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Full text of "History of Essex County, Massachusetts, with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men"

Class _ir_Z« 

Book E x Hi 



rniyrightTJ " ^^^f^j 2 



COraUGKT DEPOBIC 



iiis'i'oin 



ESSI-X corxTw 



M ASSACHUSin'TS. 



BT0(1RAPHI(^A L SKETCHES 



)K MA^^ (II. irs 



Mom:i:iis and IMmiminent iMen. 



iMrii.iM) uNiii:i; Tin-, si riciiv ision oi' 



I ) 11 A ^r I i.T () X IM i; I ) 



VOL. II 



ma; 30 i88 T 



irjLXJSTK.^TEnD. 



I'll 1 I, A DK I, I'll lA : 

J. w. I. i;\v I s \- CO. 

1 « s s . 



Of^ 



n^ 






(.'upyriyht, 1SS7, 
liY .1 W. M'.WIS & CO. 



Alt Ni(jlils Reserved. 



CONTENTS. 



VOLl.MK II. 



CITIES AND TOWKS. 



I.XIII. 

I.XIV. 

I,XV. 

LXVI. 

LXVII. 

I.XVIII. 

LXIX. 

I.XX. 

LXXI. 

LXXII. 

I.XXIIl. 

I.XX IV. 

I, XXV. 

I.XX VI. 

I.XXVIl. 

I. XXVIII. 

LXXIX. 

I.XXX 

I.XXXI. 

I.XXX 11. 

I.XXXIII. 

I.XXXIV. 

LXXXV. 

I.XXX VI. 

I.XXXVII. 

I. XXXVIII. 

!. XXXIX. 

XV. 

.XCI. 

xcii. 

XCIII. 
XCIV. 
XCV. 
XCVI. 
XCV 1 1. 
XCVIII. 
XCIX. 

c. 
(-1. 

CI I. 

cm. 

flV. 
fV. 
CVI. 

evil. 

CVIII. 
CIX. 

ex. 

CXI. 
CXII. 

ex 1 1 1, 
ex IV. 
exv. 
ex VI. 



Boxford, . 
TuiistK-lil. 
realio.lv. 



1008 

10l;i 
loii; 

1023 
1027 

loss 



Ilui; 



Rowley, II-.'h 

Es.sex ur,:i 

" continueil li:,r. 



liw. 

119S 

HaniiUoii 12U) 

Wi'iiham. 122',) 

Manoliesler, 12.|o 

eontiniied, 1258 

1272 

" " 1282 

1291 

Gloucester, 12ys 

" continueil, 1304 

1322 

" " 1325 

" " l.TilO 

ixa 

Uockpoit 1361 

" contiime.l, 1.V>1 

" 1370 

13«9 

1397 

Naliuni 14(18 



CXVII. 

exviii. 
ex IX. 

rXX. 

(XXI. 

rxxil. 

exxill. 

rxxn. 

IX XV. 

<XX\ I. 

CXXVIl. 

rxxvill. 

CXXIX. 

exxx. 
ex XX I. 

I XX XI I 

I XXXIII. 

exxxn. 

cxxx\. 

exxxvi. 

exxx\ II. 

'XXXVIIl. 

(XXXIX. 

CXI,. 

CXI. I. 

CXI. II. 

ex LI 1 1. 
CXI. IV. 
CXI.V. 
CXLVI. 

CXI. VII. 

CXLVIII. 

CXI. IX. 

CI.. 

CI. I. 

CI, II. 

CI. nil 
<i.i\. 
ci.\ 
cl.\ I. 
rl,\ II. 

ci.VIII. 

CI. IX. 

ei.x. 

CLXl. 
(I. XII. 
I I.XIII 
(I, XIV. 

ei.xv. 

CI.XVI. 

CI.XVII 

CI.XVIII. 

CI. XIX. 



West Newliln-y 
Ilavcrlull. . . 



1474 
14S1 



1502 
15C4 



1717 
1737 



THE 



History of Essex Co., Massachusetts. 



CITIES AXD TOWXS. 



CHAPTER LXIII. 
BOX FORD. 



BY SIDNEY PERI.F.Y. 



First Settlement, General History, etc. — 
Originally, the present town of Boxford comprised a 
large portion of the western part of Rowley. About 
the middle of the .seventeenth ocntury there were 
several villages in Rowley, namely : Rowley, Rowley 
Village and Rowley Village by the Morrimac. The 
first of these is still Rowley ; the last is now Bradford, 
and Rowley Village was given the name of Boxford. 

The first settler within the present territory of Box- 
ford was Abraham Redington, who came here as 
early as 1G45, being an emigrant from England. The 
site of his residence was at or near Hotel Redington, 
in the East Parish Village. Other settlers came, and 
by the close of the next score of years there was 
quite a settlement here. The principal settlers in 
the seventeenth century, after the coming of Mr 
Redington, were Robert Andrews, from England 
about 10.50; John Cumniing.H, in 10.38; Robert Stiles 
from Yorkshire, England, in 1059; Josci)h Bixby 
from Ipswich, in 1000 ; Robert Eames, from Eng 
land, in 1000; William Foster, from Ipswich, in 1001 
Robert Smith, in 1001 ; Zaccheus Curtis, from Cilouces 
ter, in 1001 ; John Peabody, from Topsfield, in 1003 
Samuel Symonds, in 1GG3 ; Daniel Black, a Scotch 



man, about 160.3; Moses Tyler, from Amlover, in 
1000; John Kimball from Wenham, about 1000; 
Joseph Peabody, from Topsfield, aliout 1071 ; Samuel 
Buswell, from Salisbury, about 1074 ; George Blake, 
from Gloucester, about 167"); Daniel Wood, about 
107.3; John Perley, in 1083 ; Thomas Perley, from 
Rowley, about 1684; Thomas Hazen, from Rowley, in 
1684; William Peabody, from Topsfield, in 1684; 
Timothy Dorman, from Topsfield, in 1688 ; Jo.seph 
Hale, from Newbury, about KiOl ; Luke Hovey, from 
Topsfield, in 101)9 ; and EbenezerSherwin, about 1699. 

August 12, 1685, Rowley Village, as the settlement 
had heretofore been called, was incorporated a.s a 
town. It was given the name of Boxford, probably, be- 
cause the birth-place of the pastor of the parent town 
at this time wius one of the Boxfords in England. The 
settlement then consisted of forty families. The ter- 
ritory of Boxford then included a part of the present 
towns of Groveland and Middleton. 

Before, and at this date, the people here had 
very little to do with the principal settlement at 
Rowley. They trained at Toi>sfield, were chosen into 
oflice there; attended, belonged to and held ofiices in 
the churches at Topsfield and Bradford, and hardly 
any of their interests were in common with their fel- 
low-townsmen. 

Boxford happily escaped the depredations which 
many frontier towns suilered from the Indians. The 
only connection that the settlers ever had with them 
was when certain heirs of the old sachem of the 



958 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Agawams, Masconomet, laid claim to our soil. 
They were met at the house of Thomas Perley (now 
the residence of Mrs. Isaac Hale) in January, 1701, 
and a quit-claim deed was obtained from them upon 
the payment of some refreshment in the nature of 
" rum and vittels," and the sum of nine pounds in 
money. 

The witchcraft dehision visited the settlement, and 
one of the wives and mothers of the town was con- 
demned to pay the death penalty. The convicted 
woman was Rebecca, the wife of Robert Eames. She 
was in a house near Gallows' Hill, in Salem, when 
Eev. George Burroughs wjis executed, August 19, 
1692, " and the woman of the house " felt a pin stuck 
into her foot, as she said. Mrs. Eames was accused 
of doing it, and convicted of witchcraft, but was 
afterward reprieved, having lain in jail more than 
Seven months. She survived until May 8, 1721, when 
she died at the age of eighty-two years. 

The settlers were buried at Topsfield until the 
settlement was incorporated, but no grave-stones re- 
main, if any were erected so early, by which we can 
tell how early burials were had at home. The oldest 
cemetery in Bo.xford is that across tlie street from the 
residence of Mr. Walter French, which has not been 
used for more tban a half a century. The oklest stone 
here is dated " 1714." The cemetery near B. S. Barnes, 
Esquire's, and the oldest one in the West Parish, be- 
gan to be used at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. The cemetery near the First Church was 
laid out and first used in 1807; and the new one in 
the West Parish in 1838. 

Boxford has been constantly reduced in popula- 
tion, by parts of the territory being annexed to other 
towns, and by emigration to new regions. The peo- 
ple have helped to settle Bridgton and other places 
in Maine, Harvard, Hoplcinton, Oxford, Lunen- 
burg and Brookfield, in Massachusetts, Amherst and 
other places in New Hampshire, the State of Ohio, 
the province of New Brunswick, and other places. 
From the Atlantic to the Pacific the sons of old Box- 
ford are assisting as men ought in theafi'airs of human 
life. 

The population of the town in 1765 was eight 
hundred and fifty-one. From that number it in- 
creased in 1860 to one thousand and twenty. The 
number of inhabitants, by the census of 1885, was 
eight hundred and forty. A century ago several 
negroes were numbered among the inhabitants, and 
the race can still be seen here. One by the name of 
Neptune served in the army of the Revolution. 

Boxford has always been careful to be represented 
in the legiilative halls. Two State Senators, Aaron 
Wood, in 1781, and Julius Aboyneau Palmer, in 1869, 



and thirty-four members of the House have been sent 
from this town, some of the latter serving for long 
terms of years. Major Asa Perley was a member of 
the Provincial Congress. 

Boxford has had societies of various kinds, be- 
sides those mentioned in other portions of this 
sketch. " The Moral Society of Boxford and Tops- 
field " was established in 1815, and flourished for 
several years. Its purpose was the suppression of 
immorality of every description, particularly intem- 
perance, Sabbath-breaking and profanity; and the 
proniotion of piety and good morals. At present, 
the most prominent are the Boxford Natural His- 
tory Society, the Rural Improvement Association, 
a local assembly of the Grangers and the Literary 
League. 

The Danvers and Newburyport Branch of the 
Boston and Maine Railroad runs through the south- 
eastern portion of the town, having been located 
here in 1853. There are two post-ofiices in the town, 
— Boxford, Mr. Frederic A. Howe, postmaster, and 
West Boxford, Mrs. Mary C. Cole, postmistress. The 
mail is transported to the first by the railroad, and 
to the second by a mail-stage, running from George- 
town to Lawrence. 

The taxable property in the town is valued at 
about six hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The 
town debt is $4,857.59. The rate of taxation in 1887 
was nine dollars and fifty cents on one thousand 
dollars. 

The citizens of the town are in general quiet and 
orderly and possessed of good common-school ac- 
quirements. No lawyer ever expected to reap a 
competency from the practice of his profession here, 
and for several years past a physician lias not had an 
office here. 

The earliest member of the medical profession who 
practiced here was David Wood, a native of the 
town, who was born in 1677, and died in 1744. He 
practiced here thirty years. He had quite a large 
practice in the surrounding towns, yet the estate 
which he accumulated was in great part derived 
from his farm and mills. Dr. Wood was followed, in 
1753, by Dr. Benjamin Foster, who was born in Ips- 
wich in 1700, and died in 1775, of the asthma, hav- 
ing practiced here for twenty-two years. He was a 
successful and skillful physician, and a distinguished 
botanist. Dr. William Hale, the next one in the 
list, commenced practice here about 1770. He was a 
native of Boxford, having been born in 1741, and dy- 
ing about 1785. Then came Dr. George Whitefield 
Sawyer, who was born in Ipswich in 1770. He set- 
tled in Boxford as a physician shortly after 1800, and 
continued in the practice of his profession until his 



iioxronn. 



'.K){) 



death, which occurred in ISo-i, at the a^e of cictlily- 
five vears. Dr. Sawyer lived in the Ea>'t I'arish ; and 
in the West Parish Dr. .losiah IJacon practised lor 
about twenty years contemporaneously with him. 
Dr. P.acon was doulitle>s a ?iative of linidlnrd. and 
was born about 1780. He was in practice lure 
from about 182it to about 1840. He was an ex- 
cellent physician, anil hi-rhly cultured. Intciuprr- 
ance, however, caused the loss of his practice ami 
character. Dr. Sawyer and Dr. Bacon died on llie 
same day, — March 2;:!, ISoo. Dr. Hacon's brolhcr 
John was the author of Bnainn Tnii-n Oj/lcn-, one of 
the earliest works of the kind. Durin;; 1X4S an<l 
1849 another youn<r physician lived and practised in 
the town. This was Charles P. French, who was 
born in Lyndsborough. X. H., in 1824. In 1840 he 
removed to Topstield. No one has siTice endeavored 
to obtain a livelihood from the medical practice which 
the town would yield. 

Bo.xford has alw.iys been no'ed, on account of its 
rural advantages, temperance and simple manner of 
living, as one of the healthfulest places in our re- 
gion. The inhabitants live generally to old age. 
About forty-live persons are recorded as having died 
above the age of ninety years. The prevalence of 
fatal diseases is almost unknown. Sniall-|)o.\ was 
known here to a very limited extent in 1722, 17()0 
and 18o4, and the throat distemper, in 17o(i and 1737, 
took away quite a large number of the children of 
the town. 

lioxford is a fine old farnung community, pleasant 
and interesting, and, with the many natural beauties 
of her landscapes, the songs of the birds and the 
lovely sisterhood of flowers, continually attractive to 
all classes. 

The history of the town was written and published 
in 1880, by Sidney Perley, in an illustrate<l volume 
of four hundred and eighteen octavo pages. 

The bi-centennial anniversary of the incorporation 
of the town was celebrated August 12, 188."). The 
exercises were held in the First Church, and the din- 
ner was enjoyed in the grove on the lawn in front of 
the church. Music was furnished by the (irovcland 
Cornet Hand. Several hundred people were present. 
The exercises were j)refaced by a flag-raising on a 
sijuare near the church, on which occasion Mr. George 
W. Chadwick made an address. The leading parts 
of the exercises in the church were as follows : Ad- 
dress on "The New England Town," by Rev. Charles 
L. Hubbard ; "The History of the Town," by Sidney 
Perley ; " The First Church," by Rev. Robert K. Ken- 
dall ; " The Second Church," by Rev. Calvin E. 
Park; "Distinguished Natives," by Rev. William P. 
Alcott ; " Schools," by Dr. Francis J. Stevens. < )ther 
addresses were made. Rev. William S. Coggin pre- 
sided. 

RKl.lCilor.s HiSTOHY— As the settlers came, they 
attended divine worship at Topsfield, and many of 
them were admitted to :nid as-ist.^d in supporting the 



church there. This they c'lilinucd 1o do until ihe 
early part of the last decade in the scvcn!i<iitb c.-n- 
tury. win II " cT.nlentious feelings " arose among llie 
brethren, probaldy because ihe linvfopl p,-.,pl,- were 
aboul to withdraw their suppoit from the cliureb, and 
tci form a soeiely among ibeuiselves. This nidiappy 
slate of .allairs exi^te.i lor several years after the con- 
nec'ion was rjisscjlved in 1702. 

There have existed ii] I'.oxfonl three religious par- 
ishes, and of these we will speak in the oriler of their 
creation. 

/■■;,:-f l'nrlsh. — \ cbiireb was ibonglil of being built 
as early as 1(;:)2; Imt one was not begun to be erecle<l 
until KiOO. This was completed and presented to the 
town, which then constituted the iiarisb, .January 
0,1701. It was ■■ Ihirty-lour feet long, thirly feet 
wide, and eighteen (c<t stud between joints." The 
four surfaces of the roof met in one jietlk at the top, 
above whicdi was a lurri'l. This ancient edifice stood 
in the luirthcrly corner of the cemetery near the Fiist 
Cliureh. 

.\ jiaisonage was also built on the site of the ]/resent 
ancient llcdyoke house. It was forty-eight feet long 
and twenty feet wide, two stories in height, and with 
a back room of sixteen or eiglileen feet scjuare. This 
house was finished and taken possession of July 22, 
1702.. The old parsonage remained here until 17(J0, 
when the present bouse was erected. 

The first pastor of the church was Rev. Thomas 
Symnies, who was ordained December 30, 1702, at 
which time probably the church was formed. Mr. 
Symmes was born in Bradford February 1, 1(578, and 
graduated at Harvard College in HiOS. He preached 
bis first sermon in Boxford on Sunday, A[)ril 27, 1701. 
This was jirobably the lirst service ever held in Box- 
ford. His salary was sixty poun<ls in money, thirtv- 
five cords of wood and tlu' use of the parsonage and 
ten acres of land. 

Mr- Symnu'S met with uncommon dillicultics in his 
pastorate here, but just what they were cannot lie de- 
termineil. (lood feeling had alw.ays existed between 
pastor and ])eople. He resigned May 21, 1708. He 
went to I'radford, and took his father's place in the 
church there, the same year he was dismissed from 
the church here. H- died there October «, 172'), 
.aged tbrty-seven years H > was a man of much 
learning, and very active with his pen ; several of his 
productions, both religious and secular, were pub- 
lished, anil among them is the most authentic account 
of "('apt. Lovewell's fight at Pigwacket," in 1725. 
Increase Mather spoke highly of him. 

The second pastor was Uev. John Rogers, of Salem, 
who preached here several months before his ordina- 
tion, which occurred in 170i). His salary was at fir.st 
sixty pounds, it being increased in 1717 to eighty 
pouixls. He resided in the pars'ui.ige. 

Jlr. Rogers was a native of .Salem, and graduated 
at Harvard College in 1700. He seems to have been 
born in lunnble life. He preached here until about 



9G0 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1743, when he removed to his son's in Leominster, 
where he died in 17o5. He was an earnest, forcible 
preacher, and very successful in the ministry. 

The people in the western portion of the town had 
been compelled, as a portion of the town, to 
assist in supporting the ciiurch here, and at the 
same time attended and helped to support the 
churches at Andover and Bradford. The meeting- 
house here had become needful of repair, and a 
new one was contemplated, but a vote to build 
a new one could not be obtained. The people living 
in the western part of the town desired a division of 
the town into two parishes, and that each should 
build a church. This was done in 1785. The first meet- 
ing held by the East or First Parish was on Monday, 
November 17, 1735. A new meeting-house was built 
and completed in 1745. It was forty-eight feet long, 
thirty-eight feet wide, and twenty-four feet stud. Its 
cost was about fifteen hundred pounds. The old 
church was used until January, 1747, when religious 
services were first held in the new meeting-house. 
This edifice stood a few rods in front of the present 
church. 

From 1743 to "59 the church had no regular ser- 
vices. The ne.Kt minister who was settled here was 
Eev. E'lizur Holyoke. He graduated at Harvard 
College in 1750, and was ordained January 31, 1759. 
Mr. Holyoke was born in Boston May 11, 1731 ; and 
was prostrated by a paralytic shock in February, 
1793, from the effects of which he died March 31, 
1806, at the age of seventy-four years. He resided 
in the Holyoke house, which his lather, a merchant 
of Boston, had built for him, a year or two after his 
settlement here, on the site of the old parsonage. 

" Lost to the world, adieu ! our friend, adieu ! 
L'libleniislied spirit, seek those realuiy of light, 
Where boundless fllercj" olllj' lucetfl the view, 
Fuitli lust in wouder, Hope in full delight " 

— Epitaph. 

The fourth minister was Rev. Isaac Briggs, of 
York, Me., who was installed on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember 28, 1808. " Parson Briggs " was born in Hal- 
ifax, Mass., about 1775, and graduated at Brown 
University in 1795. He was .settled at York in the 
ministry, and resigned in 1807. Mr. Briggs lived in 
the old "Briggs house" during the twenty-five years 
he preached here. Contentions in the church made 
his service here unhappy, and his connection with 
the church and society was dissolved in 1833. Mr. 
Briggs afterwards preached in other places, but never 
again settled over a church. He came back to visit 
the friends and scenes of his' early labors, and occu- 
pied the pul|(it, several times after his departure from 
the town. He died in East Morrisania, N. Y., Febru- 
ary 22, 18f)2, at the age of eighty-six years. 

Mr. Briggs was followed by Rev. John Whitney, 
who was born in Harvard, Mass., September 1, 1803. 
He graduated at Amherst College in 1831, and from 
the Andover Theological Seminary in 1834. He was 



ordained here October In, 1834, and dismissed in the 
summer of 1837. He boarded in the "Bunker house," 
with C<jlonel Charles Peabody and Elisha G. Bunker 
respectively. Mr. Whitney went to Waltham, where 
he was pastor for twenty years, then removed to 
Canaan, N. Y., and in 1867 to Newton Centre, Mass., 
where he died May 31, 1879. He kept up his studies 
to the end of his life. 

At the close of Mr. Whitney's service here the 
present church was built and dedicated May 9, 1838. 
The bell was a gift from Gen. Solomon Low. 

Rev. William Symmes Coggin, the next minister, 
was ordained May 9, 1838, the day of the dedication 
of the church. He was born in Tewksbury, Mass., 
Nov. 27, 1812, and graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1834. He resigned on account of ill health, and 
was dismissed May 9, 1868. He still resides with the 
people of his early charge. 

Rev. Sereno Dwight Gammell, the seventh pastor, 
was ordained Sept. 9, 1868. He was born in Charles- 
town, Mass., March 2, 1842, graduated at Amherst 
College in 1865, and from the Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1868. He resigned and was dismissed 
Aug. 31, 1880. He is now settled in Wellington, 
Ohio. 

Mr. Gamraell's successor was Rev. William Penn 
Alcott, who was installed March 30, 1881. He was 
born in Dorchester, Mass., July 11, 1832 ; graduated 
at Williams College in 1861, and from Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1865. He had been tutor in 
chemistry in his alma mater, and settled in the min- 
istry at North Greenwich, Conn., before coming to 
Boxford. He resigned and was dismissed May 18, 
1883. He still resides near the church, and is at 
present the pastor of the Linebrook Parish Church in 
Ipswich. 

The next and present pastor of the church is Rev. 
Robert Roy Kendall, who was installed Dec. 27, 1883. 
He was born in Ridgefield, Conn., March 28,1849; 
graduated at Yale College in 1872, and at the Y'ale 
Theological Seminary in 1876. Before coming to 
Boxford, he had been settled in Bloomfield, Ohio, 
and Angelica, N. Y. 

The parsonage was built by subscription, at a cost 
of about $4,000, in 1870. The church has one hun- 
dred and thirty-eight members, and a ministerial 
fund of $9,275.21. The Sunday-school connected 
with the church has one hundred scholars, and a 
library of three hundred volumes, called the " Maiy 
Ann Peabody Sunday-school Library," the gift of 
Miss Mary Ann Peabody, an earnest worker in the 
field of the Master. 

Second Parhh. — The people in the western portion 
of the town erected a meeting-house for themselves 
in the summer of 1734, and were incorporated as a 
distinct parish June 28th of the next year. The first 
meeting of the parish was held July 22, 1735. 
June 13, 1740, the General Court added to the parish 
eight Andover families with their lands, and after- 



P.OXFOltl). 



OKI 



wards several more Andover familk's were atinexeil, 
the |>ari:*h being partly composed of North Aiidover 
families at tlie present time. 

The founders of the church were dismisse>i for that 
purpose from the churches of Bradford, and tlie First 
Parisli here. The church was organized Dec. ',•, IT^O, 
and on the iSHli of the same month Ui'v. J.ihn Cnsh- 
injr, who had been preaching hero for the year, was 
ordained. The salary of Mr. Cashing was ti.xed at 
one hundred and forty pounds in money and twenty- 
five cords of wood, with a settlement of lliree liun- 
dred pounds. Tlie church stood in the " ineeting- 
h(»use lot " a short distance south of the new ceme- 
tery, and Mr. Gushing lived nearly on the ojijiosite 
side of the road from Rev. Samuel lliwe's residence. 

After 17()3, he was not able to preach regularly, 
but he continued a.s the p.astor of the church till his 
death, which occurred Jan. '2^\ 1772. Mr. Cashing 
Wiis a son of Rev. Caleb Gushing, and was born in 
Salisbury April lit, 17119. He graduated at Harvard 
College in 1729. Mr. Cnshing was a man of exten- 
sive learning, and a popular preacher. 

The second meeting-house was built in 1774 by 
Stephen Barker. It stood where the present one 
stands. The old meeting-house was s(dd for what it 
would " fetch." 

The second minister was Rev. Jloses Hale, who 
was ordained November Ki, 1774. He was born in 
Rowley February 11), 1749, and graduated at Harvard 
Ccdiege in 1771. His salary was eighty [lounds per 
annum. He resided acro.ss the street from the resi- 
dence of the venerable Mr. Daniel Wood. ]Mr. Hale 
was stricken down by disease in the twelfth year of 
his n»inistry and thirty-eighth of his age, and died 
May 2o, 178(5, leaving five motherless children to 
mourn his loss, his wife having died April 24tli of 
the preceding year. Mr. Hale's lather was tlie Rev. 
Moses Hale of Newbury. 

Mr. Hale's successor w.as liev. Peter Katon, D.D., 
of Haverhill, who was ordained on Wednesday, Octo- 
ber 7, 1789. He erected the residence of the late 
Lawrence Carey, and lived in it during bis long i)as- 
torate here. 

It was during Mr. Eaton's ministry that the jiresent 
church was erected. It was dedicated November 22, 
1843. Its cost was $4,917.62. The bell was a dona- 
tion from Charles Saunders, of Andover, its weight 
being eleven hundred and fifty-nine pounds. 

After preaching here for fifty-five years, his health 
failing. Dr. Eaton asked to be dismissed ; but it 
was voted that he should remain and preach when 
lie felt able. This he consented to do, but shortly 
afterward again resigned. Then Rev. (^alvin Em- 
nionds Park was installed as his colleague October 
14. 184(>; and this relation continued as long as 
Dr. Eaton survived, which was but a short time. 
He quietly passed away April 14, 1848, at the 
age of eighty-three years. Dr. Eaton was born in 
Haverhill March lo, I7li">, and graduated at Harvard 
(il 



College in 1787. He secured, during his long and 
quiet ministry, the respe.-t and love of his peo]ile, 
who, as a memorial of their all'ection, erected a mon- 
ument to his memory. Several of hi-; sermons were 
published, among them llie " Isleclioii .^crin m," 
which he preached to the Legislature in 1819. 

After Dr. E:iton's death, Rev. .Mr. Park continued 
as tlie pastor until .\pril 9, IS.')'.!, wlieii he resigned. 
His farewell sermon was jn-eaehed on the first Sali- 
bath in .luiie, 1809. Mr. Park's labors were judi- 
cious, faithful and unremitting. He continued to oc- 
cupy th(^ pulpit for some time after his dismission, 
and lias ever since that time oi-easionally prea'died to 
his old congregation. .M'terwards, for sever;il years, 

he had a private sel I for young men, and is now 

mostly engaged in literary work. He resides in his 
old home near the church. Mr. Park was born in 
I'rovidence, R. I., Decemljer .SO, 1811. He first 
served for six years as jiastor of the church at Water- 
ville. Me., where he was ordained on October 31st, 
1S38. 

The next minister was Rev. Cliarles M. Peirce, of 
Hinsdale, Mass., wlio was ordained September 2, 
18()8. He had sound discretion and Christian zeal, 
endowed with a fine scholarship and rich ministerial 
gilts. He resided in the Peter Pearl house. He was 
disniisseil, at his request, .luly 17, 18(37, and was soon 
after settb'd in Middleiield, Mass. 

Tlie poverty of the cliureli and society was one of the 
principal reasons for the resignation of Revs. Messrs. 
Park and Peirce; but in 1X72 a great change occurred 
in the financial condition of the society. Captain 
.lolin Tyler, of this [larisli, who ilied that year, lie- 
iiueathed to the parish a finul of thirty thousand dol- 
lars, the income uC which to be appropriated annu- 
ally to the sniiport of llie gospel here. 

In I87'> the jiarish erected a handsome parsonage, 
in the Gothic style, on an eminence northeast from 
the church, at a cost of aliout five thousand dollars. 

Ten years had elapsed sim-e Jlr. Peirce was dis- 
missed, anil no " call " had lieen accejited by a clergy- 
man to settle here, though five invitations had been 
extended. The sixtli one was acce[ited by Rev. .lames 
McLean, of South Weymouth, .Mass. He was installed 
hereon Wednesday, February 20, 1877. Jlr. McLean 
was the fir-t occupant of the new parsonage. He was a 
native <if Scotland, and had been settled in the min- 
istry at South Weymouth ;uid several other jdaees. 
He resigned, and was dismissed .luly 1, 1S78. Jlr. 
McLean afterwards preaclu-d in (ir<jveland for three 
years, then went West, and died in Springfield, Mo., 
•Faiuiary 11, 1884. 

The next and present pastor settled over this 
church is Rev. Charles Lawrence Hubbard, wlio was 
installed on Wednesday, .lanuary !•">, 1879. Mr. 
Hubbard was liorii in Candia, N. IL, .Inly 4, 1839, 
and was settled over the church at Merriinae, N. IL, 
for ten years before coming to Boxford. 

Tile church has sevcntv-five members. The Sun- 



962 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHIISP^TTS. 



day-school connected with it has eighty-five scholars 
and a library of two hundred volumes. 

The churches of the Firet and Second Parishes are 
both orthodox Congregational, there being no other 
religious organization in the town. The niembere of 
the Third Parish, which existed for a few years only, 
were Liberals, though they styled themselves Coiigre- 
gationalists. 

Third Parish. — This parish was founded on account 
of an extensive disafTei^tion in the First Church while 
Rev. Mr. Briggs was settled here. They were incor- 
porated by the name of the Third Congregational So- 
ciety Ajjril 19, 1824. No church was ever organized, 
but the society existed, and religious services were 
held for a period of ten years. The last legal meet- 
ing of the society was held April 29, 183-1. The 
academy building was erected, not only for the use 
of the school, but for a hall in which this new re- 
ligious society could hold their services. In 1826 the 
society had ninety-eight members, eighteen of them 
belonging to Topsfield, thirty-five to Middleton, and 
forty-five to Boxford. Among those who preached to 
this society were Revs. Charles W. Upham, J. Bart- 
lett, Ebenezer Robinson, Hubbard, Green and Lorihg. 
The preaching was of the Liberal kind, and mostly 
attended by that class of persons, who did not believe 
in Congregationalism. 

MiLiTAKY History. — In the very first settlement 
of the town the men who were compelled by law to 
train performed their military duty with the com- 
pany at Rowley, but being totally disregarded by 
that toivn for several yeare, they were ordered to train 
with the Topsfield company. In 1674 the General 
Court gave them liberty to train at either place, as 
they pleased. As soon as the town was incorporated 
a military company was formed here. Their first 
stock of ammunition was procured in 1680, and con- 
sisted of •' poudr & bullets and fients.'' To the time 
of the division of the town into two parishes there 
was but one company in the town ; after that time 
there was one in each parish. In 1762 the officers of 
the First Parish Company were: Asa Perley, cap- 
tain ; John Hale, lieutenant; and Thomas Andrews, 
ensign. Of the Second Parish Company : Isaac Ad- 
ams was captain ; Nathan Barker, lieutenant ; and 
John Chadwick, ensign. A powder-house was built 
by the town in 1801, and in 1856 it was sold and taken 
down. It stood in a pasture, a short distance from and 
northeast of Stevens Pond. In 1832 the two corai)anie8 
were united, and continued so until the spring of 
1840, when all the militia throughout the State were 
disbanded. A new and dashing comi)any, calling 
themselves the " Boxford Wa.shington Guards," was 
formed in 1836. In 1840 the town built them an 
armory. The company flourished for about ten 
years. 

The first actual military service the settlers entered 
was King Philip's War, in 1675, when Phili]> and 
his allies were i)liindering and burning the build- 



ings, and murdering the settlers in Swanzey and vi- 
cinity. Joseph Bixby served in the company of 
Capt. Samuel Brock lebank, of Rowley, and provi- 
dentially escaped the fate of nearly all of that heroic 
band. Robert Andrews was a member of the com- 
pany of the brave Capt. Gardner, and was killed at 
the storming of Fort Narragansett December 19, 
1675. He was twenty-four years of age, and unmar- 
ried. 

In 1689 several of the men, with other soldiers 
from the neighboring towns, went down into Maine 
to help defend the frontier settlements fr.>m the at- 
tacks of the savages, who had become very fierce. 
For several years some of the soldiers went into 
actual service against the Indians. Several of them 
were in the company of the brave Capt. Lovewell in 
1725. Boxford men were stationed at Scarbornugh in 
1748 and 1749, and at Gorhamtown and New Mar- 
blehead in 1749 and 1750. They were again on the 
eastern frontiers in 1754 and 1755. 

Some of the Boxford soldiers assisted in depopu- 
lating Acadia (now Nova Scotia), of the neutral 
French, who, refusing to remain neutral, were brought 
by water to Boston, and distributed among the va- 
rious towns in the colonies. Fifteen were sent to 
Boxford, six of whom were afterwards transferred to 
Middleton. This strange proceeding took place in 
1755. The heads of the three families that were sent 
to Boxford were named Ommer Landry, Paul Lan- 
dry and Renar Landry. They lived in town, being 
supported by the Province, until 1760, when many of 
them went to Canada. The cloud of their sorrows 
was never dispelled, and in a land of strangers many 
of them pined away and died. 

The long and tedious " French and Indian War " 
drew into service many of the inhabitants. Boxford 
raised "a company of foot" for the "invasion of 
Canada," in 1758, which was placed under the com- 
mand of Capt. Israel Herrick. This company, with 
another, under command of Capt Francis Peabody, 
of Boxford, were in service while the war lasted, 1758 
-60. Other men served in various companies. Of the 
dangers and sufferings endured by these soldiers, no 
one but themselves could justly tell. When the 
colonies were taxed so heavily by the mother coun- 
try, just previous to the Revolution, in their corre- 
spondence with Boston, the committee of Boxford 
speak of the great amount of suffering, money and 
anxiety this war had cost them. 

The citizens of Boxford resented the aggressive 
acts of Great Britain at a very early day in the 
uprising of the colonies. May 24, 1770, the town 
voted " that they will, to their utmost, encour- 
age the produce and manufacture of all such ar- 
ticles as have formerly been imported from Great 
Britain, and used among them ; that they will 
not use any foreign tea, nor suffer it to be used in 
their families (cases of sickness excepted), until the 
duty upon it shall be wholly taken off, — the duty on 



i!()xi"(ii;i) 



0(!3 



which has so hirgcly cdritributed tow:inl.s the sii|i|"irt 

of such a. ' set <<( men; that they will luit, by 

any means wliatever, knowingly, have any si)i-t of 
trade or dealings with those detestable persons wiio 
have preferred their own little intcrest.s to the good 
of the country in eoiitriviiig to im])ort goods contrary 
to the non-importation asreement of the merchants 
and traders on the continent; and lliat whosoever 
shall be found to trade with them knowingly, shall be 
deemed unworthy to hold any otiice or place of trust 
in the town forever hereafter." 

In !i letter to the committee of Boston, dated Feb- 
ruary 4, 177-'J, the committee of correspondence of 
Boxford write: " We are desirous to exert our ut- 
most abilities in all legal and constitutional methods 
to break, if possible, the iron-baud of oppression and 
prevent the welding of the last link in <jur chain of 
impending slavery."' 

December l'7. ITTo. they write: "It is the res.ilu- 
tion of this town to do all that is in their power, in a 
lawful way, to heave olf this yoke of slavery, and to 
unite with their brethren of the town of Boston, and 
the other towns in the Province, to defend our rights 
and charter privileges, not only with our estates, but 
with our lives; considering how dear those rights 
and privileges were purchased for us by our fore- 
fathers at the expense of their own blood and treas- 
ure." 

Seventeen days before the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was adopted, tlie town " voted uiuinim<insly that 
if the Honorable Continental Congress should for the 
safety of the colonies declare them independent of the 
Kingdom of Great Britain, they, the said inhabitants 
of Boxford, will solemnly engage with their lives ami 
fortunes to support them in the measure." 

The two militia comi)anies, the East Parish Com- 
pany, commanded by ('apt. Jacob Goidil, and <-on- 
sisting of fifty-seven men; the West Parish (Jom- 
pany, comnumded by Capt. John Gushing, and num- 
bering thirty-three men ; and the company of " Min- 
ute-Men," wdiich liad early been organized here, 
under the command of ('apt. William Perley, num- 
bering tifty-two men, marched to the scene of the 
Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1770, but too late to 
participate in the battle. The two militia companies 
returned home, but the "Minute-Men" followed in 
the rear of the British as they retreated to Boston, 



" Ami gave tliBlii liHll fur l.all, 

I''n>ni lu'liinit ejicli fence and burn-yard wall." 

The "Minute-Men" camped in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton, and on the 17th of .June following took a promi- 
nent part in the memorable liattle of Bunker Hill. 
Eight members of the company were left dead upon 
the battle-field. Capt. Knonllon, who so success- 
fully defended the rail-fence there, was a native of 



■lion. Aaron Wood, 
wcri! paitittnl, being a un 
In Its steuil. 



M the town clerk, when these resoh 
n, left this word out, and inserted a da 



Boxfor.l; :ind (Icn. Israel Putnam had called Box- 
ford his early horn.'. 

In 177o, saltpetre was nianul'artured here for the 
piirpo-ie of making gun-powder ; and the black- 
smiths' forges were used for melting le:id to be run 
into bullets. 

Several men s^-rved in tlu" famous Sullivan expedi- 
tion formed to ravage the Indian settlements on the 
western frontier, and pifsed through the ordeal of 
sull'e-ing and death which became their lot. The 
names of Schoharie, Cherry N'alley, L'nadilla and 
others associated with them, will never be forgott<'n 
by the annalist of Indian history. 

i'oxford men served on Cape Ann, Winter Hill, 
lloxlimy and Dorchester, ('apt. Richard Peabody 
was stationed at Ticonderoga and (.^rown Point in 
177ti, with a eomiiauy of volunteers, and took 
part in the light at Ticonderoga. Otliers served in 
the disastrous expedition ol' Arnold to Quebec, in 
the fall ol 177'), and sulfered with the rest of that dis- 
couraged and emaciated bainl. < )ne <if the Boxford 
soldiers, Enos Key ludds, was one of the personal guard 
in the cell of Major .\ndre on the night liefore his 
execution. 

The patriotism of Boxford all through the seven 
long years of the War of the Revolution never 
waveretl. Scores of its most, stalwart men had per- 
ished on the battle-field, or died from the fatigues and 
exposures of various expeditions, or at Valley Forge 
and Jloninouth ; while others in the hands of the 
savages were torlur<'d into the valley of silence. 

Shay's Rebellion, in 17S7, called out several Box- 
ford men ; but into no active service. 

The 1X12 War was unpopular here, as the people 
believed it would be detrimental to their prosperity, 
happiness ami morals. Several drafts on the militia 
(■(jiupanies were made for guarding the seaports along 
the Atlantic coast. 

Boxford again ha<l a trial of its patriotism in the 
War of the Rebellion ; and sent forth more soldiers 
than had been asked for, as well as money, appropri- 
ating for this purpose 810,75(j.8r), exclusive of State 
aid, and comforts for the soUliers at the front who 
were in the hospitals sud'eriiig from wounds or sick- 
ness. 

The volunteers numbered ninety-two. Of these two 
died in Andersonville Prison and one in Tabby Prison, 
twenty succumbed ti) the fatal rifle balls and Southern 
diseases, and thirteen others were wounded in battle, 
or contracted diseases of which they died soon after 
arriving lionie. In addition to these volunteers, 
thirty men were drafted, five more entered the navy, 
and faithfully served their connlry until they <lied or 
were discharged. 

Entering the army at the beginning of the strife, 
several of the brave young spirits died on the fi<dd of 
battle at I^ull Run, Cedar .Mountain and other places. 
Otliers were wounded, some fatally, in the battles of 
Port Hud.son, Blunt's Creek, Antietam,Spottsylvania, 



964 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, .^lASSACHUSETTS. 



Mechaniesville.Bull Riin,Gettysburg, Lookout Moun- 
tain and other fierce conflicts of the Rebellion. Under 
the command of General Joe Hooker, some were 
numbered with the Army of the Potomac. 

The following are the names of those who died in 
the war: Martin L. Ames (in Andersonville Prison), 
John Q, Batchelder, Samuel IT. Brown, D. Butler, 
Charles W.Cole, John V. Cole, Oscar F. Curtis, Joshua 
(}. Day, Murdock Frame (killed in battle at Cedar 
Mountain), Albert A. Frye, Charles L. Foster, George 
H. Gage, William A. Gurley, Harrison Hale, Matthew 
Hale, George P. Hobson, Horace A. Killani, Thomas 
A. Masury, Herbert C. C. Morse (in Libby Prison), 
Asa K. Pcrley, Thomas P. Perley, John Sawyer (in 
Andersonville Prison), Aaron Spoflbrd (killed in last 
battle of Bull Run), and David M. Sullivan, in the 
army, and Benjamin S. Twisden in the navy. 

In 1874, Jonathan Tyler Barker gave the West 
Parish one thousand dollars toward the erection of a 
soldiers' monument. Various persons in the town 
added the necessary amount of money, and a granite 
monument, about twenty feet in height, was erected 
in the spring of 1875, and dedicated on Memorial Day, 
May 29, 1875, with appropriate ceremonies, Gover- 
nor Gaston and stafi" being present. The cost of the 
cenotaph was $2,017.10. The following is the inscriji- 
tion on its front face: 

IX MEMORY OF 

OUR r.\TRIOT SOLDIERS. 

WAR OF 18(il. 

ERECTED BY THE 

MUNIFICENCE OF THE LATE 

J. TYI.EU HAKKF.R 

OF NORTH AXDOVEK. 

1873. 

The other three faces of the monument are inscribed 
with the names and dates of death of the deceased 
soldiers and sailors of the town. 

Camp Stanton. — During 1861 and 1862 several regi- 
ments were quartered here. The camp was named 
from the Secretary of War. The commandant was 
Colonel Edward F. Jones, now of Binghampton, 
N. Y'. The Eighth, Forty-first, Forty-seventh, Fifti- 
eth and other regiments were here. Musters of the 
State Militia have been since held on the old camp- 
ground. 

Schools. Libraries, etc.— The first publicschool 
teacher in Boxford was the town clerk, Captain John 
Peabody, in 1701. The school was kept for many 
years in private houses in difl'erent sections of the 
town. In 17.38 or 1739 the town was divided into dis- 
tricts, and a sihool-house built in each district. About 
1706 new buildings took the place of the old. New 
buildiugs have since been built of a more commodi- 
ous size and modern appearance, and the small red 
school-house of years agone is a thing of the past. 
The town is now divided into six districts, and the 
average number of scholars attending school is one 



hundred and twenty, $2,371.78 having been paid for 
their support the past year. The school fund now 
amounts to $3,467.59. 

In 1826 Major Jacob Peabody, a native of Bnxford, 
and a merchant of Boston, was instrumental in estab- 
lishing an academy in the building used by the Third 
Congregational Society for their meetings. This 
building stood on the corner, across the street from 
the residence of Prof. Allen. The academy flour- 
ished for two or three years in a marked degree. The 
first principal was Prof. Leavenworth, and he wa-s 
followed by Pratt, Wyatt and others. The average 
attendance was about fifty. The building was after- 
wards occupied as a dwelling-house, and was ulti- 
mately destroyed by fire on the night of December 
26, 1867. 

The Barker Free School was founded by a fund 
given by the late Jonathan Tyler Barker, of North 
Andover, in his will, in 1872. The fund amounted 
to thirty thousand dollars. In 1884 the trustees leased 
a building in the West Parish, and in it opened the 
school. Mr. Stephen C. Clark was chosen for the prin- 
cipal. In 1885 the trustees erected a large and tasteful 
house and stable for the residence of the principal. 
The school has about twenty members. The school 
building is to be built, when the fund is of sufficient 
magnitude, near the principal's house, which occu- 
pies the rising ground to the north of Fowler Pond. 

From about 1865 to 1881, the Rev. Calvin E. 
Park, had a private school for young men near his 
residence in the West Parish. 

The Proprietors' Library was established in the 
East Parish in 1794. This library was in use about 
forty years. The works composing it were prin- 
cipally of a religious and historical character. It 
contained about three hundred volumes. The stand- 
ard works have been added to the new public 
library in the parish. 

The Boxford Library Association founded the 
public library in the East Parish in 1873. The first 
contributions were made by Mr. Augustus E. Batch- 
elder, of Boston, who has ever manifested much 
interest in the welfare of the library. It now con- 
tains eleven hundred volumes of well selected litera- 
ture. At first, a chamber over the paint-shop of Jlr. 
S. Frank Ayres was used as a library room. In 
1880, the Bacon house, situated in front of the post- 
oflice, was purchased, and re-modeled to suit the re- 
quirements of the library, and was dedicated to its 
new use August 27, 1880, with appropriate exercises. 
The Association has a fund of about three hundred 
dollars, and is in a flourishing condition. 

The West Boxford Library Association, established 
the West Boxford Public Library in 1881. It is 
situated near the church, the Association having 
purchased and remodeled the building used by Rev. 
Mr. Park for his school. The library now contains 
about seven hundred volumes, and is constantly in- 
creasing in size and usefulness. The works are 



F.(»XF<)i;i). 



065 



very carefully selected, and a better class of lilcra- 
tiire for general ii:?e in educalinj; the piililic cannot 
be found in any library. 

Tliirly-five yonnj; men have taken full colleL'iate 
courses and graduated, sixteen at Harvanl, fourteen 
at Partmoulh, two at Vale, .•md one each at Amherst, 
lirown and Union ColleL'e, all having been natives of 
Boxford. 

Bl'si.NKss AMI MANlFA(rri;iN<:. — I''roni the earli- 
est settlement of the town to the present time, the prin- 
cipal occupation of tin- inhabitants has been that of 
aL'ricultnre; and from the primitive soil of lluir 
plains and hillsides they have ever drawn, liy their 
industry and well-adapted labor, an independent 
livelihood, while many of Iheni have iiros|)cred so 
well that they have become comjiaratively rich. 

The power which the several streams in the town 
afford was utilized i|uite early for driving saw-mills 
and grist-mills. The first saw and grist-mill in town 
was erected by William reabo(ly, about l(!9o, near 
the residence of the late William A. Merrick, Esq., 
and it existed until 184'). In 1710 the saw-mill which 
stood in the rear of the residence of Mrs. John Q. 
Hatchelder, was built by Thomas lla/.en, Jacob I'er- 
Icy and Dr. David Wood. It was allowed to decay 
and fall down about twenty years ago. Pegs were 
manufactured at this mill for a while about twenty- 
five years ago. Howe's .saw and grist-mills were 
established in 1710 by Richard Kimbiill, Ephraim 
Dorman and Samuel I'isk, as a saw-mill, and 
the grist-mill was built by Asa Foster about 
17!lo. The Andrews' saw and grist-mills were 
established quite early in the eighteenth century. 
The Day mill in the West Parish was lirst built as a 
grist-mill by Richard Pearl about 1740; it was 
changed to a saw and box-mill, about ISIS, by ,Iohn 
Pearl and Jaincs Carleton, and was destroyed by tire 
about three years ago. The Herrick saw-mill was 
established by John Hale about 17(;0. ('apt. Por- 
ter's saw-mill was erected by himself in is::!6, and 
the grist-mill in 1830. 

The town has generally been supplied with black- 
smiths' and wheelwrights' sho[)s. The jiresent black- 
smiths' shops are carrie<l on by J. Horace Na.son, 
Henry Newhall and I'erley Hrothers, and the wheel- 
wright shops by J. Horace N'ason and Perley 15rothcr.s. 
There are three stores in town, all grocery, whose 
trade is conducted by Frederic A. Howe, (Jardncr S. 
Morse and John Parkhurst. 

The first public house in town was kept by William 
Foster, under a license from the town, at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Solomon W. Howe, from 1(187 for 
several years. Solomon Dodge was an inn-holder 
about 17o-t; an inn was kept by IJeiitenant Asa 
Merrill in 1788; another by Phiiieas Cole in 1800; 
one by Deacon Parker Spofford in 1800; one by 
(Japtain .To.siah Batchelder in 1840; another in the 
West Parish by Elisha G. Bunker in 1830, and by 
.lohn 15rown in 1837; and another at the Bunker 



place by .Mr. Bunker in 1840. Hotel Kedington was 
opened by Mr. Daniel S. (lillis abmit Ilin-c years 
since, and is the only public-liMU-ic in town. 

The earliest business in town, lirsidcs I'arniing, 
was thr "iron wrnks," wliirb wen- e-tablisbei| by 
Henry Leonard of l.yrin in \M:K The capital stock 
of the coinp.iMy which carried on the bu iness was 
about .-1 thousand pounds. Hubbard, in bis History 
of Ni'W I'.ngland, says that the ore here was ''not 
inferior to that of Bilboa,'" The site of llose wr)rks 
is just in thr rear ol' tlie Andreas' mills. The busi- 
ness was ilisronlinucil shortly alter lOSO. Not only 
has Miiuing for ii-oti been carried <m, but Mr. Na'han 
K. Fowbu- and 1). Fratik Harrimun mined in 1S7,') 
and ]S7I) for silver [ind galena, and ^Ir. Harriman 
erected smelling works. Limestone has also been 
quarried in the town. Tin: ijnarry lies about half a 
mile from and norlln-ast of Stevens' Pond, The busi- 
ness was c;uried on about 17.'>ll by Hon. Aaron ^^'<.od. 
The kiln, in which the limestone was burned, was 
situaled ne:ir the pond. 

Iron-smelling was established at the site of the 
match-factory, about 1770, by Samuel Hodweil of 
Metlnien and Thomas Newman of Boxford, and iron- 
smelting was contitiued here tintil ISO."), The ste 
was afterwards used as a cotton-mill, then a grist- 
mill and for the manufacture of wooden trays, bowls, 
etc., then for cotton manufacturing again, this time 
producing yarn, wicking and batting. In 1S()7 the 
whole factory jiroperty was [lurehased by Alessrs. 
Byam & Carlton, match manufacturers, who cdianged 
the machinery and the buildings themselves, and did 
the first day's work here at match-making September 
2, 1807. About live years ago the factory was pur- 
chased by the Diamotid Match Com[iauy, who have 
since conducted the business. The conqiany have 
some thirty thousand dollars invested in the busiiie.ss 
here, ami mauufacture about three hundred and fifty 
gro.ss per day, using some eighteen hundred tons of 
timber annually. A saw and box-mill is also run in 
connection with the factory. .'Vbout forty hands is 
the usual number employed. 

The late Captain Samuel Kimball established a 
peg-factory here in ISGO, and afterwards, in company 
with Mr. William Sawyer, introduced box machinery. 
The n\ill was burned in the spring of 187'). On the 
same site, two years later, Jlr. Henry M. Cross of 
Xewbury()ort undertook the manufacture of silver 
polish from the marl deposits here. 

Several shoe-manufactories have existed in the 
town. In 1837 tho estimated value of shoes manu- 
factured here was 852, 97o. Among the mainifac- 
turers were Samuel Fowler. Marion (iould, John 
Hale, Isaac Hale, and Edward Howe & Son. Tho 
only firm doing business now is Edward Howe it Son. 
^Ir. Howe began business in 1838, and was joined by 
his son, Deacon William W. Howe, in 1870. Their 
trade is generally contlneil to the Southern and .Mid- 
dle States. 



966 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



DisTiNGuiSHEp Natives — Boxford has probably 
given birth to more distinguished and enterprising 
persons than any other town of its size in the com- 
monwealth. A large majority of the young men 
leave the old, dull home of their fathers and enter 
into the busier scenes of life, most of them becoming 
successful in the business or professional career which 
they had chosen, and making themselves an honor to 
the dear old home of their boyhood. A list of some 
of the more distinguished and professional natives, 
not already mentioned, is appended. 

llcv. Oliver Peabndy (169,S-17.')2) graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1721 ; was the first settled pastor of the 
Indian Church at Xatick, and a missionary among 
the Mohegan Indians. He was noted as a theologian, 
and a kind and useful pastor. 

Rev. Moses Hale (1701-1760) graduated at Harvard 
College in 1722. He was the first minister of Chester, 
N. H. 

Mev. James Scales (1707-177G) graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1733. He was a minister at Hopkin- 
ton, N. H., and other places. 

Eev. John Rogers (1712-1789) graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1732. He was the first pastor at Leo- 
minster, Mass. Dr. Bancroft says, " he was a man of 
intellectual powers and an inquisitive spirit, possessed 
ofa name fitted to make a man indejiendent of his 
opinions, and prepared to encounter every difficulty 
in defence of religious truth." 

Hon. Aamn Wood (1719-1791), State Senator in 
1781. Resided in Boxford. 

Col. Thomas Knoidton (1740-1776). He was a 
brave officer in the Revolution, and an intimate 
friend of General Putnam, with whom he had shared 
the perils and sufferings of the French and Indian 
War. He was slain in battle at Harlem Heights, 
September 16, 1776. Washington said of him, " he 
would be an honor to any country." 

Rev. Steplifn Peabody (1741-1819) graduated at 
Harvard College in 1769. First minister at Atkin- 
son, N. II., and a chaplain in the Revolution. 

Rev. Dai-id Jewell (1743-1783) graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1769. Preached at Candia, N. H., 
and was the first minister of Winthrop, Me. 

Rev. Benjamin Chadwick (1745-1819) graduated at 
Harvard College in 1770. He wa.s a clergyman. 

Br. Edmund Chadwiek (1751-18 — ). He was a 
physician. 

Aaron Porter, M.D. (1752-1837). He was a physi- 
cian of eminence at Biddeford and Portland, Me. 

Major- General Amos Hovey (1757-1838) resided at 
Salem. Officer in the State militia. 

Rev. Jacob Wood (1757-1790) graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1778 ; A.M. at Yale, 1783. He was 
a clergyman at Newbury, Vt. 

Rev. Humphrey Clark Perky (1761-1838) graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1791. He was settled in the 
ministry at Methuen and Beverly. 

Samuel Holyoke, A.M., (1762-1820) graduated at 



Harvard College in 1789. He was widely known as 
a composer and publisher of music. He was the 
author of "The Columbian Repository of Sacred 
Music " and other works. 

Nathaniel Pcrley, Eiq., (1763-1824) graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1791. He wai a prominent 
lawyer at Hallowell, Me. 

Dr. William Peabody (1768-18 — ) was a physician 
at Frankfort and Corinth, Me. 

Samuel Peabody, Esq., (1775-1859) graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1803. He was a lawyer in 
Sandwich, Epsom, and Tamworth, iu New Hamp- 
shire, and in Andover, in Massachusetts. 

Joseph Hovey, Esq., (1776-1816) graduated at 
Harvard College in 1804. He was a lawyer in 
Haverhill. 

General Solomon Lowe (1782-1861) was an officer in 
State militia, and resided in Boxford. 

Rufiis Porter Hovey, Esq., (1790-1820) graduated at 
Harvard College in 1813. He was a lawyer in Lynn. 

Judye Enoch Wood Spofford (1791-18 — ) was a law- 
yer and judge in California. 

Rufiis Porter (1792-1884) was a most prolific in- 
ventor, and the founder of the Scientific American, the 
leading American journal devoted to science and 
mechanics. 

Rev. Peter Sydney Eaton (1798-1863) graduated at 
Harvard College in 1818, and at Andover Theolo- 
gical Seminary in 1822. He was pastor at West 
Amesbury, now Merrimac. 

Honorable Ira Perley, LL.D., (1799-1874) gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1822. He practised law 
in Concord and Hanover, New Hampshire, and for 
several years was Chief-Jusiice of the Supreme Court 
of New Hampshire. He was also Treasurer of Dart- 
mouth College, vice-president of the New England 
Historico-Genealogical Society, elc. In 1866, he de- 
livered before the alumni of the college, the eulogy 
on the death of Rufus Choate and Daniel Webster, 
Dartmouth's two most distinguished sons. He was 
at the head of his class in college, and he held the 
same position in the bar, and on the bench. 

Dr. Daniel Perley (1804-1881) graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1828. He Wiis a physician in 
Georgetown and Lynn. 

Rev. John Hubbard Eaton (1806-18 — ) graduated 
at Harvard College in 1827. He was connected with 
the American Tract Society, at New York. 

Rev. Samuel Hopkins Emery (1815) graduated at 
Amheist College in 1834. He is a clergyman in 
Taunton. 

Joseph Elbridge Bartlett (original name Killam), 
M.D., (1819) graduated at the University of the City 
of New York with the degree of M.D. in 1846. He 
was a physician in Somerville, Charlestown and 
Boston, and now resides in the last-named city. 

Dr. Walter Henry A'm6a« (1820-1880) graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1841. He was a physician at 
Andover. 



HOXI'OIU). 



907 



Charles Israel Adams, ^w/., (182.'5-1S02) jrrmUuitt-d 
at Dartmoutli Collt'se in 185:2. Ho was a lawyer in 
Boston. 

J/eiiry Oliver Prabndy (1820) is tlio inventor of the 
lanioiis " Peabody Kifle." 

Her. Albert Braihtreel Penhmly (IS'JX) graduated at 
the Aiidover Tlieological Senunary in IS.'i'.t. He was 
pastor at Kast Longmeadow, in Massacluisetts, and at 
Stratliam, and now at fandia, in New Hainpsliire. 

Cyru.t A'illam Barlleti (original name Kilhim), 
M.D., (1829) graduated at Harvard College with the 
degree of M.D. in 1852. He praetised medicine at 
Newton and Charlestown, in Massarlnisetts, and is 
now superintendent and physician of the JMinnesnta 
State Hospital for Insane, at St. Peter. 

miliam AtiguMus Merrick, />(/., (18:51-1885) grad- 
uated at Dartmouth College in 1854. He was a law- 
yer in Boston, an<l also favorably known as a legal 
writer, having lieen the compiler of Herrick's Toivn 
Officer. 

' George W. Athcrton, LL.D , (1837) graduated at 
Yale College in 1863. He was a professor in St. 
John's College at Annapolis, Maryland, afterwards in 
the State University at Champaign, Illinois, and in 
Rutgers College, New Jersey, and is now the Presi- 
dent of State College, in Pennsylvania. 

Professor James Hamilton Howe (185(5) graduated 
from JIusieal Department of Boston University in 
1882. He is dean of the Department of Music in 
De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 

Sidney Ferity, Esq., (1858) graduated at Boston 
University with the degree of LL.D. in 18S(;. He is 
a lawyer in Salem. 

MEMBERS OF THE ST.\TE .SEN.A ri 

6ESAT0KS. I 



IThl. .\nri.ii W.xmI. 



May 8, ICSll. John Peabudy. 
t'.b. 12, ICOO. John I'erley. 
' It. «, loiio. John IVaboiiy. 
iJec. 10, ir.OO. John Peabody. 
i\h. 3, IDlll. Jobu IVrley. 
Oct. 14, mill. John Penbody. 
Pec, — , 1001. John Pcabofly, 
June 8, ll','J2. John Pcnboily nud 
Tboiiiaa Perl.jy. 
lUD.'j. John Peabody. 
IG'JH-yy. John PealKMly. 
I70«. John Peabody and 

Thoniaa Perley. 
1702. Thomas Perloy and 

William Foster. 
ITlfl. Thoniad Petley. 
17"-1. .^iimuel Synionds. 
1-117. Thomas Perl.fy. 
17'lO. Thomas Perley. 
17M-i:i. John Pealwdy. 
1714-17. Joseph Hale. 
171.5-l;t, Thomas Perley. 
172U-2.''.. Josoph Ilaln. 

1727. Thomas Purley and 
.Stephen Peabody. 
172s-:!2. J.wph Flale. 
17;i4. John Symonds. 



AND I.ECI.Sl.ATlltE. 

17.1.->. Joseph IIhI.'. 

17:ii—'.S. John Symonds. 

171U-7I). .\an.n Wood. 

1771-72. .\sa Perley. 

177:i-74. ..\ar(.u Wood. 

177.';. .\sa Peiiey (in Pro- 
vincial (.'nn^russj. 

177C-79. Aaron Wood. 

17S1>-81. Asa IVrlcy. 

17s:i-Si;. Isaac Adams. 

1787. Xathan Andn.ws, 

17J.8. Isaac Adams. 

■i)2-lSlir. Thomas I'crley. 

1811-14. Parker Spollord. 



IKI.i 



17. Isi 



el Foster 



1810-21. .Moses Dorman. 

182:!. .Solomon I.omo. 

1827-28. Solomon I.owe. 

1831-.34. Oharlcs Peabody. 

18:«-.3«. Mo»<,-8 Dorman. 

la'S8. JoHiah Kimball. 

183'.P-4(I. Moses Kimball. 

1841. .Sol <.n Lowe. 

Is43, Benjamin Peabody. 

1846-47. William Lowe. 

1849-5<). Enoch Wood. 

1801-52, .Samuel II. Balchel- 
der. 

18.^,7. Cleorgo P.^arl. 

l.Si.8. Enoch Wood. 

lHl-,2. John K. Cole. 



ISIV.l. Itosf W. Caite. I 

1S74. Charl.-s r.rley. I 

TiiWN 'ri'.K.\sii:Ei;s oi 
history of the town the const: 
of the collector of ta.xes and 
lowing is a list of constalilcs 
surers : 

msr,, l!,,l«.rl stiles. 

Peabody. 



Is7^ William S. fot-ein. 
l.«s:!. Wni. 1!. Kiml.i.ll 

B<>\|(ii:ii. — In the early 
lilies performed thcdillies 
town trca-^uriT. The f'ol- 
who served as town trea- 



Willii 
Tlioni 



li;so. John Perley, Sr. 

li;:ill. KpliraimCortis. 

llVll. Joseph IllXbv. 

Irai2. .lo».-|.ll Alulre«:<. 

Ii;o:i, Abraham U.-.liiicIo 



17(M. .I<.s,.],b Hale 
17111. /iUcbellsCu 



The following is a list of town treasurer 

7(12-(ir.. Thoiiuis llazeli. 
1708. JuBcph Hale. 



170 



Tb. 



I Ha 



I Kiiuliall. .Ir 



1711. Sanuiel Fisk. 

1712. John Woods. 
171:1-20. Jacob Perley. 
1721-24. .Samuel Fooler. 

1721;. John Andrews, J 
1727-2'.). Joseph Symonds. 

17:il. Jacob Perley. 
17:i2-:l5. Jeremiah Perley 
l7.tr.-4:;. Jacob Smith. 

174.'-). Joliii llormun. 

171i;. Tlioi.iie! Redinst 
I747-4S. Koliert Ainlreivs. 
I7I0-.-.I. Thoimus Perley. 

17.'.2. Aaron Kimball. 
17i:)-,-i,'). Francis Perley. 

n-'ii;. Aaron Kimball. 
17.-i7-i;l. Fran-is Perley. 
171.2-71. Jonathan Woo.l. 
1772-73. Aaron Wood. 
1774-70. Nathan Wood. 
I7S0-SS. William Perley. 

17S0. Aaron Wo.jd. 

170(1. Jonathan Woo.1. 
17ill-il8. Asa Peabody. 

nii'.l. Parker Spotb.rd. 



TOWX CMCP.KS 

l(.8i;-17ln. John IVabo.ly. 

1711. Thomas llazeii. 
1712-2:!. Th.imas Perley. 
1721-2tl. .loseph Hale. 

17:;i). Th.mias Ue.linjiton. 

17:il. Josepll Hale. 

I7:t2. Thomas Keillli;;ton. 
1733-:;.^. Josi.ph Hale. 
17:!i;-42. Joseph Symonds. 
174:i-P.i. William F..ster. 
17.-.l)-ril. Thomioi Re.iington. 
l-.'-.2-,-.7. 'I'liomas Perley. 

17o8. Aaron Woo.1. 
17.-.0-I.I). Tbojiias An.lrews. 
17i;l-70. Aaron Woo.l. 
178ll-.<8. Thonuis Perley. 
1780-0(1. Aaron Wo,.d. 
1701-02. ,iohn Dorman. 
17o:i-OG. Jonathan ttoo.1. 
1707-08. Parker Spolb»rd. 
1700-lsll. Moses l)..rman. 
1812-13. Amos Kimball. 

1814. Moses Dorman. 

181.-,. John Kimball. 

1810. M..S.-S l)..riii!(n. 

1817. Amos Kimball. 



-:14. Cliall.-s Peab.i.lv 



I8:i!). 


Abija 


1 Xorthey. 


l8:ii;-37. 


Josial 


Kimball. 


1S38-.30. 


Amos 


Kimball. 


1840. 


Mosea 


Dorman. 


1841. 


Thon 


as S. Hovey. 


1842-43 


Samu 


I II. liHtclielder. 


1844 


Jlose 


Dorman. 


1.845 


Kichi 


rd .Spi.tTord. 


1840 


.Samu 


il P. Peaboily. 


1847 


John 


F. Kimball. 


1848-10 


Uli\e 


P. Kilhim. 


ls:.(i 


Willi 


Ill E. Killam. 


18-,1W.3 


J.,bn 


Ili.nm. 


i8,-.4-.'-i(; 


Willi 


uu 10. Killam. 


1867 


Willi 


nil It. Wood. 


18,'i8-(.2 


Willi 


nil E. Killam. 


isi;:! 

1804 

i8(;.-i-7i 


Willi 
J..«.p 
Jo.iIk 


nil R. Kimball. 
1 11. Janes. 
aT. Day. 


1872-77 


Willi 


nil V. Killam. 



F PdXFOKI 




1818 


Mose 


s Dorman. 


182(1. 


M.ise 


Tyler, 
s Dorman. 


1821. 


Amo, 


Kimball. 


1822. 


Jl.ise 


lloriimn. 


182:1. 


.lobn 


lia.-on. 


1824. 


.MOBC 


< Dorman. 


182.".. 


John 


llaev.u. 


182(; 


Cliar 


es Peabody. 


1827 


Geor 


,'o Pearl. 


182.S 


Phin 


■as llarnes. 


1820. 


Ueiij 


niin Itobiiison. 


18(1). 


Pbill 


•as llirnea. 


I8:il 


Ue.li 


niin Kol.inson. 


I8:i2 


Pliin 


■as Darios. 


18.0 


Will 


am Fuiuham. 


1834 


Siniii 


el Kimball. 


18:i'. 


Will 


nil Faniliam. 


18:1(1 


Saiiii 


.■1 Kimball. 


18.17 


M..S. 


s Kimball. 


l»:is 


Sam 


el Kiliiliall. 


I8bi 


Si'i'ni 


.■1 Kimball. 


1811 


Josh 


la T. Day. 


1842 

ls4.i 


.-am 


.1 II. Ilat.li.'ld 
V..- P..arl, 



968 



HISTORY OF P]SSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1M4. Samuel H. Batclieldcr. 


1859. William R. Cole. 


17 OB. 


1718. 


18-15. George I'earl 


ISO. William E. Killam. 


Thomas Hazen. 


JoBoph Bixby. 


1846. Moses Dornian. 


1861. William H. Wood. 


David Wood. 


Cornelius Brown. 


1847. William R, Cole. 


1862. William E. Killam. 


Richard Kimball. 


Joseph Peabody. 


1848. William Lowe. 


1863. William H. Wood. 


Samuel Symonds, Sr. 


Samuel Symonds. 


1849. William B. Cole. 


18(M. William E. Killam. 


Jonathan Bixby. 


Ephraim Dorman. 


1850. Moses Dornmn. 


18fi.j. William R. Cole. 


1707. 


1719. 


1851. John F. Kimball. 


186G-C8. Boscoe W. Gage. 


John Peabody. 


Joseph Hale. 


1852. William E. Killam. 


1808-70. William R. Kimball. 


Thnmjis Perley. 


Thomas Killam. 


1853. Joshua T. Day. 


1871-72. Thomas P. Dorman. 


Joseph Hale. 


Luke Hovey . 


IS-M. William Lowe. 


18;-2-7T. Ancill Dorman. 


Samuel Foster. 


Jofteph Symonds. 


1855. William 11. Wood. 


1878-79. Benjamin S. Barnes. 


Thomas Wilkius. 


John Wood. 


1856. William E. Killam. 


1880-SG. Ancill Dorman. 


I70S. 

Thomas Ilazen. 


1720. 

Thomas Perley, Jr. 


1857. William II. Wood. 


1886. Sidney Perley. 


IS-'ja. William E. Killam. 


1887. Benjamin S. Barnes. 


Abraham Redington. 


Joseph Bixby. 


.SKI.IX'T.MES OF liO.X FORI). 


Zacclieu.s Curtis. 


Thoruas Wilkina. 


1«K7. 


Thimias Andrews. 


Luke Hovey. 


Nathan Kanios. 


John Pcahmly, Sr. 


JonuthaTi Foster. 


Jacob Perley. 


John Andrews, Jr. 


William Watson. 


Jonathan Bi.xby. 


170». 


1721. 


Daniel Wood. 


in»7. 


Thomas Perley. 


Joseph Bixby. 


John Andrews. 


John Andrews. 


Thomas Jewett. 


Abraham Ui'dingt«u, Jr. 


Joseph Bixby. 
Joseph Andrews. 
William Peabody. 
John Chadwick. 


Joseph Bixby. 


Thomas Cuminings. 


1«.S.S. 


Luke Ilovey. 


Richard Peabody. 


John Chadwick. 


Sanuiel Fisk. 


Nathan Peabody. 


Thomas .\ndrewfi. 


Thomas Perley, Jr. 


1710. 


1722. 


Daniel Wood. 


16!)8. 

John Peabody. 
John Andrews. 
Samuel Symomis, Sr. 
Joseph Hale. 


Samuel Symonds, Sr. 


Timothy Dorman. 


Abmluim Redington, Jr. 
Thomas Hazcn. 


Tliomas Jewett. 
Jonathan Foster. 


Jeremiah Perley. 
John Chadwick. 


John Peabody, Sr. 

lesu. 


Daniel Keuney. 
Samuel Fisk. 


Thomas Redington. 
Samuel Symondd. 


Joseph Bixby. 


Moses T.vlor. 


1711. 


1723. 


Thomas Ilazeu. 


Thomas Perley. 
John IVabody. 


John Peabody. 


Joseph Bixby. 


William Foster, .Sr. 


Daniel Wood. 


Stephen Peabody. 


Joseph Andrews. 


Timothy Foster. 


Samuel Symonds. 


William I'eabody. 


Cornelius Brown. 


Thomas Perley. 


1090. 


John Eaines. 


Thomas Jewett. 


John Kimball. 


John Peabody. 


William Peabody. 


1712. 


1724. 


Nathaniel Brown. 


1700. 


John Audrewe. 


David Peabody. 


Joseph Peabody, Sr. 


John Perley. 


Sanuiel Symonds, Jr. 


Stephen Peabody. 


Thomas Uediugton. 


Joseph Bixby. 


Samuel Foster. 


Daniel Kenney. 


Thomas Perley. 


Joseph Andrews. 


Moses Tyler. 


Timothy Stiles. 


IS»I. 


Josiah Bridges. 


Jacob Perley. 


Nathaniel Perkins. 


John Perley 


Joseph Peabotly. 


171». 

JoUHthan Foster. 


1725. 


Mosos Tyler. 
Thomas Andrews. 


1701. 


Stephen Peabody. 


Samuel Syntonds. 
John Kimball. 


Samiml S.vmonds. 
Thomas i'erley. 


Nathaniel Peabody. 
Thomas l^ummings. 


John Stiles, Sr. 
John Symonds. 




Thotiiai! IlftliiiKton. 


David Peabody. 


Joseph Hale, Jr. 


ino'i. 


John Kiaiball. 


John Andrews. 


Jonathan Tyler. 


Samuel Symonds, Sr. 


Samuel Smith. 






Thomas Ilazen. 




1714. 


!72«. 


Joseph Peabody, Sr. 
John Andrews. 


1702. 

Samuel Symonds. 


Joseph Bi.vby. 
John Tylor. 


Thomas Jewett. 
David Peabody. 


Kobert Eames, Sr. 


Daniel Wood. 


Jeremiah I'orley. 


Robert Andrews. 


IDB3. 

John Peabody, Sr. 


Jusei)h Hale. 


Jacob Smith. 


Jacob Hale. 


John Amircws. 
John Stiles. 


Thomiis Perley, Jr. 


Thomas Redington. 


John Chadwick. 


1703. 

John Peabody. 
Thomas IIu/,en. 


1715. 


1727. 


Zaccheus Curtis. 


Joseph Hale. 


Thomas IVrley. 


Daniel Wood, Sr. 


Timothy Dorman. 


Joseph Hale. 


Joseph Bi.xby. 


Jouathun Kcrator. 


Samuel Symonds. 


Samuel Pickard. 


I«U4. 


Samuel Symonds. 


John Chadwick. 


Nathaniel Symonds. 


Thomas Perley. 


Timothy Dorman. 


Thomas Spofford. 


John Howe. 


Thomas Ilazen. 


1704. 


I7I«. 


1728. 


Moses Tyler. 
William Foster, 8r. 
Ephraim Curtis. 

i«9ri. 

John Perley. 
Mo.ses Tyler. 


Thomas Perley. 
Joseph ]Jixby. 


Thomas Jevrett. 
Jonathan Bixby. 


Joseph Halo. 
Thomas Cnmmings. 


Abraham Kedington. 


Job Tyler. 


Jacob Smith. 


Joseph Andrewfl. 
Jo^^iah Itridgcs. 


John Syniond.i. 
Daniel Kenney. 


Timothy Stiles. 
Moses Tyler. 


Joseph Bixby 


llOi. 


1717. 


1720. 


John .\udreW8. 


John Peabody. 


Thomas I'erley, Jr. 


Stephen Peabody. 


Joseph Pciilwdy. 


Josejih Peabody, Jr. 


Thomas Perley, Sr. 


James Curtis. 


lOtlll. 


David Wood. 


John Andrt'WB. 


Jacob Smith. 


John Peabody. 


Nathaniel Perley. 


John Howe. 


Jacob Perley. 


NN illiaui I'eabijdy. 


Zaieheus Curtis. 


Ju0eph Eameti. 


JohQ^tiles, Jr. 



BOXFORD. 



009 



I'ilO. 


1742. 


1754. 


J09.-|.ll ItlllO. 


Robert Andrews. 


Thoni.is I'eahody. 


Jiiseph Syiiionda. 


J.din Kimball. 


Thomas Pelley. 


Thoiims P. rli-y. 


Thi.nias Andrews. 


Job T.\ b r. 


TlUHiias AiMlrews. 


LnI.e Ib.vey. Jr. 


Tbomas Andrews. 


John Wcu.l. 


Jeremiah Foster. 
1743. 


Paul Priihard. 
17 55. 


i;:ii. 


Robert AiKlrews. 


Thomas I'erley. 


Joseph Symomls. 


Henjainin Porter. 


I.saae Adams. 


Stephen lVal>o»l,v, 


Joseph Symonds. 


Ja.obCimunings. 


ThoiiiiLS CiiinliiingH. 


I.nUe llovey. 


J..seph llovey. 


Jaculi Smith. 


Tlion.as Itedington. 


Solomon Wood. 


Siiumol Ft>ster. 








1744. 


175<S. 


ns3. 


Robert Andrews. 


John Peaboily. 


Jncoli Perley.' 


Ren.iamin Porter. 


Luke llovey. 


Rol.tTt AiKlrou-8, 


Joseph Male, .Pr. 


Sob.mon Wood. 


Joseph lluU', Jr. 


Thomas Hedington. 


Nathati ILirker. 


Zebediuti Foster. 


Job Tyler. 


S.iniu.d FiMc. 


John Bi.\l.y. 


17 45. 


1757. 


\TiS. 


.Foseiili .Symonds. 


Thomas I'.rl.-y. 


Steph-I, Peal.oJy. 


Zebediali"FoBter. 


.1 jMpli llov.-y. 


Nathaniel S.vjnonds. 


Nalbaniel I'erliins. 


A.uon Kimball. 


Jeremiah I'erloy. 


Thomas Peabody. 


Sl.wes Polt.r. 


Junnlhaii Foster. 


John Durmau. 


Jacob (.'umiiiings. 


S;uiiuel (iouhl. 


17411. 


I75S. 


nsi. 


Joseph .^ynionds. 


Jotiallian Foster. 


John Synioh.ls. 


Thomas Peabody. 


A>:i 1- y. 


Josej.h Hae. Jr. 


Amos Perley. 


Kl..iie/ei Killam. 


Thuinas Keili txtoa. 


Jonathan Foster. 


Kieliard Kimbill. 


Timothy Stiles. 


Jcrenjiah Foster. 


Solumou Woo.l. 


ZeW'.liali Foster. 

i::f5. 


1747. 

Jonathan Foster. 


17511. 

.[..nalliali Foster. 


Joseph Hale. 


ThoMia, H.diii-lon. 


Fr.iiiei.^ P. riey. 


Jmol. .Smith. 


Nathaniel .'symoiids. 


Siliiuel FisU. 


Joiiatlian Foster. 


Thomas PeaboUy. 
Thomas Perley. 


John Cliadivick. 


Tiniolhy Stiles. 


Nathan Wood. 


Amos I'erley. 


1748. 


1 >(>(>. 


1T3B. 


Benjamin Porter. 


1 hoiiias Pelley. 


John .«; mends. 


Joseph .Synmnds. 


LllI.e llo\ey. 


Luke llovey. 


Luke llovey. .Sr. 


Aaron Kimball. 


J..lialhan Foster. 


Gideon Hi.\by. 


Gnleoii Tyler. 


Stephen IViilHoly. 


Joseph Hale, Jr. 


Jaeob Cummings. 


John Killam. 






1737. 


17 lit. 


1701. 


Thomas Itedington. 


Thomas Pelley. 


Josepti Synionds. 


John llovey. 


Luke llo\ey. 


John Kinihall. 


Nathnni.-l .Symonds, 


Anion Kimball. 


Joseph Halo. 


Aaron Kindjall. 


Gid.-.iii Tyler. 


Thomas IValwdy. 


Isaue Adams. 


Jaeob I'liuiiiiings. 


Jeremiah Foster. 


i7r>o. 


17(1.'. 


I7:!S. 


Thomas Itedington. 


Aaron Wood. 


Ji>8eph Syinonds, 






.Tonal h:)n Fi stor. 


Luke llovey. 


Thutnas Pealfody. 
Roh<-'it Andrews. 


John Peabody, Jr. 


Jaeob Ciinilnings. 




LnUe llovey, Jr. 


Isaac Adams. 


Benjamin Porter. 


John Hale. 


James Andrews. 


Gideon Bi.\by. 






I73U. 


1751. 


17(13. 


Robert Andrews. 


Jonatliau Foster. 


Aaron Wood. 


Benjaniin Porter. 


Joseph Hale, Jr. 


Luke llovey. 


John Andrews. 


Aaron Kimball. 


Isiael Ad.uiH. 


Tholnli.s Peahody. 


.loseph llovy. 


Jaeob (UMimings. 


John I)..rnmn. 


Jaeob Cmnmings. 


James Andrews. 


17 40. 


175'2. 


17114. 


Thonms Andrews. 


Thomas Peabody. 


Aaron Wood. 


Josepti Halo. 


J.diu Donnan. 


Isaac Ad.ims. 


Jonathan .Sherivin. 


Fnineis Pelley. 


Aaron Kimball. 


Samuel Could. 


Riehard Kimball. 


Johntbadwick. 


Nathan Kimball. 


John Hale. 


As.il'eiley. 


1741. 


175.1. 


17l).i. 


Robert Andrews. 


Jonathan Foster, 


Aaron Wo«l. 


Zi'iKdiuh Foster. 


William Foster. 


J..sepli llovey. 


Thonms I'eab.Hly. 


Riehard Kind.all. 


Jaeob (.'nmmings. 


Nathan Peabody. 


John Peabody. 


Jloses Porter. 


Thomas Perley, Jr. 


Solomon Wood. 


Ehcuczcr Killam. 



17 011. 

Thomas Perley. 
S;imnel iiuiinells. 
Abraham Kedington. 
Joualban Foster. 
Paul l'li(har.l. 

I7fi7. 

As.1 P.il.y. 
Uiebanl Kimball. 
Nalliau Andrews. 
Nalhaiml p.-abody. 
James Peabody. 

17«S. 

Afii P.rk-y. 
Jo.-eph llovey. 
Kbenezer Killam. 
SleplKii Uuiinells. 
I'aill I'll. bald. 

17 011. 

Asjl Perley. 
iMiae A.lams. 
liiehard Foster. 
Slosc-s l'..iler. 
Nathaniel Perley. 
1770. 

John Hale. 
.S^Hiiii.l Itunnells. 
N..lban Andr.'W8. 
Nathaniel Peabody. 
Jacob Cummiiigs. 



Jaeob (.'iimmings. 
Jo.sepli llovey. 
Paul Pi ieliard. 

17 72. 

Nathan Wood. 
Lsaac Adams. 
William Peldey. 
Joualban Foster. 
Hiehaid Peabody. 

1773. 

Nathan .-Vndrews. 



John Cii.shiiig. 
William Pelley. 

Asa Pelley. 
Isaac .\dam8. 
John Curl U. 
John Kobinson. 
lleiijaniili Perley. 

1775. 

Nathan Andrews. 



Jloses I'liliiam. 
1770. 

Nalliau Andrews. 
Is;iac Ailams. 
Nathan Wood. 
J.diii ( n>bing. 
Itiehar.1 Peabody. 

Asa P. I by. 
J..hn( biolwiek. 
Heiijandn Perley. 
Samuel ^^po^ord. 
Jacob Andruua. 



6U 



970 

1778. 

Asa Perley. 

Joliii Ciisliing. 

Bejijimiin Perley. 

Ash Merrill. 

Jukii Wallit. 
I77«. 

Williimi Perley. 

I:i)inc Adams. 

Beiijiimin Perley. 

Lemuel Wood. 

Jobu Derinan. 
17S0. 

Nnttiiiii AiKlr«w9. 

Lemuel AVijoU. 

Juhll Curli». 

Bmclslriel T.vlcr. 

Asa PeiilKjdy. 
1781. 

Aaron Wood. 

Isjmc Adiinis. 

Benjninjn Perley. 

Lemuel Wood. 

Mui^s Peiibudy. 

1782. 
Asa Perley. 

Asii Merrill 
John DoniiflD. 
Lemuel Wood. 
Fruucis Perley. 

1783. 
Natbiin Wood. 
John Kobineon. 
Slepbeii Syiuoiids. 
JuIi]itli»M Foster. 
Fruticis Perley. 

1784. 
Nathan Andrews. 
Williiim Porter. 
Fr.iuew Perley. 
Sauinel Oirleton, Jr. 
Asji Peatody. 

17S5, 
Francis Perley. 
Leinnel Wood. 

JuilllllllIM Wood. 

WllliaTii Porter. 
Tliouius Perley, Jr- 

178S. 

Fnmcis IVrley. 
Satuuel Carletoii, Jr. 
Thomas Pel ley, Jr. 
Lemuel Wood. 
Samuel KimUill, Jr. 

1787. 

Kniliah AiiilrewB. 
Jomitliati Foster. 
Samuel Kimluill, Jr. 
Tlionixs AdaiuB. 
Amos Perley. 

1788. 
Jotiii Donnnn. 
John KoliiiisoD. 
Fniiid- Perley. 
Ivory Hovey. 
Auroli Perley. 

1780. 

liiclnml Foster. 
Leiimel Wo.«l. 
Sivmuel Kimball, Jr. 
3Iow'B Carleton. 
Dauiel SuTM. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



17U0. 

Nathan Andrews. 
Lemuel Wood. 
Eirhnrd Foster. 
Moses Carleton. 
Stejthen Peabody. 

17«I. 
John Donnan. 
Ivory Hovey. 
James (buto. 
Partner SpotTord. 
Simeon Sliles. 

17«2. 
John D.ajoiin. 



I'arlu-r S|)o(Tord. 
Simeon Sliles. 

17»3. 

Francis Perley. 
Lemuel Wood. 
David Kimball, Jr. 
Parker Sjjoirord. 
Simeon Stiles. 

179i. 

Francis Perley. 
Lenniel Wood. 
David Kimball. 



Slo 



I Caileton 



Parker SiioSTord. 

i7»r). 

Francis Perley. 
JohuTjler. 
David Kijnball. 
Samuel (Jhudwick. 
Uoses Dornuiu. 

170U. 

Thomas Perley. 
John Tyler. 
Timothy Dorman. 
Samuel ChudwicU. 



Mo 



1 Doru 



Samuel Perley. 
Samuel Sliofford, Jr. 
Moses Dorniau. 



Saumel SiwBford. 

17 Oil. 

Tbonnis Peiley. 
Israel Adams. 
Kathau Andrews, Jr 
Israel Foster. 
Amos Perley. 

1800. 

Th'-nias Perley. 
Israel .\diims. 
Kalhan Andrews, Jr, 
Israel FoMer. 
Amos Perley. 

1801. 

Thomas Peiley. 
Mu8<'s Carleton. 
Jack Amiiews. 
Jobu Kimball. 
Joseph Syiuouds. 



ids. 



180'2. 

Thomas Perley, 

Bloses Carleton 

Jacob Andrews 

John Kimball. 

Josei>h .Sy 
1803. 

Thomas IVrley. 

Lemuel Woo.l. 

Jacob Gould, Jr. 

Israel Adams, 

Israel lleirick. 
1804. 

Thomas Perley. 

Enos Unnnells. 

Joseidi S.vmonds, Jr. 

Thomas SpolTord. 

Israel Heirick. 
1805. 

Thomas Perley. 

Isaac Bai ker. 
Joseph S.vmondi>, Jr. 
John Kimball. 
Israel llerrick. 

ISOIi. 
Thomas Perley. 
John Kimball. 
Joseph Symonds, Jr. 
Enos Kunnells. 
John Dorman. 

1807. 
Moses Donnnn. 
John Kimball. 
Stephen Spofford. 
Samuel Carleton. 
Amos Perley. 

1808. 
Jonathan Foster, Jr. 
Moses Dornnm. 
Stephen Spofford. 
Jonas Ituiinells. 
Jacob Gould. 

180U. 
Bloses Dorman. 
Jonalhan Foster. 
Parker Sliofford. 
Daniel Adams. 
Daniel Chapman. 

1810. 

Moses Dorman. 
Jonathan Foster, Jr. 
Parker Spoftoid. 
Daniel Adams. 
Daniel Cbaplnnn. 

1811. 

BIoscs Dorman. 
Saninel Spofford. 
Stephen Spoffuid. 
Samuel Kimball. 
Abraham Perley. 

1812. 

Stephen SjiolTord. 
John Kimball. 
Simeon Pearl. 
Parker Spofford. 
Joseph Symonds, Jr. 

1813. 

Moses Dorman. 
J.ihn Kimball. 
Joseph Symonds, Jr. 
Simeon Pearl. 
Jacob Gould. 



1814. 

Moses Dorman. 
John Kimball. 
Joseph Symonds, Jr. 
Simeon Pearl. 
Jacob Gould. 

1815. 
Moses Dorman. 
John Kiiiilmll. 
Israel Foster. 

1816. 
Moses Dorman. 
John Kimball. 
Amos Perley. 
Simeon Pearl. 
Solomon Lowe. 

1817. 

Moses Dorman. 
Israel Foster. 
Amos Perley. 
John Tyh-r. 
Artemas Kimball. 

1818. 

Moses Dorman. 
Amos Kimball, Jr. 
Jacob Gould. 
Simeon Pearl. 
Abraham Perley. 

181». 

Moses Dorman. 
Amos Kimball, Jr. 
Jacob Gould. 
Simeon Pearl. 
Abl-ah.<m Perley. 

1820. 

Moses Dorman. 
Amos Kimltall. Jr. 
Jacob Gould. 
Simeon Peiirl. 
Abraham Perley. 

1821. 

Moses Dorman. 
Seth liiirnham. 
Charles Peabody. 
Simeon Pearl. 

1822. 

Bloses Dorman. 
Jonathan Foster. 
Simeon Pearl. 
John Tyler, Jr. 

1823. 

Bloses Dorman. 
Aaron Spofford. 
Josiab Kimball. 

1824. 

Bloses Dorman. 
Simeon Peail. 
Aaron Spofford. 

1823. 

John Bacon. 
Solomon Lowe. 
Asa Foster. 

182U. 

Josiah Kimkill. 
Dalii, 1 Wood. 
Benjamin Pearl. 

1827. 

Samuel W, Clement. 
Josiab Kimball. 
Charles Peabody. 




mot Qyxfvc^ 



BOX FORD. 



971 



1S28. 

Sitmiiel Kimii.ill. 
&iiiinel W. Ck-iiiotit. 
EJ.iiuil'l n.ii'kur. 

IS2I). 
Samuel W. Clomont. 
SmwkI Khnli.iU. 



Pliii 



I U.t 



I8:i0. 

Samut;) Kimball. 
Geor-o lV;irI. 
Buiijaiiiiii UifbinsoD. 

1831. 
Thi.m.n S. IL.vey. 
Siiiiiu.'l KiiiiUill. 
Moses Dorniiin, Jr. 

IS32. 



