, l>> loaiiud nun to ho muted lioin (iioal Uiiiain, until nalivisul iho counti> 
hhall IIP hminl ]K>ilodl> ooiupotont Lo uiuluit iko tlu ofiuo 

Noi did I expect to lind so dtcihiu* a piooJ ol Mu* ItU'ilit^ viith \\huli Liu Mimhsh ltTi7iiaj>o tnuld IK* dillusod, 
as is cvitUiiccd b\ t.ho i-opwt rotnitly puhhshcd in tlu j)apeis, of .in i*\<Lininafium ai (l.deutta, ol the Natives crlu 
itttluii I*i i*sidoiic>, which o\hibits a. display ol pioluiouty in iha.fi t(jn<4iui almost intmlilili' llniloi (In -,o 
s, F sul tsniljo out in ly loiho opinion r\pnssodli> t.hi auflioi l ilic* 'I'ohhial Hi^toi) ol India, 1 iliat il i. 
Eiotici anil salorio Ronmiomo h> m\inu a. ^oml <lutl ot kinmlodni to ,i li\\ Jhan.i lifileto many , In bo satislu d \\itli 
laMUt^ llic foundation stone ol ,i i^ood ediin c, ,tod not tlcsnt* to aKouiplihh in a- d,i> \\luiiniusl ho lluMXiik il a 
toutm 1 } 

'* IJut thu rib|L'Lt of giving a< j^ood rli'iil ol kno>\lofli>o Ui i IW can only bt* ptoniolod 1^ .t hcitoi s\sttm ot 

education, a-nd the hunvit iniido ol diilusini a hotter h^slein is b> making I lie 

^. B ??/ lta ^ri pn " iaiy Ob " Mudy o tin* Kiuihsli l,inuii,iu> iho pniiMi\, and nol, the tnoroly Hoioiiil,nv 
joot of jST ativo jiCiuoation ' , . ' 

ol]iel id ailontuin MI tlu odui'alioii ol iho N.itno^ Tin* to\n \sor ol tlie 

\\ork iilio\u alluded io jeinaiks, jn \\lnoli f Mill nuuo coidiaJly I'lnuur, llni.t inuio dunilur tind extended ao(|u.iiiit.- 
anit*with ilu I'Jni-hsh laiujiiafto \\ouhl, io iliL Ntl.ivos, be ihi' hiuosi HouietMd jnitlloidial mipinvum ui, tuul nnjulil. 
luroniM the nusi duiMldo do h(lv\o[ k ii ItnLiin and India- In nn> plan, ilioii^fous lor ilui publio eduniiion nl flu* 
N<itivc% the iNiinph'1.0 kno\\hdt^ol oui Inn^iiiittt* ciuc^hti to lonn w> pwmmoni an ohp'cl. as to lay ground lot its 
!>(>( inning ,vi lois(> Iho osialilishod \olnoh* ol lo^tl and olluial IniMiu'Sh The Kn^lisli loi^ne ^oulil in 
UK in AinoiKa, In* ilu lusting monument ol <uu dominion, and ii is noL too much io hope lha.1. if. nuglii also 
IM* iho medium ilnou^h \vhn Ii the mhahiiuuih ol t hosi* \a-ht* n^ inns iini^hi hcrealiei tivaM he iehl.nl I, he oiuh/oil 

d t in iho ('\piission t>f till trhat must oxeieisih and dihiin^nmlnM liunian intdloei 

u II ill bo doHiialdc to dilhihu A belter system of oiliuMlinn, wo cui^hl *iion<oifi OIHOUIM^O Ihi 1 htiuly of the 
i 1 , MS iho Ie 4 ubn^ nb|(el. \\itb the NaLivo Kdnraiion Kooioty I uttetuleil its last Annual Mooting 
anil hiMl fMily to ic^ivi i>\wi a hiifllt leni juo^iess had not INM n imul< \\y ilie NaiivnH ir enable Ilieiu to \nnwhi liy lhi< 
hi^lut mhinii'tion to hi* <lotivod horn iho Fiolohsoih on their uriivaJ m India, lUHirm'tum \vlinh inHi ho given ni 
tho HngliMh hin^a.i^e , itn hindy then hhmild bo hiion^ly le^iinmmulfMl to iho N*vii\o Wdutaium Hoeioiy No one, 
I muigino, wntainpUit'S tlu eilutaliou ol a hundred million or of hwvou irulhon tit Nutivoh in ihe Nu 
but J powoivo nothing ohimoiunJin laying tho foumlatum-HUmo of a ^mul (Mlillco tw ti^iehin^ what tho 
clossps ol NaiivoH aio (n^oi k to u^iun^o a knowlwlgo of Idnfflinh. The trample will bo (olhwcxl, anil lU vAVotH in 
diffnsinff a boitor Hyntom than tn Hondin^ fotth, HH at pmwnt, Hcliool-inaHtorH, and m circulating ii*anlaiiunH which 
not ono in a hundred oan road ox- umlcihtand, with a aniattoruig of knowlwlge, will voiy uocm bo Hoon and folt "f 

Pnntod Parluunttntwrj Fapm relating to tfa* Aflwn of India CtotmZ, Appendix I , PuMio (1882), p. 469 



TBMPLOTOTHT OF KATIYlfl IN ADMINISTRATION Id 

On the other Land, Su John Malcolm's opinion, was opposed to any general introduction of English ednoatiou 
John Malcolm's views among the people of India, and since his views are still stared by some 
general Education m thinkers on the problems of Indian Education, the following passage* from 

hu Minute, wiitten in 1828, may be quoted here with advantage The eailiei 
part of his Minute has the following 

" I concur with Mi Warden as to the desuable ob]eet of diffusing education, but differ as to the mode I am 

His Minute, written in 1828, of opinion tho method adopted at this Residency is of all otheis the best that 

StSl Ur * VeniaoiilflrBdu - be Pursued The chief ground on which I anticipate advantages 6om 

the establishment of the Elphmstone Piofessorships, is, that a certain propoi- 

tion of the Natives will be instructed by them not only in the English language, but in eveiy branch of useful 
science To Natives so educated, I look for aid, in the diffusion of knowledge among their oountiymen, thiough 
tbe medium of their Vernacular dialects , and I certainly think it is only by knowledge being accessible through 
tho lattei medium, that it ever can be propagated to any general or beneficial purpose 

" This question may be decided by lef ei ence to the History of England Bef 01 e the Ref oimafaon, our best books 
Example of English, History m rell lon > nondUyi philosophy, and science weie veiled in the classical Ian- 

gnages of Greece and Borne , and it is a remaikable fact, that since all those 

woiks have been tnuidatod into the Vernacular language of our native country, though gentlemen, men of learnad 
professions, and those who ate to instruct youth, stall study the classical languages, as the fountains of oui know- 
lodge, these aie unknown to tho great bulk of our countrymen, to whom impioved education has been so ubrful 
The* lesson is plain, tho Utter have neither that time noi money to spare which is necessary for such studies 
Thoio IB a ntill gioatei necessity that the natives of India, whom it is ouz object to instruct, should have the path 
of knowlodqe tendered a* dioit and as smooth as possible , aU that we are now doing tends to that object, the 
complete aecomphbhincnt of which will be effected by the establishment of the Elphinstone Professors, whose duty 
it will be to teach tho fow who arc to teach the many, and from whom, as a source, the Natives of this quarter oi 
India will be able to obtain that infoimatioa and knowledge whioh is best suited to their wishes, their talents, and 
their vanouH occupations in hie 

i( I hnvo on political grounds a consolation, derived from my conviction of the impossibility of oui over dis- 
hcmiiiAtingtlut hoU-knowladge of out language, which is all, any considerable nnmbei of the Natives could attain 
1 1 would dot reaHo that positive necessity which now exists for the servants ot Qoveinment making themselves 
nuNtcrs of the languages of tho countries in which they are employed, and without which they never can become 
in any roquet competent to their public duties 

" One of tho ohiof objects, I expect, fzom diffusing education among the natives of India, is our increased power 

of associating them in every part of our administration This I deem essen- 
faal Z"*** ol ewmoni y> rf improvement, and of security I cannot look 
for reduction of expense in the different branches of our Government from 
any diminution oi tho salaries now enjoyed by European public servants, but I do look to it from many of the 
dntioH thoy now have to perform being executed by Natives on diminished salaries. I fnithei look to the employ- 
ment of tho latter in such duties of trust and responsibility, as the only mode in which we can promote their im- 
provement , and 1 must deem the instruction we are giving them dangerous, instead of useful, unless the load is 
opened wido to those who receive it, to every prospect of honest ambition and honourable distinction 

" To render men who aio employed beyond the immediate limits of the Presidency fit for such duties, I con- 
Knowledge of English not template, no knowledge of the English language is necessary The acquisition 
necessary for Natives beyond of that would occupy a period fox other studies and pursuits, but it is quite 
the .Presidency essential to aspiring Natives that they should have the advantage of translar 

tionn from our language of the works which are best calculated to improve their minds, and increase then- know- 
lodge, not only of general naence but to enable them to understand the grounds which led us to introduce into 
tho Byntom of tho administration we have adopted for India the more liberal views and sounder manTnfl of our 
policy and legislation in England It is to the labours of the Blphinstone Professors that we must look for that 
itiHtraofcum which is to form the native instruments that must become the medium of diffusing such knowledge , 
and as no duty can bo moie important than that of men who are plaoed at the very head, of thus course of instruc- 
tion, and as the power of teleotrng those qualified for the important task will much depend upon the liberality of 
theilJawwafrigtiedt that the Honourable Court will make a groat, to promote 

that Initiation, rf a mm at least equal to that whsmbed by to* Nata^ 

ltoWP*rilfa^ 



4i ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIi 

The views of Sir John Malcolm were generally oonofurred in by Mr Goodwin, hia colleague in Council, but 

* *.*. ~ -*. * when the matter went up to the Court of Directors, they, without laving 
Despatch of the Court of JCAJ i.^. . a ^. * A 

Directors of 21st Septemlier down any definite decision between the conflicting views, as to the excep- 

1826, to the Government of tional claims of English Education advocated by Mr Warden, and the kind 
Bombay, favouring the study O f education pioposed by Su John Malcolm, zecorded a Despatch, dated the 
of English 21st September 1829, to tho Bombay Grovcinmont, in which, lafcinng to the 

hubjeot of Education they made the following ugnifuuiut observations 

" The meaauioH -win oh you have as jot adopted for tho fuitlmanco of this important object, aio lueonsidoinble, 
compaied with those winch you have m comtomplaticm Thoie 10 one ot them, however, to which wo aiodm- 
pobcd to attach vciy consuld able imp 01 tanoo, tho establishment of an English School at the PicfiideTicy (nndei 
the supiniiiteudoncG of the Committoo ot tho Native ScJiool-Book Society), where Bnglish ma> bo Umht giam- 
niritiCAllj, and wheie instruction may be Gfivcn in that language, on history, getigzaphj, and the populai In anchor 
of science, and we are happy to find tliat Mi Wai dun beai s testimony to the anxious dffeuc oi nuiij among 
the Native* to obtain the benefit ol an Kniglish Education foi thuit children " * 

In the meantime, Kit* John Malcolm appears in lta\G modified Ins views in 
Sir John Malcolm's views * . , ., - 

modified in favour of English iPU*nl* Knfchhh Education, in ib hhnwa from the fallowing paw^e in a 
Education, m his Minute, Mmuio mcoidisd by him on tho 10th October, IHSII 
dated 10th October, 1829 

"I liavo ifiven my rtontiments most hilly upon the inexpediency, OH *rtl as impructiciihilil), of iimvcyinfc 

geiii'ial mhUudum io out native Mih|ei1h in India, thrombi tlie medium ot 

English Schools may be o- ih(i ^| ls j, lan^n.^o, l>ul, I by iu IIIMMIS ilvsnuln e\ pi ess an opinion that 

Hrbools ([! ih.it |)iujM)M shcmUl not bo evtnuled While iKoicN ol oflnes, a 

piu t of the judicial proceedings, and all ( k uuohp(mdeiiei k and auumnls, aic wtitten in Knglish, tlieie \\ill Tie 
employment lor all who leain tr> IO.M! ami wnt tins lancfiUKu, anil ib Ittiiiiliuiiiy- with it mil open li Ihose \\lio 
hpss it, new biiatccH of kiiowk*il^o, and ((iialily them to ptoinntc iiu[io\<Mnent Ktoni Kiiglish M lifM>Is IKIII^ * k hiah- 
Ushcul at nr> place, Imt Kumbay, the pay ni wnteih and cUioimlaiiUi ih immncloinivly hijfli , und *hen these ruo\e 
fiom the PtuHidi'iio), they tctjuiK still higher ^a^ts , and when well qualified, they eun, fitim tiieii limited munlim, 
u>mmu.ud almost any pay tliey demand This intindiKos a time ol evtniviiqanee of domain! horn tlnsilussof 
in all rmr depai tnientH Of Home lemedies l(n thih i\il I shall speak hewiftei , Iml. tlio nal mode to 
ptirt) H to multipl} tlio aitiele Kuglihii Hehnolh hhunld lio i^Utblislied or eiuuiiMi^iul at Smut nut! INMHIH, 
I look to tlio Hmnll colony of Wtvst Indians about to bo t'Htablished at PluMilKheher, witb ^n^t hope of aid in 
fcbiH 08 HI other branches of improvemeut "f 

In tlioir Donpatch, dated tho 2(H,li Kuptomboi, lfi!0, to tliu (lovcnnnent of Ihmihny, tho (Jourtof 
Deflpatoh of tho Court of ^ OW<IVOI ff* 70 olpwv\pniisnm to their viewh m le^aid to Kn^IiM 
Directors to the Bombay Gov ^ 1H Hhown by tbu following oxtuu'i. from that DeHpatt'h 
omment, dated 20th Septem* "It tH our annouH dusitu Lo afloid to tho lughet I!IWHCH of tho nutiviu 
b,lS30p to favour of Kn^liBh O f i n( \^ tho moaiiHof ujHtiuwtion in European Hcumoe, and of aceoHs tc the 

litoiuturo ot civiUzud Jllui-opc Tho oliatiu*tor wlurh ma> IK ^ivrn to tho 

clasHOfl pnHBOmod of lomara and natural influencp, nltunatoly <loturrnineH that of tho wholo {teoplo We ant wiwlble, 
moroovor, that it IH our duty to aflord tho buht H|uivHlunk in our [wwer to bheno ( IUHMW, for the advantagim of 
which, tho introduction tJt oar (lovoinmeut IUIK depnvud them , untl fnr UIIH imd other ritamniH, o( which yon uro 
wall awaio, wo are ottivm<4y deHinms that thon edi^aiion whuul<l bo Hueh ah tu <jtuvhfy Uietu for hi^het HituatiotiK 
in tho Civil Clovomraont of In^ than any to which NaUvw have lutlmito boon tiligiblo 

"Tliat tho timo hew ainvud when oftoi't^ may be trmdo for HUH puipoHo, with a roammablo proEMbtliiy of 
Auoooftfl, IH orvuloncod by vtunouH farto, ono of tho tmwt Ntriking of whuh IB, tho libornl Halwuaption whioli han 
recently boon minod araon^ tho Nativon under jmv Piwdoncy for tho fouwUtirm of an mHtitution, at which 
mBtenDtion IB to bo given in tho Knglwh laiiguaxo and Iitotntiui), and m Katopoan boiotieo, through tho modium of 
bho Bnglisb language To thin projoctod itwtitution wo liavo alroady, ut your rmwmmomUtion, oxprawed our will- 
uigneflw to afford liberal fmjipoi fc but w& dolayed aatlionin^ any Kpooiiit, HUbHOi'iptioa in ocmnoquenoo of our not 
having Tooomd, either from yonivolvoti or from the nalivo Hubsoiiboro, any mature and woll-digwtod plan. 

M Wo havft amo* raomvcd from tho Supreme Government a further roport of tho prognwn of tlio nominariofl for 
fch* oducafaou of tte Satires, *whiob havo boon eeWblwhod under tho Proiidonoy of Bongal The BUOOWS of 

and tbe'yaxiow exjmiinmts whioh hwe boen made 



* M^^'fiOam^^^i^^ Otrwl, Appenducli Ptil* (I83),p 6U. f 



1LFHINJ3TOH1 IKaTTTITTICm 15 BOMBlT. 45 

in that part of Infra, have afforded BO much valuable experience, {hat we now no longer feel that uncertainty 
which we expressed m our Despatch tat referred to, with respect to the choice of mean*, for an end we have ao 
deeply at heart 

"Among the Native Colleges which now exist and flourish in Bengal, none has had BO great success as the 

Anglo-Indian College, which originated, like the proposed Elphinstone 

Example of successful Bug- Institution, in a subscription among the Natives, and is directed to the same 
hah Education in Bengal objects This College is partly supported by Government, and is under the 

inspection of the General Committee which has been appointed by the Supieme Government far the Superinten- 
dence of Public Inffta notion 

" In forming a plan for tha Elphmstone Institution, it is of course proper that the wishes of the subscribers 

The Elphinatone Institution should he consulted They, however, liko the Natives who established the 

may be helped, lake the Anglo- Anglo-Indian College, would, we have little doubt, be willing that the institution 

Indwn College at Calcutta ahotlld be nndel your general 8upann teadenco, and a Committee of their own 

body might bo associated in the management, with some officer, or officers, of Government, in snoh manner aa you 

might judge most advisable 

" If the Bnbscnbeifc ore willing to acquiesce in such an arrangement, we authorize you to concert with them a, 
plan for the tarnation of the promoted institution, taking the Anglo-Indian College at Calcutta, generally, for your 
model , and if the plan when completed should not difter very materially fiom that of the college last mentioned, 
we authorize you to make such donation, or auoh annual subscription, to the llphmstone Institution, as may appear 
to you advisable, with reference to the impoitance of the object in view " * 

In November 1830, the total amount of subscriptions for tha Elpninatone Institution at Bombay 

Subsonptionefortteiaplun. md f idB- ^000 ^d & e Couit of Directors w* a revested to aubscnb a a. 

stone Institution The Court BinulM: amount on the part of the Company, and to receive the total sum so 

of Director's Despatch to the subscribed by the natives of Bombay and the Ghmanment, on interest at 6 

Bombay Gtoveinment, dated percent, into the Public Tieasury at Bombay the interest of this Capital 

m?A?r^ b St a n e ft FlUld * g tOWaffda d8fci ni K tte **" of * Institution Relative to 
of the tostatutron thlfl 8ub J Bot ' * foUowln h* *** th * Despatch of the Court of Directors 

to the Q-OYOinment of Bombay, dated the 12th December, 1832, may be quoted, 

Ob showing how far the policy of impaatmg English education to the natives of India had advanced in that Resi- 
dency The passage runs as follows 

" Wo have already, in ouz lettoi of 19th September, 1830, empowered yon to grant such sum as yon may 
doom advisable, in aid of the proposed Blphinstone Institution , your suggestions a* to the mode of constituting 
that institution appear judicious Tou think that the teachers to be furnished from this country should be, 4 one 
huponoi PiofcHHot of mathematics, astronomy, and all branches of natural philosophy, together with an under 
PiofeHBoi en teachei, who ought to possess a complete knowledge of the practical application of the sciences of 
aiohitecture, hydraulics, mechanics, &c , to the useful putposes of life ' To the latter person you propose allotting 
KB 600 per mensem , to tho former, Efl 800, with use of the house built for the astronomer, and the charge 
of the Obhorvatory and instruments As the study of the Bnglish language and btezatoxe was one of tha mam 
objects for which tho institution was founded, it is, of course, intended that either the head Professor, or his asaiat 
ant should bo competent to give instruction on those subjects as well as on science "f 

* Punted Parliamentary Papon robbing to the Aflam of India G*n 4, Appendix I , Pul he (1882), p 642 f ,P MB 



46 HNrtLISH EDUCATION tt I5DK 



CHAPTER 

SUMMARY OP THE VARIOUS STAGES OF THE MEASURES FOR EDUCATION OF THE NATIVES 

Off INDIA, AND EXPENDITURE INCURRED BY THE BAST INDIA COMPANY, UNDER THE 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT, STATUTE 53, GMO UJ , CHAPTER 135, FROM 3813 TO 1830 

The narrative contained in the preceding- rhaptcis may bo Hiunm<in/ed ftfl indie citmg ceiiamiaaiketl stages 
St&ffea of the policy of Edu * *^o pioffi* 1 ** Ml do\olnpmont of thu policy ol education in India The 



cation in India. The earliest earliest ntdgu ww the* ponod whon education of Uu natives nt Tndui 
stage Inactivity not icq Aided as a pact of: the adrainihtiative policy of the East India Oimi- 

pany, which, indeed, did not at that timu possess any temtoiial dominion 01 imogiiiypd pohtu.il ,iuihoiity Hwh 
auttoiity Lad it<i Ipgal beginning in the cfiant of thu Duonui of Bengal, Delicti and Oussa, hy the timperm Hh.ih 
Alaiu, to the Hafitludid CJorupauy, in 17 (55, and tho political i n ciuustam es oi thtt peuud leit no time 01 mehiiation 
tot thu piomotiim oi loaimng, or formulation of any educational jioliey 

The ^fond Htw?o wau tlip Irniiidatiun, by Waiien J [,isi,ini> s, oi tin* CrtliuH.t Madusha, in 17HI, and tht* Bcnaius 
Thft 2nd Stage Encour Collect* in 1791, foi Uio pntposo of 1iaiiuu(( Malionu-dan and JFnulu oflieers 
agoment of Oriental Studies, foi jankh m Hie Judicial andothci Adininishative ofluus oi Liu* Company 
1781 to 1791. 

Tlio thud htago wan, wlnlht mvaiions placrs, homo individual ollmis \\( k roinuiU' fin pi (minting education, no 

oi^anLBOfl HybUuii pvihted, noi liitd fcbc pmu iphs oi a dolmito eiiiuatioTial policy 

ixad Individual Bflbrta ^^ ' )eon < ^ oc ^ dlo( ' ^ I1S s *^ (l i hwiwi, was an iiiipoitaut unis us disiussionn, 

as to tho czpodieiipy and pulu<y of oducatini^ tlu nalivch of Imha, (ii^i^ttl 

attention, as nkown by the olabotate ticatihe of Mi Oh ail us Chant, wluch waH wntton (lining 17J)J, tuul submitted 
to tho Coiii*t uf Diioctnih in 17f)7, and also by Laid Mmto'b Mmato on Kdmaiiou, w tit ton in 1K17 

Tho ftnuth Btigo IH ropiostmtod by tho Kosoluium passod by the House of Oommims dodaiinir it lo be the 

The 4th Stage Legislative ^ Q ^y of Hnglaiui to piomofcolhi* mtorsts iui(L happinesH ol tho nativu mlmbi- 

reoognition of Education, as tanta of Uiu J3iitmh dominions m Inrlia*, and to adopt siuh imtihuios UH nuiy 

a duty of the State, in 1818. tM|d ^ t , u , m t w d nc tion aiming thorn of useful knowledge and moral impiove- 

miint a dciLlaiation to which offoot wus givon in judjiou 4'] ot tbo Act oi Parliament, All, Cim III , Chapter Ifio, 

vrhioh waq panned in IB], 1 ) 

Tho Jijth Htu^t) IH one of comjiaiativo apathy, on tho port of Mio aathoriiiH in India, IK^UUSCS notwiMmttuulin^ 

The 5th Stago Apathy of tll far'tthut the Court of Diruoiofh, in then DoHpuU'h rl Uiu 'hd June, 1HM, 

the IiLdian Government to- mvitud the nporial atUmtion oi the (lovermiMlmieral to Lite pruvihious oi HID 

wards Education, new Aut jroRHidinff Mdueation, no nwiwim'H ol any hi^niheant kind woiu taken 

foi HOIIIO ymw*, to pvo uffrot to tho iMmovrile^nt intention** oi thi^ Aci ol hu liameiit 

Tho wth HloffOis mmulcubb foi the activity of thonuthonticw ni Indium adopting Hyfri.emaiic TneaniuoH for piti- 

The 6th Stage Appointment '""ting ('duration amrmj? ihe paoplo It WOH dunu^ ihm period ihut the CJom- 

of Oommittees of PubUo In- nnfctmi of Public hubrucMon WIMC appointed Ono at CaleuUu in 1K2K, 

steuotaon, 1823 to 1826. unMm , n Madimt in IHJli, atul tho Kdueulion Kooiety at Bomlwiy, in 1H2 

The opumtum of thmo Kouiclioh, UTI<| the fioliey ol (iovemmunli on tho Hubjeoi ol ediieittum, have botm rl<^ 

BeribedJn tho preeodiiitf Umplei-H, and it IH tippftient that up to iho yoar IKK) 
g uaetOedT " I0 ftdu<iallolll * il P f>ll y m w^iird to the wnflu-linK clwmH l Oi K>nlul learning 
on Lho otio hand, and of Mtiglwh inludilion on the uthm, htwl iw>L botm Hottlod 



oithor by tho UovommentH of iho throu ProHidonoieH in India, oi by the Court of Diroctom in England Nor doiw 
it appear that tho wpiotul of odnoation wan rogardod, dunn^thisporiod, iw having hi^hot aiuiH than a diMiro to 
proouro a upply at tnunod nutiro officialB to fill Hulmixlniatp nmkH m tho wlmmlHtratum 

ft will ho the object of tho following chapter to describe how a groat and radical bhcungo camo n]ioii tho Edn- 

Bxpen4itaP6 on Bdttoation 0fttlfmaJ P&foy ^ Oovomment, inumodiaboly aftor thin poi-iud, docnsivdy in 

In India, unler Seotion 48 of ^vour of Unglinh Hdnoation, tw diittinguivhed bom Onontal ntudioa in Arabio 

Aot of Parliament, 68, O*o, and Sanukrii In tho moantuno, however, it will ho interesting to tee how 

ja > 0.5 t l18tol80 f j^ ^ Qoy^aa^t ^ jufa 1^4 ^^^1 Ottt ^e mto&Uocu ot Pariuwwnt 



EXPEJTDITUKH ON IDUOAnOK, 1818-1830 



47 



expressed in Section 43, of the Act, 53 Geo HI , chapter 155, which laid down that " asum of not leas than one 
lor of zupoefl in each year shall be set apart and applied to the revival and improvement of literature, and the 
enoomagamont of the leained natives of India, and for the introduction and promotion of a knowledge of the 
hcioncea among the inhabitant? of the British teiritories in India " It will be remembered that the Act was 
passed in the year 1813, and the following table, taken from the printed Faihamentary Papers * of 1832, gives on 
Account of all sums that had been applied to the pnipose of educating the natives of India, from the yeai 1813 to 
the yeai 1830, both inclusive, covering a period of 18 yeai 6 



YKAUH 


BHILAI, 


*M" A TIP. A B 


BOMBAY 


TOTAL 
















ISIS 


4,207 


480 


442 


5,129 


Ifili 


11,606 


480 


499 


12,585 


JHL5 


4,405 


480 


517 


5,422 


IBIS 


6,146 


480 


578 


6,204 


1HI7 


5,177 


480 


795 


6,452 


1818 


5,211 


480 


630 


6,321 


JB1<) 


7,191 


480 


1,270 


8,941 


1820 


5,807 


460 


1,401 


7,388 


1821 


6,882 


480 


594 


7,956 


1822 


9,081 


480 


594 


10,155 


1H!M 


6,134 


480 


594 


7,208 


18 Jl 


19,970 


480 


1,434 


21,884 


lH2 r > 


57,122 


460 


8,001 


63,563 


1B2 


21,623 


480 


5,309 


27,412 


1H27 


30,077 


2,140 


13,096 


45,313 


1K2H 


22,797 


2980 


10,064 


35,841 


Ih20 


24683 


3,614 


9,799 


36,076 


IHlf) 


28,748 


2,946 


12,338 


44,330 


th ami Total, 1813 to 18DD 


2,75,847 


18,400 


69,23) 


8,63,480 



ThiB account yields an average expendituia oi 20,193 a year, which, even seconding to the higher value of the 

Actual Expenditure double in P eo ** &0 ** ^T 8 * mft 7 * roundly statod to be moi e than two lacs of rupees, 

the minimum amount required that is, more than double the amount required by the abovomentioned Act of 

by the Aot of Parliament Parliament to be spent on education in India Whatever, thozefore, may be 

haul ah to the Educational Policy of the Bast India Company during this period, and apart from the question 

wlkctlior tho hum of one lac of lupeos, named as the minimum annual expenditure on Education by the Aot of 

Parliament -no* tmfllcnont, neither the Court oi Directors sortbo authoiities in India can bo accused either of 

hewing endeavoured to evade tho intentions of Parliament, or to have exercised undue paisunony in giving eftect 

to tlioso intcniioiiR 

PnrliamDntary Papore relating to the Affaire of India frn* al Appendix I , FuHtc [1832), p 488. 



Ib ENGLISH iLllTTCATIDN IN 



CHAPTER X. 

RENEWAL OP THE EAST INDIA COMPANY'S CHARTER IN 1HM AKBIYAL OF LORI) 

MAGAULAY IN INDIA AS A MEMBER OF TIIR GOVERNOR-GENERAL'S COUNCIL, IN J8,il 

CONTROVERSY AS TO THE COMPARATIVE] MERITS OF 01UKNTAL LEARNING 

AND ENGLISH LITERATURE VOR EDUCATION LORI) WILLIAM 

BENTINOK'S EDUCATIONAL RESOLUTION OF 18J1- PROTEST OF 

HAUOMHDANH AliAINWT THE RESOLUTION 

This Chapter opens with poilups tho niust unpoit.int purinil Jn the ainuls t IMnwtiim in Indi.i, unrki llu 
Most important period m I'idisli mlo The tuim of llic Gh.uttu ol the Bast rudia.Ooinp.m), \\huli 
the History of Education m lud he-en i unwed lor U\ uni> i u.n s hy thu Act of P<iilinnirui, V}, (jho [11, 
India- ISSOto 1835. aii'ipfw Ifi.% \vas to expuo on ilio 10th <il Apnl, 1HHI, anil ni,i\< discnnsunis 

luwic in Nnlniul as Ui whether it (Miht to I>e innewed at all, and if tenewuL, nmloi \\hat conditions kt Vs dii K is 
JhSil), tlic le.idmi; tcnvns of Uio Umtod Kini>ckmi lud lici^nn innqiUii- tlio iilijfHi, liiiil li liufHliot.ililr*s nl 
Honsr-s ul Pulittiiii'iii with pchiioiw 4 i<iimihL UKML-IIO^.I! nL ilie Oli niot , .MM! in l<Vlnu.u>, IS, If), Killi 
\\vic *i]i|HHiiit'(l, on Ilio iK*4)ituuc'ii(Iiitif)n tii irimniris tliMiiM'Ucs, LcinL l 1 ]ll(iihtirMii>li inakiiiL; Ilio innlinii in i lit 
Louis, i" 1( t K" Kikboit Pwl in t.lio Uununuiih Jtnlh Illinois (liieliilly .ihsiaint il hmn UIMIII; .n\ itnliiMtirHi nl flu* \ K \\> 
l nicii-,utt( (I bj Ilio fUljiut't, aiul the (Jmnraitt^s uc'iu sinipl\ appoint wl l lo inrpuiu into the piesenL sidle nl the ,ili,um 
ol i\w RiHt liuliu OimipAuy, iul into tho tiaile iM'tnei'ii (Uenf. Hnlain .nnl China, niul tin qj(i t then cj|jseiN,itinns 
thereupon loihe llouw^'" 1 It is iinmlho u'pmtsol tht k PtuliumpiiUt} (>)nmnU('Ls Miappmiitul, runl the etiuniions 
nril uiul diKUincntniy avjiletico whuh they culh'etioil, pnuto'il in hulkj P.nli.iziKMiiiuy Itlm>-b(inks, 111 Lh !J, 

juibnin of tho inhumation and ijiuitatKms jpvou in the ptereilin^ < hipieislia\o hueji oolloetcil 
It fulls Ie>oiMl the seopa ofilun woik tu Uihtiuss tho unions jnihdeiLl niul coimncinal alhuis wiili \\hi(fj 
Honowal of tho East India l^ihiiMUiit \\as then eoTiciuned, Jmt it is tie(chs,u> In mint inn hiuh innltem 
Company's Ohartor by Parlia- s huve a he<tiiu^ upon the suhjctt of erluraiion in ludu ll is inou^h to sty 
moiit, m 1833 tll|li Oll llw | 1U| ol j lll|( , | K j ;Ji tlieHuhjeetoi the ieiievv.il ol the 

Ch.Li'lu >\.is mtiocliireil tr Uie House of OuninioiH by A1Y Oh.nles (haritf (aflei \\uuls Lturl fUnn'In) the 
o( thi' Hfinnl nl Tmiltol, whr> eonilmled a lon^ c k v[ilaiULtiiy speuuh, by moving tin ee n 'solutions, ot whuh 
liuwnn alxMtnm upou tho MihjLntof tsliu ulioii in Iiuiuv, may hiMpioted liciv Tljin-eMihilnni inn is follows 
" Th.it i L is exNCtliuut 1h.bt the (Jo\ IM ani^nt ol the DrH ish Possessions in fn<lia he mfnihti'd to the Hind 

undei sitt'h eoinliiKMih and rep ulat urns nK Pailmment hhall enant, foi ihepiu- 

Patliamontary Bosolution m pose ol extending tho eonunerre ol thiM connli), and nl Kuurinj^the 
tbvour of educating India. lyovonnnc'iit, -uid pnmiofiiiif thn iiili^unw and moml improvement, of iln* 

pie of India" 

Tho rcmiluliuii is unpoitunt, ns f.ho\vini, th t it jitjimiif thiMil>|crfs Tor wludi the (Jumpiuiy w,ih to hu inttitslf<l 
Promotion of Education ro Wl< ' 1 ^' u * " OV|I|I|IIIIW ^ ' *' u * B'"*^li Possehhioiw in India, wiw "yn>Mt*tiuit 
OOgnizod as duty of tho Com- /A' 1 n^n/wiii <rw^ i/f*/aZ mifHiMiutut <if Ihf 1 ;jrw;i^ a/ Intlm" Vii^uo and 
pauy'ft G-ovoimnonf AbBOnoo genera,! IVK iln*se oNpiWiioim w<iv, they may liinush a pruti^t to thoMi who 
of intoroBtin Indian altars in ( . (ivi) ^ nuis j f|,, ^, m ; /; r ^ motive ol tlui Itniihh mlc in Indiu, in ii^iuil to IH 
^ policy of Kin^lish c'lliiculvm, for fuijnitf thnt HH iealohje(t wiw to promote; 

io ( 1 luisiiaiufcy AH tin owing lii>hL upon thA Hiimll innonnt of iiiterpHt thnn taken by Ptulutmeiit in 
, thu inntouan J oalK <diti k ution to tho Taut that the ItoholutiotiH, thou^li invoh my tho faturo Oovei'nmt^its 
of Iiulio, and tho conMHjnont f*ojulttion ol itH inyiiadH of mhahiUnK ^eiii P.^MM! almost without diHtniftmoTi, ami 
awakonud BO Utfclo mtw cst that u veiy lan< niaj<t'ity oi the meuUuM* ot tho JfoiiHu nl- Ootnnunm did not ovcm din/pi 
to bo pi'VBunU Adverting to tho toot a fov wooku uHorvrw-dfl, Lmtl JUiuiuilby thun oxproBflod himuolf tl Tho House 



Dvoii(lffo 1 Htitoi y of IMto, VoU f IT-, p 830 

t Son of tlio Right ffmi0ittil)la Cbiuclra Urant, from wiioio troatiiv 011 tlw (< (MiJw* ^ //ir ^/^WH nf Mm" quutatwni 
boon glton. m the pi eoodm^ oliipt<Mr ef thn work. 



COMPABAHVH C I ATMS OF HFGLISH 1TO OEIBBTTAL U1RNIH&, 49 

has neither the tune, nor the knowledge, nor the inclination to attend to an Indian Budget, or to the statement of 
Indian extravagance, or to the discussion of Indian local grievances A broken head in Ooldbath Field* excites 
greater mteiest in this Houae than three pitched battles in India ever would excite This IB not a figure rf 
speech, but a literal description of fact, and were I called upon for proof of it, I would refer to a circumstance 
which must be still in the recollection of the house When my light honourable friend, Mr Charles Grant, brought 
forwaid his important propositions for the future Government of India, there were not as many members present 
as generally attend upon an ordinary tuinpike bill " 

Tho Bill which gave effect to the abovementioned Besolutums, wag passed by Parliament and icceived the Royal 

The Act of Parliament forthe asaent m tlie 28ii of AnS** 1833 Tt iank * m * tfl Statute-book as 3 and 4 

better Government of India, ^ m ^ C 85, and u entitled, " An Aotfor effeohng an arrangement with the 

8 and 4 Win IV., o. 85, received East India Company, and fmrthe letter Government of His Majesty'* Indian 

Boyal assent on 28th August, Tert ltot Wj WZ ^ 30 ^ day O f Apr% i t 1954 " As bearing upon the prospects of 

the educated "^ves of ****** the e7tt Sectlon * tUB Aot * impo t tant, which 
enacts, " That no native of the said tenitoneq, nor any natuial-boiu subject of 
His Majesty, losideut thoiem, shall, by leason only of his religion, place of buth, dosoent, ooloui, or Any of thorn, 
bo dihablod horn holding any plaoe, ofuce, or emplnymont undei the said Company " The Act introduced con- 
wdoi able changes in the administiativo machinoiy of tho Government of India, and undei ono of its provisions, 
Lord Macaulay was appointed tho first Law Member of the Gounod of the Goveinor-Geneial, and ai rived m India 
on tho 10th Juno, 1834, and toon joined Lord William Boutinck, then Govoinor-Qonoial of Endia 

Loid Macaulay's amval in India to hold suoh a high office m the admmisttatiou of the country, was an unpor- 

Lord Maoaulay's arrival UL taut event in the histoiy of education on India, *i it wa* ptinupally due to his 

India, in 1834, an important personality and opinions, which were adopted by tho Govoznoi-Q-eneiaJ, that 

event m Educational Policy, t ] ie advancement of English education found a dcusi ve aud emphatic declara- 

tion of policy, and a, nim basic*, upon which tho present sybtem fltill i ests As to tho state of thing? which then 

pievailorl in rpgiiiil to education in India, I bonow the following obsoivatinns horn a contemporary witness, Su 

CHailob Tiovolyan In his tioaioso on tho c< Edueahou of tfo People of India" ho nays 

* " Moftii while, the progio&ft of events was loading to tho noocssity of adopting a moio dooided course Tho taste 
T to for ExiffliBh Literature ** ^ a fi^ ls ^ kooame moio and more ' widely disseminated ' A loud call aiose 
-widely disaeminated, aa oon- i<* iho meam> o instruction in it, and tho ftubjott wa* pi essed on the Oommit- 
trasted with Onental learn- too from vanous quaitets English books only wore m any demand upwards 
mg oithi)ty : ono.t^nAsand English books wero sold by- the School-book Society 

in tbp coniho of two years, while the Education Oummittee did not dispose of Aiabic and Sanatait volumes enough, 
m thice yo.*!^ to pay tho expense of keeping thorn for two months, to hay nothing of the punting expenses 
of tho times, a petition was presented to tho Oommitteo by a number of young men who had 
l>i ought up at tho Hunski it College, pathetically lepros anting that, notwithstanding the long and elaborate 
COUPHO of btmly winch ihoy had gone through, they had httlo prospect of bettering their condition , that the mdjifer- 
enoe with which Ihoy were gonei-ally rogaadedby thoir countrymen loft them no hope of Wbistanoe fiom them, 
And thai they, thpiofoie, ti^uetod th*t the flovonaent, which hdi made them what they were, would not abandon 
them to destitution and neglect The? English CU&sofl which had been tacked on to this and othoi Oriental Oollegefl, 
had entirely faalod in their object Tho boys had not timo to go through an Engh&h, in addition to aa Oriental 
cows*, and the ntady which was socondoxy was naturally neglected Tho translations into A i abac, also, appeared 
to have mad I? as little impression upon the few who knewtliat language, as upon thonoassoE the people who 
<wwo ontitoly unaciinamted with it 

" Udor these oiroomstanoos, a difference of opinion arose in the Committee One sootipn of it was for 

following out the existing system, for oontinmng the 



profuse patronage of Aiabio and Sajisknt woiks, and the piuitnig 



, 

Committee aa to comparative operations , by all which mean* fresh masses would have been added to an 

claims of English and Oriental already unsaleable and uselesa hoard An edition of Aviognna was also 

learning projected, at an expense of 3,0002 , and ae it was found that, after tmng 

Btudenta to attend the Arabic College, andhimug tpawOations madefer their vse at an eiponse of tlurty-two 

hiUujftpi^xMW*eraiafflxte teaohere could nnderetand them, it ww proposed to employ the fpaaulator 

MBthemtenpretorof his own wntmgB, at a farther expense of 800 rupees a moath The other aepioon O f tha 

Committee wished to dispense with this cumbrous and expensive maohaoflry for teaching English soienoe thiough 

the medium of the Alno langwge ; -to give no hwntHK m tlie step* of tepe*as to students, tor the encourage* 

roentof aoj perfaciOw kind of leanxmgf ; to pTOtaje rpw* oalyeuat Arabic and Sanskrit books as might 

7 



50 ENGLISH EDDGAUON IX INUH 

actually be loqnucrl foi the use of the diffeient collages , and to employ that poition of then annual income, 
would by those moans be bet fiee, in the establishment of new bominoiiofl for giving inhin notion in Englibli and the 
Yemaciilat languages, at the plaoob wheie such institutions weie most in demand 

lt Tkifl fundamental diScienco o opinion long obbti acted the Lasmuss oJ- the Committee Almost eveiythm^ 

T\hio"h. came bcfoio tbcm vta* 111010 01 loss iirvohotl m it Tho two pai tics 

Obstruction caused, in con- WC10 S[) e( j nj jiy balanced as to bj unabtotn mako a loiwaul movement m 

an} (liiection ApaitiLalai ptimt wight occasionally be decided by an acci- 
dental m.ijonty of one 01 two, but <is the decision as likely to be 1 toiuLhicL thu no\t time tho bub](nt came inulei 
(xninidoi atinu, this only added inconsistent jr to inufliutMicy Tins statu ui things lasted foi about thitMMiMis, 
until both parties bc'duno con vmcou that tlie usohiluoss and lespidabiht) of then Kind) would he uttc.il) tom- 
piutnisud by its lonufCL continuant e The Committee* had conic to a duwl stop, ,uul flic (hncimuiMit aluno could 
set it in motion again, b> giving a piepomleianu 1 to one 01 tho othci ot tlio two opposite sw tinns Tin numheis, 
thmeloie, took bho onlv couiso which lemamcd open to them, and laid beloio thi' Uuvtimncnt a stati'iui'iit ui tlicn 
outitinei pitsilion, ami ol the qiounds ni tlu iinillu linn ojumims held l>v tlinu 

"The (iiiL'fitiim wtis now fauly l>ioin>ht to issue, ami the (Invcinnicnt \\^s loiroil to make Hs clci'timi lieU\(H'n tv\o 

Government callod upon opposite piiuciplcs Summli, iM'ihajis, novu depemlt'il upmi (hi ili h IIIMIM- 

to dooido tho 1B8UO botwoon tion of <m\ (Jlovcinnunt ILi]ipil> t ihctt* \\as linn at trhe IUMI! ol all ms one 

English and OnontBlloarning | i,j tl , f \\ \vho|misLie tin* uilJaic i>l tin puliln, iiiil<>|iiiiil<>nH\ oli*\i>i, IKI- 

hrmal toiisidiMution hapfnljf, also, ho was Mip|>oiteil by om> who, alU*i liavui( eiuhi llislieil (lit lilciaiiin ui tiiimpc, 

< l au > to Hih iud ulu'ii it was liomblinip in ihc s< ,ile \\itli Ihe litoiMtme ol Asia 1f ' 

The fhht alliiMim m thu piocuilin^ pahh.^e is to Lnnl William Kcnlimk, Ihen rjovnunr-Cinuial ol India, and, 
Lord Maoaulay's colBbrated il*' 11 """!"' I" f"il MaiwiUy, lin 1ml icienlh aiii\i>d Itom Ki^lanil, as a 
Minute m favour of Bugbaa Mem I KM ol iJio now Supidne (Jomii il ui liuli.i u On Ins aunal, Macaulay 
dated 2nd Febm- was appointed PitjriuliMit oi tho (JuiunuU^c, but he dw lined to lako any 
activu pait in its pHKCHHliuqs uulil Mit (Jovi'tninent hail linally ptonoumcd rm 
tho f|ui*htiou at ihino Litor, in Januaiy IK Ti, the lulvoi'atch ol the two s>stents, than uhoni <i>n .tbler men t ould 
not bo ((miul in the Hoi vice, lairl then opinions heloiu the Kupnme (Joiini tl , anil, on the iin<| ol Kchniai;) , MiKMiihiv, 
AA a Member of that Council, pi nil u cud u Alum to m which licucloptetl and ddenileil the vit^ssol (he Kulish 
motion mtho Ctmuuil/leu "f The Minnie eoniuins soini> p.thha^eh which ait inteiMiiitf unil insliui fiv 
bght upon tho HjJii it and natiue ol the new nluraliful poli< y, utnl they ma> be tjuoteil here 

u Hnw hUtids thu eane V We have to L'dueate a periple \vho rannot <ii pusenl be ediu aleil hy IIHMIIS oi I hen 
English Literature pro-emi- wU"'>-*"i Wo must teaih them home Ionian I'lntfiu^e The claims of 
nont, and host suited foi Bdu- m own lan^ua^e it is hiiidly necessary to letupilulale It htanils pun uJi- 
otition in ludia tient even amon^ Uuj lan^uafteH o< the Went It uhoumlH \\ ilh \un ks 

juUion not inleriru k to tho iiohlont which Uieui has bequeathed to UK, with models ol i*\iry hpmeM ol c^l 
with hihtoncal ci>ni|K>hitiuuH, whuh f nmhitleuMl inetoly as numttivcs, havo M k hlmn been hiuimsHoil, inui whidi, (ini- 
Hulur(ilHH vohioloKof ethical ami pohtieal iiiHti-uetiou, have uevc'i lwnn wjiiallMl t with jusi and lively n]iicsent.fc. 
lions ol hiumui hf wul human natuiis with the uumL pruloiiml Hperulalions on meUphysieh, tnoialN, K<venitm>iit, 
jin iHpradonfp, Jtno! inwlo, with lull anil couvil inloimation respecting uveiy espemneriiiil mMeucc whiuh ietuh U 
pi'i'sci ve th houlih, to nioiettsu thi> comloi't, or to evpaml tlie nifelleet ot man Whoe\or known bliat liuiimiife ban 
ready lU'CMM to all tho vast intellectual wealih whu*h all l.he wiMnt iiafiiam of theeaith havo cn^tiMl anil hoiinlml 
in tho WIHISI- of ninety ^neiaticis It inajr sufely be haul th.it (.In hh'iittnte iicnv c\lant in that lan^niii>e IN erf fur 
viilue Lhan all tho liti-ratuie w!in>li Ihwe luiiirlicil ycsu-n ai(*i was e\t,int m all the lanttu.i^esol the uoihl 
r Nor m iliiri all hi Jmlia, Bullish is tho mtiKuauc spoken by (lid iiilitiK class II, is spoken by the 
tlasH of NativoK at iho hoatn ol (Jovenuurntr It IH likely i*> bmikno the IIUIMUH^* ol nmiineiee throii(<hmit 
tho hew of Miu lOast- It m tbu luii^uu^^ ot two #i<iat Kiuopcan communituH v^hnh aro i-inni^ the ono in tho 
Houtuot Afrie^Umutlicrin AuHtmlaHja, wmmunitujH whuh weovoiy yiar Ijoi-omin^ moro imporfrfuit ami tnoip 
i-Iuwly oannoc'toil wilh our Indian Hinpiru Wbuthur wo look aL tlm intniwic vahio ol our htoraturo ur at tlu par- 
tu*iilar Hituation oi HUH country, wo shall MM tlio Htum^ciht toahon to think that, of all Ku-oitfn ^ugutiH, Lho Kntfliwh 
tongue 1 IH that which would bo tho moHt u^uiul to our Nativo Hubjcois 

a Thu quftNfcum now Ixiforo UH w Himply whothcjr, when it in in om powoi to leauli thiH lauguu^j, wo Hhall touch 
language* m whigh^ "by tuuvannd ooufwHlon, tihmo ai'o ju> bookn on wiy nubjout, which cluHcarvo to bo uuuipured to 
** 

* Trwilyaa On D* ^uoahon $ tto popl* <$ Jn^id, pp, 9-18 
t Twnlyw'i L\f* tf JUata^y > Hd, 1881 , p, 1*0 



LORD MACAULAVfl MINUTE OK ENGLISH EDUCATION, 1835 51 

our own , whether, when we can teach Euiopean science, we shall teach systems which, by umveisal confession, 
whenevei they diffei from those of Buiope, differ for the worse , and whether, when we can patiomse sound philo- 
sophy and true history, we shall countenance, at the public expense, medical doctrines, which would disgi ace an 
English farnei astionomy, which wonld move laughter in the guls at an English boarding-school history, 
abounding with kings thuty feet high, and reigns thnty thousand yeais long and geography made up of seas of 
tieaolo and seas of bnttei 

" We aie not without experience to guide us Histoiy furnishes several analogous cases, and they all teach 

. , . . the same lesson Theie aie in mo del n times, to iro no furthei, two memor- 

Analogous oases of education- tl , . . , A , , ^ t i ^_ * 

aJ effort able instances of a gi eat impulse given to the mind of a whole society of 

piejudice oveithiown of knowledge diffused of taste puiified of aits and 
sciences planted in countries which had lecently been ignorant and barbarous 

"The fiist instance to which I zefei is the great revival of letteis among the Wostein nations at the close of 

the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth contuiy At that time almost 
6VBiy thing tkftt was lth rBa * n & WA5 ^ntaoned in the writings of the 

beginning of the 16th century ancient Cheeks and Romans Had our anoostois acted as the Committee of 

Public Ins ta notion has hitherto acted, had they neglected the language of 
Cioeio and Tacitus , had they confined then, attention to the old dialects of oui own island , had they punted 
nothing, and taught nothing at the universities, but chronicle^ m Anglo-Saxon, and lomanLes in N"oi man-French, 
would England have been what she now is p What the Gieek and Latm WBIQ to tbe contompoiaiies of Moie and 
Asoham, our tongue is to the people of India Tho lit 01 aim e of England is now moie valuable thin that of 
classical antiquity I doubt whethei the Sansciit hteratuie be as valuable as that of oui Saxon and Nraznan 
piogemtois In some departments in histoiy, foi example, I am ceitain that it is much loss so 

" Anothoi instance may be said to be still bofoie our eyes Within the last bundled and twenty years, a nation 

which had previously been m a state as baibaious as that in which oui anies- 

Example of inteUeo ual pro- ^. 01S weie jj e f 016 ^ e Crusades, has gradually emeiged iiom the ignorance m 

which it was sunk, and has taken its place among civilised communities I 

hpoak of Russia There IR now in that countty a laige educated class, abounding with persons nt to seive the State 
in tho bighoht functions, and in no wise mfaiioi to the most accomplished men who adoin the best circles of Pans 
and London Theie is leason to hope that this -vast Empue, which in the time of oui grandfathers was probably 
behind tho Punjab, may, in the time of oui qiandcliildien, be pi easing close on Fiance and Butain in tho caioer of 
improvement And how was this change cfiected p Not by flatteiing national piejudices , not by feeding the mind 
of tho }oaij Muscovite with tho old woman's stones which his rude fathois had believed , not by filling his head 
with lying legends about Si Nicholas, not by encouraging him to study the gi eat question, whethei the woild 
was OL wa* not cioatod on the 13th of Sepbembei , not by calling him ' a loomed native, ' when he has mastered all 
tlipso points of knowledge, but by teachmg him those foreign languages in which the gieatebt mass of mfoimakon 
litwl buoii laid up, and thus putting all that infoimation within his zeach The languages of western Europe civilised 
KubMa 1 cannot doubt tliat they will do foi the Hindoo what they have done for the Taitai ' * 

Lord William Bentiuck Tlu* Mrnnte was ooncnrred in by Lord William Bentinok and his Council, 
adoptfllKttdMaoaulay's views. ^ Qn ^ e ^ jf^^ IQ^ they passed the following Besolution, which set 
Government Resolution, dated ,, , , , -, P ^^i t ^ *. i_i 

7th March T835 in favour of question at lest once and foi ever, and which is one of the mobt memorable 

English Education. lecozds in the history of Education in India It was thus worded 

"Tho Governor-General of India in Council has attentively considered the two lottos from the Seoretaiy 
to the Committee, dated tho 21st and 22nd Januaiy last, and the papers referred to in them 

"2wZ His 1/wdflhip in Council is of opinion that the gieat ob]eot of the Hiifash Government ought to be 
tho promotion of Bpropean hteratuie and science amongst the natives of India, and that all the fundb appropri- 
ated for the purposes of education would be best employed on English education alone 

"3rd Bnt it is not the intention of his Loidship in Council to abolish any college or school of native learn- 
ing, while the native population shall appear to be inclined to *v*il themselves of the advantages which it afforda , 
and his Lordship UL Council directs that all the existing professors and students at all the institutions under the 
superintendence oJt the Committee shall continue to receive their stipends But his Lordship m Council decidedly 
objects to the practice which has hitherto pi evaded, of supporting the students during the period of their educa- 
tion. He oonoeivw that the only effect of such a system can be to give artificial encouragBiaant to branches of 
leainiBg which, in the natural comae of things, would be superseded by mine useful studies , and he directs that 

1681 f pp 290-202 



FKGLISH EDUCATION IK INDH 

stipend bhall be given to any student who may hereaftoi enter any of these institutions, and that when airy 
rfesBOi of Oiiental learning- shall -vacate his situation, the Committee shall icpoifc to the Government tho nuinbox 
d state of the class, in older that the Government may be able to decido upon the expediency oi appointing a 

CC6SSOT 

4ft it t aB oomo to the knowledge of the Governoi- General in Council that a laige bum has been czpondpd 
the Ctrannittoo, in the piinting of Oiiental woiks His Loilship in Council duocts that no portion oi the 
ncU shall hereafter be BO omplnyed 

KA Hn Loidship in Council directs, that all the lunch which these rehnnu will leave at the? disposal ot 
e DommittoB be honooforth employed in impai ting to the native population a knowledge ot English litmatmr 
id science, through tho medium ol tho English language, and His Loiddup in Cimiiul it?t|uests tho Cimniuttie 
submit to Q o veinmont, with all expedition, a plan foi the accomplishment ot this puiposo " * 

Whole such was the natuio of tho futuie oilucational policy declaiotlby Gtovuiuniunt, it is unpin taut to inn- 

Feelings of the Hindus en- SKU tho feelings *ith *luchi t was icgaidoil by tlio Native popiiUtmn H 
tuely m favour of English. hah alioady boon fthown that the Hiulus in Bi^a! had <ilicMil> Uwi Ji< most 
Education. ln tl lou d MU Q to loai n tho Enejlibli la-ii^u ij?c, liLoi atuie, .mil si UMK os, uul had 

ithis puiposo foundoil tho Vithjalaytoo* Anglo-Indian Colloqo, f mm Llieu own \r)liintaj v rontnlni turns, so iai kick as 
U6, and, that Raja Bam Mohun Boy, tho iDOoijnisoilloAdBi ot them advanuc-il ,uul enli^ht wicil pail), had sulimit- 
d bin able and oloqnont Moinoiial, in 1823, piotosiji^ cisuiisl tlio e\|)Lditn i ol uioru v on Ratiski it IIMI innfi, anil 
aymg that all arailable fuiidb and ondoavouis should bf ilovutoil to tlio pi omiitiun nl eilm.iliun in tlic hni^hsh 
jigua^o, litoiatuio, and HOIBUOBS, amonjf the pcoplo of liiUi.t It h.is also booii sUtctl thvt, in 1S27, l.h( k Ilindus nl 
onibAyiawodavast subHLiiption D^coodmg two lau ot mpws as an onilowinont Ini I > inlcssrs ot tin* Kmjlisli 
n^nago, And Eutopoan arts and soionow, in honoi ol Mi Klphinstono, tin Ule (JiiviMiiin 1 ol 1hi PUSH lim\, and 
mt their oftodts xo&altod m tho foundation oi the Klphiustouu InstitnLirm, <u Collii>is in Itoxulu) r riuic fan, 
toioforo, bo no doubt that the Govomoi-CKmoiara Kosolutiou i)J tho 7th March, 1ti.r>, was c^i i fieri \viili |iv \>\ flit k 
jndiis, and contompoiary evidonoo IA not wanting to nhow that such \vofl tho cUiO Sn Ohatles Ti ovolyaii, \vhd 
; that time hold impoitant office in the Indian Civil Sot vice, IKJJL^ his testimony to the tliou state ol tilings, HI Uu k 
Jlowing woids 

u Tlui brings us to tho soooud point which wo had to cousuler, uamoly, wliothor, hupponui^ Knerlish htciatuit* 

Sir Oharles Treyelyan' a tea- to be bobt adapted for the inLpiovoment ul tho |ii i pl< of India, they ,ui Uicm- 
timony as to the popularity of solvob icady to ptolit by tho tulviiiitii^oR wluili it holds out, II il tan lt<* 
English Education among the p , OV od that tuition in HuiuppdiLhoiLmw lias botimif micMil (he M-iisihU* 

of the poople, and tliat, so fai liom boniff Halisiiocl ivith thon 1 own 
liey dibpUy on oagoi aridity to avail thoinbolvoi* ol: ovoiy oppnttiniity ol attuning ilic knuwli'd^i* of tin 1 Wist, 
i must bo admitted iJiat tho caao put by the Commi(/too ol 1 1824 ha* ooouiKd, and ihaf, luitudinj^ to then own 
ulo, the tiuio liua ainrod when jntti action in Woatoiu liLoxataiu and hoicuto may bu given on an evteusive stule, 
nthout any fear of producing a xo-action 

" Tho proofs that such w the actual Htato ol things have boon alwody tauoTicd upon As tlie \\\ nu iple oi the 

School-book Hocioty IH. to print only hiick liookh as an* in (Uniaml. AiiL to dih- 
"fltsAfiflHiVfl a&la of DnffliaH 

So^ol-books duruiff 1884-35 ^^ * *' om ou ^ * ^" M)h w ^ 10 ^ m ^ ^ t * lP1JII ^ ^PP"^ 1011 ** innHhli, perliups, 

tho boflt toat oi tho ovifitifi^ condition of public feeling in it^uitl to the 

liltoroat Byntomfl of looming which aio Hirualtonoouqly cnlUvulod m India It appoaiH, ii'oni their lust pnnted 
lopoii, that it om January 1834 to DocomboT 1885, tho following Halon wotc* ofltetod by thorn 



^nglo-Afiiatao, or books pai tly in English and partly in (rmo KaBtorn language 
BonffaJoa . . . . , . t 

Huiduoo M .. , 



SO 



"Jrdood, books in the learned natiro looguages are such a oomploto dmg in tho market, tlial tho School- 
book Sooiety luw to wme tuna pavfc ooaeod to print thorn , and that Houety, M well MI tlio JfidnoatiOtt Committee, 



18-15. 



BPRJE1D OF TA8TB POR KSSMSII LITPR4.TTJBE 



has a considerable paat of its capital looked up m Sanskiit and Arabic lore, which was accumulated duimg the 
period when tho Oriental mama cained eveiything before it Twenty-three thousand such volumes, most of them 
folios and quartos, filled the hhiaiy, or rathei the lumbei-room, of the Bdocation Committee at the tune whan the 
punting was put a stop to, and during the preceding thiee yeais, their sale had not yielded quite one thousand 
rupees 

" At all the Oriental Colleges, besides being instmctBd gratuitously, the students had moniihly stipends 

^ _ _ ^ . _ _ . allowed them, which weic periodically augmented till they quitted the m- 
SmaJl sale of Oriental Books # i. 

stitution At the English sominaiies, not only was this expedient foi obtain- 
ing pupils quite superfluous, but the native youth weie leady themselves to pay for the pimlege of being admitted 
The aveiage monthly collection on this account ftom the pupils of the Hindoo College, foi Febiuary and Maich, 183G, 
was, Ricca inpees, 1,325 Can there be moie conclusive evidon.ee of the ical state of the demand than this ? The 
Hindoo Coll ego is held under the same roof as the new Sanskrit College, at which thuty pupils weie hired at 
8 rupoet each, and seventy at fiVe inpees, or 590 rupees a month in oil 

" The Hindoo College was founded by tho voluntary conliibutions of the Natives themselves, as eaily as 181b 
Hindu Scholars educated in In 1831 > * Committee reported, that - a taste foi English had been widely 
the Vidyafaya, propagate taste disseminated, and independent schools, conducted by yountf men reaied m the 
for English language and liter Vidyalwja (the Hindoo Collogo), are spimging up in evezy direction 9 This 
ft* 018 spint, gathoi ing 6toem*th torn time, and ti om many favouiable oucumstanoeb, 

had gamed a great height in 1885 , aeveial nch Natives had established English schools at their own expense , Asso- 
ciations had boon f turned for the same purpose at different places in the interior, similar to the one to which the 
Hindoo College owed its oiigin The young men who had niushed their education piopagated a taste for oui litera- 
ture, and, p<ii tly as teacheis of benevolent 01 proprietary schools, paitiy as tutors in pnvate families, aided all 
dasses in its aoquiioment The tide had set m siaongly in favoui of English education, and when the Committee 
declared itself on tho same side, the public support they leceived rather went beyond, than fell ahoit of what was 
lequund Moio applications were leceived for the establishment of schools than could be complied with , there wcio 
motF candidates Coi admission to many of those which were established than oouldbe accommodated On the 
opening of the Hooghly College, m August, 1836, students of English flocked to it in such numbeis as to iondei the 
uiganization and olaflsifioation of them a matter of difficulty Twelve hundiod names weie onteiod on the books ot 
this depaitmcnt ot the College within three days, and at tho end of the yew there weie upwards of one thousand 
in logular attendance The Arabic and Persian classes of the institution at the same time mufitezod less than two 
hundiod There appears to be no limit to the numbei of scholaas, except that of the number of teachers whom the 
Coinmittoo is able to provide Notwithstanding the erfaaoidinary concourse of English students at Hooghly, the 
demand was so hltle exhausted, that when an auxiliary school was lately opened within two milos of the College, 
the Englibh department of it was instantly filled, and numerous applicants weie sont away unsatisfied In the 
same way, when additional means of instruction weie provided at Dacca, the number of pupils rose at onco from 
150 to upwards of 300, and more teachers were stall called for The same thing also took place at Agra These 
are not hymptoms of a foioed and premature oJEoit, which, as the Committee of 1824 justly observed, would have 
recoiled upon themselves, and have retarded our ultimate success "* 

This slate of things was, however, limited to the Hindus Far different were the f eehnga of the Mahomedans, 

whose attitude towards English education was aaylhmg but friendly Oon- 

MahomedanB oppose English toponui80ll- evidence ot this circumstance is furnished by the evidence of the 
SSTita MS7 - Sanskrit scholar H H Wilson, wheat thatpemd, and since 
solution of 7th March, 1885. 3823, lad been a membei and Secretary of tie Committee of Public Instruction 
Testimony of Mr H. H ^ Calcutta, and was otherwise deeply interested and concerned in the spread of 
Wilaon. Ednoation m India He -was examined tipon the subject of the measures taken 

by Government in 1885, as a witness before a Select Committee of the House of Commons, on the 18th July 1868 
Tha iiuestwn pnt to linn was " from your ultimate aoquamtanoe with liteiaiy men, when you were in India, what 
u your impjresswn of the opmion that they fomedof that neglect of the languages of India, which you say has been 
manifested P " HOB answer was that, " Upon the determination to abolish iihe stipends, and the proposal to appro- 
priate all the funds to English education, thers was a petition from the Mahomedans of Calcutta, signed by about 
8 000 people, molnding all the most respectable Maulans and native gentlemen of that city After objecbng to it 
upon general prlwspl*, they said that tho evident object of the Government was the conversion of the Natives , 
that they encouraged BngJiflh esdusively, and discouraged Mahonwdan and Hindu studies, because ttey wanted 

78-88 



\f KXOLISII iwrvnnN TTT INDIA 

i nulncp the pooploto become Chustians, they looked upon thoir oxclusu o enrnni ogoment nf Enqlibh as a step 
i* aids ron-vcrmon"* 

Such fpelingfe of aversion towatdq English education entertained by tho Mdhomodans, and evinced so eaily as 
tf 5, f>tand m btrong 1 contiast io tho attitude nf tho Hindu community, who, as has been shown, li.itl /luloasly proved 
leir dosiio to aoqmt o a kiinwlodsjo of ilic Ehiglish Linguae, htoiatmc, and SCIPIIPPS, b> fuunilnii f.lio Anglo-Indian 
olleqe, so f,u back is 1R16, and by the Momoi lal which li.id boon pi osuiiti d on Him bohalf IN Raja Ram Mohuu 
o\ to Lord Amhoist, llion Gnvoinoi-Ginpial nf India Tins diUou'iii't} hotwocii tho siMiiimonN nl tlu too com- 
inmtios tnvtaids Eiiqhhh ednratioii, is the 1 ie.il lcc> tn iho loasons of tho last dispanlj ol pi ni>irss m English 
ihioatinn winch HLP t\\o lutioihvhf IPS TU^P iospoitivcl\ madf Tho t'licds or tins dis|i,uif\ have 1 MM nninsfc baneful 
i tlio mtoiosts <if BiiLish India in cyi nnial, .uul Io the Mcili<imod,iu (umiuiimU in puluuld.i, <nnl thtisu tHiLts ha\t 
oi \ct iliRftpjKMixji, as \vill be hbowu in a hilci p.ut of this \\tnk 



CHAPTER XL 

rONTENDINCI AltnUMHNTH 01' TlfM ADVOflATHH OP KNCIIjIKIT HIHirATinN, AND TtfK 
HUI'POHTKIIH OF OlilKNTAIj LK MINING IN AHMMO AM) HA.VHKIUT 

In a Insimiiibl tevu^w ol Uio ]UMt^ii'ss fil iiliu.ilifjn in Itnlui, ii woulil sturdy ho Ian thai tin iccniint nl tho 

umliovcis) \\ludi lat^rd hchvwn 1lu k arlviKMtcs ol ilit> OinMii.il <lassn.il 

Tho Controvoray English (l| | m(l < mil| fllll | || M , , H |\oi,LtcM ol orlm ifion in Mio Knili ,h lanuunm', li<(>i.ifiui% 

I MM-iiiPs Hlwulil IHI linnipil fi> liai bus IIPOII slated HI Ilir |nKiilmi( 
pitM .isio IJIIM! Mat uiht\'s MinuU'ol iiinl Fi*|itu.u\ 1KT> and iht* duihion 
if Un (oiiii'owisv h) tlu CloM'innU'nt. I{/i k siliiiinn nl 7ih M u< h lH 4 ir> \Vli,ili l \ri Ilic mci its nl the uinliovus\ 
nay hi*, it is one ul so miirh inifmrlaiiM 1 1h.it it tan 111^01 lose its histotidil inii'u^l Tho viou*- anil iii^unionls 
r Ui( k ad\(if iil>os r>l Knnlish oduiMliuii !I,IM> hi on siniimi il tip by Su IMiailos Tinvoh in in Ilio lf>lhi\Mn' noids 

' Tho Hindu s)st<iu ol loiiiiinc( <onUnis so nun h tiuth, as Io have raised tho nalir*n to Ms |iMsont joint ol 

civih/ahnn, and In havo kopt it thoi o fin acjos without n fiii'Miling, uml HO 



V at fl nimli IMIOI, as Io h.ivo piovoniod if Imm nmkinu; an\ wnsihlo advam-o dining 



I ho sann IOILI* jjoi lod Ittuloi this systom, lusioi > is ntuilf upni faille, in whu'h 
tho lo.u*m>d in vuu c'lidoavout* to Liiuu tho thioad ol aiiihonho nanalivo, its nioditiiu 1 is quiK koi \ , ilh ^ot^rapbv 
.mil astmuomy 11,1 v a monsti ous absunliiy, ih la^ is < umposod of Uioso cniiiiul utiuy uiaMins, aiul bailMinius and 
iidinulous piiittl ptovisuniK, its loli^iou is idolatrj , its moiahiy IH MK h as mufhf bo ovpr t tod Imm the o\amplo 
of iliOKoilii un(l 11|(I |"i ft ^pts id tho religion ^//f'\ Tluu/tfi^ human Hatiiihoos, ^//jf(/^ nuiidoi, lohtfiims sui(ith% 
and othoi Hwch ov lOsrowH-H of Hinduism, ,o oithor o\prosslv onjonicd by ii t or aiv dnotlly doducod fiom tbo 
Mil(^U^l by it Thm wholo systnu ol snni>il imd pmfdiio loarnni^ is kniltod and Imimil l^oihor b\ 
of loliftion, cvwy pint of it ih an ailiohtof faith, ami it^ wiont'O is tis uiu luuiftoalilo as iU divmity 
IK (Mmliiiitl l)> it to iho Hiahnmih, ilio liiuli pnoslh of Ibo h\sioin t by wlioin and lor whom it wan dcvisod 
All tho othoi chwHi'S HI o oondoninod fo poipolual itrnoinnco and uVptmilom'o, thon nppiopnafi odiipalumH aix 1 
by tlio lauvs oi custo, and linnis ufo IIM il, ho\ond whu h m poisDiml inonl> 01 poisoiml *',f)od loHimc onn 
tb(*!ti Tlio nmiliar wonder ol iho Iliiulu svMom IH, not ihat it I'ontunis HO inmh 01 HO litflo ii*uo 
but thatit hiiH btvii M)hkilliill\ conUivod foranohtuiK Uu pitiKivn of iho human iiiinil, iw to ovlulnt 
it, at tho wirt of bwtUinuwuicl}i M bra hvi-cl at ut>Mrl> iho pmihc pomtat whiob it wns lirnt mouldod Tho Mabo- 
modan HyHtom of Icainniq- IH mini) dc^iooH bt-Uor, and MoMombloH that winch o\iMto<l umoiif( tho iwtiotw of Kuropu 
lx k fotD tho invtmtmn oi piuiting,' HII far di>OH ovon this full hhoit oi tho knowlodico with wluoh Hump? IH 
now blt'Ksod Tbwo wo tho HyHtumH iindor tho itifluotum of which tho proplo of India havo b^otno whatthoy uto 
Thoy havo boon ireighod in tho l^huuo, tuul have* Wf*n fonitd wanting To pcrpotimto ihoin, IH to putpotuutv 
thtdogrtMlAtioTLaiidaiwryof tho people Oat' dat> IH not to twich, bat to iinttwh iliom, not tonvot tbo 
whinh Ixavo for agon bound ilown tlio mindg of oiu* mxbjoct f but to allow tkurn to drop rJI by tho lapcto 
famu and iho progress of erentB 

(166$)t fli*^Rportof thtfieloct Oamroittpoof the Uuiwoof Ooinmom,onTn<UinTiritoriDi l p IS. 



ENGLISH BDUD11ION W8U9 ORIENTAL LBABMNG- 55 

"If wetuintom Sanafctit and Aiabio leauung, and the state of Society which has been aimed by it, to 
Westein looming, and the unproved and still lapidly unpioymg condition of the Western nations, what a diffeient 
spectacle piesents itself ' Thiough the medium, of English, India has been brought into the most intimate connec- 
tion with this fat oui ed qruutei of the globe, anil the paiticnlai ftlnrma of the English language as an instrument ot 
Indian impiovement have thus become a point of paiamount importance f * * * * 

11 Aa of all existing languages and hteiatmaa the English is the most lepleta with benefit to the human iace, 

so it is ovewpi catling tha eaith with a lapidity fai exceeding any othei 

language 00 Bn S 1 Ma ^^ a pttltial e^phon m Canada, English is the language of the Continent 

of America, noith of Mexico , and at the axibtmg rate of uuaease there will 

bo a bundled millionB of people speaking English in the United States alone at the end of this oentniy In the 
West India Islands we have given our language to a population collected fiom various parts of Africa, and by this 
cucumfctance alone they have been brought many uontniiw neaier to civilization than their countrymen in Africa, 
who may foi ages giope about in the datk, destitute of any means of acquiring ttue leligion and science Then 
dialect is an uncouth peaveision of English, suited to the pie&ont crude state of then ideas, but then hteiature will 
be the htoiatuie of England, and their language will giadually be confoimed to the same standotd Moie recently 
tho English language ha* taken root in the Continent of Africa itself, and a nation is being formed by moans of it 
in tho extensive tenitoiy belonging to the Capo, out of a most ouiious mixtuie of diHeient raoos But the scene of 
itb gi oatost tnumphs will bo in Asia To the South a nirw Continent is being people! with the English race , to the 
1101 th, an ancient people, who have always taken the hail in the progzoss of religion and science in the East, have 
adopted tho English language as their language of education, by means of which they are becoming animated by a 
new bpmt, and aae entoiing at onoo upon the impio rod knowledge of Europe, the fiuit of the labour and inven- 
tion o biiccjossivo ages The English language, not many generations honce, will bo spoken by millions in all the 
loui ciuartoifl of tho globe , and oui looming, oui morals, oni pimoiples of constitutional hbeity, and our lekqiun, 
embodied in tbo established hteiatuio, and dittufiedthiough tho genius of the Yoinaoulai languages, will spread 
fai and wide among the nations 

" Tho objection, thoiofoie, to the early proceodinga of the Education Comnuttoe is, that thoy were calculated to 
Objections to the early pro- Produce a lovival, not of huund leaining, but of antiquated and peinicious 

oeedings of the Education errors The pupikm the OiientolSonunaiieBweietiainod in a complete couiw 

Committee. of Aiabio and Sanskut leaining, including the thoology of tho Vedu& and tbe 

KM an, and woiotmnod out accomplished l^ouZawb and Punf/tfo, the very class whom the same Committee de*- 
cribocl as 'satisfied with theu own leaining, IMp inquifiitivp as to anything beyond it, and not disposed to legaid 
tho litciatnxo and science of the West as woith the Ubcmi of attainment ' And, having been thus educated, they 
wciu hunt to ovory paifc of tho cuuniay to nil tho most napoitant situations which woie open to the Hativofe, tho few 
who could not be pi ovi iled loi in this way, taking feerviDB as pnvate tutois 01 family pi losts E\ery liteiaiy at- 
lompt cotmuctod with tho old looming, at tho same time, received the most liberal patronage, and tho oountzy wa4< 
<U k lu^o(l with Aiabio and SanBkiit books By aoting thu&, the Committoo oioatod the very oval whiah they pio- 
f oMhed to luar They ontablishod gi oat coipoiaiaonb, with lanufirations m oveiy Diatnot, the feebnifs and interest 
of wlioho mombois woie deeply ongaged on tho mde of the prevailing eriots All the murmuring which has been 
heard liofl oomo from tliin quartei , all tbe oppositwn which haw been oxpoiienced has been headed by pQisons snp- 
piniod by 001 Htapoiuls, and trtunod in oui* Collages The money spent on the Aiabio and Sansb.it Colleges was, 
thoioiorc, not moi cly a doad lusn to tho Lau&o of ttath , it was bounty money paid to raibo up champions of error, 
and to call mto being an Oi iinital mtorost whii'h was bound by the condition of itb exifatcntc to stand m the front ot 
tho luttlo against tho ptocftobh of Ernopoan liteiutmo "j, 

Professor H H Wilson's Tho VIOWH entertained by the opposite feootion oi the educationists may be 

views m favour of Onental g^piamod m tho woads of Profobsoi Wilson who, tef emng to the change of 

7th a*^ 1 1 P^y under tho Rebolution of Govenunonl, dated, the 7th Man h 



Maroh 1885 iy ^ makes tho Jollowmg obseivations 

" The eiluztH made m tho temtonos moie favonrably on<muiBtftJic.Bd, to promote the advance of useful know- 
ledge, roowved Irom tho Governor-General the moht sohoitoas encouragement , and oonsideiable progress wan made 
under liw aiwpicefc, m the multiplication of educational sHlabliflhments, and the cultivation of the English language 
and litoiature English clauses or bomraanos were infltitutod at sevoial of the pnnoipal stations an the Upper 
Provmcefl, as well M in Bengal , while at too same time the eystem of native study pursued at the OoUegos, exolu- 
sively appropnatfidtotho edcusalwm oi Hindu* tad Mahomedans, was diligently supeiintended and improved, 

f Twaljiw ~0 IK* 8A*o*to tf * Atfi tf Miaj p 8MB t f PP. S^l 



,,}* I \UI II NiK VUMN IN 

led. lar lulnml thru Hindu lilliw-immli \iutn in th<> kno\\ lultn nl tin Kimli li lauuu iflr, lm>i iliut, ami si lontcs **d 
luii 1 < 'iiM<|iiiuil\ suliiiiil UK it ln>, nJ |iin*.pi'iit\ in all llir \ mniii hian Ins nl \\niMU m t iipatnuis It has Luun 
"U'lithii iipim llu iia^mu ol tl linuiniiinit Itisnluiniii nl tin 7ih M in h IMri in EIMUU ni Huiilisli pilucatiini, 
tin 1 ! w* 1 !* 1 tin liiit In iai (' tin n\ lint llu iliaiim in tlu uliKiitioiial |mln * in mum at i d h\ that IN solution vras 
dui' tn ailandi^Hin inntiM M| jiiupi" IMIIUJ t'lmsiiamtv annum llir |n*i|ili nl hulia md L)K \ su in to li,i\ir mnu m 
li"*s ulluuil hi tin-. HI |iir mn t>ll MM lui'iit \i n- 

Tin latent JiMnn hum \ 1 1, JIIM (hit in li iii-pif imii win niimh immai'ili I \\haii\ti tin M<nin( in- 

dividual Jli.1uitllin|il !* Ill i Ml riillli hi nil ulin niiiilliiilh 'If mini tliui 

Religious NcmltalitymKdu- Iljllirillll , ,|i. intr Hi tin.il IIIUM! a'.d >HM il \\. II n, ,.| (In lumdi'nl Imlm 
caticu adopted as SUlo Policy llld , hlll |MII|I IM lllf im lllltllll Ni1i |f| , t llhlllill Vllll , lllhl IIIUI 

itlofihMl j p,ii t Kl'/iML 1 pnlm T!M I iii!.' n ii nl M (mil 1! nl tin \ct nl I'nlim'Mii >> lim III.Miiji 1 M, 
wlnl i * i|iiinii" I li it ' \ Niti n* nut fi llun i>iif /'Mul in JIM in i uli veil lull In it if-nl ind i|i|iln i 1 to UK 
icu'til inrl imptMM in' nl i^l lihi.ifiiM' ii"l tlu n tun INI mint nl tin li ,IIIH J \ ifi\i tu lihlii mil Im ilu mtni 
<lu* I'tu cnl |iiMiiiiil<nti nl tin 1 i i* r* i i unnii" f'n >nli ill 1 ' n<( i>l llu ItiMt lil'mlc'ii in IhtLa in iK i}inlnh!\ 
IIM rriM'lmn nl ni\ i<li"iuii n< Innlh./. .iri'l tin* lit jiili li ni tin t'lniit nl ll'ii im ditul llu IfilJjini, Ihl I 
i \|thiiini" lln itliitrtl tint !i"i l.ilpi |iiuu 'mi ttnl Htfitiiiiimr* I|IH i liii tn tin NHH innii nt ni Irnlia i Mju,ilh 
tin In! in i Hii|pi' utv ithiii'ii ti n I.L'irm uiiliu tinti linltnl rln \*mil nl tin M itiih ,m n I n li IMII In ainii/ 1 
.in\ inii ipn t itinM id ijKnilUi iii" 1 ti mli m^ lli.it \\hui in l w ! ili< fir,|fn\i, \r,i"ttta In MM i i|n <ln IM k o! intrn 
iliiMut* LM"|I li I'din i huii fin p'Hjk \\\in \\l\iu iiiij timnril l< iinni", iiitiu I* <un*inri(| lliil, li \, ( | IM ( ||| ( , 
inh nt inn nJ l'tli<iniul >ti rn.il ni<> tin .1 M<nifiMii tn IUMIII i rl'i ulin.iiion nl n'lntl lih'itc' nul tun 
ti|ili i*| itMiu, hit tn limit; iil'iiul 'i N \n il nl (In nnnjNjfi'l unl t il < li.tiniM<M>l tin hn i/ si l<n li lutl 1 i 
ni ' li 1 1 in itfiM |<n mi* ni llu ' jljnn nt llit* (utiuii m v* lin li Ji nl in anr n lit 1 11111*1 l>u>n i M* iiijnl tn it Ii\ ilu> 
Ilni'ln Pi inn M Nm 111 lln \,u utu , Miuuti , IMMHJI >| li\ fnniiMil An<i|n Irnli in St id IIJMI nnl nlhir SMII 
(liijit r f lit II <i . J>i ipili lift llom llu ('unit nl Dm tni nil I In .lllijM I nl rtlili ilinn, ulililih.iH 1 i h aniftlv i|ittilnf 
MI llir piMMthii" iliiipti'ii nl llu i \intk, i thin lln ti a I it n r nl ,inv (tiiilti'i\ tn m ij < rln tdin itmnil pnliM uf 
llit linti li l<ul k n in* ui . ni [im, < Kit/in" tin name ol linli.i tn Clni n imiv Imlut! in fin \nmu i Imnl , tnrl 
ctilti "i i vt hull tin Ml iiniuiin linl inmulnl ,ii tin u OUIM spin i, llu liiMi \i i . |M nl\ IMIMMH/II! .1 , iili* 
.111(1 lliOlllfllMn til lln flnitlirn nt <'hli luiiiU Intinni pill ni till mui i nl Mlilii Dili llir r ill Jlt'JHn 
tin n iiii"iM t* |HP4|1 uhiMiptinn M| nJjf'iixi jMTifili in (I'M it lint nn ui Annina a<nl li.nl tin tiiim tmi \\nli 
(la {JrummiiMl wlmlillnn i 1 - iinn, >u . niulu/nil) ailli<*inl In iln* ni i |iiniM[ih nl n li"?n'i , in uti.ilit\ nrni Inlci 
jfinii in HI it h r "1 piililH in MiHtnui 

Tli.it > IM h v\,i llu ti ' i" imiin mil l\ Mn i uili nn* n| nlluul tint uniuit fl tppi.u I hit lin> I'IUUH il of 

KillK'lltnii ui M'l'lt li, nJjuliluil iHMitnninil nil I In Inn nl lln ' nliinillliH 

PropoMiIiii Iffmlmito ivitro. n| |f|jh||| ,,,,,, Hl||ll|| | |I||-|M li|l|f| hll|1| n , (|||l IS ||1M| (l| M , 
diu-u lh Bil)lu8uH.*Hs-bot)k 

fu n|ni an" fttt n talili linn nl nl rii'ial |fin\ifi'iil ( nnul iinl u'^^hTi^ 

tli*it lln ilifili in iv \u inhiHliHfil a .1 . iih|H*I nl stinl t v intliiMla i.iu'iuin' life J i tMihiialmii 'lln littri w ih 
iLihd llu' Illi Jnl\ Mo, ,1111! I fie \hi)|iii 4 nt Tninhlali tin li I Jnu'inm nl lln I'M nl<m v (iiMiditi Mitiulf, 
iliitil tin .'ltd \ii"n i, IhltJ, fn*in \vlnh lln Inline in^ p.i ,i'-i' rujv IM tjiintid i. >H 11 \w 1ml h iijmu tin ^nl|c<t 
<d hii"li li Ki I in a* inn, nntHIn jnnp limn In intmilmi' tin* ud ( \ nt lln Itildc in Jin' Uuu iumi n! nluuiiionnl 
illufthih N 

"Kinm tin* iniiiilH*! 1 nf iuti\4 li'i"-(M"Vi s|mKui in tins PfrMiIi in\\ , il riilisitl) nl inifini luiu i\ intli |M*tiiIi*nt nf 

uHii i 1 ifN'.ntr Mhnit Unit, fine nniMi.al lnii"li MM* hV'lt Ir dimild Innu li 
of t!io Knvquw of fl|ll|lllrM M U | MM( , ,,, l|( | v llf || Mi i! nltMmiH ,t SU,K li will ul u In* ioun.l 
,,,'., f . . , 4 , , ' 

' '* ni11 lh|1 ' lf>ll lfM<111 ' nf '^i' 1 '"'""" 1 *' " "1l" Innwliihn anil tlu* 



W4<l p iiitavuiurfliiipn^cNiiil 

' nt Klin|rt, j) , tti 11 a (itf llll.ltlin' inntdllltlli' tMMMi t|nn> 



the imli\c< cniuiiHinil^ <ii(l ui|t'UiH <if iiMi I iniHiii" 1 tn rlic (Miih of fliih I'M Mifriu v I lullv 
<il tin* piniuiiu'iHi pm n in tin* 'if inly nt Kitt(lish, a<i jihtpciMrrl 

u I Uiink fin 1 'iiiii'lml li\*l !> tlu* ('nunt'il* unilrrjiri'M^it CIM urn* tarn is juiln inns , hut I wnuld.iddn 
for N|u<'al cuw^i, tlial >sln ni'Vi'i' iln* Cnntn-il nrr >HIII^MM| lliuMln 1 nia*tn nf a |iMuin'i.iJ m'lmil is iull\ t'ljiml it) 
<ln i lahk, anil CHII Inim it filial (if ^tiitiHiN <f ^uir<iMU ntt*lli"'i'tit c t In Imtilfl lie ii'f|UiHu| to timdmi I!MM 
a, nmtlimunh^, utul tiiftuinriii try, uml in nnft IIIMV mot' tlinn thr nl<*nii*his nf tccrHcfiiphy and InMur) 

11 1 nlisirvo tliiii Ouuu m at |tntjH/MUfn it ihc rnunnl fu intmiliiH* lln Miljli* nttn lln Knt'Jisli rlasfi^, MS 

1 1 mt i HIM UI|M*I! cimtiif^i' nl tii<tf lnly, (iiitu luihttliaf tin riHiuriUn^lully *ilisfn-il ftuin 
of Mfttivn HtK'Uil/ at UUN VrvjUiifoiM^, U:i( tlitw imMMJii' uill IM( infoifmr will* tin* jfrnicia) n>i'lnlnw of the richoub 
U> lb itttiivo <MwmiUttiLy *t lttT|pi ; Mut 1 uiuloiitiAitd that, ^K|wriinitHi hiM Hliown thin to U* tlic 



OF THB BIBLJ PEOniBITBj) I* GOVBfiNMEHT SDMINAKIHS flq 

I coiiMibi ihat a v*ry important proviso has been added by the Council, in* , ' That attendance on the Bible- 
Attondance on the Bible- c ^ be ^ a^ely optional ' 

class to be optional "Incartying out their proposition, it appears to me necessary that theie 

. n should be two classes for English leading, the one with, and the other without, 

Si n mn b k ' Ulai wa8 the rnle m ff ht TOtnaDy negative the advantages to be derived from the English 

4t To a\<ud all difficulties on this head, I would propose that there should be invariably two classes for English 
linir, the ono with, ajidthe otha without the Bible, the latter class to precede the f ormei m then htmr of 

insli IK turn, and those inclined should have the advantage <rf attending both closes, and in a veiy short time I bare 

no doubt jJl would belong to the Bible-class 

11 In conwdcn mg the important question of imparting education to the inhabitants of a countiy, the gzeat object 
Moral Instruction necessary lfl *' 1 a ^ Ovarnm8n * milBt always be to improve the moral ohaiacter of the 

&*bjBots over whom it inlet , whilst, at tho faame time, it oitoids facilities for 

the ,'uHivAtinn ofthou mindfi, and thobo who have been engaged in the spread of education on these principles, 

muU havo witnessed tho elevation of mind and character which attonds such a combination of mstauction 

"The value of a ichgioub and piactical education, to fit our own countiymen for the various duties of hie, ha* 

BBbgioiu Instruction advi- b6011 estdbllrilod b e y<> nd a11 doubt , and the increasing exertion which IB now 
aablo making, to rescue those living in the dark recesses of oar gieat cities at home, 

ftom the state of degradation consequent on theu vicious and depi avert habits, 

the oflspnng f)f ignorance and bensual indulgence, is tho most oonvmcmg evidence of the impoitanoe attached to 
the moral thaiactei of all classes 1 should mfei, that the ignoiance and degradation of a great bulk of the mha- 
intaiit* of this countiy lequncb a lomedy as active, to bo applied by a pzooess as simple, in oidei to elevate them 
ill the Kuilc oft human bungs, as that nooded by oui unfoztunate countrymen 

" Hwn anionjjt tlio more zespectable classes employed in the Bemco of OovBrnmBnt, wo have constant proofs 

More solid foundation of mo- that| m tlus flonnt y. ll lequues a more solid foundation than is to bo found in 

rulity roquirod for Public Ser- ^ e Hindoo or Mahomedan faith, to bear the change which leenmng opeiates 

vioo, than, that to be found in, on the mind of those who emerge out of a state of ignorance, and attain those 

Sth. 11111 * 11 ^ Mahomedan mental acqmiements which enlaiged education gives, or who mo placed by 

then supeiior ability m responsible situations in the employ of Ghmsmment "* 

These vievrs havuug been oommnmcated to the Court of Dizeotors, they conveyed their ordezs in a Des- 
t^ * v **v * i P**^ ^^ ** 2Srd Mapoh 1847 * ** Oovwnor of Madras, approving 

iJS!^ rf th P0h y f foimdu 8oh(K)lB ' ^P^bitmg the introduction of the 

Madras, dated 23rd March, Bible aa the subject of study in the Government educational institutional 
1847, prohibiting the mtroduo- The words of the Despatch on this subject are as follows 
turn oi the Bible in Govern- The Council of Education propose that tho Bible be included m the 
moat Seminaries studies of the English classes, attendance on tho Bible-class being left optional 



You Imvo HnKftCfttwV in qualification of this proposal, that there shall be two sepaiato English classes, from one of 
which the Biblo shall be excluded, and that it shall be laft optional to the students to attend either class You 
hive thought it light, however, before sanctioning either of them, to solicit our instructions aa to the dcsirable- 
neNH of thti mtwure, not only in regard to the provincial institutions, but as to its application to the University 

11 Tho Provinoiul Schools at the Madraa University are intended for the etpocml instruction of Hindoos and 
MfthomcxkuiH in tho Knghslk language and the sciences of Euiope , we cannot consider it either expedient or prudent to 
mtirtxlucc any bianch of study which can in any way interfere with the icligious feohngs and opimont of the people 
All HIU h tcndoiicy has boun carefully avoided at both the other Presidencies, wheie native education has boon suo- 
pr QHuouUttl Wo direct you, thetotore, to xefraux ftom any depaituie from the piadaoe hitherto puinued "f 
t> I** t from Notwithstanding such clear directions, the authonties in Madias appoax to 
tho natures of Madras, dated ** ave P ven Borne cause of complaint to the native inhabitants of that Presi- 
lOttk 3>eoaber, 1S52, protest- deney y who, in a petition to Parliament, dated the 10th December, 1862, 
tat acainit reUgiou* uxterfer- repreaoB-ted theu* grievances on the subject of religious partiality in education, 
no* in Sduoatlon f O u owa _ 

a Thai with referonoe to the subject of National Education, your petitioners axe anxious to bring to the notice 
of y<mr HoneumUa House certain proceedings which are now in train, in order to appropriate part of the 

M^*ftAraw*N7ft^ iheHraMof Oommoas on Indian Temtonw 5 



jjl) Eff&LIfiH EDUCATION IK INDIA 

Educational Grant towards the assistance of Missionary, or eonvorfaBing operation?, as they exist at van OTIS stations 
ihxoughout this Presidency, nndei the name of a c Grant-ix^aid System,' by which it is pioposed to extend the 
pccumaiy assistance of Government c to othei institntionn, which are now, 01 can be made, the mstnunonts r>f 
impai ting a Bound and liberal education, whethei conducted byMiwaonary bodies 01 otheis ,' with which VIPV 
the Govornment has issued A Cireulai, in the Fnbhc Department, to the difteient Uulloctoi*, in TvhicJi each is dn ecteil 
hi Mui rush the Qoveinment with the best and fullest inf carnation in you power lo^oadin^ the oducaticoial 
institutions within your distiict, ^buthei ccraduLtod by pnvato paities, 01 missionai y 01 othci public bodies / 
.uirl has fuitboi J9noidoil in Minutes ot Consultation, dated 1st Notoniboi JH32, ( The Uo\dnoi in Oonncil is nnt 
ot i>puu(*ii that any f>o\oinment Schools should hi* sot up at stations m tho pi ovmcos \\hoie puvato MiSMonai\ 
in othci jmblio fGiiund,Lio& ho-vo all cud} boon osti))hshnl, ,uid Lave boon found ad ujnati iu tlm lusti action of il' 
people To tli it opinion ho will no^v add, that lir lOUHiiUus it voiv desnablo to tvknd mnrlci ito poiuiii.n\ 
iissistani c to huc.li schools, as a mrana oi ililhisiiii; L'llntrttimi, uu soiuul and uiiiALPptiunabh fiinuijilcs, ami Iu 
pmposos that UIQ llononiahlo Cmut b^boliLiteil to eutiust tlu Goveiimmit with i disuctmiia.i> prmui im tin*. 
point ' 

b Tli lit \wu petotirnicis wonhl point ouitoi the ooiihitleiatum oi ^oui Hoiu>inah1o Flonso I hat tlnn piopusul 

Protest against appropriation ^PT 110 ! 111 * 1 ^ 1 " 11 * *^ e EilutriU(u tfnuils tn ilu hiippoit oJ C 1 lni*tMii JnsiiliHmi.% 

of Educational Fundb to Chris- \\at> io]ictc k (lb) thu Couit nl Dur'ilms, in a Disjiaiili to tin** (jn\ LMH/MMH il df rl 

tian lusututiDnfi 2kh Ai^nsl, 18d4, 111 icply ti an oflicwl application in M\,\\\ ui an instiliitiini 

at ilu I'lt'siilon^, call oil r Bishop CoiutX Oiamniai Kchocil,' on iho ^iimnd thai it <lnl not ctnut '^illun the nli,u [ 

ut the t unils sit apait ioi UK* ptoinoUnn ol natn L t'cln< ation ' There is alho on i eooid n lettn nl tlir> C'oiut ol Dun - 

tuis %ufh iihiunc*u t<> tlu k nit loflui. turn ol the Bible as a clahi Iun>k iniu Ilio hrliunls to lie ost thlishcd hum tlmst 

luiah, wluili M)S, 'The pjDVinLiftl schoolh and tho Madias UmuisiU an* intt'tiiltMl (in iho ospecul insti iu tion tri 

ttu Jlimhxjs and Miilumu'daus 111 thu English l,uiu.u>o and the Mionr ck ol Kuiopt', \vo (diuini crnihidt i 

e\f)((lion( oi piurhMit to mtindiue any blanch ol study which can in any uuv r mti'itoio ^vii>h the loli^jou 

ami upiuiuuh oi tho jKiuplc All snrh tun d racy hah boon (Miolull> avoided at bf)th the othci 1'iLsulr'iiuics, \\hoi< 

nati\c (iLncati<ni hah bcon sncccshlully piuhocutul We duett jou, HIPH^OLD, to icUamliomaii> dipaitnu hoin ih< 

pi acrtu o luthei to pin sued ' 

l( That }onj putitiuut>is hoioupim topicwiit to jom Hoiiouiahlo Ilonsi*, if it bo conliai > to tin? uitrnfcnms Jm 

which the Educational UjanL itas bostoui'il, to tlevnto aii> poitum ul it in aid 

Educational Oi nnt should ^ M Ulll i,i u i 1011 ^i ltno omui'itism is milhci pjoUhsod noi m.iriisiil -sat 
not l>o devoted to Pi osolylism 

f/onie'ri Ihiimni'ii Hilicxil, oi to pcimit tho ofiiahlihhniont ol a Kihh- 



i lai- >n nn\ nl the OnMiiniioiit Schools, aHhonqh 1h( k aUoniLmr o at hiich class was to be Irit piitucly optional with 
Mu pupils, it WDiild bo a mui'li \\ulri ilivu^cuoo iiom the object, and a uimh ^it'atoi 'intriloioiuo with tho 
ous 11 hiu^s and opinion* of tho jwr>plu,' to apply tbi hinds ospotiall> at tho dihtioiion ol thi Madias 
at dl iiiriL's tiotoioiiH toi itf> piosel)tum pnipuiiMtioq, in huppoit ol Missioiiai) hihljtutums, wlnacin tliL shid\ of (h( k 
Bible it* ncit optional, but compulsoi } , anil wliiLh aie avowedly hot on loot and niainlainod loi the sinufh 1 object ol 
coiLvt'itisniij tho pnjulh, t*> 'vthmn on tlmt aiMtimit oiluwtion JK imjMatcd liuc ot chait^t*, aud^imi politioniMh I'un- 
uoive that tho wippoit oi Hitch institutiimn b} tho (Jcnoimnent would bu jn ntluciivo of thu wruht comoqaonroh, ,,ih it 
\voulil dihtinutJy i(lcnti!> tho inliiip autlioulic'h with thc one ftiaiidebjod ol hiitli Mbnolh, tlio [JiohoTyliMii ol tbo 
thi only ililioH'ine botweon wliii h itTid tho iiiHlisquistMl pitwtuo ol convcitiMn in tho hilir/olh hiippoi loci 
In the H tale would auiniiul tiHlus (JoviMiimrnt would jia> twioo the jui k IDI a umviMt ol iK own dnrt't 
milking, which it would ha>t In pa> nndct Iho 'Cliani-m-aid, 1 to Iho sc'ininniioh nl the Mihsmnai it's , at tho MIIJC 
- wonlil placu il soli ut tho hc<id of all 1 hi 1 Afihhinniry Konotzos in Mio Pi'osidonc 1 ), doiihliny ihon potniuun 
them to IIHKMHI* tho inunbci nl thru 1 admits, anil to ovtoiul thou coiuniihiti^ oponitioiis, 
* \i*ctly 111 (iropoition to the 4 diH< lotiouaiy power' with whidi lint* Clu\c*nnuoni, in tho Mjiiulcs .il)o\p quoted, 
dohiioh tn IM) outi listed 

*'That jour pHntioiioih cannot avoid icmaikitift that the desire of the Madras (Jovcruiiiont, with voprnul to 
Complaint against tho Mar- xoudoiiiW tlir educational iiuulb comniitlod tr> il^s tinht hub.cn vient tc? blu> pin- 
quiflof Tv^edldale's Huxutaof pones oJ pixwclyfcajnn f IK of wmio Hbaudn^ Tho UaiquiH of TuoccJtklr, whiU- 
24tbAngiut > 1848 ontoiiauiinflf tho piopowtion of th<> Council nl Hilaintion, to adopt the Bible- 

& A c!aiH-book, recorded his approbation of tho meiworc*, obnofvin^, in a M mates datoil Lhoiiith Au^imfc, Jfl4o f 
4 Tha value* of a x&hgicraB and practical edooation to fat our countrymen lor tlio vanonn cUitu*. of hlo IUM boon 
beyond all doubt ,' and ngaiu, ( The reporta and ooniplumth HCI coimUntly ma.dti to (Invcrnmont agumst 



Ac iategvrty of the native lervanta, oi-o nuf&eirat ondcuoe that Homutlunpr is w&iitnift tr tnnnw foithfnl 
from thorn;' and a^ain, ( It rot^i^i a 4um Molul taandation than H to be found ja tho Hindu 



THE BIBLB KO PANACEA. FOR IMMOBALITT ^ 

1o bom the change Tihirh loaimng operates on the mind of those who are placed by then supomoi ability in respon- 
sible Mt nations in the employ oi Government ' And the present Governor in Gounod, in his Minute, appiovmg of 
tin* ' < h aiii-iu-nid ' to tho Missionaries, has deemed it expedient to record, ( Although it is, peihaps, not immediately 
H'li'iaut to tho subject of these piooeedmgs, yet as it is a momentous point in looking at the general question of 
tvinr ihrni in the Natnos the Ohmunoi in Council ib compelled to state, both fiom observation and sedulous 
111*11111 \, Hut ho haq ainvod at the conclusion, that the people of this patt of India, at least, havo neilhei, by any 
iui an*,, had thun minds uxpanded and enlarged to tho degiee that might have been anticipated thiou^h the in&trnc- 
lum uiicl 1,11*0 that lug boeii bestowed upon them, noi ha& ho seen any 6um.uent xoabon to indulge a belief that then 
iniutc jucjiulicos have been icnmwed 01 oven lessened, 01 their moial ohoaactei and senso oi voiaoity, intogiit\, 
iiir1 |)ir)])ui pimciplo, impiovod He doob not deny, but that theie may be occasional bugUt exception* , but ho ifa 
ol opinion th.it, \vhatuvci h)btemot education may be enfoiced heiaaltoi, itb chief aim ought to bo duoctod to moial 
i in^rm onujiit, combined with oxtupatiug the fool vioos ok nnti uthlnlnobB and diahouohty, which oie hazdJy now 
lit Id l)\ the* gloat manses to bo a i Dflectiou, tiniest difaooveiod ' 

'"That 3'oni jjatitionois do not considoi thib the propoi placo to lemazk upon the giatuitous insult oiforcd to 

OomDlamt a t th M i tllDfU whole cummnnity by t aa 0o\ oi iiment, m iccoi ling fruch an opinion f oi the 

quifl of Tweoddale's insulting 60 ^ PJpose of tiansmibsion to tho G-oramois o the Madias Umvoiflity, one 

language towards the ITativo hali ol whom, to tho nnmboi of auvon, aie Natives, nnilei its Constitution, but 