Mo 



i I>..i 



Simoon Pearl. 
Aaios Kimball. 

18:13. 



1834. 

Moses Ptirman, Jr. 
Amos Kiriiluill. 
Williiiin Kurnham. 

18.15. 
Amus Kimball. 
Moses Dormnn, Jr. 
George W. Sawyer. 

IS3G. 
Moses Donnan, Jr. 
Amos Kiiiilmll. 
Thomis.S. llovey. 

1837. 
Joshua T. D.ay. 
Charles I'eubody. 
George \V. Sawyer. 

1838. 
GeorRe W. Sawyer. 
Joshua T. Day. 
Amos Kimball. 

183U. 
Joshua T. Pay. 
Samuel Andrews. 
John Sawyer. 

1840. 

Moses Donnan, Jr. 
Joshua T. Day. 
George Pearl. 

1841. 
Joshua T. Day. 
iloses Donnan, Jr. 
William ir. llerrick. 

1842. 
Moses Durman, Jr. 
Samuel W. Clement. 
George Pearl. 

1843. 
Joshua T. Day. 
William II. lUrrick. 
John K. Colo. 

1844. 
Hoses Dorman, Jr. 
George Pearl. 
William R. Kimball. 

1S45. 
Joshua T. Day. 
William II. llerrick. 
AdcIU Duruiao. 



1846. 

Mosea Durniin, Jr. 
William 11 Kimball. 
S. \V. JeiiUias. 

isi;. 

Geor.-e I'l'ail. 
Aneill Doiinan. 



Mo 



, Jr. 



1S4S. 

JIoscs D'lrm in, Jr. 
Geor:;e I'lall. 
William U. Cule. 
1811). 

Joshua T. D.iy. 



1830. 

Ancill Dorjna 
Joshua T. I);i 



IS.-) I. 

.im R. Cole. 



Ancill Dnrman. 
William R. Cle. 
Joliu r. Kimball. 

lS.-)3. 
John F. Kimball. 



Mo 



Kovn 



Benjamin S. Barnes. 

1854. 
Jloses Doiinau. 
Oliver P. Killam. 
John p. Kimball. 

1S55. 
Jolin F Kimball. 
William Lowe. 
Leonard I'erley. 

1 850. 
M.>si.s Dornian. 
George IVail. 
W.lham R. Cole. 

1857. 
John V. Kimball. 
William K. Killam. 
William II. Uerricli. 

1858. 
William K. Killam. 
John V. Kimball. 
William II, Cole. 

1850. 
Williiuu R. Colo. 
William E. Killam. 
Benjamin S. Barnes. 

1S«0. 
William F. Killam. 
William K. Cole. 
Joshua T. Day. 

1801. 

William B. Colo. 
William K. Killam. 
John K. Cole. 

1S«2. 
William E. Killam. 
George W. Chadwiek. 
Thomas I-. Srofford. 

1803. 
John K. KimlMlI. 
William E. Killum. 
Lu-otil Uurrlck. 



1861. 

William F. Killam. 
Joshua T. Day. 
William R. Colo. 

180.->. 
John F. Kimball. 
Benjamin S. Uaruos. 
Ed«.ir.l Howe. 

1866. 
Anrill D.nnian. 
John F. Kimball. 
Oliver P. Killam. 

1867. 
John F. Kimball. 
Ancill D..nuau. 
Koscoe W. Cage. 

1868. 
R.isroe W. (i.igo. 
Joshua T. Day. 
John IVail. 

1S6!I. 
George \V. Chadwick. 
Wdliain F. Killam. 
John K. r.de. 

1S70. 
Ancill Di.rinan. 
George W. I'hadwicU. 
Joshua T Day. 

1871. 
George W. i'hadwick. 
Ancill Donnan. 
John K. Cole. 

1S72. 
Thomas P. Dorman. 
Ge.a-ge W. Chadwick. 
William R. Kimb.iU. 

1873. 
Oliver P. Killam. 
Ancill Donnan. 
John K Cole. 

1871. 
Ancill Dorman. 
George W. Chadwick. 
Israel K. SiiofTorJ. 

1875. 
George W. Chadwick. 
Ancill Donnan. 
John K. Cole. 



1S70. 

Ancill D.aiuan. 
Ge.irge «•. i:i.a.livic:(. 
Isaac \V. AnJr.-iv. 

1577. 

George W. Chadwick. 
John K. Cole. 
Ancill Donnan. 

. 1878. 

Ancill D.enian. 
George W C:liadwick. 
James II. >'ason. 

1870. 
Geol-ge W. Chadwick. 
Benjamin S. Barnes. 
John K. Colo. 

1880. 
John Parkhunit. 
George W. Chadwick. 
Alonzo J. Henley. 

1881. 
George \V, Chadwick. 
John Parkhnrst. 
Charles Pel ley, 2d. 

1882. 
John Parl,hm>t. 
George W. I.liadwick. 
Israel F. SpoHord. 

1883. 
George «'. Ch.adwick. 
John ParLhurst. 
Charles Perley, 2d. 

1884. 
Ancill Donnan. 
James VV. Chadwick. 
James II. Nason. 

1885. 
George W. Chadwick. 
Charles Perley, 2d. 
John Parkhurst. 

1886. 
John I'arUluirst. 
Georgo W Chadwick. 
William K. Cole. 

1887. 
George W. Chadwick. 
.lohii Parkhuot. 
Stephen A. Bi.vhy. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



DAXIKL WOOD. 

The parents of Mr. Wood were, Lemuel born Oc- 
tober 25, 1715, and Friinces (Tyler), born Novem- 
ber, 20, 175;^; they were married Jfarch 21, 1782. 
From this union tliere were seven children, and 
Daniel was the si.xlh child ; he was born February 
10, 1793, iiiid when he was but si.K years of ago 
his father had him helpinj; about the shop in the 
making of shoes. Daniel was also brought up ou 
the farm, which at his father's death was encum- 
bered for about all it was worlh, but having a lovo 
for the old home, he concluded to remove these 
claims, and by his industry and economy he soon 
succeeded. 

His education was limited, as ho only had the 



972 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



advantages of the common schools of that period. 
He married first, Maria, daughter of Isaac Barker, 
Novemhcr 20, 1820; by this union there was one 
child, William H. born in the year 1821, who still 
lives with his father, and is married. Mr. Wood 
was married the second time to Abigail S. the 
daughter of Abram Tyler, she died April, 1879; 
and by this union there were three children, — 
Maria Louise, Samuel Eaton and Louise Maria. They 
all died quite young. 



CHAPTER LXIV. 

TOPSFIELD. 

by sidney tekley. 

First Setti.e.mkxt, General History, etc. — 
The present territory of Topslield was originally con- 
tained in Ipswich and Salem. The locality was called 
by the Indians Shcnewenicdy, and was the home of 
one of (he elans of the Agawams. The first English 
settlers called it New Meadows, probably on account 
of the extensive tracts of meadow land in its immedi- 
ate vicinity. 

The English residents came here as early as 1635. 
The very first settlers were Allan Perlcy, an emigrant 
from England, and ancestor of the Perley family in 
America; William Ti.wne, an emigrant from Bristol, 
England ; Alexander Knight; Zaccheus Gould, from 
Hemel Hempstead, England, and ancestor of most of 
the American Goulds; John W^ikles; John Reding- 
ton ; George Bunker; Lieut. Francis Peabody, an 
emigrant from England, and ancestor of the Peabody 
family in America ; Daniel Clark, ancestor of the 
Topsfield Chirks; William Howard; and others. A 
very good list of the early settlers, with the dates of 
their first appearance, has been made up as follows: 
Thomas A verill, 1064 ; William Averill, 1GG6 ; Thomas 
Baker, 1661 ; P'raucis Bates, 1659; Benjamin Bixby, 
1694; Daniel Bourman, 1606; Michael Bowden, 1669; 
John Bradstrcet, 1661; Edmund Bridges, 1659; 
Thomas Browning, 1661; George Bunker, 1657; 
Isaac Burton, 1692; Anthony Carroll, 1658; Daniel 
Clark, 1645; Isaac Curamings, 1652; John Curtis, 
1672; John Davis, 1672; Timothy Day, 1679; John 
Death, 1670; Thomas Dorman, 11)61; Michael Dwin- 
nell, 1668; Isaac Easty, 1658; Zerubabel Endicott, 
1695; William Evans, 1661; John French, 1664; 
Zaccheus Gould, 1638; George Iladley, 1660; Thomas 
Hobbs, 1664; John Hobson, 1677; John Hovey, 
1664; John How, 1661; William Howard, 1650; 
Samuel Howlett, 1658; John Kcnney, 1683 ; Alexan- 
der Knight, 1645; John Lane, 1676; Jonathan Look, 
1678; William Nichols, 1661 ; Francis Peabody, 1658; 
Thomas Perkins, 16-58; William Perkins, 1655; Allan 
Perley, 1635; William Pricbett, 1668; Abraham Red- 



ington, 1645; John Redington, 1649; John Robin- 
son, 1668; Walter Roper, 1652; Peter Shumway, 
1677; Robert Smith, 1661; William Smith, 1657; 
Matthew Stanley, 1659; William Towne, 1651; Luke 
Wakiing, 1682; James W'aters, 1669; Philip AVelch, 
1670; John Wildes, 1658; Jcsiah Wood, 1695; and 
Nathaniel Wood, 1693. 

The first notice of Topsfield is contained in an order 
of the General Court, dated on the 4th of the 7th 
month, 1639. By this order certain lands lying near 
Ipswich River were granted for a village to the inhab- 
itants of Salem. Although by this order Salem peo- 
ple alone had lawful authority to settle there, several 
families in Ipswich made their homes with the settlers 
from Salun ; and "the Ipswich people" maintained 
preaching here lor two years before they had liberty 
to take up grants of land in the settlement. Septem- 
ber 4, 1643, the General Court ordered that 

" Whereas nt tlio Cu't lioiildcii at Boston the 4th 7th ni» , 1G30, there 
was certaine land lyin^ neare Ipswich Ryver granted f r a village, 
eitli' to some of the inliahitants of Salem or to some of the inliabitants 
of Ipswith, who have farnies i ear unto the said land, to I ee eiiioyed by 
tliose who first setlelcd a village tliere, thoy huth pvonnding for it t"- 
geth'; howsoe^' the ord' nientionetli oiiely .Salem inhabitants, & furas- 
niuch as tlie sjiid inhabitants of Ipswieli, viz.: M'. Bradstreete, M'. 
Symonds, Bl'. ttliittinsliam, M'. Willi. Puinc, M'. Roh't Paine, !i sucli 
othr of Ipswicli or Salem jis they shall associate to themselves, shall have 
lib'ty to setlly a village near the ryver of Ipswich, as it may bee most 
convenient for them to wch the foresaid land shall belong, viz: all that 
wjch lyeth near the said ryver (not form'ly granted to any towne or 
jiton), p'vide that any of the inhabitants of Salem, who have farnies 
near unto the said land now granted, shall have liberty for one yeare 
next Comeing to ii>yne w*h the said village & to have their equall and 
I)poi1ionnblo priviledge in the sjimo ; .\nd whereas Jlr, Brrtdstreete hath 
liberty granted him to take his farnie of 50 i ac. in the next Conveniant 
place that i- fit for a farmc, to that »<i> is granted to >1'. .lohn Endecott 
wet" may pve ]iiiidiciall to the said village, it is therefore ordered that the 
said Blr. Bradstreete shall have liberty to take his said farme of 5(H) ac. 
in any other place hot yet granted to any towne or pson, nor piudiciall 
to any plantation made or to bee made, wch, when bee hath so done 4 
manifested the fame to this Co't, liis aforesaid grant shall fourlhwth bee 
voyde & the said land shall belong to the village before mentioned, to 
bee disposed of by the inhabitants thereof for the i<ood of the w hole." 

Most of the early settlers lived on the north side of 
the river. On the south side the meadows stretched 
away for a long distance ; some of the upland was un- 
der cultivation, but most of it was covered by the 
" Salem woods," when Topsfield liad been settled but 
a few years. 

The General Court declare, October 18, 1648, that 
"the village at the newe medowes at Ipswich is 
named Toppsfcild." 

The population increased, more houses were built, 
and the little hamlet of a few cottages had become a 
settlement of some consequence, when the General 
Court granted it a town charter, as the following copy 
of the record shows : 

"At a third session of the General Court, held at Boston Oct. IS, 1050 : 
In ans' to the reiiuest of Zjiclieus Gould 4 William Howard, in the be- 
halfe of Topsfeild, the Court doth grjint that Topsfeild shall fi-oni hence- 
forth be a tow ne, & have power within themselves to oixler all civill af. 
fayies, as other townes have." i 



I Cleaveland says that the date of incorporation is October 15, IG50. 
Wo find that the General Court also oitier, October 10, IMO,— " In an- 
swer to tlio petition of the luhabit»Dl6 of Topsfeild, it is ordored liy this 



TOPSFIKLD. 



073 



The town wns called Topsfield, probably from 
Tope-ifieUl, .i small parish, about iourniiUs west-imrtli- 
wes' from Castle Hedingliain, in Es.-e.\!-li;re, KiijilamI, 
though no reason is known why that iianie should 
have been selected, unless some ot' the early settlers 
came from that place in Ensrland. 

The records of the early town meetings are gone, 
so that the names of the fust ollicers of tin- town can- 
not be ascertained. In lOGl, however, we have found 
that " Ensigne Howlett, (frances Taiiodye and John 
liedinglon " were chosen selectmen. Lieuleiiant 
Francis Peabody was town clerk, probably, from the 
incor[»oration of the town until ItiSJ, when John 
Gould was chosen his successor. 

To]isfu-ld was a part of the fdd sachem, Miisr/ion- 
omet'f, territory ; and although he gave a deed of the 
land then within the bounds of Ipswich, which in- 
cluded a iiart of what was afterwards Topsfield, to 
John Winthrop, Jr., in ItioS. bis grand~on, Samuel 
English, made a claim upon the town for the land, 
claiming ti le thereto by descent. U[ion the pay- 
ment of three pounds in money, he gave the town a 
quit-claim deed, bearing date March 2S, 1701. 

Allhough the town was iiicorporaled in lO-'iO, its 
boundarus were not settled for a long time after- 
ward, with the exception of Rowley. Rowley bounds 
were fixed so early that their exact location was par- 
tially forgotten in n few years; and after Boxford was 
incorporated In IGSu, a contention, continuing for 
forty-six years, ensued before the line was agreed 
upon. Town meetings were held, committees and at- 
torneys were appointed, prosecutions were begun in 
the courts, and the action even of the General Court 
was repeatedly invoked. The line between Topsfield 
and .Salem was agreed upon in lO');).' and approved 
by the General Court in liii)4. The Ipswich line was 
established after a short quarrel. With Wenham, 
the limits were easily settled, but the duty of the per- 
ambulators on that sideof the town was rather severe. 
The course which they were compelled to take, as 
trom time to time they went to renew or identify the 
bounds, carried them through .a bog, in which they 
often got badly mired. To prevent this discomfort, 
the line was finally altered by an aiuicablo adjust- 
ment. 

At a town-meeting, held Juno 10, 172(5, a petition 
signed by Thomas C.ives, Edward Putnam, .loscfdi 
Knight and five others, praying that the town wouhl 
grant them liberty to join with some families of 
Salem, Doxford and Andover, to be set off as a <lis- 
tiact town, was presented. The town would not lis- 
ten to the petition. However, the [letitioners, with 
the others mentioned, pre-cnted their petition to the 
General Court, which duly considered, and, two years 

court lliat from liencefortli tliij sliall bee a townc, Sl have jtowor witliin 
tlniTn»ln'9 to oilier all civlll alTajcrs, a« other towiics liuvc, p. CuiU." 
See Uio fuloninl Itceorils of .MafSiicliuBells for IWO. 

1 For a C4jpy of tlila ugreeuicut see Mussacliusetts Bay Colony Recor(li 
for ICGi. 



later, granted it. These families, thus set off from 
the towns named, were iuiorporalcd as the town of 
.Micldlcton .lutie lio, 17l>S. TIu- four families on tlie 
east side of the river, now included within the town 
of Topsfield. <u-iginally belongeil to I|>swicli. The 
Lamsdii and (.'nniinings places were settled nearly as 
early as the village of To]>slifld, and helped to siiji- 
port the minisiry at Topsfield I'rom the earliest date. 
From 1721) to 1774 these families struggled to free 
themselves from Ipswich, and to be annexed to Tops- 
field. The town of Ipswich repeatedly o|iposed their 
pc'-ilions, and at last they asked the General Court 
that their [irayer might be grantcil. This was satis- 
factorily answered by ihe Court, February 11, 1771, 
when it ordered that the familirs of .losepli Cuiu- 
mings, .lohu Funipson, Israel Clark, Juseidi Ciiiu- 
miiigs, .Ir , .lohn Lamiisoii, Jr., and Tlionias Cum- 
miiigs, with their lands and buildings, be set to the 
town of Topslield. These two iiistaiues form the only 
material changes in the original boundaries of the 
town. 

In li;i;i the common lands on the s nth side of the 
river were laid out to " iiT Ihadstreet, m' perkins, Zach- 
eas Gollhl, m' liaker, Tho Dorman, llrances Pebody, 
Willi ICvins, Daniell Clark, Isaac Cumming-, sen'', 
Isac ('ummings, jun', F.nsigne Ilowlet, Willi Smith, 
111' Eiidicoat, John Wiles, John Redingtoii, Tho Per- 
kins, Till) IJrowning, .lai'ob Towne, Isace Estey, Willi 
Towne, Edmund T<iwiie, matthew Standly, Anthony 
Carell, Ifranccs Pates, .bjhii JIow, Edinond Bridges 
and Willi Nichol-." In 1004 some of the laml on the 
south side of the river still remained undivided. The 
town voted that this should be granteil to the several 
inhabitants that as-isted in supporting the minister 
in l!ie following jiroportion, viz.: those that paid fifty 
shillings a year were to have one of the larger pieces; 
those who jKiid nuu'c than twenty and less than lilty 
shillings, to have a niedinni-si/.cd piece; and those 
who paid less than twenty shillings, one of the least 
pici'cs. Thus it was divided among the following in- 
habitants, viz. : " .lohn goidd, m' tliomas baker, daiiel 
Clark, tliomas dorman, seur, frances pabody, decon 
liovey, William Eevens, Isack Comings, senr, L^ack 
Comings, iunar, Ensigne howlat, aiitoni Carid, tliomas 
perkins, thoina.s browning, thomas averil, tliomas 
holies, John Redington, John wildes, william smith, 
Edman bridges, Jacob towne, Isack Este, william 
towne, .Joseph towne, Edmau towne, matthew stanle, 
william nicoles, m' william perkeings, m' Endicot, 
John how, Robart andros and frances bates." 

Ill 10->:i the alarming demand for the surrender of 
the provincial charter, under a threat of quo warranto 
in case of refusal, came from Charles II. On Chri.st- 
mas-day of that year the town voted that '' We do 
liercby declare that wc are utterly unwilling to yield, 
either to the resignation of the Charter, or to any- 
I thing that shall be equivalent thereunto, whereby the 
foundation thereof shall be weakened.'' The next 
year the royal menace was put into csecutiou, and 



974 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the letters-patent of Massachusetts Bay were cancelled 
by the Court of Chancery. To carry out the arbitrary 
measures thus begun, James II., in 168(5, sent over 
the notorious Sir Eihuund Andros to be governor of the 
Colony. Two years afterward the king fled to France, 
and the people, having no more to fear from him, 
pounced upon Andros and his assistants and sent 
them back to England. Lieutenant Thomas Baker 
was chosen by Topsfield to meet and consult with the 
"council of safety" about resuming the former gov- 
ment, according to the charter, which was now re- 
vived. His instructions were " to act for the public 
good and welfare and safety of their Colony, prohib- 
iting any act or anything that may have any tenden- 
cy to the infringement of any of our charter privil- 
eges whatsoever." 

John Gould, captain of the Topsfield militia com- 
pany at this time, was arrested and placed in the old 
jail in Boston, for uttering treasonable words against 
Andros and his government ; but before his trial 
came on Andros was himself lodged in the same goal, 
preparatory to treating him to a trij) to the mother 
country, with the advice to stay there. This was in 
1689. 

Three years later came the witchcraft delusion. It 
originated less than five miles from Topsfield, and it 
was not possible that the town should escape. Mrs. 
Nurse, who was executed at Salem Village, and Mrs. 
Howe, of Ipswich, were sisters, and natives of Tops- 
field. Another sister, who married Isaac Esty, lived 
ill Topsfield at the Pierce farm, and another woman, 
Sarah Wildes, of Topsfield, were executed by hanging 
for the crime which they never committed. Mrs. 
Wildes was executed July 19, and Mrs. Esty Sep- 
tember 22, 1692. Abigail Hobbs was also con- 
demned to die September 17, 1692, and was pardoned 
some time afterward, when the light had burst through 
the inky cloud revealing to the astonished court and 
church the terrible errors they had made. 

The laying out and making of roads were among 
the earliest duties of the town. The history of these 
83 they advanced from foot-paths to bridlepaths, 
from these to cart-ways and the carriage-roads of to- 
day ; and the progre-ss made from sloughs to cause- 
ways, and from fords to bridges, might, perhaps, in 
most instances, be distinctly traced. 

Stocks were used as a means of punishment here as 
late as 1757. December 27, 1720, the town " alowed 
to John Willds for makeing the Towns Stoock and for 
finding y' lorns and Lock and bringing them to the 
meeting house and for seeting upsd stoocks £1, 4s." 

The oldest cemetery in the town is that near the 
residence of Mr. Samuel Todd. The church once 
stood in the east corner, and the cemetery was, per- 
haps, originated by the introduction of the English 
custom of interring the dead around the church. The 
most ancient grave-stone, now standing here, is that 
of Capt. Thomas Baker, who died in 1718, at the age 
of eighty-one years. An addition was made to the 



cemetery in 1706, and the whole enclo-ed with a new 
stone-wall. Since then two additions have been 
made, and the yard greatly improved. The first 
grave-digger was John Hobsnn, who was chosen by 
the town, March 7, 1676-77, to "dig graves for such 
as shall require him." He was to have " three shilns 
sixten for ol graves abov for foot long and thre for ol 
under." The new cemetery in the south part of the 
town is about fifty ye:irs old. 

Until 1822, the paupers were boarded out, as was 
the custom in early times. In that year the town 
purchased the " Ebenezer Dodge farm " of Cyrus 
Cummings for three thousand five hundred dollars, 
and fitted up the dwelling house for an almshouse. 
The ))rescnt superintendent is Mr. Henry K. White. 

According to the census of 188.5, the population of 
Topsfield is one thousand one hundred and forty- 
one, — five hundred and seventy-five males and five 
hundred and sixty-six females. In early times there 
were some negroes here. In January, 1777, there 
were seven negro males in town above the age of 
seven years. 

The Odd-Fellows have an assembly here, called the 
Fountain Lodge, and numbered one hundred and 
seventy. It has quite a giod number of members, 
and is in a flourishing condition. In 1886, Mr. Joseph 
E. Stanwood presented the lodge with a large two- 
story house for a hall, which they have neatly fitted 
up. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen also have 
a lodge in the town, its number being sixty-five. 
This lodge was founded here in 1886. It has tvvenly- 
nine members, and holds its meetings in Bailey's 
Block. 

The Danvers and Newburyport branch of the Bos- 
ton & Maine Railroad runs through the centre of the 
town, and has one station, Topsfield, within its limits. 
The road was built in 1853. The trains run tlir lugh 
to Boston without change. Mr. Frederic P. Merriain 
was the station-agent here from 1853 to 1886. His 
successor is Mr. William H. Goodwin from Boston. 

The town has one post-office, which is named 
Topsfield. Mr. Salmon D. Hood is the postmaster. 

The fire department of the town consists of a hook 
and ladder company. 

The town hall was erected in 1873, at a cost of 
thirteen thousand dollars. The building committee 
were Charles Herrick,John Bailey, John H.Potter, 
William E. Kimball, Dudley Bradstreet, Joseph W. 
Batchelder and Ezra Towne. The hall has a seating 
capacity of five hundred. The stage arrangements 
are first class; and the whole building is one which 
much larger towns might be proud of. In the hall 
are located the public library, and ofliccs of the board 
of selectmen, and town clerk and treasurer. In the 
tower is the town clock. 

The taxable property in the town in 1SS7 amounted 
to $1,385,098; personal, $855,583 ; and real, $529,515. 
The number of polls was 296. The rate of taxation 



TOPSFTELD. 



075 



was S6.G0 per $1000. There were taxed 1S3 horses, 
4S0 cons, 421 sheep, 5U oxen, S.^o rlwelliiisrliouscs 
and 7379 acres of hind. The town debt is $21,200. 
Tlie town lias a fund of $;'jOOO given to it by Miss 
Annah Pingree in 187(>, the income of which to be 
devoted to the assistance of the deserving poor. 

Topsfield has not been without its professional 
men. The clergymen will be mentioned in the next 
cha|)ter. The resident lawyers have been two. One was 
Sylvanus Wildes, born in Topsfield in 17o4, graduated 
at Harvard College in 1777, and dic<l here in 1829, 
having, as Cleaveland says, "enjoyed the sweets of a 
perpetual vacation." Tlie other lawyer was ('harlcs 
H. Holmes, a native of Maine, and son of the Jl(jn. 
John H(dmes. He graduated at Brown University in 
1S29. He did but little more professional biisincs-i 
than lawyer Wildes. While preparing this sketch 
the tall .'quire has been admitted to practice in the 
liigher courts where quibbles are unknown. 

The history of the medical profession here is more 
extended. The first physician, of which any record 
has been left, is Michael Dwinnell. His grandfather 
was .said to have been a French Huguenot, of the 
same name, who settled here before KiOS. Dn Dwin- 
nell was born here January 7, 170i)-(i. He was here 
as late as 1733, and probably later. 

The next jihysician was Richard Dexter, who was 
born in Maiden, Ma.ss., June 15, 1713, and began 
practice here in 1740. He was an excellent citizen as 
well .IS physician. He died here November 2."), 1783. 

Dr. Joseph Bradstreet, who was born here in 1727, 
practised here contemporaneon.sly with Dr. Dexter. 
His jiractice was rather limited, and he taught school 
for awhile, dying at last, a pauper, in 1790. 

In 17S3, the year of Dr. Dexter's death, two physi- 
cians settled here. The first of these was Nehemiah 
Cleaveland, and the second, .John Mcrriam. Dr. 
Cleaveland was born in Ipswich in 17G0. He was 
also engaged in iniblic afiairs, serving as a State 
Senator in 1812, 'ir,, '17 and "18. In 1814 he wa.s 
made a session justice of the Circuit Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. From 1820 to 1822 he was associate jus- 
tice of the Court of Ses-ions for Essex County, and in 
1823 he was appointed chief Justice. lie retired in 
1828; and in that year received the honorary degree 
of doctor of medicine from Harvard University. He 
died in this town February 20, 1837, aged seventy-six. 

Dr. Merriam was born in Concord, Mass., August 
10, 1758. He studied medicine in C!iarlton, and 
commenced practice in Topsfield in Uecember, 1783. 
He built and occupied the residence of Mr. Samuel 
Todd. He died of consumption November 21, 1817. 

The next physician here was Jeremiah Stone, who 
was born in Marlborough, N. II., November 2, 1798. 
He began practice here about 1825. and continued in 
it about a dozen years. He died in Provineetown, on 
Cape Cod, April 23, 1875, at the age of seventy-six, 
and his remains were brought to Topsfield for inter- 
ment. 



Dr. Jo-icph Cummings Batchelder succeeded Dr. 
Stone about 18;;s. Hi' was a native of To].sficld. 
He began practice in Lynn, Imt staycil there but a 
short time. He went to Cambridge fnjm Topsfield 
about 1S49, and remaini-d there seven year-. He 
then removed to Templeton, .Mass., where the remain- 
der of his life was sjient in llie prartice of his pro- 
fession, excepting the six months that he served as 
assistant surgeon in the Twenty-Filth Massachusetts 
Regiment in North Carolina in the Rebellion. He 
died in Tem])lct(>n in 1884. 

Dr. Royal AugiHIus Mcrriam, who also succeeded 
his I'alher, Dr. .(ohri Merriam, in the medical profes- 
sion in this town, was bcni here .January 30, 178(), 
and graduated at Dartmouth College in 1808. He 
was a good physician. He died here, of heart dis- 
ease, November 13, 1804, at the age of seventy-eight 
years. 

After Dr. Merriam was well along in years, 
other physicians came to this nourishing town. The 
first ot these was Dr. Charles P. French from Box- 
fortl. He was born in Lyndsborough, N. II., in 1824, 
practised in Boxford in 1848 and '49, and then came 
to Topsfield, where he stayed four years. He now 
resides in the AVest. 

He was succeeded by Dr. David Choale, a native of 
Essex, in 1854. Dr. Choafe stayed till 1857. He is 
now in practice in Salem. 

The present physician. Dr. .lustin Allen, came here 
in the fall of 1857. He is a native ol' Hamilton, and 
graduated at Brown University in 1852 and at Har- 
vard Medical School in 1857. 

(.)n August 28, 1850, was celebrated the bi-centen- 
nial anniversary of the incorporation of the town. 
.\n historical addrt-.ss was given by Nehemiah Cleave- 
land. .\ large number were |iresent, and a very en- 
joy:ible time was had. 

Ui:i.l(;i()fs IIl.sToltY. — Hardly had a settlement 
been begun hire before the preaching of the Gospel 
was established. As early as lt>41 Rev. William 
Knight, a resident of Ipswich, began to preach to 
the little company. The Ipswich people i)aid him 
for his services, which he continued until his death, 
which occurred about 1055. His successor was Rev. 
Wiliiam Perkins, who came hither from Gloucester 
in 1055, and preached here I'or several years. He was 
the son of a merchant t;iilor, and was born in Lon- 
don, England, -Vugust 25, 1007. In 1033 he was as- 
sociated with .John Winthrop, Jr., and eleven others, 
in the settlement of Ipswich. In 1040 he visited his 
native country, but .soon returned and preaclud to 
the small band of worshi|)])er.s living in Weymouth. 
He removed to Gloucester in 1041), and preached there 
from 1050 to '55, when he came to Topsfield. Here, 
after preaching till 1003, he spent the remainder of 
his lile in the calm pursuits of hu-bandry. He died 
May 21, 1082, aged sevcnty-fi)ur years. .Vmong the 
early settlers of the town he was probably the most 
accomplished person. He was a scholar and a man 



976 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of busin^;ss, — a farmer, a clergyman, a soldier and a 
legislator. He represented the town of Weymouth 
in the General Court in 1644; was the leader of a 
military company and one of the Ancient and Hon- 
orable Artillery Company. 

At what time in the ecclcsiastic.il history of Tops- 
field the first meeting-house was erected cannot be 
definitely determined. At first it stood not far from 
the Xewburyport turnpike, near the residence of the 
late Sylvanns Wildes, Ksq., in the east part of the 
town. It was without a pulpit, but was probably a 
very good edifice for the times. 

In 16(i3 the church was gathered here, and Kev. 
Thomas Gilbert was invited to settle over it. The 
church was composed of the Topslield people and 
the "villagers" (the Koxford people). Mr. Gilbert 
agreed to the propr).al on condition that the " villa- 
gers" would engage to assist in his support. This 
condition was agreed to by the " villagers" on condi- 
tion that the meeting-house should be moved so as to 
be more convenient lor them to attend divine service. 
The meeting-house was accordingly moved into the 
southeast corner of the cemetery near the residence 
of Sir. Samuel Todd. Several families in I])swich, 
living near Topsfield, were also members of the 
church, which they helped to support. 

The church was organized, and Kev. Mr. Gilbert 
installed November 4, 1603. He was born in Scot- 
land, in 1610, and h.ad been a clergyman of the es- 
tablished church at Chedlie and atEdling, in Eng- 
land. He was one of the two thousand clergymen who 
were ejected from their benefices by the Act of Uni- 
formity; so that he came almost directly from an 
English vicarage, or curacy, to minister to the spirit- 
ual wants of the incipient church in Topsfield. Mr. 
Gilbert's pastorate here was far from being a smooth 
one. In 1666 he was charged with sedition, and in 
1670 with intemperance. The latter trial was sadly 
disgraceful, and he was dismissed from the pastorate. 
This twice-ejected minister died in Charlestown Oc- 
tober 28, 1673. 

The next minister was Rev. Jeremiah Hobart, of 
Hingham, Mass., who was ordained October 2, 1672. 
He was born in England April 6, 1031, and graduated 
at Harvard College in 1050. His course here was no 
smoother than his predecessor's had been ; and he was 
dismissed September 21, 1680. He was afterward in- 
stalled at Hempstead, L. I., in 1683. where he 
preached about fifteen years, and finding that his 
congregati(m had nearly all left him, he concluded to 
go also. He was next installed at Haddam, Conn., 
November 14, 1700, and continued to preach there 
until his death, which occurred in March, 1715. 
His age was eighly-thrce years. Although little 
sanctity seems connected with this early pastor of 
Topsfield, he is, however, closely related to several 
distinguished divines; and Mr. Brainard, the cele- 
brated missionary, was his grandson. 

In 1682 a pulpit was built in the church, and the 



same year Rev. Joseph Capen, of Dorchester, began 
to preach here. The next year he was invited to set- 
tle over the eluircli. He accepted the call, and was 
ordained June 11, 1684. His salary was sixty-five 
pounds — twenty pounds in silver and forty-five 
pounds in pork and beef — per year, with the use of 
the parsonage house. 

A " minister's farm" had been early laid out, and 
a parsonage built upon it for the use of the pastor. 
The bouse was situated about one-fourlh of a mile 
west of the residence of the late Dr. R. A. Merriam. 
The Revs. Gilbert and Hobart probably occupied the 
house while they preached here, and Mr. Capen 
moved into it in 1683. The house and its surround- 
ings were not suited to the aristocratic tastes of Mrs. 
Capen, and so she pressed her husband to move near- 
er to the villiige. The town granted him twelve 
acres of land near the present Methodist Church, 
and on this land, about 1686, he built the house in 
which they afterward resided, and which is now 
occupied by Mrs. Alonzo Kneeland. The old par- 
sonage was used as a residence by the schoolmaster, 
Goodman Lovewell, from 1693 to 1701, when the 
town v*)tcd to dispose of it. The house which Mr. 
Capen built is one of the oldest, and probably the 
oldest existing house in Topsfield; and the following 
story renders it interesting : In the witchcraft period, 
Mr. Capen, while preaching one Sunday, experienced 
a premonition that something was wrong at home, 
and leaving the congregation in the midst of the ser- 
vices he went to bis hou>e, and there found his worst 
enemy, — old Satan himself. Mrs. Capen had a ser- 
vant-girl, who had been reading a book which ought 
not to have been read on the Sabbath day, and that 
caused the Devil to appear and claim her for his own. 
When Mr. Capen understood how matters were, he 
readily conceived a remedy. Bringing into the room 
a half bushel full of flaxseed, he turned it upon the 
floor, and told the old Imp if he (Satan) succeeded 
in picking up the seed, kernel by kernel, before Mr. 
Capen could read backward, word by word, what the 
girl had read, he (the Devil) might have her. But, 
so the story runs, before the Devil had picked up the 
seed, Mr. Capen had completed his part of the 
agreement, and the beaten king of imps had to leave, 
through a rat hole, it is said, which is plainly visible 
at the present day. 

The old meeting-house was used as a place of wor- 
ship until a new edifice was erected, in 1703. The 
old one was then sold for five pounds, to John Gould, 
who inoved it down to the turnpike, and used it for a 
barn. It was afterwards removed to the " river mead- 
ows," where some of its decayed timbers could be 
seen a few years ago. The pulpit and some of the 
lumber of the old meeting-house had been used in 
the construction of the new one. The new meeting- 
house was forty-four feet long and forty-two feet 
wide. The site of this house was that occupied by 
the present Congregational Church, which was then 



TOI'SKIKI.D. 



a kiKill that had been levelled to some extent for the 
pui|iose of building the i-hurch upon it. 

Kev. Mr. Capen eontinuod to i>reaeli here lor 
flirty-three years. He died June .'jO, 172J, at the ajre 
of sixty-six years. He waa born in Dorchester, 
Mass., Deeemher 20, 1658, and graduated at Harvard 
CoIK'L'e in l('i77. He was a good i>ast(ir, but his 
abilities as a preacher were moderate. 

" Hear Mr. Oipcn, that levcroil iimn. 
Who dill the faith in Christ uiiiintuiii ; 
A leanii-.l man, and Kodly, tin., 
Nonu will ili.n.v this wlio liim kw\yr- Ki'ilnjil,. 

Mr. t'apen's successor was llev. .lohii Kmersoii, 
who was born in Charlestown, .Mass., February 7, 
1707, and ordained as pastor of the cliunh here No- 
vember 27, 1728, at the age of twenty-one years. His 
labors here closed just before his death, which occur- 
reil July 11, 1774, '"having," as his epitajdi says, 
"served God faithfully in the gospel of His Sun up- 
warils of forty-five years." 

During Mr. Emerson's nnnistry a new church hail 
been erected. It was raised in 1759, and finished in 
17()0. It was fifty-four feet long, and forty-two feet 
wide, with twenty-six feet posts. It had a steejde, and 
stood on the site of the old church. For the raising, 
the town furnished one barrel of rum and eleven bar- 
rels of cider. The cost of the meetinghouse was £743 
10s. lid. The most interested agent in the erec- 
tion of the new church was Deacon George Bixby. It 
is a fact worthy of notice, that a 'Sir. lloss, of Ips- 
wich, who was present at the raising of this meeting- 
house, he being at the time but nine years old, was 
also present at the raising of the present churcli edi- 
fice, more tlian eighty-three years afterwaids. 

For five years alter Rev. Mr. Emerson's death the 
society had irregular preaching. Then Rev. Daniel 
Breck, a native of Boston, was settled over the church. 
His ordination took place on Wednesday, November 
17, 1771), the sermon being preached by the Rev. Mr. 
Lothrop, of the Old North Church, Boston, from 2d 
Corinthians iv. 5 : " For wc preach not ourselves, but 
(,'hrist Jesus the Lord ; and ourselves your servants 
for Jesus' sake." Mr. Breck was a man of fair talents 
and a good writer; but his ability as a preacher was 
small. He endeavored to introduce some ref'orma in- 
to the church, which created a strong feeling against 
him, and the result was an honorable dismission, after 
nine years of service. May 2G, 1788. Mr. Breck re- 
moved to Hartlaiid, Vt., where he was .settled in the 
ministry, and died in extremeold age. 

Mr. Breck's successor was Rev. Asahel Hunting- 
ton, whose ordination took place on Tliur.sday, No- 
vember 12, 1789. He was born in Franklin, Conn., 
March 17, 1761, and graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1786. Rev. Dr. Hart, of Preston, now Griswold, 
Conn, preached the ordination sermon. Mr. Hun- 
tington's useful and acceptable service continued here 
until April 22, 1S13, when, after four days' illness, he 
died of nnilignant sore throat, at the age of fifty-two 
(12 



years. His funeral scriiiDii was preached by Rev. 
Isaac r.raman of the West rari>h of R.iwlcy, now 
the liiwn nf t icurgrtuuri. Thi> discourse was piili- 
lishcil, and, in coniUTtiDU with it, an unlinislud 
sermon of .Mr. Ihintinglon, wrillcri mi the very day 
he was seized with the fatal illness. It was from the 
text: " Be ye also ready ; for in such an hour as ye 
think not, the Son of man coiiietli," 

111 1817 the spire of the steeple of the niceting- 
house was taken down and a cap-tower erected in its 
place, 

A bell weighing H.'iS.l pounds was purchased of 
I'aul Revere A Sons, Ibr four hundred dollars, and 
suspended in the tower of the church, ''to be rung 
on all ]iublic days and tolled lor funerals." \ eop- 
|)er vane was placed upon the steeple. 

For seven years after .Mr. Huntington's death the 
church had no settleil p;ustor. liev. Rodney Gove 
Dennis, of .New lioston, \. H., accepted the invita- 
tion of the church and society to settle over them, 
and his ordination took place on Wednesday, (October 
4, 1820. 

Several religious ilenoininations being now rejire- 
.sentcd in the town, the unanimity ofihe people ingiving 
their support to the Congregational Church was gone. 
While atl'airs were in this sltite the leading members 
of the Congregational body petitioned the General 
(Jourt to grant them a parish charter, which was ac- 
cordingly done and ajiproveil by the trovernor, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1824. The lirst legal meeting of the parish 
was held on Monday, JIarcli 29, 1824, at which Hon. 
Nehemiah Cleaveland was chosen moderator; Jacob 
Towiie, Jr., clerk; David Perkins, Thomas Balch and 
Samuel Hood, committee ; and Samuel Hood, treas- 
urer. Deacon Daniel l!ixliy, who died the following 
year, bequeathed to tills p.-irish llic farm known as 
the " Donation farm,'' lor the support of the min- 
istry. The princi[ial of this fund in 1877 amounted 
to $5,592.55. 'I'lie church has beside this fund two 
hundred dollars, the income ot which is to be aiiplied 
for the sup|)ort of the ministry. 

April 22, 1827, Rev. Mr. Dennis .asked for his dis- 
missi(ni, because, as he says in his letter, his success 
does not justify him in continuing here. The parish 
refused to dismiss him ; but on a second application, 
April 9, 1829, his request was granted. The council 
for his dismission met May 18, 1829. Rev, Mr. Den- 
nis was born in New Boston, N. II., .\pril 17, 1791. 
After leaving Tiipslield, he was settled at Somers, in 
Connecticut. 

His successor was the Rev. James Frisby JIcFwen, 
who was installed on Wednesday, May 5, 18,30. He 
was born in East Hartford, Conncctieut, .\ngust 25, 
179;!, and graduated at Dartmouth College in 182.'i. 
He was first settled at Bridport, in Vermont, where he 
stayed but a few years. A " root of bitterness,' as 
the parish records call it, 8)>rang up between Mr. 
McEwen and the church toward the close of the 
year 1840. A council to consider of his dismi.ssiop 



978 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



was held March 10, and his connection with this 
society ended May 5, 1841. He went to Rye, New 
Hampshire, where he was installed December 1. 
1841. He was settled at Rye but a few years. He 
then went to West Brattleborongh, in Vermont, where 
he died April 14, 18.50. 

The next settled minister was Rev. Anson Mc- 
Loud, of Hartford, in Connecticut, who was ordained 
here December 8, 1841. He was born in Hartford 
June 21, 1813. and graduated at Yale College in 
18.38. 

The present church was erected during the minis- 
try of Mr. McLoud, in 1842, at a cost of five thous- 
and dollars. The house was dedicated on Wednes- 
day, February 22, 1843. It occupies the site of its 
predecessor. 

After a period of twenty-eight years, Mr. Mc- 
Loud's connection with the ministry iiere was dis- 
solved October 1, 186".'. He continued to reside in 
Topsfield, where he died February 21, 1883. His 
faithful labors here secured for him a lai-ge place in 
the affections of his people, and the fullest respect of 
the neighboring churches. 

Another pastor was soon settled. This was Rev. 
Edward P. Tenney, of Boston, who was installed on 
Wednesday, December 1, 1869. Mr. Tenney found 
the place uncongenial to his tastes and desires, and 
resigned September 10, 1870. For several years he 
has been president of Colorado College, the enter- 
prising and useful college of that state. Mr. Tenney 
is the author of those little volumes entitled " Aga- 
menticus " and " Coronation." 

The next pastor was Rev. James Hill Fitts, of 
Andover, who was installed June 12, 1871. Mr. 
Fitts was born in Candia, in New Hampshire, March 3. 
1829, and graduated at the Bangor Theological Se- 
minary in 18.58. He was ordained as an evangelist 
November 2, 1859; and first installed at West Boyls- 
ton, in Massachusetts, September 3, 1862. Mr. Fitts 
was dismissed here March 22, 1880. He has since 
that time preached in South Newmarket, in New 
Hampshire. 

The pulpit here was then supplied until Rev. Lyn- 
don S. Crawford was installed September 27, 1883. He 
was a native of North Adams, in Massachusetts, and 
was ordained as a missionary in 1879, being stationed 
at MarisicB, in Western Turkey. He was dismissed at 
his own request, to return to his missionary labors. 
October 17, 1886, and immediately entered upon his 
work in Brousa, in Turkey in Asia. 

The present pastor is Rev. Charles Washington 
Luck, of Marion, Mass., who was ordained here on 
Wednesday, June 29, 1887. He was born in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, February 2, 1857, and was educated at 
Harvard College and Andover Theological Seminary, 
graduating from the latter place in 1887. 

The church membership now numbers about one 
hnndred and forty-eight. The Sunday-school in 
connection with this church, has a membership of 



about one hundred and sixty-five, and a library of 
about one thousand volumes. 

The parish has a ministerial fund now amounting 
to six thousand two hundred and ninety-seven dol- 
lars, which includes the "Donation Farm " fund of 
which we have spoken. 

A house was presented to the parish by Mr. Joseph 
E. Stanwood for a parsonage a few years ago. For 
some reason it was not used for that purpose, and 
was afterwards sold to Charles H. Holmes, Esq. In 
the spring of 1886 the mansion house of Mr. Holmes 
was purchased by the parish, and has become the 
parsonage. 

The parish of which we have been writing is known 
as the Congregational Parish, and its denominational 
religious belief is Orthodox Congregational. The 
only other parish that ever existed in the town is that 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. There used to 
be quite a number of Baptists here, but no such 
church was ever established. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — Early in the summer 
of 1830 Charles Dodge and Ezra Glazier, members of 
the Methodist Church in Ipswich, held meetings in 
the North School-house in Topsfield, and also in the 
barn of Captain John Adams. Rev. Jacob Sanborn, 
who had charge of the Methodist Church in Ipswich, 
also preached here occasionally, and a number of 
conversions occurred. In September, 1830, Rev. 
William Nanseamen, the fir.st regular minister, w-as 
sent here by the presiding elder, and October 20th, 
in the same year, the society was organized with 
fifteen members. They erected a house of wor- 
ship the following year, it being raised October 19, 
1831. Timothy Munroe, of Lynn, took the contract 
for building. Its site was on the Newburyport turn- 
pike, near Springville. It was dedicated December 
28, 1831. It was forty feet square, and cost six hun- 
dred and three dollars. In 1840, January 9th and 
10th, the meeting-house was moved on wheels to land 
of Richard Phillips by fifty yoke of oxen. The new 
site was given by Mr. Phillips to the society. It was 
in the north corner of Mr. John B. Lake's house-lot. 
The present parsonage of the society was erected in 
1850, at a cost of seven hundred dollars. Rev. John 
G. Cary was its first occupant. The present church 
was erected in 1853, and dedicated June 14, 1854. 
The church and parsonage are both free from debt. 
A fine and large organ was placed in the church in 
1868, at a cost of nine hundred dollars. A Sabbath- 
school is held in connection with the church. The 
list of ministers who have been stationed here is as 
follows: William Nanseamen, 1830; Asa W. Swiner- 
ton, 1830-31; R. D. Esterbrooks, 1831; Thomas 
Stetson, 1832-33 ; David Culver, 1833-34 ; Benjamin 
King, 1834; Charles McReading, 1884; Henry B. 
Skinner, 1834-35 ; John E. Risley, 1836 ; S. E. Pike, 
1836; G. F. Pool, 1836-38; George W. Bates, 1838- 
39; Chester Field, Jr., 1839-40; L. B. Griffin, 1840- 
41 ; Amos Walton, 1841-42; H. 0. Dunham, 1842-43; 



TOI'.SFIKIJ). 



97!" 



I. J. P. Colyer. 1843-45; Moses P. Webster, 184r)-4(;; 
John P.mlson, lS4»;-47 ; William H. Stone, 1S47-4!); 
Kinsman Atkinson, 1849-')1 ; ,Iulin (i. Cary, 1851-o;5; 
A. F. Bailey, 185:i-.'>4, J. W. Hemis. 1854; 8. G. 
Hiler, Jr., 1854-55 ; John C. Smith, 1855-5G ; Frank- 
lin Furher, 185G-57; Abraham M. Osgood, 1857-58 ; 
George Sniherlanfl, lS58-t;0 ; J. W. Lewis, 18t;0-Gl ; 
A. D.Merrill, 18i;i-G2; E. 8. Snow, 1SG2-G3; F. G. 
Morris, 18G4-GG; Geortre K. Chapman. 18GG-G7 ; Wil- 
liam I). Bridge, 1SG7-G9; S F. Chase, 18G'J-7(i; J. J'. 
Mears, 1870-72; S. A. Fuller, 1872-73; (i. W. Buz- 
zell, 1873-75; W. H. Meredith, 1875-77; Stephen 
Louis Rodgers, 1877-79; George H. Clarke, 1879-82; 
A. C. Manson, 1882-83; N. 11. Martin, 1SS.1-8G; 
James T. Docking, 1886-87, and Paul Carnie. 1887. 

Some of these pastors were principals of the Tops- 
field Academy while they proache<l here. The so- 
ciety was incorporated by an act of the Legislature, 
approved by the Governor April 2G, 1847. The 
church lias seventy-three members and a fund of two 
hun<lred dollars. 

Mii.iT.VKY HisroitY. — In Topsfield, as elsewhere, 
the farmers carried weapons, as well as tools, into the 
field, and armed sentries used to walk around the 
church when the peojde were assembled. In 1G73, 
when the church stood in the cemetery near Mr. 
Todd's house, a massive stone wall of five or six feet 
in height and three feet wiile, was built around it. 
A space of ten feet, and on the south side, twelve 
feet, was left between the wall and the meeting-house. 
On the southeast corner of the wall was built a watch- 
house ; and a space of four feet was left between the 
watch-house and the nieetiiig-housc, so that the space 
around the latter would not be obstructed. 'J'iie 
watch-house wa.s probably fitted u]> without \vin<lows, 
and the light was let in through the small loop-holes 
and the ib)or, when open. It was called in 170() the 
" old meeting-house fort." There was a watch-house 
built to tlie new meeting-house in 1703, but it was re- 
moved before 1738. 

In 1G7G the (ieneral Court ordered that each town 
shcHild "scout and ward," and clear up the brush- 
wood along the highways, " to prevent the skulking 
of the enemy," which order was not disregarded, 
probably, by sudi men as were the settlers of Tops- 
field. A garrison-house wa.s built by the early set- 
tlers, but it is not known that it was ever needed as a 
place of resort in an attack by the Indians. 

A military company was formed here very early, 
agreeably to the laws of tlie colony, with whom the 
soldiers in Boxford trained until tlic incorporation of 
that town in 1GS5. 

An armory was early erected, of which William 
Smith was the kee]>er in 1G82. 

Jlay 27, 1GG8, the General Court appoints or sanc- 
tions Francis Peabodyto be lieutenant of tlie military 
company here. 

October 13, 1G80, the (n-neral Court order that the 



troops in this lowii be enlisted under .Major Xalbaniel 
Sahoristall. 

In March, lil7S-79, the town made a rale of €41 
(S.v. G(/. to procure powder and bnllcis wilh. In l>ilS 
the town voted to biiihl a jiowder house to keep the 
military stores in. 

In 1840 all the oUl military companies belonging to 
the State were disbamlcd, A new i-ompany had lieen 
formed here, called the "Warren liliics," about 1S3G, 
which existed for about ten years. In 1841 the town 
voted to build an armory for them. 

Topsfield assisted wilh the rest of the towns in fur- 
nishing men anil means in carrying on the Indian wars 
and the Frencli War. C'lcaveland, in his bi-centen- 
nial address, says. 

"Till- lii-v. Mr. liiirimr.i, of MarWeliead, in his ;iiit(.l,iiiKrai.hy, makoa 
liiiMor;il.l.. menlion of a Ciipluiu lioynton, of To|isli.l.l, who coinniamled 
a .-omiiiny in the Kml lifKCncnt .^f Gi-neral .March's Ilriga'li-, .Inrins thi> 
unsucifssful atti-mpt upon Port lioyal in ITiiT. In ilasii's • History of 
lUnvh'y,' I lindan.)ticcof Ctti.tnin tsraul llavis, of T.>psfu-I<l, as coni- 
maniiing a company in tlie Krciioti War. John Itakcr . . . ua*i an 
otliicr in the same servi,-e. Bnt enough,— the story of those wcarisomo 
and often Moody campaigns, so far its relates to tile sohliei^ of Topsfield, 
hns not come down to us. We know who and what they were ; and 
we feel as well iuwured that they were faithful and bravi^, as if wo liad 
seen the record of their virtues and deeds on the historic page, or on 
italbriM." 



Several of the Topsfield soldiers perished at Cape 
Breton in 1744, and others in dilferent services in the 
French War; while many, from enduring the fa- 
tigues and sufl'criiigs of the expeditions, destroyed 
their health and future usefulness. 

In 1755 the removal of the French Acadians took 
place. The people of Nova Scotia, or Acadia, as it 
was then called, promised to be neutral between the 
French and Knglish, but they broke their agreement, 
and the only way to put an end to the assistance the)' 
were rendering to the l''rench, it was deemed by the 
English authorities, was to depopuhite their country 
tinil scatter them through New England. The story 
of their sufferings has been told by Longfellow, in 
his poem, " Evangeline.'' One i'amily wtis sent to 
Tojisfield ; it consisteil of a man and his wife and five 
children. The father, aged forty-three years, was 
named Michael Dugoy ; his wife, aged forty-three, 
was named Elizabeth Dngoy ; and their children were 
Armont, aged t'otirteen ; Mary, aged eleven ; Mod- 
esty, aged eight; .loseph, aged six; and Anne, aged 
four years. They arrived in town October 21, 175G. 
They resided all the time that they lived in Topsfield 
in the house of David Balch, which stood a few rods 
soulli of the residence of Mr. Cliarles .1. P. Floyd. 
They were supported, when not able to support them- 
selves, by the Province. The head of this ftimily was 
able to do but little work. In the summer of 17G0 
they removed to Newbury, and in 17G7 Topsfield 
voted to give them* thirty-two ilolhirs to pay their 
passage to Canadti and support (hem on the voy- 
age. 

Clcaveland says, "Tradition long preserved their 
memory as sad, retiring and inotfensive. Sad they 



!)80 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



might well be, — torn from their property and happy 
homes, — separated from all their kinsfolk and coun- 
trymen, and cast among people who could sympathize 
with them neither in language, nor manners, nor re- 
ligion." 

Captain Samuel Smith, of Topsfield, was chosen by 
the town to confer with the committee of safety in 
Boston, in 1768. He was also a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress in 1775. 

The people here were strongly opposed to theStamp 
Act of 1765, and grateful to the Crown when it was 
removed. In 1770 the town votes to encourage and 
promote all home manufactures, and to "do every 
thing that is in their power to enable the merchants 
to continue in their agreement for the non-importa- 
tion of goods from Great Britain." 

January 20, 1774, the vote which follows was 
passed by the town : "that we will not buy nor sell 
any tea that has been or may be exported from Great 
Britain, until such time as there is a total repeal of 
the oppressive and unconstitutional act or acts of 
Parliament for imposing a duty on tea," etc. 

October 11, 1774, the following instructions were 
given to Captain Samuel Smith, to guide him in the 
deliberations of the Provincial Congress, in which 
he was to represent the town : 

1. •' That you use your endeavors tlittt King George ye 'Ml he acknowl- 
edged aa our rightful sovereign. 

2. *' That you use your endeavors that all our constitutional and char- 
ter riglita and privileged be kept good apd inviolable to the latest pos- 
terity. 

3. " That you do everything to the utmost of your power to prevent 
any of the late oppressive .\cts of Parliament being executed; provided 
that you do not act anything that is repugnant to what the Continental 
Congress may resolve." 

As independence seemed more and more certain, 
the town's people express themselves more openly in 
favor of the independence of the Colonies. 

June 14, 1776, they vote "that in case the Honora- 
ble Continental Congress shall think fit, for the safety 
of the united Colonies to declare them independent 
of the kingdom of Great Britain, this town do solemn- 
ly engage to defend and sui)port the measure, both 
with their lives and fortunes to the utmost of their 
power." 

In March, 1775, the militia company in Topsfield 
wds commanded by Captain Joseph Gould. It formed 
a part of Colonel John Baker's regiment, and con- 
sisted of sixty-three men. On recommendation of 
the Provincial Congress, a company of " minute- 
men " were raised, and placed under the command of 
Captain Stephen Perkins. It numbered forty-seven 
men. When the alarm of the Battle of Lexington 
came, April 19, 1775, these two companies immedi- 
ately marched toward the scene of the conflict. They 
did not see active service on that day, however, as 
they arrived after the battle wa.s over. 

February 1.3, 1777, the town voted to give every 
volunteer eight pounds, in addition to what Con- 
gre.«s grants, who will enlist in the .\meric-an armv 



to serve for three years. A month later the amount 
was raised to eighteen pounds. 

In May, 1778, a rate of one hundred and twenty 
jiounds was assessed to defray the charges of clothing 
for the soldiers in the continental army. 

At didVrent dates votes of the town to hire soldiers 
are found recorded. The town, in 1780, voted to pur- 
chase eight thousand four hundred and forty pounds 
of beef for the use of the army. In 1777 a committee 
to look afterthe soldiers' families, and to aid them, if 
need be, in procuring the necessaries of life, was ap- 
pointed by.ihetowu. 

The names of about three hundred men are found 
on the muster rolls of the Revolution. They served 
at Rhode Island, Bennington, Castle Island, Fort 
George, Ticonderoga and elsewhere. Twenty-seven 
men served in the company of Captain John Baker, 
of Topsfield, in Colonel Moses Little's regiment. 
Twenty served in the company of Captain Robert 
Dodge, of Ipswich, in Colonel Samuel Johnson's reg- 
iment, and General Warren's brigade, in 1777. Twenty- 
one served in the company of Captain Joshua French, 
of Salisbury, in Colonel Edward Wigglesworth's regi- 
ment in 1776, at Ticonderoga and elsewhere. 

August 23, 1808, the town adopted an address to the 
President of the United States to have the Embargo 
Act of December 22, 1807, either wholly or partly re- 
moved. The declaration of war, five years afterward, 
was condemned as an unnecessary and useless mea- 
sure. The town's quotas of men for this war were, 
however, raised and equipped for service in due time. 

The War of the Rebellion came on in its course, and 
again were the men of Topsfield called to engage in 
the service of their country. A bounty of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars, and later of two hun- 
dred dollars, to volunteer soldiers was paid by the 
town, which furnished one hundred and thirteen sol- 
diers, a surplus of six over all demands. Five of these 
were commissioned officers. 

" And, with the faith that God wonld save 
The Union, He, the Father, gave, 
Not only unimpaired, but more 
Substantial than it was before," 1 

the soldiers entered and took prominent parts in 
the five years' conflict. Five of them perished in 
Andersonvillc Prison, how, we know too well. Others 
were imprisoned there, and in Libby Prison, on Belle 
Island. Several gave up their lives for their country 
on the battle-field of Fredericksburg, at Pamunkey 
River, in the last battle of the Wilderness, and other 
conflicts with the South. Many others moistened with 
their blood the soil of Winchester, Va., the banks of 
the Antietam, Donaldsonvillc, Port Hudson, and the 
battle-field of the second battle of Bull Run. Battles 
of Roanoke Island, Southwest Creek, Kingston, White- 
hall, Goldsborough, Ball's Bluff, Kdenburg, Mt. Jack- 
son, Strausuurg, Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock, Sul- 



I From the ja-u of Charles H. Holmes, Esq., and forming part of & 
solutions offered by him, and accepted by thu town early in the wa 



TOI'SFIKIJ). 



!)81 



])hur Spriiin-s, Chantilly, South Mountain, lioth battles 
of Port Hudson, and otliers, wcro also familiar to tlio 
Topstield " Boys in Blue." At least half a score died 
in the service of Southern diseases. Several arrived 
home, only to breatlie their last breath among their 
relatives and friends. The remainder of that brave 
number luul their constitutions more or less under- 
mined, and many who came (mt of the army ai)|iar- 
ently well and strouf? have since dieil from the effect 
of their service. 

The foIlowiiiiT is a list of those who jrallantly and 
patriotically gave up tlieir lives for llieii' country in 
the hospital at the front, in the rebel prison, ami on 
the battle-field : John H. l?radstreet, .James 15rown 
(killed at battle of Fredericksburfr, Va., December 
13, 186i), Jloses Deland (killed in battle near Pamun- 
key Eiver May 30, 181)4), Royal Augustus Deland, 
Swiuerton Dunlap (killed in the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, 1864), Emerson P. Gould, William II. lladley, 
George Prescott llobson, Francis .\. Hood, Daniel 
Hoyt (died in Andersonville Prison Scptendier, 
18tj4), A. A. Kneeland, Henry Porter Kneeland 
(died in Andersonville Prison October, 18(!4), .John 
AVarren Lake, Lewis H. Perkins, Nathan Hanson 
Roberts (died in .Vndcrsonville Prison, lS(i4), Daniel 
H. Smith (died in Andersonville Prison August, 
181)4), John P. Smith (died in Andersonville Prison, 
1864), John Stevens (killed in the last battle of the 
Wilderness May, 1864), Eugene H. Todd and Wil- 
liam Welch, Jr. The town's quota for the navy was 
eleven, two of whom, William H. H. Foster and 
John Hoyt, died in the service. The memory of 
those soldiers and sailors who give up their lives in 
the service is preserved by having their names en- 
graved on marble tablets, which are secured in a promi- 
nent position in the town hall. 

The whole amount of money expended by the 
town, e.xclusive of State aid, was i?14.746.3r). The 
State aid paid to the soldiers' families during the 
war amounted to §7.634.10. The ladies of Toi)sfield 
worked heartily in the cause of the soldiers, iind for- 
warded to the army money, clothing and liosjiital 
stores, to the value of five hundred d<dlars. 

Schools, Llnit.\KIE.s, F;tc.— The first reference 
on the records of the town to the subject of educa- 
tion is dated March 6, 1693-94, and is as follows: 
"The Town have agreed that Goodman Love- 
well, Schoolmaster, shall live in y" Par.sonage house 
this yeare ensewing, to kepe Schole and swepe y" 
meeting house.'' A year later the town vote " that 
father Lovewell shall in Joy y" liouse and orchard for 
y" yeare ensewing on y" same terms as formerly." 
The town, for a long period, had but a single sciiool- 
master. He wxs chosen at the annual town meeting, 
and was usually a citizen of the town. A room in 
some private house was hired for a school-room, even 
as late as 17'>0. The first school-hou.ses of which the 
records speak were Imilt between the years 1790 an<l 
1794. In 17911 the town was divided into three 



school districts, and named the south, middle and 
north districts. A seliool-house was erected in each 
district. 'I'he <'ast district was soon after added. 
The middh', since changed to "t'entre" .'"ebool- 
House, stood where the town hall stands. In 1>^67 
the town pnrcliaseil the academy liuiUling, and 
changed the t'entre School to this building, having 
divided the school into a ])rimary an<l s\ grammar 
school. The grammar school is kept in the second 
story, and the |)rinuiry school in the tirsl slory of ibe 
building. The four districts still exist During the 
past school year, one liniidrc<l and seventy-nine 
seholais have altende(l Ibe town s(diools. 'I'lie town 
paid for school e.xpi'nses, repairs on school buildings, 
teaching, etc., during the last school year, S2,l'21.0!l. 

Topxjifid .I'vk/cw//.— The academy was establisheil 
in 1828, and flourished for many years. The pre- 
ceptors, in chronological order, were Francis Vose, 
E. D. Sanborn, .\lfred W. I'ike, Benjamin (irccnleaf, 
Asa F''arwell, William F. Kent, Edmund V. Shifter, 
B. O. Marble, O. liuiinby, Joseph E. Noycs, Kins- 
man Atkinson, Josejih Warren Healey, O. I). Allis 
and Albert Ira Dutton. Mr. Dutton discontinued 
the school in 186(1. The projterty came into the pos- 
session of Asahel Huntington, Esq., of Salem, of 
whom the town pureliasrd it for a school-house in 
1867. 

In the list of preceptors given above are several 
who were (jnite ilistinguished in different ways. The 
well-known inathematician, Benjamin Greenleaf, the 
widely-known secretary of the New lOngland His- 
torico-tienealogical Society, Jlr. Kdniund F. Shifter, 
the Methodist clergyman. Rev. Kinsman Atkinson, 
and another clergyman. Rev. Alliert I. Dutton, are 
deserving men. 'I'he aiademy occupied a ci-ntral lo- 
cation, on all elevalioii, which made it the highest 
building in the village. Several of the young men 
who passed an academical course here have become 
distinguished, and many others have been making 
the world better for the instruction they received and 
the habits they acquired under the tutelage of these 
instructors. 

Sociii'l Li/ji-iiri/. — .V jiroprietor's library was estab- 
lished here in 1794, by several of the leailing men ai' 
the town. It contained two hundred volumes. It 
existed until 187.'), when the [iresent public library 
was opened to the public, and the old library 
was incorporated with the new, but being kept sep- 
arately in its old cases. 

Public l.ibrarij. — The public library was founded in 
1875. .\ room was given to the use (jf the library in 
the town hall, and fitted up for its accommodation. 
The following-named gentlemen were appointed by 
the town, a committe<' for establishing the lilirary: 
Sidney \. Merriam, Rev. An.son .McLoud, Mr. Hum- 
phrey Balch, Rev. .James H. Fitts and Dr. .Inslin 
Allen, ilr. Merriam, Jlr. Blake and others contrib- 
nteil to the library. .Mr. .Mi-Loud was librarian for 
several years from i he organization of the library; 



982 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



since his service ended several others have filled the 
office. The books are quite well selected, and the 
library contains s'unc valuable works. 

The library of the late Mr. McLoud, which was 
purchased by Mr. A. A. Low, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has 
been presented by him to the town intact. It is kept 
by itself, and forms a valuable and extensive addition 
to works already collated. 

There are thirty-six hundred and thirty-six volumes 
now in the library. The late Sidney A. Merriam at 
his decease, bequeathed to the library a bond of one 
thousand dollars, the interest on which to be applied 
semiannually, to the purchase of books. The fund 
of the library now amounts to two thousand dollars. 
Besides the interest on this fund, the town makes an 
annual appropriation for the library. The library is 
controlled by a committee consisting of four gentle- 
men. In its present flourishing condition the library 
cannot fail to be a great educator. It furnishes what 
is needed and desired by the young and the old, and 
is a continual blessing to the town. 

Business, Manufacturino, Etc. — The leading 
business ofTopsfield is, as it has always been, agricul- 
ture. Many other and important branches of busi- 
ness and manufacturing have at different times been 
carried on. 

As early as 164S mining was an interesting, if not 
profitable, pursuit here. Governor Endicott owned 
an extensive tract of land here in 1639, and in 1648 a 
copper mine was discovered upon it. Mr. Leader, 
a metallurgist, then superintending the Lynn iron- 
works, having expressed a favorable opinion of the 
ore, Mr. Endicott spent considerable money in work- 
ing his mine, which Is situated near the productive 
Peirce farm, on the turnpike. More than one hun- 
dred and twenty years after its discovery it was re- 
opened and worked for a short time with considerable 
loss to the proprietors. Again, after another interval 
of about seventy years, a comj)any of Salem capital- 
ists caused the old shaft to be cleared out, and the 
ore subjected to analysis. The result was that the 
excavation was once more filled up, never again prob- 
ably to be disturbed. 

Iron ore was dug in the low-lands, to a considerable 
extent, by the early settlers. June 17, 1C8I, the town 
ordered " that there shall bee noe boge mine doge in ye 
Towne but by some townes men : and hee that dos 
dige et shall Carey ct with his one tenie or hieree a 
townes man to Carey et ahvayes provleded hee that 
diges It a grees with the selectmen of the Towne to 
pay fouer ))encc a ton for the Townes Vse either in 
Silver or Iron and this order stands in force "only 
one year.' Ten days later " Ensign Gould " was 
granted liberty to dig tweniy tons of bog iron. Lieu- 
tenant Francis Peabody also received the same 
liberty. 

Bricks were manufactured in Topsfield before 1697. 



• Town Hei'onis, Vul. I., p. 26. 



Probably the earliest hotel in the town occupied 
the site of the shoe-factory of Mr. John Bailey. The 
Clark family carried on the business here for many 
years before 1780. Daniel Clark, Sr., and Daniel 
Clark, Jr., were the proprietors at different times. In 
1784 the son removed to New Rowley, now George- 
town, and the hotel here came into the hands of 
Samuel Hood. Later it became the property of John 
Rea, who conducted the business for several years. 
On the night of October 16, 1836, the whole estab- 
lishment, house, barn and store which were con- 
nected, were ilestroyed by fire. When the turnpike 
was built a large and substantial hotel was erected by 
the turnpike corporation on Town Hill. This flour- 
ished until the railroad was completed, in 1854. 
Several stages carrying many passengers ran over the 
turnpike daily. This was the popular and only 
public conveyance then existing to Boston, Newbury- 
port and other places. The "Topsfield House" wiis 
built by Thomas Meady about 1807, for a store and a 
house of entertainment. In 1817 Mr. Meady removed 
to Philadelphia. Then Ephraim Wildes kept the hotel 
for about two years. In or about 1820 William 
Munday commenced the butchering business there, 
and after a few years reopened the tavern, his son, 
Thomas Perkins Munday, being engaged with him. 
The hotel has been retained in the family to the 
present time. Mr. Dalmer J. Carleton is the present 
landlord. It is now the only ])ublic house in the 
town. 

The earliest blacksmith in the town, probably, was 
Samuel Howlett, who was invited by the town to set 
up his forge here in 1658. Mr. Jra Long carries on 
the only shop now in town. 

The first mill iu the town was erected by Lieuten- 
ant Francis Peabody in 1672, on the site of the 
present "Towne's grist-mill." The next mill was 
probably that erected by Thomas Howlett, on IIow- 
lett's Brook, in the east part of the town, in 1736. 
This was a grist-mill. He built a saw-mill there two 
or three years later. In 1746 he sold out to Nathan- 
iel Hood, who, in 1748, transferred it to Abraham 
Hobbs. The mills remained in the Hobbs family 
until 1813, when they passed into the hands of the 
Perkinses. In 1878 the property Wiis purchased and 
the grist-mill has since been run by Mr. Wellington 
Donaldson. The saw-mill was gone many years ago. 

In 1835 there were three country grocery stores in 
the town. One of these was kept by Frederic and Nath- 
aniel Perley. The store was built by Frederic Perley 
about 1828, and about 1841 the two brothers went to 
Danvers. Then the late Benjamin P. Adams and 
Samuel Adams carried on the business for several 
years, and after Samuel Adams left the firm his 
brother, Benjamin P. Adams, continued in the busi- 
ness until his death, in 1875. From tlie time of his 
decease to 1883 his son, Benjamin P. .\dams, Jr., kept 
it. In the spring of 1883 the store was reopened 
by Mr. J. Bailey Poor, who had carried on the busi- 



T()i'si'ii:i.i>. 



••38 



iiess of a country store on tin- opposite side of the 
street for several years. The trrocery of Mr. William 
I!. Kitnhall was l)iiilt by his father, .Mr. William K. 
ICimhall, in 1841. The latter seiitlenian eomliieted 
the busiiie.ss from that date to .January 1, ISCIi, hav- 
ing Mr. Andrew Gould for a partner from ISls to 
18.53, and his son, Mr. William li. Kimball, from ISiU 
to January 1, 18(i9. when the soti [nirehased his 
fatlier's interest, and has sinee carried on the business. 

Mr. Benjamin 1'. Edwards is the apothoeary ami 
druggist, Mr. .Abijah H. Richardson llie tin-worker 
and hardware ilealer, .Mr. Thomas Leach and .Mr. 
James Wilson wheelH rights, and Mr. .Jacob Hardy is 
the harness maker. Thereare telephone and Western 
I'nion telegraph oiriees in tlie tow?i. 

The only shoe firm doing much business at the 
present time is that of Mr. Charles Ilerrick, who uses 
steam-i>owcr and carries on considerable business. 

yir. Isaac Woodbury and Mr. William P. (iouM 
are quite e.xtensive butchers. 

DisTiNGL-lsiiKi) Nativks.— Topstield has been the 
birth placeof many distinguished husines.s, literary and 
public men. Among them are good numbers of clergy- 
men, lawyers, physicians and statesmen. Through 
the instrumentalily of its sons, the town has obtained 
a good reputation abroad. The following is a partial 
list of the more noted natives: — 

Rev. Jhinkl Perkins ( 1 tiii(j-l 782 '). He graduated at 
Harvard College in 1717 ; and wa,s a minister at West 
P.ridgewater, Mass. 

llev. Ivory llovey, M.I). (1714-180.'!). He graduated 
at Harvard College in 17;3.'>. He was a clergyman 
and physician at Rochester and Plymouth, Mass. 

Gen. Nalhankt Peahoily (1741-1823). He was a 
soldier, statesman and ])hysician. 

Jiev. Xathaniel Porter, D.I). 074.5-1.837). He grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 17l).S. He was the first 
minister of Conway, and also preached at New Dur- 
ham, N. H. 

Rev. Joseph Cummiiit/s (17.52-91). He graduated at 
Harvard College in 17(i8. Pie was the first minister 
at Marlborough, X. H. 

liev. Dnniel Gould (1753-1842). He graduated at 
Harvard College in 1782. He was a clergyman, and 
preached in Bethel and Rumford, Me. 

Jacob Kimhall, Esq. ( 17<)l-182ti). He graduated at 
Harvard College in 1788. He practiced law at Am- 
herst, N. H., and was quite distinguislied as a com|)o- 
ser of music. He was the author of the " Rural Har- 
mony, ' published in 171)3. 

Judye David Cummiti;/!! (178.5-1.8.5.5). He graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1800. He was a prominent 
lawyer in Salem, and judge of the Circuit. Court of 
Common Pleas. 

Hon. Ihtniel lireek, LL.D. (1788-1.852). He was an 
able jurist, and a member of Congress from Ken- 
tucky, where he resided. 



ymaii 
^viin- 



• The fii-st ilate is that of llic birlli, tlio eccontl Ilml ufdic porsuii* ilcutli. 



[■■^nul Hale!,, .Ml). 1 17.S.8-1.8— ). He graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1811. He was a physician in 
Sa ishury. 

Dr. .'h.si.ih Lnm^o„{\l^'.U\X-). lie graduated at 
Harvar<l Cidlege in fs|4. He was a phv>ician in 
Ksse.x. 

Rev. Jarol, /^w/ (1701- issd). He was a c' 
in Hopkinton, N. 1!., an.l in .Middleton ai 
field, Ma.ss. 

Rev. Khrnezer /VA-//i.-< (1704-l.S— i. He graduated 
at Dartmouth (JoUege in ISM, und was a clergyman 
in Koyalsion, .Mass. 

/V-/. Sehemiiik VIeavelaiul {17'.)(!-18— ). He grad- 
uated at Bottdoin College in 181:;. He was for 
twenty years ju-incipal of Dummer Academy. 

Kli.-^ha IInn/i.u(/too, M.I). (170()-1,S(;5). He gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 181.5. He was a jihysi- 
cian, the lirst mayor <d' Lowell, and lieutenant-g<iv- 
ernor cif Massachusetts. 

Dr. Ilumpkrei/ (luidd (1707-1X74). He graduated 
at Williams College in LS— . He was a physician in 
Danvers and Rowe, Mass. 

Asa/iel JIuiitiiic/tou, Ei-ij. (170.S-1870). He graduat- 
ed at Yale College in 1810. He was a lawyer in 
Salem, mayor of the city, and district-attorney. 

Pu-v. Jonas Merriam (18113-71). He graduated at 
Buwdoin College in 1820; and was a minister in 
Barnard, Me. 

John Cleaveland, E^tj. (1.^(14 ). He graduated at 

Bowdoin College in 1821); and was a lawyer in Xew 
York City. 

Per. David Peabody (l.silo-— ). He graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1828. He was a clergynnui at 
Lynn and Worcester, Mass., and a professor in Dart- 
mouth College. 

Rev. Eli.-'/ia Lord Clearehmd, !).!>. (1800-00). He 
graduated at Bowdoin College in 1820. He w:us an 
able divine, and preache<l at New Haven, Conn. 

Rev. George Jlood (1807-82). A clergyman at 
Chester, Pa., and Southport, N. Y. 

Rev. Jo.iiah Peabody ( 1.807 ). He graduated at 

Dartmouth College in 1830. H(! was a missionary 
to the .Vrmenians at Erzroom, in Turkey. 

Rev. Samuel l.amson Goidd (1800). He graduated 
at Medical School of Bowdoin College in 1832; and 
was a j)hysician at Sunapee, Searsport and Orrington, 
Me., and preaclied at Boothbav, Albanv, Pliillip.s and 
Bethel, Me. 

Cyriia Cumming.':, Esq. (1816-8-). He graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1839; and was a lawyer in 
Boston. 

Rev. Alpheus J. Pike (1828). He grailuated at 
Dartmouth College in l."< — . He is a clergvnian in 
Dakota. 

John Anymtti-i Larnxon, M.D. (1.8:!1). Hi. ;v;)s a 
physician in Boston. 

Rtv. Gu.ifavu.i D. Pike (1831-84). He graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 185-, and was a clergyman. 
Pro/. Albert Corndiu.i Perkins (1833). He gradual- 



984 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



ed at Dartmouth College in 1860 ; and is princijial of 
Adelplii Academy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Prof. John Wright Perkins (1841). He graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1866. He is the principal 
of Dummer Academy. 



MEMBERS OF THE ST.\TIi 

REPRESE.ST.\T1VF.8. 
1600. Lieut. John Gould. 
1090-94. Lieut. Tlioa. Bakor. 

lG9:i. Jolin Gould. 

l69.'i-97. Cor. Tobijah Perkins. 

1608. Limit. Tluw. Baker. 

1699-I7ul Q.M. Tobijah Perkins. 

1702-3. Lieut. E|)h. Dornian. 

1704. Sergt. John Hovey. 

SiTgl. Dan'l Redington. 
170.5-6. Elisha Perkins. 
170". Isaac Poalwdy. 
17 8. Lieut. Tlii>«. Baker. 

1709. Lieut. TobuaU Perkins. 
1711. Lieut. Toliijah Perkins. 

1712-13. Cor. Jacob Towne. 
1714-1.5. Lieut. Tobijah Perkins. 

1716. Sergt. Daniel Olark. 
1717-18 Deacon Samuel Howlelt. 

1710. Ens. Timothy Perkins. 
1720-21. Ca|)t. Tobijah Perkins. 

1721. Nathaniel Porter. 

1722. Daniel Clark. 
172:i. Ens. Timothy Perkins. 

1724. John Hovoy. 

1725. Deacon John Hewlett. 

1726. Capt. Joseph Gould. 

1727. Q.M. Nath'l Bordman. 
172g-.il. Capt. Joseph Gould. 
1732-33. Jacob Peabody. 
1734-:i6. Capt. Joseph Gould. 

1737. Natlianiel Bordman. 

1738. Capt. Joseph Gould. 
1730. Jacob Peabody. 

1740-11. Nathaniel Bordman. 
1742-1.5. Jacob Peabody. 
1747-40. Jacob I'eahody. 

1751. David Balch. 
1753-54 Elijah Porter. 

1750. Elijah Porter. 
1757-58. John Gould. 
1760-fil. John Gould. 

1702. Elijah Porter. 
1704-66. Lieut. Samuel Smith. 
1767-72. Capt. Samuel Smith. 
177.'t-76. Deacon John Gould. 



ird). 



LEGISLATUBE. 

1777. Capt. Samuel Smith. 

1778. Deacon John Gould. 

1779. Zaccheus Gould. 
Ellezer Lake. 
A. Ilobbi (to Coi 

178". Zaccheus Gould. 

Cap(. Stephen Perkins. 
1781. Samuel Smith. 
1783-85. Abraham Ilobbs. 

1786. Capt. Stephen Perkins. 

1787. Thos. Emerson. 
1792-93. Sylvnnus Wildes. 

1796. Sylvauus Wildes. 

1799. itev Asahel Iluntlngton 

1802. Sylvanus Wildes. 
1806-14. Nathaniel Hammond. 

1816. Nathaniel Hammond. 

1823. Col Ephraim Wildes. 

1827. Jacob Towne, Jr. 
1829-30. Jacob Towne.Jr. 
1833-35. Jacob Towne, Jr. 

1837. Charles il. Holmes. 

1838. Nathaniel Perley. 
1830. Asa Pinjlree. 
1840. Joseph W. Batcheldcr. 

1842. Cyrus Cuniuiings. 

1843. Charles 0. Brackett. 

1844. Samuel Todd. 
1846. Dr. Jos. C. Batcheldcr. 

1845. Charles Herrick. 
1849. Thos. Govild. 
1852. Samuel S. McKenzie. 
1854. Nathaniel Conant. 
1863. Nathaniel Conant. 
1867. Jacob P. Towne. 
1871. Rev. .\nson McLoud. 
1874. Salmon D. Hood. 
1878. Dudley Bradslreet. 
1881. John H. Potter. 
1884. John 11. Towne. 



1811. Dr. Nohe. Cleavcland. 
1815-18. Dr. Nehe. Cleaveland. 
1842. Asa Pingreo. 



Treasurers. — The constables 
treasurers until 1743. 



C0NST.\BI.ES. 

1672. John Hovey. 

1673. Ephraim Dorman. 
1C74. Edmoud Towno. 

167&-77. John How. 
IC'8. Samuel Howlat. 

1679. Wni. Perkins, Jr. 

1680. Cor. Wm. Smith. 

1681. Tobijah Perkins. 

1682. Daniel Redington. 
108:1-84. Cor. Wm. Smith. 

1685. Elislm Perkins. 

1686. Deacon Isaac Comings. 

1087. Thos. Perkins. 

1088. Lieut. Thos. Baker. 

1089. 3lr. Timothy Perkins. 
1690. Ens. Jacob Towne. 

John Towne. 



1691. 
1692. 
1693. 
1694. 
1697. 
1008. 
1699. 
1700. 
1701. 
1702. 

1703. 
1701. 
1705. 



generally served as 

Daniel Clarke. 
Ephraim Wilds. 
Mr. Wm. Perkins. 
Isaac Easty.Jr. 
Joseph Towne, Jr. 
Joseph Borman. 
Cor. Jolin Curtious. 
John Comings. 
Ebenezer Averell. 
John Robinson, Sr. 
Nathaniel Averell. 
Philip Knight. 
Thos. Hon let. 
Sergt. John Gould. 
Corp. Jacob Towne. 
John Nichols. 
Thos. Dormau, Jr. 
Thos. Perley. 



Michael Dwinell. 


TEEASUREBS. 


17. 8. John French. 


169.5-96. Cor. Tobijah Perkins. 


.\m.)s Dorman. 


1719. Ens, John Gould. 


1709. John H.ivey. 


1743^8. Jacob Peabody. 


Joseph Towne (treas). 


1710. George Bixby.' 


1710. Thos. Robinson. 


175 '-52. Benj. Towne. 


Zaccheus Gould. 


1753 Nathaniel Porter. 


1711. John Averell. 


1754-56. Capt. Thos. liaker. 


John Curtis. 


1755-58. Richard Towne. 


1''12. Nathaniel Burman. 


1759-63. Stephen Foster. 


Nathaniel Porter. 


17i:4-75. Elijah Porter. 


1713. Thos. Town. 


1776-81. Jeremiah Averell. 


Jacob Easty. 


1782-87. Stephen Foster. 


1714. Cor. Joseph Gould. 


1788-89. Nathaniel Hammond. 


Thos. Cave. 


1790-92. Daniel Bi.\by. 


I'llo. Jacob Peabody. 


1793-99. David Perkins, Jr. 


John Burton. 


1800-9. Daniel Blxby. 


1716. Wm. Towne. 


1810-13. Jonas Meriam. 


Job Averell. 


1814. Cyrus Commlngs. 


1717. Thos. Gould. 


1815. Samuel Hood. 


Edward Putnam. 


1810-17. Moses Wildes. 


1718. Ivory Hovey. 


1818-23. Samuel Hood. 


Klisba Putnam. 


1824-25. John Peabody. 


1710. Symon Bradstreet. 


1826-30. Isaac Klllam. 


1720. Wm. Porter. 


1831-33. Samuel Gould. 


Jesse Dorman. 


1834. Dr. .leremiah Stone. 


1721. Joseph Robinson. 


1835-36. Joel Lake. 


Michael Dwinell. 


1837. Joel Lake. 


1722. Thos. Dwinell. 


1837-38. Asa Pingree. 


David Balch. 


1839. John G. Hood. 


1723. Cor. Jacob Robinson. 


1840. Wm. Hubbard. 


Benj. Knight. 


18H-50. Benj. C. Perkins. 


1724. KliezerLake. 


18J0. John G. Hood. 


Edman Towne. 


1851-52. John Wright. 


1725. Jacob Dorman. 


1863-61. Benj. Kimball. 


Benj. Towne. 


1862-61. Nehemiah Balch. 


1726-28. Nathaniel Porter. 


1865-67. Jeremiah Balch. 


1720-38. Ivory Hovey. 


1868-81. J. Porter Gould. 


1739-12. Richard Towne. 


1882-87. John Gould. 


TOW'N 


CLERKS. 


1676-«1. Lieut. Francis Peabody. 


1766-75. Elijah Porter. 


1682-85. John Gould. 


1776-77. Dipt. Siimuel Smith. 


1686-1701. Sergt. Eph. Dorman. 


1778-90. Ciipt. Stephen Perkins 


1702-17. Samuel Stanley. 


1791-1809. Nathaniel Hammond. 


1718-20. Nathaniel Porter. 


1810-36. Jacob Towne. 


1721-34. Jacob Peaboily. 


1836-78. Jacob P. Towne. 


1735-36. John Hovey. 


1878. Ezra Towne (pro tern.) 


1737-49. Jacob Peabody. 


1879-80. Edward S. Towne. 


I749-(;2. Richard Towne. 


1880. Ezra Towne. 


1763. Elijah Porter. 


1881. Frank L. Winslow. 


1704-65. David Balch. 


1881-87. John II. Gould. 


SELEC 


TMEN. 


ifisn. 


francis Pabody. 


Ensign Howlet. 


decon Perkens. 


trances pebbdy. 


1B7I. 


John Redington. 


Ensigne Goold. 


I«K:<. 


Sargen towne. 


John Gould. 


decon Perkins. 


IHA.S. 


John Redington. 


frances Pabody. 


frances pabody. 


John Gould. 


167$. 


Thomas Baker. 


Mr. thomaa baker. 


Daniel Borman. 


Sack Coinings. 


1(173. 


John hovey. 


Lieut, ffrances Pebody. 


frances Pabody. 


Thomas Perkins. 


Ensign Goold. 


Thomas Baker. 


lAiH. 


Edman Townes. 


Ensign Gould. 


IHitl. 


mr. tbomas baker. 


Mr. thomiu. Baker. 


Sargen Reilington. 


Ephorain dorman. 


Jacob towne. 


Sargen Redington. 


franceji Pabody. 



TOPSFIELD. 



t)85 



IIIKO. 


I«»2. 


1701. 


171*1. 


iiir. thotiias baker. 


Lieut. Thomas Baker. 


Sargt. J<diii Could. 


Clerk Klisha Perkins. 


Siirgen Ilediligton. 


Sargt. Hovey. 


Thomas Perley. 


Ebenezer Averell. 


t'orpl. Jacub towne. 


Corpl. Tobijah Perkins. 


JohuCumiugs. 


John Hovey. 


John hovey. 


Corpl. Kedington. 


Kbeliez<M- .\vorell. 


Amos Donnan. 


fraiices Paboiiy. 


Ephraim Dorman. 


Samuel Stanley. 


Thomas Robinson. 


U\^i. 


i«»:t. 


17 0.1. 


1717. 


Ensij;ii guold. 


Capt. John C.nild. 


Kbeuizer ATen-ll. 


Dearon .Samuel Howlott. 


Imck lite. 


Sargt. Thos. Dorman. 


Tiiomas Perley. 


( 'orpl . Joseidi Towne. 


Kphnuiiii (lannau. 


Sargt. Saml. Howlet. 


Sargt. Danl Kedington. 


Michael Dwinell. 


fninres PabtKiy. 


Ens. Jacob Towne. 


(.'lerk Eliaha Perkins. 


.lacob Peabody. 


Samuel howlet. 


Corpl. Joan Oould. 


Corpl. .loseph T.iWlie. 


Samuel Stanley. 


l6S'i. 


1«»*. 


I70». 


171H. 


Lieut. Pebody. 


Corpl. Tobijah Perkins. 


Lieut. Kph. Dorman. 


J(din Ilowlett. 


Sargt. Uedington. 


Isaac Peabody. 


Sargt. D. Kedington. 


Amos Dorman. 


DeckuD Perkins. 


Kliaba Perkins. 


Clerk Elisha Perkins. 


Ens. John Gould. 


Corpl. Townes. 


Joseph Towne, Jr. 


Sargt. .lohn Hovey. 


.Jacob Peabod.v. 


Jolin Could. 


Kphraim Dorman. 


Corpl. John Curlis. 


Nathaniel Porter. 


i«s;t. 


111115. 


1707. 


1711). 


Mr. Thomas Baker. 


Sargt. Thos. Dorman. 


Deucou Saml. Ilowlett. 


Jacob Towne. 


iBacke Ksley, clerke. 


Corpl. Tobijali Perkins. 


El.eiiezer Averell. 


John Hovey. 


S;irgt. Kpliruim Dorman. 


Elisha Perkins. 


Thomas Ilowlett. 


John Ilowlett. 


Samuel H.iwletl. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Corpl. Joseph Towne. 


Jacob Peabody. 


Jolin tJoul.l. 


Kphraim Dorman. 


Saml. Stanley. 


Nathaniel Porter. 


1«S4. 


I(i9«. 


I70S. 


1720. 


Sargt. Kedington. 


Corpl. Tobijah Perkins. 


Lieut. Tob. Perkins. 


Ephraim Wilds. 


Corpl. .laiob Townes. 


Sargt. Samuel Howlet. 


Corpl. Jacob Towne. 


Ivorj Hovey. 


Jolin Uovey. 


Kph. Dorman. 


Ebenezer Averell. 


Sargt. Joseph Gould. 


Thomas DorniaD. 


William Towne. 


Isaac Estey. 


Joseph Towne. 


John Gould, Sr. 


Isaac Kasty, Jr. 


Saml. Stanley. 


f:iiezer Lake. 


IKS5. 


I«97. 


1709. 


1721. 


Sargt. Kedington. 


Sargt Kedington. 


Lieut. Tob. Perkins. 


Thomas Oould. 


Lieut. Thomas Baker. 


Sargt. Howlet. 


Corpl. Joseph Towne. 


Lieut. Thomas Baker. 


Sargt. Kphraim Dorman. 


Corpl. Perkins. 


Lieut. Eph. Dorman. 


Ivory Hovey. 


Samuel Ilowlett. 


Corpl. Standley. 


Thomas Ilowlett, 


Amos D<,rman. 


John (i.>uld. 


Elisha Perkins. 


Saml. Stanley. 


Jacob Peabody. 


IAS*!. 


IHHS. 


1710. 


1722. 


Lieut, (iould. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Clerk Elisha Perkins. 


Sargt. John Ilowlett. 


t'orpl. John Hovey. 


Daniel Clarke. 


Jacob Towne. 


Isiutc Peabody. 


Mr Toliijah Perkini. 


Capt How. 


Ebeiiez.-r Averell. 


Lieut. Tlioiiius Baker. 


Kpliraim Dorman. 


Elisha Perkins. 


JhIui I'urtiH 


John Nieh..ls. 


Lieut. Thomas Baker. 


Kpliniim Wilds. 


.'Jamui'l St;iiiley. 


IJ.M. Ephraim Wilds. 


IHS7. 


l«!l». 


1711. 


1723. 


Capt. John How. 


Q M. Tobijah Perkins. 


Lieut. Tobijah Perkins. 


Corpl. Nathaniel Borman. 


Isaac Kasly, Sr. 


Jac. Towne, Jr. 


Deaciui Samuel Ilowlett. 


Deacon John Ilowlett. 


Sammuell Ilowlett. 


Sargt. .Saml. Howlet. 


ThoillM Ilowlett. 


Thomas Qonld. 


Thomaa Dorman. 


Elisha Perkins. 


Joseph Towne. 


Elisha Putnam. 


Ephruim Dorman. 


Isaac Pabody. 


Samuel .Stanley. 


Jacob Peabody. 


l«S!t. 


1700. 


I71'2. 


1724. 


Sargt. Eiuity. 


Ens. Saml. llowlct. 


Sargt. Thomas Hewlett. 


Nathaniel Porter. 


Sargt. Thomas Dorman. 


Capt. John How. 


Corpl. .loseph Towne. 


Deacon .lohn Ilowlett. 


Sargt. S;imuell Howlet. 


Q.M. Tobijah Perkins. 


Cl.rk Elisha Perkins. 


Joseph Towne. 


William .^vcrell, Sr. 


Isaac Pabody. 


Amos Dorman. 


Elisha Perkins. 


Mr. William Perkins. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


John nVench. 


John Hovey. 


Corpl. Daniel Kedington. 


1701. 


17l». 


172.'>. 


1«S». 


Capt. John How. 


Deacon Saml. Ilowlc'tl. 


John Hovey. 


Lieut. Ilaker. 


Sargt. Sjiniuel Standley. 


Corpl. .lacob Towne. 


Jacob Estey. 


Lieut Gould. 


Elisha Perkins. 


Ebenezer Averell. 


William Porter. 


Sargt. John Hovey. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Joseph Towne (treas). 


Michael Dwinell. 


Mr. Tobijah P.ikins. 


Ephraim Dorman, Sr. 


Samuel Stanley. 


Deacon John Hewlett. 


Kphraim Dorman. 








IIIUO. 

Corpl. Dan'l Kedington. 
Thomas Perkins. 
Sargt. Thomas Dorman. 
Sargt. Sammuell Iloulet. 
Corpl. Samuel Standly. 


1702. 

Corpl. Joseph Towne. 
Sargt. Saml. Standly. 


1711. 

Nathaniel Porter. 
John Hovey. 


172B. 

Kns. Amos liorman. 
Capt. Joseph Gould. 


Mr. Timothy Perkins. 
Isaac Pabody. 
Sargt. John Uould. 


Ei.liraim Wilds. 
Zaccheus Gould. 
Baiiiuel Stanley. 


Siirgt. Thomas KohinsoD. 
Simon Uradslrsct. 
Jacob Peaboily. 


in»i. 


I70». 


17 I.'). 


1727. 


Capt. John How. 


Deacon Thos. Dorman. 


Corpl. Joseph Towne. 


Q.M. Nathaniel Bordman 


Mr. Tobljah Perkins. 


Corpl. Jacob Towne. 


Ebenezer Averell. 


<'orpl. Jacob Towne. 


Phillip Knight. 


Elisha Perkins. 


Amos Dorman. 


Benjamin Towne. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Isaac Estey, Jr. 


Joseph Borman. 


Thomas Gould. 


Ephruim Dorman. 


Samuel Stanley. 


Deacon Samuel Howletl. 


William Kedington. 



63 



986 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1728. 


1740. 


1752. 


17ft4. 


Eds. Amos Durman. 


Capt. Joseph Gould. 


Jacob Averell. 


Jeremiah Averell 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


Benjamin Towne. 


Capt. Benjamin Towne. 


Daniel Dixby. 


Q.M. Nathaniel Bordman. 


Daniel Kedington. 


Clerk Samuel Smith. 


/accheus Gould. 


Ivory Hovey. 


Pbiueus Redintjton. 


KIgah Porter. 


Samuel Cunmiings 


William Bedington. 


Thonnis Buker. 


Q.M. Daniel Clark. 


David Balch, Jr. 


1729. 


1741. 


1753. 


176,i. 


Deacon John Uowlutt. 


Lieut. Benjamin Towno. 


Capt, Benjamin Tjwnc. 


Jeremiah Averell. 


Benjamin Toivne. 


Cnpt. John Wildes. 


Jacob Averell. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Eliozor Lake. 


<;eorge Byxbe. 


Samuel Smith. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


David Balch. 


Thonuia Biiker. 


Dan Clark. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Jacob Peabody. 


Daniel Redington. 


Elijah Porter. 


John Perkins, Jr. 


1730. 


17 42. 


1754. 


17flB. 


Benjamin Towne. 


George Bi.\by. 


Capt. Benj. Towne. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Jesae Doniian. 


Thomas Baker. 


Jacob .Averell. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


<J.M. Nathaniel Bordman. 


Daniel Gould. 


Q. M. Dan Clark. 


Jeremiah Averell. 


John Willdes. 


Mathew Peabody. 


Samuel Smith. 


John Perkins, Jr. 


John Perkins. 


Kichard Towne. 


Elijah Porter. 


Stephen Perkins. 


1731. 


17 43. 


1755. 


I7«7. 


Capt. John Howlett. 


ThomoM Baker. 


(.'apt. Benjamin Towne. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


Joseph Herrick. 


Capt. TobiJ!ih Perkins. 


Dan Clark. 


John Pel-kins, Jr. 


John Willdes. 


David Cnuiniingti. 


Elijah Porter. 


Jeremiah Averell. 


Benjamin Towno. 


Israel Clark. 


.Samuel Smith. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Jacob Peabody. 


Mathew Peabody. 


Jacob Averell. 


Daniel Bixby. 


1732. 


1744. 


1758. 


1788. 


Thomas Gould. 


Thomas Baker. 


Cornet Mathew Peabody. 


Elisba Wildes. 


Q.M. Nathl. Bordman. 


Mathew Peabody. 


Capt. Thomas Baker. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


George Byxbe. 


Benjamin Towne. 


Lieut. Nathaniel Porter. 


Jeremiah Averell. 


Richard Towne. 


Israel Clark. 


John Gould. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Joseph Dorman. 


David Cumminga. 


David Balch. 


Daniel Bixby. 


1733. 


17 45. 


1757. 


17«». 


Capt. John Uowlett. 


Solomon Gould. 


Samuel Smith. 


Elisba Wildes. 


David Balch. 


Capt. Tobijah Perkins. 


Capt. Benjamin Towne. 


Stephen Perkins. 


John Wildes. 


Richard Towne. 


John Gould. 


Jeremiah Averell. 


William Redin);ton. 


Daniel Redington. 


Cornet Mathew Peabody. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Tubijah Perkins. 


Capt. John Wildes. 


Elgah Porter, 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


1734. 


I74H. 


1758. 


1770. 


Nathaniel Porter. 


Capt. John Wildes. 


Lieut. Nathl. Porter. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Capt. Joseph Gould. 


Capt. Tobijah I'erkins. 
Richard Towne. 
Solomon Gould. 
Daniel Redington. 
1747. 


John Gould. 


Daniel Bi.xby. 


Kliezer Lake. 


David Balch. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


Joseph Robinson. 
Benjamin Towne. 


Daniel Bisby. 
David Perkins. 


Solomon Dodge. 
Joseph (iould. 


1735. 


Capt. John Wildes. 


17!>». 


1771. 


Deacon John Howlott. 


Richaid Towno. 


John Gould. 


Thomas Mower. 


Dtiacon Jacob Peabody. 


Thoma-s Baker. 


David Perkins. 


Capt. Saml. Smith. 


Richard Towno. 


Benjamin Towne. 


David Balcb, Jr. 


Elijah Porter. 


IJenjamin Towno. 


Nathaniel Averell, Jr. 


Daniel liixby. 


Abraham llobbs. 


Matliew Peabody. 


174S. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


I73H. 


Capt. John Wildes. 


17(10. 


1772. 


Deacon Ivory Uovey. 


Uichard Towne. 
Nathaniel Averell, Jr. 
Thomas Baker. 


Capt. Benj. Towne. 


Capt. Saml. Smith. 


David Balch. 


Elijah Porter. 


Abraham Ilobbs. 


Jacob KedingtoD. 


Uichard Towne. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


George Byxby. 


Lieut. Benjamin Towne. 

I74U. 
Richard Towuo. 


John Gould. 


Thomas Mower. 


Luko Averell. 


David Balch, Jr. 


Stephen Perkins. 


1737. 


Capt. John Wil.les. 


I7«l. 


1773. 


Jacob Dorman. 


David Balch. 


Capt. John Bordman. 


Stephen Perkins. 


John Wilds. 


John Gould. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Thos. Mower. 


Dcnjnmin Towno. 


(Jeorge Bixby. 


.Teremiah Averell. 


Capt. Saml. Smith. 


lAvul. Zaccheus Gould. 


Mathew I'eabody and Samuel 


Cupt Thomas Baker. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Daniel Rodington. 


Smith in place of G. B. and 


Simon Gould. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


1738, 


R. T. 
17.->0. 

Lieut. Benjamin Tuwuc. 


1762. 


1774. 


Joseph Herrick. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Daniel Redington. 




Jeremiah Averell. 


Daniel Bixby. 


DaTid Cuminings. 


Mathew Peabody. 
Capt. John Wildoa. 
Elijah Porter. 


John Balch. 


Capt. Saml. Smith. 


Benjiiniin Towno. 


Simon Gould. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


Joseph Perkins. 


Joseph Andrews. 


Thomas Mower. 


1730. 


1751. 


1703. 


1776. 


Beixjamin Towno. 


Elijah Porter. 


Jeremiah Avorell. 


Capt. Saml. Smith. 


Lieut. Tobijah Perkins. 


Lieut. Benjamin Towno. 


Joseph Andrews. 


Capt. Stephen Perkins. 


Daniel Gould. 


John Gould. 


Stephen Perkins. 


Israel Clark, Jr. 


John Wildea. 


Samuel Smith. 


John Balch. 


John Peabody. 


Daniel Rediugton. 


Mathew Peabody. 


Zaccbeus Gould. 


Thomas Mower. 



TOPSFIELD. 



987 



i;;(i. 


17SH. 


(SOO. 


IMi. 


Israel Clark, Jr. 


Daniel Bixby. 


.Vathl. ILunmond. 


Natbl. Hammond. 


Siinil. Sinilli. 


(■apt. John Baker. 


David <'uinnitii{p<. 


Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland 


C«pt Ste|ihen Perkins. 


Koi;er Balch. 


John Peabody, Jr. 


John IVabudy. 


J.ihn I'fHboily. 


Nathaniel Hammond. 


Jacob Towne {.'id^ 


Jonas Meriam. 


Tlioliiiw Mower. 


Jacob Kiniball. 


Moses Bradstreet. 


.laeoh Towne, Jr. 


1777. 


tisu. 


IKOI. 




Qipt. Steiihen Perkins. 
Tluiinua Jlowur. 


Daniel Bixby. 
KoKer Halcli. 


Dudley Bradstn^et. 
JonasJIenalu. 


1 s nl. 

Nathl. Hammond. 
Jomi-s Meriam. 


.lolin Pviiljoiiy. 


John Batehelder. 


Jonathan Cummings. 


Isim-l Clark, Jr. 


Jacob Kimball. 


Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland. 


.laeub lowne, Jr. 


Sanil Smith. 


.Nathl. Ilumnion.i. 


N. Perkins Averell. 


Jacob Ualehelder. 


Ills. 


I7»n. 


isoi. 




Maj. .loseph Gould. 


Nathl. llanunond. 


Jonathan Cumininp.. 


IStl. 


Joseph Cuiiimings. 


Jonathan Cununin^. 


Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


Thomas IVrter. 


Jacob Kimball. 


Jonas Meriam. 


.Sann.el II00.I. 


.lacob Kimball. 


Isaac Averell. 


Dudley Bra.l-slreot. 


Humphrey Clark. 


I»jlac .Wert-ll. 


Nathaniel Kisk. 


N. P. Averell. 


.-Nloses Wil.leg. 


I77». 


I7DI. 


IS03. 


Joseph Bacbelder. 


Maj. .luK.'pli Gould. 


Jacob Kimball. 


Jonathan Cummings. 


\StT,. 


Zacoheils Gould. 


Isaac Averell. 


Dr. Nelieniiali Cloaveland. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Daniel liixby. 


Nathl. Fisk. 


Lieut. Jonas .Meriam. 


.Joseph Bacbelder. 


.loseph Cummin^ Jr. 


Ezra Perkins. 


Nathl. ILinnuoml. 


Moses Wildes. 


Isaac Averell. 


Nathaniel Hammond. 


.rac.ib Towne (.Id). 


Diivid Towne. 


I7S0. 


I7lf2. 


1S04. 


John Peabody, Jr. 


•I'ho.mw Kmerson. 


Jacob Kimball. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


IS 16. 


Moses Perkins. 


Isiuic .\vorell. 


Jouiis Meria.n. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


David Towne. 


Nathl. Kisk. 


Jacob Towne (:id). 


Thomas t'ummiugs. 
Cyrus CnmminKS. 
Daniel Bixby, Jr. 


Vavid lialch, Jr. 


Ezra Perkins. 


Kobort Perkins. 


Stephen Foster. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


Joseph Batchelder. 


17tl. 


I7»3. 


1 sn.'i. 


Samuel Cummings. 


Samuel Smith. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Nathl. Hanuntuid. 


1S17. 


Xucchous Gould. 


Josiah Latuson. 


.Ioua« Meriam. 


Stephen Koster. 


Ezra Perkins. 


Jacob Towno (;id). 


Nathl. Hammond. 


Nathaniel Averell, Jr. 


Nathaniel Hammond. 


Hubert Perkins. 


Thonuis Cutumings. 


Daniel lli.\l..v. 


Zaccbens Gunld. 


.loseph Uatebel.lor. 


Cyrus Cummings. 
Daniel Bixby, Jr. 


I7S2. 


171H. 


ISOB. 


Sanuiel Cnmniinga. 


Sjininet Smith. 


Zacchens Gould. 


Nathl. Hanunond. 




/.icchens Gould. 


Josiah LauLson. 


Robert Perkins. 


IHIS. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Daniel Bi.vby. 


Josiah Lamson. 


John Peabody. 


Nathaniel Averell. 


Lieut. Isaac Averell. 


Dav.d Perkins. 


Jacob Towno, Jr. 


Josiah Lamson. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


.John Peabody. 


Perley Balch. 
Dudley Wildes, Jr. 


I7s:i. 


17tt.i. 


IS07. 


David Perkins, Jr. 


Daniel liLxby. 


Jonathan Cumminpi. 


Josiah Lan.Bon. 




/acehens Gould. 


Benj. Bixby. 


Daviil Perkins. 


ISI9. 


Nathaniel .\verell. 


John Kea, Jr. 


Nathl. llanunond. 


John Peabody. 


.losiali Lamson. 


Lieut. Isaac Averell. 


•John Peabody. 


.lacob Towne, Jr. 


David Towno. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


John Conant. 


Perley Balch. 
Dudley Wildes, Jr. 


'l7SI. 


I79tl. 


ISOS. 


David Perkins, Jr. 


/acchous itonld. 


Benj. Bixby. 


.losiah Lamson. 




David Towne. 


John ltea,Jr, 


David Perkins. 


1S20, 


Nathl. Averell. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


Jacob T.nvne, .!r. 


.losiah Lamson. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


John ]*eabody. 


David Towne. 


Jonathan Cummings. 


Dudley Bradstreet. 


John i:o?iant. 


Daniel Bixby. Jr. 
Wm. llubbanl. 


17S.-). 


17U7. 


IMMI. 


Davnl Perkins, .Ir. 


Zaccliens Gould. 


Benj. Bixby, 


Nathl. Hamiiioiid. 




Josialt Lamson, 


John Kea, Jr. 


David Perkins. 


IS21. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Nathl. llanunond. 


Dr. Nebemiah Cleaveland. 


Daniel Bixby, Jr. 


David Perkins, Jr. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


John Pi-ab,>dy. 


Jacob Towno, .)r. 


Jacob.Kiinball. 


Dudley Bradstreet. 


Jonas Meriam. 


Wm. Hubbar.l. 


17'iB. 


I7»S. 


ISIO. 


Wii. 


Dani.'l Ilixl.y. 


Thomas Perkins, Jr. 


Natbl. llanunond. 


.lacob Towne, .Ir. 


.losiah Laiuson. 


Elijah Averell. 


David Perkins. 


Joseph Batchelder. 


Jacob Kimball. 


Niitbl. Hammond. 


Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland. 


Kpbraim Wildes. 


David Perkins, Jr. 


John Peabod.v, .Ir. 


John Peabody. 


Koyal A. .>Ieriam, 


RoKer Balch. 


David CntnminKS. 


Jonas Meriam. 


Daniel Bixby, Jr. 


17S7. 


I71MI. 


IKII. 


I82S. 


Ungcr Ilalch. 


Thomas Perkins, Jr. 


Jacob Towno, .Ir. 


Daniel Bixby, Jr. 


Jo^iah Lamson. 


Nathl. Ilannnond. 


Nathl. Hammond. 


Cyrus ruuimings. 


Dr. John Morriam. 


David CuiuminKs. 


Dr. Nehemiah Cloavoland. 


John Batchelder. 


Daniel Bixby. 


John Peabody, ,lr. 


J.ihu Peabody. 


Mo.ses Wibles. 


Henry Ilradslroot 


Jacob Towne (M). 


Jonas Meriam. 


Wm. N. Cleaveland. 



988 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1824. 


1836. 


1851. 


Moses W.ldM. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


John Wright. 


CyniB Cummings. 


Davi.I Towne. 


Thos. Gould. 


W. N. CloavelBiid. 


Win. Uubbard. 


Joshua Wildes. 


John Peabody. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


1852. 

John Wright. 


Samuel Gould. 


Wm. Cummings. 


1 S25. 


1837. 


Thos. Gould. 


Cyrus Cummings. 


Benjamin C. Perkins. 


Josbua Wildes. 


John Rea, Jr. 


John Conant. 


1853. 


Daniel Bixby. 


Richard Phillips, Jr. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Porter Bradstreet. 


Wm. E. Kimball. 


S. S. McKenzie. 


John Lumsoil. 


Wm. Cummings. 


Andrew Gould. 


1828. 


1838. 


1854. 


Cyrus Cuuimiugs. 


Cornelius 1). Bradstreet. 


Andrew Gould. 


Porter Bradstreet. 


Nathaniel Perley. 


S. S. McKenzie. 


John Rea, Jr. 


William Ray. 


Benj. B. Towne. 


Samuel Biudstrcet. 


Moses Wildes. 


David Towne. 


.\ugustine S. Peabody. 


1855. 


1 827. 




Andrew Gould. 


I83U. 


S. S. McKenzie. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Benj. C. Perkins. 


Benj. B. Towne. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


.\sa Pingree. 




John Rea, Jr. 


Wm. Ruy. 


185B. 


Joseph Itatchelder. 


Wm. Hubbard. 


Andrew Gould. 


Isaac Killam. 


John Hood. 


S. S. McKenzie. 
Benj. B. Towne. 


1828. 


1840. 




Ja-'Ob Towne, Jr. 


David Towne. 


1857. 


Joseph Batchelder. 


Wm. Kay. 


John Wright. 


Isaac Killam. 


Wm. Hubbard. 


Thos. Gould. 


Amos Perkins. 


Wm. Cummings. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


John Hood. 


1858. 


t82U. 


1841. 


John Wright. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Joshua Wildes. 


Thos. Gould. 


Joseph lialcholder. 


Wm. Ray. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Isaac Killam. 


Nehemiah Perkins. 


185». 


Amos Perkins. 


Joel R. Peabody. 


John Wright. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


Jacob P. Towne. 


Thos. Gould. 


1830. 


1842. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


Wm. Ray. 


1800. 


Joseph Batchelder. 


Klbridge S. Bixby. 


John Wright. 


Isaac Killani. 


Asa Pingree. 


Tlios. Gould. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


1843. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Moses Wildes. 


Wm. Itay. 


18«1. 


1831. 


Elbri<lge S. Bixby. 


Jolin Wright. 


Asa Pingree. 


.\. S. Peabody. 


Nchomiah Perkins. 
Wm. Hubbard. 


1844. 


Dudley Bradstteet. 


Joseph W. Batchelder. 


Wm. N. Cleaveland. 


1862. 


Nathaniel Perley. 


Nathaniel Perkins. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Wm. Munday. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Dudley Bradstreet. 




1843. 


Samuel Todd. 


i8.ri. 

John Lamson. 
Wm. Munday. 
Nehemiuh Perkins. 


Wm. N. Cleaveland. 
Nathaniel Perkins. 

A. S. Peabody. 


1863. 

A. S. Peabody. 
Dudley Bradstreet. 


Joseph W. Batchelder. 


184K. 


Samuel Todd. 


Nathaniel Perley. 


Tlionuu) L. Lane. 


1864. 


18»3. 


John G. Uood. 


A. S. Peabody. 


Wm. Hubbard. 


Dudley Bradstreet. 


.lacob Towne, Jr. 




Samuel Todd. 


Wm. Uubbard. 


1847. 




Joseph Gould. 
Moses Wildes. 


Samuel Todd. 
Thos. L. Lane. 


1865. 

Jacob Foster. 


David Towne. 


Nehemiah Balch. 


J. W. Batchelder. 
David Clark. 


1834. 


1848. 


1866. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


John Wiight. 


Jacob Foster. 


David Towne. 


Joeepli W. Batchelder. 


J. \\-. Batchelder. 


Wm. Uubbard. 


Thos. L. Lane. 


David Clark. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


184W. 


1867. 

Jacob Foster. 


Wm. CummlDgB. 


John W' right. 


1835. 


Joseph W. Batchelder. 


Andrew Gould. 


Jacob Towne, Jr. 


ThoB. L. Lane. 


David Clark. 


David Towne. 


i8r.o. 


1868. 


Wm. Uubbard. 


John Wright. 


David Clark. 


Samuel Bradstreet. 


Thos. Gould. 


Jacob Foster. 


Wm. Cummings. 


Joshua Wildes. 


Andrew Gould. 



1869. 

David Clark. 

J. W. Batclielder. 

Andrew Gould. 

1870. 
David Clark. 
J. W. Bachelder. 
Andrew Gould. 

1871. 
David Clark. 
J. W. Batchelder. 
Andrew Gould. 

1872. 
Dudley Bradstreet. 
Moses B. Perkins. 
Salmon D, Hood. 

1873. 
D. Bradstreet. 
S. D. Hood. 
Ariel H. Gould. 

1874. 
D. Bradstreet 
S. D. Hood. 
Ariel H. Gould. 

1875. 
D. Bradstreet, 
S. D. Hood. 
Ariel H. Gould. 

1876. 
D. Bradstreet. 
S. D. Hood. 
Ariel H. Gould. 

1877. 
D. Bradstreet. 
S. D. Hood. 
Ariel H. Gould. 

1S78. 
D. Bradstreet. 
S. D. Hood. 
Ariel H. Gould. 

I87U. 
S. D. Hood. 
Baxter P. Pike. 
John H. Potter. 

1880. 
S. D. Hood. 
M. B. Perkins. 
J. H. Potter. 

1881. 
S. D. Hood. 
B. P. Pike. 
J. H. Potter. 

1882. 
S. D. Hood. 
B. P. Pike. 
John H. Towne. 

1883. 
S. D. Hood. 
B. P. Pike. 
John H. Towne. 

1884. 
S. D. Hood. 
B. P. Pike. 
John H. Towne. 

1885. 
8. D. Hood. 
B. P. Pike. 
John H. Towna. 

1886. 
S. D. Uood. 
J. H. Towne. 
Joseph B. Poor. 

1887. 
S. D. Hood. 
J. H. Towne. 
Joseph B. Poor. 



PEABODY. 



!)89 



CIIAl'TKll LX V. 
PKABODY. 



BY THKODOUE MOUDY OSllORNE. 



TiiK town of Peabody occupies a part of tlie terri- 
tory originally belonging to tlie old town of Salom. 
Its boundaries are nearly the same as those of the old 
Middle Precinct of Salem, which was set oft' in 1710, 
and it continued to be a [tart of Salem until the in- 
corporation of the district of Danvcrs, in 17o2. It 
was separated from Danvers under the name of South 
Danvers in 18o5, (May 18), and the name of Peabody 
was assumed in ]8()8. Previously to 1710, it formed 
a part of the first parish of Salem, and was identi- 
fied with Salem in every respect. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the early history of 
Peabody is in many ways inseparable from that of 
Salem. Its farmers were represented in the Salem 
town-meetiiifr, and some of them at times held oftice 
in the town. Its sturdy yeomanry formed part of 
the training bands of the old town, and was called 
out to do service in all the frontier warfare of that 
early period. Its religious interests were centred in 
the old First Church, and the record of its proprie- 
tary interests is found with that of all the other lands 
belonging to the town of Salem. There was there- 
fore, during nearly a whole century of the settle- 
ment of the town, no occasion for any separate 
chronicle of the lives or interests of the families who 
lived in this ]iart of Salem, and for nearly half a 
century after the establishment of the Middle Pre- 
cinct, the people were still one with Salem in every- 
thing but parish affairs. 

For more than another century the pari.sh was part 
of the town of Danvers, and its history is largely one 
with that of Danvers. It has had only about thirty 
years of independent existence. 

An effort, however, has been made to select from 
the historic archives of Salem and Danvers some 
portions belonging to this locality, and to trace the 
beginning and growth of the community whicli has 
developed into the busy manufacturing town ot Pea- 
body, as we see it to-day. 

The limits of this sketch have not permitted the 
introduction of e.xtended genealogical details, nor ■ 
the description of the many old houses and localities 
who.se interest belongs rather to family than to town 
history. It is designed to give an outline of the 
growth of the town, which it is to be hoped may be 
at some future time enlarged by others who, are 
specially qualified to discuss the different branches of 
town history. If by means of this sketch an impulse 1 
may be given to the study of the history of his native 
town, the writer will be repaid for his efforts. ' 



Toi'OUR.vi'HY.— When Endicott an^l bis compan- 
ions arrived on the shores of Salem in 1(;:;8, their lirst 
-settlements were made along the shores of the sea 
and the rivers which surround the present ritv of 
Salem. The struggle for existence was at lirst too 
severe to jiermit of extensive improvements in build- 
ing roads and developing farming lands more re- 
mote from the natural highway which the water 
furnished from one grou|i of houses to another. 

Wood in his "New England's Prospect" says, 
speaking of Salem, " There be more canowes in this 
town than i]i all the whole Patent, every household 
having a water-horse or two." The canoes were in- 
spected by order of the (piarterly court. 

But very soon the wonderful energy of tliose heroic 
Puritans led them to build roads and bridges which 
should o|)en up the surrounding territory, and to im- 
prove the lands lying farther from the sea. 

The country td the north and north-west of the 
first settlemcMis was very early explored, and the re- 
gion toward the boundary of Lynn and Reading was 
found to be an excellent agricultural country. Sever- 
al large ponds of fresh water were found in this part 
of Salem, or on its boundaries, and the region about 
the head of the North River was distinguished by the 
confluence of several large brooks of clear and spark- 
ling water, which probably gave rise to the name by 
which tills locality, now the centre of the village of 
Peabody, Wiis designated in the early grants — the 
name of Brooksby. 

The middle ])recirict and the village were together 
often spoken of in early times as " The Farms," and 
the settlers were called "The Farmers," in distinction 
from the dwellers in the town ])ropcr of Salem, most 
of whom lived by commerce, or followed the sea, or 
plied the various trades and industries of town life. 

Through the region of Brooksby a road was opened 
to Salem Village (now Danvers Centre), which had 
been at first accessible only by boat up the Wooleston 
River (now the Danvers River). 

The ancient way, in use while Essex Street was 
still a wilderness, followed Rroad Street up to the 
boundary of the coninions. From a point on the Sa- 
lem turnpike, some distance beyond where Boston 
Street now turns from Essex Street, a road turned 
sharply to the right, and coming round the head of 
the inlet which in those days extended to the south 
of Boston Street, went on toward Brooksby over the 
high land bytiallows Hill, By Ihi^ road it is said 
that Governor Endicott used to ride from the town 
to his estate in the Village. The location of this old 
road may still be traced, and there are still some 
buildings on the line of the ancient way. f^ubse- 
quently a branch of this road was maile from what is 
now Proctor's Court, along the line of (ioodhue Street 
to Trask's lower mills (now called Frye's Mills), 
whence, by turning in a southerly direction, the trav- 
eller came into the other road at a point on Trask's 
Plain, near the great elm which stanils in the middle 



990 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of the street, with the date 1707 on a stone at its base, 
and which is known as the " big tree." In 1715 the 
road leading from the middle precinct nieeting-Iiouse 
to Salem was referred to as " y' higlnvay that leads 
into y" North field by Trask's Fulling-Mill." 

At the lowest point on Boston Street, just about 
where Goodhue Street and Boston Street meet, an arm 
of the sea crossed the road, large enough to admit of 
boats passing up and down. Across this inlet a 
bridge was built, known as the Town Bridge, which 
became a historic landmark. At that time the salt 
water inlets were much more extensive than now. 
The changes of elevation caused by building the 
streets and houses of tlie city, the accumulation of 
soil brought down by the various streams, and, in 
later years, the construction of extensive systems of 
railroads have tended gradually to fill up many of 
the inlets which were then accessible. The sea has 
not for many years approached within a considerable 
distance of the place where the Town Bridge once 
stretched across the water, and the street now crosses 
the lowest part of the hollow (which bears the unc- 
tuous name of Blubber Hollow, from the materials 
used in the early manufacture of leather in that 
vicinity) on solid ground. 

The general aspect of Brooksby at that early time 
may be imagined from its present characteristics, and 
from what has come down from the history of that 
day. While a large part of the town must have been 
much more thickly wooded, it is plain, from the lan- 
guage of the early grants, that there were consider- 
able areas of meadow " fitt to mowe," and large ex- 
tents of barren hillside, swamp and pasture, such as 
are seen to-day. The North River was open to boats 
at high tide nearly or quite to the mill-pond where 
Captain Trask built his first mill — one of the earliest 
in the Commonwealth. This stream, whose shores 
were doubtless wooded to the edge of the upland, car- 
ried down a large volume of fresh water from 
Brooksby, and was a beautiful bit of scenery, hard to 
reconstruct in imagination from the muddy and foul 
stream of to-day, crossed and recrossed by the rail- 
road, and carrying the drainage of great manufac- 
tories. The brooks themselves were much larger than 
now. The stripping away of the forest about their 
sources, the intercepting of surface water by the 
streets and constructions of the town, and the use of 
large quantities of water for domestic and manu- 
facturing purposes, have combined to diminish greatly 
the Uow of water in the ancient hods ; and if one of 
the early settlers were to look on the turbid streams 
that now flow by walled and underground channels 
through the town, he would find it hard indeed to re- 
alize that this was the beautiful Brooksliy of old, witli 
its clear and sparkling streams, green with woodland 
foliage to the water's edge, and surrounded at inter- 
vals with meadows dotted with herds of cattle. A 
considerable part of the woodland consisted of a 
heavy and valuable growth of oak timber. 



A large variety of trees and plants are native to 
the soil, and many more have since been introduced. 
Two at least of the flowering plants which give 
character to its fields and hills were introduced by 
the early settlers — the woodwax or gorse, golden 
bright on the pasture slopes, and the chryianthemum 
leucanthemum, or white weed, sometimes of late called 
daisy, which tradition says was brought in by (gov- 
ernor Endicott himself. There must, however, have 
been a very great similarity, at least in the outline 
and aspect of that part of the town which has never 
been occupied by dwellings, to its present appearance. 

There are many interesting localities whose natur.al 
beauties are great, and which contain striking and 
peculiar geological formations. Ship Rock, a huge 
boulder in South Peabody, near the station on the 
South Reading Branch Railroad, is owned by the Es- 
sex Institute, and is surrounded by interesting marks 
of glacial action. There are several high hills, from 
whose summits are seen broad expanses of landscape 
and wide reaches of the sea, extending far down the 
northern shore of Massachusetts Bay. 

Early Settlers. — It is not known where the very 
earliest settlement within the present limits of the 
town of Peabody was made. By 1633 there were 
some settlers in Brooksby. 

Before 1635 Captain William Trask, the ancestor of 
the Trask family in this vicinity, received a grant 
of about fifty acres at the head of the North River, 
near the present location of the square in Peabody. 
Here he built his first grist-mill, at a i)oint near 
where Wallis Street cro.sses the railroad. The mill- 
pond, originally of consider.able extent, remained in 
use for some mechanical purposes until within twenty 
years, when it was filled and a street laid out across 
it. The pond collected the water of the three princi- 
pal brooks from which Brooksby took its name. About 
this mill, near the meeting of the Boston road and 
the road to Salem Village (now Danvers), a small vil- 
lage soon sprang up, several house-lots having been 
granted near the mill. Richard Adams had a grant 
of five acres in the vicinity in 1037, and William 
Hathorne was given a ten-acre lot near the mill 
about the same time. Thomas Goldthwaite is be- 
lieved to have settled in this vicinity. 

Captain William Trask was one of the earliest 
settlers with Endicott. He was a man of much 
natural energy of character, and filled a variety 
of public stations. He owned several tracts of 
land, which he brought under cultivation, besides 
carrying on the mills. He was prominent as a 
military leader, and was the captain of the train- 
band from its beginning. His services in the 
Pequot War in 1G3() and 1637 were rewarded with 
additional grants of land by the General Court, and 
his funeral in 1666 was observed with great military 
parade, and honored by the whole surrounding 
country. He was one of the surveyors or "layers 
out" of the lands granted by the town of Salem to 



I'KAliOHV. 



1)1 



settlers in the vicinity. The land included in the 
limits of the settlement was considered as belonging 
to the community as a whole, and was granted by the 
town or the "seven men" to whom that authority 
was delegated, to such persons and in such quantities 
as seemed to them most likely to insure the healthy 
growth of the settlement, the establishment of various 
useful trades and occupations, and the gathering of 
an industrious, law-abiding and God-fearing commu- 
nity. These grants were generally ma<le in the first 
instance witli only a general indication of their lo- 
cality, and the boundaries were then measured and 
defined by the "layers-out," who usually entered the 
record of their location soon afU"r the first grant. 

About lt>40 Captain Trask built another mill about 
half a mile down the stream from the first, near 
where (Jrove Street now is, and soon after removed 
it to what is now known as Frye's Mills. On March 
;!0, 1640, it is recorded that "Captain Trask hath 
leave to set up a tyde myll upon the North River, 
pvided he make passadge for a shalloppe from halfe 
flood to full sea." In October, 1(>40, the mill was 
completed, and half an acre was granted to him ad- 
joining it. This mill also became the centre of a 
settlement. In September, 1640, while this mill was 
building, or soon after its completion, Captain Trask 
received a fatherly admonition from the court " to be 
more carefull about his grinding it Towle takeing." 
Previous to 1663 Captain Trask's mills held the mo- 
nopoly of this business. John Trask, at one time, 
some complaint being made, agreed in behalf of his 
father with the town that they would " make as good 
meale as at Lin, and that when they could not supply 
the towne for want of water or in any other respect," 
then they would "provide to send it to Lin upon 
their own charge and have it ground there." 

In 16.'56 (jolonel Thomas lieed, one of the original 
company, received a grant of three hundred acres, 
including Buxton's Hill, formerly known as Heed's 
Hill, and extending to the present location of Endi- 
cott Street on the eitst, bounded southerly by the 
brook, and extending on the west and north to the 
Ipswich road, and across the road leading to Salem 
Village, including the Rogers' farm. This large and 
valuable tract of land afterwards came into the pos- 
session of Daniel Epps, who was prominent in the 
formation of the middle precinct in 1710. 

December 21, 1635, it was ordered " that Mr. (lole 
shall have a farme of three hundred acres in the 
place where his cattle .ire by Brooksby and Cajjtain 
Trask and the rest of the surveyors are to lay it out 
and bound it according to their discretion, provided 
in case Mr. Cole be disposed to i)art with it by sale 
that he make his first profer unto the towne upon 
reasonable terms." This was a common condition in 
the early grants. On the 2Sth of the same month 
we find the more formal record after the survey had 
been made. "Granted unto Robert Cole, his Heirs 
and Assigns three hundreth acres of land whereof 



forty acres in .Marsbc litt to I)c mowed lying and 
being about three miles from Salem westward upon a 
fresh water brook called the North brook." 

This grant included Proctor's corner and a part of 
Felton's Hill. It was sold in 163S to Emanuel Down- 
ing, and was leased and cultivated by John Procter, 
who settled in Salem about 1660, and who was one of 
the most prominent victims of the witchcraft delusion. 

John Thorndike had a very early grant in the 
northwestern part of the town, which he soon after- 
ward gave up, taking land in Salem Village. He 
also owned land in Rockville, near Lieutenant .Tohn- 
son's. 'i'he land given up by him was afterwards 
granted to other settlers in smaller lots, of twenty, 
forty and fifty acres, among others to .lolin Sanders, 
Henry Herrick, William Bound, Edmund Marshall, 
Thomas Antrum, William Walcott, Robert Cotta and 
lOdmund Batter, mostly in 1()36 and 16;?7. 

A considerable number of these small grants lying 
together were purchased of the owners by Robert 
Goodell, and with a grant to him of forty acres made 
up a farm of over five hundred acres, which was laid 
out to him in 16.i2. William King had a grant of 
forty acres in the northern part of Peabody in 1686. 

On October 9, 1637, Edmund Batter received a 
grant of one hundred acres of upland and twelve acres 
of meadow. On December 2.'i, (it seems the "seven 
men " did not observe Christmas Day), a farther grant 
of thirty acres was made to him, and the former grant 
is referred to as " at Brooksby," and as having been 
formerly granted to Mr. Thorndike. This shows that 
the whole region, even the northwestern part of the 
farms, was called Brooksby. Mr. Batter was promi- 
nent among the early settlers, and owned land in the 
town of Salem, near North Street, at one time. 

Next to Robert Goodell's land on the west was a 
grant made to Rev. Edward Norris January 21, 1640, 
which was afterward bought by Joseph Pope, in 
1()64. This grant gave the name to Norris' brook. 
It was north of Brookdale. 

Mrs. Anna Iligginson ha<l a grant of nnc bun<lred 
and fifty acres made in lt)l!6, near the last-named 
grants, just south of Mr. (Joodell's farm. It was sold 
to John Pickering in 1652, and two years later he 
sold it to John Woody and Thonuis Flint. Some of 
the descendants of the latter still reside in the vi- 
cinity. 

The farm ol' .lob Swinerton, ac(|uired partly liy va- 
rious grants from 1637 on, and partly by purchase, 
lay partly in the extreme northwestern part of the 
present town. Some of his descendants, of the same 
name, have continued to live in the vicinity. 

(Captain Samuel Gardner's farm was just west of 
Mr. Norris' grant, toward the extreme boundary of 
the town. 

•lohn Humphrey, one of the original grantees un- 
der the first charter, and a man of considerable im- 
portance in the early colony, received at various 
times from 1632 to 1658 grants of land, chiefly from 



992 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the General Court, amounting to fifteen hundred 
acres, of wliich five hundred lay in Salem, about the 
pond which bears his name, sometimes called Sun- 
taug Luke. In May, 1635, he received a grant from 
the General Court of "500 acres of land and a freshe 
pond, with a little ileland conteyning about two 
acres." This island was so highly esteemed as a 
place of security in case of attack by Indians that 
the right was reserved for the inhabitants of Salem 
and Saugus (now Lynn) to build store-houses on it 
" for their vse in tyme of neede." Block-houses were 
erected there in 1670, but there is no record of any 
fighting there. The grant of this pond to .John 
Humphrey is believed to be the only specific grant of 
a " great pond," that is, a pond over forty acres in ex- 
tent, before tiie colonial ordinances of 1640 and '47, 
which made all such ponds free fisheries for the pub- 
lic, with right of access over the lands of those bor- 
dering on the water; and this pond is therefore the 
only great pond in the State in which fishing is not 
free to the public. The town of Lynnfield has, in 
recent years, acquired a small piece of land on the 
margin of the pond, whereby its inhabitants have the 
right to fish in it. 

Mr. Humphrey wius one of the justices of the Quar- 
ter Court, and was prominent in town and colony af- 
fairs. In 1642 a considerable part of his lands were 
sold on execution to Robert Saltonstall. 

Near Mr. Humphrey's grant was William Clarke's 
farm, from whom Clark's Hill was probably named. 
April 17, 16;57, it was " Agreed that Mr. Clarke shall 
have two hundred acres by Seder Pond, not exceed- 
ing twenty acres of meadow, to be laid out according 
to the discretion of the layers out." In 1642 a far- 
ther grant vv;is made to William Clarke of sixty acres 
"South of Mr. Downing'a greate medow towards Mr. 
Johnson's land.'' Clarke's land was near John 
Marsh's farm. 

Joshua Verryn had a grant of one hundred and 
sixty- five acres in 1G.!7, " next to Mr. Clarke's on the 
Nortli side, laying down his former." The Very fam- 
ily is supposed to be descended from the Verryns. 

Lieutenant Francis Johnson had a grant of two 
hundred acres in January, 1635-36, in Brookaby, in 
the region of King's Hill. The farm was described 
by the layers-out as bounded by Mr. Thorndike on 
the north side and the common on the other. " The 
farm is on the North side of the River Brooksbie '' 
(evidently Goldthwaite's Brook), "about two miles 
from Salem westerly." This grant wsxs relinquished 
by Lieutenant Johnson a few months afterward, at 
the same time at which Mr. Thorndike relinquished 
his grant. Mr. Thorndike settled in Salem Village; 
a new grant of the same extent was made to Lieuten- 
ant Johnson, in what is now South Peabody, includ- 
ing the crossing of the Lynnfield and Ipswich roads, 
and lying on both sides of Goldthwaite's Brook. This 
locality was known for many years as Johnson's 
Plain. The order for this new grant declared that 



Mr. Johnson " shall have six acres of Meadow ground 
and fourteen acres of other ground at Brooksby afore- 
said, where his cow house now is, and nyne score 
acres more nere the Cedar Pond above a mile distant 
from it." 

This part of Brooksby is referred to as early as 1635 
as " The Rocks." This name has clung to the local- 
ity till very recently, and later the village which grew 
up in the southern part of Peabody was called Kock- 
ville. 

In the same part of the town a grant was made in 
1646 to Zacheus Cortis, who also bought land of 
Joshua Verryn. Cortis was a man of valor, for it is 
recorded that he was furnished with one of the few- 
much prized steel corslets belonging to the town of 
Salem, "in good repayre." 

Robert Moulton's grant, the boundaries of which 
are somewhat difiicult to ascertain, lay to the north 
of Humphrey's farm, somewhere in the vicinity of 
the Newburyport turnpike. Moulton was a promi- 
nent citizen of the town ; he was foreman of a jury in 
1636, and his name appears in connection with 
various town affairs. 

John Brown, Sr., had a grant of fifty acres, in 1673, 
near Humphrey's farm and Robert Moulton's, in the 
vicinity of Walden's Hill. It is stated by Hanson 
that Hugh, Samuel and Christopher Brown also set- 
tled in Brooksby. 

Richard Bartholomew received a grant in January, 
1637-38, near the beautiful pond which still bears his 
name. 

Capt. William Trask had two grants of land in 
South Peabody, one of which, near Spring Pond, he 
sold in 1656 for a cow worth £5. The brook running 
from Spring Pond to Goldthwaite's Brook was then 
called " But Brook," and there were early settlements 
near where it crossed the Boston road. 

Following the Boston road toward the main village 
of Salem, several early settlers located themselves, 
among them William Lord and Thomas Gardiner. 
Near the southerly boundary of the farms were lands 
granted to Lawrence and Cassandra Southwick, the 
latter name famous because of the persecutions which 
she suflered as a Quaker. Lawrence Southwick and 
Ananias Concklin w-ere "glassemen,'' and it was hoped 
to foster this industry, whose works were situated in 
the vicinity of Aborn Street. William Osborne and 
William Wood were also granted house lots and 
small lots of land " lying ncre Strong Water Brook or 
Mile End Brook." 

John Pickering, though residing in the town proper, 
owned land in the farms, including a lot near Brown's 
Pond. Lieut. Richard Davenport, who lived in 
Salem near North Street, and also at the village, 
owned land near Brooksby, among other parcels being 
"2 acres or thereabout lying on the west side of the 
but brooke not far from the place that the way goeth 
over to Lin." Lieut. Davenport was a famous soldier 
of the early colony, and was concerned with Endicott 



TEA BODY 



993 



ill cutting out the cross from the kiug's colors. John 
-Marsli had a grant of twenty acres near one of Lieut. 
Davenport's grants. 

John anil .Vnthony Buxton al.<o had early grants, 
and there are many who.se lands it is not now easy to 
locate who settled in the middle precinct, and many 
settlers who obtained their lands by jjurchase, and 
whose names do not appear in the book of grants. 
The Flints, Popes, Uptons and Needhams had valua- 
ble farms; the Proctors removed herefrom Ipswich 
in IGGO, the Pooles from Cambridge in KJiH), the Fos- 
ters from Boxford, the Buttons from Rowley, the 
Jacobses in 1700, the Poors in 1770, and the I'restons, 
Shillabers ami other prominent families came in at 
ditl'erent periods. A part of the farm <jf ( icorge 
Jacobs lay in Peabody. 

The early settlers were picked men. They re- 
ceived grants of land by reason of their supiiosed fit- 
ness to build up the jirosperity of the settlement, and 
they were mostly eminent for their piety as well as 
for the qualities ivhich make the enterprising and 
successful jiioneer. Mr. Upham hiis preserved a 
curious document, which illustrates the rigid oliserv- 
ance of Sunday restrictions, and indicates some of the 
men upon whom the community depended for the ex- 
ecution of its laws. 

".■\t a general Town meetiiiu. lield llie Ttli iluy ul tliii :.lli rnuritli, li;i4, 
ordered that two be appuinted every Lord's I>ay, to walk furtli in the 
tinieuf (iod'8 worship, to take notice of smli as eitlier l.vo about the 
niieting-house, without attending to tlie word and ordinances, or that 
lye at home or in the fields without giving good aerunnt tliereof, and to 
take tlie names ofsucii persons, an 1 to present tlmin to tlie magistrates, 
wliereby they nuiy lie accordingly j>roce('ded against. Tho names of 
such as are ordered to this service are for llie 1"' day, M'. Stileman and 
Philip Veren, .!'. 2<i day, Philip Veren,S'., and llillianl Veren . :ii day, 
Mr. Batter and Joshua Veren, 4"' day, Mr. Johnson and M'. Clark. 5<li 
day, M'. Downing and Robert Molton, S'. rA day, Uobert Molton, J' , 
and Richard Ingcr>w1. V*** day, John Ingersol and Kichard I'ettingell. 
81k day, William Ilaynes and RichanI Hutchinson, il"! day, John Put- 
nam and John Ilalhorno. Ill" day, Townsend liisliop and Daniel Rea. 
1 I'll day, John I*orter and Jacob Barney." 

The design of the plan, as Jlr. Upham remarks, 
was not merely that expre-sed in the vote of the town, 
Init also to prevent any disorderly conduct on the 
Lord's day, and to give prompt alarm in case of fire 
or Indian attack. The men a|ipointed to this service 
were all leading characters, an<l we fin<l among them 
six, at least, of the early settlers of lirooksby. 



CHAPTKIi L.XVI. 
PE.VBODY (Cntmued). 

ntctlopmenl of Selllertfiil h'/ore ITini— WiUhcraft in the Middl,' I'T'Cinrl. 

The history of this locality during the seventeenth 
century is written with that of .Salem. Its inhabi- 
tants were simply outlying citizens of the town of 
Salem, and they belonged to the First (Jhurch, except 
some who were included in the village parish when 



it was set ofi' in 1G72, for tlic line of the middle pre- 
cinct does not exactly coincide witli lliat of the town 
of Peabody, the latter including a small part of the 
territory of Salem Village. The divliling line be- 
tween the village and the middle precinct was origi- 
nally a line running almost due west from Kndicott 
or Cow-house River to the Lynn line; but when the 
division was made between North and South Dan- 
vers, in IS.'il!, the line was carried from the Kndicott 
River northwesterly, to the sharp linid cf the Ips- 
wich River, a mile or iiinn' iiurth of llie old boun- 
dary at that jKiint. 

The military organizalinns engaged in the various 
early wars with the Indians were recruited iiidill'er- 
ently from the various parts of the town, and some 
of the most famous officers lived at the Farms. 

* 'a|itaiii William Trask and his comjiany were prom- 
inent in the Pequot War in Ki.'JIj and 1G37. The three 
commissioned officers of the company required to be 
raised in Salem for the Block Island Expedition, in 
1G30, lived in the middle precinct, or were land- 
holders there, — Trask, Davenport and Read. .Some 
of the men of Brooksby were with Captain Lothrop at 
Bloody I'.rook, in Ki'.'i, and anioiig tlic names of 
those who fell on that di>astnuis day are those of 
Edwanl Trask, Joseph Iving and Robert Wilson. 
The Salem Company, under the lead of Captain Na- 
thaniel Davenport, a son of Richanl, were in the 
thick of the terrible hand to hand light with the 
forces of King Philip, when the Indian fort was 
stormed at sundown of a winter's day ; and were 
with the foremost in the pursuit of the escaping In- 
dians through the wihlerncss, known to tradition as 
the hutujrii marcli. When it is remembered that the 
forces and even the oHlcers of that memorable ex- 
pedition were drafted hastily for the service, and 
that many of them left home without even time to 
arrange their [irivate att'airs, the heroic bravery of the 
Narragansett fight will bear comparison with any 
deeds of military prowess that history has recorded. 
The Puritans of ,\cw England fought as did the 
army of Cromwell, with no fear of death, and with 
the iris]iiratio!i which came IVom their tirm belief in 
the Divine protection. 

A company of troopers was early fiiriucd, made up 
from the I'armcrs and neighboring settlements. The 
ranks became thinned in course of time, and in Oc- 
tober, 1()7H, a successful attempt was made to revive 
the company. Tliirty-six men belonging to "the re- 
serve of S;ileni old troop," and " desirous of being 
servit'cable to tiod and the country," petitioned the 
(ieneral Court for reorganization as a trooji of horse, 
and for the issuing of the necessary commissions. 
Among the signers of this petition are Anthony 
Needham, Peter and Ezekiel Cheever, Thomas Flint, 
John Procter, William Osborne, and others of the 
region afterward incorporated into the middle pre- 
cinct. The officers apjiointed were men of jimperty 
and energy, and the company of troops was kept in 



994 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



efficient training until all danger from Indians or 
other foes had passed away. The William Osborne 
here mentioned is not the early settler, who acquired 
land in 1638, and is not known to be a descendant, 
but probably collaterally related. The earlier Wil- 
liam Osborne is believed to have spent his later 
years in Boston, and died about 1662. The William 
Osborne whose name appears on the petition just 
spoken of, w'as born about 1644, and from him are 
descended most of the various families of Osbornes 
in the vicinity of Salem, Peabody and Danvers. The 
descendants of the earlier William are found in Con- 
necticut and Long Island. 

The second William Osborne, and his son, the 
third William, lived on the road to the Village, in 
" the lane." now Central Street, near Andover Street. 
An old house, built in 1680 and said by tradition to 
have belonged to one of them, was taken down in 
1887. 

In all the duties of citizenship the farmers appear 
to have been prominent; and citizenship was then re- 
garded as a most serious and important allegiance, re- 
quiring the most faithful exercise of duty. The 
oath of a freeman, which was required to be taken by 
those seeking to share in the social and political 
privileges of the settlement, is full of the most strik- 
ing suggestions of the clear and vigorous political 
views held by the founders. 

" Moreover, I doe solemnly binde niy.selfe, in the 
sight of God, that when I shall be caled to give my 
voyce touching any such matter of this state in 
which ffreemen are to deale, I will give my vote and 
suffrage as I shall judge in my own conscience may 
best conduce ct tend to the publicjue weale of y" 
body without respect of persons or favour of any 
man. So help me (tod in the Lord Jesus Christ.'' 

The policy which permitted every one who had a 
town lot of half an acre to relinquish it, and receive 
in its stead a country lot, of fifty acres or more, had 
the result of attracting to the forests and meadows of 
the Farms a population of a superior order. Men of 
property, education and high social position took the 
lead in developing the resources of tlie country, and 
they gave character to the farming interest and class. 
This process of selection is undoubtedly the source 
of the high character for industry, intelligence and 
energy, which has distinguished the descendants of 
these early settlers of the outlying lands of Salem. 

Of the social life of the middle of the seventeenth 
century in the farming district of Brooksby we know 
little, except what we learn from the annals of life in 
Salem in those early days, and from the light 
thrown upon the time by the exhaustive inves- 
tigations which have been made into the history 
of the following 'period of the witchcraft delusion. 
We know that their labors were severe and unremit- 
ting, and their social relaxations infrequent and care- 
fully guarded against excess. The vigorous style of 
English merrymaking, though put down with an 



iron hand in the case of the roystering Morton, who 
tried to set up the Maypole festival at Merrymount, 
still asserted it.self on such privileged occasions jis 
house raisings and huskings. No vigor of Puritani- 
cal custom can wholly restrain the innocent joyous- 
ness of youth and healthful spirits, and in spite of 
their serious views of life,- there is plenty of eviden(e 
that the magistrates and elders were wise enough not 
to attempt wholly to repress the natural and inno- 
cent enjoyments of country life and manners. The 
religious views of the people, though severe in doc- 
trine, were not gloomy in practical application to the 
life of the colony, and the faith which had led them 
into the wilderness brightened and cheered their 
hard and simple life on the rocky and unpromising 
farms which so many were forced to receive as their 
portion of the soil. They had a spirit which was 
above repining, and which noted hardship chiefly as 
a providential opportunity for the development of 
Christian character. They belonged to that rare 
class of men who are never dominated by their sur- 
roundings, but who, by mental and spiritual vigor, 
rise superior to the most powerful forces with which 
they are obliged to cope. The short lapse of time in 
which farms were brought under cultivation, roads 
built, orchards planted, mills erected and churches 
and schools established, bears witness, both to the 
wisdom with which the authorities allotted their pub- 
lic lands, giving the large grants to those who were 
able to employ labor to improve them, aud to the 
wonderful vigor and natural resources of the indi- 
vidual settlers. 

Among the most remarkable men who lived in that 
part of the Farms within the limits of Peabody was 
Sir George Downing. His father, Emanuel Down- 
ing, had several grants of land, one of which in 
the town was bought of him by John Pickering, and 
is the site of the house on Broad Street, still standing, 
built by Pickering. Another, already referred to, 
near Procter's corner, was in the central part of Brooks- 
by, and, as Mr. Upham points out, George Downing 
spent his later youth and early manhood there. 
Hunting and fishing were doubtless his amusements, 
and we may imagine him, fowling-piece in hand, 
traversing the woods which then thickly environed 
the scattered farms. He was one of the first class 
graduated from Harvard College in 1642 ; studied di- 
vinity ; after various travels he was brought to the 
notice of Cromwell, having returned to England at 
a time when so many of the exiled Puritans seemed 
to see the promise of an ideal English Commonwealth, 
and from chaplain was promoted to scout-master gen- 
eral in Cromwell's army. He married a sister of the 
Earl of Carlisle, became a member of Parliament for 
Scotland, and undertook high diplomatic missions for 
theCommonwealth, goingatonetime as ambassador to 
the Hague. At the restoration he kept in favor with 
the new government, and received from his new sov- 
ereign the order of knighthood. On his return to 



PEABODY. 



Engliiiid he became :i member of Parliament for Mor- 
peth, and soon assumed control of the exchecjuer, in 
tlie management of wliich he displayed financial ge- 
nius and statesmanship of a very high order. Mr. 
Ifpham ascribes to him tlie origin of the celebrated 
Navigation Act, and the credit of originating the 
principle of specific appropriations in Parliament, a 
principle which has been embodied in American con- 
stitutional law. His name is perpetuated in Down- 
ing Street, in London, and by tlie college in Cam- 
bridge, England, established by tiie gift of his for- 
tune. Of all the young men who have gone from 
the historic region of the farms of the middle precinct 
of Salem, no one has left a more romantic and bril- 
lian record of piditical success. A sister, Ann, 
married Governor I5radstreet in lliSO. 

The farmers of Hrooksby continued to develop the 
agricultural resources of the region with little of the 
eventful in their history, except their share in the 
military operations of the time. The descendants 
of the first settlers exhibited much of that love of 
the home soil which has ever characterized the 
race; new families came in from time to time, and 
remote as the region was from immediate danger of 
Indian invasion, its annals are a simple record of 
peace and thrifty comfort, if not prosperity. 

The witchcraft delusion found some of its victims 
in the farms of the middle precinct. John Procter, 
who lived on the the Downing farm, was one of the 
most prominent of those who lost their lives in that 
strange uprising of superstition. He originally lived 
in Ipswich, where he had a valuable farm. He was 
a man of great native force and energy, bold and 
fearless in language, impulsive in feeling and some- 
times rash and hasty in action. The vigorous train- 
ing of what was then frontier life while it did not 
tend to lawlessness, cultivated a marked iiHlc[)end- 
ence of mind and manners in many of the farmers. 
Procter was a man of good property. His name 
appears in connection with the establishment of the 
Salem troop of horse. Mary Warren, one of the 
"afflicted" girls, was a servant in his family, and it 
seems but ti<o evident that she was affected by ma- 
licious feelings toward the family. He accompanied 
his wife, Elizabeth, the daughter of John Tliorndike, 
who was tirst arrested, from her arrest to her arraign- 
ment, and stood bravely and resolutely by her side, 
trying to support her under the terrible trials which 
she had to endure, without regard to the conse- 
quences to himself Mr. Upham says that it was 
probably his fearless condemnation of the nonsense 
and the outrage j)erpetrated by the accusers in the 
examination of his wife which brought the ven- 
geance of the girls down on him. The account of 
the preliminary examination of these two good and 
brave people, before the magistrates in the meeting- 
house at Salem, on Uie 11th of April, 1692, stirs 
the blood to indignation against the folly of the 
courts and the malignity of the accusers. No coun- 



sel was allowed, however, to any of the accused. Every 
sort of irregular evidence, not to be excused by 
doubtful precedent in English courts, was freely 
made use of; the afflicted children were permitted 
not only to testify to seeing the s|)ectral semblances 
of Goodman and Goodwife Procter in their cham- 
ber, but even to declare that they saw (ioody Proc- 
ter sitting in the rafters of the meeting-house 
in open court, while the awe-struck spectators 
gazed U[)ward, straining their eyes to behold the 
witch. The most transparent trickery faile<l to be 
detected. Parris, in his reporl, (pioled by Upham, 
says of the beginning of tlie accusation against 
Procter, which happened while his wife was being 
examined: 

"(Py and by, both of them [the accusing girls], 
cried out of Goodman Procter himself, and said he 
was a wizard. Immediately many, if not all of the 
bewitched had grievous tits.)'' 

"Ann Putnam, who hurt you? — (roodiiian Pnicter 
and his wife too."' 

" (Afterwards some of the afllicted cried, — 'There is 
Procter going to take up Mrs. Pope's feet !' and her 
feet were immediately taken up.) 

" What do you say, Goodman Procter, to these 
things? — I know not. I am innocent." 

" (Abigail Williams cried out, — ' There is Goodman 
Procter going to Mrs. Pope!' and immediately said 
Po|)e fell into a fit.)" 

Some member of the court, who was wholly infalii- 
ated by the delusion, said to Procter, — " You sec, the 
Devil will deceive you : the children could see what 
you was going to do l)efore the woman was hurt." 

One of the girls pretended to strike Goodwife Proc- 
ter, and drew her band back crying that her fingers 
burned. 

On such evidence Procter and his wife, with (iood- 
wife Corey and others, were held by the magistrates 
for trial, and sent to the jail in Boston. Procter and 
his wife were tried on the 5th of August, and Procter 
himself was executed on the liUh of the same month. 
His wife, owing to her condition, was rc|)rieved for 
the time, and before the time arrived for her execu- 
tion the storm had spent itself and she was saved 
from the gallows. She gave birth to a child two weeks 
after her husband's execution. He made his will with 
the manacles on his hands. So bitter was the wrath 
of the persecutors against the I'roeters that they not 
only arrested and trieil to destroy all tlie adult ineiii- 
bers of the family, but even relatives in I.ynn, The 
children were left destitute and the home swept clear 
of its provisions by the sheriff. In spite of the dan- 
ger of such a iiroceeding. upwards of thirty citizens of 
Ipswich and a considerable number of their neighbors 
at the Farms signcil and sent in petitions for clemen- 
cy in their case, testifying lo the high standing of the 
couple. Notwithstanding his efforts, an appeal having 
been made by him to the ministers of Hoston to |iro- 
tecthiniMn his rights, he wascomlcmned and executed, 



996 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



and his body thrown into a hasty and dishonored 
grave, from which, Upham states, tradition says that, 
like some others of the more prominent victims, his 
body was taken secretly by his family and buried with 
the family dead. Years afterward, in 1711, the Gene- 
ral Court, in a distribution of money to those who 
suflered from the fearful consequences of the wicked- 
ness of the accusers and the infatuation of the people, 
gave to John Procter and his wife, and those who 
represented them, the sum of one hundred and fifty 
pounds, the largest sum given to any of the suf- 
ferers. 

At that time attainder, including forfeiture of 
property to the State, was an incident of conviction for 
felony ; and it was doubless the desire to save his 
property for his children which chiefly induced Giles 
Corey to stand mute and refuse to plead to his indict- 
ment; and so to submit himself to the horrible and 
barbarous form of death which has made his the most 
remarkable figure among the victims of that cruel 
conspiracy. Corey lived on a good farm of about 
one hundred and fifty acres, in what is now the north- 
western part of I'eabody. He was a man of great in- 
dependence of character, careless of conventionalities, 
and hardened by the severities of farming life in that 
period to a cross-grained disregard for the opinions 
and talk of his neighbors. He was, throughout his 
life at the Farms, often in difficulties with others, 
sometimes seeking redress at law for injuries claimed 
by him, and sometimes dealt with for hard blows or 
unconcealed disregard of the right.s of his neighbors. 
It is probable, as Mr. Upham thinks, that he was not 
nearly so bad as the reports of the day made him out, 
and that he was not essentially a lawless or unprinci- 
pled man. He wiis once or twice arrested on suspi- 
cion of serious offences, but always cleared himself, 
and continued to live on in his own way, with a fair 
share of prosperity. He and John Procter figure on 
the records as opponents in various disputes ; indeed, 
Corey was examineil at one time on suspicion of set- 
ting Procter's house on lire, but it appeared clearly 
that he was innocent, and he in turn instituted pros- 
ecutions for defamation against Procter and his ac- 
cusers, in which he recovered against them all. His 
third wife, Martha, was a woman notable for piety, 
and a member of the village church; and it may 
have been owing to her influence that Corey himself, 
ordy a year or two before the witchcraft times, when 
he was eighty years old, offered himself and was re- 
ceived into membership at the First Church in 
Salem ; and the records of that church state that 
though he was of a " scandalous life " he made a con- 
fession of his sins satisfactory to that body. He was 
completely carrie<l away by the fanaticism of the 
time, and fre(iuented the examinations of the accused 
and believed all that he heard. Martha Corey, on 
the otlier hand, did not approve of the proceedings, 
and did not hesitate to express her want of faith in 
the afflicted children. She spent much of her time 



in prayer, and her course was marked as peculiar and 
caused an estrangement between herself and her hus- 
band. As it happened in so many other cases, the 
accusers were quick to resent any opposition, and 
holding the power of life and death in their hands, 
crushed down opposition in a manner so unscrupu- 
lous and so remorseless that the arguments of Mr. 
Upham as to the deliberate character of the conspir- 
acy seem unanswerable. 

The accusation of one of the girls set two of the 
citizens to call on Goodwife Corey, and her innocent 
and sprightly conversation was tortured into evidence 
against her. On her appearance at Thomas Putnam's 
one of the girls fell in a fit, and declared that Goody 
Corey was the author of her sufl'erings. Upon this 
conclusive evidence a warrant was issued for her ar- 
rest on the 19th of March, and on the 21st she was 
examined in the meeting-house at the village. Her 
examination is preserved by Mr. Upham, and shows 
that she was a bright, fearless old woman, who hardly 
seemed to realize the danger in which she stood. 
The ridiculous accusations in some instances made 
her laugh, which was thought a most convincing 
proof of devilish light-mindedness. She was bound 
over for trial by Justices Hathorne and Corwin. At 
her examination she requested to be allowed to "go 
to prayer," which was refused by the magistrates, 
though the Rev. Mr. Noj'es, at the beginning of the 
proceedings, had put up what might be described as an 
exceedingly ex parte petition. It is probable that the 
managers of the excitement feared the efl^ect which 
such a prayer might have on the spectators. 

The criticisms other husband for her failure to fall 
in with the current delusion were made use of against 
her, and a deposition of his, not directly accusing her, 
but evidently intended to weigh against her, is found 
on the records. On the 9th of September she was 
tried and condemned. Two days after, she was form- 
ally excommunicated from the Village church. Mr. 
Parris, with two deacons and Lieutenant Putnam, 
went to convey this sentence to her, and found her 
" very obdurate, justifying herself, and condemning 
all that had done anything to her just discovery or 
condemnation. Whereupon, after a little discourse 
(for her imi)eriousuess w'ould not suffer much), and 
after prayer — which she was willing to decline — the 
dreadful sentence of excommunication was pro- 
nounced against her." Calef says that " Martha 
Corey, protesting her innocency, concluded her life 
with an eminent prayer upon the ladder." She was 
executed September 22, 1692. 

The dwelling-house of Corey was near the crossing 
of the Salem and Lowell and Georgetown and Boston 
railroads on the south side of the former road, a little 
distance to the west of the crossing. He had lived 
previously in the town of Salem, and sold his house 
there in 1659. 

Giles Corey, as has been remarked, was induced to 
' give some sort of evidence concerning bis wife, but it 



I'KAHODY. 



'.i!i7 



does not appear to \io ol' imich iiiiportiuife. It is 
very probable, as Upbaiii sufigests, that the hostility 
of tiie accusers was incurred l>y liiin lor liis liilce- 
warm deposition against Iier. It is viry liki-ly, too, 
tliat when the accusation was brought home to liis 
own family, and his wife, whom it is evident he knew 
to be a good and pious woman, was subjected to ex- 
amination and committed to prison, he began to see 
matters in their true light, and expressed himself 
with his usual freedom. He was examined A|)ril li), 
liillL', in the meeting-house at the village. The usual 
performances of the accusers were gone through with ; 
they fell into fits, and were atllicted with grievous 
pinches, at which the court ordered his hands to be 
tied. The magistrates lost all control of themselves, 
and flew into a passion, exclaiming. " Wiiat ! is it not 
enough to act witchcraft at other times, but must you 
do it now in the face of authority ?" He seems to 
have been dumbfounded by these inexplicable pro- 
ceedings, anil could only say, " I am a poor creature, 
and cannot help it." U|)0m the motion of his head 
again, they had their heads and nei'ks atllicted. 

One of his hands was let go, and several were 
atllicted. He held his head on one side and then the 
heads of several of the afflicted were held on one 
side. He drew in his cheeks, and the cheeks of some 
of the atllicted were sucked in. Through all this out- 
rageous accusation he firmly asserted his innocence. 
His spirit is shown by the indignation with which he 
repelled one charge. Some of the witnesses testified 
that Corey had said that he had seen the devil in tlie 
form of a black hog, and was very much frightened. 
He denied the imputation of cowardice, and when 
"divers witnessed that he had told them he was 
fr ghted," he was asked "Well, what do you say to 
these witnes.ses? What was it frighted you?" He 
answered proudly, "I clo ncit know that ever I spoke 
tlu' word in my life." 

He was much oppressed and ilistressed by his situ- 
ation, and the share that he had had in promoting the 
excitement in the case of his wife and others doubtless 
added to his distress of mind. His sons-in-law, Cros- 
by and Parker, were in sympathy with the crowd that 
|iursued him, and he was accused ofhaviiig meditated 
suii-iilc. 

He was bound over for trial and committed to jail. 
He was indicted by the grand jury upon spectral evi- 
dence chiefly, as appears by the few brief depositions 
on file. 

What were his thoughts and feelings in his impris- 
onment there is little record to show, but there is 
reason to believe that in spite of his courage and 
fearlessness, he suHered greatly in mind. His eyes 
were fully opened to the wickedness, not only of his 
own accusation, but of that of all the other victims, 
and the utter injustice of the proceedings against 
him, and in the silence and gloom of his prison he 
made up his mind to that invincible determination 
which made his fate unique in the annals of legal 



procedure in America and shocking even beyond that 
of any of his innocent fellow sullercrs. 

He resolved to stand mute at his arraignment, and 
so not only save his jirojierty from the effects of the 
attainder, but make a protest against thi' injustice of 
the courts and juries and the malignity of his accus- 
ers, which should stand as long as history continueil 
to record the awful deeds then done in the name of 
the law against innocent and (iod-fearing men and 
women. He mrant, also, to attest the strength of his 
feelings towards tlupse who had been true to him and 
to his wife, and his vengeance toward those who had 
swvrn and acted against him and her. He caused to 
be drawn up a deed of conveyance while he was in 
the jail at Ipswicii, by which he conveyed all his 
property to his two sons-in-law who had been faithiiil 
to him, and exccutc<l it in the presence (d' competent 
witnesses. It was not certain whether this deed, 
though executed before the time of his trial, would 
stand against the attainder consequent upon his con- 
viction ; he had looked upon conviction as a foregone 
conclusion, for he had no faith in the justice of court 
or jury. When he was called into court to answer to 
his indictment, whether he was guilty or not guilty, 
he refused to answer. We do not know how often he 
was called forth, but nothing could shake him, — he 
stood mute. As Mr. Upham says : 

"lie klKK tliat tlio pit»3 of jUBtico were closvcl, ami tliat Irutli liad 
fled fioiii the scene. He would ll.^ve no part nor lot in the nnilter; re- 
fused to recognize the court, made no response to its questions, and was 
duniti in its presence. He stands alone in the resolute defiance of 
his attitude. He know the penalty of suffering and agony he would 
have to pay ; but he freely and fearlessly encountered it. All that 
was needed to carry his point was an unconquenible firmness, and he 
had it. He rendered it impossible to bring Iiini to trial, and tiiereby, in 
spite of the power and wrath of the wliole country and its authorities, 
retained his right to dispo.so of his property ; and bore his testimony 
against tho wickedness and folly of the liour in tones that reached the 
whole world, and will rcsouml through alt the ages." 

In modern law, the prisoner who stands mute is 
deemed to have pleailcd /(c/ (/nil/i/. But the English 
coiuinon law', to which the colony was subject in 
criminal matters, knew of no means by which the 
trial could proceed unless the accused answered to his 
indictment in open court. It is obvious that if any 
light penalty had attended such refusal to plead, 
many would have availed themselves of it; and so 
the policy of the old law was to provide an ordeal so 
awful that no one would deliberately undergo it. 
The prisoner was to be three times brought before 
till' court and called to plead; the consequences of 
his rclusal being solemnly announced to him each 
time. If he remained obdurate, the terrible sentence 
of peine for/e el dure was passed upon him ; and he 
would be laid on his back on the floor of a dungeon, 
mostly naked. A weight of iron wouKI be put upon 
him, not quite enough to crush him. lie would have 
no sustenance except on the first day, three morsels of 
the worst bread, and on the second day, tliree draughts 
of standing water from the pool nearest the prison 
door; and, still oppressed by the weight, he shoiibl 



998 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



thus on alternate days eat aud drink till he died or 
till he aniiwered. If he answered, he was at once re- 
lieved, and tried in the ordinary way. It may well 
be imagined that when the only object of endurance was 
to save property from confiscation, few, indeed, would 
ever long endure such torture. But Corey had an- 
other motive, which lent strength to his spirit such as 
ranks him with the most courageous souls of all 
history. 

Just what happened in his prison was never re- 
vealed ; but according to tradition, Corey was at last ] 
taken out into an open field near Salem jail, some- i 
where between Howard Street Burial-ground and 
Brown Street. He gave his executioners to under- 
stand that it was useless to prolong the ordeal, for he 
would never yield. They piled the heavy stones on 
bis body, and Calef says that some inhuman specta- 
tor or official forced his tongue, protruding in the 
agony of his sutlocation, back into his mouth with a 
cane. His indomitable courage endured to the end, 
and he died firm, as he had declared he would. Such 
a scene, if imagined ever so faintly, will eerve to 
bring back to us the crushing effect of the supersti- 
tious fears of the people, who could see in this most 
pathetic and marvellous instance, in a man over 
eighty-one years of age, of the power of a resolute 
will over the extremest agony of body, only a proof of 
devilish and malignant power. 

His death produced a deep eH'eci, and startled 
many into a feeling of growing repugnance and sus- 
picion towards the witchcraft proceedings. He was 
excommunicated from the First Church, by the 
agency of the Rev. Mr. Noyes, at a meeting hurriedly 
called for that purpose, just before his death. 

Such was the record of the victims of the witchcraft 
delusion and conspiracy, for it may fairly be believed 
that it was both, in the farms of the middle precinct. 
With the e-xception of the Shaftlin girl, whom a 
timely whipping brought to her senses before she did 
any harm, none of the accusers lived in the limits of 
Peabody. Ofthe public excitement, the fear, first of the 
witches, and then of the accusers, — the indignant sym- 
pathy of friends, the ready spirit of superstitious and 
credulous hatred toward the accused, which filled the 
region for so many long and awful months, little 
record remains. The Procters continued to live on 
their farms, and resumed their infiuential position in 
the society of the place ; but it may well be imagined 
that the ties that bound the people to either the First 
Church, presided over by Mr. Noyes, or the village, 
where Parris was trying to retain his hold against the 
heartfelt indignation of the relatives of those whom 
he had been so active in persecuting, were never 
afterward so binding or so attractive. 



CHAPTER LXVII. 

PEABODY— ( Continued). 
The Sepiirctlion of the Middle Precinct. 

Ix February, 1709-10, a petition was laid before 
the selectment of Salem, signed by Captain Samuel 
Gardner and others, requesting the town of Salem to 
set off as a new precinct that part ofthe town outside 
of the town bridge and below the line of Salem Vil- 
lage. The reasons given are the distance of some of 
the families from the First Church in Salem, and the 
difficulty of general attendance on divine worship, 
and the growth of the district indicated. The bound- 
aries ofthe proposed precinct were laid down in this 
petition, which was embodied in the warrant for a 
special town-meeting to be held March 6, 1709-10. 

" Viz., on a Btreight line from y* towne briilge to v" Spring Pond where 
y« brook Runs out and soe along y northern shore of said Pond to Lyn 
line, and then northward on Lyn line to y* Village Line, and then eastward 
on y« Village line to ffrostfish River and then as y« Saltwater Leads to y« 
Towne bridge tirst named (Excepting only .Tames Symonds, John Sy- 
monds, John Norton & Math. Whittimore), viz., for granting unto y» 
inhabitants Dwelling within y« limits above mentioned to be free from 
paying Rates to y" Minister within yo bridge Provided they do at their 
owne C^st and Charge build a Meeting-house for y« Publick Worship of 
God among them and sustaine an Orthodox Minister to Preach iu y» 

The meeting of March 6th was called of "those 
that live without or below y' Village line that are 
Duely Qualified according to law for voteing." This 
call excluded the voters of Salem Village, who were 
probably deemed not to be interested in the separation 
of the middle precinct from the First Parish. The 
result wiis that the petitioners were in the minority, 
and the meeting was dissolved without action, as the 
record says, " because all the persons preluded by 
the Petitioners had not signed the petition." 

The persons excepted lived in North Salem. 

It is evident that this informality was merely a 
pretext seized upon by the majority to prevent far- 
ther action at that time, and that a very decided opposi- 
tion to the separation of the new precinct was de- 
veloped at this meeting; for immediately on this 
rebuff in the town-meeting, the same petitioners de- 
cided to change their plans, to address the General 
Court, praying to be set off as a separate precinct^ 
and to ask of the town of Salem simply a lot of land 
on which to build their meeting-house. As the next 
general town-meeting was ito be held on March 20, 
they induced the selectmen' to insert an article in the 
warrant authorizing the grant of a lot of land condi- 
tionally on the precinct's being established, there 
being at the time no petition or proceeding on foot, 
other than the one which had just been refused a 
hearing, before either the town or the General Court. 
Captain Samuel Gardner was a representative that 
year to the General Court, with Captain Jonathan 
Putnam, (they were paid £ 9 6*. apiece for their sixty- 



PEA BODY. 



91)9 



two days' service at the assembly), and it is very 
lilcely that he felt more confident of success in the 
General Court than in the town-meeting. 'I'he fol- 
lowing is the list of tiie Petitioners, us given by Han- 
son. Samuel Marble, John Nurse, Abraham I'icrcc, 
James Houlton, Samuel Cutler, Ebcne/er Cutler. 
Samuel King, Samuel Stone, James Could, William 
King, Stephen Small, Ezekiel Mar.«li, Benjamin Very, 
Ezekiel Goldtliwaite, Nathaniel Waters, John Jacobs, 
Richard Waters, Samuel Cook, David Foster, Na- 
thaniel Felton, .John Waters, Israel Shaw, Jacob 
Read, John Trask, Nathaniel Tompkins, William 
Osborne, Jr., John O. Waldin, Antliony II. Need- 
ham, John Marsh, Benjamin i\Iarsh, Samuel Slaccy, 
Sr., Samuel Stacey, William Osborne, John W. Bur- 
ton, Benjamin C. Procter, Elias Trask, John Giles. 
John Gardner, George Jacobs, John Felton, Robert 
Wilson, Eben. Foster, Jonathan King, .Skellon Fel- 
ton, Henry Cook, Joseph Douly, Thorudike Procter, 
Samuel Goldthwaite, Samuel (Joldtliwaite, .)r., John 
King, John King, Jr., Samuel F^ndicott. 

The article in the warrant issued March 8, 170!l-10, 
is ■■ To answer the petition of severall of ye Inhabi- 
tants ol this Towne, that live without y'' bridge and be- 
low y'' \"illage line. To grant them a Quarter of an 
acre of land to Set a Meeting-house upon Nigh Sam' 
GoJthrit's .lun. l)etween that and y"' widow Parnell's 
in Case y* Towne or General Court See Cause to Set 
them olf." 

The inhabitants of the vilbige pari.-.h ap|H'ar to 
have been in sympathy with tlu- jironioters ol' the 
new precinct, and the petitioners were able to .secure 
a majority at the general town-meeting. A motion 
to proceed at once to the vote for granting one-fourth 
of an acre to the petitioners prevailed, and it was 
then voted that the land asked for be granted. A 
protest was immediately drawn up and signed by 
several of the most prominent citizens of the " Body 
of the Town," and was entered on the records. Its 
terms are curious and interesting. The grounds of 
the i)rotest were that the inhabitants of the nc\v pre- 
cinct " have never been sett of, nor any Precinct or 
District for a Parish Prescribed by the Towne, and 
altho' this matter of theire petition was now urged and 
moved as preposterous and irregular, & that there- 
fore y' Tiiwne might have time to Consider of it till 
another Towne meeting"; " Wee therefore" say the 
remonstrants, " Doe hereby dissent from and Protest 
against the Said Precipitate and Irregular vote or 
act therein for y' rea.sons following, viz: 

'* I.— Because two of the Seleclmen that oriler'it the IniiertinK tliis 
matter in ttic warrant were Livers without tho Briiigo, .V one of tlicni a 
Petitioner in said Peti lion, and both Subscribers for tlie tlu-re Intended 
meeting liouse. 

"2.— Because two More of the .Selectmen tlint were of the Village 
Parish ware absent from their Brtthrou when the said Petition was or- 
dered in the warrant. 

•• :i._B,-cau»o tho Three Selectmen that are Livers within tho Bridge 
at y" Time of tho .Agitation alwut itt Declared against the other Two 
Inaorting r* Petition in the warrant & Bring? itt forward at this time. 

"4.— Because Some of tho voters were Liveis .without tlie Bridge, 



it Some Ouakers, and cheitly those also belonging to the Village IVrrrish 
wbome we humbly conc<-ive ware not propper voters in this matter. Wee 
therefore pray this, ..ur Trolest, may be Kiiln-.l with y «iid vole in tho 



Benjamin l.ynde, .lonalban ('oru in, William tied- 
ney and Francis Willoiigbby were among the signers 
of this jirotest. 

The ne.xt sitting of the General Court was conven- 
ed May .'{I, and the petition for the new iirccinct 
having been duly jiresented, the General Court, upon 
reading it, issued an order of notice directing the pe- 
titioners to notify the town of Salem, by sending a 
copy of the petition to the Selectmen, to appear and 
show reitson on the llltli of June, why the prayer of 
the i)etitioners should not be granted. 

On the 8th <if .luiic, the .sclectnu'M called a meet- 
ing of freeholders below the village line, for the llitli. 
.•\t this meeting, which was merely to give an oppor- 
tunity to the remonstrants to appear against the 
petitioners, "at the motion of the moderator and 
Severall otbergeutlemeii the Petitioners Liveing with- 
out the Bridge Drew of before voting. It was " voated 
that the Towne will Choose a Coraitte or agents to 
.Shew Reason why the Prayers of the Petitioners our 
Neighbours without the Bridge should not be 
Granted." A committee consisting of Jlajor Samuel 
Browne, Benjamin Lynde, and Josiah Wolcot, was 
chosen to show reason in the town's behalf against 
the petition. The arguments of the remonstrants 
were filed in writing, and contain evidence of warm 
feeling. The coinmittce lor Salem do not hesitate to 
say to the General Court " Wee Cannott Butt think 
that Thatt Honourable Court will never want Buis- 
ne.ss and Trouble If such Hasty and forward Peti- 
tioners be Encouraged and have their Desires." 
They also declare that " There was no such design 
until our Church had Chosen Mr. George Corwin for 
an a.ssistaiit in the ministry to our Kev"*. Mr. Noyes, 
which not being pleasing to One, or Two of the Chief 
of y" Petitioners has occasioned this new undertak- 
ing, and a great unhappiness in the Town." It was 
objected also that the separation would take from 
the body of the town, so far as concerned parish 
matters, three fourths of all improved lands, and the 
best part of the eonimon lands, and it would with- 
draw eighty or niin'ty families from the First Church. 

On the l'.)th of .June, the General Court referred 
the whole matter to the ne.xt session, and appointed 
a committee to repair to Salem, and upon a full 
hearing of the petitioners, and the selectmen and 
others in behalf of the town, and after taking a view of 
the place proposed for the new building, " to offer tlieir 
opinion of the most convenient place for a new con- 
gregation, Making report upon the whole to this 
Court at their next session. ' 

Tuesday, the 12th of ■'September, was set lor the 
hearing before the committee of the General Court in 
Salem. The selectmen determined to make the visit 
of the committee an agrt cable one, for at a meeting of 



1000 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the selectmen, September 9th, it was "ordered that 
John Prait bee spoken to make Sutable Entertain- 
ment for y" Comitte apointed by y° General Court to 
come to Salem ref'ering to y'' precinct petition for 
without y" Bridge & tliat the Towne will defray 
y" Charge thereof." 

John Pratt was for many years the i)roprietor of 
the famous "Ship Tavern'' on Essex Street, nearly 
opposite Centre Street, on the site afterward occupied 
by the Mansion House. He afterward removed, 
about 17.')0, to a house on the corner of Essex and 
Washington Streets. About 1773 another house of 
entertainment, on the corner of Washington and 
Church Streets, was called the Ship Tavern. 

The meeting of the committee was probably held 
in the Town House, in the upper part of which was 
the court-room, and which was situated in the mid- 
dle of Washington Street, anciently School Street, 
facing Essex Street, about where the eastern end of 
the tunnel now is. 

At this hearing fresh papers were filed by the 
parties ; the petitioners rejoined to the arguments of 
the respondents, and pointed out that the new parish 
would take only about one-fourth of the families of 
the First Parish, and that owing to the small means 
of those who lived by husbandry, compared to the 
merchants and tradesmen of the town, it would take 
away but " a little more than a fifth part of y' pro- 
portion rated to the minister." 

The full discussion has not been preserved, but it 
was doubtless animated, for these were people who 
took a deep interest in everything of public concern, 
and who were accustomed to vehement debate. 

The committee were taken to the proposed site of 
the new meeting-house, and they were entertained by 
the town with great liberality ; for John Pratt's bill 
" for Entertainment of y" Committe & y" Company 
that attended & accompanied them " for " Two din- 
ners, expenses, &c.," amounted to £4 7s. 6rf., a very 
considerable sum for a junket in those days, which 
was approved the following January without com- 
ment, so far as tlie records shov>-; perhaps because at 
the same meeting of the selectmen their patriotic 
ardor was stirred by an order to pay to the same land- 
lord " For expense on Major Lee & his pylot bring- 
ing y' first news of port Royalls being taken," amount- 
ing to 125. lOrf. Tt is probable that the item of "ex- 
penses, &c.," included a hosi)itable supply of liquors. 
The use of the same word in the order to pay for the 
celebration of tiie victory at Port Royal, shows that 
it had an ascertained meaning, like that of the word 
"sundries'" in bills for celebrations of more recent 
date. It is interesting to note that in one respect at 
least we are more puritanical than our forefathers, 
for a town officer would hardly venture now to 
" treat" at the expense of the town in celebration of 
a victory. 