Community ^ C y ^^ ^ ^, b01 vo ^^ ^ ^\\ ^ Gl omoh the Gbvoinmont to taunt tho Natives 

with k llio insti lution and ciu e that has boon bestowed on them, ' whilst it has foi so manyyeazfc dodmed dibburaiuq 

one-hall o I tho oduiatioiial giant, and coutoutod itsell with keopmg up a school o[ IbO pupils, ofctablihhed so UL 

lioiii i\w tuwn uL Madias as t,o mako it iiiponvemunt J 01 pcisons to sond thou chdilten, bcfaides chaigmg a hchool fct 1 

IK >ond ihe mians oi |)a>uipnt lij tho masses and when, besidob thih 111-loui.iod and ovoi -chaining institution, theie 

is not, a Uo\finimiib School moi ,Ul thu 140,000 hi[cuiio milos computing tho Madias toiiibuiicH 

"That tlu swiopin^ conilomnation, it it bo justly founded, wlucb youi petitionois <wo lathei loth to belie, 

hoeing that Sn Homy Pottuiget has novel beeu known to mix with the 

Study oi tlio Biblo, no i><emr- ^tives, except now anil then, when ho may havo piowdcd at the Anniml 
<i QP immorality Uimuisiw Examinations, and othei hiiuh mceLiugs, and with the sorvautb ot 

Ins IKIUM hold, exhibit tho falluj ol huth the pist .iu.l ptosent (lovoinmonth, in imaofimnflf tho htndy oi tho Bibb 
in IH .1 jHtitittt'tt loi tin* 'vinsol iiiiltiithluluL'ss .mil dishonosty,' im, as tlie wholo ot Ibe jnstiiictioii aoid ooit 
IwHlowHl (Mi Uu^ Native, bvyunil that bestow ud upon tlm IGU papilb of tho Umvuisity, h,w, been Mihwonaiy oaie 
and msl nut inn, dcvoliMl to (hc'-iliuh ul fclit Hihli,aml that in thb pi upiu tiini oi tliDiihajidh to ten**, jt must be 
,i|i)MM'hf llhii flu 'Hound and unovqilionablo piuinplob ' ad7Qi*ed to in the Minute, lw\c don p litox ally nothing 
Im tin* " niui.i,] unpiovfiupnt ' oi tin* (lujnls into whoho minds they have boon F.O hedulously uistillocl , and thoieioio^ 
ihi'iiMaii hi- no valid icason ioi oxUiidin^ a ( ttiont-ui-ud 1 to institutions which have thub essentially failed, 
lull t III-IP is a v<iy hboiiff i casern agauibt hiiuh aid being given, in older to awn&tm tho convawon ol tho people, 
w il.h wluihc u h^jimh |iK,4nifpi tiud oi>mioiih Iho Ooiut ol Duectixb ho* RO hoqaenily plodgod itsoU not to mteiloio , 
Hiul \\itli m^nd ii which iho pioscnt Ohru-itM Att, piihHPcl bj tho Tmppual Pailiamrmi, onAijts andioquuos, that 
iboflfmunni-UiMiiuwlin ^ *^ piofcoctiuii of tiio Naitivofc within 

tint BriiiHh U'liitunw ltm iiihult and outid^e, in thni peHonh, leligionn, or opinion* " * 

No iiuiho Im any Hiiuh vimi|iUuut ii]ipmm to have urihwiinauy othei put of Biitibh India, noi ctoos tho aovern- 
Attompt to mtroduoe Uio mc>n ' * W to *" ^P-* 4 hom liB WIhe awl tt>^^PP^of re- 
BiUom G^ornmontSomw.!- Unions noutiahty in adoptm ff moiwui^ to piomote oiluuaticm among the 
rJOnotmadoinanyothorpait natives ol hidiit It IB mdeud tiao that tho MihHiimai ion and other teivont 
of Inditt p| u istians .wuong th^ Bnglwh olllcovs ol the Government, team time to tune, 

f cnmiml UIP viow that tho tud } ol tho 13ibli-, togrislin with olomeniwy dootunoB of Oluibtiaoxity, might bo miwto 
ivrt of an opt.unal eouw of htud} in Uovumnent Schools and Oollogob, but nook VIOWB weia invariably routed 
h UMI OdvenmuMit, vluuh ban, ibnohnin limn umluly blaaicUred by thoBo who havo atkibnted to it a pio^ytizjng 

poUcj Wie lobar opinions of the moio prommoiit waampntanb English ofuccri oC 
Aliy the V1 ew, expmbod by Sir Jftedetiok Halbday,t m ta o^donce before a Select 
ot thu HOUM) of OommnuR, m. tho 25th July, 1853 HM opinion wofl wked aa to tho piopiioty of mtco- 
ducing tho Biblo m a olw^book in the Oovemmont Sohoob, and bis onawer was M follows 

^. *f B^port of the Saleok Oonuwttw of the Home f Oonmoii. on Irifli TamtonJ , 



JwtttfftU* 



''- ENGLISH EDUCATION 1* 

Thoie rue two ways of mtrodwamr tho Bible into Hchnols One ifl i* a riass-bnolc , by which I undoittand a, 
Su STBderiokHalliday's evi- Loin - bmik ful * athllic ? thc l*MWo wicl> , that tlicv hlitmld lead out ot that 
dence before the Hotise of ln P"*"'** 1 lo IN dmop out erf any olhei Kni|lish limik Another *aj ib, that 
Commons, on 26th July, 1853, ito ) should lead out ot it intelligently, so as to inquuo, and be informed, of 
against the introduction of the the full medium; ol it, wlmh iiuohts, of com so, tho whole toAclumj oi Chiis- 
Bdjto in Government Senuna- t,^^ L cammt und , istuuil tll llr tlll u . IS iUI> tlllul w i} rf mtloducin(r |t 

Eithoi tho Rible is ti> bo itsul simply as a hook 1m tho ioachiiiq- i>i English, or 

it is to IK mid AS A moans nl acf|iuimg .L kno*loilo ol (Jhnstunilj U it bo tbo lust \\lnc h i h meant, so tii as it 
unbaionsideii!il oninolv distmet and rapable nft hum; sep.ii.ited hum UIL M iual t cue hum of Chi istumit) , I 
should ob|ocfcto it.my \frhoioasarlcsoci <tt 1011 I do not, think it is <ul\isahlo Ihat you shimhl teath little boys to 
thnmlHIieHiMi in thaL way , tluj hum to lonk upon if, in all oftoi hlo, as an alxmunatiuii Ti \\hn li Uj^ >ivoie 
iloirjrocl ami lunul tlucraifh Uiou oailv ji,us, and I Hunk IhaL that obiottnm applu quiio as rmuh ii LMiiistua 
4inuiliifs as h> luothon ouiintnos IhiL if it bo intcndi'd to initorliioo the Uibk as a tlasv-lxiuL, whuh shall bo road 
\MiIi A \u w to nisti udion in its rim times -mil that, in lad, it Mull b<- l.ho moans i>l i^nniff a kmmlof^ocil rhiih- 
haniiy, I ob|ort to it as bum;, in rny juil^mi ui, v wionif moans to a most iksnabU ond, I dcmif iimst scnoiihlj and 
oniiiolysutmfledUiutiLisliytho f uoful and systematic kwjimif nut <if (he (liiveinmoiil M<luNk umi miLol the 
OUVOHIUK nt, piuetins all inn iblo and inlluoniial aiU'inpt-H at lontois-iini, that w(^Und wlu^n wo hUuul, anil thai the 
\utmi die \villmcj to TIM r-ivo Missionai> tiwliin^ and to hoai Missionanrs, and that thc> do, in lai I, eume that 
whirh is now hrui^ht tor \vani by /ealinin poisons on that side ol t)ic (juosiuti, is i uason lot nlt<r- 
'in hitluilo puisiied hy tho (lovoinmorit ( bchr \ f,bc poisons who I ilk in that, wav, aio uttiily 
Hie huuil which has put UHMII wheie t hoy aie, and holds Hum ulim* tho> an I luluvi Iho voi^ 
loleianeo. ii us *hoy wmiotimoH cull it, mdifloioiire of the Natives to Mishioimxy tisMhm^, and Lhr> vi'iy asiHon 
why tbo Mismf indues gum i^ilei LtN*cunty and toa<h and puarh all ovoi tho touiiti), \vifhout stint 01 limit, 
without the Hh^btost intei frnvins or non oxoitm^ Uio M\WI ol the NaUv<s in uny ioat device, is thai tht 
Matmsaie thmou^hly poihinded, by a limiccimiMMir obhonntum of Uio coiulmt <l tho (iuvoiriinoiit, that tho 
wholo tiling >s a mutioi cif private ovlmitntMinand pnva<e influonc'o , and iliut the tone and mfluonoo tl tho 
<3ovornmont, wluthei iiHhoMliooK cw rmiiil the hrhoolH, ih novoi intcndid lu bo applud to that purpose Hut 
1 have a vwj Rtioiiff ronvii fdiin v Mint if any other COUIM* woio pin sued , il tho (hivoiiiniont, in tho hchoolrt or out 
of themhtmls, WLIO, by toason of tho piosmi quiot uud appiuont trdorumo ol tho Native, to attempt to oowvort 
fithoi by influence 01 by ICJIC-P, it might produuo a very wnous convulsion, which would throw tho MiMmmams 
biiok aifn'ttt num!>er of yeam"* 

Tho Biblo not to bo intro- Affain t bomif asked wliiihei lu* thought it objoriuma Wo that tbo (lowrnmOTit 
ducod ovon as an optional sub* hhould f(ivo poniiissiiui to any olasH in tho (l<>\ ornnH^t Hohools, which wuthod ii, 
jocfc in Government School* t,, UKO til Bllll ^ j u , S|U( , _ 

14 Tho meaning of that. alwayH is lr I have noun it uitom[)l^<i i*> bo introduced in a pnvaU* wluNiI, about whuJi 
theie was a^ix-at dint) of dim'imiim, that if little boyH from il to 12 JIWH old, uiidoi the mBuouoo ol the master, 
can ho gut to sny ihey weir willm ff to tx taught (UuiiiLiiuii^, Uu>y oufflit in bo Ui^ht it, without refmenc P to the 
ttillofthun piuenliH I look upon that to be tho grohWHt bad faith If you ate to dwli (JhriNliamty, lot it be 
tl.nie, not wily with tho fcnowlodtfo of the children, who aio hcriido I he quiHtiim altoifothoi', but also ol their jMu-outu 
and the ]NHipIii of thocxmntT-y; but do not oiitieo iiooplo into tho heh<ol uiidpi tho piotinond haying you will 
only teach thorn (ihtifctumity if thiim* litllr briyn wwh it, wlneli IH rinebmtc but wv^u^ tliab it H!I all bo taught at 
tlm upturn and dim rotioii of f ho ronHttir for tho time being If, howovi-r, it \M added, ' and v,\ih tbo ponniKMon of 
their |ninntH| ff which IK never added on UUR Hpouilatiun, thi'ri I nimwor that tho poimuuiion ol only ono net of 
Tianm<H f or oven tho majority of the parantu lM*longmg Unme Hcliool, would not uftVe I do nol Uimk tho 
poimiftrfoiiof oven tbo whole net of pawnta of onottchtK)! ought to Huffinsm a politt<al viw of the quoHtion, to 
indooe tho Uovornmont to alter itH yHtom. lint if, wludi m a thing not to bo looked fmward to, the 
parent! all ovtir India wore of that opinion, then tho whole anpect of tho qitoHtion w<mid bo uhaugod" f 
u Tho Biblo in vory ci&tenHively raid by the Native* , if anybody HayH, H I w^ Juw boon said in a }mj*r which 
h AH boon pat into my handH by a goutUiman in thin room, tlwt tho Itiblo m 'Hygtematioally pnwotiliod/ or 
aiitbontativoly prt^oriboU,' 1 oannot undontand tlio moaning of it, portion* who wrxto in that way nmvt 
moan awnothing wbth I wa nnablo to fathom t or they lueo nol aoquamtod yrith tho fact* It IB not true thb 
tht Bible IB prowribad in the Qovwnment Schoolg; it it put into tiiu Uovjphiruont Bohool libranoi umvorwlly, 

m 



MB MAUsiniA&'S llbSTlMOM AS TO RHLIIalUlfl HfcbTr VfilT\ 6fl 

and the students are allowed, to the lop of theu bout, to lead it from beginning to end I will not sa\ 
that they aio eDooiiiaoocl to do so , but whon you consider that thoy have to load and bo excinuxiod in Miltun 
in Johnson, in Addisnn, in Abeiciomby's Aloial Philosophy, and in a vaiioty of books of that class, and 
looking also to tho soit oi p\amnicitioii which is leqaucd of thorn, c*nd the full, complete, and com pi oh Gnaw 
knowlodiH of all tho subjects of which thoio buoks tioat, ulnuk is o\pDLtpd horn tho&o young- mem, it u pcifectlj 
cloai that tlioy ran do nothing without kiicmintr tliat vthuh appoors bpioutmq upon tho Aiuiaco of ovciy out 
oi those, books at all limes It has IICLII tinly &aid by Sn CJhoilcjs Tiovoljan, in tho Cominitteo ok tho House of 
Lends, that * r aip not conscious out sd vis to the lull p\tiut ol the amount nt Cliii&taan teaching involved in .t 
thmonqhly classiial Itiiinhsh cduuil/Lun, mdiiiLndciitljf oJ all ducc-t clients at conversion ft lenders iiocussaiv 
A, knowledge oJ the Bible, and. I 111.13 Sil Y a kiiL>>\h'do of tho ipoat dot'tunob of Chi istiamty, whuJi ihnsa ^ouuijf 
man who havo that pocuhai dusn*o to impimo thuiimohus, \\lurh is tho chaiactcnsljt of tho Natives ol .Bengal, 
azo ppiluJ.lv ablo to peipeivp, and puled I y di'suuus ni following out , tho consujuonro is, that Ihcy do jcad and 
study tho liiblc, no bnd> ol)]ecun^ tu, oi hfiiiiiliiic? in the \\Ay of tluu si) doing 1 T believe thoi u is inoi o know- 
Ipdyo ol the Uiblo in the Hindu ColU^u ol (i.iliuUa, than tliuo is in any jnibhu hubool in Mnqlaud" 1 

To thi uyuleviu of Hu Kicilriuk Ilalli(la> ni.iy br .iddnl the siatomnil ol aiinthci iiii[M*i1ant \\iincss, tJie 
Testimony of Mr John wr ^-^"^ ^ |J I |11 ^1-nkc Maislniun, wlnsi luiuhiialU loner 
Clarke Morshmm as to Jloli- in India Mas dr\oU'd piindj) Jl> l,o inatU'ih lolatni^io (dm liiunaiuJ 
gious Neutrality m G-ovoiu- mrMit, unoiit; Hie jirojilr nl India lie \\ is oviimincd hy tho Select 
men t Schools uJ Iho llnusr ot (Smiiiiiiiis on tho Hfh oi Julj, IHoil, anil hoin^ iihLicl 

tho rule was in tho (JovcinnicMLi Sihixils ns|ncfiny ii*Iiiioiis instnicfnm, stid 

bC Tho Uovi'iiimeuL ronsidus ilstlf jdislucd to tin- nnm i|ih> it pi'iit^ri muLialit) on Uio huhjcd nl 

and i(di(ious ni struct ion is thmlmc uifucly < > Mludnl lioiu tin* (iovt'ininr*nt 

His Deposition e;ivonboforo Hilumls, llu* (Mliu.itirni is nuiipliii-Iy iinhnid in mm M>I ulai In .nielli's nf 

' si " il<m Tll|i 1Jllllt ' ls *^^ s tl" ^Ilwl f and i<Mt cue is Ukcii in 
a\nid any insfiudinu vthuh mii^lil !>[> lukMpnlcd uHi a wish to use <'dutat.ioii 
ah a ini ans of prosclyhsm, oi to laiii|ici with U' itlit(if>iii laitJi ol iho hiiuk>nth 1 have* al\\a)h Ihou^ht Mi.it 
the union ol u'hqmuh ntid smilai ninhuction was al)Mliitly iiulMpi'iihahlo to a good anil c'liinjilv 
and thai thp pxeliimou of all icfuu'iiub t<> roliKiuus linili in Ihi^ (luviuimviit iiihtitutions wa a niaUpr (i voiy 
ic^ot The Natives UioniholVM alwi havu always bwn uwiiHtiiiiiwl URivutt wiy high joli^irnm tono to 
odmatiori In fact, amoiifi th JTaiiV(h tin mst'lvis, i elision IH cijiiipU>li>ly idciitiliLiI with edmatiim, thpy w HO 
faiasiio rqncMnil ovim the* vuiy alphabet asJi.ivin^ biwi ('Oiiiniunicatid to inc-ii bj the fiod , and ull the 
knowledge? winch tho Native poshes, lulalw to history, tfcogr.iphy, uHtiotiomy, or tuiy other kind of flocnlar 
inhtiudmn,ihKiv("Ji to them iinrlpr tt ipIiffioiiH MnUum *** The uitroiliiHiun of the Miblo, oi the 
doaunuh of Uhnstiaiiiiy, inLu thoho Hi'minaiH'H would ciealo tlu^riMtt'st pohhihh agiUiinn m N,iii\o Hocmty 
in tact, hurli a dpgiooul oxwU'inoniaH wo have iuvw wwi lnfuii% iai WMWP niU'iiwi than nn> Ihiiiff which wan 
laisnd upon iho quuhiicir. of 6V^rs, oi even upon HIP u-cx'ui (ioo.ihin ol tin* pahhinff ni t^ti Lihtityol 0iibui>iioe 
AoL TliiMMUiwdo\ )uity wouhl bo JUIIIIH] hy Uio libfittl pait-y, and they would iitimpiliatply ini-oL, ml piobably 
fonuakindol CommiLU^ of ioli^ioufl hafctj , Uii>y wtmhl, tlnoii^mut UipnowH]NippiH v both Ki^lihh ami Native, 
spiral tho import that the Oovornaioul,, allei haviiiK R HO limg a pc nod aric-rl upi Uio jmiipiplp of wcutiality, had 
nowcntciodupmia onihiulp nfpuiHt thiMr Million, ami that H wa ondeavoui m to uuilo UIP oducatioii of flip 
Natives UIP moaiiH of iiiOhelyUm Thw powcifuUxuly m UuliiiLU would vcty prolmbly dpUriwmcs and the 
dptprmiiiat ion would bo mippoitid by all tho HiiuliNN m dolMiUu, t*) ewluib Inmi tlio pli- of Native Hcxiety 
ovoiy individual who dured to NPIH! IIIH <liiMmi to tluwo MihiwlH, till Uio obmiMoim Mile WSH ipjii^locl Tin- 
iiiiiiidupUQii thoiofoie of UhiikLmn niHiiiidHm would bo UMHII-CO of very ffioat pmUu iiuwnwul to tho Cloveiuiapnt 
IthiuLtlioiinniptlittiooffooiof it would IIP to doHi'Uio Hulumls ami that, it would be found in wmio iiiiwiiii- In 
shako tliu cHihdtwu of the eoinmuuily in UIP nmiuU'ikuiflu oi that pinnpiplp of ielin>uH uouliuht}, \\huhihat 
piesent HO gicaL a HOUICO of poliiioal scanty 

" 1 think that another roaaon, whWi hhould not be ovet looked, may bp fciund, although it ib a HnbjiK t c,l ffi^U 

delit!ttt,y io toueh on, m the VIPWH ol wmieof those who havo huiicMiiiieiidorl 

BngUsh Professors mdaffer- th c pu blifj niHiitutions ooiiWK-lc'd with tho Htuto I tlnnk them has boon a 

ent to Christianity ^ ^^ MJfTMm upon Llm mi[U oi many, that the i'u4uhion of Chiih- 

tianity from the public inHtilations wan with them a HOUIGO of no rcgiut, *nd thftt thoy have voluntouly plao^^l in 



Fimtod Pwliwwntwy Papm (1858)' Si* floport of ha Mt OwmJtt of Uw Uuu* 0mmtii <m 
p 68 



M BNQLIflll FTTOGATION IN INDU 

\ ui j influential situations, in those institutions, mon TV ho were avo^i cdJy mdiifatont to ChiiEituuriity , and aomo who 
openly pi niosbedtho principles of infidelity I think tlut tho rhaiurtei of thopicsent Mumbers of the Commit- 
teo oi Public Jnsliuolion ntiuidg a suiliuont i>u<uantoo against the i com lencu ofr any such unpleasant and ohjac- 
hanablo pioceedmgs, but fitiil there RIB, doubtless, Rome amoii^ Liu* Eiiiopeaiifl eniploj oil as tutois in tho English 
('Dllejtpa, who icgdid tho tintliB ot Christianity with peifect mdifi (.Trace, unil \\hr>, if an appoal woio mado to them 
brany nf tho students muoiclmq thepiiiiciplos ot Chiistiamlj, would vuv likcl> ipvo p.uih an answoi as would 
iinjuu tlic \alupni those hutbs in the minds oi Lhp Natives AVemust ,ilsn iLinembei, that a my Lugo propoi- 
timi nf the ttMfliuis in tin 1 <*<i\eiiimcnt Institutions ,iro Natn i's, A* i\ temper tdbh <iud HP! I educated Natives, but 
tiill ITmilns, \\lio ilu note nnsiih i Uliiisticiiiilt to be a. Dump leu'lititin, and 1 f.iuniiL nucule tlut tluip would bo 
iiiuc'h iid\iiiiliii$L in the iiuiiluitmn ot GhnsfcLin iinth h\ MKISI \\li<> did jiol appuiMto its nnpni i wur , and that it 
would IK In tin altonc'tlici toa\oulati> did nipt to clisscminali (Inistian iiiifh in (In insiiluimns nl tlio Oovt^n- 
imiiL, %\hon time \\.is anv (Luiui'i t)f its briue> uimii]ianuHl with lonuiiks uilml.iUd in tin nn disuudit nprm the 
ilortnnos ol tho Hiljlc I think tluiso our iittisf,ins tc nil lathi't in iiuh^alr 1 tlu ic^iei iliatcvi 1 ^ suuric Ohustun 
vioiilJ oIlieMMHi 1 iiu'I iUlu e\(lu.inn ol n lu>imih insLiiulitm, lhat is, nf ii^tiiudrni in ihe tiuihs and doctimeb of 
( *lu isi Mini ^ , iiom ilio pnlilit msfiiuiions rjf I lie (Invetiimc'rit " 

HIP most siulabh* \\.i\ in (Io<e (his (Mi.ipltM is io qurrto the fnllnwinir pi*-* I'^'s I mm irinfTui.il putilirationt 
ACT Atthur Ho-woll's views fm ^ l( * ^''*M I( * * cnliKafnin in Huh h ludi.i pinu in IK5I^ h) Mi Aiihur 
on ItohgioiLS Nuutiality in Hinull (IFiului-KedHiU) In the [Jost inmi'iif of Indiaj, whose vic\\s tipnn Ua* 
Education hulijtia <lc'sci\e i>niisiili'i,i1iiiii 

b IMoTi 1 Luniq Irnha, Ijrud Willuni Hi'iidiuk h wl an n|i|u*iliinifj ol dec I mn'r, on two rneinora.bte muusums 

I hi 1 sliui. pnli(> nl ii k li!>iiiiih nnifialih, uhuliii slill uliseried in the nutter 

BoligiouH Koutrah^r doolar- f) , w , |lf H|(||| A i tljmnl (l) iht Vh , wsn | t | l( ^husK anil li\ Ilu nimnnnil 
od by Lord William Bontmok .. . M .. . ., ' . ( .. . ^ .. ,. / 

the pMiliiihlc result tij lluMiuilioM i*> nl UN ila\, thi 1 M ussi I riuin m habitant B 

of 4/alrutla petiitumed the (lowimmiit to span* ilir Madiasha, and to abstain (mm inea-iiiics fc h>sleui,itKalty thrtctcd 
towftids tho destruction ni tin lituainnMiiid n liiioiih y.tem it IsUni,' <n ilntatcrl by Un> desue fn I inward the 
VIOWH of those * who i\ish Hie con\<iMrm ol all to tln'ii 1 own laith ' Thr> (ici\cMinr-(leini il tc phrd,] 1 that 'such 
niotiTcs nc\u lia\o inilm mi'd, ni*\(i ean mllneiuc, tlio ('tuinscls ol tfu Uovunnu nt,* nnd tli.ii he \\ould feel 
unoasnioss it In* ihou^ht that the (Sii\etiiinr*nt. lUithotitus had in utiy piuf. ot iheii ronduH afforded ^iourd 
or iKtasion oi uny kind ioi hiuh an ippicluusicm to he entdfaincd |jy anv tlass of the suhjrctH of the 
Stuto ' 

fci In tht'4uiii(* spint, in nply Lo a p'litiiiifnddxss fiom UM> Mishirtnanes (lie < I in nun - (loner a 1 dt ehu ed that 

Mhc f mtila HH 'lit 1 1 piiiKiple of liiihsh iiilrs the foinpa^ 1 ! to uhich the fio\ern- 

Bolmious Neutrality ro-of- 1||W||| sinn(|H sn | (l|nu | y j.u.,1^,1, is slucL ni-utjalily To this mipnttant niawm, 

polity U4 well fth ^ootl fa.ilh fmve enjoininj upon me the moHt hotupulous 

ftl)B(>rva.mr The flami' maxim m peenli,iily ap[)lu*aljlt' ir j^eneial eduea(,joii In all schools inn I erdle^H sup- 
ported by finrmuiUTLl thin jniiieiph' O.ITI not be too KUnn^ly cnloieid t all mleileieme nd ui|uduious Umpiring 1 
with tho ielu*iniiH hilnl of the hbiuh nts, all mingling dnectoi mditu'ir Lear hin^ of tlhiihtia-iuty wi!>h the syhtem 
of losirut turn, oiipjht fo Tie pchit.i\ely fothicUlen * 

DoBpatohof Iho Court of Dx- u It may not be ouf of plaee Ui leeonl hero how Uu*hO bontunonts of Lord 
rectors, datod 13th April, 185 H, William Ilenliiick'n weie cnrtfurnod Lwenty-thrve yearn aitxrw.u'dh, in one* of 
as to strict Religious Neutrality t | MI | ttHt n f , S |,ul t hesfc issued iinrn the (Joint oi Dmt-lurs 

* q^|, riovetnment will iidhcie, with goixl iaitlu to its nu< u k ii puliry of JK iir< I neutmhty in inntU I'M affecting 
the nhu{ii)u of the people of India, and \M nir>st. euinest.l) niution nil t.hos( k in authority under it, not l.o a II or d, by 
then condiu'l,, the IMS*, (olor ti the siispieion thai Mint polii v IMS undeiyouo ot will iindei^o iui} change 

41 ' It !H pci ilons for men in autlioi ii> 1o do as nuln Hlunlh Lliat whifh (Itey (IIieuJly tondemn Tho intention of 
the Qovonuiir'iil null be infentMl fi<oni LheiraetH, anil Uwy may unwillingly t i \pnnr it to the ^feuteht of all dangon, 
that of Iminpf ix'^anlerl with j^ineiaJ dihttuht* by the pen pin 

" * Wo roly upon the hrmomble feelni^H whieb lm\o ever djtin^uhhr*<t our Kervieo for the fiu*tlieraiiro of 
t/ho vwwR which wc oxpi^SH When tho Hovernment of Indminufcen u pfomjst* to tho |Kioplo, thoiH) muat not be 
.iflordod to them grouudo for a douhl UR to lU fidelity to ita word * 

rrintPil Pwlawontajy P|KirA (1803) B\xlh Bqjort of tho Seloct Oommitloo of the Honm of Oommonn on Indian IVmtoito*, 
pp SO, 57 

t B'tN0n/iim t J?nfuH Tn&l* prior to ISM By Arthur ttowdl, IBiiq f 1$W ; pp 89 38 

J DM 0th Much, 1036, | No, B3, UiiUd K$th April, 1868 



RELIGIOUS MUTTTEyiLITT IK G07BEKMHNT SHVINiBIBS tfi> 

' h I have quoted this Despatch which, as u well known, waa strongly re-affiimed on the tianafei of the sove- 

Beheious Neutrality 1B1 8 n ^ to *k Crown, in oider to show how fiim is the basi& of that mobt 

dered oonai- renaariortjig future in Indian education, the Religions Neutrality of the Gov- 

emment This featme is no donbt a lehc of the extreme apprehension which 

pi evailpd in 1793, and ^vhothwr its onginal declaration was a wise one or not is far too deep and many-sided a ques- 
tion to be discussed heio We must accept the fart as we find it But it is, I believe, absolutely without piecedent 
01 parallel elsewheie, besides being entirely opposed to the tiaditional idea of education cm i ant in the East lu 
Boiupo, it is almost an axiom that the 'onnoction of any State system of education with lehgion is not the msie 
iGsult of ti edition 9 l ' it is an indissoluble union, the bonds of which are principles inseparable -horn tlio natnxo of 
education ' Tun is admitted alino<> univui sally Even the French system is religious, not in the sense m which 
all Emopuui systems pi of ess to be moio 01 IBSS so, in inculcating the piecepts of a certain universal and indisput- 
able moiahty , but in incubating moiality in tho only way in which tire masses of mankind will ever admit it, in 
its ronncrtiuu with the doctrine* oL ichqiun In Holland, pumaiy instiuction was decided in a much dtbatod law 
to bo designed to tiam ' tn the P\OILU*B of all Christian and social virtues,' while leflpeotm^ the convictions of Difi- 
Tn Switzerland, iphqiou stands on tho same footing as leading, writing, giammai and aiithmetic, as a 
part of tlie scheme In Qmmaiiy, generally, leligion still forms, as it has always dono, tho hist and 
staple fi abject ul tho elemental 7 school, and the i elision of tho master must be m confoimity with Hut ol the 
ma|uiity ot Ins pupils The Amwican system, while lepudiating all dociiiiuvl 01 dogmatic teaching, provides 
evoi)wlime fui tbo ios*nldi daily icadiiig ol tho Biblo and ioi piayoi And, lastly, tho iiomois of the English 
Education Ad, JH7IJ, have boon able to assume ah a mattui of com SB tliat eyory elemental y school would be 0011- 
noctod \\ith a icLo^iisiul ichgious donomiuatiuii, a*nd that Goreinmout aid might, thcueioio, bo oftoiod to all alike 
tm hULiilai cduitttinti only f 

" In lurlia, ii(jt only is tlicic nu i ohgiouh toaclnng of .uiy Imcl in GoYuimuoiit Schools, but oven tlio aided schools 
No religious teaohing m under native managers, aio geuei ally adopting tho samp principle I believe 
Government Schools this icsult was novor anticipated, and I am MUO ititquues attention Looking 

to tlio iapiil (jrtiwtli ol oui educational syfltem, and to the enoimous mfluenoo foi good or evil that a single able and 
wdl-odiu.iliL'd man ma) OAoicise ia this countiy, and looking to the denso but uiflamnLiible ignmance of the 
millions aiound DA, it hoeiru a tiomourlous expeiunent foi th? State toundeitake, and in some Pi ovuicos almost 
monopolise, tho dnoct tiainiu^ of whole goneiations above then own cieod, and above that sense of relation to 
<uu>tlu k i wuild upuu winch they base all then moial obligations, and tho possible tml is obviuosLy growing with 
UIP system It is UQO tliat things go Hinoothly and quietly, but this is attruned by ignoiing not only the inevitable 
n Hulls ol uaily tiaiiunu; on tlio olicuattoi, and tho gicat needs of human nature, especially in the Hast, but by also 
it* timing the* i L'spimsibihty \\lnuK devolves on tho G-oveinment that assumes the ontuo contiol of direct education 
at. all fl, tbcHuioie, while ftinaticism IB i aging around, there is a calm m our schools and colleges, it ia an 
ommonfl anil auiialmal culm, ol luipossible continuance tho calm of tho centre of the Cyclone 

" Tlio Hubjuot is 0110 at oxtromo difficulty, that grows with the considQtafcirai devoted to it Of oourse, it is 

out of the question to recede in any degree bom the plodgen of the past , 
B " anaiti w P ltob<lbl0 thot the ^ u lefls seiiousinpiimary schools whwo the 
tosiauotion given does not ueoeassarily destzoy roligious belief, whereas our 
higher instruction does Theipfoio, aJthoogh the State may establish and maintain Piimary Schools, where no local 
effort IB foithoomiug, it would still seem vezy desirable that it should retire as rapidly and as completely aa 
practicable from the ontuo control of all direct instruction, and especially higher instraction, and leave it to local 
managomont, to be encouiagt'd by tho State, ami aided in conformity with the English principle, which, without any 
intorfsiutico m tho zoligioun induction im pat ted, praotitally ensuies, by the constitution of the Local Boards, that 
noine religions insttuotion IH regularly given," J 



By 811 J E Shnttleworth, p 290 
t Mr aiftditono'iipeoth 7/cwaaid,Yol 0011, p 267 
J JAttatto* tn Bntoh India poi to 18*4 By Aibhnr Howoll, Oiq, , 1S72 , pp BS-3B 



6 



BDDJAT10S IR IHJ>H 



CHAPTER XIII. 

EFFECTS OF PURBLT SEOUL VR HNOLTHH BDUOATION ON THE N \TIVK MTM"D VTEW OP 
MR MAUSini VN AND HIR OIIARLJAS TRHVKLYAN AH TO THH DJI IIR4TI ANNS ING INFLUENCE 
OP UNtHJHIT HDUCUTION MR JirnVKIJ/fl VIKWH AR TCI TUB KIKHT HWHOTS OF 
VNUL1HH AND ULHHLONAHT TKAfllUNO --T1IH U 11HAI1UO H UIA J " UOVKUKNT 



Bto Thp cfl(d * lllrh * P UI(l| >" l- K^li msliuiliou lucl upon the 

thu efloa of purely soouleu minds cif the nutnc htndonis, was also tin Milijutol .1 c|iii'stii)u m unh l 
English Education vhidiMi Maishman *aid - 

8 I Hunk, jJtlumuh (Jhiisl.ia.mty istfiiLiul) cvf huh d limn thr> fjo\nnmiiit Institutions, irllln> msf incline 
*liuh ismn in Hum has h.ulllu ft pllwlul i iismu tin- Native inlimlt I) alm\i> tlnn m>n nm | 
lew ril tlinsi whn h,h\i> u>ri*i\td b niiuph'ta itliicithnii ,it the (iriic'imiiPiit Instituting \> ho ilo nni Imlil 
iiiil piiii<iiili*s ol Ilmdiioism in IlioiiKist. fhuioi^li (nulnmpt. Anil tins is iasil ( \ ,i((uniiti>il loi , im ,,]! u, llh(1 

uul .istiLiiiciniH.il, iiiul hihiotic'.!! iiiliMiiililiis \\lui h .110 In |H>M il h\ tin Ilini|, M , f) h <l 
tin* Mfrs/riH Tin* Nairn* ohduns lus icl^mus fiinl limn flic sinic rtuirf a- Ins M n jitifji* 1 
lioiu Ilii* smu liinilo \\huh ,is Mi MiM.iulii> iiinriticmiMl in Jus Mnmfc nn Kilnr ,jf HHI tr.uli Juin 
ofsiMsot iti it'll anil stub cii cUiiftutl Imlioi Nnw, \vlicn iht Nih\o finiUtliil. tlu i \isti iiMioHJn w . wo SIW| 
and, link ill, alltlu* J.ii'ts H^udini? ifiMiitupliy anil liiitmy (|iu>n in (lu> NAti'lw* anuifiulv fiiluilniis , when* 
In-- hith is ^Inl MI in om> (NH^IINI I the svstcm, it i. si an oh pnssihli (li.ji id sJiDiiM nut, ,,1,,, |,, shikuj in 
Hm-li lus IKVII nij c*\pi ic IMP, lh.it Mn 1 fctuily ul Kn^Iish litriatnns and tlir knnv\lu|n ( O l Kmopiaii 
wluvh ihnhianuui l>v th l Nili\i% .lUhnuuh iiii,iiiiim|Miiuil \\ith nli"iniis inslnu hfin ui in^nirlion in (hi- 
(iMMitwti.unLy, has piuducorl tlir HUM** olio(t nl sliakin tlic hUuirol Ihihlooisjn ( if , u i y Joundalmn , 
tin* nulimlic'sulLwIiiih has thus lolluwnl tlu < \fiiinns of Ilir (insniunrnt in ilu (.msi* nl 
A*. lh*Mim*iimisloiiftlif.1ii rrifiifiun that Umsi iNiii\' nlm li,i\i> im*i\ci| 

ii, mid I hi out- h that cdmafion havt* hwi laisi'd ahnvt* ilu ahsniditn of Hint cmd, air still loniul tr> 
pnluips, ihc* imisi si minims opponents l (iliiishamiy , andllii* Missiriuaiii*s lint luu.ukid Uraf. tln^ do not 
rncounld mm L^M i on in mh opposition liom any das^ tJian Ui.it oi cdiM.il^l na(iM< >iMitlis Anil jt, is tri tins 
ciiniinsianii, that is, to the Native lt*unq IICHII laiswl aliiw Llu>u o\\n sii|irMshiii)iis i-n^^l, without vnilnwing 
< ( hnstnwiil\ Mut \voa\o to aUiihutf UII>MHNI< hiu VMS, \* hicli has uflf>mli .1 lln* affnnipMn iMiililmhUut sort, 
ni \ inlaiitists, cniuiniillv f'Wid* ' *>Y '< Midiun lloy Tins SH t, ut. tln> pii m ni IMJIP ini-liif|rH 1 U)1) or 'HM) of Uic 
i/ii^ hc^t ccliUMtiMl KiUvfsiii Uiihiilln, and no(Jlinsti,i tan Jibuti i\w popular iiloLili> ol tho rounl,iy with 
fa-limiMuruiialu nmUMnpt than t his Uidy ol Vnlantists, \\lio pi-olrss to dime lh< (lorlnni DJ MW (iod ' horn 
Un> Vwlus Tluy havi- ihUhlislud A <!hapi4 in <Lih utt'i, when* tin v luiM M<'<-| I; nn fliimH, untl whfic 
liytmiM liuiii tho Vwlwi uicMh.uihHl, and tnmn< [-ininc'iiL Hiiiliiuin nmnnlcd \M\\I HJHI SmiH 

riwnwl hPiilrarr'' fiom (h< Vnlun, and <*\]ilanih it to ilio assign bird iiudnmi*, aiul eiidiwouiH to 
ils tl<K-tnnc upon Ihwi 1 WMIIH HIIIIH " * 
Upon fiho milip'ct ol idiftinun mhtimtimi in the (Jovnnmont Institutions, nnd UK cxl^nl to wln<h a kiiowhttyii 
Sir Oh.ir!DTi-ovoIyan'ii Views ol l " <tt *' wlll *r * uwiiiiml liy UN* studrnlhoi Mnnlish lHi>iiiLiiii, without Um 
as tt> rohgioua WHtiuotion 111 |{|lll(l ^'"K M^iudnl im u ilash-liiKik, nnd ulxo upon U.IMIH ut^ ol tlu> poluty 
Government Bommanofl for oi (InvninniMit ui this muliiM, the tads ami npimonH M^tnl } t y M , finuui'ni a 
teaolang Jdnglifth, ^^ , nuu us ,s n <;j la , | c , s Tn'Vi'hmi, in hih <l< jiosihon hi f mc a 

i('CM>r ihu MoiiHrof htirds, un ihiiIKUi June, lHfi,J, dcwmu spinal atlnnhnn, nnd nt.^ |>c qiiu^il lioro UB 
ounhulcittldo hfi;ht upon thu sufi|o<t, its it was f hen (onnnl<Ms>[] and limMihKi il lit* said * 

14 TV IliWn IH mit <rlnut.U)d OH a I'lass-hook into Lho (iovenunont Kcrrmunw Tliw i M)< liiW bcon ohjoc'tod to, 
aH implying hcmtihty tc the pn^ciSK of Ohrihiuiri truth , but nc opinion WUH ovci UMII^ njiM^km Whun wo lormod 
Knj^lihh liln'Wiofi in connexion with ihu iliffwtmt Oovcnimoiit uihtitutum^ on tluMtM^unissiition ol tho nysioin oi 
iiiHtt uofiinn, ftftor tho IluHolution of IKto, tlia Ihbki WUH pl/wtid in all tho hhritncH j unil, X understand that H w now 
dwiroii tliat AUnt f H, and other Ooxomoatarlon on tho Bibld, should also bu pluood ihotts **> which 1 HOC no objooUon ; nor 

* Mttiwl I'Mlkftmentavjr ?pri (1858) SM^ Koport of the Sttat OomiuIttM of tta HOOM of Oommoni on Induw 
p. 26. 



SIB CHABLHB TBHYTDLYAtf'tf VIJEWS AS TO RJCLIGinu3 INtiTR00TlD3T 67 

ih bhei B any objection to the best leligious books being placed ttei e As haq been all eady stated, the books of English 
liteiatuie which uo oiduuuily studied m the Govoiament Semiuanes, 3uch ab Milton, Bacon, Locke, Addison, and 
Johnfioii, aie lepleto with allusions to the Bible, and fiociuent leteience to the Bible is indispensably necessaiy in 
oidoito tl'cu boinq piopcily nndei stood The Bible is, at LOT dingly, umqtantly lefened to by the tea-cheis and 
students, m tlio coniSB oi theu induction, and it is oft&u ionnd at tho evuniuation^ that the young men have in 
tins -way, and l>r leading thp Bible out of bchool, acquiied a consideiab^e amount of Chiislian knowledge Tlieie is 
no icstnrtion whatovci to pie<veut it In lefeience to this pait oi tLo subject, I beg to lead the following GYtiact 
IiumMi Koii'h Hi /u^/ A T u/ai' JStlntatirw in Bf vqul fimUfjnt' ' In noneut tho iule*iocentlv implied is theic 
dii^ such ))i ulnbition , and, m pi actiec, thu teachei is Jclt at hboity to spoak to his pupils on 3 cligion, oa rjhiistiamt^ 
un the ill stunt evidences of Chnstianit}, with noaily the bomofioodom A* he. might do m * theoloGical &ominai> 
In institutions -\\beie Alillon and Addison and Johnson aiu class-books, it i* impossible to abstain tioiu all lefeience 
ft) iriiqinn Bacon's woik*, too, wluch foim one of om text-brinks, tho Esia 'S, the Ail\ a-ucement of Looming, aiul 
men Ilip K"nt urn Oiqaiiw.i, aia inJl of Smptui il illustiations ioi tho piopei umlcist.in(linq of vlnih tho atndciit 
DiusiLciDhiicAtn tho JUiUe Tt mvy bo aildLd, thai OTU tr^t-boi>kb mi Moml PLiloiiiphy uo wholly ChiisticUi 
in tluii ipuit md tenilciiL\ In Aljeicimnbio's Litollechnl Po\a*is rt inch r, Ldi*-lail^ sbuduil in itlioui coitaJ 
Jiioul, fchtMO is a distinct ohaptoi on the KvidimuLs of Chii^hauiiy Ju thi i unc .'titlioi s nu " , ou the moi.il 
tot'lin^s, A\hiJi ib also sturhid \vilbout nmiitiutr* iuy piii; o/it, llio (MstLiito divl dtinbutes of Guil, J Jio itlt\tioi 
oi mail to Onil, the piobalnhty ol a Dniuo EcvuLiiioii, the mtuio nnl piovmco ol F.uth all netvcd 111 a I'lnis- 
ii.m hi^ldi aiu homo ot thu sub jcits which loiiit 1 undei ieMi k \v, jni ^IncU OHJ btiidLut? aie oz^ei ted to mastui 
Even Adwii Smith s A\oik, ^hich does nut iliucllj r tonrh on leliiiioii, is Lull ol noMo, aiid \vliat may tiTily bt 
tallwl, Uluiitiiji suiitimenfs I do not pi usume lo say that ioliiion tniiusas iiiuiuiin-nb ,i li aicli ol study m iLe 
Uo\eiiiuiLut Collenes as in tno ^[issiuuai> lushlutinns Bnt nuithci is it cMlndetl \\ith tint jtilo as uue that 
is soniLlimus supplied Tlio piiiiiiuy closign ul thu Goveiuniont scheme ol education is to ad\aaop the pingross 
ot civiliMtion in India by Lho diJtnsrjn of Uboful knowlodqc, as tke plu.t^e is qonenl]} understood Tho dcsit^n 
of tbu Alissjon,u> Institutions is iu convut the Natives to Ohijstaiuty TLe t\\o objects aie ilisiinci, but 
thoy air by no nuanft opposed to oiie anothci ' It is aiVLed as a note heio, 'Addison closes the E&aay 
No 7 oj 'TLe Spoctatoi,' iu a sla.uu ol hmious piety 'I know bat ono way 1 &ayq he, 'uf 1 foitilying my 
soul ai iiust thefiO gloomy pi as ij^os anil tonois ot mind, and that is by firu tiling to m\sulf the lueiulship aoiil 
of that Duuuj \\ho dinposos oi events aoid tu veins lufcunty Wlioii [ Lij mo down to sleep, f icconi- 
m> hull to his r ,u G , whoii 1 awake, 1 give in} soil up to his dueclion ' Can an> uno doubt that it must be 
to Hmduu htuduuts, m a loligious and moial point of view, to loa/L such pash^cs P AVhen tlie Es^ay 
was load, not loni* ai>o, in uuo oEtlie Gollegos, tho tcacbci told hu btndcuts tliai, thonqh Hindoos, the*} mii>bt well 
imitaiuthc o\aiii()l( k oi Addison, c -\\hou they Uy tlioms elves down to sleep, lecommciidimi thtmM'heB to Qod\ 
ou*o , anil wlu n i lify awakn, giving thorns oh cs up to His dn ochon ' To this, as they alwn.) h ilo v, lien the eonvei- 
nahion tujus ujiuu ieh<*ious hubjcctb, tliuy hsteueil -vuth scuous attention It is soniotuncs sairl that tho ednualiou 
we qivo nukes oni students srepiiudl It does m.iko them floptical bceptiuJ oj a.11 those tlcgnrbnq ideas with 
which tho notion ot A Duii} i* dbSDiiatod iu Hmcloo nuutK ' l ' ' 'In tho iiiht placn, tho eJJmts of the 
oduiatiDiial autliujitioh, aud ot timbe immodiately oiuj.i^ed m tho bnsmoss ol uihtimtion, ai c systomatitaUy 
durctud towauls the objoct of commuuu atuiij tiuth in hihtoi ical, philobojilucJ, and MJoutiiio bnbjeets Aio the 
opponents ol tlio Qovennnont bystem piopaied to &o,y that tha u>mmonicaiiuu o/ ttuo knowledge on these subject** 
haM a tendency nnhivouiable to bchol in tiuo lehgion v It would bo uiueaRontible tu bupposo that it hdH any such 
tondiuxy Secondly, it is hUtcil, that wo take hum tho Hindoos iheii o\\n belief, and give them nothing in Jts 
pliico It js tine, tluil tbe knuwledqo we cuiiiniunicatL* cluois the Hindoo nund oi much that 16 liivolon& Find false 
in then <mu loliyious b>btom But it cannot be admitted that it shakes in the lua&t Ihuu boliel m thoho piineipleb 
which foim tho ( oat i elation ot all ichqion, buch ab tho oxistonco of God, tho gieatiicss and, goudiiesH ol Uod, the pio- 
vidoncc* of CJoil, th e pi nbability ol a tutoi o fctato of i owavds and pmahlnncnls So lai It om 1 hose iu valuable pi inciyles 
being 1 Fihakoii by 0111 systoux ot cdueabiun, tlioj aie bioii^bt into cloaiei Uqlit by if, and belief m thorn ih contained. 
If our hybtcm bad, mdeorl, tlio efloct oi dopiiving tlio Ifrndoos oi tlicii behef in these pimupleB, and of tlic hopob built 
upon thorn, it might lauly be deuouncod as most peimcious Thiidly, il nve look at actual lebulte, it -will be found 
that of tho well-odmatod couvoifo to Chiiftumtj, noaily as many have come fiom the Hindoo Coll 030 and othez 
Govoxnment Institutions, as horn tho Mibbionaiy Kemintuios Tho fact i& genei ally admitted , and pei haps it us 
not 60 strange aa may at nrbt ap]ioai In the Miwuonaiy Seminaiies religious inBtraoinon is coinmenoed at an 
early age, before the uncteifltandmg IB upe for itb leoephon The youths aie sygtematicikUy dulled in Onte- 
clusms and m the Bvidencoi of Ghrmtiauity. They acquire a habit of listening with appar&nfc attention, of 
admitting every flung that the teacher requires , of answwmg quedaona on rehgiou, by rote, without any 



rnu CATION iv uniA 

*j\Gin=Gnf the iiiidei standing Tn AOTD.B cases a hnlnt of dissimulation IP Joimpd, nnkrirron to the Missionary, 
who, unconsciously, and hoin tie Lost motuos, lias tcon cultn iting nno of tlie piommont vices of tlionatm 
chaiactui Jt 19 Much needless lo ]inint out tL.it tlio youth in A\Uom this habit of dissimulation ib toimed, 
is most unlikely crv 01 lo act uiLh manlmLSb, 01 to du ui}tluii> Iliat demands Q saciihu.*, finrh ah couvei-sion to 
Clmstioruty -\ciy olton demands Fiom nil tlioso tlaiiqois tho Oincinnirnt institutions aio lice The piinciplos 
ol a, huoiqn idii>ion aio nut niessed pi eiu.ihu ol} nprni nuii|it muuls The pupils aic oxpctlod im no occasion 
to evpipsF, iv hit the\ dn nni klmc AVheii lho\ bcim, ul tliiu o\\n act mil, to tain tlu.u atttntion to tin 
Clnisliiin iLlinnm 1i> t uti i nitu ruin usatirm, ,ind to iiad 1>nuk<i upon the. hiili|< it, it is \\ith j "kuui idish mil \\itL 
miiLils mil mil ul lijk lul 'its unl.iMi'ii ilik In a sinrnc leiopLwn nl r luii]i r j lie cnn^iqiuniL is, thai simiu ol tin 
most nil ( llioi ill animu> tin in, \(jlmii mh, md hum tin 1 pnust nn>1i\is, cnilji it" C'Jji istian \ \ ' 1 umu ivi 
tint it nun M nut hi 1 foi ihu .idNiutit>c nl f^iM^iian ti alii that HIL HiljJi' slimild b< 1ji>i j ul is a k k simi-li(Mik 
hn Icuiiini^ ii uad Tlio h^tiMu oi icadiniii llit k Ihlih* <>s an oidiii.ii) dass-h(nk is 'in\\ L,'unill^ io]iiit,d 
li\ PLISKILS \\lio ici T ( an uiliic-t in cclm.'ioii ^ r L would not ti u li it 1u nni OAMI dulduu in 1lnj uiannci 
In onliM that the Uilih iua\ In sun t'sslull) t infill, trai hi is should IK* ht'httod \\lio h i\t nnl onK i satisl iLto.i 
kim\\lul",i ot tlu i ili K tinii * nl flu liihli*, lull ulmluu llii'ii JiiMit in ilii nhjiLt and sinoi ii'h diMii itssmu s li> 
nilici uuMls, il th' Ilihh \\\ ii 1 In lie ( uiuht in ilu (!II\LI Jinund SdiiiiiaiiUN it VNualil In ucu'Siin tn (i'4,un/c tlifiii 
Im tliiohiNii \\ insliinfinn, in tin* maimiM in \\liuli 111 l)uli\ uid nllui MI^KIINM sdinolsau (ii^ui' til 11 Uu 
UiMc \\IML laii'Jit in a i.i'ilni, jiiMlmit lni> anil iui k \uint iiiiniui li\ a uinmnin inasii'i, ii a uninnni' dass 
hunk, it \\niili 1 h IM 111 iii|iniMiLi i Hi 1 1 ii])rHi Ilii* \nmi<4 *Nah\us, 1^ jinuliir in^ a d< uliu ss UK I inililliimu m hilmn i 
anil il, hi \niul Ih t lln [iii-ioii". cin[i]f\nl io Ii till ihc VJilik 'Mii'iinl Ilu ms( l\( * turn] t'lu i-,ii 1111, andtlim 
liJ( anil (iindinl \MM i k nnl cmilm in ihlc In \\hil MM \ I ui>lil il uonlil Ii m a most |u i UK inns illut ujjon ilu 
VIMI in P l(i tin 1 NiliM (hildnn iii flu'iiuh icuti, .unl an k \n\ i>nuil jii'li-is ol ihaiiflii I (In u loir 
dunk il ^ould l/i In lidtd that tin i L ilmnU ho a iliii^mn ul lilmiu in this ^ \\\ II as in ntln i M^h j ((l^, ill it 
HIP <lmu mm nl slimilil lonliiiiii in 'j,n, ,is h it Ilu *, nali l> 4 in, in Uu in^ii in hun ^ncn h) thtin, llni is, that 
llit>) should l*iv( tlu lust poiiihh piutuil L'dirial (diualinn, \\illi a liu k ndl\ lot hni> tnwaids ('linsliau Ii utli, 
in i oniiiuiii ^itli all iithci hulli, mil Hi il> tlu 1 Missiihiancs, anil nlhiMh, niou 1 mimuliali 1\ intn rsii'il in the JMO- 
t>iobs ul CJLusti inil\, slionM t i,k( ii\\ IIUMII^ llio> lliuiL piujMt hit nihliin linu and influnuuio tin* \oiinu 
nun sii hi uii'jht up Tin \ nii^ht il lh(>\ tloii^ht pMipi i islihli*.li a Ii i tin i-inimi o]ipnsilc <v(i> '''^ <il l^c 
(i(i\i>imiunt histitutiuns, a- Mi Dull dul, njipDHic tlu k Hindi' ( 1 oll("jf Tin \ nu^lii distiilnitr liililcs md 
anil Ixidl s <m tin Kt nliMiu" nl rin isii.unii , hi ui\ i^lrni Ihcv llnnl piojioi , md I am s Hisliod 
in ihii m nun i, il riiusi'uiitN hisa'hii (u Id and nu linom/ id inii^l iilhinaJL'l) pn \ ill A 1 - limn is tin nhl 
s>i(< in, a(H)Mlm<4 tn \\lmh 1 1. \\ i . In Id In hi (hi* dul\ cjl lln> in i n i^l,i ali In h inaintain tinlh/ at \ull as to *i Mini i 
luslnt 1 . 1 pm.uhd, tin mifli'] ^ is cvlirinrh ^nnph 1 , anil the iisonm>s nl (hr k Sl.ilt* ucic oniplnvl niiiailiui(> tin* 
pn hi nl u opiiiiiins IK Id l> thosi \\lio h ippc ued to hu in tin 1 pnssissiiinnl tlu fln\i iiinicnt Init sun r th< pim- 
ci|hMj! tnh>tation Ins iH'cn LhdiMisluMl, limn thi 1 UiltHnniMiii ilo\\m\ u ili, \ii\ (nnsnh i ihl* inodilnatinns ha\L k 
licc'ii made 111 ihr pnniip1( k Tlu SuiMi and lush ('ulh',! 1 aicrnu iihiililn .linn, and il ispu'usd} niHlui nmdol 
that tln k (InMinniiMil di inin.iiii's uc i si i Mi. hod , ilia I. is, llu'f ilic Nouiit- nu n allonil tlu in <Ktih, livuio at tin n n\vn 
lioiuis, (Ji in plan's pin\uli k d h) Lin n H'latiuim m JuiMids, and ICHHU' Midi ii'li^inus inshudinn ah thin ji'latnms, 
and othiMs niK'iislt'd in thiMt vsc'll tn 1 , ilmil pinpi k i Tin l l in\ OOUIK il s> ili'tn, in its d CM 1 11114 ^ l ^'' ^ J 
isaiintluM nioihlu itiun nl tin nijninil pniuipli' Thai alsn I pinpnH>1n iaki ah tlic nuiih I of an advancvd 
loi a i isliny and (^tiMidin^ tdiK itmn in India r riu r^li u'fs limn flu 1 liihln in UK* hi hnnls in hclnnl Im in aiinlhoi 
inst.uuo, lint I dn not flunk it- \ill lu* pmpnsnl iu i\<<>uil flul h> Jem tn India Now, if it IIH IUMMI muossary 
Unit tlu n sliniild hi a >in pi mn lit* nl llus kind in hjiP^Kiiul, and in lln United Kingdom, \\hi'n ihc idi'jinus dillot 
(MMis ai( only ininm dilh'iciKc-t on UK nnn-ossi'iifjial pmnti nl (Mil ihii.nni), hn\v inudi moii> jun'ish.uj in ibin 
India, vluic tlu diJlcnn<c is Itftwt'rii riiMs(i,inil> and its opposite, - Hitulouisin and M.ihtniH daninin A -very 
nhuisililc ;>///</ Itttn ai*>uiii(Mit nn^hi IK adduced cd Huh kind It iuii>hl lii haul, hiipposo Uiat in any p*n fu ulai 
dihtiut ul Hulish India, Dai t*\ im instance, i \\u-f In ids ol tlieNativis ol the pla< i 1 Mi'ic 1 vullnm that tlio Hiblo 
Im inlmdnuil niiu tin* (Invi'iniiunt Onllext', vdut solid nh|edum ean theit* he in thut. c<isot() its mti-o- 
My .viih\\ei m, (hat il tlio h.uua Ihsliut < innprt'liindi'd Uu 1 whole nl hi itish India, certainly tlio pnmt 
ou^hL to lit* yiolilud, hooaun* it is deaily 0111 dutyio^ivo tlio Natives tlio hcst itmtriution which, on alai^f and 
Brmiid view ol than pioviulmq diH|n)Hitinn, tlioj ait 4 willing tr> irccuo Hut llio Diucn Distuct IH not tlio whole 
of Bntish India Thoro uro hundtoils crl other distiirtn whuh <uo in \nv> unoqnal H^^OH of advaiKOincnt Fn 
moHt ol thorn the NattvoN uio still, loli^iniiHly coiiMdonnl, in a vory unicfni'niod, uiiarlvancod, uud nonhjtivo fltatQ , 
and it tho Butirih Government should d(pait. in auy one uihtaiico Uom tho gii^it pi'incinle ol roliffioiiH noutrflhiy, 
upon wHoh it has constantly acted, up to tho ptonoat time, tho> vouJd bocomo aeixouwly alutmod And it, beudas 



SIR CHARLES TRFVUHiYAK 1 *! VIEWS AS TO UEKIBTIANIZnrG DTOUBNCIB OF ENGLISH 69 

thai, conveisions took place in tho Dacca Dutiict, in consequence of the system contended f DI being adopted, -which 
is tho object aimed at by those who advocato the plan, theal&ini would be faiall moie muoasod I mouticuicd 
m my ioimei ovidcnioe, that ono vciy impoitant featuio of the piosont fitato of India is, that zealous, and vital lok- 
gion has mail o qiojt pi ogi uss among tho E mop cons, at \thich I greatly IC]OICQ But if tins clement is not 
pioptil> dealt with, it uia> be, piodactivo oi ^ oiy d,m<4 LM on* and evil consequoucBb So long as the z&alimsVy ichqmiiA 
Bullish pLfiplo have no ofluial fnntuiq in tho OD\ eminent SeuuiiaiioH, 110 haim 1011 uiisne, and thiii cllinls 
finil pltHy l stripe cls<rv\lieic The) uiiy pinmoio Missinnaiy eJtoits m any put ol the count i y 'Jhe\ maj 
instinct it nthei hnms the. jounq men uhu aic bioiujht up it the fJovuinmcsnt tioiniiiiiius, but, if we muc, by 
allm\'Ji!4 tin.' Jhlile tri b" studied HI the Uovciuiutiii SiMiiiniurs as a class-book, t$i\e iu veihais Cliiisiiuis in 
oflicitd loiihnji inilinst sciiniwiins, it IN iHipossibk in s,ij T\ hat Hie lonsefjULiu os niiqht bo VII bauiu* i\uuld 
tli on bu biokcn down, ind tlir (Humph nt iieutiiilit), u Inch has hi thu to JK GIL om ^iuai sccuiilf, anil tho riu.it 
ranso of mil success in iMlijlitiMiji ihu Nti\Ls, Imllnii sital.ii and divine knowli dt>(, Mrmlil bi ,xt an mil In 
ihr Mdi is Pieiiili-ncr, a dull mil nupst Imslidn I >]lii^til, iuul tho rojjsDijnuiie his IICMMI Hi it -ulule ilic Enin- 
linn been dis^ulit'N Ailiilliu IL|I*HUI slnmld bp t iulii !>\ tin* CJu\i l innKnt, IliL 1 Niiiu i s li i\t , uiih i 
r vi options 11 iiitiiiu il \ilhriiil t \ii\ insli uc Liiu , \\bitli is tho mutt, lo bi nif lit'd, bi i HIM* tluio is no 

ni^Lii^L 1 in Ilii J\M*Li is I'lisnlmm hUi (\IM.I.I, ^liuli so knit* biilli k iluui elluils in Uni" il , and 
is abcMilv IM L^nisivL 1 n it L-> a (.minium jiudiiiiii IM toinjiinihi alum biUtdii jiiisons hj)t,ikuit tliducui 
Lasll\, CXLIL sii^iin-sMiL, ill it (M k i> ['Mm uh|cil]i>n In ilii 1 oiiiplci\jjic ni o' tlu (If)vti iniuiii Si mm u n* , ini <.i\ini> 
iiistinitinii to llu Miii\i in C'lni, u nin iici( nl rj\i'i,11u qiusliiMi wuuld immtili HtlvaiihO Wli.ii loiin til (Inis- 
i lim i^ f and llu n I IK un!iap()\ and (i in 1 IMI ^ J u l< rjl (Jit t \isli tu i nl ( iin^iln iblc ihlii 1 1 mi's nl npiiiidii nimni 
Chiiitinis \M>iilil 1 i k niiiilc i|)|(>'iit, ind llu s|Miit(il uliNiuiis uitilioMis^, M!II( li is lia]j]iil\ IUMI]) dm maul' in 
I mil i, IM i.iiist (Muisli III-H <il i\( k i\ |MM<-II i-iKtn au 1 mi .IM M|ii ililv, and liny .ill JUUMIL tlitn JL-|)LU|I\( objects nn 
ilics -Milnntii \ pimiijilr \ t illniiil inl liniiii \\ilb i.icb ntlici, \\oulil JjiMvrjktd 

Hu (Miailrs Tn \M\ in, limn, niliiist i \uk IK o llu i pnuMlin^ c^tiut lias bi'i'ii I il C'li, hclon^i'd In Hi it tl i^s if 

. , An^lii-Jiuli.in Hi ilc sine u nl (In 1 lnst-lialf nl fin JIHSIII! itnhm, \\liii \\lulsi 

monq aad ospcot Ctons a. iiO iipJinldiiiu llu |iini(i[ik* nl icliuiinih niulialily in (lu\uiii inL Kdu(aii<nhil 

tho CUii^MLMu-3jng intluoiiCO of In^iiuiinn ,, OIL t'u oioinidol i^ond pnhr v, inaiiiiaiiicil flu> n|nninn thai the 

English I'dncdlion iiaLin il illnt ol tho ociuial aiK.inc i ol the Nnrili-Ji latitiiia^t, hli latnii 1 , .utd 

Mii'nco, iMll IJD llu 1 pinpialinn nl Oln isij.iiiil \ aiming Ilio na1i\es ol Jmha Tlii> vio\\s ni niirh an 

sUtistn.ui upon sin li a ildiiaU' subjiM t, <no sulln Jinilv nn[inilaiil. to IJD (| not id in Jus (J\\IL \\nMlh Uoioio a 

riiuimillu id *!' nniisi' ol Lnids, nn Iho ^Hlh JILIII, IS^J, liu slid 

11 I niiiu'iu Iliat ui' lia\i k n tcliod an bd\uuLd st I'jfi 1 in the piunic'ss nl idnifHioii in linlu, iuiiu i ly, that all 
hilimils in \\huli ii 1,1101! "Pin i al rdin adnii is ii\ L n, ina> lu i assisii'd, v\li,itL\L>i ina> bi> Ihc idi^nm tiiinlit, and 
1 hcJu'vi' lh.it Ui it pl.in ina> nn\\ sau 1\ hi idnplid , bill lai IK* it hum me tn ha> that tin turn* ma.} noli umu \\hon 
diiiutCMiiisiiaii instjiiLctiun nui> In i>miL(\cn in the (ln\iM unit nb Mouunanis I LOIUOIVO tint nut iiilin^ pi UK i pie 
onyht to bi>, to ii\ r o tlu> Inst idmalinn %vlnth, on a honnd tfciuMiil \n vv, rmi lLllu\\-hiili|ic Is aio \\ilhii4 tn nu IM 
Tboie tMn bu no doubt th it all cduiahini is IIIIJJLM (oil, wliub is not kihccl on riinsli.ni uish ih'tinn , and it ndliM\s, 
that when 1liu i^iMti r pait nl Indi.i has boi n biuut^hL to a loud with those pails nluJi aiu niDsi cidvaiuc'd, it >vill 
bo OUT rlaty t*> c>ivu Cbnstian instintti(n Jhit 1 inn nl npmiun that thu tuiio hah not )it .uuvod (o aitempt this 
voiy luLwaid and atUaiued stop, \\lncli .it thih staoe ol out pir^iehs woalil only load to a vJolont uMu'tnm Wo 
ought TICVCI ttj I use sifj;ht ul the pnssible dliM t upnu nm N'alixo Anny, of any measuieh that may hi* uiged upon IIH 
-which would lie likely to ovule ihe ielii*imih fecdmujs nl ilii* MalunwecLLiiH and Jlimlnns The KdipoutH wuia tn 
(jui pieduu'shois the M<^nls, what tht he|ic>s ate 1<n iih , and the alifiiation t)f the R.ijpnolh b> irdi^iniih nitaloianu, 
MIH the hist step to thu downhill of tlio Wiupne j * * * * IteJoio 1 left (Ulcnlta, I had a hht niiide ol all 
tho ("onveits ti ( 1 hiHtiHiuty linnHhe udiuated i UHH, and 1 Inund that at tliat time Ihe inijonty nl this cl-ibn oi 
convoiLs, \\lioso ihaiootei and eultivalion, und htieni^th t mind, nllei thu best asHihlunoo to Ohiistianity, weie 
from the Hindoo Uolleije 1 think many neihcum inihinike tho way in which the tnnveisinnoj India will be 
bioughl about 1 lied 10 vo it will take plaoo at loht whcilonak 1 , |Uhtas out OWLI ant^stoi's weje oonvoitotl Tin 1 country 
will have (Jlmst.uiii iiistinttion infuHCil into it in every way by direct mibhitmaiy inhtinitinn, and mtluoctly 
through bookn ot vauoni kinds, thmn^h thu pnbho papet'H, tluouflh conveiwation with Kuinpeans, and in all the 
conooivablo ways in wbith kno^letl^e IH enuuuuitieated , and tlion, at laflt, when Socaoty is coin pit tuly saturated with 
Chrifltaan kaowlodgo, and public' o]imiou luuy Ukou a docidod turn that way, I/hoy will oomo DVOJ by thomandu "f 


* Printed PailuwaeafcAry Papers fleco^Bopoib of the Select Oommittcoof the 0oniB of Lords ou Jndwa Tomfcoiwi (1852 63 j, 
pp 109-196 t^-il'P Od|S04r 



rv.LisH mini nn i* 

That such e\pcoUtions of tlie wholesale oonveisum of the natircs of Inilia to Chiibtwmty thiough thp agenoy 

ot English ediKntum, mne cutiieh fallacious, is shown by the lacts of the 

Cmistiamaiag influence of ploIC9sot English cdncatum dnunq the last Wti veais High eduLahon in 
Engusli education a ftlUoy tho Eligllsh ]<llulIMQe hlw atmc, audbcieuces, In. undoubtedly tho aitect ot 
ippinq the iaiiniLUunii of iflolalir and Mipjibbtion, ,inil mipiouuq the poiLOption of the \\ell-i eco^nized pirnupleb 
L miiidlih anil iniUpriiiLMit thought, which tin. eclat, ilcil n itn e oJ India is pione to slnie -with the muie advanced 
HLil .nul politiL.il Ihmkois ot Eiuopo Dut so tai .is M lujims tunikncies ot EnLsh education die concciuod, the 
'InisUdu dm tuiit h is i LI loss pinspCLts oL accept in o thar Iuec Thnujil, SLCpfa.ism, nnd Agnosticism Dochineh 
mu *L -I ikm to wh -t ^ kiuwu as the PlulosnpM "t Pusi msni nsu -ilr taki thi? pWe ot icliqion, in the case ot 
ip ImUn Mi'tth educated m the <flulish hteiit.ue mil SLICPLU .M 1 the ^oihlly cmj'w.is o[ thi*, lilc seldom lea L 
will) iiiisiiia.ihiiioL M\ snchp'oopitiut i ininu ML is Cbiistumit\ ma^ LuotonftLi Ho\\ the nnttei 
di ipj.utVd h\ uhn .Mi^iimii'ts 11 d ^as^l m liu. hilliiiii ihapK'i JMLin^hilu tlit tullnn ng pisi.nios fiom Jn 
'iiailiiLUluatmi or tlip siiljjpLt oJ cdf^atinu nw IK (iiutL LI heje, as lepujsontrng the IUSL ottccts ol English 

IdLutlrhl i!M*l Tllls^limiM tl U Llnii Ol 1 tilt 17'tlAL xUuld - 

1 In OIL 01 his 'tiilv 'i^ 01 amis dt tfo cumoLitum oi the L',tn.utu Uni\ej*itY a Liio Tico-Chancelloi (811 

Tu*nn S U'me, Ifol-in) uWiad tu.it 3 L tlB tnuiiiUns oi Ja]so s>stufls of 

1? pot elfecta or 33nacliali, and lc i^ loa 01 pluL^ophv linl *. >m u.d thcmsihcs to Jisilcisi^ inoial ciiois 
MiSuicnjij loaeUug ^^ ^ lrf ^ ^..^^^tions, iijnl t'ie LniVnu\\u ,iud aiLsttn^oJil ilim enipuo 

mild, in ^iiKl SILU>I.II)S, and LI i^dinlv in Onontil siciLtie^ h.ue bc.n j.t JJLLUI! Eat 1 iappil\ lin ibo hum wi i ict, 
mi' h. uiiunt 'il plisiL J HpeuJitiim has Lcuii built into i\oi^ LiKt s^^t^.nl Hoic is its Tveak point, Lou it is 
uttht shi-lj ut phvsiuil stiunoB iomi^ the ine*itaLV bxidih th - lui ill/ leads to thd int thin u ot the wluilo 
ihiu Vho itniik loioueit ipi\\cilcilillastiatMm on the I^IM PI (idivtuiu of jfiuinptaa knowledge into Tndi a. 
11 \\L\\ knoTv i rhit iiiliqion is not nnoug the Iliuilno^ oi mdoLil tiL ild homed ins, as it is Tvith us, a supiiiate 
wh , hnt it p-i\ iles almost eveij suence, <n*l almost ovu \ sixi il lolalion The leaiuad Nam o obtains his tieud 
id SLKUcoiiom the s m: some a and it ih unpo^siblL to ^i\u e^en d ioleiable Sans lit it 01 Aiabic cducatiuu -with- 
it d qiuit leal ot dr c'tt insti u< fcion in leliuiou Yon cannot teach thi EiiLiipo in Qj&tem of sujqiiiph) , asfetonomy, 01 
edicino without exp^iilniQ iht, Hindoo s^ stain , jou uaunot teach puhtital euonouiv, 01 social buenco, without coming 
to collisinn with the thooi v and piaitiGB ot caste In tlus inspect the Koi di\ tlie Hnla> ah, and othu ^laJiomedaai 
>i kb die ot the same chaiaiA'i as the Sha.shtias The icsnlt, tlioicJoic, of mtiodacuig the wido iango ot 
uiopein liteiatDj-u and <tnnoc intit tho native conimumh at Calcutta, was to open i new, sta<in(ge n mid to 
mlonts As Uitek hiji itai e was m the Auguatau ae at Home, 01 as Latin and Gieek weiu at tho uiediae-v aJ 
yivdl of littois m tho Westein Woild, so English btcame to the j oim^ Cullea;ian6 E\eiy d.iy opened to them, 
i I he hist time, a sucic^iou ot new and stiange phenomena in the unsuabil iea.liH of Insiuiy, science, and 
alu upliT , tlicv ic Lie saddinly tluovn aihilt hoin the niuonngs and anchoiatics ul uld cueedb, and tossed npuu 
e wnle r uioi spccnUtion ind exti i\ acaiuc It was nu wondci That moial and socul obhi*ah<ms beg tin to 
uue the late ot lehgioas boliclb, and that the whole Lnmuiiunty was ui dlu.m at the bjnuad oi Lho ucw views 
Lus was pLecisely tho state ot tluiurs whith Mi Ohitles Ma*li had elui|T.eutl\ anticipated iluun^ the disLasRion 
thi Chai LQI ot 1SL3 ( It 19 Oiie thing/ lit said, 'to dispel the uhaam thit bimls mankind tu osiabh*-hLil Iidbita 
id anfieul obligation., and another to tuij them ovci ii> the cb^uplme of iien institations and the iinUionty ot 
'wdoctiinLfi In that dieadiul intei^al, that dieaiy void wheiethe mind is left to wandd ind Riojjejts 
i)' wilhont the piops that ha\e liithnto sapptnttd it, 01 tut lights that lu\u guided it, what uo thu L Lances 
a.t the\ will discein tho beauties ot submit to tlie lestiamtb ot the idi^on ) on pjoposu t(j give IhiMii ' 

b Tie diLddiul inteival ' and ' th. dicai} void ' Lad aim ed, and IL is inijiobsible to t-<T huu t u ITatn e SrKieiy 

mu t not hdvebcLn disoieaniw d h.id iiottiie 3Iis-ionauos Meppcd 111 and hnp- 
Tho Biahmo Samaj move- , , , ," 

. plud i iiuw dukLLinn to tlioartakeamg iteijtw-ibui, and afu^h iub|OLt tu aft tact 

tho newly-diouseil hpint of spw alatiou It \a^ nut thit tl'o inimeihato icsiili 

as ccmmflioii tn Chihtimit\, e^ceit in tho cdso ol a ^eiy few Tlu. immcdiatt itsult was the establishment of a 
>n ciLodf which nmtodthe puto Theism ot tho Yedaa to the moit*bty ol the Quspe], with which it was eshoutiall} 
jidied, and tiom which it diew all itb best ptdctiodl pieccptn The UIMI sect w ah sabsiMjneiitly called thi Bialimo 
iuia) , ami M> iai Iiom it being tho caso ab TOU anticipated, that imssiuuaij teaching would ioiui an iidditiuiui 
jmeufc to dangei and alaim, it v& otatain that when pupolar Hindnihm at Calcutta was cimnbli.iq into tains bu- 
te Emopean science, Mifr&ionaiy teochbig pointed to a foundation upon which a pmei sj stem miyht be built, 
ough the supeibtiuotnuo might diifei firan that -which the MjEuionaiy lud hoped foi Fiuin thin timo no account 
itu btftte oi education in India would be at all adequate uuless it included the retultb of Migwonaiy oftoi'i " f 



* BdiH&w m BtUttk Zndta jpnor to 1854 By Aitlinr HowaU, Baq[ , pp 10-W, f R> , PP 10-18 



VIEWS OT THE mSSIDNABIEB 18 TO R1LIQIOUS NBUTR^LITT 71 



CHAPTER XIV. 

VIEWS OP THE MISSIONARIES OPPOSED TO RELIGIOUS NEUTRALITY IN EDUCATION 
TIEE OBJECTS OF THE MISSIONARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS REV A DUFFh 
STATEMENT BEFORE THE HOUSE OF LORDS, IN 1853, AS TO MISSIONARY ENDEAVOURS 
FOR EDUCATION HIS VIEWS AS TO EFFECTS OF PURELY SECULAR, EDUCATION 
OPINIONS OF THE CELEBRATED PHILOSOPHIC THINKER, REV SYDNEY SMITH, AS TO 
TITR EFFORTS OF THE MISSIONARIES CN INDIA 

Thuio can be no doubt that whilst 11 10 trDveinmont qoiupnlously adhered to the policy of religions iieutiaiitv 

Religious neutrality inEdn- * m ittei s of public rn&huctiDn, the Missionaries rogaiiled such neutrality 

cation disapproved by Mis- with di&appiDval As a specimen of then views npon the subject, some pas- 

Bio nail es sagos niay bo quoted iioni the observations leooided by the we11-kno\\n Re* 

Alo\ imlei Daii, I) D , on Loi il William BontnioL's Resolution of the 7th Maith, 1635, regarding English education 

I)r Duft was examined as a witness by i. Holt-ct Committoe of the House of Loidg, on Indian Teiiitoiies, on the 3zd 

<rf Jam*, IBS 5, mul in a, us w GI to the question ' What change in the Byatom ot education was affected by that Resolu- 

tion, ho piosonted to the Committee somo written remarks, horn which the folio wins; exti act may bo quoted as 

thiowmgliffht upon tlio attitude of tho Missionaries and othpi enthusiastic Olnistians, on the aubjeot of tho absent e 

of religious inhti notion fiom tho Goveinmont education,!! institutions 

"Even smco the pawing of Loid W Bontmck's Act, /DM* new institutions haye been oigamzed in laige to^iis 

Bev Alexnnder DuiTfl opi^ dong the Ganges, after the model of tho Calcutta College , and every year 

mou adverse to Behgious NOTL- froih additions will bo made to the numbei What, then, mil be the ultimate 

trality in education, eifeot of these yearly augmenting edncaiaonaiy foices? We say ultimate, 

with oniphaws, bocanse we aio no insionauos , wo do not expert muaoles, we do not anticipate sudden and 

inHtanUnwmfl changes , but wo do not look forwaid with confidence to a peat ultimate inolutun We do legaid 

Loid W Bentmck's Act as laying the foundation of a team of causes which may for a while operate so insensibly 

w to pass unnotiued by oaiulobB or casual obseiveis, but not the less suiely as concerns the gieat and momentous 

iHFiue like the laws winch bilently, but with leBistless powei, regulate the movement* of the raateiial universe, 

iheho oducationaiy opoiations, which aie ot the natme and force of moial laws, will pioceed onwaids till they 

terminate m eKocting a umvenal change in the national mind of India The sluices oi a supeiioi and quickening 

knowledge have abeady been thrown open, and who shall dare to shut them up? The streams of anlivamng 

mformataon have bBguu to flow m upon tha dry and paiohed land, and who will ventui e to arrast their piogesn * 

An well xnigUt we ask with the poet 

'ShaUbnmmffJBItmsrfftWgoreqTiireB, 
Foiget bar ihundsrs, and i ccill her firefl P 
Whon thr loose mountain txomlileB from on high, 
Shall gravitation oa IBO, ^hile yon go by ? 

But hiffhly as we approve of Lord W Bentiuck's enactment, to /at a* tfr goes, we must, ere we conclude, m 
tico to oui own viows, and to the highest and noblest cause on earth, take the hbezty of sticmgly explain* our 
iwu houost coupon lihat * do* * V fr enough Truth is better than enor in any depaitment of ^^dge 
tte humblest a, well as tho most exalted , honce it is that ^ e admue the mo, al mfeopi^ty of the man who daueed 
m the aorexnrocnt Insktutions of India, ttue hteratuio a*d true science should henceforth be substituted in 
of false htorature, false sucnce, and fahc religion But while we zejoice that true hteiatuze and scieuoe is 
of what is damonstrably false, we cannot but lament that no provision whatever has been 

* <* ^false relig.cn wlu^houx literature and 

admitted peculiani.es in ourp^laon 



*8 * knowledge of Chnsiawity to ite native subjects Into such view* 
wWdAumttto OurflmbBbefhaa always been, tbat if there were the 
a<mS ' ^ be U.IB as it M* we cmot lelp 



11 ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA 

iflgardmg the absence of all prmsion foi the inculcation of Christian truth as a grand omission a ,-, 

deficiency If man had been destined merely to ( strut his little hour ' on the stage of Timo, and them dinp mtu A 
state of non-existence, it would bo enough to piovidD for tho mteroats of Tune , but the case is wirloly diih ic iii , 
when reason and levelation constrain us to view him as destined to be an inhabitant of Btcimty an nihei itru ot 
ne\er-cnding bliss or nevei -ending- woe Smely, in this view of man's dettiuy, it is, in the scale of Amur iiwom 
tude, but a pitiable and anomaJous philanthropy after all, that can expend all its energy in bedecking .mil cu nish 
ina him to play his part well on the stage of Time, and then cast him adiift, desolate and halom, -without slii'lti \ 
and without rafuge, on ihe shoieloss ocean of Bteimty 

16 But wo ate peifinaded that even time can novel be nqUly piovidecl foi by any rtonhuro that shuts i ti imh 
Christianity should not be wholly out of view So uiBepaiably and unchaiijfp.ibl) founwiiMl, 111 ihcnisi 

sacrificed to worldly expe- oidmation of PiovulonoB, aio tlio boat mttaoslfi ul Time and the hrst, inn M si 
ouency -n 

01 Etoimty, that on 3 ot the smost ways of pioviding uiqht l<n I In* fnimci i 

to piovide thmoughly and well foi tha lattoi Our maxim, abidingly, has losii,ihiuw, mil pm \ull IN, Him - 
TI AfiHiw, irimw, and bty ivJimnsoewn , Ohirtunuty is wnficcd on tJu, aUiu of wildly eAjnlttMty, ih<n <uul tltut ,Htt<t 
Hn luppmr qootl of man he Unduiy atil* law 

1 But because a, Cluisfcian Govcnnmont has elioson to no^oct lis duty towaids the loliqirni ninth il is sic n ilh 

Neglect of G-overnment to ^ onn ^ to uphold, is that any icasoii \vhy tho Ohiurh(H ol Dni.nu ^liouM IK 

propagate the 0-ospel should Icci tlicu duty, too p Lot us bo aiouM>d, thni, fiouioai l^iliriio), unl >tiiM 

encourage the Christian to accomplish our pait It wo aie^sp nt tow, i 0111.17 imuul lh< Y(ifili< 

Churches to undertake the Tll[lltVn Comment into an ally and a hunid Tlio i\1i>iisi\cfiiilifiii ..I u 

maclnnpiy foi tho tlo^ti notion of anuent hnpoiHiitiou wo 111.11 MMMH! .is n/icu 

inq np UDW lacilitios, m the qond piovidence of Ootl, foi tho quoad ol ihp ovoi lasting (loh)M.| , as SIM \ inu \ l,r /,,.( 

oJ ,i humblp pumcKU m cloning away almgp mass ol nihlmh that would oihciwisi* havi lomlorl <o inifMilc (hi lirt 

dibseimnation of Divine Tiuth Whet QVOI a Oovoinmont Romiaaiy w founded, which hhall havo the c HIM i til |jj ( |(, r 

mt down idolatiy and supoistition, there li^t ufc bo piupaiod to plant a Ohnstuui mstitutiou that shall Ilinniifli fin* 

blcp-fiin^ of Heaven, be tho mF,iinmont of icwa mij tho boautoous suporsti uciui o ol Ohi istianj fcy <ni the ruins <il Inii h k 

Views fluch a& these weie hold only by the Mihsionanos and boino onthiuiahtir Olnistiaiis amoi^ flio Kmiifn'iu 

Proselytizing views limited ofliooift, Tvho thouqht that Bnglihli cduuiiiou mi^hi he safely ami |iinj(il\ 

to Missionaries and exception- rendered the velnolo of Ohiistian knowlwlgis and u muuih o( JHUJM-^IMJ. 

ally enthusiastic Europeans Ohiisiianiiy amonif tho native* of India But hiuh ui'us ^M.un.hnn.f^ 

iL|vidutcd b-j the (tovcinmcnt in India and the* hie(hei anthniiticb in Ki^Lutd 

But whilst ihe Goveiumtmt himly tiiok up a position of icliqioiw nentoahty in KnqliHh M|IK* 

Educational pohoy of the MlS61on ' uleq ' ^wB>~* kolji d nioi M olic rilmta miu.1 uhva>h 
MisaionariBB, iiued ah a pi eminent factor in tlio iutol1octu.il pifi^iesh ol Iinlj.i, 

policy Tvhich c.wi bent bo doscnbed in iho WOM!H ol iln Ifav 
Uuft, D D , in hife evidence bofoio a Solott Cominitioo of the Hom&o ol Loids, on fji il June, ]RM 

" Attniij, not olliDially, noi anthoi itativoly m any way, noi m cwmwuon with tho OOM rnmi'iit, Imt 

Statement of Bev A. Duff *} >"V b ^ and smi^'ldl 

before the House of Lords, on ibo Nailvos vlinfc wo mDanto te(Wh ^p avow to thm what nui ^n,nd 
Srd June, 1858 * special objocts .no No Kativu noed conic to UK but with IHH oy^ r pr*n, uiul 

of his ownficoaoconl, but ovwyhody who iloph umio H|xiiii,iiiMmhly f will 

bo Uuglit such ,md Hiich sub)ot1s, tlio dor^iimoh irf: Chiistiamty boin^ an CNHuntul pait of tht> iiihtiii(*ln>n With 
lOfiairltotlioimmcrtiaiD objocts of such an institution as that which [ was hoiii out in OHiahhsh, ilu.y may |> 
thu* buolly staiod One ^ieat objoot was to convey, AH laiqoly on poshiUo, o, kTiowlwl^o of our oidmaiy ini|irxiv<il 
hteiutnio and BLIWIUS to those young pw smif, , but anoihei audainoio vital objott wu*, HinuilUnoouHly with 
that, as ahcady mdicatoJ, to convey a ihoiough knowledge of Clu Jbtwmty, with ii* evidencwH ami duUrlucH Oin 
poipoHP, tlioitfoix), *as twofold, to oombmo as liwwo togothei, m close, mHO[iarablo and hwiuiminuH muim v 
what has boon called a useful hecmlai, with o, dacidodly idigioas eduodlnm Tho ample touching of our unproved 
Buiopoan htoraiuie, philosophy, and sciouce, wo know would rfioltei ihe huge fabric of poputiur llmtonunn, mi \ 
crumble it into fragment But as it i. cdiainly not good wmply to doBhoy, and tliou leave men idly ici WVKI* 
over the nuns, nor wise to continue building on tho walte trf atnUnug odifioo, it has ovw tonnwd iho jmuil 
and distinguishing glory of our institution, through the mfcioductionaudftsoalous pursuit of Oluuilmn evidonco 
Miidootrmo, to stove to ropply the noblest bnbstitatem phoe of thai wluoh has been domuhHhod, in tiw form 
* feinted Ptrfemenitty Psperi (1BIMI) 6 M <mA fieport of tbe Soloot Oommifctaa of tho IXouu of Lordi on ladwm TMrfioriw, 



VHfllOHiRT TTBWS IB TO 010ULJLB BDUOATIOH 7S 

f ftoundofcnwal knowledge and pure evangelical truth In this way we anticipated that, undei the ordinary 
Mossing of Divmo Piovidrure on the use of appointed means, many of the young men would become Chiisfaan 
in niirloi standing, and a au proportion of them Christian in heart We then leakoned that if, of eitiier or both 
of thi SP classes, rmo and another were added in oontmned succession, the collective mind would at length he freely 
sn, lose Fioni lis aiiweut fi\ed and frozen state, and awakened into light, and life, and liberty And ae> 
lih- is sell-pi opairatiiig- anil light oommumoatire in its nature, we enteitaaned the humble but confident hope that 
in- iiiiKlif ultimately mid happily succeed in combining the three inestimable blessings individual good, the 
< \ci-niinviilmjf piuiciplo of self-pi eservation, and the power of indefinite extension of these, our immediate and 
ulf iniaf i rili|t>r is, nit concealment Tva& evei made , on the contiaiy, they were at all times, and in sveiy imaginable 
1 01 iii, cifiiTiIyavowutlandpiaelaimod And lest any Native should ho under any delusive impiession on the 
subiM, it \v.is a hfcatuhnfl inla in oui institution, finm its very commencement, that no young pei son should be 
idinif (wl unless hip. tithci, if he uab ahvo, ot hw guaidian, came along with him, and saw what was doing, and, 
I lu i of (ii o, pel M null) could judge f 01 himself whethei he would allow hn fton or ward to remain there 01 not 

41 The*) nil conio to us at hibt as Hindoos in point oi lehgious faith, and as long as they are attending 
Hindu Students in Mission- a Clui&tian coui&e of instzuction, they oie meiely learners 01 scholars , they 
aiy Schools bocomo gradually aio leammg to know what the truth is, they are mastering tiho sublet of 
christianized Chnsfaanity as fai as tho human intellect, apart iom Divine influence, can 

nmsfct id, much in tho somo way a* they may come ihcieto ma&tei the tine system of googiaphy, ortheiiue 
H\ stwn of nhtionoiuy, 01 any othoi tiue system ^hatevei they begin with the fiist elomonts or piinciplen, and 
thry ate initialed into tho it*st, stop by step, &o that at lott they peiuse every port of the Biblo, and aie syste- 
matically mstniitcd m thn evidences, doctimps, and piecopts of Ghzistianity Christian books of eveiy desonp- 
tionuio roiul byilinn, nnd tlicy ito e\a.mincd upon those, andil, in tho end, any of thorn should have their 
nnndh impic'sscd with tho tinih of Ihobo things, and then hearts changed and tuinod to God, then they openly 
cmhiiuc (hi istiiiiuiy, a* fiovoi.il ha\o alioady done Many oiliois do become intellectually Cbiisiiaus, and aro 
l)iout;hi> ihou'lciio into a condition voiy mnrh tho same ns that of tho gloat bulk ol intelligent piofesRing Ohnetians 
in UIIH foiiriiiy, who iuo Oluihii.uib in head 01 nitclleot, but not m hoait , in tho case of all such thei e i& mtolloo 
tuU otuivnium, hut not hcMit rimvoisinn tho foimor may romp from man, the latter only fzom God " ' 

Tlio vii'Wh ol Hit 1 Itiov Alp\A7idei Dull, T) D , w to the pohtical losults of a puioly soculai English education, 

Mwionary views as to mA T d ^ * )e l - ^^ heio with advantage, as they ore typical, as icpxobentuig 

tho effects of purely sooulear tho opimons of the Missumane& and others seeking tho propagation of Chzis- 

Bnghah Education tianity in India In reply to the question, what ho contemplated would be the 

ultimate insult to iho BntitJi Govoiiimont, if it succeeded in enectrng a great impi^ovemeut m the education of the 

HlllllUfl, 110 Hillfl 

* k M) (iwu nn|N'hMnii is, that if wo qo on giving them a thorough English seculai education, without 
rtn> mollil) iiwy and rtmntcmrtiiig influences nf sufhoiont potency distuibing them out of all their old ways 
anil hubiiHol tlnnkm^ and feiUug, and croating tho veiy materials out of which spiing i*estlessnoss and 
diH(H*nU'ii(f, mivy and loalmihy, British and ezozbitant ambition fox power and place, nrespoctivo of thenoodful 
moral and mental qualifications thore will not, theio cannot bo, qeneially speaking, that &ontimont of derotod- 
TU'Hs or lovaliy U) (ho Bniihh Govoinraont, which, for iheu own sakes fund for tho sake of their country, wo 
nlmuld dohii'O them io POKHOHH And the ultimate result of such uixfneudly or dibloyal flcntimonts becoming 
HiiloHjiiPiwl in tho (UNO of mou of quickened intelligence, and having unlimited command of a .Free Press, 
wH.li ilu* JCii^lihk AH & common inoclium of communication, it is not ooit&mly difficult to foroseo I have a 
dmUiH'l ivnpTVHhuin, on tho otbca hand, and J hpoakmthis le&poot fiom oxpoiionoe, that any oduoaUon, howevei 
highly ,ulv*u<*ucl, which may bo given to the natives of India, if accompanied by those mollifying and 
rtmnU'nu fang influoncM whiob arc connected with tho f.olxn yet radons incoloation of tho Ohnstian faith, so far 
fwMii |iiwlu<'iiiK wiy tooling of hotility or disloyalty towaiils tho Butish Qoveinmcmt, will pioduoo a/n effect 
<mtnvly the otlin way I nliould say, without any hesitation, that, at this moment, these axe not in all India more 
devoted and loyal hub]or'tfl oi tho British Crown than those Natives who have oponly embiaced Christianity f 
und v noit to thorn, with tho fooling ol loyalty in varying degrees of strength, those Natives who have acquired 
(Jim highor Knglwli odueation, m immediate and inseparable connexion with Christian knowledge and Christian 
influence On this vitally important subject, alike aa regaids the honour and welfare of India and ol Britain, 
I could well oxpatiatt, equally in the way of argument and fact , and shall be ready at any tune to do so, if 
required Moaawlulo, I have in answer to the quwtion, briefly given expression to the conviction which has been 
Print*! Pa*h*m<mte7 Paper* (1881-13) ftcond Beport of tta Start Oomimtt* of Jfa Home of Lordi on Indian Tmt<mai, 
pp 67, A, 

10 



74 ENGLISH EDUCATION IS INDIA 

glowing in 017 ownmmd ever since I began to get practically acquainted with the real state and tendencies o thing* 
in India, 23 yeaifl ago In the face of all plansible theories and apparent analogies, whether dednced h ora tho con- 
dnofc dnd policy of ancient Rome 01 any other State plainly involving conditions andielaiaons wholly incompatible 
with any that can exist between onis, an a Clmstian Government, anil ite non-Ohnstvwi sublets in India I hne 
never ceased to pionounco the system of giving a high English education, -without lehgion, as a blind, hhoit-BiflrhlDii, 
suicidal policy On the otliei hand, foi weighty reasons, I haves nevei oeasodto leclaie that, if out object IIL, 
notmraelyfra GUI own aRgiandisement, but veiy specially foi tho welfare of the Natives, to retain oiu dominion 
in foiha, no wiflw 01 moie effect plan can be conceived than th.fc of bestowing tins TTighci Knglidi education 
m close and inseparable alliance with tho illumining (iiuokemng, beautifjing miluenoDS of tho (Jhnsti an faith , indrwl, 
I have nevei bciupled to v\ovr and piodaim my sinceie conviction, that the extrusion of fiui.li lu^hti uilue.ition, so 
combined, would only be the means of consolidating and poipetuating the Biitrah Empiie in India foi yuais, 01 
evcai ages to corne vastly, yea, almost immoaBniablr, to the real and endminq licncht of bnth ' * 

Whilst auch WBie tho views enteitained by the Missionaries as to the policy oi Enqlish ulnr.it urn, it may be 

Opinions of the celebrated mien eqting to considpi what opinions weio entoitampil by nuli'it ndpnt phi hi- 

philosDpbio thinker, Kev Syd- sophio thinkeiHUpon the subiect As a specimen of then vietti, tin lulhwmcf 

ney Smith, as to the efforts of paigaa , e q horn tho wiitings of the colcbiatoil liov Bjcluu Hmitli m.iy In* 

the Missionaries in India ^^ ErffllH1|g fa tlie Missionaaiefl, and thou oJtuith m India, Ins wi itiiioh 

contain the following passages 

"Tlio plan, it seems, is this We aie to educate India in Chustianity, as a pmciit flops Ins iluUL, anil, 
whon it is poifeot in its catpL'hism, then to pack up, quit it eiitnely, and IDO.VO it to its own m.ui.iqi'mc'iit This 
is the ovunftoLcdJ ppa]ect toi Bopaaating a colimy Jiom tho paient country Tlu-y sec uiiHimq iii Uio Ijlondsluil, 
and massacies, and devastations, noi of the speeohes m Pailiamont, scinamlctod millions, Jiniik-hs L'\piMlitimis, julis, 
and pensions, with, which tho loss of om Indian possessions -would necussaiily 1)P .101 nnipaninl , uoi \\ill Uny 
see tli at these consequences could aiise fiom tho attenipt, and not horn the completion, ot thuii sclionin ot ofin- 
veision We should be swept from the peninsula by Pagan zoalotn , and should lose, auiowj othu things, .ill 
chance of over really oonveiting them 

"It may be om duty to make the Hindoos Chustians that is anothoi nrqumoiii , bu1, that we shall by 
so doing stienqthon oui ompue, woutteily deny What Dignities identity of luligion to a ijiiosi-ifm ol this kind ^ 
Divoisity ot bodily ooloui and of la^uage vr odd Bonn oieipnwei this oonsuleiaiinii Make the Ihrnluob i ntor- 

, active, and icasonable as yourselves destroy the eteina.1 tiaok in which they havo muvcid Joi 
, in a moment, they would fa weep you off tho face of the eaith 

"When tho tenacity of the Hindoos on tho subject of thnr religion is addnced as a icason 

ot tlie Missions, the fiiends of this undeitjJnng aie always fond ot i ommdiiuj us how yi.iiiontly UK- 
Hindoos submitted to the lehgious poiseoution and butohety of Tippo The mJoiemi' iiom Main ilaiiuiih m 
truly aLuming It is tho impeiious duty of Q-ovoinment to watch some of those mon mosduiuniwly Tliciu 
IB nothing of which they arc not capable And what, after all, did Tippo afoot m thp way ol rouvcLMoti f How 
many Mahomedans did he make P There was all the cainage of Moiloa's Kettle, and none nl thu tiansloniiiitioii 

" Upon the whole, it appears to us hardly passible to push the business of pioselytiHiu in Imlid to any lonqth, 
without mom i ing the utmost risk of losing our empre Tho dang 01 is mcne ti'oniondonh, Ijoc4usc it nuy ho so 
sudden, religious feais aie a veiy probable canso of dihdHeotion m tho ttnops, il tho tioofis aie ^oiurjlly 
diboifectod, our Indian Empiie may be lost to us as suddenly as a fug ate ru A I oil/ 

" N\> man (not an Anabaptist) will, wo pic&ume, contend that it w om duty to pi'euch tlio Nairn* into ,ui 
nistiiioction, 01 to lay bofoie thorn, go fully and emphatically, tho bchoruo ol Ihe Oosjul, <LK lo nuke l.lum use k 
up in the dead of the night and shoot their in&tinctora thinngh the head Nvun hi Alihsiomuy piuptwcN, 
thoiefoio, the utmott discretion is nocessary, and if wo wish to teach tho Natives a lnUi*i nlif>ion, wr munt 
take caiD to do it in a mannoi which will not inapue thorn with a passion foi politir al cli<inq i, tit wo shull inovittbbly 
loseoux disciples altogether To us it appears quite clorii, that uoithiu Tf mtluus noi McthoiiictUiiH aiv at all 
mdinoient to tho attacks made upon thoiz iehgion } the anoganco and uutabibiy of Lho Wuhoinctan itiu uiii>( i ihiilly 
acknowledged , noi do the Biahmans show tho smallest disposition to behold the onoi oadnnoui* upon tlion loh^ion 
with pasuveness and nnconoern 

u Huw isitux human nature that a Brahman hhould be uidiAcront to encroachments upon hin roli^icm? 
His reputation, his dignity, and in great mewuxe his wealth, dopend upon thu pi eaorvatitui nl tho pcoNcut 
superstitions , and why is it to be supposed that motives which arc so powoilul with M uthoj human boingg, are 

* Stated Parliamentary Papon (1868-63) Stoond Bfirport of the fleleuL Oonunitteo of the liouio ol Lordu on lawu Tointoiiet, 



MT SYDNEY SMITH'S OPINIONS IS TO MfflSTDITlBY EFFOBTB 75 

lum nlime P If the Biahmans, however, are disposed to excite a rebellion m suppoit of then own 
iiifliiiiii > mi in ni win, knows anjthmg of India, can doubt that they have it in thoir power to effect it 

" Oui nij|ui ihnofoie, is not only not to do anything violent and unjust upon subjects of religion, but not to 
I\D aiu otimiu rolom t jealous and disaffected Natives for misi presenting your intentions 

1 XllllifH nlisii \ititms have teuf old foioe, when appbed to an empire which rests so entiiely upon opinion 
II pM -.11 al Iniii* i nuld be called in to stop the piogiess of eiroi, we oouli atfoid to be misrepi osented foi a season , 
Init HUM* ftj,it, men IIMIICT m the nmt of 70 millions ot sable subjects, must ba always in the light, or, at least, 
m \i i icpifsc'iiii'il as tiifishly m tho wiom? Attention to the pieiudices of the subject is wise in all Governments, 
InU <jiiit< imli JK usable in a Gnvemmont constituted as oui Empiie is India is constituted , wheio an uninteiiupic.d 
-i i H * i if *K' \\ rums oondnct it uofc only necessary to our piospoiity, but to oui evistanoo 

a ^ on turn* JfyjIM) Euioprans in India, and 60 millions of other sublets If pi oselytism woieto go on as lapidly 
i llu'inuil usioiuii} Anabaptists could dioam 01 dcsuo, in what mannoi aro these people to be taught tho 
"I'limni inillis mil piactiiLs ot Oliiishanitv P Whoie aio the cleigy to oomo from P Who M to dofiay tho ex- 
ptiiMsol i\w isldhhsliuinit P .ind^vho can toicsee the immense and peiilout difficulties of bending tho laws, 
ma inn is ami institutions of a ruuuti>, to tlio dictates of a new lehgion P If it ^ GIB oasy to poT&uadQ tho Hindoos 
thai (lieu own i'li!inm \\ Vi hilly, it would be minutely difnonlt ottoctually to taaoh them any oihei They would 
liimlih tin ii i>\\n uli)ls into tho moi, and yon would build them uo chinches you would destioy <U1 thoii pies out 
itiitJiu's liu cloiuo i it; hi and avoiding ^imig, without bun 3 ablo to fix upon then minds tho more bubbme motive* 
b\ \\liit ii >on piolihs if) bo n etna toil 

" II ilii'H' Mi'ii' a Un pitmpect of canyinq the Qohpol into legions wheio it was before unknown, ii &ubh a 
[mi]i'<{ ilnl not. c \jirihi* tlip host pohsessirms oi tlio countiy to extiomo daugoi, and if it was in tho bauds of men 
win* wi 1 1* ihsc ii'i t as woll ,ih devout, wo hliould consider it to be ft scheme ot tiue piety, benevolence, and wisdom 
bud tin* IMSHHSS untl mali^nilv oi fanaticism hliall nevcsi pie-vont us bom attnLkimj ifcft ariogonce, its ignoiniice, 
.mil its K|IM| ( \ h'oi \\lul MOO uui be nioio tiemoudoah than that which, whilu it woais tho outwaid appeal ance 
nl M hniun, ilcslioyh Ilic liappmcbs ot innn, vnd dishniLouib the name of God P " 4 

Ii mil be nlihoivi'd, that throni^liout tho discnssion of the question, whcthei English education RhoulA be 

DjHCusstons as to English P U1P '> Denial, and TV lint cftoct it wabLkely to have upon tho loliopous oon- 

Bdueation tako uo special no- vittiou* of tlio Kativof. of India, views havo boon oxproRbcd only m i eg aid to 

tico ot Mahomodans, as thoy the llmdas, and no Bpooial rofci onoo has been made to tho Mahometans 01 

roh amod ft om such education tLwi lo]li?101Jj oltnoi by tlio witness evaminod by tho Select Oommittoos oi 

iln MoiiM'bof I'.iilntiiKMit, 01 by thoho who wiotoupon tho sub]oot Theieason for this wroumstanoe u not far 

1o siM^k Tin* nppoMtmn oL the Mahoincduw* to BiiQlihh odudiiaon, f oundad as it was upon a misappi ehension of 

MM- iinti\i'h oi [lie oilurational pnhcy ol tbe Qovornmout, as laid down in Loid William BEsntuiCpk'u Bcsolutiou of 

tin- 7Ui nl fclanh, IHttfi, was ovnicod by tliom so far back as that yoai, oiid continued almost unabated, with tlie 

Inmi'iiiiibli' ipsuli ihnl o\ticni(*lj fow Mahomodan youths pursued the study of English, and consequently no 

Hpu lal uUrnlinii appeal's to have been given to tbeu special, social and political condition Thoir backward 

fuiuliLnm Hi-miih, luilwd, t< have lomamed almobt unnoticed, till very recent years, as will be shown m another 

piutol UIIH wuik 

Tlu A/ and W*<lu> oj the R*v Sydney 8mth Longmftiifl, Green and Oo , London (1B88), pp 68-71 



70 ENGLISH HDTTCLmON IK INDIA 



CHAPTER XV. 