On November 1, 1710, the legislative committee 
submitted a report, dated October 31, in favor of 



setting off the new precinct. The report was read in 
the council and left upon the board. The next day 
the report was again read and debated. On the 3d, 
upon the question "Whether the Council will now 
vote the said report," there was a tie. It was not till 
the 10th of November that the report was finally 
accepted. The recommendation of the committee 
was that "The said Precinct do begin at the great 
Cove in thi' North Field so to run directly to 
Trask's Grist Mill, taking in the Mill to the new Pre- 
cinct; from thence on a Strait Line to the Jlile Stone 
on the Road to Salem Meeting-house, and So along 
the Road to Lyn by Lindsay's ; and then along the 
Line between Salem and Lyn Northward, till it comes 
to Salem Village line, & along by that line to Frost 
Fish River, & then by the Salt Water to the great 
Cove first mentioned ; and that the Meeting-house be 
erected on that Piece of Land near Gardner's Brook, 
already granted by the Towne for that End." 

The report of the committee, which was signed by 
Penn Tovvnsend for the committee, was read and ac- 
cepted by both houses and consented to by Governor 
Dudley the same day, November 10, 1710. 

It seems that although the committee, in their re- 
port, speak of a piece of land as already granted by 
the town, there had been no location of the grant, 
which was indeed, by its terms, conditional. 

On the 28th of December a formal vote was passed 
at a meeting of the selectmen, ordering that Captain 
Jonathan Putnam, Mr. Benjamin Putnam and Mr. 
John Pickering or any two of them be a committee 
to lay out the quarter of an acre and make return 
thereof. 

It was undoubtedly a shrewd proceeding on the 
part of the petitioners to obtain the conditional grant 
in advance, and then locate it by the recommenda- 
tion of the committee of the General Court before 
the layer.s-out had been appointed. The fact that the 
land had already been granted may be fairly sup- 
posed to have had some weight in the deliberations of 
the committee. 



CHAPTER LXVIII. 

PEABODY {Continued). 

Thf Middle Precinct — Suilding Ihe Sleeting-hovte. 

On the 28th of November, 1710, a general meeting 
of the inhabitants of the Middle Precinct was held. 
Captain Samuel Gardner was chosen moderator, and 
John Gardner was chosen " Clark." It was voted 
"That there be A Convenient Meeting hous Built 
for y' Publick Worship of God w"' all convenient 
Speed in this Middle Precinct, and that it be Erected 
on y* place of Ground granted by the Town for that 
End." The committee chosen to have charge of the 



PEABODY. 



inoi 



biiililirig of tlie new liouse were " Cap' Sam" Gardner, 
y[' Jii" frisk Sen', Mr James Holton, Mr Sam" Cut- 
ler, M' .In' Xiirsc, Mr Jon" Mash, Mr Jn" Kelton, Mr 
Will"' King, Mr Thorn.lick Procter, Mr. Abell Gard- 
ner, Mr .\l)r™ Pearse, M' Jn° Waters." 

The site eliosen for the new meeting-house is that 
now occupied by the South Congregational Church 
in Peabody. It is mentioned in the proceediugs at 
the centennial celebration of the incorporation of 
Danvers that the original grant of a ipiarter of an 
acre was in some way increaned to about an acre. 

The committee on the building, which is common- 
ly spoken of in the parish records as "y' grate com- 
mity" met, with brief delay, on t!ie .30tli of Novem- 
ber, and it was " Agreed that y' Building be 48 feat 
Long and 3.') feat wid and 24 feat stud so as to have 
two Galaris." It was " Agreed That JM' Sam" Cutler 
M' Robert WilKson M' ,In° Waters Be undertakers for 
y'^ workmanship of y" Hous and are to have 2' 9'' fi 
Day for so many days as ihay work from the present 
time till y' II) ''■'■' of March next and then 3' "j* day 
so Long as y' Conunitty sees good. Agreed That 
other carpenders have 2" (!' per d.iy for so many days 
as they work, and men that work with A Xarro As 
to have 2' "f* day." 

On January 1.5, 1710-11, the committee called a 
general meeting of the inliabitants of the parish to 
petition the town for a lot for the minister, and it was 
voted "to move or petition for 10 acres of land or !is 
ranch as y' town sees meet to be laid out between 
Mr. Sam" Stones and Sara" Goldthrit's for y' use of 
y" Ministry for this Precinct. The location asked for 
would be between Wa.shington Street and Foster 
Street, on the southerly side of Main Street. On 
Slarch 12, 1710-11 the matter came before the gen- 
eral town meeting of Salem, and it was left to the 
select men to propose to the next annual town meet- 
ing " relating to a Sutable proportion of lands for y' 
Ministry of y° body of y' Toune and y" other two 
precincts to be set apart for y' use of y' Ministry of 
y' several! Districts." It seems that the application 
of the new precinct for a minister's lot was the occa- 
sion of the other parishes' asking for lots also, and at 
the meeting on March 24, 1711-12, the town was 
asked to grant ten acres to each of the outlying pre- 
cincts and twenty acres to the First Parish. This 
the voters refused to do; but it was voted to grant 
half an acre of land to "the New Chappell lately 
erected," for the use of the minister. This was short- 
ly after Mr. Prcscott had been called to the Jliddle 
Parish. 

This grant of one-half acre was not laid out for 
several years. In 1710 ai)plicHtion was made to the 
selectmen of Salem to lay it out, and they did so the 
same year, near the meeting-house. The location 
included the vicinity of the Univers'alist Church 
building, extending toward the square. Part of this 
land was afterward conveyed to the Kev. Mr. Holt, 
and the remainder continued in the possession of the 



ministry until ISIS, when it was sold to ^latlhow 
Hooper for fifteen hundred ihdlars. The town of 
Salem refus'-d to grant more laud to the various jire- 
cincls; but when in 1714 there was a division of com- 
mon rights, five ac^rcs were granted to the commoners 
to each of the four churches. These appropriations 
were located, one above the other, on the left of the 
old Boston road, going toward Poole's bridge from 
Salem, between Ghtsshouse Field and the Sheep Pas- 
ture. The various church lots lay on the southerly 
side of the road now leading to Swampscott from 
Aborn Street, extending in a direction parallel to the 
Boston road. This land also was sold in 184.") for six 
hundred dollars and the jiroceeds of all the mini-try 
lands of the Middle Precinct forms a fund which has 
at times been invested in a parsonage and at other 
times kept at interest. In the grants of these lands, 
in 1714 and 1715, the Middle Precinct is spoken of 
as Brooksby Parish or Precinct, showing that the 
ancient name was still in use at that time. 

The original dimensions of the new meeting-house 
were enlarged at a meeting of the Great Committee 
in March, 1710-11, and it was agreed that the house 
should be fifty-one feet long and thirty eight feet 
broad. The lower part of the "Galari Gurts" 
were to be eight and one-half feet from the floor; 
there were to be six seats in the front gallery and five 
seats in the end galleries. The pulpit .was in the 
middle of one of the long sides, and the principal 
aisle, or " alley," ran at right angles to the sitters, 
lengthwise and in the middle of the house. The 
pews were nearly square ; there were twenty of them, 
and they were mostly about five feet by six, though 
Samuel Cutler's pew was more than seven by six 
feet, and one pew occupied by Samuel and John 
Gardner was six feet by nine. The scarcity and 
costliness of window-glass made it necessary to econ- 
omize greatly in the use of that luxury; and some of 
the pew-holders being inconvenienced by the dark- 
ness of their sittings, it was voted in May, 1712, 
"That thay which have no windos in their Puse have 
Leave to cut sum out Provided thay maintain them 
at their one Charge." If this liberty was largely 
availed of, it must have produced a picturesque 
irregularity in the appearance of the structure 
from the outside. One case, at least, is recorded ; 
Daniel Marble was given leave to cut a window out 
of the side of the meeting-house against his pew, to 
be maintained by him. This was in 1720. In 170.') 
the proprietors of new pews were given liberty to cui 
or make windows at the e;ust and west doors. 

The building was raised June 0, 1711. Mr. Joseph 
Green, of the Village Church, has recorded in his 
diary that he went to the raising " at Col, Gardner's." 
Captain Samuel Gardner's house was on the nor- 
therly corner of Central and Elm ."-^treets. The 
festivities of that occasion were i)r(ib:d)ly ]iaid 
for by i)rivate subscription, fur the only item of 
refreshments which appears in the parish accounts at 



1002 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



that period is the Tcry moflest entry " p'' for Syder 
bread & Cheese when the planck was unloaden, 02'." 

Oil October 5, 1711, a day of fastiiij; and prayer 
was recommended " particuhirly in y' Calling of A 
minister," and tlie wish was devoutly spread upon 
the record "That God would direct in that Waighty 
Consearn to such a person as may be a blessing to y° 
place." A committee was chosen at the same time 
for granting pews and seating the house; so that the 
building wxs probably nearly or quite ready at tliat 
time. The record of the first seating is not entered 
till several years afterward, about 1721. Tiie twenty 
pews were granted to some of the more important 
families, and the other seats were given with due 
consideration to age and rank, the men and women 
sitting separately. It would seem that even the own- 
ers of pews did not sit with their wives, for some of 
the pew-owners had other seats al otted to them, and 
it is recorded " That .Jii° Waters shall have y" Pew to 
y" westward of Natli' Felton's for his wife and family 
and tliat said Waters is seated in y" front fore seat in 
y" Gahiry." The women were seated in the east gal- 
lery and the easterly part of the house below, and 
the mer had the west gallery and western pait of the 
house. The sittings are described as " y" three short 
seats before y"' pulput," "y° west body of seats," "y" 
body of long Women's seats belo," ''The fore seat of 
the west end of the men's gallery," and so on. 

On November 6, 1711, a committee was chosen to 
inquire after candidates and invite them to preach. 
It was resolved that candidates should be paid by 
contribution, or by rates if the contributions fell 
short. 

Three candidates are mentioned in the records, — 
Mr. Benjamin Prescott, Mr. Sutchclif and Mr. Bar- 
nard. The latter was probably the Rev. John Bar- 
nard, who was a graduate of Harvard College in 1709, 
the class of Mr. Prescott. The name Sutchclif does 
not appear in tiie Harvard Catalogue; it may be that 
the Rev. Wm. Shurtleff was the person meant. On 
the 4ih of March, 1711-12, a general meeting of the 
parish was held to choose a minister. Of course, on- 
ly the qualified male voters of the precinct were al- 
lowed to vote, the qualification being the same as that 
for voting in tow-n affairs ; but those who could not 
attend on this occasion were allowed to vote by pro.xy. 
The names of the three candidates were brought for- 
ward, and the clerk makes the brief and important 
entry, ''The person Chosen to be our Minister in Mr. 
Benj. Prescot." It was agreed " That if Mr. Prescott 
Cums and settles with us we will pay yearly to him y" 
sum of Eighty Pounds in Province Bills or in silver 
money as it passes from man to man, So long as he 
continues to be our minister." 

In February, 1711-12, Mr. Prescott was settled as 
the first pastor, and it seemed as if the long and bit- 
ter contest for separation from the First Parish was 
over. But the people of those days were sturdy con- 
troversialists, and it was too soon to e.xpect peace. 



The officers of the First Parish made out their list 
of rates, as usual, upon those who had formerly paid 
rates, although many of them had contributed largely 
from their slender means for building the new meet- 
ing-house and settling the new ministir. The indig- 
nant voters of the middle precinct sent a committee 
to the General Court to acquaint that body with their 
grievance, and ask relief against the tax, which was 
being pressed with the full vigor of the law. This 
committee was chosen October 13, 1712, and they ob- 
tained speedy justice, for on the 30th of October it 
was by the General Court 

" Hei^oJfed iivA (Jechircd tlmt the fai<i Precinct, being set off by Order 
of tbis Court, & baving worlbily pel ftunieil llieir Engagement in erect- 
ing a c.invi-nieiit Mecling IIuuso for tlie liulrliik worsliip of God, A set- 
tled a learned orlbudcix .Minit^ter & pruvided an lionoiiiiible euppurt for 
Iiiiii, Tliey are u-.t fiirtber cbaigeable lu llie support of tlie Ministry in 
tlie IJjdy uf tiie Town, being no longer i f tbe audience tliere ; and Ilie 
A8iessnu-nl made lulely upon Ibe Inbiibitants of tlie Precinct for llie 
Slinisliy in tbe Body of tbo Town by tlic Seleelnien and A8Ses.«ors, * all 
warrants issued for tlie collection and distiaiuiug forlhe tame be & bere- 
by are siijieftedtd and made null and void," 

It was not till 1713 that the members of the First 
Church who were includtd in the new parish sent in 
their request to be dismissed from the mother 
church. 

" S.\LKM, April 24lb, 1713. 

" To tbe liev'dJIr. Nicholas Noyes, Teacher of the Church in Saluni, 
and to the C'liurdi of Christ tbero : 

"Hon'd, Kev'd, and Beloved: 

■■ WiiKURAS it h'lth pleased our gracious God to smile upon our cn- 
deavoi's for tbe erecting of an bouse for tbe carrying on the public wor- 
ship uf God, and settling a minister amongst us, and we beiiig culled by 
divine pr\jvidence {as we apprehend) to settle a particular cbnrcb accord- 
ing to tbe Gospel, under the ministry of tbe Kev'd Mr. Benj. Prescot : 
Our bumble request to yourselves is that you will plea-'e to dismiss us 
and our chiidrcii with your approbation and blcKsiug, to be a church of 
ourselves and until we are so, with the Consent and approbation "-f tbe 
Elders and niesseugers of tlie churches tliat shall assist at the ordination 
of the Rev'd Air. I'rescut, to continue members of Salem Church, and 
as there shall be occasion assist and help us, especially by your prayeis 
unto the God of all gnce, that in sj greivt an affair we may be directed 
and assisted to proceed in all things according to the will of God, unto 
wboin be glory in the church by Jesus Christ, throughout all ages, world 
without end '* 

" Your iiiiworlhy brethren and sisters living within the bounds of tho 
Middle District in Salem. 



• Hiin 



iKii 



.hidali .Mackintire. 
Elizabetli Nurse. 
Sarah Hobinson, 
AlesSliaHlin. 
Ilanna Small. 
llanuaSoillhwick. 
Mary Tompkins. 



Martha Adams. Sam'l Goldthwait, 

Elizabeth Cok. Ebenezer Gyles. 

Sarah Gardiner. Alnaliani Pierce. 
Elizabeth Gardiner. John Foster. 

Isabel I'easo. John Fellon. 

Ha na Felton. I'nvid Foster, 

iliinna Foster. Abel Gardiner. 

Abiiiail Fri neb. John Gardiner. 



Elizabeth Tompkins. Elizabeth Gylcn. Samuel Goldthwait. 

Klizubeth Verry. Elizabetli Goldthwait. W illiain King. 

Jemima Verry. Haniia Goldthwait. Kicbard Waters. 

Sarah Waters. Deborah Gool. Kobeit I'eaae." 

Elizabeth Waters. Elizabeth King. 

Susanna Daniel. Samuel Gardiner. 

The request for dismissal was granted, and the fol- 
lowing letter of dismissal was issued: 

"Ala Cbnrch meeting at tho Teacher's house, Juno 25lli. Tho Church 
baving received a iietition from our brethren and sisters living in the 
Distiicl. wherein they desire u disinissioii from us for theniselveii and 
their children, lu older to be a church of themselves. Tbe Clinrch 
givetli in answer aa foil welh : That although wo cannot praise 
or justify our brethren's proceeding m far as they have done in order to 
be a chuichof themselves without advising writh or using means to ob- 



PEABODV. 



inns 



tnin Iho CMnwnt of Iho Clmrcli Ih-y bclonsod to ; >vt at the rc'iiu'st nf 
onrbrelliri'ii HnilsHtiT", a d fir peace snUo, ^vt^ |H-r:nit tliriii iiinl llirir 
chiMivli to licrnmca cliiirdi of Humus.-Ivi-s ; |.rovi.l.-.l tli.y li.ivo llif ap- 
piolMlion iinil consoiit of the Eldi-M and iiies<fii^'.Ts . f K.irn- othiT 
chmrhes ill c imimini "n «ilh ii«, that »h:ill aisUt at their ihiir li pitlier- 
iu2"fidoi\lainiiigtliema|)a.-<tor. Aud until ihe.v have to done, tliey 
rontiiiue nienilxTS of this ehiircli. And so we ooinmit thein to Iho 
gru-o of O.hI in Christ .lesus, |nn.vinK that the.v may h;4V(. divine diiec- 
fi.in and a*<i<tance in the great iv..ik they are np-Mi, and that tliey may 
hcc.nienn lio'y anlol^le^lyanl pea.-,,, hie eliurch. and tliat the L'.r.l 
wonhl ad.l to tliem of sneli as are williiu tlieir nvn limit-, nmny aii.ih as 
Fhall he Kive 1. The above ansxyer was t« i.-e .lislimtly lead t.. the hreth- 
r. 11 of the Church before it was voted, and then consented to by the vote 
of Iho Church, tiemiri« contradicenle." 

Rev. Benjamin Prf^citt w.is accordinfrly ordained, 
Septeinlier 23. 1713, and the separation of the parislies 
wa.s at la.st (;om|dete. In all llie history of the sepa- 
ration of towns and precincts, of which our legishi- 
tive and niuiiicipal history fiirnislies many note- 
worthy instances down to the jircsent time, there lias 
rarely been a division more earnestly |nirsticil or more 
stubbornly resisted than that wliicli rc-iilted in the 
formation of the Middle Precinct of t^alcia. 



CHAPTER I. X I X . 

FEXHODY—iConliitued.) 
Tltc /•rparnHon from Salem— The DUtrict and Toicii of Daiiiers. 

From this time forward the interests of the inhabit- 
ants of the mid lie precinct eontimied to be centred 
about their iiarish meetinprs. They were still subject 
to ta.xation for the general expenses of the town of 
Salem, and for educational purposes ; but they very 
soon demanded and received separate schools under 
the r own supervision. In 1714 the town granted 
money towards the support of a " Heading, writing 
and cyphering school" in tlic new precinct, and a 
committee was appointed to receive it "and distrib- 
ute it to the Inhabitants according to their discre- 
tion." 

The schools of that time were not entirely free, but 
those wlio were able to pay for the teaching of their 
children did so, and the town undertook to pay only 
for those who.se parents could not afi'ord to pay for their 
instruction. The e lucation of children, while not 
compulsory, Wiis universal, and the selectmen saw to 
it that children whose parents neglected their educa- 
tion and traitiing in s')me useful calling were put out 
to service. It was not till about 17i).S that schools 
were supported in this commonwealth wholly by 
ta.\ation, and were free to all. This explains what 
was meant by the disiribution of the schooi money. 

As time went on there was a growing desire for in- 
dependence in all municipal all'airs. There had al- 
ways e.xisted a strong feelingof sympathy between the 
middle and the village jiarishes. A dillicnlty at one 
time arose by reason of an attempt, in 17-13, by some 



of the inhabitants of the village to encroach upon the 
rishts of the middle precinct by including wiihiii the 
village hounds some of those who bclontrcd in the 
southerly parish. On August llUh, at a special 
meeting, it was voted to chuosc a committee of three 
men to appear at the (icncral ('nurt and .-inswer to the 
petition of Captain Samuel Kndicott. .Tolin rorirr, 
Benjamin Porter and .lobii Kiidicotl, and also the pe- 
tition of .lames Prince, agent for the Village Parish. 
Daniel Epes, Daniel Gardner and John Procter 
were ehnseii. and ihey were successful in resisting the 
encriiachnicnt. 

With this exception, the two outlying pari-bes 
were united in their desire for separation from the 
town of Salem. In Kl.SO, very shortly after the estab- 
lishment of tlie village parish, there had been an at- 
tempt to es'ablish a new township to include the vil- 
lage. The witchcraft excitement and Iho formation 
of the niiddb- precinct dc-layed the plan, but it was re- 
vived from lime to time. The inconvenience of at- 
tending town meetings frtnn the outlying parls of the 
town, tlic gathering of local interests about Ihe parish 
meetings and the desire to have separate schools 
under their own control, led Ihe village and middle 
parishes to discuss the project from time to time. In 
1732 the village precimt sent in a iietition to Ihe 
town of Salem, pr:iying to be set off from Salem with 
some enlargement of boundaries ; and in 1740 an at- 
tempt was made lo unite the two outlying parishes in 
an eiTort forseparation. 

In the Midille Precinct, .July, 1710, " It Being put 
to vote whither y' Inhabitanls of this parish will 
come otl'y' town of Salem and Joyn with the Inhab- 
itants of Salem Village, Provided that they S.'C cause 
to take this Middle Parrish (the whole of itt) as itt 
is now Bounded, To .Toy n Together both Parishes, and 
make a Township oitr selves, separate from y'' Town 
of Salem," a commitlee was chosen to manage the 
whole affair, jmd lay the jiroeeedings before the next 
meeting. The people of Salem raised a committee to 
treat with the " ifarmers," and after consultation they 
reported that the village people might be pacified if 
the town would raise a sufficient amount of money " to 
maintain two schools within the bridges, and one at the 
Middle Precinct, that should draw their proprrtion of 
the school money, raise their own committees, and 
control tlieir own affairs." The report was accepted, 
and the town raised £2.")0, province bills. But the 
relief was only temp(n-ary. The farmers continued to 
renew their request; they desired to manage their 
own aflairs, and as time went on the reasons for sejia- 
ration were increased rather than diminished. In 
April, 1742, at a meeting specially called, the middle 
precinct voted to choose a committee of the village 
"concerning comeing ofl' from y" town of Salem," and 
report their proceedings. 

On May !), 17ul, it was again voted to join with the 
village parish in an attempt t> separate fnmi Salem. 
It was desired to form a new township, and not 



1004 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



merely a district, and the records show that such was 
the plan of the farmers. The committees from the 
two parishes consulted together, and prepared a 
memorandum of agreement for the separation, in 
July, 1751. 

" Whereas y» Village Parish and y Midflle Parish in Salem have 
agreed to come of from y» town as a eeperato Town by themselres, as 
appears I»y y votes of their respective Mcelinjrs, and whereas we ye siib- 
Bcrilieis being niipointed and Itiipowercd for and in behalf of Kacli pariHli 
to Confer together, and nialie Rejwrt att y« meeting of sd parishes Re- 
spectively, relating to said Affair, have meet together and after due C n- 
sideration malie Report iis follows : (viz.) That ye Town meetings sbiill 
be one year in one p Irish and y" next year in the other piiri*h sncces- 
sivety. That y* major part of y« selectmen and assessors shall be chosen 
one year in one Purisli, and y« next year in y« other Parish successively. 
That each Parish thai! share Equally in all profits and Uenellts that 
shall happeti or acme. 
July y 2d, 1751. 

Daniel ICpes, Jr ■, for the Samuel Flint \ 

Maliohi Felton Uliddle Cornelius Tarball W'"' 'he ^^ 

John Proctor J Parish James Prince ^ ^ illage. 

This report was accepted, and on the 9th of Sep- 
tember, 1751, the same committee was authorized to 
join with the committee from the village, and prefer 
a petition to the town of Salem relating to the separ- 
ation. The authors of the report were also in-tructed 
to "labour " with the people of Salem ; foralthough, 
as Hanson states, the feeling in Salem was more 
favorable for separation than it has been, there was 
still a considerable opposition to the movement. 

On the 25th of October, 1751, a town meeting was 
held in Salem to consider the petition, and it was 
voted " That the Prayer of said Petition be so far 
granted as that with the leave of the Great and Gen- 
eral Assembly the Inhabitants and Estates of said 
Parishes be set off as a separate Township agreeable 
to the present boumlarics of said Parishes; and that 
in view of the claim of the annual incomes ofihe 
Town they be allowed thirteen pounds six shillings 
and eight pence to be paid out of the Town Treasury 
when legally set off as a distinct Town beside their 
proportion of the sums due to them for the Incour- 
agement of the schools by virtue of former votes." 
The new town was to care for its own poor. It was 
also voted to carry out the provisions of a previous 
vote, in 1747, by apportioning one hundred pounds 
in bills of the last emission to the inhabitants of the 
whole of the old town of Salem. 

The plan was originally to form a town of the two 
parishes; but in 1743 the King had given an instruc- 
tion to the Governor of the province, forbidding hiin 
to give Ills assent to any act creating a new town, 
without a clause inserted suspending the execution of 
such act until it should receive His Majesty's ap- 
probation. This was because it was thought undesir- 
able by the crown to increase the number of repre- 
sentatives in the General Assembly. The popular 
branch was gaining in power, and their increase had 
given them the control of all matters which were de- 
tcrmiii&i by a joint session of the two Houses. Gov- 
ernor Bernard, in a letter to the board of trade, in 
1761, says that the number of representatives had 



then increased from eighty-four in 1692, when the 
charter was opened, toabout one hundred and seventy, 
while the Council kept the same number, twenty- 
eight. By the charter the Council was chosen in 
joint convention, and by usage many other officers 
were so chosen. It is probable, however, that the 
spirit of independence had already begun to manifest 
itself in the colonies, and it was felt in England that 
the growth of the power of the popiibir branch of the 
assembly was too favorable to such independent ideas. 
It seems that the petitioners yielded to this policy, and 
that the petition presented by them to the General 
Court asked only for the establishment of a district ; 
a district being a town in all respects except the right 
to choose a representative. When a district was es- 
tablished, it was allowed to join with the town from 
which it had been separated in the choice of a repre- 
sentative. On the 22d of January, 1751-52, a memo- 
rial of Samuel Flynt, Daniel Epes, Jr., Esq., and 
others, in behalf of the Village and Middle Precincts, 
praying to be incorporated into a district, was read in 
Council, and the petitioners were ordered to serve 
notice on the town of Salem. This was not concurred 
in by the House of Representatives, but on January 
28th, an act was passed establishing the district of 
Danver.s. This act recited that the cau.ses for the 
separation were the distance of the inhabitants of I he 
outlying parishes from that part of the first parish in 
Salem where the public afiairs of the town were 
transacted, the distance from the grammar school in 
Salem, and also the fact that most of the inhabitants 
of the First Parish were either merchants, mechanics, 
or traders, and those of the Village and Jliddle 
Parishes chiefly husbandmen, which was the cause of 
many disputes and difficulties in the management of 
public affairs. It was provided by the act that the 
agreements of the town of Salem, which had been 
made conditional on the parishes being incorporated 
into a town should be binding, although only a dis- 
trict had been in corporal ed. 

The name of the parish now became the "Second 
Parish in the district of Danvers," which was s'um 
changed to the " South Parish in Danvers," which 
continued to be its name for more than a century. 
The church was called "The Second Congregational 
Church in Danvers." 

About a year after the erection of the district of 
Danvers, the boundary between it and Salem was 
run, corresponding generally with the boundary of 
the Jliddle Precinct. The line took Trask's grist- 
mills into Danvers, and ran from the mills "To the 
Easternmost Elm Tree on sd j)lain and by the North- 
erly aide of the highway there called Boston Road." 

There was at that time a row of elm trees extend- 
ing along Boston Street in a direction not quite par- 
allel to the present line of the street, the easternmost 
tree being the boundary tree, and the tree at the 
other end being in ihe vicinity of Humphrey Case's 
house, near the residence of the late James F. Caller. 



PEABODY. 



1005 



A stone with the ilate 170" stands at the foot of tlie 
"big tree;'" but as the tree was a boundary in 1712, 
it must have been more lliaii u youi g tree at that 
time, and probably d ites back to UitJO or 1()70. The 
intermediate trees in tliis row were rut down many 
years ago for tire-wood, during a very severe winter 
when there was great dearth of fuel in Salem ; and 
within the memory of living men the ridge caused by 
their stumps was to be seen in tiie road. Tlie stone 
marl^ed 1707 may have been tlie miie-stone men- 
tioned in tlie legislative report on the separation of 
the miildle preeinct. 

On JIareh 30, 1752, it was ordered that fences be 
erected across the highway at the town bridge and 
the bridge by the south mills, and that all persons 
frimi I5(.ston or suspected of bringing contagion 
should be excluded Irom the town by a guard kept at 
the barriers. 

The first joint election of a Representative from 
the town ofSa'em and district of Danvers was named 
to lake i)lace May IS, 17-'i2. At that time the small- 
pox was raging, both in Boston and Salem; and the 
meeting voted not to send a Representative to the 
General Court, wliich was to be held at Concord on 
account of the pestilence in Boston. It was declared 
that no disrespect or designed alTnnit was intended to 
the honorable house, and that they would submit to 
whatever fine siiould be ini[)Osed ; but that owing to 
dissensions between the town and the lately estab- 
lished district, it was impracticable t) choose a Rep- 
resentaiive, and not consistent with the peace of the 
inhaliitants; that smalI-t)o.\ was ])revalent in several 
of the families of the town, and that it might be car- 
ried to the General Court by a Representative if 
chosen; and that the expenses attending the sickness 
had been so heavy in many instances that many per- 
sons could not bear the charges of sending a Repre- 
sentative. 

Although the district was not entitled to send a 
Representative, it sent a delegate, who was allowed 
to vote on certain matters. In 1754, when tlie colo- 
nies proposed a plan of union for mutual safety and 
protection, the district voted against it through its 
delegate, D.iniel Epes. 

On February 3, 1754-55, it was voted that Daniel 
Epes, Jr., should carry the renewed request of the 
district to become a town before the (ieneral Assem- 
bly. This request was continued from time to time, 
and the last presentation of it was by Daniel Kpes, 
.luiic 8, 1757. The bill was pa.ssed and signed on 
,!mu' lull, but the date of its publication is June 1(5, 
1757. 

This act did not contain any clau-c suspending its 
operation until the king should approve it; it was 
plainly in contravention of the instructions given to 
the Governor. Tlie feeling of independence on the 
part of the province was beginning to show itself. 
At the time tliere wa.s no Governor or Lieutenant- 
Governor in the province. Thos. Hutchinson, after- 



wards Governor, was then a member of the Council, 
and he caused his protest against the act to be entered 
on the records, lie gave f(jr the reasons of his dis- 
sent,— 

" let. n.'c:iuso (he proftissod cleslsn of tlio Bill ia 
Inntx, who now join Willi lliB Town of Saleui in 1 
B4-ntiiIivf ti powiT a chuwing liy thonisclves, iiini tlie nninbt-r of whi 
IlouM-of Hi'im'81-ntativi-s may at prt-siMit consist, luing full larfc-. 
Ini-rcaainK tin' iinmliiT mnst Iiave a ti-nilenc-y to retard the prorr 
of the General Tonrt, ami to increiuae the burden which now lyei 
the People liy their lorij; Sessions every Vi-ar, aufl must likewis 
that House an nmlnc proporli.in to the lioar.l in tlie Legislature 
many affairs are determined by a .joint Ballot of the t»o Houses. 

"Jd. Herausc there I.eluK no ttovemor or Lieutenant-IIovernor 
Province, it is most aKreeal>le to his Majesty's I'oniniisaiiui to the late 
Covernor: to the niesaane of this Board to the House of Bepresenta- 
tives at the opening the Session ; ami is in itself a tliiUK most reiusona- 
blo that all matters of any importance, and not necessary to be acted 
upon immediate y, which is the case with the present llill, shoubl be 



tlie Inhabi- 
J of a Kepre- 



vh«re 
n the 



'd until 111. 



bci 



loj 



l.ieute 



immediately after, before tliemse 
liret Blanch, and such Member 
must give their .\B-ent intheol 



":iil. Because the Board by r« 
the licgislature necessarily bliui 
for their .\ssellt, or Refusal, as 
Vote for this Bill in one capac 
directly nKuiust the Royal Instri 
di-t-ree necessary f .r the public 
Inconsistent and Absur.l. 



It appetirs that complaints of" long sessions" were 
prevalent even then. 

The acts of this session were not forwarded to the 
Privy Council until the next .January, owing to the 
absence of the Crovernor at the time of their enact- 
ment. They were received by the Privy Council in 
May, 1758, and referred to the Board of Trade. The 
Board of Trade did not act upon the laws of this ses- 
sion until July, 1759, when they prepared a drtiiight 
of the acts which ought to be allowed, and made a 
special report that the act of incorporation of Danvers 
ought to be disallowed, on the ground that it had 
been passed in contradiction to the royal instruction. 
On August 10, 1750, an order was passed in the Privy 
Council, disallowing the act, and declaring it null 
and void. 

It is believed that for some reason, now unknown, 
the provincial authorities never received notice of the 
disallowance of the act. Hutchinson certainly did 
not know that it had been disallowed, and he sur- 
mises in his history of Ma-sachusetts, that as the 
Council kept no correspondence by letters with the 
King's ministers, this bill, with others, received the 
royal allowance probably without being observed to 
be contrary to the instructions. The act of incor- 
poration was valid till disallowed; the town of Dan- 
vers was annually represented in the (ieneral Court 
from and after the year 1758, and later legislation 
expressly recognized Danvers as a town. No ollicial 
notice of the disallowance being ever received, and 
the records of the Privy Council not having been 
searched by anyone having the facts in mind, it was 
not discovered till long after the Revolution had ren- 
dered the discovery unimportant that the act of in- 
corporation of Danvers was void after 175'J. 



1006 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Tlipre has been consiflerablespecnlatinn as to the ori- 
gin of the name Dan vers. Hanson says that (he rejrion 
was called Danvers as early as 1745; hut notliing ap- 
pears on the records to indicate that such was the case, 
or how the name came to be given. The discussion is 
one which belongs more appropriately to -the history 
of Danvers than to that of Peabody, hut it may be 
mentioned that two theories of its origin have been 
suggested. It has been thought by some the solution 
was found in the fiicf that Lord Danvers was con- 
nected with the Osborne family in England, and the 
names are united in more then one branch of the 
Osborne family. It has been surmised that the Os- 
bornes from whom the families of that region in 
Danvers originated, may have come from one of these 
branches of the Osborne family in England, and that 
they suggested the name. This however, is a pure 
guess, inasmuch as it is not certainly known where 
the founder of the Osborne family in Danvers was 
born or lived before coming to this country. Felt, in 
his Annals. says thatLieut.-GovernorPhipps suggested 
that name out of gratitude to one of his patrons. 
But the last Lord Danvers died before 1660, and the 
name altcrward appears only in connection with 
other families, so that we are quite in the dark as to 
who the patron was. It would seem at least probable 
that the people of the new town had something to do 
with selecting a name for it, but the real cause of its 
selection is still conjectural. 

The mill belonging to Trask nearest to Salem town 
is spoken of in 1715, as the fulling mill; so that it 
appears some business was done in fulling cloth 
made in the vininity, probably by individuals on 
hand looms. It does not appear that the glass mak- 
ing industry, from which so much had been hoped, 
had survived till this time. The potteries, for which 
Danvers afterward became so famous, were not in 
operation until the latter part of this period, if at all 
during this time. One of these was located where 
the business is still carried on, on Central Street. 
There was at one time another on the south parish, in 
the vicinity of Holten Street. The business of tan- 
ning is said to have been begun about 1739, by Jos- 
eph Southwick, a Quaker, who lived in the house 
opposite the Lexington monument on Main Street, 
which was standing within twenty-five or thirty 
years. This house was among the first to adopt the 
comparatively modern square panes of glass, in the 
place of the diamond leaded pane, and from this cir- 
cumstance was called the "glass house." Mr. South- 
wick began the infant industry, which now employs 
thousands of men and occupies acres of space in the 
town, by using half hogsheads for vats. After a 
while, as his business increased, he obtained a gon- 
dola, which he used until after a few years he sank 
three or four vats. The location of his tanyards, 
which continued tor many years in his family, is still 
occupied in the same industry. 



CHAPTER LXX. 
PE.\BODY— ( Conliiiued). 

Boci'd Ltfe and Ow(onw in the Midtite Precinct. 

In the period from 1710 to 1757 the Middle or 
South Pari.-ih suffered but little change in the charac- 
ter or occupation of its inhabitants. They were 
mostly farmers; with the exception of the Trasks, 
who carried on their mills, there was little or no 
mechanical employment. According to the best au- 
thorities, there were, in 1752, about fifteen hundred 
inhabitants in both the Village and Middle Precincts. 
As there were eighty or ninety families in the Mid- 
dle Precinct in 1710, there couKl not have been any 
great increase of the population in these forty years. 
There were some wealthy land-owners, but most of the 
people of the South Parish were of limited means. 
The social relaxations of the time were few. Outside 
of the religious meetings there were few opportuni- 
ties for social gatherings, except on the rare occasion 
of a house rai-ing, or some such friendly meeting. 
The village singing school, which began to be intro- 
duced into New England during this period, was the 
beginning of the lecture and entertainment system, 
which afterward became so important a factor in the 
social life of New England. The psalm singing of 
the Puritans of the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury was by rote; there were no instruments used in 
the churches, but the hymn was "lined out" by one 
of the deacons. The first menti m of organs in 
churches is contained in the diary of Kev. Mr. 
Green, of the Village Parish, in 1711, when he says 
of a visit to Boston and Cambridge, "I was at Mr. 
Thomas Brattle's, heard the organs and saw strange 
things in a microscope." This may have been the 
organ which Mr. Brattle gave, in 1714, to King's 
Chapel, in Boston. 

The people generally were opposed to the intro- 
duction of singing by note, fearing that it would lead 
to the use of instrumental mu<ic and other musical 
frivolities. In 1723 several members of a church in 
Braintrce were excommunicated because they advo- 
c-.ited the reformed method of singing. A council, 
however, shortly afterward, reinstated them, and ef- 
fected a compromise. An equally strong feeling was 
formed elsewhere in regard to the matter; but the 
new school prevailed, and the young people had their 
singing schools, at which they learned hymns of 
surprising rapidity and complication of movement, 
in contrast to the severe music of the elders. The 
choir began to make its appearance, though there is 
no record of it in the South Parish till 1763, when it 
was voted "that there be two seats on the easterly 
side of y' broad ally in the Meeting-house be sett 
apart for a number of persons to sett in for the better 
accommodating singing in y" Meeting-house, and 
that the same be under the regulation of the Parish 



PEA BODY. 



1(107 



comiiiitlee from time to time, as there shall be occa- 
sion, tor carrying on that i)art of Divine service.'' 

After tlie hell wa.s prociircil, aliont 172o, tlie curfew 
called all to early slumbers. 

Samuel Stacy was iho first " bellman" of the par- 
ish. The title "sexton" does not appear in the old 
records, perhaps because the Puritans of that day 
thought that sexton (or as it was then and is sometimes 
still pronounced, " saxton " or "saxon," being a 
shortening of "sacristan"), savored too much of 
church formality. Alter ITol) we find the " saxseii" 
or "saxton " spoken of in the records. 

The duties of caring for the meeting-house were 
very simple; no fires, no carpets, no lights, with 
very little paint and wimlow glass, made the |)Ositi<in 
a very simple one. At first ''the widow Parnell," 
who lived close by, swept and garnished the meeting- 
house ; and there appears from time to time an arti- 
cle in the warrant for the parish meeting " to con- 
sider of paying the widdow Parnell." The cominit- 
tee, which was formally eniiiowered '" to agree with 
some siitible person to sweep the meeting-house," 
agreed with Stacy that lie was to ring the bell "every 
night at nine of the clock, and every Sabbath day, 
and to sweep the meeting-house for what the Inhabi- 
tance will give him." lie is spoken of in 172t) as the 
" bell man," though that title was sometimes applied 
to the night walcli, for in 1710 the selectmen of Sa- 
lem agreed with a bell man at 3(> s. (thirty-six 
shillings) per month, who was "to walk y' Streets 
from Ten of y'^' clock at Night till day light, & take 
care that there bee no Mischeife Done whilst people 
are asleeji, but to doe his utmost to prevent fire, 
thieves, enemies or other danger." The custom of 
ringing the nine o'clock bell was kept up for more 
than a century and a half, having been discontinued 
in 1885. 

Samuel Stacy continued to hold his oflice for many 
years; but the careful committee thought it best to 
ascertain how much the " Inhabitance " were giving 
him, an<l accordingly he was directed in 1731 to keep 
an account of what the people gave him. In 17o8 
and 17.VJ Mary Goldthwait was engaged to ring the 
bell and sweep the meeting-house. The bell was 
hung in a small belfry or " turret" over the body of 
the house, proliably in the middle like that of the 
Vill.igc Meeting-house. This turret was repaired in 
1740, and again in I7.")0, and gave place to the tower 
or steeple, built in 1774. 

Soon afler getting a bell, the parish began to feel 
the resixinsibility <d' their ac(|uisition ; for we find in 
several warrants an arti<-le "to consider of some way 
to goe up to Pell or Belfrey within side of the meet- 
ing-house in case anything should happen to bell or 
rope." The gentle and insinuating suggestivoness of 
this article brings vividly before us the difficulty of 
raising money at that time. It was not till 1727 that 
the parish boldly voted " to make a way up to the 
Bell," and to raise the money for it. ludeed, the 



whole history of the dealings between the parish and 
their minister show how scarce money was. It was 
customary to have a box near the entrance (d' the 
meeting-house in wbirb strangers were expected to 
put some contribution, according to their means, 
toward the support of the worship whose privilege 
they enjoyed. The disposition of this fund was a 
grave question ; and the inhabitants were called 
together in A|iril, 17!o, "to consider of some way to 
[Hit a conc'usion to y'' discouis about y" inony con- 
tributed by s rangers." It was finally put to vcite 
" whether M' Prescott shall have one lialfe of y" 
niony contributed by Straingers and y" Inhabitants 
y'" oilier half," and " Voted in y'' .Mermitive." 

Tlie expenses of the parish at the beginning were 
paid partly by rates or taxes, and partly by voluntary 
coniributioiis. In M:t\, 1712, a meeting was called 
at the meeting Ikjusi' " to sec about the contribution 
and all-o to I'onsider of lUilding A Dwelling hous 
for y' iiiiriisli'r or els to allow suiutliing to Mr. Pres- 
cott and he P.iild .\ hous for himself." It was voted 
" that y*" Oonlribution be u]dieKl ; that y" inhabitants 
will ])Ut their moiiy in papers; that y'^' inhabitants 
will subscrib to y" bulding of A hous for y'' minister." 
It was afterward voted " that y' Inhabitants will (iive 
M' Prescott y' Uocks exceiit y^' Ilorslilocks, y'' Tim- 
ber allso except y" Joyce and will (iive him allso 
about 8000 of Shingle nails that ware lelt." It does 
not ai)pear that the hou.se was built; Mr. Prescott 
afterward lived in a liouse on Central Street liuit for 
him by the brother of bis third wife, — Sir William 
Pepperell, about 17."iO. 

In 17;U, it was again voted that the money in the 
free cuntributions should be " papered," that is, it 
seems, that eaili contributor should keep his gift 
separate, so that it could be known who gave and 
how much each contributed. This custom is a cu- 
rious one, in view of its revival in the "envelope 
.system " of ofl'eriiigs so common in churches at the 
present day. In 17l!(l, £.')0 was raised liy rates, and 
.£100 by subscripli(Jii, for the minister. Prom the 
very first, the collection of parish rates was diliicult. 
In 1717 it was voted th it the committee " take the 
directions of the law to gather the minister's rates 
this year." In 1720, the warrant commands John 
Tarball, Collector, to collect the amounts due the 
parish, and on failure to pay he is to " distrain the 
goods or (diattles of the person or persons soe refus- 
ing, for y" pavment of y' same, and for want of goods 
or chatties, whereon to make distress, you are to 
seize the body or borlyes of the person or persons so 
refusing, and are them to commit to y° common gaoll 
in Salem, untill he or they [jay or satislie the sum or 
sums that they are Rated or a.sscs-ed." Such was the 
severe language of the precept to the constable; but 
public opinion did not sn[iport the iniprisoiinient of 
individuals for non-payment id' jiarish rates. There 
was great delay on the part of the ccdiectors ; a list 
of rates given to Mr. Bell for collection in 1728 was 



1008 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



not completed until 1743. During the whole period 
of Mr. Prcsoott's settlement, there waa constant 
difliculty about his salary. The sum agreed upon 
was slow in coming in; from time to time, as the 
depreciated currency of the time fell in value, addi- 
tions were made to the amount granted to him, but 
not proportionate to the depreciation nor to his 
needs; and the result was a bitter controversy ex- 
tending over many years, and a lawsuit, in which the 
courts upheld Mr. Prescott's claims. 

These facts, gleaned from the parish record.s, throw 
a strong light on the state of the community at the 
time; the simple public interests of the people, cen- 
tering about their parish affairs, and the great 
scarcity of money among a farming population who 
supported themselves upon the soil, but had no 
means of exchanging their crops and productions for 
ready money. The clothing was mostly home-made, 
spun and woven from their own wool, by the women 
of the household, dyed with such coloring as could be 
obtained at home or in the shops of Salem, and made 
up by wife or daughter in the plain fashion of the 
day. Linen, woven by the same hands, was laid up 
against the marriage of the daughters. All the in- 
du-tries ncce-sary for their simple life were practiced 
by exchange of labor or commodities among them- 
selves with little use of money. Food was of the 
plainest; there was little fresh meat; no tea or coffee 
in mo-t families; great scarcity of white bread ; and, 
in general, an absence of those luxuries which seem 
to the descendants of these plain farmers the very ne- 
cessities of living. Potatoes began to be used 
about 1730, though they were known to the colonists 
long before ; but they did not come into general use till 
the middle of the eighteenth century. Furniture, 
except in the few houses of the wealthy, was plain 
and bare, often home-made. E.irthen-ware and 
wooden vessels, with pewter plates and cups, were the 
table-ware of the farmers. Spoons of pewter and 
horn were in use, and the few silver utensils were 
cherished as precious heirlooms. The bare floors 
knew no carpets, though they were scoured white, 
and sometimes decorated with sand sprinkled in fan- 
ciful designs; the great (ire-places, even when the 
owners made no stint of firewood, only half-warmed 
the inmates in the coldest weather; and the idea of 
warming a bed-room, except so far as a warming-pan 
would thaw the sheets, would have been surprising to 
our ancestors. There were no fires in the churches; 
old or sick people took little foot-stoves in their 
hands, but most sat out the two and three-hour ser- 
mons without a ray of artificial heat, by sheer endur- 
ance. Woolen underclothing was not worn at all at 
that period, nor indeed generally until within forty 
or fifty years of the present time in New England. 
But in spite of the hard circumstances of their lives, 
they were a hardy, courageous and vigorous race, and 
many amongthem possessed unusual |>liysical strength 
and stature, and not a few attained great length of days. 



CHAPTER LXXI. 

PE.\BODY— ( Continued). 

The Jievohttlomiry War. 

Ddring the years before the Revolution the town 
went quietly on its way. At one time, in 1772, the 
inhabitants of the North Parish were obliged to apply 
to the General Court for relief against the encroach- 
ments of the South Parish. In December, 1771, the 
South Parish voted to hold the town-meetings in the 
South Meeting-house, and the next town-meeting 
was held there ; and a majority of the town officers 
were chosen from the South Parish, without regard to 
the agreement before mentioned between the par- 
ishes, entered into before the district was established. 
It would seem that the South Parish must have had 
a majority of votes at the time. The Legislature, 
considering the agreement as binding upon the par- 
ishes, enacted the substance of it as a law. 

With this exception, there is little to note in the 
internal affairs of the South Parish during this time. 
The town was early awakened to a thoroughly patri- 
otic feeling. In 17C5, at a town-meeting in October, 
they gave instructions to their reprcseniative, direct- 
ing I'im to remonstrate against the stamp act, but to 
do all in his powir to suppress or prevent riotous as- 
semblies, and not to give his assent to any act of as- 
sembly that should imply the willingness of his con- 
stituents to submit to any internal taxes imposed 
otherwise than by the General Court of the province, 
and not to assent to any extravagant grants. 

On December 23, 1765, additional instructions were 
sent to Mr. Porter, the Representative then in the 
General Court, similar to those already given, and 
concluding with an eloquent affirmation of the rights 
of the colonists and a denunciation of the oppressive 
character of the movement to deprive them of their 
right of managing their own internal affairs. 

It is declared that taxation and representation must 
go together, and an argument is made of the impossi- 
bility of regulating the aft'airs of the colonies properly 
in England. " It is not in their power (the Parliament) 
to make the Easterly Banks of America contiguous to 
the Westerly Banks of Great Briton, which banks 
have lain and still ly one Thousand Leagues distant 
from Each Other, and till they can do this, they can- 
not (as we Humbly Concieve), Provide for the Good 
Government of His Majesty's Subjects in these two 
Distant Regions, without y' Establishment of a Dif- 
ferent Power, Both Legislative and Executive, in 
Each." They then urge Mr. Porter to demand a re- 
peal of the Stamp Act. They say they are willing to 
be subject to the " Greatest and best of Kings," and 
to assist bim always, but they think men of " Envious 
and l)ci)ravcd Minds" have advised him wrongly. 
They think their grievance is such as " cannot but be 
resented by every True Englishman who has any 



PEABODY. 



1009 



Spark of Generous Fire Retnaining in His Breast.'' 
This was ten years before tlie l)attle of Lexington. 

Samuel Holten, the Representative for the year 
171)8, was requested to join a convention to be gathered 
in Faneuil Hall, Boston, on the 22d of September, to 
consist of delegates from the adjacent towns in the 
Commonwealth. It was held during several days, 
and the difl'erences between the colonies and the 
mother country were fully discussed. Dr. Holten 
took an active part in the deliberations, and distin- 
guished himself for his vigor and acuteness of mind 
and excellent judgment, which characterized hitn 
througliout his long and useful public life. 

The people of the town shared in the patriotic 
excitement of the times. The daily converse of the 
people was upon the signs of the times, and all 
were of one mind in the firm determination to re- 
sist the new laws which were in derogation of their 
chartered rights. It was hoped that war might be 
averted, but if it must come they would prei)are for 
it as best they could. 

In 1770 the merchants of Boston passed the non- 
importation agreement. The obnoxious tax, though 
repealed as to several articles, still existed upon tea, 
and the agreement expressed a determination to im- 
port no goods from (ireat Britain that were subject 
to the tariff, particularly tea. The people of the 
town, on May 28, 1770, voted their api)robation oftliis 
action of the Boston merchants, and further voted 
"that we will not ourselves (to our knowledge), or by 
any pei-son, for or under us. Directly or Indirectly, 
Purchase of such Person or Persons, any goods what- 
ever, and as far as we can effect it, will withdraw our 
connection from every Person who shall Import 
Goods from Great Brittain, Contrary to the Agreement 
of the Merchants aforesaid. Voted that we will not 
drink any Tea ourselves, and use our best endeavors 
to |)revent our Families and tho.se connected with 
them, from the use thereof, from this Date, until 
the Act imposing a Duty on that Article be repealed 
or a general Importation shall take place. Cases of 
Sickness excepted." A committee of twelve was 
raised to convey a copy of this resolution to every 
family in the town, to receive the signatures of the 
people. The committee was instructed to write the 
names of all wlio refused to append their signatures 
to these articles, and publish them as enemies to the 
country. The resolutions were printed in the Essex 
fluzette. Hanson says that Isaac Wilson seems to 
have been the only one who opposed the pojuilar en- 
thusiasm. 

In .lune, 1772, a committee was chosen to take into 
account our civil liberties. They drew uj) a series of 
resolutions which were presented to the town and 
adopted by it unanimously. The resolutions are full 
of the spirit of the times, and set forth clearly and 
vigorously the oppressive nature of the legislation 
directed against the liberties of the colonies by Par- 
liament, the various irregular and oppressive acts of 



the Royal governor, the changes in judicial tribunals 
and all the grievances which so wrought upon the minds 
of our forefathers; they ended by instructing the rep- 
resentative of the town to contend, in a constitutional 
way, for the just rights and privileges of the people, 
to labor for a union of the provinces, to refuse to yield 
chartered privileges, and to use his endeavors that 
honorable salaries be granted to the Governor, the 
Judges of the Superior (Jonrt and others, adecpiate to 
their dignity, with a view to lessening the inlluence 
of the crown over such officers. 

Dr. Samuel Holten, Tarrant Putnam, and Captain 
William Shillaber were chosen a committee to cor- 
respon<l with the committees of correspondence for 
Boston and other towns. These committees of cor- 
respondence and safety were chosen in almost every 
town, and are often mentioned in the legislation of 
the period. In some instances great and unusual 
powers were granted to them, particularly in the acts 
passed with the endeavor to prevent speculation in 
the necessaries of life at a time when the depression 
of the currency gave rise to great variations of prices. 
In one of these acts " To prevent Monopoly and Op- 
pression " it is enacted that these grants of extraor- 
dinary powers should not be a precedent for the fu- 
ture. Such were the prudence and forethought of the 
men of those times, even in the heat of civil war. 
Indeed, the most remarkable thing about the public 
j)roceedings of those days, both in towns and in the 
(ieneral Court, is the moderation and sober judgment 
by which their feelings were tempered, even when 
profoundly aroused. The same spirit which led the 
General Court to surround those accused of being 
enemies of the country with every safeguard for a fair 
and impartial trial, to make provision for the families 
of Tories who had fled from the State, to modify the se- 
verities of attainder for trea.son, and to guard the exe- 
cution of the death penalty with the wisest restric- 
tions, is seen in the j)ublic acts of towns during this 
period. All extravagance is avoided, and calmness 
and deliberation stamp all the proceedings. There is 
much in the records of Danvers during this time of 
which the patriotic citizen has a right to be proud, 
and which belong jis much to one locality as to an- 
other. The Rev. Mr. Holt, who had been settled in 
the South Parish in 17">8, was an anient patriot, and 
he is reported to have declared that he would rather 
live on potatoes than submit. He procured a musket 
and performed drill-service regularly in the ranks of 
Captain Eppes' company. 

On the 27th of September, 1774, Dr. Holten, the 
representative to the General Court to be held in Sa- 
lem in October, was instructed to adhere firmly to 
chartered rights, not to acknowledge in any way the 
Act of Parliament for altering the government of 
Massachusetts Ray, and to acknowledge the council 
chosen by the last General Court. He was also au- 
thorized, if the General Court should be dissolved, to 
meet in a General Provincial Congress and there "to 



1010 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



act upon such matters as may come before you, in 
such a manner as shall appear to be most conducive 
to the true Interest of this Town and Province, and 
most likely to preserve the liberties of all America." 

On November 21, 1774, the town voted to adhere 
strictly to all the resolves and recommendations of 
the Provincial Congress, thereby repudiating the 
government of England. 

On January 9, 1775, it was voted to comply with 
the provincial recommendation, and arm and equip 
each man, and to provide for frequent discipline; and 
it was provided that each man should be paid one 
shilling for each half-day he was in service. On Jan- 
uary 19, a committee was appointed to see that the 
citizens of Danvers were obedient to the provincial 
recommendations. It was voted " that the meeting 
of the inhabitants of this town in parties at Houses 
of Entertainment, for the purpose of Dancing, Feast- 
ing, &c., is expressly against the Eighth Article of 
the American Congress Association. Therefore the 
Committee of Inspection are particularly instructed 
to take care that the said eighth article in the Asso- 
ciation is strictly complied." 

When Col. Leslie marched toward Danvers for the 
purpose of destroying certain stores, a company from 
Danvers, under Capt. Samuel Eppes, marched to Sa- 
lem to repel the expected attack. It was on Sunday, 
February 26, 1775, when the alarm was sounded ; it is 
said that the sermon was cut short, and the remaining 
services deferred to a more convenient season. Rev. 
Mr. Holt is said to have been among those who 
marched in line on this occasion. The sober judg- 
ment of Col. Le.slie, aided by the counsels of the 
more prudent among the inhabitants, avoided an 
encounter at the time, but the men were given a fore- 
taste of the excitement of gathering in arms at the 
alarm of invasion. 

The 19th of April arrived, and the news of the ad- 
vance of the British soldiers to Concord and Lexing- 
ton was brought to Danvers at about nine o'clock in 
the forenoon. The ringing of bells and the beat of 
drums communicated the tidings to the citizens. The 
appointed meeting place was near the South Church, 
at the bend of the old Boston road by the Bell tav- 
ern, and thither the men thronged from every direc- 
tion. 

The rendezvous of the minute-men was on the 
very spot where the Lexington monument was after- 
ward erected, at the junction of the Boston road and 
the main street. Gen. Foster, then twenty-six years 
of age, had been appointed captain of the minute- 
men from the southern i)art of the town about ten 
days before ; these minute-men were to be in readi- 
ness at a moment's warning. They were ready, and 
all to a man assembled at the appointed place. The 
Rev. Mr. Holt gave his parting benediction to them, 
and they started for the held of death. The women 
gathered about and assisted to prepare their husbands 
or brothers or lovers for the fight. 



There had been three companies of militia in Dan- 
vers, but on March 3d it had been voted, agreeably to 
a vote of the Provincial Congress, that a quarter of 
the soldiers in the town should hemiimle-men. These 
minute-men were given in part to Israel Hutchinson, 
and in part to Gideon Foster. Foster's company was 
made up chiefly from Capt. Samuel Eppes' company 
of militia, and partly by volunteers. 

By some mistake in the records these men were 
never formally separated from Capt. Eppes' company, 
so that the muster rolls of the State show only Capt. 
Hutchinson's company of minute-men and three 
companies of militia. But Captain, afterwards Gen- 
eral, Foster, who lived to the advanced age of ninety- 
six, gave a full account of the affair to many people 
now living, and it is certain that he acted as captain 
at the battle of Lexington. It would seem that 
Capt. Samuel Eppes' company was made up from the 
south parish, while Capt. Jeremiah Page commanded 
a company from the north parish, and Capt. Samuel 
Flint's company included those in the northwestern 
part of the town, probably in both parishes. Capt. 
Hutchinson's company of minute-men was made up 
mostly of men from the New Mills, while Capt. Fos- 
ter's company included his own neighbors from the 
south parish. The list of Capt. Foster's minute-men, 
given from memory by him in 1837, is as follows : 



Samuel Cook, Jr. 
George Soulhwick, Jr. 
Henry Jacobs, Jr. 
John Collins. 
BenJHnlin Eppes. 
Sauniel VVehber. 
James Stone. 
Solomon Wyman. 
Robert Stone. 
Isaac Tivlss. 
Samuel Reeves. 
Thomas Gardner, Jr. 
Joseph Twiss. 
Jonathan Howard. 



William Rice. 
Joseph Bell. 
John Setcbell. 
Jonathan Newhall. 
Stephen Twiss. 
Steplien Sm:iU. 
Uriah Harw-ood. 
Jacob Reed. 
Abel MacUinlire. 
James Goldthwait. 
John Eppes, Jr. 
John Needham. 



Besides these, there were certainly others, as Gen. 
Foster's memory was probably unable to recall from 
memory his entire company. Dennison Wallis and 
Ebenezer Goldthwaitt are mentioned by Hanson as 
belonging in this company, and James Osborne, 
whose name appears in Capt. Eppes' company, is 
known to have fought under Capt. Foster on that 
day ; Beiij. Daland appears also to have been with 
the minute-men. 

The names of those from the North Parish are 
given in the history of Danvers, in another part of 
this work, including the companies of Captains Page 
and Flint, and Capt. Hutchinson's company of min- 
ute-men. 

The names of those in Capt. Eppes' company, ex- 
clusive of the minute-men, who went with Capt 
Foster, are as follows : 



Eben GoMthwaito. 
Jona. Tarball. 
Benj. Douty. 
.\aron Osborn. 



Jolin Jacobs. 
Sylvester Odlwru. 
.\moa Kinc 
Jonathan Nurse. 



PEA BODY. 



1011 



Andrew rurtis. 
Win. Turl.iill. 
Al>n>lmm Readingto 
Isnii'l Osliorn. 
Xutliun Upton. 
RidiunI I'hillips. 
Josc))h Whitenian. 
Joliu Wilson, Jr. 
Simiuel Sinnll. 
Josi'ph Eppes, 
J»nu*5 E|ipi'9. 
Wni. Somhwick. 
John Sonthwick. 
Jon Curtis. 
Job Wilwn. 
Ituborl Wilson, 3d. 
Isaac Wil»(>n, 3d. 
Joshua Moulton. 
KatI]. Goldtliwaite. 
Daniel Moulton. 
John Reed- 
Dauii'l JIarsh, Jr. 
Wni. Goldthwaite. 
Marhle Osborn. 
Jost'ph 0»lwrn, 3d. 



L Felton. 
1 Procter. 



Asa Ei'lton. 
Ebon Felton. 



Joai'ph ebon 
Daniel Reed. 



Jon 



Thomas Day, 
Joseph Ingles. 
David Nfwhall. 
Nath'l Kills. 
Wm. Fiosl. 
Newhall Wilson 
Jdluitban Wilsoi 
Bartholomew M 
nabbakuk Lyns 
Ebeit Multon. 
Jona. Ridney. 
Abijah Reod. 
Thos. Bond. 
John Getcliell. 
Samuel .Stiine. 
Wm. Perkins. 



There were about two huii<he(l men in all, from 
Danvers, who started for the battle of Lexinp;t(in. 

When the news of the intention ol' the British 
reached Danvers, Foster sent one of his lieutenants 
to Col. Timothy Pickering, of Salem, and obtained 
permi.ssion to start with his minute-men without 
waiting for the movement of the regiment. Oapt. 
Hutchinson's company is supposed to have started at 
the same time; and tradition says that the other 
three companies followed Foster's example, and went 
without waiting for Pickering's regiment. The two 
companies of minute-men, however, bore the brunt 
of tlie engagement, and all of tho.se killed, wounded 
and taken prisoners were from Hutchinson's and 
Foster's companies. 

The minute-men started over the fences and 
across the fields, and arrived at West Cambridge, a 
distance of sixteen miles, in four hours. There they 
met the retreating British. Hon. Daniel P. King 
has given a description of the scene, doubtless gath- 
ered from the lips of those who took part in it. 

"Our townsmen heard the roar of the artillery and 
the rattle of the musketry, and they panted to join 
in the deadly combat. A little west of the meeting- 
house ia a hill, around which the road wound in 
such manner as to conceal the Briti.sh. Many of the 
men of Danvers went into a walled enclosure, and 
piled bundles of shingles, which were lying there, 
to strengthen their breastwork; rumor had deceived 
them as to the force of the enemy; it was certainly 
their expectation here to have intercepted their re- 
treat. Others selected trees on the side of the hill, 
from which they might assail the enemy. But they 
had little space for preparation ; they soon saw the 
British in solid column, descending the hill on their 
right, and at the same moment discovered a large 
flank guard advancing on their left. The men in 
the enclosure made a gallant resistance, but were 
overpowered by numbers — it was here that several of 



these whom we are proud to claim for our townsmen 
were slain — some sfuight ahcltor in a neigliboriiig 
house, and three or four, after tliey hiid surrendered 
themselves jirisoner.'? of war, were butchered with 
savage barbarity." 

" Capt. Foster, with some of his nirii on thr ?-iilc of 
the hill, finding ihemsclvcs nearly surnuinded, made 
an ellbrt to gain the pond— they ]>assed along its 
margin, and cro.-ised the road directly in front of the 
British column. On the north side of the road, they 
took position behind a ditch wall. I'Vimi this casual 
redoubt they tired ujion the enemy as long as any of 
them were within reach of their muskets. Some of 
them fired eleven times, with two bullets at each dis- 
charge, and it cannot b.- doubted that these winged 
messengers of death performed their destined work. 
The bodies of the slain were sratlered along the 
road — the British were followed till they reached 
Charlestown neck. Mortiiying and severe to them 
were the defeat and losses of that day. Their killed, 
\v,)unded an<l mi.'<sing amounted to about three hun- 
flred. Acconling to an account published atthe time, 
in the form of a hami-bill, forty-two .\mericans were 
killed and twenty-two wounded, — afterwards ascer- 
tained to be fifty killeil." 

Seven of the minute-men of Danvers were among 
the killed. Their names were Samuel Cook, (leorge 
Southwiek, Henry .hicobs, Kbenezer Ooldthwaite, 
Benjamin Daland, Jotham Webb and Perley Put- 
nam. Of these the first five belonged to Capt. Fo-i- 
ter's company, and the last two to Capt. HutchinsDu's. 
Sixty years afterward a granite monument was 
erected to the memory of those who fell in this bat- 
tle, upon the very sjjot where the minute-men had 
gathered together at the alarm of invasion. It stands 
at the corner of .Main and Washington Streets in Pea- 
body, inscribed with the names of tliose who fell on 
that day, with the stirring motto " Dulce et decorum 
est pro patria mori." It was originally placed in a 
little inclosure of green; but the rc(piirements of travel 
have narrowed its liniils to the simple base of the 
shaft. A movement was once made in behalf of some 
who begrudged the space which it occupies in the 
road, to hiwe it moved aside, out of the travelled 
way. Long may it be before the spirit of utilitarian- 
ism shall so prevail over the sentiment which built 
this simple and appropriate monument and placed it 
where its location has a deep significance, as to push 
it aside like a thing whose nicanmg is outworn and 
whose time is past. 

On the evening after the battle, the men of Dan- 
vers collected the bodies of their comrades, and 
lodged that night in Medfonl. The British had re- 
treated to Boston. On the next day the returning 
minute-men brought their melancholy burden home. 
The citizens went out to meet them, iind tis th(\v came 
into town, a carriage escorted by the sexton of the 
South Parish conveyed the bodies of the slain. Four 
of the fallen, Samuel Cook, George Southwiek, Heurv 



1012 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Jacobs and Ebenezer Goldthwaite, were taken to 
the house of Samuel Cook, on Central Street, and 
buried from the South meeting-house on the Friday 
after the battle. The. others, according to tradition, 
were taken to the house of Capt. Hutchinson, at New 
Mills, where the whole neighborhood gathered in 
grief to view the familiar faces. At the church on 
Friday the gallery was occupied by armed men. Two 
companies of minute-men from Salem joined with 
the comrades of the slain to do them military honor, 
and after the impressive service at the meeting-house, 
the soldiers, with reversed arms, muffled drums and 
measured steps, led the long procession. On the way 
they were met by a band of soldiers from Newbury- 
port, Salisbury and Amesbury, marching to join the 
army which was besieging Boston ; these formed in 
single ranks on each side of the road, and the mourn- 
ful procession passed between them. Three volleys 
were fired over their graves, and so the earthly part 
of the first victims of the Revolutionary War in Dan- 
vers was consigned to its last repose. Although Dan- 
vers was situated farther from Lexington than any of 
her sister towns which were represented at the battle, 
yet she lost more of her children than any other town 
except Lexington. Many are the family traditions 
of heroic deeds on that day, in the fatal inclosure and 
on the hillside under the apple-trees, where the men 
of Danvers fought against such desperate odds. 

Dennison Wallis and Joseph Bell, of Capt. Foster's 
Company, were taken prisoners. Bell was carried 
into Boston, and imprisoned two months in an Eng- 
lish frigate. Wallis, fearing that the infuriated Brit- 
ish were about to kill their prisoners, made a desper- 
ate attempt to escape. He received thirteen bullets, 
and falling by the side of a wall which he was leap- 
ing, was left for dead. He recovered and effected his 
escape. He lived for many years after the Revolu- 
tion, and his name is perpetuated by a bequest for the 
cause of education in his native parish. Nathan 
Putnam was wounded in the shoulder. 

Capt. Foster's company suffered more heavily than 
did Capt. Hutchinson's. When Foster's men threw 
themselves behind the inclosure from which they 
fired, Hutchinson, whose experience in the French 
Wars gave him knowledge, warned them to beware of 
the flank guard. In their lack of acquaintance with 
military affairs, they knew nothing of a flank guard, 
and firing on the main body as it passed, they rushed 
out .to harass its rear, when, of course, they found 
themselves between two fires, where several fell. 
Job Wilson, it is recorded by Hanson, on examining 
his pocket after the engagement, found his coat and a 
square foot of gingerbread perforated by a bullet. 

Capt. Eppes' company met and captured two 
wagons near Medford, escorted by eleven British 
soldiers, carrying supplies to the British. Sylvester 
Osborne, with others, was detached to escort the prize 
to a place of safely, and they heard the firing, imme- 
diately after leaving the main body. 



Col. Pickering's regiment did not march to the 
scene with the same alacrity which characterized the 
movements of the Danvers minute-men. At the Bell 
Tavern, they halted to arrange their places, and there 
was some farther delay in their movements. 

The action of Colonel Pickering was afterward 
fully explained by the circumstances, but, as re- 
marked by Mr. Hanson, if he had been able to ad- 
vance with the rapidity shown by the Danvers com- 
panies, the presence of so large a forte might have 
materially changed the result, and perhaps even re- 
sulted in the capture of the invaders. There is an 
account of the engagement, which was republished in 
the Boston Kews Letter, referred to by Hanson, which 
states that the attack of the Danvers companies was 
one of the occasions of the greatest loss to the Brit- 
ish ; and, with an increased force, they might have 
succeeded in actually intercepting the column re- 
turning from Lexington. 

It is related that while Colonel Pickering's com- 
pany was halted at the Bell Tavern, Ellas Haskett 
Derby, who afterward became one of the wealthiest men 
in Salem, and one of the founders of its mercantile 
prosperity, went in to see Mrs. Southwick, the wife of 
Edward Southwick, who lived in a house standing 
within the memory of the writer, directly opposite 
the monument on Main Street. The Southwicks were 
Quakers, and could not consistently afl'ord assistance 
to soldiers ; but the sympathy of Mrs. Southwick so far 
prevailed over her non-combative principles that she 
said to Mr. Derby, — " Friend Derby, thee knows that 
my principles will not allow me to do anything to 
encourage war; but as there is a long and tedious 
march before thee, and thee and those with thee may 
be in need of refreshment, this batch of bread, just 
taken from the oven, thee may take if thee please; 
for it never can be wrong to feed the hungry." And 
she put into his knapsack a cheese, also. 

Her willingness to render assistance in a good 
cause, in the most efficient manner which her princi- 
ples would permit, calls to mind an anecdote of 
Squiers Shove, a Quaker afterward well known in 
the South Parish, who when asked, half in sport, to 
contribute to the purchase of a bell, which it was 
known was not favored by the Quaker sect, replied, — 
" No, I won't give thee anything for the bell, but I'll 
give thee a rope to hang the old thing with ; " which 
he did. 

On the 17th of June Colonel Pickering's regiment, 
on its way to the field of battle at Bunker's Hill, 
passed through Danvers, and halted at the Bell Ta\ - 
ern for refreshment. The bystanders, impatient of 
the delay, remonstrated at the loss of time ; and Mrs. 
Anna Endicott, the wife of Samuel Endicott, walked 
up to the colonel, and with the voice of an Amazon, 
as Hanson describes it, said, — " Why on earth don't 
you march? Don't you hear the guns in Charles- 
town ? " 

The next Januarv Nathan Putnam and Dennison 



PEABODY. 



ini3 



Wallis applied to the Legislature for remuneration for 
their losses and the expense of their siekncss from 
wounds received at Lexington, and a moderate ap- 
propriation was made for the purpose. lu February, 
1776, the House voted to Captain Kppes ihc follow- 
ing sums for the use of individuals who had lost guns, 
etc., on the 19th of April: Jonathan Tarbell,£2, lis.; 
Henry Jacobs, £3, 8.?.; heirs of lienjaniin Daland, 
£2, 4«. ; Samuel Cook, £2, 12«; Thomas Gardner, £1, 
4s.; Nathaniel Goldthwaite, £2. On. 

On February (ith and March 6th contributions were 
taken up for the army besieging Boston, and the 
South Parish gave £lli, 18». (id. 

On June 18, 1776, it was "Voted that if the 
Hon'ble Congress for the Safety of the United States 
Declare them Independent of the Kingdom of Great 
Brittain, we, the inhabitants of this town, do solemnly 
Engage with our Lives and Fortunes to support 
them in the measure." At the same time a bounty 
of £13, 6.?. 8(/. was given to each man who woidd en- 
list in the service of the colonies. The Declaration 
of Indei)endence was unanimously adopted and 
copied at length in the town record. 

During the whole war one hundred and ninety- 
seven men from Danvers served in the Continental 
army out of a population of about eighteen hundred. 
Probably about half of this number were from the 
South I'arish. 



CHAPTER LXXII. 
PEABODY— ( Conlinufd). 

From the Ctose of the Resolution to the Separation from Danvers. 

Aftkr the close of the Revolution the South Par- 
ish continued on a quiet and uneventful course, con- 
tributing little for many years to the material of his- 
tory. Its people united their action with that of ihe 
other parish in many public matters which came be- 
fore the town-meeting. They contributed men 
toward a company for the suppression of "Shay's 
Rebellion;" they joined in resolutions commenda- 
tory of John Adams' administration in 1799; and in 
1808 they successfully contested an effort to unite the 
North Parish to .Salem. They sent some in the com- 
pany which left Danvers in December, 1787, and 
settled in Washington County, Ohio, as they had pre- 
viously taken part in the settlement of New Salem in 
1734, and in other emigrations. 

'J'he war of 1812 with (ireat Britain was very un- 
popular in the town, and on the 13th of July the 
town passed resolutions strongly condemning the 
war. Several companies were, however, raised to re- 
sist invasion, and that from the southern and western 
part of the town was commanded by General Foster, 
with Johnson Procter and Nathan Felton as lieu- 
tenants, Daniel King, ensign, John Upton, orderly 



sergeant, and as privates many of the well-known 
and substantial citizens of the town. Hanson gives 
a partial list of the company, including William 
Poole, Eben S. L'pton, Rufus Wyman, Ebcn King, 
Amos King, John Goldthwaite, John Osborn, Oliver 
Saunders, Joseph Griflin, Stephen Procter, Asa 
Husliby, Asa Tapley, James Wilson, Klisha Wilson, 
John Needliani, Jonathan Osborn, Amos Osborn, W. 
W. Little, James Southwick, Joseph Shaw, George 
Southwick, Sylvester Osborn, Jr., Benjamin Ste- 
phens, Benjamin (rile, Elisha Gunnison, Eben Os- 
born, Solomon Mclnlire, William .Sutton, Samuel 
Buxton. There were about as many more \vli(jse 
names cannot be ascertained. 

There were two alarms when this company, together 
with one from the northern part of the town, was 
called out. One was caused by a boat laden with 
sea-weed passing by Hospital Point, where the Ar- 
tillery was posted. The boat was mistaken for a 
British barge, and as it returned no answer on being 
hailed, it was fired upon. The alarm of invasion 
spread far into the country. On the other occasion. 
September 28th, the Artillery was alarmed by some 
men who were drawing a seine, and fired again, 
s|)reading a false alarm, which is said to have tra- 
velled far into New Hampshire. The companies in 
l)Oth instances marched with(mt delay to the post of 
supposed danger. 

The Lexington Monument. — The sixtieth an- 
niversary of the battle of Lexington was chosen for 
the dedication of a monument to those citizens of 
Danvers who fell on that memorable day. It is built of 
hewn sicnite, and w'as formerly surrounded by an 
iron railing, which inclosed a small square of grass 
in which the monument st'iod. But with the in- 
creased use of the streets it became more dillicult to 
keep this little strip of turf in proper condition; the 
fence fell to decay, and as the travel and the intro- 
duction of the horse railroad to Lynn demanded 
more room, a simple foundation of hewn stone was 
substituted for the turf and iron railing, and the 
monument still occupies its old site, on the very 
place where the minute men gathered on the morn- 
ing of the battle, and from which they took up their 
hurried march to Cambridge. The monument is 
twenty-two feet high, and seven feet broad at the 
base. On the easterly side is the following inscrip- 
tion, on a slab of white marble set into the fiice of 
the monument : 



Ka 



Lex 



April 111, 1775. 

Samuel Cook /lit. .33 

B«nj. Di.lanil lYA. JS 

Ooorgp Southwick .tl. 25 

Jotlmm WiM) ^t. ii 

Henry Jacolm X,l. 22 

F.l.on-r (ioldlliwait .Et. 22 

l-iTlcj' Pull.ani 1-:i. 21 

CitizcriB of DANVtllS 

Fell on that day. 

" Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori." 



1014 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Oq the westerly tablet is inscribed " Erected by 
Citizeas of Diinvers on the 60th Anniversary, 1835." 

As the nineteenth fell on Sunday, Monday the 
twentieth was sclet-ted for the laying of the corner- 
stone. At ten o'clock a procession of Revolutionary 
patriots and citizens of Danvers and vicinity was 
formed in the square before the Old South Meeting- 
House under the direction of the marshals of the 
day. The Danvers Light Infantry, commamled by 
Capt. William Sutton, and the Danvers Artillery un- 
der Capt. A. Pratt, with military music, escorted the 
procession, which proceeded through Main Street to 
the old burial ground near the Salem line, where sev- 
eral of the slain were buried. Three volleys of mus- 
ketry were fired over their graves, and the procession 
then marched to the site of the monument, then call- 
ed Eagle corner. The order of services was announ- 
ced by .John W. Proctor, Esq., and Kev. Charles C. 
Sewall,of the First Unitarian Church, od'ered prayer. 
The venerable General Foster, with the surviving 
officers and soldiers of the Revolution, proceeded to 
place the corner-stone, beneath which was deposited 
a box containing various memorials of the times spe- 
cially prepared for the occasion, including late copies 
of some of the newspapers of the vicinity, printed on 
cloth, and records durably engrossed upon parchment. 

General Foster then briefly addressed his fellow- 
citizens with a few words full of simple eloquence, 
and the stone was put in its place. The artillery fired 
a salute of twenty-four guns, and amid the ringing of 
church-bells and to the stirring strains of "Auld 
Lang Syne," the procession marched to the Old South 
Church, the very building in which, sixty years be- 
fore, the solemn and impressive funeral services of 
four of the young heroes had been held with the sub- 
dued clank of arms in the gallery full of soldiers and 
amid the deep and passionate stirrings of patriotic 
emotion which realized that the war of freedom had 
indeed begun. The church, though enlarged from its 
dimensions at that earlier time, was crowded in every 
part, and hundreds were unable to gain admittance. 
The following was the order of services: 1, 100th 
Psalm, tune Denmark; 2, Hymn, by R. S. Daniels; 
3, Prayer, by Rev. Geo. Cowles ; 4, Hymn, by Fitch 
Poole, Jr.; 5, Address, by Hon. D. P. King; 6, Patri- 
otrc Ode, by Jonathan Shove ; 7, Concluding Prayer, 
.by Rev. J. M. Austin. At the close of the services 
•at the church, the original honorable discharge of J. 
B. Winchester from the Revolutionary Army was 
•presented and read, bearing the signature of George 
Wa-shington. Mr. Winchester entered the Continen- 
tal Army at the age of fourteen, and was only just of 
age when discharged. Nineteen survivors of the 
Lexington fight and of the Revolutionary Army oc- 
cupied the pews in front of the pulpit, and added 
greatly to the interest of the occasion. Of these the 
following were natives of Danvers: Gideon Foster, 
Sylvester Osborne, Johnson Proctor, Levi Preston, 
Asa Tapley, Roger Nourse, Joseph Shaw, .Tohn ,Toce- 



lyn, Ephraim Smith, Jonathan Porter, Joseph Tufts, 
William Flint. 

After the services at the church a procession wii<< 
again formed and escorted by the Danvers Light In 
fantry to the Essex Coffee House, where about two 
hundred, including the Revolutionary veterans, were 
served with a collation. Patriotic sentiments and 
toasts followed, in which the veterans and the com- 
pany present joined. The projector of the monument 
was John Upton, and its architect Asher Benjamin. 

It was noted as a curious coincidence that there ap- 
pears on the western side of the monument, above 
the marble slab, a dark marking on the face of the 
sienite caused by the mingling of some darker stone, 
which the cutting of the stone has brought to a strik- 
ing resemblance of the Phrygian cap — the liberty-cap, 
so-called, for ages the symbol of freedom, and ever 
worn by the statued representations of the Goddess. 

On the 6th of May, 18.'52, Kossuth, the Hungarian 
patriot, visited the town, and made a brief but elo- 
quent address at the Lexington Monument, in which 
with the happj' facility for historical allusions which 
was one of his most remarkable characteristics, he 
referred pertinently to the heroic deeds of the Revo- 
lution, and spoke of the honorable part which the 
men of Danvers bore in the battle of Lexington and 
their readiness in hurrying to the scene of Leslie's 
retreat. He was received by a committee chosen by 
the town, and was welcomed in an addre.ss by John 
W. Proctor, Esq., a son of Capt. Johnson Proctor, of 
Revolutionary fame, and a descendant of that John 
Procter who fell an early victim to the witchcraft 
delusion. 

The Great Fire.— On September 22, 1843, a very 
destructive fire occurred in the South Parish, and con- 
sumed a large amount of property in the vicinity of 
the square, including the Second or South Congrega- 
tional Church, a new building partially completed, 
the Essex Coffee-house, and twelve other stores and 
houses, with a large number of sheds and outbuild- 
ings. The Unitarian Church and several other 
buildings caught repeatedly, but by great exertions 
of the citizens assisted by help from neighboring 
towns, the progress of the fire was checked after pro- 
perty valued at seventy-five thousand dollars had 
been destroyed, of which twenty-five thousand dollars 
was insured. The blow was a severe one, but the 
enterprise of the community soon replaced the 
burned buildings, and the town gained in appearance 
from the misfortune. 

The war with Mexico was very unpopular through- 
out the town. Hon. Daniel P. King, of the South 
Parish, was at that time the Representative of the 
district in Congress, and he maintained the strongest 
opposition to the war, in which he was fully sup- 
ported by his constituents. On December 16, 1847, 
the town held a meeting, and resolutions drafted by 
John W. Proctor were passed condemning the war 
as an unrighteous one, and declaring against the 



PEA BODY. 



1015 



1 to be born free ami t-qiml,' we can- 
(lo Hli^ tiling whatever tllat sliall 
difigntcfful ("eiitiiro of our institu- 



acquisilioii of territory by conquest; and among 
other resolutions was tlie following: 

"While wc ackliowlclce 'all l 
not consistently with tliis princ 
have u teniUMlc.v to e\ten<l that n 
tiona, t/omefitic 5/«f<ry." 

Only five men from the whole town of Danvers were 
engaged in the Jlexioan War. 

Centkxniai, Celebration. — On the 10th of 
June, 18.52, the town of Danvers celebrated the one 
hundredth anniversary of its separate uiunicii>al e.x- 
istence. A procession illustrating the manners and 
customs of the early settlers, and brilliant with 
allegorical figures and representations of foreign cos- 
tume, was escorted by military forces and by the 
firemen of the town ; it wtis made up largely from the 
pupils of the public .schools. An address by John 
W. Proctor and a poem by Andrew Nichols were 
delivered in the old South Church with music and 
religious exercises. After the exercises in the church 
a dinner was given in a canvas pavilion on the 
Crowninshield estate, at wliich many interesting 
addresses were given by the invited guests of the 
town, many of them distinguished in juiblic life or 
eminent for historic learning. The full account of 
this very interesting anniversary celebration belongs 
more properly to the history of Danvers; but it was 
at this dinner that the first gift of George Peubody to 
his native town was ortiered, in a letter acknowledg- 
ing his invitation to the centennial celebration. In 
this letter he inclosed an envelope with a direction 
that its seal was not to be broken till the toasts were 
being proposed at the dinner. After a toast to 
George Peabody, the letter of acknowledgment was 
read, and the seal of the inclosed envelope broken. 
It contained a sentiment by Mr. Peabody, which has 
become the the motto of the endowments made by 
him for the benefit of education : " Education — A 
debt due from ])resent to future generations. The 
letter continued : 

" In arknowleiignieni of the payment of that debt by the generation 
whieh precedtfd nie in my native town of Uanvera. and to aid in its 
prompt fnture diHetiarge, I give to the inliaUitantif of tliat town ttie i^uni 
of twenty tlion*iud ilollara, for the promotion of Itnowledgc and moral- 
ity among Iheiii. 

'• I lieg to remark, that the sutijeet of making a gift to my native town 
has fur some years ocenpied my mind, and 1 avail myself of your pres- 
ent interesting festival to make the comnuinieation, in tlie hope that it 
will ad.l to the pleaKiires of the day. 

•' I annex to the gift such conditions only ao I deem necessary for its 
preservation and the nccomplishnient of the purposes before named. 
The conditions are, that the legal voters of the town, at a meeting to bo 
held at a convenient time after the lli'k .lune, shall accept the gift, and 
shall elect a committee of not less than twelve persons, to receive and 
have charge of the same, for the purjioso of establishing a Lyceum for 
the delivery of lectures, upon such subjects as nrny bo designated by u 
committee of the town, free to all the itlhabitiint..4, uniler such rules as 
said committee nniy from time to lime emict ; and that a Library Nball 
be obtained, which shall also be free to the inhabitants, under the di- 
rectifin of the committee. 

" That a suitable building for the use of the Lyceum shall be irecled, 
at a cjKl, inclu.liiiE the land, Bxtures, furniture, Ac, not exceeding 
Seven Thousand dollars, and shall be located within one-third of a mile 
of the Presbyterian Meeting House occupying the spot of that formerly 



under the pastoral care of the Rev. Mr. Walker, in the South I'arith of 
Danvers. 

"That Ten Thous:ind dollars of this gift shall be invested by the 
town's committee in undoubted securities as a permanent fund, and the 
interest arising thereupon to be expemied in support of the Lyceum. 

"In all other respects I leave the disposition of the affairs of tho 
Lyceum to the inhabitants of Danvers, merely Bugge.sling that it might 
be advisable for them, by Ilieir own act, to exclude sectarian theology 
and political discussions forever from the walls of the institution. 

•■I will make one lequest of the comniitleo which is, if they sec no 
olijection, and my venerable friend ('apt. ?ylve.ster rmctor should bo 
living, that ho be selected to lay the Corner-slono of the Ljcenn. 
building." 

As was stated by Mr. Proctor at the dinner, Mr. 
Peabody had been a generous contributor to the 
building of the Lexington Monument and also to tho 
rebuilding of the old South Church when destroyed 
by fire. The same letter which inclosed the gift also 
contained a liberal subscription toward the erection 
of an appropriate monument at the grave of General 
Gideon Foster. Mr. Peabody soon afterward added ten 
thousand dollars to his original donation, and before 
IX.'JC had increased the foundation to fifty thousand 
dollars. During his last visit to this country, in 
181)9, he increased the amount of his gift to this In- 
stitute to two hundred thousand dollars. 

For some years the ilifiiculties which had been felt 
even in the early years of the town by reason of the 
distance between the North and South I'arislns, and 
which had leil to remeilial legislation as long ago as 
1772, had been increasing; and the time w:is soon to 
come when the division of the two districts became 
necessary. By an act of the Legislature, passed May 
18, 1855, the new town of South Danvers was incor- 
j)orated, with boundaries nearly corresponding with 
those of the old middle precinct of Salem. The old 
northerly line of the South Parish was changed, add- 
ing a strip of territory to South Danvers; instead of 
the ancient line, running nearly eai-t and west, the 
line now runs from the same easterly boundary north- 
west to the sharp beiiil of the Ipswich River, so that 
some of the historic localities of Salem Village are 
now within the limits of the newer town. 

Shortly afterward, by an act of the Legislature, 
passed April I'O, 185(1, the ancient boundary between 
Salem and South Danvers w.as changed, and the 
boundaries of Ilie nesv town have .-ince been undis- 
turbed. 

It has already been noted that when the original 
pet tioners for the setting oil' of the middle precinct 
pre|)ared their ilraft of a bounilary, they asked to 
have a line run from Trask's mills to Si)ring Pond. 
The strong oppo.^ition shown in Salem to having so 
large a part of their common land thrown into the 
new precinct was no doubt the canst' of the change 
made by the Legislative committee, who recom- 
mended that the line, after reaching what is known 
as Boston Street, shoulil continue in the stieet along 
the Boston road to the Lynn line. This recommenda- 
tion was adopted ; no change was made at the time 
of the incorporation of Danvers as a district and as a 



1016 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



town ; and from 1710 to 1856, the houses on the op- 
posite sides of a road more tliau tliree miles long were 
in different municipal jurisdictions. The inconven- 
iences of such a boundary line were not so marked in 
the lower portion of the street, as the inhabitants be- 
longing to Salem were there not far separated from 
the other inhabited parts of Salem ; but as the road, 
well occupied with substantial houses, continued on 
towards Lynn, the Salem inhabitants became more 
and more remote from the interests of the town to 
which they belonged, and in the settlement at South 
Peabody, known from the earliest times as "the 
Rocks," neighbors whose interests were otherwise 
identical were forced to carry on double schools on 
opposite sides of the same street, and voted in differ- 
ent municipalities at places miles apart. It was a 
deep grievance, too, for the ardent temperance re- 
formers of Dan vers, who had succeeded in suppressing 
the open sale of liquor in the town, to be confronted 
by liquor-selling taverns, such as the Naumkeag 
House and others of those times, which could be 
reached by thirsty Danvers men by merely crossing 
the street into Salem. 

The line from Trask's, or Frye's, mills reached 
Boston Street at the tree known as the " Big Tree." 
From this boundary tree, the line of division ran 
along the easterly side of the road to Lynn. At the 
time of its establishment, in 1710, the main road to 
Lynn from Salem did not follow any of the now ex- 
isting streets in its turn to the south after crossing 
Poole's bridge over Strong Water Brook, but diverged 
from what is now Main Street at a point near Pier- 
pont Street, and continued in a southwesterly direc- 
tion till it joined what is now Washington Street near 
Aborn Street. This diagonal course of the old road 
appears very plainly on the rough map, on file in 
the State archives in the Slate library, which accom- 
panied the petition for setting off the middle precinct 
in 1710; and also upon a map of the division of the 
common lands of Salem, made about 1720, in the pos- 
session of Andrew Nichols, Esq., of Danvers. As 
time went on, the road which left Main Street at the 
Bell Tavern, or Eagle corner, where the Lexington 
monument now stands, became most used, and the 
old road at that point fell into disuse and was event- 
ually abandoned, though traces of it may still be 
found. The boundary line, of course, remained un- 
changed; and in 1840 the line was changed by act of 
the Legislature, by adding a strip to Danvers, bringing 
the boundary line two feet north of Sutton's store in 
Poole's Hollow, and then following near the brook 
to Aborn Street, and so to the Boston road.. It was 
not till 185G that the line between South Danvers and 
Salem was finally established, coinciding very nearly, 
in that part between Boston Street and Spring Pond, 
with the line marked out by the wisdom of the 
farmers of Brooksby in their petition for the incor- 
poration of the middle precinct. In exchange for I 
this concession of territory, part of the territory of 



South Danvers on the northerly side of Boston Street, 
between the Big Tree and the old burial-ground, was 
annexed to Salem by the same act. The inhabitants 
of the territory belonging to Danvers at the time of 
Mr. Peabody's gift to the town are, however, still en- 
titled to the privileges of the bequest. The present 
boundary line crosses the street near the westerly end 
of the old burial-ground. 

It is stated in an article in the Wizard, published 
in 1862, that previously to the last change of bound- 
ary, the line ran through a house on Main Street, 
through a bedroom and across a bed, so that the 
heads of the occupants were in the city and their feet 
in the country. 



CHAPTER LXXIII. 
VEXhODY— Continued. 

Beview of the Period from 1757 to 1855. 

The period from 1757 to 1855, during which the pres- 
ent township of Peabody was the South Parish of the 
town of Danvers, was marked by great changes accom- 
panying the growth of a large town from the commu- 
nity of six or seven hundred people dependent on ag- 
riculture for their support. The aspect of the old 
time village is still remembered by the older citizens, 
as it was described by Mr. George G. Smith at the 
Centennial Celebration : " It was a pleasant place, 
then, this old town of ours, when there were green 
fields and shady walks where now are dusty streets 
and busy factories. I shall never forget the old back 
way by the pond, with its locust-trees, loading the air 
in the season of blossoms with their honey-like fra- 
grance. And the pond, not as now shorn of its fair 
proportions, its green banks sloping gently down to 
the clear water, and bordered with bright rushes and 
flowery water-plants." The pastures came down 
toward the centre of the village, and a country quiet 
rested over all. In 1800 the population of the whole 
town of Danvers was 2643, and in 1820 it was 3646. 
The South Parish could claim about half of these 
numbers. 

Growth of Manufactures. — The tannery begun 
in 1739 by Joseph Southwick, the Quaker, continued 
to be carried on by the same family during the whole 
of this period. About 1770 Joseph Poor began to 
tan near •' the lane," now Central Street, and several 
of his descendants are still prominent in the same 
branch of productive industry. Dennison Wallis_ 
the Revolutionary patriot, had a tannery near the 
street which bears his name; and early in the present 
century Fitch Poole, Sen., and his brother. Ward 
Poole, had tanneries near I'oole's hollow, on the 
stream running into the North River. In 1865 there 



PEABODY. 



1017 



were twenty-seven tanneries in Soutli D.inver.-i, with j 
an annnal product of 131.000 hides, valued at SOGO,- 
000; 122 men were employed in tliis in<Uistry. Tin re 
were also, in 18-3"), 21 currying establishments, lin- 
isliing leather of the value of S80,'>,000, and eniiiloy- 
ing lo3 hands. 

The manufacture of morocco and lining skins 
grew up in the second ciuarler of the present cen- 
tury, and in lSo-5 there was a jiroduct of 80,000 
skins, valued at about §25,000, employing 117 hands, 
with a capital of $.50,000. 

The boot and shoe Ir.ide, which also had its princi- 
p.TJ growth as an industry since 1830, [irodnced, in 
18oo, in the town, 747,000 pairs, valued at !?5i)7,2')0, 
and gave emjiloyment to 1043 hands, a considerable 
number of the employees being women. 

The manufacture of chocolate was carried on by 
General Fos-ter in the early years of the century at 
his mill-pond, oil Fo-ter's lane (now Foster Street). 
where were also bark-nnlls for grinding tan for the 
tanneries, and grist-mdls. General Foster developed 
the water-power at liis command with nuich .-kill 
and ingcnnity, building a .system of dams and 
canals. Ilis mills were destroyed by fire in 1823. 
The manufacture of chocolate was also carried on by 
Francis Symonds, the host of the Bell Tavern; but 
the industry was long ago discontinued. 

At one time there were upwards of thirty ]iot- 
terics in the South Parish, mostly on " the lane," 
called "Garp Lane," or "Gape Lane," and al.so on 
Southwick's hiTie, now Lowell Street. Daring the War 
of 1812 the pottery from this region attained a wide 
celebrity, and great quantities were sold. The de- 
mand for tlie ware, which was chiefly of the coarser 
variety of brown ware, from which the bean-puts, 
flower-pots and jugs of the present day are made, di- 
minished after the war, owing to the cheapness 
with which a higher grade of imported ware could 
be obtained; and in 1855 only two establishments 
remained on Central Street, where the la-t surviv- 
ing pottery is still carried on; their product was 
then valued at $2300. 

The Danvers Bleachcry, an enterprise begun in 
1847 by Elijah Upton and the Messrs. Walker, in 1855 
bleached or colored 100 tons of goods, employing GO 
men, with a capital of $150,000. 

Glue was first made in South Danvers by Elijah 
Upton in 1817. Mr. Upton was one of the pioneers 
in manufactures, and was very successful in various 
branches. He made many improvements in methods, 
and in the .glue business anticipated modern ideas, 
among other things being the first to grind glue for 
convenience in packing and use. In !855 three glue 
factories, with a capital of $40,000, produced glue of 
the value of S120,00fl, employing 21 men. 

Resides these larger industries, and the ordinary ac- 
tivity of a growing town in building, cabinet-making 
and other domestic occupations, there were, in 1855, 
two bakeries, producing articles valued at 835,000 
W 



yearly; two soap-fictories, with a product worth 
818,000, a p:Ueiit-leallu-r fartory, a last factory, whose 
product was valued at SIO,0:j ), a box-factory, and 
w orkingiprirr es of valu ible st ]ne, from which $5,ilO0 
worth of building and mill-stones were cut. In the 
days when the e.Kiensive commerce of Salem make 
conununication with foreign countries by vessel easy, 
the soap business was largely developed, and an ex- 
port trade was built up by Henry Cook, then the 
principal manufacturer. 

During the last half century of this period, thepre- 
l)aration of wool for manufacture was carried on, the 
woid being in part supplied by the skins used in the 
manufacture of morocco. William Sutton carried on 
the business at the brick store, on M lin Street, in 
Toole's hollow, and the figure of a sheep, which still 
stands over the door, was to be seen in the s.ime place 
as early as 1815. At one time Ward I'oole, Jr., car- 
ried on the same business in another brick building, 
near Picrpont Street. Another wooden sheep was 
[ilaced over the st(jre in l'oolc"s hollow, occnpiel by 
Warren .AL Jacobs and Fitch Poole as a morocco-fac- 
tory, and this image was aflerw.ird i)l.iced on the 
l.irger factory i riHtcd by .lacobs, on Main Street. 
The business of " wool-[inirnig," as it was calle<l, did 
not reach large dimensiuiis, and was at times partially 
or wholly suspended. 

E.isT ANI1 West India Trade. — .\t one period, 
during the commercial jirospcrity of Salem, there 
were a number of traders in the South Parish who did 
a large business in supplying dealers in the interior 
W'ith imported goods, sometimes buying a whole cargo 
at a time for wholesale and K'tail trade. 

Some of these merchants, who dealt jirincipally in 
West India goods, had their stores on Boston Street, 
on the Danvers side of the road, near the big tree; 
th( re were other stores near the square, and one at 
least, that was carried on by Mrs. King, on the Read- 
ing road. With the decay of the commerce of Salem, 
and the change in methods of transportation, this 
branch of businc>s fell into disuse, and only those 
stores which supplied local needs remained. The re- 
sults of these comparatively extensive dealings, how- 
ever, enriched some of the families which carried on 
the business. 

Banks — The Danvers Bank (now the S uith Dan- 
vers National Bank) was incorporated in 1825 with a 
capital of $150,000. The first i)resident was William 
Sutton. 

The Warren Bank (now the Warren National 
Bank) was ineorporateil in 1832 with a capital of 
$250,000. The first president was Jonathan Shove. 

The Warren Five Cents Savings Bank was incor- 
porated in April, 1854. 

Inscraxce. — The Danvers Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company (now tlie Sonlh Danvers .Mutual Fire Insu- 
rance Company) was instituted in 1829. The first 
president was Ebenczcr Shillaber. It is an extremely 
conservative and sound institution. 



1018 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



FuF.EMASOxnY. — Jordan Lodge, F. & A. M., was 
institiiteil in 1S08. 

Aghicui.toke. — The agricultural iiuhislrics of the 
town still continued to he of iniportiince, and in 1855 
the dairy and iiirni products were estimated at ahout 
$128,000, of whiih the onion crop constituted the 
largest part in value, being estimated at $77,080. 

It was stated at the Centennial celebration of Dan- 
vers that the whole industrial product of the town at 
the beginning of the century was not more than 
$100,000, and this is probably a large estimate. 

The valuation of the whole town of D.invers in 
1827 was $1,870,800, In 1855 the vahialion of South 
Danvers was $2,1W4,-''j00. 

Social Changes. — Such a growth in the indus- 
tries and resources of a comninnity must necessarily 
be accompanied by great changes in the social condi- 
tions of the inhabitants. Even wiih tlie slender his- 
torical material available, we can trace some of these 
changes. 

At the beginning of this jirriod the people of 
the south parish of Danvers were almost entirely 
of pure American blood of English de-cent. They 
were one in race, in social customs, iu political 
traditions and religious belief. There was but one 
church iu the parish, to which all were not only 
expected but compelled to contribute and which 
every good citizen must attend. In worldly estate 
there were no wide extremes, for, though some 
had much larger holdings of land than others, the 
diversity of living was not great. The distinctions 
of rank were punctiliously observed on important 
occasions, yet age was reverenced even above rank 
and the Christian fellowship of the church and the 
pure democracy of the town meeting brought all to a 
common level. After the stiiring events of the Rev- 
olution, the district settled back into its quiet ways 
chiefly a farming community, and suppl\ing Irom its 
own sons the labor necessary for carrying on the be- 
ginnings of its manufacturing career. For almost 
half a century after the Rev(dulion the community 
preserved the same characteristics, — a simple and 
neighborly society where all were personally known, 
in which there were few very poor and fewer very 
rich ; where a foreigner was a curiosity and a vagrant 
liable to active inqui-ition. The parish system of 
support for the church was abandoned in 179.3, and a 
system of pew la.xation .substituted ; but there was no 
other rtligious society till the Unitarians came off in 
1825. In 1832 the Universalist Society was organiz- 
ed, and the Methodists, though they had meetings in 
the south ])arish as early as 18S3, had no appointed 
minister till 1810. The Baptist Society completes the 
list of those existing in 1855, having been organized 
in 1843. The Quakers have never had a stated place 
of worship in the parish, but the many worthy and 
esteemed families which have held that faith have 
worshipped iu other towns, chiefly with their brethren 
in Salem. 



More than sixty years ago, when all the village 
went to the one niccting-honse, and nearly all were 
natives of the s-oil, there was a lamiliarily of social 
intercourse which can exist only in such a communi- 
ty. Almost every individual of consequence, and 
some whose only distinction was their eccentricity, 
were commonly known by familiar names, sometimes 
by nicknames descriptive of some peculiarity of ap- 
pearance or character. Amusing hoaxes were perpe- 
trated on certain ones whose simi)licily encouraged 
the attempt, and pr.ictical jukes, which sometimes 
verged upon rudencs-, were olten carried out by a se- 
lect band of choice spirits, among whom were some 
of the best known citizens, led by one or two of the 
keenest and most inventive of their number. Many 
rare stories are told i)y the older citizens of the jolli- 
ties of those times. 

Then, too, there were some who cultivated a refined 
literary taste, and met to read and discuss original 
articles on literature or the topics of the times. Rufus 
Choate opened his first law office here, and resided 
in the south parish for several years, going as one 
of the town representatives to the General Court in 
1826 and '27. lie was married while living here, 
and left town to ])ractice law in Salem in 1828. 

He at one time delivered an address on the Waverly 
novels before the Literary Circle, a society including 
many of the active minds of the place; and during 
his residence in town he twice delivered the Fourth 
of July oration. 

With Dr. Andrew Nichols, and the Rev. Mr. 
Walker, and John W. Proctor, and Fitch Poole, who 
was then just beginning his unique literary career, 
with Rufus Choate, and Joshua 11. Ward, and Daniel 
P.King, and other gifted and cultured minds, there 
was surely a suflicicncy of literary ability to impress 
the social life of ihe parish with high ideah of thought 
and exi)ression ; and the effect of the impulse which 
these men gave to the intellectual life of the town 
may still be felt. Not only in matters of literary taste, 
but in dealing with the great problems of the times, 
with intemperance, and slavery, and educational 
needs, the town and the parish kept always in the 
foremost ranks of progress. 

The rapid increase of manufacturing and the severe 
and comparatively nn>killed labor reepiired in some 
departments brought about the importation of 
immigrant laborers. Mr. Richard Crowninshield, 
who carried on a woolen-mill just below the 
pond which bears his name, is said to have been ihc 
first to bring Irish laborers to the town. The con- 
struction of the railroads also brought in a foreign 
element of population. 

With the increase of manufactures came the amas- 
sing of larger fortunes by some, and the increased 
values of real estate and the rising tide of enti-r|)risu 
and improvement throughout the country following 
the introduction of the railroad systems, gave oppor- 
tunities of investment which still farther iucreased the 



PEABODY. 



1010 



means of the wealthy. The old simjiliiity ami uiii- 
fciniiity ol' social lllb and customs pi-^sel aw.iy never 
to rcliirn, and in its 'ilace began t > grow U|) the ini)re 
complex relations of town lile resulting IVoni greater 
variety of employment and greater dillerences in for- 
tune, and in part from the were increase of num- 
bers. 

KimcATlox. — From the earliest yeai-s the Jliddlc 
rreeinet was earel'ul and earnest in the cause of edu- 
cation. Soon after the separation of the preeinet the 
parish gave its attention to the support of schools, and 
claimed and received from the town its proper part of 
the sclioil money. We find the s.-hool fund a com- 
mon subject of discussion ill the parisli meeting, and 
the people themselves contributed liberally from their 
slender means toward the schools. In 17.'U the 
pari>h rai.sed £17 4s. lb/. f,u- its schools. In 17:57 
there were four schools in the jiarish, and six male 
teachers and ten female teachers were employed dur- 
ing the summer; the men received two pouiuls a 
month, and the women si.xpence each week. In 173'J 
a gr.imniar s<liool, where Latin shoiil<l be taught, was 
projected. In 1748 a school house was built near 
Procter's corner, eighteen by Iweiuy-two feet. In 
17(1) it was voted to luiild a scho •l-litnise on ihe laud 
behmging to the parish. A school was ke|it si.\ 
moMlhs in each parish that year. In 178o, when 
Revolutionary troubles had subsided, the condilion 
of tlie schools received renewed attention. Com- 
plaint was made against D.iiiver-; for neglecting to 
sustain a pio]ier number of schools, ami means were 
taken to remedy the neglect. In 171K> Dr. Archelaus 
Putnam made a report to thetonnon the reorganl- 
zati<m of the schools. In 17!i:! and I7;i4 an ell'ort 
was made to divide the town into districts, and a <li- 
visioii was made pursuant to a plan proposed by 
Gideon Foster, Samuel Page and .lohii Kettelle. In 
1802 the districts were remodele<l at the suggestion 
of Sylvester O-born. 

According to the plan then in force, the general 
sui)ervision over all the schools was retained by the 
town ; but in ISOi), Ihe modern system of school dis- 
tricts was established, with ninedistriets in the whole 
town. This cominucd up to the lime of the separa- 
tion of South Danvers, the nnmbi r of distiicts having 
been increased. 

The develooment of the highly organized public 
schoids of the present lime Inun the old district 
school in which all were in the same room was grad- 
ual, and can only be traced by ob.serving the increase 
of numbers and the systemati/.ation of methods and 
growth of te.xt-books which accompanied the group- 
ing of several schools in graded association. The 
town kept well abreast of the improvements in otiur 
places. In 1S14 an order was adopted requiring an 
annual re|)ort of the condilion of the schools to le 
made to the town. This was in advance of the 
same regulation afterward made by the State, as was 
also the taking of the census of school children, iu- 



stitutcd in D.mvers in 182). These reports began to 
be printed in ISol). 

High sdiiols were cs'.abli~h:! 1 in IS")), an I in 1 <'il 
a system of superiutendeace was est.iblislied, which 
dill not long continue. 

The character of the iintru ^iio;i give:i and thj 
standard id' work perliniued in the various schools 
have been maintained at a high degree of e.xcelbaice, 
and the town {ilways displayed a spirit of liberality 
and |)rogress in e.lucatioiial a'l'.iirs wbii-h accorded 
with ihe principles of its cailicst sdllers. Mr. Proc- 
tor, in bis .address at tlu' centennial celebration, in 
l.S.')2, called altention to the fact that Danvers 
expended fin'ty per cent, of all its outlay ol' [lublic 
money on its scdiools, paying, in ISoo, ten thousand 
dollars for sup|iort of public school-, on a valua'iou 
(d' three niilliou cbjllars. AiiKUig the te ichers of Dan- 
vers were some who-e names ii ive become widely 
known. Daniel ICjipes, in the early times of the 
town, was a famous teacher. In Ls;!;} Charles 
NorlheiKl, Ihe well-known writcron educational mat- 
ters, began to t<'ach s diool in the town, in a sch )ol- 
hmise close by theold burying-gnamd ; hctaiiglit about 
twenty years in ihe S >utli Parish, and w.is the (irst 
superinlendenl of scbods in the town. 

Ni:w.sI'APERS. — I'he Jlnnrrs EujU was published 
f<u- abimt a year, beginning in 1811. T'-e I) I'licrs 
WIdj, a ])olitical sheet, was publisheil during the 
Presi lential campaign in 1814. 

The Ihiiiv rs Cuunn; edited by George II. Cirlt m, 
was established in .March, 184"). It conliuued to be 
published till September, 1840. 

Tk.mi'KIsaxce M'n'KMic.xT.s. — In 1812, wdieu the 
first temperance society in .-Vmerica was formed, 
— " The ll.assacdiusclts S >ciety f )r the Suppression of 
Iulem|)erance," — Joseph Torrey, Samuel llolten and 
Heiijaniin Wadswoilh, from D.inver-, were members. 
Ivlward Southwick and Deacon Fitch Poole, from 
the South Pari di, were among the pioueer< in tem- 
perance reform. A strong impulse was given to tlie 
movement by the adhc-iion of many of the le.iding 
citizens of the place. The principle of total absti- 
nence was upheld by the<e earliest supporters of the 
movement. The D.iuvers Moral Society, for the sup- 
pression of intem|)erance, was formed in February, 
1814. The language of the Constitution was mod- 
erate, being directeil a.'ainst " the daily use of ardent 
spirits." Rev. Samuel Walker, Fitch Poole, Dr. .\n- 
<lrew Nichols, Sylvester Osborne, .lames Osborne, 
William Sutton and others, from the South Parish, 
were prominent in the formation of the society, la 
183:5 the word " daily " was stricken from the article 
of the Constitution above referred to. Some of the 
pledges formerly circulated were very moderate in 
form. It is said that one which was extensively cir- 
culated bound Ihe signer to an agreement " to use in- 
toxicating liquor with cautious prudence." In 1818 
the thanks of the town were voted to the selectmen 
for their zeal in cudcavoring to prevent a portion of 



1020 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the people from wasting " health, time and estate in 
drinking;" and they were earnestly requested to 
continue their efibrta. 

In ISlcS Dr. Andrew Nichols delivered an address 
entitled Temperance and Morality. 

In 1827 a committee of nine was raised to prose- 
cute all licensed persons who infringed the laws, and 
all unlicensed persons who sold ardent spirits. Dr. 
Ebenezer Hunt this year delivered the first public 
address in Danvers advocating total abstinence. 

In 1831 the over.seers of the poor were forbidden to 
furnish alcohol to tlie tov n poor, except by order of 
a physician. On March 4, 1833, Danvers refused to 
grdnt licenses for the sale of liquor; Mr. Proctor 
claimed that she was the first town to take such ac- 
tion, and it is certain that she was among the first. 
This policy was adhered to until the sep^iration of 
South Danvers in 18J5. 

The peculiarities of the boundary line between the 
Soulli Parish and Salem made it easy for those living 
near the line to obtain liquor, it being necessary only 
to cro-s the street in many places to be free from the 
restrictions of "no license." 

In 1837 resolutions were unanimously adopted by 
the town, on motion of John W. Proctor, calling the 
attention of the Salem authorities to the objectiona- 
ble character of these border dram shops. The change 
of line in 18.56 did much to obviate this evil; and 
very lately the city of Salem, in putting in force the 
plan of restricted area for the granting of licenses, 
has removed all cause for com|)laint in this respect, 
so far as ofBcial action is concerned. 

Slaveuy. — At the time of the separation of Dan- 
vers I'rom Salem there were within the limits of ihe 
town twenty-fiveslaves— ninemen and sixteen women. 
Slaves continued to be held until the adoption of the 
Constitution in Massachusetts in 1789. Jlost of those 
who were thus freed remained in the service of their 
former owners. The last survivor of the slaves of 
Danvers died in extreme old age in the South Dan- 
vers Almshouse in 1863, — Sibyl Swiuerton, once a 
slave of John Swinerton. 

A strong anti-slavery feeling grew up in Danvers 
in the early part of the century. In 1819 citizens of 
the town addressed a communication to the Hon. 
Nathaniel Silsbee, in which their attitude as opposed 
to slavery is forcibly presented, and the hope cx- 
prcs'^ed "that every practical exertion will be made, 
to hasten the time when the republic shall witness 
the complete emancipation of the African," and that 
"ere long this infernal traffic in human flesh will be 
completely and entirely abolished." This letter was 
signed, among others, by Edward Southwick, Wil- 
liam Sutton, Andrew Nichols and John W. Proctor, 
from the South Parish. 

In 1847 a resolve, drafted by Mr. Proctor, relating 
to the Mexican War, was unanimously adopted, in 
which it was declared "that the town would not in 
any manner countenance anything that shall have a 



tendency to extend that most disgraceful feature of 
our institutions, — domestic slavery." 

Anti-slavery meetings were held, and many of the 
citizens were prominent workers in the early days of 
the abolition movement. 

The Old-Time Taverns. — In the old days hefore 
the time of railroads the various taverns were impor- 
tant centres of interest. There strangers visiting the 
town on business made their headquarters; there the 
news of the day was received from the passing stage, 
or repeated by the traveller from a distance, and ea- 
gerly discussed by the politicians of the parish ; there 
public events were celebrated, and meetings were held 
of organizations and patriotic citizens. Of the-e the 
Bell tavern, which stood for many years on Eagle 
corner, now the southeast corner of Main and Wash- 
ington Streets, at the bend of the old Boston road, 
was one of the most famous. Here, in the south 
room, on election days and other occasions of privi- 
leged merrymaking, the dance was led by the fiddle, 
and in the days before temperance was agitated as a 
special virtue, the convivial bowl flowed freely. Even 
the officers of the town sometimes consulted here over 
stimulating refreshment or entertained visitors of im- 
portance with the moist hospitality of the times. 

In the days before the Revolution, the time of the 
spring election, beginning on the last Wednesday in 
May, was recognized by custom as a sort of jubilee of 
the colored people, and was celebrated by them with 
great festivities, in which they were allowed consider- 
able license in the way of sports and entertainment. 
The Bell tavern was one of the localities where the 
merrymakers gathered. This festival, known tradi- 
tionally as "Nigijer 'lection," was continued by roys- 
tering young people among the natives long alter the 
col (red people had become few and far between, and 
did not wholly cease to be observed till after the 
spring elections were abolished. 

To quote from an article on the Bell tavern by 
Fitch Poole: 

" Tlie loynl neigtibora here collected to mourn tlio demise of tlie good 
Queen Anne, and rejoiee in ttio accession of the first George. His de- 
piutnre snd tlie rise of liis son, Geor::e II, were here celelpruted in the 
siuno bowl of punch. George III was also welcomed with a zeal that 
was only equalled by that w itli w liich they dr.ink confusion to his min- 
istL'i-s. The odious St:imp Act and all Parliament taxes on the ciduniea 
were patriotically denounced. Tea was proscribed and its sale forbidden 
under penalty of a ride on a rail and the brand of tiryism. One con- 
viction only took place, and the unlucky wight obtained a reprieve from 
his sentence by furnishing the villa^rers with a bucket of punch. His 
neighbors kindly gave him a share of tlio bevcr.ige, obliging him to 
repeat over bis cup three times the following elegant couplet : 

" ' I, Is,-wc Wilson, a lory I be ; 
I, Isaac Wilson, I selU tea.' " 

Francis Symonds, one of the hosts of early times, 
displayed a wooden bell as a sign, and he informed 
the people of his good cheer by the following strain : 

" Francis Symonds makes and sells 
The best of choci^lato ; nho shells— 
I'll toll you in if you have need 
And food yon well, and bid you speed." 



PKABOnV. 



1021 



There was a printing ofllce in the building, in 
which were printed the earliest news letters of the 
town. One of these, whieh has been preserved, issu- 
ed September 27, 1777, contains news of the Revolu- 
tionary battle at f^tillwater. Among the other works 
known to have been published here are Amos Pope's 
Almanacs, "A Price current for Wenham," and "An 
account of the capivity and sud'erings of Elizabeth 
Hanson, wile of .John Hanson, who was taken pris- 
oner by the Indians," published in 1780. Mr. Rus- 
sell, the printer, afterward removed to Pioston. 

It was at the Bell tavern that the heroine of the 
novel, "El'za Wharton, or the CiKinette," — a work 
almost forgotten, but of great interest to a former 
generation— spent her last days and gathered about 
the tragic ending of her unfortunate life a veil of 
mystery and romance which long gave her a place 
among the memories of the simple and kindly villa- 
gers. Here was the appointed r.iUying place of the 
minute-men of the Revolution, and from this corner 
they started out across the tields on their hurried 
march to Lexington. Here the regiment commanded 
by Col. Timothy Pickering halted for refreshment on 
the way to Hunker Hill. Up to 1815 there were few 
bousci in the immediate vicinity, and the road was 
separated from the open fields by a low stone wall. 

Even on Sun<lays the inn retained its hospitable 
appearance, for the farmers from the outskirts of the 
town dismounted there and walked to the meeting 
house. 

Bouthwick's tavern, on the Reading road, was also 
a well-known baiting place in the (dd days of turn- 
pike and post-roads, and in later years the Essex 
Cotlee House, kept by Benjamin Ooodridge, on (he 
corner of Foster Street near the scpiare, was a favor- 
ite resort. Oliver Saunders kept a tavern on Main 
Street, near Washington Street. 

Duslin's Hotel, sometimes called the .Snn Tavern 
from the sign of a blazing sun which formally hung 
on a post before the door, was built in IS'i.J, on the 
square, where it still stands. It was occupied as an 
inn or hotel for about si.xty years; at present it is 
used for stores and other |nirposes, the post-otlice be- 
ing located in a portion of the building. 

As time went on, the decaying commerce of Salem 
made trading journcjs to Salem and its vicinity from 
the interior more rare, and the new era of railroads 
left the old taverns empty and deserted, and the hos- 
telries were useful only for local convenience. The 
Bell tavern was taken down about 1840, and a build- 
ing containing stores was built on the site, which was 
removed about twenty years ago to make room for an 
ornamental grass plot. The old South room of the 
Bell Tavern is still in existence as a dwelling. The 
Southwick tavern became a private dwelling, and the 
Essex Coffee House was burned in the great (ire of 
1843. Other places of refreshment and accommoda- 
tion for travellers have been built and occujjied by the 
town, but the age of historic taverns has passed away. 



The Poor.- Al.MsiioisE. — Throughnut the whole 
town of Danvcrs, a liberal and enlightened spirit 
has always been manifested toward the [loor, and 
there is no place where the unfortunate are regarded 
with more sympathy and kindness. 

Previous to ISOS, the town owneil a building fur its 
poor, with part of the Gardner estate on Central 
Street. In that year a farm and buildings were ]>ro- 
ciired of Nathaniel Nurse for seven thousand d(dhir3 
for the use of the jioor. 

The present .Vlmsliouse, built in the South [larish 
in 1844, at a cosKd' about thirleen thousand d-llars, 
is a commodinus and cheerful house, situated in a 
l)leasant farming district. Beside the Poor-House 
and Hos|>ital, there are over two huiulred acres of 
land belonging to the farm, the value of the whole 
cst:iblishment at the time of the erection of the biiibl- 
ing being about tweniy-four thousand d(dlars. 

Jliss D. I)i.\', of Boston, toiik a dce|) ititercst in 
pro]noting the action of the town toward ( slalilishing 
this iu-titution. It h;!S been carefully and humanely 
conducte<l, and its inmates find many comforts in 
their sim[de life on this quiet farm. It was stated by 
the orator of the centennial celebration of the town 
that in fifty years of the history of the poor depart- 
ment of the town, a careful analy-is showed that at 
least three-folirlhs u{ those who had ri'ceived relief at 
the hands of the town had been brought to that 
necessity by reason at' intemperance, notwithstanding 
the unremitting cfliirls oflhetownto protect its in- 
habitants, to the extent of the law, from the devas- 
tations of this debasing vice. 

The Female Benevolent Society. — During the 
earlier part of the jieriod in question there were few 
very poor persons in the f)arish. In 1814, at a time 
when there was unusual dis'.ress among the poor 
owing to the high prices of the nialerials of cloihing 
and thegentral stagnation of business caused by the 
war with Great Britain, the Danvers Femide Be- 
nevolent Society was formed ; the first two clauses of 
its original constitution read as follows: 



jiblf 



..l.liKali. 



■it Sn 



and 



jtroni|ite'l hy a (h-^irr tu pii 
ihf »iil«-rilK-l» liavi' a);i.-i-( 
oflliisiissociatUHi sliall Ik 



•till 



cuiiir..rt aiul happiiicsnof llii' |i.i<.r, 
,10 t..s!elli.T. Tiiu |.Tii,<-i|.al i.l.j.^ct 
],■ 9iiital.li. altiiU-3 of ilutliilig, for 



thusM! »lio aiu uiial.l.. I.. i.KiviJu f..r tla'aiselvus." 

The Society at once commanded the support of the 
charitably inclined, and it was enabled tit the outset, 
by means of liberal contributions made to it of 
secoml-hand clothing and money, to relieve much of 
the destitution of that period.' Its original nn mliers, 
forty-eight in number, were all connected with the 
South Church, that being then the only religious or- 
ganization in the parish. The society lias since 
drawn its forces from all the Protestant .societies, and 
h.is served as a means of uniting the various denomi- 
nati'ins in practical Christian work. It is still in vi- 
gorous life, and its public meetings and entertain- 
ments, while serving to increase its funds for chari- 



1022 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



table purposes, liave for many years been a promi- 
nent feature of the social life of the place. 

Until 1831, the work of the society was confined 
exclusively to dl-tiibuting cluthing among the ponr. 
Since that time, its means have enabled the managers 
to make occasional gifts of money to worthy benefi- 
ciaries, but its main work continues the same, and 
throughout all the years of its history, there has been 
no period of inactivity, but every year has been wit- 
ness to its clothing the poor and relieving misery and 
destitution. A careful organization of its methods 
was li'ng ago eflected, and a wise discrimination is 
shown in its bestowal of charity. It cares mainly for 
those who would receive aid from no other source, or 
for such wants as cannot be supplied by the poor 
department of the town or the funds of the various 
churches. Its work does not interfere with that of 
any other organization. For these reasons, it is likely 
to contirinc to receive the merited support of the ci- 
tizens of Peabody. 

Tlie society has been favored with several bequests 
and donations from friends and from members. 

Military Compaxies. — Much interest wa? taken 
in military matters, and at the time of the War of 
1812 there were three companies in Danver.s, the 
Artillery, the Militia company of Infantry and a 
company of Exempts, composed of volunteers from 
th se exempted from military duty. This last was 
commanded by the veteran General Foster. The Artil- 
lery company was under command of Caiit., after- 
ward Col. Jesse Putnam, who lived almost to see the 
next war, dying in 18(30. David Foster was first 
lieutenant and Benjamin Goodridge second lieuten- 
ant. Lewis Allen, afterward a prominent citizen of 
Peabody, who lived to an advanced age, was one of 
the youngest of the company. The uniform of the 
D.invers Artillery consisted of a chapeau bras cap, 
with a long wliite plume, tipped with red, a long 
skirted red coat with white trimmings, white waist- 
coat, buft' breeches, buckled at the knees, and long 
boots. They each wore a sword in a belt over the 
shoulder, and each soldier had his hair powdered. 
As it was then the fashion to wear a queue hanging 
down over the coat collar, the latter was whitened by 
the powder. The cut of the coat was such as is rep- 
resented as worn by otiicers in the Revolution. 

The Militia company of Infantry was commanded 
at that time by Capt. Daniel Preston. Ilobert S. 
Daniels was a lieutenant. The meeting-plac'e of the 
company in time of alarm was the green, — then 
really a green, — in front of the Old South Meeting- 
House. 

The Danvers L'ght Infantry, a military organiza- 
tion of high repute in its time, was organized in 
1818, its first ofHcers being Robert S. Daniel-", cap- 
tai 1 ; Abner Sanger, lieutenant; Allen Gould, en- 
sign. There were originally forty-eight members, 
chiefly from the South Parisli. The uniform con- 
sisted of a blue "swallow-tail" coat, with gold but- 



tons, white or buff waistcoat and pantaloons, and a 
high stiff cap, larger at the top, adorneJ with gold 
trimming and a tall plume. At one time, helmets 
were worn by the company. 

The armory of the company was for many years a 
building standing at the end of Cabbage Lane (now 
Holten Street), at a point near where Sewall Street 
now intersects Holten Street. 

A spirited representation of an encampment of the 
Danvers L'ght Infantry in 1826, on the green in front 
of the Old South Meeting- House, painted by Gideon 
Foster, the son of General Foster, was for many years 
in the possrssion of Gen. Wm. Sutton, and was pre- 
seited by his son, Gen. Eben Sutton, to the town. It 
now hangs in the selectmen's room, in the Town 
House. This very interesting picture gives an ex- 
cellent idea of the uniform and individual appear- 
ance of the members of the corps, and it contains 
filsD the best representation known of the original 
meeting-house, with its three rows of windows and 
its western tower and belfry. The district slIiooI- 
house, near the meeting-house, whose position after- 
ward gave rise to some liti;jaiion between the society 
and the town as to the ownership of the land on 
which it stood, is seen in the painting, and also the 
Sun Tavern, then recently built, with its sign, and 
Gardner's Bridge, at the head of the mill-pon<I. A 
sight of this pi-.ture carries one back to the old days 
of the town, and helps one to realize the extent of 
the changes that have been wrought in the physical 
aspect as well as the social characteristics of the 
place. 

The Danvers Light Infantry continued as an ac- 
tive organization till about 1850. 

On the 10th of September, 1862, the past and 
present members of this veteran company were called 
together to do e>cort duty to a company of volunteers 
for the War of the Rebellion, led by Capt. Ilobert S. 
Daniels, Jr., a son of the first captain of the old 
company. On a very brief notice, over a hundred of 
the past members gathered together, including six- 
teen of the original forly-eight. Capt. Ribert S. 
Dauiels, the first commander, led the paraile, and 
Gen. Wm. Sutton acted as lieutenant, and other 
well-known citizens were chosen to fill the various 
offices. Abner Sanger and Ralph Emerson, of the 
early ofiicers, rode with the veterans of 1812, and the 
procession attracted great notice as it pa-sed from the 
S(]uare to the Eastern Railroad Station in Salem, ac- 
companied by a large number of the citizens, with 
fire companies and other organizations in line. This 
was the last appearance of the Danvers Light Infan- 
try, and probably not one of the original members 
now survives. 

Aqueduct Water. — The South Parish was one of 
the earliest communities in the State to enjoy the 
privileges of water conveyed by aqueduct. The Salem 
and Danvers Aqueduct Company, incorporated March 
9, 1797, with a capital of ten thousand dollars, sup- 



PEARODY. 



1023 



plied water from a group of natural si)riiig8 near 
Sprin<5 Pond. The first primitive reservoir consisted 
of a large hogshead sunk it) the ground, from which 
wooden logs of three inch bore conducted llie water 
through Danvers to Salem. William Gray, the 
famous merchant of Salem, was the fii-st president of 
the company. The operations of the company were 
gradually extended as the demand for water in- 
creased; the wooden logs were replaced by others; 
in 183-1 an iron-pipe was laid, in 1850 a twelve inch 
iron-pipe was laid directly to Salem, and in 1807 an 
iron and cement pipe sixteen inches in bore was laid. 
The reservoir was several times increased, and about 
18.')U a stone reservoir was built, with a capacity of 
si.\ hundretl and Fifiy-two thousand gallons. In 1850 
a connection was made with Spring I'ond, a sheet of 
water covering fifiy-nine acres, and whose surface is 
about si.Kty-four feet above mean high-water, and a 
filtering box was placed in the pond. This pond is 
fed by natural springs, and is of great depth. The 
water is very pure; an early analysis of the supply 
from thes|)rings showed in ton thousand pounds of 
water only ,[;§„ of a pound of solid foreign matter, 
consisting of silicious earth, sulphate of soda and 
common salt, the salts constituting about one-half of 
the solid matter. A sample of the water sealed up 
wiih a piece of lead for many years did not percepti- 
bly affect the lead, i-uch was its ])urity and freedom 
from corrosive qualities. The water of Spring Pond 
is about equally pure. 

The su])ply [irovcd inadequate to the needs of 
Salem, and the water from Wenham Lake, introduced 
in 1869, took the place of the old aqueduct water to a 
large e.xteut in Salem. In 1873, the t<iwn of Peabody 
bought the acjueduct from the coni])any for one hun- 
dred and twenty-five thousand dollars, and the town 
authorities have since greatly imi)roved the facilities 
for su|)ply, and have increased the head by the con- 
struction "of pumpitig-works and a large tank or 
Btand-|iipo on liiixton's Hill, the top of which is one 
hundred and eighty-four feet above mean high-tide. 
The cost of the h gh service was eighty-five thousand 
dollars, and the town has expended in all on its 
water-works about two hundred and ninety thousand 
d<Jlars. By judicious management on the part of the 
water board, the income from the use of water has 
more than paid for the coyt of maintenance and the 
interest on the cost of the water-works, while the 
town has the free use of one hundred an<l sixly-three 
hydrants for fire and other purposes. The service is 
highly eflicient, and the quality of water furnished as 
fine as any in the State. 



CHAPTER LXXIV. 

FE.\V,OD\—[Cu)ilim<ed). 
So«lh Damvrg—TI,): Cidl liar. 

The new town of South Danvers began its corpor- 
ate existence in 1855, with a population of about six 
thousand, a territory of about fourteen square miles, 
and with thriving niaiiufacturing interests firmly es- 
tablished. The valuation in 185G was two million 
nine hundred and fcrly-four thousand nine hundred 
dollars. In spite of the de|>ression of the times before 
ISfiO, the town had gained bfith in valuation and pop- 
ulation, the population in 18(>0 being six thousand 
five hundred and forly-nine, and the valuation three 
million six huii<lrc(l and thirteen thousand four hun- 
dred and eight didlars. 

There is little of the eventful to chronicle in the his- 
tory of the town until the time when the fall of Sum- 
terstartled the land. aii<l President Lincoln issued his 
call for seventy -li VI' tbo'.i>a lid men for immediate emer- 
gencies. Then the old time spirit of patriotism which 
inspired the Minute men of Lexington anil the de- 
fenders of Buid;er's Hill fiamed up with ardent en- 
thusiasm. Forty-two of the citizens of the town 
started on the first call; nine members of the Salem 
Zouaves, formerly the Salem Light Infantry, under 
Capt. Devereux, starting on Thursday morning, .\pril 
ISth, to join the Eighih Kegiment, and ten men 
in the Jlechanic Light Infantry, Cajit. Peirson, and 
twenty-one in the (,'ity (lUards, Capt. Danfortli, in- 
eluding four commissioned officers, setting out on the 
fiillowing Saturday to join the Filth Regiment, under 
Col. Lawrence. One South Danvers man enlisted in 
the New York Fire Zouaves, and one in the First 
Iowa Regiment. The following are the names of 
those who respon<lcd to this first hurried call as given 
by the town records; 

Salem Zouaves, Cuinpiiii/ II, Ei{]hth Iicgimciit. 



Mi'SPS Slinckloy. 



Leoniirii D, Cohb. 
Snllimn.I. Wili-y. 
Fniiik IMiumT. 



SalciH Meclmnie Iiifaiilrij, Cumpnnij A, Fitlli Hcfiimoit. 

■Id Scr.jentil, Juniis It. EAva. 2il Co<-iim„l, IlaviJ X. Jt-irrics. 

:i,J Cur/n.r.il, ,I..liii W. Ilarl. 



Kll.ri 


l-o II. IMMicth. 


IVl 


l.is..li 


V. M.i.n-.. 


Will 


\V Slil 


.Sami 


il 11. Uuxlon. 


III- 


r.v W 


Mcullul 


•Ml. 


1 IJ. Vn 



Cllij O'linrrh, ('(impan>j II, Fifth I^ff/inifnf. 

l.i( I.kiilemiiil, Kirk Sliirk. 'Id Liciifmaul, Win. F. Sinimp 

■id IJcuUmiiil, 0.-(i. II. \Vil,-y. 4lli l.i.idm,u,l, Juhu li. StuiK, 

•Id Coijmrul, Jolin A. 1'. SiiliiiM-r. 



R. Iliir.ly Mill.U. 
Wni. !•■. Ouilr..l-(l. 
.I<.liii G. E>li s. 
Jnnii-s W Ki'lli-y. 
ThoumsG. MuiiOiy. 



P.ui.l II. I'iirrc. 
Olivi-i I',irk. r. 
Ufi.rfC O Hull. 
W 111. Tul.t-y. 
Thomas D. Ki-llcy. 
Coo. 11. pcmrt. 



.I.>liii W. I..-I.. 
V.C. .M«i«l,ull,.Ir. 



Siiliinil W iliy. 
S, W. Williuuis. 



1024 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Beside these there were about twenty members of 
the S;ilem Cadets and Light Arl.llery wlio held tliem- 
selves in readiness to start at a moment's warning. 

On Thur.-day evening, April 18, a crowded meet- 
ing was held in the Town Hall to discuss the events 
which so jiroloundiy stirred the community, and to 
adopt measures lor raising money to fit out volunteers 
and to provide for the families of those who left home 
on such shore notice for the defense of their country. 
The deepest feeling was shown as the speaking pro- 
gressed, and a subscription paper started at this meet- 
ing realized the sum of three thousand dollars. A 
committee was appointed to consider the expediency 
of forming a military company in South Danvers, 
and a report was made at the s;imc meeting recom- 
mending the enrolment of two companies, one for 
immediate service and another to enter upon a course 
of drill to become a home guard or to enter the Fed- 
eral service whenever lliey should be required. 

On April 24th a call was issued to the patriotic 
ladies of South Danvers to meet at the vestry of the 
old South Church to take measures for making gar- 
ments for soldiers. Donations were solicited of 
money, flannel, yarn, etc., old linen and cloth. This 
was the beginning of the " Liulies' Soldiers' Aid So- 
ciety," an organization which co-opeiated with the 
United States Sanitary Commission and other agen- 
cies for relieving the necessities of the soldiers dur- 
ing the whole war, and which, during the war, dis- 
pensed over three thousand four hundred dollars in 
money, besides large contributions of clothing, one 
hundred blankets and other supplies. The society 
also conducted one of the tables at the great fair of 
the Sanitary Commission at Boston in 1863, at which 
about seven hundred dollars was realized for the 
cause. Mrs. Henry Cook was for a long time the ac- 
tive and efficient president of the society. The so- 
ciety was disbanded October 11, 18().5, alter nearly 
fouryearsandalialf of enthusiastic and vigorous effort. 

The first legal town meeting on the war was held 
May 21, 18(>1, when two thousand dollars was appro- 
priated for the aid of families of soldiers, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to solicit subscriptions to com- 
pensate the members of Captain Bancroft's company 
for time spent in drilling, many of them being me- 
chanics and workmen dependent on their earnings 
•for support. 

The enthusiasm of the times spread among all 
classes. Drill clubs were organized for instruction in 
military tactics. In accordance with the recommen- 
dation of the town committee, a company called the 
Foster Guards, under the command of Captain S. C. 
Bancroft, was enrolled and uniforms and equipments 
were procured. The company went into camp at 
Camp King, near Tapley's Brook, on the 2i)th of June, 
18iil, and about a fortnight afterward went into the 
State Uegimental Camp at Lynufield, C.inii) Sclmuler, 
where it became Company B of the Seventeenth llcg- 
imeat, commanded by Colonel Hinks. 



On the 4th of July, 1831, a flag was raised on a 
new fla;;stafl' in the square. Benjamin G )odridge, 
who had been an ollicer of the old Danvers Artillery, 
assisted by the surviving veterans of the War of 1812, 
John Price, B. D. Hill and Edward Hammond, raised 
the flag, and Mr. Goodridge made a brief speech ; 
Hon. A. A. Abbott acted as president, and delivered 
an eloquent address; and the school children sang a 
patriotic song, beside music by the band and a glee 
club. The Foster Guards and some of the fire com- 
panies were present, and the scene was one of the 
most characteristic of the earl^' days of the war. 

A considerable number of South Danvers volun- 
teers joined the Essex Cadets, and on July 22d the 
company marched from camp at Winter Island to 
Soutlr Danvers, where they were entertained by a 
collation in front of the old South Church, and a 
sword was presented to L'eutcnant F. W. Taggard. 
The company was mustered into the service the same 
day, and formed part of the Fourteenth Regiment, 
which went to the front Augu-t7. 

On the 31st of July the Mechanic Infantry and 
City Guards returned to Salem, and on the next d ly 
the Salem Zjuaves arrived. A public reception was 
given to the returning volunteers. The enthnsiasra 
was great, and ihe bells were rung incessantly for six 
hours at a stretch, while one hundred and fifty rounds 
were fired by the Light Artillery during the day. 

The drill club of young men, under Captain R. S. 
Daniels, Jr., began in September to organize for the 
purpose of forming a company (or active service, but 
this purpose was not carried out till the next year. 

A number of South Danvers men enlisted in the 
summer and fall of 1861 in the Ninth Regiment, and 
there was a good representation from the town in the 
Twentysecond, Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth 
Regiments, while there were South Danvers men in 
the First, Second, Eleventh, Twelfth, Eighteenth, 
Nineteenth and in some other organizatiojis, besides 
enlistments in the Navy. 

During the first six tnouths of the war, more than 
three hundred men enlisted from the town. 

At a town meeting held on Friday evening, October 
5, 1861, $5,000 was voted for therelief of those depen- 
dent upon the volunteers ; $1,000 was voted to be used 
in any emergencies where those authorized may 
think proper, and $2,500 for the support of the poor. 

The Wiziird, a weekly paper, edited by Fitch Poole, 
and containing many of his characteristic and humor- 
ous sketches, was full of information on war topics, 
and from time to time published many letters from 
soldiers. 

The work of the Soldiers' Aid Society continued to 
increase, and the various religious societies organized 
their forces in further assistance to the cause. The 
church sewing society were busied with krittingsocks 
for the soldiers, and iti one of their consignments of 
articles was a large number of mittens made by the 
school children. 



I'KABODY. 



1025 



The first recorded deuth of any citizen of the town 
in the war was that of Daniel JFnrray, who lost his 
life in the famous engagement with the Merriniac. 
He was an officer on board the "("uniberland," was 
wounded and went down with the ship on the "III of 
March, IStiJ. 

On the 1st of .Inly, 18i)2, President Lincoln issued 
his call for three hundred thousand men. Knthusi- 
astic war meetings were held in the Town Hall on 
July 11 and 25. At a special town meeting July 21, 
18G2, it was voted to give a bounty of §150 to each 
man who enlisted as part of the quota of the town. 
To provide funds for the payment of this bounty, it 
was decided to borrow $12,000, and a committee was 
appointed to obtain a loan on the notes of the town at 
six per cent. At the adjourned town meeting, July 
31, it was announced that Ebeii Sutton, a citizen of 
large means and patriotic spirit, was ready to lend the 
whole amount needed at five and a half per cent. 
A committee of five from each school district was 
chosen to co-operate with a committee chosen at a 
general meeting of citizens in obtaining recruit*. The 
three years' quota of seventy-five men was filled by 
the last of August. 

On the fourth of August the President i-ssucd a call 
for 300,000 men for nine months. War meetings 
were held in the town on Augu.st 24th and 29th. 
Captain Robert S. Daniels, Jr., announced his readi- 
ness to enlist as one of a nine months' South Dan- 
vers Company, and other prominent citizens came for- 
ward and offered their services amid the greatest en- 
thusiasm, including one gentleman far beyond the age 
at which he could be required to serve — ilr. James 
Perkins. 

At a special town meeting held August 25, 181)2, a 
bounty of .*IO0 was authorized to be paid to each 
volunteer who should enlist for nine months' service 
in the company then being recruited by Captain 
Daniels At the same meeting the following resolu- 
tions were piussed : 

" Wfdved that the Cilizvfis of SouDi Diinvr.-j d.-siro onco more to 
pledge their fltlelitjr to the sacred cause of .\iuericaii iiiiiuii, and their 
utinltemhle dcteniiitmtioti never to falter in their QfToits to maintain its 
integrity and perpetuate its bles«inK« ; tliat they will not measure their 
legal obliRationa nor panne to inquire whether ti.ey have done more or 
leM than their neiKhbors ; but that, like tlii-ir fathers in RcTolutinnary 
days, thfitj teiltdo all they am^ to the extent of the means with which God 
haa endowed them, in behalf of the cause of Constitulional government 
and the salvation of their beloved country. 

" Ue»r,lred, That South Danvers, expressing In her municipal capacity 
the feelings and wi.-dies of her individual citixens, hereby declares her 
hearty appreciation of the patriotism of her sons who have enlisted, and 
arc now enlisting, to sen-e in defence of the Union, and faithfully jiledgea 
her fostering rare in time of need of the families of her bravo soldiers, 
and her lively gratitude for the services and her blessings upon the lives 
of those who, in serving their country in the hour of danger, confer en- 
during honor ujton their native or adopteil town ; their names will illu- 
ndne her annals, and lf« handed down in nffectionale remembrance to 
future generations." 

Among the volunteers in Captain Daniels' company 

were two of the school teachers of the town, Mr. Win. 

I-. Thompson, of the Peal)o<ly High .'-School, and Mr. 

(ieo. V. FJanies, of the Bowditch School. In April, 

(i4J 



1803, there were said to be thirty-two members and 
two teachers of the High {School in the service. 

One hundred and one of Captain Daniels' company 
were from South Danvers, and the town took the 
deepest interest in the company, which included in its 
ranks many representative.s of the most esteemed 
families of the place, some of whom had ma<le great 
sacrifices to go, giving up honorable and lucrative 
positions or business connections. 

On the 10th of September, i8()2, the company went 
into camp at Wenhani, and it w;is escorted by a grand 
parade of the peo])le of the town, among which 
marched the surviving members of the old Danvers 
Light Infantry, organized in 1818, Roberts. Daniels, 
the father of the captain of the new volunteer com- 
pany, being captain of the old company. Fire com- 
panies in uniform were in the procession, and the pu- 
pils of the schools whose teachers had enlisted 
marched or rode in line. A carriage bore the 
three Dartmoor prisoners, and Abner Sanger, the 
venerable abolitionist, and Ralph Emerson rode with 
these veterans of 1812. The old Danvers Light In- 
fantry attracted great attention on the march to the 
depot in Salem. The new company was enrolled as 
Company C, of the new fifth regiment. 

The battle of Antietam was of great interest to the 
town's people, as two of their townsmen were killed 
and three wounded at that engagement. 

For some months, although the interest in the war 
was unabated, there was a remission of the.activity in 
enlistments and patriotic meetings. At the draft, on 
the 10th of July, 1S(">3, at Salem, 109 names of South 
Danvers men were drawn ; of these ()9 were exempted, 
21 furnished substitutes, 12 paid the fine of S300, and 
only 7 actually entered the .service. 

A great war meeting was held on October 28, 1863, 
to promote enlistments under the call for three hun- 
dred thousand men issued October 17. On Octo- 
ber 17 the South Danvers Union League w'as 
formed. Other war meetings were held on Decem- 
ber 1, December 3 and December 28, and on 
January 4, 18t)4, at which time fifty-four men had 
responded to the last call. On February 1, 18(J4, a 
new call for two hundred thousand men was issued, 
and renewed efforts were made to induce enlistments 
which resulted in filling the quota of the town. In 
spite of the large number of men already sent and 
the continlieil tlrain on the resources of the town, 
every call for men was met with a manly and deter- 
mined spirit; the call for five hundred thousand men 
July 18, 18t;4, was responded to by the enlistment of 
one hundred and thirty-eight men, a surplus of forty- 
nine, and for the whole war the town had a surplus 
over its quota. The following statement from a table 
compiled by Amos Merrill, Esq., from official sources, 
gives the statistics of enlistments. The method of 
eomi)Utation of i|Uotas anil surplus was by reducing 
all enlistments to the basis of three years, one man for 
three years counting as three men for one year. 



1026 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Statement showing the number of men furnished 
by the town of South Danvers from April 16,1861, 
to April 30, 1865. 

Previous to the draft of July 10, 1863, the following 
enlistments were made to the credit of South Dan- 
vers : 

Fifth Kegiinent (three months) 28 

Eighth Regiment (three months) 12 

First Iowa Regiment (three months) 1 

New York Fire Zouaves (three months) I 

Total 42 

Salem Cadets .it Fort Warron (six months) 13 

Seventh Regiment, Co. B (six mouths) 3 

TotAl 16 

Three Yeahs' Men. 

First Regiment Massachusetts Volunteerfl o 

Second Regiment Miissiichusett-s Volunteers 5 

Ninth Regiment MasHachuBetta Volunteers 29 

Eleventh Regiment Massachusetts VoUinteers 2 

Twelftli Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 3 

Fourteenth Regiment Massachusetts Voluuteore 55 

Seventeenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 88 

Nineteenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 48 

Twenty-second Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 9 

Twenty third Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 34 

Twenty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 21 

T\venty-eighth Regiment Ma&nachusetts Volunteers 2 

Thirtieth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers I 

Thirty-fifth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 2 

Thirty-eighth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 1 

Thirty-ninth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 45 

Fortieth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers 11 

Saunders' Sharpshooters 7 

"Wentworth's Sharpshooters... 7 

First Battalion 2 

Second Maine 2 

Fourth ftlaine 2 

Fourth Battery 7 

Fifth Buttery 1 

Tenth Battery 1 

Total 390 

Fifth Regiment Massachusetts Voluuteera (nine months) S8 

Product of draft of July 10, 1863 :— 

Served in person 7 

Furnished substitutes 21 

Paid commutation foo 12 

Total 40 

Ono hundred days' men furnished 38 

Quota of March 14, 1864, for seven hundred thous- 
and men, including? calls of October 17, 1863, and 
February 1, 1864, amounted to one hundred and fifty- 
two : 

Credit product of draft of July 10, 186 J 40 

Credit Naval Enlistments U 

Credit Re-enlistments of Veterans 3C 

Credit Now Enlistmentd Army 63 

Credit product of draft of May 10, 1864 3 

153 
Less Bun>Ui8 carried forward 1 

Total ^ 

Quota of July 18, 18G4, for five hundred thousand men 92 

Less error on former call at Sttitd House corrected 3 



Credit Anrpluson former call of March 14 1 

Credit substitutes furnished by enrolled men 7 

Credit Enlistments in July. Army 50 



Credit Enlistments in July, Navy 2 

Credit Eulistments in August, Army 21 

Credit Eiilistmeuts in August, Navy 3 

Credit Enlistments in September, Army '. '. 2 

Credit Enlistments in October, Army 3 

Credit Enlistments in November, Army 12 

Credit Enlistments in December, Army 4 

Apportioned at f Naval claims 3 

the State House, I Allowance for Navy at large 30 

Total 138 

Deduct Quota gg 

Surplus 49 

By reducing the above one hundred and thirty- 
eight men to three years of service for each man, and 
adding thereto the town's proportion on call of De- 
cember 19, 1864, for three hundred thousand men, 
the above surplus was extinguished, and a quota 
assigned of eight (8) men. 

Quota under call of Dec. 19, 18G4 8 

Credit Enlistments in January, 18G5 3 

Credit Enlistments in February, 1865 7 

Credit Enlistments in March, 1865. I 

Credit Enlistments in April, 1865 2 

Total 13 

Surplus April 30, 1865, in number of men 5 

Years of service of the thirteen men, viz., five for three years 

and eight for one year, [reduced to three years of Bervice]..?^^ 
ScMMARY Statement of Men Furnished. 
Under call of March 14, 1864, including product of draft of 

July 10, 1863, viz., forty men 152 

Under call of July 18, 1864, including thirty men, the town's 

proportion of navy at large apportioned at State Hoose 138 

Under call of December 19, 1864 13 

Total 303 

Three years' men furnished prior to draft of July 10, 1863. -390 



Number of one and three years' men furnished, including 
product of draft of 1863, and 30 men navy at large ap- 
portioned at the State House 

Nine months' men furnished 

Six " *' " 

Three " " " 

lOU days' " '* 



IE NITJBER OF MEN 
BOUNTY PAID UNDER EACH CALL. 



693 



Date of 
Call. 






Total 
am't of 

bounties 
paid. 

Total No. 

men fur- 
nished. 


11 


1 


27 


88 


a 


April 1(), 1801. 
May a, 1861. \ 
June 17, 18C1.; 
May 28, lsf,2. ) 
July H, 1862. f 
August 4. 1802. 
October 17, 18(3. ) 
February 1, 1804. V 
March 14, 1804. J 
July 18, 1804. 
December 19, 18G4. 


$10,950 
8,800 

1,165 
ll,!i-i-i 
1,625 


$19,130 
150 


$10,950 
8,800 

1,155 
30,:i55 
1,775 


42 
314 

73 

88 

109 
105 
13 


314 
73 

109 

77 


42 




J,13,755 


$19,280 


$53,035 


744 







The above table does not include the following : 

Pro>luct of draft of July 10, 1863 40 

Products of draft of May 13, 1864 S 

Naval apportionment under the call of July 18, 1864 33 

Six months' men 16 

100 days' men 38 

130 
1 Including amount paid by enrolled men not drafted, for substitutes. 



PKABODY. 



1027 



Adding this number to the total of the tahle, there 
is a disorepiincy of only three men between the table 
and the statement above <!;iven. The irregularities of 
enrolment during the earliest months of the war 
make it extremely difficult to arrive at entire exact- 
ness in these statistics. 

The following list contains the names of the citi- 
zens of the town who died in the war, as contained in 
the marble tablets at the entrance of the Town Hall, 
which were headed with the inscription : 

"In commemoration of the patriotic services of tlie 
citizens of this Town who died in defence of the 
Liberties of their Countrv in the Great Rebellion." 



AGF 

Cape. Samuel Brown ('!(l> 21 

Lieut. Charles B. Warner 27 

Orlando K. Alley 29 

Robert .\ndrew8 30 

William Andrews 24 

Samtwon W. Bowers VJ 

Leverelt S. Boyiilon 25 

John W. Boynton 21 

James H. Bryant 18 

Philip O. Buxton 20 

Thomas Buxton :)G 

James Byrne 30 

Lewis P. Clark 22 

John Coelello 22 

James Crowley 34 

Henry H. Demeritt 25 

John P. Dodge 31 

Thomas Campsey 20 

Jvremiah Donnovan IK 

John KitzRibbon 22 

Alfred Friend 32 

Frank Oardner 22 

John K. Gibljs 45 

Luke Gi [martin 26 

.\ustln A. Herrick 23 

Joseph S. lugalls 37 

Ebcn N. Johnson 24 

Hotuco Manning 43 

John Manning 26 

Joseph B. Maxfield 25 

Gregory T. Morrill 35 

Tyler Mudge 35 

David Mulcahy 23 

Jeremiah Murphy 2*5 

Andrew D. Murray 21 



Daniel Murray 3ii 

George W. NiuKm 18 

Therou P. Newhall 3.", 

Paul Osborn 25 

Oliver Parker 23 

George II. Pearto I'.l 

James Powers 25 

John Price .3d 31 

J()natlian Proctor 51 

Leonard Reed 42 

Richard H. Roonie 10 

Patrick Scamell 18 

Moses Shnckley 21 

.\lbert Shepard 'M 

William H. Shore 22 

Donald Sillers 44 

William Sillers 20 

Charles II. Sawyer 23 

Benjamin A. Stone 20 

John Smith 18 

JghnStott .30 

Hui-uco C. Straw 44 

Torrence Thomas 20 

Charles W. Trask 25 

George H. Tucker 32 

Peter Twiss 31 

Joshua Very , 33 

Caleb A. Welister 24 

Frederick Weeden 15 

William J. White 32 

George C. Whitney 20 

Samuel Wiley 22 

Charles M. Woodbury 22 

Charles C. Wocxlnian 29 

Henry Parker 20 

Alfred Hopkirk 24 



CHAPTER LXXV. 
PEAHODY— (Continued). 

Thf T.itcn of r.'nbndy. 

At the close of the war the population of the 
town had diminished from that of IStjO, and was 
six thousand and fifty. 

The valuation was $3,819,76fi. Manufacturing 
had been carried on in most of the branches in 
which the town is active ; the times of business ac- 
tivity succeeding the war, largely increitsed the vol- 
ume of manufactures. 



In 18()S, by an act of the Legislature, ])assed April 
13, the name of the town was changed from South 
Danvers to Peabody, in honor of (ieorge Peabody, 
who had given so largely to the town for library and 
educational objects. The change was not without 
some opposition, and was not at the expressed de.»ire 
of Mr. Peabody ; but tw'enty years of customary use 
have familiarized all with the change, and it cer- 
tainly serves to give prominence to the name of the 
town's benefactor, and at the same time to make the 
locality known to some who have known Mr. Pea- 
body as a benefactor of other cities and regions. 

The leather industry continued to be the largest 
department of manufacturing, and many of the tan- 
ners and curriers lost heavily, as a result of the great 
fire in the business district of Boston, November 10, 
1872. The blow was a severe one to some of the old- 
est and strongest firms, but most of the manufactur- 
ers rallied from its eflects, and continued to operate 
the tanyards and currying shops. A large amount of 
leather is produced yearly, including calfskins, kip 
and grain leather, harness leather and sole leather. 
The manufiicture of morocco and sheep skins is also 
of considerable importance. 

The following statistics from tlie census of 1880 
give the condition of the productive industries of the 
town at that time. There has probably been an in- 
crease in most of the manufactures since that time, 
and some wholly new manufactures, among which is 
a metallic thermometer-factory employing twenty- 
one workmen, have been established since that census 
was taken. 

No. of Persons Value 

estiiblish- em- Capital. of 

ments. plo.ved. product. 

Boots aud shoes 2 31 J9,000 832,000. 

Building 3 28 2.5,0(X) 106,0(0 

Carriages and wagons 2 20 27,O(J0 40,350 

Clothing 1 1 200 12,(«0 

Corks 1 22 15,000 18,309 

Food preparations 1 5 1,100 5,000 

Glue 2 70 12.1,000 99,2(0 

Grease and Tallow 1 5 4,000 14,750 

Leather 20 708 638,370 3,042,387 

Machines and niachinerj- 2 13 0,000 36,3ii0 

Metals and metallic gocxis 3 6 3,800 6,300 

Printing and publishing 2 10 6,500 12,.564 

Plinting, dyeing and l.b-achiug 1 190 200,000 800,000 

.Soap and candles 1 12 6,000 37,434 

Tobacco 2 8 2,700 6,7.50 

Totals .13 1,105 1,003,070 4,20S,3I4 

There were, in 18S0, three hundred and forty-three 
persons engaged in agricultural pursuits, and the val- 
ue of agricultural products wils one hundred and 
twenty-one thousand four hundred and fifty-seven 
dollars. 

The valuation of Peabody in 1887 was: — 

Personal estate S2,08.">,S.5O 

Real estate 4, .101, 050 

Total - 7,186,900 

Tlie town of Peabody has continued the process of 
development begun half a century ago, and has be- 



1028 



HISTORY O^ ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



come distinctively a manufacturing town. Large 
numbers of operatives, many of tliem of foreign birth, 
labor in the various factories, and the dwellings and 
buildings of the principal village extend constantly 
over a larger area. Many of the heads of families are 
occupied during the day in Boston, the facilities of 
railroad communication making the town a conven- 
ient place of residence for such as do not wish or can- 
not afford to live in the city. There have been many 
changes in social affairs, some of the families whose 
names are identified with the earlier history of the 
town having removed from it, while others have 
come in and brought elements of energy and business 
success. The general aspect of the town is suggestive 
of a thriving, active and successful business com- 
munity, with many evidences of cultivated taste and 
judgment in the dwellings on the principal streets, 
and manifestations of an enlightened ])ublic spirit 
seen in excellent streets, commodious and well kept 
public buildings and .school-houses, a thoroughly 
equipped fire department, and effective police regu- 
lations. 

The town hiis continued to take deep interest in 
educational matters, and has spared nothing to bring 
its schools to a high standard. Within the last 
twenty-five years, large sums of money have been ex- 
pended in building new school-houses, the Peabody 
High School has been furnished with largely in- 
creased facilities, now occupying the whole of the 
building formerly used in part as a town-house, and 
the number of schools and teachers has been increas- 
ed from time to time as the needs of the growing 
community have demanded. The town maintains a 
high reputation for the general efficiency of its school 



The spirit of temperance reform, so early welcomed 
by the old town of Danvers, has been faithfully 
cherished. With the large increase of operatives, the 
liquor sellers were enabled to extend their pernicious 
social and political inffuence ; but by the vigorous and 
unremitting efforts of the friends of temperance, pub- 
lic opinion has been kept upon an enlightened plane, 
and a steady resistance hiis been made to the inroads 
of intemperance. The various temperance organiza- 
tions and movements for temperance reform have re- 
ceived warm and effective support from the churches 
and from individuals. At one time the liquor sellers 
appeared to be gaining in strength, and a large num- 
ber of saloons some of them of large extent and no- 
torious in character, were maintained to the great 
injury of the town, and with the result of placing 
large political influence in the hands of the leading 
liquor-sellers, and making the liquor party an offen- 
sive element in town affairs, and a serious menace 
to the welfare of the community. To check this evil, 
a Law and Order League was organized in Peabody 
in 1884, which received the sup|)ort of the best citi- 
zens of all shades of opinion on temperance matters, 
and after a vigorous campaign the new organization 



succeeded by the use of conservative methods, which 
received the approval of the community, in effectu- 
ally checking the violation of the law. 

Among the temperance organizations in the town 
are the Father Matthew Catholic Total Abstinence 
Society, instituted March 3, 1881 ; the St. John's 
Catholic Total Abstinence Society, instituted March 
3, 1882; the Women's Christian Temperance Union, 
formed December 10, 1875, and the Young Women's 
Christian Temperance Union, formed April 19, 188ii. 

There have been two extensive strikes among the 
men employed in the manufacture of leather in the 
town ; one in 1863, and another, lasting several 
months, in 1886. The relations between labor and 
capital seem to be well established at the present 
time. 

In 1881 a soldiers' monument costing eight thous- 
and dollars, was erected in the square. It is a sub- 
stantial design of white granite, containing tablets 
inscribed with the names of the citizens of the town 
who died in the war, above which a circular shaft 
supports a figure of heroic size. 

Shortly before the town of South Danvers was incorpo- 
rated, a Town House was built on Stevens Street, the 
upper story being used for High School rooms. The 
hall became entirely inadequate for the purposes for 
which it was designed, and the town offices were 
greatly cramped for room. In 1882 a new Town 
House was begun on laud purchased for the purpose 
on the corner of Lowell and Chestnut Streets. It 
was finished in 1883, at a cost of one hundred and 
eight thousand dollars. It is a substantial building 
of brick and granite, with convenient and ample of- 
fices for the town officials ; the lower hall, for or- 
dinary municipal gatherings, accommodatea five hun- 
dred and twenty, and the large hall, one of the finest 
auditoriums in the county, seats fifteen hundred per- 
sons. A police station and justice's court-room are 
located in the basement. 

Hepresentatites and Towx Officers. — By 
the act of incorporation of South Danvers, the new 
town was to remain a part of Danvers for the purpose 
of electing State officers, Senators and Representa- 
tives to General Court, Representatives to Congress 
and Electors of President and Vice-President of the 
United States, until the next decennial census should 
be taken, or until another apportionment of Repre- 
sentatives to the General Court should be made. A 
new apportionment was made in 1857, and in that 
year the first election for State and Federal officers 
was held in South Danvers. 

The following is a list of the Representatives to 
the General Court from South Dan vers and Peabody : 



Kichard Smith 1857 

Eben S. Poor. 1858 

John V. SteveuB 1859-60 

D Webster King 18C1 

■William H. Little 1862-e3 

Caleb Warren O«born 186i-05 

Capt. John W. Stevens 1866-67 



Robert 8. Daniels 1868-70 

Charles T.Hanson 1871-72 

Stephen F. Blaney 1873-74 

James E. T. Bartlett 1875-77 

Henrj- Wardwell U78 

Edward Trask 1879 

Henrv Wardwell 1880 



PEABODY. 



1029 



John Pinil.r. 
A.iron F. Clii 



Williiim H. Brown 1f84 

Otiib T. Ritdivhlrr 18(i5-8(i 



The followinj; :ire lists of some of the principiil 
town officers of South l):iiivers iind Peabody since the 
incorporation of the town, those niarl<c(l with an as- 
terisk (*) still holding office : 



I Allc 



SELKCrrMEK. 

,.ur.5-r.o I (!co. v 



Nalliiin H. I'lwr* 185'-62, '71 

UaniBl Taj lor 1S55-5S 

KcniluU Osborn 1857, "SU 

wiiiiiim Wokott isse-r.i 

Milps O. .Stimlpy 18(10-02 

John C. Burbeck 18112, 't'-fiS 

Josi-pb Poor 18(13-70 

Alphcns W. Bancroft l«6.i-(14 

Dnna WuoiUmr)- ISOH-f.r. 

Geo. F. Sanger 186.i, '73-75 

Amos Merrill 18(10, •(10-7.''> 

Jns B. FiMtiT l».7-72 

Levi Preston ls7i;-sS 



Samo as seleelmcn Ihrough. ..IS'.'i 

Willard Spauliiing* 18«0 

Lyman o-liorn* 1886 

-Nathan H. Poor 1SS6 

Thos. J. lielihan 1880 



Charles F.(;oo.lrich. 



Ljr 
Otis l)n 



I Oshorn.. 



, ISKi 

S. Auk. .'Jontliwiik US1-8(1 

John E. Ilerriik 18R1-SC 

Wyman B Itii hxnlson 1881 

Thoinua J. Helihiin 18S'i-8fi 

Willnrd Ppaul.linK 1880 

Charles H. Gonliling* 1SS7 

Alhcrt A. Mcsser* 1887 

Philip n. Coleman* 1.W7 

Warren A. Galencia* 1887 



SORS. 

John C. Herrick 188 

Thos. U. .taeknmn* 1887 

Alonzo liaddin* 1887 

Nicholas M. Quint* 1887 



TOWN CLERK. 
Nathan H. Poor* 1855 

TREASl'UEU.S. 

Francis Baker 1855-70 | Nathan II. Poor* 1871 

COLLECTORS. 

Wni. Wolcott 185.1-77 '. Levi Preston 1878-80 

I.jnian Oshorn* 18S6 | 



OVERSEERS OF THE I'OOR. 
I85.'i-C4. 'fiO-OS Alpheiia W. Bancroft 



18(16-8(1 

Amos Osborn, 2d 1803-74 

.lohn S. Walcott 1875 

Caleb F. Winchester 1870 

Samuel Swett 1877-78 

Goo. F. Sanger* 1870 

James Fallon* 1881 



Wingale Jlerrill, 

Henry A. Hardy 18.'W,-.'i8 

James P. King* 18.S5 

Wm. Sutton 18.59 

Moses A. Shackley 1800 

Stephen Blaney I8Gl-fi2, '06 

Mnyhcw S. Clark 1803, '65 

Alerson Galencia 1804 

Societies and Oroanization.s. — There arc many 
organizations now existing for social improvement, 
and for mutual care and protection of members. 

The Ifolten I.ndye of Odd Fdlou-s, originally insti- 
tuted in .January, 1841), wa» reinstituled February 22, 
1878, and is now a floiirisliing and important lodge. 

The Exchange News Room, in.stitutcd in 185.'), 
and the Ensex Club, instituted in 181)0, are social 
clubs. 

Among the societies for mutual insurance and be- 
nefit, are the American I.cijion of Honor, Fitch Poole 
Commandery, founded 1881 ; the Peabody Mutual 
Benefit Association, founded 1880; the Improved Or- 
der of Red Men, Masonomos Tribe Xo. 11, founded 
1886 ; the Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters, 
Emerald Court No. 53, founded 1883; the Krjuitablc 
Aid Union, founded 1870; the Ancient Order of 
United Worimen, George Peabody Lodge, Xo. 18, or- 
ganized 1879. 



The I'enltndy Womnn'.< Siifh-ti'/e Club was organ- 
ized in 187!>. 

Tlic Amrrirnn /fil/er/iinn H' ii't-o/eiif Axsocintion was 
organized in 1858, and reorganized in 1S7I. 

The West /'cabodi/ Fa> mrr's Club wn-^ instituted in 
IS.Sl. 

Among the literary and drmiialic associations are 
the lirooksbii Cliili, conncctc(l with tbcHoulh society, 
the I'enbodii Dmmolir ( l„b, and the Cushin,/ Debut- 
inij Socii III. 

Ne\vsp.\|'i:|{s.— In lN."ili The Wi^.n-d. a weekly 
newspaper edited liy Fitch I'oide, wa-^ establislied. Mr. 
Poole coiitiimcd to l)e editor only for a fov years. In 
18()9 the name was chaiiL'cd to "The I'ealiody Press." 
It was at first a folio sheet, lint since 1S77 has been 
an eight page paper. 

The Pcdhodij Ripnrin; originally piibli bed in 
lS7(i, and then wholly piintcd out of tdWii, was iniiit- 
ed ])artly in town about I.S7',I. under the management 
of Mr. Thomas Mcliralh. Under its ]iresent man- 
agement, the pajicr is wholly printed in town, and 
contains generally two pages of original matter. 

The rivalry between these two princilial papers is 
probably for the benefit of the community, as each is 
incited to continually renewed enterprise and plans of 
improvement. 

Fire Department. — The first fire-engine in South 
Danvcrs was one of two purchased by the town of 
Danvers about 1800. It was kept at Eagle Corner, by 
the Bell Tavern. In 1822 the " Niagara" was bought, 
and it was ke])t in an engine-house on Main Street, 
where Sutton's Block is now located. In 1830 a Fire 
Department was organized in the town by legislative 
act, and the '• Torrent " was lioughl. It was at first 
kept near the square, on Central Street; afterward at 
Wilson's corner. The " Torrent '' was the first suction 
engine in town. In IS.'ili the " Eagle " was purchased, 
and it was kept at the same place as the "Niagara." 
In 1844, the year after the great fire, the "General 
Foster" was purchased; it was kept at first near the 
location of the present steam fire-engine house on 
Lowi II Street, and afterward on Washington Street. 
Shortly afterward the " Volnnteer " was bought, 
and kept at first on the corner of Main and Grove 
Streets, and aftenvard on Pierjiont Street. The 
"Volnnteer" was originally the private property of 
General William Sutton, and was manned by a private 
company. 

At the separation of South Danvers in 18.")5, the 
lire engines which the new town owned were the 
Niagara, \o. 1 ; the General Foster, No. 2; the Tor- 
rent, Xo. 3; the Volunteer, Xo. 4; and the Eagle, 
Xo. 5. These were all hand engines, and with the 
hose carriages belonging with them, a sail carriage, 
and with five hydrants connected with the Salem and 
Danvers Aqueduct, and a number of reservoirs and 
l)nmp3, constituted the resources of the town in case 
of fire. The "Xiagara" w;is placed in the western 
part of the town. 



1030 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In 1865 the first steam 6re engine was bought; it 
was a Button engine, and cost three thousand five 
hundred dollars. 

Ill IS74 another steamer was bought, and both 
were placed in a new engine-house, near the Square 
on Lowell Street, built the same year. It was a But- 
ton engine. 

In 1876 a new hand engine, the S. C. Bancroft, was 
bought tor South Peabody ; it w.is also a Button ma- 
chine. 

In 1882 the orsiiiiizatioii of the fire department 
was changed; the iiureased head given to the water 
by the building of the stand-pipe made it possible 
to use* the hydrants in many cases without an 
engine, and the old hand engine companies were 
organized as hose com[>anies, occupying the same 
locations as the former companies. In 1887 a new 
steamer wsis bought from the La France Fire Engine 
Company. 

The chief engineers have been as follows : — 

Stephen Osborne, .Ir Irf-'iJi 

.lohli V. Stevens 1856-57,.'i9 

Joniithan K. Osborne 1858 

Wm. H. Little 1860-67 

Geo. C. Pierce 1868-70 

D. S. Littlefield 1871-85 

1 Wni. J. Roome 1885 

John 11. Tiblielts 1885 

SHmuel Buxton 1886 

Diinicl B. Lord 1887 

Burial Grounds. — The oldest burial ground in 
the South parish was Gardner's Hill, which was situ- 
ated a little west of Grove Street. The remains of 
about one hundred and fifty persons were removed 
from thence to Harmony Grove, when the latter was 
established. Among the .stones removed at that time 
is the oldest grave stone in Danvers. It bears the 
inscription : 

1669. 
R. B. 

It is prob.ably the grave stone of Robert Buffuni. 

The old burying ground, or Old South burying 
ground, is on Poole's- Hill, next to the Salem boun- 
dary. It was originally given by Lydia Trask, to the 
South Parish. The oldest stone, that of Thomas 
Pierpont, M.A., bears date of 1755. It contains a 
very large number of graves, including those of 
Rev. Nathan Holt, buried in 1792, and Rev. Samuel 
Walker, in 1826. Dennison Wallis is also buried 
here; and for many years the sentimental pilgrim 
visited the place to view the last resting-place of 
Eliza Wharton, the heroine of the famous old time 
novel, " The Coquette." 

The Friend>' burial ground, nearly opposite the 
old burying ground, was in Salem until the change 
of boundary. It took the place of a half acre of 
land on the "mill plain," acquired in 1713, and was 
obtained some years later. 

Monumental Cemetery, on Wallis Street, was laid 

1 Removed from town during the year. 



out in 1833. It is divided into one hundred and 
twenty-two lots, thirty-two feet by sixteen, with regu- 
lar avenues, and is owned by proprietors. The old- 
est stone, removed from another place, bears the date 
of 1805. The grave of Schoolmaster Benjamin Gile, 
above which is inscribed " I taught little children 
to read," is one of the most noteworthy of the early 
interments. The cemetery is well kept, and contains 
many fine stones and monuments. 

Harmony Grove Cemetery, though now in Salem, 
is largely owned in Peabody. It was purchased in 
1839, for about six thousand dollars, and then con- 
tained thirty-five acres. It has since been consider- 
ably enlarged. The proprietors were incorporated 
in 1840. Its extensive grounds are finely kept, and it 
contains a great variety of monumental stones, some 
of them exceedingly artistic and impressive. 

Emerson Cemetery, in South Peabody, on the 
corner of Washington Street and Allen's Lane, has 
been in use about fifty years. 

Cedar Grove Cemetery, in South Peabody, contains 
one hundred and thirty-three acres. It was pur- 
chased by the town in March, 1869, when five thou- 
sand dollars was appropriated for the purpose. It is 
held for the town by seven trustees, chosen for five 
years. Lots are sold to individuals, and the grounds 
have been greatly improved, and the location is fine. 
It is reached by a road from Lynn Street. 

Oak Grove Cemetery, in West Peabody, near the 
school-house, contains about ten acres. It was 
bought in 1886, by the town, and is held by a board 
of trustees similarly constituted to that of Cedar 
Grove Cemetery. 

There are many private burial grounds in the 
town, some of them of a very early date. The King 
family have a cemetery of this kind on Lowell 
Street, which contains a number of finely built 
tombs. 

religious societies. 

South Parish (Second Congregational 
Church). — The early history of the "Middle Pre- 
cinct" has been embodied in another part of this 
historical sketch. 

The Rev. Benjamin Prescott, a graduate of Harvard 
College in the class of 1709, was settled as the first min- 
ister of the parish in February, 1712, at a salary of £80 
"in Province bills or in silver money as it passes from 
man to man So long as he continues to be our minis- 
ter." Afterward it was agreed to give him one-half 
of the money contributed by strangers. In consider- 
ation of repeated deaths and extraordinary changes 
in Mr. Prescott's family, hi-s salary was increased 
£20 in 1723. Besides his regular salary and the 
"strangers money " he was allowed all the proceeds 
of voluntary quarterly contributions. 

About 1727, there began to be difficulty between 
Mr. Prescott and the parish on account of his salary. 
The growing depreciation of the paper currency of 



I'KAKODY. 



I(i31 



the province made the sum given him less and less 
adequate to his needs. From time to time an in- 
crease of sahiry was voted him, but the increase was 
hardly surticient to keep pace witli the deterioration 
of the paper money, and, moreover, even the pay- 
ments voted him seem to have been always in arrears. 
In 17;}') his salary was increased to £150, and in 1738 
it became £200, old tenor. In 1741 it was voted to 
cart for Mr. Prescott twenty-five cords of firewood 
for his year's use from Hart's farm or nearer, " Mr. 
Prescott finding the wood ready cut." It would 
seem that the carting was the larger ])art of the ex- 
pense of firewood in those days, for this act of the 
jiarish, continued for several years, is spoken of as 
" finding Mr. Prescott's firewood." 

In 1742 he wjis voted £24fl, old tenor, and in 1743 
£270 ; those sums did not represent more than the 
original salary granted him. 

The long controversy with Mr. Prescott, extending 
over more than twenty-five years, is interesting 
chiefly as showing the different and more lasting 
nature of the tie that bound together pastor and peo- 
ple in tho.se days. It seems to be a.ssunied through- 
out all this unfortunate affair that the relation was 
one which was made for life, and which was so far 
mutual that it could not be broken except by consent 
of both parties. 

In 1747 the parish upon the question whether they 
would dismiss Mr. Prescott if he would not give the 
parish a discharge, voted no. In 1748 they increased 
his salary to £500 old tenor, and in 1749 to £040 old 
tenor. 

In September, 1749, Mr. Prescott addressed a letter 
to his parish, in w;hich he sets forth the loss that he 
has suffered by his payments falling short in value of 
the original grant to him, and offers to accept two- 
thirds of the actual amount found due to him since 
1727 in full satisfaction. If this ofler should be ac- 
cepted, be goes on to say '" it shall be in your Power 
(when you please) to call or settle another minister of 
sound knowledge and a good Life among you, and the 
Day his Salary shall begin, mine shall cease, and 
upon your Discharging me of my Obligation to Min- 
ister to you in holy things, I will discharge you of all 
Obligations thenceforward to Minister any thing to 
mc for my support." This language clearly shows 
what his view of the pastoral relation was. This offer 
was declined, and three men were deputed to treat 
with Mr. Prescott I but negotiations failed, and in 
1750 he brought a law-suit against the parish for his 
arrears. The parish met and ap[>ropriatcd £20 to de- 
fend the suit. This suit apjiears to have been dropped, 
and a new one was begun in December, 1751, which 
came to trial in September, 1752, and resulted in a 
judgment for Mr. Prescott in the sum of £594 19«. 9(/. 
At a meeting in December an effort was made to in- 
duce Mr. Prescott to settle for a less sum, without 
success; and it was voted to pay Mr. Presc<itt no 
salary and to dismiss him. Up to this time the 



parish had regularly voted a salary to the pastor 
every year. In .lanuary, 1752-53, they voted him his 
.salary for the jja.st year, and in accordance with the 
order of court they proceeded to tax the parish for 
the large amount of the judginent against it. But it 
was not easy to make up the amount; Mr. Prescott 
still insisted on jierforming the duties of the minis- 
try, and in 1754 they tried to settle with him for £100, 
which he refused. 

In December, 1752, Mr. Prescott made an offer on 
condition of a satisfactory settlement for the years 
1749-51, to leave the pulpit for three months, and if in 
that time a minister was settled, he would relinquish 
Iiis pastorate. " Tho," as he says, "(Juitting my min- 
istry over you is not (•o light a matter in my under- 
standing as [lerhaps it may be in .some of yours." 
This offer was renewed in March, 1754, and accepted. 

In July, 1754, a call was given to Rev. Aaron Put- 
nam to settle over the i)arish, but he declined, 
probably on account of the difficulties prevailing. In 
September another attempt was made — this time by 
the parish — to arbitrate the matter, but without suc- 
cess. Mr. Prescott still continued as minister, until 
in September, 175(), an ecclesiastical council consid- 
ered the whole matter, and decided that the parish 
ought to pay Mr. Prescott £405, besides, as Hanson 
says, the costs of the council, amounting to £118, 14s. 
The parish voted to accept the advice of the council, 
provided Mr. Prescott would immediately ask a dis- 
mission from his pastoral office of the church and the 
council, and give a full discharge. Hut the money 
was not forthcoming, and it was not till November, 
1750, that Mr. Prescott, on receiving a bond for the 
balance due him, signed l)y six of the responsible men 
of the ])arisli, finally discharged the parish and ceased 
to be its pastor. Agreeably to the advice of the 
council, he was excused from all parish dues for life. 

So ended this unhappy controversy, which greatly 
hindered the ('hristian work of the parish for a long 
time, and gave rise to much bitterness of feeling. 

Mr. Prescott, who was born September 10, 1087, 
married, as his first wife, in 1715, Klizabelh, daughter 
of John Higginsoii. His second wife, married in 
1732, was Mercy (iibbs, and his iliinl wife, marrieil in 
1748, was Mary, si-ter of Sir William Pcpperell, who 
built a house for Mr. Prescott. He live<l on the 
road to the village (now Central Street), near Kim 
Street. He was a man of ability, and failhl'ul and 
conscientious in the performance of his pastoral du- 
ties. Among other i)amplilets, he published a "Let- 
ter to the First t^hurch in Salein in 17.35. anil "Right 
Hand of Fellowship," delivered at the ordination of 
Rev. J. Sparhawk, in 1730. In l^OS, at the age of 
eighty-one, he i)ublished " A free and calm consider- 
ation of the unhappy niisunderst.iMding and debates 
between Great Rrilaiu and the .\nurican colonies." 
He died May 28, 1777. 

The Rev. Josiah Stearns was called as pastor in the 
fall of 1757, by the church on Se|itember 27th, and 



1032 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the society on October 18th. He was offered £80 in 
lawful money, a i)arsonage with land and barn. He 
de.sired more, and finally declined. 

On August 4, 17o8, the church called the Rev. Na- 
than Holt as pastor, which was concurred iu by the 
parish, on the 13th. He was offered a salary of £80 
and a settlement of £150, payable £50 a year for the 
first three years ; also a house and garden. He was 
ordained January 3, 1759. 

There is no record of any difficulty with Mr. Holt, 
who was greatly beloved, and was prominent for his 
patriotism during the Revolution. 

In June, 1763, it was voted " that there be two seats 
on the easterly side of y' broad ally in the meeting- 
house be sett apart for a Number of persons to sett in 
for the better accommodating singing in y' Meeting- 
house, and that the same be under the regulation ol 
the Parish Committee from time to time as there 
shall be ocea.sion for carrying on that part of divine 
service." In October, 1705, the singers were given a 
place in the front gallery. In May, 1784, the front 
seat in the women's gallery, on the eastern end of the 
house, was given to the singers. 