PBOGRESS Or ENGLISH EDUCATION THSTDEB, THE POLIOY OF LORD WTLLFVAF BFTVTLNVK'S 
EDUCATIONAL EESOLUTION OF 7-rn MARCH, 1835 LOIID AUCKLAND'S HlHi' 1 \TIOY\L 
MNUTE OJ 1 m$ LORD HARDINGE'S EDUCATIONAL AKROLUTIUN OF 1 IHH IMHiin UK 
MAKING ENGLISH THE LANGUAGE OF OFFICIAL BTTBJKHHB PIWJnilKHH Ol' 1 KVJMS1I 
EDUCATION IN BENGAL VIEWS OF SIR FREDERICK HALLIDAY 

It is now nocohsaiy to puiwio tho Instoiy of the piogiess of Jtinqhsh cilut.itnm nmloi ilic puln \ itnii"iiiainl 

by Loid WilJhim Bimtmtk's Rducat inn il ll^oludun til 7lli Uiiili, IM 

toi^^MmutJi^fchKoiS Afttl tko r asbm * d that Kosiilntiim, II|C ' ""PP"' 1 """ 1 O""'" 1 i"lmaii.t, 
ber, 1830, slighUy modifying MLIO iuitiiia,lly dissatisfied at the piobput oi Jln iilhi'iili .ilmliiiiHi d MMH 
the policy of ex elusive English favoniito Colleges, anil they tiiinl, aa,in >iinl .141111, t u'f tlnl lii nliii mi 
Education a,bioqitpd Anowcontnimsy, ULioiistMjiH'im 1 , .IIMH* KMMIII; nun linn" ol (In 

olilannunny, ho that at htst Loiil Auoklaml, then Uovunmi-(luii>i.il, t.Liiic Imwiiiil ip|>ui"ill> .is i iiiiiliini I'Mlu 
inaiLiM, auiliecniioil aMiunic, fitted NiwcuibcM iiHli, Ifvi'J, \\lnch w is ilcsiiiit il in c'llnl sunn tliiii'* hi \ <M,i|i.n 
imso LeiucLii tin j)cutios Uno obj^ci o Ins Minute \\,IK to upliulU lo UK uLinusI .ill III it Uml \\ ilh mi IS' IHUH k 
liad dtnu \\iUi Uu VIL>\V rl |iioniotuu* EDu^bhL hUM.iiiuo and ((it>nu k llummli Uii> Jm iliiuii nl llir Kn h li I ui"N i 
Imt, mi Llic Dlhoi L.itid, Ins ]iiu|us( TWH io il)i Ni-.vto MJ miith ol Lnul \Villuni lioiidiu L\ HcMtliitMHi 11 \\inl ! Ilic 
iiliimatu Jibuliiimi ut iho fcjaiihkiit and M.ihoiuo(Un Uolletyos * Tiolossoi VI II Wil'on, in his Hilton nl liiih.i 
(\Tol III , ]ip fM7-U), icliMinu; ti) llio MmuLL*, hayh tlut, Lt it ji.ivu tlu> uinsd lihi'ial tiuniiu i^cnidit- to I In <'Mi nsimi 
ot Euglihh htnil> r , it'stiiQtl ilio Ndtivo Uollrqus 1jom tlio iiiis,iipin|iiialiou r>i iin hinds spec iitlU n i^ni'il hi 
Iliein , anil Jry <L hbeiiil Llisinljiition if HclioLvifiJiips to till tlio sriuiiiiiiips alike, i(iii(ilit>rl, in sunn 1 I|IIIM, tlji 
disi'ontuut.LiK G nf tlm Hnbhihioiuc- Allow.imes, on wlm'h mhi ol tin slmli n(*, hki* l.lin pnot si linlu , n\ tin ninlilli 
agos in Jliiiiopc, li.til been at'cusftmu'fl, unilLi .ill picvinus i iilc, Hiiirloo, JMaliouirdan, ni (Mil isluu, hi <|i r ii nil ' 

LMHL! AiiLld<Linrb Kdiiditioiul Mmiilu ol tJio 2ltli Novuuilu'i, JHU), iMimud bi 1 M^iiiclctl *i- my ru JM> nut limn 

TT A > "RA thoprmciplool p f)iuf)iuii* IGnifhhli CNliu ibtion, .mil I In* |iIn \ upniM\lui b Ijttnl 

tionalBQBOlutionoflOlh Ooto- Willwin WoiiLnick's Educational llcsolnlum ol tho 7lb Man li, IM i, v^as IMMM! 

ber, IB44, in flavour of the em- Knqliuli oduc^ition cMiiiiimitMl to bu flic miloi nl Ilirila^ hiiiMlmi N\aM 

ployment of successful Native (fuibuleialjlr fjiviiiilii'pin lbi iniiuls uf home iiictubriH nl lln< ('ml Si'i\ui, ami 

BtudontB ^ the idlu'uis crl Oovoiunant ^diitall}, a,t>ajiiihli ib(< cmpln^nu Ml* ml IK Publn 

Horvn o ol tliosp vOio had luorivorl thin Kiiiflisli (Mluc.itirm Tbf pLuisilih* OMMISC winch Ihoy ^itvt' IIM Ibal ob|ii tmu 

was, tlut nun wlio wuo uaiumod, tis tlioy hiid, with matbcuutirh, anil MCIC <tblo (i* u-fii-al. KlmkcspiMH',, ami (t 

quoLu Joliusou .uid Addison, woiL k unfitted lor tJio ilufjw. oi 1lu Publu HMVHV, ninth uujuiM'd a *n at deal ol 

oUiiiial kni)viLocl(io aiirl pvpw iwico , bnt in pi oportum tWi tlie UILMI who had aduplcil Iliosi" pit |ii<lii<> itli (hi SI-MK**, 

tho luolin^ Biailu,illy ilioclont, .uul in tho com si oi iimo a convirhon uusi' in Uic tnindiv ul lli< IIHI.I inllin nluil 

nicuihmof the S<M vires tb,bt thoho HUIILIIIUIIL'S oiu>bt to be niuclc tin* iiuisri y ui (In 1 Miililn* Si i vu i', ami Ikil the 

(Win a mo ut, which MAS ait ho J<u^u a.n c^prnsu lot tho pinposi'h ol Wdiuutinn, on^hi lo obtain HMINI lu>ni>hl hiin H, 

by l)L'itii dirbblud lo pUoc tho must aduuicul htucUuts in hiiiutmns of piibln liusl. It \WN 11ns ';Mi\ t in*{ 

wliuh t;,L\r use fcr) iluMolt hirUpd Notihdifion oi JjouL [Ludiii^o, .tt HIIM|OS< ol 1HI l"f That >mlili<alion, 

tut " Jjtiul J!a.t dime's Kdiuatioii,U RosoluUoii," of UK* lOlli Oitol>oi, Ihtl, .unu'd al KM 111(4 niilnu f, i iirouia 

to ICngliult mliii.itioii, by holding out piOhpoctH ol (lovortunoiil onipli^nii'iiUn huiochsiul .ind turiiitoi'ioiit slinhm . 

Tho Pnm ip.il ji.ii i ol tbo Jii'Holulion iiuib iw folh\H 

"The (lovotnoi-Ueiinul h.tviii^ tdkuu into Inn coiiMck'iiituiii llu' CMhlin^ hlaltMil cdunitioiMn IU>ti^al, and 
boinpfoJ- upiinou tlut it w highly dowi^blo to aiiintl il, owiy KMisonuble ciuouiM^citicni, b) holding mil jo l,hus< 
who h.wi3 Ukcm <ulvant<i#o ol tho upprntuniiy oi msti iiotuni uJtoidcd (o fhcni, a (an juiwpi'tt ol < fc hi|ili^nM nt ui 
tho J^blw Korvioo, and thai oby not aiJy to iowaiil nuLivuliul uiwii, but Lo I'liiibb 1 tho Htnti* l 



* Ui Alovmdw Buff 1 * evadwoo Pointed Parli^mcutaiy Paiioii flfprowt/ Hopuit o( tho Hlu*t Ormiuiillco of Um IhuiHi^of Untit 
(1862-fi <J on Jiirban Tintorton, p 04 

t Mr J Morshmfta l iviattVM6^?iutoaFiuluuiioaiar7 Papou SutA Kvpoit of Liio tioku Uotumiltuu uf thoHuuHUof Com 
(1B5B) on Indian Temtorxt*, p, 81. 



IS THE LAKGTU.OB OF OrMOlAt BTJBUrBSfl 77 

mil a> OAjh as possible, by tho retmlt of the measures adopted of late yeaia for the mstruction of the people, as 
will In tie nouniuiiiit as by pmate individuals and Societies, has solved that, in every possible case, a prefoi- 
i-Hci "lull IN 4i\un in the selection of candidates foi public employment, to those who have been educated in the 
Misi.uiic,i,,tln.,PSlabUsLLrl,dii(Uspoc]allytothose who have distinguished themselves thoiein by a moie than 
mil i \\\ flrn|fi ( ni mi j it and attainment " * 

Tin- Hi .iiluljuu, tin doubt, gave considciable stimulus to English education, though somo complaints wcie 
Policy of making English HarLt against its opeiation, audit had only a giadual and paitjol offed 
tho lauguigo of official bilfil- Tlio Resolution, howevoi, is significant, as maiking anunpoitant stop of thi? 

!S31f) 1 * USinCil0atCd80eatl7aS P llCy * em P lovill 8 mUlp Govoinmeut soivioe, peiBons ^ho had satisfied 

the tosts of the Gotcinmeiit English educational institutions a policy Tvbicli 

li.nl lam ilmmaiit lui many ycais " A veiy geneial opinion had picmulod 01 somo jcais past, tliat Poisum ought 
IM In' iliMai ilt'd , bill, flu'io w<is nut the same conuiucuce of sentiment as to Tthat language ought to bo substituted 
loi it One luiHj a.ilmatHlthoubc of English, on the giuiind, that it was oi moic impoitauce that the ludgen, 
i\ ho Ii.ul lo dt nili* a < ,is(, hhould tlioi rin^hly nuclei stand it, than tho pel sons themsulves ^ ho TH?I o intoicstod in it 
Huil il \ IK Kuio|)o.i,n ollici ih iihocl tluii o\vn lan^uaoe ni ofbcial piorooding^ they would bu much moio nulepoudtnt 
t\ Ilii' IIIUHI J.IMS inllumriMiJ thru ailninnsh alive offices , and tli.it tl IB goncaal cncoaiaqcnio A it which would 
IM -j i \cnini In siinl> ni Hiiqlish, by il* arliqilion as tho offici.J laiiQaaqo, TVOU!L! givo a pcwciJul mipulso to tlie 
JM**JJI',S <ij 11,1 1 1 u* onb^lili'iuijoiit Home ^CMIH io tlnh opinion w.is tbo piovailmg one anioni; thnso who wut 
Jn\uui ililr in ilui pLm nJ I^IVIH^ tho Nalivon a, hbisial Jfiuiopoan odncatian, audit was ovon adoptod by thi, Uuial 
<jfivi>Miiiiiiil "f Tliih ajipiais liom a lottoi iiuni tho StTiBlaiy to the Ibii^al QoMMiimont (in the Poisian Depoit- 
niMil) 1u Ihc l!i>mmiHiu k uj rnblic lii^ti uc tion, datod the 2&lh Junp, 1B20, iiom ^liuh tko Inllcrniug c\hact nia> 
IM' ijunlnl, 4 is tlmwjjiij liohl upon tho policy oi nitioduuiiq 1 iJja Eiit*Lsh laaiijuago at the langaago oJ: buhiucss 
in pul'lit fillius, t'\rii it that L'uJy pound TJii^ Icttci iau as iollo-vvp, 

1 Our oi llir mosi iiiipotUnt ijuislmiih coimooiud wiib tho piesont (bseuMnon is, tbat of the na.tuio and dogiee 



Lotlop oi tao Qovoinmont of f "w^'""^ " 1011 * to ^ l 6infl y oi a u Kglisb lain-nago, ^lucli it is 



d^tod 20th Juno, 1829, Aiirl dosuabJo loi tho Ouvouimont to hiJd out, uidopciirlontly ol 

tUo future adop- bmiks, to.ujlioiH, and tbo oidiuaiy moans ol tuition You CounuiLLuo 
iion ^ot Unglish in Public obsoivr'tl, that unless English bo made tbo language oi: businosh, 

involution, aji<l ]O]ispiud(?iico, it will not bo uiiivci sally oi evlcm&ivuJy 

<ifinlii'i| liy oiii iiittno MibjoitH JMt Maukoiusie, m tbe Note aim ti oil to youi Rcpoit, dated tbo Jul m&tant, uiguh 
JN (In 1 r\jM*ilu ric*} nl <i doclaiationby GovonmiDnt, that tho English will bo rvrntually used o* tho langTiaflo of 
ift., id lit i \Mhis \vith ike iiu]fuity uL oui soholais, hothinkn, tbat all we *cloto cncoiuago Ihc 
IIH| |n> uu^.ihiiy , ' uiul HMiunintMifh tbat it bo iminoclintely notified, that, aftoi the* cipuatioii ol tluoo 
ilrt idftl |IM H n IMO will lie* giviu tc ramlulatos for olHoo, who may add a kiiowlculgo ot English to othci quabhca- 
Thn Drllu ('niiiuiittcu liavo aim) art vocatoil, with gioafc foioo and oanicstncss, tbe cipedjimoy oi rniduimg 
flj> Kn^hsli MM I Idiii^ibi^i oi oni public tiibunaJs aud Cia'ios>on(lenro, cuid tbo necessity oi niakjug kuo\vu thit 
sin It IM out I'Vi'iihi il |iui)MH(\ il wo wish the study to bu siuKOhsfnlly .md o\tPUMVoly pi nsucatcnl 

11 ImpHhM'fl wiMiadoi'p iMiiivjriioii ol tlio inipoiiiQto ol tlio hubjuct, and couljally dispofKl to promote Hit 
irtMl. object ol niijMOUii/4 I ml ui, by spiuuduig abioad ibu liglitu oi Eui(j]3tan knowlLdpfo, inoiolR, and cmbsatiou, 
hirt Lojilhlup in (/(Mincil, IUIH no lichitation in stating to yoiu* OomviittcD, and in authorising yim tu anuoiuioe to 
all I'mu'crnoil iti tho su[roiintL'N<lim<JO ul^oiu NaUvc k Heminttiics, tliutit is thu msh, ind Adnjittud j)olK*y ol the 
Utiiuh (>n\t'iiiiiioiit l<o nndi'i itw own Un^na^o f^ii^hially and eventually tbe l.uiKUd^c oL pubJjc busuiosu, 
llunujli<Mii. Ilio ifMinhj , and ihut it will omit no oppoitiuniy ot giving CVGIJ ii'asonabk .incl piaiticablo dugjoc ol 
i'iic*miM/;i'HH l Ht in Mio oxcoutimi ol tliw ]iio)ott Al fchu same tune, his Lmilslnp ni Council, is nut piop.iml to 
iimu* loi\>iinl with any cljhlnut and sjiuuho pliHli>u iis to tho ponod and niaumi ot ofkctjng sogioat a cluuigu m 
th<* hj'hlcni ol (MM inU'tnal (>(onoiuy, nor ix such, a plodgo (onsulojicd to bu at all imbsjiunflftblo to tlio gradual anrl 
JiilliliniMit of ofH'viuwh It IH couccivod Uuit, assuming tho oxistunoo ol that diupoutiou to acquue a 
U ol Ln^hsh, \vlucb IH iloclivod m tbo ooiiospondonco iiowboloio Qo^oinmemt, and ioijtus tho gionzidi- 
work ol our pttwut jnuctMHlinflH, a goneial asnuianuo to tlie abovo c*iloot, coinbmwl with tho niiiaiig^aout^ in train 
for provuhiiK tho moans oi nihtnicUun, will aisaiv our obtaining, at no durtant peiiod, a uoitaiu, though hmited, 
uuiubur ol ruH[Kwtttl>lu imtive Kn^LiKh sclioUrB , uud moro u&ocrtual and dousivo moasui OB may bo adopted horoaitot, 
wlum a Ixwly of oompotont UwJiom wliftlJ liavo boon provided in the Upper Pzoviuoes, and tho supeziontyof au 
JSutflwU ucluoaUciu U movu gouorally reoognisod axid appreaatad 

III J. Mftrthmi^** ondotioo-PrinUd Pftvbamontey Pftpm ( 8** h Bjiort of tlio Select Oommittee of the Home of 
numi (1M08J on Indua ftnitorio^ p, 4U, 1pp. V t rrar^yw Oft t/M Bduwtwn tftht Ptopl* tflnfra t p 145 



78 EHGIISH DDUdATioff nr INDIA 



" As intimated, however, by the Delhi Committee, the use of the English in our public corraspontlonoe 
Natives of distinction, mote especially in that which is of a complementary natniB, would in itself lie an imp 01 taut 
demonatiation in favoui of the new canise of study, as solving to indicate piatty cloaily the futui e intentions oi 
Government , and then B appeal? to be no objection to the immediate application of this incentive to a ceilaiii 
extent, andundoi the leijmsite limitations Tho expediency, indeed, of levuing the OovBinoi-Geiieial'fi coiics- 
pondence witli the highei classes of Natives on the above principles, has befoio, more than onco, undergone 1 
disoussion and conmdeiation , and tha Ghvemoi-GeuBial in Council, deem? the piosont a suitable occa-sion ioi 
r solving to address the Native Chiefs and nobility of India in the English language, (especially tbuso iDsitlmu 
in our own Fiovmoes) whenever theic is loason to behove, citlici that thaj have themselves acquit ed a knowludqi 
of it, 01 have about them persons pos&e&binq that knowledge, and, gencaally, in all in&tanLQs whoie tlio adnptiuu ot 
the new medium of con cspondenoe would bo acceptable and agiecablo " * 

The policy of ultimately adopting English as the 1 ing uage of official business, though ami nnnc cd flo far Intk 
Policy of adopting English as 1829> aa " a PP a iQ nt *m ^o pioccdmg extiaot, ctralcl imi bp put into 
as the language of official fcusi- opeiation foi manyyoaisto come, and, indeed, when that pnliry \\ns nmic 
ness announced so early aa piactitallj lecaqnizodby LoidHai dingo's Educational Resolution ul i,lu JOili 
1829, and followed in Lord Qotoboi, J8J4, much difficulty oaoso in putting it into opciation Upon the 
f 10th Befiolut1011 bam 8 commumcatod to tho Cominittes ol Puhlir Jnsiiuctinii, that 
body fiamcd ceitam mloa for holding EaanuiuvLions Ioi tlinsu wlio \vcMc 1 in 
lecoive ceitificntes of qualiiicatiDn foi Q-oveinmont seivice The scheme of examination thufi cst,ilihsln d ji,j\i 
piominence to those &ub]ects of study which woio locogmzod in the Ooveinmnnl Oullc^s, to the PM Iiision nl 
bubjeci^of aioligiouq chaiactoi, which loimod tho distinguishing fcatuia oi tho oduc<itioual mstiiuiiiins cslahljslnuf 
by the Miraonaues Eofeiiing to ting matte, Mr J C Mai simian, in his ovadenco bofoio a Hcloct CnmimUiM< oj 
the House of Commons, on tho 21&t July, 185), &aid 

" Afeobng of tho greatest possible dissatisfaction was thus created among tho Mifisionaiios ,is ni.iy woll b( 
Dissatisfaotion caused by flu PP OSQli > **& ^ became a subject of iomon6ti,mco with tho Coimiil ol 
the proceedings of the Eduoa- Education, and this led to a long di&ouBBion, which was camcd on with 
turn Committee under that feelings not of mutual concession, and only ended in oxaspci abmi hnih 
BesolnHon paitios The education given in the Mihsinnaiy Schools uiiiu(.dltKrili(ii, 

but veiyconbidei ably, of aiehgious ohaiactei, consequently the books which ait nftpd difhn ijtoatly linin 
\\luchai0employed in tho Gkivei nment Institutions, and tho discussion which dinso had loloionu 1 dn tlip 
which should be made the subject of examination Tho Missionoiics had manifosiod aiiobjpttnin in tJu> hi,iirly 
of Shakaspoaieand of the English diamatistq On the othez hand, the Oommittoo of Publu Just inH ion hml 
an equally stiong objection to examine the students of the Missionaiy Institutions in P.doy's Jflv idem cs of (Jlins- 
tianity, and othei books of the same chaiactei Tho conboquonco haq beon vciy deploiabhs bccunFio it lum HOWII 
dwB&id among those who have the same obioot in viow, namely, tho enhgLtenmcut ol thi KvtiwH It lias alhii 
pioducei a veiy unfavourable elioot on the minds of th a students of tho Misbionaty OolloffDH , wliotlior tiiiht or 
wrong, they have been lod to suppose that there wore two castes in education, tho Biahmm and tho Hunch.* i isic f 
and iihat those who weie tiained up in tho regulai Oithodox Oollegos of the Qovwnmont WHO of tin* J)i,iliinin 
easts, and those who had been oducatad in the Missionary Institutions belonged to a lowot and. an infoi icn ( l^ss 
Now, as the object of this examination was not to test tbe acquirements of tho students in any paitu ular I wink, 
but lather to ascertain then progiess in goneial htorature, it is very possible that ahjniil of ronnlulion rni^iit. 
haveionioved every difference, but theio was no spirit of conciliation, 1 am sou ylo wijr, inanik>Ht^l tm cithcr 
pait , and the consequence has beon, that both parties are no* e\aspototod against oaoli other, anil \ do not, HW any 
prospect whatevoi of having this discord hcalad under existing cucumstanoos " f 

Loid Hardinge'a Resolution of 1844, though intended to encourage English odnoatimi by offonng prrmpfotN of 

Erogress made by English Go^oinment patronage to those who had ftuupchhfulJjr hwnt ihu 

Education, especially m Ben- language, could not bo put into ope] ation AS mudi an might br oxjKjolc^ 

gaL account of political and admmisti'atxvp zoasons upon whidi it IH 

sary to iwoU here It is more to the prnpose to desciibo how Car English education liad mudo prn ff w* a (, that 

ponod and for some years afterwards Spoabng of the state of English education, Mr J Mowihrnau gjivc tho 

following description mhis deposition befoie a Select Committee of the House of Commons, on tho 18th July, 



* Treroljan On f to Bfotookon tf ths Ptople if !*&*> PP 14 B-147, tkrfs i 

t J&ndoaoe of Mr J D MaMhrnan-Rnntea Furlianmtaiy Papors 8rth B0povt of ih Soloct Oonnaiteo of iho Bouio of Com- 
moid [1B5&J on Indian Temtomi, pp 81, 82 



STATISTICS OF &NOLISH EDU01T10N IH 1852 79 

11 Within the Bengal Presidency, we have three descriptions of English school* and seminaries The first 
of those which aie paid by the State, and are under the immediate direction of the Government In 
Uonq.il and J3ehar theie are 31 such schools and colleges, embracing 4,241 soholaas The venous Missionary 
Societies in tho same piovincos, have also established voiious schools and colleges, foi the education of the Native* 
ni tin- Mnjjlish language and in Buiopean scieneo, and I find, ac coi ding to the latest leturn, that the nnmbei ot 
M hnolb and college* connected with them amounted to 22, and that the numbei of students was about 6,000 As 
^liGfttud) oi English is BJLceedingly populai among the Natives of Bengal, and they aie anxious to give then 
* 'n Id j on as laipo a knowledge of it as possible, many of those Natives who have received an English education, 
oiihoi in tho Miswonaiy or in the Goveinment Schools, have established piopnetaay schools foi English tuition, 
\Iioi c all tbose who aie ablo to pay either a smaller 01 a laigei sum leceive instiuction I have novel been able to 
obtain any latuin, cither of tie numbai of schook 01 of the numbei of scholars iu those piopiietary institutions , 
but 1 blumlil think that, in ani about Calcutta, the numbei of soholais doos not fall much Rhuit of 1,500 The 
inimhuj, hcnvcvoi, may bo oonaideiably gi eater I find, accoiding to the last Repoit, in tho Aigia Piesideney, that 
tho numbei of Government Schools and Colleges amounts to eight, and the numbei of BbholaiH in them to 1,548 
ILL the same Residency, the Mihsionaiiea have 22 English schools, in which 1,754 students aie leceiving education , 
but as English is not HO popular in tho Noith-Westein Fiovmces a* it is in Bengal, 1 am not awaie thai/ thoie aie 
any piopuotary schools in any of the great cities in those Piovinoea The education has been earned bo a veiy 
high pitch in the Gbveinment Institutions Tho students lecoive the some land of instiuction which IB comprised 
iu thu compass ot a libeial education in tlus countiy, and go thiough the whole ciiole of hteiature, of philosophy, 
and ot hcionc o Many of the Missionary ftchooh also embiace the same laige lange of instruction, and the education 
Hi\un in them is ecjually compi aheusive In some of the mfciioi Missionnay Schools, and more paiticulaily in the 
IOWPI class ol pi opiictaiy schools, wheze they have not the flame command of lesouices for obtaining supenoi 
f utois, the education is of lathei an mfenoi ohaiacter, and more element my than in the highei institutions The 
Nativth p\hibLt gioat shaipnoss and great piecooity of intellect They have also voiy great poweis of application 
In many of those institutions, the youths, who have leachod the head of them, have obtained an amount of know- 
Li (U>i*, winch would not do disoiodit to some of the be*t institutions in this country " * 

Miimlai'piogxosfi, upon a more 01 less extended scale, was made by English education m the Pi esidanaea of 

Madias and Bombay, and the following Abbtiact Statement! respecting 1 ednca- 

aeneralrtatistiosasto Bng- tum Mdel e ^ PJ.^^^^ m Biitiah India, dated East India House, 4th 
ll&jQi J5 Ci 1.1 ftTrloB. y,^ 1 So2 

May, 1852, piesented to tho House of Lords, throws bght upon the general 

itimul htatifetiof. of that poiiod 



NATURH OP IMBTBVOTIOV 




No of 
Lifltitutions 


Bipenae 


Teaohsis 


Pupils 


SOHOULBRHIPS 


Nnmlbat 


Value 
per 

n-TTntrrrj 


f Rnghsli, and mixed 

llemJ,UP j 

(^Vbin&cular 


87 1 

104 j 


3,87,110 


f 283 
1 104 


5,465 
4,685 


291 


BR 

49,524 


( Knghbh, and mnod 
Ditto, N-WP j 
(Yoinacular 


:i 


1,83,521 


f 112 

1 48 


1,582 


232 


22,932 


( JJSngluh, and noxed 

Uttliw ] 
(, Vernacular 


M 


48,558 


f 1S 

( Cannot b 


180 
> given. 






f English, and mixed 

Bombay ] 
(Vomaculat 

Total 


M 1 

233 ) 


1,50,408 


( ffl 

(. 233 


2,066 
11,394 


U4 


5,880 




Ra 7,14,597 
or 66,908 


855 


25,372 


607 


78,336 



* BndoBOaof Mr J Hawhmwi Printed Pwrliamantapy Papers BwtK Report of the Select Committee of the Houaeof 

' 



80 W&LISH HDTTQATIOir IN 

As a general view of the condition and progress of English education during the period to which thi* 
Sir Frederick Halliday's ge- chapter relates, the following a tat em ant of Sir Frederick Halkiay before a 

neral view as to the condition Select Committee of the House of Commons, on the 25th July, 1853, may 

of English. Education in 1853 te quotod _ 

"I think the progress of education since 1833 has been satisfactory, it has been continuous, and, on the. 
whole, u. the light direction , the lesults, as far as wo can "judge of them by observing the conduct and charaetei 
of those who have been educated at the institutions, and have gtmo foith into the woild, of whom a gieat manj 
have been employed in Government situations, and a good many UL piivate situations, arc that they we impiovcd 
very much in morals, and in conduct, by the education which they have i eceivcd , I think the/ OL e a suponoi 
class, altogethei to those who preceded them, who weie eithoi less educated arooidmg to oui VIOJT^, oz not educated 
at all Theie IB yet, however, a good deal to be done , it is not the opinion of those T\ho arc intonated in educa- 
tion in India, that enough money is spent upon it, the icason being, of course, that thuie has not been hithurtu, 
geneially, money to spend , the desire is, that as fast as means con be found, as fa*t as tlio Govpinmpiit is in 
possession of moans for that puiposo, those means should be applied to the extension of education, it being .t 
matter, in the opinion of peisons in authoiity m ludia, of the veiy last unpcntajioe, eupeiioi pnLaps to a.11 otlicis, 
towards the impiovement of oui admimstiation Theie is an opmion, also, that education lias nut boon c i 
huffiwontly in the way of Veinaculai teaching, and in that lespoct I see mom 01 nnpi o% omeut , but on tliu 
Ab I began by saying, the lesults ate satisfactory and piomising " * 



CHAPTER XVL 

PROPOSALS TO ESTABLISH UNIVERSITIES IN INDIA IN 1845 PARLIAMENTARY KNQUJKY 
INTO INDIAN" AFFAJBS IN 18,53 PETITION TO PARLIAMENT BY MR II 0AM K RON, 
FOR ESTABLISHING UNIVERSITIES IN INDIA VIEWS OF SIR CHARLES TRKVMLYAN, 
MB MAJISHMAN, PROFESSOR H H WILSON, AND SIB FREDERICK HALLIDAY, ON THH 
SUBJECT 

From the account which has been given m the preceding chaptois, it u apparent that thp earliest and 

rihem TT tv K 184 * 88 * aofa^itj in the cause of Public Instruction w*w oviueod in llniipl, 

Oaloatta!iopofled 11^84fi * ^ ml * bv ihe G' 1 *"*^ but also by tho pooplo thomholvw ; who indeed, 

had boon foremost u seeking Engbsli oducatjon It ww, tlioieloie, in tlut 

Presidency, that the first proposal to found a Univeisity in India was made So for back as the 25th ol Ot tuber, 
L845, tho Council of Education at Calcutta, undor tho Presidency of Mr Charles JTay Carincinn, ptopuicd a pUn 
or a University at Calcutta, iiom which the following extract inay bo quoted, as Ihiowiiig light ujwii tho o<u \\ 
iistcny of University Education in ludia The pioposod plan began with the following 

" Tho pi esont advanced state of eduDationin the Bengal Pieufloncy, with tlio Luge* and annnall) nuu^ni^ 
Lumba of highly-educated pupils, both in public and piivato infttitniaonfr, rwidoiH it not milv t xjinlionl and 
.dnsablo, but a mattoi oi siaiot ]ustios and nocoisify, to confer apon thorn home rniuk of djsi.jm1.mn, bj ^hirii 
hey may be looogmzod as poiscoift of liboial education and enhqfhtouod mmdfl, capable 1 , from tlio hloiaiy iiml 
oientihcii'ainnigthoyhaveundwgono, of enteiing at once upon the arfcve dntiw* oi lile, of iinnu>m*inff the 
>rdotwal pmsuit ol tho lew noil piofossinns, including m tins doflciiption tlic* businofts of inhlrauliuff the lining 
eneration , of lioliling the higlioi offices uudw Goveinment opon to ndtivos, after duo ofhtiul quablieation , oi 
t takrag the rank in society accwdpd in Euiope to all mombcrs aud p-adnaios of the ITrnvoihitK'h --The 
oly moans of accomplishing this gieat object n by the cstabhshmant of a Central Univarflzly, aimed 
lepowei of granting degrees m Aits, Science, Law, Modiome and Civil Eugmeorag, iiicoiporatedby A 
>4rtof the Legislative Council of India, and endowed with the pnnlogefl on joyed by aU Chattered 
i Great Bntain and Lceland After caiofully stadymg the laws and coiwtitution of tho Uiuirwmtiro oi Oifowl 



Parlunentuy Piipm 9*th lippoit of the Select Uomroiiteo of tho UODIB of Ogmmnni, on Inrlmn Te&riboriBl (1653) r 



TO ESTABLISH A msrrvaiasiTr AT CALCUTTA 81 

nwl Cambiidcro, TV itli those of the recently establishad University of London, the latter alone appears adapted 
tr> Hie wants of the native community " 

The Umvoisity was to con&iafc of a Chancelloi, a ViDS-ohancalloi and Fellows, constituting a Senate divided 

j j. *. ,... m * * a Faculties of Law, Science and Oivil Bngineeimg, Medicine and 

Constitution of the proposed a , ,. . A . c r 8 , , . , 

University at C*jdcutta "^g^yj and a Faculty of Aits for gonoial oontiol and gupeimtendence 

An examiration of candidates, for Dogiees in all the Departments ?vas to be 

lii*ld at least once A year, and oonduotod cither by Examineig appointed iom among the Senate, 01 by any 
oihoi ffusrnis appcMlly nominated by that body, and the benefit* of those oTnminations weie to be extended to all 
Jiishtiilirms, whtlliQi Government 01 piivate, appioved oi by the Senite, pioyidedthe oandidatag horn bach 
institutions cnuioim to such Regulations as may be enacted i espocting the com se, e-ctont and duiation of study 
with the cut tinoiiteci thai will be iBquuod, authority bomg gi anted for the issua oJt the flamo Aftei giving an 
<uil Inn* nl the piopORGil Regulations, the scheme ended with the following obturations 

11 Tlio iiljuvo is a ioruh outline of a plan, tho coiiyiuq out of which would fotm one of the most impoitant 

Benefits expected from the ^-^ i 11 ^ 1 obis toiy of education in India It would opon the paths of hououi 

proposed University at Gal- anil distinction aliko to evciy tlabft and ovoiy institution , would onoouifue 

a high standcii d ul qualification tin on ghaut the Pi ositloiiey, by bestowing 
lewaids upon Ihoso who had spout ycaisin Llio aLi^nisitiim of kuowlod^o, and lendcimq thon 
lil-f k i,uy hinionis a snaioo ul omul mu out as well as of noual distmcfcion IL would ionio\e most of tho objection 1 - 
,10 unst tlu* o\istjiii system of ovnmmatjou of LaniLilatcs 01 public ompbpuont, without lowoiing the 
luioruutfcion i cjriiui ail , anil wi>uld in a voiy iuw yeais piorliuio a bod> o native public hcrvuits 
Mipcnm in cliai ac i i'i , ati am merits, anil ufhuuucy, to any ohthou picdcooh-nis It \vualtl (jucouia^o the cultivation 
ul ill* 1 iH-i.vml scionci's, and call into ovistpnoo a cliss oi: iLitivo vitlntccts, oii^inoois, hmvoyois *vnd educated 
whose iniluL'iico wuulil zapully ciuil ceiUmly dillusc at^jsteloi tho moie rohnccl and mtelloctual 
aiul |) in suits oJ tliu West;, to tho qiarlnal extinction oi tho Biioivatjug and dugrading supoistitious of the 
KM IiKinascd facilitu'H ol intiuGoiUhu, b} moans nf Railiuadpi, with tho mteiioi of tho count iy, the Noith-Weflt 
Tiox mi ( -., .hill ^ hh 14iiio])0, would cause Ihoso influences to ladialo fiom the centi ? of tiviliaabon, with a velocity 
,vnd I'lu'i t In 1 ! i ioli>ii iiiiktii)\vii in hubti, ind, in ticl, nonlil lie alteiulc^l with all tho advantage*) that have bptiii 
toiiniliMl in Inslrii} to li.ivo JolluwcrL a |U(Lumnfi, onb>hteiiL*iJL, extended and hound system of education, enooniagotl 
h\ suitable nw aids and tlihtiiiQiiouR Tho adoption ol tho plan \\ou1d only be it ten dud lutli a very triflnur 
r\|K>iiM k it* (JnviM'iimcHt m tho oonunonconumt , f 01 in tho oouise ot a few yoaifl tho pi oceeds of tho IFee JTtmtt 
\MMild lu* niuio than Milhciout to tluhay uvoiy o^puusc atiourluiL upon tho Uuivetsity It would laise tho charnctet 
,uid ini|Mii(.,ui('ii of tin 1 whole Edactitinn Dopai tniuiit in public* estimabion, and ultimately placu tho oilunte! 
nadiiri ul tins rri l at c i iu|iuo ii]ion a level with UioiO of tbu \vostem woild Tlbit tliu time for such a measma 
Ins ui uvid, is hilly jnovod by tlie stfmdaid of o\collonoo attaiuud tu the ficmiui hcholai ship o^ammatious oi the 
OouiH'il <ii KflursiiiDii, and tho creditable hkill ami piohcionty tJuLitod by the giaduatohot the Medical College, 
whusc 1 oxiuniniiitiiins, in ovtout and difhcnlty, ate much t^joatei thau those oi any of tho Colleges of SwqeoHB w 
i Btitivuj, and in a piuoly pi oi OMimial point ol viow, neaily on ap<a with those loriuned from the Medi&J 
oi nioht BiitiHh Umvoihitiofl "t 
piopoHalH nouwloHo iar back as 184>& for tho establishment of a TJmveifeity at Oalcutto wero diflooun- 

. ij A,.vi.v 4WM tt*nancod by Lho authowtios in Bnglanil, and appear to have lam in abeyance 
Tho proposal for ostaoiisnuig 
a Umvoisity at Calcutta re- "^ uwnyycajs [t ww not wJl raihampnt took up tho subject of there- 
mums m aboyonoo till Parha- nowal ol tho East India Ooinpauy'b Cliaiiei in ] 852-5?, that tho pioposals 
montary iiiquity IB 1853* pro- , p^^od any taniblo aticuticm Undui tho Act of Pculiamont R and 4, Wni 
coding St. 3 and 4, Wto- IV , C j y ^ c gj ^ ihfl tm m ol tllo o oiarany ' h Govoiumoul m India won to oxpiro on 

tho 80th ol Apul, 18S4, and it wu* doomed noue^baiy to hold a Pailiamciitaiy 

mu|iin*v mti> Hie Tiidnui allanfl aR had buuu tho cuhtoin Lufoio IOUOWIIIG; tho ChaiixT Fox thin purpose Select Oom- 
nuUi^s of tin* House ol Louis, and ol tho Liuiuo ot Commons wero appointed, and thoy collected a mass of evident*, 
fi nm v, Inch nun IL iiiloiiiiation can bo gathered aa to the piogzoaB and policy ot Bughsh education in India HID ou- 
(|iui y ii*uUc*1 in i1u> Ai-t cj| Piwlianient, 10 and 17 YJC , C 03, which was passed on tho 20th o Auquht, 1853, rend by 
which, until Paiiliumtnit hliould othoiwiHe piovidu, all tho teiiitorjos then in tho posscgsion and undoi the Govern- 
ment of Miu KaHt Jintia Oompauy, NVOIO to continue under such Qovernmont, in trust for Hoi Majesty Tho Act 
wns avowedly tonipovary, and rantunod in foroo only lor a very flhoit peiiod, but as having a bearing upon Englmh 

* Ft iiited Pnrlittttiontary Fapoxi Stconi Boport of tho Saloob Domnufctoe of the House of Lords on Inditn Tenitoriii (185^-58), 
O tfl,P WO 

11 



hg ENGLISH JBUCATION IJT INDIA 

education, it contained a pi oviaon by which the appointments to the Civil Service anil tlio Medical Seivirp in 
India woie withdrawn fiom the Dnooton of tho Company and thiown open to public competition 

In the course of the Pailiamentaiy enquiry abovemontioned, many petitions wcio pioscnipd to Pailiiiin nf, 

_ , . , __ . . . and among othen, theie ^as one Tvluch ctaoncs hislomal impnil inn 

Petition to Parliament by B 

Mr Charles Hay Cameionfor m connection mth High English Education m I HUM anil inirlic qintnl 

establishing Univeisities in hoie iu eitenso as it is fall nf inipoiUnt mattci expiessoil in UM> hin-f 
India, dated aoth November, language It iraib as fnllrms 

1852 "TOs hmull? PplrtHM of f'Sf/rffi 7/"c/y f\riiif/nw, luff MM tit I/IIM/UI "/ 

flit* Gbfiun? of India, PnHdnrf of the Indian Law Cfauijiissfrm, and nl flu (Juiuu il nj Kilittufinn [M lh w//rr/ 

" HUMBLY SiriANMH 

"That, JIH L^osidout of the Council of Education tm Honqal, jom potitjrmn luul nppni (unities of olismiii!* 
the dcsiio and the capacity ofl, IT qo nnmlieis o1 the natnL ^unih of India, lui ilir iirqiiisHnni nt I 4 jinit|u in 
htw .itm e and science, as \\L41 AS the capacity ot tlio most disiini)iiisli(d amoin' tlicin, fin httin^ IliriiM'Ui 1o 
cuici tin Uivil JLnd Mt'ilnal l)n\oiicintcd Woi \iocs oi tlio East liului CJoinjj.uu, tnd to [)i.tdis(> in llir ICIIHK) 
pi oJussiDiis 

" That tlio said nativo ^onth aao hmdcMLMl Liom malvin^ nil thu jiid^H'sf, tlit'v an* (apalilt 1 oi MI tin \\ i|iiMhon 
oi tlio hrud lit^iataic and Micnro 

Uownso theio ih not in Jhitihh India any Himoisit), \viLh |irmti to i>taul Di^ii'is, iis is <lnru lv 
311 1Jutr)[jo 

" tin out I /y Because tlio F/mopoan nistinitriis oi tin* said n.it i\c \ciiith do nut. hi Iniii^ (n an\ il tli l'i\t 
nautod Hoi \jccs nl the Hafcl India Cum]).uiy, anil do not, t lien loir, \\li.d t'\ci inav !K> tin n li.nnini; anil LilMit%, 
a position m Soiicty wlinh Lommainls tin ii'spcil nl (Inn jjunili 

Th\n\l\j licc.mht' no jiwi vision has I)LT n made* 1m tlu I'duL.iliiijii ol an) ol tin vinl nahu ^uiitli in Kii"l,nnl 
without pio|urlicio to tlieii < as to oi i obvious Jtelini>K 
"Yom potitiDnoi, thoioloio, pia^s, 

"That olio oi moio Univt'isitich uiay he- c'si.tblislu'd in Hiitish India 

b( Thiit a Covenanted Education HDIVICC ma} bo <uato<l, aiialoi>(ius tti the (V^cnantcd Ciul anil Mnlnal 
SBIVKOS 

" That 0110 01 raniti Establishments ma} bo cioatcfL, at whuli tljt 1 u.itivc >nntli of Inrlia ma) M ivm , in MnL'l mil, 
\\ililnmt jnojnilico ti) thm* cask* 01 loliyious ftM-lnii'S, such a srcnUi ciluuti/Jiui as may ijnaliiy tin m lot ailnn inn 
uilo thu Civil and Medical Hoi \jces ol thi) KasL Endia Uouipan}, 
"Anil youi putitionoi will ovoi piuy 

"MthNtwmbt** 1852 U f J AM | i,n\ w 

Upon tho piupos.il coutiUnod in this petition, tnncli uvnlomo wim Ukon by tin Si'Ii-H, (Nwinulli'i's, nini tin* 
Views of eminent witnesses VH ' WS ^ Kl)7UC ' ^ nc> n"p'itant witncshis, on tin* pmpnsal it* s(nlhsli (Inivi'i- 
befoietho House of Lords, as Cities in ludumuy be qnotxnl hen* Mi II (lamcum, iipnn IH HIM i.Knf 
to eetabhshing TTmveisitios m as tr> tho pinpnhul omiUmod in Ins pptitiim it^niiliiir' HUM 



11 



Um\ui l hitns m fndia, explained IIIN \ieus Ix'Joir a HeliM'(> ( 1 ijiiiniitlt* ol (In 
House* oj Loids, on the 7tli Jul}', W, r >?, in tin* Inllownm wonls 

"My suggestion would amount to Lhih, that tlicte sliouhl he in oucliof ihe trieat (*npital (Mn . in Imlui 

a UriMetsify, that is to say, ,it MalruMa, al> M.wlias, ai Htiiiiliav, and al Afia, 

oi Jbas piOTotals B 028:plftnatl011 those lorn ciliih heintf the eentnsol lnn ilislnui laiiL'iiuuis, (\il. til fa lcuf( 

the Incus ol Ihe IU k n^.ilet> hini'iia^e, Mailins ol the Tumil, Hrjniha\ iri ihe 

iwl^iu ol the IFnichjo InlliiM* luui irmveisjties \voulil lu fai^ht, iii-etJiilino to itn notion^ (In* 
', ami all thr liic-iMfcuto that it. imitaiin, ami M'irnee also in Mie s-une lainiuaHi^ am) at fhi"itnt< 
time, tlie loin laiiijiiiKte*! that I have luentiomil wimhl also htM'iiltnaLMl Nati\ hlmlents nnuhl |n pradt nl iu 
ItntiHlations Iniin Bullish inti> pach ol thobo lun^uaueh ami Tioin eueh ni llio.e lati'Miui-es inlo Ki^liih Uvny 
wlneh tlio flo\Lrnnicnt CMII uive, wnuhl In- tjuen to the [jirxluef.inn nl oriumal works in flmse natni 
That HyHttm ft]re,wly eviHtn to a imihicli-iuljln e\tent , hu( thrte IN IKI Umvusit.v , Jhrioih no hmly 
h.wi tho poivur oi grttnLiiiK dc^ipt-b, and Unit Mtt ol nutjuu^ nu nl. iippi'in* to IM- une which <lu< Nuti\iH 
atu fully fluhiwiw ot They have in HUM! at a point at whuli they aie i|iu(e npit lur tt t nml lln*} ( 
aie oxtwinoly dobirooa oi it that is to &ay t thrwo who luwo alrtarl} lioni'liteil hy tliin hjsti m nl Kiifflihh 



* Pnnt^d Pwhamcntejr Pftpwi JFwit RAIMA t of tho Holaob OommULtiP ol tlio Ilcmvo ol Cuinmn ru Indi'in Tomiiiritw 
pp fiia, 011, Ipp No 7 



7IHWS IB TO A UHIVMfllTT AT OAlCUTU 83 

ne orfremoly doniooi of those distinction, and are extremely deBirou* of having ihat sort of recognition of their 
iwufacm M suliieoti of the Queen of Cheat Bntain "* 

Upon the same uibjeet, Sir Charles Tievelyan's views were expressed in the following ds - 

I think an TJmyerwiy should hflestahliBhed at each of the Piesidoncies, consisting of two departments 
Sir Chailes Erevelyan's n8 ^P 81 * 111611 * should he foi the purpose of an examination f 01 all-comers, 
views Tvheievei educated, in all the superior and advanced blanches of seculai 

knowledge, and tor giving diplomas and dogiees in them One important 

Mi|j|,.itol examination anil be English htoiatme the young men from the Goveinment College* will hung 
iipiliiu Slidkpspeaie, then Milton, thou Spectatoi, thou Johns on, -whole the 3 oung men Jhomthe Migsionary 
Hi Imiils will hung up then Paloy, thou Butlei, then Burnet's Histoiy of the Refoimaiion, theu Dauhigna'e Liie 
nl LuUicn, and so ioith In Saiificiit and Arabia htoiatme, the young men educated at ths ttovemment Colleges 
uil1\ic with thofio who have ictoivedthou inunction liom piivato teachcis, accoiding to the original native 
lisliwni Anothoi Hubert of examination will he medicine and suigciy, anothci will he law, another will be 
mil ciiqiiimum, Biuvmniy, and airlntectnie, auothei wiU he iiatuial philosophy, chomisti y, metalloigy, &c , 
mil bo the hno nits And I cousidca tliat a distinct i elation and channel of communication shouM be 
liu the imi j)u?o of liaai&fumng yuuug men -who pass tho host examinations ui law to the public 



The VIUWH oi anntlioi impoitint wrlnesfi, Mi J Maishman, may also be quoted 

' Thr* titat oli|ULt of rloBuo in India, as a i cmedy loi this btate of things, is the catahhahmont oi Umveisities , 
Mr Marshman's views ne Umvolsii 7 at ea ch of the iom Piesidenoies, at A^i L, Calcutta, Madias 

and Bombay It IB a mattei of gioat impoitancc to the pioqioss of oduoa- 

in India, that Ihis TTnivoihity hhould bo established upon the c\aoi moflcl oJ the London TJm^oihity heio, 
lint Hs hnuhnns should not bo to teach any bianch of knowledge,, but to cjxanunB and to clagsify, and to 
i*i\c (Irenes i othosu -\\lio had boon taa^ht in othd ustiintion? The GDYOI urn ent Colleges Tvould then stand m 
IIICH i <1> the haiiic iilatumftlni) to tho TJniveisity aa tho Missionary Colleges, 01 any othei uwtitaiaonb thion^hout 
I lie mini i Y 4 I i * i i * Tlie UmvcasitiBs would, of comse, 31 ant degiooa in law, and all those 
\\lmniMi' umrjiih to ulitaiu them, ag a passpoii to oolebiity, would moke themselves afi poifeot masteis ot the- 
* ic'iii c 1 d4 pnhhinle The advaiitapo to bo doiivei fiom such Univcr^itios would be gi oat , they would cioaie a 
spiuiiol UuiUbliM'mu l,i turn .unon^ tho voiiuus educational institutions iu the conntiy, and give a voiy cieat 
slnnnliiH, ^tmeially, to the c*niso oi education, and at the same tune enable the Ghn eminent to asccitain who ^ei*e 
Mic ninst qnalifiofl htudents fra public employment, connected with all the institutions thioughoat the oountiy "f 
Theu k wuo also oiliiii impoitant witnc&he& who favouiad the proponal to establish Umversitiofi m India , 

but among iho?e who were opposed to tho schomo, the name of Piofes&oi H 

H WllB 11 ' ^ dufcu h d Oiwntaliat, cannot pas B unnoticed Befalling 
to the pi op OB al, he said 

" 1 couluHb f oamint imagine that any good would arise from it, but without knowing the exact plan of the 
ITnivcifliticH, it woulrl poihaps bo difficult to foim a conclusive opinion I do not know what is meant by a Univer- 
sity ui India , if it IB to cotuiiBt 111 woriiing caps and gown's, and being called Baohelois of Arts, and Masteis of Aits, 
I do not hoo 'what advantage is hkoly to accrue from it The Natives certainly could not appieoifite the 
\ ,<1u<> of Huch titloH , it would be ol no advantage to a young man to be called a Bachelor of Aita amongst the Natives 
ol hidia, who could attach no positive idoa to it , it would be inconvenient if it ipve him place and precedence 
nmonqHt Fhuopoana p in Tact, I cannot oonwdei that any advantages at all would bo doiived from such an institution 
(Jcitilicatra and diploma* givon to tho young men who acquire soholaiships, and those who have merit, aie Buffi- 
4 loni proof K ot then audibility for oftco " 

A no tli ui olaftB of oppowtiouto the gohome of establishing TTmvBrsities in India, is lepresented by the views 

Sir ftedenok Halliday*s ap- o^reased by Sir Eiedenok Halhday, in lus evidence before a Select Com- 

prehension as to failure of mittee uf the House of Commons, on the 25th July, 1853, and which may he 

proposed Universities quoted here as completing the account of the various phases of opinion enter- 

tained upon the Bubjoci at that time He said 

41 1 am not vory sanguine about UuiversitieB m India , certainly I would not have thorn estabhshed on the 
iootmg proposed by Mr Oamoron m his evidence before the Committee of the House of Lends He wishes that 
tkoy Baould be established upon a great scale, with a. Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor, and Faculties, and. things of 

* Printed Fuhunartai? Papus 0Moirf Bopoife of fte Select Oonuuttee ol the Hoiuo ot Lordi on laOum TmtimM 

p m flip"' 



84. 



EDUCATION IN INDIA 



that sort, which appear to me to involve xnoie than we require, and to be lunnuig ahead of the necessities of ihc 
times in India, besides which, there aie some difficulties, which Mr Cameion has in Rome respects himself pimod, 
aiising out of that vary Resolution of Lord Haidinge Lord Hai dance's Resolution was to the eilpct, that all 
distinguished students in pubho or private seminaries should be prafeired, othei things being equal, fen appoint- 
ments in the public service , and he i emitted this Resolution to the Council of Education, with rluoctions to 
frame the details of a system to carry it into effect The Council of Education very natuially thought that 
the only way to do this was to establish general examinations, to which all persona might come, and which 
should test then acquirements , and that then, at those examinations, certificates bhould be grvoii, tuid thrjst* 
certificates should oaiiy in them the effect of Lord Haidmge's Resolution Now, as fai a? that wont, iL it did 
not foim a University, it wag the germ of a University , at all events it was intended to be 60 I believe ill 
Cameion, who was the framer of the plan, had that in his head when he fiamod it It TV as also ontiiul) in 
accordance with what must be done if a Umvoisity were established, that the Btandaid fihonld bo so hud as to 
ooiiespond in its highest degree with the highest instt notion given at any affiliated institution I suppose 
that under any conceivable University system that must be done, and that was done Whd,t Wcis 11u> KUISP- 
quenoe p A storm of leprobation which hag assailed this plan evei since, and pi evented its \ ui opuiiihrm It 
was immediately said, 'this standaid is an unattainable standaid, it is the standard of tho highest ,uul IN-S! 
students of the Government Institutions , it u one to which our btudentb can novor attain ' Thi*> was stuil l> 
persons having an interest in private seminaries It was also said, 'this is a fttcmdaid oJ lituiafnic and 
mathematicg, and a veiy high one, whereas many of our &tudents aie kept fiom nUtunuiif AIIJ Limnc'iiu* HI 
tho&e branches of knowledge by having then attention chiefly duootodtn tho doctimes r>f UhnitoiWiity Unli*ss 
theroforo, you put the whole thing into om hands, and enable us to say what is distuiohon as jcq.bi(lM tlu> hlntlcnls 
in our institutions, we repudiate your plan, and will have nothing to do with it' Thny aotwL in that wrt>, and 
havo ever since done so , and they have vilified the bohome, and tho fiamor& of it to the utmost of then piiwm 
It appears to me, that if that wexe the consequence of establishing a system of examination, to tfivc coitifu'.itc * 
which should carry a man into the public service, it must bo the consequence of establishing A Univmsity to fjw 
degrees to pass a man into the public service You must always havo a highest standard, anil tlut htanrlui <1 imiht, 
be always in accordance with the highest standaid of instruction in any of tho aftluitcd uibtitutuiiih Tln suuu 
results would follow, if a system of Universities were earned out Wo havo to doal at piosont with a mimkr of 
Government Institutions, some of them carrying education to a very high pilch , and we 1 lidvi 1 to doil wii.h a 
great number of missionary and some private institutions, which aie, generally speaking, very Ui iiih'iini ID <ln 
Gbvernment Colleges in point of literal y and mathematioal attainments Iloie and thci*e one in two of Uu*in 
comeneai the Government Colleges, but still they are below them Tho Government Institutions bland lorth 
in the eyes of the Natives, and ought to stand forth in such a manner that distinctions in tlium mubt be 
coveted and sought for than distinctions in private institutions " * 



CHAPTER XVII. 

COMPREHENSIVE DESPATCH OF THE OOUET OF DIREOTOBS TO TUB aOVBRNMBNT OF 
INDIA, DATED 19ra JULY, 1854, ON THE SUBJECT OF EDUCATION, KNOWN AS HUt 
CHARLES WOOD'S EDUCATIONAL DESPATCH OF 1864 FORMATION OJC TJUd MIIUCATION 
DEPARTMENT 

It !htt teen stated in the preceding chapter, that h y the Aot of Papliament, 18 and 17 Vu> , otaptw J)6, win. 1. 

ThaBduoatumal Despatch of P" 8611 on &* 20*^ ot Angnat, 1853, tlic Bntwli TumlonoB ju liuliu wtw 

the Court of DireotoiB, dated to oaatmae under the QovBinmBnl of the Eant Jndm Oomiwny until Pivrliw- 

19tlJiily,18B4. nient Bhonld otherwiso pixmde The Paxluvmontary ew|uiy into Jndmn 

affura, which preceded that enactment, appears to hare borne good fruit, so far as tho subjoot of education 10 

ftntua PtttounentuT P^M-SW^ Beport at fhi Bdeot OommMwtot thi Bonn of Common* on taton TemtodM (Ian;, 



cnmT OF DIBBOTOBS' BDTTCATIONAL DHSPATOH on 1 1854 " 8r 

is emu 01 iu il In !:>*, the eduoatirm of the whole population of India was definitely accepted as a State 
<ltv, and tin* Dispatch fiom the Oouit of Diiectois of the East India Company, No 49, of the 19th July, 1864, 
1 ml Am 11 in i ICMI , though gonna], tarns the principles which should govern the educational policy of tho Govein- 
'iii ut, nl liiilu Itsetfuith * a scheme of education tor all India, &r wider and moie comprohen&ive than tht- 
Hii|iniii (i ,m> Lric-dGuveininont, could evei have venture! to suggest" Up to the time of ite ISSUD the eftoits 
nl I In* < im ci ntm'iit m tbo cause of education hod been marked neither by consistency of dn action, noi by aary 
ni aim Tlio animal Ptponditnie upon Public Instruction had been insignificant and uncertain , and tin* 
<>j it s ojMial urns harl not boon deemod worthy the attention of any special department of the State Thi> 
loin cUliniatod in the Despatch wan indeed, both in its character and scope, fai in advance of any- 
f \isfimi at flic time ot it* inception It fuimshed, in fact, a masteily and compzehen&ive outline, tho filling 
up oi \\lui h was iiwssanly to bo tha woik of many years 

Tlif Kiluratioihil Despatch of 18.54 still foims the dbmtei of education in India, and its ptupoit was thuh 

Its purport ' summori7ed m the Repoit of tho Indian Education Commifi&ion of 1882 

" Tli(> Dispatch oL 1H54 commcnrls to tlio special attontion of the Govoiument of India, tho impiovement and 
Ui \\nlci c'\li*iiMu of education, both English and Vomaculai, and prescribes as the means for tho attainment i>t 

till M 1 tlllJClfs 

(1 ) Tlip constitution of a sopaiate depaitmont of tho administration for education 

("2) Tlio institution nf Uiuvt'iMtio* at the Piosuluncy towns 

(}) Tlio t'Htablishiuimt oL institutions for tiamuu* tuodiors foi all cluaso& of sclinoh 

(t) Tlio nuiniteiiATu u of the existing Govoinmont Oullogri and High Sohoolh, and tho increase of then 

iiumboi when nocoshaiy 
(.") Tln chiciljlislimoiit oi new Middle Schools 

(fi) IiuuMAud atti'iition t<) Vointcular Schools, indigenous or othta, fox elementary oduration , and 
(7) Tlio iiit.i(HlnctMin of u system oi Oianth-m-aid 

kt Tlu altimtioii oi Government is fipocmlly riiicotod to tho impoxtanoo of placing 1 tho moans of acquiring uftctnl 

and piacticiil kiiowlod^o within reach of tho gioat moss ot tho people Tho 

Directions as to educational jj,^]^ i A ngoag is to l>o tlio medium of iiihttuotion in the higher blanches, 

and the Vernacular mtho lower, English is tobotauglit whoievez thei*o is 

a d( immil lor it, ]>nt it in not to bo hufatituted f 01 the Veznocular languages of tho ccmntiy The system ot 
.into bolwihcd on the pjinoipleof perfect religious neutrality Aid 16 to bo given (so far as th 
i <>J ( k <uh paitioalcur Dihtriot M compnipfl with other Distuctn, and tlio iund& at the disposal of Qoveni- 
i may ii k ndor it. poHHiblfO to all schools impaiting a good secular education, piovidod thoy are undei adequate* 
local iiianatfcintiut, anrl aro Hub|ect to Qovetnmont inbpeotion, and piovidod that ieos, however small, aro chaigod in 
lh(>ni (lianlHUiv to bo ioi Hpocifie ohjocts, and thoir amount and oontumanco arc to depend on tho periodical repotts 
of (Idvonitnoiit frihfK'ofMirH No Govommont Oollogos or Schools are to bo founded, whoxe a sufficient number of 
uisiituhoTiH oxiftis (Hpitl)le, with the aid of Government, of met'tiiig tlio local domand toi education , but new Schools 
.UK] (JolJc'tfOH aro to bo ofltubhshod and tempoiauly mainUmod whoi-e there IA little or no prospect of adequate 
local oflorL boniff matlo to moot local requu-emonts The discontinuance of any genet ol system of education entirely 
pnmiiiHl by Uownmimt, is awtioipated with tho giadual advance of the system oi granto-m-aid , but the progress 
oi oiltutition IH not to bo ehockod in tho slightest dogioo by tbo abandonment oi a single school to probable decay 
A i<mipit))ioiiMivo system of Kchularslupf. is to bo instituted, so Of, to cnnnrot Lower Schools with Higher, and Higher 
KclumlH with Uollc^OH Fomalo oducatiou IH to loot'ivo tho Iratikand coirbal support of Govommont Tho punoipal 
oflliMalH in uvny Dwtnct aro required to aid m the oxtonnion oi education , and m making appointments to posts in 
HIM M'l'YH'i' of (Jovortmftwit, a puison who has rocoi vod a good oducation is to be preferred to one who has not Evou 
in lower hitnifal.)QiiH, a man who can rcud oood wiifco JB, if equally eligible in othor i*espoets 7 to bo profened to one 

who Giumot^t 

TLo main foaiui oof iho despatch, and tho Pobcy of Dduoation laid down by it, w oontauied in *ho follow- 
ing extract from it, so fai afl English instruction is concerned 

Policy of the Educational fe j t w ^^ ^^, B7ery opportum^y should have been given to those 

Doflpateh of 1854 ^ higher) classes for tho acquisition of a liberal European education, the 

oflocta o! wluolx may be expected slowly to pervade -the rest of their felbw^oountrymen, and to raise, in the 

B*laluw of tha Gtewniiwmii of ft^ 
t Report of 



fl> INGHJSH BDTTOAT10H IN 151)11 

end, tha educational tone of the whole country We aie, thereto e, far from under-rating the importance, 
01 the success, of the eftoits which have bean made in this direction, but the higher classes aie both able 
and willing, in many caso&, to boai a oonsideiable pait, at least, of the cost of than education , and it is abundantly 
pvidont that in some puts of India no aitifiaal stimulus is any longei jeqmied in oidei to cioata a demand fui 
hiich an education as is convajed in tha Government Anqlo-Vemaculai Colleges Wo have, by the op.tablifhmcnt 
and suppoit of these Colleges, pointed ont the mannei in which a liboial education is to bo obtained, and assisted 
ili cm to a leiy conBideiable extent fiom the pnblic funds In addition to this wo ait? now piepaiecl to E>IVQ, b> 
sanctioning tho establishment of UniveisitiQ-a, fall development to tlio hi^lioit cum so of eiluciition to which tlu 
natives of India, tn. ol any othoi countiy, con aspue, and besides, by the division of Ui'uoiiil> ilcgioes anil 
djb tractions into drfeiont bianclies, the exeitions of highly educated man TV ill bo duo tied io the studies -which 
.ne necessaiy to suctQSEi in the \anous active pi of cs&ions oi lif a We shall, theiotoie, liavo done ae mauli as a 
I juvuinnient con do to place tho benefits of edncahou plainly and piTiCtitally bctoio tho hiqlici classes in Jndia " * 
Tho pimciplos of tho Despatch ot 1954 weio confumad by the Seciotaiyof Stato, in the? Ih'spatrh n( 7ih 

Apiil, 1859, which laid fuithoi &tios9 npoii tlio noi'Lssitj tih |jionuitmii Wi- 
natulai ir&tiuction, suggesting tlio o\po ilien iy oi ini|jnhinq a sjicr lal MJIMIII 
the land ioi tho piovision of olDinuntaiy crlar iliou 11 L'aii \\lnli 1 , in (MUSH nu i 
nt the Despatch of 1854, " step q ^ 01 c taken to foim an Education Dupaitmuiit in each of* tho nirsit l^iiil.rni il 
i of India as then ooustitutud , anil befoiu the end of 1653, tho new Astern was fuily at \\oik Tin lui in i- 
oi the scpaiata depaa tnionts continued ovoi a poiiod of about 12 ^oais, Jioni 185^-55 in tlu l.Lii>n PIOMHI ns, 
to 1H66-67 in tho Eaulaaabad Assigned Distucts A Dnectni of Fuhlu histiucfcum was ii]i|iijmtcML hn tadi Pio- 
1 IILCL', ^ith a stolt oi Inspectors and Deputy, 01 Assistant linpnctoife mulii him This iii>aiu/iliiin nl (niitiul and 
inspection lemanis bubstantially unohangoil to tho piosout da}, vntli such mudifidttions anil adrlilitms as \\(>u 
i L^uiiei by tha creation of now tamtoiial divuions, 01 by tho amalgamation oL old onoh The Kilutatum I>rp t u I- 
lueut in each Piovmce acts tliiectly uudsi the oideis of the Piovmoal flo-v enimont, and has duvolopucl a Hystciu <il 
\\oiking moio or loss distinctively its o^wn Evoi j whei o it took ovoi tho Qovuirnncnt oi tho Uiuid lusiiLiitious 
\\lnch had grown up under tho oaihoi oHoits of the East India Company '*f 

The Education Dopaitment was foimod in vaiious Piovmco? at difteiont pminds, and tho Jollrminii Uilnilat 

statement, which ha? boon piepaiocl fiom tho tabulai stfiLeinouts t-ivon in 
the Ropoit of tho Indian Education Cninmissinn of 18R^ (JMIIS i>o, *>(, II) 
and 43) TM!! &liow, in ono glance, tho ohtimatcul ovtont of CdJh'tii.^c 1 K<lii(iifi(n 
in tho vaiiouR Piovmoes at tho timp ol tlio foimatiun ol the Mducaiiou 
Depaitment 



Formation of the Education 
Department, 1855-67 



Estimated extent of Colle- 
giate Education at formation 
of the Education Department 
in vaiiouB Provinces 



of tfaeitent of Collegiate Education in 

in fhe vanmt* PIOWUM oj Bitfuh 



Depatfrnt'itltl 



PP07INCB 


First Departmental 
Tbdi 


Nature of tho Maintaining 
Agency 


AI.IH 

FDNULHll AN 

Number 

1 


nlil'MiK", 
I) OlMIN'IAL 

I'upils 

Wtt 






Dopaitmantal 


Madias 


1855-56 


Aided and Inapoctoil 











Bxtia Dopaitinontal 
Total 




< 


1 


;iiii! 




r 


Departmental 


2 


I0, 


Bombay 


1855-5(> 


Aided and Inspected , . 




* 






Extra Departmental 
Totul 






2 


ion 



Awtioi>aomDuwion(l888) 7 p M 



n, f . 



07 IVDUK 



PHOTONS 


Iftrst Departmental 
Tom 


Nature of the Maintaining 


ARTS COLLEGES, 
ENGLISH AND ORIENTAL 


Agency 


Numbei 


Pupils 




s 


Departmental 


8 


921 


B['ii>,il nii Assam 


1854-55 


Aidod and Inspected 








r 


Extra Departmental 
Total 
Departmental 


6 


P 


14 


921 


4 


1 } 920 


X -W P and Dudh 


1854-55 I 


Aided and Inspected 








I 


Extra Depaitmental 
Total 






4 


1,920 



The figures given in tho abovo Table in regard to Collegiate edncation in the North.- West Provinces and Ondh, 
MIC mucli ifruatoi than they should be, as they include the College with its attached High Schools at Delhi, which 
at that tnuo WAS included in the North- Westorn Provinces The College ceased to exist during the Mutiny of 
iyf7, MI that, at the oommuncemont of tho Edncation Depaitmont in the Punjab, in 1856-57, no institution foi 
CoUi^iatc msti action existed in that Province In the Central Piovinoea, the Education Depaatraont was foimed 
in Ihfi2, ciml in tho Uydeiabad Assigned Distnots of the Berars in 1865, but no institutions for Collegiate mstiuo- 
imn \\di k founded thoie, or in any Provinces not mentioned in the preceding Table, and, theioCore, no further 
u'tcrrnct* to Uuifcc Pinvmtc? iq necessary, so far as the condition of Collegiate education is concexned at the peiiod 
t>l the uixumonGomint of the Education Department 



CHAPTER XVIIL 



KHTADL1SI1MENT OF THE INDIAN UNIVERSITIES, AND THE SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF THE 

EDUCATION JIECOONIZED AND CONTROLLED BT THEM STATISTICS OF 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGIATE EDUCATION, 1857 TO 1882 

With tbo foundation of Universities in India begins the most important epoch in the history of English 

education in India ID Chapter XVI of this work an account has been given 

Bfltablujmentoi tho Indian of how ^ flub|eot wag prop0fled by ^ Council of Education at Calcutta, 
mversi 8 flo ^ k acfe ^ i$& 9 and how the matter was discuB^ed by Borao eminent 

witiu'hhCh in ihoit ovidonce boforo tho Solect Committoes of the Houses of Parliament duimg tho inqiuiy into the 
Indian alUus 111 1852-59 Jt has also been shown how, duiing the dia cushions which then took place, the oonoensu^ 
ol opaium WUH that tbo Univozsity of London, on account of the non-sectarian chaiixoter of itfc sybtem, bhould be 
loootumondod OH a model fox Indian Umvoifcities, in preference to the Universities of Oxford and Cambiidgo, 
whcro Uii 1 hyfliom of 1 lunidonoo within the Uniyersity piecanots, and leligious mstruotion and discipline, foimed an 
4>hhOiitial part ol the Hyntom of education 

ft waH, no doabt, m now of such reoommondations that the Court of Directors, in their Educational 
Guiding principles for In- Despatch of 1854, issued the following mstruotions a? the guiding principles 

UniverBitieft upon whioh the Umyexutios in India wore to be founded 

" Home year* ago, wo declined to accede to a pxoposal made by the Council of Education, and transmitted to 
uu, with ihft rettn M TffffffiVH" ^yang BnvMrnmanA, for the mafatufaon of an University in Calcutta The rapid 
Hproadof ft liberal education among the natives of India since that fame, the high attainments shown by the 



68 LNOLIFIH EDUCATION IK I3TDH 

ciiidifates foi Gotemmont scholarships, and by native student* in puvate institutions Hio sncrcss nl li' 
Oollogos, and the leqnuomentb of an mcsroasiinif Eniopean and Anglo-Indian population, lum' ltd us to (In 
conclusion that the timoiH no wiuiived foi tlio establishment of Uinwutits in India, whu-h wj <-numiao " 
legaldr aTidhboial COIUBO oi adaption, bycouleuiiig auulemiul digjoos, asoviduuos ol ,U unmonts in tin ililh M lit 
banthofe o ait and haeuce, and by adding niai ks o honom ioi those who may cli'siio to compute lui honoiai\ 
distinction 

"Tho Gunned of Education, in the pioposal to T\huh wo liwi alluded, touk tho London Umvn^l* a* tin-it 

model, and we AI?IQU with them that thi loiiu, umoinmi nl, ami liiiiiimiu i*t 
w > I llos nl * llose cha-ituis mrl leauLihims m iiuliw Loi \oui 
.ML Hit bust. uUptiul tii ilic \\.uilh nt India, jiul nn> hu 
with cLchautairG, 'iltliDnqh some v t ui*itioii ^11 be IIBLOSS.U y 111 iinuils L>( detail 

"The UuivMbitios in India, Mill, ac,im(lnilv, innsist oi ,i ('kuiwllrii, Vici-C'IuiuiMiii, ami Ki'llim- wlm 

oonshinto a Hmiiio Tin- Ki'iuitis mil lia\o (In 1 m.mii,u'nn! nl tin liiiu' 

st j; tllltlon oflndian Um - ol tlu UnncisiluH, ami lidiue ii'uuliiiuii, Im >MHI ( i;i|ims il mill \ v lin h 

pumdii.i] e v.'iiuu itioiir- miy he luhl m tin dill itnl. In nit In ol Vif m<l 



flcionrc by t^.nmncis hek'oicil finui tln>u IPVJI bndv, ni uoinniiLtcMl li> 

"Tho fuuLtiiiuni tlio Uiiiviubiliis will lii k to wmU'i ili^ius upon such |Mi"'in- as, luiiii'; l n irlmrl i 

,lUl*01llliin |f 1JU> lllU*i \\llllll 1I1U 111 (|\IM| Ml till M f" I | "i 

liuciKiiim am ill Uii* b dnilial.il 111 lihinuii^ nln-li*ull In - 
nioi.itnl on 1ln Iniiml.iLinn nl tin* UIMM i-M t^, o, In 1mm hi i" h> him .i<l''>u 
tn lliDni by finvpiiimont, 001 hfioatrs nl cinulnct, uul ol killing puisiioil i n*j;iil IMIMII i nl -l'ii\ hn i I\MI ti 'i 
shall litvualhu p.tssuil at tlio DinveiMtivs sin h ,111 r \.Linnnlmu is m ly ln iiNjiiiiHl ol (Imu H HIM IH nUi i*h 
tn ilis|iuusi3 with tha alteud.mcu icrjiuicMl it Ilio Lnncliui LrmMisiiv (01 flu* M ill ill ihuii L NIIIII unn .mil 
to hiibsfitutc home Ttjciili' of EniiaiuL 1 Kvaimn tticm svlmJi iua\ Hviuit' i mUm iniDiuit ol Lun\\li n 11. (In 
coaulitlaLos loi du^ioos, without making them citiLMuUnct 1 a>t tlic Uiuvrisitus nuc.iMty, pn^ioiu d> tin* (mil 
i^Oitiu nation 

"The c\*nmTi,ifcinHs toi devices Mill not imluili' any sub|uc is (OIHHM I t'cl nilli iitli^iniis IN In I , .ni'l ,i'1iliiliMl 
Holigious Bubjeots to be ox- iiintitutions will hi* nmlui ilu> niuut>iniMiL ol pi i^ons ol ['\u\, \nn t\ nl 
eluded ioliioiih pcisiisnms 

"Thcj doUilod uf>nlaiiniicj 01 tlio (\aiiiiiuiion ioi dc^it'i's slionld ho liamul mill ,i, din )i k ",inl loi ,iM i l,i < 

nl tho .ilhlMiiil iiihtiiiilmus , anil we \\ill <uil\ nli IM\( iijion (li> uliiiM iluf 

BegulotionBfortheexamina- t ] IOfllllIllLtt a Jm unnnnni ili^iws will ni|iiin* to In- fund NMfli l<n mi u 

H 



tion lor degrooB _ ml . n i , 

]iidiiiioiit Tlieu dio ui.uiy prisons \\lio \\c\\ il< >t m I lie diduiMinn ol 



academical dcftiL'o, an tlio totnipitjon of <t liljoial odat vtion, who nmld not hop< k t>o oM.im il if ilu* (A.uiuriatiun u i 
ah iliflii'iili as that fui tlio sennit OoviMimiLMit St ImUi ships , and iliu sUml ud itMpnud .Imnld lie iinli a t . \n nua- 
numd u^pent withmit dihcomaginq tlio olloits ol dL>huivnu studouK wliuli wunld do vtiiiMi ol^t i<li> lo ilii IIMI 
of tli( k ITnn oisitios Lu tlio couiputjtiiins lot honors, wln< h, *is in tho Ixnidnn UniM'isilv will lollou lln> i \n\u\ 
aiiinm Loi dodoes, uuo hhould ho takcMi to niaiiiUui surli a hUnd.ud .is will illoitl a ^n.i'anlio lui liM-Ji ilnliM nid 
\ahulilo attainments, tho subjootH loi L>\ mi nut inn Ijoin^ so solin ltd is to indndi tlio lust poiiion ol (In* dil 
stluMnc's nl Htmly piiihiud at tho .dlilutlod institutions 

T1 will ho advisitldu tn itistituto, in (imtioriion \vith tho llmvoisilios, piiilrs^nslup*, (oi tin* puipu oi Hit 
ioiorihorahipq ua oonuoution dt'livoiy ol hoLnns m various hum ho* ol hatnni*', In; tin icpu tliouol 
TJmvoisUios, ospeoially wluc h, at any ial" in an idvamod ik^uu*, I n dihis tin no( m\\ ( M .1 in ollm 

in India? Law is tlio niosi unpoM.ittl ol HM . snliji els, mid if 
will ho loi* ymi to L'nnsidot* whutluT, as wa^ pi(|Mjs(Ml in (lui plan ol the Ouitiu d ol I'M in ,d ion In v\hnh u 
hiWo huloto lolonod, iho aLlcndaiu'o upon ouUin lootuion, and Iho al.l unniont ol a do>rio in law, nia^ uol, lot lin 
iiiiiira, bo mado a- qnaliluatiou foi Vakoids and Monusiilh, iiisiisiil ol, or in addition (o, tlu* [noM'iii 
exiuninalion, whiLh muHt, howovoi 1 , bo crmtinuod jn plwts not. within O.IKV toaoh nl an Ilinvit iify 

" Civil Hii^iiioc uruj ihunnthoi suh|i't*L ol inipoHancv, tlio ad\ inLayos nl wluol^nHa pinlt iiiun, ait 1 ( " ( 

known tn tho ualm s nt India, and w lulo wo attj inolun d to hi |ji<vi' 



ol Civjl Buflmnouni* nt, lirjni^'i^ is lai* mnii usolnltlnin anj 



poBbiblybo, pro^sHoralupaor Owl Hnjfiiipariiut rai^ht, puiluiph, bo uttiichod to tho UtiivorhihtH, tmd (U^m* IN 
Olyil Hngiuooinig bo included in thoir ^enonil Hchomo 

u Other fatMiohea oX tuotnl learning may auggeat tliaiusolvos to you m which it might bo udviMtblo thut 



COLLFQH6 0UBHIDIABY TO THE UHITOBfllTY 89 

lecture* should bo read, And npocial devices given, and it would greatly enocraiage the cultivation of the 

Sanskrit, Anbio, and Persian Voinaculai languages of India, that professorships should bo founded for 

may be included among the those languages, and peihaps, also, for Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian 

siibioots consistently with A knowledge of tho Sanfikut language, the root of the Vernaculars of the 
roligious neutrality , T , ^ * 

picatoi pait 01 India, is more especially necessary to those who aie engaged in 

ih* -vvnik of r innjmmtinn in thoic luiquacjos , wlnlu Aiabic, thiough Per win, is one of the component paitq of the 
Ui i hi l,iuuiiii''i , \\Lj( It cvfi'iiils o\oi sri Lii q-o a pait of Hindustan, and is, wo aie mloimod, capable of considerable 
drvi InfHiHMit Tlii> qumiuai of lhise langiuirus, and theii application to the impi ovement of the spoken lan- 
tpiup'-of llic uiuntn, aio iho puints in in huh iliu Attention oJt these ptofobsois bhoald bo mainly duected , and 
th i it mil lie .111 .iiiinli* /it Id Jm ih( k ii liifNns nnconnoctod with any inati action in the tenets of the Hindoo 01 
Mahomed in iclinionh \Vt> shouM luluM' to sanctum any such toachmg as is duoctly opposed to the principles 
of ttfliuniib iiuitMlit\ to which up !uvr ilwajs .1 filmed 

1 \\t ilc'sin fliat yon <.iLi mlo \our cousi dotation the institution of Urnvoihities at Calcutta and Bombay 
Council* oi Education at "I 1011 *!"' V 1 " 1 - 11 Principles whu-li wo luvo now explained tr>j on, andrepoit 
Calcutta and Bombay to * lls u l lcm * (Ut ' ' >c ' s ^ mi'lhorl rif pioccdnio, wiihaviowto their mooipoiation 
coTifttitulo tho Senates of too li> Adsni ihr Li'crihlativo Cnnucil oi Tndia The offices of Chancolloi and 
UmvOTHitiOH, lospootivoly VK t -C l li4iifplkii- w ill u,itui Jly In- filled by pei Aons ol high station, who have 

<||KMVII an iiilroi'sl in ilic oau-ii 1 rf crliK.ilion , audit is in nmiiOMtm with tlio UnivcusiiioB that wo pioposoto 
of I In* M>I vitos of flu i>\ihiui^ Do in UN I oi ICdurMlinn <it f\ilr utt.i, and HoAul of Education atiRombay 
wish lo ]il<n i Ujtsc t-iMiUcmt'ij in <i pusii-ion Mluoh ^ill ju*t tulip nuii k out bonnu of tho oidtionn which the 7 
nidili* in fin UK nun i* ol nluiikiinn, hut will tfivi? it tlio bcnMit ol UILII past ( l \pc-nonco of the subject We 
propose,, llioii'ii)it, (li.tt ih(- ( 1 nuii(il of Kilucaiirm *l Oalrnttu ainl tho JJruul of Ifld oca turn at Bombay, with some 
.uldit'ional iiu'inhi'is tti )j(Mi,uud ly the (loveiJiment, hhal) conwktaLo iho titnuito of the TJuivciBiLy at e*cb. of 

(llOSI* Pll'SlllciUKS 

u Tlic tiiMifmiul rnrrnliL'iH sliouhl IK* so sc*l noted as to ^iro to all thoho who iTpti k sont tho rliifcient systems of 

Additoon.iL Mombors of tho <"ln<citum winch will bo earned on m the afliliated iiiNtitutionn including 

Sonato, including Wativos of natives of Fmha of all lolignmh pciHiLihioiiN, wlio poss^RH tho confidence of 

Indm tj H , iMiivermnmuiiitiM -a fan voico in ilic Souaten Wo aio led to make 

thcw n^iuuks, IIH \v< ol)M>r vo that tlu> plan o( tlie Ooiincil oi Kilnoation, m J845, for the conbtitution of tho Senato 

of Mir pit*|M>sr(l Call ut/U IfaiviMsity, was tint Hufliut'utly coinprolionfuvo 

41 Wr slmll In* lenity to H.mHioti the ci cation of an ni ivomity ut Madras, 01 m any other part of India, where 
Uruvornity to bo foundod at ft Hnfjl< lcnt ^umbor of institution* o\ut, from which propwly qualified oandi- 
MadriiH nlgp, if oircumHtanoefl datts for clcgiMv could ho supplied, it bomg in our opinion adnnable that 
pormit UK* p\at centicH of Europoan Government and civilization in India, should 

lhuvf*ihit.u*H HI in i lap ni cliaiarLor to tlioso wlncli will now bo founded, iw soon as the oztensiou of a liberal 

hhowH thai their oslabhhhiawit would bo of advantage to tho native oomnumitiuH 

" Having pi^vidc J for tlu> tftmoral huporintouchjnoo of education, and for fcho institution of TTniversities, not so 

much to bo w themselves places of uuitruotion, as to tost the value of the 
lM timi obtained elHOwhoio, wo proooed to consider, flw*, tho dilforent classea 
of cxillotfM, and nohoulH, which should bo inaintamod in umultanoous opera- 

in onku* to nlact,' within tho toach of all clasflos of tho nativos oi India tbo means of obtaining improved 
* htiitiMl tf> thoir Ht'vural conditions of liio , and, Mcondly, tho mannoi in which tho znfet ofteotnal aid may 
IKI rt'iulrm! by Oovoiumont to eat k h cl.WH of cdncatioiial injitiintionfi"* 

It ww unilcr thoHO nmtriiclMHiR that tho Uuivoraiticw of Ualontta, Madiiw,, and Bombay, wore incorporated, 
Tho TTuivorsitios founded in on tho niorlol of tbo Univorsity of London, in 1857, notwithstanding the 
1857 tumult aiul anarchy of the Indian Mutiny which then prevailed* 

Tin* UiuvwHity of Calcutta wan uwoi-poiatort by Act IT ol 1867, pasued on tho 24th January, 18&7, and the 
pho Oaloutta University m- preamble of tlio Act may be quoted here as throwing light upon the objects 
oorporatdd in January t 1857 of tho institution 

" Wbt^roM, ftir tlio hotter oncotuffmont oi Her Ma]ostjr f a subjects of all classes and denominations within 
tliti I^wtdotiuy of Fotb William in Bengal and other part* of India in ike pursuit of a regular and liberal course 
irf odiwatiOA, it JMW boon detowninod to ettablish a Universiiy at OaleaHa lor the purpose of asoortauung, by 
m<*ns of examination, tike persona who have acquired pxoficuenoy in difimnt bawohes of Literature, Soitoo*, 

Wto^*nJri*U\!M*ftf>f^*dlWl ^JbilwBoV^Bvii A 198,189, 
12 



90 ENGLISH 1DUOATION IK INDIA. 

and Art, and of rewarding them by Academical Degrees aa evidence of their respective attainments, and 

of honoTU pioportioned theieunto, and whaiBas, for effectuating the poiposos oJoiesaul, it ife expedient iha-t siu h 

Umvei&ity should be incoiporated It is enacted as follows " 

With a similar pieamble andsinuJaj objects, Act XII of 1857 was passed on the 18th July, lsr>7,nuM>i- 
The Bombay University in- P 01 ^? &* Umvei9ity of Bombay, and by Act XXVII o( 1RV, lin li VM<- 
corporate! in July, 1857, and passed on the 5th Septomboi, 1857, tho TTnrveisitjr of Madias \\ as UHOI 
the Madras University m Sep- poiatod 

temper, 1867 rpj^ constitutions of tho thieo ITnirasitiob .110 as sunilai as tin n objects 

They aio moioly examining bodies with the piivilcgo of coniumng 1 d Loot's m Aits, Law, Muliiiiu k and ('ml 

EngLnocung Thoir constitution is ecimposed oi a. ChanrHIm, Vioo-rhaiu olloi 



B 6 and tlio Konato, divided into Faculties of the vanoiih In UK IKS ol Ic.iimru? 



by tho ITmvoisities Tho <rovoi unit? hurly nt S}iidna.tii> (imsists 
of the Vico-Cliancollor and certain merabeis of the Honate Tho Umvpisities ocmttol thr> whole com so ol lnifh< i 
by moans ol pieseiilnng subjects and holding- examinations Tho Kntidiuo Inanimation lot matin ul.i 
is open io all , but when that is passed, umdulakh toi higher status must mitul Lhunsolu's in mu in olhci of 
tho a-flihutoil Oollo^GB 

Tho Pun|,Lb UmvoiMty has a. peculiar hi&toiy The Delhi College ^huh had bc-on closed ilmni'j; f IK Mutmv 

was revived by the Punjab Cjoveinment in IHfils when ,L smmiH Vllc-M w,i i 

The Punjab TTniveraity, rts ^u^,^^ at Ulimp Fw homi-Liiup Unii* had Inrn a .li 11- iiiinii ilir 
nistory and oDjGOts 

oommunity in the Punjab, both Native anil Kuiopcau, im Mi<> i>s1ah|j luutiit 

nf a local institution whi( h fibould have lot its object tho de\olopmcni. l IcMinin^, anil Mial SIM h n^lrhitinn Jinuld 
take tho i Dim oi a- University The Instoiy oi tlie e*uly movement in this bchali has hern lulls Main! in (he 
Oa~<>/tin of tfo Punjab (Piovmoial Volume, 1888-8')) Jiom winch the following nifiinnkfHJii uuy IM* iinui|na(ttl 
hoio with advantage 

Ttf ^w/ttwrin-i-/';^ Hocioly wns formrrl ITI JaniMiv, IRliA, svilli Hn< 

twn " lold ollcllt f imvillfi tllc Htmly uf Jm " nl " |l|ll<fcl llMMmi< - * IM| "* 

dillusincf nsolul knowleilgo Unuii^h Hie nieiliuin ol <hc Vein H iilai 
" VTbile tho advantage nf an En^lihh education weie Jully i ocoffnif oil on aJl hands, it wiii Ir k f haf. MH s t >< *l( ( "i 
of Htato eilucMtion alto^L'ther icrnoied tho hibLoiioal, ttaditional, and fuliu;i<ius nspoets ol Iho cilin Mhin.il ipn him in 
India Tt attempted to imposo the Ftiuiupea-n sybtoni without su flic unit innilifiealinn (r bun,; it inlo h inniuiv \\illi 
national leeliiiq and tho leqairomentb ot tlia oountiy, and it bad been HO utyidly <nimi'iij mi a ^l.iinl.iMl |nhiin 
UiniiighrniL the enuntiy that indiienoiw odueatioiufcl institutioim hiwl well ni^h penshi'd Kn^hsh, as a lui^nup* 
and as Amorliurn ft>i oduuation, had alio<4fly ^umiud thohnppoit ol a htnniR oflicul oi^ani/atimi, tlic AMJN infix t 
Piwjttb in no way objected to thiH, but pleaded the causa ot those unpottaiii feutims tii Lhe iMliicatunial MM|IIIII- 
jnoiitn oi tho rountry which had, it thought, l>oeu u OR looted 01 ionpitteri 

Hn Donald Mr Lood, at tliat tunu Ijieuic^nttut-Ouvemor, extended his hnaity Hytnpathy to tin* mow incut 
which had thiiH boon oTigmattnl, and tho ileliboiMtionu of tho two Jiundml nieinbeis who Inul hy ilm time 
lOineil the Kociety tohulttnl in the umcluHion that tho busl and Hinest inmedy (in the di hi t<4 ol Ui* e\i>.tnif* ,y id in 
aiul lor wmljinniir m O ne tho odoitq ol tho (JlovfTOnieiit and nf tho people in I'duc.itmnul inaUci i, \\as flu* i^l,illuji- 
mont oJ an Onoutil Univ^hity Thib iiiBtitubirm wofl to Huppoit thu eMsUn^<>[|ii(Mt.iofi,il wmk, hub \\<^ to add tu 
iitlipptiiift onmiragcinQiit of theBtndy of ihn Oi itmtul uUsmuul lanipLiffiH, and f,hc ^(neral dilfiMim oi ii^ful 
knowleil ff o in tho - VU!RIM ioniruo' Tho olmiinal Iduufuu^H ul India W( H> the homneh noL onh ol (In* lariN.mt.^h 
qxikcti at tlio piosent day, bnt alHO the tiaditiotih, n*IiKnmH ami anrumt lustoiy of Hit* Indian nalirm Nu 
flysti'ra wliiih miiorod Aiabn, or Ma-mAnt could liopoto nuot with impid, popnlaiity, > Mip|iutt. Imni Uu- 
p^ih' oi India, whilo any enorH in hoiontilie tooolmus, whieli tlio aniicnt liti't.itiin> rni-Jit nmLun, (ould tahily 
be olurunaled 01 cruirrteil by the light ol mmlwn KOui^poan kn<jiivU-clip> Tho ulo* "I n Onentul llnivo.itj 
for Nottlu'wi India,, CM lot the Punjab, w*w uuthuhjubtiuxlly roceiveJ. A Hunt|NMii OmiMuiltt'C of Hii|ipoi'l 
furtuocl v and u fiokorae dia-wii up 111 HOTIIO detail 

Thouatuiouf tbo domandfl oi tlio pwimotow of ilio inormnrai Im ii (Jiiivi-n.if> may Im ffiithnml I nun 



Katuroof the TTnivomfcy do- ouiln " IH o{ iho pwpo*^ pulilishwl in MM In UUH tint piotnoii.^ n ,ki-d f.>r 
mauled by tho promoters an 0llyufc W' 1 Uuivuiflity Thn woid Onwtai svas not imcd to H pi i. S ( n(, thuL ilm 



lungna^o and WuhLoin hc*u*mo woro not i(> Itoitnrounwd und 

, but thai tiio Univotiity wan to boar tho im^wnot an OnoaU mitum < ihatthn Oru*ut4il rlasnuH unrl Vorrni- 
cakr languagofl of tho country were io bo ouooaragod and dovolopud , thai tho mum* ol the poopln N )ioul<l Imvit U.c 

in thoir own lunguago, and thai Lho izwtituMou 



FOE ranwrau nr THB PWJAB Aim N-W PBOVWOHH 91 

^ Bhonld 

1 W <r,s uned by, and dear to the people Sir DonaldMcLeod had nimaelf advocated the 
of an,u n l tf and tho pufeetion of the Vernaculars of the country, not at the expense of an En^h e 

" 



Tin- inupcMlb having been revued and matuicd by the Society and the European Committee, Messis 

Sympathy of Sir Donald * iau ^ th d ^tohwm were deputed to lay them befoie His Honoui the 

ttcLood with the movement. ^^tenant-Governor This was done ou the 13th October, 186B, and His 

Honoui piomisod his support to the movomont, but intimated that the por- 

tions oi nuiwlmaa which related to Academic, Degrees required the sanction of the Government of India In 
Ift In iui j, lht>ij, the iMdinir gontlimicu oJ luihoio and Amuteai presented an addiebs to Sir Donald MoLeDd, whose 



, wose 

i'\jniSM'dpfioutsatisiLLtic>nj,ttho development of a movement in which the people of the Province had 
tul w much nleiesi, the views of tho Qoveinment wero given at oonsidorable length, and in conclusion 
IlibllraunirmsumltlioMi who htwlUkonpait m tho address that, 'foi the (mcouragomont of educational efforts' 
H cnhiolv in onmiUiu'o with tho Educational Despatch oi 185V Govemmaat aid, to such extent as might be 
(loowotl luhisablo, \vonld not Iio icfu^cd 

Tin- Hocwiy efiuinmod to aclvocftto its views with wavwiTi^ HUCOOSH, l>ut unf,wrvuig peraiBtenoy until 1887, 
DORire for a University in * llon tlwi ^icm ai-oufaod the nvalryr O f the British Indian Association m the 
tho Noith-Wostorn Provmoee NiniluWohtcm Piovineos In August of thut rear, tho Association petitioned 
m1887 ' u " fc ^97i ponilinn ^t objectiuna to the educational By^tem, and reoom- 

nmiliiiir UH QhiHlilislimoiii m Uiu Niiith-Wohtein Jjovinco of a Umvoiflily in which tho Eafitorn Classics and tha 
Vi>nmculiun would bo duly wiiiim n^ort, hide by Mtlo with Buglmli education This nvahy was tho foi fcunate cause 
<*f a^iin diawiiiff public attention to tho popular feeling on fclo Habjcct of odaoation, aud osUbhshod tho faot that 
the .miUliim whitli hwl anneu was a f?eiiuine one In luplying to tho Aflflociation, tho Government of India 
et|iMssl ilsi'll ivarly and wilhnfftoHup^it tho pi mciploH laid down m tho Despatch of 1854s and to enoouiage 
tho Muily oi \Wsh-m Niumu^ Uuungh Uio medium of tho Veinaoular, but while promising every assistance to 
Hooh'lim OP iiidivutualH hko thooo in tho Punjab and North-Wost, it was unable to establish at once a University , 
money, Assignee, euioful conwia^mtion and ojQIoial locognition weie promisod, but not the immediate incorporation 
of a Uinvermly 

His Honour tho LjenUmut^Oovomnr of tho Punjab at this time azproRsod an opinion that owing to the 
A TTmvorsity proposed fbr * ftwal *y rf ^oimnig A proper governing body, in the Upper Pioviuces for a 
Lahoio ui 1868, butmcorpo- Umvoitnty, it would porhaps bo better to induce the Calcutta University to 
ration roluaodby Gaveimnent nnxhfy in (mla^go its eartmff rules Tho Senate of the Calcutta University, 
Of India in 1868. liowovor, doolmod lo modafy thoir schemes and recommended a separata 

HnivwrHiiy for Uppcnr India On bbo 12th Haith, 1BEJS, a general meeting of those interested m the promotion of 
tho Uvjivrtniity Hrliomc ww hold umlor tho pfoHidcmcy of Bu Donald HoLood, and resolutions woro pawed in favour 
of A (JmvnrHity, Hpooially for tho Puniab, to bo situated at Lahore The people of Delhi had in tho meantime, 
takon moaffnrcfl to advooatu tho claim* of that time-honoured capital as tho seat of the proposed University, but 
when tho agitation arose m the North* WoBtorn Provinces, they agreed to sink all differences rather than lose the 
rhantr of a University lor tho Punjab. Tho principles already sot forth were reiteotated, and the Punjab Oovera- 
ment atwptnd throw propOHalH and iwi0ed a letter to be diaffcod to the GFovornment of India in terms of these 
rwolnLuiiiM It contained a crnnploto nchome for the oonstitution of the propcmd Univermty, and a request for a 
Hufttuunt Krftnl*iii*aid Tho muwmoni hatl rounvod the support of tho Chiefs, Nobles, and influential olas&es of 
tho Fnn|til>, and almady a Hum of Ita 1,00,000 bad boon, rawed from pxivate souroocs while much rnoie was expected 
But tho ntply received from the Government of India was unfavourable to the immediate anooiporation of a 



ThiH rloriMion <-atwod groat disappointmont in tho Punjab, but was not received a a final settlement of the 
$ Sir Donald MoLeod replied, thanking tho Government of India for the concessions made, but ho feared 
that those ormooHHicmH would not bo of much practical value unless the scheme submitted weie alno sanctioned, 
and that the withholding of thin sanction was likely to discourage and bring to an end the educational movement 
whlcli had upruug up amrmgnt tho loading members of the aristocracy and gentry of the Punjab In subsequent 
oorraipundenee the Punjab Government mob aU the objections which had been raised and expressed their own 
wlUfagnewi and that of the promoters of themovemtnt for a University to accept, in the first instance, a atatw 
lower than that off*H tTnivmftty, until the Qovwaowsat of Inflii ww satisfied that the complete powers of a 
Univerrity might wltfc dit a^ 



92 TNGLISII EDUCATION IS INDU 

On the 23id of May, 1869, the Government of India wrote as follows 

" The GovaLnor-Geneial in Council was fully sensible of the value of the spontaneous effoits whir h lud 

been made by tho Community of the Punjab, both Native and EUTUJKMU, 

The 0-oveirnment of India for ^ establishment of a local institution which should Iwvo ioi itb nbiraft 
University College *^ a ^rotop 111011 * of learning, especially in connection \\ith tho YPI mini Lit 

languages 

11 Hia Excellency was glad to find that the chioi objections which had until thon pi evented, him horn ijmiiff 
a 001 dial sanction to the mcasuie had been lemoved Tho piincipal ol these had boun that il tho pinpnsctl 
institution weio at once established as a Uniyeisity it would pi obably, at fust, conioi * lowest cJass ol ck'uMH's 
than those given by othoi Umvoi&itiefl in India, and this would tend to dogiado ULC chcvicictu and lessen the \aluo 
of an Indian University deqiee 

11 It was, howcvoi, undeifltood that tho Pun-jab Qovcinment was willing that tho pinposcrl iiiMituiiou slmuhl 
not at once a&hiimo tho lull character oi a Umvoisity, but that until tho nuiuhej oi Miiidonts .ind (hr pntu'i of 
toaohuiji in any bicinoh of study oi m any faculty, could bo shown to lie wilfiuunt to^.iiiatit tlit' <oiiJrijiii of ,t 
Univoisity dcgi'oo, it should not have tho piroei ol giaiitmq- dcgiccs, but of ruiiiUL.iich only 

" It was aUo untlei stood that tho hturly oi English 'would not on [y form one of flu* mnbL pinnumnf fcilim- 
of the teaching 111 all tho Schools 01 Oolloqps connected with the msLitiitirni, bui ihai Ijrilh tiMrliinu iiinl t\ irrjiru- 
tion in BubjtioUi -flinch cannot, with adyantago, bo cainud 011 in tho Viuturulai nnulil bu [umhif it^l in Kn^lish 

" Lt wad occLptiid ab a pimciplo that thu evammatiioiih should be oiitinstcil bo ollii'i ppisniH than HKHC \\lio 
woto oii^a^cd m teaching tho btudontb , and tho Ltoatoiunt-GDvaium had L'xnicswd Ins willing UCHS 1o uuq>j an) 
rulc?& ivhich fihouhl bo laid flnwn with a viow to SDUUQ tins objucfc 

" Lastly it -wob uudoistood that although coitani Mibjotta hhoulri be taught in Ihc VcMn.uulat, ihr I cm limp 
m montil Mid physical scionce would bo iicu iiom thu patent oiioib which iii^ail in atuiout and i^rn in niinli in 
Vuinaonlar hteiaiy and scientific, wotks " 

On thodo conditions tho OFitablibhinGtLt ul tbo pioponod inbtibutirm was MtTuiirmcil Tho qnvoniiiit; !>'>ily nh 
to have power to teach, coiiloi itllowships nml scliolajhlupb <tiul coitifualis nl piuiK inir y II, was in he, with Uu* 
educational oJfiooi& ol Qovoiiimtmt, the consulting body ui all niattcih ul puljlii iiihLiiui.i<m, nnhulmi^ pntnuiv 
education 

MeanwliilD tho papers wont to thp Socioiuy of SUto for Jnrlia who uuvptcil tho rum liisions ol tlu' 
Approved by the Seoretaiy flovnnmontoi fmlia, iomaik.ui^ that 

of State The institution will be compLtciit to ftiaut cciLiiuaffs but not 

and mny Lorcnftur, if attended with duo sucLeth, bo expanded into a 
<c The dovDiunioiit of India, in ioi waiding the final antlioiity, ti 

4t That the institution should be called by some bnch titlu as ffHiMtbth/ Oulk'tjf* which uould mat k I he fa< (, 
tho pie.ont -ujaneomont was only fcoinpoiaty, and was mteiidud only an picliniuiaiy to tho possible 
at soiiiu future tmic k , ol a Univoisity m the* Punjab " * 

In puibiuuoe oJf Iheso views tho Govoiuminit of Judia hy aUTntiflrnlinn, Ko 471), rluti'd Klh 

WotxAoalaoii of Government ( Krluoatlondl DepMtineat). HunHiioni d ilia pskililisluiiMil nl an nihlitithnn 4l t, 

of India, dated 8th December, I*'o *o bo fttybd " Muntf tr t nrtntfi/ fW^/r," tin* Noiiliinimn muilmnh 

1869, OBtnbliHhing Lahore TJm- that thu oHtablmlnucnt ol the inhLiLuLiuu \>ns san^nmMl " in an iiKlani^ \\itti 

veraity College the locjommourUionB ot HIM lloimv ilu> ljiiMik*ii4iiUriivi*imiiii, <U iil m |uii 

Inlfilmout of tlio wibheb of a lai &e nuinboi of tht oliiohi nobloH, and mllueiitml dances nl Uu> l'inijul, M ,im| || 1( 

special objects oi tho College* woio Kpoeiuudto be 

(1) To piomoto the djfiuMon of Mniopoan hcionro, OH luras iM)hMljh, Lhtoutih i.hf niiMliuni nl Uic \r>riiii 
ruLu' languages oi tho Punjab, and tho iiuptovonwnt and c\U'iisn)n ul vi>ni,iniliu Jiti'radim 
gonoutlly , 

(2) To affoiil oiirouraffomont to tlie t-nlifthtonotJ study of Kastwii c-LiNmcal Inii^migCH nml liUtniiliiiii , and 
(8) To associate tlio loainod and inHuontial clasuuH oi tho piuvmco wil.li the uHiem f ' 

pn>Diotxon and snpei vision of populai education 

Whilst theno wo tho special objects of the mstitntion, it WON at tlio hamo tinio doclarud that o 
mont would bo afforded to tlio study oi tho English laiigtuigo anil hhwiuio , mill ni all HulijcctH wiri <Mii W *fc Iio 
wmplotoly taught in the Vornaculai, tho Engluth kuguago wonld bo regarded! tut Lho mudiuni uf inbtj*uuli<m and 
ation A constitution ol the governing body aoraowhat upon tho Jniow of tho older Uiiiwnutii^ WIM utao 



pwgtsnbod, but the mBtaluticm was not to have the status of a University having tho power uf con/owing DDKJDUH 

(Ptov Vol., 1866-flO), pp, 166-170, 



ORIPNT1L LAHmOJOS IK THE PUNJAB UNnTOSITY 93 

T n<hT this incomplete constitution thfl Punjab TTniveisity College entered upon its existence The arrange- 

Working of the Punjab Um- mont effooted resulted in ihe Sohoola and Colleges having either to prepare 
vorsity Collogo from 1870 to candidates 01 two separate systems of examinations, vis, those of the 

Calcutta Umv ai sity, ind those of the new institution the tests b eing altogeth er 

<liiiM i nf in tin n c haiArtoi though of equivalent standards 01 else to disregard ihe Punjab TTrnveibity College tebta 
dltiiip HUM By lik'iul M hoLuhbips and considerable eflortq, the latter catastrophe was avoided , but tho difficulty 
ul tin' dual h)sfi*in nt fttndioh caused considoiablo inconvenience to holh pupilb and teachoi 6 throughout the Pin- 
\ UK o Tin* < .nulirUtes weio HUMOUS to ohtam tho piopoi academic distinctions which the Calcutta TJmveifiity oouJd 
ilimi timid, while tho Plinth TJniveisily Collogo desired to asseit it* own position as the propei souice oF 
<K .i<h imo distiiu tiou in thib Piimnce 

Tin' liisliny of tins institution divides itsolf into two nearly equal periods, one extending fiom Januaiy, 
1*70, in Doiombw, 1H76, and tho othoi fiom the last-named dato to the passing of tho Act of Inooiporatinn 
ol tin* Punjab (Jimi'isity, on the jth ol Octubei, 1882 Tho hist SIT yoais nvwo devoted to the giowth nnd 
oi the 1 Punjab Uuivuisity College, and tho wozk done dm mg this punod was of so substantial a 
that ul tho timu ni tin* Jinpoiul Assemblage the Viceroy and Govenioj- General, Loid Lytton, pledged 
'in iiitiiiMhiw i Hill ifl soon as possible into the Logiblalivp Council ioi tho puiposa oi gi\mg to tlim 
ijjhl.)t4i1ion tin 1 slaius oi a University with tho powoi of ooiileinng do^rpc's ' ]lo piomisod that this plodgo would 
lie fulfilled <is sonn as tho uu'CHsaiy fi)tnialiticb could bu coinplotod Up to tins tirao thp Qovoiiimont of Tndia 
Inul niiiK tluu oiiri* iclnscrl iu tonvcit tho TTnivci wty Cullfgo into a lull Univoisity, Irat m MX ycaiM tiio mstitu- 
tinn had au|iuinl Mieni^tli and comiiliiHiosh and had boon attended with Midi a c mt k asmo of saccofis* that the 
(Jnvci unuMii cil liiilh* luil pnniiiscd to a,rc ulo tu iho icquost .it once 

Uelv\o(Mi IS7D .mil thr curl til L87[>, the Kmlownioiit Fund lose fiom Rs 1,05,603 to Us 3,^5,300 The 
imiunl iniiimc iiMiriiiHl KH tr>,OUD, tho whuk k of which wnh oxpoudt-d Tho Senate ILtll bnilding commenced in 
Ih7 1 vs is nunph it il and bi ought into usu at <i> cost ot Us 35,283, of which flum His Ili^hnosh tlio Nawab of Bh^waJ- 
pui mum lie uiit ly imii ilmiocl Us 27,.JS1 Tho foundoifl of the TJnivoihity wwotuado il& firht governing body by 
tin* 11,11110 l tho Stml-o, tho hi'Ht mooting Wdflholdon tljo llth of January, 1870 , tho firht M\ months WOIQ doyotod 
(a u^ mi/..t1inii iiuil to tho making of rules and logulatious fur tho conduct of busmobs and uxamuiationA , an \o- 
oiihvi* Corniniltto was ttjtpointiMl, and laoultiOH woie oig^nigol, and itaqulai woik communcod about July 

Tho (\ihiiMa Uiim'nuly hold ilic ( oiiti ol of tho School* and Collogos which Uu^ht m English, anditwns 
uit (Ni^silih 1 fin n hilly with Uie defoctivo coiihtitution, ot the University Collogw to Tcphicu it at onco Its liist 
ami KM .ib objflrt WiW ihficloro to oncoui^o and dovolop thowj pladoa of educational woik which hud lulhoi to beon 
uc'KliNlinUiami'ly Ihf wvivJ f tlio htuily oE Hauda it lull Arabic, and tho diffubion af loiowlodgo tluough the 
in N! nun of Iho VoniiKMilai. Tho hint ovammationH wwo aocsordingly hold in Arabic, Swnskiit and Ptasiim m July, 
1H70, nuil sisty-hovon lumliiUtM pwacutud iJicmbolvcfl, of wliom foity-tljiue pasfccd bucoofAivoly as Moulviw, 

ItaiclitH, r Muiihlim ispiH'liwly. 