In 1764 some difference arose between the North 
and South Parishes in reference to the inhabitants of 
New Mills, who wished to be set off to the North Par- 
ish. The Legislature decided that the boundary of the 
Village Parish established in 1700 must be adhered 
to. This left the New Mills in the South Parish. 
Some of the inhabitants of New Mills petitioned the 
South Parish to be set off, but their petition was re- 
fused, " because we think y' y" North Parish is as 
able, if not abler, to maintain their minister without 
said i)etitioner's assistance, as we are in y"' South Par- 
ish with s'' Petitioners' assistance. Because we have a 
considerable Number of the People called Quakers, 
some Churchmen and some Uaptists, &c." 

In 1764 certain members of the parish were author- 
ized to increase the size of the house lengthwise, in 
order to make more room for floor pews. In April, 
1771, John Procter, Jr., Robt. Shillaber and others 
were authorized to widen the bouse fifteen feet, by 
moving out the back side, " the wall pews to be wall 
pews still." The persons who made the addition 
were to have the additional floor space for pew*. The 
increased width added three seats on each side to the 
galleries. 

The bell was originally hung in a "turret" or cupola, 
probably like that of the Village meeting-house, on 
the middle of the building. In 1763 some effort was 
made to have a steeple built; and in 1774 a steeple, 
or rather tower, was built on the western end of the 
house; it was a tall square tower with a belfry roof. 
The house as finally enlarged had three rows of 
windows; it was placed with the length running 
nearly east and west, on the ground in front of the 
present location of the South Church in Peabody ; 
there were two doors on the southern side, near 
together. The general arrangement of the interior 



was preserved in a similar manner to that of the origi- 
nal house. 

The parish wiis very zealous in sustaining the 
Revolutionary War, constantly furnishing men and 
money. In 1777 a bounty of £20 per man was ]iaid 
to those serving in the quota of the parish, and £1200 
was raised. In 1778 about £400 was raised, and in 
1779 £8000. These last sums were probably in paper 
currency. 

In 1780, a suit of clothes, consisting of "coat, 
jacket, breeches and hat" was given to Mr. Holt U> 
make up the deficiency of his support. 

In 1790 three pews were added to the house, and a 
part of the meeting-house land was let to the " Pro- 
prietors of the duck manufacture." The Artillery 
Company had leave in September, 1791, to erect a 
gun-house on land belonging to the parish. 

Mr. Holt died August 2, 1792, and the parish voted 
to coutinue his salary to the end of the year for the 
benefit of his family, besides assuming the expenses of 
his sickness and funeral. 

In March, 1793, the house w-as thoroughly repaired. 
September 28, 1793, the old parish was dissolved, and 
the society was incorporated by the Legislature as 
"The Proprietors of the South Meeting-House in 
Danvers." 

Rev. Samuel Mead was settled as pastor October 31, 
1794, and continued till 1803. In August, 1805, Rev. 
Samuel Walker was settled as minister. He labored 
in his pastorate for twenty-one years, and died July 
7, 1826, after a painful illness of three months. He 
was interested in all the affairs of the town, and was 
prominent in temperance and other reforms. His 
public spirit and his eminent piety made him highly 
respected and beloved. His uncompromising adher- 
ence to the severe doctrines of the theological faith in 
which he had been educated made his preaching un- 
welcome to some, and it was during the last years of 
his pastorate that the movement to establish other re- 
ligious societies began. 

In 1813 the society was much vexed by some per- 
son who " sacriligiously and repeatedly robbed this 
house of God of the tongue of its bell," and a reward 
of twenty dollars was offered for his ai)prehension. 
In 1814 a new bell was purchased and erected at an 
expense of six hundred and seventy-five dollars. In 
1819 the land in the rear of the meeting-house was 
leased to the proprietors of a chapel, and certain per- 
sons were authorized to erect sheds around the house. 
The hou.se was rej)aired in 1824, at an expense of four 
hundred dollars. 

On September 12, 1827, Rev. George Cowles was 
settled as pastor. It was voted to exclude all wines 
and spirituous liquors from the couucils and ordina- 
tion services. Mr. Cowles was dismissed in Septem- 
ber, 1836, at his own request, and travelling south in 
pursuit of health was lost in the wreck of the 
" Home." 

It is recorded iu a memorandum iu the records of 



I'KAUODY. 



1033 



the society "that wh'le ringing the Bell on the — 
of April, 1829, at noon, said Rtll did crack, to that 
extent, as to destroy lis usual Pleasant and Har- 
monious sound, and was thoroliy rendered useless." 
It was soon afterward replaced. 

In September, 1S30, the school-house, No. 11, on 
the society's hind just weat of the meeting-house, 
was ordered to be removed, and after some contro- 
versy and the threat of legal proceedings the house 
was removed to a piece of land in another place 
offered by the society for ii trifling consideration. 

In 183-5 it w:is voted to build a new church, and 
measures were taken to efl'cct that object. The Uni- 
tarian Society offered the South Society the use of its 
house during the time it wius without one, but the 
offer was not accepted, and servicer were carried on 
in a hall while the new house was in process of con- 
struction. 

In 1831), the old edifice, the greater part of which 
had been standing one hundred and twenty-five 
years, wiis taken down. The last service held in t!ic 
old meeting-house was very crowded ; the galleries 
had been shored up, and during the services a thin 
piece of wood used as a wedge cracked with a loud 
noise. A panic at once followed, pcrsous jumping 
from the windows, and some being injured in the con- 
fusion. 

Rev. Harrison G. Park was invited in December, 
1836, to succeed Mr. Cowles. The new church, which 
cost twelve thousand dollars, was dedicated February 
1, 1837, and on that day Mr. Park was installed. In 
October, 1S3S, he resigned the pastorate. 

In June, 1840, Uev. Thomas P. Field was unani- 
mously invited to take the pastoral charge, and he 
was ordained October 1, 1840. In 1843 the church 
was sold to the Methodist Society for two thousand 
five hundred dollars, and a new church was begun. 
It was only partly finished when it was consumed in 
the destructive fire of September 22, 1843. The loss 
was about .seven thousand dollars, and there was an 
insurance of five tliousand dollars, efl'ected only the 
day before the fire. It was determined to go on at 
once with a new house, and the jiresent edifice was 
finished and dedicated August 10, 1844, at a cost of 
one thousand three hundred dollars. 

Mr. Field resigned his pastorate in September, 
1850, and terminated his connection with the society 
November 1, 18'iO. 

In 18.")0 Mary Osborn gave one hundred dollars to 
the ministers' fund. 

In January, 1851, Rev. J. D. Butler was invited to 
become the pastor of the society, under a contract 
which permitted either party to terminate the con- 
nection on a prescribed notice. In April, 1852, the 
society gave notice to Mr. Butler that they wished to 
terminate the connection, which was accordingly 
done July 12, 1852. 

In 1853 the society took into consideration the 
matter of the "minister's fund," arising from the sale 
65 



of |)ar.sonage lands, and it was decided that (he fund, 
then amiiuriling to 5-2200, should be kejit »e])arate. 
This was invested in a parsonage in ISGO, which was 
sold in 1S77, ancl the proceeds invested in securities. 
In November, 1887, Mrs. Florence (Peabody) Hol- 
niiui gave to the society a valuable lot of land on 
Chestnut Street, on which it is proposed to build a 
parsonage with the minister's fund. 

In 1854 it was voted to buy a new bell, and a clock 
was given to the society by Francis Dane, Henry 
Poor and Elijah W. Upton, and jilaced upon the 
tower of the church. 

In May, 1854, Rev. James <). Murray was called as 
pastor, and he was ordained October 26, 1854. He 
tendered his resignation in February, 18G1, which was 
accepted, and he terminated his pastorate in March 
following. 

In July, ISCl, Rev. William M. Barbour was called 
to the pastorate, and he was ordained October 3, 1861. 
.V new bell was bought iu 1.S62, which is the one at 
present in use. 

Mr. Barbour resigned his pastorate in September, 
1868. In December, 1868, the Rev. George N. An- 
thony was invited to become pastor, and he accepted 
the following month. He was installed March 11, 
1861). 

He resigned his position in September, 1876. In 
the spring of 1877 the debt of the society, amounting 
to about $7000, was raised by voluntary contributions, 
and the society has ever since been free from debt. 

In December, 1877, Rev. Willard G. Sperry was 
called to the pastorate. The call was accepted, but 
he was not ordained till July 2, 1878, beginning his 
labors in September following. 

In 1880 extensive changes were made in the in- 
terior of the church. The organ was removed to a 
space added behind the jireacher's desk ; the white 
marble pulpit, which had been in the church since it 
was built, was removed, and a simple reading-desk, 
with a larger platform, took its place. On the floor 
below additional rooms were made for the conve- 
nience of the pastor and the Sunday-school library. 

In 1885 Mr. Sperry received a call to Manchester, 
N. IL, and although the church and .society formally 
requested him to remain, he resigned in September. 

In February, 1886, Rev. George A. Hall was called 
to the pastorate. He accepted, and was ordained 
April 13, 1X86. 

The society is vigorous and the congregation large ; 
and, after a century and three-fourths of existence, it 
still remains an important factor in the religious and 
social life of the community. 

FIR.ST U.VIT.VRIAN CnuiiCH.— This church was 
organized January 1, 1825, " for the purpose of having 
a place in the South ]>art of Danvers where an oppor- 
tunity could be had of hearing sentiments more lib- 
eral and congenial with the true spirit of Christianity 
than is now afforded." At the beginning it had 
thirty-three members. The first church edifice was 



1034 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



dedicated July 26, 182ti. The dedicatory sermon was 
by Rev. Mr. Brazer, of Salem, from the text, " Finally, 
be ye all of one mind." Others who took part in the 
services were Rev. Mr. Upham and Rev. Mr. Colman, 
of Salem, Rev. Dr. Abbott, of Beverly, and Rev. Mr. 
Rartlett, of Marblehead. 

The jnilpit was supplied for some months by Mr. 
Alonzo Hill, after which Rev. Charles C. Sewall, of 
Dedham, was called to be pastor on a salary of seven 
hundred dollars a year, and a present on his settlement 
of two hundred dollars. In April, 1827, a church 
was formed of seventy-one members, and on April 
11th Mr. Sewall was in.stalled. The sermon was by 
Rev. Mr. Lanison, of Dedham, and a large party of 
delegates was present, including twenty-one clergy- 
men. Two original hymns were sung, one written by 
Dr. Andrew Nichols, a member of the society, and 
the other by Dr. John Pierpont, of Boston. 

In 1829 a bell was placed on the church. In 1830 
a movement toward obtaining a parsonage was be- 
gun. The first organ was a gift from Eben and Wil- 
liam Sutton. 

In May, 1831, a singing-school was established for 
the benefit of the young ])eople of the society, and 
an appropriation of sixty dollars was made therefor. 
During this year Mr. Sewall's salary was raised to one 
thousand dollars a year. 

In 1836 the current expenses of the society were 
raised by voluntary contributions, but the next year 
the society returned to its former method of raising 
money by taxation of the pews. 

Mr. Sewall resigned his pastorate in 1841, leaving 
July 11th. He was greatly beloved by his people 
and at his departure he was presented with a testi- 
monial of five bundled dollars. 

Rev. Andrew Bigelow was installed as pastor Feb- 
ruary 15, 1843. The sermon was by Rev. Dr. Lothrop, 
of Boston. His salary was to be one thousand dol- 
lars, — eight hundred from the treasury and two hun- 
dred from voluntary subscriptions. Mr. Bigelow, 
against the expressed regrets of his society, resigned 
his pastoral charge March 20, 1845. 

Rev. Frank P. Appleton was installed as the next 
pa.stor January 14, 1846. The sermon was by Rev. 
Nathaniel Hall, Jr., and several other clergymen 
took i)art in the services ; but the installation was not 
indorsed at the time by the Ecclesiastical Council (of 
which the late Rev. Dr. Gannett, of Boston, was a 
])rominent member), on account of certain informali- 
ties in the preliminary proceedings. Mr. Appleton's 
pastorate closed in 1853. 

October 4, 1854, Mr. C. II. Wheeler was installed as 
pastor, Dr. Ephraim Peabody preaching the sermon. 
In June, 1862, Mr. Wheeler's pastorate expired, but 
he continued to supply the pulpit for a while after- 
ward. 

Rev. David H. Montgomery was the next occupant 
of the pulpit, but he resigned on account of ill he.tlth 
April 20, 1867. 



On May 13, 1868, Rev. E. I. Galvin became pastor 
of the church, the sermon of the occasion being 
preached bj' Rev. James Freeman Clarke, of Boston. 
Mr. Galvin tendered his resignation June 7, 1871, to 
take effect three months later. 

In 1872 some twelve thousand dollars was expended 
on the church edifice, great improvements being 
made without and within. A new organ was also 
purchased and placed in the rear of the pulpit. At 
the reopening the sermon was delivered by Rev. E. E. 
Hale, of Boston. 

The church was without a pastor until 1873, when 
Rev. John W. Hudson, the present pastor, was called 
September 26th. He was formally installed and be- 
gan the duties of his pastorate December 7th. 

In January, 1886, the standing committee was 
authorized to procure a new organ. The organ was 
purchased at an expense of three thousand dollars, 
and dedicated in September, 1886. 

In October, 1887, a new bell was procured and 
placed in the belfry of the church. 

First Methodist Society. -In July, 1830, Amos 
Walton established a prayer-meeting and Sunday- 
school in Harmony Village (Rockville) in connection 
with the South Street Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Lynn. 

In 1832 meetings were held in Sanger's Hall, 
sometimes known as Goodridge's Hall. Subsequently 
Armory Hall, which formerly stood on Holten Street, 
near Sewall Street, was rented for Methodist services. 
The leader in this movement was Mr. Alfred N. 
Chamberlain ; he undertook the responsibility of 
renting the hall and furnishing the preachers. 
During the first three years seventeen different 
preachers conducted the services, among whom were 
A. D. Merrill (Father Merrill), Joseph A. Merrill. 
Sanford Benton and John E. Risley. These were all 
conference preachers; Mr. Risley had the honor of 
forming the first church society and baptizing the 
first converts. Among the local preachers were Jesse 
Filmore, Benjamin F. Newhall, of Saugus; Elijah 
Downing, of Lynn ; Benjamin King, who preached 
the opening sermon in the hall ; Shadrach Ramsdell 
and James Mudge. 

A class w:us formed here, and after three years of 
service Mr. Chamberlain induced the Lynn Common 
Church to assume the responsibility of worship. Rev. 
Charles K. True, the preacher in charge, advertised 
in Zion's Herald for a young man to take charge of 
the services here, and, as a result. Rev. Mr. Arnold, 
of Rhode Island, was sent here by Mr. True, and was 
the first minister who attended services here and 
re-ided among the people. 

Later on the responsibility of the charge of the 
services was transferred to the South Street M. E. 
Church in Lynn, who had conducted the meetings in 
Rockville. 

In 1839 Amos Walton began preaching regularly 
for the society, and in July, 1840, he was apj)ointed 



'KAl^OHV, 



Hi35 



by the Conference sitting in Lowell as pastur. At 
this time the mcmbershi|) of the ehuieli was Iwenty- 
llirce. In 1840 the .Sabbath school was organized. 

While worshipping in Armory Hall, a biiililing on 
Washington Street, above Oak Street, fortnerly used 
as a pottery, w;i.s bought and fitted up. The lumber 
and labor neccs-sary were contributed by interested 
parties, and the new house of worship was dedicated, 
but soon proved too small. Plans were proposed for 
a new house, the lumber purchased and a part of it 
hauled to the ground, the site of the jjre.scnt church. 
This was in 1S4.'5, and at this time the South Society 
was about building a new house of worship. Their 
old house, which had been built in l.s:!(;, and was in 
excellent condition, was oifered to the .Methodist 
Society for twenty-five hundred dollars, and it was 
thought best to dispose of their lumber and accept 
the offer. The building was moved from the Square 
to its present location, near the corner of Washington 
and Sewall Streets; the Lexington Monument was 
set otf to allow its passage, and afterwanl re]>laced. 
The following year vestries were built under the church, 
at an expense of seven hundred and fifty dollars. 

The society at this time was under great financial 
embarrassment. The mortgage on the church, held 
by the South Society, was heavy, and at the annual 
meeting in 1848 it was voted to relinquish the prop- 
erty ; Timothy Walton took up the mortgages and 
the property pas.sed into his hands. The society 
known as the Jlethodisl Episcopal Chapel Society, 
which had held the projierly, became extinct. 

The church was allowed by Mr. Walton, who was 
one of the leading brethren, to continue the use of 
the building at an annual rental. They ha<l no Con- 
ference preacher that year; but a local preacher. Dr. 
Booth, supplied for them a portion of the time. 

In 18.").3 during the pastorate of William Cordon, a 
board of trustees was appointed, and organized ac- 
cording to law, under the name of the " First M. E. 
Society of Danvers." At this time the society pur- 
chased the church properly from Mr. Walton on lib- 
eral terms. 

In IS.VJ, during the jjastorate of Kev. E. S. Best, 
the house was raised up and remodeled, at an expense 
of about six hundred dollars. Part of this expense 
was contributed by outside friends. 

In 1S(J2, when Rev. Mosely Dwight wiw sent by the 
Conference to this society, he found a debt of over 
four thousand dollars, and the .society very iiun-h de- 
pressed. The Church Aid Society lent its a.ssistance, 
and Mr. Dwight was allowed to collect all the contri- 
butions raised in the Boston district for church aid. 
Through his endeavors the debt on the church was re- 
duced to fifteen hundre<l <lollars. 

In 1S()7 Kev. J. 0. Knowles was sent to theSociety. 
lie W.1S very active in his efl'orts, and there was a large 
increase in the interest and the membership of the 
church during the two years of his jjastnrate. 

The interior of the church was tinted and painted 



at this time Through the eflbrt.s of Mr. Knowles 
anil others interested, a Steve:!s clock was placed in 
the tower of the church ; an<l at this time, too, n lull 
was given to the Society by an anonymous friend, who 
wa.s afterwards known to have been the late (Jeneral 
William Sutton. In 18<)>f the parsonage on Sewall 
Street was purchased by the Society for two thousand 
dollars. 

During the pastorate of Rev. (i. Leonard, who suc- 
ceeded Mr. Knowles, a social and literary society, 
similar to the (Jxford League, was started and greatly 
encouraged by the pastor. Mr. Leonard was especially 
interested in Sabbath-school work, and succeeded in 
making the scho(d very successful and awakening 
much interest in its exercises. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Albert (iould the debt 
of the Society was extinguished, and theSociety en- 
joyed a time of prosi)erity. A deep religious interest 
was manifest in the town, and union services of the 
Congregational, Baptist and Methodist Churches were 
held. Mr. (iould was himself a good musician, and 
did much for the encouragement of music in the 
services of the church. A new reed-organ was pur- 
chased during his pastorate. Mr. Gould, with the aid 
of the brethren, started the church in Tapleyville 
During his pastorate he published a paper called the 
Town of Peabody, asingle issue, which contained much 
valuable historical information. 

Rev. F. T. George was the pastor of the church in 
1873-74, and Rev. Daniel Wait in 187o-7(;-77. Dur- 
ing the pastorate of Jlr. Wait improvements were 
made in the furnishing of the vistry. 

During the pastorate of the Rev. V. M. Simons, in 
1878-79, a pipe-organ was placed in the front part of 
the church, behind the altar, and the choir seats 
were removed thither. 

Rev. Dr. Steele was pastor of the church in 1880- 
81-82, and during his pastorate the outside of the 
church edifice w;i8 painted, and the interior repaired 
and re-carpeted, at an expense of thirteen hundred 
dollars. At this time, also, the Stevens clock was re- 
moved and a Howard clock, the gift of the late Mrs. 
Lydia P. Proctor, substituted. 

Kev. C. N. Smith was the pastor in 1883-84-8r), and 
the time was one of great harmony and prosperity in 
the church. 

The following is the list of preachers stationed by 
the Conference over the church from the beginning: 
ikst 



AniDH Wiillon ls:i9-4n 

DmiU-l W'ulib 1841 

II. (i. liHriaa 1842 

AmoH Biniipy 1843 

Kc'ulion Uunsom 1844 

I. .1. P. Cullj-ur 184.')-1(1 

■/.. A. Mudgo 1847 

•riionwn Street 1848-10 

O. S. Howo I8.«.0 

W. f. High 48.'il-i2 

Willinm (iordon l«&3-,04 

K.lwanlA. Manning 18.^ 

(ieorgu SntliorljiDil 18.16-57 

U. C. Dunham 1858 



I8.V.I-6 

Fmnkliu Furlwr 1861 

Mos.4j- Dwight ISO'.Ma 

s. R. swseisiT I8e4-r>r>-f.(: 

J. O. Kndwiea Isr.T-llH 

William G. Lcominl 1»6'J 

Alliurt Gould IS70-71-72 

F. T. CourKO l87.)-74 

Daniol Wait 187.'.-7«-77 

V. M. Simons 187S-"'.l 

Daniel Sli'clu 188I1-K1-S2 

C. N.Smilli 18S;i Sl-S.'S 

G«o. Alcolt IMiinnoj 188B 



1036 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In 1886 extensive repairs and improvements were 
undertaken ; the vestries were painted and re- 
furnished; an addition was built on the back of the 
building, making room for the organ and giving 
additional space below. The choir seats were re- 
built and the preacher's platform refurnished. The 
pews and interior fittings were renovated, the walls 
and ceilings frescoed and various improvements and 
additions made to the conveniences of the house. 
A large number of memorial windows have been 
given in honor of deceased friends and relatives; 
the Oxford League assumed the expense and man- 
agement of the improvement of the windows, and 
their efforts have been seconded by gifts of money 
from various individuals and societies. The entrance 
and approaches have been improved, and the house 
now is one of the most commodiousin town. The ex- 
penditures for the recent improvements were about, 
twenty-six hundred dollars. The society is large and 
flourishing, and active in Christian work and ser- 
vice. 

Second Univeusalist Society — The First Uni- 
versalist Parish of Peabody was organized on the 6th 
of April, 1832, under the title "The Second Univer- 
salist Society of Danvers." Universalist meetings 
had been held occaKionally in private houses, some- 
times in a small hall in the building now occupied in 
part by the Peabody Press office, in the school-house 
then located near the Old South Church, and also in 
Joseph Shedd's Hall, a small hall in a building on 
Main Street, then occupied by Mr. Shedd as an 
apothecary shop. Previously to this organization some 
families had attended the Universalist meeting in 
Salem. 

On January 31, 1832, a preamble and resolution 
were adopted and signed by forty-three i)ersons, 
with reference to building a church and forming a 
Universalist Society. It was proposed to erect a 
meeting-house in the vicinity of the South (Jhurch, 
and a subscription was opened for shares of one hun- 
dred dollars. On March 26th, a meeting of sub- 
scribers was held, and a committee appointed to find 
a suitable site for a hou.se. An agreement for organ- 
ization was drawn up and signed by forty-seven per- 
sons, pledging the united action of the signers for 
the formation and maintenance of a religious society 
under the name of the Second Universalist Society in 
Danvers. In accordance with a petition drawn up 
at this meeting a warrant was issued by John W. 
Proctor, Esq., for a meeting to be held in Shedd's 
Hall, April 6, 1832. On that day the members met 
and organized. 

A church building was completed in January, 1833, 
and was dedicated January 10th. On January 21st, 
an invitation was given to Rev. John Moore to be- 
come pastor at a salary of six hundred and fifty dol- 
lars. It was accepted, and ho was installed April 4, 
1833. He resigned November 16, 1834, leaving at 
the end of the year. During his ministry a SuijJay- 



school was organized, beginning with about fifty 
members. A church was organized by Mr. Moore 
April 30, 1834, consisting of twenty-four members. 

February 15, 1835, the Rev. John M. Austin was 
invited to become pastor. He was installed April 
29th. 

When the church building w.as completed the vestry 
was left unfinished. There was then no public hall 
in town large enough for town purposes. In 183(5 
the vestry was finished by an association called the 
Union Hall Association, partly in the interest of the 
church, and was used for public purposes. In Feb- 
ruary, 1843, the subject of enlarging the meeting- 
house by galleries was considered, which was done 
soon afterward. 

Mr. Austin resigned his p;istorate in September. 
1843. The affairs of the society were in a highly pros- 
perous condition during his ministry, and particularly 
at its close. A religious revival affecting this wiih 
other societies prevailed during the latter part of his 
ministry. 

On October 20, 1844, Rev. John Prince was in- 
vited to become pastor, and was installed January 15, 
1845. Mr. Prince was very progressive in his ideas, 
and during his pastorate there was a division in the 
society, arising from differences in belief, which re- 
sulted in the withdrawal of Mr. Prince, in June, 1848, 
and the closing of the church as a house of public 
worship for several years. 

In October, 1853, Eev. J. W. Talbot made a suc- 
cessful effort to revive the society, and worship was 
regularly begun October 30, 1853, and has ever since 
been maintained. Mr. Talbot resigned at the close 
of a year, having accomplished his object. During 
his stay the church building, including the vestry, 
was enlarged and improved, and an organ purchased. 

In November, 1855, Rev. Orville Brayton began 
his pastorate; he was installed February 6, 18.56. He 
continued as pastor until September 1, 1859. Rev. 
C. C. Gordon was pastor of the society for a year, be- 
ginning November, 1859. He left the parish 
united and in good condition.' In February, 1862, 
Rev. O. F. Saflbrd was invited to become pastor, and 
he began his work in May. He was installed June 
17, 1863. His pastorate closed May 1, 1865. 

Rev. A. B. Hervey became pastor in April, 1866. 
In September, 1867, the society voted to remodel the 
church, which was done in a thorough manner, at an 
expense of about nine thousand dollars. A bell was 
presented to the society by a friend who desired that 
his name should be withheld. The church was re- 
dedicated March 4, 1808. Mr. Hervey's ministry 
closed in November, 1872, leaving the society united 
and in good condition, and the Sunday-school larger 
than at any other period of its history. 

The Rev. S. P. Smith became pastor on the first 
Sunday in October, 1873, and continued until the 12th 
of March, 1876, when he resigned his charge. During 
his ministry additions and improvements were made 



i'i:ai!()|iv 



1037 



to the vestry at a cost of about twelve liuntlreil dol- 
lars. 

On Ai)ril 30, 1<S"6, Rev. E. W. Whitney bepan iiis 
pastorate. He was iiLstalled Novetnlur S, 1870. The 
church, which hail been greatly reduced in number 
and inactive, was reorganized by Mr. Whitney on the 
6th of May, 1877. with forty-one member^. At the 
annual meeting in .January, 1S7'.), the society voted 
to rai.se the church in order to give more height to 
the veslry and improve the entrance, which was done 
at a cost of about two thousand five hundred d<illars. 
Mr. Whitney resigned his pastorate in December, 
lS7it. 

On tlanuary 2(), 1880, Kev. (1. W. Harmon was in- 
vited to the i>astorate, and began his labors in March, 
1880. During the summer of 1881 furiher ini[irove- 
ments were made on the church. Mr. Harmon 
closed his work with the society in .July, 1882. 

Rev. F. W. Sprague, the present pastor, began his 
ministry on the last Sunday in September, 1882. 

Secoxi> Rai'TIST SociEiY. — The Raptist ». hureh 
was organized February 16, 184.3, having sixteen 
members. The church was recognized February 22, 
1843, with tweuty-sev»n members. The sermon was 
by Rev. Joseph Ranvard. The first deacon, O. E. 
Pope, was elected February 24, 1843. Various per- 
son.s supplied the pulpit till September 15, 1843, 
when Rev. Phineas Stovve accejjted a call to the pas- 
torate. He was ordained pastor December .'), 1843; 
the services were in the Unitarian Church, and the 
sermon was by Rev. R. H. Neal, D.D. 

In the spring of 1843, a chapel was erected, sixty- 
five by thirty-two feet, and publicly dedicated June 
15,1843, Rev. Messrs. Banvard, .\nderson and (Jarllon 
assisting in the services. In Augu.st, 1844, the so- 
ciety was incorporated, consisting at that time of thir- 
ty-one members. 

The pastorate of Mr. Stowe ended M.ay 0, 1845, 
after which the [)ulpit was sup[)lied by Rev. J. G. 
Richardson, who was installed as pastor January 28, 
1846, Rev. .Iosei)h Banvard j>reaching the sermon. 
This pastorate ended in October, 1847. From April 
23, 1848, to March 4, 1849, Rev. 1. E. Forbush sup- 
plied the pulpit, after which Rev. B. C. Thomas 
supplied it. 

December 3, 1848, P. D. Perkins became deacon of 
the church. November 11, 1S4!», Rev. F. A. Willard 
became pastor, and he resigned that office February 
3, 1854. T. W. Carr became deacon May 12, 1851. 
Rev. N. Medbury regularly supplied the pulpit after 
the expiration of a year from Mr. Willard's resigna- 
tion, and did much toward obtaining the present 
house of worship. October 4, 1857, Rev. T. E. Keely 
became pastor. 

The present house of worshi]) was dedicated No- 
vember 19, 1857, Rev. T. D. Anderson preaching the 
sermon. It. R. Emerson w;ls chosen deacon Febru- 
ary '.), 1860. Mr. Keely resigned bis i>astoral relation 
August 29, 1861. 



I Rev. C. E. Barrows was ordained pastor December 
1 25, 18()1, Rev. Heman Liiicidn preaching the sermon. 
He resigned January 12, bSdo, and was .succt-edrd by 
Rev. N. M. Williams July 9, 1865. During Mr. 
Williams' jiastorate the house was repaired at an 
exi>ense of one thousand one bundrcd dollars. 

Mr. Williams was succeeded by the Rev. ('. V. 

Hanson, who was ordaineil over the cliureb ( )ctol)er 

6, 1868. The sermon was by Rev. W. 11. Shailer, 

of Portland, .Maine. Feliruary 4lli. (d' the following 

i year. Thomas N. liuriiaby was ebusi-ii Deacon. 

Mr. Hanson was a most aetiv<> .-ind cllleierit ("'liris- 
liaii worker, and the ebureh. umler bis pastorate, was 
greatly prospered. During the first three ycirs of 
his ministry, lilty members were added to the church. 
He was also greatly interested in the all'.iirs of the 
town, and was widely respected by all denominations 
for his ])rogressive and intelligent i-o-operation in 
matters of education, temperance reform and iharities 
of every kind. He was tnice sent as repri'sentative 
to the Legislature by the town in 187! und 187:!. u' d 
was during both those terms chairman of the i-oni- 
mittee on the Lii|Uor Law. 

In 1877, Edward II. Wilsf)n, a member of the 
church, died, and gave in bis will the sum of one 
thousand dollars to the society, and also gave a piece 
of land on Andover Street and the sum of two thou- 
sand dollars to build a chapel, to be used by the 
several evangelical societies of the town. A chapel 
was erected in accordance with the terms of the be- 
(|uest. and meetings are held there weekly by mem- 
bers of the societies interested. There being no 
other place of worship in the vicinity, the gift has 
been the means of doing much good. 

In the summer of 1870 Mr. Hanson resigned the 
l)astorate. November 24, 1879, the church and 
society voted to give the Rev. L. L. Wood a call. 
Mr. Wood acce])ted, and began his labors according- 
ly. In August, 1882, he tendered bis resignation, 
which was accepted. 

April 16, 188:', the cluircb and society voted to 
give Rev. W. P. Chipman, of Davisville, R. 1., a call, 
which was accepted. In January, 1885, Mr. Chip- 
man was compelled to resign owing to illness in his 
family, which made his removal from the town 
necessary. 

March 9, 1885, the church and society voted to 
call Rev. .1. N. Shipmau, of Moosup, Conn . to the 
I)astorate. The call was accejitcd, ami Jlr. Shipman 
is now acting in that ollice. 

In the fall of 1887, repairs and improvements were 
begun in the building, which will greatly improve 
the beauty and convenience of the house. 

Roc'KVii.i.K CoxcKEc.vrioxAi, Society axi> West 
CoNCUEOATioNAT. SociioTY. — F.)r many years the 
people of the South Church carried on Sunday-school 
and prayer-meeting services in Rockville or South 
Peabody. Some of the meetings were held as early as 
1832. 



1038 



HISTORY OP ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Mr. Caleb Frost was superintendent of this early 
Sunday-school, which was held in a chapel built by 
Mr. Elijah Upton, standing on Needliaui's corner, 
opposite Samuel Brown's estate. In 1854 Sabbath- 
school was again held by nieinbersof theSouth Church 
in an old house owned by Mr. John Marsh. A 
prayer-meeting was sustained for many years at pri 
vate houses by Deacon Richard Smith, Mr. John 
Stevens and Mr. Isaac Hardy. Deacon Jacob Per!ey 
was also interested in these early meeting-". 

The South Street Methodist Episcopal Church of 
Lynn had conducted such services in Eockville as 
early as 1S30, but they were not regularly carried on 
after 1840, when a regular preacher was sent by the 
Methodist Conference to the central part of the town, 
and the Methodists worshipped iherc. 

In ISoo a substantial chapel was built by friendsof 
the movement, on Lynnfield Street. Services were 
held here in which members of theSouth Church as- 
sisted, acting as teachers in the Sunday-school, and 
assuming the financial responsibility of the enter- 
prise. The ministers of the various Congregational 
Societies of the vicinity conducted preaching services 
from time to time, and by degrees the people of the 
vicinity wore interested in the movement, and lent 
their support to the extent of their ability. 

A mi-sion Sunday-school and prayer-meeting had 
been carried on for some years in VV^est Peabody, 
where there was a small manufacturing settlement. 
It was decided to unite the new two enterprises, and in 
1873 Rev. W. A. Lamb, a recent graduate of Andover 
Seminary, was engaged as pastor of both the South and 
West Peabody Churche-i. At this time there was 
neither Society nor Church organization — simply 
Sunday-school, prayer-meetings and preaching ser- 
vices. The two congregations agreed each to give 
a definite part of the pastor's salary. 

The ministry of Mr. Lamb extended from July 
1873 to July, 1875. On April 14, 1874, the Rockvill'e 
Church was organized. A very powerful revival had 
attended the efforts of Mr. Lamb, and great interest 
was felt in the new church. A number of members 
of the South Church, some of them residents of South 
Peabody, and some from the central part of the town, 
were so greatly interested that they joined the new 
organization to aid in its .support and management. In 
all thirty-nine members were received into the new 
church. At the time the church was recognized, Mr. 
Lamb was ordained as evangelist. Prof John L. 
Taylor was the moderator of the council and Rev. 
Joshua Coit scribe. 

Rev. C. C. Carpenter, of Andover, succeeded Mr. 
Lamb. His ministry extended from July 1, 1875, to 
July 1, 1880 — five years. His was a quiet, earnest, suc- 
cessful ministry. The church in South Peabody 
grew and became stronger ; and during the last year 
of his ministry a new site was acquired lor a larger 
and more commodious church building. The old 
chapel was removed to the new site, and remained 



there until the present church edifice was erectKl 
in its place. 

For several months the church was without a pus- 
tor ; on February 1, 1881, Rev. John W. Colwell bi- 
gan his ministry. 

July 6, 1881, the Eockville Congregational Society 
in Peabody, was duly organized. The site for the 
new church was in the hands of trustees, who were 
authorized to convey the property to the Society i.ii 
certain terms, which was done, and the Society, 
with the assistance of many outside friends, built the 
present church edifice. 

In February, 1882, a building committee was ap- 
pointed, whose efforts in obtaining funds were so far 
successful that the old chapel was removed and build- 
ing operations begun in the fall. In the spring of 
1883 the edifice was completed with the exception nf 
the auditorium, and the S iciety which had bet n 
worshipping in the school-house opposite, began ser- 
vices in the new vestry. By continued effort, funds 
were secured to finish the auditorium, and the church 
was dedicated May 22, 1884; Rev. W. G. Sperry, then 
of the South Church, preached the dedicatory ser- 
mon, and Rev. C. C. Carpenter took part in the ser- 
vices. 

The church edifice is 40 x .50 feet, with a pulpit 
recess 4x13 feet. The tower is 15 feet square and rises 
75 feet above the underpinning. 

The cost of the building, finishing and furnishing 
of the house was about $7,100. Great interest was 
taken, both by the church in South Peabody and the 
parent church, in securing the amount; subscriptions 
were received from above three hundred persons. 
One thousand dollars were contributed in sums often 
dollars and less. About two thousand seven hundred 
dollars were secured in South Peabody, and the South 
Church people gave about two thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty dollars ; of the remainder,five hundred 
dollars came from the American Congregational 
Union, and the rest from outside friends. The So- 
ciety is nearly or quite self-supporting, and is the cen- 
tre of active Christian work. 

At West Peabody the West Congregational Church 
was duly organized as a branch of the Rockville 
Church, September 6, 1883, with fifteen members. 
Rev. C. B. Rice, of Dan vers, was moderator of the 
council, and Rev. H. L. Brickett, of Lynnfield, scribe. 
The church has the same articles of faith and coven- 
ant as the Rockville Church, and the same pastor, 
but it chooses its own standing committee and makes 
its own by-laws and controls its own membership. 

The West Congregational Society in Peabody was 
incorporated October 26, 1885, and on December 11 
the new chapel was dedicated free of debt at a cost 
of one thousand four hundred and sixty dollars. The 
large and beautiful lot of half an acre was given to 
Mr. Joseph Henderson, of Salem, formerly a resident 
of West Peabody. The churches in the Essex South 
Conference (Congregational), and the American Con- 



I'EAUODV, 



1039 



gregational Union assisted the people in Imilrliiijithe 
chapel, and outside friends contributed jrenerously. 
The dedicatory sermon was preached hy Kev. V. H. 
Rice, of Danvers. 

The two societies act in conjunction ; they meet 
yearly and decide upon the proportionate i>art which 
each shall pay toward the pastor's salary. In matters 
of common interest, such as the callin<; or dismissal 
of a pastor, ajoint vote is taken. 

.Tune 5, 1887, Rev. Mr. Colwell terminated his pas- 
torate, going to Harrington, R. 1. Great progress was 
made during his active and eflieient labors in l-'outh 
and West Peabody, and his enterprise and energy did 
much to encourage the people of his double flock to 
the efforts which have been so successful in building 
up these churches upon a secure foundation. The 
membership of the Rockville Church is sixty-eight, 
and that of the West Church twenty-four. 

On November 9, 1887, Rev. Israel Ainsworth was 
installed as pastor of the Rockville Congregational 
Church, and the West Congregational Church, the 
relation between the two societies remaining as has 
been explained before. 

Many devoted men and women of the South 
Church labored earnestly in the early days of these 
churches, whose names will long be remembered by 
the people whom they strove to assist, but of whom 
the limits of this sketch do not give room foradciiuate 
mention. 

In ISl'iO Mr. Klijah W. I'liton placed in the hands 
of the officers of the South Society four hundred dol- 
lars, which he had been re(]uested by his father, Eli- 
jah l^pton, to contribute to the Rockville mission ; 
and that sum is still held in trust for the benefit of 
the society in Rockville. 

St. John's Chirch (Romax CATHoi.ir). — Before 
1850 there were very few Catholics in the town, and 
until 1871 the Catholics of South Danvers and Pea- 
body worshipped at St. James' Church, on Federal 
Street, Salem. 

In 1868 Rev. JohnM. Gray, the p.istor of St. James' 
Church, formed the idea of establishing a new parish 
in Peabody. In May, 1870, a fair was held in Me- 
chanic Hall, Salem, to aid in establishing the new 
parish, which continued for two weeks, and was very 
successful, over seven thousand dollars being realized. 
Sufficient money having thus been obtained to begin 
the work, a lot of land, formerly used for manufac- 
turing purposes, was purchased of Thomas E. Procter 
for ten thousand dollars, and in May, 1871, a con- 
tract was made for building the new church, which is 
of brick, with granite trimmings, and is about sev- 
enty-two feet wide by one hundred and forty-six long, j 
with a tower. It is the largest and most expensive 
church edifice in the town. 

The laying of the corner-stone took place on Sun- 
day afternoon, August 20, 1871, and an immense 
crowd assembled to witness the ceremonies. All the 
(Catholic societies of Salem were present, and marched j 



in procession with their distinctive badges. ]5isliop 
Williams, of Boston, officiated, an<l Kev. I. T. Hccker, 
of Now York, preached an able sermon in relation to 
the progress of the C'atholic Church in .America. 

On Christmas day, December 23, 1871, .services 
were first held in the basement of the church, 
although the building was in a rough and unfinished 
condition. Rev. Father Cray celebrated nia.ss, and 
preached an interesting sermon, in which he con- 
gratulated the congregation and the Catholics of Pea- 
body on being able to worship for the first tiuic in 
this town in an edifice worthy of their efforts, and 
one on which was raised the emblem of their religion. 
A large congregation attended, although there were 
no pews for their accommodation, and the weather 
being very cold, it was impossible to warm the place. 

The church was not opened again for pul>lic wor- 
ship until Seiitember, 1872, when the basement was 
entirely finished and over two hundred pews put in. 
After that time services were regularly held every 
Sunday by one of the St. James' clergymen, until 
1874, when Rev. M. J. Masterson became the pastor. 

The building was finished and dedicated with im- 
pressive ceremonies November 30, 1879. The large 
auditorium presents a fine interior, with its lofty ceil- 
ing, beautifully frescoed walls and fifteen muUioned 
windows of stained gla^s, most of them being me- 
morial windows contributed by individuals or so- 
cieties. There are fourteen large paintings between 
the windows, representing the .stations of the cross. 
The altars, of white marble, are richly furnished. 
The large auditorium seats twelve hundred persons. 

The whole cost of the edifice was about one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. The architect was James 
Murphy, of Providence. The a.ssistants at present are 
Rev. Patrick Jlasterson and Rev. Vincent Borgialli. 

St. Paul's Missiox (ICpisfOPAi,). — The first ser- 
vice of this mission w.as on Sunday, April 2, 1874, the 
first Sunday alter Easter. At this service morning 
prayer wius read by Mr. Edgar W. I'pton, and the 
chants and hymns were sung by a choir of boys, who 
had been trained by Mrs. Edgar W. I'pton. There 
has been no interruption in the Sunday services since 
that time. 

At first the lUv. .lohn W . Leek, rector of St. 
Michael's, Marbleliead, Rev. E. M. (iushee, (»f St. Pe- 
ter's, Salem, and Rev. Mr. Magill, of Calvary, Dan- 
vers, had joint idiargc of the mission, and took turns 
in preaching on Sunday evenings. The mission was 
brought to the attention of the diocesan convention 
in May, 1874, anil considerable cold water was 
thrown upon it. It was ably defended by its three 
reverend sponsors, and was adopted by the Mission- 
ary Board, who granted it some money for a mis- 
sionary. 

In the summer of 1874 .AIUwt's Jlall was hired by 
the mission, and fitted U|) by the help of friends in 
neighboring parishes. Rev. Mr. Magill was put in 
charge of the work, which charge he kept till August, 



1040 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1875, when the present missionary, the Rev. George 
Walker, took the cure of Peabody, in addition to that 
of anew mission in Wakefield. 

Ground was broken for the church on Lowell 
Street on January 1, 1876. It is worthy of note that 
there was no frost in the ground then. The first ser- 
vice in the new clnirch was held on Quinquagesima 
Sunday, the 27th of February following. The church 
building has been added to from time to time as the 
needs of the mission grew. In 1880 a vestry was 
built. Inadvertently the east wall of this addition 
was built several inches over the line of the next 
estate. In 1885 this mistake was mended by putting 
the wall where it belonged, after trying in vain to 
hire or buy the land so unfortunately covered. In 
1886 the roof of the north end of the church was re- 
placed with a gable end, and the door moved from 
the west side to the end of the church, thus adding 
about thirty seats to the church, which now will seat 
about one hundred and fifty persons. The seats were 
rebuilt at the same time. 

The congregation from a beginning of twenty has 
grown to a membership of over two hundred souls, 
and an average attendance of over one hundred every 
Sunday. The Sunday-school has grown from ten to 
seventy, with an average attendance of more than 
fifty. A boy choir has been maintained almost with- 
out any break, from the first service. In 1878 the 
boys were vested in Ca.ssock and Surplice. 

Services are held every Sunday. The Holy Com- 
munion is celebrated every other Sunday, alternating 
between an early celebration and one after morning 
prayer. As the mission is now joined with Danvers 
in the cure of Rev. Mr. Walker, it has to share his 
time with the Danvers Church, so that every alter- 
nate Sunday there has to be a lay service in the 
morning. This duty has fallen chitfly upon Mr. Up- 
ton, though not infrequently Mr. (Jeorge R. Curwen, 
of Salem, has performed it. 

In 1879, the Rev. Amos Ross, a deacon of the 
church and a full blooded Santee Indian, was in the 
family of the missionary several mouths. The ac- 
quaintance thus begun has been kept up, and every 
year since, a missionary box has been sent to Mr. 
Ross and his jieople. 

INSTITUTIOXS AND SOCIKTIES. 

The Peabody Institute. — Mention has been 
made in another part of this sketch of the circum- 
stances under which Mr. Peabody's original gift of 
twenty thousand dollars was announced, and the 
communication which accompanied the gift, on the 
16th of June, 1852. On June 28, 1852, a town-meet- 
ing was held at which resolves prepared and sub- 
mitted by Dr. Andrew Nichols were unanimously 
adopted, accepting the gift and pledging the town to 
the conditions imposed by the donor. It was voted 
'■'That the institution established by this donation be 
called and known as the Peabody Institute, and 



that this name be inscribed, in legible characters, 
upon the front of the building to be erected, that, in 
future years, our children may be reminded of their 
father's benefactor, and that strangers may read the 
name of him whom Danvers will alwaj-s be proud to 
claim as her son." 

It was also determined that two of the "Committee 
of Trustees " should be elected each successive year 
for a term of six years, and "That the aforesaid Com- 
mittee of Trustees appoint annually, from the citizens 
of the town at large, another Committee, who shall 
select books for the librarj', designate the subjects for 
lectures, procure lecturers, enact rules and regula- 
tions, both in regard to the lectures and the library, 
and perform all such other duties as the Committee 
shall assign to them." 

The proceedings of the town relative to the gift 
were transmitted to Mr. Peabody, and received his 
approval. The scheme thus determined became, 
therefore, what may be called the charter of the In- 
stitute, and constituted as the officers of the institute, 
a board of trustees chosen by the town in whom are 
vested the funds and other property, for the purpose 
of maintaining a lyceum and library ; and another 
board, chosen annually by the trustees, called the 
lyceum and library committee, whose duties are to 
superintend and direct all its active operations. 

Soon after the first, Mr. Peabody gave to the trus- 
tees a further donation often thousand dollars, stipu- 
lating that seventeen thousand dollars should be used 
for land and building, ten thousand dollars as a per- 
manent fund, and three thousand dollars for the 
library. 

The westerly part of the Wallis estate was pur- 
chased for the Institute, and afterward considerable 
additions were made to the land, Mr. Peabody giving 
fifteen thousand dollars additional to purchase and 
improve the land. He also during his visit to this 
country in 1856, paid one thousand five hundred dol- 
lars for other improvements to the land, and one 
thousand one hundred dollars for liquidating all 
liabilities against the Institute on account of the 
building. 

The original building was about eighty-two by 
fifty feet, of brick and freestone, with a library room 
and committee rooms on the lower floor, and a lecture 
hall above. It cost fifteen thousand three hundred 
dollars. The corner-stone was laid, with appropriate 
ceremonies, August 20, 1853; as Capt. Sylvester 
Proctor had deceased, Hon. Abbott Lawrence per- 
formed the part assigned to him. The building was 
finished in the course of the following year, and 
dedicated to its future uses September 29, 1854. 
Rufus Choate, who always maintained a warm inter- 
est in the place where the early years of his profes- 
sional life had been spent, delivered the address at 
the dedication, one of the most eloquent and thought- 
ful of his occasional addresses, containing many 
brilliant and impressive passages on the value of 



l'EA15()l>V 



11141 



reading and the function of a puhlit- lilnary and lyce- 
um. 

The lilirary was opened on Ooloher IS. 1854, for 
the delivery of books on Wednesday and Saturday 
afternoons an<l evenings. There were then about 
one thousand five hundred volumes on the slielves. 

In December, 1S.')4, a donation of books was re- 
ceived from >Ir. Peabody, containing about two 
thousand five hundred volumes, selected by Mr. 
Henry Stevens, agent of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Subsequent additions to the library by purchase 
and gift brought the number of volumes in 185(5, at 
the time of Mr. l\abody's visit to the town, to above 
five thousand three hundred, including two hundred 
and fifty volumes received from the Danvcrs Me- 
chanic Institute, an association that had existed in 
the town since 1841. The town also contributed 
one hundred 'and ten volumes to the library, and 
many of the citizens gave books from their own li- 
braries. 

The first course of lectures began November 29, 
18o4. Among the lecturers for tlic first season were 
George S. Ilillard, Theodore I'arker, E. P. Whipple, 
Prof. It. D. Hitchcock, Rali)h Waldo Emerson, A. A. 
Miner, T. Starr King, Josiah Quincy and Richard H. 
Dana. Truly a brilliant group of names! Dr. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes lectured during the second 
season. 

The one to whom the managers of the Institute 
naturally turned in seeking a librarian was Fitch 
Poole, whose literary abilities were highly esteemed 
by his townsmen. He was elected to the position 
January 3, 1854, but being then engaged in business, 
found it necessary to resign tlie position, which he 
did September 27 of the same year. His successor 
was Mr. Eugene li. Hinckley, tiicn principal of the 
Peabody High School, who gave much time to his 
duties, and rendered valuable service during the early 
days of the library, when its valuable collections 
were just begun. Upon the resignation of Mr. 
Hinckley Mr. Poole was again elected. May 17, 1856, 
and continued to hold the office until his death, in 
1873. He was a most courteous and efficient officer, 
and his kindness to students, and readiness to assist 
all in tlie selection of books, wMth his genial personal 
qualities, made him the friend of every borrower of 
books. 

Mr. Peabody had, from the beginning of the ac- 
tive work of the Institute, set a.side a fund in his own 
hands, amounting to twenty thousand dollars, of 
which he gave the trustees the income in addition to 
the income from tlie invested funds of the Institute. 
In I8()(;, while on a visit to this country, he gave an- 
other donation of one hundred thousand dollars to 
the Institute, at the same time making [irovision for 
the establishment of an entirely distinct branch li- 
brary in Danvers. The year before he had sent to 
the two libraries a large number of volumes of books 
purchased by him in London, from which the South 
05 * 



Danvers lilirary received about (liree thousand five 
hun<lred volumes. October (1, l.S(i7, shortly before 
his return to Englanil, he made a final donation to 
the Institute of fifty thousand dollars, making the 
total of his gifts to the Peabody Institute of South 
Danvers, or Peabody, ui>ward of two hundred thou- 
sand dollars. An extensive addition was made to 
the building in 18()7 and 1808, including an enlarge- 
ment of the library room by an extension of forty- 
six feet in the rear of the building, the erection of a 
tower on the western side and the addition of a porti- 
co on the front of the building. The entire cost of 
these changes was about forty-five thousand dollars. 
The whole value of the invested permanent funds of 
the Institute after Jlr. Peabody's last doiuition, in- 
cluding the real estate, from v/hich an income is de- 
rived by its occupation for dwelling-houses, was one 
hundred and thirty thousand three hundred dollars. 

In accordance with a wise jdan ajiproved by ^Ir. 
Peabody, twenty thousand dollars of this fund was 
set apart in 1870 as a reserve fund, the interest of 
which was to accumulate for the purpose of meeting 
any unusual necessity, such as the erection of new 
buildings or the making of iiermauent additions to 
the Institute, or the arising of some great emergency. 
This fund ha.s now increased to more than forty-three 
thousand dollars. In 1885, it was decided by the 
trustees that the great decrease of income consequent 
on lower rates of interest obtainable was an emer- 
gency calling for a use of the income of this fund, 
and that the maintenance of the active usefulness of 
the Institute was of greater importance than the 
rajiid accumulation of the reserve fund, particularly 
as it does not appear likely that any new buildings 
will be needed for many years; and a part of the 
income of the reserved fund is accordingly used for 
current expenses, a considerable sum being still 
added to the principal every year. The general 
funds of llie Institute, exclusive of the land and 
building of the Institute, the library, curiosities and 
cabinets of valuables, and not including the re- 
served fund or the Eben Dale Sutton Library Fund, 
amount to about one hundred and twenty-two thou- 
sand dollars. 

After the decease of Fitch Poole, Theodore M. 
Osborne was appointed librarian of the Peabody In- 
stitute in September, 1878. He resigned the position 
in 1880, leaving in October, and was succeeded by 
Mr. J. Warren Upton, the present librarian, whose 
long service fni the Lyceum and Library Com- 
mittee had made him thoroughly acquainted with 
the needs of tlie library, and whose systematic meth- 
ods and unwearied industry in improving the re- 
sources of the library and promoting the cultivation 
of the best reading in the community render him a 
most efficient and valuable officer. A thorough and 
exact system of cataloguing is constantly ke])t up to 
date, and great care is taken to furnish the pulilic 
with accurate lists of books. 



1042 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



When the Institute building was first thrown open, 
Mr. John H. Teague was the janitor, and he con- 
tinued to occupy the position until his death in 
1880. He became identified with the institution, 
and his marked characteristics made him a well- 
known and prominent figure in the administration of 
its affairs. His sphere was not solely a humble one, 
for as was remarked by the Chairman of the Lyceum 
and Library Committee, for a large part of the time 
he was the only representative of the government of 
the Institute on the ground to receive the throngs of 
visitors who were drawn to the Institute by the fame 
of its founder. His urbanity and native politeness, 
and the remarkable memory, shrewd wit and knowl- 
edge of human nature which he often displayed made 
him a most attractive figure to all with whom he 
came in contact. He maintained a watchful care 
over all the interests of the Institute, and with ad- 
mirable discretion contrived to keep each department 
informed of any necessity for action or improvement. 
In the exercise of his functions he became the friend 
of all who desired to use rightly the advantages of 
the institution which he loved so well. He was suc- 
ceeded for a short time by Mr. I. A. Drowne, and 
then by Mr. John D. McKeen, the present efficient 
janitor. 

Mr. Peabody made this institution the depositary 
of the most cherished and valuable gifts which he 
had received in recognition of his munificent and 
remarkable charitable donations. When the build- 
ing was enlarged a large fire-proof safe was built with 
an ingenious arrangement of sliding case, in which 
are displayed the most valuable of these gifts, — the 
portrait of Queen Victoria enamelled upon gold, her 
own gift to him in recognition of his friendly gift for 
homes for the poor of London ; the gold box con- 
taining the freedom of the city of London and that 
given him by the Fishmongers' Company, one of the 
ancient Guilds of London, in recognition of his char- 
ities ; the gold medal presented to him by Congress 
in commemoration of his gift to the Southern Edu- 
cation Fund, and that awarded at the Paris Exposi- 
tion for the work of that Fund. Valuable auto- 
graphs, including letters from the hand of Queen 
Victoria, and a collection of American autographs 
obtained by Mr. Peabody in London, illuminated 
memorials from various societies and portraits of 
great interest, form part of the treasures of the Pea- 
body Institute in Peabody. A fine portrait of Mr. 
Peabody, his own gift, hangs in the hall. Other 
interesting portraits, including thoseof RufusChoate, 
Edward Everett, General Foster and President Har- 
rison, have been presented to the Institute by its 
friends, several of them being the gifts of Elijah W. 
Upton. 

The number of volumes in the Peabody Institute 
Librp.ry in February, 1887, was twenty-six thousand 
two hundred and twenty-five. It is estimated that 
the whole amount expended for books from year to 



year up to the present time, including books bought 
by Mr. Peabody for the library, is upward of thirty- 
seven thousand dollars, making an exceedingly useful 
and well-selected library for practical use in a com- 
munity like that of Peabody. 

The Ebex Dale Sutton Reference Library. 
— In October, 1866, Mr. Peabody met the school chil- 
dren of the town in the Peabody Institute Hall ; and 
in the afternoon the hall was filled by the adult poji- 
ulation, and the medal scholars of the Peabody High 
School. It was announced by Mr. Peabody that he had 
a communication for them, which he should make 
"with a degree of jyieasure and satisfaction whicli 
could only be equalled by that felt by his hearers," 
and then with a few happy words of introduction, he 
read the following letter from Mrs. Eliza Sutton, of 
South Danvers : 

" South Daxvebs, Oct. 15, 1S66. 
" To the TitisUes of the Peahody Inslilule : 

"Gentlemen — The rare advautages conferred on our community l>y 
the ebtabhshment of the Peahody Library are fully appreciated and 
gratefully acknowledged by all who have been privileged to enjoy them. 
Uaving had favorable opportunities for observing ita beneficent resulla 
hitherto, I could but cherish a deep interest iu its contiuued prosperily 
and success. This interest baa ripened into a feeling akin to peraonjil 
affection, through recollection of the delight and improvement whicti 
its treasures afforded to my dearly beloved sou, now deceased, Ebea BiiKi 
Sutton. 

" As a memorial of this departed son, I have desired to make to the 
Institute some offering, which should permanently connect his name 
with this noble public benefaction. 

" Having received from Mr. Peabody a kind and cordial approval of 
my plan, I propose to present for your acceptance, as Trustees of tin? 
Peabody Library, thesum of Twenty Thousand Dollars, for th« further- 
ance of the objects had in view by its founder. In making this gift, it 
is my wish not to trespass upon the ground already so successfully occu- 
pied hy the present library for circulation. 

*' I desire that it may be invested as a permanent fund, to be called 
the Ebeu Dale Sutton Fund, the income of which, as it accrues, shall 
be devoted exclusively to the establishment of a Reference Library; that 
the books purchased for it shall be of enduring value, and such only as 
are desirable and indis|4ensable for the use of scholars; that they shall 
bo kept together in some room of the Institute Building, especially as- 
signed for their accommodation, from which they shall never be loaned 
or taken. It is not my purpose to attach any onerous conditions to this 
donation ; but at a future time, should my proffer be acceptable to you, 
I will express more fully my wishes and plans for its disposition and 
management. 

" I shall place this gift in yonr hands, gentlemen, associated as it is 
with tender memories, with full assurance that it will he wisely admin- 
istered, and will prove a lasting (blessing to the present, and to future 
generations. 

*' Yours, respectfully, 

'* Eliza Sutton.'* 

This letter was formally answered, and the gift ac- 
cepted, by the trustees on January 5, 1867, and the 
trustees indicated their intention to accede to the 
donor's views and wishes in accordance with any 
suggestion that she might wish to make as to the dis- 
position of the funds. 

On January 28, 1867, Mrs. Sutton placed the fund 
in the hands of the Trustees, together with a com- 
munication in which she embodied some additional 
suggestions as to the plan of the Reference Library. 
The income, without any abatement, is to be " pa.ssed 
to the credit of the Lyceum and Library Committee 



PHAIiODV 



1 043 



of the Institute, and is to be wholly expeiukil in the 
purchase of books of practical and endurinjr value, 
together with charts, maps, diaj^ranis, models and 
such other helps to the accpiisiliou of knowledge as 
are to be found in the best libraries established for 
the use of students and scholars; and in defraying 
such incidental expenses as nuiy become necessary 
for the preservation and jierpetuation of the books 
and apparatus constituting the lilirary ; and lor no 
other purpose." The books are to be sul)stantially 
bound, and to be kept togetlier in a room from which 
they are not to be loaned or taken. A seal is to be 
affixed to the inside of the cov<'r of each volume, in- 
dicating the source of the fund. The committee are 
prohibited from accumulating nmrc than one year's 
iticome at any time. The privilege of consultation of 
the collections is extended to "any desirous of prof- 
iting by their use," though the design is primarily 
and chiefly for the use and imi)rovement of the 
townspeople. 

The room assigned to this Reference Library in the 
enlarged building was richly and conveniently fur- 
nished by Mrs. Sutton, and a tine portrait of the son, 
in whose memory the gilt was made, was placed on 
its walls. The room was thrown open to the public 
June 14, 18()9. Besides the books purchased from the 
income of the fund. Mr.s. Sutton has, from time to 
time, given to the library many rare and valuable 
volumes and collections, including fine sets of Au- 
dubon's "Birds of America," "The Description of 
Egypt," the famous work prepared at the direction of 
tiie First Napoleon, King.sborough's " Anticpiities of 
Mexico," and other important works. 

On the opening of the library Mr. Fitch Poole, the 
librarian of the Peabody Library, was appointed 
superintendent, and Miss ALiry ,1. Floyd, of Peabody, 
was cho?en librarian. After the decease of Mr. Poole, 
in 1873, no other su))erintendent was ;ipi)ointed, but 
Miss Floyd continued to be the lilirarian until June, 
1881. Miss S. E. Perkins acted as lilirarian until 
November, ]S8:i, wlien Miss Augusta F. Daniels, the 
jiresent librarian, .assumed the duties of the office. 

Since the foundation of the Eben Dale Sutton 
Reference Library, about twelve tiuiu.sand dollars has 
been expend<'d upon books, besides the books given 
to the library by Mrs. Sutton and others. Fine sets 
of the Greek and l.,atin Classics and other useful 
books are on the shelves ; there are rare and beauti- 
ful collections of engravings and works on art, archi- 
tecture and design, and standard works on literature, 
science and all subjects embraced within the objects 
of the library. The beautiful and artistit' bindings 
of the books make their appearance exceedingly 
attractive; and the rich furnishings and the unusual 
character of the books make the room an olyect of 
interest to many visitors, while its i|uiet seclusion 
gives it great attractions for the student. The con- 
trol of the library is in the hands of a aub-committee 
of the Lyceum and Libr.iry ( (inunitl.i. of the Pea- 



body Institute, whose management has been most 
judicious and efficient. 

(!l!.\Nli .\k.\iv of Tiiic Rkimuii.ic. — IJelore 1.S70 
there was an association ol' vcteran> called tlic Army 
and Navy Union, organized with objec'ts similar to 
those of the Orand Army. 

Post \''>2, (irand .\rmy of the Republic, was organ- 
ized under charter from department of head-quarters, 
July 7, 1S7(I, and the installation of officers took 
place in iMasonic Hall, at the .same date. The officers 
were : 

ConiiMiiTKli.r K. .s. Daniels. 

Senior vl<i'-ii>riini!incli;r J. \V. Stevens. 

Junior vii-e-cinnnmndsr VVni. F. Wiley. 

.\'l.iiitiiul K. C. SlintToril. 

(Jiiiirtcr-niiu^ter L. A. Manning. 

Surpeon F. G. Kittredgo. 

Chaplain E. I. Galvin. 

OmciTorthc day K. B, Bancroft. 

OltliMfruftlie gnaril W. H. HiMr.-ll,. 

Quarter-niaster'B sergeant Benj. Buekell, .Ir. 

Sergeant major P. L. Wincliester, .Ir. 

The Post was at first named for Gen. (xrenville M. 
Dodge, a former resident of the town, who won an 
enviable record in the war, and rose to the rank of 
major-general. Its name was afterward changed to 
th.at of a former townsman, a young man wlio fell 
early in the war, and whose letters from the front 
were marked by more than usual ability — Mr. Wil- 
liam II. Shove. 

Owing to difficulties in the Post, a part of the 
members left it, and on November 19, 1872, the so- 
ciety known as the " Veteran Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Association " was formed for the declared object of 
" Charity and Brotherly Love." Citizens of the town 
contributed liberally to the fund of the Association, 
and many cases of necessity were relieved through 
its means. On April 19, 187.'i, this Association did 
escort duty for a company «f citizens that went to 
Lexington to celebrate the one hundredth anniver- 
sary of the battle of Le.\-ington. On July 8, 187t), 
the name of the Association was changed to tiie 
"Army and Navy Union." The last meeting of the 
Union was May 81, 1879. 

Successful efforts were made to unite the organiza- 
tions, and April 12, 1879, Union Post No. 50 was or- 
ganized, with one hundred and forty-two charier 
members, and the following officers were chosen : 

(' inariil.M- ('yniB T. Batelieliler. 

Senior vice-ronimandi-r Winsur M. Ward. 

Junior vice-coninninder Frank K. Farnliani. 

Chal)lain Volney 1\I. Sinwns. 

.Surgeon Clnirle.s C. I'iku. 

Quarter master Levi Preston. 

CItricer of tlie day Alfred E. .lolinson. 

onicer of Iho gimrd Bonj. Beckett, Jr. 

Ailjutant \\m. H. Ilildrelli. 

Sergeant innjor George O. Pierce. 

Qnnrter.maslor's sergeant Albert II. W hidden. 

A large amount of money has been ex[iended in 
charity from the Post fund, aided by liberal sub- 
scriptions from comrtides. The organization is in a 
flourishing condition, and is so conducted as to sub- 



1044 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



serve the interests which it is the object of the A^-so- 
ciation to care for and protect. Although there are 
none to replace the comrades who fall out aa death 
thins tlie ranks of this veteran organization, the Post 
still presents a fine body of soldierly men in its an- 
nual parade on Memorial day, and whenever the or- 
der is called on for public service. 

The Wo7ne/i's Union Relief Corps (G. A. K.), was 
organized May 27, 1885. 

Old Ladies' Home. — At a public meeting of the 
Ladies' Benevolent Society at Warren Hall, February 
14, 1867, the following letter was read, addressed to 
Messrs. Henry Poor, Warren M. Jacobs and Elijah 
W. Upton. 

"Gentlemen. — having noticed a suggestion made by a prominent 
member of the Ladies' Benevolent Association, that it would be expe- 
dient and proper to i)rovide suitable homes or houses for elderly women 
of American parentage of this town who are in destitute circumstances, 
where they can be made comfortable and happy in their declining years, 
we, the undersigned, this day jointly agree to place in your hands, as 
trueteee, the euni of S2(Jl»0 as the commencement of a fund for the pur- 
pose above indicated, the said amount to be securely invested until 
enough is added to this fuud by donation or otherwise, to accomplish 
this object. 

"In the event of the death or resignation of either of the above 
named Trustees, the remaining Trustees may appoint his successor. We 
would suggest th.-it the Trustees, together with the Presideut, Vice-Presi- 
dent and 'I'reaaurer for the time being, be constituted a board of mana- 
gers to carry out the intentions of the donors, w hose acts shall be sub- 
ject to our approval. 

*' In making this gift we wish it to be understood as being the foun- 
dation of a l>enevolent enterprise, and we solicit the aid of those of our 
peoi)Ie who are hlesl with means, to unite with us in the furtherance of 
this object. 

'* Ri'spectfully Yours, 



"Ma 



Sutton. 
' Upton.'' 



The trustees petitioned the General Court for an 
act of incorporation as "The Charitable Benevolent 
Association of the town of Peabody," which was 
granted April 27, 1869. 

Initiatory steps were taken at a meeting held No- 
vember 1, 1871, towards building a house for the pur- 
pose specified in the act, and a contract was awarded 
for two thousand dollars, for a house on Washington 
Street, above Oak Street. A levee was held at Pier- 
pont Hall on December 31, 1861, at which there was 
realized for the purposes of the association the sum 
of $847.53, including a contribution from Elijah W. 
Upton. 

In 1883 renewed interest was taken in the move- 
ment, and it was decided to reorganize the association 
on the basis of the original trust. An auxiliary so- 
ciety was formed, and earnest efforts were made to in- 
crease the funds ; the house built for the Charitable 
Tenement Association was sold in 1875, and the pro- 
ceeds, with other funds, were employed in purchas- 
ing the former residence of the late (ieneral William 
Sutton, with the intention of fitting it up at some 
future time as a Home for Aged Women. Until the 
resources of the society shall be sufficiently great to 
undertake the active support of such a home, the 
building is let by the society, and the income accu- 
mulated. It is hoped, at no very distant day, to open 



the home for the beneficiaries who will share in its 
protection and support. 

BI0GR.4PHICAL SKETCHES. 

Gen. Gideon Foster. — Gideon Foster was born 
in the house which formerly stood on the corner of 
Lowell and Fo.ster Streets, February 24, 1749. His 
father, Gideon Foster, was a native of Boxford ; his 
mother, Lydia Goldthvvait, of the middle precinct. 
He improved the opportunities of education furnished 
by the schools of the parish ; he wrote a handsome 
hand, was a correct draughtsman and .skilful surveyor. 
He was employed for several short periods in keeping 
school. He was a mechanic of more than common 
ingenuity; the machinery of his mills was of his own 
planning and construction. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, he marched 
to the scene of the battle of Lexington in command 
of a company of minute-men which had been drafted 
from Caf't. Samuel Eppes' company of militia a few 
weeks before, -February 27. The company arrived 
in season to give the retreating British considerable 
trouble at West Cambridge. Captain Foster served 
as a captain in Col. Mansfield's regiment in the siege 
of Boston. At the battle of Bunker's Hill, Captain 
Foster's company was stationed at Brighton, then 
called little Cambridge. He was ordered by Gen. 
Ward to escort a load of ammunition to Charlestown. 
In carrying out this order he met the Americans 
when on their retreat. Their powder was consumed, 
and he supplied them with ammunition loose in 
casks. In his old age he revived the reminiscence 
thus : 

" We took the ammunition in casks, and conveyed it in wagons, and 
delivered it freely with our handA and our dippers, to their horns, their 
pnckets, their hal$, and whatever they had that would hold it. I well 
remember the blackened appearance of those busy in this work, — not 
unlike those engaged in the delivery of coal on a hot summer's day. 
At the same time we were thus occupied, the enemy's shot were con- 
stantly wliistling by ; but we had no time to examine their character 
or dimensions. I have often thought what might have been our con- 
dition, had one of these hot shot unceremoniously come in contact with 



Another favorite reminiscence was of the time 
when Col. Mansfield's regiment was stationed on 
Prospect Hill, where Gen. Putnam was in command. 
The captains were called together, and a volunteer 
was called for to engage in a very arduous enterprise. 
When Foster found no one willing to offer his services, 
he presented himself and was accepted. Several 
soldiers were drawn from each company, and properly 
armed, they repaired to Gen. Putnam's quarters to 
receive instructions. After reviewing them, " Old 
Put " deprived them of their equipments, and furn- 
ishing them with axes sent them into a swamp, where 
they were engaged in cutting fascines and bringing 
them in on their backs. " The men expected to gain 
honor by their exposure to unknown dangers: but 
their greatest danger was from the attack of musqui- 
toes, and their greatest exposure was to the mirth of 
their fellow soldiers." 



PKAIiOhV 



11145 



Ciipt. Foster served throughout the war, and held an 
honorable |)hiee as a good soldier and brave otfieer. 
In 1792 he was promoted to the rank of eolonel ; in 
1796 he was ehosen brigadierfreneral ; in ISOl he 
was elected major-general by the Legislature. In the 
War ol' 1.S12 he was chosen commander of a company 
of exempts, and assumed the duties of his command 
with the same enthusiasm that he showed in his early 
days, taking an active part in the movements of llic 
militia on the two or three occasions when an alarm 
was spread, it is recalled that the old soldier's tac- 
tics and ilrill orders were somewhat antiijuated, and 
the order "shoulder firelocks" s()oken from early 
habit, furnished amusement to himself as well as to 
his little command; but he never lost his military 
ardor, and as was said by Hon. Daniel I'. King in his 
eulogy, — 



' To the liut, the sounJ of tlit 
; indeed for aliiio8t a whole c 



the aworil of the old soldier ' 
oils blow striiek for the dofei 
that !>cho«I of patriotism w 
obedience to God, and which 
heaven, his strong iudignatic 
danger threatened. Liberty 
abiding poasio] 
and good rnle: 



drum and tninnu't \va 
jntury, there has been 
been drawi 



mn.Mc to hi! 

no day when 
and a vigor 
iinrtured in 
to tyrants i, 

le.xt to lovo ol 



Id not h;i 

of his coiiiitry'e rights 

1 taught that oppo.sitiol 

nicated love of country 

k'as roused by any wrong done her or 

;1 love of country were his early and 
country's free institutions, good order, good laws 
the objects of his strongest affections; he not 



only loved them loit he did what he wa.s able, according to his judg 
ment and understanding, to maintain and perpetuate them. No dis- 
tance of place, no severity of the weather, uo bodily infirmity, from the 
adoption of tlie constitution till the day of his death, more than sixty 
years, detained him from deiwsiting his ballot for Stato Olficera." 

For the last thirty years of his life it was his ambi- 
tion readily indulged by his fellow-citizens, to be the 
first to vote in all important elections. .So unerring 
was his judgment, that he never failed to be the file 
leader of the majority, nor wavered from the genuine 
Whig principles of '76. Tn his time as Mr. Proctor 
observes, there was no doubt where Danvers would 
be found. 

For more than seventy years, he was one of the 
most active and influential citizens of the town. He 
was called upon to hold all the important offices in 
the gilt of his townsmen ; he was nine times a Repre- 
sentative to the General Court, in 17% and from 1799 
to 1806. He served as town clerk from 1791 to 1794. 
He was deeply interested in the schools of the town, 
and in 1794 was one of those who proposed the divi- 
ssion into school districts. He was also interested in 
the Fire Department of the town, and one of the early 
fire-engines was named for him. 

(Jen. Foster developed the water power of (ioldth- 
wait's Brook. In ancient times, the whole region in 
the vicinity of what is now Foster Street was marshy 
land. He acijuired the ownership of a large tract of 
land in this region, and about 1817 built a dam which 
can still be seen, from which he conducted a part of 
the water through a canal along the edge of the up- 
land to the north of the low ground. He had a bark- 
mill at the upper dam, and a mill used as a grist-mill 
at the end of the canal, and he al.so had a mill for the 
manufacture of chocolate. The water-works thu.s 



constructed by him furnished water for niaiiufac- 
turiug purposes to those located on the lower land 
along the course of the canal. Foster's lane, near 
Foster Street, led to these mills and manufactories, 
and was e.xtended to the old lioston road. 

General Foster was an enterprising and successful 
manufacturer, and his improvements increa~c(l the 
value of the land owned by him, and enabled him to 
sell it at fair prices; but he twice sutiereil lo.ss by fire, 
and on Octolier 2:',, 1821!, his mills were totally con- 
sumed. He never fully recovered from this loss, and 
in 1S2S he sold his mill property. He continued to 
assert the same spirit of iudepeiidonce which always 
supported him. He had a small pension, quite in- 
ade(|uate to his iieetis, and up to a short time before 
his death he cultivated with his own hands his little 
farm, guiding the plow over his scanty acres till more 
than ninety-five years had bowed his venerable form, 
content so long as he was self-supporting. 

He was a sincere and devout Christian. He joined 
the Unitarian movement, and was to the time of his 
death an ofiicer of that church, constant in attend- 
ance and faithful in his duties, and himself harness- 
ing his horse in his later years to go from his farm to 
divine service. 

His private virtues, no less than his distinguished 
services to his country, endeared him to his towns- 
men, and his death, which occurred November 1, 
184.5, at the age of nearly ninety-seven years, was sin- 
cerely mourned. On the third of November a funeral 
oration was pronounced in the Vnitaritm Church by 
Hon. Daniel P. King, and he was buried with mili- 
tary and civic honors, suited to the brave soldier and 
the faithful citizen. The following order of proces- 
sion has been preserved, and may be of interest from 
its local references ; 

F.scoKi, 

Consisting of the .Salem .\rlillcry, the Danvers Light Infantry, 

the Salem Light Infantry and the Lynn Rifle Corps (the latter 

bearing a banner presented by tlie hands of Cen. Foster to the 

company in 18;tfi. This banner was shrouded in crape. 

The escort was a detaclinient from Gen. Sutton's 

brigade, and was under the immediate com- 

nuindofCol. Andrews). 

Hearse, Hanked by a military guanl. 

Family of the decejised in Carriages. 

II and staff, anil Military Offl.ers in uniform in 



nrig-G. 



Ca 





Col 


niittpe 


of 


\rra 


igem 


^nts. 




Olh 
Ci 


■iating 
vil onii 


an 


otb 
oft 


•r Cle 


rg.v. 




Dan 


vera M 
Fire 


•cl 
>e 


arm 


Inst 
ent. 


lute 


Foster 


•• Kngine Co. 


N 




in da 


kil 


Engi 


»o Co., 


No. 8, 


wi 


h ba 


Iges 1 


nd i 




Cilizei 


sof th 
Citizen 


" 


ighl 
f nil 


oriiig 


low 



(Jeneral Foster was buried in Harmony Grove 
Cemetery, in a lot given by (Jcneral Sutton, near the 
Peabody entrance on Grove Street. 

A lino portrait of General Foster hangs in the 
trustees' room at the Peabody Institute. It was 
painted by 0.sgood, of Salem, ;ind is the gift of Flijab 
W. Upton. 



1046 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Dr. Andrew Nichols. — Andrew Nichols, the son 
of Andr.'w and Eunice Nichols, \va.s born in the 
North Parish of Panvcrs November 22, 1785. He 
worked on his father's farm till he was eighteen 
years old, gaining his education (rom the common 
schools of the town. He took a course of study at 
the academy in Andover, and in April, 1K05, he be- 
gan the study of medicine with Dr. Manning in Bil- 
lerica, going with him to Cambridge and Harvard. 
In July, 3807, he became a student with Dr. Water- 
house, of Cambridge ; and a year later, in July, 1808, 
he began the practice of medicine in South Danvers. 

He soon attained a leading position as a practicing 
physician, and liis energetic disposition and sincere 
public spirit brought him into prominence in town 
affairs. 

He was a progressive and original thinker, a man 
of vigorous mental fibre. He was an enthusiastic vo- 
tary of natural science, a fearless advocate of temper- 
ance reform, and an early adherent of the anti- 
slavery movement. He undertook many offices of 
public trust in the town, and was particularly inter- 
ested in educational matters. With all the require- 
ments of his profession, he found time not only for 
the pursuit of scientific knowledge, but for the study 
of local history and antir)uitie8, for active engagement 
in temperance and other reform movements, and the 
faithful performance of duties assumed by him in 
town affairs, especially in the conduct of the schools. 

In his relations with others, whether in the practice 
of his profession or the participation in the social life 
of the town, he was marked by noble personal quali- 
ties, by unblemished purity of character and a high 
sense of honor, sincere religious convictions, and a 
broad and kindly sympathy for all who needed it. 
His life in South Danvers covered the period of its 
development from a quiet village to a manulVicturing 
community; he was the literary friend and compan- 
ion of Fitch Poole and of Kufus Choate, and a prom- 
inent figure in the intellectual life of the town at the 
time when the standard of thought was high in New 
England towns — the era of plain living and high 
thinking, before the lecture system had degenerated 
into elocutionary athletics, and while the foremost 
thinkers of the country spoke directly to the people. 

He was a student of literature, and was the author 
of several poems and addresses. In 1811, he delivered 
a Masonic address in Danvers. He was deeply inter- 
ested in Freemasonry ; he was the first master of Jor- 
dan Lodge of Free Masons in Danvers, instituted in 
1808, and in 1831 he wrote and published a poem enti- 
tled "The Spirit of Freemasonry." In 1819 he de- 
livered an address in Danvers entitled " Temperance 
and Morality," in which he took advanced ground. 
In 1836 he delivered the annual address before the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, of which he was a 
member from 1811 to 184t), and a councillor. The 
subject of the address was" Irritation of the Nerves." 
At the Centennial Celebration of the town of Dan- 



vers, in 1852, he delivered a historical poem, entitled 
" Danvers," which shows his intimate acquaintance 
with old-time customs and traditions. 

He was an enthusiastic student of the growing 
scienceof geology, and alearned and skillful botanist, 
and spent much time from a lei-sure by no means ex- 
tended in exploring the woods and fieldsof his native 
town and county, in search of geological specimens 
and rare flowers and plants ; taking an especial inter- 
est in native wild flowers. Although his farming ex- 
perience was confined to his early years, his interest 
in agricultural matters and his knowledge of the sub- 
ject was so great that he was a member and at one 
time the treasurer of the Essex Agricultural Society. 
He was the orator of the society at Topsfield, October 
6, 1820. 

In 1833 the Essex County Natural History Society, 
afterward merged in the Essex Institute, was formed; 
a project in which Dr. Nichols took great interest, 
from his enthusiastic devotion to all branches of 
scientific research. He presided at the meeting of or- 
ganization, December 16, 1833, and was elected the 
first president of the society, a position which beheld 
till 1846, remaining a member till his death. He was 
also, for many years, the presidentof the Essex South 
District Medical Society. 

Dr. Nichols died at his residence in South Dan- 
vers, in the house which now stands back of the 
building of the Essex Club, on Main Street, near 
the square, on the 30th of March, 1853. A funeral 
discourse was delivered by Rev. F. P. Appleton, at 
the Unitarian Church, where he attended worship, 
on April 3, 1853, and his death was formally noticed 
by the societies and organizations in which he had 
taken so active a part ; an obituary sketch was pre- 
pared by Dr. Samuel A. Lord, and published in the 
proceedings of the Massachusetts Medical Society ; 
but no adequate memorial of his life has been com- 
piled. 

A striking portrait of Dr. Nichols hangs in the 
rooms of the Essex Institute in Salem, painted by his 
niece, Mrs. Berry, of Danvers. It conveys a strong 
impression of the vigor and individuality of the man 
and gives token of a character which might well have 
left a lasting impre-sion even on a larger and more 
cultured community than his native town that he 
loved so well. 

Hon. Daniel P. King was born January 8, 1801, 
in the South Parish of the old town of Danvers, which 
afterwards became the town of Peabody. His parents 
Daniel and Phcebe (Upton) King, came of families 
long settled in that vicinity. William King, the an- 
cestor of the King family, was one of the original set- 
tlers, having received a grant of land in 1636, and 
from that day to the present the King family has 
maintained its ownership of land in the vicinity, and 
in every generation its representatives have held an 
honorable place among their townsmen for those qual- 
ities of industry, intelligence and sturdy independ- 





/^^^-^^ «:^<^><^1-^ 




I'KAHODY. 



1047 



ence of character which mark the ilescctKhint.i of so 
many of the pioneers in tlie I'urilan settlement of New 
Enghmd. Tor reasons reniarkeii in the liistoricnl 
sketch of tlie town, the jioliey of tluise who undertook 
the direction of the settlement of this region had lor 
its result tlie growth of a comnuinity marked l>_v the 
superior character of its individual niemhers. Though 
they diose the agricultural life, and their lot was cast 
amid the simplest of social customs and methoils of 
living, they not only maintained among themselves 
an unusual degreeof intellectual development, but hy 
wise forethought in educational atl'airs and careful 
home-training these same (|ualities, along with the 
loyalty to their native soil, which was an early char- 
acteristic, have been perpetuated to the present time. 
By internuirriage, Mr. King numbered among his an- 
cestors not only those families whose names were 
borne by his father and mother, but he was allied 
with the Pages, the Pntnams, the Townes, the Nurses, 
the Jaeobses and Flints, and others of those who have 
dwelt in that region since the earliest settlement. As 
Jlr. U|)ham remarks, in his memoir to Mr. King, he 
may be considered as a specimen of the manhood de- 
veloped by the intUiences long operating in this lo- 
cality upon the generations which have occupied it. 

riis family had from the (irst held a respeetaijle 
position as farmers, and in later times had been en- 
riched by extensive trading, so thai the father of the 
subject of this sketch was possessed of means large 
for that time, and Daniel I'. King was enabled to 
enjoy the advantages of a thorough academic educa- 
tion. His early training in the district scIkxjI was 
continued at Saco in Maine, and at Phillips' Acad- 
emy in Andover, where his preparation for college 
was completed. He took his degrees at Harvard 
University, graduating in the class of 1823. As a 
boy he showed the same traits which marked his 
mature life. His exactness of mind, clearness of 
memory for personal and historic; details, quiet and 
courteous bearing, and respectful observance of the 
wliolc-some regulations of school life, attracted atten- 
tion even from his schoolmates, who never failed to 
be won by the cliarra of his thoughtful and warm- 
hearted personality. His college life illustrates the 
peculiarity of his character, that he cared little for 
rivalry with his classmates, and had small aml)ition 
to attain eminent distinction as a scholar. He 
quietly ))Ursued his college course, accpiiring by care- 
ful study a knowledge more practical than showy, 
and enriching his mind with a culture which enabled 
him to make the fullest use of his luitural pcjwers, 
and which gave him a mental grip and vigor that 
never failcil of honorable attainment in the responsi- 
bilities which his singularly successful public life 
brought to him. Though known to be a young man 
of amiile means, his taste and judgment avoided 
luxury an<l display, and made him rather a repre- 
sentative of the plain farming community from which 
he sprung. Notwithstanding his quiet and unassum- 



ing manner of life, the respectful goud will of his 
classmates toward him svas shown by liis eU-ctinn as 
marshal at the cummencement exercises. 

.After graduation, he began the study of the law, 
but did not develop a taste for that profession, 
though his qualities and attainments would uiKhiulit- 
edly have insured success as a lawyer. The agricul- 
tural life had the greatest attractions for him, and 
after his marriage, in l.'<24, to Miss Sarah P. Plint, 
he took up his residence on the excellent and beauti- 
fully situate<l farm near his home, left Ijy her father, 
Hezekiah Flint, which had been in the possession of 
the Flint family for two centuries, and became a 
practical and successful farmer, employing his leisure 
time in reading the masters ol' l",ngli^li literature, 
not neglecting the jiursuit of classical studies, which 
he greatly enjoyed. It was a life not common then, 
and still more uncotnmon now in this country ; l)Ut 
he was not a man who could easily be spared from 
public duties, and it was not long before his towns- 
men learned to iiilnisl their luosl important interests 
to his charge. It is to Ih' remarked of this period of 
his life, which was surely the happiest, that wliile 
there was nothing of the si>eiiilator or money seeker 
about his ways, he had a shrewdness aiul conserva- 
tism which saved him from the extravagant mistakes 
of most gentlemen farmers, and gave him a well- 
earned reputation among his neighbor husbandmen. 

In 1835 he was elected a reiu'esentative of his 
native town in the State Legislature. He had been 
put forward several years before, but failed of his 
election by one vote. He did not take this much to 
heart, but observed in his (piiet way that he owed his 
fortunate escape to having himself voted for the suc- 
cessful candidate ; and he claimed thereby the right 
to share in the satislaction and congratulations of the 
winning party. 

In 183G, he was selected by his townsmen to de- 
liver the address at the laying of the corner-stone of 
the monument erected in honor of those who fell at 
the battle of Lexington ; a duty which he iierformed 
with the same careful historical researcli and happy 
facility of speech which marked his later elforts. 
He afterward, in 18-1.'), delivered a eulogy on General 
Foster, the hero of that light. 

While a luember of the House of llepresentatives, 
he rendered a great service to the cause of education 
by introducing and carrying into effect an order in- 
structing the Committee on Kdiication to consider 
the cxi)ediency of j)roviding by law for the better 
education (jf teachers of the public schools. This 
movement, followed up and enforced by able co- 
workers, led to the establishment of the Hoard of 
Kducation, and of the several Normal Schools in the 
commonwealth. 

Jlr. King's chief elforts as a State legislator were 
in aid of the agricultural interest, wliich was through 
life an object dear to him. He was impressed with 
the opinion that there was great need of more scien- 



1048 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



tific teaching and application in agriculture, and he 
lost no opportunity of aiding plans for meeting this 
need. He brought forward a proposition, since car- 
ried into effect, of establishing a college for this de- 
partment of instruction, and for providing a profes- 
sorship of the same in Harvard College. While in 
Congress in 1S48, he resisted successfully an attempt 
to reduce the number of copies printed of the Annual 
Agricultural Report prepared by the Commissioner 
of Patents. 

He served two years in the House, ;md w:is then 
returned as a Senator from Essex County. He con- 
tinued in the Senate four years, during the hist two 
of which he was President of that body, and won the 
highest opinions by his performance of the duties of 
the office. 

In 1842 he was again elected to the House, and 
after an exciting contest for Speaker, Mr. King, 
though not at first a candidate, was elected by a 
majority of one vote. His known devotion to ad- 
vanced views in opposition to slavery was the means 
of attracting votes which could not be commanded 
by the other Whig candidate. This success gave him 
a commanding position in the Commonwealth, and 
was not the only occasion on which, though an un- 
deviating Whig, he received support outside of party 
line-*. He began to be called the " man of luck,'' and 
his good fortune, which was in reality the result of a 
trust in his ability and uprightness going beyond 
party lines, followed him all his life through. 

After seven years' service in the legislature, he was 
elected a representative to Congress in 1843. There 
had been two unsuccessful attempts to elect a con- 
gressman from the district of which Danvers was a 
part. At that time, a majority of the votes was 
necessary to elect, and after the two contests the 
Whig candidate withdrew, and Mr. King took his 
place. At the next special election, the Democratic 
plurality was greatly reduced, and the Democratic 
candidate, a man distinguished in his party, with- 
drew rather than meet the defeat which he foresaw. 
In the fourth trial, Mr. King received a majority of 
eighty-two votes, and he held the district by secure 
majorities to the end of his life. 

He early took a part in the important and exciting 
debates of the period. Within a few days after he 
took his seat, he presented the resolves of the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts against the anncx.ation of 
Texa«, and shortly afterward he took part in a warm 
debate in behalf of slaves and free negroes in the 
District of Columbia. 