In 1871, an Kuiiuiuf anil Fnul Arta Kxammatiou were addotl to tho examination hold TLo Medical School 
KxaminadonKWoii'UkcufJver, and wci-o nrnduclwl under the d-uspicoH of tho Uiuvemty, diyilomw, aH InconiaatoH 
hi4nf? cnnfm wl npo Uicwo who paflHod at tlio final oxaimniiticm In J873, tho Arte sdiomoH WMC rtnn6od by a Com- 
miitas which w|iiwniiHl M\i Iho Umvowifcy Collogo and the Dopmtmcmt of Public hiHtmction, and m 1874 tho 
KuLranoo, Tiononmoy und High Ptufieiwu'y MxamimifciouH wcro hold 111 addition to the Onont*l floiioH m Hanaknt, 
Aiubio IVi-Himi, HonniU knowledge, ami naiivo modiano Apiaiigomontfl WOK* mado in thiH yoar Ioi oiaminiitionB m 
tho KaniltioH ol IMW and Knginuoi .ug, which wow hold in 1874 and 1875, rchportivuly, for tho farfli tuno Up io 
Ih74> nlMiiit l,HOO cwidulatoH uppraml at tlio VAIIOU* ciairnnaiionh, of wliom ovw 1,000 passed 

Tlu- liiht (Uimiht wiw brought out in 1874 Ju that yoar tlio Uiuvctsity Ci>Uogo had complotod tho work ot 
lU ow oiKttutttin, luloa MM! t^ulationH haviiiff b^cn framed m ovory d<i)cii tmimt Tho years 187fi and 1876, 
wm Ih.iol.Mi' Iho Btntyuai* of full work Botwooii J870 and 1875 ff r oat advanced! boonmadcin thowwk 
<tf inuiHliiUiw of ImiiU rajuued m iho curricula ol ibo Schools aud CollogoH, nil tho Vernacular Doputmmt had 

ma<lo inviit htwlw ,_ , _ . , 

Onoviol languagos upon modern prmwplofl, and to impart a knowledge of moflWTi 

through tho medium of the Vernacular, an Oriental School wan 
Thw nohool had bean oiiginaUy founflod in 186 by 



tho Atfvmm*l*P*tf& and it had then boon tho object ot large donations from native ohiefu When, fat certain 
MM UNI Onontal School wa. cloaod, the .abBcripttox* and donations ceased AJt^ifcB reopening, ^*V 
liborol gubHOrlpUoni d donations again ponrsd an. And when some of the student* nutocnlatod 
^ iOAp deptrt^t was added, and the **e Onsntal 



M 



HGLISH IDVOlHOtf DT HTMl 



was given to this, the chief teaching institution of the University College Its position in 1877 is thus doflciihed in 
the report* 

" To recapitulate briefly, the objects of the College are two-fold (i) to give a high classical Oriental cduoa- 
turn, together ^ithmstmotion^in branches of general knowledge , and (2) to give a practical duection to evwy 
study Men who intend to devote themselvea entuely to literature or science havo fccholarnhips and folIowRlnpfe 
to look forward to with their incumbent dutias of teaching and iaanalating, or they may return to their homo*) as 
thoroughly trained Moulmu or Pundits who have also leoeived a liberal education Thofeo who aspn c to tho dignity 
and fnnotion of Qtms are trained m their own Law Poisons who wish to take up the practical TV oik of teaching in 
Army Schools or in the Educational Department, will, it has boen pionused, bo admitted to a coime m tlu 
Normal School " 

Thus it was the ob]eot of the Oriental College to embody as a teaching institution, those pmciplo* which 
the Punjab University College in another capacity enunciated in its examinations It empliosi/od tho Onrn+il 
as the Government College did the English side of tho educational byatexxi 

The Law School was first established by tho Anjwnan-i-Pamjiib in 1868 Down to 1871' no Univmai} 

Examinations in Law weie held, but the b Indents wore sent ap to the Pleads*' 
Examinations held undoi tho Legal Practitionoih' Act, <md the HI I OH h.uwni 

fch&roundoi by the Judges of thfr Chief Court Theso examinations wore, howovei, handed over to tho UnimMtj 
College in that yDar, thus recognizing and asaniing tho position of the Law School in tbo moftt piartiuil anil 
efficient nmnnoi possible 

A \eiy buof record will suffice to givo an account of ihift tho last penod of the ovtHtc*iic*o of Iho Punjab IJni- 

Working of the Punjab Uni veiflity College In Doromboi 187fi, tho Sonata pn'scnted ,i lust, mcmouul 

versity College, from 18*77 to to the Viceroy, which resulted m tho piumihoof a UuiwHitj \vliu*li ivan 

18 ^ 2 made public at tho TmponU Abbombly m Janiuiy, U77 Kaeh j^cai liml HCCII 

the Umyersity Colloge attain greater suocebs and solidity, and a few BUtihtios will bent oxpUui \\liai, luul U*on 

effected The Endowment Fond did not moroase with much rapidity owing, no doubt, to tho 'liopi* tU'fuiml 1 oi 

put years, and the delay in fulfdlmg tho plodgoH givon, &u 3,^^05, stood in Oovcrnmont Wcounticw to tho 

credit of the now TJmvoisity m 1882 The Sonato Hall btuldnig in now osiimatod at tth 40,OOD Tho income roue 

to Bs 75,000, and the expenditure orpanded acoordingly as tho following- ngninib 



DHIAILS 


1877 


1878 


1879 


1880 


188] 


1HH2 




Bs 


Kfl 


B0 


Re 


% 


lb. 


Inoomo it 


44,914 


63,230 


55,091 


63,115 


64,0,W 


75,^ 


Bxpentlitmfe 


8,014 


56,495 


57,673 


59,508 


63,881 


70,41 



to 



Tho Government grant still stood at Bs 21,000 In tho year 1879, tho Punjab Oovcrumtmt 
con&idei tho gi-ant when the TTzurersity was ostabluhod 

A large number of institutions wore affiliated to tho University College m tho HOHRO tliat thoy fjtught up to 

its standards and upon its pnnciplof,, and totoivcd m Mum ffiiUilH-iiMud or 
SdlolMBhl P fl Tho Univm ^ Axil ompliafli^ the hboral pniu iph-H of tho 
Univormty by making no provunon for alTili^iion m tho HUUHC in whuili that 
term is uuod m other TJnivoiratica Tho Punjab Univer&ity thrown open itu oxamiiiAtiotm to all umtitutumH ahlo, 
as well aa to private etudente It domandB a dofiuite oourso of i^oadjng and hUmloitlu htwod upon itn own 
principles, it olwo ofteis itti aid and Scholarships upon tho result* attained and upon uoiliuig olno In tlu woiifle nil 
oompatent institutions arc a&liatod to it Ite teaching inHtiLuiiona, tho Oriental ColU*go oiid Uw Hohool, continued 
to develop wad flounah from 1876 to 1882 Much was achiored in tlio AirocLioti of supplying a Votnttculat* 
ture The VelloWahip holders have translated many important wotlK, ospowally thorn* repaired for tlio 
oumoala of metmotiotL m Medicine, Natural Science, Mathcfluatica, Hifltory, and other bivnoLofl of 
indeed, m scrranl boraaehas, instruction and examination is now successfully cavnod on through tho modium of the 
Vernacular up to the Hastor of Arts standard In Law and Engineering also muot pzogross waa mode in tho 

t of works oC uBipdortftnoe 
wmio^uai work ww tew ih0 first conduct^ by examiners appointed by Uba Botmte, wuo hare 



PUNJAB ITNTVKIWITY HSTCDBPOLATFD, 1882 95 

been nJlnpfeiher unconnected with the teaching of the candidates in the vanotw snb]ects Indeed, most of the 
Examiners e\ammoi& have been entirely unconnected with the Umveiaity and the 

Piovmce This pimciple was prescribed by the oiigmal Statutes of 1869, 

and hai h<ul tlu* rffwr nf silencing criticiwn and nt giving confidence in the ganmnenoH of the woik done The 
lov\n c\Hiii]i<Llion<, hfuubwn conducted at sovoial centieB, besides Lahoie , Delhi and Lnckiiow being the most 
impoi l.uit The inuiihoi of candidates diuin^ this poiiod was 3,500, the number who passed wai 1,911 

\fnif liom tliu puuly Oiiput.il Examinations, the Voinacolar candidates ioi the vanoas Aits Examinations 
ol MM* l l ini|.ilj IJimcisily, hum 1871 to 1882 (inclusive), numboiod 052 Tho total unmboi of candidate? in the 

OIK nial Kva nil nations, hom lfi7U to 1882 (inclusivo), was 2,3fl 

( )n tin' 1 ilh Xovcnibci, LStiO, the phdi*GS qivon had not been fulfilled, but the Secietaiy of State had in the 

meanwhile sanctioned the propobal of the Govoinment of India, and the 
nooossai > r Illation alono lomamed for considuation Accordingly a voiy 
laiQe and influential deputation of tho Senate, headed by tlio Htmomablo Su 
Itnliul Kgwtimand His Highness the Mihaiaja oi Kashmii , C fc3 1 , waited upon tho Viooioy, on tho occasion 
of Ins \isitfu Ultimo, ami pi I'sontcrl ,ni arldii'Sh to tho following off eet, namely, they (pit ?uie that tho Marquis ot 
Jtipon would support the philips IJIVITI by IJOK! Ij\Uon, and ^oalcl lopuat tho pixinnso to complete at onco then 
ip i k a< Naiion.il Institution Tlu^y irf mcd to Kn Rolicit KgoitonV lottois oi tho 7th July, 1877, and ]2th July, 187^, 
for UK* <ii^umoiiih ni lavni oi a Piui)iib Univeihit) wnitc k iib) His Jlonoui nron alloi hurcoorliuR to tlic Govoin- 
mciit oi fins PiovnuM" T]n k ), howi'Wt, moio spocially lmui(*ht to the notice of His FkctUuioy tlut 729 students 
hail alHM(l> II<ISSM| the Knit am? KvnnniaLioH of tho Golloqe, ,ind that as many ah Ul) uiuloiqiaduatofi wuto now 
studios Inr lu^hui hououis in Kn^hsh by tho aid of srholai ships hom tlie Univoihity lunds They 
|oinfcMl out ili'il mil of 1,717 htndt'nis who had pi Pbeutcrl theoiselvub foi tho vanous uxaminations in Aith 
1^17 li.nl crime up lot the* Wn^hhh c 1 \aiaiiiiitionh, and that tho nuzubei of candidates foi the Entiinoo Examin- 
ation in Kn^lish had UK ieahCMl iiom ^0 in 187U to 198 in tho examination tai 1880 They tuhtorl that this would 
lw a sufhricnt nply to vny ohjoctjonj* that might bo raised that tho Punjab Diuvoriuty Oollogo did not sufficiently 
rni oura^c the hiucly ol Kn^lihh 

Lojil UIIIOH*H icply wan mowt favouiiibte A Bill WAR presently mttodauod into Oounul and cyoiituall> passed 
Lord Ripon> O-overnment *sA(tX]Xof iafl2, and on tlio 14th of Octobt-t of that yoai a Notihcation 
pasHOq tho PuD]ab TTiuvorsity by the* Punjab Govojument iormally corwtituted the* Punjab Umveisity Tho 
Act, XIX of ISSfl iiiau^uial convocation was bold at Lahoic on tho 18th November, 1882, in the 

pti'si'ritu' ol tho Vn'tMoy who JH tho pulit>n of tho UmvcnKity The now constitution completely fulfilled tho wiehon 
tit the doiuirh, riiiljhinlxTs and ptomotors ol the nictitation An Onental TTaivoiflity has boon combined with an 
Hiiglish llnivoisity, piovision han lioou maclo for tho duo ononnraffeniont and development of tho national Classical 
and Vi'iuac ulai laiiEfiiii^PH, as the toaohmg, exaniitiing atul litoiaay function* ot tho S'onato have boon omphasised, 
and, IjwMy, ilio iptvoiniiiff lxly w lai^oly repWh(iiUtiv* in HK chaiaoter and pohnoh<ios tho right to icpiobont itn 
VHMIH i<* tin* (lovivniiu-nl and tlu prmlPifO o bnnff conflultod by it It w thm, a Watioiml University in the 
tauwl hwiw Tho Hfaiiuim oJ 1HCIO, provided that ihn highpsfc honotH shoald only bo coniouod whou proficiency 
m Arabic- or Hnnsknt or Home ollwi OiionUl lanprna^o was combined with a thorough aoqunmtunoo mlh English 
The Ai*Uquat(*t1i('two facultiOH ami ^JVOH equal roooffnition mid honoi- to caoli whilo tho KcgalationH iwwicle 
lor HIP uifjUiHition, l)y ^i^luaU^, of tho combined honoih of both an being? natmully tho highest dihtinofcion Wach 
fwulty IMIHHCHWSH an <i|ual HctioH ol (lofftooH, while tho Onontal Faculty pOHBoHbos HpooiuJ powoi-s foi honowiig pio- 
iirii'iu'y in Oriental IiiKUt'H by tlw (uuhinnff erf Onuntal litiiary titleu and nuwk ol honor This Bopaiation 
whi< h hi.ill ponnitw i intcidiunRo, loavc-H both Hides froo to dovclop, wdo by hide, withont coiiflirt aiitl will ailoitl A 
hiihllky omulaium botwi-on tho (,wo HyhtnnH Both Kughwli and Vi'inacnUi aio ipcogiiwod and honororl to the 
lull i-xlwit, and hciih am opon to tho pooplo of tho country Tho now Dogicoh natnraUy took tho namofl oi Baoho- 
lor, Muster awl Dorloi, i^pootivcly, of OnoiiUl fjoarmnff 

Tho no\l. iwmi (or cmuulomluon is the eonHljlntiun ot tbo governing body JL BsooUtmpy tho Qovoinor- 

f tho vora^ Oouwal wa unablo, tor varaoufii i-efwonn, to aowpfc the ofhop of Olianoollor, and 

wbody of the Punjab TJm- itwa rlocidcdto confltittttotho Lioutonftiit-Ooveinor of thp Punjab for the 

vonifcy timo bung, Olianoollor of tho Uiuvn&ity, and thru tho head of tho Umvoiaity M 

,n a FMWition himHolf tc pa I erviHO ite working, while tho oxigbal proponal o! the promotoiB has boon earned ont 

Tho Vieo-Uhauuollor i uppinnlod by tho Ohanoollor, Tho Act makon a dwtjnttiozi betwoon tho onginal toondeiw 

and donoiH by providing that tho Follows niuned in Part II of the Sohodulo to the Act, do noL cow to bo enoh when 

thoyquitlndmpormaimtly f whdo Uboeo who 'may bo appointed anbsoqnently vacate oflioo npon leaving India 

wiioulthoiutonkwnol wtaming or by ronuww* absent from todift *or moxo than lonr yw It wu<not 



96 ENQLIBH EDUCATION IS INDIA 

deemed necessary or proper to make any distinctions amongst the Fellows themselves all being equal A 
great concession, from an Anglo-Indian stand point, was made by the Legislature in leaving the Senate t 
elect a number of Fellows equal to the number nominated, from time to time, by the Chancellor This pioviMon 
gives a. representative chaiaotet to the Senate which cannot fail to be a souice of good, the principle of Scli- 
GovaramBnt has thus been liberally conceded in this particular 

The powers of the Senate over the afiaus of the Umveisity aie veiy complete and foil, and the necpssdi\ 
supervision has been effected in such away a& not to mteifeie ivith tho Senate's exercising all the authority vtlmli 
IB lequuedfoi the purposes f 01 which it has been founded The Senate possess the 'entiie management of mcl 
qnpeimtendence ovar the affairs, concorns and prop at ty of tho Umveisity ' The Local Qoveinment is empowoml 
to entoice the Act, Statutes, Hules and Regulations wheio the Senate may fail to do so Tho Statutes, E/uloh and 
RoguUtions which may be fiamod lequue the sanction of Gtoveinmont, and the Local Go vonunont can leqiiiic 
&uoh examination and audit of the accounts of the Umvci sity as may appeal necessary Tntoin,il autonomy is 
thus seouied, unless and until inefficiency 01 woise is displayed In caiiymg out thosD piuiciplos thu flonatc lijvo 
had to re diait then Statutes, and this has been done with scrupulous legaid to the wihhofa oi tho pi rmiotiMh, and 
fiub]ect to the altered condition of things at the time " l 

The Allahabad Umveisity was incoiporated by Act XVIII of 1887, which WH passed on the Kb tl Rqji ln i, 

The Allahabad University -^87 The constitution of the Uuivei&ity cloholy t osomblef. that nE Lho Uni\ in . 

incorporated in September, sity of Calcutta, consisting of a Cliancclloi a Viio-Clianoellur and li'tllou- 

1887 forming a Senate, divided into Facalti as of vai IOUR bi aur lies oi lea L nui^ \\ h it li 

410 legnlatocl by tho Boards oi studies The Syndicate of tho Umvoi'nty IH the executive governing bml> AS in tin 

other lurliin Univoi&iiiBs, and the sub]eot& of examination, \ntli minoi altciatirniM, aio tbo name as in tin* Univoisiiy 

ut Calcutta, though luthato tho working o{ the Umveisity lias been confined to tho Faculties or Ail s and fu\v 

The goneial scope and chdiacta of education in tho Colleges affiliated to the Indian Umvuisjiu-s was 

Scope and character of Col- thuh doa<flllj011 ^ tLo Indj ^ n Education Comiruflsion of 1882 - 
legiate Education " Ll bCO P ^^ choiactei, collogiate mfttiuctum is now almnnt uiufonii 

throughout India Puiely Onpntal Colleges must, oi conrflo, ho ovcpiod 

Thefle, howovei, azo so few in numbei that they ficaiooly pntpi into a conMdej atinn ol tolloguto oilucahoii in 
its modai n development With tho exception, indeed, oE the Oucntol Colbgo at Lahoio, and oi tho Otumlal 
Department of the Conning College, Lurknow, they aie but i alien of that oidoi* of thm^H winch pusicd pu>\ urns 
to the publication of Loid William Bantinck's Lunous Roholntun Tho collego of to-day ainih aL fining an 
education that shall it its lecipiont to take an hunou ablo hhaieinthoodmiiuhtiulion of tlu> countiy, in to 
with good liopo of snLcos8 tho voiious labcial pi of oft s ions now expanding in vigotoun giowtb It follows, 
tliat the advancement of learning in India, IB in a laige measuio tlnough scjonco, and altogc'tlici 1 tucnrtling 
tf> the suoutihc method Tho Bngbsh and Oiicmtal ola&sicfl, oi com BO, occupy au impoitunt place ID the 
college scheme, but, apart fiom tho lofinoment of chniarter and elevation of Ui4uglit wluch uic 
to then study, then chief iuuciaon is to diftoipbue tho intellect In hifitay, jilulosujihy, niuthumatirh, 
physical soienco, Eughsh is the medium at instruction and tho pa%porl to acodomic lumnnra Tho ilidJ(M(.i<h 
of Hindoo philosophy and the subtleties of Unhammadan law have natnially duai)poaivd from n 00111*0 of htudioh 
intended to bo of so practical a character, the profound ftcholaiulnp and btelong clovr>tion to loaning which fiulia 
once boosted, aio aauniioefe made to the appreciation of an active oarooi Fow i rgrctfl aro Jolt on this hi uir, I hou^h 
thoie aie th 1360 wlio hold that the piehent DTdaaive use of Engluh IH noitlioi bonrfiual not ncccsMMy Thiouch 
the Yeinaeiilazfi, to homo oxtont alie.vly and laigely in tho neoi tutnrcs tln*y believe that gouoial kiiowlcil^u o( tho 
bud mi^ht bo imparted, and that an odacittion of widcL national pioht *ould \m the ooiUun lohult "f 

The dmaiiou of the Collego comnes and the fitaudoi'ds of o&annzmtum m tlio Ujuv(*mituH of Galcmltu, 

Uadios and Bombay, woie thus deaciibed in the Report oi iho Judian 

Duration of College courses Education Oomnus&ion of 1882 



Madras find Bombay turn to the M A degree In Madron, thoio IH aconihooi Tour yoai'H up U 

tie B A degree, and thoso who appear lor the M A emmmuticni uuumoiily 

bpend at least two years more in study, though none of the Colleges havo i pffular oluhhofl boyoiid tho B A 8f andtuiL 
In Bombay, ttrw yeaia is the period , but, on the other hand, the school OOUI*HO is one year longer, nod Uio 
examination of a somewliat more difficult chaxaoter The ti*ual age at whioli an Indian stadont Book 
to the Unrromty IB betwan swrteen and aigliteon yeaw Having by that time completed tho Higli School 
hd ui eacwun^i by mean <rf pn&ted papore (and, an tb* Bombay and Punjab Univowutuw, orally) an Xhigliflh, 

Y Q l ) l88-69)pp WWW f B^o^t of it. Itidlw Bdw^on^Oo^^ 



STATISTICS OF 



TY EDUCATION, 1857-82 



< I.NMIM! or vom.imUr language, history, geography, mathematics, and in Madras and Bombay, in elemental y 
ph \ si< .1 1 sr win i*, t lir evict Htandrw i in each of these subjects need not be stated here But, rtraghly speaking, the 
kinroli HIT ii 411111 il is Abrmt tlut whioh, at the age of sixteen, an Bngbsh boy of aveiage intelligence will be fonnd 
to putM n Hue t f si in Uus examination admits a student to any of tha affiliated colleges There, after attendance 
Ini tun ti n i fltu OHP WNQ in Bombay), he is parmitted to piesent himself for tho First Examination in Arts, or 
tin Pi i v inns KxdiiuiiiiliDii, ru. it is styled in Bombay At tho Calcutta TJniveisity the subjects of examination aie 
Un^l^li, .1 H.i-^iuil Lniijua^e (OiientoJ 01 Umnpean), histoty, mathematics, logic, and cither psychology or elemcn- 
1 ii) < lit>inisli> In M nil as, human physiology holds tho place of logic, psychology, 01 ohomibtry 3 tn the Calcutta. 
MIIU-,( hi Mimikij Iho scheme is identical with that in Calcutta, except that natural science takes the place ofc 
tin 1 npl MUM 1 sul>|fHs Two ycais lator again (in Bombay there is an Intai mediate examination) comes the examin- 
fttiun I MI the ISA choree"' 

k Thi> JI.A. dfgic'Pis followcil by tho MA degree Heie tho examination is piaotically confined to one 01 
uf ln*r fil iln inllfmuiir hiMJichcs of kno^lcd^o (1) Lungitages , (2) Bj&toiy , (3) Mental and Moial Philosophy, (4) 
\l,iLn>]iu1u>S pint* and mixed , (>) Natmal and PhyMcal Scionoc At Calcutta tho candidate is allowed to take up 
one in niDM'ol ilipsubium lies piilici mtlieMiiuo oi 1 in diffuicntyoais, in Madias and Bombay a clnsgical language 
fOiii'iilal * Km ope .tit) is cimpleil with Bnqlihh, uid Philosophy ^viih ILbtiny and Pobtical Economy "With the 
\ (|I^KM I hi (liilh^c 1 IHIIIISO umifis loan end, though m the CalontU Umvoisiiy the PiomcLind Eoychand 
ifi is (ho In 1*1 1 o,vl of u .wloituc dihtinciion " f 

Hmli lioiiiii ila niuiM 1 til stuilioh in tho UunoisitiOb of Calcuttn, Madiis onrl llnmbay, which woro foundwl in 

, it is mijioitantto exhibit m a&umnuiy Irnm &omo ni the moio im])oiiwit 
of Ooll opiate education nndoi those Uiuvei'sities loz a q^uaitoi oi a con- 
Liny iioiu tluui obtublibhmont, the Punjab Uniycisiiy and the Allahabad 
Univoisity having no oustonco doling Ihnt ponod Tho following table 1 
h.w been piopatod horn two tables givon at page 269 of tho Report ol tho ln- 



M 



StniiflticR of somo important 
robultH ol Oollogiato education 
uudortho XTnivoTHitiDS of Cal- 
cutta. Madias and Bombay, 
1857-82 



1i in 



i.il HIII 



ol 



OOLLEGtATK EDUCATION, 1857 10 1882 



l'lJ\IMT<i 





TM 18571870-71 


IN 1871-721881-82 


Jj 


NllVIIIIK OP HTU1IHNTS WHO 
I'AHHIU TUB FA, BA AMI) 
MA EviMINATlOHh 


8 -* 
SJ 

g| 


NUMBER OF BIUUENTS watt 

mHKI> 1VIX JP A , B A ANJ> 
11 A E\AWINA110fiH 


PA 


BA 


MA 


FA 


BA 


MA 


- 


1 








a 








12 


784 


152 





25 


2,032 


840 


22 




4 


2M 


116 


28 


6 


709 


840 


14 


* 


17 


VUU 


5tt 


112 


22 


2,600 


1,037 


261 




9 


% 


26 


5 





JOS 


130 


M 




1 


47 


8 




2 


107 


17 


LI 


jtal 


. 


. 


. 




1 


90 




. 


46 


2,0(16 


850 


151 


65 


5,969 


2.V34 


385 



N W I' iiud 
Pun pi li 
<Viitiitl 

A, 

Tlio jfewxKling inblo nhowH tlio progrrns wluoh Collegiate Hnglisli education had made nudor the auspioeH oi 

VA matioa* oonduotedby tho older threo TJmversitioe during the first quarto oi a century of their 

tho P <ijftb ITxaTmily* exwtoaao. Tho dutuxotiye feature! of the courae of education in the Punjab 

ftiyor* of the Indhm Mwatiw Oomwuwwm (1888), p, WO. t , P W 

, 13 

r 

t 1 



98 1VOLIBH EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Umvei aity established in 1882, hare already beon described, and the following extoact gives fnilhpr mfoi million 
upon the subject 

"Theie are two examinations leading to the degreg in Aits the Intermediate, ooizofipondinq' to thr* Kit s( 
Ait? Examination, the High Proficiency Examination, corresponding- to that for B A Thoso who pah& the Ilitjli 
Proficiency standard through tho medium of English, receive the dogieu of B A , while on thohu who puss if, 
thiough the medium of the Yomacnlar ib confeuod tho icgios of BOL, 01 Uachcluz ol Oncmtal Ijiiumni; 
Graduates of cither class are entitled to present themselves at a latei date for examination hy tho Honours in Arts 
standard, and those who pass receive tho dcgxees of HA and MOL icspoctivcly Rniul-iily mi tho Otu*n1.il 
Hide, examinations are held in Arabiu foi the titles snccosbively of MauUvi Alan aiul MciuUv i F.uil, in Pcisian 
ior the titlos of Mnnshi Alim and Munshi Vazil, and foi Yishjjad and Shastii 111 fiiinskiii Kvainin itintis an> 
also hell in Ghumukhi, or the htaiatiuo of tho Sikhs Tho Senate of the University fuiilur ads ,is Wic icurJi- 
tuted advisot of UIB Goveinmont on odaDationiil matiors Among m<uiy irnpoiUtit htibjccK ii'lcticd to i lint limit 
foi discussion and opinion may bo mentioned vacations in schools <ind datus of public cvimmuiiriiis, sy^dciit 1 
of qiants-in-aid, tho award of schoUi ships , pmruiy standaiils iot hoys 1 anil flu Is* schools the ni-pof turn ol 
gills' schools, proposals foi a now Paii].i,lji Dittionaiy, tho JflmopiMu lUdm atmn Curio, inlcs foi Tiainincr C'ullivcs, 
and tests for admission to tho public soi vico in v^iioas gt.tdtts Tho lonilud of tho Middle Kiluinl K\ 4 iniiiiiti(iii 
was also tianbloiiod to the Uiuvoidity Thas it it* evident Lli.it tho Puii|.ili Umvcisif.v oinijui's iow aids Mir 
GbvornniBnt of thu Piorinoe a position whidi is uot oiled by <ui) othiu, Uuneisil^ in hulia " A 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE INDIAN EDUCATION COMMISSION OF 1882, AND SOMTfl IMPORTANT FAfJTH ANTI) STATISTICS 
OOLLBOTED BT IT IN ABOARD TO ENQLlSfC COhljICdlATIO KDUCATIOK 

In 1882, tho Go-voinment of India pasflod a Resolution, No ^ dutud Lho itid Kt'hunuy, 1HH2, li) \\lndi li 
Indian Education Gommis- Appointed a CommisHiou to vppint uprjn tho subjort nl odiuMdoii, uiul HH Inl- 
flionof 1882 lowing extracts frum the Jtchulution will show its uatiiif 1 .uul okjtH'fs 

" In now of tho facts that, smoo the racism us sot faith m tho DtwfMtcIi ol IHtl f.uno into .n two uponthtin, 

Eesolution appointing the a f^ qnai^tei of a century lias (lapHinl, and that li is now t.cn ytsuN Hini'o (ho 

OommiBBion, dated 3rd Feb- rosponsihlo dirootion ol 1 tho eiuoiiitiniKil syHU'm was cuhusfcil iu the huuil 

mary, 1882 Qovernmontfl, it nppoois to llw K\ix*lk k m7 thu (Jovfrnot-Orui'ral in Oounnf 

that tho timo haB pomo for instituting a moto carofml examination mix) tlio u'Hiilts nM^iiuHl, and iiHni (ho winking 

of tho prospnt art angomonia, than lias hitherto Leon attempted Tlio pcptM iciico ol the |Msi, IJ.VH shown (hat a 

mero critical review or analysis ol the ruining and icpoits oi the difloront prov-incon luN to impaii a Mioiou^hly 

hatwfactoiy knowlodge of tho actoa.1 hUto of things in the distiioifl, ami that thon aro inany pouita which only an 

ACijaaixitanco with local dtoamstanoos con cidotiuatoly estimate or explain JIiH K\cc k lloncy in (Jmmril IJHM t.lion k foi*ii 

docidod to appoint a Commission ou hohalf of Govomment to onquue into tho pi onont position of (Miuralum in 

BntiHh India, and to nominate lo tliui Oommibhion d sufficient number ot pcmnnH fn>n> Lho difTcrcnL piovinnw in 

Beonru iho adixiuato and intelligent considoiation of tho lacta that will bu laid boiofo it " f 

Tho Oommisfeion thus appointed consisted oi Emopcan and Native mt>Tnl>ai'H ropi(Hcn(iing (lit* vurioim 

of tho oommamty iiitoi'Of.tod m tho wubjoct of ^lutaiioii, Hu* W W 
Dutxea aesigne e ^^ appointed Piw,idont, and the Rvnoral dutiua aHsi^tied to tho 

wero thus proROribod 

(c lt will OB the duty of the CommiB&ion to onqmi-e particularly (flulgect only to ct'rlam limit at IOTIH tf Im 
noticed below) mto tho manner m which eftoot has boon given to the pvmciplew of tho Dowpatoli of 1$A1, iuid to 
naggORt soolx measures 00 it may think desirable in order to thofnithcr cwrjinff oui ol tho pof . enmi Uul 
down. The Qorernment oi India is nraly ooxmnoed oi the soondnoHs of that policy, and luuj no J. <ta dojuu I 



* Bnow of Bduoftticm in Incha in 18B6 , by Sir Alfrod Oroft, p 30 
t Btport oi the Indian Bdaoation Oommuiuon (1B8&), p, 024, App A 



OF TTTr OBAHT-r^-UD fllSTEM 99 

1 1 HI ii tin* pi >iif ipli * upiJii it huh it i* lias*cl It is intended only at ilio present time, to ownune into the general 
it'sulN ill i|, ii|ii.iiinii ami to <tiMiiim/ti I In* oflir unify of tlio madiineiy that has boim set on foot foi bi inking 
,ihi*iit tho i i Ml, IM i tin f!mi Minn lit inim HIP miNef hart specially in view' 1 * "It will not be necessary foi 
flip Cm i i- ii.*, * i ,u, it jptu tin 'ji 1,1 1 al i.iiiLincrol tlip Indian [JmvorBitioH, which arc controlled by coapoiatinn& 
''i 'I* 1 * '" ' Mn ' iii'i i "1 ,ill I]IMI lutiiiiiiMl in collocate eilooatiuu Of the mults of tlicir opcnatiou 
i I ' i "i.'h' i 'i tiltu In fnMiiiii puirjii ndi ml) oi j ipwml ciiqnuy micb as IB now piopoflod Noiwillitbe 
11111 ' lf<l i" 1 ' 1 I1JI " -i'"i I Mb* up tin Milijirt of spuial 01 lH'hiiic.il rducation, nrhaUiei inodic.b], logol, 
'' i !' I'M i in 'I i i 'it nil i hi ini|MUi t' HicM -(injects would i \pnuil unduly the task bofoip tho Uamraisbion 
\- mi ihi tfii minimi nl htlii lj,j. it fit uu iiiinrh ilciill nilh tlio question d Uiuupoau anil Miu iisjaii 
"' i" i"'i mi luitliii iiii|iiu\ i MMI ( IM ,is n&iuiU flul lluf, nt till tbiM ovqiiions, tho Go\ oinoi -Qi3npil 
' < '. ui >l i i>l ii|iiinni lh.it (In C'.ii'iin ion i ii\ niliill> ninsidn iliu \\oikini* ul till buinclioh oi tlie Indian 
nl'i- ..... ' '") Tin hhti" In * .PI* ii j |M)II vul, -n ilnsrly onm*r^ccl cmc uilh .inothu, that it ib only by 
i 'ni n." tin -\ ft in i ivlmli tluit n hiniihniK IIIMOIIS 4ir lAvl) in lie rnmu 1n"h 

AiiM'liu JM oi'M limn ||n (it >)liitiniM>4|h'M i ijU'itfiiiiiii hen* ,K it .iiniiiiinris tin* polity uf flip Goviuiniiont ir> 

Policy of cnpcmrnftiug thu *' UI * ' I4|1 ' MI <J""iii,i"i incut, ^' Hn k munl-in-iiid system with tlio ob|c i cl til 

gr.int*m-iud Hyntoin to HC'cuiu .<nn*ii' tlif "Milml \MtIirlia\\,il ol ilu Hl.iii* iinni Ini^h Kn^hsh rduuitimj 

griuluulwithdr,iwullrom high Aitu umtJi'" ihi'.ihmiifiiiflil llu Comiuiviifai in tlu^ic.vi mi)Kniiuico which 

XtiKlwhi-duoatiou fl|| H IIUIIIUIIII J otlarli.s In the Mibjiul r>f IUIIIMIJ (tliuatiim, tho Jloholnlion 

(in INK i"Mph , l> ,ml ID) <"i<s <w ii> s rv 

* 'Hit* iisfnnu'S <il tin 1 4h-.pn*d] P!' (luvcMinicni, \\lh-flur nupi rial, (ixiMiirul rn lfal, ,iii',mirl must Iim foinain, 
ivlidiiih liniiinl in iitMHiii(, iiud f hr K'MiM is mil unit that proirn^s niusl wi'i^s.inly In qiiiduul, btiL ihut if 
NihiKu lfii\ pin^nsi i% ii> he w.uh' i ull, i \i'M *i \aiUWi- pn\jfi k iigrin > nm<1 liiMiilloil into fiditiii ioj<lu'\o and 
f fin puhhr hind 1 in t mini rt inn \\ii\i i\nj I'landi of Pullic Insttit( k (i(m (I. \\ns in MCW of Mho imjiuhhiljilily 
<!n\(iniui nl iiliinr tlniim .ill iliiit must IM* dime to pioxido *ul<M{iin<i nitons fni Ihr f*dm aiion ot the Uiiiivos rrf 
* ili.il ilii^'i.nil in nid \ JIMII uas iKiJimatrd mid di*v<*lopcd It} fh(> DcsjMffli ol J8M>, and if. IH io ilic widei 
* ti M inn nt 11ns \v li'iii, *' s f' ll i M!!} n ( iMijii'Hioii \\ith Iiit^h .Hid nuddlc* cdnmimii, thai ilit 1 (lovoiiintciili Inokh to not 
In i> luii'l M hit Ii IIIMV i IHMI ln k unidt* applicahh' (n I he promof ion of iho education of Mu massif ' Tht* icHoum'h oi 
tlip Shift* fni'ilii. 1 its H'liuiknl Ii\ (In* Sf't'ifliiM ol Htiiti' Jii Uchptiich No Jti ol $?>i\i Apnl JHIJl, ' io bo HO 
,i , in it I'lt^r f huso vi IMI r mi Nul In- i \p< < ti*d Io hi 1}> 1 liLinwJvcH, and the riHu*r < LihhoN of thu pctjplc should 
hi indinid tn [iioxulr Ini* flu iron n I'diinifinn * 

41 In |iiHMiuu'> ol tliM polu'V id is (ln> d<Mi< of CloviTuniciit to offiu' (v('iy iwonni^nKiii to nativo 
in mini' lu\\,ud <ni'l ul, rvui nioji* c\(<'tisivHy Hum lu'ictolow, in ihu osUhlishimiit ol M'lionN upon tlio 
.inl i <i ni ,ind Hit I'Aivlli'Wj in POIIIH tl is Uu* luoic iUi\ioiih in HCO thiri hifju^ht alioul, lictanso, npaH altogether 
Ihtiri fhiM'nM ii>|ni'ii( pfiMiiiMij nlH'Ho Oovftiininiit it H <huHy in thih way that the luLivc roiniininity wjll bu 
iilili> h 'MUM* thai hi inlom nnd vniiolj ul 4'dmaiioiMvlii('h man ohsenlml condition in .uiy hound and ruinploto 
tNluoifionnl > si tni It is not, in Hit opinion of flu* Uovi'rnoMltMici'uI jn Coinuil, a InMlthy symptom that alJ tho 
)oulh ol HID connliy hhoiild IK* nisi, as il VVIMV, in fhc> Minn (lovfinmt'iit odiuaticmtil mould ItaUu'i ih it dc-huublo 
i I in I. I'.U'li MM (nn ol lln* piioplo hhould lie in u posiiion io H(ruro tJuit doscuptioji oi (Klumijou which m nioHt COIIMO- 
iiiint i^i HH Irilit^miiid Miitid foiin \\aniM Tho (lovomuiMit i raidy, tlwiiifotp, in donll th<*l/ it ( an to footer Midi 
4 tpint of iiHh'p^iidi'iic'ct and hf'IMiclp, It is willing Io hand ovornny ol its own (^olh^t^ HI huoln, in ftuittbh 
mi i*s, in liuchcH ol undid f(i*iillMiii*ii who will iind^iUku to rnunti^o tluvu wiiisi^if ionly an aided instil ittioiiH, All 
i (MI tin* < Son riinu'iili v ill lUHinif i)|Hin, In \n<j Mint duo pif iviwim IA tuado For cniuctit inaiin^oiiunt and c\U k Tid(jd iiNiilul- 
ut' ^ It will lc lor tln roiiuaishiuu Io ooiiHidor in wliat mod( oflwst can iiuwL fully !M> givuu i URHO VIPWH , and 
Hu* )Miinl-tiMiiil hyhiim nmy IM^UMI Kiiapeil M> to Htiuiolatc wuoh iudi]uiuJ(*iit clloit, uud maLoUio Icvr^ont 
MJ ol the a\uilililo (i(t\< l inmrnt fnndh. 1 ^ 

Altlinii^h Hit* Huhjcrt of tho gt'mi'al \\orkinwofUio Indian UuivorHJtiPH'waH o\olnd<Hl Jxom theoiiciairy to ho 

InfotinUlon an to Oollogiato " UM ' ( * ''J *' ICJ ^""""WMon^yot much vdrln.i.bJo iniownation was colhM-tcd by 

Bduoatiori ooUootod by tho >L in t^nni'ction with uoHoftiato oduca<tiou and rfr>uo pa^H.i^t'K lw;m tho 

U(}}Kitt nut}, therefore, bo quoted lioro, UH Huoh nuttitiotion is earned on 



in <!ollijfl*M nhii'li an- iifllllaUHl to thp IJjiivunuUoH and pnnmo tho ooume of mstwiotion invM'nboil by thn , 
1 Tliu ttillliatod Uullvxi'H UTL- ol two ffituluH ; ilioBO whcwo Hiodonto go no iuither than tho JPirbt Aiis, or Previooa 



* Uapurt of tlu Indmn Education OomniMum (18SS), p 6M| App. A 
f jCfrpf p. 6*0 1 AppwulijE A. t ft., PP W, W6 , Appf ndu A 



100 



ENGLISH EDUCATION IK INDU 



Examma-tion, and those in which they proceed to the B A and M A deqiees Tho stiongth of the tcachim* staii 
vanes with the wealth of the institution, the nnmbeis of the students, and the ola&fl of examination* iui which uinrh- 
dates aie sent up Thn* the Fiasidenoy Collage in Calcutta, has a Piincipal, eleven Proles soib, and two teat In 'is (t 
Sanskrit and Axabic Thua stuff provides for loctmos being given in all the vai ions subjoots of all the examina- 
tions A smaller college will be oontant with a Pnncipal, two Professor, a Pandit, and a Mania vi, but ivith 
no larger staff than this, lestnotions aie necesaaiy as to the ohoico oi subjects in the altoinativo couibes, and but 
little help can bo adfoidod to students reading for the M A dogieo " * 

In legatd to academic discipline of the students piofiaonting tbou studicw in tho Collrqos Affiliated to th< 
Views of the Commission as Indian Umvaisitios, tbo Lidian Education Commiwiion oxpiobsod tbeu \IUWH 
to Academic discipline m tho following woids 

"In thoii schcnio of discipline, and in the academic life of then students, Indian Uolloqus havr but lit I It 

analogy with those ol the oldei of tho Enghbh Umvei sifaos, them xosuia bianco bcinn dusoi to those of Scotland 

and Geimany Residence in college buildings is not only not goneially oompiilhrny, but tho colloids .uo low 

in which any systematic piovision is made foi oontiol ovca tho students' pmsuits ont ot cij]letc hours IJoanlmu- 

honfiGb ore, indeed, attached to ceitam institutions, and thoir number mi i uaisos yoai bj jou J*ui, uiilrss tho 

student's homo be at d distance from the oollcgia.to city, and ho hnvo no lolativcs to ICCLMVO bun, it. is M'liluni Hi it 

ho will inooJt the expense which icsideiico involyog Two pimupnJ ipasons auunnt foi ibis leaf/me in out s\i*(f>m 

Pust, the initial outlay upon buildings ib ono horn which Qo\oiimicjnt and nulopcinlout lioihc^ nliko sin ink Km 

f*Q pocn is the Indum student that it would bo impossible to demand uf him any lint tho moHt inoilt rat( k r< ui * .1 lent 

peihaps baioly sufficionL to cover the cost of tho annual icpaiis Tho second obslaHo lies in ihi* iclujmus nrnj 

horial piejudices which fence class fiom class Not only doos tbo Jlmda loLusc Ln oat mill ilio MiisaJinati, lint horn 

clofiD contact with whole sections of hifl own oo-icligioiusts hi) is Hbut ofi liy the mipuioiiH oidirunurs i>! (,isii>. 

Expozjonoe, howavor, has already piovocl that tlie bainon of uustnm aio ifivin^ way In UK Ninth-West ITU 

Piovinces and tho Punjab, where the icfiidential Hystem lias boon widely tiiud, the MIOOOHS IIUH lx k i k ii umsnlci.iMf t 

and notion^ but want oi lands stands in tho way of a fuller development In tho moio impoiltUit UomLiy CnJh^'s, 

also, a considorablo number of tho studonts oro in icsidonco , in iJoiipal and Mortals tlia syhiein h<ut hi cu li*is iulty 

rooogniflod Yet it is tho ono thing which will give tho departmental ofhcoi a hold upon tho lives oi Uirjho wliust 

intellects he tiainq with such sedulous elabcuation, Fiom any attempt to trjuiili tlie iDli^ionH sirlo nl Lhu 

bharactoi, the Government educational officer is debarred by the [ii luriplo ol loliufious tioutiahfy AM Ilic 

impoitant thorofoze, is it that ho should bo ablo to U\MVJHO tku moial influLnu k of a i IOHO and \\.itLlilnl (list ipli 

Tho following tablet showu tho htatistios of attendance jn Eughbli Aiifi Cullogoh, \oi the oflicual 

Statistics of Collegiate in- 1881-82 

struBtion, 1881-82 

STATISTICS OF ATTENDANCE IN ENGLISH AMVS UULLIOtJKS, L'OR 1HK1-82 



* " ( 





DHPARTMHNTAL 


Alllkl). 


UNAJIUJD 


To MI, 


FittttM 


& 


| 


1 


| 


1 


| 


i 


f 






1 


3 


DO 





1 


vj 


,1 


Uadios . 


10 


b f t 


11 


WK! 


j 


i in 


2* 


14 


Bombay 


3 


oLl 


a 


m 


i 


B.-5 


(i 


A 


Donga! 


12 


1,3UO 





fi'ir, 


* 


J.J5S 


21 


2,7 


M" -W Pronnooa and Oudk 


3 


172 


2 


1B7 


1 


2(J 





H 


Patijab * . . 


1 


10 


. 




. 


. 


1 


1 


Central Piovmocfl 


1 


Of) 









.. 


1 




TOTAL 


30 


2,000 


2(1 


W 


{) 


707 


5!) 


5^ 



10'S 



* Boport ot the Indian Education Comnuwaon (1688), p S7S 



POMT 4*D liniOK FMb OP OOLLBMiTB BDTTOAOION, 1891-92 

tJm Mifmtirs nlk*tfd hy the Jmliaii Edncatiou Comnmsion of 1882 
Avoiago co&t of Collogiate thoi<illmuw> tabulai statempnti* mtoiesting-, 

XTIS 011 P P Stwien ^ Cf>st McuUterl on tho a,vora ? o monthly num _ v Wj 

udnp.iluit' oicli htadcnt m English Aitg Oollegos, for tho official year 1881-82 



101 

paga 279 of the Beport), 
average annual 



\VIJK VMR AX7K7AL COST OF EDUCATING BACH STUDENT IN ENGLISH AETS 

COLLEGES, IN 1881-82 



Madias 

llmnluy 

lit ii'jul 

X W [> an.l Ouilh 



nf AJIIIU and liunno, 
Th(* loUowniff iahlo 1 



T)jp\iij *ir,M\fi CuLLEnrs 


AlDID COLLHGEB 


T7VAII)KJ> 
OOLLEtjrliS 


Toial 
u\ci<r^i 
amnul roit 

Us A 1' 


A\oi,icu 
aimu.il cost to 
Piovmrul 

Fuiirlf, 


Total 
a/voi<io 
aiiuuid cofat 

Its A P 


A-VDlJi^O 

animal ccihito 
Pio\iii(ial 
Knudfl 


Total 
overage 
annadJ cost 


Ki A I* 

i 


Bh A P 


RH A i 


M7 Lt H 


210 1 2 


JU5 2 8 


29 U 8 


93 I 2 


4IU lii H 


274 l!J f) 


271 10 i) 


35 J4 7 


331 10 2 


>:jo o r> 


217 5 8 


IHi ft fi 


2H 7 


48 7 b 


7,>S 1 2 


r;M 8 <; 


1312 i) 8 


in n o 


125 14 


4<i8 ir> s 

1 


477 1 10 





* 





isr; x i 


If55 ft 5 


: * 





* 


.Ut fl 1 


253 9 


178 7 7 


35 14 .') 


97 8 it 



in 



ajipinximato id^i of thutuiiiou ICOH paid by htmluntfl in Artn Collc^oh daiuig the 
^' utt ' * (I|M '^W'Wi nncl ttw> propoitiun which tlia nioorao iiom huoli fuon 
H^SSlS Bm CoUogos bum to t)tal ^vpcmbiuio w tho MWIOUS cliuM ol tho College* excludjiig tho 



on 



TUITION PHHH IN ABTM (JOhLHUIIH IN TUB OFFICIAL YKAR, 1881-H2 



Mnrltus 
Hofnhay 



P.amlOudh 



Punjab 



1'iovinooH 
for hub* 



OKfAHTlfKNTAIi 
Ooijljl <JBB* 


AlDIII) 
CobLhUIJH. 


UHAU>RI> 
C(ILLI.(IHK 


PHMCKN'Udli OH- hraoMK 
FKflM VblH TO ToUli J3il'IN- 
DITUIW fib. 


IIl^ilPHlf 


Kw." 


ifti ub 


LowoBt 
t'oo 


K^ 


IiOWCHt 


mental 
JollefttM 


Aiclod 


Unmdad 
Oolh|^B 

* 


rt. 


ItH 


llH. 


ItH, 


ItH 


lid 








3 


'J 


4 


2 


,'t 




1778 


2376 


;JID^ 


10 





8 


4 


6 


3 


1828 


2172 


1450 


12 


.'i 


6 


fi 


3 


i 


27-51 


2010 


4]J9 


5 


2 


5 


1 


4 


1 


65 


629 


1663 


5 


2 


. , 


ife 


., 


... 


4 SB 


* 


.. 


2 


2 


... 


... 


... 


. 


1100 




* 


12 


2 


8 


1 


B 


1 


1963 


28*4* 


2705 



fhc Bapott of ttw latatt Bduofttion Oommumon (18S) 



102 INGUJSH 1DUOATION IV INDIA 

In regard to the results of higher English education, the following tabular statement fade Indian Education 

Commission Report, 1882, page 231), showing on estimate of the number of 

_A_P PTO^ Umot Statistics Of *_ i i o^n J 1 DDO 4 "!> vi 

tit a after GAV er of Indian irra- graduates from collegiate mstitations who, between loTJ ana looz, TOOK up 
duates, 1871-1882. various professions, givea an appioiimate idea of tho aftar^careor of oui 

Indian giaduates 



PEOYINCES 


Number 
of graduates 
between 
1871^82 


Having 
entered the 

public ROLV1CO, 

BiitiBh 01 
Native 


Locfal 
piofoa&ion 


Medical 
piofo&sion 


Cinl 
Engjuopiinc; 
piotobsiou 


Madias 


808 


296 


126 


IS 




Bombay 


625 


324 


49 


70 


2K 


Bengal 


1,696 


534 


471 


131 


19 


N-W P andDudh 


no 


Gl 


33 




<> 


Pun-jab 


38 


21 


5 






Ceutaal Piovmcoa 


14 


8 








Total 


3,311 


1,244 


GB4 


225 


tTI 



CHAPTER XX. 



THE GRAWT-Iff-AID STSTIM INAUGURATED BY THE EDUCATIONAL DESPATCH Off 181 It AND 

CONSIDERED BY THE INDIAN EDUCATION COMMISSION OF 1H82 

To use the language employed by the Indian Education Commission, " tlio DospatcJi ol MM ermtams tlio first 
Objects of the Despatch, of declaration of the policy of tlio Gwtnnmont 111 a naattci ulucJi lies at Uio inol ol 
1854, as to the Grant-inlaid any national system of education, that IH to Hay, the dctpnnin.fctiou of 1 lit* pai li 
system which can be most eflectiveiy taken in it by the Htate .uirl bytlir jicuplc 

Tho immediate aims of the Goveinment of that time weio the snino an UinhQ to which tlio attention ol cvc'iy 
Euiupoaii state was first diiectod when dg\uifling its syfitom of public insti action The < \istinii hchools ni nil 
kinds woie to he unproved and then nnmber increased, a>stematio inspection waa to bo ostablihlic'tl, and a Hiijiply <t 
oompetout teachers was to be pioyidod But in India the attitude of the Stato to national odacutiuu WIIA ulfoiitcnl by 
thi'eo conditions to which no Eniopean state coald faimsh a poiollel In the /7nt pltux, tlio pr>puLt>tirn uvus not 
only as large a? that of all tho Euiopoan states togothar that had adopted an odnoatioruvl sybtuin, lint it pn'M'ntcd, 
m its different Provinces, at least, as many (kffctrencoH of cioed, Luigaage, iaot> ami cnutom Hwwdly, tlio ruling 
powoi WAS bomxd to hold itself aloof Ixoin all questions of icligion TJutdli/, tho Hclioioo o( insti action to It intro- 
duood ww ono which should cnlxmndto in the acqaisition of a litovatme and fiuumuo osHentially lotH/rn Wlulo 
thorpfoio, on the ono hand, the magnitude of; the task boforo the Indian QDvoi'nraont was fludi us to uiiiko it uliuoHt 
impossibb of achievement by any diioct appropriation fiom tho lesourecs ol tlio Hmpuv, 011 tho othor, tlio popular 
demand for education, ho impoitant a factoi in tho succors of tho Eaiojiean syhtums luul in ^oucaiil to bo 
Tho Qovernmont adopted the only course which carcumstanoes pomnttod It wan admitted that ' to imbao *i, 
and ignorant population with a geneaal desire foi knowledge, and to take advantage of llutt tloww wlion ovcitcid to 
improra tho means for diffusing education amongst them, must bo a work of many yoain ' , and thm odinihsion ww 
followed by the annonncemont that c as a GbrBrnment, wo con do no more than dii oct tlio oJIoHH of the people, and 
aid them wherever they appear to roquuo most assistance ' In pursuance of tliw losolution tlio cai hoi part of the 
Deqiatoh is occupied with a renew of all the agencies for education which wei-o already in caihtoncu in India, 
wiefchez maintajnea liy (JoTBrnmeat or by private persons or bodies, native and foreign , And it wan declared thai 
tho extansioa and inomwed supply of sdhools and colleges should for the futuiu bo mumly dUoted by Lko 



SCOPE AND DHAEAOTia OP GRAlTO-nr-AID 303 



ffrant-m-aid system Notice was taken of the ma easing desire on the port of the natives of India for the means of 
obtaining a hettci education, as shown by the libeial sums which had recently been contributed with that object , 
ami at toiiti on was didwn to the zeal and mnninoenoB which Sindus and ~M~TiTin.mTnajlfl.Tig for ages had manifested in 
tho causo of education Coidial lecognition was also given to the eEEoits of Christian Associations in difFnamg 
knowledge among the natives of India, specially among uncivilized races In such oucnmatances it was hoped that 
tho {gziiul-ni-iuil system could bo intioduood into India, as it had been into England, with every prospect of success 
The introduction of that system was necessitated by a conviction of the impossibility of Government alone doing 
all Lliat must bo done in oidci to pi o vide adequate means foi the education of the natives ol India, and it was 
overtoil tluit tho plan of thus di awing support fiom local sources, in addition to contentions from the State, 
would icsult m a fiir moio lapid piogio&s of education than would follow a mere increase of expenditure by the 
(im eminent, nhilo it possessed tho additional advantage of fostering a spirit of lolianoe upon local exertions, 
ami combination ioi local purposes, ivhich was, of itself, of no mean importance to tho well-being of a nation " * 
Jii loqtucl to scope and chdiactoi, *' tho system "was to be basod on an ontiio abstinence fiom mteileienco with 

tho loligiiras instiTiction couvoyod in tho suliools assisted, and aid was to be 

Soopo and character of the , i , -. , n i i i i .1 i i 

Grant-m aid avat m givon within ooitain hmitb to all schools which iinpaitod a good seculat 

education, pioudod that they woie under ideqaato local management, tha,t is, 

under poisoiiH msponsiblo foi Uio general bnpeiintondonco of the school and 01 itb poimaajonoa foi a given time 
Kuril schools wt k io to bo upon to Qovcinmout inspection, and to bo subjected to such otliei idles nu Qovcinmcnt 
mitht, limn tune to timo, impose It was fmthori equiiod that some foo,howovoi bmaU, should be levied in all 
<uiU'(l hihnolh , tiiul that giants should bo made toi specific ob]eot&, such AS the augmentation ot tho aalaiios of the 
lii'iul-tiftulicis, tho Mi]i|ily ot juiuoi tuauhws, the pio>ition ot scholar slaps, the supply oJ school-books, 01 the erec- 
tinti ol liiiihlnii>s, and not foi tlio ufoucial uxponditiiio of the school On those pnuciplos it was hoped tliat local 
nunafti'inotit, uudcT (iiivcniniiuit mspoition ami udod by giants, -woulcl bo oncouiagud whaiovei it was possible 
to taU' a<l\ania(>( ol it , ajid it 'was lulod tliab ^hcm such management so aidod was capable of adoquately meeting 
llic luiMl ilcinauil lop ctlLiraiiioii, Ouvomm^nt institutions wot o not to be founded Tho Despatch looked forward to 
the iiiuc \\Wii any w noi t d sjhtemol education ontiiely piovidod by tho Qovoinmont might bo disrontinuod with tho 
<j;iarlual ,uh.ini i' nl i,\w system of giAnfs-iii-a,id , and whon many of Iho existing QovMumont mstitahonB, Oflpocially 
l iliv lii(jflici 01 dpi .might bo safely closed 01 tiaasiou'od to tho man<igomoiit of local bodies, under tho 
of, and uuleil hy, tho State But it was oxpiossly provided that tho spiead of education was not to be 
in HIP sliftliiobt di'i>i co by Uio abandonment of a single school to piobable decay, and while tha desurod 
nh|(M fc ^ts ti) bc k kept hlDiidily m view, tho Q-ovoinmont aiultlie local authozitics wore enjoined to act with caution, 
and to Iw ^iiiilt-d liy s]JU*ial loloiuuoo to tho particuldT cucumstancos of tho locality con corned The higher 
Hasti's \\imldilius lo Hiadually called upon to dcpund moio upon themselves , while, lor tho education of the 
middle anil limci t IUSKOS, hiiocial attoution nvos duuctod, both to the establishment of fitting schools foi that purpoao 
and ulsr* lo Mu tuiclul eiuoutngomont oi tho native Mcliools which had existed Izom time immemorial, and none of 
vrliirh, iiprbnph, iimlcl not in stmo dcgtpo bo made avnilablo to tho end in viow "t 

u Tho ivluiionH (ii tlio State to private oflort, as indicated in the Despatch of 1854, may ihoioforobo summod 
Relation* of the State to pn- up as follows, The state undertook 
rate effort 

(1) t<) givo potMiniary assistanco on tbo gi ont-in-aid system to efficient Schools and Colleges , 

(2) to diroot their cffoitfl and .Ulord thorn counsel and advico, 

(!)) to oiujtmi ago and rewaxd tho dosii'O foi learning in VSJIODLS ways, but chieRy by tho establishment of 



p 
(4) to Uku nuuuiHJOH for pxovidmg a duo supply of teachers, and for making the profession, of teaching 

lioiioarublo and respected 

" Of all LhoNc provisions the most important and far-roaching was tho introductiDn of the grant-m-aid systom. 
(t wan (ouml in the UcHpatch of 1859, that in the rules framed for tho allotmont of gronts-rn-aid caioful attention 
had boon paid io the foraKumg pnnciples It was also fltatei in that Despatch that, while the system had been 
roadjty acocptod by Hchooh of higher oduoation, itbadbeonunsacDofcsfulniitfl application to those of a lower olaas "{ 
" Tho Despatch also pointed out, m xoferonoo to tho BmaU number of scholars in tho Government Collages and 
Necessity of encouraging S &iools of highor education, that there was aonpla scope for the employment 
private effort* Limitations of of overy form of agency that could be brought into the field of educational 
tho policy of withdrawal labour, and urged that every agency likoly to engage in the work with 

fiepoit ol Uio Xnautt Bdwfeon Oonmufiion (188*), pp Bftl, H> t Ib, pp 352, 868 t A p* 855. 



104 ENGLISH EDUCATION IF INDIA 

earnestness and efficiency should be made use of and fo&teiBd It laid sheas on tlie gieit advantage of piomotnic? 
in the native community a &puit of self-i ehunca, in opposition to the habit of depending on Govoinxnent toi the 
supply of local -wants , and it accordingly deolaied that if G-oveinment should accept the duty of placing elemen- 
tal y education rathm reach of the general population, those persons 01 olaflses -who requned moie than this miqht, 
as a geneial rule, be left to exezt themselves to procuio it, with or without the assistance of flovejnniont But m 
summonsing tbs objects of the Despatch of 1854, it made no loithei jaEeionco to the withfliawal of Q-oveinment 
trom any of its own institutions, or to then tiansf or to the management of local bodies On tho contiaiy, it stated, 
what had not befoie been state! so explicitly, that one of the oh]oct& of that Despatch was the uiacaso, wlieip 
necetsaiy, of the number of Government Colleges ani Schools, a declaration which \*as lopoatod and enforced in 
the Despatch oi the 23id Januaiy, 1664 Moieovei, while it has been often leitoiated as A genual punriple that 
Government should witlidiaw, wherever possible, torn the diioct maintenance and management of instilntirms ol 
the highei class, stiess has always been laid upon the need o caution m the piaclacal applic itmn of the punoiplo 
Thus, in the Despatch No 6, of tho Seraetaiy of State, dated 14th May 18G2, it is expioshl} haul tli.it ni any Midi 
withdrawal ' attention must necessaiily bo givan to local cu cum stances,' mid that t Hoi Majesty's fhn oiiiniont m fc 
unwilling that a Goycinmont School should be given up in any place wlieio tho inhabitants show u m.uLocI ili'Mic* 
that it should bo maintained, 01 whcio theio is a mamiost disinclination, on tho pait oi ttio puojilc, t<> scnil HHMT 
childion to tho pivato schools of tho neighbomhood ' And ogam in Despatch Nn <> of the Kond.ii> ol Ntii(, 
dated tho 26th May 1870, in reply to a proposal horn the Government ot India ' trj icdiu o tlio Govi'i mni'iit t*\|wn- 
dituie on Colleges m Bengal to an equality with tlio sum total of the endowments and Kos ol tlu i ('ollr^c'S/ilir* 
feai IB oxpiosscd lost thu pi op osal would tend c ontiioly to paialyso tho action oi high odiuatirm in Jicn^al,' iiml 
that ( o. lar^o and sudden reduction m the Qoveinmont epant will twid to the diminution, i.ii.hci than ilii* augmen- 
tation, oi pnvato liberality ' Thus, while the tirao has always boon looked loiwairt to when, in tin* wotds ol the 
Despatch of 1854, 'many of the ousting Government institutions, especially tho^e oi tholu^hoi onloi, itia} In* 
safely closed 02 iaansfeirod to the management oJ local bodies undei the conttnl nt, and aider! by, the HiiilfV ninif 
zecont Despatches havo lail particular emphasis on tho fuithor statom wit, 'itibfai /TOIU oar wish to clunk the 
flpread of education in tho slightest degree by the abandonment of a sinqlo scliotJ to piolmhlc dcwiy ' 1 

u The necessity of ieq[uirmg tlie wealthiei classes to contiibate to tlio cnhL of tlion (ilucatirm, and tlnih in 
Limitation of State ezpendi moko Qtyvernmont schools moio scU-Ruppoitini^ than bofoip, wis hhitn^ly 

ture on Higher Education msiflted on m 1861 (Despatch No 14, dated 8Ui Aj.nl, IHfU), in idoicncc in 

tho levy of foes in high schools, whon it was declared to bo impohsiblo, oven if dts liable, th.it flic Slate hlimild 
beoi the whole ovpenso of education m so densely populated a country a<) India A hinnlaf vn k w \VIH oxpK'ssr'd 
in 1B61 (Doflpatcii No 13, datod 25th Apul, 1801), when it was load down that, in rlotoi mining tlio (list iibu hum 
oi CYpeudituie botinoon dittereut clashes of education, tho IOROUTLOS oi tlio Btato hlinuhl, as IIVL an |msMl)li>, IH HII 
applied HB to asist thoso who could not be expected to liolp tliomsolvofe, and that tlio ndun rLisseH oi tlio ptnplr* 
should giadnally bo induced to pzovidc foi then own oduoatiou, fur example, by the pa^mont cjJ hubsiaiHial 
in highui schools At the same time tho intcients of tho nppei clashos and tlie iitj|K)it<uii o ol lii^hoi scljool 
m no way ignoiod or neglected , and in 18G3 (Despatch No 12, dated 24th Dcccraboi, IHM), when it w.ih (In IHI CM! 
tohavebociionogioatobiectof the Despatch ot 1854 to pi ovule foi the ovttmbjoii to tho ftenciul pnjmlutioti of 
those means of education which had thozotaforo been too exclusively oonfinod to tho uppn < Lihhch, it mu t\pchHly 
added that while Hoi Majesty's flovranmont dosuod that tho moans ol oljtaunnq on education rnlculafcd in fit 
thorn foi thoir highei position and leflponbibiliticA shouJd bo aiioidod to tho uppoi chiSHOH nl HuoiHy in IntJi^ ilir y 
deeuiod it equally moiunbont on them to tako suitablu moasmes toi ovtomlniR tlio bciiedta (if (>dmMtiuii tothoho 
clauses who wozo incapable of obtaining any education woithy of tho name, by tJiou own unaiilod cllniis 

"Thogiant-m-aid s^stom was, thoiofwe, designed to bo an auiilmiy to tho Guvrrinncnt h>Htum, foi tho 
TTltunataobjectaofthe G-rant- luithor oxtonsion oi highoi education by tho cit.iticm of <u<lod sclioolH, and 

in-did System at was anticipated, not only that mi evloMvdy anvennui'iii Hystcm ol odmu. 

taon would by thui means bo disconiinaed with tho development of a cononrnmt fl)Htciu ol ^utitH-Kh^ud, but tli.it 
in COUTH ol tuno many of tho existing Govoixmiout mstiimtions, ospeoially of tho hi^liur oi<U*i, might tlicniM'hcji 
b(? oloRed or transferred to local management In shoit, tho cpiaiit-iii-aid HyHU k m ww intended to fiupplomcn^ und 
u time partly to eupersedo, tho Qoveinment system of higher cducaticm It was, LOWOTOIS ftmnd to bo unnuikd, 
m ats ezuting form, to the supply of education lor the masses At tho name tutio tho eduction of tho TUUBMGS 
waa declared to be tha primary object towards which the efiwts of Qovenimont woro to bo diroiiod, nmi to the 
promotum and encouragement of which State aid m some form or other was to bo liberally duvotod tiooli a 

. Btport of the Indun Education Oommuucm [ 1882), pp 856* 856. 



PQI7ATJE JU-FOBT JOB 1DUOAITOH 



105 



declaration does not, of course, involve the State in the responsibility of providing all the fnnds required for maw 
education, under any method of aid that may be adopted "* 

The Indian Education Commission after giving an account of the growth of private enterprise in education 
General financial result of various pzovinoes, recorded the following observations on the general 1 
private effort financial result 

" Pulups nothing that has come to OTU notice in this historical review is more instructive than the rarying 
* \teiH to which the e\pendiluie on education in the difierent provinces is supplied fiom public funds and fiom 
pin ile somces, lespoctnely Tn public funds we include not only provincial grants derived fiom the whole taT- 
lM)im> community, but also ihnso local contiihutions which aie paid fiom local rates 01 municipal revenues In 
])i npin lion as UIBSO local conti ibuiions aie taken undin tho opeiation of law from local xcbomces, they tend, as has 
hi 'on sliimn abnve, to diminish tho means available ioi spontaneous effoit But as the application of local 
Utiids is io<unl>, and of mnincijkil fnnrK is paihdlly, dotoi mined by departmental influence, we have thioughout 
11ns Rfjmrt tiMtod Iwth those fnnds as public The coznpcui&rm which we wish to institute will bo evident fiom 
flic fffllnwiui? HUtotnent "f 



PHWIM E 


R\pi?nrlituie on otlu- 
Cdtiiui horn public 
f niitlb in 1881-82 


.EiTponnitui o on 
education fiom all 
sotu ces in 1881-32 


Porcontiu^D of 
oolanm 2 to 
column 'i 


1 


2 


,) 


4 




Rs 


Bh 




Minims 


13,97,418 


90,94,707 


IB 06 


Hi mi hay 


17,71,860 


23,69,01(1 


7470 


Bi'iiqal 


22,07,017 


5,50,205 


41 Si) 


NrirLli* Western PIOMIIPCH ami Omlh 


13,06,888 


38,55,572 


1 


Punjab , , 


10,95,321 


14,42,553 


7592 


(VuLial PiovmnMi 


8,16,817 


6,35,fi24 


8123 


Assam 


1,94,203 


3,01,548 


6440 


Oiorij 


20,29? 


82,737 


8025 


1 1 > ilwahad Aligned 1 hnti i c ts 


3,23,441 


3,51,296 


9207 



Tbo cnnrluHionH oJ tho Indian Education Coianuanon cm tlie subject of the growth of private enterprise in 
Summary of tho VLOWB of education wo tlma miminai<i2ed * 

the Hduoatum Oonumasion as " Our renew appeam to be sufficient to show that with free scope and 
to private efforts cordial encoaxaffemont, private effozt in education may everywhere pioduoe 

licucficnil uiid wiii^fiw'toiy reHnlte, Tn almost ovezy Viovinoo it haa done enough, in point of both quantity and 
i|iiiilifv* t" t' mvo li(H vitality and ith on]ucity for confltaaitly increasing iwofalness JBvon where lonst auooebsful, 
Hit* |lnii<il aiding pnva-to oflort to entabliMh inatiiutions fox necondaiy and evon higher inatruotion has by no 
inomih piovcd u faiJnio Mill private efToib han hitherto had important disadvantages almost everywhere to 
< imtcixl lupvinnt Tliu depfti'tmonUl wynlotu wan f in moHt oasen, first in the field , and ovon where private onteipnso 
IIAM |K*CII tiujHt finely eneouittgod, departmental insiitutaonfl, which were often onginally established atboad- 
(|narter fitutioim ov other lai'ge and popnloun oentreH, have continued to occupy the most favourable ground 
Mini haw loft to private onterprine tbo task of cultivating a poorer soil We do not oveilook the obliga- 
tion impOHcd on tho Department by the Despatch of 1854, of opening schools and colleges of its own, 
wh other <w inoclolK or us tho only means available, at first, of providing many localities with the facalitioe 
they requii^l for advanced jnstruction , and we are sensible of the great advantages which the people of India 
derived from such departmental institutions Still it is plain that private eftort has not yet been elacated 



* Boport of the TnduA 
14 



pp. >K6| 967- 



t J* pp 878, 879 



106 B5GUSH EDUOATI05 IS INDIA 

on soak a scale as to take the position in the general scheme of education which was contamiJlatud m Hie Ucsjiatrfi 
of 1854 Nor in tha cuonmstances is this auipiising Departmental institution* have absorbed a. liU<<D pan, 
of admittedly insufficient funds, BO that means have not bean available for developing pmate euloipiisi' tn 
'the full Such enteipiise has probably been checked in many cases by the manifest impossibility of its compel nm 
successfully with institutions backed by theiesonrces of the State, and in bomo Pioviucos the steady doM'lr/pmtut ol 
the departmental system has undoubtedly fostei od in the native community a disposition to inly mnro ami mini 
on Guvernmant foi th a whole pi o vision of the means ol advanced instruction In shint, o\peTionco has &lm\\n that 
private eitoit cannot attain the development or piodnce the le&alfcs anticipated in tho Despatch oi 3B54, miluss tin 
action of Ghmnnment is such as to lead the community at laiq-e to fed that most dupiiitmontal ins titui urns tin 
chiefly intended to supply a tempoiaiy want, and that the people must thorns clvos moio Lncfoly piinruk 1 flu 
means of advanced insk notion Thi? is no argument foi the hasty or prematoio icducUon ol tho duptifcinuil il 
system, but only foi cautious yet steadily piogiessne action mtbo duoctumoJ its tutiuli aval, a. Mib|i'iU 
however, which IB so important and yet so delicate that we pioposo to dovoto A section oJ tlio pii'SLnt cli.ipiei t<. 
its luitihoi conjbidoratiQn " *" 



CHAPTER XXL 

VIEWS OF THE INDIAN EDUCATION COMMISSION IN REGARD TO THE WITHDRAWAL OH 

THE STATE PROM HIGHER ENGLISH EDUCATION 

Tho Indian Education Commission doalt with this important subject m a eopaiiUo suction oL then* ii'poif, urin 
w thrt r fc S0me P* 68 ^ 06 * rom 1<J "^y DD l 110 ^ kino T ' ltk > bActvo 

higher edition * * m " pari:ia P <51 n[mo rf tho mm y finb) oct& ^ L1P discussed is twrrnipHhhwl wiil 

greater diMoulty 01 has elicited moio VJLIDUH Bh,idt4 of opinion, .ilikr* anioni; 

the witnesses wo bavo eiAtmn ad and within tho Commission itsBli, tluwi th.it o' tho withdi.iiW.bl n( flovcitiimnl 
from tho duoct support and management of educational insiatutions, OBpccull^ thnsn ui tho ln^lioi rnilci Tin* 
difficulty of the subject azisos ftom the gi oat numhei of opposing oonsirluiatioiiF., each ul wliu*Ii iiiusi luuc 
propei weight allowed it and be duly balanced against otbois Complete aquKmuiit ib not to bo <\|M<lo(l m .1 
mattei whei B so many weighty arguments on opposite hides have to Iro taken into oocDimt 

"Tho points to which we invited tho attention ol witnesses utm uuiidy tliLu "Wf iislfcd tlioui hiripLnii 

o ths admitted fact that the policy oi witlidt t iw-il iniluatt'd in tlic Dtspdh h <i 

the Commission I85J^ had asyot boon h<u dJy iiiiluiioil Wo .islcod ilioni <I!HO UUMJ view is In 

tho propiiety of foithoi and uioie dotiihivo *wfcnju in ilus cluoc'liiim Poi (In 

feet m inostion many leasons wero ossignod, the chief ot which wore tho succobs and prpulai ity <f I lin f }n\ rninit nl 
in6tatutwn9, which naturally made tho Department onuous to letam tlirm, ami tho ililbuiHy ol fiiulin^ siiit.iltlc 
avenue* able and willing to actept tho tiaiutu, witlir>iit detument to priueAtiim in tho IciiuliL) rrmriMiu*il \Vili 
rogaitl to futuio action two strongly opposod lines of atqumont aru lollnwcd On Uu one 1 hunt I, it \v,i* infill Mini 
tiui vuiy BUOOOSS of the advanced jiwtitntiona suppoitcd diioctl^ by thu Htftto is n ICIIMUI lm> inaiiki.unui^ Iliom , 
that tho proplo rogaid tho mamtenanoo of buoh inslatntioim an uri nnpmUut puii. ttl (.lit duty r Uu Htdii* NH 
iciJio&ontiiiq the comnnintty, which cannot justifiably b<* neglected ot slutted to otlior shuulikMii , tltai Llic i\mnph' 
of many civilised commniutiMi is in iavotu ol the mauaqoinout of adviinocil uiluiMtion by Uu Malt* , l\\*\l Ihih duly 
is now e-unod ont in Iiicba at a cost which buaia m uiMijnihoantpi'opuitioii to tlio wlmle ( | \pf k iLdiLnro upon 
and atoll mwo insignificant ^hcn oompaiod with ihe ^holoi-oflouicosof tho Htato , 1h.il. .M <t riilo tiioir* 
to whom such institutions con be safely fainifiloirod , tlut tlio oixlw ol witluliawalmiiht lu Irom 
oven admitting that the tune is come or is approacluufl whon Qovwrnncat may withdraw 
secondary schools, the time for its wiihdiawal from colleges w still dJhUiit, w iiia^ uovcr iwtwo , ilini no K'h 
feut these of tie State aro adequate to procmra a steady supply ol men fit to toach in tho hiffliowt iiihiitutionH , uiul 
that any withdrawal of the State torn higher education would npcoabwily thi-ow it into Iho lumilH of MihHiemary 
bodies, tho oliiof advooatos of a dhaugo which would cause distant and apptohoiuuon m thcs groat auflfl ot Iho nfttivo 
On the other hand, it was urged that i evar education u to be adoquatu, it must bo natiojuil in ft wulur 
* Bspovft of tiui Indun Hduottion OomniMaon (1688), pp 279, 180. 



WrTHDBlWAL 0V TED ST1TB PROH HIGH BDTTOUION 107 

flange than IB implied in mere State management, and must be managed in a great measure by the people themselves, 
that the very success of Government institutions is itself a bar and a discouragement to that local combination and 
self-reliance which it is the primary object of the grant-in-aid system to encourage , that as a matter of course the 
people will not exert themselves to supply their educational wants so long as it is understood that Government is 
ready to undeitake the task, that, therefore, the greatest stimulus which Government con give to pnvate effort is 
to put on ond to airangements which make it needless , that there is some analogy between the action of Government 
in the matter of education and in the matter of trade, because though Government Ban do moie than any one 
iiadei it cannot do so much as all, and yet it discouiages oil, for none can compete with Govennment, that 
Government action thus i appeases fiee competition and creates a monopoly in]uiious to the public mteiest, 
that the absence of bodies willing to manage higher institutions is rathei the effect than the cause of the 
unwillingness of the Department to withdiaw torn the diieot provision of the means of education , that clohini$ 
or transferring Government institutions of the higher ordei would not icsult in any diminution of the moans of 
highoi education, bat would provide fresh funds for its extension in backward Distiicta, so that education would 
soon b3 far moie widely diffused than at pesent , and lastly, that if the policy of withdrawal ba accepted, it can 
Lo loathly guazdod by pi o visions that will bai its application to any Missionary agency, and that this, policy will, 
on tho contrary, BO devolope native effort as to make it in the long inn vastly superior to all Missionary agencies 
combined 

" The question how far the withdiawal of the State from the direct provision of moans for higher education 

would throw such education into tho hands of Missionary bodies, held the 

Bearing of thepolioy of with- foremost place m all the evidence beaiiuff on the topic of withdrawal 

drawal on Missionary* Bdiioa* *, * * -** r^ n * 

* Prominent officers of the Department and many native gentlemen aiguod 

strongly against any withdrawal, on the giound that it must practically 

hand over highoi education to Mi&bionaiies As a zule the missionary witnesses themselves, while generally 
advocating tho policy of withdiawal, expressed quite the contiary opinion, stating that thoy neithei expected 
uoi denuod that any powex over education given up by the Department should pass into their hands In a 
oountiy with such vaiiod needs as India, we should deprecate any measuio which would throw excessive 
influence over higher education into the hands of any single agency, and particularly into the hands of an 
agency which, however benevolent and earnest, cannot on all points be in sympathy with the mass of the 
community But tho fear which some departmental officers and some native gentlemen m all piovinces 
have expzessod so strongly, appears to most of us to attach too little weight to the following considerations No 
doubt if all Government Colleges and high schools were to be suddenly closed, few, except missionary bodies, and 
in all probability extremely few of them, would be strongly enough to stop at once into the gap But any such 
revolutionary measure would bo wholly opposed to the cautious policy prescribed in all tho Despatches There IA 
no joaaon why a wise and cautious policy of withdrawal cm behalf of local managers should favour missionary 
more than other forms of private effort It might, on the contrary, have the effect of encouraging and stimulat- 
ing native effort in its competition with missionary agency " * 

" At the same time we think it well to put on record our unanimous opinion that withdrawal of direct depart- 

mental agency should not take place in favour of missionary bodies, and that 

Withdrawal in favottt of depairtmental institutions of the higher order should not be transfoired to 
MisfliOBBXieo " missionary management In expressing this view, we are merely re-echoing 

what is implied in the Resolution appointing the Commission , siuoe it is ' to bodies of native gentlemen 
who will undertake to manage them satisfactorily as aided institutions, 1 that Government in that Resolution 
otproHfles its willingness 'to hand over any of its own colleges or schools in suitable cases ' It is not impossible 
that tlio restriction thus imposed upon the pohoy of transfer or withdrawal, may be represented as opposed to 
etjict neutrality, which should altogether set aside the question whether a school or a body of managers inculcates 
any icliffiOttB fcwielB or not Bat it w so manifestly desriable to keep the whole of the future developments of 
private ottort iu education iee from difficulties connected with religion, that the course which we advise seems 
Lo us to bo agreeable to the spirit, if not to the letter, of the strictest doctrine of neutrality 

l la the point oi now in which we are at present considering the question, missionary institutions hold an 

intermediate position between those managed by the depaitment and those 

Position of Missionary en- ^^^4 ^ the people for themselves On the one hand, they are the 
terpme in education. ^^ rf pnyftte ^^ w ^ ^ ^^ ft|J ^ not b trrotty local , nor 

will encouragement to them directly foster those habrts of self-reliance oad combination for purposes of public 
utility which it IB one of the objects of the grant-m-ad system to devetope Missionary mstatutiona may serve 
Beporb of the Info** Education Oommuwon (1882), pp 4*1-438 



BtfQLISH THTOdATION IN IHDIA 

the great purpose of showing what private cffbit can accomplish, and time of inducing 1 othor agencies to come 
iorwBrd They should bo allowed to follow their own independent course under the gonexal supervision oi tho 
State, and BO long as there aie room and nocd for evcay variety of agency in the hold of education, they whould 
receive all the encouragement anil aid that piivato eftoit can legitimately claim But it must not he forgotten 
that the private effort which it is mainly intended to evoke IB that of the people themselves Natives ol India, mast 
constitute the most impoiUnt of all agencies if educational moans aio ovei to bo co-oxtonsi\o with educational 
wants Other agenoie& may hold a piommont placo for a time, and may always find some place in a Bjstem in 
which gieat variety IB on evoiy giound definable But the highoi eduoatirm of the countiy will not bo on a 
basis thai, can be regarded OB permanent 01 &af e, noi will it IBCOIVO the -wide extension that u needed, until the* 
laigei p-ut oi it at all events IH provided and managed by the people oi tho couutiy Joi thdmsolrm 

"With such wide dittorenoes ditfoioncos amounting to a complete conflict of opinion amoii" Mitiiesrtes, it 
. ^ could not be expected that ontn o ai;i pomout could bo easily aa nvurt at in A bmly 

Tiiimtifl of ftTiTifipiTi g VlO^^B i J 

within the Commission. so gB a sn l1 Villlod fumposifaon as tho Oommishioii U IH impm t.mfl v 

howevoi, to indicate tho limits within winch the di (tin cures in nui O\MI vn ns 

were all aloug contuod Thoy aio m effect tho limitfl indicated m iho Despatch ol 1851. That l)is|M,f t li, ,js uo 
Iwv o aheady pointed out, looks Uu wai d bo tho tmio when ' many ol the custnifi Qovoi nmpni institutions, spec mil y 
those of tlio highei oidor, may bo safely closed 01 tiansleuod to tho management of local bodios umlei the umhol 
ol, anil iu<bi by, tho Htatu ' This cleaily implies that, thongli indivuluJ inpitilu Linns miilit lon^ UMjunc ID lio 
HKunUmcd duuutly by tho Htato, the hope was oiil.L>it.uiiod tba,t ,i timo wimld c(mo -\vlini niiy qi?miitl hyst(>iu ol 
cduLAtiou ontnply pTOvidcd by Q-ovoi iimont hhoulcl lu> no IOIICJPJ norcss.ny A it-suit trwanlh whnli homo |notuss 
bos boon mMlo m many Provinces On tho otlioi hand, tho Mint* Ues[utc li I i}s ilown as c Ic nl> (luit. flu* iiioqic'st 
oi ocluc ition is not to be chockud by the withtb^wal \vlti cli il duct th Lo bo ki'pt in viu\v, and that nut i sintilc M hool 
is to bo ab-iTubned to pobablo decay Subboquont Umiutclios, M -we lia\o shown HI HcHiou L ni Minpii^ nit 
Ohaptei, ha,>o hpocially emphasised aud in Komo it'Hpcots oxtcndi-il ihis luuiiaiinn nf tin- pnlic) oi \\illidi ,i \\.il 
Foi instance, m paiagiaphs 4-5 ,md 43 of tho Despatch of 1869, while it is imiuiLcil that Iho c\isiinif 
collogos ai o on tho whole in a satislat?toiy atato, and whoio doiccts p\ist am to he plurnil on ,v Iii4ic>i limiiiiff, 
is laid on tlie Bubfttitution ol piivato foi Groveinmcnt a*cucy in tlu iibuui^raiPiiL ufl hi*umiliir} MhuolH only a. 
wluch it was hopod would eventnally bo uuivoisal To all Mich limitation* we It'll, hound 1o ^i\o 
woiqht, not loss because they havo boon lanl rlown by tho highest antlionty 1,h.ui because w leijiurli'rl (hem 
nfl -wise and nofht Tho leanona in, favoui ot action lending iiiwiudq thu withdrawal oi the SUli* In mi 
dn ret mtiaiagpinoiit appealed to us oonolnsivo, while tho ncocl ol thp qioatost cant urn if withihaHal IH uol, in hi 
altogether piomatuio, and llieiofoio widely mjmioufl, appouorl equally imlispuiiihli* Oui (lifhculfy Iny in ( o- 
OTdiuatm^ the two claasefl ol oppobing confeidoiatiouH fio as to dutoimuu the pi ripen paid loi piesent aiiimi II mjy 
bo well to point out what aie tho opposing considerations to which must impiutauon should bo altac hod in aiming 
at a dcju&ion on this roattoi )J * 

Tho Roport of the Education Commission thrn prorercln lo (!IHLUHH the maiu HiiihiihTatums lot uutj npamsb 

Considerations for and ^^ l )oll F ol tllc wiUidiawul ot Uio Ht4iio liom lu^lui eiliuaiion Tho 

against the policy of with- mam heads of the cntiHiilemtionH in favom ol withcliuwal uie M,ti-il to he, 

d3fawal (1) Saving to public J'amls, (2) Awmlulify (tf improvement, m thn Msti|i H 

of private oftort, (8) Need of vanoty in the typo of education , and ( J.) Mni-oumsjernent io n'litfimu, insti>ui< 

tion Tlio main consadoratinnH opposed to tho withihawal wt'io enumiMuti'd to be, (1) Tin- rlan^ei <>l alalso 

impiosbion boing made on tho pnbhc miml to tho etfoot that (luvmiimeni no lontroi fcnOs ati) intetcsfr m iho 

spioiwl of bboial education, (a) Difficulty of muntuiuiiiff Oalle/jfcs ol thu Indent type hy aiahve ilfnri, (:*) 

[nflnmoc o Oovornmont InMituiioiw in koopnip; DJ> the htdndaul oi education , and (i) The slaii* ol jhipulivHtHl- 

ing agiwnHt tho withdiawal ot tho Htato hom higher t-daiiation Ifnviiifr (!IHI*UHWI| these vai IOIIM (iiiiHulenitii)iiH t tint 

general conclusionFi at which tlio Gommuuuon amvi3il arc thus expressed 

"Our OiBoudHionB Inought out clearly the iaoi tlmt, whiluuimouH to ran>uni|p imy nutumhvnd iinfmmi 
*n n* transfer of institutions fiom depai trarntal to pnv*i<* uuuia^niont, wo arv mtt 
pr0paTOd ^ a ^ to adopt any form oi expimiim that may h. rnnstrn^l 
into a domaad lor tho immediate or geueral wilhilinwal of thu HUti ln>tn tho 



piovibion of the meauB of high education We aro convinced that whib tmnhfyj of mnnafccmnrit iindur thu lirnt- 
tationa stated u eminently doauablo, it is only lay slow and oautioiw Jbtopn that il can ovor Iw really uUuinud Wo 
m oonvuwod that thi wisest pokey is to oonaidor each case on its own nuftita, and whunovw u body of nutivo 

* Biporb of th Indian Education OonmiuiDA (1889), pp, 403-1C&. 



PRINCIPLES OP WITHDRAWAL JEOM HIGH IDITOATIOff 109 

gentlemen aio willing to undertake the management of a College or secondary school, to hold oat to them every 
inducement and encouiagement, provided there is a reasonable prospect that the oauso of education will not suffer 
horn tho tiansfoi of mann^emont The Department should cordially welcome every offer of the kind, and should 
accept it iJ it can bo iccppturi without real losa to the community , hut while encouraging all such offers, its attitude 
dhould bp not th.ifi ot withdrawing tiom a chaige found to be buidensome, and of to ansf wring the burden to othei 
nli L in hi (is, ImtoJ- tuiifoiJUH* a boon on those worthy of oonfidenca and of inviting voluntary associations to oo- 
DpcMiUi vith Citm'iuiacnt in tlio wink and lesponsibilities of national education We have ceitamly no detue to 
if iimmu"irl r*nv niULMiies that will h*ic tho effect of checking the spioad of continuous impiovement of higher 
wliii.il inn On tlio roiitituy, &t H only in the confidence that the withdiawalof the Depaitment fiom diiect 
iiMiiuiciiKMiiiiiiii}, in many iiihldmos, IIP found to seive tho best mtmestq of education, by connecting luoal bodies 
moitM loM'K Aith thosp institution^, and by inducing and enabling them, in com se of time, to r awe and expend 
mint iimiu't limpij\at some LH foi then Maintenance and to establish othoi institutions of the same kind, that 
the iollmvmn ItuuommrniljitiDii? Ate mack \Vo theioioic looommend, in iho fiibt place, that \n oidei to evcle and 
litdil in-fipcnitton in fhr tian^Ji't fw|j/iivz/< nianaqprnntt uf (loienwuxnt \n<>tt,t\\twn\ /or colleqiate ot secondly 
u, nitt at s/jff //// lilwwl mtti bf ulit'tnl foi a lenn of yprt/s, whmvvft flC6flssa/y, to any local body wtfbng to 
* Iht tHiiuurjt mtnt uf tiinf*nfh n^tifnhini \i*ukt wlprjuatt' ijiutiatiliin of pnwtnitnce and efficwncy 
"This Rccnmiiu'iiiUlion, \\Lnh is of touiso subjott to poiUin exceptions to bo heioaftra statod, seourod oui 

iiiuunmoiis <i.|ipio\.il .uifliiitiy bi^ uudoihtood to show tho extant to which wo 
we amoo<lin(U'siim<jto beo stups takpntf)wwck Lho subsLitution ol puvate 
for rlopiitmi'nUl iiiiiiu^i'inunt It unplios that wo ieg<ud the ioim of nianago- 
iiM-iil of any inslitiilinn wlin'li HIP c k mnnu)n quoil ivijuues to lo kept up, as a mitUoi subotdinaie to the efficiency 
ol hiii li niiiiuii^nimit llnd il implies .ilso tlut wlien pciitutiiDnro and oihcieiiLy aio .wlcqudtoly Becuiod, wo iBgard 
an uirthliiiiiniL (li.il is piovult-d by tho pcoplo Joi theuisrUos (is giuatly pteierablo to one that it. provided by official 
.ii>eiir'v WV think it well that this piuJcmmD slnmld bo nicukod by Hpocual onioiuat<Dinont being held out to thoso 
who an* willini; fi<> inikc ovoi tho iiiiLiMgoiucnt oi lUfttitntiniiH now in tho luuiris ul tho Doputinont In faome cases 
wlicn nucc it is unilcisiiKxl that, tho Uopai tuintii .mtl tho EJUt arc coixlially i^vowablo to tho tiaaibior 
nuihs iln k milmaiy itiles lot giants-m-*iid may supply all the ovconi jgoment that IB needed 3n otboi coaos 
tho oiilinuiy iiiU 1 ol w<l may cmno to bc k hafhciont m com HO ol iiiiin, as local ie&umooH bocozno grodtoi* Bat it is 
Hint i> ilillicult if\ uumUm in full cffiuiciicy an institution, that has long Lvl State roNouroofl to support it thun one 
which luui IM'OII tfiadiully duvelojied in tho ha-iids oj: uuinagorn, on whom then cu'cumntanctts have always onlorced 
oconuni} This (hJIiuulty shotild not. bo <tllowuil to bo a huifliajioo to tho tiauHfox Evon \i tlio oihoient mam- 
icnanto of ilu* institution should require* tho bobtowJ for a toim of yeai'S o a giant nfl Lu^o as the piosont net 
out h y of tlu, KUix* and ovim il thoro bo thus tea a oontadoiablo ponod no actual baying to public fnuds, tho transfer 
hlumlil ntill bi> marie nn other i^ixmndH 

'* Wo hupo that tho icHalt oi thus onoomaging latlior than fororaff tho ohange dosnod by Government will 

be t)ut in duo time* and without the smallest pcimanEmt m]nry to high 

Expected result of withdrawal. odacatjon| dopai tmoutal institutions will be mainly tianafoiied to private 
maiiiufcmont, thai tho function of tho State will bu Utgoly oonhuad to aid, suporvuion, and control , and that high 
education will becomo moio widely oxtondod, more vaned m ohaiactoi, and mojo economical than it is at present 
ThiH end Kliould bo kopt steadily in view, and tho extent to which the Dopaitmont is able to work towards it 
Hhnuld bo n'KUiiU'd an AIL irapoitant olomont in judging of its suocoss Oat the attempt to reach thia end proma- 
liUi'dy, that IH, Mow at lowt tho moro thoughtlul momboifl o> tho native community are pi opaiod coidiaDy to 
nppiuvc it, wnnld coitamly du rnoio to rotaid than to hasten its aooomplmhrnont " * 

Ah giving oflaot to tlioBO VIOWB, tho Oomminsion macLo certain rocsommondafcions as to the general pimoaples 
Gonoxal pnnwples afl to ^ h ^ &<>*& togulato tho transfei ol college* faom the Stato to local pnvute 
traiidfor of State Colleges to management Tho rocommcuOaiions aro thus woided 
private management That m dealing with tho question of the withdrawal of Government 

Irom tbo managomunt of existing colleges, these colleges bo togardod aa divided into three classes, VM 

(1) Tliouofiomwhiohitiflpremabure ior Government to consider the propriety of withdrawal, on the 

ground Uiat they are, and will long oontmoo to be, the institutions on which the higher education of 
the country mainly depends 

(2) Tho$e that might be tranaferred with advantage, as a measure promising useful political results to 

bodies of native gentlemen, provided the new managers give satisfactory guarantees that the college 

* Bepovfc of the I&tan Bdnafttofln Oonnusntm (1688), pp 464-406 



i i 



110 ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA 

will be maintained (i) peimanently, [u) m full efficiency, (m) in such a way as to make it a rl^ cute 
for all the wants of the locality 

(3) Those which have been shown to be unsuccessful or of which thp cost IB out at proportion to tin 

utility, and fiom which Government might advantageously withdiaw even with losn btuiigtut 

guaiantees foi peimanent offiaancy Such collegos should be closed if, <Jtei duo notice, no Inuil 

body be feinted to oairy them on with such a giaut-m-aid as the rules pio\ido " x 

While making theso leoommendations, the Education Oommiabion took core to make the following i 



Views of the CommiBBion as 

to its recommendations re- " The maintenance of the chief Gtoveinment colleges appealed to <L 

gaiding transfer of Colleges to majority of ns to be still indispensablB We do not think that a body ol nati\ a 

private management managers is bkely to ariao foi a confiidoiable time, to whom huch colleges can, 

he entrusted without dangoi to their efficiency, and dazigu accmdmgly of lasting mjuiy to tlio hiqhci education ofr 
tho whole Fiavmco Private management, like all othot agencies, must be trained, h} long and iauly ftuooL'ssiul 
disdiaige of lowei duties, boCoioit can be wisely entnuatod with duties that are lug hoi auilmmo dilhuult It is tine 
that we have lecomm ended that libeial aid bo oiieiod to any local body willing to uncle i toko tlio inauaqpTmiit ai 
any Government College, undci adequate gnaiantocs of permanence and efficiency , bat in tho Ciiso ol Iho lo,nlm^ 
Government Colleges ol the difleient Provinces, it is open to question whothct iiuy boil} ol natuc gcmf.lcuicu i an 
fuzmsh at pieseut such guaiantees as bhould be hold sumcioiit There is, howovui, .uiuiliei clash of il(>)aM incut.il 
colleges m BomePionnceft, which it is by no means imp obable that localolloztm.iy aduijikttcly pi ovule loi,anil wliu h 
it is highly dosuablo to ti'ansfer to local management whauovoi tins can bo donu wUhout uijni y tn uihu<iLnm in 
Guch cadbcs oui geneial Rocommendation will at once appl) , and any icasonablo oiuoiint cil aiil slumlil ))t k ollci i d tli.it 
may bo found necessary to induce native gentlemen to andoitiiku the nuuutoiuTn o ol hnoh Lolk^ts ns wo an now 
con&ideimg There IB still a thud class of colleges in the Pi OTIU LOB oJ: Mad L oft and Bonsai In homo rahos that 
como under this third class, the Department, *hen it established its collogo, hcomb to luivo lost higlii oi ilio pi nu i- 
ple that Governmont Institutions are not to bo sot up in places wheio aided local olio it can supply all jcal nliuit- 
tionaJ wants In othez oasos, eoicurngtanoes have so changed &IHOB the col logo was ostahlihhed, iJial its nmtiniiuticsc 
has coasod to have any othei than a puioly local impoitonce J pnvatc bodies uio leaily to mulriiakc tlj< 
management of any college included in thu thud class, aid bhould bo offered at tlio rate that may lit lived lor 
colleges generally m the giant-m-aid inlos, alter they havo undergone tlio lovihimi tli.it li.w, .Uioady boon rotiirn- 
mondod If such aid doe? not induce any local body to maintain any college* belonging to Lhih cJahM, iL may IHI 
held as sufficient pi oof that the college may be safely closed "f 

"With these piinciplos in VIQW, the Gomnu&sion piocoodod to cnftke ocitam sprcific loroinmoiKlvtitmH in 
Expectations of the Commas- "ff 3 * 4 to s wa colleges in Madias, Bombay, anil JJoujjal, anil ^nidudod 

aion as to transfer of Colleges their observations on the genoi-al subject of with<liaw.il ol HIP Ktato tiuin 

to bodiea of native gentlemen fa^ oduoation in tho following woi rls 

"We venture to hope that tho lino of action we have m&ikod out in the abuvo RornmninirliLtioiiK will tosnH, 
not all at once yet with no longoi interval than is always required for dianqos linitlnl ol lui^i* losults, in |>ulli( 
sentiment, taking a dueotion which will lead to tho giadual, and byandby to tlio iapul f tuns lot to hod ION ol 
gentieinon of tho institutions now maintained by Government On condition that tlio LmiiHior bo thus 
with the approval and active co-operation of those who havo tho woltai* of thru r onnti y most ai IK ai 1., wo aio <cm- 
vmcod that tho withdiawal, in large measure, of departmental mana^umnnt, iliou^li not of do]),ulnu k nLtl 
will result in a wido eTtonmon of collegiate and seoondiuy education, in placing it on a In m and M 
and in making it more vanod in chaiaotet, and thacioro mmo adapted to all thi wunlfl ol ilio coimmim! y "J; 

Tlioso luoommundations oi tho Oomnussion woie oonwdwedby the Uovornineut of India in a, 
/ Beoommendations of the N" ^ft> d*od 23id October, 1884, in which tho pi opusah oi Uio <Wuuhhion, 

Commifl8ion as to nigh ednoa- so far as they umooi n advanced education, wote ftumiiui ixod (in pat lurrauh JIO) 

tion summarized M ^ & f n owjng w<ntds _ 

" That for all kinds of such oduoation pnvato atfort should in fataro Lo incvi'asniftly and mamly n IKK! nn f 

and that avory foxra ol pnvato effort should be systematically oncouingod in nnoli WII>H *H iheno 

(a) By clearly showing that, whilst orating State mstitutaoiw of tlio hifthor oitlor hhoul<l liu mainimnod ui 
complete efficiency, wliorevor thoy are necessary, tho impi-ovoTiiont ami oUonbioii ol Lrujlitutarmt 
cinder pnvate manager& will be the principal oaro of tlie JDopartxaont 

Beport of tie Indian Bdnoataon Oommwum (1882j, p. 468 aUo p, 478 
t J&., pp. 48$, 469 tl^p.470 



U03U.L TttAttlNG IK OOLTEGH 111 

(1) By leaving private managers free to develop their institutions in any way consiHtaut with efficiency, 
and the pi ot a eta on of neighbouimg institutions fiom unfair competition 

(c) By insisting on all institutions, maintained fiom public funds aaid undei official management, lefizunmg 
horn, undue competition with conasponding aided schools, by suoh means as chaigmg lotvei 

(rZ) By lib Dial rates of aid, so long as aid is needed 

(e) By co-opoiatiou in the giadual laising of fees, so that las* and loss aid may be lequned , and 

(/) By looming the tiansfoi to bodies of native ganthmen of all advanced institutions maintained 

faom public funds, which can bo so tiansfoiied without injuiy to education generally " 

Such being tlia snmmaiy of the lecommeniations o the Oommission, tho Government of India, in the 
Decision of Government as abovementioned Resolution, lecoidocl the following passage, which is impoitant 
to policy of withdrawal from as indicating the final decision of Gore., nmont in logaacl to the policy ot the 
higa education withdiawal of tha State fiom advanced education 

" The Goveinment nf India accepts tha cautious and well-consideiod pioposals of tho Commission ou the 
Mib]ict of tho giadual withdi awal of Gbvainment fiom the ohaige ot institutions of a high ordei, and especially 
iiom colleges Those iccommondations aie quite in acooidonoe with the pokcj of Govcinmant, as explained in 
ptiup*pk 10 of the Resolution appointing the Oommission * k * * ' It is left to tho Local Q-ovein- 
inunts to give oihjot to tho leoommendations on this sub]act, gradually, and as local on cunistances pel mil It is, 
as li.ts boon lepoatodly declared, in no degree the wish of the Government of India to duaromage high education 
in any way whatavoi On the oontiaiy it believes it to bo one of its most impoitant duties to spiead and iosteT 
il What it specially, howovei, dosuos, is to sacuie assistance to the limited funds of tho State by calling foith 
ovuiy available pi ivate agency in connection with every bi anoh of public msti action It is in connection with 
hii>h Lducatjoii, and inviowofthe duoot pacuiuary advantages which it holds out to those who follow it, that 
iliu Uuvoinmont thinks it can most piopeily insist on tha fullest development of tho pimciple of self help " 



CHAPTER XXIL 

MORAL TRAINING AND RELIGIOUS TEACHING IN COLLEGES VIEWS OP THE INDIAN 

EDUCATION COMMISSION MR KASHINATH TRIMBUK TELANG'S DISSENTIENT 

MINUTE VIEWS OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND THE DECISION OF 

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA UPON THE SUBJECT 



(loalmq; with statistics and numeious details connected with Collegiate Education, tlie Education 
Views of the Commission aa Commission also consuleiad eomo impoitant inattoib of pimaple lelating tci 
to moral and religious instruo- tho natuie of ilie education itself Among these subjects their views as to 
tion moial tiaming and zebgious teaching in colleges donerve special attoniiou, ah 

jolatinpf to points of poimanont interest to tho \volUwisheis of High English Education in India The viowft of the 
Ocunuushion may bo qauturl m then own woidb 

" The ftnbjoct ui moral ttadniugm colloges is leplote with djffioultios diffi^ultios, howovat 1 , that are mainly 

piactioal Foi there ia no diftercnoe of opinion oh to moial training being as 
necessaxy afl mtolloeiual or physical training, and no difibont from the pi maple 

that a Hyrtliim in winch moral training was wholly neglected would be unworthy of the name of education Noi, 
again, is ihiTO nuy diUovonoo of opinion as to tho moial value of the love of law and order, of the respect foi supenorb, 
of tho obocbenco, rogularity, and attention to duty which evozy well-conducted college is calculated to promote 
All thoHO have, by the nearly universal consent of tho witnesses, done a great deal to ebvate the moial tone and 
imptovo tho duly piaotico of tha great bulk of those who have been trained in the colleges of India The- 
dog) GO an which diffeiont colleges have ezeited a moral influence of this kmd is probably as various aa the degree ' 
of Rucoess that has attended the intellectual training given, in them, and has doubtless been different in all 
oollogofl at diflorent Umea, depending as it does so largely on the oharootei and personal inflaenoo of the Principal 
and Piofeasora, who nay JCorm the atafi afc any given period So far, all the witnesses, and probably all intelligent 
men, are substantially agreed, Difficulties being when the queaiaon u raia&d whether good can be done by 



BELIGIOUS nrflTRUOTION IN DOLLHOH0 H3 

The remedy proposed u that Government should employ teachers of all prevalent foims of lohgion to give 
mstiuotioninits alleges, or B honld at least, give Baoh teachers admission to its colleges if than seivices are 
picmdod by outside bodies We aie unable to lecommend the adoption of any plan of this kind Howavei 
ithj the toolings that nndeilio such a pi op osal, we arc satisfied that no such scheme can be i educed to 
m tho piesontstauoi Indian Society The fiystam of grant B -in-aad was in part designed to meet the 
complained of, and those *ho legiot the absence of lohgious teaching fiom Goveuunent Collars aia at 
hbuty to set up collages, o mil ig full ioco fi mtion to the lebgions pimapleg they prefer In doing this, they should 
bomostlibeiall> helped, and it may he worth while to point out that the successful establishment of a college 
ui*hi[Ji m> Juim oi uluiion is mculcatcil, *ould not lose its eftect even though the Government College in whioh 
luhiiioii is not t.nulit slionlil continue to bo maintained bosido it Students cannot bo kopt apait, and cannot but 
allrct erne diiothei Aiw influence,, ^liotboi good 01 bad, that is fait among the students in ono college spreads 
i-ipnll) to those oi auotlu'i that is now it Tlmb, those *lio legmd any particulai torn of lehgious teaching as a 
oiiod tiling m,vy bosuicihat liy establishing a coll i n>o m which such toaohing is impai ted, they aie influencing 
nut onl> ilu sludLMits iliou n\\ii collide tn.i} nttiact, but the students in Goveinment Oollegos afl wall " 

fn anotlui p.ufc oJ tliui flepoit tho Kduuition Commis&ion IIAVO mnde the following obsoivatious in iegaid 
Boligaous Inslruction in t0 * llC l JOSSllnllilos ot * lm * eaconiaqomout to lebgious instiaction 
Aided Institutions "Aqajn, tlincis Uie mipoitant (juobtion of seem ing a lahgious olament 

in Highci Edmatiun, 01 at all ovonts of thoio being no piactical hmdianoe 

U tlin pit'wiifi of hnch an olomont when iho pioplu erf tho coimtiy ivish foi it The evidence wo have 
liiktii hbo\\h tlitii ni somo PuivmrL'S tbiiio iw a doopl> -soatod anil widely-sp cud dosiio that cultuio and ichgion 
hliould unb lu di vint oil, and that tins rlesuo is sbaicd by home iqncsniUtivus of nativo thought in evoiy 
rimnipc hi (iiivoininpnt I iihtitntiom this dchiio ruunot bo ^i&tifiod Tlio dcclaiod ncutiality of the State 
IniVmk ith comic elms the mstituiioiui duoctly m,uutamod by it witli any ono foim of faith, and the othai 
a I tit native 1 ui t-ivmg pqual facihtius in naoli inhtitutiuns foi tha inculcation ol all foims of faith involves 
piactn ,il difllc ulties mlutli wo bolievo to bo uifiupoi ablo Tn Obaptei VI wo ha\e &hown that wo aie not insensible 
to tlu* hiL^li valno ni iho moial diHiiphnu and Oi.unplo which Govomment Institutions ozo able to aifoid, but we 
liuii'dlsri shown that nvo logittcl Mimotlnng bcyonrl tbib as dosiiablo foi tha foimation of charactci and the 
awakfnin^ ol thought To onouuia^o tbo (jfetabbhlimimt o institutions of widely difleiont typet, in which may 
be moulcatpd hiit'h loinih oJ faith afi vniious floctionh of tho community may accept, whether sido by &jdo with, 
or in hiir( k uhM(in to, tiimuumout luhtitutaous, is one inodo in which this difficulty can bo piaotically solved, though 
it is , i uinrlc* not lioo Jioin objuctions and oven dangers of its own It is cloai that whatever other eifoi'ts in 
ilns clno(tion may bo marto, ftucli onooui'ngQinont would bo avoided in a high dogiea by the ^ithdiawal of 
(li)voniiiiLnt InstitiitiouH, when tlio pooplo piolossod tbou dosiio and manibhtoi then ability to establish an 
institution in \\lnc'h special rt'ligions infttitiotiou could bogivon It is true that a Q-oyeinmeut 01 other secular 
instituiiimi moots, IHINVOVOV incompletuly, tho educational wants of all religious soots in any locality, and thus 
it PHMPI tot tlium to combine 01 educational pmposofl, while a denominational oollego inns somo iiak of 
boncfits ho a paiticular soction oE tho community, and thus, of deepening tho lineu of difterenco altoaly 
Htill Uus IH a Holution. oi tho dimculty sugftobtod by tho Dobpatoh of 1854, which expresse* the hope 
that * Institutions condiwtod by all donominaiaoiis of OhiiAtians, HmdoB, Mahomodanft, Paisis, Sikhs, Buddhists, 
Jains, or any other i uli#ious pn sunnionH, may bo affiliated to the Universities, if they aio found to aJfozd the requisite 
coin HP oi study, and can bo clopradod upon for the coitiucatos of conduct which will be laquuod' Apaatfiom 
the Hli)ic k tly nioml 01*1 obgiouh ahpuct of this question, we may point out that tho existence of institutions of the 
various rlashc* tlnift rolou orl to, will contribute to tho intellectual development of tho Indian Community, by arousing 
eTiquiiy on tlio highost t homos of human thought, and thus helping to moot what is probably the gieatoat 
daugci of all higher education m India at present tie too exclusive attention to the meie passing of examin- 
ations and to tbo personal advantagon to bo dazivod theiQJxom "f 

Uolding huch viowa aa to religious instruction, the Oonunissiou, in paragraph 338 made, tnto aba, the 

following reoommondations upon the sublet of moral teaching 

BeoommendAtion as to a (gj TJutanati*^fainafotopi<pM6 a moral text-book, "based upon the 
JfexMJook tor moral matron f^^^^^ j^^^ O f ntoal nhgtan, such OB may be taught tn all Qov*r- 

ment and non-Government Colleges 

u (9) Thai the Principal or one of the PIO/OHW*, in each Government and Aided College, dekv&t to each of the 
OoUege Obuw, in every Bwion, a series of lectoma on the duke* of a man and a otfuten " f 

Bqparfeof tho Indww Bdw^to Oommi*non (1882) , pp 
15 



Ill ENGLISH HDTJOATJON IN INDIA. 

These recommendations evoked a strong and able dugout from ODD of the moat distinguished uatne zncnihew 

Mr Telang's dissentient Mi- rf ttB C'o^n^swn, the late Mr Kaahinath Tiimbuk Tolang, GIB, \\nus<* 

nute against the preparation untimely death has leoently depi ived the Bombay High Cotut of ono ot the 

of a Moral Text-Book and ahlest Native Judges His views lepietent tho opinions of the moie ad\anred 

lectures ^yp Q ^ Indian educationists, and m now ot tha importanoo ot the &ribjett ti> 

which they i elate and the ability with which they aie expounded they may be quoted in eitenw 

"I next pioceed to considei two BBPommondations which deal with a point, ceitiiinly ouo ot the most impmtant 
in connection with education I allude to the Recommendation i eg aiding moial oduuition in coll(uDh In htatuu* 
the opinions which I have foimed on this point, I know I run a oeit<un iisk of miwutei piotation But 1 am IjuumL 
to say that, aftoi the best oonaideiataon which I have been ablo to give to the Reoomuiondatiuiib made b> tho Com- 
nn&sicm, and the arguments adduced in suppoit of them, I am 6 till stiongly of opinion tLafc tin* pinposed. moasmcs 
will be impotent foi good and may losult in mischief I will hibt talc up tlio lattei oi ilio two IlLLoinmpmlatioMB 
lefciiod to That p rets cubes tliat a sones of lectures on tlio duties of a man an! dciti/ou shiMilrl IIL dehveiod in 
each college in each Session Now, fiist, what IH the object of thib now dopaituio hit it is a m\\ dip,!! tuu in 
oui 8} htom of academical instruction p Many of those who lecommoud this now dcpaitiuo, admit that tin i L is luillinur 
in tho chiiiaotoi of the htudonts of oui Btato Colleges, takou as a class, which can bo usud in hiippoit ol (/Ins uiom- 
menclation Othois, howeysi, oi the game mode of thinking, have distinctly said thai tlu> ufiwts ol IM|IUM,|IOII in om 
Stale Colleges on the moials k ol the student* has coitainly been HUM IILOVOUS, nut to s ly dib.istioiit On i>< nth in m, 
who has boon paiticulaily active in what I cannot hplp chai actoLhUig aH tho mistmdid auil miifhu tons 
agitation wlucb pietodod tho appointment of the Oommihsirni, has lielJ up to the* f>,i/L k ol Liu* HiiUsh pulilit* 
a putme of tho oiioctb oi State education in India [See Mi Johnston o's ' Oni Kducatiunal J'nlu) in India/ 
puo- XV, S, 10, 26), which, if it ifa a faithful one, woulil coitmily ]UHtily homo no\v dopaitniu in MIC dut<titin 
mdicatoil But w it a faithful pictuio 9 On that wo have a htatomont bubmittod to tin I'ominission hj \iw* 
^ontlomon of the frame party as tho authoi of tho pamphlet above aUutlod to Those q-outlomcu nndi'iUkt lo 8<iy 
that f tho loflult ol Goveinment so-called neutrality, has been, lij towmfin conwnl, ilutulorlly ni]iuii)ni limn annual 
and loli^ioui point of view ' What those tfontlomon mean by ( tomtnon tonwnl ' it is nut voiy uisy f^> undcihUrnl. 
The ovideuoo bctoio the Oommisbion (whioh IB suminaiised in tho Auporfc, Chapter VI J, is absolnlrly o v(i wh iJm- 
ing in favoai oC tho lovezse of that which those qontlemon (leactibo ad adimttod by t common consent ' And I owe* 
it to tho ,ystom under which I, mybolf, and many ot my fnonilb havu boon nniiinuMl, to putil soliinnly on moul 
that, in my judgment, tho ohaiges mado agaui&t that syhtom aio wholly and absolutely unsust.iinalil( k , tu<L an 1 ihc 
i chillis of imp 01 tool 01 piojudicod obsoivatiou, and hatty gontaalihadion put into wtndn by jaiiiluui, and oift^u KM k- 
less, T ho tune 1 do not deny that theio may bo individuals amonq men of tho cKiftH to which J lutvr* I lie limiuiu f< 
beluntr, >vho havo btrayod away, more or lobs widoly, liom tho path of honoui and virtue Jtut il iliat lai i* .illfJids 
bailiuu j nt gtonnd for a condomnation of oui sybtom, what 0yh torn, I would ahk, JH HUM u undci iin'Hiin whirh \vill 
not haro to bo- similaily condemned P A oonsidoiablo poition of the hciiftatinniil talk that IK ^(>iiii> ahoui. on fins 
subject is, T fool peihnadod, due to a misapplication of that unhappy pluaso * Bdiuatcd Nuliu* ' That, t 
catiouisiofonod to upon anothoi point m tholiopoit f soa OhapLei VIHj, but it ifr nucossavy ti> uilci aru\c.if 
regard to it m this oomtootion also On the one hand, it is uonlinod, aud oJ uouihe <|iuU* onniuMmil>, ti> <hr>si* 
ILIVO aoiinuod somo taiowlodge ol- tho Enghhh language , ami on tlio ntlu'v, it IH cxtmdiMl, <i|iull> nioncoiisl^ to 
thnstjwho, hko Macsanlay's FJ onuhman, havo ]U6t loaint enoayh English toio.wl AddiHon wiili a iluiionai^ The 
Utfcw ojim H tho ono which inuHt bo spooially guaidod Hgamst m disc ussiniw hko tho jHtwiif 

" Hnt it may bo fluid that tho now ilopartuio, if not ]Uhtihod by UIP mjunnuh elici is ol Jhc hys* fm hit lici'ln in 
Lecrfcores on the duties of a vogue, may nil 11 bo jiutiliod la blio giomid that it m <Mluil,i1i><l io HfM-n^tlicu 
man meffloaoions for Moral tho bonohualoltoctB of that fys Low And liwo F am ni en M < d li JIMII jssuc \\jfh 
Training those who mamtiau that it will luxvoany hiich npciatinn I u)nli.ill\ iu i-i-pl Ilu 

dictum of Mi Matthew Arnold, that ' cnndnot if. tluoo-loavthB of lilc, and a man who \\w Ls IDI 4 ondiu t \\<u k rt lot 
mote than a man who works foj intelligence ' And, thorofoxo, I fclirndd bo quiU 1 w ilhu^ to join, us uidivd I 1U( 
joined, in any Ilocommondation encouraging' nnch ( work fox conduct 1 (set 1 the Hoinljuy Pfovniuuil l^porl,, ^\^ 1 18) 
But cannot perceive that c Lectni ea on the duties of a Man and a Oiti/on ' at u Collcgu, conshLntt' Hurh ' noi k f nt 
all In a pnmary aohool, IOBBOIIS on the duties of a man would piobably bo iiHuful, in a Hoixnidaiy Hfhool Mu>y 
would piobably be innocmoufl, but in a collegiate institution thoy would pmliubly In 1 tU'itlicr uwfu! nor 
innocuous At the earliert fftago of a student*H Mo, ignorance of what JH ri^ht m pnibably on liajK^fjini fnm, 
then to coireotthfit ignorance, moral lessons aio a poifoctly appropnato aguucy, ilthougli f oroti horc, 1 



itateme^t (jmg* 8) ptoxuynnoM ML unfavourable judgment) on our lyrtom Hit language fa ounowilj hkd 
iod ftgMUbt tk Uwrecmty of t aim In top gdne by. O/. Schoolt ontl Vnwwtiut on tfo Ow^wV, By Mr, M J^mM, p, A 



MP TFLASa's TlIB^NTirarr MINUTH AGAINST MOR\L TEXr-BOOK 115 



ho moliiiLfl to i oly moi p upon c lossonq ' like Mws Edooworth's, * 01 instance, than on thofle like the extracts 
nom 'The* hole Duty of Man, 1 hy D A Eis dale, which WOID published in Bombay at the Amoucan Mission 
PILSS, in 1841 When ilie student lias dtlva,uocd to a secondary Bchool, muoli of the ignoiance above icfeiaed 
lulias ]iiFsuin.iljlv mu'ii II!.LCO lo laumlcilqu But still, tlio habit of analysis and aiticism H m a yoiy iudi- 
Luiulilmu, ami muli lessons mil, mall piobcibihty, do littie liaim Bat if collegiate ortncation is to 
one. nl its uiostiiii|irut,i,it puiposes, and is to cultivate tho intelligence so as to enable it to wmga 
mil hum iiulc|iLii'kiit iiuU^im-nts, then those moial lesson* pio&ent an ontiiely diHoiont aspoot At 
tl. it hi an i, ills iilimiiteiitiiclj uuiioLpsi.urtD msti uLt thtMutelhg once, Vhilo it i fl O t gicat use ID discipline the 
\vill ami tn mJm,Llo tliu hilinqi The pinjiosL.lluptnics will, 1 io.ii, have httlo 01 110 oJFoct in this Ltttor dii cc- 
Lum, ^liilp, in sump miliw'lual ( "-cs, thui pUuliuthp iminorduoction, bonu> meant to opoiato not on the mtulloLt 
liulnii niiiflmt, iiu} bi lliiii\n i nl Hi i 1 UnJi is ilisiu'tl, something hkc th.it on the Cambudgo aclioLu, about 
Uifjin I uMil nun} jc'Lis 1*4 M \vlioso fiiitildiibis ,ibnt tho divjic cliaiactoi of Cliuslianity weio said to have been 
IIIIISIM! li\ a >,Lml) ( >t Pake's 8\ jili>.ii- s ' TIi it hcnsp oL muial inspmisibility in man which impeded Kaiit mth 
ll .* hiinv awe* is tlu stai i > lir .uuii-., uiii n-c ii\p nu stioi^t'icTinig honi lottuius on tho dutios of a mm, any mmo 
i\\ in the* a\\t ^hii'li ilin si mj hc.ivcns nispiiu c,in be pmilui'ul by Icctun-s on tlo nnqs ot Satiun 01 tho phases of 
thi'innmi Kui h sbunllif nni innst tninr* Irciiu Ilio (Miiutioiis .uuHho will homof woikod upon by tho hibtoiios 
of <>MMt niovciui'iiis, ilu 1 livi-s ol qieit i nun, ,iii(l MIL suiio* ol ^ipat pnots II. must GOIIID lioxn tho tiainin^ of thp 
\\ill , mil UUM inoiiiMis b> Uu> .uhi.il <lii.nl, oi .icail"imc lii', b\ tho iM.ilinq contict 1 with good pjofissnib and 
ii'llnu-4iHh nis, h\ thu (nn-,l,nil tutj i^ciniMit ui ihc ,iiiLiition on Ihu I'iniobliiiflf pnihuitb oL htoifltuie, science, 
.mil |ilnli^ii|iliy , li> tin* necessity, MMilton klli, ' td hioin (hh^hi 1 , and livo labniions ilayh,' and, oven in OUP ^u> 
inmh-iii Kl.iti ('cilices nHliN toiinii>, though on ,v \LI\ humblu M.I.IU, by 'that mass oE C4ntiniiLiTib tuditinns, 
ah\ v\s |i(j\\i'ilul and i<L'iu>iall> uuble,* ol \\lmhM] Qlailb1nno| hpoko so uloi[iiontly in luu maa^uial ailiboss to 
Hit 1 UniMMSil} ul l'j(lniliLiii;h 

" r riiat i* tht 1 only uuuso of innial ediiL'aUon nf whirl) I have* any faith Tluit IH the cnuise which alone, in 
my omnium, (an he illif ,w ions Lt^lnits on tho duties <i a man utn at the hcsl, only hsul ti tho ' cold ibcieoa of 
tlu k |MIIII ' Tlu k y h.i\i> litLlo 01 nu efficacy in cooling drwn the 'hot tc'injiui, \\hich leaps ovoi ' thosp dcoieos 
Tin si MI \v-> infill, lie i-asily su^HufctMl ]>y a niahs of anthoiity, but I -will only icfui huie to that of nno whi> IB at 
DIUI a \\nfu <>u Moial iMnlnsojiliy, a Univeisity Piohssui of tho same 1 bubjoct, and a Ghauiunu ol a Rchrwl 
Hodiil in Srollaml f allude 1 tn J'mh'ShOi Calilui wood, \\ho liaf haul m IUE> icccnt woik on Toaolunq its Burls and 
Moans thai, 'iiimnl tiaumitf is ,'aiuLMl, nnt A o much by loiinal muilutiioti of chit), afl by piaotice in ivoll-douig 
thi(>Lii>liuiii Ihu ciHiiiiiun cn^.Lnuinonth oi Lie 1 fpa^o 7J , and see also paqos 25, S3, J2J, <fco) 

"So |u* L ha\u dualt only with tho fuht puitof tho IloLonimciiclatLnn Tho second pnit, dealing with the 

duties ol a ula/pn, nppcuh to me to htand on a Homo what dill eion t footing 

U wmh io l)0 lnlondort to P lut ldtllcl lo ^ Lat ma > r lje udlul1 P llUL ^ aB 
dihtnigiLifchciI from hotial, moid lily Loc'tnios im. lias Buh]opl nwy be of use, 

OK tho hul>jut k t is (iiio uu whiuh thorp is MJULU joai igiioianco, winch may be dispelled hy lootuios addiobsod to tho 
lutullt'ct Hni I nnibt own Ihtti I am aliaid ol the piacfaLid opuiatum of thih pait ol tho Recommendation Tii 
oiduuuy timoh, it may not bo veiy matoi lal ouo way ui the abhor, though ovaa in oxdjiiaiy timefi, one oau conceivp 
iho uu (mvomonl i ['Milts which may (low fioiii it Bui m tunos ot ovnlomont, fcuoh as those tbiongh ^huh we have 
hcaruuly yui oiiuMi*ol, 1 much Tuai that the icsnlt -will bo to (hag tho bcaouo dignity oi the academy into the heat 
<tiul ilusiol platfmm wailaio If tho PioJpnsoi'H lectures tpnd ID trach thupapils the daty of sabmiuHon to the 
vu'ws of Oovoiniuoiit, wiUniut it munniu ol ibshatislaotnni, thexe ifl fni*o to oomo up a ht k t of Libcinl Iivolonnleablofl, 
who will complain that Oovuimuuul ih omloavnunng- to enslave tho iiiloHoci of ttio nation II tho Piofosaoi's 
luiui'is aic hiipjxwodto load IN tho op}iosite diieutiun, fchoio will bo sorao Toiy Tuecoiicileables icady to spung 
up ami na), ovtm inoio loudly anil tjmto as oirouoDUhly tw> they aro flaying it now, that the colleges huppoitcd 
fioiii Ktalo lovoiLuou axp hut-bodH of hoditiou This IB almost ceitam to occui m iimos of excitement It may not 
unhkuly we UL> UL quiet timon aluo And with tliu nsk, I Gonfobu, it BOODUB to nxo that the advantages ot such 
lectures will huvo boon dually purchased If it is aigued that tho PioloBuois in our colleges are not now prevented 
irom doing that whwb may aJIord a taiget for Biocular douuueiation, my teply u> that the PioEo&Bois may well 

* NotwiUwlonrlmg Di Whatoly'a protest, m a note m IUB edition of Baocm'0 Hewyi 

t Of Hatthow Arnold in Nineteenth Oontuy (Novemlier , 1883), p 714 

t Boa Gfotftmffs of P*t twu, Yol VII, p 18 

{ Of QladtlmJM Ol*a>w t Vol VXI, p 13 , vaiiU ontause of, Six Wxlluna Wedtoburn mid M> Wordirworth, and the Honour- 
ibla Amu Ah Mr Jotaftonfl, m tho pamphlet above ref arrod to, att*cki u on tbu ground aUo, bat hiB tape of nund nay be nadgoA 
of Ijy lui unhtppy referent to th* naoewty of th Tn*o^Jr Fmi Aot-f^^pqit cm ^iph one nood not noir irraite a lufffe ayllabl*, 



116 ENGLISH EDUCATION IS INDIA. 

do what they deem proper in their pnvata capacity as citizens Bnt it becomes a very different thinflf whon they 
delayer lectmes at college, in then capacity as Prof esfiors appointed by tha State for the expie&& purpose The 
position on that point is exactly analogous to the position on the point of religions instruction, nndei the Despatch 
of 1659, Section* 59-61 

11 1 now come to the other Eecommendation The whole theory of moial education here adopted is ono which 

I considei erroneous in pimciple, and likely to be bad in piactica.1 opoiation, 

A Moral Text-book will be M Bending to Wl thdraw attention from the nooegwty of making, not one 01 twu 
U8eleaB hour* of academic life, but the whole of it, a peiiod oi moial education lidding 

that view, it follows, of course, that I cannot accept the suggestion about the Moial Text-book But iui thoi ob|ectir>iih 
to that sugg estion axe stated in the Bombay Piovinoial Repoit, to which I still adheio I will only add that the % iu\r 
theie enunciated receives suppoit fiom the history of a feimilai experiment taiod many yoai s <ugn m Ti pUiul No less 
a pei son than Archbishop Whately endeavouiedto do foi the dements of Chiistiamty what Bibhop Aluuim piupowH, 
anil the Commission recommend?, should be done foi tho elements of moiality based on Natuial Ttoh 31011 With \vhafc 
result ? The text-book was written, approved, sanctioned ioi use, and used, in the Iiibh schools, bolh J*i tjt^st tut uiul 
Roman Catholic Thon tho tide turned, and the book had to bo abandoned, and Ai olibihhop Whatuly himsiH, thu I-KIM! 
Justice Christian, and Mi Baion Greene i osigned their seats on tho School Board, upon tho qitmnil thai vvli.it was iluiu 
wasalxLQOoh of faith with the people l It 19 not necessary to eiqune which, if eithoz, ol the paiiies to Ilip contest 
was in tho wiong The lussou to be denvo i fiom tho occiuieuco is equally cleai and equally ontitli'il to 'c>i\u 
us pause ' m the coui&o on which we ate lecommended to entei, whothoi the iault in that paiticnlai uulLc i lay 
with the Piot o.tants 01 the Roman Catholics, with Aiohbishop Whatoly or with Archbishop Muiia>,cn IIH 
auccossioi 

" I will only add one woid hue, with respoct to tho question of loligious itistmotion winch was laisod Mtnv 

the Commihsion I deeply fiympatliiso with tho iemanil of homo uitiirbsc -,, 
RB!I] oufl instrnotion im- 
practicable whose evidence has come "before us, that piovibion bWJiild bo mailc HI oui 

educational system for that loligious instruction, without ^liii'h, aH Ixud 

Ripon declared before the University of Calcutta, all education i& impoifoct I sympathise with tins tU'iiiAiulv 
but do not BOB my way to suggest any feasible means of satisfying ib ThoiD aio only two pohhiblo imiileh, \\lncli 
can be adopted in -justuso and faiincfis, of piactioally imputing religious instruction lihthui you mint Luaclj the 
principles common to all religions, under the name of Natmal Religion, 01 yon mu&t toach the piumplcs ol cadi 
leligious aoed to the students whose paionts adopt that uoed Tho dimcultiuh of thoso altonuitn <>s liavi* bwn 
indicated by no le&& an authoiity than ML Oobdon (we hits &pooohos, page 588, d wq ) Tboto d i flit ut tics utr 
certainly not less gieat in this countiy than in England They appeal to mo to bo so gioat that wo must 
be content to 'take refuge,' as it has been Bxpros&od, 'intheiemote liaveu oi ivlugo foi tho othuivtjoiiisis -tl^ 
seculai fiyatem ' But I would also point oui to all those who a&k foi this xoligiouh education, tlutt the eultivahun 
of those feelings of human natuio to which religion appeals ifa not DVOB now oiitn oly itiglcctc'd, and tliat tin 1 fin t hop 
direction to be given to those feelings, according to the pimoiplot oi each loligioiih oiuocl, oui^lit tol>o unrlcMakc'n, 
as it is best earned out, not by a Government like the Biitiuli Lidiau Oovoi nmoiLt,f but by tlio Pi olcKHoi K <>| ilio 
several creeds ( TJndor the legislation of 1806,' &ays Mi Mattliow Ainold | 'it was not poiiiuttiNl to public 
schools to be dononimatioiial The law requued that tho inbtruotioii in tlicm should bo such as to tnun its nn- 
pients for the oxeiCLSB of all social and Chiutian viitues, but no dogmatic icli^iouw instruction WHH to l)i> ^ivni ly 
the ieachei, 01 was to bo given, in tho school Moosuios woio to bo takon, howovur, haul tho law, thai thn M hohu 1 
should not go without the dogmatic teaching oi tho communion to whioh bo belonged A cum (linear, the AIiuistiM ol 
the Homo Department exhorted by circular the Minister at the difloinmt coiumnnuiuH to (HMt]ictiLtc will) Mtc 
Goveinment in carrying tho new law into execution, by taking upon tlxomsclvoH tho ri'liginns niHiiuctiou ol tho 
school children belonging to then p or suasion The religious authoutiofl lophc'd Jav oui ably <i> thiN tippcal, uiul 
nowhere, poihaps, has tho mstinotion of the people boon more eminently zohgiouH than lu Holland, while the public* 
schools have, by law, lomamod ungectonon ' That seems to me to indicate, though only in a general way, tho 
tiuB procedure to bo followed in this matter by those who aio dissatisfied with i\w luhgiuuH rohiiltH of oui oilucu- 
tional system Some ogonoieu of this sozt, more or less organmod, more en loss powerful, aie at pJtiiHunt working. 
Whether a more complete oigomsation will bxing out reflulta more satisfactory to thobo who wo now obking for a 

* L\f*cfVr WhatBty By ICua Whately, Vdl II, p 264 

f Of GfedrioiM'i QltMw, Vol TCI, p 100 

t Beport of the Bduoaticm Oomxuuion (1861), Yol IT, puge 189, onfl 99$ pngo 151, Btill Uio tolioolf won called ' GoUlow ' 



5 Of ibe quotation from &ur B. Pecl^ m tiu endenoe of Mr, Wordnrorth 



OfiDEBB OF THE BBOBHTJLBY OP BTATB AS TO A MORAL TEXT-BOOK 117 

change, is a matter upon which I own I am tome what sceptical And some of the grounds of my scepticism have 
been ahoady militated in what I have said above, on the kindred option of moral education But at all events, on 
thi& I am qoito cloaa, that oni institutions for seoulat matiuotion should not be embairassed by any meddling with 
leligiou* msti notion , foi such meddling, among other mischiefs, will yield remits which, on the lehgioua aide will 
satisfy noboily, and on this soculai side will be distinctly retiogiada *"f 

Thepioposals ot the Indian Education Commission, in regard to the mtioduotion of a Moral Text-book in 
Views of the Local Govern- Colleges, met with veiy scanty suppmt fiom the Local Governments In 
ments as to introduction of a Madras, " no belief is reposed in the viituas of a suitable Moial Text-book, 
Mora Text-book bascd upon th(J f^^^ plmol p l8g of N aturB i Religion, even weie its pre- 

paialiou possible Noi is any oiodit given to the efficacy of lecturBS on the duties of a man and a citizen The 
pioposal, would necessitate a fiuutiny of tho Piofossor's social and political views, to which this Government is in 
the stionyosl mannu opposed " His Evcdlency the Goveinor of Bombay was not prepared to say that the pro- 
posal was impracticable*, but thought it no easy m&ttoi to ai range a text-book which would bo goneiaHy acoeptJlle, 
ot chilli could bo piosscd on both Govoinmont and non- Government Colleges The Lieutenant-G oveinor of the 
Woith-Wohtein Piouncuh wab unablo to huppoit tho pio|eot Ho thought it no part of the functions of a Govern- 
ment in India to chaw up a code ot moiabty, and USUD it officially loi the insinuation of students, since these could 
haidly bi 1 chaigcd with iquoiauce of the commonly accepted code oi civilised communities, or with an acceptance 
of principles coutuay lo that code Noi could Sii Alfioil Lyall appiovo of a couise of leotmss on the duty 
of a mail anil a niizon Possibly, no tno Piofessois would agieo as to what this duty consisted m, and it was 
cleoily uuiliHiiiahlo to mttorluce into schools and colleges discussions on subjects that opened out such a very 
wide held oL debate The Oluol Commissioner of tho Coutzal Piovmcct did not like the pioposals Without a 
loliijicHis basis, a mmal tovt-book could bo httlo bettor than a collection of copy-book maxims The com se of 
a student's ioa<lim and tho influence ol his Pioieshoib wozo foi moio potent fact OIF, in his moial education, and had 
produced i phiiltH in tho mattejs of honosty, ti iifehf olnobfc, and gouoial good-conduct, aueh as uo text-book of 
muiahty could achieve J 

Upon this subject the Government of India, in its Resolution No -^fr, datod the 23rd Ootobei 1884, reviBWing 
Decision of tho Government tlLO B P OJLt of tLe Bdacation Commission, made the following obseivatumg 
of India aa to the proposed " It in doubtful whothei such a moral text-book as is pioposed could be 

Moral Text-book intioduced without i awing a variety ot bninmg questions, and, ationgly as 

it may be uigod that a piuuly seculai education is impeifoct, it docs not appeal pzcbable that a t Bit-book of 
morality, sufficiently vagao and oolouilphs, to bo accepted by Chiistians, Mahom&dans and Hindus, would do much, 
specially 111 tho Ntagu of collogiatd infltiuction, to remedy the defects 01 supply the shoibcomings of such an 
education Tho Hamo objection appears to apply to tho pioposal that a seiies of lectures should be dehveied in 
each Oulk'go on tho duties oJ a man , and as to the proposed lectures on the duties of a citizen, Mr Tellang's objec- 
tions at page 012, oi tlio Repoit, appeal to be unansweiable The Secretoiy of State intimates his ooncairenoe la 
tho vicwH o tho Uuvoinment of India on this mattei, but adds that, possibly, heieaftar acme book in the nature 
of a Text-book of Moial Rules may be wxitten of such mezit aB to render its use definable In that event the 
question can bo looonsidorod " 

The mattur, howovoi, did not rest there, as Lord Cross, who succeeded Lord Kimbeiley as Secretory of State 

Orders of the Secretary of io1 L " L *> ^ k a Bomewhat ***ent w^i and "ma Despatch dated the 
State (Lord Gross) aa to pro- 2f)th> Septomboz, 1887, lequebted tho Gfoveinment of India to take steps for 
parataon of a Moral Text-book the preparation of a book suitable for u&o in schools in India Before passing 
Summary of the views on the fiual ciders on tho sub]ec,t, the Gbveinmont of India IB ^netted the Local 
suDjeot QovoznmontB and Aclminihtiations to state their viowb as to the beat way of 

giving effect to tlio wishes of the Seraotuy of State, whothei by tho adoption of new tort-books, or tie revision 
of the (uciHting books, in oidoi to introduce into thorn extracta ftoin the various gieat wiiteis who have dealt with 
tho question ot personal conduct in its vauous aspects The replies received bhow that the majority of the edu- 
cational aatlioritiefj m India are of opinion that a text-book containing moral piecepta or rules of personal conduct 
would be either uhdosB or injuziouR, at least in schools, though there is an equally strong consensus of opinion that 
good may be dono by the indirect teaching of morality by means of illustrative stones m the readezs used m 
bohoole A few, however, think that even this id unnecessary, and that a good teacher will find means of giving , 
moral instruction to his pupils without requiring any specially designed text-book or readei, while such helps will ' 

* See Xorl*v>8 Bbvggl* for JfafwnaZ Education, yamm 

t Bport of tho Indiwx Education Oonmuwion (1B8&), pp, 61M14 

t Sir Alfred Draffs XwwofBdwfron m /mka m 188S , p 331, 882 



116 EUTGOilBH EDUCATION IN IffPH 



bo of no use m the hands of a ^ad teacher The arguments aqainfit thu rnti odnchon of a special to\Miouk M i* r 
vaiioub that it is impossible to attompt a dotiilod analysis of tLom, bnt two 01 tlnoo evhntts iiu\ bo qimi ' Tin 
only IOHSOHS m moiality wluch ai L likely to have a practical oiLiit on a boy's conduct in aftu-liie aic, 1 Hi the |iidu- 
znent ol tho laeuteaant-Q-ovoiiioi ot thDNDiiJi-"Wogtoin PIOVIHLDS, 'those ^liith aip taught linn .it liuiiu, 1 dm IIP 
his childhood, and nhioh aio locoivod by him bom obsoi ration oC his dUy han minding s, and the fcn'i ol 
the society in which ho ^lows ^P Hi a Uonom BODS no fluffiLiant qiound ioi btluvin^ that thin siluinv 
mfliuaioo willbe fetienqthoncdby mstiuction in tho pirmnphs ol Nitmal li-hqion m 11 itui.il muchly, as 1ml 
ba,ie in tho floshloss skeletons oi moral text-books, pi one icnty lu \\hidi miv uul)k IMJI-, ID ti,ce tin M In illa- 
tions, butnovorto coustinot foi themholvus ah\uig fttimblamo uf a luqhei muial c istinci k Tin iluiii nines nl 
composing suitable moial t'xt-books lor tho ube oJb chiUUoLi oJ E.istcin miiu \\nnld Li? Jai ^iialu ill in 1.1 tin* 
caso ol tho ohildien oi English lace, whoao miiuh, dispositions, and syiLp ithns an 1,1^ m a I iiiihiil Jiinnlil 
to that ol thou toaclioib, and ^hoso tl.uly lilo is ptssod a.uiong SLUIIOS anil sot utms \\lioic tho \tilut 'N^t linl (n ih< 
obsnvauco of moiality, in its BOVOI il foimq, i^ biouqht homo to them mm o iuipn i\i l\ UI.LII in Iiulia II i 
pioba.bk k that the gioatn poat of the Mcihomodui cimimmuly would hLill .iqiiv with tin ilittinii Hliiha-ul lu tin 
Odhph Oniai, mid would hold that inm.il text-books aa.c 'oithoi in toniiinil> \\iththc \Viiil ol <MH', m lln\ m 
jiot II thoy air, that Waul is MiHim'tH, withoiib them, it they uu nrH, tin*} miijlii lo IK rli ^l.inNdl ' Si< M'ii'1 
( Mr>ia1 scienuc, IHIIOW Uni^ht in OKI UmvoihifciuB is f i lu.biiLli ol psjc liuli>^>, 01 iinnlil M' MM in 
and boniQ im^lit mil htndiuil ( is amoioly mtiOIc cttuil txiniM 1 it dots no hai in lint hiin'j I!CM i* in li 
discussions, m lunvtv CM olurunit.uy a foiiiL,, to tlio bdiocil-i nuni (,uid 1 lioJilili.il., il ,<n> dnlaidi' IDMIJM niliiun M| 
mma.1 pi PI opts bo unjoined, siu li diM. rubious cimiot bu alinn^thpL .uonliljli'J, ,uid 11n k innial alinn (tin n u'mli 
the ho>s bioitho is viUHy chaiuied Theioisiio IUIII^LI that lu',tlt.li\, iiisl.inil,i\t', sjuml.uu'iMM dmii'i ol t.ln ip-lil 
wLich maaks tlu 1 dank md lioii( k st huhonl-bo> ivoont bneit) is H]daiuil by .1 lunrliil si ll-iont itJiiiin^^, mil lo n (> 
a hunuly pLuase, tho bo> becomes a put*, 01 uoisc At ]ciht, I bi'liLM tJiou* is danocu ol tin*. 1 1/ is m>l In dun I 
moial insti notion, bui much moir it) tho Jiiflaonut of tuailiDis .uid the* disr iplmc ni hdiool-litt, ili.il I am 
inclined to look 01 aid m stioiiqth 01111114 and de\ (doping tho bbttLi iui[Milhcs of stlmnl-lio^s ' The Lonl Hhhop <ii 
Brnubay sn)b 'About the usolulnoss of ItfifeonH, Mid k k ssoii-hciok.s on IKMMMUL! luiidin L, I am \ii\ hi'ipntal. 
Their yalno, if tliuy haro any, A\ ill depend onhii'ly on tho turn 1 oJ 1hr l,n.lui In (In* haii'li ol i, man ol tin 
right ttamp tlioy in ij bo oJ bomo aso, ajb Intmnlatmt; LOL 1A. k inoiiuny wli.it is iiiloicfMl l\ disc iplun 1 anil c\ iiiipli* 
Biit^ as a inle, 1 should Hty that tlvy \vonld bo usoloss in tho hands nl a b.nl in isli'i uul .ii,it i Iliioiis iiithotrnl a 
cguodrmD 1 In SQUIB uisos Iho ob|octuyn to I us sons on muialsis hasod upon tluMliJiu nMv ol t pu hi", a.( li h nn 
in laiuuic>o snflioiuutl) simple to bo undoi stood by bo>s m Indiau hdioidh Kvi k n in houl -, s|iniill> n>injiilnl IM 
HBO m JiuLiau hcliLMtls, tuiuhuih liud thoso lussnns too difhcadt IDI tin 1 sdiolaM Thus the Aiiam Ihicihu si^s 
'In Iliffh and Middlo JHInqhsh fachoolft, tho mrmiil clasn-bouks, Ohainhi'ih' KduuiLiniiiil I 1 iiiiisi .mil LiHilunl"i ^ 
Moial Rotuloi mo in genoialuso, both thcbo bookh iout<iiu good and usoful K'shoiih on nu>iiU Miljjccls, <sp((iall> 
tho latttii , whorothc lessons ate hiippU'ineutod by h ton us mllocllioiu uiiiintut wni.tih, illustiiil 111*4 I(UIL moial IPSSIIIIS 
Dutitt^any wmtoi mspL'ctjon, I mado it a point at oitoh iiinpiotinu (m tall aUcnlann lr> 1,1ns suli|>il, I HI I,, *han< 1 ' 
to fijy, f ahuusb invaiiably iouml Hut thu moial lo.sonh had bci'ii rum I JIM!, and lh( k hluncs nail On 

onr|uirmg why tho moial lussuns kul boon lofb oat, tho mvmubb .luswi'i wan that I In lau^iiai*i ^as nmiv 
difhcult thiUi in tho ntoiioH, aud possaqos ^voto kuilci to otplait] * A Madias \Mitcr qnrs Jnillni, aiul hialt . iha(. 
sonic ot the oviiactq fium oinmont \vntoia, givon in tho Middlo ISihixd uoiuso tuo too dillu ull o\i n lot (he li n IHMH 
to un diM stand 

" The VIONVSI ol thoxTLijoiity woioiicc^pttxl hy the Qovcirnmail of India, wul tho liml nil( k iH on iho huli|(<H> 

Bosolution of tho Govern ai ^nituued in the Mhmiii^ oxtiaoL lioni UK KosulntiDii l lln\ mj; ^ivcn 

mont of India on the subject, this uupoiiiuit qawliuu its iiillost umsnuiaiaoii, tho (loxoMiinrni ol India, m 

dated 17th August, 1880 HAtihfipd that the ond in VHW would null bc'utUiiictl |ty pivw iil>iu^ foi* usu 

m collrgOB fliul suhoolH atiuatihu on ethics, or u hook of didactic inhlL'tu^tion in thu nilis and punt iplch ol (nmlucl 

It hehovofl that tho Cftrc/ul fcolaoinm tvnd tiaiminf of tear lieu s pn\ulo tho most oil cctiial inrl.Ii(l of 

good moial toiio in a 8ohcKl , but it also considwH that Uio influence of th toai'hoi- uuy IM* ^itiui/ly 

and the interests of morality promoted, by tho 1110 niHeluxilH or texUbooks huvuiq iv duucl/ biMmifl on rumlnot 

either by nxoam of precept or evample ' After in>foiiiiin to tho itfluptioti of a bouk of thm knul iw a b \Mxxjk 

for tho Eiitracnos Examination ol tho Calcutta iTiu verity, thu Kesoliition ^DOH <ni to nay. 'Ail Lliat it'in-viun now 

to be dono, in Bengal at all oronts, is to supplement tlua action d tlio Uuivoi'Hity by pmvuliiifr lor tlu> lowor 

gradM oi sohoolB, and few each olaMi in thoflo graft*, Hiutablo U>it-looto> oompiloil mi Himilar lincw Similar notion 

m other Pronnoea u equally called for, nnd aooordingly iJio Cforoinor-Uenural in Gonuuil di^iron that oaoli Local 

Govemttaent and Adnujowtraiaon should take this mattov at onou m handf aud oitliuv by tlie appomtnwnt of 



SIB ALFRED OBOFT'S BTBVIFW Off KDtTOA.riOH ITSf 1886 119 

Committee, or 1 cmplojmcf selected individuals, who need not necessarily be officials , or by the offer of mutable 
pn/i'S, L*ifea,i ]f\iiiiinol the c'Mstinqiuadcih, m the du action mdioated above, or, whcae necessary, pi oouie for 
use in sc ItfNjU an timid) now scst cit booh compikd on these pimciples His Excellency in Donned will be glad 
Jo h<ii u lioiii tun? 1u tune the piomess made m oath Province in this nndeitaking ' 

* lit udiiLii'4 iliL autioii token b} tho vjiums Local Goyeinmentb, complote oniormation is not available "* 



CHAPTER XXIIL 



Hill ALPIIKD CROFT'S RHVINW OP KDDOATTON IN INDIA IS 1880, AND ITS STATISTICS 

In flu* Resolution No Jf^ iladed 2 hil Octobn, 1881*, iwonled m tlicTImiio Dopaatment, the Qovoinoi-Gonoia] 

BoBolution of the Severn- in ^iimil wvie^eil llu> Hcpuit ol tliu Kilucaiion Commission, and la,id duwn 

mont oi India roviowing tho hw i]u k futiiu* frind^iuMMil IJOCM! (Sovuiuinonis mil Arlmjuistiit]oiiA tho bioa.il 

Education Commiflwou's Be- j im , s O i the Hdiiutinm.il rtJii-y which tlio Qowuniioiil. of India dosirod to 

P p k piusuo That llosolutioii inet with tho ^ou( k ial ciJiiiuijoncid o/ KOI lUcijCNiy'K 

SIM M'l.iiiy ol Ml, tit 1 , who, in oxptrshiiHf Ins .ippiov^l, rriiiLiimuicutod the iol lowing instrin Lions to thu Covcmmentot 

Inilu "In onlrr in> sLimuUti" Uu olioits ot fclu- \MIIOUS *iutlun'iiii)i m tht> pi omnium oi odauition on tlio hues 

no\\ l.uil (lo\\n, it would, I think, IK* well it Yimi Jt3\( k uiluncy IIL Council would diiuut tin 1 piopatation ol a Qonoial 

Aniiiiiil HCJMMI, iMiihi^MMn^ theiiupmfcanL liNitiuoh of thusovu'J PIOVIIICI.II] Ri'poits (including ALuhaq and Bombay), 

<unl iiian .mii ctipiM ol tho Niimc iu thu KenioiMbiy uf titato, with <t Rc'solutmn by the Cti>vcuimont of India IOTIC^V- 

111^ Ml< h (JOIH'l.il U( |mt L "f 

In |uthiian<M k of them) dncM'iionh, tho i.ihk of piepunn^ the inst Qoui'ial ftopozt WIN t*nii astod by tho QOVBIIL- 

uu'iil oJ Inrlui to Hit Aliiod Cioit, K I K , Uncctor ol Pnlihc Inntrnction 

f ' "wJi a 1 hw ^PWt^ in tho ioim oi "A Jlov 10 w ot Education m India in 

" . 

1H8P),' 1 conUmh mnrh ^iluablu uitun nation and htatihtioH, whioli, in amannoi, 

bho i nhjrmn.ii on colli'dril by the In dun Kdnoittinu Commifesion of 1882, .uidsorao unpoitant paafcogOH 
hUtihhiH fnim it may UiiMoluiv lie couvcmontiy 4jnotod in Ibis chapter, BO f*r aa they roUto to Highoi k English 
Kdumhon of llu^ (olli'ftwte t)pt ivco^iiiKfil by the Indian OuivwsitiOH 

hi ii'ffdul lo tlu* etiust uusviniig oi colh^iibto uducation, tho lollovtoug obberftttionfl in tho Bepoit havo to be 

boinc m taijul 
Oollegiato Education defined T]jo rtllpljcatjon O f t i, toj m ' College ' sbonld fttnctly bo confined to those 

niHtitutionH in whicli tlio Htndcnth have iiaflmul the AtatiiouUtum Bvwnination, and are leading ono or othei of the 
wni sow p ost rilnil by tho Uni vcrhity hir itn higher e\atninationfl ThiH IH in aoowdanoe with tho definition accepted 
liy the UoviMvnitf nt oi India in the Koholuticin of tho 29th OctobrT, 188, in nrhicJi collogos that i, collogos affliated 
lo <ui Indian Umvoimty- .110 divided inti), (i) Aits Oollogob, Hiifflihh 9 whoso fitiulontH h,tvo paflnod the matnoolation 
<*\.uiuiiation, and iui nwlitiff n couiw piohcnilied by the University ioi do^rooa m Aita , (n) Onoutal Oollegos, whoae 
stmlrniH li*vi paHKed an o\,unination declunil by tlio Local (tovnnuicnit to be wiual in diiBciilty to tho Matriculation 
KMtniiiiiitum,Micliu(>raMling ooiiiHool Onuntal Hixb|C'ctH pioflcribodbythe Univoihity, (in) PiofeMSJonal Oollogofl, 
wlniMihtuclonth have paHod tho Mati icuUtion Mxtwuiiiatioii, and ai-o iCAiling to do^iBOB in law, modioine, 01 
<>ii#im'Oi'iM|,' Then* is no unoeitamiy aH to tho Jufit and thud of UIOHO claanoH Witlnog^rd to Oriental Oolhgoa, 
Lliore JH Home clivemitj of jutwiioo, HH the toim IH alao apphod to institutions like tho Benares Sansknt College, m 
which the Htudeiita have p.MiMd no MaiduonUtion M^mination, and in which tho subsequent examinationb and titles 
for whwh they iewl are coudnctoi and oenfunod "by thou? own ProIcsBBors " t With Oriental Bdiwation this work 
IH not oonooiiUKL 

* Pngrm of JBfooatm ** /*, 1887 88 to 1891-92 By A H Nwh, Hiqmie, H A,, (1809) r pp 861-868 

+ Firf* KeHnlntioa of tho (lowttnmi'nt of Indift ux tho JDTowii Dcpwftmeat (UdowtwA), No 199, dated 18th June, 1868. 

t Amu o) JUutfftfiofi i* JTndM m 1886 By Sir Alfrtd Oroft, p 196 



IMG INGUSH IDTJOATION IN INDIA 

Bearing in mind this definition, the following tahle * compares the number of institutions of different 

Comparative Statistics of and of students, duimg 1881-82, with those in 1884-85 
Collegiate Education, 1881 to 
1885 



ABTS COLLEGES, ENGLISH, 1881-82 10 1881-85 



FBOYINGBS 


1881-82 


1 QC 1 U f 
jnrjJB n J 


UKDU-R 
FIBTIC HA.N- 

A&LKTNT 


ATHILTI 


^ 


TOTAI 


DSD!!* 
PUUL1C MU7- 
Abl MFNT 


AlflLD 


UNVIIIID 


Toi iii 


! 


i 


l 


1 


S] 
a 


i/i 




5 


1 


U 

10 


UQ 


IH 




UHH 


| 

2 


S 


i 3 

5 j 

!.' ; J . 


Jtf.ldl.V3 


10 


7J2 


12 


828 


3 


124 


2S 


l,b'H 


Bombay 


,3 


311 


2 


139 


1 


21 


G 


1M 


1 


>22 


2 


il,)) 


1 


17 


i, 1 s, 
































i 


llci 13*1.1 


12 


1,^)05 


5 


895 


n 


r,ir> 


22 


2,715 


1'! 


Oll 


i> 


H77 


7 


Tin 


i!' ' J,7 


N W Pio\inccs 


3 


172 


2 


157 


i 


20 


G 


510 


.1 


Ihl 


r 


I'll. 


1 


% 


1! , f' 


Piuiiiib 


1 


10:1 










1 


iri'i 


1 


ISL. 


1 


I'l 






J 


Canti al Pi a\ IIIGCB 


1 


55 






i 


2 


2 


(.7 


1 


ttl 


1 


pWl 


1 


1 


1 f 
































1 


Bnrmjr 
Total 


1 


9 










1 


i) 


1 


IH 










1 1 


.31 


2,707 


21 


2,U19 


u 


710 


u 


Mia 


'U 


A7I-5 


. 


w, 


11 


IJhJ 


7H | t^ft 



Tho following Tdbnlai Sttitomunt compel tft the cxpraditme (in Kiii^lish Aiis (lollops in ilic )tui 
Comparative expenditure on withthatm 188^85 Tho HUtc^iuont IMS I>LCII picpaicil liniti iwn T<iMis 
English. Arts Colleges, 1881 givonm pai*vqi<ij)li ^8 3 at pago 3,}, ol Sn Allioil OiollV It-viw ol 

in Tndi.1, m 188U 



1885 - 



ClL\hs or 

iNhTHUTlONS 



(ijuvornmont 

Aidul 

Unaidod 

Total 



KXPENDTTOBB ON ART 



1881 82 



KYPENDlTD&Jft fROV 



65,6il 



C,89 ( 1B7 



A* 



Bh 
3,000 



3,000 



Us 



73,057 
6,679 



2,48,657 



Subsc 
End 
<tc 



Be 
73,1367 

1,81,002 



2,73,973 



EH 

808,804 
3,2Q/iOO 
*2D,683 



12,14787 



Prorine 



, J8H1 H2 in 



7,81,022 



innic 
Gi 



BH 



7.BG9 



13,089 



PH 

ItH 

J,01,12') 
l,If),W 



MUM 



PIIOM 



s 

fl 



KH 

I8,HJ7 



3,37,101 



IK 



WHIR 



Itl.AMKKN 



f IX'llldf H \U 

from 



Native 



ft,7ii7 from 
Urn flwmuw 
of Nfitwif 

HtfttftH, 



By BIT Alfred Oroft, fs 81 



BUOCBS8 07 KOJT-DBPAETMBNTIL COLIJDGHDS, 1881-85 



121 



The Aveiaga Feo pail by each pupil in the various kinds of Arts Colleges during the year 1881-82, a* 

Average Pee of each pupil compared with the yeai 1884-85 is shown in the following Table * 
1881 to 1886 ^ 



AVERAGE FEE PAID BY EACH PUPIL IN THE ABTS COLLEGES 



Pi o vine o 


1881-82 


1884-85 


D opai tmental 


Ailed 
Oollegea 


Unaided 
Colleges 


n RTif^|*iiin grfiTjf^l 


Aided 
Collages 


Unaided 
Colleges 


MadiaH 


BS 

455 


Bs 
307 


Bs 
269 


Bs 

622 


Bs 

477 


Be 
453 


Bombay 


817 


S90 


482 


836 


580 


612 


H< ii^al 


882 


541 




809 


452 


i 


N-W Piovnioos 


429 


165 


209 


453 


274 


253 


Punjab 


219 






214 


242 




(VntictI PiQVincoh 


207 






245 


227 




Jtmma 
Average foi India 


427 






449 






C92 


421 


309 


091 


455 


458 



Id will IIP interesting to compote the figurob of this Table with those of one of the preceding Tabolai State- 
t winch hliowH tho avoiaga annual cost of educating each student in English Ait? Colleges, in 1881-82 Tho 
t'uiii]Mii isnn will hliow that m India, as olsewhcio, High Education is far from boing self-supporting, and cannot 
1'iiliiMy tuly i pon tuition fees foi its maantonance 

With lofoi'once to tho quobtion of tho proposed gradual withdrawal of the State fiom Highei English 
Increasing suooess of Won- Kduoaiaon, the lollowing tablo J shows the inoioasnig success of Non-Dopait- 
DepaTtmontal Colleges in 1881 monUl Co] logos byintiodnoing a comparison between tho St.itibtics of theyoai 
to 1635 1881-82 with thobo of tho yuar 1884-85 so fai as th Viist Aits, the B A 

tin* M A oViUiuiiatjtnifl aio concerned 





1881-82 


1884-85 




|| 


PASSED AT 


II 


PABUBD AT 


ULAHH u JhrarrruTiuNS 


"8 g 










|H 


TA 


BA 


MA 


Ilf 


FA 


BA 


MA 


Ih'pai'imcntal 


2,707 


421 


106 


20 


2.7IS3 


589 


288 


50 


Nun- 1 U'paHiiui'iiiaJ 


2,735 


466 


121 


12 


4,017 


473 


285 


37 



The fiuni'CMi bhi>w thai, whilo tljore was an increaBe of 40 par cent , 73 per cent , and 72 per cant , i ospeotnroly, 
in Iho uuinlxT of wiocoshlul oandidateb fiom departmontal institutions at the Piiflt Ai-te, B A and M A oxamina- 
tioriB, tbofCMiMjioiiibiig 1 ppopoiiions of increase among candidates tmm institations undfli piiyate managwncnt 
wwro a per cent , 1 0<) poi- cent , and 208 por cont , lospoctively 

Tho HiatiBtiofl of English Collegiate Education for the ysar 1885-85 are of special importance as by that time 
Statistics of Oonegiate Bdu- ^e rowed systems of classification consequent upon tho Bepoit of the Indoan 
oatLon in 1885.86. Education Commission, were in general use and the technical terms uf 

education wero employed uniforzuly in the same sense. 



* B^iwo/ffcZiwoKon*nIfKJa<f>lS89. By Sir Alfred Oroft , p M 



87 



16 



25-5 ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA 

The number of English Aits Colleges of different classes in each pioyinoe m 18R5-86, and the nnmbei of 
English. Arts Colleges, 1886-88 students reading m them are shown in the following table * 



ABTS COLLEGES, ENGLISH, 1885-86 



PROVINCE 


UNDBR PUBLIC 
MANAGEMENT 


USD?* Pumra MA- 

AGBMBNT, AID ID 


TJiroBB PRIVATE MAH- 

AHIH8HT, UNAIDFB 


TniAL 




Collegoa 


Students 


Colleges 


Students 


CollDgBS 


Students 


Colloqch 


Stndents 


Maiuv=J 


9 


938 


17 


1,483 


4 


2G7 


,10 


3,OHh 


Bombay 


5 


608 


3 


433 


1 


. 


8 


i,on 


Bengal 


13 


949 


6 


875 


7 


1,174 


2C 


2,J>'IK 


N-W PltmnoDB 


3 


186 


4 


228 


6 


31 


13 


UK 


Punjab 


1 


248 


1 


59 






2 


!i)7 


Contra! Pi ovmcos 


1 


39 


2 


39 


1 


1 


t 


7'l 


Bnima 


1 


20 










1 


lil) 


Total 


33 


2,988 


33 


3,117 


18 


1,476 


8t 


7,,-ihl 


Total foi 1884-86 


33 


2,810 


32 


2,855 


13 


1,115 


78 


fj,7W) 



Expenditure in Arts Col- The Statistics of the expenditure on Arts Collogon in 18i '1 is MIOWII in 
leges, 1885-88. the following tiblot 

EXPENDITURE ON ARTS COLLEGES, J 886.80 



PBoraoa 


FnuM PKOmOUL BrEVENUlTS 


.Pi am 
Dwtiiot and 
Mnnicipal 
Ifiuidd 


f!comiora 


Fiom 

Ollll'l 


Tm' 
KM 


In 
Oollegoa 

lie m<in- 
agemont 


Tn Aided 
Colleges 


Total 




Ba 


Be 


BB 


AB 


lib 


llh 


Madras 


1,36,504 


42,216 


1,78,780 


M 1,027 


1,20, 1 IS 


1,0 l,ll 


*r^lf IfllrlO 


Bombay 


88,514 


9,400 


97,914 


M 3,000 


5fi,il.) 


72.S7.J 


t^ tk|j j^j iji 


Bengal 


2,90,493 


24,217 


3,14,710 




1,22,200 


1,07,210 


tl 17 iiii'^ 


N-W Provinces 


68,343 


29,186 


97,529 


{! *,WB 


14,42.) 


c^m 


l,H5,f)'J7 


Pinijab 


45,797 


5/100 


51,197 


M 1,200 


8,110 


6,027 


07, W* 


Central Provinces 


9,199 


2,876 


11,575 


M. 8,711 


1,030 


11^05 


2K..H1 


Burma 
Total 
Total for 1884-85 


22,274 





22,274 




1,012 





2it,2Hft 


6,61,184 


1,12,795 


7,73,979 


1,6524 


3,29,062 


8,07,511 


I-KH7.076 


6,77,410 


1,08,612 


7,81,022 


1 O ClOQ 
Lo> JOu 


3,11,824 


3,37,101 


14,4 3,930 



By BIT Alfred Orofi, p. 138 



t n., p. ; 



KPENDirtTRID OK OOLLBGIITI HDTTOATIOH, 1885-86 123 

The folio-wing tabular statement, exfaacted from the table given in paragraph 98 at page 110 of Sir 
Proportionate expenditure -^ red - Cleft's Review of Education m India t 1886, shows the different 
from public and from private proportions m which public and. pnvate fonis, respectively, contributed to 
f a oUeeiate Edllc ft- the anppoit of Collegiate Education ui the various Provinces where such 
education pie vails 



tion, 1880-86 



PROPORTIONATE EXPENDITURE ON COLLEGIATE EDUCATION, PROM PUBLIC 
AND PROM PRIVATE FUNDS, IN 1885-86 



PfiOVINOE 




E, 
XPBND1TUBB 


From. Public Funds 


Etom Piivate Ennds 




Ba 


Be 


Mudias 


452 


548 


Unmlmy 


477 


523 


Bengal 


657 


343 


Noith -Wests! n Piowncos and Oudh 


74 


26 


Punjab 


777 


223 


Central Provinces 


54 


46 


Bornut j.i ... ,. 


957 


43 


Average for India ,.. . 


60 


399 



*"" 



The i nportanoo of icquumg tliat students of colleges should pay faes piopoitionate in some degree to the 

cost oi their education, was insisted on by the Education Commission The 
IoUowui Table * bhows ** avarage yearly rate of foe paid by students 
tho yeaaly fee in each case being calculated on the average monthly i oil- 
numb ex 

AVERAGE YEARLY BATE Off FEE PAID BY STUDENTS IN COLLEGES, IN 1885-86 



PEOVINOL 


Departmental 
Colleges 


Aided Colleges 


Unaided Oollego, 


MadraH 


Ra 
579 


Bs 

480 


Ba 
489 


ttombay 


864 


652 


393 


Jk-ngul 


715 


492 




North- Wmtena Provinoos 


397 


279 


286 


Punjab ... 


274 


372 




Oontial Piovmoeb 


293 


145 


270 


Average for India . 


482 






654 


476 


413 



Btvtftf of Jftuoaton tn MUa wl8B6 ByJSir AJfred Oroft { p 141 



121 



ENGLISH EDUC1T10N IN IHDU 



The piopoition of Fee-reoaipts to total expenditure, in different danses of Colleges, in 1885-86, ib shown ui 
Fioportion of Fee-re oeipta to the follomug Statement * of Percentages 
total Bostin CollegBB-1886-88 

PERCENTAGE OP FEE-RECEIPTS TO TOTAL COST IN COLLEGES, IN 1885-86 



PROVINCE 


Govei run exit Colleges 


Aided Collc'GfOfc 




BB 


Ks 


Maims 


263 


:j25 


Bombay 


2G1 


J79 


Bone Oil 


202 


293 


North- Wefitom Provinces 


95 


(i l ) 


Pwrjab 


12 D 


122 


Contidl Provinces 


88 


a 7 


Buima 


48 




Average fen India 


20 E) 


a"> A 



Average cost of the eduoa- 
C Ue8e8 ' 



The following u a convenient T,iWot foi lotuinicc ami comjui is<m, 
o cogt of educating oac,h papil in cnllc||Uh - 



AVERAGE COST OF EDUCATING! 1AOH PUPIL IN COLLKC1KR, r^ 





COST 09 JJAUU PUPIL TU 


CifABB OT INSTITUTIONS 






Provincial Eevenuos 


Local and Municipal 


PtlVAlf So 




E*. 


EH 


E, 


fArts 

Colleges { 
[ Professional 


1044 
1781 


22 


92 i 
491 



ItH 

000 



Ttu atatemoni of oost in this Table is an aTerago derived from In&talnlionB undei ovwy lorin of uiun<^i> ft ..it 
depttitmontal, local or mumoipal, and private, whether aided ox uiuudod 

As showing the progiett ot higher English collegiate odufiataon, the niimboi ot snoeewful cdnilnlulos ai ,. 
Besolt of TTniTeraity Exam- diifoiont TTnivemfcy Examination*, of utadtmte in Aita Oolloui-h fu tlic 11 , 
mations in ArtB, 1886 86 188o-88, n ahown m Iho following tablo t 



UJBflViESITT EXAMINATIONS IN AETH, IN 18KC-8R 


PROVTNUJB 


MA 


DA 


n HI 


Knsl, Aits, 

01 (l|UlVllll*Ilt 


IfadiM 


8 


J(3 


T - 


4A(> 


Bombay 


3 


09 


A 


&W 


Bengal . 


31 


410 




ill* 


Notth-Woafteni Provinces 


2 


51 




' 


Punjab 


2 


1C 




f 


Oonkal PronooM 










Buwna, .... . 








21 


Total 


46 


708 


3 


MK0 " 


Total for 1884-85 


23 


5IW 


4 


1,087 



By BAlw4 0.0ft, p 148. 



t*,pUI 



MB NASH'S BJCYIBV OP EDUCATION, 1887-S2 

111 reference to the growing share which Oollegas under piivate management are taking in the higher 
Comparative success of Gov- * um ** * ne country it is necossaiy to enqune how fai these Colleges ore 
eminent and other Colleges successful, BO far a? success can be estimated by the ability of then students 
1 * Exammatl0na ' * P MS tne exajninations of the TTmveiuty The figures necessaiy foi foini- 
mg a judgment on this point aie given in the following Tabulai Statement* _ 



MB 



COMPARATIVE SUOOBSS OF GOVERNMENT AND OTHEB COLLEGKES IN UNIVERSITY 

EXAMINATIONS, 1885-83 





MA 


BA 


FIRST AETB (OB EQUTV LLBNT). 


PBQTODB 




a 

H Qfl 


1 


*n 




ei nment 
jeges 


u 


led Col- 
i& indpn- 
) students 




BI nmcnt 
eges 


<D 

1 




M 






0* 


'S 


i *? 


1 





! 


on 5 


^ 


^"0 


[3 


? ob-^ 


^ 




cb 


-4 


p ^ 


5 U 


-5 


t- ? 


^ 





^ 


t- > 


^ 


Madias 






8 


8 


87 


71 


5 


163 


211 


182 


63 


4Tb 


Bombay 


2 


1 




3 


62 


10 




72 


135 


84 


19 


2* 


Bengal 


21 


5 


5 


31 


149 


135 


126 


410 


244 


139 


253 


b36 


North-Wobtein Provinces 


1 


1 




2 


23 


23 


5 


51 


33 


41 


14 


^1 


Pirn -jab 


2 






2 


12 


1 


2 


15 


41 


9 


8 


58 


ContialPiomc' 








. 










14 


6 


1 


21 


Burma 




















3 






*' 


Total 


26 


7 


13 


46 


333 


240 


138 


711 


681 


464 


358 


1,503 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



MB NASH'S QUmQUENtflAL EBVIBW OF THB PBOOEBSS OF BDtTOATION 1ST INDIA, 3887-88 
TO 1891-92, AND ITS STATISTICS FINANCIAL POSITION OF THB INDIAN UNIVERSITIES 
RESOLUTION OF THB GOVEBNMENT OF INDIA ON THB SAME, DATED 7*H SEPTEMBER 
1894 SOME IMPORTANT MATTEBS DEALT WITH IN THE BESOLUTION 

The preparation of the second Quinquennial Review of the piogiess of Education m India, during the yeais 

Mr NftBh'B Beview of Bdu- 1887-88 to 1891-92, was entrusted by the Ctavernment of India to Mr A 

cation in India 1867 to M Naah, a Piofeasor of the Presidency College, Calcutta The orders weie 

1892 that the Report should bo a compendium, in continuation of Sir Alfred 

Orott's Report of 1886, of the information supplied by the different Local GoYernments, as regaids the condition 

of education in each Ptovmce, the methods and organization by which it is imparted, and the extent to which 

ofieot is being given to the recommendations of the Education Commission In accordance with these imftruotione, 

Mr Nash has extracted from the Departmental Reports of each Province the most important facts connected 

By Bur Alfred Croft , p l-Prepwd from the three Tablei o that page 



126 



BFQLISH EDUCATION IK INDIA 



with the history of education, and statistics to show the natnie and extent of the progiefls made duimg the 
piecedmg five years The lepoit is thus merely a continuation of Sii Alfred Cleft's report which was wiitten m 
1886, and it is therefore necessary to hoiiow the Statistics, which will thiow light upon the progieas and condition 
of English Collegiate Education down to the year 1892 these statistics hoing the latest available 

The following Table* shows the enoimous inaeaso in tho numboi of students, leading in the Aits Colleges 
Increase of attendance in m the vaiiom piovmces, doling tho five years, 1887 to 1892 
Arts Colleges, 16s 8 7 to 1882 



ATTENDANCE IN ABTS COLLEGES, 1887 to 1802 









NUMI1KL OK lnlUi UP 


PBovrsuE 


NUIIDFB OF STUDENTS IN Am a COLLB.QBS 
ON line 31bi MUICH 


i 
i 

i 
i 

214 


HcrrurjL dniNii AUI, 

AMUNN YUrnM (INI \\AS 
LhAIUNli IN AN Al I'S 
COLLLUP IN 


]87 
11 


IB88 


1889 


1890 


1891 


1892 


J887 
^1,3.12 


IK'U 
K7'M 


Lowoi Bui ma 


30 


27 


23 


25 


44 


Nwth-Wefitoin Provinces 


478 


837 


600 


931 


1,]94 


1,311 


1743 


7,21)5 


2,7SI 


Contial Piovmoes 


10D 


144 


153 


122 


212 


232 


1B2 


8,741 


Ml>7 


Bengal ... 


3,215 


4,494 


5,168 


4,882 


5,2,42 


5,225 


625 


1,5R4 


1,05(1 


Pun]ftb 


319 


305 


322 


358 


380 


4G2 


448 


4,81)1 


%li54 


Bombay 


955 


J,D20 


1,170 


1,229 


1,289 


1,332 


395 


1,877 


i,r>74 


Madias 
Total 


2,979 


3,036 


3,069 


3,043 


3,205 


3,818 


2K2 


7M> 


OS), 1 ! 


8,060 


9,656 


10,017 


10,018 


11,540 


12,424 


5114 


1,075 


l,4ft 



The above Table &hovts that the increase in the numhor of studonte is veiy un equally disinbuted, ami timl. in 
M)moPiovmoes the late of 1 inoiodso vaiios voiy much fioia yoai to ycai The last tluee ouluunih me unnntlibiit as 
indicating a oompajisonbotwooii the piogiebs mado dm Lug tho hvo joari arid tho provioiih cxLroit ol 
Education m the djorent Pix)vmces At might be o\pocied, the idto oi men BOM is cp ea,tuht in Ihnhe 
in which Univeisity Education had mado loa&t pio^rosfl boiuio Ib87, iud tho 01 ilei ol the d^mes imlicaUn^ the 
iatc k of lUDioofeo dilfoia Jroin tho older of the ncguich m tho haoieodjaof column only with icspctt In ilu* NorUi 
WoKturn Piovinces and Bengal, m both ot which Piovmues the uiueabo IB ieUlivuly gieiitn Ilian nn^Jid b.ive 
bocu evpootod In the Noith-We&tein Piovmcos ibis is duo to the OHlabhshmetii ol the Utu\eihi1> oi AUibhiiUul, 
and the lughiato oi mcrcayo in Bongolcanbo arcmuitcd ioi by tho foxt that (.lie hlandaid r>I the Kntickfice 
HhcjinindiioxL wafe lowered in tho you 1887, losnltuig in an unusual uiotoafiC (jl Oolle^i.tle KinrlenLH 

The following Ublef shows foi each Piovmcc the numbui ol UollegL^ ol (<i(h <Unh, and iho nuniiiei 
ITiun'ber of English Arts ^ btadonts in thorn on tho 3Ut March, J8tf7, and the oui reupuudui^ pei jod in 
Colleges m 1887 and 1802 1892 

* Progruscf Education * India, 1887 88 to 1601 92 By A 1C Huh, 3fiq,MA. (1893), p 01 t A,p 69. 



JLQTS COLLEGES IN 1887 TO 1892 



127 



ABTS COLLEGES, ENGLISH, 1886-87 TO 1891-92 



PROVINCE 


1886-87 


1891-92 


TTwDin 

PUBLIC 
MAifAOB- 

TtfLNE 


TTNDTB, 

PJUVA.TE 

MVVAQL- 
MJNT 

AIUHD 


FNDBE 
PBIVJLTE 

MiNiea- 

MENT, 

UNUDBD 


TOTAL 


TJffDBB 

PUBLIC 

M\NA(U9- 
MJDNT 


FNDXB, 
PHHATC 
MANA&E- 

MDNT, 
Aniim 


UNDUE 
PBRVTB 
MUTI&E- 

Mmrr, 
UNUDBO 


TOTU, 


& 


| 


1 


1 


IT 

CD 


1 


I 


1 




1 


* 


1 




| 


I 


1 




1 




1 


'o 



1 


O 


1 


1 

o 


J 




1 


1 


i 




i 


o 


1 


M uhas 


8 


95fi 


19 


i,7;,j 


4 


271 


31 


2,979 


7 


1,029 


24 


2,569 


4 


220 


35 


5818 


Homluy 


5 


5D9 


1 


41* 






9 


955 


4 


476 


4 


813 


1 


243 


9 


l,J-!2 


Hcngj.1 


13 


1,085 


7 


795 


7 


1,135 


27 


3,215 


12 


1,638 


7 


1,097 


15 


2,460 


34 


5,,L!'> 


N -W P and Oudh 


3 


312 


4 


237 


5 


29 


12 


478 


3 


408 


4 


659 


5 


154 


12 


1,111 


I'miiiih 


1 


218 


1 


55 


1 


16 


J 


319 


2 


152 


3 


211 


1 


89 


b 


lr,2 


rVnital Piovmcoq 


1 


47 


2 


53 






3 


100 


1 


88 


2 


144 






3 


2i_J 


Lower Burma , 
Total 


1 


11 










X 


14 


1 


44 










1 


U 


32 


3,070 


37 


3,339 


17 


1,051 


86 


8,000 


30 


3,965 


44 


5,293 


23 


3,166 


100 


12,4:24 



Tt will hft oiisoived that the total number of Colleges moreaeed "bj 14, or 16 3 per cent During the pie- 
coduig five Jveniti tho inorcabo was 23 colleges, or 3G 5 par cent This diminution in the iate of increase was more 
than LomnJflHfttod by tho uimeasod size of tho Colleges , for, while in 1887, tho average number of students in each 
ii'i 'J4, in 1892 tho numboi was 124 The total increase in the number of students during the last five 
wm 1,304, or 54 14 per cent , against an increase of 2,648, or 48 93 per cent , dm ing the previous five jeais 
Tho mr ft <flu in tho number of students is common to all the Pi evinces of India, but tho number of colleges has 
men uriiHl 111 only throo Provinces In Bengal 7 Colleges have been added to the list, in Madras 4, and in the 

i 3 

Tho classification of Arts Colleges, according to management and grade, is shown in the following Table * 
Classification of Arts Col- Colleges affiliated to a University up to the B A fetandaid being classed ** 
leges, 1887 to 1892. first grade, and those affiliated to a lower standard, as second-grade colleges 



MANAGEMENT 


1886-87 


1891-92 


Tii&t Gbade 


Second Grade 


First Giade 


Second Grade 


(iovouintont 


20 


9 


19 


1 


Nativu Status 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Municipal 
Aided 


19 


1 
IS 


25 


5 
19 


Unaided ...... 
Total 


5 


12 


13 


33 


45 


41 


58 


42 



Progrtu of JMuMtio* tn Info, 1887-88 to 1801 9JB By A, tf Naah, E^,M A (1898) , p 63. 



ENGLISH EDUCATION IN UTOIA 



The following is a bat * of some of the most important oollog-es in India with the numbm of students on 
Host important Colleges in the rolls on the 31st March 1892 
India. 



Oolleqfs 

Presidency College, Calcutta 
Residency College, Madias 
Mnn Ccntial College, Allahabad 
Elplunfltone College, Bombay 

Missionary Oollegn 

Ohiifitian College, Madias 
St Joseph's College, Tiiokmopoly 
Geneial Assembly's Institafcion, Calcutta 
Fioe Church Institution, Calcutta 

Nafave 



128 
371 



265 

707 
WO 

WJ 



4o I. 

<U7 



Motiopolitan Institution, Calcutta 
City Oollegp, Calcutta 
Ripon College, Calcutta 
FoLgut&on College, Poena 

Tlio following Table -f shows tho toUl p\poiidituio from rliJhsient stmreoh on AitH Online s in c,uli Pimiuci', 
Expenditure on Arts Ool- in 188G-87 and in 1891-92 
legos, in 1887 to 1892 



EXPENDITURE IN AJITS OOLLEHEH, KNUL1HI1, IHflli R7 TO IH'M r J 



pBomror 



Bombay 



N 1 

Puigili 

I 1 iiiti il IHunaofli 

liiiwti Uuinw 



ToUl 



1RSIH7 



38.1S7 



Bo 



BS^OM 



30,1*4 



4.UQ 



419,181 

i,a,sn5 



ItfH 






i,ann 



21,378 



fib 



lS,Ulfc 
^031 

ir.ii 



1.H7U 
iA.aU 

1,38,%% 1,1)1,101 



u^ra 



MUffl 



IH.S1 



j/uii7 ih,nii,7sj b,7Min I/ 



l*Rn\ nrouL 
UJVINUIH 



no^ 
PnhliL 
meat 



Rs 



14,103 



71,517 



2I.S11 



l/ft/IIP 



1th 

,11,111') 
1,17,)' 



JMU 



Jth 



7H 



l^ilHI 



1VJ.O/J 
1,1/IS 
2 I'M* 



IU 



IN 

MI2M 
M 1,'HHI 
7,1*7, IW 
'Ml, IHI 



1I.7W 
147HI 



It will he obyorvodm this Table, that in 188G-87 tho tntnl ovpcnrhtni'o in Aitw 
Rs 16,06,722, and that iluiuig tho iivo yeaafi ondiiig in 1801-02, it iobo to KN 
of KB 3^95,587, 01 24 6 por oant 

Thu following Tabular Statement,! exhaotod from tho Table cpvw in pai'n^iapli 17, at piv^o ifO, of Mr Nasli*H 



hum all Hi>utn i M, \virn 
I, tluiH whowin^ an 



Proportionate expenditure 



IHH7-HH A> 



c rntiparuH ilui 



on Arts Colleges from public ditforont pi'qjojtioiis in whiolj publiu anrl pi ivatu fuiidH f 
and private funds, 1887 to bntod to tho flnppoit of oollc'ffuito odncatiou during thoHo yi'rirs, in tho V4i 

Proymoofl whoro wuoh ednoutirm prevail** 



tol891 03 By A M NiuOi, KHI , M A. f p 68 



t^ v p,Ci 



t 76 , p, 30 



AY1HA8I AHHOU INS IN ARTS 001LMW, 1887 ABD 1892 



120 



PBOPORTIONATE EXPENDITURE OS COLLEGIATE EDUCATION FROM PUBLIC AND 
FROM PRIVATE FUNDS IS 1886.87 AND 1891-92 



PfiOYIKOH 


1886.87 


1891-92 


Piom Public 
Pnnds 


From Private 
Funds 


From Public 
Fonda 


From Private 
Funds 


Madias 


449 


551 


487 


513 


Bombay 


514 


486 


514 


486 


Brnqal 


672 


328 


549 


451 


North- Wostoin Pioviucos and Oudh 


730 


270 


624 


376 


Pimjab 


687 


313 


664 


336 


Ccutial Piovmcos 


551 


449 


444 


556 


Bui ma (Lowez) 
Total 


98 6 


14 


942 


58 


CO? 


393 


549 


451 



Hoi oiling* to iho table of expenditure in Aita Colleges, given above, ton the years 1886-87 and 1891-92, it will 

Average Annual FOBS per a PPo* tliat, whilst m the foimor year the expenditure from fees amounted to 

pupil UL Arts College , *A 1887 Ba 3,68,974, in the latter year it had risen to Re 6,31,498, thus showing an 

and 1892 incioose of Ks 2,62,519, or 71 1 per cent In 1886-87 the fees amounted to 

lather If'Btt than 23 p< " ooni of the eutuo expenditure, but in five years the pioportion roao to 31 J per cent The 

inciuoHC IB in a orv^at moasnio duo to the iibe in the number of pupils, and the following Table * gives the average 

feu paid por a,*7iim by each pupil in the different Classes of Colleges 

AVURAMti YEAELY FEES PAID BT STUDENTS IS ABTS COLLEGES IS 1886-87 AND 1891-92, 



PROYIHOB 


1886-87 


1891-92 


Colleges no- 
dei Pabho 
Manage- 
ment 


Aided Col- 
legsa. 


Unaided Col- 
leges. 


Colleger un- 
der Public 
Manage- 
ment 


Aided Col- 
leges 


Unaided Cot 
leges, 


tfadnw 


B 
602 


E 
Ml 


E 
766 


B 
632 


B 

589 


B 

50 


Bombay 


851 


462 


283 


979 


711 


347 


Bangui 


777 


510 


173 


824 


48 


261 


N -W P and Ondlt 


392 


271 


241 


430 


304 


307 


Pnujab 


363 


445 


151 


767 


545 


289 


Central Provraoee 


248 


179 


I 


298 


148 





Burau 
Average for India 


271 


i* 


* 


553 





- 


68 If 


492 


804 


726 


526 


282 



Jihkrtioii Idi in 1887 88 to 1891-98 - By -1 M IMh, Bafton* M A,p 

f Thiiflgnzfluamtt^prob^lybyamiMprmt^m the Offloul Report, and <u the totti wmunb of Teei pud by 
eollftgQi imdsv public tn*gement unot ihownmny Dther Table, tiie *me for Moh Kronnoe HM loean ottaOftted by mnltiplymg 

^^ ^"^ 



17 



130 



EHOIISH IDTJOjUTIOir Iff IKDIA. 



The following Table* snows what percentage of the total expenditure m different Classes of Colleges 
Percentage of Expenditure WM met from the Fee-income in 1888-87 and 1891-92 

in Arts Colleges from fees, in 

1887 and 1892. 



PERCENTAGE OP PEE-BECEIPTS TO TOTAL EXPENDITURE IN COLLEGES 

IN 1886-87 AND 1891-92 



PROYTNOI 


1886-87 


1891-92 


Government 
Colleges 


Aided 
Colleges 


Unaided 
Colleges, in- 
cluding 
Native States 
Colleges 


Government 
Colleges 


Aided 
Collages 


Unaided 
Colleges, jn- 
rludmi? 

Native -Htatos 
Collins 

;n o 


Madras 


244 


349 


450 


226 


413 


Bombay 


223 


331 


69 


238 


320 


2hi! 


Bengal 


225 


280 


415 


349 


360 


*>77 


N-W P aadOuih 


104 


67 


35 


268 


162 


l/i <> 


Punjab ... . 


195 


149 


51 


215 


243 


55 ') 


Central Provinces 


75 


39 





127 


82 




Burma , 
Average in India 


13 







58 







207 


264 


233 


276 


328 


426 



The foUomng Tablet gives a Summary regaiding the cost of edneatmg a pupil in institutions c f diBuriii 
Average ooat per pupil in dashes 
Arts Colleges. 



AVERAGE COST OF THE COLLEGIATE EDUCATION OP EACH PUPIL IS 1H80-87 AND 1891-02 







1886-87 


1891 


Provincial 
Revenues 


Local and Muni- 
cipal Fnndfi 


i 
1 


Total 


Provincial 
Revenues 


r 
to 10 . Local and ifum- 
, fes CT i cipal Funds 


UL1SS OF iHHTITUTION 


fArte 
Colleges] 
(Profesnonal 


1028 
1654 


25 


933 

414 


198 G 
2208 


713 
1908 



883 
563 



TofaJ 



1G20 
255 3 



The large deoresM m the cost of edwatmg a student m Arta Colleges is duo to tho largo mom*. ,. 
aretage number students in eaeh Cofloge , though the fees luro inonaaod n>ro iap,,lly than the number of 
.tudenta, the B*bsepimB, etc, have not run m proporticm, d henoo thow to a small <U>c>roiiNo m Ifao tt rom 
amount paid from pnvate Baaroes ^ 



IVotfw.iif ti<mMIAa,1887e$to]8fll-W ByA M Kash Biqun, M A (18n),p M 



t a, t p. M 



BBSULTS 01 HHTVBESITT HUMINITIONS, 1891-92 LSI 

In regard to the subject of expenditure, the following detailed inf ormatoin * is interesting The annual cost 

Average annual cost to Gho- to Government of educating a student in the principal College of each 
pupilin Govern. - Pmaa ^ m 1991.9^ u BtoTO labw _ 



Madias 

Bombay 

Bengal 

Noi th-Wostmn Piovinoes 

Punjab 

Ctnfcial Provinces 

Bui ma 



Presidency College 
Elphmstone Coll eg a 
Fiesidency College 
MUU Central College 
Lahcne Government College 
Jubbulpoie College 
Bangoon OollegB .. 



Bs 

276 
243 
223 
99 
295 
165 
895 



The avoiaqc cost to Govornmout loi each pupil in Aided Colleges vanes considerably in difEaont FIOVULGBS, 
Average annual cost to Go- tho ngmos for 1886-87 and 1891-92, are given bolow, the neaiest rupee 
vornment in Aided Colleges bonig token 





1886-87 


1891-92 


Marine 


36 


37 


Bombay 


50 
35 


74 
21 


Noilh-Wofltoiii Piovmeofc 


101 


56 


Punjab 
ContiAl Piovmcw 


95 
93 


75 
25 


Avciogo loz India. 


47 


42 



hi CQUAoquoiicc of groat variations in tho standard of the examinations, which unfortunately are very common 

in tho Indian TJmversiiaos, the pi ogress made during the last nvo years can- 

Besultfl of University Ex*- no j. fc e aoomately estiniated hy companng the rnunbar of candidates, who 
mutations in 1891-92. passed tho examinations in 1891-92, with the corresponding figure* for 1886-87 

With lofwonoo, however, to the Tabular Statement of tho lewults of University Xkaomnationa an Aits, in iho year 
Ib85-R0, ftivcm ttronidfl tho end of the preceding Chapter, it will be interesting to give hare a similar Tabular State- 
ment lu! the yoai 1891-92, as showing tho latest information as to the extent of Collegiate Education in Arts The 
follow^ Table hafl boon extracted from thieo Tabular Statements given in paragraph 60, at pages 70 and 71 of 
Mi Naflh'H ftftw*!7i*pw0Z IbvuM oj Education wi Indio 

TINIVBRSITT HXAMTNATIONS IN AETS, 1891-92 











First Aits, en 


PROVIVOB 


MA 


BA 


BSo 


Equivalent 










. 


Maclrat, 
Bombay 


6 
6 
46 


31S 
129 
273 


3 


970 
314 
1,011 


WorUi-Wofrtorii Provinces 
Punjab 
Gontial Provinces 


15 

a 

4 


112 
45 
19 

A, 


" 


l&l 
134 
59 
11 


Burma 










Total 


79 


898 


3 


2,690 


Total t iw 1885.86 


46 


708 


3 


1,503 



By A 



66 



The flffOBM te 1885 86 hw. to** ta to AJtod Oroffi &VM tf *apftiJaiamlB6,p.l48 



132 



BJTGLISH BD001TION IN IMDIA, 



The figures in the above Table indicate a general advance in higher English education in Arts during tho five 
General advance in Higher vears Feeding the year 1893, the moreWD in the number of successful 
English Education duiing candidates in the MA Examination being most noticeable, and tho pi ogiobf, 
1887-92. JD. the B A "BlHniTip.-hfifi a also, since 1885-86 being satisfactory the numboi 

of successful candidates haying risen from 7D8 in 1883, to 898 in 1892, showing an increase of no less than 19D 
In regaid to the spread of higher English education, however, Mr Nash, spooking of tho pioportion of graduation 
to matriculated students, observes that, "in the TJmversitiBS of Oxford and Oambudge, it IB probable that at lo.tot 
60 per cent of the students, who matnonlate, ultimately obtain the degree of B A , taking all tho Indian Uiuvor- 
mtiBB together, the proportion is probably below 20 per cent It would bo interesting to asoratain tho piopoitinn 
stopping short at each stage of the University course, but unfortunately, neither the departmental Returns uoz the 
TJmveisity Records famish sufficient data for a complete investigation of the question i * i J When the 
numbei of ' Passes ' at the Matuculation increases or decreases very much, the number of students cntonnq A Col- 
lege mcrBases or dooreasos m a much smaller proportion, which appears to indicate that tho boys who do not go 
any forthei than the Matriculation Examination belong chiefly to the class of weak students, who could nut 



derivo muoh profit from study in a College " 

With reference to tho policy of the withdrawal of Government from tho direct manaifoinent oi Collins it is 

Comparative success of Go- niterosting to obsorve how far Colleges, other than Govoimuont Jusiitiilumh, 

vernment and other Colleges are successful in passing tho higher examinations of tho Universities m Aits 

in University Examinations, Tho following Table, which has boon piopazcd Jiom two TnliuLu SUteiiiuits 

in 1887 and 1882. giyBn m paragraph gg, at page 74 of Mi HabL's Eepozt, given a oUsilti at urn 

of the candidates who passed the M A v"d tho B A (including the B Sc ) Examinations in thu ydub 1H8C-B7 AUI! 

1391-92, according to the management of the Colleges 

COMFAEinVB SUCCESS OF GOVEttNMHffT AND OTflBB COLLEGES IN UNIVERSITY BXAHINATION6 IS AHT6, 1BSLS7 AND 



Tot a 





138087 


1SD1P. 


Tta IIIIHMI 

VBOVDIOBI 


under pnblio 


Aidod 
lutatetioni 


Unudod 


Ftmio 


Trial 


iBftitnlioni 
under publiu 
niniifif.niMit 


Aided 


iwZt^L 


M 




"0- 


















UA 


BA 


MA 


BA 


KA 


BA 


MA 


BA 


KA 


BA 


MA 


BA 


KA 


BA 


MA 


It A 


V/ ' V 


Kadw 




s> 




7ft 




1 


8 


1 


8 


168 




OS 




IDfi 




13 


n 


i 


Bomb 17 





08 


1 


LJ 










a 


Bl 


5 


8* 


1 












Baar-u 


40 


118 


13 


114 


8 


108 


4 


99 


OJ 




24 


123 




n7 


4 


71 


IB 


i 


H W P ndOodh 


5 


89 


1 


31 




8 






8 


Ob 


b 


41 


8 


bb 




a 


(i 


' 


Punjab 
CartrUProvuwoi 
Bunnah, Lower 




11 






1 


a 




4 

1 


1 


81 
IS 


B 


tt 


3 


Ib 
11 








k 


Total 


n 


814 


10 


118 


7 


US 


7 


85 


61 


7U 


38 


811 


10 


Sll 


1 


87 


27 


10E 



BA 



1.!' 

ill 



The Statistics given in this Chapter may be closed with tho following Tablo, which (TIVPH a Riunmary ul ilio 
Summary of expenditure OIL general statistics of expenditure on high Bn^lwli education fi oni vat litv*^ 
high English Education in sources The Table has been extracted Irom tho Table given m j><ii<^rti]iL lo* 
_ at page 23, of Mr Wash's Boport - _ *' 

HXPBNDITTiai ON HI&H 1NGLISH BDUOATION, 1880-87 ANJ) 180J-OS3 



1887 and 1892 



SOUBOHS 01 EXTHNDITUBJ 


1860-87 


1801- 


Colleges 


Uni-ramtios. 


Toiol 


Oollogoa 


Uiurum 

a 
% 

*8 


Pponncial Bieyenues M 
Local Funds 
Mumoipal Fonda 
jo eas 
Other Sonroes ... 