He was one of the foremost champions of the anti- 
slavery cause, and was ever fearless in his eff'orts and 
speech. While he was yet a new member, in January, 
1844, a southern member interrupted him while he was 
presenting, as the voice of Massachusetts freemen, 
certain resolves of the Legislature of Massachusetts, 
relating to slavery, to ask whether the pelitions had 
not been signed and prepared by a runaway slave 



from Virginia. Mr. King replied, that " he presumed 
the petition was signed by freemen only, for in 
Massachusetts they had no slaves, but every man. 
created in the image of his Maker," — at this poiiii 
the whole of the angry violence of the friends of 
slavery was exerted to intimidate and suppress him ; 
but raising his voice to the full power and height for 
which it was remarkable, he continued in tones dis- 
tinctly heard above the uproar "owes allegiance in 
Him alone." 

So great was the impression of personal power 
then exhibited, that although he was declared out nf 
order by the Speaker, he was allowed to continue liis 
speech, and no attempt was ever again made to over- 
awe or silence him. The incident made a deep 
impression in his favor not only among the friends of 
liberty, but with all who admired courage and address. 
From that day he was marked as a leader. 

In 1844 he introduced and carried an amendment 
prohibiting spirit rations in the navy, and also used 
his influence toward the completion of coast improve- 
ments at Rockport, Mass. He was placed upon 
important committees of the House, and was success- 
ful in urging reforms, and in securing support for 
enterprises of education and public improvements. 
He was an earnest supporter of the continuance of 
the fishing bounties, and a sincere friend of the hardy 
and patriotic fishermen of his native stute; and on 
more than one occasion his voice and influence were 
successful in securing relief for wronged or disabled 
fishermen and seamen, and for the necessities of the 
Naval Hospital. He was deeply interested in the 
application of the Smithsonian Fund, and urged the 
claims of agriculture to its assistance. He attempted 
to obtain from Congress provision for the erection of 
a monument to General Warren, and he reported a 
bill to erect a monument to General Herkimer. 

The Mexican War met with his persistent and un- 
compromising opposition. He lost no opportunity to 
vote against it from first to last. On the pa»sage of 
the bill to raise volunteer and other troops for the 
war, there were one hundred and fifty-nine yeas to 
four nays, two of which were those of John Quincy 
Adams and Daniel P. King. His opposition to the 
war endeared him to the Society of Friends, and on 
two occasions he presented to Congress the memorials 
of the society against the war, and succeeded in ob- 
taining recognition for them ; and in the second in- 
stance, in 1848, he obtained, in the face of vigorous 
opposition, not only a proper reference of the me- 
morial, but a vote to print it. In a speech delivered 
on the 4th of February, 1847, he declared that he 
wished his epitaph might say of him, — "A Lover of 
Peace, of Liberty, of his Country — he voted against 
the Mexican War." His objection to the Mexican 
War did not prevent him from being a sincere friend 
to the patriotic soldier, and in 1850 he made an earn- 
est effort to extend and complete the provisions of 
law in favor of the veterans of 1812. 



rEABODY. 



1049 



He held for a long time the chairmanship of the 
Committee on Accounts, and distinguished himself 
by instituting reforms in contingent ex[)crises. On 
one occasion a member of the opposing [):irty was ap- 
pointed by Mr. Winthrop, then Speaker of the House, 
to the chairmanship of that coniniittce, but declined 
it in favor of the pre-eminent qualitications of Mr. 
King for tlie i)lace. In 1849, under a Democratic 
Speaker, he still retained this chairmanship. He 
also served as chairman and member of other import- 
ant committees, and was frequently entrusted with 
the duty of making up their reports, and conducting 
the management of them in the Ilou.se, in which he 
was remarkably successful. 

While in Congress Mr. King confined himself 
mostly to incidental debates and to discussions 
arising from hour to hour. But on the few occasions 
when he essayed a more elaborate ertbrt, he displayed 
marked powers as a speaker, and was fluent in style 
and thought, and always impressive from the unmis- 
takable sincerity and profoundness of his convictions. 
His success as a public speaker, and indeed as a pub- 
lic man, rested not so much upon any e.\terior or ap- 
parent qualifications as upon the native vigor of mind 
and force of personal character, which never failed to 
e.tert a powerful influence over those with whom he 
came in contact, and to command attention and re- 
spect even from his strongest political opponents. 

During his last years in Congress he fearlessly es- 
poused the cause of liberty, and his name was known 
throughout the country, not merely for bis opinions, 
but for his readine.-s in argument and his skill and 
success in debate. In his last elaborate speech, in 
May, 1850, he reaffirmed the principles to whu'h he 
had always been so consistent, and eloquently an- 
nounced his unalterable determination to oppose the 
spread of slavery. 

Such was his devotion to his public duties that he 
would suffer no private interest to interfere with bis 
presence at important junctures. On one occasion, 
as related l>y his colleague, the Hon. John G. Palfrey, 
he received news of the severe illness of a beloved 
daughter. At the time the debate upon an import- 
ant measure of public policy was drawing to a close, 
and he refused to leave his post until the final vote 
on the question was taken. He then set out at once, 
but arrived at bis home too late to see his child alive. 
Such heroic devotion to duty in one so afl'ectionate 
and warm-hearted ranks with the noblest examples 
of history. 

His religious life and character were sincere and 
earnest. He attended the Unitarian Church in the 
South Parish of Diinvers, and was most faithful in 
his duties there. While the presiding oflicer of the 
Senate of Massachusetts he confided to an intimate 
friend that he never left his loilgingsto take his place 
in the Stale-House without first invoking in prayer 
guidance from aix)ve. He carried his religious prin- 
ciples into the smallest details of life, and was always 
6G 



ready for occasions to do good, either by the thought- 
ful and liberal bestowal of charity, or by kindly in- 
terest and advice. In paying lril)ate to his charac- 
ter upon the occasion of the form d iinnouncemcnt of 
his death in the Ilou-e of Ile[)rL'seiitatives, Mr. 
Joseph II. Chandler, of Philadelphia, summed U|) a 
most feeling and appreciative speech by saying, " If I 
were called upon to present, from public life, the 
true exemplification of the Christian gentleman, I 
know of no character that would more beautifully il- 
lustrate the idea, and supply the model, than that of 
Daniel P. King." 

On the lOlh of July, 18.J0, bo left Washington to 
attend to .some business requiring his presence at 
home. He had previously been somewhat unwell, 
though his indisposition had not been considered 
dangerous. He see'ued, for a few days, to improve 
with the rest from public duties; but very soon the 
disease took on a more serious form, and he died on 
the 2;5tli of July. His return and illness had hardly 
become known beyond the immediate neighborhood, 
and the announcement of his death brought a shock 
deei)ly felt tlirougboul the whole country. 

His healih had generally been good, ami his well 
known simplicity of living ai)[)arently had its effect 
in a still y()utliful freshness of complexion and ap- 
pearance. But it is probable that his long residence 
away from his beloved farm, and the pressure of ir- 
regular hours and responsible duties, had slowly un- 
dermined his powers of resistance to illness, and 
when be at last broke down, the end came quickly. 

In Congress, and by the press and individuals 
throughout the land, the most sincere tributes were 
paid to his memory ; and nowhere more deeply than 
in his native town and among his own kindred and 
neighbors, was his loss felt and grieved for, and his 
character ap[)reciated and lauded. He was in the 
truest sense a representative ol' the best element of 
New England ; stainless in private character, unas- 
suming in life and manners, clear and vigorous in in- 
tellect and while not seeking advancement, not 
shrinking from any responsibility which came as his 
duty; inflexible in principles and fearless in their 
utterance, yi-t never desirous of useless quirrels; 
having "malice toward none and charity for all." His 
character gathered weight with years, until he wield- 
ed an influence which seemed inexplicable to those 
who looked at the surface and saw only the ])lain, 
quiet and utiobtrusive man, not marked by striking 
qualities of appearance or adilress, and hardly sug- 
gesting in his kindly and genial face that intellectual 
and moral vigor and energy which always rose to the 
full height of the occasion. Without laying claim 
to the title of a great man, he filled every position 
to which his remarkable fortune called him, nobly 
and with effective results. 

Beside his political honors, he was f )r many years 
a trustee of the Massachusetts Lunatic Asylum, a 
member of the Essex Historical Society, of the Es- 



1050 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



sex Natural History Society and of the New Eng- 
land Historico-Genealogical Society. He was a mem- 
ber and trustee of the Massachusetts Society for pro- 
moting agriculture, and an officer of the Essex Agri- 
cultural Society. 

His political life seeraed to be in its very prime of 
successful vigor when he left Washington never to re- 
turn. Mr. Upham, to whose very interesting and 
valuable memoir the writer of this brief outline is 
chiefly indebted for his materials, believed that if 
Mr. King had lived he would have been within no 
long time Governor of Massachusetts. Certain it is, 
that in the stormy times which followed, his voice 
and his influence would ever have been found on the 
side of liberty, union and equal rights for all. 

George Peabody, the son of Thomas and Judith 
Peabody, was born P'ebruary 18, 1795, iu a house still 
standing in Peabody, on the northerly side of Wash- 
ington Street, the old Boston road. The Peabody 
family is one of historic distinction, both in England 
and in this country. George Peabody was a descend- 
ant of Lieut. Francis Pabody, who emigrated from 
St. Albans, Hertfordshire, Eugland, in 1635, and set- 
tled in Topsfield, then a part of Salem Village, in 
1667, where he died in 1698. The name of Peabody 
is found in the early annals of the province, and sev- 
eral of the name served honorably in the various wars 
in which the mother country enlisted the services of 
her colonists; and in the Revolution from Bunker's 
Hill and the siege of Boston, to the end of that 
triumphant struggle, the name is borne upon the 
roll of honor of those who faithfully served their 
country. 

The branch of the family to which George Pea- 
body belonged, was but poorly endowed with worldly 
goods at the time of his birth. He gained his early 
education in the district school of the town, and 
when but twelve years of age he went to work in 
the grocery store of Captain Sylvester Proctor, in 
1807. Captain Proctor's store stood for many years 
in the place now occupied by Mr. Grosvenor's apothe- 
cary store. It was a small building, the upper part 
being used as a residence; and in the attic George 
had his room while he worked with Captain Proc- 
tor. His treatment here was kind, and Mr. Peabody 
always retained a warm feeling for Captain Proc- 
tor, and when in 1852 he gave the beginning of the 
fund which was to found a public library in his 
native town, he requested that the venerable Captain 
Proctor should be selected to lay the corner stone of 
the edifice. Unfortunately, the old gentleman did 
not live to perform that ceremony, to which he had 
looked forward with the deepest interest. 

Mr. Peabody is said to have told the story that 
the first dollar he ever earned was while he was yet 
a schoil-boy, for tending a little booth for the sale 
of apples and other delicacies at some celebration. 
He stuck to his post, in spite of the fa^jcinatious of 
the country sports about him, and was rewarded for 



his faithfulness with a dollar, which he said gave 
him more pleasure than any transaction in all the 
great and successful financial operations of his later 
days. 

After remaining with his first employer about three 
years, he went to Thetford, Vt., where he lived for a 
year with his maternal grandfather, Jeremiah Dodge, 
a farmer. In 1811 he became a clerk in the store of his 
brother David, in Newburyport. It is recalled that his 
superior penmanship, a characteristic which he pre- 
served throughout his life, caused him to be selected, 
while in Newburyport, to write ballots for the Federal 
party, for which he received payment outside of his 
scanty wages as clerk. 

He had not been long in Newburyport, when a 
disastrous fire, which he himself is said to have been 
the first to discover, caused great injury to that town, 
and so affected his brother's business that he was 
again thrown upon his own resources. 

Although but sixteen years of age, he was gifted 
with a manly and vigorous frame, a handsome face 
and figure, and a prepossessing manner and address, 
which with his previous experience, enabled him 
successfully to venture in business by himself. He 
obtained from Mr. Prescott Spaulding, of Newbury- 
port, letters which enabled him to purchase on credit 
from James Reed, of Boston, two thousand dollars 
worth of goods, which he disposed of to advantage. 
He always spoke with gratitude of Mr. Spaulding 
and Mr. Reed, and ascribed to their kindly assistance 
his first success in commercial life. 

In 1812 he accompanied his uncle. Gen. John Pea- 
body, to Georgetown, D. C, where the two engaged in 
business together for two years. After his establish- 
ment in business here, the first consignment made to 
him was by Francis Todd, of Newburyport. He en- 
tertained a warm regard for that town, though he 
had lived there so short a time; and in after years 
he made a donation to the public library of the 
town. 

He manifested unusual ability as commercial as- 
sistant in his uncle's business. His unfailing courte- 
sy and affability won him many friends. It was said 
of him in after life that he would be " a popular man 
if he was not worth a dollar ; " and that quality was 
no small factor in his success. Even in the height of 
his commercial importance he was remarkably unas- 
suming in dress and deportment ; he was scrupulous- 
ly exact and punctual in the discharge of his obliga- 
tions, whether business or personal; and his success 
was no more than the natural result of a life singu- 
larly well-planned to effect financial success. 

He was a good writer and speaker, and some of his 
speeches and letters are remarkable (or a simple and 
natural eloquence of style and expression. His con- 
versational powers were of a high order. 

He never married, and when living in London he 
never had a hou.se of his own, but lived in lodgings; 
and his personal expenses were never, even in his 



PEABODY. 



1051 



latter days, large, for he cared little for luxuries, and 
his tastes were simple. At the sumptuous dinners 
which he often jrave, he was wont to fare simply from 
some common dish, thou<;h he was particular about 
the appointments of his table, and prided himself on 
its excellence. Fruit »•;« almost his only table lu.x- 
ury. Until his failing strength made it a neces:<ity, 
he kept no valet. 

He had a very retentive memory, particularly in 
regard to names and places, and would give the most 
minute particulars of events that had occurred many 
years before. 

He was very fond of singing. Scottish songs being 
his favorites. 

In 1814. when only nineteen years of age, he en- 
tered into partnership, in the wholesale dry goods 
business, with Mr. Eli-sha Kiggs, in (ieorgetown ; Mr. 
Kiggs furnishing the capital, and Mr. Peabody con- 
ducting the business as active jtartiier. 

During the War of 1812, although underage, he 
joined it volunteer company of artillery, and did mil- 
itary duty at Fort Warburton, which commanded the 
river approach to Wiishington. For this service, to- 
gether with a previous short service at Newburyport, 
he long afterward received one of the grants of land 
bestowed by Congress upon the soldiers of that time. 

The war over, he entered heartily into the develop- 
ment of his business, and frequently took long jour- 
neys alone on horseback to extend the sales of the 
house. In 181-5 the house removed to Baltimore, and 
in 1822 branch houses were established in New York 
and Philadelphia. 

The business proved very successful, owing chiefly 
to the talent and industry of Mr. Peabody ; and when 
by the retirement of Mr. Elisha Riggs, in 1830, Mr. 
Peabody became the senior partner of the firm, the 
house of Peabody, Uiggs & Company, took rank with 
the leading concerns of the country. In the course 
of his business he made several visits to Europe, 
going to London first in 1827. 

In 1837, having withdrawn from the firm of Pea- 
body, Kiggs & Company, he began business with oth- 
ers as a merchant an<l money broker, by the style of 
"George Peabody & Co., of Warn ford Court, City." 
The firm held deposits for customers, discounted bills, 
negotiated loans and bought or sold stocks. He was 
remarkably successful in his operations, and soon be- 
gan to accumulate the foundation of the large fortune 
which he eventually attained. 

He never forgot his American citizenship, but was 
known throughout his life as the upholder of the 
credit of American securities; his assistance availed 
to carry the finances of his adopted State, Maryland, 
safely over a critical period, and at a time when faith 
in American securities was depressed in London, his 
far-sighted and patriotic action helped greatly to re- 
establish confidence and credit. Sj>eaking at Balti- 
more, in November, 1866, he said, " Fellow-citizens, 
the Union of the States of America was one of the 



earliest objects of my childhood's reverence. For the 
independence of our country, my father bore arms in 
some of the darkest days of the llevolutioii ; and 
from him and from his example, I learned to love 
and honor that Union. Later in life, I learned more 
fully its inestimable worth; perhaps more fully than 
most have done, for, born and educated at the North, 
then living nearly twenty years at the South, and thus 
learning, in the best school, the character and life of 
her people; finally, in the course of a long residence 
abroad, being thrown in intimate contact with in- 
dividuals of every section of our glorious land, I 
came, as do most Americans who live long in foreign 
lands, to love our country as a whole ; to know and 
take pride in all her sons, as equally countrymen ; to 
know no North, no South, no East, no West. And so 
I wish publicly to avow, that, during the terrible con- 
test through which the nation has passed, my sympa- 
thies were still and always will be with the Union ; 
that my uniform course tended to assist, but never to 
injure, the credit of the government of the Union; 
and, at the close of the war, three-fourtiis of all the 
property I possessed had been invested in United 
States Government and State securities, and remains 
.so at this time." During the war he gave liberally to 
various .sanitary fairs. 

At the time of the Great Exhibition of 18.')1, in the 
absence of appro])riations by Congress, the American 
exhibitors at the Crystal Palace found themselves in 
serious difficulty for lack of funds to fit up the 
American department, and for a time the exhibitors 
were disheartened. At this critical moment, Mr. 
Peabody did what Congress should have done, and by 
the advance of a large sum enabled his countrymen 
to take their proper place in the Exhibition. It was 
an act which earned the gratitude of all Americans. 
In the same year he gave his first great Fourth of 
.July feast, at Willis's Rooms, to American citizens 
and the best society of London, headed by the Duke 
of Wellington. Mr. Peabody, after this, extended 
his hospitality to a larger extent than ever before; 
he invited to dinner every person who brought a letter 
of credit on his house ; and celebrated every Fourth 
of July by a dinner to the Americans in London, 
inviting some distinguished English friends to meet 
them. 

Mr. Peabody bad now accomplislicil the object of 
his life, so far as concerned the ac<iuisition of a large 
fortune. lie had always been liberal in giving to 
worthy objects; in 1836, when the Lexington Monu- 
ment in Danvers was erected, he contributed the 
balance of several hundred dollars necessary to com- 
plete the work. When the South Church in Danvers 
was destroyed by fire, he made a liberal contribution 
toward rebuilding it ; and the spirit which he after- 
ward showed had already been manifest in smaller 
things. 

But about this time beseems to have conceived the 
idea of giving his great wealth in such a way that he 



1053 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



mifrht direct the application of it while he yet lived. 
In 1852, he made llie gift to the town of Danvers, of 
■which an account has been given elsewhere, of 
$20,000, which was increased before his death to 
$200,000. 

The same year, he provided the means of fitting 
out the " Advance," Dr. Kane's ship, for the Arctic 
voyage in search of Sir John Franklin. 

In 1857, he made his first donation to the Peabody 
Institute in Baltimore, to which he gave in all up- 
wards of $1,000,000. 

In 1856, Mr. Peabody visited this country. He was 
tendered a public reception by a committee of dis- 
tinguished Americans, but declined all public recep- 
tions except in his native town. 

On the 9th of October, 1856, a reception and dinner 
was given to Mr. Peabody by the people of Danvers. 
The children of the schools made up a procession 
brilliant with emblematic costumes and banners ; 
elaborate decorations were placed upon public and 
private buildings, and acrcss tlie streets arches of wel- 
come were placed. A distinguished gathering of in- 
vited guests met in the Peabody Institute, and among 
the speakers were Gov. Gardner, Edward Everett, 
President Walker, Prof. C. C. Felton and other emi- 
nent men. A full account of this reception, includ- 
ing a sketch of the Peabody Institute to that time, 
was published by the town. 

Mr. Peabody did not long remain in this country at 
this visit. 

In 185!) he set about carrying out a long cherished 
purpose of establishing homes for the deserving poor 
of London ; for this purpose, he gave in all, including 
a bequest in his will, £500,000. This great charity 
has been admirably managed by the trustees, and the 
value of the property nearly or quite doubled, by the 
investment of income. Over twenty thousand persons 
are accommodated in the tenements comprised in this 
charity, the average rent of each of the five thousand 
separate dwellings being 4«. 9\d. per week. The 
tenants are not paupers, but artisans and laboring 
men and women of a great variety of occupations. 
There are eighteen diflierent locations where blocks 
of buildings have been erected under the trust. 

In 18G6 Mr. Peabody again returned to this coun- 
try, and set about the arrangement of a series of gifts 
to charities and institutions of learning which was 
without a parallel, and which doubtless formed the 
inspiration for later gifts by wealthy men during their 
lifetime. 

He first turned his altenlion to his native town of 
South Danvers, and by a gift of one hundred thous- 
and dollars, placed the institute there on a substan- 
tial foundation. He gave fifty thousand dollars to 
the Peabody Institute in Danvers in September, 1866. 
About the same time, he established libraries on a 
smaller scale at Thetford, Vermont, and at George- 
town, Mass., the residence of his mother. 
In October, 1866, he made a donation of one hundred 



and fifty thousand dollars to Yale College to found a 
museum of natural history ; and the same month he 
gave one liundred and fifty tliousand dollars to found a 
museum of American archaeology and ethnology in 
connection witli Harvard University, 

In January, 18G7, he gave twenty thousand dollars 
to the Massachusetts Historical Society; and duriiifr 
the next month he gave one hundred and (diiy 
thousand dollars to found the Peabody Academy it 
Science in connection with the Essex Institute in 
Salem. At about the came time he gave twenty-five 
thousand dollars to Kenyon College, of which his 
friend. Bishop Mcllvaine, was then president. In 
1867, too, he gave fifteen thousand dollars to New- 
buryport, for the public library. He gave to Philli]is 
Academy, at Andover, Mass., the sum of twenty-five 
thousand dollars. 

Duringthis visit hebegan the erection of a memorial 
church in the name of his sister, Mrs. J. P. Russell, 
and himself, to the memory of his mother, in George 
town, at a cost of one hundred thousand dollars. It 
was dedicated in 1868, and John G. Whittier wrote a 
poem for the occasion. 

The greatest of his American charities, the South- 
ern Education Fund, was begun by him during this 
visit to America ; by the gift to a board of tru.stees of 
one million dollars in available funds, and one mil- 
lion dollars in bonds of the State of Mississippi, 
which it was hoped the nature of the gift might im- 
])el that State to redeem, as it had been decided she 
was legally bound to do. But this hope has never 
yet been realized ; and on his last visit, in 1869, Mr. 
Peabody ailded one million to the ca.sh capital of the 
fund, making the whole gift three million dollars. 

His health had already begun to fail before his last 
visit, in 1869. He was very desirous to meet once 
more the various boards which had in charge his 
princely charities, and particularly the trustees of the 
Southern Education Fund ; and he accomplished that 
object. 

The last visit of a public nature which Mr. Peabody 
made to his native town was in the summer of 1869, 
when he invited a number of personal friends, and 
several of the trustees of his various charities, to meet 
him at the Peabody Institute. Among the guests 
were Charles Sumner, Robert C. Winihrop, Ex-gov- 
ernor Clifford, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Brief 
remarks were made by several of the guests, and Mr. 
Holmes read a short poem. 

A remark of Mr. Peabody's, spoken at the reunion, 
is characteristic of his life and its objects. " It is 
sometimes hard for one who has devoted the best part 
of his life to the accumulation of money, to spend it 
for others; but practise it, and keep on practising it, 
and I assure you it comes to be a pleasure." 

His last appearance in public was during the great 
Peace Jubilee, 1869, when he made a speech. He 
sought rest and renewed health at White Sulphur 
Springs, in Virginia, but without success, and re- 



PEABODY. 



1053 



turned to London in the hope that the change of air 
to h\» accu>tonicd liaunls niijrlit lie of benefit to him. 
But lie dill not rally as ln-lioped, and, growing rapidly 
worse, he died Novinilxr 4, 1809. 

The higliest honors were jiaid him, both in Eng- 
lainl and in his native country. A liincral service 
was performed over bis coflin in Westminster Abbey, 
and the 15isho|) of London preached a funeral ser- 
mon in the Abbey on the f-unday following. The 
British warsliip " Jlonanh," one of the finest iron- 
chids in tiie British navy, was ordered by lier Jlajes- 
ty's government to convey the remains of tlie philan- 
thropist to his native land, and it was convoyed by an 
American war ship, atid also a French vessel detailed 
by the Em|)eror for ihat service. One of the royal 
princes. Prince Arthur, accompanied the expedition, 
and attended the funeral e.'cercises in this country as 
the re|ire>cntative of his mother, the (iueen. 

The funeral fleet brouglit the body to Portland, 
Me., wlicre it lay in state; thence it was brought to 
his native town, then called by his own name, where, 
after lying in state in the building which be had 
given, it was buried in the family lot which he had 
selected in Harmony Grove Cemetery. The funeral 
exercises were held iti the Old Houtb Church, on the 
site where in a former edifice he had attended divine 
service as a boy. The whole town was in mourning; 
great crowds of strangers filled the streets; the 
funeral oration was eloquently and fittingly pro- 
nounced by Kobert C. Winlhroj); and amid a wild 
snow-storm, which sprang up during the ceremonies, 
the solemn procession wouml its slow way to the 
burial-place. 

The tbllowing is a list, not wholly complete, but 
giving most of his larger contributions to charity, ed- 
ucation and progress: 

To the Stnte of Maryliiiiil, money due Lim for nego- 

ImliiigSlulu loan of t8,(l'«i,il JCO.OnO 

To the PralHiclj- Institute, Bultinioro, imluJiuB ac- 

cincil intulcst I,.5fl0,0(!0 

To the Southern Eilmution Kuuil 3,(ltlii,0 

To Yale C-.llego loU,IIOO 

To llai'Valll t'oHege loll.lKIO 

To the IVahody Aiadeniy of Scionce, Salem 14ii,ioo 

To Phillilw Aciuloiny, Andover S!.">,' 00 

To the I'eaboily Institute, 1'eabo.ly 20U,IJ0il 

To the I'eulH^ly High Schjul, IVaUidy 'J,' 01) 

To till! I't-aljoily luBtilutu, Unn'era 5 7««) 

Tolho .M«»«icliua.-tt» Histoiical Society lili,0.,0 

To Kenjon College, Ohio 'rsOIIlJ 

To .NenbuoiMjrt forihe I'uMic Lil.niry l."),lilll) 

T.I llie Jlenioiiiil Cliuixh in Geiiigctown, Mass 100,1100 

To the lihrary in tioorgetowii 5,0<i0 

To the library in Thetford, Vermont H.r^lO 

To Kane's Ar<ticeX|iedilion 10,000 

To different sanitary fairs lO.tOO 

To un)»tid moneys advanced to uphold Iho credit of 

St»tcs 40,000 

To homes for the poor in London 2,50n,o<jo 

Total {8,W7,.>LiO 

f'esides these, Jlr. Peabody made a larire number 
of donatijTis for various |)iiblie purposes in sums 
ranging up to one tliouaand dollars, and extending 
back as far as 1835. 



His great charitable gifts brouglit world-wide 
recognition during his life-time. The Queen, on his 
refusal "i a baronetcy, sent him tin atito.Lrrapb Utter, 
wliicb he had indicated as a gift which would be 
specially valued by him, and accompanied it by a 
miniature portrait of herself in enamel on gold, Ijy 
Tilb, which is dei>osited at the Peabody Institute, 
Peabody, as a recognition of bis munificent gift to the 
poor of London. In IStili Congress ordered that a 
gold medal valued at live thous;iiid dollars be given 
him for his great gift to tlie South. The city of 
London [)reseiite<l liiin witli the freedom of the city 
in a gold box, and the Fishmongers' Comjiaiiy and 
Merchant Tailors' Fraternity, of thi^ aniMcnt London 
Guild-, honore<l him with membership ia their 
bodies, the Fisiimongers presenting their memorial 
in a gold l.ox. These valued gifts were presented by 
Mr. Peabody, with other valuable papers and memor- 
ials, to the Peabody Institute in Peabody, where they 
are treasured in la-ting remembrance of his bene- 
factions. 

FiTCii PooLK. the son of Deacon Fitch Poole, was 
born June 1.'5, ISOli, in tlie house in Poole's Hollow 
in the South Parish of Daiivers, built by his great- 
grandfather, .lohii Poole, about 1757. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools of the town, and having 
learned the trade of sheepskin and morocco maiiu- 
fiicturer, he engaged in that business in a store close 
by his birth-place, and during many years was inter- 
ested either by himself or in company with others in 
that branch of industry. He very early developed a 
decideil taste for literary |)ursuits, and became a 
correspondent of the newspajiers of the vicinity, 
sometimes treating of political matters and sometimes 
of the early history and traditions of the locality, ia 
which be was deeply versed, and which he made a 
life-long stu<ly, becoming a recognized authority on 
antiquarian matters, and disi>laying a never-failing 
enthusiasm in research and in the discussiou of all 
that ))ertained to town and early colonial history. 

His reading was varied and extensive, and his 
writing was marked by a natural and expressive 
style, which showed the originality of his thought, 
and was constantly (lavored witli a pi(|Uancy of idea 
and expression springing from his keen and delicate 
sense of humor, a quality which entered largely into 
his genial and winning i)ersonality, and which made 
liim through life a delightful companion whose every- 
day greeting had a cheerful and sunny influence, and 
who brought smiles into every company. 

Tlie artistic temperament was clearly shown in 
him, not only in his literary work, but in various 
other directions, particularly in a cleverness for cari- 
cature and liumorous sketches with the pencil, and an 
aptitude for modelling in plaster, which was remark- 
able considering his lack of elementary training for 
such work. Some portrait busts, and tilso .some 
original conceptions in plaster, particularly a series 
of representations of humorous characters in Irving's 



1054 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



" History of New York," show traces of distinct 
power and originality. 

His fondness for the humorous, and his quickness 
of wit, made him, particularly in his younger days, 
the centre of a little band of choice spirits, whose 
amusing exploits are still remembered by many of 
the people of South Danvers. 

The familiarity of intercourse in those early times, 
and the comparatively slighldifferencesof social rank 
in the community, encouraged a sort of practical 
joking, which was as harmless as practical joking 
ever is, and more than usually original and witty in 
its methods. Many were the individuals who un- 
wittingly made sport for these practical jokers, but it 
was rarely that any ill will grew out of their doings. 
The exhibition to friends for their criticism (some- 
times adverse), of a portrait of Mr. Poole really 
made up by the subject's inserting his living head 
into a place cut in the canvas; orders given to new 
recruits in the militia to parade at novel seasons, and 
with surprising equipments; half the town induced 
to visit the scene of a remarkable chasm formed in 
the Square on April-fools' day — such were some of 
the odd fancies which furnished amusement for the 
town's people. One of the most characteristic and 
successful of these practical jokes was carried out by 
Mr. Poole in later life. In the early days of the Pea- 
body Institute lectures. Professor Hitchcock, the 
eminent geologist, delivered a course of lectures on 
geology, and while in town he was entertained by 
Mr. Poole, and a large number of the people of the 
town were invited to meet him. When the time for 
refreshments arrived, the company was ushered into 
a well supplied supper room, and just at that mo- 
ment the host was called away for a moment, and ex- 
cused himself with a cordial invitation to his guests 
to help themselves to the good things before them. 
After the first descent upon the table a strange em- 
barrassment stole over those who endeavored to dis- 
pense the refreshments. One would take off the cov- 
er from a dish, and hastily replace it; another found 
the oysters of surprising weight and texture; the 
cake could scarcely be lifted; the ice creams and cus- 
tards could be carried about bodily by the spoons in- 
serted in them; each new dish was more puzzling 
than the last. At length it dawned upon the bright- 
er spirits, that here was truly a geological feast, and 
the laugh began. The oysters were pudding-stone; 
the cake was brick, frosted with plaster of Paris; 
custards and creams were of plaster colored, and 
moulded ; sugar, cream, every detail of the banquet 
was of mineral origin, of plaster, or stone, or clay. 
M'hen the fun began to subside, another door was 
thrown open, and a more edible repast was spread 
before the guests. 

His intimate knowledge of the early history of his 
native place, and his facility in imitating the ancient 
style of writing, enabled him to reproduce more 
vividly than any other writer of his class the peculiar 



life and colorof those early times, with all its quaint- 
ness of diction and spelling, and its apparently un- 
conscious humor of expression. Several of his poems 
and sketches, relating to the witchcraft times, are of 
unusual merit, particularly a ballad, widely circu- 
lated, entitled "Giles Corey and Goodwyfe Corey," 
which is an admirable reproduction of the old ballad 
style. Another well-known poem is that which was 
written for the centennial celebration at Danvers, 
" Giles Corey's Dream," which attained a wide celeb- 
rity, both for its poetical merits and the keen and 
thoughtful humor which pervades it. Mr. Poole's 
enjoyment of an innocent hoax induced him occa- 
sionally to introduce his old time sketches under the 
guise of veritable antiquities. One of the most re- 
markable of his efforts in this direction was brought 
out at the time of taking down the old South Meet- 
ing-house, in 1836, when a communication was re- 
ceived by a Salem paper, purporting to contain a 
copy of an old letter written by one Lawrence Conant, 
which described the ordination of the Rev. Mr. Pres- 
cottat the new meeting-house in the middle precin( t 
of Salem in 1713, as seen by the writer. So perfect 
was the reproduction of the quaint language and 
spelling of the time, and so admirable the color of 
the composition and the apparent truthfulness of the 
details, describing personages prominent in the prov- 
ince, that it at first passed everywhere as genuine, 
and it was not till some acute antiquary detected a 
discrepancy of dates in the document that the de- 
ception was detected ; and even long afterward the 
letter of Lawrence Conant was occasionally referred 
to as genuine. The paper is full of delightful touches 
of humor, and was only intended as a facetious /ew 
d'esprit, and was promptly and publicly acknowledged 
as such by Mr. Poole ; but no amount of explanation 
has ever been able to destroy the authenticity of the 
document. About the same time he wrote a poem in 
the Scotch dialect called " Lament of the Bats inhab- 
iting the old South Church," which has been greatly 
admired. 

He was an ardent Whig, and afterwards a strong 
Republican, deeply interested in the anti-slavery 
movement, and always progressive in his ideas. 

Some of his political papers were pointed and effec- 
tive productions. During the Mexican War he wrote 
a series of articles for a Salem paper entitled " The 
Trial of James K. Polk for Murder." These were 
collected and priuted in a pamphlet as a pleasant sa- 
tire ; a copy found its way to Mexico, where it was 
translated and circulated as a genuine historical doc- 
ument. Another political satire was his parody on 
" John Gilpin's Ride," written as the Carrier's Ad- 
dress of the Salem Register in 1852, beginning, — 

" George Boutwell whs a citizen 
Of credit and renown." 

He was frequently induced to favor the carrier boys 
by writing their annual address, which was sure to 
be sold if signed or known to be written by him. One 




/C^^ 



PEABODY. 



1055 



of these addresses was a poem of witchcraft times, 
entitled, "Witih-Datue aud Banquet on Gallows 
Hill." 

In lSo9 he became the editor of a weekly ])aper in 
South Danvers called The Wizard, in whose columns 
appeared many of his best productions and most char- 
acteristic bits of humor, in wliich [jassiufr events were 
dei)icted with a spirit and wit whiih made the pajier 
widely known. 

In 1850 llr. Poole was appointed librarian of the 
Peabody Institute Library in South Danvcrs, a posi- 
tion eminently congenial to his taste, and in which 
he won universal respect and esteem for his helpful- 
ne.ss and unfailing courtesy. He continued in this 
position during the remainder of his life. 

His e.xtremely modest and retiring disposition pre- 
vented him from making the use of his literary 
powers which others possessing abilities far le.ss 
striking and unique might have made of them. He 
never attemi)ted any large literary work, nor even 
collected such of his scattered pieces as might surely 
have won popular favor if they had been published 
in book form. He was happiest in his loved home, 
the old family homestead in which he was born and 
lived through all his three-score and ten years, and in 
which hedied; among his friends, or quietly watching 
the effect of his writings oti the small audience of his 
town's people. He cared little for public office, but 
his interest in education made him for many years a 
valued and progressive member of the school commit- 
tee of the town ; he represented Danvers in the Gen- 
eral Court in 1841 and 1842, and was for a short time 
postmaster of Peabody under President Lincoln. 

He died after a short illness on the I'Jlh of August, 
1873. It is to be hoped that some competent hand 
may undertake to collect his writings and gather the 
materials for an adequate memorial of his life, which 
would illustrate much that is deeply interesting of 
the life and growth of his native town. 

Sources OF Information. — The principal sources 
from which the writer has attained the facts for this 
sketch, are the History of the Town of Danvers, by 
J. W. Hanson, 1848; Salem Witchcraft, by Charles 
W. Upham, 18(57, from which some passages have 
been taken directly ; Annals of Salem, by Joseph B. 
Felt, 1849; "The Town of Peabody," a newspaper 
published March 25, 1873, by Albert Gould, pastor 
of the Methodist Church; the notes to the new edi- 
tion of the Acts and Kesolves of the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay, by A. C. Goodell, Jr. ; the Life 
of George Peabody, by Phebe A. Hauaford, 1870; 
The Danvers Centennial Celebration, 1852; The Life 
of Daniel P. King, by C. W. Upham; and many his- 
torical sketches by Fitch Poole. 

The original records of the Salem Book of Grants 
and of the Town of Salem, and the records of the 
South Parish, have been carefully examined; and by 
the courtesy cf Mr. Nathan H. Poor, the efficient 
town clerk of Peabody, the records of the town have 



been examined for various data, atid especially the 
war records. The files of the Whdrd, during the 
civil war, furnished much valuable information. 

The writer also desires to express his acknowledg- 
ments to Dr. Henry Wheatland for much kiiiilly assist- 
ance ; to Mr. William P. Ui)ham and Mr. A. C. 
Goodell, Jr., the President of the Historico-Genea- 
logical Society, for valuable information and sug- 
gestions ; to Mr. J. P. Fernald for the use of articles 
on the Methodist and Catholic Churches; to Mr. 
Edgar W. Upton, who furnished the sketch of St. 
Paul's JMi.-sion; to Rev. J. W. Colwell, for full 
information relative to the South and West Peabody 
Churches; to Amos Merrill, Ksq., for information 
relative to war records, and for an article on the 
Universalist Church ; to Mr. .J. Warren Upton, the 
Lilirarian of the Peabody Institute in Peabody, Mr, 
William II. Little, Mr. Arthur F. Poolo, Mr. George 
F. Osborne, Mr. Nathan A. Bushby, and Mr. A. P. 
White, the historian of Danvers in this volume; and 
to the [lastors and officers of the various churches, who 
readily furnished information in their power. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



EBENl^ZER SITTON. 

Ebenezer Sutton was born in Danvers, September 
11, 1803. In 1855 Danvers was divided into two 
towns. North and South Danvers, and in 18(58 the 
name of South Danvers w.is changed to Peabody. It 
was in that part of Danvers which is now Peabody 
that Mr. Sutton was born. The father of Mr. Sutton, 
William Sutton, married .\pril 14, 1799, Elizabeth 
Treadwell, and had William, who w.as the late (ien- 
eral Sutton, .July 2(5, 1800, and Ebenezer, the subject 
of this sketch, as above slated, September 11, 1803. 
William Sutton, the father of William and Ebenezer, 
was a leather-dresser by trade, but during many 
years before his death carri(<l on, aside from his 
legitimate trade, extensive woolen mills at North 
Andover. He was at one time representative to the 
State Legislature, aiul was for some years president 
of the Danvers Bank. He died at Danvers, February 
20, 1832. 

The father of William Sutton was Richard, who 
was born in Ipswich, December 12, 1736. His trade 
also was that of a leather-dresser, and he lived and 
died in Ipswich. He married in 1758 Elizabeth, 
daughter of Nathaniel and Elizabeth Foster, of Ips- 
wich, and had the following children: Elizabeth, 
1759; Susanna, 17G1 ; Mary, 17(53; Catherine, 17G4; 
Catherine, 1765; Catherine, again, 1766; Mary, again, 
1770; William, February 15, 1773; Sarah, 1775; 
Richard, 1777, and Richard again, 1780. He mar- 
ried, second, October 25, 1807, Rebecca, daughter of 



1056 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



\Villiam and Elizabeth Foster, and had no children. 
He died December 12, 1825. 

Tlie father of Richard was William Sutton, who 
was born at Ipswich, October 5, 1699. He married 
in 1725 Susanna, daughter of Jlo.ses and Su-anna 
Kimball, and bad the following children : Ebenezer, 
baptixed December 29, 1728; Richard, December 12, 
1736; Susanna, July 20, 1740, who married Thomas 
Kimball, and died Sentember IG, 1828. The father, 
William button, died at Cape Breton in 1745. 

The father of the last William was Richard Sutton, 
who was bora in Reading, August 5, 1674, and re- 
moved to Ipswich before February, 169.5-96. In the 
records he is called both shoemaker and farmer. By 
a wife Susanna he had Richard, born in Ipswich, 
February 9, 1696-97, who became a leather-dresser; 
William, born in Ipswich, October 5, 1699, and per- 
haps others. He died in Ipswich April 23, 1702. 

The father of the last Richard was Richard Sutton, 
who was born, perhaps, in Roxbnry about the year 
1650. He removed to Reading about 1673, where he 
bought an estate, which he sold January 8, 1679, to 
Nathaniel Goodwin and Thomas Nichols. He served 
while in Reading in King Philip's War, and after 
the sale of his estate removed to Charlestown. The 
name of his wife was Katharine. 

The father of the last Richard was Richard Sutton, 
an early settler in Ro.xbury. Various records in 
England disclose the name of Richard Sutton ; but 
the English family, to which the American ancestors 
belonged, has never been precisely defined. Nor is 
the date of his arrival in New England known. He 
is spoken of witliout date in the ancient book of rec- 
ords of houses and lands in Roxbury as having six- 
teen acres of land more or less, lately the land of 
Henry Farnum. On the 7th of October, 1650, as 
shown by the Suflblk Deeds, B>>ok I., page 128, he 
conveyed, for the consideration of two oxen, six acres 
of land in Roxbury to Governor Thomas Dudley. 
In 1656 he was a surveyor of highways. On the 10th 
of March, 1658, he bought of Simon and Ann Brad- 
street, of Andover, a dwelling-house in Andover, 
with an orchard nnd land, including about eight 
acres, and is called in the deeds husbandman and 
weaver. He probably removed to Andover about 
1658, and remained there until he sold his estate, 
February 6, 1664, to George Abbot. The signatures 
to the deed are Richard Sutton and Rachael Sutton, 
thus disclosing the name of his wife. On the 14th of 
May, 1670, he bought of Samuel Hutchinson, of 
Reading, for the consi<leration of three hundred 
pounds, a house with land.s in Reading, and removed 
to that town about 1673. Between 1670 and 1673 his 
wife died, and there are indications in the records 
that he was married a second time. Nothing is 
known of him after the last date, except that he 
served In King Philip's War with his son, and there 
is no record of the place and date of his death. 

Ebenezer Suttou, the subject of this sketch, was a 



man of marked and positive characteristic. Entirely 
independent in thought and action, he pursued his 
own methods quietly and unostentatiously, but with 
a constantly pushing vigor, which measured and 
overleaped every obstacle in the way of success. 
Like all men of that stamp, he formed accurate esti- 
mates of character, and in accordance with those 
estimates he was drawn irresistibly towards some and 
awiiy from others; and persuasion and argument 
failed to change either his estimates or treatment of 
the men whom his unerring judgment had meas- 
ured. 

He was liberal and generous in the truest sense. 
He did not give of the large wealth he had accumu- 
lated because gifts were asked, or because he was ex- 
pected to give, or because refusal would be likely to 
affect his popularity. There is too much of ^uch 
generosity in the world, — indeed, so much that it is 
impossible to decide where it is genuine and where 
it is false. The generosity of Mr. Sutton followed 
his heart, and where that went his hand went also. 

Aside from his regular business, he had avocations 
in which he felt an earnest interest. He was a di- 
rector in the Ea>tern Railroad, the colonel at one 
time of the Essex Regiment, and generally interested 
in the affairs of his native town. He married, April 
4, 1829, Eliza, daughter of Jonathan Dnsten, of Dan- 
vers, and had two sons, — Ebenezer, who died August 
24, 1839, and Ebenezer Dale, who was born February 
7, 1848, and died November 13, 1862. Thus, when 
Mr. Sutton died, December 11, 1864, he died child- 
less, leaving a widow, who is still living in a serene 
old age, piissing the summer months at her summer 
residence at Centre Harbor in New Hampshire, and 
the remainder of the year in Peabody. 



ELIJAH UPTON. 

Elijah Upton is a descendant of John Upton, the 
ancestor of all the name in this country as far as 
known. Tradition (apparently well supported) re- 
lates that he came from Scotland, and that he was 
one of the Scotti.-h prisoners taken by Cromwell, 
either at the l)attle of Dunbar, September 3, 1650, or 
at the battle of Worcester, twelve months later. Tra- 
dition also reports that his wife's name was Eleanor 
Stuart, a woman of Scottish birth, and a strong ad- 
herent of the unfortunate royal house of Stuart. We 
arc told that she had anticipated his coming, and was 
here upon his arrival, in about 1652. It would seem 
probable that all of their children were born in Sa- 
lem Village (now Peabody). We first find his name 
on the records at Salem December 26, 1658. It is 
pretty certain he was not a member of any Congre- 
gational Church, for, though a man of large means 
and good character, he was not admitted a freeman 
of the colony until April 18, 1691, after the revolu- 
tion in England, and after some modifications had 
been made in l\ie freeman's oath in Massachusetts. 




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TKAKODY 



1057 



About 1078 Jolin iiioveii lo Keadinfr, JliiSfi., Hlitiu ln' 
had previously l)iiilt a lar<;e and substantial liuusr, 
wbii-li in his will lie called '' ihc homestead." It is 
still in a good state of preservation, and is owiumI by 
some of his deseendants. Ktijah l'p/"H, the ehief 
subject of this sketeli, was a son of Henjaniin and lle- 
beeea (Putnam) I'liton, born in North Keading, 
Mass.. August 4, I78."i; married, first, Jidy 2, IS(i;i, 
Phebe Wood, born in what is now Peabody March L'-"., 
1787, and died there .luly 1-'. ISi'l ; married, see-.nd. 
November i), 1821, iJuih ( llarringlou) Downing, who 
died June 1, 184l'. I^lijah eaine to what is now Pea- 
body in his youth, and >rrvei| his api)rentieeship as a 
tanner with Captain Dennison Wallis. He was at 
different times in partnership with Joseph Tufts and 
Caleb r,. Frost. Mr. Tjitou was the first man in this 
town to manufacture glue, and by his sagacity and 
enterprise built up an extensive business in this 
article. He was a large owner and operator in real 
estate, and this town is more indebted to liiju than 
any other man for erecting dwellings, for opening 
streets and averuies, levelling iiills and raising val- 
leys, to make elligible sites for buildings. He was 
much interested in missionary and denominational 
enterprises, the abolition of slavery and the temper- 
ance reform, Ijcing a liberal donor to <ibjects which 
commended themselves to his regard. He was a man 
of extensive reading and sound judgment. He died 
at Bratlleboro', Vermont, March 25, 1860. His only 
child, Elijah Wood, was born February 'H, 1811. 



KI.I.l.Ml \VC)()I> ll'I'liX. 

Klijah Wood Upton, only child of Klijali and 
Phebe (Wood) I'ptou, was born February 24, 1811. 
He received as a youth more educational advantages 
than was usual at that time. He was three years in 
Hopkinton, N. H., at Jlr. John O. Ballard's school, 
where he made many life-long friends. He after- 
wards, for several years, attended a jirivate scdiool in 
Salem, Mass. 

When rpiite a young man, he took an active inter- 
est in the business enterprises of his father, and at 
the early age of twenty years became a partner in the 
glue business, and later, after the retirement of his 
father, he a,ssumed tlie entire charge of what has 
since been known as the Fsse.x (due ('Omiiany. In 
1847 he formed a parltiership with Theophilus W. 
and Nathaniel Walker, and they further increa4se<l 
the business until it lias been an imporlanl bramli of 
the business enterprises of Peabody. About the sauu' 
time the firm built and established the Danvers 
IJleachery, which has always done an extensive busi- 
ness. It remained under the control of this firm 
until about twenty years ago, and then was made 
into a stock company. 

Mr. Upton, from his early connection with his 
lather's tannery, was always interested in that branch 
of industry in this town. He was not largely en- 
665 



gaged in |>ublic allairs, prcl'erring a busine-s lil'e, 
which was corigcMial to him. He was, however, sent 
fur luo years as n-prescniative In tlir (leneral Court 
of .Massaciuis.-tls, and was dirrctnrana lor a consider- 
able lime Pre.-~idcnt of the Warren National Hank ol 
Hanvers. He was also, for many jears. a dii-ector in 
the National P>ank i>f Kedcnipiion in Huston. He 
visited Europe several times, his first visit lieing in 
I8r>l, at the lime of the First Inlernational Exhibi- 
tion, in » hirli hewasnuich iiilcrcslid. lie was the 
pir>uii ciiiisiiltrd by ( uorgr I'eabudy ia Euiidon in 
regard to tin- llrst dori.-iti.m made by him to the 
South Danvers I'ubiic Library, and aUo coni-crniMg 
the building er.'ctcd for its accommodation. 

He was a man of judiiic spirit, of gcneruus im 
pulses and of refineil manners. Mr. Upton died i)c- 
tuber C, 1S81. 



■ KislM'll I'OOU. 

.loseph Poor was burn .luly 7, 1^0."), in l).iuvers. 
riial part uf Danvers in which he lived was incor- 
porated May IS, 18.")"), as South Danvers, aiul its name 
was changed to Peabody by an Act of the (leneral 
Court passed April l.'i, 18(i8. His father, Josei)h 
Poor, carried on the business of a tanner, and he was 
bruilghl uj. to the same 1 r.ide, attending the schools 
of his nativ<' town, ami, when old enough to be of 
service, working a part of the time in the taiuiery of 
his father. At the age of eighteen his time was given 
lo him, and from that tino' he earned his own sup- 
|.ort. 

After his falhci's ileatli In- carried uii the tanner's 
l)usiness alone, ami from that time until his death 
his business career was uuc uf uninteiiiipteil success. 

^Ir. Poor married Eli/a Munroe, uf Danvers. and 
had eleven children. Thesi' were Sally, burn in 
1880; \Varren Augustus, in l.s.'i2, who married Har- 
riet Waternnui; Mary E., in 1834; Ellon, in 1835, 
who married .lames W. K'elley ; Leverett, in 1838, 
who married Jennie Emerson; Lizzie, in 1840; Lu- 
cinda, in 1842; Cieorgc H., in 1844, who married Susie 
li. Bond; Albert F., in Isp;, who married Sarah F. 
Weed; Joseph IL, inl8lS, who married Maggie Line- 
ban, and Martha II., in 1800. 

His sDund business traits wi-rc ot'ten <'alled into the 
service of his fellow-citizens, and for many years be 
was Chairman of the Board of Selectmen ol' South 
Danvers ami Peabody. He was also a Director of the 
Warren Five (_'ents Savings Bank of Peabody, ami one 
of the original trustees of the Peabody Institute. No 
better estimate of his character can be given than 
that of one of his fellow-eitizens who, during more 
than forty years enjoyed his accpiaintauc(! ami friend- 
ship, and had the best opportunities for forming it. 
\\(^ says: " Many were the valuable traits of char- 
acter possessed by .Mr. Poor that might be dwelt upon 
with interest. I knew him from my youth, was when 
a boy of twelve years of age employeil by him, ami 
was intimate with him until his death. As he ad- 



1058 



HISTORY OP ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



vanced in age he became a strong advocate of moral 
reform in all its branches, an earnest Abolitionist, a 
warm-hearted, sincere Temperance man, always car- 
rying out his opinions at the ballot-box, even if he 
stood alone. He never shrank from saying and doing, 
as a politician, what he believed to be right, and calmly 
and sternly moved forward towards the accomplish- 
mentof his aim. As a business man, he did not exhibit 
that headlong activity and bustle which are so often 
mistaken for business capacity, but moved slowly on, 
seeing his way clear as he went, and keeping himself 
safe in all business transactions. 

He was a thoroughly religious man, always con- 
tributing liberally to jmrposcs of benevolence and 
charity, and when the feebleness of advancing age 
compelled him to relinquish business, he felt even a 
deeper interest than before in those higher pursuits 
which chasten and ennoble life." 

Jlr. Poor died in Peabody, August 24, 1884. 



.lAMES PUTNAM KING. 

James Putnam King was born in that part of 
Danvers which is now Peabody, November 8, 1817. 
His lather, t^aniucl King, and his grandfather, Zacha- 
riah King, wen; hard-working successful farmers. 

The subject of this sketch was one of five brothers, 
three of whom were farmers, all located in the same 
neigliborhood, which, by rea.sun of the large and 
valuable land-holdings of the King family, for more 
than, a hundred years, has by common consent been 
given the name of " Tiie Kingdom." 

James attended the district school until sixteen 
years of age, then worked on his father's farm until 
his marriage, at the age of twenty-two, to Wealthy 
M. Ferrin, of Madison, N. II., by whom he had two 
sons. 

At the time of his marriage he connnenced his 
career as a farmer on his own account by working on 
shares, a most excellent form in the neighborhood. 
By his great physical powers, temperate habits, 
industry and i)rudence he became one of the most 
successful farmers in the county, and his life has 
answered emphatically in the affirmative, that ques- 
tion so often asked by agricultural writers and 
speakers, "Does farming pay?' He followed Salem 
Market for twenty-five years, selling his own veget- 
able products. 

Mr. King early took an earnest interest in the 
Abolition cause, was a Whig in politics, and has 
been a strong Republican since the formation of that 
party. 

He was a member of the Legislature of 1854, has 
been overseer of the poor for thirty-three consecutive 
yeare, and a trustee or vice-president of the Essex 
Agricultural Society for more than twenty years. 

Mr. King is a forcible and clfeetive speaker, and 
his long practical exi)crience enables him to add 
much interest to the discussions at Farmer's Institutes, 



and being a strictly temperate man in principle anil 
practice, he renders efficent aid to the temperann- 
cause. 

His judgment of farm j)ropcrty is valued so higlily 
that his services are in frequent demand in ap|)rai.*al.-. 
Late in life he married for a second wife, Mr.j. Eliz- 
abeth A. Bancroft, who was a sister of his first wifi . 

He is known and respected throughout the countx 
as few men are, and now, at seventy years of age, i^ 
in the full vigor of life and presents a living exaini^l' 
of what may be accomplished by a temperate, inUii~ 
trious, prudent farm life in Essex County. 



CHAPTER LXXVI. 
MARBLEHEAD. 

BY SAMUEL Kl lA DS, JK. 



Iii,lian llisU,rii—Xa,u-iuiihenut llu Kiiuj—IMufJouiid in MarlMKud. 

The exceedingly unique and interesting peninsula 
which forms the subject of this sketch, is situated at 
the south-eastern corner of Esse.K County, Miissachu- 
setts, sixteen miles north-east of Boston. The town- 
ship compri-ses three thousand seven hundred acres, 
and is about four miles in length, from north-eiist to 
south-west, being from one and one-half to two 
miles in breadth. The surface is to a great extent 
irregular and rocky, and considerably elevated above 
the land of the surrounding country. Connected by 
a narrow isthmus with the mainland is a smaller 
peninsula, rather mure than a mile in length and 
about half a njile wide, containing about three 
hundred acres. This peninsula, from the earliest 
settlement of the town, has been known as the 
" Great Neck." 

Between the " Neck " jutting out so boldly into the 
Atlantic Ocean and the rocky coast of the main land, 
is a beautiful sheet of water, a mile and a half long, 
and a half a mile wide, forming one of the most ex- 
cellent harbors on the New England Coast. 

At the time of the landing of our fathers upon a 
coast so barren and uninviting, as it must have ap- 
peared to them, they found the entire section of 
Eastern Massacliusetts inhabited by a race of men, 
the remnants of what but a few years before the com- 
ing of the white man had been a large and powerlul 
tribe of Indians. They were of the tribe of Naum- 
keags, then under the jurisdiction of the Squaw 
Sachem of Saugus, the widow of the great Nane- 
pasheniet, who, in his lifetime, had been a chief 
whose power and authority no neighboring tribe 
dared question. But war and pestilence, those two 
dread enemies of the human race, had made sad havoc 
among the Naumkeags ; and however desirous they 





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might have been to resist the encroachments of the 
white men upon their domain, they were but little 
pre])are(l to do so. The great war in which they hail 
engaged with the Tarrentines in MI"), had |>rove<l dis- 
astrous to lliem, and Xanepasheiuet, their chief, had 
been obliged to retreat I'roni his settlement at Saugus 
to a hill on the borders of tlie Mystic River, where 
he resided till Ihe time of his death. The plague 
wliich broke out among the Indians in Itil", raged 
wilb especial scvi-rity among tlii' Naunilceags. Hun- 
dreds of iheni were destroyed, and those who re- 
mained were rendered an easy prey to their enemies. 
The Tarrentines, well aware of tile weakness of their 
great opponents, seized the earliest opportunity to at- 
tack him. In l(U;i they besieged his fortifications 
at Mysti<', where, after a most heroic resistance, Nane- 
[■ashcmet w:ls killed. 

Two years later a parly from Ibr I'lymoiilh Colony, 
while ranging al)out Ihe coiirdry, came across some of 
his forts, one of which was undoubtedly in Marble- 
head, near Korest Kiver, the remains of which may 
still be seen. .Mr. W'inslow, in bis accouiil of the 
journey, writes : 




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After the death of .\ane|iashemet the general gov- 
ernment of the Naumkeags was continued by his 
widow, who became the squaw sachem. She was as- 
sisteil by her three sons, Wonohatp.iaham, Montowam- 
pote and Wincpoyken, or Winuepeweekcn, all of 
whom became sagamores. The s.piaw saciiein lived 
on terms of frii-ndline-ss with the whites, and finally 
submitted to their government. 

The thr.'C .sons of Nanepasheniet, after the death 
of their father, had each his separate jurisdiction as 
sagamore. Wonohaipiahain, called by the Englisli 
.John, was located on the Mystic Kiver; Montowam- 
pote, called by the white people .lames, had jurisdic- 
tion of the territory now comprised in Lynn, Salem 
and Marblehead, or, as Mr. Lewis, in liis " History 
of Lynn, " says: ".Saugus, Xaumkeag and Mfissabe- 
tiuash." The la.st was the Indian name for Forest 
River, but whether it was applied to the territory 
comprised in the township of Marblehead there ap- 
pears to be no means of ascertaining except on the 
authority of Mr. Lewis. Winepoykin, called by the 
Knglish (George, was the youngest son of Nanepash- 
eniet. He was born in IfilO, and was a boy when the 
white men made their settlement on his territory. 



to lliis i.la.'.i, l.i'int; ih.'ii al.oiil lliirli'.ii yours oH, llii.ro uas mvi.l.iw 
alh'il ai|ila»' saclii'in nli.. hii.l llii'oo sons. Sagainoro .loliii U.'|.t 
al Mystic, SaEanioro.Ianio» at Saiignst, ami Saganioro Geoi'no hi'i,- at 
Naninkokc. Wluilhor ho was ai-tual sa. In-ni here I caniiol say, for 1... 
w.i.sal.oul my as.', ami 1 lliilik lli.-r.' was an ol.ior man, yt was at l.asl 
hisEiiartiian. Hnl ye Imliaii town of Wigwams was on ye n..rlli si.le ..f 
yi. N..rtli Kiver, not farrefi'..ni Siim.ml.'s, an.ly.- north an.l sc.nih si.l,. of 
that river wa.s loj-ollier lallcl ' Naiiinli.ke/ " 

In \<t'i?, both Sagamore .lolin and .'^agaiiiorc .hniirs, 
with many of their people, died of the sniall-p.ix, 
which broke out among tbrinaiid r.iLicil to sinli an 
extent as to nearly exterminate Ihe eiitir.' tribe. So 
disastrous were the elfcct.s of the dis(>ase among them 
that is stated "that Mr. Maverick gave (.'hrislian 
burial to thirty of thrni in one day." 

AfliT tiled, 'alb of bis I. rolbcrs, Winepoykin became 
J-Sagamori' of Lynn ami ( 'belsea, .'is well as Naumkeag; 
and after tbr dralli of his mother, which took jilace 
in ItH;?, he becani,' sachem of all that part of Mas.sa- 
chiisetts which is north and east of the (Miailes River. 
Winepoykin married Abawayet, a daiightrr of I'oi|na- 
num, who lived at Naliant. Hi- did in lli'S4, an.l on 
the sixteenth of Sept, nil. ir of that yi'i'r, Ihe inliabi- 
tantsof Marbli'b.'ad pniiiiir,! a .U-cd .,f th.-ir town- 
ship from his heirs. It is siL'iif.l by .'Miauayel, who 
is called ".loaiie Abawayet, sipiaw, relict, widdow of 
George Saggamore, Alias Weinepauweekiii." 

Of the manners, customs and habits of Hie of these 
Lillians little is known, except such as Ciin be gath- 
ered in extracts from llic writings of the early settlers. 
That they livcl, gen, 'rally, in pcai-c with their white 
neighbors, there ,an be iilll,' .loubl, 'I'be gn-at re- 
duction ill lb, ir numliirs would sccni to be of itself 
eviilence that they weri' obliged to keep llu' peace ; 
and the testimony of tlu- white men proves this 
theory correct. 

The Naumkeags are ilcsnibed as a tall, strong- 
limbed peopli', whose only wearing apparel was a 
beast-skill thrown over on,' shoulder, ami aiiolbi'r 
about the waist. Their wigwams were small, and 
were constructed of poUs s,'t in the ground an,l 
fa.stened at the top, being covi'rcl with mats nia.le 
from the boughs of trees. 

Like all the Indians of North America, the Naum- 
keags compelled their sipiaws to do the greater part 
of the manual labor, while they, the lor, Is of the for- 
est anil the mighty waters, spent tlu'ir tim,' in ti.shing. 
hunting and idleness. Tluir wants were few. With 
plenty of corn, raised by the women, the forests 
abounding in game, and the waters about their eojiat 
filled with lisli of almost every variety, there was no 
reason why they should sulfer hunger, save only from 
their own indolence and inactivity. 

Kind and docile in their dis|iosition, and generous 
in their treatment of the whiles, tliey in time became 
the wards of the settlers; and forsaking the goils of 
good and evil whom their falhei-s had taught them to 



1060 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



worship, many were baptized and embraced the 
Christian religion. 

That Indians formerly occupied the land now com- 
prised in the territory of Marblehead, there can be no 
doubt. 

Relics of the villages, grave-yards, shell-heaps and 
an Indian fort have been found from time to time, 
which, were other evidence wanting, would be suffi- 
cient to prove the fact. Numerous arrow-heads, 
spears, clubs and various utensils made of stone have 
also been found. 

The largest shell heap is near the " Pine " Grove, 
on the line of the railroad to Salem. This contained 
by actual measurement thirty cords of shells, placed 
in layers of stone and ashes. 

Excavations found in the "Small Po.k Pasture," at 
the Harris farm, and in fields on Atlantic Avenue, 
have been thought to indicate the former location of 
Indian wigwams. These cellars are always to be 
found near some reliable supply of water ; they are 
from six to eight feet across, and were orginally from 
two to four feet in depth. 

The Bessom Pasture, near Salem Harbor, was pro- 
bably the site of an Indian village. Excavations, 
supposed to have been the cellars of wigwains, are to 
be found everywhere in the vicinity. 

In November, 1874, an examination of the hill in 
this pasture revealed a grave containing five skele- 
tons, four being those of grown persons, and the 
other that of a child. They were all in a remarkable 
state of preservation, except that of the child, one 
being very large, evidently that of a man. The 
bodies were all buried on their backs with their heads 
to the west except one, which lay with its head to 
the east; the legs being drawn up .so that the knees 
nearly touched the chin. The grave contained, be- 
sides the skeletons, a lot of trinkets, an earthen cup, 
a small bell, two sea-shells, and a quantity of beads, 
proving conclusively that the bodies were buried 
after the white settlers came to America. 

By reliable tradition we are informed that Indians 
dwelt in Marldehead as late as one hundred and 
seventy years ago. The location of an Indian 
stockade in the Lower Division Pasture is still 
pointed out by some of the older inhabitants. They 
received their infornuition many years ago from aged 
citizens, then ■about to depart for their final rest, 
whose memories fondly cherished the traditions trans- 
mitted to them by their fathers. 



CHAPTER LXXVII. 

HARBLFAiEAB— (Continued}. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 
ProbttlU Origin of First Settlers — The Fishing Tiutnttrij EsUiUished— Grants 
of L'tnd— First Ship linilt in the G>lony—Shivt:j Imported— lite First 
Meeting-hottse. 

Marblehead was settled about the year 1G29. Au- 
thorities differ as to the exact part of England from 



whence these settlers emigrated, though all agree 
that they were English, and that they made their set- 
tlement in the northeastern part of the town, near 
the headland now known as Peach's Point. From 
their mannei's and customs, but more especially from 
their peculiar dialect, it would seem that they were 
natives of the Island of Guernsey and Jersey in the 
British Channel. Their numbers were undoubtedly 
increased from time to time by people from the west 
of England, which would account for many of the 
idiomatic peculiarities which for more than two cen- 
turies characterized the speech of their descendants. 
They were fishermen, a rough, illiterate race, accus- 
tomed to a life of toil and hardship, probably from 
infancy, and they were therefore neither dismayed 
nor disheartened at the difficulties attending the 
founding of a settlement in the wilderness. 

A few years before the coming of these settlers a 
settlement four miles north of their landing place, 
and the village thus formed had been named Salem. 
This township included in its boundaries a large por- 
tion of the laud now comprised in nine or ten towns 
of Essex County, one of which is Marblehead, 
Though a corporate part, and within the limits of 
Salem, the little peninsula seems to have been known 
even at that early day by a distinct name. The Rev. 
Francis Higginson, writing of the place in 1629 or 
'30, speaks of the rocky headlands which line the 
shore as "marble stone, that we have great rocks of 
it, and a harbor hard by. Our plantation is from 
thence called Marble Harbor." 

Though " Marble-Harbor " is the name most fre- 
quently applied to the settlement in the earlier re- 
cords, it is evident that it was equally well-known as 
Marblehead from the beginning. William Woods in 
his description of Massachusetts, written in 1633, 
speaks of the locality as " Marvill Head," and de- 
scribes it as " a place which lieth four miles full 
South from Salem, and is a very convienent place for 
a ])lantation, especially for such as will set up the 
trade of fishing. There was made here a ships load- 
ing of fish the last year, where still stand the stages 
and drying scaffolds. Here be a good harbor for boats 
and a safe riding for ships." Thirty years later^ 
Samuel Maverick, one of the first settlers in this 
section, in writing an account of the towns east of the 
Hudson River, referred to the town as follows : " Two 
miles below this Towne on the South side of the 
Harbor by the sea side lyeth Marblehead or Ifoy the 
greatest Towne for tfeishing in New England.'" 
This is the only instance, of which we have any 
knowledge, in which the name of " Foy " was ap- 
plied to the peninsula. 

From the records of the Massachusetts Colony, 
under date of October 18, 1631, we learn that it was 



1 From a valuable manuscript diflcovered in the new British Museum b.v 
Mr, Heury V. Walters, of Salem, agent uf the Xew England Historicu- 
G enealogical Sociely, 



AI A1M!I,KIIK Alt. 



lOfil 



ordered " that Thomas Graves hiiu>e at MarliU-llar- 
bor shall he puM downp, & that not' Kiiglishemeii 
shall heieal'ter jrive house roome to him or intertuiiie 
him, under such penalty as the court shall thiiike 
meete to inlliete." It is evident, however, that tlu> 
sentence was not executed, as the name of the ofl'en- 
ilers is frequently mentioned in subsequent records. 

In September, I(>:!1, Isaac Allerton, one of the most 
(ironiinent jnen of Plymouth Colony, having had 
some dilliculty with his associates, set sail in the 
White Angel for Marblehead, where he established 
a Fishery Statitni. His son-in-law, Moses Maverick, 
accompanied him ; and a short time after their arrival 
it is recorded that "this season Mr. Allerton fished 
with eight boats at Marble-Harbor." It was proba- 
bly with reference to the business tluu established, 
that in April Ki;!.?, the court ordered : 

•■That if unv swiiio shall in fishing time come within a iiH^r'''' "f " 
mjie of the stage at Marble-Harbor, tlie.v shall he forfeited to the owii- 
ors of sil alailffe, jt soe for all other stages within their lyniitts." 

'I'he name Marblehead is mentioned for the tirst 
time in the Colonial records of 1()33 under circum- 
stances not particularly flattering to the inhabitants, 
though it is by no means certain that the persons 
named were residents among them. 

"July 2(1, 16.13, Janus White is ffineil XXXS for drunkennes, by him 
coniilte.l a« Marblehead, on the SahbatL day. John Hennel isffliied 
XS foi- being druidie att Slarblehead.'' 

The early records of the colony abouml with ref- 
erences to Allerton and his doings. Under date of 
.September 1, 11)33, (tovernor Winthrop makes the 
following entry in his journal: 

"Mr, Craddoek's house at Marblehead wu.s iMunt d..«n;d.oiit 1 

niiihl before, there being in it Mr. Allerton and jnauy lishurmen whom 
he cni|iloynl that season, wlio were all preserved by a special [irovideiice 
of Ci.«l, with most of his gooils ther.dn, by a tailor, who sat up that night 
at work in the house and, hearing a noise, Iooke,l out and saw tlie h.mse 
on fire above the oven in the thatch." 

The brief period of AUerton's residence in Marble- 
head were evidently years of misfortune to him and 
his family. During the same year in which his 
house was destroyed, a pinnace which he ha<l sent on 
a trading voyage to France, was lost with its entire 
cargo. Two years later, in March, 1()35, the court 
ordered Ihat he shall be sent for to the intent that he 
may understaml the desire of the country for his re- 
moval from Marble Harbor. Accordingly, in May, 
of that year, he conveyed to his son-in-law, Moses 
Maverick, all his houses, buildings, and st.ages at Mar- 
blehead. and departed, it is presumed, for New Haven, 

Crilin. 

But his misforlunes were not to end willi bis re- 
moval. During the same year a shallop which he 
had sent to Newbury to convey the Rev. .Tohn 
Avery and his family to Marbhdiead, was lost oil' 
Cape Ann, with nearly all on board. Shortly after 
his arrival in New England Mr. Avery had been in- 
vited to take up his residence at Marblehead, "but" 
as Mr. Mather says in his " Magnalia" "there being 
no church there, and the fishermen there being 



"■I'licrally loo remiss to lorin one." he had di-clined 
ihe invitation, ll seems, however, lh:it he bad been 
induced to reconsider his delermination, and had 
embarked with two families, his own, and that of bis 
cousin, Mr. .Vnthony Tbacber. I )n their passage a 
storm arose, and the vessel was lust; the only persons 
in the entire coniiiany who were saved lieing .Mr. 
Tbacber and his wife, who were cast ashore by Ihe 
Wiives. 

On the Wh of May, l(!3.^i, the court ordered : 

"That there slialbe a plantaci.m at Jlarble-llead, and that Ihe iiihab- 
itants now there shall have liberty to plant and imp've such grounds as 
they stand in neede of, .« that as sd phintacion inrreaseth, the inhabit- 
ants of Salem shall p'te with such ground ;i.s shalbc iiii|.'vd l.y Horn 
thereabouts, being [layed for their labor and costs." 

It was also ordered that Mr. John Humphrey 
should improve the land between the Clifte and 
Forest River, and dispose of it to the inhabitants of 
Marblehead as they stood in need ; the only charge 
to the purchaser being enough to rccompensi' him lor 
the labor and costs bestowed upon it. 

"June 3, ICM. It is ordered that y],. Ibil^ii.ve shall liave p,,wer to 

presse men t.. ii.dp him ui.lo.ie tb.. 8.-.ir iii Mini.i. b.Hd.- 
Iu March, ](;3li, the court agreed Ihat Mr. Hum- 
phrey's land should begin at the (.'lifle, in the way to 
Marblehead, 

" Wliich is the bound between .Salem and Linn, and so along the lino 
between the said townes to the rocks, mie nulir, by estimation, to a grato 
re<l oake, from wch, the said marked tree, all under & over this rocks 
vpon a .streight line to the running Inooke by Thomas Smyth's house, 
all Ihe which said ground wee alow him lor jiis ..wiie, .S soe from Thom- 
as Smyth's to Uie sea." 

The records of Salem, with ibe records of the 
coUiiiy, give the only aiubeiitic iiiliirmalioii concern- 
ing the town ami its people, at this early stage of its 
history. The first mention of Marblehead in the 
records of Salem, is as follows : 

" liy vote of the towne represcntalives, viz : the 1.1 Men llepHl.d- Ihe 
J8lh of Ihe l-'ilsl month, Ir.iiC. .lohii IVach, llisliermaii, an.l Nicholas 

Marriott having fenced al 1 live ^i.i.- .,1 groun.l on Marble Neck > 

(though conlrario to the ci .1 Ho ln« „.), yet it's agreed that lliey 

may for the lucsent improve Ibe ^.li.l pi;., r lor buil.ling ..r |danling, iuo- 
viding always that tlo- pr.ipri.ty lh.-r.-..f be icserv.-.l lor th.- right of Ihe 
towne of Saleni, t.. d.|..>se in Iho p'ci-s.se of lynio to them or any ..tlicr 
msh.Tmeli or ..Ibeis, a> sliall.e tliouglll limsl, yet soe as Ibcy may have 
,eaK..n;.ld,- c..nsi,leiati..n lor any , hal.lge Ib.y slialbo al." 

In ir.3li, the biiililiiig of a college was projected, 
and the site proposed lor its ereel ion was in .Marble- 
head, e\ id. lit ly ill the viriiiily of Mr. I liiiiiphri'y's 
farm. .At a lown-iiH'cliiig held at SaU-m, in May of 
that year, in an order for ihe ilivision of .Marblehead 
Xeck, Mr. Humphrey maile application for .some 
land beyond Forest River- The reipiest was referred 
to a committee of six gentlemen, who were authorized 
to view the land and"lo ennsider of the premises, 
least it should hinder Ibe building of a college, which 
would b(> manv men's lo.sse." 



I In llie early ruc..r.is the laii.l b.itwee 
near lb.- boundaries of what is now Ibe loi 
th.- Plains or IMarblehi-ad Neck. The pc 
name was thi>n cnlli-d liri-ate .Seek. 



I K.>ri-st Hiveran.l the oiean, 
n ..I Swampso.tt, was called 
iiinsula now known by that 



1062 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In October following, the court granted four hun- 
dred pounds towards the erection of a college, and 
the next year a committee was chosen to superintend 
it.s erection. Among the members of this committee 
were Mr. Humphrey and the Rev. Hugli Peters. The 
court subsequently ordered the college to be built at 
Cambridge, then called Newtowne, and to be named 
"Harvard College," in honor of the Rev. .John Har- 
vard, who made a bequest of several hundred pounds 
towards its erection, ami donated his library for the 
use of the students. 

Not only did the General Court encourage educa- 
tion and learning by the establishment of schools, but 
every industry and enterprise having for its object the 
general welfare of the colony, was fostered and aided 
by wise legislation. 

The year 1G36 was an important epoch in the his- 
tory of the little eomnnmity at Marl)lehead. During 
that year, a ship of one hundred and twenty tons bur- 
den, the third ship ever built in the colony, was con- 
structed on the shore, probably on the harbor side of 
the plantation. This vessel was known as the " De- 
sire," and for more than two years was employed in 
the fishing business. A few years later, she was sent 
to the West Indies, on a commercial voyage, and re- 
turning brought a cargo of " salt, cotton, tobacco, and 
negroes." They arc supposed to have been the first 
s'aves brought into the colony. 

On the second of the eleventh month (January), 
1636, the town of Salem ordered, " for the better fur- 
thering of the fishitig trading, and to avoid the incon- 
venience found by granting land for fishermen to 
plant, that none inhabiting at Marblehead shall have 
any other accommo<lation of land than is usually 
given by the town to fishermen, viz. : A house lott 
and garden lott or ground, for the placing of their 
(lakes, according to the company belonging to their 
families: to the greatest lamily not above two acres, 
and the comon of the woodes nere adjoining, for their 
goats & their cattle." 

The same day, Mr. William Knight was received 
for an inhabitant, Init no land was to be appropriated 
unto him but "a ten-acre lott & comon for his cattle 
& hay." 

On the 27th of this month, another meeting was 
held, at which it was ordered : 

"That nil the land nloiig tlia shore of Piirby Fort' side up to (Mr. 
Huiiiplin-.v'H land) the IIoj;«tie«, and 80 to run along the shore towards 
Marblohcail 'in pole into the hind, shall be reserved for tlie Couiuns of 
the lowne, to serve them for wood A timber." 

The next year, 10.37, Erasmus James, Nicholas 
Listen, Richard Granaway and Pliilip Here were al- 
lowed as inhabitants '• with them at Marblehead, and 
were granted two acres of land each." John Hart 
and William Charles were granted five acres each, 
and a house-lot of half an acre between them. " John 



> Darby Fort was a fortification at Nangus Head, bnilt by the people 
of Salem as a place of refuge in case of attack by the Indians. 



Deverekxe" was also granted half an acre for a 
house-lot. 

At a town-meeting held on the 21st of August, 
lO."?", then the sixth month in the year, John Gatchell, 
of Marblehead, was fined ten shillings for building 
upon the town's land without permission. In ca-i', 
however, that he should " cut of ye long har otf li\ > 
head into asevil frame,'' it was agreed that half lii> 
fine should be abated, and that he should have per 
mission to go f>n with his building in the meantime. 

The prejudice of the Puritans against the habit of 
wearing long hair is well known, and it seems that 
they were willing to enter into any compromise with 
Mr. Gatehell in order to remove the obnoxious liabit. 

It appears, however, that he was not a man to sub- 
mit to any such interference with his personal appear- 
ance, and, it is said, " continued the custom to bis 
dying day, in spite of po|Hilar opinion and all the 
formal denunciation of church and State. 

On the 1st day of January, 1837, a meeting was 
held at Salem and a vote of one hundred and twenty 
pounds was ordered, of which eight pounds were to be 
assessed upon the following inhabitants of Marbb- 
head: Moses Mavericke, William Steephens, Archi- 
bald Tonison, William Charles, .Ii>hn Heart, John 
Peach, John Lyon, Anthonie Thatcher, John Coite, 
Richard Seer.s, Richard Greeneway, John Gatchell, 
Samuel Gatchell, John Bennet, John Wakefield, Eras- 
mus James, Thomas Gray, John Devereux, Nicholas 
Meriatt, Abraham Whitehaire, George Vickary, John 
Russell, Nicholas Listen, Philip Beare. 

Under date of September 6, 163S, the records of tlie 
colony have the following entry : 

" Moses Maverick is permitted to sell a timof wine at Marblehead and 
not to e.xcede this year." 

As the number of inhabitants increased the records 
of grants made at the town meetings became more 
numerous. On the 14th of October, 1638, the follow- 
ing grants of land were made to the inhabitants of 
Marblehead : 

"To Mr. Walton, eight acres on the Main: to Moses Maverick at 
the same place ten acres ; to .Fohn Coite on the Neck three acres ; to 
Will Keene and Nich. Listen on John I'each's Xecke, three acres ; inon- 
to them on the Create Necke, five acres ; to Richard Seers three arn-s, 
where he had planted formerly; to John Wakefield four acres on the 
Ne<rko ; to Jolin Gatchell anil Saninol Gatehel six acres on the Necke ; 
to Tho. Sams, three ucrtfs on the Necke; to John Lyon four acres near 
liis house ; to the Widow Klancher six acres on the Necke ; to Ralph 
Warrin two acres on the Necke; to George Cbing three acres on the 
Nocko ; to Pliillip Beare three acres near tho Widow Tomsons ; to John 
Bennet four acres on the Necke ; upon John Peach's Necke ; to Rosamond 
Janies four acres on the ^lain." ' 

The " Mr. Walton" to whom the first grant was 
made was Mr. William Walton, who was then preach- 
ing at Marblehead, though without ordination. This 
is the first mention of his name in the records, and it 
is therefore probable that he began his ministrations 
in Marblehead during the year 1638. Through his 



• The Main was tlie part of the town near the harbor ; John Peach's 
Neck was from " Nangns Head" to what is now calleil "Peach's 
Point," and from Naugus Ilead to Forest Uiver was known .as the "For 
est Side." 



.MAKHNKIIHAD. 



10(j3 



emleavors, succoeded by Maverick ami mhrr iiillii - 
eiitial iuhubitaiits, a iiii'cling-lioii.so was tiietiil, and 
rtdigious services were regularly held 'n\ llu- Salil)ath. 
This edifice, which was a crude, t'anii-likf slnutinc 
stood upon oiiedl'tlie iiinst rocky liills ol' the town ; 
and about it, alter the iiiaMiier <il their t'oreralhcrs. 
the simide lisheniien made Ilieir burial firouud. 

iMarhlehead at this liuie has (.I'tcii been described 
as a place barren of trees and abounding in nothinj; 
but unproductive land. The records ni' the general 
town nieetiug.s and other cimiinoners prove conclu- 
sively that this is a mistake. The tact of its settle- 
ment is also (if itself cvidi-ni'e of the laUacy (d' this 
theory, for emigrants in those days eouhl mil liave 
settled on a coast where there wereno trees from which 
they coidd build their houses. At a town meeting 
held in 8aleni on the lltli of Xoveniber, ICtd, it was 
ordered that all who should cut timber trees 
within two miles of Salem and one mile of Marble- 
head, and prepare them for shipping, should be paid 
for their labor.^ The last riH-ord of graids in the re- 
cords of Salem concerning laml in Marblehead is in 
lt)40, wlien llie iidiabitants were granted " all .-urh 
laiuls near adjoining tluMu as have not been formrrly 
granted to other iiien." 

The state of alfairs in Marbbdiead seem t.i liave oc- 
cupied much of tin- allerilidn nf the ( ieiieral t'ourt at 
its session in May, l()4t. The jieoph' were rieglinenl 
of many of the laws of the cpjony, and treated others 
with contempt; aiul as laws which wi-re readily 
obeyed by the I'liritans in other towns could ncjt be 
enforced among them, special legislation was foiiml 
necessary for their government, .\ccoriling to tlie 
Puritan law no one could become a freeman without 
lirsl becoming a i-liurch niember; ami laine but 
I'reemen coidd vole at elections <ir hold any nllii'c 
whatever in the colony. The inhabitants ^)t' Marble- 
liead were far from bi'ing a religious people, and, 
though they supported a rtdigious teacher and main- 
tained the ordinances on Sunday, no church had Ina'n 
I'orined, an<l there were few church members among 
them. .\s a eonse(pience there wereno magistrates 
(ir cilfieers in their community, aiid. being some dis- 
tajK-e from the settlenu'iit at .'^alem, they kiu-w no 
law save that of tlieir own will. 

This fact, ami the necessity tinit there should be 
Slime otfi<-er in the place to enforce the laws of the 
colony, led the court to rela.\ somewhat of its accus- 
tomed strictness in such matters, and to order: ''That 
in defect of freemen at Marblehead, the inhabitmls of 
Salem shall have libertie to eimmand some honest am! 
able man, though he be not a freeman, and the Dep- 
uty flovernor shall have power (if he think him lit 
to give him the oath for constable of that place till 
tiic Court shall take further order." .\ccordingly, on 
the 25th of the same month, tiie inhabitants of Salem 
elected David Curwithin, who was duly sworn as con- 
stable of Marblehead for one year from the date of 
his election. 



On the same day th.it the ..cder lor the election of a 
constable was adnpted. the euurl also voted to grant 
leave to Marblehead lo •"lorlily itself by a breast- 
worke or otherwi-e,' and direiled two guns lo be de- 
livered unto lliem with convenient ammunition 
thereto." It is uncertain whether this oriler was e.\- 
tcuted by the refractory .Marbleheaders, but that they 
were not considered as sulliciently inslructed in the 
arts of war. in accordance with the laws of the colony, 
is evident from the following order adopted on the 
23d of .May : 

" lli ..>lisi<|r|uti,.]| Ml III,' L/K'lll 'I'l^Mllnni.l 11. L'l.rtMl ll..' ihllllllitailtlj 

-f >l.uKl.'li,.i„l in N..I .■\,iTiMiii; lli.Tii..h., Ill MarlNil .liMi|.|iin-, il is 
.'Klc'ivd IIl;iI III.' iIilllll.i^l^t^ol Mai l4il..',i.Ul..ilI i.iaki: .'hi.vo. .,1' siillic 
..II.' who tiliull .■xi-nis.. III.. iT.st, tliat llu-.v liia.v li,.l In- t.. 8fi-U.' uln'Il s|il- 
liaJ .ji'iai.-iuiiB mil R.r lli.-ir iis.Mslan.i-.-' 



('11 A I'd !■; i; I. .\ \ V 1 1 1 

M.\i;i;i,i:iii;.vn- i(;>„iiuu,,i.) 

r,-l„,„,-„-l>,,li„;li.,„ ../ l:,;-. S;,„„.-l 1 V,.f ,..■•■_ 7'..«le(.i;. I'iirrl,„>einl 
II,. I„,h.,„. I Tn.df,; \Vit.l„r.,fl. 

Tilt; year liJ4.S was one ol' i he most niomenlnurs in 
Ihe entire history of .Marblehead. Karly in Mareli, 
the town of Salem ordered: 

"■ri.al Mailil.'li.M.I will. III.. all..M..i I th.' O.li.i al ( -..iii I sli.ill 1.,. 

a t..uii, all. I III.' l...iii..M..I„'l.,lli.. Ill ^1 .'M. 1 III.' j.iii.l v^llI. li »a« 

.Me ll.llii|.llll,'s' lall.i.'.ali.l s'..' all II,.' laii.l s.'a." 

On Ihe 2d of .May, llll:i, Ihe <Teneral Court gr:intcd 
the petition of the inlmbitanls, and the town was duly 
incorporated as follows: 

-I |...li Ui.' |..'llll..li ..I 11 lial.ilal.l-.'l Mail.l.'h.'.i.l I..1 I l„'iii tu l.i' a 

l.i\vn ..t lli.-liiM'h,'.-, S.il.'iii li.ivu.i; Miaiil. .1 ll„.|i, |.. l... a I..U li ..r tlli'lll- 

M'h.., aii.l a|.|...iiil.'.l II.. .1,1 tl,.' „.h,, ir I'.vMi Mill, h lliu Curt 

<l..|l. 'jl',111, ■ 

Shortly after tin- separation Irom Salem, :i meeiing 
of the inhabit;inls was liehl. :irjd the following town 
otlicers wer<^ chosen, or ;is the record laintiy expresses 
it, "these men were ibosiu lor ihe towns iiu^iness:" 

'■S.'V.'ii iii.'ii ..1 .s.' ,1, J1..S,.- .Ma>,'li. U. Sa I Hal 1, Krahcis 

'I. .tins.. II, .N las M.iiill, .I..I1M l'.'.,.li, S.'Mi..,. . I, ,1,11 |i.';,'i„v,.I..|in 

Uail..|l." 

"•l'..K'lll,.'l Mr. Wall.'li s I'a.v, .laiii.s Shiilll, .l..,'..'|.ll |l..|il..'l. 

This was prob;ibly the tirst meeting of ihe inlndii- 
tants ;ifte|- the action of the town of S:dem, thinigh 
there is no record of Ihe ihite on ubieh it was held, 
except that of the ye;ir. 

The earliest ihite in the town records, is that ol' :i 
meeting held Decendier 2'2, llll'S, when it was: 

■•a^rr.'.'.l l..v tli.' Tuw 11,' Ihiil ull .«ii,'li as iir.' slialiK,T» lishiiiK ,„ ,'in|,l..j,',l 

iiii,.iii iwi shall |,i.j' uiit., 111.- 'niM Mr r,.i'iii.'ii' \n„.,iuii.i Hal,.' soiiv 1111,1 

..111. 'I- ,',.in,.|ii,-ii,:if«. 111,, «iiMi uf ti-ii shilliiiga a v.ar fur .'vi-i'}' iiiuii." 

l!y the records of this year, it ap|iears that the in- 
habitants acted as an indeiiendent town b,-l'ore ob- 
taining the act of incorporation, and that in antici- 



1064 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



pation of the event they were busy in settling and 
arranging their affairs. Tlie swamp running from 
John Legg'.s to Timothy Allen's, wiis laid out into 
eight lots and divided among the inhaliitants. A rate 
was made for the meeting-house, and John Hart was 
authorized to collect it and to " take what course the 
law will ad'ord against such inhabitant as shall refuse 
to pay.'" In order that there might be an equal way 
of " maintaining the ordinance by Mr. Walton," it 
was agreed that " a rate should be established accord- 
ing to requite." This rate w;is to include strangers, 

" Who have benefit by the plantation by fishing, 
and make use of wood and timber, and enjoy the 
benefit of the ordinance." Mr. Walton was to have 
forty pounds for his services this year, and the sum 
of eighteen pence was ordered to be added to every 
man's rate for his wood. 