Total 


Ba 
13,48,190 
6,759 
14,519 
4,73,208 
4,10,807 


BB 

44,800 

' 4,618 
3,19,905 

4S8 


Es 
13,88,050 
(5,769 
19,137 
7,03,2-)3 
4,10,;^9 


He 
16,37,677 
10,U 
2R,20:{ 
7,00,572 
4,09,4^7 


22,48,643 


3,68,975 


26,17,516 


28,72,838 


V- 



TnUl 



68 to 1801 98 By A M Hub, Hiqulro, H,A , p 



HESDLTTTION OF THI flOVKBHIflBrT OF INDIA, 1894 133 

The mn&t satisfactory feature in this Table IB tlie rise of Fees in Colleges, from BB 4,73,268 in 1886-87, to 
B of Fees in OoUegea ^ 7,96,572 in 1891-92, &*wng a large inorewe, amounting to Bs 3,23,304, 
satisfactory <* 68 P G1 ent., m tllB expenditure from fees in Colleges , whilst the rate of 

UKTEML&G dm ing tlio same period of the nnmbez of scholars has been mn.oh 

This i?nrs to show that iho poople arc gradually looming to appreciate the valne of high English education, 
,inri I n r r ly mm o upon thoii own recouisos, and leas on the State and the generosity of others 

Jn an mud ion ^itli the question, how fai high English Education is gradually becoming self-supporting, it M 

xutDi opting to consider the latest inf oimation in regard to the financial pow. 
* th8 tlcm o tll Tndian Umveisitioq, and with thia object the following passage ib 

quoted hue from the latest Official Bopoit 

Madias is a Selt-snppoiting Institution In the year 1801-92 the income amounted to 
Rs 1,92,922, including Bs 1,78,534 ft am Examination Fee?, and the ezp en- 
Madias TTnivoTMty eolf-sup- (lltniu ^ as -^ 1,64,846, ont of the general lunda of the University, a sum of 



Tls l,h M ),OnO has been invented as a RO&GIVG Fund The Fees for the Mitucn- 



i, Fust Ails, and J) A K v^w in nations, an 20 pii oont lughoz than in the othoi Indian UmveiqitiBg The total 
umoiinl of in'HatHu'in'Uc'Linns, Lor Uw Mulownu'iil oi BchoLu &hipfa and piusea, is much Bmolloi than in Bombay 
,wi<l ('all iilt.i, amouulinn to only Rs OMOU 

u TIu Bnmliay Umvc'isity is jaitly ilcpoiifloiit npnn Gwonrmont, and reooiwi an annnal giant of Bs 15,DOU 

Tho intil c\puinliiiaiLin 1B01-02 was Bs 1,17,573, and the moomo ft omFeon 



the UnivuiHity suli-hnppmtmg, 10 now befoze the Bonato Tho University 
H vory richly endowed with Hclioliinliip^ PJIBOH, &o, tho total ainonutof the mvostanontb lor this pm pose being 
vlxmt f>{ lakliM A nctnly ctjunl amount has U!M> boon givun by ptivato individuals towards the cost of the 
(JmwiHity biulding and library, ono goutlonian, Mr Promcihand Boydhond, oontnbuting 4 lakhs of rupees for thi* 



u Tho UiuvcrHt / i/f Oaloatta rocoivcw no aid from Government, the income m 1891-92 amounted tu 

Calcutta Tk^versity inde- ^ 1,7^302, and the Examination Foea alouo, to Be 1,84, 795, tho annual 

po&do&t of (fjonunent Grant* aoccmnts show an cxpendituio of Bs 1,05,710 during tho yoar, bat the 

in-aid ezpondifmro for tho year was nearly Bs 1,50,000 Tho annual accounts arc 

vory wiBloo4fi<#, OB tho fo6R for tho Aite Examinations axo rocoivod in Dooeoiber and Januaiy, while only a poitaon 

of tlio conf ^ tho oxaiTiinationH, and this a variable ono, u paid befoiD tho end of tho official year In order to 

mulct t u account* a better tout of tho fitianoial position of tho University, it has recently been decided to count 

tlio fma > i d yuar from tJio 1st July Ou tho 81st March, 1892, tho Bosom Fund funonntod to Bs. 1,25,000 On 

tlu* Hftfl ' datOj tlio total amount of tho endowments for soholarships, Ao , was rather more than 6J- lakfa, incluimg 

!) ZoJU 'or tlio Tugoio Law Froloflsorship, and B0 2,38,000 for the Promohand Boyohond Studentships, established 

by I' r* ffontltrniun whoso donation, to tho Bombay Univorsity has just boon montionod 

" Tho total o\panditaro ai tho Punjab Umvoiaity, exoloflivo of the coat of iho Onentol College and the othex 

toaohmg uubtitutions connected with the University, was Bs 65,376 , thu 
on the Pnajafc ^^^ ^^0. BB 17,602 from Ercmnoial Bwenues, Bb 1,512 from Looal 
and Bs 37,785 JEromfoos The endowments molude Bs 1^9,600 for the 



gonoial purposoB of tho TTnivaisity and lie 2,23,000 m special Trusts 

41 For tlio Allahubad UnimaiLy tho Daoctor'a Boport shown an ozpendituro of BB 30,132, all of which 
finance* of the AUahabad vas mot fiom foos A& yot, tho endowments are small, amounting to low 
Uuivorwty thamBs 15,000"* 

Mr Nuflh'H Qauuiucnuijal Bonow oi: Education in India, from tho official yoar 1887-88 to 1891*92, was 

Boflolution of tho Govern- considered by tho Oovocnment oi India, in a Resolution, No _-J^-? 

mout of India, dated 7th Sep- SS^I-IMO , 

toolbar, 1894, reviewing Mr, dalait Uie 7th Soptombor, 1894, and ihe following oztroots may be quoted from 

Hash's ftnimiuonmal Boport it, as it doals with the subject of High English Education in India, and giyuH 

on Education, 1887-92. ^ Q ^^^ iU Connation as to the viows of ihe Government on the subject 
4( Tho highoftt division of tho Indian System of Public Instruction oomprues those students -who ore reading, 

tmitfflMit* OoUaaiate Bdnoa- m ft 0dlo S* 0^*oi * * University, one or ottw of the courses presented 

twn f anditoptogrS-l88ato by ttw University for its higher ewminatums The foUowwg flgnre- 

1895. indioate ftp progress of Ooll^giate Bftooaiaon 



134 



HHQLISH BDtTOiTimr IB IHOIA 



OFFICIAL YEAB 


AETS 


LAW 


MlDIOAT, 


Erooran* 


TOXIL 


-1 

o 3 


1 


S 


, 


S 


1 


1 


1 


3 


* 




^Ia 


i 


o 


i 


I 


i 


1 


1 


a 


1 


1881-82 


B7 


6,037 


12 


739 


3 


475 


3 


330 


85 


7,582 


1886-87 


89 


8,754 


18 


1,902 


4 


554 


4 


474, 


113 


11,404 


1891-92 


104 


12,985 


27 


1,925 


4 


778 


4 


481 


130 


15,172 


1892-93 


108 


13,387 


28 


1,915 


4 


811 


4 


519 


144 


16,032 



" The figures given foi 1861-82 and 1886-87, are those shown in the Be sol nil on of tho Qnvoiiimont ol India, of 
BtatiatLOB of Collegiate Edu- ^ TlnB ' 18S8 > ^ e number of Law Culbgos m 1880-87 is ^ivon in the pt Lsoni 
cation. UL 1803, as compared Eeport as 17 ThoiB weie in lb92-!)!J two colloqos also foi students of pin- 
witQ previous yeara fessional teaching, containing 57 students In 188b-87, tho only inslitui inn nl 

this nature was m the Madras Residency, and was attended by 7 students An Ajjiicultnio College, ormtniiunif l<5 
btndents, complotDS tho list of Colleges in qeneiol, Table m of Mi Nash's Bcpoit Hnqlisli Aits Collets undi'i 
public managamont havo deta eased firan 32 to 30 Aided Colleges of thifi descu]ition havo iison in iuiiiil>(>i lioiu 
37 to 46, and Unaided ones fiom 17 to 27 Colleges of those lattet dehciiptions aio, gownally hprukimi, iAiim 
tbe place of Government Institutions IMty-eight of tha Colleges woio affiliated up totlio 1) A SUiuLuiI in 
1891-92, against 45 in 1886-87 It is tho policy of the Government to maintain at the hcad-qnaitots ol oaoli IJOLM! 
GhovemmBnt, a College, teaching np to the highest stands d, and, consequently the most impoitanl Oovei nmcnti 
Colleges are those at Calcutta, Madias, Bombay, and Allahabad It is Hiitisfaotoxy to obsorvo Hut, UTidui tho Uuads 
of ezponditnze on English Aits Colleges, tho largest inoi ease in m that mot from Coos (Hi ^(>8,07I, to Ib> 1)^1,4^1) 
The average numinioal stiength of the Colleges has inei eased, and the coht of educating a htudont li<^ hillun b ntn 
Os 211 to Ra 166 per annum Tho oost to Government of educating a student m tho Rangoon Cfillnps vrhcii 
there ate but a small number ot pupils, is o\tiaoidman1y hi^h (Rq 805 poi annum) In Aided ("Wu^Iisli Aiih) 
Colleges, tho avarago oobt to Govainmcmt pei pupil, annually w Ra 42 Tho numboi oi MA Doginc^ Ukm 
annually lia& rem.uned almost gtationaiy dnimg the five yoazs (81, in 1886-87, and 70, in 1691-92) , that ol U A 
Degrees rose from 710 to 898 , while at examination*, intermediate butwoon thtbo examination* and tlio Mull i( nl.ir 
tion, 2,690 students passed m 1891-92, agaan&t 2,10ft in 1886-87 Tho nguios do not, on Iho wholi, show a tupnl 
morease UL tho numboi of persons passing the Umvornity E&amiTtatiDiis OJ tho MauLois ol AitH nvho 1ui>k their 
degrees dunng the quinquennium, 70 par oont belonged to Lowoi Bengal Mt Naf.li oomniotits on Mio low per- 
oentage of success among candidates at tho B A Examination in Bongol, which ho IB disposed to aituhuti-, in 
part, to the lowonng of tho Entianco Standard Tlio nuontihc, OOUIHO foi tho B A Do^iuohoH boon cluiSL'ti 1^ t i 
fan pi'oporkon of tho Buocestlul candidates dniing tho five years In Madias noaily one-half, in Buiulwy <mi'-tluid, 
at tho Calcutta University 22 per cent , and about the same jnopoitum it tho Punjab Univoi si t,y, hUiNUil tins 
comso At Allahabad tho piopotion TV.W fim,illei PuiBuant tu leoommondatioiiH of tho IMiKutiim Uoinmmsion, 
a College, affiliated to the Bombay University, np to the B A and B Su Hvannnatmiift, hah bnii iHittililmhcd, umJct 
thenamoof "The Daya Bm Jethmal Smd Cull ego," at K,ua( hi, by inoanH ol subset iptirmH, Hupplmnoni^il hy a 
Gkoat tiDm G-overnment In 1892, tboio wei D 66 bturlontR on tho lollb ul tint, IiHtitntiun Indian qiiwlimton now 
form tho majoiity oi tho Piofohsors at mofit CiillDgofl, anil at some, they compohi* tho whole Uoolin^ htaif, with Unt 
ewption of tho Pruicnpal Colleges of inionoi standing luve in many casrH bcon tiuih(( k noil i^j pnvKtu manual*- 
ment, as was leeommonded by the BduLation Oommishion, and, whoio rapoiflniius, they havo boon closfd In 
1888, tho OnonUl College, at Lahore, was le-fotmod, tho abases of tho Hystom ol HtipondH to pupib bc*nig iviuiMliiMl, 
and the method of teaching Dzieutal languages being changed Tho number of hludi'ntH, howevor, hiu. gmMy 
diminibhed At tho Benai-es Sanskrit Oulloga, which has boon i-ondorotl a sopa-rato niHtitulioii f wm tho A i IH (Mtogp, 
tho number of students has somewhat iallen, but the nnmbor of candidates appearing for tho otamiiiatiorui hflu 
largely mcteased No fees are paid by tho students at this Institution 

" An Axrt of thtt Lsgialatuze was passed in 1887 foi tho osUblishnumt of a TTmvoTHily at Allalmhod, and thu 
University was inaugurated in Novembsr of that year Two thousand nine hundred and xuuo candidates have 



HOfclL TRAirafl IN COLLIQES AJJTD SCHOOLS J35 

BIHOB passei the Entrance Examination of the University, and a number of Colleges nave bean affiliated 

Establishment of the Alia- ^ the India11 TTxaWBlties 8 1 * *& degrees of Bachelor, and Master of Arts 
habad University in 1887 ^ B Bombay University grants the degree of Bachelor of Soienoe in the Punjab 
Degrees granted by Indian University the degrees of Bachelor, Mastei, and Doctor of Oriental Learning ara 
Universities, and their oondi- afco bestowed In the Universities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madias a system 

has been intioduoed, under which the privilege of electing, subject to the 

appioval of the Chancellor, a propoifaon of the Fellows has been oonfeiied on the Mastei a of Arts and holdeia of 
equivalent iegiees Generally speaking, the proportion of graduates who take the degree of MA is very small 
Bj fax the largest number of such degrees are token at the Calcutta Umveisity, where, in the five years under 
leview, the number reached 299 The Punjab University is a teaching a? well as an examining body The greater 
part of the expenditure in the Universities is met fi om fees, togethei with income from endowments , only the 
Bombay and Punjab Universities receiving aid from public funds "* 

There are also some other impoitant matters of general application to educational topics, in the Resolution of 

Some important educational the Bwamment of India (Home Department), dated the 7th Septembei, 1894, 

topics in, the Government of which may, with advantage, be quotad here, as expressive of the present 

India's Besolution, dated 7th policy of Gfoveinment on those subjects The necessary abstracts are the 

September, 1894 following * 

"In reviewing the recommendations of the Education Commission, the Government of India laid down the 

Policy of "Withdrawal, as pioposition that, in proportion as the Department withdraws fiom pushing its 

affecting the Educational fier- own institutions, its machinery foi inspection would require shengthening, 

vice as a Grant-in-aid System postulates a thorough inspection of all institutions 

bi ought undoi it In Bengal the number of State-aided Schools, and the staff employed on inspection duties are 

fai staonffcr than in any other Piovmcs Besides the Inspectors anJ Assistant and Deputy In&peotois, there are 

upwards of 900 Inspecting SDhool-masteis, pandits and gunu. The numbers of the Inspecting Staff do not in general, 

bhow an increase, but most Local Governments and Admimstrationa have revised the inspection cucles, and satis* 

bed themselves of the adequacy of the staff, Female Inspectors have also been appointed in seveial Piovinoes 

Theiopoitsdonot'appeartothe Governor- Qeneral in Council to be sufficiently precise in showing whether the 

work of inspection is thoroughly earned out, and His Excellency in Council trusts that this important subject 

may be commented on moie fully in future The question of the reorganization of the Education Department 

has recently been under the consideration of the Government of India, in connection with the Report of the Publw 

Service Commission The views of the Secretary of State were communicated to the Government of India in 

His Lotdship's Despatch, No 9 (Public), dated 28th January, 1892 In this Despatch, Viscount Cioss held that, 

though it was ultimately desirable, the proposed abolition of the gradad superior service could not be earned out 

forthwith, and appioved the principle of a five yeoi's probationary term for officers appointed from England As 

ds Piofesflors the suggestion was commended to the Government of India, that all Professors might be allow- 

od/fco nso in ten year's service, to a salary of Bs 1,000 per mensem Of Inspectors, one-half (it *as said) might be 

flrnited in India These proposals as to the superior service were referred to Local Governments and Adminwtra- 

t'*ms Several of the Governments consulted, in replying, sent up schemes for the re-organiaation of the whole 

/iijduoation Department in their respective Provinces and it has been necessary to call foot farther reports and 

imonfl PWOP to the piepaiafaou of a matured scheme for submission to the Home Government These are now 

nder the consideration of the Government of India It is contemplated that iihe Educational Seivioe shall, in 

future be divided into, (1) the Euiopean Educational Service, for which recruitment will be made in England , (2) 

the Pwvmcial Educational Service , and (3) the Subordinate Educational Service 

Tho views which the Government of India provisionally endorsed, in the matter of discipline and Moral 

i ipr ininfl: in Colleges Tioimng in Schools and Colleges, were summarized in paragiaph 26 of the 

jj^^oolel Home Depaitment Besolutum, No 199, dated 18th June, 1888 Tbe Govern- 

of India then added that, while they would gladly see an increase in the number of Aided Colleges and 

Schools in which leligioos mstiuction was given, they at the same tune, did not admit that it had been shown to be 

nossible to impart moral instruction in State Colleges, although the tenets of any particular religious belief 

1 old not be taught in them Attention was again invited to the proposal of the Education Commismon that a 

Moral Text-book should be prepared for general nse, based upon the fundamental principles of Natural Behgwn j 

Orders were jjsfluei on these subjects by a Resolution from the Home Department, Vo 5^55, dated 17th * J 

1689 He ***< ttat *"* beaa tBtoa m enfl * 7WfB a n0faoaai m Olap^XIV * Mr- Wwh'* Beview 

Bth September, law, pp 1209, ItfQ. 



138 ENGLISH EDUCATION IN IVDIA 

" Tlio Dn aotor annually reviqes tlie lirtt of books aoooiding to the Gommiticc'n IB commendations Thn Gi 
mitteo, which is composed ot tlio bc*t gcholais available, undoi took in 1891-92, at thoioquest of tlic Dim tin, to 
picpnie li&ta of auihoiiyod text-book* foi High anil Piimaiy Schools also Thuio <uo biancli GimiuiittcL's Ini 
Bchar and Onssa The Caluitta School Bi)ok Society, whi&h ho* niimeimis AILUCIIS, ib tho tlml medium ioi 
the distiibntion u fiJiool-bouks In the Noith-Wostein Piovincoa and Oudli, then* QIC loai Cumnnttu s tni 
selecting Zila, Suhool To^t-books, and iota foi seluctmg books Im Voinaonlai Hrhnnis m iliiieiiut ([iiailoisnl 
thi. Pumnces Tl n? lists no subject to tlio Duoctoi's luviqiou Tho lotjuost ol tliu Onveniuii'iiL ol Indu Lliaf 
A sepaiato section ol the Annual Ropoit slum Id rleal with te^t-books, is no Ionian umiplud \\itli iinlu* Nnith- 
Wt stain Pumrices anil Oudh, and tins omission hhuultl bo icctihod in Calm p Thu Punjab Text-hook CoimmHiH 1 , 
win i k was ustahlifihtd in 1H77, inidc i t.tkos tlic ]n u[iaiation as \\i 11 ns tho o\,vmuuitinn ot bnr>lv^ tin 11 am eiulii 
RiLli-Uomnnituub Text-book Oimmiitlcps h^o boon appimitul alsn m tbp Cunliiil Pintiiu L I S uul in Ijinina lit 
Bui iTi.i tliui p ib ciu olhcoi, tailed tlio Ediim ot Vouuu uUi Hiliuol Tc\t-bookfi, \\ho ovLtnint's Vt iiubiiiLu uuiks, in 
tlip in ft t lusiuici-, and albo nuikos tiausUtious a.iul si'lectionh 

" Tlio rnoiu pi omiuimt icsnlts bj ou4>kt out ti OTII the lustoi y nf odnuatinn in India, dm mq tlio fiu > 0.11 s i r\ r<i LM! 

^_ . by Ah Nosh's llenDit nw\ bibnofly wuiiui'iJ ml Tin niiiuhi i ul inshliilinTis 

PromuLBiit eduoational ro- '__ , / ,, , 

suits during 1887 to 1892 public nuil piiv.ito, coming witkiu tlio pm \ic\\ nl ilio Kdiu.ilinn l)Lp,uhiu ul 

h*ts iisonf H)7U 127,110 tn]M,7 ( ) k t, 01 1>) 11 *t ]ILI u i ni, ind UiiMiuiulju nl (njjuK 

hum o,31<) 1 K >l<lf tr> j,H K )fi,S21, 01 by L w ) I pisi unit Tho ui insist in pripils is to flic c \liMii ol <i ,.! 10 .uuiiinli il hu 
\t} the* 1111 1 us ion, hit the lust turn, nf- lutciius iium Up]K'i Mm ui.t Tliout>]L tlu 1 uUamc has nuiiiuil in a li;litl> 
lnulioi iitn> in (ItiLlo^us anil Socond.ny fcsiUools tlun m Piim.uy HdiiMils, the dillt M iiii k has nut li i n sulln u 
miikiM-l toc,uiso any snbflttinl i.il chani^u in tliu pi opni lions oJ stinU'uts in these UUCP slai>is nl < iliH.ilimi A 
iachny ludiiation of tlii ib.ui^c uh attitude nf tho Mahuniuddu Cum in unity to\\anls 1he nhualMJiial s\sti in nlij[ji<d 
by llio Uovui nmaut, is to be Lnnnd m tlu inoioriso 111 the ninuljui ni Mahmmdm stuili nis li\ ni \\\\ JSjiii 
tout Tho iLUiubcr o Hindus attoudnii* fcJLhool 01 College 1 ha.s also imiUAM'd by J2S |ii>i mil Kunah* tMliKainui 
hab uia.du * sabsUntuI ^dvmuo, the numbci ol c,ulh at scLool <tt iho unl rd IK'II-'IJ liavinu hun 27 )|i(i rout, 
in oxcosy i>f tliQ namboi ai the Liid oi 18HO-H7 Hninofchiii^ ha* luum (luno tu (iiliiv t,1e a i.ihi" Ioi (ubiiiial edm.i 
tion, Ly tLo q^mcidl mtiodauLiun ot drawing into tho School Gmusc Tn mini) hovmies <\r M llus is Mil HI flic 
uvpuumontal sfccu^c, and tho fuithoi development oi technical pclauitiun lus lint yet hnn ^<'miull\ sy^ieinali/td 
A doioot in tliu educationil s^sfcora winch diniundfc buiiDUH attuntiun ih the inadequiiry nl the couise ol Itainni" 

m nion> of tho Tiaming Schools toi toacliuih 

11 As Govcinment louodos iioui dn ootly nuHMginpr itw own hchonh, anil conlinwi ilstll mni^anil iitnn hi aiilim; 

not mafintciiiLeLl by tho Kducai/irmal Dipailincul, NIC duly nl st< utility 



6d Ml oTiwinit wuipeotion ol hohools i ewnvuii^ i(ianis-iiKuil bit niuuh j-n-af*T Tin . 
question incuts tho closo .tnd (ontnuud <vUcn<ion nl (jnial (tnveiunicnt anil 
Ono of tho most utisfaifany tcatuios m onimoeLiun with tho |itn>iess of edudbtum duntu; tho 
five years nncloi loviow IH tn bt> hmucl m thc k inaioa^o ot o\ponriitiii> o by over iiO pi'i cent , and in the eliatiu<> in (lit* 
ROUVOPH iiom wlueli th.it ovjii'iuhtiuo lion been met Tho o\prndit>uie fioni Municipal and IjmaJ iunds lins nia- 
tonally iiioiooaod, while tho flhaioof tho total oxpoiidiiuia homo by puFjlu lundri (in wliuh ait) induili'd 
and Manicipul, as well as State lovounoh) has hlightly doduxocl Tt IH mnnt eiiiiiuiM^in^ Ui find that lln> 
of tho public kavL, daim^ five yoaih, miiioabod iroia 117^ to 149 <c*/tt, ajid jtai tumUil}, that the ite( k i|iis lioni hi*h 
ovoz 3C JJOL cout." * 



CHAPTER XXV. 

PBOFBS3TONAL EULJUATJON IN COLLHflUS, IN IHHUH2 TO 
1685-86, AND IN IHB6-H7 TU 1H')1-'U 

ThesubjODtol piofossional and toohnical oclacation WAH not inrliided within tho Kcnpn ol tho <Mit|im k y miult* 

by the Indian Education Commission oi IHHii; but tho vm urns hnljan Uiu- 
v 1 ^* rpw ff wa * mihwlreuin< * lwi ' hlBdit'H Lno hubjnlH of Luiv, Mtwli- 
ome, andBnpweotiiiff, and Six Alirod Omit, lu IUH Ifrohw <>j Mdw,atum m India 
tn 1886, hai oolleoted valuable statistical and other infoimatiim t which may bo bortowod horo. 

QM9tt tf India, BO. B^ptmbw 18M| pp. 1*78-1 W*. 



PROFHSfllONlL COLEHB1S, 1882-92 139 

Law Departments are in aU cases attached to Arts Colleges, since the Universities require that candidates fop 
Law Departments in Col- the degrees of Bachelor of Law should have taken the B A Degree, or passed 
ese * Boma other examination in Arts, which the University concerned may consider 

sufficient as the preliminary to the study of law In Madras, a course of two yeais, and in Bombay a COUTSB 
of thiee yeais is required, subsequent to giaination In the Calcutta University, the course is for three years, 
of whjch two must be subsequent to the degree, and the two courses ore sometimes read, in pait at any rate, 
simultaneously Similar courses, with minor modifications required by local circumstances, are prescribed by tbe 
PDn]a,b University and the Allahabad Umveisity the foimer requiring that the candidate for the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws should either have passed an intermediate law examination, or should have graduated in Arts, 
and tho latter piesonbmg that " any Undergraduate ot the University may be admitted to the Examination, pro- 
vided ho ha* prosecuted a regular course of study in a school of Law affiliated to the University, for not less than 
two academical yeaia, after having fully passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts " The subjects of legal 
fttudipb, with some local modifications, are similar in all the Universities 

The institutions which exist in India for the training of students for the License in Medicine and Surgery, or 
Medical Colleges, * 0r ^ ^8 * Bachelor of Medicine, as well as for the highei degree of 

Doctor of Medicine, are the Medical Colleges of Madras and Calcutta, the 

Grant Medical Oollego of Bombay, and the Lahore Medical School " The qualification for the License in Medicine 
and Suzgory di&is from that required for the Bachelor of Medicine Degrae, both in. the preliminary educational 
test and in the final standard of examination In Madras, the initial qualification for the license IB the University 
Entrance Examination, and the course extends over four yeaas, divided into two parts, by the first and second 
Licentiate Examination For the degree, candidates must have passed the First Arts Examination, and have subse- 
quently studied modioine for five years , during the course, of whioh they have to pass one preluninaiy scientific 
and two professional examinations To those students who have graduated in Arts, taking physical science, before 
entering on their medical course, the preliminary scientific ftTa.Tn-mn.-hnn and QUO year of study are remitted In 
Bombay the only examination below that for the Doctor's degiee is that for the license A candidate must have 
passed the Matxiculatioji Examination and have studied medicine for four years, during which lie has to undergo 
throo examinations In Calcutta, candidates, whether for the degree or for the license, must have passed the First 
Arts Examination , and in either case the course, extends over five years The only difference is the requirement 
of comparative anatomy and physiology for the degree , a similar distinction being made in Madras The Lahore 
Medical School exists for the benefit of students from the Noith-Wastern Provinces, as well of those ftom the 
Punjab, and both alike are eligible for the Government Scholarships tenable in the institution "* 

There are four Engineering Colleges in India maintained by Government at Madras, Foona in the Bombay 

Presidency, Seebpord in Bengal, and Eoorkee in the Faith-Western Pro* 
Engineering Colleges * ^ 



11 Tho requirements of the Madras University for the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering, are that a 

candidate shall have pased the First Examination in Arts, and shall have subse- 

Elie Madras Engineering qnently pead for two years in an Engineering College All candidates for the 
** degree arc examined in mathematics, natural philosophy, mensuration) and 

the framing of estimates , those for the Civil branch are also examined in suiveying and levelling, constructive 
engineering, and architectural and topographical drawing, thoso for the Mechanical branch, in mechanical engineer- 
ing and machine drawing "t The Madias College of Engineering has been recently re-organized, and is the 
recognized institution for imparting instruction in that subject in that Presidency 

" In Bombay, the University reiunes of candidates for the License in Oml Engineering, (1) the matucula- 
| [tun certificate, (2) a course of three years' study, which may be reduced in 

Bngineenp-g College at ' ^ e ^Q ^ candidates, with higher initial qualifications to two years, or to one 

Eoonja j and arhalf The examination comprises, (1) mathematics and natural philoso- 

phy, (2) experimental and natural scieiije, [3) cavil engineering, (4) one out of the following liat (*) analytical 
geometry, and the dieoeential and 'integral calculus, (i) optics and astronomy, (c) mining and metallurgy, (i) 
Architecture, (e) mechanical engineering, (/) chemical analysis, (g) botany, and meteorology Candidates must aJ0o 
paw a practical test in experimental science and meahanica engineering Instruction in the University Course, 
both theoretical and practical, is given in the Poona College of Science with its attached workshops " J 

"ForthelwsenfleinBjiginBenng of the Calcutta University, a candidate must have passed the Entrance 

Examination, and have subsequently studied for four years in an affiliated 

Oml Eogipeeiint; College at ^^tufaon If be has passed the First Arts Examination, he mil be entitled 
Seebpore new Calcutta, ^ ^ degree of B H The course comprises tiie following subjects matte 

* BIT Alfred Ototf s ta^ tf W^o^ tH>iP* trt f ppSW ( a6t , ; 



140 



INGUSH HDU01TIOH IN IHDIA 



make*, engineering, construction) geodesy, drawing, and either natural science or machinery, according as the 
candidate selects tha Civil or the Mechanical bianch of the course The comae in mathematics is exceptionally 
high, and includes, besides othez subjects, analytical geometry, the differential and integral calculus, andhydio- 



Proposals are nndei oonsidetation foi reducing the extent of this compulsory conrso The Government 
Civil Engineering College at Seebpore, ncai Calcutta, is the institution in which candidates arc prepaaed for tho 
TJmvei&ity Degrees during a course of five ycais " * 

"The Thomason Civil Engineering College at Eoorkee ifl maintained by tho Public Winks Dopaitmcnt of 

^ , _ Government for the requirement*! of the publics soivico , anil it has no con- 

Thomason Civil Engineering ,_ ,,,,, ,-, 

College at Roorkee neiaonwith any Umveisity It is, howovoi, noticed in, this pLico, since it 

disohaiges tho same functions as those that ain so connected Tho Colli'u*' 

contains thiee departments Candidates foi the Engineering Class have to pa&b an Ev.uniiu.tion in Eughbh and 
Hindustani (and also in a tluid language, if then Voinaoulai is English) , m elemental y buonpt?, in (li,iwinir, ami 
in mathomatirfl to a somewhat high standard The course of htudy extend? ovoi two yeaifc, at tlip end f which 
timo an oxamination i& held in mathematics, applied mechanics, oipciimentdil ficionco, civil cnqiuooiinq, (Iia,\unir, 
and craivoymg- Students of this class aio educated fen tho onginoor bianoh of tlio Public Woiks Dqidi tnu'ut, in 
which four 01 five appointments, in oltoinato yuats, aio guaranteed to the bob! of tlioso who pass (Fox ( onifMT isrn, 
it may horc ba repeated, that tho numboi oi gnarantood appointment* foz tho students ol the Pcxma Collf^o is two 
ayeaa , of the Seebpore College, two and ono m alternate yoaifi, oi tho Macbas Colli^o, one u ycarj Tlu uppci 
buboidinato clatfe at Rooikoo is intended to piovido men foi ovoisoa ships, and tho lower ft uhni dilute* TOT hiih-o\ci- 
seeibhips, in the Public Woiks Dopoztment Tho couiso loi the iormer ovtcndh ovci tlnui years, ot \vlnrhilu* 
laflt is dovotod to practical traming on woiks in progrcsss Tho course foi lowoi HulKirdmatcs is limited in a year 
and a-haU The final examination foi uppoi and foz lowet buboidmatos, inolaclub mathonicitits, oujfiiu k c k fiiM( 
di awing, and surveying, to diftoient standaids for tho two olassos "t 

The following Tabular Statement! gives the comparative fatatiatics of Pivfoational Colloxjcs during the* yciii 
Professional CoUeges, 1881- 1881-82 to 1884-85 
82 to 1884-85, 



PROFESSIONAL COLLEGES, 188L-82 TO 1884-85 





1881-82 


1884-8& 




LAW 


MajuoiNH 


ENUINBIHIMJ 




LAW 


MmUOIHU ; . VMHhKltlM, 


PROVING* 


H 




9 











a 











i 






$ 


5 


I 


49 


i 







j 




4= 








a 






1 


| 


i 


jj 




1 


j 






S 




i I 


* 




03 


1 


i 


j 




i 










1 




1 i 1 


Madras Govei nment 


1 


112 


1 


76 




1 


9 


1 


127 


1 


lib 


1 


M 


Bombay ditto 


1 


136 


1 


283 


l 


151 


1 


180 


1 


370 


1 


lb> 


Dongal ditto 


7 


270 


1 


117 


i 


170 


1 


5 


125 


1 


132 


1 


140 


Ditto, Unaided 


1 


190 












9 


524 










N -TT, F j Government . 






... 


, , 


* 















* 


! 


18ft 


Ditto, Aided 


2 


31 


... 




k 


. 


.. 


2 


94 


a 


* 


M 


M* 


Ditto, Unaided 


M 


.. 


ft 


IVI 





. 


.. 


1 


17 


. 


. 


M, 





Punjab, Government 


... 





" 




















1 


188 


... 


* 


1 Grovernmcnt , 
Iota! ,,4 Aided 


9 
2 
1 


518 

31 

190 


3 

* 


476 


3 


330 

i 


2 


94 
541 


4 


800 


4 


A07 


GhuvD TOTAL 






























11 


739 


8 


476 


3 


330 


13 


1,067 


4 


800 


4 


607 



* to Altai OroWi Itnttu ft tout** M MM m 1886, p. 9U 



COST or pRonasiOffAL OOLLHGHB, 1881-85 141 

The total cost of professional education connected with the University in 1881-82, as compared with 
Cost of Professional Colleges 1884-85, u shown in the followmir Table* 
in 1884 1885 ^ 

OOST OF PROFESSIONAL COLLEGES 



111 4H UK CHARm 


1881-82 


1984-85 


ProYinciil 
Revenues 


Fees 


Otter 
BOUICBB 


Total 


Piovuunal 
Revenues 


Fees 


Other 
sources 


Total 




Bs 


Ba 


Ea 


Ea 


Ba. 


BB 


Ba 


Ea 


luw 


527 


39,496 


7,438 


47,456 


403 


32,183 


4,886 


36,666 


Muiioine , 


1,78,187 


35,607 




2,13,764 


2,13,889 


53,366 


2,411 


2,69,666 


Rngmueting 
Total 


1,03,886 


9,921 




1,13,807 


2,70,560 


13,256 


5,749 


2,89,565 


2,82,570 


85,024 


7,433 


3,75,027 


4,84,043 


96,808 


13,046 


5,95,897 



It will be observed in this table that the Law classes practically pay for themselves, whilst considerable 

expense IB manned by Government on education in Medicine and Engineering 

porting BeraltB of the "52," TtB ******* of tte University examinations in these various brandies in 
versity Examinations in pro- 1881-82 and 1884-85 is shown in the following table t which includes only 
fesuonal sutyeotB, in 1881- those who passed the final examination in each case, whether for the 
1885 License or the Degree 



EBSULTB OF UBflVBTUITT EXAMINATIONS (PBOFESSIONAL), 1881-82 AND 188435 





LAW 


MHDIDIKI 


_ 


PBOVINOB 


1881-82 


MUI 


1881-82 


188485 


1881-82 


1884-85 


Madras *** 


12 


25 


4 


10 


1 


7 


Bombay * 


5 


. ' 13 


14 


24 


16 


7 


Bengal . ' 


67 


77 


20 


14 


6 


... 


N-W PzoirtWi . 


2 ' 


... 


... 




.. 


S 




i 












Punjab *' 


... 


.. 




11 





... 


Total 

*lMWt 


4ft 


115 


38 


59 


23 


17 



to Alfred OraWi Stnw of 



ft 



* India, 1886 , p . 



142 



IH&LISH BDUCAHOH O IHDIA 



The subjoined Table* shows the number of Colleges, OP departments of Colleges, in Law, Medicine, and 
Profeasional Colleges, 1886- neenng, and the number of students reading in them on the 31st March 18SG 



PROFESSIONAL COLLEGES, 1885-86 





L. 


LW 


MUD 


i DIHI 


ENOINI 


RtRJNCr 




InstitationB 


Students 


Institutions 


Students 


Institutions 


Studouth 


Madras, Government 


1 


141 


1 


136 


1 


3H 


Bombay, do 


2 


221 


1 


29G 


1 


IK; 


Bengal, do 


6 


110 


1 


152 


1 


itfi 


Ditto, Unaided 


4 


772 


... 


.. 


i 




N W P , Government 


1 


61 


ii 


... 


1 


mi 


Ditto, Aided 


1 


48 


., 








Ditto, Unaided 


1 


18 










Pnnittb, Government . . 








1 


iai 






rGoverxunent 


1 f\ 


pon 












10 


533 


4 


707 


i 


^n 


Total { Aided 


1 


48 


, 







t 


.Unaided 


5 


700 


i 










Grand Total 


16 


1,371 


4 


7(57 


4 


411 


Total in 1884-85 


13 


1,067 


4 


nor, 


4 


r>(>7 



The following Table f shows the cost of pioioasional Oollcgwto Education in 18K5-% 
Cost of Professional Colleges, 
1885-86. 



COST OF PROFESSIONAL COLLMGKH, 1HH6-HC 



PBoraasioH 


Piovinoinl 
Borranm 


Fws 


OUlU H(IU10()H 


Total 




Ilh 


Stt 


Uh, 


Us 


tfflir 


1,082 


42,415 


5,;t:]!i 


4H.MH? 


Madtnno .. . . , 


2,11,072 


4,078 


;t,Hi,;{ 


2,70^ Ut 


Bngmeorag ... 


2,r>0,02 


15,r.4H 


IK!> 


2,7r.,7fH) 


Total 


4,72,7^0 


1,12,041 


();(()! 


MI^IK 


Total for 1884-85 


4,84,043 


08,808 


13,040 


f),ur^07 



* Bv JUbfld Orofl'i Amm <f JAteotim m JWbaw 1886, jp, 0. 



p. 866 



txr\Ensrr? PBOTFSMDHAL IXAHINATIOIM, 1885-86 149 

In llumiilniuf and ilmost scll-suppoiiang oondifaon of tlie Law classes is noticeable in the above Tablo in 
. i.ul i i t in t In hum i", j Llalmq tu HID subjects oi Medicine and Engineering in both of which the income from fees 
t ill* f PM i n MI* I * <Jiint oi tlic L'vpcniliiujo 

Tin inilnuiiiu stati'iimit * hhoftsllioinunbci oi thoho who graduated in tha UniyeisitieB in the vauouB pro- 



^iou li Examinations, 1885-88 Eiiuiiioaimg Colleqe in the Noith-Western Provides 


IIIMirLTH OF UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS CPROFESSIONAL) 1885-86 


PlUMM'l 


Law 


Medicine 


EnginsBiimr 


M.uliii^ 


18 


26 


3 


lHlllli IS 


17 


39 


13 


!!,... 1 


120 


12 


J 


Noith-\\ i .Inn ('muni i . , 






4 


l'llll|illl . 





7 




Toi,il 


173 


104 


23 


Tol,il fin 1HSI.H5 


113 


SO 


17 



1 nl ui iiiatinti in vt%Mni io Kiii(lish Pjofcssioual Kda<Mii<m m Oollogos doling ihu iive yown hncooocbn^ the 

IHMh is I;IVOD HI Mr Nash'w (Jmnr|urnmal Roviowof tbo Piogio^s of Educa- 
titni in India, anil MIICO snob inJnimation ib tbo latcsi/ aTiulable, oortaiD Statis- 
tics may bo Iwvrowod horn it hoi u as showing iho pi^osout conditioa ot 
Kduratinn in Indian CollejfUH 
TIu lollowinK Tablet hliown tho niirabwol Law CollcQ<i and Scloolfl in 1887 and 1802, and the number oi 
Law Colleges, 1887 and 1892 htudfnts m tboin 

ATTKNDANOW IN LAW OOLLBQHS AND SCHOOLS 





188(5-87 


1891-92. 


I'llOVINlJU 


Colleges 


Pupils 


Schools 


Pupilfl 


OollogOB 


Pupils 


Sdhoola 


Pupils 


M,ln W . 


1 


182 


. 


. 


1 


S60 


... 


. 


Uniiiluy . 


2 


249 







4 


230 


' 




Itl'lljlUil 


10 


1,078 


M 




12 


563 








Nnilli-Wt'stwn ProvmooH 


3 


117 







7 


612 






F*uii|Hb 


1 


71 





I 


1 


85 








dfiitTwl Pronnew . 




. 


... 





2 


82 







AHNMn . . 





M 


1 


19 







2 


89 


Total 


17 


1,697 


1 


19 


27 


1,932 


2 


39 



* Sir Alfrtd OtoWnanitwaf ti&ueotu* M MM, 1886, p H4 



990 



H4 BTOUflH EDUCATION IN DTDIi 

In this Table the increase in the number of Law Collages from 17 to 27 in five years is very noticeable, taken 

in conjunction with the fact that the increase in the number of students has 
te eai nmoh less proportion "The Calcutta Univer&ity has reduced the 
course of study from thiee years to two, and withdrawn the privilege of 
attending lectures before passing the B A Examination, the changes being exactly the opposite of those made by 
the Madras University A similar change was also made by the High Court in the rule* for the Plondersbip 
Examination, for which many of the students of the Law Colleges are preparing, and these changes have caused 
tlie reduction of the numbei of students from 1,078 to 568 in spite of an inaoa&e of two in tho numbei of! Oolleqos 
" In the North-Western Provinces the number of Law Classes and of students ha? increased voiy rapidly since 
the establishment of the local University, but it is doubtful to what extent this is the cause of tho ma ease, ton 
the Principal of one of the Government Colleges gays ' The veiy great mB]ority of our Law Stmlantfa h.ive no 
intention or de&rre of appearing at the University Examination or at the High Couit Examinations, and it is not. 
clear to me with what preorsp ob]oot they pay fcbo fees and attend the law lectuios for tao years ' Allahabad is 
the only University in India that confers degrees in Law npon persona who have not graduated 111 Aits , candi- 
dates are lequirod to attend lectures for two years after passing the Intermediate Examination, but 111 en (hi to 
provont tho wholesale nnmigiation from othai Provinces of candidates who have failed at tho B A Examination, 
no examination of any other University IOWBI than the B A is recognized as qualifying for admission to i 
College"* 

Logal studies seam to continue to be almost soil -supporting "Tho aggpocjato cost of all the Law 

during the year 1391-92 amounted to BS 99, V) 3 of win oh Lho students thoui- 

Legal studies almost self BelvBB paid Ea 93343 m lhe bll rf foos LoLal lluwls onnlnliulMl oulr 
BUpT) orCrnsr 

Bs 34, and Municipal funds R& 659, while the o\ponrlitiuc fiom PIHVIIICI.U 

Revenues was more than balanced by the reoorpts from foos in Government Institutions, the nut piuhi tri Clnvei n- 
ment amounting to Es 3,303 "t 

As showing the advance of legal studies during tho period of five years ending in 1602, tho total iimnhi'i nf 
Advance of legal studies in F^rBons who obtained the degree of Bachulor of I AW, or the LicunKMii La\v 
18B7_to 1892 of the Punjab Umverbrty, during that perrod 16 fliown below J 

Madras . 210 

Bombay 1 19 

Bengal KM 

North- Western Provinces 50 

Punjab . 28 

Central Pi ovmoes . < .11 

Total 1,203 

"In Madras one candidate obtained the degree of Master of Laws , in Bombay there ifl no tloqioo bcyonrl (,h(* 
LLB , but merely an examination for Honours, which no candidate has attempted, in the UulrutU ITnm'tHity 
the degree of D L is given, but none of the candidates were successful , in tho Pun-jab Univoihity tho dc^icori of 
LLB and LLD, were not instituted till 1891-92, and no examination* have boon held Tlu* number of 
graduates in Law appears to bo innoa&mg in every Province, otcept porhapH in Bengal , in tliiH Piovmu' ilu>u 
has bean a large decrease during the labt two years, but tlus is mainly dap to tbu Ja< k t Lliivt iliiniiq Uus poiiod tho 
date of the examination was changed, and now lules woie intioduood " 

Tho progress of Medical btadies during the five years 1886-87 to 1801-92 ajipCrUh iiuiu tho followmg 
Progress of Medical studies, Table 
in 18 87 to 18 82 

* Prop 9*1 ofEducabou vn JfitUcr, 1887 88 to 1801 92, by A M Nash Esquuo, U A f '803) , p 321 



raromiBii ON HHDIOIL OOLEBOIS xso BOHOOLB, 1887-92 



145 



MEDICAL COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS, 1886-87 AND 1891-92 



PHOTON- 


1886-87 


1891-92 


COLLEGES 


SCHOOLS 


COLLBGIB 


SOHOOIS 




Institu- 
tions 


Pupils 


InnLiLiL- 
taona 


Pupils 


bujIdLu- 
tiona 


Pnpila 


JjlBTIL'tlL- 
hnma 


Pupils 


Madias 


i 


138 


4 


204 


1 


157 


3 


847 


Bombay 


i 


276 


3 


123 


1 


222 


4 


216 


Bonsai 


i 


172 


9 


793 


1 


255 


9 


1,035 


Noilh-Wostcm PiovnucsandOudh 


. 


... 


1 


125 








2 


212 


I>U,lJ.ib 


i 


68 


1 


140 


1 


144 


1 


178 


Contra! PnivmoeF. 








... 


... 


... 











ITppri* Banna 


... 





... 















Lowi'i Bui ma 





... 


... 








" 


k 





AHsam ... 







M 





i 


i 






Cooift * 


.. 


... 


... 


... 








... 





Hyderabad Asbigncd District* 


M 


... 





... 





... 


i 


... 


TOTA.L 


4 


654 


18 


1,388 


4 


778 


19 


1,988 



Tho following Tabb* RIVM the total expenditure ham different sources in eaoa proraioe on uiatitntionB to 
Expenditure on Hediool Modjoal Education, oompauig the fignreB for 1886-87 witt thoee for 
Bduodtaoninl887 > andl88a. 1891-02 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

MZPENDITTntK IN MEDICAL COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS, 1888-87 AND 1891-92 



PAOTIVOH 

* 


1886-87 


1891-92 




Provmnal 
Borenues 


Local and 
Municipal 
Fnndfl 


Fees 


Total 


Provincial 
BerenueB 


Local and 
MnBicipal 
Funds 


Fees 


Total 


* ' 


Es 


Bt. 


Es 


Be 


Be 


BB 


Be 


Bs 


M aili'dh p 


31,000 


35,550 


18,244 


94,011 


1,11,254 


10,184 


22,175 


1,49,060 


IJoiubuy 


31,774 




22,742 


56,545 


88,886 


1,497 


21,911 


59,483 


Hongol 
N-W P andOndh 
Punjab 

TowiiBs 


2,80,826 
14,822 
67,097 





27,996 


2,59,439 
14,822 
67,097 


2,69,468 
21,162 
64,762 


6,552 


33,006 
2,612 


3,04,903 
24,126 

74,084 

t 


8,75,619 


35,550 


68,962 

i i i 


4,91,914 

n^ -^ ^ 


5,00,532 


18,233 


79,604 


6>11>M J 



*kfcJW,188788tol8X9J. By A. M. Nh, 



(1898), p 



19 



145 



1HBLIBH BIHTDATIOH IS IHDIA 



The number of candidates who have obtained University Degrees or Licences in Medicine, dnnng the peziod 

Medical Degrees and Id- of five years ending- in 1892. IB shown in the fallowing Table * 
oenoes f ml887tol892 

TOTAL PASSES IN FINAL MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS FEOM 1887-88 TO 1891-92 





H D 


M B 


LM S 


TT'M m IMP 1111111 tu 








U HIY jui&0j.im 


Man 


Women 


Hen 


Wnmon 


Mcii 


Wu.. 


Madias 






8 


1 


61 


i2 


Bombay 
Bengal 


2 
3 




33 


2 


110 


V 


Pnil-jab 






3 




!Jh 




TOTAL 


5 




44 


3 


ffh 


H 



" The total number of modioal graduate* m Bonsai in loss thnn the Mini of tlio mnuhoth in tho (lilhnnt 
columns, for many oandadaieb appear at both the L M S and M B Examinations TdLmq Uic Imuios Irn IHSh-s? 
and 1891 92, thoro is a decteofle in tlie number of medical piailiuitcsfl in ovciy ptnumcs HiiMln nus i, most 
marked m Bomhay, whoro there wore only 44 m 1891-92, dgiunst 60 m 1S8C-H7 Tho dc^ici' (if A| It is not n in- 
ferred by tao Bombay Univoi^ity , and in tho Pun]ab tbo hiii o\amnuiitm hi 11us drt-H't' iv,is lirld I SOI vf| 

The following Tablo has been oxtiaoted liom tho Tablo ^ivcm in pdi<^'ipli l)t ai ]iaqo S7R nl Mi K 4 i h\ 
Statistics of Engineering Bopori, and givos the usual HUtiHtim ot Attondauci- mKnginuoniiii (Sil 
Colleges in 1887 and 1892 and Schools foi the yoaifi IBHB.R7 and 1HDMM 

ENGINEEETNO OOLL10KB AND PCJHOOLS f 1HH({-H7 ,md JhI|-< 





18K6-87 


1HJ/1-U2 


PROVINCE 


DOUDGPB 


EvmNHhttlNU AND 
KlinVHYlNU 

RciinoLb 


KNniNFprerNfi 

UoiJjhdKS 


Kmim:i i isu m> 

H[ 1 \KHNf. 
KdllKll/i 




tuna 


PupJfl 


fjlhtltu- 

tioim 


Papik 


Instiin- 

ilOTlH 


PlIJIllH 


Insiilai- 
luniN, 


I'npiJq 


Madias 


1 


17 


I 


m 


1 


]Q 


I 


IKi 


Bombay . . 


1 


153 


1 


11 


1 


.1(1 


1 


14 


Bengal 


1 


146 


3 


210 


1 


214 


3 


417 


N-W P andOndl 


1 


158 







1 


1HO 


. 


. 


Pimiab 








* , 










Oential Provinces 




. 






, 


* 


1 


U 


Uppoi Btizma 












, 


r, 


jir, 


Lower Burma 




P 





9l 






12 


w, 


Afiaam 












> 


i 


t 


Ooorg 


.. 







, 


i 


, 






Hyderabad ABOgned Districts 

















4 


Tom 


4 


474 


14 


G10 


4 


4H1 


24 


1,(H3 


* PWJ.MI flf Xdwntwi M Idto, 1887-88 fo 18S1 91 By A. H. N^b, Kiyuiro, JI A. (1869J, p.' 


aw. 






Or UlHAMMUUNf. TO ENGLISH EDUCATION, 1792 TO 1832 147 

Tlit hum is in tliH Table show that dnung tlie five years concerned, there has not been, any marked increase 
in tLi nuiufni ol pupils in the Enqinooiing Colleges, whilst the increase in the Schools hoe been considerably 
luuim ii*i u hum MO m ISbT to l,Q4i2 in 1B92 



CHAPTER XXVL 



H\I'K\\ \iiu\KiM OP vni urcrvDAffs nr ENGLISH EDUCATION MEASURES ADOPTED BY 
uo\ rtit s f \ri3vr TO KNCMIUILUIH EDUCATION AMONG MITHAMMADANS IN i87i-73 EEFOEMS 

IX THM rVM'LITA MAHttiHNl IN 1871 IMPROVED APPLICATION OP THE MOHSIN 
KMNIWMKXP AT IKKKIIIIjT TO UITIIAMIIADAXT EDUCATION IN BENGAL 



Tin* dHi1inli k ul nppDMlirni in Kni>lisli education at ith M/iy outset taken up by the Muhammadeun Community 

h.i' ^ In idy bi'CMi shouii' tf> II.IYG boon evinced as early as 1835, when the 

(!<mm ' 1 "' K(liu - at <"" <it Oduita fti6t th8 p lu * o! Bn f h 

cilm at ion nuclei the auspice* of Lord William Bentiuck, who under the advice 
ol IJDH! M.u M uilit) passed UiCM'elol^at^d Kilucaiioiidl llosolntion of thi G-ovoinmoiit of Incba, dated the 7th March 
IS).), in \d\n\i\ fii Kniflisli 4ulu<Mliciii Tho huluLL KilucAtioii Oomnimsion oi 1882, dealt with the question of 
MuliHiiimrul.tn ciliiiMi urn in a hquuiiti* motion ol than Ropoit which bo^iuB with tho following bummary of the 
vdilv iilttris in f'hc> niusc 1 ol Uiihajiiniadin education 

"Wlun in 17H2 tlio UidcuUa Mtitlmw w,is fimnduil by Womm HaatuigH, it was defiignod ' to qnalify the 

PotHiBlont apathy ot tho Mtt- MnlidinnuidiUiH of Bcnpfal 01 tho public BCI-VIUO and to enable them to 

haminudaaB towards English compoto, on mine oqnal termb, witli the Bindnu foi employment -under Q-ov- 

Education- 1793 to 1832 cramcmt' Hoino fifty yoai Utor, aitci the introdnotuni of English into ths 

CM>UI M of Hindu s, the Oouiuil of Bduwtion hud to oonfoflb that ' tlio ondearonr to impart * high order of English. 

mlucatmn' tw tlio Miihammiulan Ocmumnnity ]i<d complotoly foalod Forty yeats later ogam, ( th condition of 

l,hi< JlulianiuiAiliui pt>pulaion of Indiflp, iw rogaids education, had of late boon lieinently prosaed npwi the attention 

ol tho (imi'i'iiuiont oJ India p Tlio Mnliammaciana wcn-o not evon tlion oompeting on ecjaal tewoB with the Hindus 

Joi iMiiiiliijuu-nl undw Uovonuuonti nor lud tho ondoavoni to impart to them a high order of education been 

Attpiidul by any adwiuato RUOOOHH Mattoiu wori\ no donbt, in a moro piomwing condition than in 1832, and, a0 

ii-HunlH tlio i l iial hiiroad of odncation, in a much moia promiaing condition than in J792 A oonsideiable 

lniiorf.mn n! lluIumuiadattH wu o loaraiiiff English, alaixo piopoition vero in schools of one kmd or another 

HuC ilio Uighw KiiffliBli education van not cultivated, in any appiociable degree, more oxtensively than it had been 



\Vhab tlio eauHUH wore vrliwu dotonvd tlie Muhiunmadans from such cultivation WM debated even among them- 
^ ^ v v Ml 8 WIule BOmB told ttat tlie *1OB of instruction in the tonets of their 
^^of^^m^n^ ". -* more the rn,m. eJecte of English education in cheating a 
Bnalifih Education wnnmarw- dibbohof in i oligion, wore the maon obataoles, otheiB, though a email minority, 
od by tho EduoaUoa Oomims- W0r c of opunm that xohgion had httto to do with the [pestion Some con- 
iioti tonclod that tlio system of education prevailing in Government Schools and 

UuHc-m's ciinuplocl the morals and manneih ot the pupils, and that for this leason the hotter classes would not 
su1.ui i ih w sons to lUwmnui contact The flinall propoifaon of Muhammadwi toadiers in Qovenimrat mBfatu- 
lions lHMiiwiIhnnciwol Government odacational officers to accept the counsel and co-operation of Muham- 
iniuliiiis iiuiwions utnor faolta in tho J)opai-tmontal H ybtem, tho comparatively small progress in real learning 
LdH Iff tta impik in aovoinmcnt Schools , the prartioo among the well-to-do Munammada^s ot .duri^ te 
i hiklran at homo , tho inclnlmoD and unprovidence too common among ftem , then hereditiuy love of tho profes- 
sion oi aritts, Uio*taonoo ot inendly utsrama between MuhaiamadMB and Englishman , t ne unwiUingness 
toll by Lhobotloi'boru to Mflooiato with those lower in the social scale, the poverty newly general among 
MBhwirnMbMi tto oolduoHs of Ctovcrnment towards fto raoe, the use in Govocnment Schools ot booka whose 
tnu was Irnkdo or scoruf a) towwds the MuhaimBdftn rdigion p -aMa and a variety of dh oauaee have been 



148 



ENGLISH EDUCATION IH 



put forward at different times by members of the Muhammadan community to account for the scant appreciation 
which an English education has received at their hands All such causes may nave combined towards a general 
result, but a candid Mnhammadan would probably admit that the most powerful factors are to be found in pndt 
of race, a memory of by-gone superiority, religions fears, and a not unnatural attachment to the learning of Islam 
Bat whatever the causes, the fact remained , though the enquiries made in 1671-73 went to prove that, etoept m 
the matter of the higher education, there had been a tendency to exaggerate the backwardness of the Muham- 
mad ans 

" The following Table shows the peicentage of Muhammadans to the total population in the six more important 

Provinces of India and the percentage of Muhammadans nndoi instruction 111 
Bolloolfl rf w}adk tha Da P artment lud wgnaanoe to the total number of all 
olaSBM m m ^ B ^ 1D ^ B j^ ^ B former case the pei centago is 22 8, in the lattai 
14 7 It must also be borne in mind that in 1870-71 there were among the 16,77,11,037 inhabitants of tho n\ 
Provinces about foni millions who belonged to the aboriginal tribes, or semi-Hinduiaod abougmcs, and to othoi 
non-Aiyans hardly touched by our education Deducting these, and excluding Native States, tho Muhalnirins 
form about 25 per cent of the total population 

STATISTICS OB 1 EDUCATION AMONG MUHAMMADANS IN 1871-72 



PROVINCES 


Total Popu- 
lation 




Percentage 


AT Soiiuoii 




Total 


Muhtimindidcui s 


J'cjcr-nf.iifi' 
41 


Madra ... 


31,281,177 


1,872,214 


6 


123,689 


5,531 


Bombay ... 

Ron mil mid AbafLTn 


16,349,203 
60,467,724 
30,781,204 


2,528,344 
19,553,420 
4,188,751 


154 
323 
135 


190,153 
190,086 
162,619 


15,684 
28,411 
28,990 


H2 
1U 
178 


N-W Provinces 


Oudh 


11,220,232 


1,111,290 


99 


48,926 


12,117 


2fi.5 


Punjab 
Total 


17,611,498 


9,102,488 


515 


68,144 


23,783 


:un 


167,711,041 


38,355,507 


288 


780,317 


114,810 


14 Ji 



"It will be observed that in the Noith- Western Provinces, and to a much larger o\tcnt in Oudli, tho piopor- 
tion of Muhammaian school boys to the total number IB greater than tho proportion of Muhaiuuiaduns in tho 
population In the other Provinces it IB much less, tho population poicentage at tho MuhamuwUn* in thoho 
Provinces token together, being over 26 and the school percentage under 10 "* 

The backward condition of education among MuhammadanB attracted tho attention of tho Government nt 
Resolution of the Govern- I*dia under the larl of Mayo, and its Bobolntion No 300, claturl Situl. dhu 
ment of India, No. 800, dated 7th, August, 1871, mvitoi the attention of tho vaiioua Local GcwjumiwilH and 
7th August, 1871, on MuJiam AdnunutrationB to tho sub]ect Tho Eosoluiion is an mijioriant document, 

being the first of aseiies of mcasinos adopted by ilio GovonimenL ior tho 



madan Education, 



enoouragement of education *-mnr\p ihc 
" Tho condition of the Kn 



^n^ $fl\t\ may bo Quoted hero tw 



Backwardness of education 
among Muhammaiansdeplor- 
able, MoJiammadan hterature 



population of India as legavds education hiH oi late iwcni froqnonfcly 
P 1086 ^ u P <m * Mention of tho Government ol Luiia 



recently submitted to the Gbvexnoz-Qonoral in Council, it is evident thai in 
so part of the country, except pexLaps tho NorUi-WuHtorn Proviuoc'B and Uio 
Punjab, do the Huhaanmadans adequately, or in proportion to tho icbt of tho 
oommumiy, avail themsclvea of the educational advantages that the Government offers It is much to bo i cgvottod 



may be encouraged 



that so large and important a class, possessing a classical literature reploto with works of profound lo&rnixig and 
great value, and counting among its members a section especially devoted to the acquisition and diflusvm of 
bnftwledge, should stand aloof from active co-operation with our educational system and sliouid IOBO tho advautagos 
both vnatenal and social, which other* enjoy His Bzoellenoy in Oounoil beheyes that seoondary and higher education 

BflKtft of the Indmn JOduoatKm OommiMicm (18S2) , pp 48$, 481 



STOOBSTIMB 



>WniIIIT AS TO IfDHUOUWJr HDU01TIOT 1871 149 



nitv but W id i 4- +ii ~ -- "***, TTUIXIU. ue not only acceptable to the Muhammadan oommu- 

" 2 Tho Guvomo "^^ f * he moie earnest and enlightened of its members on the aide of education 
i- eneial in Council is deanous that fuither encouragement ahould be given to the classical 
Muhammadan teachers of ** A Ve maoular languages of theMuhammadana in aU Goveinment Schoola and 



^ If 6 *? J^^^^^-Jalteratxona.nihe sublets, but only m 

grante-an-Bid to create whoS * *Mtan In avowedly English Schoola eatahliahBd in Muham- 

andtheirveinaoular literature madtta Diat wote the appointment of qualified Muhammadan English teacheis 

mi 8 ht Tnth advantage, be enoouragad As in Vernacular Schools, so in this 

czeateachoola of their own Great* 
alao bo g ive n to the creation of a yeinacnlar hteratme for the Mnhammadans-ameaame the 



of which waa apecially urged upon the Government of India by Her Majesty a Secretary of State on 
moro than ono occasion 

" 8 HIB Excellency in Council desires to call the attention of Local Governmenta and AdnumatrationB to this 

Indian Universities to an- subject, and direota that tin a Resolution be communicated to them and to 

Setie Arab10 an<1 Per8lan ** flttw Uni ti M in InoX with a Tiew of elicituig their opinions whether, 

without infringing the fundamental principles of oui educational system, 

homo gouwal measures in legal i to Muhommadan education might not bo adopted, and whether more encouragement 

might not bo given in the TJmvorsity course to Arabic and Persian literates The anthontiBs of the Lahoie 

Unim-Nity College, who are behoved to have paid much attention to the subject, should also be invited to often 

tlim views on the impoitant questions above referred to This may be done through the Punjab Government * * 

Thib Resolution was duly communicated to the Seoretaiy of State, who concnired generally in tiie policy 

The Resolution approved by ^ LBiauL ^dioated, on ihe understanding, however, that as legard* the oncom- 

the Seoretaiy of State in his agement of the languages of Muhammadans in the schools of the country, the 

Despatch, Wo 12, dated 14th. Government of India did not contemplate any change in the subjects taught, 
December, 1871. 



Tho snggcstionB made by the Government of India to the Local QDvernments in the above Resolution have 
Suggestions by the Govern- teen s 11111111811 *^ 13 - 7 the Education Gommusiont of 1882, as follows 
meat of India aa to Muhamma- (I) That fui thei enooniagement should bo given to the ol&saioaL and 

dan Bdu cation in 1871, Bum- vernaoulai languages of the Muhammadans in all Govern- 

mariaea. ment Schools and Colleges , 

(2) That in avowedly English schools established in Muhommadan districts, the appointment of qualified 

Muhammadan English teacher B nught, with advantage, be encouraged , 

(3) That as in vomaoulai schools, so in avowedly English schools, assistance might justly b a given to 

Muhammadans by giants-m-aid to cteate schools of their own, 

(4) That gieater enoouiagement should also be given to the creation of a vernacular literature for the 

"Mil li fr-m m y^ftTi p 

The reports received from the Local GovemmentB and Adnumstrations, in reply to ^' ig Resolution weie 
Beaolution of the Govern revieWQ ^ ty && Government of India (under the Earl of Northbrook), m a 
ment of India, dated 18th. B^olution, dated 13th June, 1873, and aa it is one of the most important 
June, 1878) on the condition documents connected with the progress of English education among "MV 1 



of education among Muham- 4^ ^ may . ^ quoted here %n easfenso for facility of reference especially as it 
**** is not easily accessible to the general reader 

l( On the 7th August, 1871, the Government of India issued a Resolution upon the condition of the Muham-* 

Rental of the Government madan population of India as logaids education, in which, after regretting 

of India's Resolution of 7th that so large and impoitant a class should stand aloof from co-operation with 

August, 1871) on ifr' i ">ft-'""i i 'ft- our educational system, His Excellency the Earl of Mayo in Council desired 

dan Education. j^t ^^ systematic encouragement should be given to the classical and ver- 

nacular languages of the Huhaznmadans in all schools and colleges The Resolution waa circulated to all Local 

Governments and Adxnuustrations for their opinion as to what measures should be adopted toward promoting this 

ohjBDt, by modifying 1 the methods and means through which teaching should be given, so as to make the higher 

branches of it more acoesbible to Muhammjadans without altering the essential principles of our public instruction 

Whither the OMifaum of a vernacular literature nught not be added by the State, and whether more ample 

. ^ MjMtan*. ton Oft feoMt'tf h* Government of India (HomeDfjwrtoent), Ho 00V (1886) , p, 
' 



150 ENGLISH EDUCATION Ik INDH 

lecogmtion should not be given in the University Demises to Aiabio and Parsian, were matters on whioh advice 
and piopoaitums were parfaculaily invited 

"2 The reports now collected from all ifce Provinces of British India piesent a fair surrey of the actual 

state of Muhammadan education thioughout the Empire , and they diHcuss 

I " gdy how fai) ftni1 m what dbzeotl011 ' 9honld ^ ^^ Btops Ij0takcn 
which aie most consistent with the needs of the people and tho duties oE the 

Government It may be useful to desonbe in broad outline, the place now allotted to MuhammaddJi mstiuctiou in 
the educational scheme of each Gtovemment, and then to touch briefly on the measures piopo&cil foi impio\em<nnt 
and advance 

"3 In the Resolution of 1871, thoie is no diiect mention of pumaiy education Its impoi tance waf not 

ovoilooked, but the needs and defects to be lemodied appealed to pie&B inoic* 

Primary Education, in the mffBntlv m ^ e ^^ ttan m thB I^OT giadations of Stato induction 
vernacular xsunffuafires affioots , ,-\ 

growth of Beoondary and ^ lom ** iP*"i however, which aie now nndn irvunv, tiioio appeal h MIUIC 
Higher Education among Mu- ground lor doubting whothei many of the disadvantages uiidoi which Miihaaii- 
ans who are accustom- ma rlans have been placed as to highoi education may not Lu tiaced clmvn In 

* hm flolucflB m the Bdllier flta * e6 ^ om Byfitom ^ a nuittal ol> Ud| I<J lllliy 
be mfeiiod generally that, wheiovei the oidinaiy vcniaculat of lluMJonutiy 

IB read and written in the Hindustani 01 Uidu ohaiacter, thoio the Muhnmmadans have occupied thwi 1 piopci 
position in the Piimaiy and Socondary Schools founded or added by the State In the Ncutli-Wrhli'in 
Provinces, in Oudh, and in tbo Punjab, the attendance of Muhammadans m tliu lowei and midilr ftclujoln IH, nn the 
%vhole, lathor above than below the piopoition which all MuhammadaiLb boai to the total population , in OiulU (ho 
MuhominaiJIanBfurnuih a much largoi oompaiatiVD ooutingcnt than tho Hindus to the feohoulfe, ihoagh m tin* Pnn|'iJ, 
out of a Muhammadan element of 53 pez cent on the total population, not moio tlian 35 pea ouut ol th:' h( liol.un aiit 
Muhammadans Then in all these pi evinces tho indigenous Muhammadan schools ore voiy uunioioas, and tin i ve up In 
a coitain point , they aio enoouiaged and asgistod by tho Q-ovomraont O&COT& , tho gi*uith-m-aiil arc oil 01 od on ( nri ill- 
lions which suit Muhammadan gohoolmg as "Woll as any othoi, and the whole conise oi: pnmaiy edntatiun IKM> shaped, 
as to favom the Muhammadan at least equally with tho Hindu On tho othei liatul, ]n Piovuuos win it* tin* 
Muhammadans aie scatttoiod, and arc not numeioufl, whoto they mostly talk a didoimt language Jiuin tliat nl Hit* 
majcnity, or where then teaching, at any late, is in a diifoicnt tonquo and aocoidmg tu ontiiely F.L'pu,itD indiiiruih, 
thoro tho special anangementb which these cu pumstanoos icquno foi thorn havu been not fthvajs fiiini/i i d t ami 
thoii claims tu it bavc boon often inevitably disrogoadod Whoio tho Muliamjnailaii uses a foi m ol the conuli y dialct (., 
as m Bastom Bengal and in parts of Bombay, he goes with othciH ix tho Journal y QcvoiinnoTit hchonls lor llu null- 
iiionis of edaoation , but whore his moth 01 -tongue is diifoiont, in speech and m wuttcn cluvra^ei, ho cannot allcnd 
them And the pcculiai obstacles which keep him apait ft om our school t^htoin gi o\\ htr oiisjoi ah IIP CHILM yon hc)<jiid 
those olcineuts which aie common to all teaching In Bengal tho BtuigoJi-fapealhinR Eastoni Mulicumiuidaiih i i LH|IU ul 
thu lo^ci 1 schools in good nmnbei, but they lound themsolvefe moic cr lohb oxclndrd fi om lolloping out then ('dm uf inn 
into the uppoi classes by tho absence, up to 1871, of any adequate piovihiun lor that djhtmttm 1 coin^c of insii u< iion 
which the customs of thrar soraofcy lequiro All oven Westcan In<li.k, m pai t ot tho Ucntial IVnvma*, in Hcuu, 
and very genozally in Madias, the same difficulty had arisen, and had not Lii'tn Hatihlactmily huuiUMinti^l Tho 
OovBiumont oxpondituio on education if necessarily limited, and could nnt MilTicc (<n tho Hiippni i ol two M'piiruf<n 
(lofasch ot schools , the money available was natuially bestowed oiitiu'ly npoii thoM* t'lasscs ol ihc people \\luHi 
jii o homogeneous foi 1 edacatioiial pmposcs, arc by lai k tho moic UUTUCI mih, tliu i u hoi , and tho inoi o ( I U^<M io niako 
use of the gi ant 

ftt 4 It IB, howovei, in the higher Schools, in tho Colleger, and m tlio Uaiivorsiiion, that* tho aljHcncc* or Iwu k- 

n __ . wnidnoss of Muhammadaiiui lias been hlunvn to o\Jhd UMinukal)ly The i*( tioriH 
BBfCkwardness of MuliBiimna- 

dans in higher Collegiate and ttl1 I * 1BO ttftl OIU * 6 y Htum bltfl lwli Ml * u *#& them to ilio luqlur ratiH oi out 

University Bduoation most odnentioual cotuso, 01 to pciseMje up tu HIP pmtii At whiih Ktuilii*H 

Unsuitability of ical culture, and 61 young mem iur hucccss in t1u k HOI vu'L>h and open 

H W ^ L thlS fiUiu oi tlu " RH Wl1 ^ atlilll)llto ' 1 to Uui wailt 

schomo of oourocn of instiartiuu suilabloforMuluuuiiiaibnH, Iciulni^np tliiauj^h 

tho lowor to tho highci standards, aud how tar to the tft'iuw 

oi Uuhauimaclans to exchange thoireaiber modes of study ioi otliorb TIIDI'O ronHtmaut with modoiu habitat ol 
IB a question which need not hero be oloboly einmuied It may bo ooiijocttii*ad that, at thu pmiouL ojioeli, 

are discovering that the ancient paths arc unprofitable to stand upon, while their tradiliOBfl iui<L natnnil 
etdl hold them bfcdc from setimg oat energstaoally upon newly opunod xoads Jfw, while it ! 



TO ChMlTOT MTTHAIHUIUN BDXTCAHOH, 1873 1S1 

<.iiih i 1 thai- Miilififiiurulfini unwlipic appeal m bato&faotory strength upon the lasts of ourhigha Schools, Colleges, 
ni I iiiiii*itu i untln ritbn hand those institutions which have purposely pi eserved the smtnont exclusively Muham- 
nnii ti t \ ]u .nut \\ \iu K Ii4\ i' IN i a usti it tail to instruction m the languages and sciences whioh bolong peouliaily 
1 ii M ti li * t j MI i' lLii i in lii \ i' tilv* Ix'i'Ti fountl tu ho fiillnug ^.adually hut steadily into neglect We may peihaps assume, 
tin M tun tin? flu Muliainiiuilins ait not so muchaveiseto the subjects which the English Soveinment has decided 
\n\i i'h, i t' l!u nuHli- or uiariiiiiui } thioniyh winch teaching w ofioied Aud if it thus appeal that to the 
n i liifoii-. id iiu^iidlilp lu-Hitotiou nhicdi k<-cp abol our Muhammadanfellow-Bub]Bots BJ.O added oeitain oh^tades 
vs In ill ..n ^MMII ilscll lult'ipiiso-s uitliei li> iisnii^ A language that as unfamiliar, 01 maohinery that is unoon- 
iiiil if H (iluiu fh.it indiij ul tho cbmlucks totho umvoisality ot oui educational By&tom are susceptible of 

MJM"\.jl 

* 5 His Kxnlh'iirj in rniiw il f ihwpir f praccivos Mitb gintification from tiio leporta now beforo him, that 
Endeavoura to pomody Mu- I"" 1 *"" 111 * rwUavmiis die bomt^ mado to diminish, feo Iw ag they can be re- 

hummndftu oduontional book- umlinl 1lusuinui|nili1ifs m the dihtnliution of SUto aid, and to plaoo the 
wcirduusH grati/yiMff Aluhannnailaiis, *li<rvcM this may ho possible, upon a moio oven footing with 

(In .iiiual ifiiiiiiinnit\ tliinntiJnii Uir whuli- prim^ ol oni pulilu insti ut'tioii 

* il In \Uili i , tin- HIM* mm nt h m iuiw din i Ic il ilu Dipaitmont ui PuWio Tnhtruotiou lo take stops without 

di I it ioi < .tililiiliiiucilcinent.il) Mnhamma-clan hchoolh, and conespondinflf 



rl ..... , , 

Uln.n, hcu mstnu(...n itwy l ipvw m fho 
PuiM.iuandAm)MJ |.. l( Ju.is lluirt^li ttpimiiuMlf hvl-lKmkf. ITI lliplladitw Fnucihity 



, 
, lllMll|ll 



S,hn,ls, fo ft*** SiU.,ls, l Inr Il 

P-Mm i thu llniuniri), mfcm Aiato ul PMHU. a.o a) W l y littl ^ t .^cal lan ? ua^ for 
n TA t In IH7^ * l^f^r i Ifeun ! A>d. wa. wnM i. ft. Klp^ione OoY^e 
d ( vlu.,nt, ml tlu. U,uv,,,.y j-nu m .^wln* to tt. (hmn-urt ; ol lrf-bw- 



in the Punjab, w A , uno i d p l<m o - 
to d . ! c^miunate tae oniare come of Muhammada* cl 



SSv sssSKjSrs* 

csssJSESJs* . 



162 



ENGLISH HDU01TION Iff INDU 



these aa in all other provinces where Mulramznadans are few, and often exposed to all the disadvantages which affect 
a leligions minority without wealth or superior influence, it will he the special care of Government to satisfy them- 
selves that those endeavours to encourage the education of Muhamnmdans are persistently maintained It is the 
paramount duty of an imperial department thus to fill up gups in the ranks of elementary education, and to 
range the various divisions of this vast population in one advancing hue of even pi ogress 

"9 As to the piinciples upon which the education of Muhammadans should ha encouiged hy the State, His 

Principle on which. Muham- Excellency in Council need say little here, foi they appeal to be understood 

madan Education should be en- by all Administrations, and with geneial consent accepted hy the people by 

eouraged by the State. nonQ mQ1B openly ^^ by fte leadmj? Muhamaidttlls of lndia The g ta , te has 

only to apply its educational apparatus and aid so as they may bast adjust themselves to ousting languages 
and habits of thought among all classes of the people , without diverging fiom it& set maik and final puipoae 
the better diffusion and advancement of real knowledge in India His Excellency in Council is anxious that the 
atainment of this ob]oct shall in no class of the population be hindeiei by diif orencoq of language or of custom , 
and with this view the Government of India i? very willing that the entire body of Muhammadau [as ol Hindu] 
classic literature shall be admitted and take lank among the higher sub]ects of secular study, and that the lan- 
guages shall foim an important part of the examinations for Umveisity degiees In shoit, His Excellency is pre- 
pared to listen favomably to any well- considered proposal for modifying or extending in those directions tho 
existing educational system One measure to which tho Resolution of 1371 partrcularly adverted wa& the duvulop- 
ment of A Yernaculai literature for Muhammadans His Excellency in Council would be slow to behove th.it finch 
a literature still needed oxeation To this suggestion Local Governments attach differ ing degioofl of importance 
or pi octio ability and, on tho whole, His Excellency in Council sees reason to believe that wo must be cautions in 
attempting to pioceed in this direction much beyond the point ^ve have reached already It is most dohiiable to 
frame a series of high class text-books to encourage the punting and publication of valuable Muhammadan workb 
and to offer prizes either for good translations of foreign woikb ox for original studies But in logazd to the 
pati enrage of what may be properly called literature, the exercise of it mint necessarily be re&tuctod by the 
pressing demands of general education upon our finance, and by tho difficulty of making a fair selection, or of 
distarbutrng any money available with due discrimination and indubitable advantage 

" 10 His Excellency in Council has now reviewed rapidly the geneial measures which have been taken ot 
Iiooal Governments to enoonr- are ^ em ff taken, for the encouragement of education among Muharmtudanfl 
age Muhammadan Education a u- The papers before him, received from all parts of British India, show that 
cording to local circumstances the Earl of Mayo's Resolution ha& succeeded in its main purpose of drawing 
the attention of all Administrations to needs and obligations which before had, perhaps, not oveiy whore bora ade- 
quately realized These needs and obligations may now be entrusted with conndencu to the caio of local Govern- 
ments The Supreme Government has satisfied itself that the principles upon, which Muhamnradau Dducation hhould 
bo supported or subbidisod are clearly understood , while the conditions and iate ol progress in this as in all 
bxanohes of public instruction, the range of its operations, and all other practical details, depend chiefly in each 
Province upon local circumstances, adminstrative jdrJJ, and financial resources " * 

This Resolution together with the earlier Resolution of the Government of India, No 300, dated tho 7th 
August, 1871, which has already been quoted f foim the most important daulaiation ot tho policy ol tho Uovotu- 
ment towards the education of the Mn Vi a.-m-m q.d ^ p 

Tho purport of the above Resolution which was issued by His Excellency the Earl of Moithtoook in Council, 
Summary puxport of the GOT- B^y ^ e stated to be, " that generally whoiora tho 01 rlimuy votnacmlar ol tlio 
enrnaant of India's Resolution country was read and written in the Hindustani orUidu ohwacbw, UUTO tho 
tote^l^J^^7? lll0at:Uin| MnLammadanfl occupied thmr proper position in Uro primary anil secondary 
' schools founded or orded by the State In all piovmcos whoio tbiH was tho 

case, the indigenous Muhammadan schools were numerous, and uptu a certain point in a fcluiving condition 
They were encouraged and assisted by the Government officers , the granta-m-aid were ofLeiud on condition on 
the whole fairly suitable for Muhammadan requirements , and the course of primary education was so shaped aft to 
f avour the Mnhammadan at least equally with the Hindu Ontheotherhandinpiovmces whore the JULuhammadaiiN 
weze scattered and not numerous, where they mostly spoke a different language from that of tho majority 
of the population, or where their teaching was in a diftorent tongue and according it) entirely supaiate 
traditions, there the special arrangements requisite to meet these circumstances had, not always boon organised, and 
the claims of the Muasabnan community had been often almost mantably duaegaided. Whoro tho Muhammadan 

* Gftfofaiflu from the Bmed* of the GKmnuaont of India (Home Depwtmant), No 00V (1886) , pp UB, 289 



RflFDRXB IN THTB DALOTJTT1 MAHRlflSJL, IK 1871-73 153 

umrl n imm of the cmuiti y dialect, ho attended with otters the primary Government schools for the rudiments of 
eclui itiim , hut \hei fc his mother-tongue was different in speech and in wiitten charactei, ha was natuially preclud- 
ud hum L\,uhnr? himsi'M of this teaching The peculiar obstacles which kept him apart from the oidinary school 
siskin niiliiiH.ll) STOW stiouqci a& he emoigei beyond bhose elements which aie common to all teaching The diffi- 
cult us -\\lnr h lu'l ai isc, ii hum these canst? had nowhere beon satigfantonly surmounted The Q-ovsinment expen* 
nu I'lluiMtiim bmii> nooessAuly limited, and mquffiraent f 01 the suppoit of two separate classes of schools, the 
n\iulabli was natnially bestowed too exclusively upon those classes that not only fanned the maze numerous 
Sf i lion of the pCMiplo, but uoro both homogeneous foi educational pm poses and moie eager to make use of the grant 
It \\ ^ hmic VLI ju the colleges, hiflfliLi schools, and um\oi c s itios that tho absen&o 01 backwardness of Muhammadana 
Wiii iniisl tinisjiidiuLifi Tho lopoiU all aqicod that the existing system had not attiact ad them to the higher 
Mime nl UH uduailiMUil comso, or induced them to persevere up to the point at which studies impi ess leal culture 
.mil hi. \rmrn? men lui sue LOS*, ui tho hcmcos and opon professions * i * r v The Beflolution then pioceeded 
In notu i' in ULiiui.il lei ins HIP miiasuos mliiplorl in tho hovoial Pioyinces to give effect to the views of the Supieme 
* * Tho f I oM'inni -(Jem ial in Council assumed that in all Provinces wheio Muhammadana 
, mill nfh-n P^IDSIM! iu .ill the ill sail van! u^os wliich aitcct a, icbgious minonty without wealth 01 supeiiot 
infliii nr-i*,' it wcmlil lw tl" spi'i lal c.uo fii OOVLI uinout to hatisfy tliemsclves that those ondeavouiB to encouiage iihe 
<.<|ii<ii1mii fil iMuhamuuiUns Himlil IK ptihistimlly maiuUmod It waft i ocognifaed as the paiamount duty of an Im- 
pel lal Hi p.ii inn t thus in fill up tin- U-ips in HIP i.wl o olomontaiy education, and to range the vaiious divisionB 
ol Uic \as( population m cnt arhaiini^ lino oi i'\on piogiess" * 

tinip a sc piiialo (cincsponfloiue was beinj? cauicd on with tho Government of Bengal on the subject 
in tho Caloutta oi tho management <*t tho OaJcutta, 3frZma, established by Wanen Hastmga 
in 187 1-73 m 17HD, and with zofeienue to tha statas and conditions of iheMadiawa 

and (Mh-ffi- at JIoRhly Mippovtoil ont of an endowment bequeathed m 1806 by Mahommed Mohsm in tiust for 
piniih usc'h " In oniipr Uun with these Mfiliwn fundfl, not only had laige accumulations to -the caedit of the trust 
1>mn ppnnilicil l*i uoinuc, bul the luiid* had been in poit appi opiiated to the benefit of a wholly difteient class 
Tioin ihat lor which tho oiutowincut wan destanod The 0-ovommont of India* aocoiiin fi ]y desired that the whole 
Hiihini J iho ii]ilufttioD ol tUo funds mpiomotionof Muhwnmadan oducatiou should be fully leconfeideied and 
plaiiM inAinml lor lliwi tljhlrai Moment moio m confeonauco with tho intentions of Mahommed Mohsin The Govarn- 
munt f Hniipil, m ite lottoi datod tho 17th Augast, 1872, in submitting to tho Goveinment oi India the views of 
tho tooutouanUJovenior m logaitl to tho general measmos to be taken foi thepiomoiaon of Muhammadan 
wluttkLion m Bon^vl, put frjrwftnl otntnan suggestions as to tho utahbation of these funds It pzoposed to reform 
iho ih iittii ftiul tho Hoofihly Jfr^rtsst/, and to take upon itself the co&t of tho iwn-Mufialman side of ihe Hooghly 
UnllifiP liitbwto outaroly suppoitocl Inm tho Huhun iondb, but at the same time to accept from iho funds a fair 
eiHitnlmtion ioi tho J/rrlii attached to the College and for special benefits to Muhammadan students studying 
mtbc OnHrgo M in the opinion of the Lioutonant-Oomnoi (Sir flooige Campbell), it would be difficult to 
lUBlify tho devotion ol piovmual funds to special Mnhaanmadaji education m the province generally, while the 
MohHiuondovmotithun^odaloffitimiite mennb of eftoctmff the puipose in viow, the (Jovernment of Bengal 
tm-thoi oxwwHod its intention to dovoto the money thus saved from the Hooghly College to aod and extand 
Muhamnuwlitti odacaiion olaowhoro ProposalB for the establishment of new Modi mas at Dacca and other local 
oontioH m Efwtum aa<l Northern Bengal wore then ^plained m detail, but M the Mohsm funds would not be 
MhHinoto to enable tiio Ooranznout to equip efficiently these new Madias**, the Lieutenan^Governor trusted that 
tho GOVOJ ntuoflt of India would conkibute to mako up tho difference The mam questions loft for the decision of 
thi* flomnuuml o India wore (J) whethar the flovemment of India appioved of the proposed distnbufaon of the 
MohBin funds and o the establishment of Madrono* , and (2) whether the Government of India would give 
Homo Hpoui il d towtds the establishment of Jbtau m Bastern and Noithein Bengal 

In reply tho Government of India, on 13th June, 1873, wrote to the Government of Bengal aa follows - 
Tho ionetal pnnoipleB upon which tho Lieutenan^Governoz desires to see these institutions f admimstered 

and directed for the bettez promotion of high Muhajnmadan education appear 
to the Government of India to be sound, and the ohsteohs to woikmg upon 
them are not piadaeally insurmountable * * It is agieed, by common 
oonseni tiiat tho intention of the British Government m supporting thess institutions is 1x> give to Mutammadana 
of high-(^B mtelleot^ 

j 

tki or*wt <* Inflia a the Hanu DepMtawni (aftitahon), No gjj^, to*& IHfc July, 1885, , 



154 TOQLISH HDUOATTCm IS INDIA 

clashing mth tliat Onental erudition which belongs to their raoo and countey And it is nlfin tupm! flurt, in 
shaping our methods towaids those end?, we aro bound to avoid, so far as may bo pcmble, any unwelcome aUiudon- 
raent of the old ways of Muhammadcm study, or any slight upon the cUsBio louiunq of Muhdimnadan ASM On 
iho contiEiry, the impoitanca to Muhauunadans of such studies is admitted, aud thwi intiiiihio value aft mull umcntH 
of hteiaiy training in thib countiy is not under-rated 

" But the point of difficulty is also recognised by all to whom the subject u familiar ft lies in the {iinlilci u 
of fiammg for HuhammarLui? a couise of soculoi education, which is the only kind that can be ifnui in (liu em- 
inent institutions, upon the btudy of a htoiaturo which on Buma/ny hides of it Jb uilmutely ccnnwcluil uifh (hen 
religion aud rbotrnul toncte 

"Hi* Excellency in Council, nevertheless, believes that the pioblwn thus pi (.suited is c*npnll( uf Mliihnti , 
that a coarse of study can be laid down which shall maintain and 011001110^0 the < iilLiialirm nf Ai.ilw <md Pi IM.III, 
of th o histuiy, htm ituio, and philosophy which thcs a lungnaqos cunity, ol iluni l^iL.d s\stnu, anil ul MH h p,nl* 
of MiihimraaiUn law as deal with pui sly tempoial intoiosts, miliont unnpiumiiuig Llw (Jhv\iMiiiur>tit. it* tin Mippmf. 
of any peculiar hchnol of joliqiouh loAthiiip; 

"His M\ooDont'y m Council 16 willing to sanction the pi eh mi ti aa its of any pLui JOT w-coiishhihii^ I In <\v* 
Madittw> wlnuli nay till within lUr lnuiLs ol tlicsu pinuMj>IcH " x 

Altui loloiiing with .ippr oval to the dci.uls oi tho p iiposiih u^Atdma Iho io-(ii^inis,ihoiMl iln Mmtitt *, 
A 1 oation of the Mohsm f |u Qovoinininilol Iiulu conlmuucl ivilh loleieuu 1 1u Hn llm"lil) in tita 
Funds towards ICiih&xninGbd&u tioii 

Education in general in Ben- "TIio Lion ton int-GovpinnrH pioprisifmu IK In \Mlh<li in (lir tiit.ifiT purl nl 

8^ tho Mnhsin Funds horn lln* llo(H^lil) Onllt^c, nlinli lias im p,iilnMil,ii lm,il 

claim, and to UBP the money JOL encoui<i(5ni'4 Alulianinudau odiiuvtmii (Isovvlun 1 , ippnihiMiini* ii ,n*f onlin" tfi iitnl 

So much nl tlio piosout cost ol thn JIouhl) Collude* as wrnild hi> Ii*IL uiipiuvidiMl Im hy (Ins Miljtiar hnn ol Ilu 

omlomupnli inmls irnglit, Ifis Ilonoui Mi^tphis, bo then uVh.iyed by ill* 1 Si ilt* 

" flifl Excellency in Council appirnos tlio outlmrs ol tins pinpofnU, .ind uinsulom lluili sornr Mich niaii"f'imiit 
ivoulrl be cousihtcnt with the piupusos ol tlic Afolisjti untlnwnu'iit, and ipni'i ally lulvinlaifi'iim In MiihainNuiilati 
odncaiitm But, with 1 0401 d U) tho omploynioiit of IhuMnhsiu lundslhus lo In^scUict, His K\nJI<'iir> inn.tik tli.it 
thcit. 1 ai( sunli valid objcictiuiis Lo any nqiiWatt 1 system nl rlonuiuiti.kl<i(iii.tl hiliuolM 01 (olli'iri's tliad Ihn ({o\rinninil 
ol Inch* picfuih not to move iuitliot in thai diioLiion, uRhouqh ilioic is no uiicnl/ifni ul (lishuliiii'f \\\\ li rna v iln <M|\ 
CMsfc His [0\LQll( k ncy in Crmnnl tliuikh that tho incrnoiandiuu ol Mi IImia.nl, anil Iln* Lit ufni.mMiMM IMMI ' 
obsci vitionH upon iL, Mi>oht tho aJtui native ol hit eiiqLh 1*11111^ U'lUin solirM duvet iimnnlj iiMMiihiMi nn Mini 
MuliainnhuUn sicb, insti.irfl nl scUin^ up niwones l^m nihUnco, the liifth sekiHils <n colliers aM'liiM 
in the imrlht oi i qio.it iMulumrcuidan population, iunfhM)u thus u^iiilnin'tl |MI()I in tins wav of 

PuiMitn moixii hoi rniQhly, anil oL gunoially chc'*iponin^ education to Mniuuunnwlanh h> si'liolaihliips,inii 
hkr Ornpnition oi tiic Molisui Funds might go inwaid UK leasmij the public Kianfh-iiMinl cil 
schools and (.ollugefl M f 

Tho cUUiln of any hchomo which itn^ht bo woikcrl oat upon tins dcHi^n >vcio loft in ilu- hands nl th< 
Oovonimoiit As to tho jwiuohl loi Impcnal aul, tho Ouvmuuent ul liuliu fonscnlcd, tlucily in virw (tl Kir 
CamplwllVi hcbemo bi oiK^miM^m^ Muh.uiumuUiL odur.tlioii, to mcro-iso tlu Ei%mUi* piovincjialviunwn( hy an 
atULii.il ndditiruuil ft Mint ol Us 50,000 

On the 2*JUi July 1W.{, tho Uovejiiinimi oi Ron^al foiwaidod for ibo mrm k iiiulinn nf iho ((nvctimicnL of lurliu, 
6ir Gtoorffa OumpbolUs Bo- a <0 I^ ' <b l^^ 1 ' 1 ^ 11 ' 11 i^'onh 1 !! h) llu LiiMit^nniHi (Invunni 
solution regarding moafluros inr'usiiu^ which HJI (lour^t 1 (lumpbi'll lunl iidnpUil (viiihM|iu'nl. (n HH 
adopted for Muhommadan, tirmh nl iho (liFVcrnnirnt oi India sci Jnitih iilmvc* Jinil liu aiMiiiojiu 
IBduodtion, 29th July, 1873 , m iitol liH fi^KJO Thi UUMSHIOK proposal ini^udc.l n iihunl HI ln-nu* 
soholaiKhipH lor Mnhummadan ynuthh uH/i'iidnig < i ull('(?cfl and KilLt schouls isjiornilly lor Ihosci latin whn 
elect to puihiui the onlinai > Kii>lish (onrso of httuly and to i*i>ul physiutl MMt'iii'i* 

Thoio prooi'0(bn^ wuio upoifcod do iho Hociutar) of NiMo 111 th< k fli'spulflus mai^umlly rmicil, J niul HIH 
Approval by the Soerotary |jl "' rlsl P " 13U| Novcinlior JH7:J, jqilwl iih lolhwH 

ofStateoftheaboromentioned " ' fully concui ui Iho viewh Hlalod in Idit 1 dabumiH* Riwolutitnih n^uilitit hy 
meseurea, 18th Wovomber, Your Etaollouoy HI Ooimtnl, umlcT (latnolf Juna tho Mill, and oliMrvi* with 
18781 much gratification thut Uu-ou^lujut India (fToriH art) liuinff uuulu with 



* Boloium8 from tbo Beoordv of tho Goyornmoiit of India (Horn* DtpnrLrafluL), No* 00V. (1UUO) , frp ^ SDO, f '^ !> t80. 
t bupttch from Homo Dop^titua^ Ku 0, datod iho SOUi Juno, 1878 

Denpttah ftpm ^naoml Bop^rfcmont, No tt6, datod tbo 21nt July, 1873 \ 

, ; 



FOR -utirA-\raxnui cnncATirm ra MADRAS 155 

|uilviu'i,i ami ,,un.n.K, ir. ,, l( ] niL t L ilaLflmmaAuiB to paitake of tte many bmefife rf onr odncafaonal 

**i 



ol Hi. (.HKudm-, ot Ynu Kurllnuy m Conned in lc lation to MnLamnudmi eduoatum in 

lit!)" 1 1 

YIMII li.|.|ii| m Coumil h Julljr 11*010 of the mnny and poouhar difiSoaltiDa wLioli soironnd tho H ubioct 
" ll1 '" ..... l ""'' " IW'lMioiis.iuililMiiiiiiiMliiig' attinotiom to bio flovuiiimoni of Bengal I appiove of 
tin ...Mn,,,, ,|,i .,<IIIIIM ..I IN :.OiHI()vliHli > ,mli.no?iante.ltothatOovDinin U iit 

\\ith 11.111 lh.jMt.li i,t (he ],t .,1 Hqidiubu, jon IIMO tuiiMuittGd to m P a loiter hem the Liontenaut- 
(i " vl " ...... l! '" utl "M'l "'*'>" <>l <!"' uiidMiius nlucJi lie lus 1opioA oonso.iuonfc on yom mstincfaons and 

flu i.l.liii..iiil i ...... m,, i,i Tin unumi'iiHuts ol tbv Ijiuntmuiit-Uoruiioi indiuilo a vciy wicial disposifaon 

n\ (In- mi ,i>i., |ild'iil .it hi-, ih.pii^iJ >mi | , m mUli^out apiiiouation of tbo giodit iiupoitanue of tlie whole 
' 



iijt'i 

I i.iiiiint (tmrfiulf uiilioiil ,m s|iic,smn of ra-y cndul satisf.u)tion wilh Lho oai of ul anfl complete mann OP in 
Y, hu li \ imi K\f HI-IK v li i- ili> ill with .1 t|tn-stum Miiumnitoil vnfch so 7n,mj difflcnHios, and ho intimately oonnootod 
null UK luot ind'itstnil AMI> lonji- add mlluLiitjdJ poitoonoi llu Alajist/b 6ab|e<lb in ludw"* 



CHAPTER XXVIL 

MHAHl.UKH AimPTMI) lr TUB VARIOUS LOCAL OOVEHNALKNTS AS TO MUHAMMADAN EDU- 

CATION UNDHIt TUB (lOVTKItNAlKNT OF INDIA'S ARHULUTION OF ]H71, AS STATED IN 

Tlllfl HNI'OllT OK TIIK KDUOATION OOMMTHHrON OF 1H83 



Tin* nirnHUH'S fidnpltHl l>> Uio \,uinuh IJWM] fiovcrnineiiis in cotiqor|uoiito of Uie abtn fmouhoiiod Rosnlotionof 
thiKatli)t Mu^oN (ittvcaninu'iit m IS71, uiuiy Jully discMisscd m th? ll^iutl of tho Kiluc>iiion Conumgsinn, 
willi u*r<ii'un* in Mu k htiiUhdiih ni tin* ycMir 1HSL-K2 Tlio litts of e.uh ul iho pnnupal pioviucos have bctn 
M*pntn1f k ly siutccl aniJ UMMI* ii'sult* IIILVI^USO boon jniliiMiod , Lat unni tlioy uic roitUniorl m a reiy bulky folio 
* imi .uii'ssibh* tcHlic 1 i^itu'iul ii'wlta, Llu k lollowiui* pfuaifitiplu may bo oUiacicrl Ironi it, ono of fclio muin 
n| thin mink In-ill^ to hiipply .uid pn*si>ivu accumLo and lull information icqcudiiig thu ptogioss uf 
HluiiiLionaiiuiii^ tho Af ulianuniuLnis, not onlyioi Liu* piohtmt but alho 01 thi) puiposcB of facilitating 
in djKdishiii^ ini'UhUii'h ioi Uiu lutuic uilv.uici'iucut ol English odacntioii amnn^ that cominaiuiy 
11 Upim I In* int'ipt l tlip lU'soliitioii of tho Oovommoiit ol Iiili^ tha UovurnmunL of Madiob inviiocl tho 
Moewuros ttikon in Madras ^y" lliwil ljl ljll Umvinwly to omihidit wliotlioi ,iny stops nonlcl bo taken by 
tot Muhai&madao Bduoation jt *luoli wmldbo Lkclyto attract a laijjw unmbor of Mulunnmiwlan undnv 
under tho Government of ^uduutow Tn its toply tho Ryndicatu oLpichHi'd an opinion that 6 the 
Xndift'tf Eoolution Mo, 300, ri'ffultttion ol tko Uiuvmity nlumU not ho iiuiiliiiri with tho view of onoour- 
dtttod 7th August 1B73 rfKl||(f ^ pA| ^ im \ M M^lion of tho populatjon, but that tho Muaalmana Rlionld 

in pMM'iscO} ilio Htuno nnwnic? as ail otlii'i inhabitants of tlu> Madias Piosidonry,' and wlule 

the uiidtiulifiMl fiv't of flu* MuliiumuiwUnfl being bohmd tho lluuloh ah loffaidn odiwational piopioM t 
did tmt M'h that nuy Mqw could be iuki^n by thu Uuivoi^sifcy to modify thin Htalu of iJnngs Tho 
inb'u by tho l)iit*cloi k of Public bisirui'iriun WON not nuno cuconiagmg Ho coiihidorod that tho Dopaitmeut 
tmil dirtu* all Lliat it uiuhl for Miihaiuniiulun cdiutttion, and poiutud out thut a hpotial ouneoMuon had botn niado to 
MuNttlnian niudcuU b> nxcmpim^ thuiu from tho new jo^alationH z-offaidinpf lot*, Tho Qovointnont ol ATarltaa 
wan, luiwi'VMN wmviiiMil that thu ousting hchcmo oi inbtiuction ^a*> iiainod with too oxolnaivo zofoionoo to ilie 
m{umjm<*nlH iti Hindu Htudonts und that Mulmmniftdtuis wuio placod at BO groat a disadvantage tliat tho wonder 
wan, itfit that tho Muhamitmdan olurmmt ui tho HolirolH was BO Hioall, but that it erutod at all Tho Oovonior m 
OfrawU, thintiforo, mnwl oid(r tbat tho Dirootor Hhoald. without delay, * take steps with a view to the establish- 
ment of tilomoutary HohoolB at Aittot anil Bllloro, and eoxrejtponding classes m the oxisting Bohoola at the pxwoipal 
uf tho Xnhammftdan population, suoh aa Tnoluuopoly, Ouddapah, Kurnool, and poihaps 



IWwtKttui born tho Bwovda ol UM Gorwmawit of lAta (Horn Pepwrtmiat), Ko. 00 V (18S5J , pp W, 236 



156 



SHGLTSH BDUCAT1DK IS INDIA 



which, instruction will be given m tha Hindustani language, and Mnhammadan boys may ihufl acquire sue li a 

knowledge of the English, language and of tha elemental y blanches of instruction as will qualify thtm ioi 

aion into the higher classes of the Zillah and Provincial schools and othoi sinnlai institution*].' 

ments weie also, without loss of timo, to be made foi the training of MuLanimudan toabhots , and nihti IK tion 

in Persian was to be provided in any high school in which thoie was a sufficiunt numboi ol MaLamnuiUn 

students 

11 Coming to the year 1880-83, we find that the measures taken dmmg the mtoi va.1 and the lesults oliliuncd 
Beaults of measures for JJLu- WDie ^ follows Tho special schools miuntamuiL b> Um eminent IMMI- 11 in 
hammadan Education taken in numboi, 7 ot them being Anglo voinauilat middle sihunls, niul I \iiulo- 
Madras veinaoular piimaiy sukooh Nuio schuolH, An^li-\(Miiuulai m u'liiiii ulai, 

were maintained by Municipalities, and of aided schools with A special pzoviMon 1m 3Jusalman piifnls, tin H 
4 Anglo-veinaculai, and 21D vernacular OLlioi inducoinaatb had also been lirld out tu M us aim, in ^Luilt nls 
woir admitted in all sthools upon payment of hall tho Uhual foos, sovcm hcJiolaihlups nvoin spu i illy H -i i vul f ii 
Ku&aliuon candidates at tho Univoifaity oxamiuationh , a hpoual Deputy Fahjudiiu ol Musaliu.m nhoul, li.ui lu'ui 
appointed, an elomeutoiy Noimal hihool hail boon established at Madias, and the* UnivciMt) ii M.nli i^ 'till 
continued to allot to the Arabia and Poisian languages at its ouimmatioiih a maviimim (l uiatU riJiunli iiliU 
laigw. than that oainod by veiuaculai languages Tho combined rural ts o( ULPSI in (MS u res \\(it iinimntlv ilis- 
factoiy In place ot tho 5,531 Mutiulmans at hcbool in 1870-71, tlio letuins foi JHKII-Kl que aj,D7.), or <? (K r 
cent o tho total numboi undw uibtiucstirm, while the poicuutacfo ol Musalmaiih to 1,1 K iof.il |Mpu[a(um ii (Iu 
Prosidoncy is only & poi cont The piopoiiion ol boys at sdiuol to thus* ul a hchonl-^Din^ a",i N ioi Miihaiii- 
nuvdn-ns 15 1, for Hindus 13 7 But it ib not m uuruboiH uuly tliat ptdc^i iss has boon mado T ikinu i In* 1 1 Mills tr 
tho middle school examinations wo hnd that tho puiLontago ot ptuihcd candnlati's Lo those c\iuniiH*<l \\is lor 
Biahmans 44, for Hindus not Biahmans, 8.% foi Muhainmadans 11 Jn tlu 4 lowci Uiiuiisit) c\ainiti iduti'i, taking 
only the porcontagD of Buocessful candidatos to those oxammud, the lONilts toi JHK(}-K1 mMi|ij,illj safisl.iHoi,v, 
as the following Table will show 





ENTP^NCij 


^iivsT AIMS 


RiOB 


Eiammod 


PasHod 


Pel ocnta^o 
uC fiahveil to 
tiXiiminuil 


Klxamiiu'd 


PttHSl'tl 

tinr> 


INicftifiiirc 
nl p,^ ill fd 
t \iiiitinctl 

(!()7 


Bifikhmans . . 


2,150 


670 


i a 


480 


Hindus not Brahnmns 


1 9 OOC 


auo 


272 


17:* 


M> 


VI 7 


Musalinons 


71 


19 


2GK 


If) 





h(M) 



In tho Entrance examination, the pot cent ago for IfirulaH other ilinn KralnnuiiK uncl (or Wusahuitnn m 
practically tho same It must be rumcnibmd, bowovor, that tlio pinpnilioii of Htiulouts tr> populuiuw 
throp times M ffroat foi Umdus (including Btahinans) as lor MuHalmuns hi tlio latter c-usc, Uio {K-iccnt^^r of 
passed oandidatoB ib eron moro favourable to iho MuwulmivuH , (ml the propoi lion oi (anrlidal.^ <4 jMipuluiion IN 
firo tunes as groat for Hindus (woludn^ Bialmianb) tts foe JMusalimuw Of ciHIi^u cxIucatHm, In^yond ihn iirwt 
examination m Aits, Muhammadans, spoaLin^ gt^netttlly, do not avail tbpinhi'hra at all, tlion^h Uiwt* IK no num>n 
to Hopposo that the genoral system of oduuvtion beyond thai Htuiuiiu d muota^ well MiiUnl U <!(> 



that bolow it Tho attendance oi MuHalmaiAH in tlio VUUUUH iuvLituUotiH, Uuvuiiiiui'uL aided, uml 
compared with the total attendance, ww in 188] -82 CM followu 



MBV&UPE8 JOB 



BDDOATKffl IN BOMBAY 



157 





Total xrambai 
of Stodents 


.c^-. 


Percentage 


CJ.ilK..,h^li 


1,569 


30 


17 


Oin.uf.i1 


38 




... 


Iliwh SiliooK Knqlish 


4,836 


117 


24 


MiiMh' , 


18,553 


723 


38 


, Wiimcnlm 


511 


2 


4 


Pina.iu % Eiiuhsh 


63,295 


4,973 


78 


Voninfiil.ii . . 


276,983 


19,232 


69 


High Kii^lish, fin Is' 


2 






Miiliil>> , 


190 






VMinanikii, (Juls' 


197 


1 


5 


I'umu.v Kn'fliJi 


1,H97 


. 




Vmuiubp 


18,408 


427 


23 


Noinul HvhmilH tin MIV&IH 


799 


42 


52 


MlHllCHMH 

TOTAL 


157 






387,595 


25,547 


85 



Hoararea fbr Mnhaounftdan 
Education taken m Bombay 



4 Tbuuffh tho MuHiilniauH in iho Bomb.iy Prosidonoy as'o rookonod m the oeusiw of 1872 at 2,523,344, or 154 

pot cent of a total popnlntion of 16,349,206, no loss them 1,354,781 belong to 
fim(1 j ^ M BxoludiHg that Division tho poioontage lalls to 7 1 Of the 
^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ OT 82 per O ont , were MnaaJmans Asm 

Madras, UIM 1*111% tliu irflumflianocs whuJi called foitli the RoBolulion of tho Govexmnont of India oated only 
on a HiniiH Hcalo Hmii, no rtcmbt, was in a veiy bMikwtfd staie, and tho feebngb of the Musalnuui oommunrty 
Uumi ww hiitmi(ly .vuHi iho Btiuly of Hnfflwh Out of a population of 3,354,781, only 10,115 were in schools 
knrtwn to tiie Dupartwoiit, and of that numbei, only S^sUfi, 01 31 8 per cent of the total numbei at school, were 
MutmlinAiiH, Uiouffh Uioir propmiiim to iho iwt of tho inhahitanta was as oui to one Looking at the Presidency 
as a whohs tho mdiffinwnoo of tho MaHalmans waH not so much to education geneially aa to education in its higher 
bronchus T|UH fact hail already ongagod tho atfccmtawi of tho Department , and enqTuries which were set on foot 
Homo two roaiH boforo tho issue of tho Resolution of the Government of India showed that in the Government 
n>II<w and English school* of a toial of 16,224, tho Musalmtfna numbered 1,469 only The distribution was aa 

follWH 

La oollogoH .. ... . .14 

high Hohools M . 

ukiddlo schools .. .. . * 



TOTAL 



... 1,499 



* Hore/ the Dirertor of Public Instrwrfaon remaarks, ' is the weak point. The Muhammadans avaal themselves of our 
lower 'schools, bat do not use to the higher schools and colleges In the list of University graduates thace am one 
MusalmM.A. l widtwoB.A's. I flunk that toe xeason is to be found not mtiw poverty of the MuhMmnadan. 
community [for beggar Brahmans abound in the lugt school), but an tiwir poverty and depressed social status 
oombiood In this matter the Brahmaa and Musalmaa are at opposite poles Thus we have in Gujarat 10 

Brahmans for every HueaU 



am in the middU oUi wd not 9 for ftvary tfusalmw ia tifce lover ebtfa aohoola ' In the flovsnunent inatitFatioiw* , 



158 



BNGLTSH BDU01TION IS TNDtt 



to tke total number at school was much less than in those aiJurl and 
inspected. Thus out of 161,283 students in the former, 14,629, 01 9 1 pez cent , woie Musalmans, while tho lattej 
had bat 968, or 5 2 per cent , of ft trial of 10,413 Tho meafliuos taken by tho Diioc,tor, Mi Puilo, to i umi ily tho 
state of things which hw engines levealed had refoiance alike to the highoi and tlu luwoi 91 ados ol education 
The TTniYBiBity having plocod Poisian on tho list of languages in which examination is held iui its deqioes fiaiit- 
turn was obtained to tho appointment of a Piofosqoi of Peiaun anil Aiahioin thr ElphuihtoiiD Ooll^o, wliuip Tip 
to that tune it had boon impossible, foi want of a competent tearhur, that tboso Uiignaups Mimild 1w stuihi d 
in a scholarly manner Fabian teachois weie also appointed in tho KLphmstimc 1 and Sm it Hu;li fit limils Ih the 
provision of stipends and toacheib foi Mo&almi,ns in tho vouuacnUi ti.uumq culli'i}! 1 , thn LiiiLuilalum w.is laid cl <b 
Bupply of quaMed toocheis in veinaculai and Mnaalman hohools In i egud to luwci ediin itinii, Hi Pi ik JH i*^r rl 
upon the QoTernment tho nooosBity of mipowng town schuol-iatos foi iLnR wants, smuo the idtt's thou nliiiiiiisti icd 
by tho Bduoation Dopaitmont belonged jlmnst oxuln^mdy to tlio \illaqcH, and tho sli.no of tht puldir i>i,in( hu 
vernacular education whidi bdonQod to the towns \\.istonbnitlltu ddmit ot ,wlor|inh pimisum lot smh u.iii|> 
His lepresentaiaons, though tho imposition of thoho idtos \vag not conceded, ,fct all events ftmin>il <i> Mnsdlm.in 
soliools a ^TI* shaiB of tlio vetnacnlai giant 1^^ Poilo nlbo diuw up a ociniso ni I'tihUiti insiiiu Linn IDI (lu i uppri 
btandords m vornaculai schools, anrl in Englihh and Hi ih fidmolB Tins IMJUJ so was i^i.id u.it IM{ lnun ilu Ijiuui- 
nmg up to the mato iculation &td,ndaitl 9 and so aizangod as to jnopaic, loi the study ni Pi ISUIL as .1. el I-SH in tin* 
Arts Colleges Later on the number of special Masalman schools was <unsidiiald) imicasiMl, <ind Miiiilnifin 
Deputy InspeotoiB woio appointed to inspect thorn c But thomost picnmsii^ listiuio in (imiiuclum vulli Un pro- 
gresa of Musalman education duiing tlie past docndo ' [1H7J to 1881] ' has hwn tlio immatiuii and it^o^niliim il 
a Somoty known as the An]nman-i-lBlam, wluohibis hoped will in time establish ,tiu>trift<iiL id Mvulai stlinnN in 
Bombay This Society is so impoitant that it was lelt advisabh to iiuike spuial ink* ioi its iis-,isi,Ltici At 
piesant it receives a fixed sub&idy of Kb CUD a mouth horn Go \oiument. H> ilic end ol the- yr.u IhSO-M tlu 
Society's first school was faiily staitud lit, HiniubUm anil Aiic(l(i-Hitidiist.iiii Dop<u1meid.s, iot^i Llu>i \\ith a l<ui^* 
class of children reading the Koran, contained in all 1U2 pupils Siuco tliun tho opctaljimh r>l Ute SIN ic>l t y kivu 
been extended ' ^ 

"In 1871-72 the number of Masalmnnii at school, aceoidmor to Mr PLM|<'H oslnnaio, niiW Ift.W, ni nhnul K 7 

Besults of measures for F C1 ccut oi ^ inttl1 nuniljci at siluml , in IHHJ-K^the nutiilui li.id MSUI in 

Muhammadan Education in 41,518, or 11 7 pn enit oL the toLil iiiunlioi ai Helirxd Then* \\pte ,il n 

Bombay in y lo j a<itoi VOIUL 22,264 Muhaniui<uLiii ohilcL-on in indiciums he linnls, wlm li 

would raise the porcontage to 14 7 Tho disttibntion was us follows 



CU.&H or INSTITUTION 


ToUl iiuinljci 
of 
fe'liiddils 


MuhlllllUllh 


I'cn iMitni^. 1 
14 


OoUegeB, Engluli .. 


175 


7 


High Sctoola, Enghsli 


fi,?:n 


UK 


^0 


Mxld]* ... 


U,257 


7HI 


8 t 


Pnmaiy Vwoaoolai 


,118,771 


:j(),2:ii 


12 ft 


Middle Englihh QuJb,' 


flofl 


2 


;{ 


Pnmaiy Voiuivcnlcir 
Noimal Soliook for Maotots 


111,117 

m 

7!I 
7B ) 7R. I > 


i.fiiii; 

42 

1 

22,SiB4 


(58 
7 
13 
SH-2 


n MuitroB608 , 

Unudocl IndigBBons Sohools 


Toru 


439,011 


:j,R:ta 


147 



* Bombay Pronnmtl Beport, ptfo 66, 



APPLICATION OP THE MOHSIJT mmOWMBNT ID IHGLIBH HDUOATIOIT, 159 

The MlomnnJ'nblejhnwfi tho piopoition of Musalmans to Hindus and otheis in those colleges and schools 

rf BengaJ and Assam which m 1871 furnished letuins to the ! 





Hindus 


"M~-naq.lTinfi.Tiq 


Otters 


Total 


Rrliimh 


148,717 


28,096 


15,489 


193,302 


Alts Colleges 


1,199 


52 


36 


1,287 


TOTAL 


150,916 


28,148 


15,525 


194,539 



"Tims, whilo the Mu-iiluums <if Beiunl^cio 8SiS poi oont of the total population, than proportion to the 
tolnl numliiT in s< hrxds Lnoun 1o tlu J)< p.ntrntmt \\<is only 144 pen cent * This result, 1 icmaikb the Dueotoi m 
Ins Iti>j)oifi loi 1S71-72, 'slums thuffllir nlnftifimi ol Musdlxnanb demands much coacful attention They have 
k'lnnil \ h< inm*, aii<I 11*111111 still Hit* imlariimnts hold ont loity ypaiB i^o to tho whole community, bnt of 
tin 1 Hindus imly nv.nli tl tlu iiisi'lves tinih, liuwovoi, his boon tho pi oqieflfl of education and the influence 
4ii tin 1 t;i iiiiirin AM! s)tiiin in i ji i minti n^ fiolt-liclp, that tln cucoaikgoiuont which was then consider ed ]Ubt and 
uuliti wmlil now h< (iilli'd ilnwiuii^lit buhriy, hiill unites tho fttiony mrlacommtb in ifutioial uso iorty yooas a^o 
me lii'ld onl (o Mu^ilninns now, I II.INU littlo lui]ic k n[ Fvcemi^ thorn drawn to om hohoolti ' But if the numboi of 
MusiilnMtih in Ilia sell uo Is gfinci.illy with ffH'ivi/ly out oi propot tion to tho total uamhci m tho Piosidoncy, still moie 
oouhpRiunm was 1ho ilis]unji(ilit>ii m tho collides, wlicio ont of 1,287 students only 52, 01 401 per cent , belonged 
t<itliutian* In infill i> Univoisity distim'tions, tho Unoctor inn/ukb 'Diuing tho last Jive yeais, out of 
3,'I'M (unnlubiii'rt wlio iiussod tho Kntiiuico Kvumnaticm homthoso Piovuiccft, 132, or 3 8 poi cont only, WOIP Mu&al- 
inans Tlicy ciutht In h.tvo hcon luit-lold 111010 imjuunmH Ont of 900 pa*>flpd foi tho Flint ^its in tho ba,mo peiioi, 
iluK*tliuuiis ifiinioil only 11, or J Si pet ctnt , aud out of 439 pttthOR for tho B A, they giuuorl only 5, or 11 pur 
rent- Hmoc*, not only the niutilierof AIusAlniaiift -who pusB tho Untianco IM losfi thin ono-tenth wlut it ought to 
bo, but tins painful uiltnionLy htoiuhly innoiuitiHiii tho JJi^hor Examinations Taking ULD candidates goneially, out 
of uvcry 1^0 who pasH the Kntaauoo, 20 ^o on and pah* tho First Ajta, and 12 p^b tho B A , bnt uf eyoiy 100 
Muialniaim who PILHH tlio Hutiamo, only 8 pasti tho Kiiht AitB and 3 the B A ' Yarionb caasos, somo gonoral aud 
Homo paiiifular, wore assigned by thu ofliooiH coiuraltod as the obstacles which had baiiod the progiosa of 
ixlaoiiiiion, lM>th hic^lioi and lomT Among tho ffouoiol cauBOB aasignod by tliem. were tho apathy of the Muaalmon 
ra<(s then pride, Uu^u 1 rt'ligiouH ovoluwvonosH, tho lovo of their own hteiature among thoso of them who 
rarod 1or any udncatum at all, tho idoaso porsistontly hold that education ought to be a fioe gift Among the 
, a want of sympathy botwocm Hmda toachazs and Musolman pupils, a want of consideration in 
of ibo Kflucatiou Dopiutment, and, poi haps above all, tho doproflsed condition of the bulk of 
HonKuli*MunaImanH MUM vim aim 111 tho fnnt inntanoo by conversion only and not by descent In difteiont 
cLogxiDH ol oflicu'iiry and with vaiying influonoo according to locality, thaso cauaos combined to account for the 
baokwauluoHH ot tho raoo Many ol thorn woio of coarse boyond any immodiato romoval Otheis woie a mattei 
of admitiihtration, and vrith thoHc the Government of Bengal piomptly endeavouied to deal 

41 Ou tho (juuHtiou of establishing Bpotual bchnoh for Mubolmans, the almost unanimous opinion of thano oon 



Mdh Endowment at 



WM * lia * 



flohools ali-ondy in existonoo, thoio was no wifficient 



Hooghly appbed to English j owtineationf OP oxponding State fnnda m thiq diieoiaon TJw veinaoulor of 
Education among Muhamma*- the mahs of Moftalmans in Bengal was known to be Bengali, and tho otdiuaiy 
dans in Bongal. pathwla* oE tho country wexe held to supply tho pioper means of olomentary 

duoatioti Sulio >lb oi all clansefl might be mado more atbraotivo by increasing the number of MuBalmans through- 
out the vai-ioiis &&&<* f tto Dopartaont m Musalman districts , and especially by encouraging Musahtwafl to 
qualify thomol ve& lor tho profession of teaching by a cotiiBe of traowng in the EToimal schools In all ZilU schools 
it wa* dooictod that TTrdn and Arabic or Persian should bo taught up to the standard of the Entrance Examination , 
and, as a special oonoowwn, wherever there was a Buffiraent demand to justify the supply, there waa to be a special 
oltMB to teach Arabic and PeiBian after the Mwahnan fashion The Persian language had recently been included 
ly tho Untrotsity among the sub]eots tor the F A and B A Bxaminaticms, and thw at was expected would have a 
powerful effect m awreaimg the number oi collage tudeoi. A new Oo4e of graat-in-aid xules was about to be 
up, sad advantage would be taken rf ttos to or specwJly liberol terms to schools managed by Muftalman*. 



M I, 
I 



160 IHGIISH EDUOITIOU IN INDIA 

These meaanrefl for the most part had reference only to lower education In respect to the higher, the Mnsalmans 
of Bengal had a special grievance in the appropnatiDn to English education of a 001 tain endowment oiigiiully 
assigned to the promotion of oriental (Arabic Ebnd Persian) learning Of that endowment, known as the Mahomed 
Mohqm Tnwt, gome account has alieady been giyen in Ohaptei VI i To remove all oanso for complaint, the 
laentsnant-G-oveinor at the instancB of the Supiemo Goveinment, which added a stun of Bs 50,000 for that pur- 
pose to the Piovinoial assignment for education, declared that the maintenance of the English side of that College 
should be a ohuige upon the Piovmcial funds It was also decided to dovoto a portion of the endowment to the 
onental side, or Madiaisa, and the lemamdei to the foundation of thieo new Madta&bat, to tho establishmunt of 
scholarships, and towards the payment of the fee of Mu&aJman students in English colleges and. schools The 
thiee Maiha&i>a& weie established at Dacca, Bajshahyo, and Dhittag-ong , and oacJi was placixl tin dux an Arabic 
scholar of repute, assisted by a competent staff of Manlavn It wa* intended that in each of thorn the fnll romse 
of th.9 Calcutta Madiana should in tune be taught, English WAS to bo added to the com so whoiovoi the pupil y 
showed a desire to leain that language, and at Dacca a teacher of English was at once appointed To tho payment 
of soholaiBhipg tenable by Musalmons in Mutframs 01 in English colleges and schools, thoie Tva* allotted tliu firtm of 
Es 0,000, while Es 18,000 went to tho payment of two-thudb of tho fees of Muhammailan pupils in Gouuumtuit 
colleges and schools outside Calcutta, and also to the payment of Maulayis in those sohoold At the hainc Limp Iho 
Calcutta Madtaaha was thoioughly le oigamsed, anongomontfl were made foi thu more thoioujili tcaclunq nt ilio 
Aiabio and Patbian language? with a leasonable amount of Muuammadan law , and the salaiy ol tho Km (mean 
Pimcipal^afi iai6od to Eb 1,000 a month A dohdiption of tho chaaactoi and status oi this Huthft^n 1ms Ijwn, 
given olsewheie, and it is theiefoio unnecessary to ontoi into partuialars hwo A few yoais latei, a piupohal was 
made to connect the mokttilt throughout Bongo,! with tho institutions fui highoz Muliamniadan Eiliiialinu m (!ul- 
outta and tho Mofussil The attempt, ho waver, was not successful, and it was abandoned m fa\uiii of an npjmsito 
pohoy, which was ezpiessed in the hope that the maltnli might be 'gradually moulded into trni> pumaiy 
schools ' Accepting the mdigenous sohoolb of the country m the foim in which, undo the Hpooial conditions ol 
bcality, they were most popular, the Bengal system endoavomed by the piomiso of Qovoinment Mippoil to in- 
troduce rnto the traditional couise of study certain sublets of instruction which should luing tho schools BO aided 
into some leUtion, moie 01 less close, with tho geneial system oi education in tho Piovmeo Tho object boing to 
enDoura^o natuzaJ and spontaneous movomont, it followed that if m any locality tho eu&tiug s>fltom had a loli^innn 
basis, the religious ohdiacter of the school should be no bai to its lucoiviiu? aid, piovidod that it mtiorlut ptl a wi tarn 
amount of seculai instruction into the couise Many hundieds of ma^ct^ have m this way been admitted into 
the piimary system of Bongal 

- Tho ollowin ff U a foliar account ^ In the jeai X808, & Muhanunodan gentleman of tho 81a teob dioa, Innvmir an ontate 
yipiauu Be 46,000 per annum and called Soidpur, in the Hugh iirinat, m tin B t ftu pion, n.ei Tho deed of tmt anpomtDrl t^o 
trustee, tD each ; whom a dxan of the prooeedi, amonntug to ono ninth, isai oaiigned Throe ih,trti O l tbo aamo inopmtmn 
were aaugnad to certain ipaoinD objeoti, IHB , the patfonzuiioe of ooitain rebgiona iitoa and ooromomoi, tho topdii of an hmmlanih, 
ox place of worship, Ao , and the renumnng fom-nintha were dedioatad to the mainten,in DQ of oorUm Oitabhshmonl, and pnymhut oi 
panaums Up to 1810 the ertats remaned in lie hand, of the trurteu appointed under the flood, Imt m that y,u they w W aeon wd 
<* m^TersatioB, and, after pi o tract ed htigatoon, wero d,Bmi BBe d m 1815 Tho Qwarnmont thon ootutilatod lMt ft tioBtoo <md 
auamt i tho management of the ertrte And tHo anpanntandenoe of the dubmsonionta m oonjan. tion wiUi another tzu,lr, amM,inU.d 
b^teelf In 1817, the aatate wu f aimed out in putney that IB, aottlodmpoipolmty at flvoi i ft toi with tka ionante Tho amuiini. 
reoBivad ftom theae tenanta aa oonaideiation for iho piUw aottlomont, with tho atreara which had acoamulatcd dm,mr htiimtiun and 
tho ono-nmth ahare drawn by Qovernmont aa a tmatoo, wsra in 1B35 davotod to tho bmUng and oiulowmont of an nw LtK,n at 
Englx.compnainganBnghab. Department, coatinff Ra 1,780 p W manwin, and au (hiontal Bopaitmont ooBtin ff Ji l.BOB poi mnm,tm 
Th appiopndt,on of the troat f und. waa at tho time juatifled on tho ground that tho momt u iuinoo of ail orlnoaUoinl laatitiition wtui 
a pwua nae, 1 and BO wittun the toatator'a mtontiona wiw 

"The oollegs was opened on the lat Angnat, 1885, and within three dnya counLod 1,200 pupils m tho Jfln ff l M h, ncl 300 in iho 
Oriental Depaitment , the proportion of Mnhammidana to Hmdna being 81 to 948 m the fgn, and 138 to 81 in the latter Tho 
Hpoita for 1888, and the few following yaara, contain a fall aooouut of the pi ^BM. oi thi, maiatataon, but nowhore doca it appear to 
km haen .nffloumty borne m mond, that the interpretation p,aeed on the dedaiod ^tenhon. of tUo founder wa. only appEo to 
Mjammadan eduoatoon ** in thia .pint the Oollaga haa been mamtoed aa it waa fcmmlo.l, tU to xeport ab^^atToS 
^antaontherell. only W are Muhammadana , the nmnbeza in the Uw Departmeut, " 

65, 87 to 808, and no Mnhammadan, to ft ola* of 



Delhi Oollege, ha-long been a gnevanoe to the Molman commiuuty, 



it, and that the Oemmittoe of Pobho Inatmoticm wrmld cerinly 

*- *- - * 



UASUB1S FOB WTHAiadDlV EDTT01TIOH TS BBVQAL 161 

Tlio result* of the measures taken at this fame are shown, to some ertent, by the very considerable increase 
Results of measures for Mu- m the number of Musalmans under instruction in 1861-82 Including the 
hammadan Education m Bengal MMamu, in which theie were about 1,000 students, the number then stood 



CLASS OF ISSIITUTIONS 


Total number 


Number of 

"M~T1HQ.lTnft.Tia 


Percentage 


( English 
Collies, 
( Onontal 


2,738 
1,039 


106 
1,088 


38 
9990 


HiBfh Schools, 


43,747 


3,831 


87 


Middle 


37,959 


5,032 


132 


Ditto Yoinacnlai 


50,441 


7,735 


137 


Pumaiy,, Bo^b* 


880,037 


217,216 


246 


High RchoolH, dulh', Englwli 


184 






Middle , 


340 


4 


11 


Ditto Voinaeular 


527 


6 


11 


Pnmary ditto . 


17,452 


1,570 


89 


Normal Hchools for Masiois . ... 


1,007 


55 


55 


MiHtroshc* . . . 


41 






Private UnmBpuotod Spools 
TOTAL 


57,305 


25,244 


440 


1,099,767 


261,887 


238 



"The laflt column IB important as showing how rapidly the proportion of Musaiman students falls in schools 
of the* higher clauses Tho proportion in colleges is, indeed, even smaller now than it was m 1871 when, as pre- 
viously flUtod, 4 04 par cant were Musalmans Still, owmg to the roady way in which Mosalmans have accepted 
the pnmaiy Byfltom of nuto notion thwe is a very satiflEacfcory increase in the total number of pupils of that race, 
which hafl luon horn 28,148 in 1871 to 262, IDS (including students in technical schook and colleges) in 1882 , the 
proportion of Masalnuns being now 238 per cent against 144 in 1B71 In each of the Madrassaa of Hugh, 
Dacca, Rajshahye and Ohittagong the full Arabic course of the Calcutta Modi wet IB taught, and in each also 
instruction m English u given to all pupils wno wish it In the Dacca Jffooa the course in English is earned up 
to tho Bntranoo standard Of 1,089 pupils in the six Mafoatstu, aa many as 322 learn English Tha pimlege of 
loading at one-third of the ordmaiy foes has also, by recant orders of the Government of Bengal, been extended to 
MuliammaxUn students of any college in Calcutta, whether Government or other Ln the case of non-Government 
colleges, <udod and unaided, tho amount of the remissions is paid from the Fxovmoial Revenues. 

' According to the Director's Eoport for 1871-72, the proportion of Musalmans to the total number in schools 
Measures for Muhammodan *eognised by the Department was 17 8 per cent , ani as the proportion of 
Education taken in the North- Musalmans to the total population of the Piovinces waa only 13 5 per cent., 
Western Provinces ^ oou ia no t be asserted that m regard to education generally they were m a 

backward Btate In the colleges and in the upper classes of the hign schools, their numbers were not in the same 
high proportion, though in the Entrance examination of 3870, 21 out of 176, or 12 per cent , ware MusaJmans In 
the reply mado by the Government of the fforfh-Westem Provinces to the Resolution of the Government of India, 
it waa maonterooi that the authorities were doing all that could be reasonably expected for Muhammadan litera- 
ture and education , and since Persian was in 1871 included among the subjects of the higher University eiamina- 
turns, toe Mtwatoaia facnlitias offered them in 

rospirttoWiebglwaswenastnelowBrediiwt^ On toe four points of the Resolution, w, the encouragement 
of the daafccal and vwuwttlar language* of the Mn0ataaa0 m fell Government schools and colleges, the appoint* 
21 



L62 mum 

meet of "MTTflq.lTna.TT teachers, the assistanDQ of Muflalman schools by gronts-m-aid, and the enoourniytmroit in be 
given to the cieation of a vernacular literature, Mr Gziffith, then officiating as Dneotoi, submitted ft lull and 
interesting Report In this ho showed that Persian and Azabic held a due place in the collect and zallu school*, 
that the former was taught in the lahnh and in soma of the hallabandi schools, that of 30 DupuLy Iiibptr toih, 15 
were Uuaalmans, that of the ialmli teachers in the Meeiut Circle, whetc there was the Lugc^t piupoitoon of 
Mufialnum pupils, 76 wore Mnsalmans against 65 Hindus, that piuos to the vaJno of Rs 5,0 DO woio -wmually 
given to encouiage the foimation of a yornocnlai hteiatuie, that the bettor class of Miisalniiiii schniils aborwl^ 
i eoeived liberal gi ants-m-aad, and that tho lower 01 indigenous schools faded to obUni Uio MUIG assistance* only 
because they lesonted the visits of Govcinniont officials and i ejected advice when dtcird The iui|Mipnlanfy of 
Government education with the Musalmaus vias accounted foi on vaiious cfiountk Thus ' the Mus.ilmiiiisnl India 
object to the study' [ of geography ] ' and think that than chddion aiomeiely wasbu^timc* 111 icf|uii ini> inJuimaiuia 
about conntnes which they will nevoi see They think, too, that TJida, afl a bnnuaijo, TKitlui rujunc's nor 
deaeive btndy by a Musalman, and that Peisun and Aiabio aio the only toucpics \vhuh an* wni(li) oi 
cultivation ILa&alandi and tafaih fichooU aie uow looked upon with moio fovoui as Poisun, ami, in somt' 
Arabic, has been adxnitteii into tho scheme ot studies , but thoy will not bo tlioroiu?lil\ populm wiili thi |K ojilc ol 
Islam nnloBs great propondezonoe is givon to classical gtudieB, aad gooe^aphy, and some otlu'i Mihjn is ,jrc Mtitrv- 
ther excluded So violent a change in the system of instiuctiou H, of com ho, out of thu quostion It, would lie 
uniau to tho great nuvjoiity of the students, and would not advance tho tiuo mtciofits ol tlio mimuii> * 

" The following Table shows the proportion of Musalmatis in 1881-BJ to the total numbu* of HtuduntH in 1rht k 
Beanlta of meaflnres for ^azious institutions ol tlio Province 

HT-n Vin.TnTnp.fi an BdtLOatlOU Ul 

the J9"orth-"Western Frovmoea. 



LASS OF IKBTITDTIONS 


Total nnmLor 
of 8tndentn 


Musalnians 


I'ommtopo 


Colleges, English 


* ! 


223 


29 


130 


Onental 


II 


444 


17 


38 


High aui Middle Schools, English 


f for Boys 
" I flirl- 


4,273 
62 


* 


103 

* 


f fox Boys 
9 y Vernacular < 
1 Girls ... 


3.2C7 
6 


662 


202 

* 


Primary Schools, English . 


* * 


9,862 


2,023 


205 


u 9, Vernacular 





144,373 


19,339 


13 


n English, fez girls 




64(4 


. 


.. 


Vernacular, 


M 


5,090 


1,6.10 


2O9 


Normal Schools for Masters 





239 


41 


1HI 


,i >, , Mistressee 


* 


83 


4* 







Tofsu, 


169,476 


84,426 


1441 



" It appears, then^ that neither in the proportion of Musalmous at flchot>l m 1871-72, nor hi the ondoavooni 
Independent efforts .made nBG6 ma ^ * ^nco^ago * fnrthor advunoe, wa0 thero any ^1'uu.t CUUHC for 
by the Mrihaimnadans of the reproach, On the other hand, there woe great 0*000 fur hopcrfol antieipaiuii 
Pwwinoas for in the movement set on toot* about this time, by owriam of tlu> MoBalmau 
gentry of theBroTanoes B disaatxsfiod mth ttxo Nwnty p^Riwrn made by 



4he& moe in the highw education, ithew diaBainsfaotton was M muoh with thetaselves M with tho oduoaluw they 
uegleotod, Bwt^t ms art of ttmt bod vhuik oondients liself wiib qwmboi fonto-finding BeoofIfrfaf ibsi 



ANGLO- OMBNTAL OOLLBGE, A1TG1RH 1G3 

Mugalman gentlemen -ware datBinuned to discover the leznedy , and, led by Maulan. Soyyid AliTnn.il Khan,* 
has be on one long devotion to the OB.USB of liberal education, they formed themselves into a society 
with the primdiy pmposa of ascei taming the specific objections felt by the Mu&alman oonimunity towaids tha 
education, oiioied by Groveinment, and of ascei taming the kind of education "which would be welcomed in its place 
It was pUm to them that a leturn to the old methods of Onental instruction was impossible Much as they might 
vonsiaLe tlio Uarlitions of thoir forefather andpiize the tieasures of a copious and elegant liteiatnre, the Society 
hold that the only education which could bung their race into haimony with the civilisation aiound them, and so 
rent 01 G it to a position of influence, was an education frankly acknowledging the advance of science, catholic in 
its sympathies with all that was admirable in the literature, history, and philosophy of other countiies, bioa,d in 
its on tli TIGS anil exact in its studies At the first, as might be expected, this very liberality was the danger which 
th) catenae! tho nndeitdlang To appeal to the Muaalman community at laigs upon piinciples so much at 
van an oo, not with the Muhammadan leligion in its essential doctrines, but with the Muhammadan religion, 
as intciprotod by tho majoiity of those who held it, was to stir up active antagonism "Well aware of this, 
tho Society yet hoped foi ultimate tnumph For some time the support they obtained was grudging Slowly, 
howovoi, tho opposition slackened in the face of the peiaistent com age of tho yet small band of lefoimeis Men 
of eminence, like the lato Sii Salai Jung, came foiwaid with suppoit valuable not only in its material shape, but 
in ite influence with those to whom a great name was a great security The personal character of the loadeis of 
tho movement vouched for its disinterested aims Unreasonable feais, gave way before a closer view of the (headed 
innovation Some of tho fiercest opponents of early days were converted into warm partisans Princes and Nobles, 
Muaalman and Hindu alike, enrolled themselves as patrons of the pz^ect, and oiezed munificent endowments to 
tho contemplated college NOT. was hbeiality altogether wanting on the part of Englishmen The handsome dona- 
tion of Rs 10,000 made by tho Bail of Nor thbiook founded a system of scholar ships called aftei his name, and 
among uthor benefactors woio Loid Stanley of Aldorloy, the Earl of Lytton, Su William Muir and Sir John 
Strachoy Thai teen years have now passed since the Society met to shape its scheme , and it may well be doubted 
whether the most sanguine of those who then devoted themselves to then task looked forward to the lapid success 
which they have lived to witness The noble college now fast rising at Aligarh bids fair to be the rival 
of tire Government oolbg ot in their best character istios , while in some of the most important principles of education 
its superiority is manifest Of the progress alioady made we have given flome account in Dhapter VI t But theie 

* Now, Sir Syod Ahmed Ehan, Bahadur, K S I , Hon LI D [Hun ) 

t " Tho ououmabftnicn thai giro rue to the foundation of the Mnhammadou Anglo Onantal College at Aligaih are thus 
deionbed in a lottei fiom tho Honourable Sayyil Ahmed Khan, Bahadur, Honorary Seoretaiy, Muhammadan Anglo Onental 
Oollegr Fund Committee, to Iho Dueotoi of Public Insfciaotion, North Weatern Provinces, dated June, 1881 ' It will be sufficient to 
Bay that a body of influential Muhammadan prBatlemen, who mteieated themselves on education, being momnfally a wine of the 
backwardness of tho Mnhammadan population in the matter of English Education, regarded the ououmatanoeB aa a great enl, not 
only to tho immediate moial, ao&ul, and political welfoie of their own ao religiometB, hut to the country at luga Their enquiries 
roused the moat lenona approhensiona in regard to the future of their oo rahgionuta under the British rule, and thoy formed 
thomselres into a Committee tonne fnndfl for establishing tha present College The original object of iom of the supporters 
Of the Oommifetoo was to confine the College to the Muhammadana for whose special benefit educational facilities were to be provided 
Bnt o much good will, aympathy, and geneioqity were displayed by the Hindoo nobility and gentry, that the Committee m 
eababluhing tho Collogp doolarod it open to Hindoo students also, especially as the onmoulum (beyond religions instruction) pursued 
in the Oollrgc suited Hindus \nd Kuhummadana alike, and the former showed a reodineHB to join the College In the matter of 
Scholarships, priaoi, and other college rewaida, the rnlos of the oollege ahow no partiality to either Hmdna or Muhammadana, whilat 
tho committee 1m pionded aeparate boardmg-houaea for Hindu student! The oollege u oonduoted upon the moat advanced principle* 
of toleration, and whilst tho immodiate oontaol of it is rated in a Bnropean Pnnoipal and a Bmopean Headmaster, the sfcofl of 
Profeaaora and Teocheis ooniiataof Hindus and Muhammadana The committee can congratulate themselves upon thjp nroamatmoa 
that they have now obaemd the wnallest indication of any feeling other than friendly apiut between the Hindu and Muhammadan 
atudcnti and they aie awoprely oonvmoed that the oollsa^ [though naturally a place of exceptional attraofaon to Muhammadan 
tadeata) may, on educataODal agency, be regarded a* am ted alike to Hindoos and Mnhammadana' The oommitteo foimod for 
the collection of funds began its work m 187S, and up to the present tune the amount reeJiaed la something over thiee Uklia of 
ttwt, exoluwvo of the oontubufaona to the building fand The annual moome of the oollsgejaHa 8,000, while tha e^pondituie 
for the iMt year eeDdod the income byBsj 2,538 Fully to oairy out the scheme of the college, it is calculated that the income 
mut ba nussd to Ba 60,000 per annum , but it may reasonably be expected that the Boremment win before long find it possible to 
nuwsweth* mount of iti giant w aid (now only Ba 6,000 out ot Ba 84,000), and a considerable addition will accrue from the feei 
oa soon M a larger number of quorten oomplated for the reaidence of boarders For tha college bmldinga, mdudmg 1M roomi 
for bowaaw, ft aum ol Ba, 6,81,000 will ultimately be required, and of this Ba 1,62,968 hoa already been lubaoiibed At present the 
tnuldmgt completed omaiat of eleven olaaa WOIM, and one central hall , twenly flte rooms for first olaas boarders, and forty nine for 
of tt toad olest, * houw for the headmaster, imall diapenaary and some tsmporary Doording hoftaes Besidea 
h9 fods*iottl of ha'wtais ooUsg* hare been ant*, a^khasbeenlsjdou^sfliaito tlrt 



J64 ENGLISH flDUCATION IK 

are features in the constitution of tha Ahgaih College which deserve further notice Among tho roiLRnns \\hioh ait* 
said to have detailed the Mnsalmans fiom accepting the Qoveinaaout system, wo haio moniionod thu aliKncc oi all 
religions instruction and the scant attention paid. to moiility and mnunors It is hrio tluit the* Aligdih College 
as&eitg its special excellence Religions instruction is a pait of tho daily e\w rise, and phic-os nf i*(ii*ihi]> itrc to lj< 
among tho college buildings The pious Mnsobnan, fcheiefoio, has no fear that his srni \\ill 4101* up 0,1 it-lew* <i( his 
ancestral faith 01 ignoiant of religious tiuth Hi&mmdis at ie&t, aUo, on tho quifitirm of nioi.ilitj and 
manneis Foi i abidance in college is oompnlsoij upon all stuiloutf. earning hnm a (list uirc, .turl <t health} 
varied lay healthy annwemont pioservcs much of tlio influence u liuruo liio, wlnlc frihtc i uu a iiuuhiiL'si <t\ 
which homo life would fail to give Tho iinpoi ianco ol the col logo, huwovoi, is not cfmimcil in i IK spm il n mm* 
of the education it oifoidq Politically itb influence i> qieat anil will 1)0 i>icibtui , foi it i*, Ihc iiiii r\fni"JSMni ol 
independent Musalrnan effoit which the couutij has ^itnossod binco it camo umlui Itntish uili Tlit* Ali<mh 
Socaoty has mdead hot on example which, if followed to any Lwgo cvtout, -will Milvcllu jiroMrm fit Tiatmnul 
education , and it is difficult to apeak in words of too high piaibo ol thoso whoso labours ht\o lu (u MJ sd i nunu<i, 01 
to ovoiiato the value of tlie ally which tho State has gamud m tho cause nf eduontum nnd a<K IIICVHK nl 

" On the iccoipt ol the Besolution of the Qovoinmont ol 1mlit, enqnii u>h \\cio ni.tdi* is in t.Ii( k <*\f cnf. fn ulncft 
Measures for Muhammadan the MuBalmaus o/ tho Pinvonci 4 had <L\r.iilid IhnmcKcs ol MM uliiiMhon 
Eduoation taken in the Punjab ottoied thorn Those- en<iuiiios flhouerl Ui.il. .JM) per mil ol Mi tnl.il nutulji r 
oi pupilbundoT mstiuotion \\oio Mnanlmans Taking each clasB of School hqjinafd}, tho {Miu k nf,iii 111 (JDMTII* 
mont village sohoolh wag 33, in highei voiuocnlnj belmolh 30, in middle Kii>lish M Imols hoin 121 to '21^ in lii)'iu>i 
English Hcliools 3D, 4ud in Colle^ob 5 In the Jtatnots cast or tho inrr JliuUm tho niiiuliiM (il MiiviltrMii Mtnli nih 
wag almobtia o^not piopoition to the total Mufea,linin popnlitum, ^lule 111 IIMII^ d Uir* DislniK ul Iho Delhi, 
Husai, Amhala and Amntsai* Division* the pei conUge m sehoolh of all d.WiHCs \vns oniisnlthiMy ulmii' Ihii rufio 
which tho Musalmans boi e to tho totd.1 population On tho othoi liaiid, in tho J)ciii|u(< utirl IN'slunvai DniMcmH, 
where the Musalmans formed more than 90 poi oont of tho wholt) population, tlicai pioprntiiin ii> ilu> Iniril aurulxr 
at sbhools was only S5 percent , and HO completely in many purta had oduuttum boon (hhi c^iutlcil l>y them, that 



gronndB h-u boon umaliorl Bagiunin^ with tbont 20 utiulpnl* in Juni* 1N75, Ihu M\mtl unJ mlli^ nun contain 
nearly 800, of whom 20 uo in the hUcn dcp-ubmonb Snion 1877, flftv fcro cwirlirlU^H li.mi frrmit np iui UIM Knlruu'n Ktumi- 
nntion, of whom 88 hire puiaod, 1U out oi 17 havo mu tsoedoil nifclioF \ diuinif tlm fhiim ycun tin u>11ftfHni IMIMI iillilnhMl 
up to (.hit afcmcUrd, And tlioio ore now 8 aLadoni? loidiat? iui the B A ac'^iuo AH fiii'fin,vlJv crumtiluh a, U*o <'i,j|n^ tuii lm 
depaitmontfl, tho Hn^lHh ,md tho OrionUl In tho foimoi, all wbjoots WPIO t-wi?ht m HmjliNh , Ai'ilni, PPIHMJI 01 S 
tokon up as a f eeoond Inngaago,' in tho Uttn, either Aidhio or PPIV.UI was atufhoifoi its liifruLnio, nluln luHloi 
nathematio^ <to , weic tinglit in Uida, and IngliBh oooamo tho ' acconrl 1 mi?tui^o ' Jfut thw DciMitfucril, which IHIN ncvm 
rainy etadonta, uid now nuoibeu 15 only, will prolwbly bo ibohrihod bofoio loitff At tho hcail of tho oulh^i is ft Kui(|Miin PnnninU, 
with sovon Nativo Piofeiiort, threo of whom oxo lUrtora of Aria in tho OuJiulta Univotflity , tlm hi hwl him ft Hut(i|)imn Hi mlniiiNf nr y 
lovon Kiti7Q Hnglibli roiohoiB, and BIT Arabic, Pouion, and Hindi Toaohou In BdiulitmhiiiH thu n*H<'^ aw.uiliHl KM 8,7(>l during 
Oi fcUose, some waro from pormiooat ondowmQnbq foi npaoutl puiiwrnnH, Hiirli HA i\w 1'utuUft uiul il Ni>itlibnu>k 
uont> horn yearly donation? by private gontlomon, anil gonui itoui th roller uicomn linliKioim inHfiiKHiuii IH iwn til 



Siwiwibyo5iinn*Tpie.hoi I tojSf/iuisbyonoot thoir own uotfc, moithor Aiibic-or Pwsiftii, wi-oi tlmx AH bhn oim lunpm'^ or 
hu boon ohoson by fcho student for lug oollngo course , nod tho nuiuiffWft rommiUoo IB wilhnB th.iL HiutiLir uiHUurttoti Hhimld ! 
to Hindu BiadonU m thou own siorod bookg The bumnom of tho polli w o IB manned hy two rtimntUcH, <iuo, conijNJMi l ul 
And European ffeutlomoii, doling with mutton of inatiac-tion only , tho othor, oumpoHnd untiroly ol N.ilivn wmtlutucji, wliu li r 
thegonoU oonaorni ol tho iniUtution Macli of tho popnlnity of tho oullogo duo to tho piotiHum frit tho rmfonw <if ntuilnnt* 
bBlonffinfctofjiniliosof tho nppnr oluBcw Thoroom* of tho lint cluBH boudoiB aro Boatixly Inns romiorittMo Hmrt ttuniu of Ha 
nndor jidduato at Otfrird oi Oanibncltfe, unil tho Unanlmanfl tnko their moals tnffoLliot ma diiunff hull TJ n lit Mb <<]IIFH IMHU (!MI tho 
ooit of Imnqr at tho tfolloq;o ui about R* 300 a yo ir, whioh luolndps iwit, bofwd, mcdioal nttondanoiv Anil tin Lion fi < M a HrHmiul olww 
boaxAor pay* About Ra 100 Of tho two claws thoro wwo, m 18B1 8, 171 in rowlonoo, ot whwm lf> woio HmiliiH Ai. tht. ontnot 
the nndorUkuifC not with vory groat oppoaition from many HuauluiaiiB of tho old scJiool AH HOI!K f runumid wom <i|*rnud lUwwl 
ta to the chamitor of tho matiiuiion and tho hotojodoiy of tho fiuppoit^a Foibnnalnly, howrvui, tlui oriKiimtur of the whom*, 
the llon-ble Bayyul Ahmod Kluw, WRB uoL to bo daunted by oppoailion, or dotortodly want of Hyin^uthy In tho twUxMiL >f tho 
more liberal mudod of hui co xoliffioinBtfl ho held tho hiffhurii pUoo , and IIIB IKTIIVOIIIWO ww Mao long xiwardod hy tho Jumrty 
flooporLtionof poworf al fnentlB Chief ^mong thoflo who oanio iorword to lua mptxiii woe flu Mur Jang, 1'nwo MuiihUnr la Uifi 
Kim Hii load W&B followod by many influential Mnwlmana m all pnrta of the country i ami though th uollogd iumU mu at 
proaent inBolbcient for tho oomploLe walking of tho Bohemo, tho nuubor of atndnntB M now limiloil chwrty by thn waob of amumnrxU. 
tion If, tbon, the HCuolmiaiB an to bo rcpmohod for not having availed tlitmBDlvtw al on oarher ntngfi oi tJm honofitii of the *clu- 
catim offered them by Qovernmont, thoy havo certainly Bot an oxamplo to tho ffnnnMlKiy f tlio population hy faumU B ffx| 
nkaitttaiunff, almoit withott State Bid, a oollege in IOTOO mpooti tnporior to any eduoationol inititution m India, and onn whJob tudi 
fair to be ot the greatest ivporteaoo from a political M wall ai from on iduoational pomt of vww.'WBeport of 
OomrtKW> 1888) pp * -\ pw 



WASUBBS JOB MUHUCMADAjr 



IBT POTJ1B AHD OUDH 



165 



it would bu a considerable time before the schools, whothei Goyernmont or aided, could expect to attract any large 
nuinbei of pujjds Simultaneously with these enquiries, the Goveinment of the Punjab consulted a laige number 
of '.mllomi'ii a* to the necessity of any special mea-suras, other than those which had already been taken, for the 
fintht lanco ol education among the Musalmans Among those consulted were the MembeiB of the Senate of the 
Piiii| 4 ili Uuuuisitv Collie, and English and Native offioeis, both Muaalmau and Hindu The replies leceived 
almost uuanimuuslv dopiecated any suoh measaros The Mnsalman mambeia of tiie Senate recommended, indeed, 
a h}htem ni hpou.il boholiu&hips, and would be glad to sae moral and idigious instruction given in the Government 
schools, but tht} win o unanimous in doolaiuig that no religious prejudices existed among the more enlightened 
cl.isM*, aqauiht the education afojcled oithei in the Government or in the Mission schools, that no change was 
neeilod in tho com so oi &tudy, and especially that there should be no restriction upon the study of English In 
1 04111 (1 to ihc establishment of aided schools, the Gbveinmont of the Punjab pointed out that the matte was very 
in inli 111 the Iiancln of the people thomselves , but that if any exertion weie made in that direction, it would meet 
with hbeial Gncouiatfoniont fiom Sovemmcnt, and that in such schools it would be for the managers to provide 
wliflt(vorich#iuuHm&tLucti(mthey thought fit So fur as the Musalmans had shown an indifference, to tho 
education oiiciud them, that was a&ciibed by the Goveinment to tho dispropoitionate attention given by them to 
U'hgioTiH fctuiliofl, to a pioloiMice, as moio pjacfacal, foi the course of study in indigenous schools, and to the im- 
lc\oushmcnt which was said to havo of touted mobt Muiammadan fanuhos of note That, as a class, the Muaalman& 
hail been hub-joct to any special duabibtios, was emphatically denied , and the conclusion drawn torn the geneial 
T)r)dy of evidence wont to &bo\v that the sugge&iauns made by the Ghvoinment of India had ikhoady bean adopted 
in tho Pini]ab No Apeual meftsuzob, thmefore, have since been taken, but the percentage of Muaalmans at school 
hnH i is on Hni co 187J-72 Lrum 34 9 to 38 2, and tha mcaoaBo has been in the highei lathu than in the lower class of 
Tho lullowmg Table givob the statisticB for 1881-82 



GLASS OP INSTITUTIONS 


Total number 
ol Students 


Musalmans 


Percentage 


<!oll(>PH, Kiu>lish 


103 


13 


125 


Oncntril 


122 


71 


581 


Ui^h Schools, Hjii^liNh 


453 


91 


200 


Vcniiicular ,. t 


182 


64 


484 


Middle Schools, Knglihh 


2,671 


703 


268 


Voinacnlar 


2,7D4 


935 


345 


Pnmory Schoolb, Jfln^lish 


23,019 


7,176 


311 


Ycanacalar 


70,641 


26,378 


401 


Mitlcllo Schools, Guls, 1 English 


8 






Pxniiaiy 


141 


2 


14 


Voinacolar 


9,066 


4,235 


437 


Normal S&hoolh for ^la^tois 


220 


J01 


459 


MihtioBses 


138 


50 


427 


Ooutial Ttaiiimg ColU^o 


58 


16 


275 


TOTAL 


109,470 


41,844 


382 



" Tho following Trvblo shows tho proportion of Huaalmana to the total number at school in 1871-72 
Measures for Muhommadan 
Education taken in Oudh. 



CLASS OF INSHTTTTIONS 


Total number 
of Stadoutfi 


Musalmans 


Poi oentago 




"Hjghcjr Schools, English 
Middle ditto ditto and Vernacular 


2/J40 
7,390 


030 

2,732 


270 
369 


GnVBttMMBHT ,. J 


Lowur ditto Vernacular 


31,525 


6.2S5 


197 




Female ditto ... ... 


1,908 


1,072 


661 




JNonual ditto .. 


187 


71 


380 




Oollogo * 


720 


195 


270 


A mvn . 


Higher Schools, English 
Middle OI^HI Hngliah and Vernaoular 


200 
8,983 


37 
909 


185 

04,0 


AJDKtf 


Lower Schools, Vernacular 


M22 


200 


168 




.Feinalo Schools 


451 


252 


558 


TOTAL 


49,926 


12,417 


248 



166 



EHGLISII EDUCATION IS IJTDIA, 



" This Table IB, in itself, enough to show that the education of Musalmans in Oudh had not boon 
and that the MusahnanB were far from mdifterent to tho advantages hold out to them Tho OWIIM* of ntmlii",, 
indeed, was Urdu-Persian latliei than Hindi-Sanskrit If any Boofciau of tho commnnity had causo foi complaint, 
it was the Hmdufl But, in loahty, they had no grievance, fra, TJidn boing the Unqiu^o ut ihe Courts and 
Government service being to tho vast majority alike of Hindus, and Mjwalmans the qi out incentive to c due. itiou, 
the return ements of all woio beht mot by tho adoption of Uidu as n modi am oJ lustmcfcicm Pusi.m w.is also 
taught in tho schools, and was a study popular with tho bettei cLwa of If uhiliiLuu. Frn Ai thu thin o sei niwl tii IN* 
little 01 no demand To know tho Eaton by hoait was, nuluod, ns m othoi park of lurlia, thu hi 1 "finning oi nisditm 
In most coses it was ,iUo the ond Ficihtios foi the si/ady of Ai.bbic as A Una.u.ufi* \vui i aTiuiuLmil^ irfli-irrl in (iu* 
OanmnR College, Lnoknow, ai which, however, though *Bitud,tail m A city omituuiuir J 11,7)7 Muluintu.iil.uis, in 
about 9,000 Muhommailoji boys of a schnol-qoinq a^L, thoio .110 bnt 14 1 Musahnan sl-nilt nts ' Th.tt niinilx'r, the 
Duactoz had no doubt, miyht be inci easorl by hundiods, poihips by iliunsands, by tin* nllei ri stijK'iirls, <ii t\<n 
of daily lations of food Such students, howovei, ho cmiitssi'd, \vould lujtbr ^Uuiiliil I\ (In Ir.MMil Oi until 
htoTdttu o, nor would they continue their studies if nioie advantaftcims nLLiip.itum oHcud itseli Tiin.inls MIu 
DToatioti oi a veinaonLu literatuio,' 01, as tho J)uectoz muio accuiaioly jmls it, c tln ptiivisuni ui ,1 Mii(,tlli> hh-M- 
tmo 1 Joi MufialinaaiH and Hindiif,, fininothiuR might bo dono But 'if socmsto me', 1 ivuik- tlip Ducutui, 'Out 
specLil machincty foi tho pioduction of hdiool-bookb, ami loi Hm towaid ui ualivc uuthtJts, is t<>r[iiiinl Af 
prMontnofluchmachiiioiyovifets Tbo QovDinmont oi Fncli.*, I liriuvc*, uv ali.url Icsfc tin \\inLs piotdinil li\ 
trttiiHla,toi s should not bo popular and i ouiamiinsold So rbl pt cscml authuj s ( .in mil> hiM'niiiiuan,Ml 1^ HH |in 
chase of thou books, forpiiaosoi special i owni rU HnLthuto is TIO madunciy iiuiii) i>st.iiii,ik> flu xaliu^.i flic 
bookh submittod, tho books are toiwwdod to the niipOoi of Public Insttnctioii, oinl IM nmsi, in arhlihnn tn Ins 
othoi multitajiuus rlulaos, go over oaoh boot prosontod, ,uu1 .ucniAtfly gn.wo its TIHII<S, ot hu nuo tall npim titim 
of hit hnboi fibnales as hftrd-woikod as lumseU, to .issist m tho mtuism cif hmiks suliiWrfHl loi piiMunhrni J\!IH. 
over, many, nay most, of those who wuto and ailipt books liu hplnxJ UBC <IH oiLlu-p not ,KijuajnLiMl jit ull \\ith 
Wostorn science and art, or at host have but a ftaprnfiuiil ttpqiumUiiro with Uu*si* Hiib|rc*is Tlnw, thi> |JINLH that 
are printed follow a ateicotypod Bwtrau gioovo, or aao unidiouwtir and htlrl vcisions ui homo liiflin^ English \\nk. 
If aspeouJ offloB for tlw examination and publication of \vinks m Hindi, Unlu, JVisian anrl H(mi;aho won csi.il>* 
Itthed, and this office woio connected with the Bducational Uep.u'lmpntH of Bmiff.J, tin- Ninih-\Vi-sLi*in 1'imiiirns, 
and Ihp Punjab, and wcio under tho contiol oi some one ot thcso D(p,u tnu^uts, 1 cannoi bul< think thai 
class of hteiatuio would be pi oducod than undoi the pir sont syslcm ' 

ik Tlic following is the compaiativo Table tor Oudh in 1881-82 



CLASH nir TNWTITITTIONB 


Tntnl numlu'i 
oi Hiudviiis. 


AfllHftllU.lIIH 

7 


1'l'KUll.l^C 

.1 A 


Colleges, Enghsh 


B 


1% 


Onwita] 




n 


61 


I.'. 1 


High and Middle 


Schools, Rughhh 


l,OHl 


m 


IHI 


n n 


VoinaouUr 


m 


i;it, 


i-'.'.l) 


Primary Sohoola, 


English 


4,:iHH 


i;ii7 


WO 


n 


Vurnaculai 


4--,,8l)!) 


iMl 


!*or> 





Girh,' Enghsh 


flr.o 


IA(! 


4tr 


W W 


Yoiiiaoulaa* 


1,722 


1,OHO 


a? 


Normal Schools ft 

, 99 *C 


w Maatois 
NT MifftrMftfui 


117 
C 


n 


IU-4 


TOTAt 


H^H 


lii,4(X) 


W-H 


Si 






CONCLUSIONS 01 IDUGinOH OOKHIB8IDH ON MTJHAMMADAJT HDTJ01TION 187 

" Tn tbe Cential Piovmcos the Muaalmans formed only 2 5 per cent of the totaJ population, bat they were as 
Meaffures for Unhammadan ^7 a ^ ve ^ *^ e "nportenoe of education as the rosi of the community In 
Education taken in the Ceiitial the higher schools, especially, their attendance was good, and orders had 
Provinces, Mysore, Ooorg, and already been given that classes should be opened for the study of Arabic and 
toe a&i B Poifuan in all 7illa schools m which theze should be a sufficient demand The 

Chief Gninmisfli<mor did not think tbrit any imther meabures were necessary In Mysore the general state of 
Mtiljamni.ii Ian LMlucalion was veiy backwaiil and unsatisfactory The Chief CommiSRioner was of opinion that 
Ilmdiiittni schools shuulil bo established wherever a reasonably sufficient number of Muhammadan pupils were 
f in iht run nitf to attund thorn, that Hindustani mastei a should bo added to the existing schools of all descriptions 
wliiipvu a claM of pupils in that lonquaqo could be foimed, and that the subject of the provision of suitable 
school-books should be duly considered The question of Mohammadan education had aliaaily engaged the 
fitlpJiUoii of tho Chief Commibaiouer, who had rep eate illy uigod upon that community tho necessity of 
Initboi od'vaiit^o of the f auhtitH oifoied thorn, if they wished to keep pace with t"he progie&s made by 
otlni cUsHcs The Mnliifcmmadarns o Gooig weio genoially in verypooz cnrcumstaucps, and quite indifferent to 
tho education of than ohildipn Tbe only moasuie which the Ohief CommiBnoner thought practicable was to 
PhUMifch an Mfiuont Qindusl <uu oUis at Meik*na, in connection with, 01 independent of, the oential school, and the 
Dnuotoi of Public Juhtraclnuii bod boon instructed to make enquuios as to how tins might best bo done The 
MuHiilmniH of UIP Awsignod Disitictg of Haidoiabad woie, it was stated, but few in number and depressed in social 
and ininllor'ta.il oondiljou i datively to tho othut clabsos of tho poople It had always be on one of the objects of 
tho LuiuL Adimnuifaiition to mtioduco into tho lanks of the Oomnusbion a certain numbez of Mubdlmans 
Moasuios had also boeu tooontly adopted foi promoting the spread oi education among that petition of the commu- 
nity, but it WAB too eaily to judge oi tbou results " * 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



CONCLUSIONS AITD EBCOMMENDATIONS OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION OF 1882, ON 
SUIUBOT OF MUBLAJIMADAN EDUCATION REPORTS OF THE LOCAL GOVERNS 
TllflltBOBT VIHWS OF THB GOYBBNMBlirr OF INDIA UPON THE SUBJECT 

Tbe aooouat of th -meuaa measures adopted by the Local Gorernments, in oonseqiiBnoe of the Reaol 

tiio Gwreiimmt of Tndift on tbB 



tt wluoh has been given in the Report of the Bdnoation 



inColleges and SohoolSf as ett011 ' ^^82, from which infotmation has boen inoorporatod in the p*. 
indicated by the statistics of Chapter, was the baas of tho oonclusions amvod at by the Oomnu 



1881-62, in the Report of tbe nub^eet And it was in now 1 of those oonolnsions tha>t the Ooanmisaion 

cooded to Tp**-^ cextain definite reoornmonrlatioTis for promotion of eduoa 




among Muhammadans. Those conclusions and rocommendationfl will be 

*ntly qp(jtod but in the meantime it 19 important to realise ozapily the result* of the progress of English eduoa- 1 
itoa among Muhammadans as mdioatod by the ranous Statistioal Tables, for the years 1881-82, whiob have boen 
qp0tod in the proootling Chapter from the Report of tho Commission For the sake of oloorneas, and as bearing 
Upon tho main subject of HUB work, tho following Tabular Statement has been pteparod, by taking the figures gmm 
In tlio bovwnentioned tables and making calculations from them, BO far aa the attendance of Muhammadans, in 
OollqpB and Sdhoob teaching the English language, up oonoerned , 

* Bepovt of tht Mttpfttm Cbaminum of l$8* f p. 159-70, pp. 48^6, 



168 B2STGLISH BDUOATIOH IV INSU 

Table stovnng the Attendance of Mwaknans tn the wiwu Educational Institutions, Government, Aded, and 



as compared with the total attendance in 1831-82 



PROYISOBB 


Olau of Institution 


Total nnmher 
of Students 


MnB&lmttns 


Perccntugu 




Collogee, English 


1,369 


30 


17 


MADRAS 


Higt Schools, 


4,836 


117 


24 




Middl 
TotoZ 


18,553 


723 


38 


25,038 


870 


iU 




Colleges, Hngluh 


475 


7 


1 1 


BOMBAY 


High Schools, 


5,731 


118 


20 




Middle 
Total 


14,257 


781 


54 


20,463 


DOG 


11 




OoUeges, Engluh 


2,738 


1IK> 


,)H 


BBNBAI 


High Schools, 


43,747 


3,831 


7 


k 


Middl 
fotel 


37,950 


5,02 


132 


84,444 


8,909 


KM; 




CoUeges, Engluh 


223 


29 


lo'O 


BT-W PBOvrecBs 

* 


High. Sohoolfl, 
MiMl 

Totoi 


| 4,273 


607 


10 it 


4,406 


726 


1U 




Oollegee, Jjr2u% 


126 


7 


55 


OffOn , 

* 


High Schools, 
Middle 
Total 


| 1,081 


105 


1HO 


1,207 


202 


107 


^ 


Colleges, Engluh 


103 


18 


120 


PUMAS 


High Sohoolb, 


453 


91 


800 


^ 


Moddlo 
Total 


2,071 


70!) 


Wig 


3,227 


807 


250 


ALL THB ABOTJ P*onno6 ) 


OollogOB, English 
High and Middle Schoolfl, Bngluh, 
Chand Total 


6,384 
1,33,501 


192 
12,288 


.'{ 
92 


1,38,895 


12,480 


80 



LOW PERCENTAGE Of MUHAHMADAN0 IV INGUSH ODLLX&BS 169 

It will bo observed m this Table that with the exception of the fforfh-WeBtern Provinces, the peicentage of 

Noticeable pointe in regard M^* 1 *** receiving Bngliah education is far below the percentage of Mu- 

to the low percentage of Mu- bammadana in the total population in the various Provinces as will appear by 

hammadan students inEnglwh comparing the percentages of the attendance of Muhammadan students with 

Ooltegosaad Schools as com- the peicentagos of Muhammadui population m the vaiiooa Provinces given in 

Tftble * Uotfld from * Edacatum Commission's Beport at theoutaetof the 



taon pieceding Ohaptei Another important point to be noticed in the above Table 

is that tho peicentage of Muhammadan among the total number of students 

ni UMiur English education rlimiuuhos as the class of education becomes of a highei standard , so much so that m 
M nh. is tthi'ic the pciceiitdgt nl Aluhammndan population is 6, the Muhammadans attending English Colleges foim 
nnlj I 7 |M'i (fiit of tho total nniuhei of fitudente attending such Colleges , m Bombay wheio the percentage of the 
Muluiimi.uUii jmpnlAticm is 1ft I, tho poiocntaqe of btudents in English Colleges is only I 4 , m Bengal where the 
jH'ii'i'ntagci ol the Mcili<miniarUns m the population is 32 3 tho percentage of Muhammadan students in English Ool- 
hms is onlj .5 8, and, m tlio Punjab, win In tho p&icoiitAGfG oi tho Muhammadans in the population is no lesb than 
*! <J, Ilii 1 pcirailugo \)i Muhammad in students m the English Colleges is only 12 In making this companion I 
him* kqit HI view tho SditistK s i>i the jK'ivoiitagcs oi tlio Mahauamadans uiiho population as lopiosonted by the 
ftcpoitoi the I0ilm.it in n Cum mission , but tho ftubjoct will bo moio fully discussed in tho next Chaptet of this 
work Al .tm\lnli' it w ill lw us woll to point out that wLilst m tlio Statistics of population given in tho Table <pio- 
ful at flu* iiulsc \ of tin 1 pici'udini^ Uhciptit'i fi oin the Education Commihbion's Ropoit tlie poioontage of Muham.- 
minl.iiis 111 tlu fHipiilatiuu ol tho Pi ounces ooaccinodiBHhovtn to be 228 poi cent, the poioontageof Muhammadan, 
i in hlii^lisli (Jiilhgcs as shown m tho above tublois only 36 poj cent, and oven li High and Middle 
v*> standard of English tlio petceniiftii of Muhammadan frtudente i& only 8 9 en nearly, 9 per 
of tlio tola) nuinlni* nl hLmliMits attondiiig those institutions 

I J pou tliohtatu cil Ihinifs iih described m Hie pioccrlm^ Ch<vptoi tho Education Commisflion of 1882 summa- 
its (mu'liiHiouh and ii>i'rmiiLDndationH 111 tho following teiin? 
"In th^ JoiN'jfoitiK pagi^s, wo ha\t> jHofeneil to rupiodnoo tho fltatomonts made with regard to the condition of 
Conclusions of the Educa- thc MuhawimaciaiiH u tho several Piovincos, i-athor tlian to attempt seneioli- 
tion Oommiflilon, as to the Cations of oni own Tho wide diffozonoos in tho caioumstanocs oi the Musal- 
condition of education among inanh ju thc throe Piohidenoies roudoi such an attempt hazardous But apmt 
Hnhammadaas in 1882 flom tho fi0(nilr ] aittd i lfl tonoal conditiont oi the Muhammadau Community m 

Inihti, Hit 1 ) o nre ciumt'H oi a hti lotly educational chaiaotor which heavily weight it in the laco of life Tho teach- 
ing of tlu k imiMjuo niUHt pruc'cdu tho IPHWWIH of tho flohool Tho ono object of a young Hindu is to obtain an edu- 
cation wlu< h will Jit hiui loi an oibcial or a pruluHBional oaroor But befoio tho young Muhiunmadan IB allowed to 
tuiii hiH tli oughts to HocuLvr uih true lion, ho munt commonly pass some ycaifl in going thiough a comae of saoied 
ItHii'iun^ Tin* Miilminimulan boy, thoruloro, onters school lator than the Hindu In tho second plare, ho very often 
loavc'H Hthool at tin earlier iigo Tlio Muhammadan paiont belonging to the bottoi clauses is usually pooioi than the 
Hindu pwxmt an a t*ornponduig *ooial ponibon Ho cannot afloid to give hia fion so complete an education In 
tlio Uiud pkco, iriHWptKit'ively of hiu worldly meann, the Muhammadan parent ofton choosefl for Ins gon. -wLilo at 
Hohool an education \vlnck will soouio for him an honotuod plaeo among tho learned oi bis own community lather 
than one which will command a HUCCOHR in the modern piofoNBions or m official IiLo The yeai'S which the young 
Hindu tfivcHto Knghhh and MuthomutiuB in a public hehool, tho young Muhammadan devotes in a JfiuZmuct to 
Amhu uml UID law and Theology of Islam Whou such OIL education is completed, it is to tho vocation of a man 
ol Uanm% ruthtr th,w to tlio moio piohtablo pi-oloshionfl that the thoughts of a promising Muhammadan youth 
fiaiunilly turn Tlio ahovu aio tho throe principal causes of an educational oliaiactot which retard tho piospoiity 
ol the MuhiilintuiH U would bo boyond tho piovineo of a nhiotly Educational fiopoii to attempt genei ohsations 
liased upon tlio Hoeial ox lustonoal conditions which affect the Muhaaumadan Community in India 

"Tito tecomineiidatiuuu wo pioocod to make ba\oboen framed, wo bohovo, not moroly with aiegatdto 
BeoommendatioB of the J^tico, but with a loaning towards generosity They are baaed not more 
Education Oommuasion for upon the ftuggoBtiona contauiod, in tho Prormoial Reports than up on the 
9tmg education among evidence of witnesses and the ropiosentations of public bodaos They deal, 

we think, -with, every form of complaint that is grounded in fact, and 



they contemplate tho various oirounuatanoes of vaiious looalitiee Few of them, indeed, are of general 
application j many of them, wo trust, -will before long be rendered obsolete Special encouragement to any 
aloii ittitioU aatvii, t^i it -will be a aore reproach to ike Mwalmwis rf the pride they have shown in 
other fttt*i*downot ifar thranptoa oonrw of bomnvable adintiy , to a dateimaiaiMKa that whatever their 
92 



170 IHGLISH IDTJOmON IN ITOIA 

backwaiduefisinthe pwt, they will not Buffer themselves to lie outstripped in the futuio, to a conviction i hat 
self-help and self -sacrifice are at once nobler principles of conduct and sum paths to woildly succosfi than suulanui 
resBive or the hope of ezoeptional indulgence 

" We have spoken of the causes , we here accept the fact that, at all events in many pai ts of the < rmnii>, 
The reoommenddtiDna for *He Muaalmans have fallen behind the rest oi the population, Ttethfi elm i 
mutated* with reasons) in recommend 

brief (1) TJiat the special enrawagBment of Muhammadati JUdiitutwH b< nqanlnt 

us a legitimate chaage on Local, on Mimicipal, and on Provincial Funds 

" The Mahammadan indigenous schools which aie found in all part* of the countiy arc* fst.il>lihliL>d on <t 
purely religions basis, and m most cases impart an education of themo*t elemental y ch<uact*>j In onlt fc i to 
encourage a widez utility, we recommend 

(2) TJiat indigenous Muhammadan Schools be Illegally enwnntjed to addpiuely wculat tub/uti fvfhttt r,//* 



"As the instruction given in Muhammadan Primary Schoolb differ* considerably bom Hut in Lhr <mlm,ir> 
primary schools, we recommend 

( 3) That special ttondat fa for MuJwmmadati Primary Sctiook Ipptesttibed 

" In icgai d to the medium oi instruction in Fiimary and Middle Schools, it appears that c'ven in pKircs v hcit* 
Hindustani is not the vernacaldr of the people, Mnhammadans Qarnestly dosue that ilu'n cliililirn hliould Ij 
educated m that language, and wo theief ore recommend 

[4) Thai Hindustani le the pnncipcd medium fa imparting iwtntcttw to HIuhttinmuiltni\ in Pnmdnj titnt Multllt 
s^ except m localities wh&te the Muhammadan OorMnvnity tie we thai some othti lan(/nat/c It ntlf^ifttl 

"In oider that Muhammadans may be enabled to qualify foi tho lowei grades of tin* {iiiblic HN v u e wi* 



(5) Thai the official vetnaculat, tn places where it u not Hiwlustam, 1$ w/drtZ f/s a ittluntntt/ 
cunicnlwn of Pnmary and Middle School? for Muhammadon*, maintained /torn pubkt,Juwh t and that ttnlhmiht* tttut 
accounts be taught through the medium of that vernacular 

"To meet tho complaint made in some parts of the country that dne onoouraq'omonL is not given io the* lan- 
guage and liteiature of the Muhammadans, aud that this cucumfltonco has operated IIB out) of the causes 
have kept that community aloof from the Government system of education, wo iccommonrl 

ft) That in localities wtoe Muhammndant form afavrpopmtion <rf Ihe population, pron^ou LcuHutc in Mid tilt 
High Schools, maintained from public funds fot imparting instruction m tfo fivwkutam, Mid S>t>ruH Ijtntt/tttit^ 

C( It ha* been found that whilbt Muhammadans in many places form a fair proportion of tlio Htuiionih ItMir iiui^ 
Unghsh, their number decreases as the standard of matruction luos , wo thorolojo zooommond 

(7) Thai Higher English education far MuhoMmadans, leing the l\nd of education in which Ifrt tmnmwttfy TK b 
special hefyy be KberaUy encowaged 

"It has boen submitted, with much forco, that the poverty of the Muliammadanfl is alHn cmo of thu mail) i cosuns 
why education has not made satusfaotory progress in that community , wo therefore looomniorid 

C8J That where necessary a graduated system of special scholarships for KuJwMMidant be (xtMuhttf, lo h> aitttnlttt 
(a) in Pnmcny school*, and tenable in Middle Schools, 
ft) in Middle Brhools, and tenable in High Schools, 
(<?) on the results of the Matriculation and Fust Art* gEwmnotoiu, and tonalk in nOty t, nho 

(9) Thai w all clones of schools maintained from puohofundt> 9 a cBrtannpqxnnon of flu btudtviMujH tn> 
resrn ed for Muhanmadan ttudenh 

" Complaints having been made that Muhammadan educational en flowmonta luw not alwuyn boon 
to their pioper uses, we rooommond 

(10J That inflaces where educational endowments for the Ifnefit of AM^mmaAtwt <wM, and m mdn 
managmentof flowsniwen^ the fund9 aiinng from such endowment* le devoted to tkt> advancement of education, 
Muhowmadans ftBtJustwZy 

" And, further, in order that Muhammadan educational endowments may bo utilised to tlic utmost, wo rooom- 
meni 

(11) That h*r* Udummadm endowments ewi, and are under fta management of pi note iHdunduatt or 
tn&ieananfe fy Metal ffro^-m-awi l>e offved tc thm tc cttaWuh Engluh-Uachiug schools or cutouts on the 
md System. 



Of THB IDTOATJON 00111(18810* FOB mUMXUAH 171 



enooor- 



(15) 2foJ Awaatw, f nt t^p tnmatMn O f MVhatmaaan etouat be reccgwed and moouroaoZ 

In onlfli to boeuro the coutimwns att M ,t,on of tho EOimfcon Depwtaient to tha subvert of uuuwnaaa 
orti.mi.on, ami to provout Ihe da.ua, ot tho Mulmmmada^ for epoual trBatmant from bag overlooked, WB r B m- 

IflCUU 



(10) That m */ Aw,/ R^ts on P*Mur Jk* f . 4jmaZ McfeMI Bi * eucae 

Iu ottldjn Piovimm Uio b,ick^.u diiehs of the Muhamuiacl m education has pi evcmtad them torn obtwn- 
m^ any onuviilntalilc bliuie ol ttp r ,j,fcnunte m tho pablio service But it boa J b o been made a aubioot ot com- 
plaint th,il, <>ven in p^ ^^ bmvlceB we nofc ^^^ 

U(\ eiiiincnt oilicoi h w<* thoiofoio recimizuend 

(17) nnnhtailntumfif LoiaKJovenm^ts ^ ^miM in ttc qwtun of the fronton miofcioA yo^on^e 
tluttiltutvd awfwy t'dwatcd Muhanwiadans and utJien "* 

Uprm tl.o Jl( T oit of tlio Kdouation Oomminaion being submitted to tho Govemmimt of Tadia, that Governmeiit 

Gh>vernmont of India's Be lo wc dfwB<TM*> * ResolntJon No VoV. ^e Home Department 

solution, datod 23id October, (Bduoatiim), dated the 2Srd Ootoboz, 1884, but in io?oid to tho above xecom- 

3884, roflorvod subject of Mu- memlationa, only observed * The Oovornor-General m Council has the 

nS 1 !!^^^^^^^ Wbll ' trf> ^ MnhamTOAda!l lwta at present undor separate ooimdoratipn , 

and will morolj Ray here that, in view rf the backward condition into ivhioh 
in ROW* Province* ilio membra of that Oomznunity havo fallen, ho thinks it desirable to give them in some respect* 



Tho "fqwiinferr^wZmi^ofi" of the subject of Mahammadan eduoation atoso in tho loHowmg monnei In 

Memorial of the Wational FobTIia| yi lff8 ^ * MemoiiaJ wiu addrossodto Hi? Excellency the Maiquisof 

Muhammadan Aasooiation of Al P OI1 i by ^o National Muhammadan Association of Calcutta, calling atten- 

Caleatta on Muhammadan tion to tho docayod position of Muhammadana in India, to the Gaum which 

eduoation fto , m 1888. had in tho opinion of tho Memoi lahsts led to this dBoadonee, and to the ciicuni- 

Basolution of the Govern- * rtanoes wluoh - m * bobd tondfld * perpetuate that condition The 

ment of India datod 15th July, MemonaJ was fully reported upon by the Local Governments, and TV as also 

1886! renewing Muhamma- discussed by tha "Education CommissioiL of 1882 His Ezoellonoy wab unable 

dan education and declaring ^ 3^1 ^th the quefition bofore his aepai-turo fiom India^ but left on reooid 

polooy of Government, ^ oxpreMlon ^ ^ in ^ a ^ ^ a ^ lt vould reooire full ooiubideration at the hand** 

of bis imooeHRor, the Karl of Duffeiin Accordingly His Bzoellenoy in Council oajefoUy con&ideied the Memorial, 

ttiffothcr with tho coirospondonoo, reports and numetoua pamphlota and papers on the subject, and onthel^th 

7 
July, 1885, recoidod a Eeaolufcion (No gygr^' m ^ 6 Homo DopMtment Education) reviewing the history of the 

mewmrcfl which had boon adopted by Govemmen* since 1871, in the cause of Mnhanunadan education, and 
giving exproRRion to the views of the Government on the Bubject, with special leferenoe to the rooommendaticms 
of tho Education Commission The Resolution ppsaesses the greatest importance in the history of Huhota. 
vaadan odooation in Tndia, as it contains the latest declaration of the policy of the Government on tlxa 
ubjCMfc, md dosonbos tho mam features of tho points to which the attention of Government waa directed in foz-p 
mnlu-ting that policy Tho Besolutum, after aLexriiraJng that the recominendcubions of the Education Commission 
had bean eonsftdewd by the Local Govanments, gives a auwmary of their vim, ^^ ot ' D ^7 be ixuurporeted tare 

with wet obserofcoas w the G-ovennment of Infc* xnao> thereon an tbftli Resolution 
*Vhe views ol tht Gtorniuumt of HidrM were iitu$ ejcpreweA w bw letter JTp 506, dated 22nd August, 1884, 

* ftvpori of the Umtto G^togNta, <(166B) V pj> BOW 



172 ENGLISH HDTT01TIDS IN INDIA 

" Speoial encouragement is already held oat to Muhaxnmadan education, and a farther advance is conirmplntrd 

Views of the Government of m thlg <k"<rtw* though not exactly on the lines su^ostod by tlu Commis- 

Madras on tttahuninadan edu- aion It is not thought desirable to dissociate this data so distinctly from tlio 

oation, in 1684 oiduuury scheme of teaching, as, except, in a low localities, Mulmraniailans 

avail themselves freely of the advantages of the existing system Thus neither special bchools noi special Nuinuil 

cksses seem necessary , while the lecommendations as to the Persian and Hindustani languages ait baldly a]i]ih- 

oable to the peoohai lingui&tio condifcionB of the South, and ignoie the extent to -which the Muhimmadans use iU 

vernacular languages At the name time the object of the lecommondations meets with cm dial appmwl " 

Upon those opinions the Government of India reooided the following observations on the abovemenhnncMl 
ObBervationB of the Govern- ^Resolution 

znent of India thereon " It has boon shown that the condition of the Muhaimnadans in Rnuf licui 

India ifl, fiom an educational point of view, by no means unsatisfactory All fundh, ptouiKial, In nil, mil muni- 
cipal, are bound by the Gh ant-iu-oid Code to givo special Dncoumqcnneut to Muhammculan education Tin* CVJM u- 
merit of separate schools ha* not been bucoesrful, and is not, the Duoctoi of Public Institution think-., TIIUCV n \, 
except to some extent in Madia* and one 01 two large Muhainmadan centres, and Coi tlioMnplihs on tin* \\Vst ( 'ihiht 
Some incu>a6o of tho buboidinato inspecting agoncy Cor Mubaamnadaji fiohoolH is linwevoi, niliuiiUMll\ di'siubh' 
While 1 thebiDarliQHultsJox the whole Piovmce Ipavo p or haps little* to desue, tho Uuvcnuii-Oi ncial in Count 1 !! 
thinks it would bo well WOLD tbo oraoeis of the Educational Dopaitmont diiGctwl to examine* mm a pint it uLu 1> HI 
onmmumoation witli (bstnut olhcois and tho loading mumboib oi tho Muhanimadau community, the 
piovibion foi tlio memboift of that community in o>tch distiiot, \uth a view to BPtMiiQf \vh( Lhoi, in sjitnal 
moio oifool shoold not bo givon to some of tlie i ccommeniUtinns ol tho Commibsioa Tho l).ick\v,ii(l stdtf oi (li* 
Moplabfl sooms oFipcciolly to call Tor attention Tho Uovoinoi-Quneial in Council is dispusi'd to ,itfi n* with iho 
Kodias Gfovemmont, that it ih untlesiiablp to accentuate the <lilic k i once hi'twucn Miihainnuduis run I Iliniiiis h> 
making Hindustani, in lieu of the coiiunt Voinaculai, the medium oi instruction, wliwc tin* MuhiLnini.nluith slum 
them&olvos ready to attend the oidinar} sulioolA of the oountiy Whoio this is the case, tho lot al VIM iiiicular hhoulil 
be the oi dinary medium, the special wants of Muhamznadan youthb boniflfTnot l>y tho ionnihon of lFiu<luHt<tni 
olaaaofi and teaching them the Aiabic character Thoio may, howovoi, bi k ttaetn whoio ICuliamiihuUn 
prefer the esbablibhmcnt of special hchooln, and in Huoh places the i i*c*rmnuon(laUonK of tln (/imitrussion 
locoive attention Tu Socoudaiy HchoolB of all lauds facilities loi tlio study of Aialm* in IVisun shiMtitl In* 
ofieied wboicvcr thoio is a xoul demand for this " * 

The Goveinment of Bombay, in their Icttoi, No 983, dated Gth Juno, 18H1, frf tor hinting f hat " flu* Hpccml niiuiK 

Views of the Government ^ Mahammadans havo hod attention," lofoncd tu Un* iiiDhlhly ^iuni o( 

of Bombay on Huhammadan IU 500 towaidb tho A>yumajw~Man\, Sebool, hiuut^ 1HHO, and added ihuf, * tin* 

education, in 1884 Qovonioi in Uonncil ib picpaiodto lud fuithiT m the* (\li'iiMim of Alulnn^ 

madon education hhould opportunity offoi " Upon thiH biiol btateinent of tho mattoi tho Ciovwnnuut of Indium 

the abovo Resolution obseivcd 

ct Although hoxo, as in Madias, the educational conditions of Huhammadan pnpulatiou, iukt^i IIH a vtlmlc, ih not 

Observations of the Govern- allogotUca nnsatififartui'y, thoi'o cnri ho no ilcjuht that m ri'iiiun localiu^H, as IN 

ment of India theroon H m d, there u an nrgptil call for npocial nieuniucH , and tho (iovi k rii(ij'<iu<jul 

in Council would wish to HOC tho bamo fuithoi oiaminatioii of local want* initiated that has hwii hu^sd'd for 

Madias Bozno steps Rhonld oeitamly bo taken tu oncnuingo Vuliarnmadaiis to irad up to th< higher 

At piesont hows, as in othez Pwvjtnoeq, they Hpoouilly fail to PUTHUO tliow fttudnH buyoiul tho lcM\<r ht.itcos fl f 

Tho Government of Bangui caprossod Ibcni vwwh in tho lollowinff woxda, m tlioir lottor N(, a,JHJi, dut<i(i 

Views of the Government of Hoptombor, 1&S4 

Bengal on Muhammodan edu- "Thopiopowls for tho uupport of wpwial Muhammaduu Hchooln, and fw 
Oft ** m ' the apooial onoouiogomout of Muhammailun c^luuHtion in 01 dinu.i y HthoolH, am 

worthy ol liberal consideration Many of them are alieady in fiwco in t)u iirovmuo, tho oluof umovutjim 
being that for the creation of a special olaas oi floliolajahipn for Muhammadttii Htudcu^, To thih t no doubt, 
objection may be rauod, jant aa objection has boon, not without force, rauuKi to tta pi uicij)lo of thih ]'om| 
proposal la Mr Barbou's duisout Tho laeutentot-Oovwnor, howover, thmU tliat if it oaii bo uliown tJtut 
in any locality the number of Muhaxnmadana who gain aoholaislups is not in duo pioportion to tlioir numbuiN and 
position, a ftur case wiU have been mode out for exceptional, though ho will aluo *dd t tempoiary tixutmtti&t. TJie 
other recommendaiaouB w&sr this head are oonowved in a liberal spirit, and may be accepted, oicopt w so to M 

, & the Hont D^artmnt (Bdaufaoft), Na 7.^-., daUid 13th July, 18S. 

< 



VICWR OF LOCAL GOVBENMBKTS ON HUHIHXADAN HDUOATIOIT 173 

they rprogiiKD Ilie tntaiitntion of Hindustani foi the Hindi Tentacular If by Hindustani be meant that language 
which \\iitton in tho Hindi joi Nagri chaiacter, is the common speech alike of Muhammadan and Hindu in Behar, 
the Luufcn,iitt-(rouiflffli has no abaction to after But if the recommendation means that the policy which has 
pit \uli<l foi nine W'Uiv, of convejim? ptimaiy instruction to Mnhammadans in Behar through Hindustani expressed 
in tin II mill ( luiat toi, it to ho icvoiftcd, then the Lieutenant- Q-overnor must very strongly diasont from the reoom- 
1111 iiiliihriit as IiHntf opposed f o the tiuo intcicsts of the MuhammadanB of Behar Finally, the Lieutenant-Governor 
is mt ih*j'iH'il In supjiiiit the pstrihlihhment of Noimal Schools or classes for Mnhammadan teachers exclusively 
Little IK uaiiifil h\ Mich M'pnitiiijsiu."* 

T)n*si \IMWS uti'ie appiovi'il by tho Government of India in tha following terms 

1 Tin timi j nni -(iuiiual ni Cirauul tiut-ts that the Bengal Government will give effect to its views Thare 

A i - ^ x-u 1S T1 intention to rovoise the decision of the Local Q-oveinment in the matter 
Approval tlieteor by the . . . . __ , Jf _ t _ _ _ , 

Govornmont of India ' nr *P tlfl11 " "" as tho Oouil Language of Bohar, and as the ordinary 

medium ot mstiuttion in tho Pumaty Schools of that Piovince Wheie the 

Mnhanntt.Mlaii pu|mlatun is sin me? and likiU to atiath special importance to Oriental teaching ol a Mnhammadan 
fjtpe, i,ii( iiiuilil be t iki it fn ineei this \\ant, will) a view to making the Rchools popular, and inducmg tho better 
oliisses loallim ilieu ehiliheii to push iheir hluclie^ eMiituall) to A highei btandaid, especially in English Bat 
eijuul ente is neei NSHI v i( pivv< nf. the iljsoluh> M paniioii ol 1ho Muhammadan community fiom tho icst of this po- 
pulation It uitisf also lie home in nuiiil ih.tt it ii unK by an aupwiutanco with the cuuent Voinaculoi that Ma- 
Intininuiliitis can IIOJM* to senue employment It hits aluud^ IJLGII fchuwiimthis Resolution thatveiy much has been 
done l*> Mm Local (in\enini(tit ii met I ihe jierjinicmeutH ol tho Muhrvmin.wlnns in Buiigai, and it ma^ fairly ho said 
that tliey IIIIM* now evei v op|Hjriunity oflertKl them of htnmnng n ffood education If it is found that anything 
fuithei IH uiiuuod in any p<ut of ihe Piovjnce, <u at miy pciiticiilai wta^e ot the* educational course, to advance 
tlie PHI^IVHS of the MiihitmnuuLin rommnnity, ihu Oovei noi-Gouci aim Council locU BUI o that Hia Hoaoarthe 
Ljuut<Mii,ii<r(!i\eiiiui \vill iuL htmt tlut ncrc'RHar} outlay "f 

In the NortlL-Wt'htuin Piovunefl anrl Oadh T tlie Litmtonant-Qnvtrnor, in a letter, dated 9th July, 1884, coiisi- 

VIOWA of tho Government of <II|HH ^ tlltt * no fl l )or>ml niwuiiuM on Jjehalf of Muhammadans WPIO lonunod, as 

thoN W. P. and Oudh on Mu- MohwUmun education in those Province* was Ly no inua.nis in a backward 

hanunadan ednoat&onm 1884, Htuto, and it wa jbaiA that the interrbts of the clans would bo duly attended 

and remarks of the Govern- to, mill aid and oncouiagoment on the pait of Stato would not bo wanting 

inont of India thoreon. Upon this htute of tho case tho Government of India oxpioHHed tho opirnon 

Unit u it would wpiu to be Hiiftuirnt if entjany is made as to tlio necoflBity of special meaauies in any locality where 

ihe number l MuhaminadnnH IH unduly low in any giado of tho educational oourao "} 

The (luveinment of tlio Punjab, m a letter, No Olb of the S)th April, 1883, to the Government of India, in the 

Views of the Punjab Go- llmtl Department, and, again m a letter to the Duoctor of Public Insfcno- 

vernment on Muhammadan tion, No 97, elated 20th Maioh, 1884, expressed tho opinion tha.t no spsoial 

eiuoation, in 1884. raousaroq woro called for regarding tho education of the Mohammadans aa a 

ehuffi, and thai they wore not backward in taking* advantage of the existing educational facilities 

In tin* Ooui-ral I'minccm, thu Chief Oommifldionor in a letter, dated 80th Jnne, 1884, was opposed to tho adop- 

Viows of tho Chief Comma. * of 8 P GOMil meOOTPeB m ftld ^ ** MtthMftffladonfl ' d Jt WM fem4 *-* 

gicmerofttie Central Provinoes notuwgwaB really reqwrod in titoee Provmoos The edncatianal authon. 

on Mnhammadan education, tiea wore, however, directed to keep a watchful eye on any localities where 

in 1884* the Mahammadan population was laigo and baokwai'd 



In AHHftm it Iian boon found that tho Muhanimadans are chiefly the agncultonflte of Sylhot, who are not 



j 

aj 



Vwwsof the Admuurtrattons pow" ' that Bnffiwont prcrr 



of Assam, Ooorg, Berar, and * alroady made for Persian instruction in Secondary Schools whore 
Bntish Burma, on Muhamma- was a demand lor it Similarly in Ooorg it was found that sufficient provirfjj 
d&n education, in 1864* ^^ a i IO ady mado for the education of the few MuhammadanB who ,_ 

that PttVmoo Likewise in Borar, it was found that special provision had already been made for Mnhami 
and tho peroontago ol Mussalmans in the schools was larger, in proportion, than that of the Hindus 
Banna, whore thoro is hardly any indigenous Muhammad** population, where the resident M 
population is but 4| per cent,o! the whole, and whore ths great Iralk of tie people are Buddhists, the Chief 
Commissioner reported that the Mussalmans were on a fair equality with the other seafeons of the population 

f Bwluttaof tfc*Gor*mat^ j^g, dated 16th Jnlj 1885, pan 18. 




BHOLISS HDTT01TION IN IBDI1 



Upon the state of things, in the various provinces, as above described, the Government of India made the 



Views and suggestions of the 

Government of India as to " ^ ^ e "^ole, fcbe Governor- General in Council is satisfied that iho 

encouragement of Muhamma- attention which has once more been drawn to the subject of Muhamnindon 
dan eduoation in the vanoua education wiU have the host results His Excellency in Council ditches 
* n " special importance to recommendation (16) of the Cnmmihsion's Report, ' tliat 

in the Annual Repoi ts of public instruction a special section be devoted to Muhammadan education ' Those Ropnj ft 
should be piecifie and detailed, and disouss the position and advancement of the Muhronmadan Community not 
merely as a whole, but with reference to local variations, in oiler that the Qovomment of India may bo kppt fully 
inform ad as to the state and progress of this impoitant section of the community For the attraction nf Hahninina- 
dans to highei eduoation, a hbaral provision of scholai ships is essential, and thoit wants mufit not b( uxglnoLprl ui 
the foaming of any general scheme of scholarships for any Province, in pursuaucB of tho oiders cif the Gin unmeiit 
of India on the Report of tho Education Commission Probibly the appointment of special JMuh,iTiiiu<idan 
Inspecting Offlcors, to inspect not merely Primary Muhammadan School*), but to enquixo into Mulumnwdan 
eduoation goziei ally, would have a good eftect m Bengal and other places where the MuhamnmiLuis uu- my 
backward Such officers would bnng the peculiar wants of theii co-rehgiraiists moio thoroughly to nnliro ih.in 
cam perhaps be exp Doted fiom subordinate offioeis of a difteront faith Tho action taken in thobo and 
directions should be fully explained in ths Annual Hepozts "' 

There oiobome otlwi pa^ages in tho Resolution of tho flovoinment of Indin, iiom whiJi thr 

quotations have been made, which doaeivo to bo pcnnanr'iitly fuihir\wl 

Resolution of Sie GoverMient PBIn8IlabePO(l b 7 * he MuhiunmarUn community Fti *//y, ns tfiviru^ Juin n 
of India, dated 15th July, 1885 Mld statosmanly warning and ^croiefly, as conveying tlio Hyuijwthy which 

the Goveinment of India has deigned to express towoids tho aMulijmniiid.iim 

of India, tespectmg their fntms educational and other piospects And \volfare In recpail to tho iw onnnnnl.it JOHH 
of the Education Commisflion, for special encouragement of Muhammadan uducation, tho Uovciuinvtii oi India 
made the following goneaal obsorvations, which must bo taken to indicate tlio piinaplcw of itH polity in itiupcvL 
of the matter 

"It is only by frankly placing thfimsolves in lane with the Hindus, an rl lakincr full arlvanta^ uf tho (linwn- 

Muhammodans cannot ad- mcnt fl 7 fltem ^ ^^ aB<1 e^i^c hilly nl English eilncaiimi, tlml ilic Muluirn- 

vanoe without placing them- madans can hope fauly to bold then OTVH m i chpoU nt ilu- brUt'i ilesct iptinu ol 

flSlVefl al^i me ^^ ^^ HUMlU8 State ft PP Qmtmflnt Tt olewly wn by the McmoiialiHtw UioniHoU ch, und 
in ngliah. eduoation ^ Bepopt, O f j^^j Oovenunents vJuiw, that ui mciht T^rovuioiw a rvul wl\4m<,o 

has boon made in this respoot The rooommcndations of tho Commission aio, ftb tlicy thumHolvps point ou^ not ol 
onivciflftl apphoation, and none of them need be taken to imply a loaning tnwwdh the mttiuiwianco l a clmlnu'tl^ 
Onental framing thionghont the cuiiionlam for Muhammadan pupilb Tho olijtict ot thu CommisMiim IH io uidncli 
Muhammadan scholars by giving adequate piominonoo to thoho subjooth to winch Lhuu ]aicntfi adtai'li jni|jiinuncn 
and to hold out npecial inducement* to a backward olaAR , but in appl}inprtlit k voeommnidaldiiuh, da< r(^n il IK o\uy- 
whore to be paid to local cu'cnmstancos, and core mufct bo taken to avoid uiuiDOObhcuy widouiu^ i*l thu Imu lutwn u 
Muhnramadain and other classes of tho community " f 

" Tho Gcrranoz-Chmaial m Council dcim not onnsidor it desunblo *ir for tho advanlnqo of tho 
MTihammadatis cannot be ex *toi6elvoB, thattliey should be prompter! firira thnMliihiK winch 
empted from qualifying tests ed to soouio tho adnusHion nf duly qunhhrd candirlatt^ mir tho jmhlx' 
for pubiio service "tteir in- Nor 0001 Hpowal favour be hown tlioiu in UJMHI i nupdjh\i> oxniriuuitufiH til uny 
?edS^ waSSel 081180 * 81101114 ***V** is only by ramm* tliiMi- o^n c'rlnoatiunal i|iiaH!icilioKLs to fh 

Ib^vel already attained by other ifvcoh, ihat ilu> MuLainnmdatib can hr|ii Lo win 

appomtmontu that aro awarded as the roBiilt of examination But tboro AicalMffH uuiubei oJ apiuimhumi^ Ihc 
gift of which lies jn tho hands oJ tho Local Oavpiniuoute, tho ITiRh Court*, cw Lueal OOiwwh Thi Gluvri n 
m Counoil dotavus tLat ui those Piovinoofl wheie Muluunmadiuis do not nxswvp Uun lull diaro nf Htato oiiipln 
tho Local Goveinzaonta and High OomxtH will endeavour toretb-osfc thin jncKjUftlity u*> o|i}MivinniLy olffra, uinl 
unprohs upon subordirmto officota the impoitauoo ot atiouding to this m tlivir M'let'tucm of t'audiOutpH fm A 
weute ti: tto olaes last wrfeirod to Tha mbject of the orhmt to vrlutJi MuhiuiimarLvTm are nnphyeil in 
tmdei Chvowwneixt axoght uaafully be noticed in the Annual Kopoxtn of PtovimatJ AilminmtititiouH " J 

* Kaolabion of tii* &cr*iwa.pt of India, an the Ooma Dtpntiananb (fiiaawium], Ha ^^ datod ICtU Jul^ 18U, pai, 
t n jm, 11 | J /b jww 23 



OF OOYERKMI1TP OF IHDIl OH VUHAHKADAN EDU01TIOIT, 1BB5 175 

A train, nuth ivfcience to cwtain statements made m the Memorial of the National Mnhammadan Association 
The Government is not nag * Calcutta, the Resolution of the Government of India ends with the follow- 
lectftil of the efforts for edu- S paragraph 

oational improvement among " The Governor-General in Council hae felt it to be his duty in the preced- 
JH.unamxnad.an8 ln g paa.^^^ to controvert various misconceptions which find place in the 

jii I'hi'ntatiimf* that have been laid before Government , but he will, as already stated, always take a lively interest 
in the <w1\anciMuentmd well-being of the Muhammadan community , and he ooncuis in the remaiks which, not 
nnh i i|ticntl} occur m the local repute, that the very fact that a Memorial like that undsi notice has baen presented, 
wifili flu r uncoil once and approval ot so many leading gentlemen in Bengal and elsewhere, indicates that the 
MnlummarUns have themselves come to appieciate folly the necessity of moving with the times They have 
mm ,iiimn# iliom not a few highly educated and public spiiited men who aie keenly interested in the impiovement 
intl odviLiinomout of tliou co-ieligionists The Local Governments aie e \eiywheie anxious to do all that they 
wjiiiUbly can ilo to ASMbt m this movement, and His Excellency in Council has little doubt that, within the 
ii'\L ten yews, much gtoatoi piogioss will be made than has hitheito been recoidai It is the earnest desue of 
tht Knpi'ofnp Govoinmunt to iacai all classo* of Her Majesty'? subjects in India with absolute impartiality, 
auid sco ull vliko benefiting by the piotsotion, the patronage, and the assistance of the State " * 

TIio views of the Qovemment of India, <H indicated in the passages above quoted fiom its Resolution of the 
f . . 15th July 1885, on Mahomedan education, may be summarized in the following 

India, mits Resolution of 16th chM s 

July 1885, on ICuhammadan (1 ) The Muhammadans cannot hope fauly to hold their own in respect oi 
Oduoation, Bummarued. the bettei description of State appointments, but by frankly placing themselves 

in hue with the Hindus, and taking full advantage of the Government system of high and especially of English 
odii cation 

(8) A special section should bo devoted to Muhammadan education in the Animal Reports of Public Instxno- 
iion, giving prociho and detailed information, and discussing " the position and advancement of the Muhammadan 
nun m unity, nob merely as a wholo, but with leference to local variations, m order that the Qovemment of India may 
Ix* kept Jally mini mod as to the state and pi ogress of this important section of the community " 

(A) For thu attiaoiaon of Muhammadans to higher education, a liberal provision of Scholarships ifl essential 
and tlieiv wantn must not bo overlooked in the framing of any general scheme of scholarships for any Province 

(4) Special Muliammadan Inspecting Officers, to inspect and enquire into Muhammadan education generally, 
may ho appointed 111 plaoofl where the Muhammadans are very baokwaid 

(5) It ID not dasnablo, or for the advantage of the Muhammadans themselves, that they should be exempted 
from UiohO tests which are established to socuio tho admission of duly qualified candidates into the public 

eerviuo 

( Q) Nor can special favom be shown them m open competitive examination of any description 

(7) It is the oaineflt desire of the Supreme Government to treat all classes of Hor Majesty's sub]eota in 

India with abuoluto unpai'Uabty, and see all alike benefiting by the protection, patronage, and the assistance of the 

Btoto 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

PROORHSS OF ENGLISH EDUCATION AMONG- MUHAMMADANS, 1881-82 TO 1891-92 EESOLU- 
TIONS OF THE QOVHKNMBNT OF INDIA ON THE SUBJECT, IN 1888 AND 1894 DEFICI- 
MNOY OT HIGH ENOUSH EDUCATION AMON& MUHAMMADANS, 1882-92 

In the Table showing the attendance in Arts Colleges for the year 1881-82, given in Chapter XIX of thu 

Statistics ot IWbainiiiadaM "*wk fa** PW l <*"**) tte total ****>** of students reoeinng Univeroity 

ttewrag BngUflb Collegiate education m the various affiliated Colleges is shown to have amounted to 5,399 

education m 1681-82. Of this number only 875 belonged to the minor miscellaneous aeotiona of the 

Jfcwlntioa of to'cbtttmotttrf Indus w the Homo Department (Bduoatioa) 9 Ho j^, dated 15th July, 1885, pm 25 



BNGUHH HDUIUHOK IF TOLA 



community Cleaving 6,024 for the main bulk of the population, namely Hmdna and HnhammacLmh Tin it dis 
tnbution in that yeaa among the vanoua classes of colleges, teaching English and affiliate! +o the Uimets'tich, 
appears from the following Table, which has been prepared from Table No H at page 273 ol the Jlep w i ot tin 
Indian Education Commission of 1882 



CLASSIFICATION OF COLLEGE STUDENTS HINDU AND MUIIAMilADAN FOB TUB 

OFFICIAL YEAR 1881-82 



PfiOFlNCLS 














1 


DlTPAKTUKNT- 


AtflRD 




TJMIUHi 


ffl. . . . . 




AL COLLEGER 


COLLJCOKB 


GoiiliMilh 


1 OIAI 






| 






B 

e 
r; 






1 




1 : - 




B 








E 






i 




1 , 4 


IT 


K 




| 


I 




4 


I? 


it 


\ ' . 


9 


C 




R 


"~ 






* 


1 


*^ 


W 


a 




H 


^ 




W 


^j 


R 


S i - 


MADRAS 


f Nnmlxi nf piipih 
j Pt>mnU,Kc ol pupils to the 


704 


12 


OflK 


IF. 


110 


. 


i 


.id 1 ,..(J 




C totii numbui ou tLo Rolls 


9488 


162 


8568 


2*24 


8871 




8990 


180 




JtOHBA* 


f Numhoi of pupils 
j lYttuiifjqe of piqnh tn the 


249 




r; 


7f 




] 


25 




.Ih , 


7 


J.N. 




C ti>i*i>l nanibcu ou tLo Jtdlt. 


8006 


193 


5395 


72 


100 




7348, 


147 


BlNUAL 


f Nmnboi oi pujnk 
j Peioeiitaqc ol pupils io the 


1,214 


7ft 


H07 


') 





501) 


J 


&.V10 


JIM, J^M, 




C toUl iwiubei tju tLo Hulls 


9303 


676 


9017 


336 


94-61 


19 


92*41 


387 




N-W r AND 

Uirou 


rNiimboi of pii[iilF, 
j J^ncnta^o ol ji uplift to tlio 


jisn 


1 


* 


n't 


i> 


1 


1ft 


1 


HIKI 


'Hi 


Iff 4 -' 




C tutal mini In i ou the Jttollh 


9012 


814 


8471 


1338 


76- 


5 


8682 


10*32 


PliMJAP 


rNnnibn ril ptipilw 
j Puiontiigo di piipilfi to thu 


fit 


J.') 


.. 










HI ' 

1 


i 




t tuUl iiuiiibct cm the Rolls 


81 55 


12*63 




t 








81*65 12-63 




OhNTRAL PUDTfir- 
UFrt 


Number of pupils 
I'l'icuutuijo <>] juipils to the 


5fl 


r> 


i 











!> 


t 


in 




iota,! uLLinboj im tlio Jtollw 


9077 


7'69 


. 


. 




i 


. 


90*77 , 


769 








4UHI 


M 


1,708 


7li 


(M 


2 


KK87 ' 


n7 '~ir 


TrwAi, -VOR ItorrjMi 

iMUA, JSVJUIIJ- 
IMi Ajttllfi AND i 


PeiYMifaifto of pujnls f the 
tdUl iiiniirjot ou the Rolls 
Piopmlton ol tw-ch j.o or 


91*38 


463 


8641 


351 


93*21 


'28 


w 

8941 

| 


3-65 


^*WMH^*M 


flvriu 


to en ( od Uj tot 4 il pop ulation 


7321 


2236 


7321 


2236 


7321 


22'36 


73*21 '22-36 





In.lu 



l H.n.luHl(, l 
- IWMl f -- 1 "' Muluwniiuil4iis SfJJWs whikl llu- 



Ajnm ,! 



<hsi)ttiity 



1 f ,,H work M,,,,.ulul, , t 

gM WIW ^ ""' 






177 



nnomm o WJHUQUIUHB nr unman KHIOATIOK, 1882-92 

A senm! now of the progress of English education among the Mnlammadaiffl, dming the ten ream 
Statistics of English eduo- following theEeporiof the Indian Education Oommunm of 3882, may be 
ion among ^KuLammadanfl had from the folliroing Table, vhioh Lui been extracted from the Table gmm 
r if i j * P" 1 "* 3 * 11 233 ' * P 1 * 6 3a a * Mr Hash's repoit, the column represent. 

^ }i) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ of lluhammadans to toUl population being taken fcom anofcer teble * m his Eeport, as rejreeen^ 

'li\KMH('ATmy OF MUHAIMADO PUPILS DT COLLEGES AND SOHOOLS, 1886-87 AtfD 1B0LU 



I'limiML 



Miuh m 

Hmnli tj 

Iti nail 

N-W r .milOudli 

I'uiipil) 

(Jdlfria.1 I'lOMIII (H 

IJiuni.v JJ'IM" 1 
( lj<m< i 

A ( .tin 
<*nm u; 
11} tin ili ui Assi<m<L Dntiuth 



TufU 



1883 87 



IN Axis 

CCJLLI GI'S 



508 
iii 
1 t 



73 
73 



21 S 



'SCI 

2. K J 

138 



16 

2< 

1 ) 

1 - i3 

172 

7 



J2 



I PKOPBS- 

STONAL 
OOLLB&ES 



4 
10 
6^ 
34 
28 



139 



11 
11 

45 
135 
201 



51 



IN SFGOND- 

ABT 

SCHOOLS 



3,4^0 

1,057 

22,271 

14,367 

li,04B 

471 



1.5J4J 


SOD 



C8.&41 



52 

4i 
121 
21 b 
31 1 
112 

49 
20 
66 



137 



1891-92 



Iff ABTB 
OOLLEGLS 



SO 

35 

2*)9 

249 

8i 

13 



7JQ 



15 

2f> 

r.7 
inn 

182 

56 



59 



IN PBOPEB- 

&IOVAL 
OOLLlGBfl 



11 

9 
37 

140 

45 






i 



17 

18 

35 

177 



49 



75 



IN SBCOND- 

AU7 

SCIIOOLS 



3.SH 
2,117 



11,782 
b f 7 r .1 
2,217 



G3 

1T5 
219 
331 



53 

150 

10 

83 



II willbu olnu'ivc'dthttttho porccnUgo of Muhammadan pupila to the total number on tho rolls in Aita 

DofloionoyinthoprogroBBOf Oolloprefl waa 3 65 in 1881-82, aa shown in tho Table givon aHOio outset of 

Engliflh. Collogioto oduoatLDn thiR Uhaptor, whilat aa ahcmn m the preceding Table, tho percontaqo IOBO 

among Mnhammadans during to 4 2 in 1888-87, and to 59in 1891-92, which may be taken as the Utast 

1882 92. available infoimation upon tho aub]oct Satiafaotoiy as this piogroba may 

Hwm, it. inuHt not bu forgotton that tho percentage of Muhammadans to tho total population is shown in the aame 

T.U)1' lui % 21 H, HO Ihnl it, uy ho significantly said that, no far aa Bnghah Collegiate education m Aits ia conownod, 

tht* di'fuuiuiy in thu nuinboi of Muhammadan students in English Aits Colleges 19 nofuly 1G por cent -with 

rofrjonrc to Lho propnilimi of Muhammadoaui to the total population In other woids, tho number of Muhammadan 

pupilri in Kiighnh Collegiate oduuition ia about one-fouith of what it should have been It IB, howcvot, satisfactory 

to olihoi'vcs with n^ftwiico to tho rtatibtw given in tho above Table, that between 1887 and 1802, m Aits Colleges, 

the nnmlHi of Mnhammiwlan Rtndontb has mcroaaod from 333 to 736, and the paroentago fiom 42 to 5 9, whilst 

In Pififwmoiial Oolli^ow thoir numbor has naon from 139 to 248, and the poroontogo also from 5 1 to 7 5 " Tho 

numuical incr^im) IH gicatOHt in Law Oollogoa, from 99 to 172, but the atudonta in ModicJ Colleges have 

Incnmuil in a greater ratio, from IB to 39 In Engineering Colleges the maoaso is from 24 to 35, tho latter 

tmmbw im k lu(lo ono Hludout in tho Madiau Agricultural College, -which m 1887 was classed as a School " t 

Tho following Table $ shows tho numboi of Muhammadains who passed the various TTmveiaity Exanu nations 

' ' iuooww of Muhammadaagin m 188G -87 and in 1891-92 The Bachelor of Science Degree of Bombay and 

Uttlverwty BxaminationB in the Bachelor of Oriental beaming of the Punjab University have both been 

tlftf Mid 1892* included under the B A Ezanmnation, and all examinations intermediate 

i Matriculation and those degrees, have been included under the First Arts Examination 

*VhftQfeUisgiraApafli)8SOof Mr Nwh'i Beport, amd tho paroentegft of Mnlmtninftflans to total population m the vancm* 
ytfa^aooovaiagtothooumiof W91 f hM been taken from tha flnt ooliunnof that T*ble The Tablo itaelf ia omiMad hare M 
MiflfUfllsdmi IftdlKinmtwtalywith^olMiM of duoiaoiu molndingFxinuy.TttuMniladr, nd sahools toaotmg the Koran, wxdrt m 

iiiaon feom it rfwdittg tha flnmbar of MntianiTnaiflana reocmng Bngbih edncatum 
Ut7*8Btoia01-, 



' SB 



178 



iNGLISH UnrOAIIQV HI INDIA 



tgqnnui 



poand amp 



jeqnnm 



pawrd 



S 3 



pjB6t,d imp 



laqnmn 



pawrd 



oq 

* 



ft 



"* 



loqunm 



pOflBQd 



" 



9 S 



-VU1UU ([n[[ 



a s 



pOBBI'd 



a 



posurd Burp 
w inf>J 

pOfiUWl 



s 

"a 



fr S * 

S 5 a 



-. a 



\ 



pound iuvp 



pOBBtKl 



rt a g * 

HI m ia 10 o 

J j B B 3 



3 2 



2 






* 



pomnl 



posmid HUIT> 



JD finance 



I s 

I s : 



pouwid rittup 
jr inyi 

p&flBBd 



sag 



s 






joqornix 



pBHtntd wimp 
l Wo 

poiBQd 



M Jj db *0 

S | 8 8 



s 






pomxi inop 



s 
1 



" i" 

Iff 

1 41 



SSI 

a 



3 * S 

t^ Sfi Ci 

M 



S8 






n 1 1 



alrj 



1 



OP ooTBRKinjiT or nrDn OH KUHIHICADIH IDDOAMOH, 1888 170 

Perhaps tho most conveniont way, to slow tL.genal effect of this Table, as gmng the latest available 
Defioienoy m the snooeu of m * lrma ' a011 regarding the progress of English education among 1 Muham- 
in TJniver- madana, is to take the figures for 189 1-92, given in that Table, as totals of 
Wlth 1 ** Ur BMOM6f "l candidates, with reference to the percentage of Muhammadan 
POPOlMon, snooesafnJ candidates m mob. totals, comparing suoh percentage with the 
percentage of Muhammadana m the total population of India This oompan- 
MMI N -IHJWII in f hi following Table, in regard to the whole of British India, 



ui 1691-92. 





Total 


Total 


Percentage 

nf 


Percentage 
of 


Deficiency 
in the 




number 
pasiad 


dans 
passed 




Muhwnma- 

dfiJlB to 

total 
population 


peioentage of 
^fuhamma- 
dans 
passed 


dona 
passed 


Kntiancf) 


6,545 


419 


63 


238 


155 


V A anil (Jorroflpondnig Examinations 


2,695 


123 


44 





174 


B A , including B So and B L 


905 


51 


5'7 





161 


M.A., including 11 D 


80 


2 


25 


11 


193 


B.L . 


147 


7 


47 





171 


All Modieal Examinations 


264 


8 


34 





184 


AH Entfinefimtf Examinations 


47 







)] 


218 



The purcuUgo of Muhamnuulani to the total population of India, adopted lay Mr Nash in his Report, IB 21 8, 
and it is us ith lotVionro to this percentage that the calculations m the last column of this Table havo been made 
It showh how, notwitbHl.wulmg leoont ofioitn, the Mnhaininadans oie still backward in English education, specially 
in iho higher clahHOB the tU'tioioncy in aU the Uniremtj Ezanunationa being yeiy prominent whon the percentage 
of Muhammadann in the total population is hoino m mind Enormous oftoits to promote English education among 
Muhainmadans uro btill icqiurod to xaise the poroentage of their successful candidates in the tTmyeraity 1^**, 
tmtifl to tho Jovol of then percentage m the total population of India Hithozto what has been achieved falls far 
fihoifc of wlxat IH required 

In rogiiid to tho condition of Muhammadan education in 1886-87, the following observations, to be found m 

Views of the Government of * he Besol i ltlOTL * ** Q-ovemment of India, in the Home Department (Edu- 

India on Muhammadan edu* cation) No 199, dated the 18th June, 1888, on Sir Alfred Cioft'e Review of 

cation. In the Eeaolution dated Education m India in 1886, must be borne in tmtid and may be quoted 

16th June 1888. tere _ 

rocommondataona for the eduoatum of MaJhotrunadans -were made by the Education, Co 



and tho Uovomor-Oonoral in Oouiod, in Homo Department Resolution, No 7 215-25, of July 16th, 1885, reviewed 
tho HnggostionH which had boon mado for the special treatment of this class The Oommission proposed a differ- 
ential treatment of tho Muhammadan community m i aspect to education, which the Government of India found, / 
itaolf unablo to approve In its Resolution just roJEenod to, the Government of India pointed out that, if t 1 fj 
Muhaiumadans douuod to 'succeed in the oojnjpetation of life with their Hindu Xollow-subjeots, the way lay j 
taking advautogo, in the same mannei as other classes do, of the high education provided by tho Goven 
The Oovornor-Oonoial m Council is glad to think that the Muhanuaadans have themselves adopted this view d! 
the subject In 1881-82, thoro wofce 4,47,703 Muhammadan pupils , in 1886-86 they numbered 7,48,663, and 
1886*87, 7,62,441 The great increase in tho first-mentioned period must not, however, be taken as showing i 
children not previously at school wore brought under instruction The luoroaae is chiefly due to the extension 
tho State Syntom of education, so as bo include schools which, were previously outside it The percentage of 
liuoommadus to total pupils, which in 1881-82, was only 178, stood in 1886-67 at 22 5 practically a ratio 
identical with the proportion which the Mnhammadan population (45 millions) bears to the total population [199 
millions) ot British India, aooording to the oensua of 1881 But if this steady and maiked advance of the 
Mubammadwi oommtudty m regard to oduottnon be a graiafying feature of ins educational rtatistaos far the part 
fit* ytttc** t dowr ttramfaiitifon of tixe figure* shews muxit room for improvement Although the total numbs?; 



LSD KNGLISTI fcDOOATHBr Iff 1KD14 



oi Muhdmmarlaiw undoi mitmotion comprvie^ favouiably with the total iimnbci oi IIimlttH, tlio mini hi i nt tin 
ioimoi iBComng education o an advanced typo is vsiy small i datively to tho nmnbui ni Hindus tunic i -Hindi 
m&tauctiDii Out oi a total of 23,03,812 Hindus attending all classes of schools piivatc and public, m Iwi *7, 
3,16,4?3TvoreiQthofleoondftiy6tici?, whilo9,G3iwoieattondiiig Oallp^D On tho othoi hand, out oi .1. lut.il nl 
7,12,441 Mnhainniadans undoi lustiuction dunng the same joai, only 58,222 win o aUumLinq Hormulai \ Hi lionN ami 
ml> 567 attending Oollrgu Thus while ono out of B7Qiy iwoii Hindu students i\ns UTLUIII^ the lnaliiM c 'lu< Minn 
only one out of thiitucu Muliauimailan students had pasbud ho)0nd the pimiaiy staqi Tn ihis rinnlif inn nl ilini, 
especially loqaiiliiu! collegia! P education, His Evccllcuoy m Oouiiul would O4iiu k s11> iimfp tin* aLtnihmi nl ll-t* 
Jruhammulau cimimumt), and would impi DRS on thom tho necessity cit thtn takincf iiil\ nil 1*41* iiinn 1 lugilt nl tin 
educational laublius tullim then mack Tho fact tint the attoiubarp ol thu Muliammulin ^mlinls u 
has suit olhSl-82iisculioiu 20 000 to oi 58,1 JDD, shonh, iniloud, that pioqu'sn is 1111114 
imqlit ho uicnc k i.ipul " 

E\cu latoi lufoinutiuiiiiiiL'gaul to tho vio\\8 of tho Quvnumoiit uf hull tun (h( k siih|iit nl 
V fth G- f catloa m q cilici ' ll > 1S cimlainoil in tho Ifrsnliiliun ' ul < 

India on Muhammadan odu- Imlhim the JromH)ip,utiiioni iKiliuuinnij, iLilml lf 7lh Sijiii'ilm * l I 
cation, in the Ber.olution dated of which p<i7ii>ajib I ( J loUtcs to tlu k snljjiri, .uuL iui) lN>(|iini(il Ii n r M 
7 Eh September 1894 coinoiiiint lufonnuo 

" The huhjuit ul tin* odnt.ition r>( Muluuuui.wLinb has usually tn M\od ^( k pai lit 1 <M>minuif Tlu i,rl il ininiln i n\ 
MnlhimiiMtKui stuiltMits onniuoiakil in tho lotiuiH, \\tvs 4,1^7,70) in 1SS1-WJ, ,unl in 1HSIJ-S7 it \ f .i . 7, i-M I J i hm 
tins mi KMSU \v,ih jiiiillv tho nsnlt ol tlu o^ousirm oi tlu Hlafi 1 H^slcin, .mil tov(u(l sc Inmls pii'ViiMiils i^ilmliil 
Jt was i (Mn, nkc il, in deviling \\ith thr^ (111 men ui ItiHfl 87, ili.ii. .i f.u l.tiiici |)ifi|)rulioiuil lli'iiln lli.iu ul Miiluiiifui 
il in htuiUtits >vtii' icHicivim; ulvanceil insiiutlioii Out ol Hit" 7,f2 111 Muh inun.ul.Lii hn\s .L|M>M> nt< iifinntil, ^,JJJ 
oiily \\LII* .ittundiiit! Ki'fonil.uy HihnuN, and I3H7, onlv, wun* iitti'inlni" Cf)ll'ii's In iS'Jl-'UMu Ini il iiunilMi n\ 
HuhnuiitkultUL pupils ,it hoth publio ami ptivato institutions w<is S,H7,2If), and the [M'KvntaniMil Muli.iiiiin H!.<II 
pupils to tnt.bl pupils \\as 2,t, ihe pnct>nt.iL>i^ of Muli uiiniiulans in to I J [iniml itiini in flu* unn innlci* intiMdi iMlmn 
b^iiitr aux)idiiisr to the consus of Lh r )l, 21 H Tho iiuniliiq nl pupil* in IH'U-O'I *oh h HJll, ni aliuuhl hliMitiial 
with tho umnbei attondiiii- silioul in IHOI-U TMnhwniuadan ilulditri an, ImvM'VCi, mil} DU |M>I unl nf tin 
pupils m pnljlio inhtitutiiHH, and tho uioai/ majonty ol tho priv.itc sohonls .lUt'ndcd l>> tbcm .uc Kni.ni Sr liunl 
Hhll tlioio is an advanco rjfiicaily a hundred thousand in the mmiluM nl Miih,nnmL(lans idirmlin*- pnnlit jiiitifn 
and tho |)oiconi.iue of incie.tse lus bcon cn'iiitoi than m thu use nf Hindus ThrJ nuiulifi nl Miili.iiiiiiMilniN 
Sihonls in 18U1-OJ \van 0(>VJf>2 2M wi^o in Pi nlussmn.il Uollcijrs <uul 7 tU in Ku<*li h \rl Cnl 
Tlio nnlvauro of ihib Hcutiaii r>L ihc pnpnLition IIL foflp^ri ol hiqhu] c dncatinii lias, ilu'irfnn^ not hern rupn) 
It ih noticed, IIOWPVOI, iliat at all the* ITmvoiMty JH\aiiiiinatiinm in Aiis, r \trpd lhi Al A KxaiuniiHinn, UK uuinhii 
ol Aluluuiiuux(Un Kuues^lnl candidates lias incnsjbsoil, hnih al)MiluU k ly anil iclativi'ly, t*> 1ilin^> nl ntlii'i ulifiom it 
ihu Mali ii nl itiou Bvuniuation the moroaso is ivum 2RI to 111) Tlu> cmplnjiinnt HI Mii<Ii.H and Hntiikiv nl ^ 
^ijmiial Mnliammadan luHpuctmi^ Htall htwb boon InllovcMl l>> al,uiu inciiMso jn tlu ninnlxi nl INimaiv Nihmth 
attended ))y Muliammadauq Ifiihaniiaudan AflMBtantTnhpouioih hav i l)tciia|>piMnliM[ alsn fni Kisirrti Hi'iii<ul .mil 
Hcluti Tntlus and othor Provinces thoio appeal's to he Uhoi al pcHiini.uy pinvisum for MulMrnm.uIim iMlucalinii 
Mi Nash utos in p^nqraph 211 of IUH Itoxww, altohnlution ni thu thu it Mulunuui.ulan K(lm>atmnal (^mi'-rcs-, hi*M 
ab Lahoio in Derauljpi 1HKH, nnrl QIVCH iiffiiros Allowing that, in ilii 1 Hio&l ivcvut jcius UM I MulniinnniiliJtiA IMVJ* 
jtude pprcaixr pis^icsH in tho 1'iinjah, Lhau oitlier Rjkliwni IIimliiH, but they liuvc still tuncli ^tomul in M'LMUI In 
thu Uouiral Pnwnoi'S tho |ioic'cntago of child ion at tcliuol IH tliroc tutus M lusfh atnoiiif MuViiuniu.uldfJh tis amntij; 
Ihtulus, hoth foi lif^js ind tot t^iilh"]; 

ato uu doubt natihluctory, on UK* whole*, HO iiu as Muharnmailati (Mlucatintt in ufcnc i.tl i,* 

and aieft lit snhjt'd foiMvin^iiitulatnui tn tlio MiihanimadaN mmrninuf y, 



quoted paHBiiflo), that "Uicnuinhev nl MuliaiiuiuKlansallfriiliu^ 
Hohools m 1801-Dii %TIW 00,0^2 2-MJ wero in Pmlx'HHioiial Colleen AIU! 7 k Jlj in Kn^lisli Aifs Onllc^w Tho 
of this seotjon of tlio population m rotipuot of lusher education, IMH, Dion^orts rinl. lxnn ntpid j " and 
in the moat rooont yuai-s tho Mnhammadunfl hayo taado greater pingj OHH in the Punjab thun ojthui* HikliH oi 
but thoy have etill mnoh ground to regain " 

* BoTiuwinff llr NwVi Iloport on tlio PrograM of BIdnoaiion in tali*, 1SS7WJS to 1801 09 
t Tke flguoB qooloO in tho Uoma Bo}Hutmoiit Rmoluiion, No 199, ikM 18Lh Jiuio IttBH, axu oiU>d* 
tho Gtowto aT^ciw, cUbod 8th Sopttmbor, 1894, paga 



PlOKWUlDNEflS OP URBAH MtnUMMADAOT 1ST BHOLIBH COLLEGES, 1892 1W 

Mui. thtsp arc not the only points which deserve notice, in conHideimg the nucstion of the progress of 

Statiatioa of higher English Eu S llst education among the Muhainmadanfl, as lapreaonted by the latest 

education among Mnhamma &to,ti&tiG& m Mr Nash's Bopoit Much confusion npon thi& sublet is Labis to 

d*ns considered, apait from aii&o in the nundi of Muhammadan oducatumibts, by confounding the femes 

other education m general ^ 6tatutlCfl ^ all kmdf ^ aumm of ^^ ^ ^ & ^ ^ 

luni|i And simctlns MOik is concBmed only \vith English education, especially of the highoi or Collegiate 
tipi imiMifiMl nnn^titntiong situate in lnno to\vns 01 oitioa, it is neoos&aiy to sepaiate the statwtics of hi^hei 
Knuli^li ncliiLdirm hum utlni kinds oi wluOiition, anil to giro an appioximato idea of the exact condition ol that 
Huisol ixhu.it ion ammi*4 JUnliamiUiUliiJi at tho piohont time The best way to make thua mattei cloai is to 
Inko tin lupins i(i\pii in Mi Null's Jlepoit as to the peioentaga ol Muliammodans in tho TTi ban population 
(af | .Ulj .mil tliuii ]iri(cii1.i^i> m Enqlish Aits and PinfossionAl Oolle^e^, and Seoondaiy Schoola (at p 322) 
the iifluul }oai IS'JI-MJ, ,iurl to imlualu the lesulta in tho following Table 



PIM)P(MITJ01N OK MOT! VB11IVDA3TB JN THE TTRBAN POPULATION, AITO IN ENGLISH 
UOLLKUHH iN KSKCONTIJAEY H01TOOLS, IN 1891-92 



PbROBNTUlB OF MgilAHALADAKS IN 





Aits Colleges 


Colleges 


Soponclniy 
School* 


Urban 
Population 


11111*018 k 


15 


17 


53 


14 a 


inlmy 


26 


18 


49 


178 


flUlVI k 


57 


85 


135 


275 


\V Pioviueon nnd Oudh 


ISO 


177 


219 


339 


njtln i 


182 


196 


381 


508 


ntial Province* 


56 


49 


93 


160 


\\wv Rurma . 
wur Auima 


* i* 




36 
53 


| 103 


Han 







150 


288 


ii^f tt t > 


. 





10 


233 


W 14 1* 1 







81 


207 



In the above Tablo tho percentages given UL tlio columna of Arts Colleges and Uxbaa population arc moat 

f notlcettble nor ae percentages given m the column of Professional 
Urban papula Colleges less important for comparison -with the pazoantages shown in the 
taon in Bngliflli Collegiate column of the Urban population Such a compaaison mil show that whilst 
education* m tho matter of collegiate education the percentages of Muhammadans in 

tho Colleges as compared with the percentages of the Muhsmmadanfl m the Urban population shows a disastrous 
rtato of backwardness, oven m the matter of English education in Secondary Schools their backwardness is most 
lamentable This state of things must be realised by every well-wisher of the progress of education among 
Muhammadans, nad also by all who think calmly upon the broad general questions of the day, which xequre 
careful ooandtt*tum of the comparative progress of bgh English education among the various sections of the 
Indian population, for aolqfcpn of vast problem* of spoul, economical, and political import. 



182 



WQIISH ID* CATION IN fflDU. 



CHAPTER XXX. 



GENERAL SURVEY OF THE STATISTICS OP HIQH ENGLISH EDUCATION AMONG MUTIAM- 
MADANS AS COMPARED WITH HINDUS, PROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OP THE 1NJJIAN 
UNIVERSITIES TO THE PRESENT PERIOD 86 TEARS 1858 TO 1893 

It is proposed in tins chapter to take a general smvey of the comparative progress of High Hnqlibli crlurntinn 

Comparative srtatistiea of among Hindus and Mnhammadans, leepeotivoly, with iota onco to the* statist u * 

HindnandHuhAmmadan grad- of success in tho various examinations foi dogiecs of the Indian. Univci situ-s 

WST^B* ^ m d TJlllveMltieB ' The chapter concerns itself only with giaduatog , that is, th those w hi> ha\ ( 

succeeded in obtaining University Degraes, as distinguished tvom flniloT-ufi.nl- 

nates who have either failed in obtaining degrees or have not pursued thoii studies up to that Htazulard A his- 
torical account of the establishment of the various Indian Universities, and the scope and cliaiactoi of the cilu* .1- 
faon reoogzused and oontrolled by them, has been given in Chapter XVTTI ot this woik, and in thw Olu)itii if is 
intended to desoiibB with refeience to statistics, the amount of success which they have achieved dm ing tlnr ty-six 
years, that is from the foundation of the Universities up to tho present panod (1803) It mu&t bo bonic ITI irmicl 
that the Universities of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, weze established in 1857, the Punjab Umvoihity m 1SH2, 
and the Allahabad University in 1887, and the statistics of these various Universities must thorobio be 1 roiiMibi wl 
with reference to these various dates 

The population of India consists of a vast conglomeration of races and creeds, and it is not an cutty mailer 

to offer any classification which would meet the appioval of all (jthnoIrigiHth 

Multifanouflness of the po- and politicians A gonazal view however of the population of India has been 
pnlftfcon of India. ^^ exprBMsd ^ glp T^in ]am Hunter, in his work T/te Indian Empu? (arirt 

ed, p 58) 

l( Aooorimgr to the census of 1881, the comparatively pure descendants of the Ajyan inco (the BmfimiiiK nnd 
Bajputs) HtiU numbered 16 nullions in British India , the mixed population, including lower ca*,to ffinduw, A lion- 
gmal Tnbse, and Ohrutuuu, 138 millions , and the Muhaznmadanfl, 45 millions Those mole np tho 1W nul)ioiu> 
in British India m 1881 la the Feudatory States there appear to havo been 5} millions of Brahmans and Raj- 
puts , 46} millions of lower caste Hindus and Aboriginal Tribes, and 5 millions o/ Muhammadanfl, making up 
the 561 millions in Feudatory India, in 1881 The Aboriginal dement of tho population was chirfly lotmnod OH 
low-caste Hindus Only 4J millions were separately registered as non- Aryans, or Aborigines in British India , and 
If millions in the Feudatory States , mating 6} millions for all India m 1881 " 

To be mure specific in regard to figures, the following Table has been compiled from iho Tabulai Klatwniml 
Population, of Briton India Appendix X. given at page 703, of Sir William Hunter's work abovonura* 
m 188L turned 

POPULATION OF BRITISH DSTDIA IN 1881 



Hindu ... . .. ... n m 14,48,75,815 

Mnlummadnu ... .. .. .., 4,51,27,083 

Christians .. ., ., ... ... m 11,68,589 

Abonganal Tnbes ,. ... . ., ... 46,77,888 

> ... 60,40,272 



Tom ... 20,18,88,897 



un> MUEAIOUDAN POFimiTiON m 1881 



183 



It will be scon from An Tablo that Hmdns and MuhammadauB, aggregating 19,00,02,348, form the main bulk 
of tho population of India, luaving 1,18,85,549, of which no less than 46,77,688 belong to Aboriginal tribes in a vay 
low 6lat* of m jlisation, untuuoliod by the Educational System Under the heading " Miscellaneous aae included 
Buddhists (almost ontuoly m Banna), Jama, Paisis, Jews, etc , who in point of numbers, are too small to be separate- 
ly dcnlt with m any statical consideration of the general subject of the progress of University Education in India 
AIM in, tho botial, political, and economic.il conditions of the Euiopean, Eurasian, and Native Christian population of 
India aic so peculiar and difleront from the ordinmy natives of India, that no conclusions of much significance ca* 
be arm 1*1 At by taking them into account foi puipo&es at estimating the progress of high English education 
anwnuf Uu people of India in qeneial 

TJiw chapter IH, tlierefoio, limited to tho consideration of the question how far High English ednoati 



as IB- 



Consideration of oompara- 



tivo statistics limited to Hindu 
and Muhamxaadan graduates! 
with reference to census of 
1881 , and University statistics, 
1657-93. 



presented by tho Indian University Degrees, has advanced among Hindus and 
Muhammadans, respectively, and since these two communities, not only numeri- 



cally but also from social, political, and economical points of view, form the 
most important portion of the population, interesting and valuable conclusions 
may bo drawn by forming an accurate estimate of the comparative progress 
which TLgh English education hue made among thorn The nguies of the 
witsus of 1881 have boon oiloptod as tho basis of calculations in this Chapter, because ordinarily a couise of ten or 
twlvo years' dmation is nocoBhAiy foi a young native ntudent to obtain a degree of the Indian Universities, and 
hiiiru tlio fcUtibticfl of graduates m this chapter havo boon brought down to the year 1893, the census of the popu- 
lation m 1881 in a hoUor basis of calculating progress of High English, education, during the last ten or twelve 
yearn, than tho latest connus taken in 1891 Moreovur, the two omsubeb have not altoied the percentages of Hindus 
and Muhammadann in tho total population, and therefore for purposes of companion there can be no haim in pre- 
foirmg 1 the oonnufl of 1RB1 to that of 1891, whilst it is obvious, that, RULOO primmy and secondary stages of aduca- 
tion ait" not included within the scope of this chapter, which deals only with graduates of the Universities, the 
uinonso of population botwoon 1881 and J891 can havo no great bearing upon the present oondition of High Bng- 
liHh odueabum in India 

Deuhng thoroforo only with Ebndus and Muhammadans, whose aggregate population in 1881 amounted to 
Distribution of Hindu and 19,00,02,848, tho following table * shows then distribution into castes, beets, 
Muhammadaa population into and nationalities 
castes, sects, 6c , in 1881 

HINDU AND MUHAJUMADAN POPULATION OF BRITISH INDIA CLASSIFIED AOOOBDINO 
TO OASTB, SBOT, AND NATIONALITY, IN 1881 



fwmM 


Mb41V VV 




Druhmans 


Eajputa 


OtlaOartoa 


SIWIUB 


Shiahs 


Wahnbis, 
Farauos 


Unspecified 


Madias 


11,22,070 


2,07,466 


2,71,68,143 


17,58,376 


44,378 


1,102 


1,29,706 


Ifamhay 


3,64,411 


1,96,906 


1,14,47,295 


29,40,764 


78,581 


178 


1,958 


ttcngnl 


27M100 


14,08,354 


4,12,89,352 


2,09,64,657 


2,62,293 


2,144 


4,75,680 


I'imjub 


8,09,081 


6,62,181 


56,69,266 


1,03,23,022 


95,655 


2,414 


1,07,059 


N -W P and ()udh 


46,55,204 


39,27,400 


3,03,70,790 


57,52,056 


1,70,547 


28 


255 


Oontrftl I'rovmoos 


3,32,207 


2,21,849 


67,63,774 


2,50^08 


6,772 


186 


9,207 


AHMara 


1,19,075 


10,541 


39,32,582 


13,08,712 


6,377 


1,340 


593 


Ikiur 


65,754 


46,148 


23,18,752 


1,85,686 


1,360 


39 


470 


Ajmoro 


22,888 


16,876 


3,87,755 


57^62 


547 






Ooorg 


2,446 


480 


1,59,564 


12^40 


1 






British Burma 






8BA77 


1,50,821 


11,287 


1,249 


5,524 


Hfl^J. t J flat i4li flit TvilUft 


LO&46.7&5 


57^200 


12,85^880 


4,87^0,508 


6,77,748 


8,680 


7,80,102 


Total for writun mow 


*f WV^^W, 










; 




1-111 * tt^m^dfritolOT^X, Stttort JnWw^tv^, M,ih1rob 



1H4 



HJTGLISH HDUCiTION IV HTDU 



Taking the figures of thia Table the following abstract Tabular Statement has been prepared, showing flu* tntuK 
_ . _. ._ , of thevonons sub- divisions of Hindus and Mubammadanfl, iiftputmh mil 

DlBuHDTLtlQU ftnfl Tld!TOBDu H 

agea of the Hindu and Muham- the paicentoge of each creel in the total Hindu and Mnhamtuarlan 
madan population in the van- tion, in the vaiious Piovmcea of India, in 1361 
ous Provinces, in 1881 



HINDU AND MTJHAMMADAN POPULATIONS Off BRITISH INDIA, AS DJSTRTRUTKH 
AMONG THE VARIOUS P&OVINCMS, IN IbSl 



PCOTINC'DS 



-Bengal 
A&saru 



JBuima 



Com ^ 

Uombay 

Boi ai 

Punjab 

N -W P .md Oudli 

Cuntial Province b 

Ajmoio 

ToUl for Biitihli India 



Hindus 



8S,177 
9,1)4,47,1178 



nrii 



71,10, ^ 



7*17,8 M 
3,7(1,020 



Muhnmina- 
dans 



2,17,01,721 
13,17,022 



19,3V>m 
30,91,'lJl 



Total 



8,71,87 MO 
11,70,170 



1,76,010 



J'i uur NJ vi.r 



Ilnidns 



(.77 
MM 

TM? 

wl it 

ittK 

'in i. 



8(1 7 



mim.i(I,ms 



77 

72 

!,; i 



Upon tho bwis of tlio fiiuros fi-ivon m tins Tiililo aai iiitoiostin^ oalrulaijori L.w !)(^a rnnrto, )iy 
HmduandMuhammadanpo- tho vanoiw PJ^VHIOOH witlimtlio ]uiisrh<iion of ojcli ol MIC Iinlnti 1,'rmn 
pulation, olosaifled according sitios, and hhowin^ Uio totalh ol iln> Hindu .uid Miili,inirii,ul.in fibula I mo 
to jurisdiction of Indian TJni- niuloi tlu k iciiisdicii<iuof cvuh Uuuc'isil> T tUnI i.luMlmtnhutnmol tin* jjiipul.irum 
versities. into Ilnulus ami AluImmniiidaiH, uii.li Hi? jM'ru'uin<{i' <>l cadi (uiiiniiiiiH} ut 

tho total Hindu and Unlminmadau population The* rohuli* of tho <\UcsuIal.um ,uo Hhoun in tin* l<illn\uitff 
Tahlo 



HTNDLT AND MUHAMMAD AN POPULATION Off UUJT1HTI LNJJIA UNDKIt TIIIO JIJIt]KI)l(!TION OK 
THE INDIAN CTNJVhlKHITIK!^ ACOORDINQ TO THK OKNHUH OF 1SK1. 



* 


Pi ov inros 

inimdiotij 
Uum 


\v liluiL tho 
cm ol ibu 
*rwly 


TriUl TTinrlu 
uiul Mnhiun- 
tiuuliin IKJJUI. 
Itttmu 


DjbTAriiDlION 
INI 

JIllllllU 


x 
Mulmtnina- 

lIuilH 


Calcutta 


f l)( k ti^tbl 
Aswun 
i Huniiiv 


} 


7,I7,0,J,758 


4LHe,na,ii 


2,'U,,')IM!t!7 


MadniB 


; SSw" 


| 


3,fX3,0(l,2U9 


2 > HO',CO,l(I7 


19,41), 102 


Bombay 
Punjab 

Allalia)wl .. 


f 1 tomboy 

rH"\lf!p 

j(J(ntiaJ1 


} 

AOudh'j 
.h-ovinuoB y 


1,70,42,1)^ 
1,70,80,678 
5,20,03,721 


J,47,3'i,230 
71,30,528 

4,57,47,253 


J, 05,25, ICO 
02,50,400 


Total 


Ml * 





10,00^02^48 


IMVMH 


MW^i 



I'lHM'lJNTAIil.. 


Hliulllh. 


Muliitiitm 

(lllllS 


077 


**a 


o:tu 


(i-4 


ftSJ 


17-0 


40-4 


fil)(t 


HH-0 


lUf) 


70-26 


S37J 



STATISTICS OF HINDU ABD MUHA1CHADAK ftBADUATES, 1858-93 



185 



It must be borne in mind that the percentages given in this Table have not been calculated with reference 
PeroentageBoaloolated th toaifl totel V**** * * eeote and national^ inhabiting India, but 
reference to the total Hindu with reference only to the total Hindu and Mnhammadan population, as it is 
and Huhaxnmadan population with them only that thia Chapter is concerned The percentages are therefore 
o* 11 ?- naturally diffeient from those usually given in the Government Census 

Reports, since thopoicentoges of Hindus and Muhammadans are there calculated wito reference to the entire popu- 
Intion, including all creeds and nafaonahtiBB The scope of this Chapter is limited to a comparison of tha progress 
rri hich English education among the Hindus on the one hand, and the Muhammadans on the other, and taking their 
Hnronie population in Butish India, the calculations in the above Table show that whilst the pn oentage of Hindus 
is 76 25, the percentage of Muhammadans is 23 75 In other words the proportion of Mnhammadans to Hindus in 
Biitmh India is ? or 31, or that is, the Muhammadan population is more than one-fourth and less than one- 



third of tho numbor of the Hindu population 

Suchboingthopiopoilionof Muhammad*!* to the Hindu population of British India, Statistics have been 

Comparative Statistics of carefully piepiued from tho Calendars of tho venous Indian Umyeraifaeanp 

Hindu and Muhammadan to the year 1893, for desaibiiig the oomparative piogreas which high English 

graduates, prepared from Oa- el j noatloll } 1BB made among the two communities lespoctively The following 

londars of Indian Universities, snocDBBful resulta aohieved by Hindus and MuhammadanB, 

s^o^r fflto penote -p", - 1 * D ^- - * ^ paOTitieB rf tha 

i UmvotflitaeB doling tho 36 yean, from 1858 to 1893, amdedrntopanodfl of 6 y B B each - 



AND MTJJIAiOfAJlAN OBADUATBS IN THE VAMOFS 3TAOUMI1S 03T THE INDIAN TTNITIB- 
HJTIH8 JJUliJNG Jb TTSABS. 1868 TO 1898. DIVIDED INTO PBHIODS OF 6 YBABS 




1864-69 
1870-76 
1870-gl 
1883-87 
UH8-03 

CiAtl86W3 
AvrmoiM'tyo.Mr 



Table 



an yean, only two Muhammodaufl auooeeded 



m 






24 



186 



ENGLISH EDUCATION IN INDIA 



Signs of progress among Mu- 
hammad m graduates, during 
the 5th and 6th periods, 1882- 
93 



dining the 24 yaais no less than 4,773, as against only 75 Muhaiumadaus Dmmg these 24 yeois fcho proportion oi 
Mnhammadaji giaduates in no period exceeded 1 8 or 1J- pai cent of the total Hindu and Muhammadau giadtLiteB , .1 
state of things so nnjsatufaotory as to justify the observation that during a quaatei of a centay succeeding the 
establishment of the Indian Universities, the Muhammadans remained almost totally dormant anil oblivious of then 
mtezests, so far as high English education was oonceined 

The fifth peiiod of ux years (fiom 1882 to 1887), however, indicate some signs of pi ogress, showing thL num- 

ber of Mnhammadan giaduates to have iiaen dm ing that poiiod to 155, is 
against 4,227 Hindus, yielding a piopoition of 3 D poi cent Similaily iluruiL' 
the srcfch period of bii years [liom 188B to 18D3) tho nnmboi oi M uLamniiuLtii 
giaduates mciea&od to 316, as against 6,081 Hindus, yioldmg a jnopoitiun t 
5 per oent dming that peiiod 
Theso Statistics when viewed in isspoct ol the whole peiiod oi 36 yeais show even moie lamontablo tosulis 
Statistics of graduates view- flo ^ a9 *^ B Muhammadans aia concerned Tho Tablo shows lh,il dm me: tlu k 
ed in lespeot of the whole whole peiiod, 1858 to 1893, only 546 Muhammadaiis succeeded in obf uimiu 
period, 1858-88 Unu entity Degiees in the vauow blanches of loaiuing, a* against no losh i.lun 

IH, 08 L HuiduB, yielding a piopoition oi ouly35, or 3J pei ceut mthe total uumboi ot Hindu and Miiliiimiiimliiii 
giaduatos, and on ycoily avcaogo of 15 1, as against 416 9 Hindus 01 a pi op 01 fa on oE only ,\ uf the avunc iiiiin- 
bor ot Hindu gi.iduates per yeai In the Tables given in ting Ohaptei i olating- to tho Hindu and Ihihunmiiul.m JMJ- 
pulation in BiituE.li India it has been shown that whilst the peicentago of Hindus is 70 25 tliat of tliu Miihimm.ul.ins 
ib 23 75, which should albo have been the peioontage ol tho Mnhamiaadaus in the* tntil uniuljit ol Hindu ind 
Muhaiumoiilan graduates, if the Muhammadans had made as much piogioss in hujfh English udncalimi <is MM* 
Hindus AB the figmos stand, the peiceniage of Muhammadan giudoatos being only 3 5 mstuad of 23 70, tiii'ii'ilcli- 
cienoy 19 no less than 20 25 por oent 

The groat disparity between the pi ogress of high English education among Hindus and Mulittmnudans nuiy 

also be oonsideied with refeionoo to tho vaiioufl doqi^oos oJ pioqrL'hh inodt* in 

^ vaiious Pionnoos within tho imibdiotion nf the dilfuioiit Uuiveisitu'a, 
, ,. nf . .. , , . ' , , , L _. , ' 

dium i tlie ^ 7 ears ^ om tlie establishment of tho vai iouq UnivurHJiiicH to the 

yoar 1893 Foz this puipose tho following Table givuh thu nucuhbaiy 
tical infoimation 



^ or great oupanty 

Between Kindus ana Munaxa- 
mfldnuB in high English edu- 
cation, IB 5 8-8 3 



HINDU AXD MUHAMMADAK GBADUATJ1S IN THJ1 VAMOUS FACULTIES OF THTC INDIAN UNIVWIWI- 
TIBS DTJEmO SO TmABS, 1858 TO 1893, OLASSIFIDD AOOOEDINQ TO THE VAIULOUH UNIVJWBH1TIEH 



Calcutta 



Bombay 

Punjab 

ADohihuL 



er year 



ARTS 



Number of 
gradoatea 



4,981 



1,424 
246 



9,715 



M99 



203 
22 
26 
69 
79 



399 



111 



39 
9 

18 
219 
155 



89 



LAV 



Number of 
graduatos 



2,588 

465 

S45 

87 



3,687 



989 



79 
5 
3 

20 
6 



110 



28 

11 

9 

19 

104 



80$ 



MXDIOINl AMD 



Number of 
giadnates 



694 
69 

428 
68 



1289 



10 
2 
9 

IS 



M 



99 



14 

88 

21 

171 



27 



Number of 
giaduafcofl 



177 

78 

335 



590 



16*4 



1 






Turn 



Nuxnbw of 
graduatoB, 



8,440 

3JBQ 

2,627 

890 



1 



290 
29 
30 

102 
85 



Mff 



lfl-1 



254 
17-6 



8'5 



FRliniRIIlAi OF ITIVDU AND MUHAMMAD iH GUUDUATBfl, 1858-93 187 

fiumtlmTaljlutliattlioiruliammadaiLbaiomost backed in tho Madras Residency, and that 
BackwardneMS of high Eng- th< ll coufllilon * steely bettei in the Residency of Bombay It seams 



lihh education among Muham- ^ ll1 ^ sn ^ as ^ifh finish education i&> conceined, the Mnhammadans of 
mudanw in the various Pro- 3]<uli.is haro icmaiuod almost entuoly doimant dming the last 36 years since 
vincos, Ob shown by University tho lnuniUtum of the Umvei&ity in that Residency Tho fig-urea show that 
Statistics, 18 8- 3 clunnif th il. pmod, whilst no less than 3,236 Hmdna obtained degiees in the 

\ ii inn lii mi In (if I<* lining nul) 20 Muhammndans Miecocflod in obtaining 1 deep ee&, not oftoidrag oven a proportion 
nl DTK in Midi lot* of ]]iii<lii triaiiu.Ltos Scaily o,s lamentable beams tho condition of Mohammedans m the 
I'M uli'iirs ol ltim)i,i\, whm' nnlj JD M uluminadiuih filjlaiued ilf^iecs, as a^amat 2,527 Hindus, or a piopoition of 
O'M> tn i 1 1 \ ItHl llniilu irt.Hliiiiti'-i Tlit KiiitisiiK s of iho TJnivoisity of Oaloutta, no doubt, show better results 
Tin 1 1 i?JO Mulijiiuniail ins nbtiiun'd dt'irtLr^ ni atrainbt 8,li(J Uniting , but even thib numb or does not affoid a laige 
piofhiitttui lit 1 Muli.nniiiiiil in^ <!> it } JoliN *m\y Jjuiit o Muhannnadan ^iftiluatos to ovoiy 103 Huidus, whilst thopro- 
|Miinmi ni thn Muhiiiniiiiiil m to tin Hindu popul iliori Jh JJ3*J t) 077mtb( k Piovmoes within the ]iui&diotion ot 
il'< ( nun tit) nt ('.il'titt't fit thf* Puii|tb rnnui^ii^ hiuruitb uhtiibbslmiunt, 11)2 Muliammadanq have taken 
DiM'ici*, aniiriun^t tUI Uimlus, jnMuiv a |iii)|iiMlnm (if about. 25 MnlianimadaTis to oveiy 100 Hindu graduates 
Itul nlfliiin^h tikis Ti'iulf ni.i} .it lu^ili semi satisf u'luij in r.bMmr of iho Mulum madam, m ro^lity, qtuto the zeverso 
H flu* i a ! , M!u'(> in that Piuvmiv i.lic piivpoH.ioii of t.fu Miihatnin.ui.ui to iho llinda population ih OB 59 6 to 404 
III* Mulittijiin.ifl.tiii hi'ini; niMil} 00 pi*r <<'b of tin* tuUl Hindu uul MuliAinmtuUn popolntiou Tho ouly part of 
liiflu \vlnn Inch Mn^lnli uluuUnni mj} h< vuil in h.tvi 1 niMli 1 saLisi*Msti)iy piutriosb among tlio Muhammadons, aie 
tin' l*mvitinh NMiliiii tin |UMsi|ii*tmn ul tlu k AlhihabaJ Uiuvoibif-j In Midi Uiu voi hit/, siuco lU fonndation in 1887 
to tin jt'iii 1 W)IJ t no It's*, than >>* MuJiarn 111,^1.1114 obtninuil DII?I(M H, ns affaimt tHii Hi ml us, yielding a pzopoition of 17 
ttuwny HM) Ilinilii^railiJiiii'h, \\hilhttho f u opt 11 turn (if Uio WuJi.iuiniiMltvn \A\ the Hindu population is & 12 to 88 in 
those I'triMMi'is TliH s.ilisfnciuiy nsiilt is due cntiicl> ID tlio i l \< i*phunal dfoitw wluth hnvo boon made in tho 
North- Wr IIMII Provinces to popuhuisc antJ pioiuotu Intfh Kn^lish education ioi tlio Muli.iinmatlanfl, lOBultm^intho 
fru iui.it inn ol Hit* Muh.minmilan An(r|o*Dri4iif4J Oollci^oal Ali^iuh, which Jilting the pcnod oonccinod passed 25 
out of the Litful K"> MuharntuadiUi ^radnutoy r>f tho Allalubatl Uiuvuthity aliovomontiouod Had saoh not boon the 
ill*' j(MHMitri^Mii Muliniuimulfui ^nuluatcn in ihti Allahabad UmvoiMty also would have fdllon below the 
k ii<a^t of tho Mulidimuuulaiib 211 tho totiU Hindu and Mahiuninadon population of tho Noxth-Westom Piovinoes 
Diirlh 

The KtatiHtirH of Uin relative proi^ioqfl of lu^h Enpflirii oduoation among- Hindus and Mnhanunadana respeo- 

M* bor of KraduatOfl per ^^'yBW I otniMilorod akofiomuthor points of view, to facilitate comparison 

1,00,000 of tbo Hindu and Thu following Tablo has bcon propaiod to Hhow tho number of gi*aduatea per 

Muhiimmttdan populatiOE, tea* 1(K) f ()DO of oach population, and, oonroifloly, tho numbor of each population 

poot&voly, 185S-98. among whom one IB a graduate As in the prooeiding Tables in this Chapter, 

Urn number of fX)(>iiluium haH been ctilculatud according to tho oonflus of J81U, and the nnmber of graduates haa 

IMHIII fibtouuxl fioin tho Oaluiidar of tho vanrtuu Indian UfuvertutujB, Irom their esiablulimont up to the year 1898 

Tfu> ri'HttltK ttru Bhown in tho Tablo on tho next pago 



1HH 







O 



A 



J 



IIS 



Ill-si' 



Sl^ 



IHOLTSII BDTioATinN 0r INDH. 

6 S 



BUI pica mi ijn]^ 



S 



! 



co 



s 



S 



sm pi mint \\nfl 



am pi mint i{ii [f 



rapuiji 






S 



3 

S 



3 F 

c o 



s 



S 



C! 
3 



3 

3 



a 



3 



S 
S 

ft 

3 

"s 



a 
s 

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i! 
P. 

* 

3 



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g CX Oj g 

. _. 3 



ig 



HP 








S 



OF IIUHAMIUDA* ORADTJ1TEB, 1858-93 189 

lii imm\ levels dim Tablognes a cloaier indication of the backwardness of the Muhammad* than any 
Pioerovi of high English * *^ P 1606 * 111 ? Tables in this Chapter The flames relating to the rations 
oOuottion amons Hindus ten Utuvemtieq, and mthe diffaront blanches of learning, arc sepaiately shown 
hints as gioat as among in. tha Table, and it IB noces&aiy only to uivito attention to the columns of 
Bauhriinmudpns.oaloulitodper the totals It will he obaeivod that evon in the Faculty of Aits, whilst 
!i!S* r ^ * tlloni l ot nuid * P*hu** 67 pei 7oU of the Hindu population, the 

numboi of Muhammadan giaduates IB only 88, that IB IOSF, than oven 1 pei 

' ' \\\ tut Miili,iinnii(laii iioiiiililjon To lopiesent the same losults in anothei way, a* hhuwii in tho tablo, 
" ll " 1 * 'H"i ' <iii <ri.nlu.iti ^]nfnlff0^u1y 14,912 of the Hindu population, among- MohamniadaiiB theioisonc 
i mi. >t iniiiii'j IMIY ITiJUOul tin pujmlalion oi that cteed Deploiahle as those ic&uU& may flcom, bo fai an 
^J in mi ii flip MI iimivnuiil, iho SUtiilus of the F.^cultioq of Law, Meditane and Hhigmepiinir, hhow evon woise 
n uii i j ,i di-.( i iilinn 1 1 iU .LuicauislancsQ alltliemoie lamentable as thosu bub-jocts, homg piofessional, lead 
iimlii uiuiitf mi ins ni liin.ili\i> cJiipln^uiLiit Th&cfonctal iDbultb oi tho calculations in tlio Tahle 01 e shown in 
'4i hi mi'ti inlii'iiM iitnlii ilio lir<kdiii(f "tofti!" It shows that TV lulst thoi e aio JO 4 gia-tlu.ites among ovoiy 
/ii'i ** iln liirlii |iu|>i|htiiMi, ilii' hriuu* ot Mahaituuatlan giaduatcn is only 32m every luUi oftbu population 
nitli.tfiiiMl Ijiiivin;' tliiMli'i inn Is out of *u i count, it may be Haiti that whilst thcio QJ e 10 <?i aduatos among 
tin** HiUt t>\ llinilu % tin IP is oiil> I MulMinmadiTi in o\eiy lalh of that population In other woid&, high 
lt>*h It niiii itioulu-, iiiailt iiiail^ ti>u-Lulil pm^zuss among Jliucloft, as compmeU ^ifcli the pioqiogq amnn^ 
\\\\ Mfiluiiuiuiil.itiv 1'iiihnir llu- inaltw in a iliilLiDiit lonn, a*, shown ni tho Tahb, whilht Ihoie IB one p aduate 
imiinn \\i\\ 'MHIJI Iliiiilus Mine is ono ojmluato in evciy 82,050 of tlio liuhamniadan population 

'1 In i' 1 1 Mill . .IH so th\ HIIIS, is slum mf the liackwaitkioss of tho Muhammnilans in Ingh English education, in 

uiiii|iaiiMtti to tlu? Hindus, that itu scaicoly iiuussniy to deal with the 
Nm m oik. o,m 8 But ,t , h unp,taa,t ham all pa* it mw, far 

to tho ratio of tho flu futuippiohpeiity of India, that tlio diapaiity ^hioh exibte, between Hindus 
Mulmmiiuwt.m Lo tho Hindu and Mnliammadanb in tho matter ol high Ehighhh education should lp fully 
impulttl J0ii f WCft-93 miltbofl, and aocra dingly, tho f ullowtng Table lia% hoon prepaiod with i of csronco 

(n *hi k 1 1 n us 11} IhKl, ,md tin* numlK'r oi gtudiutGB obUmed liona tlio Oalendaib of tho vaiioub Indian TJmveibities 
ilti*ii IHVIIIIIIIIIC clown Ui thvyiiu IBIS 



190 



IITGIJSH EDUOATIOIT IN INDIA 



a 



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80 



ittrp^muwipiji^ jo iioqinnxx 



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pu oif9i oqf of iiurpJO'W *oq of fi{0i 



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oqf pu OL^I oqf of tfurpooov *oq of fiptao 
f i tra bafaninua uvpuirat{[i|y; jo joqcunj^ 



8 



a 



OP MUHAMMADAN QRADTTATES, AS IT SHOULD HA.VH BBEN, 1858-93 191 

In onlei to unduibtand the calculations in this Table dearly, and if necessary to veiify them, the figuies of 

Explanation of the preced ^ B ^ UL ^ U a31 ^ Muhammadan population, ani the ratio of the one to the other, 

nig Table, as showing the ex as &hown in the pie ceding Tables* in this Chapter, must be boine in mind, 

tont of tho deficiency of the and also the figuies in the Tables f relating to the number and pioportion of 

** 



tho Hindus, 1858-83, Statistics, the hypothesis IB that the piogiess which high Enghbh education 

has made among the Hindus, may bo taken to lepresent a safaflfactoiy standard 

**T int i HIT lual pi off] ess and the abject ot the ooxnpaiison is to show how iai the Muhammadans hove fallen shoit 
<>l tlul siiimliud, wliou tho ratio of thoii population to the Hindu population is borne in mind -these piopoitionb 
h mil" liiM'ii shown, witlueioiencoto thevaiioug Provinces J and TJmveisitiBB in tho pievious Tables in this 
( li ipii i For c \iiiiiplu, taking tho whole Hindu and Muhammadan population of British India, it has been shown 
in nut* of (hi ]uevions Table*, that whilst the paicentago of Hindus is 76 25, the percentage of Muhaznmadans is 
ftl 7 ', iiiirl this iquesoiits the ratio of the one population to tho othet Again, it has been shown m anoUioi Table, 
* tut \\ In 14 tbi ini,il iiDiubor of Jlmda p aduatec. in all the Universities, down to the year 1893, is 15,081, the number 
<if M ilium in at I uu iftilu.ilos is only 516, yielding a peicentago of only 35 in the total numbor of Hindu and 
MuliumimtiJmi t^iadnaiei. m Bnbmh India Bejimg thu m mind, eaoh of the headings m the abovB Table lias boon 
huh iiiviilf l il intu foui culumiis llio caJculatiou in the first column of each heading Laving been made with laftaonco 
in fln lalmof tho MuliammdidtUti to fcho FTmdu population Thus when there 010 15,081 Hindu giadaatos, the 
uuwluT ol MiilMiiiTncMliiii ^ wluatos shuald IIO.VQ been 5,44L, instead of which, as * matter of fact, the actual numboz 
I 1 * unly 5 Ml, Inuring a ilcfioiuncy ot 4,895 ^aduatea slxomng, as the last column under the heading "total" shown, 
ih.it. iln> hut C(SH wlimh tho UnhammaJaiiR have actually achieved, evor sinoo tho founcUtion of the Indian UniveiRi- 
fiiis IH only 10 03 pei cent , or 1 1 u th of what it should havo been In other woids, the backwardness of Muhammadans 
1*1 mm 1 liiiu'hAK tfi p*il *w tlit'u huccosB, they Laving fallen 90 per cent short of tho standard which they should 
at liii'vwl il })it)troHH of high English education among them had boen proportionatoly as groat as among the 
To put the idea m a more concrete fozm, the condition of high English education among Muhammadans 
may he rmnpnjod io a bank, of which tLo assets aio 546 and toe debts 4,895 To put the matter shoxtly, the 
MuhainuiiuliUiH oi India may bo saii to be suffering from all the evils ot bankruptcy in the matter of high English 



Thai thiH conoluMon in jantiliod, is shown by dealing with the Statistics from another point of view Taking 

tho figures of tho total Hindu and Muhammadan giadoates, tho percentage ot 

KKSaSl^adSiTaa 2 wch *"* in Buoh * M ntmber hafl been lonlfttoa > ftnd ^^ff the pwoentage 
should have beto, according of the Hindu giaduates as a standard of sainafactoiy success, it is shown what 
to tho ratio of the Muham- tho proportion of Mtihammadans should have boon if they had achieved as 
ttadaa to the Hindu, popula- Batinfactory pi>ogress as the Hradua in high Bngliah education The following 
ttoa, in 1858-93 Ttiib shows the results of such calculations, with reference to the various 

of LoarninK in the various Universities of India 

| t rZepel86,anfa | t 7*<to pago 181, ante | Kto page 184, onto, 



162 
a? 

I 



o? mpmanqiiH eqi jo OT^BJ eq^ i^ ut|i tuuuv 
Ul nrnnjoo nt) aeprapwS npntg jo jsqmnn aq^ 
qqiM. pBJBdmoo ra 'naaq oAaq ppioqg ji BP 'BOEJB 



qqui pBJFBdmoo ra 'n 
-nptrf nvpmmBqn 



ENGLISH EDTT01HOR IN IZTDU* 



9 



iH jo aaqranu e^raoiifjodoij 



ALT 



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npu9 vspmnivqn][ p 



a 



a S a S 

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10 
00 



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, ^ Mq p(B|Jlp ^ igo ^ 

p aequnm B^vnoqndojj 



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DIAGRAM 1 



\l >//4 /*/ * ^///<s // lit/it** , 







K 



BNQLT9H EDUOATIDBT IN ABTS JLHOHff HINDUS 1VD MDHAJUUDANB 



193 



The calculations contains* in the last column of each of the subdivisions of thu Table, namely, columns 

Calculations in the preced- * *' 10 ' 13 ' " nd 19> PB * mre 80mB ex P knatjon The calculate ha* been 
ing Table explained made b ^ ^^^ the mber of Hindu graduates, pei 100 of the total Hindu 

and Muhammadan graduates (shown in columns 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17), 

aa the standaid of satisfactory success, and upon that assumption, calculating, by the rule of three, -what the 
pi oportionate number of Muhammadan graduates should have been, according to the ratio of the Muhammadan 
to the Hindu population, if the Muhammadans had achieved as much success! in high English education aa the 
Hindus-- the success of the Hindus being in excess of what it should have beon, in proportion to their number 
in the aggregate Hindu and Muhammadan population 

To illustrate the effect of the calculations contained in the preceding Table, so far us the Faculty of Arts n 
Diagram I, showing the oom- COItcernBd tlie accompanying dmgiam I has been prepared on a unifoim scale 

of 100 degrees, in columns placed in -juxtaposition The columns showing 
the piogie&s of the Hindus are colouied pink, and those i elating to the 
Muhammadans green, and the degrees up to which the columns have been 
coloured ropiesent the actual piogross of each, oorapaiativcly The cross 



parative progress of high. Eng- 
lish education \n> Art9 among 

Hindus and lUTnli a-mTn n.d ATip, 

1666-98. 



lines in the columns relating to {he Muhammadans indicate the degrees of piogrebs which the Muliammadflns 
should have attained, if, with reference to the pioporhon of then population to the Hindu population, they had 
achieved as great a rate of success as the Hindus In other words, the pink colours represent the calculations 
as to the M A and B A Degrees, in columns 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 an (3 37 of the above Table , the green colours icpiesent 
the calculations contained in columns 3, 0, 9, 12, 15 and IB, and the cross linos mtho columns i elating to the 
Muhammadana represent the calculations contained in columns 4, 7, 10, 13, IB and 19, in tho above Table 

These explanations, when borno in mind, with i of ezonoo to the calculations repiebentod by tho figures in the 
Figures necessary to under- Flooding Table, lender the accompanying- diagram oaiily intelligible, but for 

stand the calculations in toe the sake of facilitating reference, the requisite figuzes for undeiatanding the 

Diagram I diagram are given in the following Table 





NUMBER PER 100 OF TUB TOTAL HINDU AND 
MUHAMMADAN 


FiopoifaoTiato nnm- 
bet oF Maharamadan 
giidnatos, as it should 






OATO beon, ta oompwv 






UNTVKBSITIIIS 


PUPTOATEOH 


GhumuTiw 


ed with tiio number of 
Hindu ffiftdnatoA, ao- 




Hindus 


Muham- 
madans 


MA, 


BA 


the l^inanimadln to 


the Hiiida population 


Hindus. 


Muham- 
madans 


Hindus 


Mubam- 
madona 


MA 


BA. 


Calcutta 


677 


323 


9694 


306 


9571 


429 


461 


456 


Madias 


936 


64 


98 


2 


998 


8 


67 


68 


Bombay 


821 


179 


991 


9 


981 


19 


2174 


215 


Punjab 


404 


596 


8125 


1875 


777 


223 


1206 


115 


Allahabad 


88 


12 


937 


33 


828 


172 


132 


113 


Total for India 


7625 


2375 


967 


83 


9585 


4-15 


301 


298 



The accompanying Diagram (No 1), ahcrmng the comparative progress of high English, education in Art* 
among Hindus and Mmli^mmadana, classified under the ranous Univamties of India, during the period of 86 vera, 
from 1868 to 1898, xnohupre, is inserted her*, and should be perused in the light of the atatutios given in the preced- 
ing Table 
25 



BHGLISH BDTT01TION IV 



To explain the foregoing diagram further take the column relating to the M A Examination of the Caltfatta 

The foregoing Diagram ex University The total number of M A 's dnnng the 36 years, from 1858 to 
plained. 1893 (both inclusive), was 817, of which 792 were Hindus, or 9394 per cent 

hue indicated in pink colour, np to nearly 97 degrees of the diagram, and the number of Mnhammadans being 
mly 25, or 3 06 per oent , the gieen colour accordingly covers a little moie than 3 degrees of the diagram Bnt 
with reference to the population within the ]mudiction of the Calcutta University, the propoition of Hindus to 
Uuhammadans is as 67 7 to 32 3, and if the Mnhammadans had achieved the same rate of piogiess a* the Hindus, 
the ratio of Mnhammadan graduates would have been as 46 1 to 9 G 94 of the Hindus The cross lines, theief ra.e, in 
jha column of the Mahimmadan M A. 's leach 45 L degress in the diagiam, to denote the above calculation 

Agaui, in the columns of the diagram relating to the Punjab University the pink and green colours show the 
actual comparative progress of the Hindu and Muhammadan giaduates, respectively, and the cross linos exceed the 
100 degrees of the scale, reaching J20 degiees for the M A 's aiid 115 degiee* foi theBA's, as lepiesented on 
tha maigm of the diagram, which must ba consideted as a part of the diagram, unler the heading of tho Punjab 
University The excessive deficiency thus indicated by the cross lines, m regud to the Punjab Umveiaity is due to 
the fart that in that Province tho pioportion of the Hindu to tho Kuhammadan population is as 40 4 to 59 G, and 
tha rate of progress achieved by the Hindu M A 's being 81 25 per cent , the propoitionate numbei of Muhamma- 
dan M A 'fl, according to the iatio of tho Muhammadan to the Hindu population, should have i cached 120 6 depiees 
of the diagram, and the number of Hindu 5 A 's being 77 7 per oent the number of Muhammadan giaduatos, with 
leforonce to the pioportion of tha Muhammadau to tha Hindu population, should have lediohed 135 degrees, as 
represented on tha margin of the diagram 

On the other hand, in the case of tho BA degree of the Allahabad Umvemty, tho groen ooloui which 
represents the actual success of 77 Muhammadanq, as against 371 Hindus (demoted by tho pink colour), exceeds the 
proportion of the Muhammadan to the Hindu population, which is as 12 to 88 in tha Provinces within tbe imndic- 
tiou of that University The excess is represented by 59 degrees ooloui ed green on the maigm of the diagiam 
This oixpnmstanoe, as has once before been explained in this work, is due to the exceptionally strenuous efioits 
in behalf of English education which tho Mnhammadans, undci the leadership of Sir Syed Ahmed, Khan Bahadur, 
K C SI , have made by founding the Muhammadan An gin- Oriental College at Aligaih, a biiel histoiy of which 
institution has been given m an oaihor p<iit of tint woik ( Vide pp 133, Ib4 ante) 

To furthoi elucidate the comparison between the piogrtBS mado by Hindus and that mode by Muhnmmadans, 
Abatraot Tabular Statement, res P eotlvel 7. th * following Table has beon prepaacd showing an abstract 

of the comparative statistics of the various bianohos of leaimuq recognized 
by tha degrees of tho various Indian Univoiflities, from the time of then 
establishment up to tho present, oovezing a penod of 36 years, from J858 to 
1893, both inclusive 



showing comparative progress 
of Hindus and "M* 1 * 1 m adan B 



in various branches of Univer- 
sity Bd,UQatLon, 1868-93 



COMPARATIVE STATISTICS OF HIGH ENGLISH EDUCATION IN BRITISH INDIA AMONG 
HINDUS AND MUHAMMADANS, RESPECTIVELY, I OB THE 36 YEARS, FROM 1858 TO 1893 



SUBJECTS 


Aara 


LAW 


Sr 


,.. 


TOTAL 


I 


a 

1 




i 


1 


1 




1 

1 


J 


S 


8 


1 


1 


j 




1 


i 


a 

1 




1 


I 


Kumbor of graduate* 


9,715 


399 


3,637 


110 


1,239 


M 


690 


3 


15,061 


646 


15,627 


Percentage of graduates 


961 


39 


90 98 


302 


9713 


287 


995 


5 


966 


35 




Arerage number of gradu- 
ates per year 


2690 


111 


982 


3 


344 


99 


u* 


1 


41B9 


161 


43108 


Hindu sad Muhammadan 


4 


4 














1448,75^13 


461,27,033 


19,00,02348 


population ot Biituh 



RiOXWABIurBBS 01 KUHimiADiHS TS UNIVUBflltTT DIGBBES, 185&-93 



195 





ABIS 


LAW 


J& 


BNGDTEIBIN& 


TOTAX 




SUBJECTS 




i 




J 






1 






p 






e 




| 




s 


J 


1 


2 





1 


B 


3 


1 


1 


* 


1 


a 

pC 


1 


a 




H 


bEj-rJ 


1 


a 


^ 


1 


,P 


-a 


1 


j: 





A 




3 


i 


Percentage in the total 




















2375 




population of Bzitiah 
















India in 1881 












7625 




Batio of graduates, as it 


























30 




ought to be, according to 
the ratio of the Muham- 




























madan to the Hindu po- 
pulation 


961 


299 


9696 


309 


9713 


303 


905 


310 


965 




UUDlDBr OZ IH TI nftTHTnQirlfl.w 














519 










5,441 




graduates, as it ought to 
be, according to the ratio 
of tho Muhammadim to 
the Hindu population 




3,286 


. 


1,472 




,. 


161 


,., 





Actual number of Hindu 


























646 




and MuhftTnmadan gra- 




























duates 


0,715 


399 


3,537 


110 


1,239 


34 


690 




3 


11X081 


15,827 


Deficiency in the number 


























469fi 




of Muhammadan gradu- 




























ates 




2,887 




1,005 


. 


485 




158 







The figures in this Table, when carefully considered aie eloquent m themselves, as showing how enormounly 
Statistios of the backward- backward the Muhammadans axe as compared with the Hindus In all 
of Mnhammad-ins in all departments of learning recognised and controlled by tho Indian Universities, 

Arts, Law, Medicine and Engineering, the Mohammedans have fallen far 
short of the standard of success which they should have achieved if the 
progress of high English education among them had been proportionate to their number in the population, as 
compared with the Hindus Thus, in the Faculty of Arts, instead of 3,288 Muhammadan graduates, there arTonlv 
399, leaving a deficiency of no less than 2,887 Similarly, m the PaouHy of Law, msteai of 1,475 Muhammadan 
graduates, only 110 have succeeded, leaving a deficiency of no less than 1JM In the Faculty of Medicine, instead 
of 519 ihere are only 34 Muhammadan graduates, showing a deficiency of 485 , and m the Faculty of Bngineenn* 
the number of Muhammadan giaduates is only 3 instead of 181, leaving a dofioiency of 158 The statistics, so far 
as the Muhammadans are concerned, appear more oogently lamentable when tho figures in the columns of totals aie 
^ , I*?" aggregate Hindu and Muhammadan population of Brituh India the percentages are 7635 
Hindus and 23 75 Muhammadans , whilst the percentages in the aggregate number of Hindu and Muhammadan 
graduates are 96 5 Hindus and only 3 5 Muhammadans the deficiency in the percentage being thus 20 25 

These statistics are equally lamentable for the Muhammadans, when considered in another manner Ever 

imce the establuhment of the Indian Universities during a period of thuty- 
BUC years, from the year 1858 to 1893, the statistics calculated from the Galen- 
dan of the various Indian Universities, show (as in the above table) thai 
1JS627 persons have taken degrees in the various branches of learning recog- 
nised and controlled by those Universities. Out of this 15,687 graduates no 
lees than 15,081 were Hindus, whilst the Muhammadans were only 646. According to the ratio of the Muhamm* 
dans to the Hindus, in the aggregate Hindu and Muhammadan population, the number of Mnhammadan graduates 
.hauld have been no less than 5,441, instead of the actual figure MS, thus showing deficiency of no less than 
4,895 In other words, the Mnhammadans have achieved only one-tenth of the success which they gi^id j^ 
achieved, and their failure is nine times as much as their moons, whilst as matters now stand, the number of 
Hindu s^us^ is niore than 7 times much as ths* of the Mu^ 



Success of KunammadaDB in 
University degrees only one- 
tenth of what it should have 
been in proportion to thoir p*> 
pnlatum. 



196 



KBTQL1BH IDtTCATIOff Iff ISDU 



according to the proportion existing between the Hmdu and tie Huhammadan populations No rational well- 
wisher of India can grudge the satisfactory advance which the Hindu? have made, out at the same time, he whe- 
ther as a politician or as a philanthropist cannot help lamenting the fact that the Muhammadams have not made 
a commeuBuiate progress in high English education in proportion to thoii numboi in the population 

To lender more easily intelligible tha great disparity between Hindus and Muhammadans in high English 
Diagram II Bhowmff th eduoa * L011 m * te various hrancbos of learning reoogm&od by the degrees oi 
oomparative progress of Hua- the Tanona Indian Universities, as shown m the preceding Table, the following 
diia and Muhammadans in the diagioiu has been prepared on the sarao pimriples as the piecoding diagram, 
Degrees of the IndianTTniversi- and the figures given at the foot of the diairiam, takeu from the preceding 
SSdSSi 8 l?fiSi8 hefl f ^bles, will explain thBde^es up to which the diagram has been coloured 

pink, as denoting the actual proojn oss of the ITinrlub , tnd green, the actual pro- 

gross of the Muhammadans, and the cross hues showing tbe point of proems which tho Muhammadans should 
have achieved, if they had achieved the same tat* of process as the Hindus, withieforonoe to the piopoition oi the 
Muliamnmdan to the Hindu population Tho accompanying diacpam bhowincr tho c-ompmative pioqioss of High 
English Education m various blanches of knowledge among Hindus and Muhamamdans in tho UnivoxsiheB of 
India duimg SB years fiom 1858 to 1893, is inserted for perusal m tho h^ht of tho pi Deeding explanation 

The aoownpnnjing Diagram No Ilia in it&elE eloquent m allowing tlio deplmablo backwai dnpfis of Muham- 
madans m all "branches of high English education recognised by tho Universities nl India a state of things which 
oau never be lost Bight of, m considoiing the vniions pzobloniB ofmoial, social, ocnuomical and political impoit, 
which need consideiation dm ing the pi osent ported of tbe hiilotv oC tho Hntish rnlo in Indu The Diagram 
might well suggest for its motto the following elegiac JZu&ui ( ^Ij) ), or Qnartram, of tho celebrated living Muham- 
madan poet Maulvi Altaf Huwnn, 



(f f JU| 



Tho fltatifliaos of high Bngluh ocluoation stated m thiH Gliaptoi, ha\o boon, BO fai, consideicd with leference 
Itote of progresB of Muham- lo ilxB afl lc ff ato i^uIU ol llio woi king ol tho Indian TJuivoihitieh fiom then 



madan graduates m vajnous 
Paonlties of the Indian Una- 
, duMUg 1858-93. 



foundation up to UIP oiid of 1H93 ,v pound of 36 yoms It isnowimpoi- 
taut to couwdoi the tnie at which tho Muliammadons have made pi ogipss in 
hifth English cxlacatuni duimq UHH lour? poiioil Foi thi pm pose, and for 
tbe sake of convenient loferenoo, the following Table haft bum pri'piiiod as an oxiiacL liom the Tabulai Statement 
ftlieady given (Vide page 185, ante), showing- tho compaiativo HtatiHiii( k s of Hindu and Muhatnmadan graduates in 
the vaiious Vacuities of the Indian Univcisities duiiug 35 JOOTH, 10111 1U5H to lfl ( J3, divided into periods of 6 yean* 
each 



PBMOD 


PBiicEHTiflH ov MDIIAHHAHWB IK rut IOTAI> KINDO AND MoirxMMVDiN oiu- 
Diuing m run TAIUOUH KAoni/rTH or urc TNPIAH FKITPBAITIBS, 

BOBIHO HtXHIWM, I'KBIOIH, 1CRIIK 1HW Tl> 180!) 


Arta. 


Lav 


Mcdiuno 
and 
Surtfttty 


Knffinoot- 

lllg 


Total 


PcicontAgorif 
MulbunmatlnnB 
in tho ttitftl 
Hindu mid 
Muliatninailuu 
pnpnlttlion 


UofloieDcy in 
Uiopi'icentage 
of Muhammii- 
dangiadvates 
ac*coi dmg to 
potcoiitcvge of 
population 

2274 


185S-63 n 


113 





22 





11 


2375 


1664-69 


19 


1G 


26 


P 


18 





2195 


1870-78 


12 


1-5 


42 





10 


n 


2215 


1870-81 


308 


13 


093 




1ft 


n 


2225 


1882-87 


88 


43 


20 


15 


30 


11 


2015 


J,ODO lni 9v 

ToW, 1858 to 1883 ... 


7 


8$ 


43 


04 


6-0 


n 


1875 


8-9 


SOS 


Vt 


6 


86 


2375 


20'26 



poyet 196 ) 



DIAGRAM II 



tkowuig As oomparatwe prvgresm ofkyh EngUh tebuxz&an, m> varwas brandies cfXaowbdye om*ry 
flinelu* and J/afamtdvis ov M* &mw*t&*s cflnAa, during 3 y&tr* fwm 1G8 to 1893 




BlTfl OF HCHAMlUDAJr PKOOREBS IN 17*171^8147 DHGBfllB 197 

It is evident from this Table that tlie progress of MuhaTamadans mhigh English education, as represented 

Progress of Muhammadans V ^ percentages of the vaiious seTennial pwiods, has been very slow m all 

an. Indian TTmyersitiBB, up to the various Faonlties in whioh Degrees are gi anted m tha TJnivei&ities oJb 

1876, inconsiderable. India, and tho last column of the Table shows the deficiency in the percentages 

during these various periods, with refeienee to the proportion of Muhammadans in the total Hindn and Mnham- 

madan population During the first thieo of these sexennial periods, nimely, up to the end of the yeai 1872, 

the percBntaga of Mnhammadans who succeeded in obtaining Umvezsity Degzoos was so inoonsideiable that 

it can scarcely afford any estimate of tho lato of progress made by the Mnhammadans in this i aspect Tho last 

three peiiods, however, deserve special con&ideiatHon, and it ib necessary to discuss the advance made by Muhara- 

madans dniing those penods in the various branches of learning, and then to consider tho statistics in i aspect 

of all the Faculties of the Indian Universities taken as a whole 

In the Faculty of .4* te tho pel cent ago of Mnhammadans, m the total nnmboi of Hindu and Mnhammaddii 

gzadnates, was 2 03 doling the sexennial peziod ending in the yeaa 1881, and 

Sate of progress of Maham- ^ inoi eased to 3 B dnting the next sexennial ponod ending in 1867, thus 
^ ofArts* 1M1-M Jul " showing an advance of only 1 57 per cent Again, duimg the last sexennial 

period, ending in 1S93, the percentage of Mahammadans mcioa&ed to o 7, 

indicating an advance of 2 1, which is so far satisfactory , but the required pel wantage of Mnliammadan giadnates 
should have beon 23 75, which is the percentage of Muhammadans in tho total Hindu and MuhumnuicUn popula- 
tion, and thus, tho deficiancy in the peicontige qtill lomaming i& no loss than 18 05, whioh, at tho late of 
indicated by 2 1, duiingthe last sexennial peiiod, would take moie than 51 ye*xs to bung the peicoittago of 
madan graduates in the Faculty of A* 1 **-" up to the poicontago of the Muhammadans m tho total Hindu and 

"MTili am m n.fl an population 

In the Faculty of Law the percentage of Muhammadans in the total number of Eiudu and Iffuhammadan 

giaduatca was 1 3 duiing the sexennial period ending m the year 1881 It 

Bate of progress of Muham- mcieaBQ 4 to 43 during tho next sexeumal period ending m the yea* 1S87, 
cult? of ^aw^LSSl^BS *" **" showing an ddvAuoe oi 3 per cunt , which is, no doubt, considerable, nnd 

would Lave been satisfactory if it hail not fallen timing tho last sexennial 

peiiod, ending in 1893, when it fell to 3 G, thus showing a xotiogression of 7, leaving a deficiency ot no lehfl than 
20 15, which is reqmied to comploto the percentage at 23 75, which H the percentage of tho Muhammadanb in the 
total Hindu and Muhammadan population On account of this retrogression. dutmg tho last sexennial pouod it u 
impossible to calculate at what paiod the Muhammadana may be expected to fill up the vacancy or deficiency in 
the number of graduate? in tho Faculty of Law, but some approximate calculation of tho peiiod reqruied for this 
purpose may be made, perhaps, by comparing the percentage of the sexennial poiiod ending m 1881 with the percen- 
tage of the sexennial peiiod ending m 1887, whan the highest rate of piogtess was achieved in an interval of 
6 yeais The percentage of Muhammadans in the totiil number of Hindu and MuhammadLin giaduatos in the 
Faculty of Law during the sexennial peiiod onding in 1881 was 1 3, and, after tho lapse of 6 yoais, namely, during 
the sexennial period ending in 1887, it rose to 4 3, thus showing an increase of 3 per cent The deficiency in the 
percentage in 1893 was 20 15, which at the abovemontioned rato of increase would lequire moze than 40 yeais 
to bimg tho percentage of Mahammadan gradaates in Law up to the percentage of the Moh&nimadans, m , 23 7B, 
in the total Hindu and "M'TiTm-nfi-mn.rTftn population 

In the Faculty of Medicine and tiwgery the percentage of Mnhanunadans in the total numbor of Hindu and 

Bate of progress of Muham- Muhammadan graiaates was only 93 per cent during the sexennial ponod 

madan graduates in tha Fa- onding in 1881, and during the succeeding sexennial period ending m 1887, it 

oulty of Medicine and Surgery, ro8Q to 2 per cent , thus showing an advance o 1 07 per cont. Again, during 

the next soxomual period ending in 1893, it roso from 2 D to 4 3 per cent , 

showing an advaooe of 2 3 per cent , which may be said to bo satisfactory But the percentage of Muhammadana 

m the total Hindu and Muhammadan population being 23 75 per coat , the balauoo of pot oontage stall roquuing to 

be filled up is 19 45, which, ab the but monfaonoi rate of inorease during 3 yoara, would rer[aiia mare tiian 50 youv. 

In the Faulty of Bnpn&nng no Muhamxaadm suooeodd in obtaining a Degree during tho sexennial period 

ending in 1881, but in the next sexennial period ending m 1887, the per- 
JBMa of progress of Huham- oenMge of Mujitmmadaas m the total number of Hindu and Mn 



, l*d rt not ftdkm to 
0'4t dnTUig the stwotedjag aixenmd penod ending m J89S, thus ahowing a 



zetKogressioa, of 1*). pw oeni Un^nr Owe WQWMiwoea it IB obvious that BO prospector* calculation can 

88 W ftkOl 



108 



IHGLI&U IDUOITION IN INDFA 



king up the percentage to 23 75, which in the percentage of the Muhammadoas in the total Hindu and Muham- 
madon population However, lE the highest rate of pi ogress m the Faculty of Engine ei ing, namely, 1 5 par cent , 
vrluch -was achieved by tho Muhammaiiane during tho sexennial peiiod ending m 1887, be taken as an appionmate 
measure of their futuio advanou, e\cn then, the deficiency in tho percentage homy no less than 23 35, it would take 
more than 03 years to Ininq up tho peioontugo to 23 75, which IB the porcentago of the Mohammadans in the total 
Hmiu and MuhammucUn population 

It IB now impoit.mt to ccmwder the iato of piogross ot Muhnmmadan gi adnatea m aQ the Faculties of the 

* ,r i- Indian UiiivPisitiob, taken u& n ^holo Tho statistics m the preceding- Table 

fffffA oimoffifiss ox UTUiam** 

znadan graduates in aU tho l"tf tlmsvK^vtd, show that donwy the suxenmal pQiiod ending in 1881, the 
Faculties of the Indian TTm- pci routine ot JU.ulMimii4ul.iu qiadnatus, m fcho total number oi Hindu and 
YeiBities, from 1881 to 1883 MiihammatUn t>iadnatrs, m all the Faculties oi tho Indian Universities, was 
1 >, and (lining tho no\t heunmiol pound ending- in I8b7, it mso to 3 6, thus showing an advance ol 2 1 per cent 
Aqain, clniniq the buooooduift M-\oumil pi'iuxl ondnijj in lb)J, it imu tn 5 0, bhnwiuq an ad\ance of 1 4 pop cent 
vfrlnrh m,i> be token as tho Utost, 411 rl, tlioicloie, tlu* apiiniiimatL nwAsnTf t>t latme advance But tho peiceutage 
of IfnlumnMcldDS m the Wai Hindu uml Mulumni,wlau population bi mtf ii;J75, thu balance of 1875 pei oeut 
wmild, at tho abuvouientiimutL latLol *Kl\an(o (namely, I t pot conL m <> jwiihj, loqniro moiothan 80 yeaia to 
fill up blip rlulu icniy, and luinn tho jioi t (rataqp o MuhaDimadan giaduaU.s m all tlin UniyeiHty JPacultios, taken 
as n whole, uj) to tlu pc-u'tuU^ oi tho Wuhamniailans in the total Hiudu and M uliuminadau population, nomoly, 
2" 73 ])t>r icnt Jiui PVIIL il tho Uifit^t late nl advance mailo by Muliammailans, iiainol> the advanco madoby 
thorn in tbo soi-onnnirl pound piuluiuf IIL Ib87, whon tlu^i pouc-utoffi* lose hum 1 3 to .! G, namely, an advanco of 2 1 
in <) years, ho tiken as tbo inviwuru o ttppinximate sunvss mtko lutiucs tlio tf diiiciimry in fcbo pw contage boing 
l7r>, would jeqnuo HUM o than 58 ^ycaiH tcnoach 2i)7o pa cent, ninth is tho pviooutago oi tlio Mulxanmudaus 
in tho total Hindu and liulmiumucliLii population 

ForthoBokooi oonvomotitly compiohendincy tho pn'Ci'ilmg calcalatHinn, as to tho piopqjocts of Muhammadan 
Future wospeots of the Mu- aiUunrc- iu iho vwioiui FacultioH nf thr Indian Umvcibitiofl m tho fntiuie, 
hammadans in regard to Um- tho rollowiu^ Taklo Lab UUCMI piqiaicd t(j bhow tho luhults ol tho above calcu- 
veraity Degrees Utums 





gfl 

u ? 

ObJ 


* 



g 


*HS 

S"fl| 


w B 6l / 

fcl^? 


*|j, 


A[ipio\iiu,ttu uumber 
nl JLMIS -roquuotl to 
tuihi> tlu> JMIC oiitacro 


FACULTIES 


Peicenta 

"MnhaininAi 


et 

I.'S 
Sfe 


Pei centa 

"XTnlu m m n i 


tlie total 
and Mulian 
population 


* H <U !? 

fl i 2 * 

* 1 3 tl 

H S 3 

*"S S-3 

cfl S^ 

^s^aS 


J* S>a 
"S "Jl 


of MuLiunm<Luip.ar 
duitlidh to UIPU jpai- 
ooiiUpff in tutaJ Hin- 
du and Muhammar 
dan population 


AltH 




57 




23 75 


1H5 


21 


51 


LUW . . M. ..* 




30 







20 1C 


30 


40 


Medicine and fctaigory 




43 







1 45 


23 


50 


*.. 




04 




II 


2035 


15 


03 


Total nf all Fwultion 


CO 


a:) 73 


IK 7."> 


21 


S3 



wluoliDDiaRtbopucusod mthohffht o tho oalmilaticmfl oxpUmod in tlio proocdnig 

lonvoH no doubt thai, in iiflpoct of high JKwfflihh oduontion, an repiuwntorl by tlwi Uuivorhity dogiooH, tho Muham- 
mAdans oi-e ami* than halt a century behind their Hindu fcllonv-hubjocttt, aud that qvon tho latoat aid the highost 
role of propiowyetmadu by tho MulumniwlanR, falls fsi dunk of what is loijumd to taibo flio porcontage of 
Muhammadun giaduatc up to tho lovol o tho pruportiou of MuhammodaiiB 10 tho population of India 

To jlbuti-ate the efloot of tlio proeedmK oalcuIatwmH, tlio accompanying J)iagrwa IU, has boon prepared, 
Biattam IH ^bowing the aht>wu thu ** / P"*!* * *ih ^8 ltfh odatsatm, in varioiu branches 

of Lnowlodg t among MuliammadanH, m tho Indian UnavorBitioB, during 
Boxon&iul ponods, fiom the year 1858 to 3893* Tho Diagxam has boon pte- 
^^ m ^ flftnio pri^oiploH a* tho prooodrag Diugrauui, with thu diflorenoa, 
the soalo wow deputed, in thq progonfc Diagram only 



Jtoiof progress of MtOuun- 
madwas IB Indian tTniversities, 
ftom 1S5S to 1898 eacpltined- 



DIAGRAM 111 



Tkagroons sfaw/iff'f'hG,Rat& of progress offagh,J3nghb k, eatr 
awn^tn&bwiTvfalrtrf Craw stkffi diwq66&& 



M/rfocrv ui 



drts 



LCLW 



and 
Sty geiy 



fatal of- cJL 



15 



18 



11 




C1F MTH VMM \PANS TV INDIAN POrtTLATIOIT 

25 degrees ont of a scale of 100 degrees, aio shown, since the percentage of Muhammadanq in the total Hindu, and 
Muhamniadan population is only 23 75 Tho Diagram u, therrfoie, painted pink, np to 2375 degieo<t, and the 
green colour represents tbo extent of tlio pezcontaqe of the Muhammodan giwlnates in the total numhpi of Hindu 
and Mnhammadon graduates dm mg tho van nun sexennial peiiofa indicated at the loot of tho Diagram It -will 
be observed that, although the pioqicss made by the Muhamniadans dnnng- the last two sexennial periods u 
noticeable, yet, as ha? bean explained in tlio prei edini* observations, tho 3 ate of pinsprc^ is fcw from hcinq snffi- 
cient to enable them to attain then pinprr peicrnlaqp within an appi oximatc pound Tho pmk coloui in tho 
Diagram, when compaied with the icc*n cnlnm, hlmvts the* vast ovteut of the clofiejcncy of the Muhamnmrlans 
taking then percentage m the total Hiudn and ^Inlhtimnailan population as tho i oaftrmahlc htamUid of sarcoss 
at which they should aim But it H not an muominnn npnnnii, rotoitainod by home statesmen and politic *1 
thinkois, that, although the past condition oJ MuliamiiMilius, ^vith lesprct to hufli English education was cluplor- 
able, the present condition of then piomoss is h.itisli(1ni\ v , and loaves no mom for Futthoi compl.unt or autipti 
It is, thercfoic, impoitont to consulci how l.n lliii opinion is justifiable, and tlio lolliniing Chaptei v^ill bo devoted 
to tho considoiation of this bnb]0i t 



CHAPTER XXXL 



POSITION OP MUTTAMMAIMNH IN THK (IKNHKAI, POPTTLATIONT OF FNTDFA THK PKKflflNT 
BATH OF T1IK IMUKJKHHH OF KNCILIHII KimCATHW AHOOTI MUIIAMMADAffH 

IN OOLLHUHN AND HKUONDAHY SCHOOLS, AND FTM PUTIJKH I'KOMPKUTH 
Tho pieocrling Chapter has biin deviled to st.ilistu'dl riilcnldiimm Hhowiiu? Mie* bndcu unless of thc 

MiiliniiiitiadiLiis in Knqhsh c'ducMiion, wiih wfi IIM*P to iliwr fnoprirlinn in tint 

Position or tno an am- rr. | a ] [|, ru | n an ,| Muhanniuilan iMtuuU&tion nf India, urwrdiutf tn llu> OOIISUH 
madazis in the general populft- ' J ' * 

txon of India. ' I^U Fni IIMMHIH which luivo bcon ahtwlv slated* it wnm iirKisublo 

bofou 1 c*l<himr ^' s suh]i'Lt io ifivc a^nornl vu*vr of ilu positfinn <wu|nt><lby 

them in tho^onoial population of ItnlicV, 111 v.uious parU of tho country Vtn this purpose the most trust- 
wozthy information available IF, oonlami'd in ilu^ ({*>ni>ntl, livjnnt on th< OOHHUH of India nt I8f)l Aftir htAtm^ 
that the total Hindu or Butliimmu' populul urn of India m IWI1 1 ainimntcd to 207,7iSJ,7iJ7 ? and that "I lie wan 
proportion of the Bi all manic to tin* total popn In tion is ?!2', pot wnl " and that tho Mnlumnmtlans lunoontod to 
57,321,164, constituting 10 90 of tbotoial Itxluin population, tlio Kofiort dcwiibuH thv torn tonal distnbution of 
the Biahmamsts or Hindus, and then in n^ard to ibo Miisalmanh han the folJowinff obHorvatioriK 

" The uort religion to come under reviow m that of InlaTii, -which iHtakcm hoi o on u<*count of ih immciical 

unporiaiuo* Tlic Mutalraaii jxipulation of the world has hmi roughly 
aii vanoiiB amounts from 70 to 90 mi Hums, HO tiuit nlutovcr tbo 



Uujxenmiadans m Inoia* 

real Aguic* may be kotw(*uii thonu hinitM, tho Indian Ktnpuv rnutiuiiM a Inrge 

majonty of tho followers of tho Picipliot No Piovmcu or largo Htato, and probably few diHtnota or other Hiibclivi- 
sionfl in the plain oouiiti 7 west of Durma, IH wiUutut^ certain numbur of Muwilnian inliabitantH We find tliom 
relatively most numerous, of ormrap, m tlio Noith-Wwt, wheit) Siadh and Kanhmir hoa<l tho list, wjtli 77 and 70 
per cent respectively In tho fotmor tlioie in a conMdotablo foruign olemont, otmHuting of Dulonoh and Biabiu 
from aciosa the frontier, but tho bulk of tho population has boon oonvortod from a lax form of FIiahmauiHm 
For a shoit pouod m its history tho pi*nvinro wan under a Brahman rogirar, contt*iW about Hnldoittkui, ^lictvj it 
was diatnzbed and afterwards oonhi mod by Alexander the Great, but wn* overthrown not long aftanvardH h;y ono 
of the xmmerous waves of Scythian origin that btokci ujK>n the wont and north frontier of ludia bc^foia and shortly 
after the beginning of tho Chiiatiau Kiu, Acenrding to tho Chinese pilgrim Ihuon Tsang, Hiudli wan 111 tbo 
seventh oentury both barbarous and snpoMilions, and orthodoxy of any sort sat lightly upon itn nnhorupulous 
population, J as it 10 said to do even now. In Kashmir, the present population, whether Skytbio or Arya has been 



, I89l~<0in<ml Xa^t, by J, A, BafitM, SMI r V, fi S-, of ths Info* Oinl fismod (1890), pp. l?4 170. 
t Tha (hub bmdffirt we of M unfeeling id haftf temper^ gif*w only te bloodshed. Thr hu no ttwsim, bub tJwv^ thtir 



200 BUGLTSn EDTJOATION IN INDIA 

addicted withm hifitouo tunes to serpent worship, Buddhism and Biahnuuusm, by tmns, befoie its convmsion to 
Islam was undertaken by the Mo^hals during their summer Tisits to the valley The Sikh rule succeeded, but 
left both Muaalman peasant and Biohman profesfeional alike untouched, except that the puvileges of the latter 
wero confiimei In the North-West the tubes weie probably conveited from the side of Afghanistan, not from 
India, and their example was followed by tho Mongoloid Thibetan races to the jNoith along pait of the Upper 
Indus On the Eabt, howevoi, ui Ladikh, the sparse population ib still Buddhist, and along the South zange inter- 
vening "between tho valley and tho Panjab, there is a congidei^iblo Bialuuama element of oompaaatively pure 
Aiya descent, but, on the whole, 70^ poi cont of tho population of tho State is Musalniau In the Paqab we have 
samples OIL tho largest boalo of ]>oth loieign Humiliation and local ouuvemon In the British poition of the 
PIOVIUCD, 5,V{ of tlio population piofo&BCB Iblam, tho pi op cation xapidty iiMiig towoidq the we&t and gradually 
falling a& tho Januia is approached On tho States, the liugest ol -which, with one exception, ate uudei Sikh rule 
Iblctni has mada, ol com fit, les& impiesbion, and it is i etui nod by only 30 poi tout As has hoon said above the 
outward obsei vances of tho faith mo moie DI loss &tiictly regaidcd whoio tho teligiun is that of a large maionty 
of tho people, but loft m abeyance whore the conveision was olf octed by foice oi woi Lilly pressure and without 
the example o Imcign zealots to sustain devotion Tho moie martial incog aio converted to the extent oi at loast 
one-half, and tli o lowest class of the Hiahmanic community farouis aUoinatively Islam and Sikhism Passing 
oastitauls, wo find the piopoition ol Muhabaans lugh in tho submontane tracts of tho Noith- West Piovmros, but 
bolnvt tlio avoiaqo in tho pumnce as a whole In Bengal, ai wo liul occasion to nnto in coim potion with tho density 
anil in notation ol tho population, thuiQ is a strong 1 Musalmnn clement, CM ceding one-hall the population, neatly all 
UVUL tlio \vh(j]o of tho eastern diyiMou, and tho flame icniaik applies to the Suuna Vallej, now included m tho Assam 
Piovmeo It is in thii ptiit of tho Country that the i exults of coiuoision aio mow nuikoil in tho cuoumstancoa of 
the population tlran anywkoio olho m India Wo Iravo frcou Uiat the giowtli ot the pripalatiou heio ha* boon moie 
lajnrl than in any other dmbion of the ptovinco, and tho Piovincul Ceumui Snpoiiubeiidont attubutob this in a groat 
dogLoo partly to oouvotbiDn and paitiy to othoi Doolosiastioal tautoiH an they aio nnflufti<ind in India, In the fint 
place, thei o IK tho i iso in A^n/s, then tho rango of diet it groaior than aniuiii>ht tho J3tahmanio classos Tluidly, not 
only ib marriage doloirod till tho hudo IH grown up, but fchoio ib no ptohilntiion (if widow-maina^i*, both ol which are 
facts tending towards a longoi hf o on tho part of the womon and a healthier oflspi ing In connotation with this part 
of tho cnaiitiy, wo may mention the Miualman population of Lowei Bui ma, which ib laiquly mdobtodto Ohitta^ong 
and its tieighbimihond foi its 10 emits, chiefly hOiV-Caiuig people, Hupplumented liy a cei Lam influx oi the tiading 
Mnsalinaiifl of Boml>ay und Mndian, and the fnllowom oC the last Dohh puncos, ^vlio weio ahbignod a lomdonoo at 
Hangcxm Tho high prapoition ol MiiKalmanh m tho Bombay Htates and in Bat nda, IB, in its turn, partly due 
to tho numbtA* of trndois in Kaehh and othor Uujarath Htaton, paitly to that ol tho oaltivatoiH mentioned already _ 
both focoign oonvoits who abound in that division ot tho Profliiloncy It miwt be romomborod, too, that Gujarath 
woi> tlio neat of a oousidoiahlu Masalmau power in tho days ol Mt^lial tulo in Uppor India, and O.unbay, Jnnflgaih, 
Pdlaiimi, Raclhanpui, wad llalasnmr, tostify to tho extent and darabLlity of itn autliority, as Saohm and Janjua do 
to the mfhum