The earlier records of the town refer principally to 
the common lands, cow leases, land sales, etc., though 
occasionally there are very quaint entries to be found. 
In March, li;.')7, 

"It is ordered that all swine about the' towno Btiall be eufTiciently 
ringed by tlie first uf Aprill nest, upon the penaltie of 28. Gd. for every 
defect, and Edwanl Pittsford is to see this order to be obsarved." 

In 1658 the town had evidently increased in num- 
bers, and had been blessed with prosperity to a greater 
degree than had ever been its fortune before. Mr. 
Walton's salary was increased to seventy pounds, and 
varied afterward from sixty pounds to eighty pounds 
yearly. This money was usually collected by persons 
chosen annually at the town meetings for the purpose, 
and those who had not the ready money to ])ay, were 
allowed to make up the amount of their projiortion of 
the rate in ])rovisions. 

Mr. Walton rendered an account yearly of the 
amount received from each person, and these reports 
abound in such names as " Quid Harwood, Ould 
Lander, Ould Bennett," and others equally as curious. 
Occasionally in these reports we find such items as 
these : 

"By biilf acow of Jlr. Drown, £2. 28. Cd.; by J^ ton of Mackrecl, «. ; 
by Rictiard Rowland in pork, £'i ; by Sinitli in cliccee, 13 shillings ; by 
C'hristo. Codnor in liquor, 15 shillings." 

At this time the only public conveyance to and 
from Salem, W!U> a ferry-boat which was rowed across 
Salem harbor as often its there were passengers who 
desired to cross, the fare being regulated by a town 
meeting as "two pence for the inhabitants of Marble- 
head." Thomas Dixie was tlie ferryman, and he was 
required to keep a boat and an assistant. 

In 1G60 there were only sixteen houses in the entire 
township. During that year the inhabitants voted to 
lay out a highway between JIarblehead and Salem, 
which is the first of which there is any record. Seven 
men were made choice of " for the placing and seat- 
ing of the iuhabilants of the town, both men and 
women in the meeting-house," and it w;is agreed that 
the townsmen have liberty to consider what way is to 
be taken for the accommodation and entertainment 



of strangers, if it cannot be that one house is sufli- 
cient, then to consider of another, that strangers may 
be the better accommodated." 

The following year the court invested the commis- 
.sions with — 

'•Magistritticftll power, reforing to Salem andMarblehead, there being 
more than ordinary need thereof, thatinirjuity may not pass unpunished/' 

One of these commissioners was Major Willian! 
Hathorne, who, for several years previous had bit jj 
a magistrate of Salem and several other towns, aihl 
who now ap])ears to have assumed special charge ni 
Marblehead. Before this august personage the .'•i- 
lect-men .summoned several of the most prominent 
citizens, for refusing to keep their cattle in accordant 
with a vote of the town. 

In March, 1662, a contract was made with Robert 
Knight and .John Salter, carpenters, to build a gal- 
lery at the southwest of the meeting-house. "Sufficient 
for four seats, with columns, and a board at the bot- 
tom to keep the dust from coming down ; and to be 
arched sufficient to strengthen the house with stairs 
and other necessaries." For this labor the Selectmen 
agreed to pay them twenty-one pounds " in such nec- 
essaries as they should have occasion of," and, if when 
the work was ended, they had any of the pay to take 
up, the balance was to be paid in fish or mackrel at 
the market price. 

At a town meeting held October 21, the commoners 
agreed " that the cove lying between John Codners and 
John Northies stage, shall be for a common landing- 
place for the use of the public good of the town for- 
ever." The agreement was signed by Moses Maverick, 
Joseph Dolier, John Peach, Senior, Christoph. Latte- 
more, John Waldron, John Codnor, .John BarloU and 
five others, who were probably all of the Commoners, 
who could write, and signed in the name of the rest. 

"The records of this period abound in allusions to 
those who were appointed to keep the co«s. In Feb- 
ruary, 1663, an agreement was made with John Stacie 
to " keep the cattell the year ensuing, and to fetch 
the cattell of the lower end of the towne at William 
Charles by the sunn half an hour hie and to deliver 
them their at night, half an hour before sunn sett." 
If any were lost he was to use his endeavors to find 
ihem the next day, and for his services he was to re- 
ceive corn and provisions to the value of sixteen 
pounds. The .scarcity of money among the inhabitants 
cannot be more truly illustrated than in this and 
numerous other votes to i)ay the town's indcbtedncs.s 
to individuals in provisions, fish and other articles. 
In their intercourse with the outside world they weic 
obliged to barter to an almost unlimited extent. 
Depending entirely upon the fishing trade for their 
sustenance, they had little else to offer for the commo- 
dities of which Ihcy were in need, and their fish be- 
came almost their only medium of exchange. 

In 1666, the court, considering the exjiosed condi- 
tion of the harbor of Marblehead, voted that if the 
inhabitants would erect a suitable fort or breastwork, 



AIAi;i:i.KIIK AD. 



1065 



their ('(miitry r:itf should be ubated. ;iii<l lli.it two or 
three jrniis should be (urnislied as soou as the lortili- 
catiou was liuislied. That the fislieriiieu nii.L'lit be 
drilled and disciplined in military niovenieiits and 
tactics, the court ordered that a coMi]>any should be 
organized, and Major llatliorne was apiiointed com- 
mander, with Samuel Ward as Sergeant. The fort 
was finished the loUowing year, the cost to the town 
being about thirty-two pounds. New Kngland money. 

The year ItiiiT proved disastrous to the people of 
Marblcliead. Owing to the inclemency of the weather 
during most of the season when fish were plenty Ihey 
wi're unable to venture out in their boats to any dis- 
tance, and in .several instances those who did so were 
lost. Tlie court therefore, with considerate sympathy, 
voted to abate their proportion of the county tax for 
one year. 

In October. KiO.S William Walton. thi< faithful and 
zealous ini.ssionary, died, after having served liis 
Ma.ster and the poor people of Alarblcheail for a 
period of thirty years. Coming to them as a mission- 
ary to preach the Gospel, he became, wilh<jut ordi- 
nation as a clergyman, a loving pastor, a faithful 
friend, and a wise and prudent counselor. Jlis advice 
was sought on all niatlcrs of public or private ini- 
])ortaiicc, and when obtained, was usually folbiwed 
without qucsti'Mi. His loss was felt as a ])ublie be- 
reavement by tlic entire community. 

.Mr. Walton was succeeded in liis noble work by 
Mr. Samuel Cheever, a young man who but a lew 
ycai-s before had graduated at Harvard College with 
the highest honors. The meeting-house had recently 
been repaired, and the young preacher was received 
with marked attention and every possible evidence of 
respect. The town voted to pay him £lo tor his ser- 
vices the first six months, and after tliat £.S0 yearly. 
In March, lliGO, another gallery was built at the 
north-eastern end of the meeting-house, Rol)ert 
Knigiit, Francis Collings and .Jeremiah Neal being 
the builders. The contract was, that llie gallery 
should be built with " five seats, stairs and other 
necessaries as the other gallery was," and the car- 
penters were to receive £23 New England money for 
their services. 

The road leading to the Creat Xeck was evidently 
laid out during this year, as on the 18th day of De- 
cember it Wii.svote<l that "on the next convenient day 
as many of the commoners and jiroprietors as can 
shall see that a convenient way may be laid out for 
drift of cattle to the Neck on the other side of the 
great harbor." 

To the early settlers, and for many years, the har- 
bor was known as the " (ireat Hay," or "(Jreat Har- 
bor," while the cove at the lower end of the town, 
known as " Little Harbor," was on account of its con- 
venience, and because it wa.s so much nearer the 
setllenient used almost exclusively as the harbor. 

On the (>th of Ajiril, 1<)72, the town " ordere<l by 
general consent that a ' Lentoo ' be built adjoining 
G7 



to the bai-k ^iile of the meetiiig-linu^c, twenty foot 
in breaihli and forty foot in length, with three gable 
ends in the same, witli timber wcirk," etc. Th.' build- 
ing of this addition to their house of wiprsliip w.is 
the cause <.f great coiitroversy and di^^agrrcnunt 
among the inhabitants. The town voted to instruct 
the selii-tmen to ■'seal the men and women in the 
•Lentoo,"' but after vainly endeavoring to assign 
scats to the 'ault-timling and jealous wiu'shipers, they 
declined to have anything to do with the matter, and 
were with clillicully persuaded not to resign their 
olliccs as selectmen. The disagreement now assum- 
ing the phase of a downright i|uaiTcl, a town meeting 
was called, and tlie matter was put into the hands of 

a < iiiiittcc, consisting of Mr. .Maverick, Mr. .lohn 

Dcvcreux, .bdm I'eacb. Seniijr, ami Nil liolas .Merritt. 
■fliese men weU' fully ciuiiowered "' to scat the Len- 
too men and women in ye seafs, cut an alley-way 
through ye oulil part, dispose cd' any |.ersoiis who 
shall want scats or lose tln'ir seats by means of ye 
alli y, in ye most convenient places in yc onid or new 
part, and rectify any disoidcis with due care that 
such as have been formerly sealed may keep tlu'ir 
places as many as conveniently can." It was also 
ordereii, for " ye reeulaling and preventing of dis- 
orders in seats," lliat Kichard Norni.ui should have 
power to " look altcrall persons, men and women, that 
they keep tlieirscals npcm penallie (if t W(j shillings, 
li\i' pence for every single ollencc upon eveiy Sabbath 
day." These lines were to be '"destrained U|ion legal 
warninggiven to the [larties oU'ending," and one-third 
of the amount was to be given to Mr. Norman, ami 
tile remainder to be appropriatcil for the pom- of the 
town. 

However sadly the inbaliitant may have disagreed 
in r<ganl to the seating (d' the "lcntio,"as they 
termed the aildition, it is evident that the day on 
whicdi it wa.s raised was one of general rejoicing 
Those who are familiar with New JCngland customs 
in the olden time know that it was thought next to 
impossilile to have a " house raising," witlumf ex- 
tending an invitation to the entire c(]mniunity to as- 
sist. These occasions were generally obscrve<l as 
holidays, and were devoted by the younger people to 
iiu'rry-making and the most joyous festivities. Tlie 
wine and other lii[Uors lloweil freidy, and, while many 
partook of tlie beverage temperately, an opportunity 
was given to the weak and thoughtless to iiululge in 
a reckless round of dissipation and drunkenness. The 
raising (jf the lean-to was no exception to the general 
custom. In the report cd' the expenses inciilenl to 
the oceasiou we find the lollowing item: " I'aid for 
rum and charges about fish at raising the Leantoo at 
the Meeling-I louse, . . . C ! l',<. ii</." 

The custom (d" using intoxicating liijuors as a 
beverage, wdiich prevailed throughont New ICngland 
until a comparatively recent date, was one of the be- 
setting sins of the peo[>le of Marbhdiead from its ear- 
1 licst settlement. Not a vessel went from its harbor, 



1066 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



whether for a long trip to the " Banks " or Cor a few 
days fishing in the bay, without a i)lentiful supply of 
liquor. Not a vessel arrived with a fare of fish with- 
out providing " something to take " for washing-out 
day. The custom was so universal that even at the 
town-meetiugs liquor was provided as a matter of 
course. 

As a consequence many persons were disorderly, 
and the meetings wore frequently disturbed. 

In 1G74 the town had increased to such an extent 
that there were then one hundred and fourteen house- 
holders, whose names with their common age are re- 
corded in the records. At a town-meeting, held dur- 
ing this year, it was voted that " all these fifteen or 
sixteen houses built in Marblehcad, before ye year 
1660, shall be allowed one cows common and a 
halfe." 

In 1675 the war between the Massachusetts Colo- 
nists and the Indians, known as King Philip's War 
broke out. This terrible and bloody war lasted three 
years, and ended only at the death of King Philip. 
The whites had so diminished before its close that 
they began seriously to apprehend total extinction. 
During the year lii77, while the war was at its height, 
two Indians were brought as captives to Marblehead. 
Their fiite is thus portrayed by Mr. Increase Mather 
in a letter dated 23d of fifth month, 1677, — 



"Sabbath night was sennight, the women at Marblehead, as they 
came out of the nieeting-hou^e, fell upon two Indians that were brought 
in as captives, and in a tiinniltuon-s way. very barbarously murdered 
them. Doubtless if the Indians liear of it tlie captives among them wil' 
be seni'ed acconlingly." 

The first school in town, of which there is any 
record, was opened in 1675, Mr. Edward Humphries 
being the teacher, and receiving forty pounds yearly 
for his services. 

In March, 1679, it was agreed at a town-meeting 
"that Robert Knight shall be clearly requited and 
discharged from jiaying his Town Rates during his 
life for his workmanship done in the meeting-house 
in building the gallery. It wiis also voted at the 
same meeting "that Robert Knight hath libertie for 
to flow the ferry Swamps as to the benefit of his mill, 
and it is to continue during the towncs i)leasui-e." 
These votes illustrate the impulsive and generous 
disposition of the people of Marblehead, traits whidi 
have characterized their descendants to a marked de- 
gree ever since. But a few years before the jiassage 
of these votes, Mr. Knight, in building the lean-to, 
had found it necessary to cut away a post under the 
gallery. For this he was severely censured, and 
ordered to replace it under a heavy penalty. Natur- 
ally resenting the indignity lie delayed his work 
somewhat, and the town voted if it were not com- 
pleted before a certain date " to sue him, and to 
prosecute him from Court to Court until the case was 
ended." Like many others who have sufl'ered from 
the temporary unpopularity which their actions have 
occasioned, Mr. Knight lived to see the excitement of 



his fellow-citizens abate, and had the pleasure of ex- 
periencing the popular reaction in his favor, of which 
the votes were an evidence. 

Sailors and fishermen are proverbial for their sym- 
pathy and disinterested benevolence in behalf of the 
distressed. The people of Marblehead have ever 
been a conspicuous example of this class of men, and 
their generosity and good-heartedness is shown on 
nearly every page of their history. A vote passed by 
the commoners in 1682, gives an evidence of their 
kindness which should serve as an example worthy of 
emuhition by their posterity. Richard Reed, a man 
advanced in years, having forfeited his land for a 
fish-fence, by being in arrears for rent, the town 
"voted in consideration of his age and losses, that he 
might pay two pounds, and the rest should be abated ; 
and that he should enjoy the privilege of using the 
land for a fish-fence for the rest of hi.s natural life." 

The year 1684 was made memorable by the public 
ordination of Mr. Cheever, and the organization of a 
church in Marblehead. Mr. Cheever had been 
preaching for sixteen years, and the number of com- 
municants had increased to fifty-four, who were in 
the habit of going to Salem to have the sacraments 
of baptism and the Lord's Supper administered. 
Tills having been found inconvenient, a vote was 
[lassed by the congregation, after the afternoon ser- 
vice on the 6th of July, to request Mr. Cheever to be 
ordained, and to take measures for the organization 
of a church. On the 16tli of July a solemn fast was 
ob.served for the blessing of God on the undertaking, 
the exercises being conducted by the Rev. Mr. Hall, 
of Beverly. The ordination took place on the 13th 
of August in the presence of the Deputy Governor, 
five of the assistants, twenty elders and a large con- 
course of people. 

For some time previous to the period of which we 
are writing, certain Indians, heirs of the squaw sa- 
ciieni of Saugus, had presented claims of ownershi]) 
in the lands comprised in the township of Marble- 
head, and after several years of controversy it was 
decided to hold a town-meeting and take appropriate 
action in regard to the matter. Accordingly on the 
nth of .July a meeting was held, and Moses Maver- 
ick, .lohn Devoreux, Captain Samuel Ward, Thaddeus 
Hidden, William Beal, Richard Read a.nd Nathaniel 
Waltown, with tlie selectmen, were chosen a commit- 
tee to investigate the matter and search after the 
pretended claims. Messrs. John Devereux and Samuel 
Ward, as a sub-committee, were authorized to pur- 
chase the land and take a deed of it in the name of 
the town in case the claim should be found valid. 
The committee reported that the claim was valid, 
and tliat they had purchased the land. The town 
therefore apjiointed a committee, one of whom was 
the Rev. Samuel Cheever, to " proportion each Mans 
part according to his privilege in the township." Tlie 
committee, after attending to the duty assigned them, 
reported that after "proportioning the amount by 



MAItRLEIIEM) 



cow leases, they lomiil it tci aiiioiiiit in uino [n'lice jht lisiatiims uf iiin<jccni-c, ilic iMjrjr n, 



cow 111 moiioy. 

Pa-ssiiisr over the events of the iiiteiveiiiiiu- ycais eiKcl al (ialhiws II ill 
between li)84 and '!I2, of whieh theif is no iceonl nf I her. 
any iinportanee, we eonie to tlie period when tlie 
jrreat witeheral't dehision spread witli sneli terrihk' 
and deadly ell'eet ainonir tlie jieople of Ivssex Connty. 
The pe(>|>lo of .Marbhdiead, eredulons and snpersti- 
tious as were tile inhabitants of nearly all niaritiine 
towns, listened with awe to tiie talcs ol' distress which 
Were bronglit, from time to time, from ilnir ncii.dibors 
in Salem, and, clustered about their lircsidcs or in the 
shops along the shore, wdiispered of ghosts and gob- 
lins, and tohl hlood-enrdling tales (d'tlie sea. 

.Vl this time there lived in .Marlilehead an old 
woman, the wile of a (ishermaii, of whose snpernat- 
nral powers many weird. ;ind dreadfnUtorics li.-id been 



lemned ami senl.'ncd li, be li.uigc-d. She was exe- 
n, on \\u- L'-Jd of Seplem- 



cii A I'Ti: i; i..\ \ I .\ . 

M.\Ki;i,Kiii;.\i)— fr„„^„,„,/i. 

i/:w.(i(,..,.,. i:,h,,\-Ti„ s,,-,;;i,,.,., M..i»..,i ir. ,../ 1,. I h-!ii .1;. .;„../■, 

I'l,„,,li-\.,r M,,li,„i-ll,.„.r l:,,,ll- M.nl.l.l,,,,.! ,„ 1711 77,. i;,i,(./,- 

//.,„/ ;.,:./.,( -,sv,.„„„ i;,,,i„r,,i I.,, r„;if.. 



i.N the preceding chapter an cviileriee has been 
given of the super.-tition of the people of Kssex 

Conrily at (he time of the ever-im' rnble witeheiafl 

delusion, bill it would be aliiio.st impoK>iKb. lo relate 



told. " Mam 



Ked 



msidereil a witcli. and i hall the super- til ions Iraditious linidv believed by 



Inel l)een known to alllict those whom slu> disliked in 
various ways. 'J'o .some she sent sickness and distress 
by wishing that a "bloody cleaver" might be Ibiind 
on the cradles of their infant children ; and it; was 
said tliat whenever the wish was ntterecl tlii^ cleaver 
was distinctly seen, and tlie chiMren sickened and 
died. .\t other times.it was said, she caused the 
milk to curdle in the milk-|)ail as soon as it had left 
the cow; and minierrius instances were cited to prove 
thai she had often caused the butter churned by her 
enemies to turn to "blue wool." 

In spite of the grievous manner iu whiih they be- 
lieved themselves atl!ict<'d, tlu' kiud-hearleil people 
of Marbhdiead had made no compl.iint to the aiilhor- 
ities of tile matter, and it was reserved for several 
deluded young women ol' .~.ilem, who had already 
eaii.sed much sutl'ering in that community by their 
ready accusations, to cause her arrest and imprison- 
ment. Early in the month of May, ItlHii, a warrant 
was issued by John Hatliorne and .lonathan Cnrwin, 
two (if the assistants, for the arrest of Wilinot Read, 
wife of Samuel Read, of Marblehead, who was 
charged with having "committed sundry acts of 
witchcraft on the bodies of Mary Walcol and .Mercy 
Lewis, and others, of Salem Village, to their great 
hurt," etc. The examination took ]>lace on the "Ist 



the inhabitants of .Marblehead then and for mine 
than a century alter. 

Sl<jries of plianloui ships seen al sea before the hiss 
of a vessel ; ol lb.' appeaianee on the water of luveil 
ones who bad died .-it home; foot-ti'ps and voices 
hi-ard mysteriously in the still hours of the night, 
eoniiiig as warnings froiu :iiiollier world ; signs aud 
omens uliii h forelold the appieaeliing death of some 
member of a family, or proplieeies whispered by the 
wind that those away <ui the mighty deep would lind 
a watery grav<-. 

These, and other stories of pirat. s ui.' on the .seas 
and smugglers who .seereled their treasures along the 
shiu'e. formed the burihii of ton veisaticm during the 
long winter evenings. Of the many traditimis of this 
kind, (old nith simple faith and sincere belief by cuir 
ancestors, few have e.iiiie ilown to their ileseemlants, 
and of these, the story of the serieehiug wonuiu is 
perhaps the most vividly remembered. U was said 
that during the laKer part of the seventeenth century 
a Spaiusli shiji laden with rich merchandise was cap- 
tured by pirati-s aud brought into the harbor of .M,-ir- 
blehead. The crew and every person on Ixjard the 
ill-fated ship had been murdered at the time cd' the 
eaiiture, exee]i( a beautiful l-"nglish lady, whom the 
rullians brought on shore near what is now called 



of May. at the house of Lieutenant. Nathaniel luger- I Oakum Bay, and there barbarously murdered her. 
s(dl, lit' Sali-m. .\fler listening patiently to the evi- j Tlu^ fi-w lishermeii who inhabited the phn-e were ab- 



denee the grand jury brought in two imlictments 
against the woman. In one she was i-liarged with 
"certain detestable arts called witchcraft and gmceries 
wickedly, maliciously and feloniously used, practiced 
and exercised at and in the town of Salem. . . . in, 
upon aud against one Eliza Rootli of Salem, single 
woman, by which .said wicked arts ye said Eli/a 
r.ootli was tortured, attlictod, consumed, pined, wasted 
and tormented." The other indictment charged her 
with practicing her "detestable arts " upon <ine Eli/a 
Hubbard, of Salem. 

.\fter the examination usual in such cases at the 



■lit, and t he women .'ind children who reui.-iiiied eiuild 
do nothing to pri-veut the crime. The sc-re.-nns cd' (he 
victim were loml and dreadful, and her cries of " Lord, 
save me I oh, l,(jrd desus, save me!" were distinctly 
hearil. The body was burii-d where the crime was 
per|)etrated, and for over one hundred and tilty years, 
on the anniversary of that dreadful tragedy, the 
screams of the poor woman were repeated in ti voice 
so shrill and supernatural :is to send an indescribable 
thrill of horror through all who heard them. 

There were other beliefs as lirnily held, which, 
tlnnigh e()Ually as supei-stitious, were much more 



lime, with no defense, save her own vehement pro- agreeable and romantic. The young women, on the 



1068 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



nights when a new moon was to appear, would con- 
gregate at one of the houses in the neighborhood, and, 
putting a huge pot of tallow over the fire, would dro]) 
"hot nails" into the boiling fat, firmly believing that 
the young man who should appear while tlie nails 
were dropping would be the future husband of the 
fair damsel who dropped them. At other times the 
young women would go to an upper window, and, 
reaching half-way out, throw a ball of yarn into the 
street, believing that the lucky youth who picked it 
up would surely come forward with an ofler of mar- 
riage. 

Until the ordination of Jlr. Cheever nearly all the 
marriages in town had been solemnized by Mr. Mave- 
rick, who had been appointed one of the magistrates, 
and was for many years the only Justice of the Peace 
in the place. Mr. Maverick was a selectman, town 
clerk, tything man, and a member of every important 
committee chosen by the town. Owning a considera- 
ble portion of the township, and being largely inter- 
ested in the fishing trade, he was a man of great 
influence in the community, and his advice, when 
given, was followed with imi)licit confidence by the 
simple fishermen with whom lie lived. 

The customs of the people at this time, and for 
many years after, were, some of them, of the most 
curious nature. A marriage was the scene of the 
most joyous festivities, and the occasion of a season 
of merry-making for an entire week in duration. 
Everybody in the community who chose attended the 
wedding, and when, at a late hour in the night, the 
guests were ready to depart for their own homes, the 
bride and groom were put to bed by their maids and 
groomsmen, and the entire companj' marched around 
their bed, throwing old shoes and stockings, and vari- 
ous other missiles at them, for good luck, and by way 
of a parting salute. 

As the town increased in importance and pros- 
perity, the custom, so prevalent throughout New 
England, of presenting the pall-bearers at funerals 
with gloves and gold finger-rings, became very fash- 
ionable among the wealthier families. These rings 
were often of a very curious and unique design, and 
there are several of them held as heirlooms by some 
of the older inhabitants to-day. 

For some years ])revious to the year 1698 it ap- 
peared that no school had been kept in Marblehead 
for any length of time exceeding a few brief months. 
In November of that year a school was ojiened by Mr. 
Josiah Cotton, who came to Marblehead at the urgent 
request of several of the influential inhabitants. 
Mr. Cotton was a young man, not quite nineteen 
years of age, who had but a short time before gradu- 
ated from Harvard College. He was a grandson of 
the Rev. John Cotton, and a nephew of the celebrated 
Dr. Cotton Mather. The town agreed to pay him 
fifteen pounds a year for his services, and he received 
" six pence and a groate a week " from each of the 
scholars who attended the school. As the inhabitants 



generally sent their children to the school it soon in- 
creased to seventy-five pupils, and the income of the 
teacher was increased to about fifty pounds per annum 
in silver money. 

During his stay in !Marblehead Mr. Cotton lived for 
the greater part of the time in the family of the 
minister, Mr. Cheever, though for a short time he 
boarded in the families of Captain Edward Brattle 
and Captain John Browne. While here he studied 
theology, and preached his first sermon November 2'A. 
1701. In 1701 Mr. Cotton took his final leave ol 
Marblehead, and some years after wrote the account 
of his life while here, from which we are permitted to 
extract the following: 

"When I came to this place I was niw and young, not 19 years oM. 
and therefore it is not to be wondered at if I gave way too much to (luit 
extravagance Inteniperance, Negligence in Religion and Disorderliiie-^ 
that is too rife in that place. I desire to thank God that it was no nion-. 
and to be humbled that it was so much, and to l>e thankful that after m< 
much Vanity God brought me to myself and did not suffer me to be ui 
ferly ruined. In the latter end of 1703, I had thoughts of removing 
from Slarblehead, supposing the place (then being under decay) inji 
likely to afford me a settlement, and accordingly I left it about twu 
months. In that time I went to Sandwich and Dartmouth, in the county 
of Bristol, to which I had been directed by the Boston ministers. I tar- 
ried and preached at Boston but one Sabbath. 

"After my coming from thence, I ha<l several letters from my brother. 
Gushing and Samuel Ponhallow, Ksq., inviting me to keep school at 
Portsmouth, on the Piscataqua River, towards which I steered my 
course ; but calling at Slarblehead, and they remaining still destitute of 
a .schoolmaster, I agreed with them again (upon the advancement of my 
sjilary from the Town, under the former regulation for particular sclnd- 
ars, for they would not make it fl free school) and tarried half a yciir 
longer in ye school, and desire to acknowledge it as a favor that my set - 
vices therein as well as before was acceptable and successful. 

"The people there being generally if not universally inclined to gi\'' 
their children common learning, the scholars rise but thin among-i 
them. There was but one that went from thence, whilst I kept schoul. 
to the college, and that was the minister's son, Mr .\mos Oheevcr, lu.w 
minister at Manchester. There was another designed, viz: John Brown*- 
son of Capt. Browne, but death put an end to the design. Some of tin- 
verses composed on that sorrowful occiision are as follows ; — 
* Death is a tribute which by nature wo 
Are bound to pay unto Mortality ; 
A lovely plant cropt in his tender years 
Lyes here, a subject not of prayer, but tears ; 
A youth who promis't much, but awful death 
Hath snatched him from tis and hath stopt his breath, 
And now he's gone you'll scarce his equal find, — 
On all accounts few equals left behind.' 
" I have heretofore thought of writing a particular character and de- 
scription of Marblehead, or rather, history of my observations there, but 
upon the attempt, finding that 1 could not do it without too much satyr 
and reflection (pt-rbaps to some to whom I was obliged) I laid it aside 
and shall only say that the whole township is not much bigger than a 
large farm, and very rocky, and so Ibey are forc't to get their living out 
of the sea, not having room to confound the fisherman with the hus- 
bandman, and so spoil both as they do in some places. It has a very 
good Harbour, which they improve to the best advantage for FishiiiL' 
both Summer and Winter. . . . .\nd, finally, it is one of the best coun- 
try places to keep scIkhiI in, provided a man be finnly fixt in principle of 
Virtue and religion, which I hear ily wish were more abundant aiuoii^^ 
them in the life and power nf it. 

" My greatest intimacy whilst at Marblehead was in the family of Col. 
Legg, whoso lady was a geutlewoinan of great gravity, integrity and 
prudence, and with the families of Capt. John Browne and Capt. Etiward 
Brattle, who married Col. Legg's two daughters,— by which means I had 
some uncomfortable jarrs with Colonel X. and his lady, who held no 
great correspondence with other families. .\nd 1 would, fixmi my own 
experience, advise all men, and especially young men, upon their first 
setting out In life, to avoid all meddling too faiv and to oairy it w ith an 
equal hand towards all." 



MARr.l.KIIKAD. 



inra 



There were days when pirates iiitV-steil the hii;h 
seas, and JFarUlehead from its isohited ]i(>sitiiiii be- 
came a [dace of fre<]aent resort tor this ehiss of out- 
laws. The simple-niinded inhabitants, naturally 
hospitable, eonlially weleonied all who came 
amonsr them, little dreamiiiir that at times they were 
harboriiiir some of the most heartless and blood- 
thirsty villains that ever sailed the ocean. In July, 
1703, the iirijrautiue Charles, Captain Daniel Plow- 
man, Commander, was titled out at ISoston, as a 
privateer, to cruise against the French and Span- 
iards, with whom Great Hritain was then ut war- 
When a few (lays out Captain Plowman was taken 
suddenly ill, and the inhuman crew locked liini in 
the cabin and Kit him to die. His body was thrown 
overboard, and .I<din Quelcli, the lieuti-nant, assumed 
command. With the consent and co-operation cd' 
the crew Quelch seized the vessel, and procee(led on 
a piratical cruise sailintr to the coast of l!ra/il. llc' 
confined his oi)erations to that locality, phuiderini: 
several Portuiruese shi|)S and bri);autines, killing the 
Captains and taking several negro slaves as prison- 
ers, besides gold and other booty. In Jlay of the 
following year, (170-1), the brigantine arrrived at 
Marblehead, purporting to have come from Xew 
S|)ain. The suspicions of the owners hail been 
aroused, however, and a si-arch ol' the vessel revealed 
several Portuguese dags and other articles, which c'on- 
firnied the evil reports that had been heard concern- 
ing the vessel. Finding that they were detected. 
Quelch and his crew attem|)ed to escape, and secret- 
ed themselves along the shore. They were liotly 
pursue<l by the authorities, and were finally captured 
Some were found at tiloucester, others at the Isle cd' 
Shoals, while (Quelch, it is said, was discovered in 
Marblehead. Twenty men in all were cajitured, an<l 
were subsequently convicted of piracy. Of these, 
only one, a youth of nineteen years, gave Marble- 
head as his birth-place. (Juelch, with four of his 
associates, was executed at lioston June 30, 1704. 

The town records of this period are very incomplete, 
and furnish little information concerning the customs 
or habits of life of the inhabitants. 

In .\pri!, 170!), the commoners leased all that great 
head of land on the northwest side of Charles Island 
in hiltle Harbor to Edward Dimond, " shoreman," 
for thirteen shillings yearly. This person was jirob- 
ably the famous "old Dimond," of whom such fabu- 
lous stories were told and believed. It was said that 
he Wius a wizard and possessed the " black art," which 
enabled him to foretell coming events, to avert dis- 
aster from his friends, and bring distress ui)on his 
enemies. When the night was dark and stormy, and 
the wind gave evidence of blowing a gale, "old Di- 
mond " would wend his way to the "burying hill," 
and there, among the graves and tondi-stones, "beat 
about "and give orders for the management of his 
vessels at sea. In a voice loud and clear, distinctly 
heard above the roar of the tempest, these orders 



would be given, and no mie dared (piestiou tin ir 
power to save from shipwreck. The advice of "old 
Dimond " was sought by prnple far and near who be- 
lieved in his great powers; but wm- betide the evil 
doer who came into his presence. Once, when a 
guilty fellow, who had stolen wood from a poor widow, 

j came to him for advice, the wizard "idiarmed" him, 

j and caused him to walk all niglil with a heavy log <d' 

i wood on his back. At auotluT time, wdi^n a sum of 
money bad been stcilen IVnm an aL:ed euuple, "idd 
Dimond" told where it could be found, and gave- the 
name of the thief Let not llie reader think that 
these stories illustrating the superstition of o\ir an- 
cestors are exaggi'rated in ilie least. They were tidd 
by aged people living in Marblehead but a few yeai-s 
ago, now at rest, who remendiercd with what faith 

. and earnestness they were told by their uioihers and 
grandmothers. 

(If the same class are the stories t(dd nf the iii.ui 
who was rliased by a eiirpse in a colliii, ami shortly 
liter sickened and died ; nf the poor fellow who was 
diased by his ."^alanie majesty himself, seated in a 
.•arri.age drawn by I'oLir white horses; and of the 
young lisherman who arrived lioiiie iiL the night, and 
meeting the young woman to wli.mi ]\r was betrothed, 
gave her a few of the tish In- bad caught only to see 
her fa<le away and vanish li-om his sight. The next 
morning tlu' heart-broken lover learned that the girl 
he lo\(d had dieil during his absence, and became 

I convinced that In' had seen an apparition. What the 

I ghost did with the lisli ha.- never been s:itistactorily 

j explained. 

< )|' the events nf the intervening years between 
I7(i:iand 1711 little can be ascertaiueil. A few years 
previous an Episcopal Chur<-h had been gathered ami 
a j)arish organized, and during the year 1714, a 

I idiurch editice was erected. The funds for the erec- 
tion of the building were suliscribed by thirty-three 
gentlemen who ]dedged themselves in various sums to 

I the amount of nne buinlnd and seventy-live pounds. 

I Tile list was headed by Cnloncd Francis Nicholson, 
who sidiscribed twenty-live pnnnds, and the remain- 
der was made up by several (a]itains of vessels in 
sums varying from two pounds to twelve ])oundseach. 
The frame and all the nniterials used in the conslrnc- 
lion of the building were brought from lOngland. 
The first rector was liev. William Shaw, wdio arrived 
andtookVhargcofthe jiari.sh on the 20th of July, I71o. 
In 1714, the Hev. Mr. Cheever having become very 
old and inlirm, his church voted to settle a younger 
minister with him as an assistant, .\ccordingly, a 
meeting was held, ami two candidates were presented 
for the choice id' the church, one of whom was Mr. 
.lohn I'arnard, of Hoston, and the other Mr. I'dward 
Mcdyoke. Mr. ISarmird was chosen by a snndl nni- 
jority, and at a town meeting convi'iied for the pur- 
|)ose, tiie <'hoice (d' the church was ratilie.l liy ihe 
town. This action on the i)art <if the town was lar 
from satisfaetorv to the ailherents of .Mr. Ilulvoke, 



1070 



HISTORY OP ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



and occasioned a controversy which resulted in a 
division of the church and tlie withdrawal of the 
disaffected members. The town voted to grant per- 
mission for the organization of another church and 
the erection of a new meeting-house, and a charter 
was obtained from the General Court. The members 
of the First Church sent an earnest and solemn pro- 
test to the Governor and the Legislature against the 
formation of a new church, declaring that as there 
was already one "church and one meeting-house in 
the place," the erection of a third ])lace of worship 
would disturb the peace of the town. They also 
charged their brethren who desired to form the new 
church with the grave offense of going about the 
town and "defaming and vilifying the cliaracter of 
Mr. Barnard." On the 9th of November, 1715, Mr. 
Barnard entered upon his duties as the assistant 
pastor of the First Church, and on the 2oth of 
April, 1716, the new meeting-house having been erect- 
ed, the Second Congregational tUiurch was organ- 
ized, and Mr. Holyoke was ordained as pastor. The 
ordination of Mr. Barnard took place on the 18th of 
July of the same year. 

The condition of the town at this time is de- 
scribed by Mr. Barnard in his autobiography as mis- 
erable in the extreme. He says : " When I first came 
[in 1714], there were two companies of poor, smoke 
dried, rude, ill clothed men, trained to no military 
discipline but that of ' Whipping the Snake,' as it 
was called. There was not so much as one proper 
carpenter, nor miison, nor tailor, nor butcher in the 
town, nor any market worth naming ; but they had 
their houses built by country workmen, and their 
clothes made out of town, and supplied themselves 
with beef and pork from Boston, which drained the 
town of its money. And what above all, I would re- 
mark, there was not so much as one foreign trading 
vessel belonging to the town, nor for several years 
after I came into it ; though uo town had really 
greater advantages in their hands. The people con- 
tented themselves to be slaves that digged in the 
mines, and left the merchants of Boston, Salem and 
Europe, to carry away the gains, by which means the 
town was always dismally poor in circumstances, in- 
volved in debt to the merchants more than they were 
worth ; nor could I find twenty families in it that 
upon the best examination could stand upon their 
own legs; and they were generally as rude, swearing, 
drunken and fighting a crew as they were poor." 

Though the influence of Mr. ISarnard the people 
were finally induced to send their own fish to market, 
Mr. Joseph Sweett being the first man to engage in 
the enterprise. He fitted out a small schooner, which 
he sent to the Barbadoes with a cargo of fish, and, 
being successful, was in a few years enabled to build 
vessels and send his to Euroi)ean markets. In a 
short time others, encouraged by his success, engaged 
in the business, and the town enjoyed an era of pros- 
perity such as it had never known before. Good 



workmen of every description now abounded in the 
place, and from their more frequent intercourse with 
the outside world, the air of isolation which had i-o 
long characterized the inhabitants, began to wear off 
to a certain extent, and though their manners were 
somewhat rude, they became noted for their kimiiic -^ 
and hospitality to strangers. 

At this time, and several generations later, tlu- 
town was noted throughout New England for the ]ic 
culiar dialect of its people. So broad and quick w:i> 
their pronunciation, and so strange were the idicjin^ 
characterizing their speech, that a native of the town 
was known wherever he went. Nor was this pecu- 
liarity confined to any class or condition of men re- 
siding in the town. All showed it alike, of whatever 
rauk or condition in life. The words were clipped olf 
very shortly, and in some .sections there was a slight 
difference in the dialect noticeable. The " Gunny 
Land" people always dropped the "A "in speaking, 
and their vernacular was much like that of a Cock- 
ney Englishman, in addition to that which betrayed 
them " to the manner born." 

Hardly a family in the olden time escai)ed with the 
correct pronunciation of its name. So accustomed 
were many of the inhabitants to the cognomen, by 
which they were known, that in some instances 
they did not recognize their own names when called 
by them. An instance of this kind is related in the 
" Life and Letters of Judge Story," who was a native 
of the town. 

*• Once wliile he was trj'ing a case in Uie Circuit Court, in Boston, the 
clerk called out the name of oneof the Jury as Michael Treffery (it bein;; 
so spelt. No answer was given. Agaiu he was called, and still there 
was silence. * It is very stmnge,' said the clerk, 'I saw that man here 
not two minutes ago.' ^Wheredoeshe come from ?' asked thejudge. 
' Marblchead, may it please your Honor,' said the clerk. * If that's the 
case,' said thejudge, 'let me see the list.* The clerk handed it up to 
him. lie looked at the name a miuute, ami, hauding back the list, said 
'call Mike Trevye' (throwing theacccnt on the hist syllable.) ' Hero ;' 
answered a gruff voice. 'Why did you not answer before ? ' said the 
clerk. ' Tretfery is no way to pronounce my name,' said the juryman, 
' my name is Mike Tre;/;,-, as tllc^ judge knows." 

Another anecdote to the same purpose is related 
in the work. 

On one occasion, when some of our fishermen were in court to settle a 
mutiny which had taken place on the Grand Banks (of Newfoundland), 
one being called upon to sintc what ho knew, said ' that tho skipper and 
one of Ills shipmates had what he called a "jor of ile.' The presiding 
judge in vain endeavored to get a more intelligible answer, and finally 
Judge Story was called upon, as usual, to act as interpreter to his towns- 
man, which he did, telling the court that tho 'jor of ile,' in the 
JIarblehoad dialect, was a 'jaw awlnlc,' which, lioing interpreted, 
n.eant that tho two men abused each other grossly for some time." 

Though the dialect ouce so general among tlie peo- 
ple is now almost extinct, there are many words used 
occasionally, to know the meaning of which would 
puzzle a stranger. Often when any of the natives 
feel slightly cold or chilly tliey will say that they are 
" crimmy." If they lose their way in the dark and 
become confused or bewildered, they will say they 
were "pixelated." In sinaking of the ceiling of a 
room some of the older people still call it the " jilitiich- 



M \i:i;i,KiiKAi). 



1071 



men/.'' When a Ijidy, on cx:uiii;iinif of sfu in;;-, liiids 
that it is carelessly, or improperly done, it is not wn- 
usnal to hear her pronounce tlie work " a /roac/;." 
When food has been ii!i|)roperly prepared, or is not 
siidiciently cooked, it is spoken of as '" caiilc/i." 

When very angry Cor any reason, it is a common oc- 
currence to hear some one exclaim '• ."^(luael 'im up '. " 
" S(]uael something at him ! " or '" He oueht to he 
squaele<l up I'' which heinsr interpreted, means" Throw 
somethino; at him I '" "Stone him I " or " lie <iui;lil to 
he stoned." 

.\ cruml> or a small ]iiece of anylhiuir to eat. is 
called a "(jriimiiwt," anil a sulky or iU-nalured person 
is said to he '' </nili/." 

The diliieulties against wliich the fishermen and 
sailors on board the mercliant vessels of the e(dony, 
were obliged t<i contend were for many years greatly 
augmented l)y pirates, who infested the waters on the 
coast of North America. In .Inne. 17--, Ivlw.ird 
how, a noted pirate, while cniising near Cape Sables. 
took po.s.session of the schooner ^^ary, of Marblehead, 
Thomas Trefry, master, and after robbing several 
other vessels in the vicinity, made prisoners of Nicdi- 
olas AFerritt, master of tlie Shallop .lane; I'hilip 
Ashton, Jr., master of the sc-hooner Mill.m: .loscph 
Libby. one of the .\sliton's laew ; and Lawrence 
Phabens, one of the crew of the schoon.T Kebekah. 
Thi'se were all active men about twenty yctars of age, 
and though they pleaded tearfully to be released, 
were forced into the service of the pirali's. Unfortu- 
iiately no record had been i)reserved by which tlie ex- 
perience of the i)risoners can be narrated, except in 
the case of Ashton. Confined on bo.nrd the pirate 
ship, narrowly watidied, and (•ontinually in fear lliat 
his life would be taken, ho was obliged lo perfoiin the 
most menial services. His sufferings from hanisliip 
and the cruelty of the crew at length liec'.ime so uii- 
en<lurable, that he residved to nuike hi< escMpc even 
at the risk of his life. For months, no oppoiiunity 
presented it.self; but in Mandi, 172.'!, Ilie vessel 
stopped at a small desolate island off the West Indies 
to obtain fresh water. Here Ashton was sent on 
shore to iussist in rolling the hogsheads lo ihe water- 
lng-i>lace. Watching his opportunity, he at length 
succeeded in eluding the vigilance of his ca|itors, 
an<l running to the woods, concealed himself in the 
thick brush with which the island abounde<l. Sup- 
[)Osing at first that he had gone to gather cocoanuts, 
the pirates made no search for him, but finding that 
he did not return, they made a diligent search, com- 
ing several times so near his place of concealment 
that he could distinctly hear their conversation. .\t 
length, getting out of patience, they decideii to leave 
without liim, ami to his great joy, ,\shton saw the 
vesaid sail away from the island. 

Hut though liberated froiu the pirates his hardships 
were not an end. Alone on a <le.sert island, with no 
shelter from the weather, and with very scanty metwis 
of subsistence, his sufferings at length became very 



inlrnse. Ili> (ret b<'ia.Mc >ore and bliMcr.d fVum ex- 
posure, ami at length, to add to his misfortunes, he 
was nearly prostrated by sickness. 

While in this condition, he was atfai-ked by a com- 
pany of Spaniards who visited the island, ami nar- 
rowly escaped witli his life. 

Finally, in .Mareli, \7S>, nearly three years after 
he fell into the hands of the pirates, he was taken 
from the isl.-md by Captain Dove, of S:dem. who had 
put in there for w.itrr. When ieb>:ised from his peri- 
lous situation Ihe p ■ lellow had scarcely a rag of 

clothing left, an.l the k i iid- liearted >ailors were 
obli-erl t,, ,-lnthe him fnim their own seantv ward- 
robe.-;. 

(»n his arrival in M.-nblehe.'id, .\sh|on was received 

as one fr the d. ad. On the following Sunday, the 

Kev. .lohn Karn.-iid preaihed a seinion CMriet rning his 
miraeiilous CM-apc', tin- text being: Daniel iii. 17, "11 
it be so, oiir Cud wIkiiu we serve, is abb- to ileliver us 
from the biinnrig liery furnace, mid be will deliver lis 
I. lit of thine liiiiid, () King." 

Niihola- Menitl h.i.l a similar experience, .\fter 

lieiiig with the banditti several nibs, he found 

means to escape, though he did not return to .Marble- 
head for more than a year after. 



Cll .\ y\K\l L.\ X .\ . 
M.\i;iii,i;iii-:.Ai> -iCe,,//,,,,,-,/). 

r„„„ ;;..,.,. /:u*-/,v„-„,,,.» „/ ,s,„„H ;■„.,--;,■,■,- ki„;„,! ii..bi,.i..'^v„.,tc> 

I., .n.„l,l,l,..,.l-n, Sl.,r,i .,/ A.I.,. ~ti„,-. !.,.,. -A r..,,i\ A,.,,rr„l,cr,l,ii, 
-Fir,. li,i..„lm,„l ll,,i.iu,.,,l--n,. r,,'„,l, ,i„.l l„.l,.,., 11 „r. 

In 17l'I, the town liaving developed into a com- 
|>:iialively prosperous and enterprising enimniinity, 
various measures of public ulibty ami improvemiMit 
were adopted. 'I'lie old im-itiiig-boiise wa> enlarged 
by an addition twenty leel long built at the southeast 
end. Permission was granted to .Nathan I'.owen to 
open a public school, and it was voted lo iiiere.ise the 
salary of the schoolmaster and lo adopt some " pn.per 
method of paying Mr Cheever his salary." The 
town seems to have experienced great diflicailly in 
obtaining selioul-leacdiers, and linally, at a town 
mi-etiiig held Maich I, 17J7, it was voted to author- 
ize the seleetmeii lo hire -.i S(dioolniasler at a salary of 
not more than eighty pminds the first year. ,\l the 
same meeting it was voted lo bnihl a town-house, and 
Ihe selectmen were chosen a committee to "treat 
with some wiuknieii in order for the l)uililing said 
house ami make rcliirn lo ye next tciwn-meelin^'." 
It was also voted that ■th.' Town House shall be 
built on ye land where ye Ciale and Cagge uowsl.-inds 
on.'" ,\t a subsequent meeting, cm the 17th of .\piil, 
the town voted, in accordance with the rcjiort of ihe 

I Jail iiDd t'ligt'. 



1072 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



selectmen, to tuilil " the town house fifty feet long, 
thirty feet wide and thirty-three feet stud." The 
selectmen were chosen to superintend the erection of 
the building, and the following year, 1728, the work 
was completed. The first town-meeting held in the 
town-liouse after its completion, was probably held 
March 17, 1728, as that is the date of the first meet- 
ing called there of which there is any record. 

On the 22d of November, 1728, Governor Burnet 
visited the town. He was met at the " bounds of the 
town" by about fifty gentlemen on horseback, and 
the local militia, under arms, and escorted to the 
residence of John Oulton, Esq., where dinner was 
served. "The streets being lined on both sides" — 
we are informed by a Boston paper of the period — 
" for the Cavalcade to pass thro", after which the 
Militia were drawn up before the Door and fired 
three volleys (the Hon. Samuel Browne, Esq., Col. of 
the Regiment being present and gave the words of 
command) and then all the Cannon of the several 
ships in the harbor were discharged ; the like ap- 
pearance was never known in this place before." 

During the month of May, 1730, intelligence was 
received in Marblehead that the small-pox was rag- 
ing in the town of Boston. As rumors of the fatal 
effects of tliis dread and loathsome disease became 
more prevalent the e.xcitement of the people ap- 
proached almost to frenzy. A town-meeting was 
called and it was voted to build a fence across the 
road near the entrance to the town. This fence was 
provided with a gate, which was kept locked and 
four men were stationed as a guard, with instructions 
to " restrain all strangers from Boston entering the 
town." The guard was kept on day and night for 
over two months, being relieved every twenty-four 
hours. Negroes, Indians and mulatto slaves were 
forbidden to walk the streets after nine o'clock at 
night, and every possible precaution was taken to 
prevent the disease from making its appearance. 
But in vain. In October a young woman named 
Hannah Waters was taken sick, and the disease to 
the consternation of the inhabitants proved to be the 
small-po.x in its most contagious form. The pesti- 
lence, having obtained a foot-hold, spread from house 
to house in defiance of the almost superhuman efforts 
of the panic-stricken inhabitants, and ere long nearly 
every family was afflicted by sickness or death. 
Many of the peo])le in their terror fled from the 
town. Business of all kinds was suspended, and 
quarantine was declared against Marblehead by all 
the neighboring towns. Nurses in attendance upon 
the sick were forbidden to appear in the streets, and 
all dogs running at large were ordered to be killed. 
The disease continued its fearful ravages till late in 
the summer of 1731, and gathered its victims with an 
unsparing hand. Rich and poor, old and young, the 
learned and the unlettered, were alike afflicted by 
this unsparing agent t)f death, and finally only two 
members of the Board of Selectmen remained to dis- 



charge the duties of their office. A meeting \\:i- 
called by a justice of the peace, for the first tiuif iji 
the history of the town, and others were elected to fill 
the vacancies. The town was not declared free from 
the disease until nearly a year after its appearance. 
The number of deaths cau.sed by the pestilence is not 
recorded, but it is certain that few towns in the coun- 
try have ever been visited by a calamity more fatal 
or disastrous in its effect. 

The people had not recovered from the blighting 
effects of the terrible visitation to wliich they had 
been subjected, when another burden was laid upon 
them. As soon as the fishing business began to re- 
sume its accustomed activity a law was passed by the 
General Court, requiring a tax of six pence per month 
from every fisherman in the province. The penalty 
for the non-payment of this tax was a fine of twenty 
pounds sterling. The passage of this act was regarded 
as a great hardship by the fishermen of Marblehead, 
who complained that they could barely obtain a live- 
lihood, and could ill afford to pay the tax. Finally, 
Benjamin Boden, a man more daring than his asso- 
ciates, determined to resist what he termed "the im- 
position," and flatly refused to comply with the re- 
quirements of the law. The collector, William Fair- 
child, Esq., after' vainly demanding the tax, brought 
a suit against the delinquent for the amount. This 
action on the part of the collector caused great ex- 
citement throughout the town, and finally a town- 
meeting was called to consider the matter. At this , 
meeting the tax was denounced as unjust and op- 
pressive, and the town voted to pay the penalty and 
the cost of any suit or suits arising from a resistance 
to the six-penny act. 

On the 30th of May, 1737, the Rev. Edward Hol- 
yoke, pastor of the Second Congregational Church, 
was unanimously chosen by the Board of Overseers of 
Harvard College to fill the office made vacant by the 
death of President Wadsworth. At first his people 
strenuously objected to his acceptance of the office, 
but after several meetings for prayer and conference 
had been held, they gave their consent, and Mr. 
Ilolyoke departed for Cambridge. At the last of 
these meetings prayer was offered by the Rev. John 
Barnard, who prayed long and earnestly that the 
people might be reconciled to part with their pastor. 
The prayer had the desired efl'ect, and when some of 
the people were asked why they consented to part 
with so valuable a man and so excellent a pastor, the 
quaint reply was, — " Old Barnard prayed him away." 

In April, 1742. the General Court granted the sum 
of five hundred and fifty 'pounds for the purpose of 
erecting a fortification for the defense of the harbor 
against the French cruisers. This action, though in 
accordance with a petition from the town presented 
a few years before, was the cause of a great deal of 
contention, and not a little ill feeling, among the in- 
habitants. 

Three gentlemen were chosen treasurers of the 



MAKi; 

liiii.l, aii.l a ciiiiinittoc <>i liv,' nrvr clrrU'.l (o cull 
U|"iii tin- captaiii-iU'iirral anil iTiri\c llir iii.uirv, willi 
instruct ions t» pay it nver to the ircasiiicr^. 'I'lir 
most oarolul |iro|)aialions wen' niailc tnr llir srnirity 
of the nioiicy wlicri il shoiiM \>r ici'ciM'il. An inin- 
bouiul clu'st was |inivi.lr<l. liolmcil willi two h'vk-. 
and the town vntrd tliat it shonlil not lie cipenitl ex- 
cept in the preseiu-e ot'all three of tlie trea>nrers. A 
few days after the passasre of this vote two of the 
treasnrers announeed tlieir refusal lo serve, and 
Thomas (ierry and Nallian Howen were ehosen to lill 
the vaeaneies, the otlier treasurer hein;: ( 'aplain .lo- 
sepli Swett. The eoniiniltee clujsen to receive lie 
money did not jiay it over to the treasnrers assocni as 
was thought proper, and tiiudly, at a nieetinj: held in 
November, the treasurers were authorized to sue them 
in the name of the town. This voie docs ho( appeal 
to have been i-arried into ellecl, lifiw.vcr; and at a 
meetin;: held in .lanuary. 174:!, llic> >clc<liiicn were 
authorized to call upon I lie comniitlc-e and demand a 
report of what had bei'ii done with the money. It is 
probable that the committee held the mmiey in their 
liands upiMi .some legal leeliiiicalily, for at another 
nieetinjr the town treasurer was authorized to receive 
it, and no more is said of the mailer in llic n'Ciu'ds. 
Another frranl of one liiiiidrcd and sixty >i\ ponnd> 
had lieen maile by the tieneral Court in Ndveiiilier. 
and the fort was probaldy completed in the l.illci 
part of the year ITl'i. This fort, which is still stand 
iiifr, was afterwards ceded to the United States, and 
for many years has been known as Fort Sewall, hav- 
ing been named in lunior ol' I'liief .Justice Saunu'l 
Sewall, a ilistinguislied citizen of Marblclicad. Il 
was fortifieil during the Uevolniion and in llie War 
of 1S12, and again during the Kcbellion, when it was 
renn)dele<l. 

At the time of which we write Marblehead boastcil 
a public house or tavern, known as the " Fountain 
Inn." To thi.s house the ('aptains of vessels and the 
gentry of the colony resorted when they visited the 
town, and there the fishermen, many of them, spent 
their evenings and their money when (licy returned 
from successful voyages. It was whispered that cer- 
tain pirates and smugglers wlio were known to have 
visited the town had found a friendly shelter beneath 
it.s roof. These stories may or may not have lieen 
true, but there were those living who remembered 
when a gang of pirates had been apprehended and 
arrested in the street.s of Marblehead. They remem- 
bered also, with what a lavish hand these pirates ex- 
pended their money, and the excitement caused in 
the town when several of the inhabitants were ar- 
reste<l for receiving it. The ''Fountain Inn," how- 
ever, w'as to be made fannnis by a more romantic tale 
than any yet related by the gossiping girls and women 
of the village. One day in the autumn of 1742 a 
"coach and four" drove up to the door of the inn, 
and a young and handsome gentleman alighted and 
entered. The guest was Sir Henry Fraiikland, then 
674 



FAD. 



1073 



collcclor of the port of I'.osloii. u bo liad come to 
Marblehead I.I superintend llic building of the fort, 
u hie 11 was then in process of ercci ion. .\s he eiilcrcd 
(be house he was impressed by the >iiipa.ssiiig beauty 
ol a young girl, apparently alioul sixlci-u years cd' age, 
who, on her lieiulcd knci's, was scrubbing the stairs. 
.Noticing llial hci drc'ss was poorand scanty, and that 
her feci wriv doiiiiilc of shoes and stockings, he 
i-allcd her to his siilc and prcsciiling her with money, 
loM her lo puivh.isc a p.iir of shoes. The artless 
-.iniplicily, llic beauty.. and exceedingly musical voice 
of 111.' y..uug iiiil iut.aesli'.l Fra nklau.l, an. I li.' at 
..III.' lua.lc in.|iiiri.'s con.'cining her hist.iiy. Her 
name, he Icarne.l, was .\gnes Surriage, ami that she 
w;is I he daughter id' Ivlward Surriage, a poor but 
lion.sl tisli.'rni.in. \ short lime after, when h'raiik- 
laml again vi-ilcl lli.' l.iwii. li.' was siirprisi.l to lin.l 

ihi' lilll.' iiKii.l still u.irUiig w ill. ..Ill si s aii.l st.ick- 

iiigs, anil to his iii.|uiry uhysli.'ha.l nol puriliascil 
them she rcplh.l : " 1 have in.le.'.l, sir, willi th.' crown 
you gave me; liut 1 keep th.'in to wear to nu'cting." 
Sir Harry's heart was touche.l. Taking the blushing 
girl by the han.l, b.' sai.l : W..ul.l von like t.i go to 
school',' Will y..u g.i wilh 111.' if 1 will lake you from 
Ibis lilc ..fl.iil au.l .Ini.lgcr\ •.' I will iMlui'ate y.ni, 
an.l y..ii shall !.,■ a la.ly." 4'h.'n -eking her parents, 
h.' .iblaini.l tli.-ir pii mission 1.. r.'m..\c her lo liostoli. 
whcr.' she was p.iinilU.I 1.. I'liioy ih.- li.'st cduea- 
lional a.lvaulag.-> lli.-pla.v Ihiai alloLlcl, K..r .s.'veral 
y.-ars she pursue.l her slu.li.'> at s.-h.i.il. an.l ac.piirc.l 
a kn.iwh'dge .d' all the graces and accomplishments 
llien thought necessary for a well bred an.l l;ishion- 
lil,' la.ly. 

41ie beauty of Sir Harry Fraiiklan.l's uar.l was tbr 
som.' time tlu- IIi.mii.' of .'.un crs.'ili.ui in Ih.' aristo- 
crali.' I'iri'les of I'.osloii. A l.'W y.'ars, an.l llii'ir rela- 
li.ius were .lisenssed in a fanlillcri'nt manner. Charges 
of improper intimacy were freely ma.le, ami wilh Puri- 
tanic lirniness the polite society of the town refused 
to re('ognize one w hoiii they I). 'li. v. '.I lo be guilty of 
tran.sgre.ssing the most h.ily l.ius .,f ( io.l an.l man. 
P.ior Agnes. Her b,.iH'la.'l..r lia.l in.l.'.'.l su.'Cec.h'il in 
gaining her allei'tious, but the pri.le .d'ra.'.' ami p.isi- 
tion prevented him fr.iiii w.. I. ling one wdiom he con- 
sidered of igmdile liirlli. Th.' indignation of the peo- 
ple against ''an alliance unsanctioned by the holy 
rite of matrimony " at length became s.) great that 
"the young c.illc.'t.ir resolved to seek a resilience for 
him.self, Agnes an.l her rdaliv.'s, in tin- seclusion of 
the country. .Accordingly he juircliased a (raet ol 
l.'inil in the village of llopkinlon, where, on a hill 
coiiiuiaiiding a full view of the surrounding country, 
he erected a commodious manor house. The grounds 
were laid out in a beautiful and artistic manner. Trees 
and shrubs, and choice plants of almost every descrip- 
tion were set onl to ad.jrii lli.' cstal.', u lii.-li s.ion be- 
came oiuMif the tinesl coiiiilry s.'als in the province. 
I'Virseveral years Franklandand .Agnes Surriage resid- 
ed at Hopkintoii, surrounded with every comfort which 



1074 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



wealth could command, and devoting themselves 
wholly to the pleasures of a life of ease. The labor of 
the plantation was performed by slaves, upon whom 
the entire care of the vast estate devolved, while their 
master was hunting, riding or fishing with his lady. 

During the year 1754 Frankland was unexpectedly 
called to Englatid to transact business of importance, 
and embarked with Agnes Surriage, for London. On 
his arrival he attempted to introduce his fair ward 
into the circle of his family, but in spite of his most 
earnest solicitations in her bchalfshe was treated with 
the utmost disdain. 

Having settled the business upon which he had 
been called to London, the young baronet spent a few 
months in making a tour of Euro|)e, and then, with 
his ward, proceeded to Lisbon, the capital of 
Portugal, where he hired a house and entered at once 
into the gay round of fashionable life. It was during 
their residence in Lisbon that the great earthquake 
of November, 1755, occurred, which brouglit Frank- 
land to a realization of the wicked and dis.solute life 
he was leading, and caused him to do all in his power 
to repair the wrongs he had done poor .\gnes Surriage. 
The day was AU-Saints-day, one of the greatest festi- 
vals of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, 
and almost the entire population of the great city had 
assembled in the churches, when the shock of the 
earthquake burst upon them, burying thousands in 
the ruins of the falling temples. Frankland was 
riding with a lady to attend the services at one of the 
churches, when the walls of a building tottered, and 
fell over them, enveloping horses, carriage, and its 
occupants in the ruins. The death agony of the unfor- 
tunate lady was so great that she bit entirely through 
the sleeve of the scarlet coat other companion, and 
tore a piece of flesh from his arm. The horses were 
instantly killed, and only Frankland was spared alive. 
Buried beneath the ruins he made a solemn vow that 
if it pleased Hod to deliver him from death he would 
thenceforth lead a better life. Meanwhile, where was 
Agnes Surriage ? Left alone in the house of her lover, 
she ran into the street upon the first intimation of the 
impending danger, and so, miraculously, her life had 
been spared. Wandering almost frantic with grief 
among the ruins, the sound of a well known voice 
arrested her attention, and, recognizing it as 
Frankland's, she worked with almost superhuman 
strength to secure his release. In the course of an 
hour her efforts were successful, and the baronet was 
rescued from the horrors of a living tomb. He was 
carried to a house near by, his wounds were dressed, 
and then, faithful to his vow a priest was sent for, and 
Agnes Surriage received the reward of her love and 
self-sacrificing devotion, and l)ecame the Lady Agnes 
Frankland. 

Sir Harry and his wife set out for England .shortly 
after their marriiige, and then, to make the solemn 
rite doubly sure, they were again married on board 
the boat during their passage, by a clergyman of the 



Church of England. On their arrival in London the 
Lady Agnes was received with every mark of esteem 
by the family of her husband, and her charming man- 
ners readily gained access to the most cultivated and 
aristocratic circles of the city. 

After a brief residence in London and Li.sbon, Sir 
Harry and Lady PVankland returned to Boston, 
where they bought an elegant mansion in the most 
aristocratic portion of the town for a winter residence, 
.spending their summers on the l)eautiful estate at 
Hopkinton. 

Frankland was appointed consul-general of I'lirlu- 
gal in 1757, and in that caivaiity resided in Lisbon 
for several years. In 17(1.3 he, with Lady Frankland, 
returned to America, an<l resided at Hopkinton, until 
his declining health caused him to leave the country 
and take up a residence at IJath, England, where he 
died in 176S, at the age of fifty-two years. After the 
death of her husband, Lady .Agnes returned to her 
estate at Hopkinton, where she contiiuied to reside 
respected and beloved by all who knew her, till the 
summer of 1775, when the breaking out of the Revo- 
lution caused her to return to England. As her 
carriage was on the way to Boston it was stopped by 
a company of Continental Soldiers, under command 
of Abner Croft, a zealous patriot, and I^ady Frank- 
land and her goods were held in custody until re- 
leased by order of the Committee of Safety. Defended 
by a guard of soldiers her carriage was finally per- 
mitted to enter Boston, and while there she witnessed, 
from the windows of her residence, the terrible con- 
flict at Bunker Hill. Shortly after, she sailed for 
England, and after residing in the Frankland family 
for several years, was married to John Drew, Esq., 
a wealthy banker of Chichester. She died April 23, 
1783, at the age of fifty-seven years. The e.state at 
Hopkinton was bequeathed, at her death, to her sister, 
Mrs. Swain, and finally passed into the hands of her 
brother, Isaac Surri.age, the last member other family 
who owned it. 

Such is the story of .\gnes Surriage, the daughter 
of a poor fisherman of Marblehead. 

During the year 174-t, Whitefield the celebrated 
evangelist visited the town. Here, as elsewhere 
throughout the province his labors produced the 
most violent and intense excitement. The Rev. Mr. 
Malcolm, rector of St. Michael's Church, engaged in 
an exciting discussion with him relative to some of 
his teachings, and the cause of Whitefield was 
warmly espoused by the pastors of the Congrega- 
tional Churches. 

The controversy incident to the advent of White- 
field had not closed when the difficulties which 
had long been threatening with France develo- 
ped into a declaration of war. An expedition 
was planed for the conquest of I^ouisburg, an im- 
portant French stronghold, and the plans were re- 
jected by the legislature. Upon the petition of the 
merchants of Boston and Salem, and the fishermen of 



MAKBLKIIK AD. 



1075 



iMarl)k-lic:ul, [ho vote was rocdiKsidered, and the plans 
were ailoi>ted by a majority of a siiijrle vote. The 
expedition, consisting of three thousand men and 
several frigates and jriin-hoats, was at lengtli litteil 
out, and the eoininand was given to .Sir William I'ep- 
perell. Many of the sailors who manned the gun- 
boats were fishermen from this port. The town re- 
cords bear testimony to the interest manilested by 
the inhabitants in the result ol' the contest. The fori 
wa-i put in readine.-s to repel an attaik at any mo- 
ment. Mreasl-works were erected along tin- eovi's and 
beaches of the town. Parapets to " cover our men," 
and to "oppose and annoy the enemy should they 
attempt to land" were constructed at every vulnera- 
ble point. For days the men were summoned at the 
beat of the drum early in the morning to assist in 
erecting these fortilicalions, and it Ha> drtcrmiiinl 
to give the enemy a deadly reception, i'.ul foi- once 
the heroic fisliermen did not have a chance to display 
their bravery. Tlieir warlike preparations were 
hardly comi)leted before the n<'Ws was received of the 
success of the expedition, and the siirn-ndi r of Louis- 
burg. 

In May, 1747, a school for poor children, was es- 
tablished through the generosity of Mr. Robert 
Hooper, .Ir., who agreed to pay the necessary e.\- 
penees an<l tln' salary of ihc- teacher, if the town 
would fit up and furnish a sehool-h(juse. The Jiro- 
posal was accepted and the selectmen were instructed 
to "fit up the school-house and grant a lease" of it 
for the purpose. 

Tlie town at this time is estimated to have con- 
tained about four hundred and lilty houses. 'J'he 
fishery had increased to such an extent that over 
eighty schooners sailed from the harbor, and si.\ 
hundred men and boys were employe<l in the iiulustry. 
This comprised, probably nearly the entire male 
population of tlie town. When a boy had attained 
the age of eleven or twelve years he was sent to sea, 
and there were many instances where children of not 
more llian nine years of age were taken to "the 
banks" to assist in the support of a large family. 
During the first four years of a boy's life at sea he 
was ternieil a "cut-tail," from the fact that he re- 
ceived pay oidy for the tish actually caught by him- 
self, and was obliged to cut a small pieci: from tin' 
Uiil of every fish he caught to distinguish llicin from 
the others when the fare was weiglnil ami sold. A 
full crew consisted of eight persons, four of whom 
were " sharesmen," tlie others being boys in various 
stages of apprenticeship. When, after an experience 
of four years, a boy w;ls considered comi)ctent to 
catch a full .share of fisli, he was promoted to the im- 
portant post of " lieader," and was admitted to the 
rights and privileges of a " sharesman." As he be- 
came, qualified lie could then a-ssume the duties of 
" splitter " or " Salter " if lie chose ; but it wa.s 
necessary for him to pa.-ts through all the various 
grades of labor in orihr to obtain a thorough knowl- 



edge of the business before he could be permitted to 
lake command of a vessel, and became a " skipper." 

The fishermen livcil on cipial terms on board their 
vessels. Kvery man was personally interested in the 
result of the voyage, and all worked with untiring 
energy for a successful trip and as large a fare as 
possible. Dory and trawl fishing were tlu-n un- 
known. The lishiiig was done cntinly from the ves- 
sels, and every man b.id his appi^iiited station anil 
was expected to be at llie lines during the entire trip. 

Tlie boats usually went t(. the banks twice a year, 
in the spring and in the fall, and reiiiained from 
three to five months, or until a full fare was obtained. 
( )n their return the salt was washed from the tish and 
they were then cured on flakes in the open air. 

The year 17ol marks an important era in the an- 
nals of Marhlelicad. During that year the lire de- 
partment was organized. .\s the towiislii|i was com- 
posed almo.st entirely of wooden buildings, the 
necessity of procuring a fire engine was considered 
of tlie utmost importance, and in November, 17"iO, a 
vote was passed authorizing the selectmen to ]iur- 
idiase an engine nl' the third size, with the necessary 
|>ipes and a d<izen leather Imckels. This vole does 
not appear to have been carried into clfeet, however, 
nor was there any necessity for so doing. Robert 
Hooper, Esq., a wealthy and generous meridiant, an- 
ticipating the needs of the community in which he 
resided, ordered an engine at his own e.X]iense, and 
on its arrival, in ^larch of the following year, ]>re- 
sented it to the town. The simple reconl of the fact 
speaks volumes for the uiic:stentatious manner of its 
presentation, and the gratitude with which it was 
received. "March I'.l, 17ol , voted the tliank> of the 
town to Robert Hooper, Kscp, for his donation of a 
Fire Engine, this day made to the town." 

At the same meeting the fire department was or- 
ganized by the election of a lioanl of tirewards as 
follow.s : 



•'Voted. TlmtCiipr. NmIIiiiii li..\v.'n, I V|.i, 
lluoper, lisq., Ciipt. l!i. hai.l llrr.l ,111,1 .Mr. .1 
ror the ypiir eliBuiiiK." The- tii.-w.ii.lH in-io : 
ably rompany for lln- ctigiiM-, or nuy ntluT <• 
t.i the town, "anil In luvcMianl Willi Ih.iw up 
Ibeui that they shall he ev.-mpf In. in Mililai 



Ne 


Vllilireh, liiiln 


eil 1 


lappmnt a itn 


hicl 


Khiiiilil helo 


In » 


irk anil pove 



iipal 



There appears to lie no record of the names of those 
a.ssigned to the engine, but a few years later ( 17").')) 
the firewards appointed Robert Harris, captain of the 
"(ireat Fire ICngine," with the following company: 
Will, liowden, .lohn liowd.'ii, Henry 'i'revett, .John 
I'earce, Richard Wood, William Biusselt, .lohn An- 
drews, Roliert Harris, .lohn Neal, .losepli Hubier, 
Benjamin Darling, ISd, Benjamin Doc, 1st. 

The engine presented by Mr. Iloo|ier, uas un- 
doubtedly the "Friend," which was located on Front 
Street near (ioodwin's ('oiirt. The next engine, 
wdiich was purchased for the town in London, and 
was probably that named the " I'.ndcavor." It was 



1076 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



located for many years near " Newtown Bridge," on 
the corner of Washington and School Streets. 

During the year 1752, the small-po.x again broke 
out in Boston, and the usual precautions were adopted 
to prevent the disciise from making its appearance 
in Marblehead. A board fence was placed at the 
entrance to the town, strangers were forbidden to 
enter, and it was voted to send " no representative to 
the General Court that year." In spite of every pre- 
caution, including a general inoculation of the in- 
hibitants, the disesise again m.ade its appearance an<l 
raged for several months with great severity, though 
not with the fatal effect of the pestilence of 1730. 

The bill imposing an excise duty on spirituous 
liquors, wines, lemons, oranges, etc., which became a 
law, by act of the General Court, in 17.')4, was strenu- 
ously opposed by the inhabitants of RIarblebead. The 
town had now become one of the most imjiortant 
ports of entry in the province. The foreign trade was 
yearly assuming proportions which gave the most en- 
couraging signs of a prosperous future. The, wealth 
of the merchants was increasing rapidly, and the peo- 
ple were reaping a rich reward from their industry. 
The wharves teemed with shii)ping, and the mer- 
chants of Marblehead were to be found in almost 
every port of importance in ICurope. 

Under these circumstances, the granting of an ex- 
cise to the King was considered as especially burden- 
some to the people of Marblehead, and several town 
meetings were held to consider the matter, and to 
protest against the passage of the act. The represent- 
ative in the General Court wils instructed to use all 
proper means to prevent it from becoming a law ; and 
finally, at a town meeting, held in .January, 17').'), six 
of the most prominent merchants were chosen a com- 
mittee to " petition His Majesty to disallow the act." 
The members of this committee were Robert Hooper, 
Esq., Mr. Ebenezer Stacey, Colonel Jacob Fowle, 
Colonel Jeremiah Lee, and Captain Isaac Freeman, 
who were authorized to employ an eminent London 
lawyer to act as the agent of the town and petition 
the King in its behalf. 

In ]7.")o, the war known as the "French and Indian 
War" broke out. A.s soon as hostilities were actuallv 
begun, the town took measures for its defense. "A 
powder-house or magazine, suitable for securing am- 
munition," was built by vote of the town. Colonel 
.Jacob Fowle, Colonel Jeremiah Lee, and Major Rich- 
ard Reed being members of the building committee. 
The dcpredatifins of the French on the sea against 
the commerce and fisheries of the linglish colonies, 
during the following year, were severely felt in Mar- 
blehead. Several vcs.sels with their crews, belonging 
here, were captured while on the fishing banks, cau.s- 
ing great distress among their families and great ex- 
citement in the town. The ex|>osed condition of the 
harbor caused serious apprehensions of an attack 
from the enemy when the people were lea.st prepared 
to meet it, anil it was finally voted to present a petition 



to the lieutenant-governor, praying for the protectiin 
of the province. The petition of the fishing interrsi 
stated that " In time of war the fishery is j)r()seculc(l 
with much greater difficulty and risk than any other 
branch of business, as will appear by the late capture 
of many of our vessels by the French, while on the 
fi.shing banks." 

The disadvantages to which the commercial and 
fishing interests of the colonies were subjected can mil 
be better illustrated than by the seizures by the 
French of merchant and fishing vessels belonging in 
Marblehead. 

In December, 1756, the schooner Swallow, owned 
l)y Robert Hooper, Esq., and commanded by Capt. 
Philip Lewis, sailed from Marblehead to the Wcsl 
Indies. On the 13th ofthe month, having been out lnjl 
a few days, the schooner was captured by two Frem Ij 
cruisers, and carried into Martinico. The crew ui- 
imprisoned, and the officers, Capt. Lewis, Mr. Aslili \ 
Bowen and Mr. George Crowninshield, the first ami 
second mates, were confined in a public house and 
closely guarded. Watching their opportunity, they 
finally succeeded in eluding the vigilance of the guard, 
and escaped from the house. Seizing a small 
schooner which lay in the harbor, they sailed away 
under cover of night, and at length reached St. 
Rustatia, where they found friends and were kindly 
treated. Among others who were there was Mr. 
Lewis Freeman of Marblehead, who had purchased a 
slooj), and w'as looking for some competent person to 
take command and go to Marblehead in her with a 
cargo of molas.ses. As Capt. Lewis did not wish to 
undertake the voyage, Mr. Bowen was appointed, 
and the vessel reached Marblehead in safety. The 
unfortunate crew ofthe S;^-allow, who were imprison- 
ed in Martinico, were detained as prisoners until the 
close of the war. 

They were then released, and were obliged to work 
their way home on board of vessels bound for various 
ports in the colony. 

Early in the month of .\pril, 175it, messengers were 
sent to Marblehead to obtain recruits for the naval 
service. Active preparations were then in progress 
for the siege of (Juebcc, and the town's proportion of 
men needed for this service was forty-five able sea- 
men. Mr. Ashley Bowen engaged as a midshipman, 
and in a short time thirty-two others enlisted as com- 
mon sailors. Each man received a bounty, and a 
certificate signed by the Govcnor, promising that 
they should not be detained in the service longer 
than the time for which they enlisted ; that they 
should be free from imprisonment, and landed in 
Boston after their discharge. On the 12th of Ajiril, 
they sailed from Marblehead for Halifax, where they 
arrived on the l(!th, and the next day were assigned 
to their respective ships. Sixteen were placed on 
board the Pembroke, a frigate of sixty guns, under 
command of Capt. Wheelock, and the others were 
assigned to the ship Scpiirrel. These ships in com- 



.MAKIH.I'llllvM). 



1077 



pany with :i Hect under conimand of lUwr AWiiiiial 
Darrt'll, sailed for tlie St. Lawreiue and anivid l>c- 
lore (.iiiol)tv with the expedition coniuiaMded l)y "Icii. 
Wolfe duriiif; the latter part of .hine. On the iiiuht 
of June 2Sth a raft of fire barges was sent down from 
liucbei- for the purpose, if possible, of destroying the 
Meet. The raft was jrrai)i)led by the sailors before it 
approaclied near enough to do any damage, and was 
towed near the shore and aneliored, the sailors eon- 
tinually repeating " All's well I" From a remark in 
■' Knox's .lournal" eoneerning the affair we are led to 
believe tliat some ol' the men detained for this work 
were from Marblehead. " A remarkable expression 
from some of these intrepid souls to their eomrades, 
1 must not omit from its singular nneonthness. 
'Dainnnie, .Taek, didst thee ever lake hell in tow 
before?" 

On the l:Uh ofSeiitembcr. ill the darkness of the 
early morning, the boats of the iK-et moved down llie 
river, and when the sun rose the asloni>lied frencli 
eommander beheld the army of Wolfe npou the 
IMains of Abraham. Wilhoiit a moment's liesitatiim 
Montealm began [ireparations fur liie bailie. At 
sunset the eontesl wa.s over, (Juebee was in possession 
of the Knglish, and the galhml eommandeis of both 
armies were mortally wounded. With this vietory 
the war was virtually ended. With the fall of 
i^uebee, Canada was lost to France lorever, and wilb 
it Ihe last hope of further posse.ssions in .\meriea. 

.lust one week from the day of the battle the men 
of .Marblehead were iliseharged from the service, and 
with otluTs, to the number of one hnndri'dand sixty, 
were put on board the ship "Thornton," and I ran spur I - 
ed to r.oston. On the pa.ssage homeward many ofllie 
men were sick, and Ihirty-live of iheni diid. The 
following are th.- names of the Marbl.head men en- 
gaged in the siege of (Quebec. On board the " I'em- 
broke:" .Vshley Bowen, midsliipman ; William Horn, 
Kdward Akes, Jonathan Welch, I'iobert I'.artlett, liar- 
rett Farrel, John liateman, Isaac Warren (ilied) 
Robert Thoni])son (died), Thomas Woodfin, Miles 
Dollan, Kdward Kendeley, Benjamin Nichols, Arlluir 
rjoyd, Kdward Soverin, Zaehary Paino, l'"rederick 
Swabnrgs. 

On board the "S.piirrel:" .b.hn .Mclford, Thomas 
Dove, William Matthews, John Slateman, .bdiii (i(d;l- 
smith (died), Thonia.s Valpey, Sanniel Kook (did 
not return), Francis Misalt, Robert Lim'teed (diil nol 
return), William Corkcring (did not return), Charles 
Jacobs, William Uncals, Walter Stevens (did not re- 
turn). Saniuid IJnir (died), Thomas Peach (died). 

< In the L'd of .lanuary, IT'il, thescliormer " Prince of 
Orange," Nathan Bowen, nuister, sailed from Marble- 
head for same port in S[)aiM or Portugal. While on 
the piussagc, February KItli, she was overtaken and 
captured by the French brig " (ientilc," of Bayonne. 
Mr. liowen, in an account of the affair, writlen 
while in prison, says, " I was robbed of chest and 
clothes, and was in other respecU ill-used. On Tues- 



day, 17th, wearri\ed at Si. Aielrcas ; na Monday. L':;d. 
saileil from thence in company with niy scbomu'r 
iMiund for I'assaiic, and on llicH.-xt day arrived llicie. 

■flic next 1 niiig wi- were all sent lo Fiance, and oil 

the next day wen' twi'iily in number c<inliiied in this 
castle, and when wc shall gr( clear Ood only knows." 
The prison was Bayonne ta-lle, France. Tlu> only 
men of the cr< w u ImM' naiiics can be ascnlaiiicd 
were Samuel Levis, William I Ian novcr, .loseph Lye, 
Thomas TrcIVy, Amos (iiandy and Kdward llallo- 
wcll. 

Il is a inatlcr of sincere regrel lliat no more can be 
learned concerning lliis war, of a local naliire. But 
Ihal llic town of .Marl.lclir.id sulleicl as much from 
its cllccls .IS .my oilier low ii in llir province, and that 
ils pe(.plc KrhaNed willi :\ lieioisin and Inavcry wliicli 
she.l liislie upon llieir .annals, is siilliciml for us lo 
know. 

Al Ihe annual l.iwn-nieeling, held in March, 17111, 
il was voted, on accoiinl ol ihe increasing " poor, idle, 
vagrant and disonlerly persons," lo erect a work- 
house on the back side of ihc piece of ground called 
"llie negro bury iiig-place." The sum of live hun- 
dred (loiinds was appropriated to build it, and the 
selectmen were instructed to petition the Kegislature 
for permission lo use a pari id' Ihe new building as a 
house of correclion. The luiilding was creeled oii 
ivlial is now known .as llaek Sirecl, opposile the head 
of Be.arl Sli-cel. 

The following year llie sileclineii were iii>lrncli-d 
to name all the streels .and .alley-ways in Hie touu, 
ami lo cause llie names I.. I.e recmded in Ihe reidds 
and published al llie ln« n house. Previous p, Ibis, 
llii' sireels had been known by llie most ciirions 
names, >oiiie of llicin not snilable for ears p.dile. In 
many inslames some promineiil landmark L'ave llie 
name lo Ihe lane on which il slood or which led In il. 
New .Mceling-I louse Kane, Wharf l-an,'. Pond Lace, 
Fnig Kane, Ferry Lane, and olliers of a similar 
nature made up llie siniph' lisl, and answered every 

|un-pose as well as the i e prelenlions lilies by wdiich 

many of these very sireels are known at preseiil. 
'I'hey were properly denoniinaled lanes, for Ihey were 
nolhingelse. Ihe Laying out of a sired was an ae- 
li.Mi iindnamed ol in llie simple .and nnprelcnding 
commnnily. The inhabilanls built their houses any- 
where, provided only that lliey owned llie land, and 
thia-e was no arbitrary (aislom to diclati- which end 
should be Ihe IVonl or which llic back. The lanes 
wca'e ni.ide .ilterw.irds for convenience, and lo ii.aine 
thi narn.w paths would lollicm lia\e seemed an ab- 
surdily. 

.\s the town incri'aseil in popiilaliou and various 
improvements were made, (he old meeting-house waa 
removed to a more conveuieni locality, al Ihe junc- 
tion of what are now known as ( )rne, I'"ranklin and 
Washington Streets. .\ house owneil by Richard 
Ireson was found to project so far inio llie street 
which led to the meeting-house that it w;ls impossible 



1078 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



for a carriage to pass it, and finally the town voted to 
remove the northwest end. Several feet were accord- 
ingly cut off, the house being sawed nearly in halves. 
The end towards the street was boarded up, and there 
it remains to this day,' with not a single window in it 
e.xcept a very small one near the roof. During the 
year 17();^ the town voted to open a market in the 
lower part of the town-house, and eleven very strin- 
gent rules were adopted for its government, a clerk 
being chosen annually to .see that they were enforced. 
These rules provided that no putrid or impure meat 
should be ottered for sale ; and that the market should 
be opened every Tuesday and Thursday in the year 
till one o'clock in the afternoon, and till sunset on 
Saturdays. All persons were forbidden to buy provi- 
sions in the market with intent to sell the same at a 
greater price. All meat left in the market after the 
hour for closing, through the negligence of the seller, 
was to be forfeited, and the clerk was authorized to 
appropriate it to his own use, " without any account 
to the owner." No " hncksters " were to be allowed to 
sell provisions of any kind in the town before one 
o'clock in the afternoon on a market-day. The pen- 
alties for violating these rules varied in amount from 
ten to twenty shillings, and all fines were to be given 
to the poor of the town. The market was opened on 
the first Tuesday in August, 17G3. Richard Reed 
was chosen clerk, and a salary of ten pounds per 
annum was voted for his .services. 

The well at the northeast end of the town-house, 
in which the town pump has been placed for so many 
years, was, in all probability, sunk during the month 
of May, 1763. At a meeting held on the 'Jth of that 
month, it was voted, 

"To sink a well at the nortllCMt end of the Town-House, f,.i the 
public service and especially iu case of fires." 

In February, 1704, the small-po.K again broke out 
in Boston. The appearance of the disease in that 
town was regarded as a sure warning of a reign of tlic 
pestilence in Marblehead. The disease, in spite of 
every precaution taken to prevent it, broke out during 
the following May. A town-meeting was immedi- 
ately held, and it was "voted to erect a small-pox hos- 
pital in the pasture northwesterly from the almshouse 
about eighty poles distant." This action was deemed 
a necessity, as the almshouse was considered too near 
the body of the town for use as a hospital. The vote 
was promptly carried into efl'ect, and all patients 
taken with the loathsome disease were removed to the 
hospital as soon as it was in readiness. 



C H A P T E R L X X X I . 

M.\RBLEIIEAI)-(eo?!«um«<Z). 

Ctinteatif with the droini — Coiiditum of Ike ToiniinllGS—Slavcrii iu M-trh!, 
head — Registuncc of Marblehead Seamen to Imprestimtiit — Palm f 
Aclkn} — Thir iSmall-Pox ii'ar — The Koii-Itiij>oi-lation Ayreemenl — .•</'(' 
houses offered to Merchitntsof Boeton — Delegates to the Cmitineiilal t .<( 
'jress—ISrilish Soldiers on the Neck— Hie Marblehead Regiment— I' 
riiifiid Congress — 77ie Loyaliats. 

The year 176.5 found the people of Marblehead, in 
c<iinmon with their countrymen througiioul the 
.Vmerican colonies, greatly tixcited in regard to the 
contests with the Crown over the right of Parliament 
111 tax the colonies for a revenue. 

Though they .sympathized fully with the spirit of 
resistance to the Stamp Act, which certain riotous 
demonstrations in Boston were intended to show, they 
were at that time unprepared to sanction sucii a vio 
lent method of proceeding. They were loyal to thi 
King, and though they bitterly denounced the act, 
they laid the entire blame for its passage upon the 
shoulders of the ministry and the Parliament of 
Great Britain. On the 24th of September the town 
voted to instruct its representatives " to promote and 
readily join in such dutiful remonstrances and hum- 
ble petitions to the King and Parliament, and other 
decent measures as may have a tendency to obtain a 
repeal of the Stamp Act, or alleviation of the heavy 
burdens thereby imposed upon the American British 
Colonies." They were also instructed to do all in 
their power " to suppress and prevent all riotous as- 
semblies and unlawful acts_ upon the persons or 
substance of any of His Majesty's subjects." And 
not to give their a.s.^ent to any act of Assembly that 
would imply "the willingness of their constituents 
to submit to any internal taxes that are imposed 
otherwise than by the Great and General Court of this 
Province, according to the constitution of this gov- 
ernment." 

For a time the attention of the people of Marble- 
head was diverted from public att'airs by the disa-sters 
to their fishing fleet .at sea. During the year 1768 
nine vessels, with their crews, were lost, and the fol- 
lowing year fourteen othere met a similar fate, mak- 
ing a total of twenty three vessels and one hundred 
and twenty-two men and boys. Besides these, a large 
number were drowned by being washed overboard 
from vessels which returned. A large number of 
widows and orphans were thus left to the care of the 
town, and the grief and suffering caused by these ter- 
rible calamities was very great. 

There were, at this time, about sixty merchants en- 
gaged in the foreign trade, besides a large number of 
shoremen, who prosecuted the fisheries. Some of the 
houses built by these merchants Were among the fin- 
est in the province, and one, the palatial residence of 
Col. Jeremiah Lee, is said to have cost over ten thou- 
sand pounds. Nearly every family of sufticient wealth 



M \i;ill,KllH \l». 



1079 



owiu'il si'vcnil ru-LTd sliives, and ( 'iil. I,Of is said to 
have owiumI ji Ijirfjc minibcr, wlioiii lii> ciiiiiloyiMl in 
tlie work of loiuliii'; and nnloadini; liis ships as 
fast as thev arriveii in rort'i<.ni ])iirls. 

Slavery, so far from lieing eon>iih-rcd an evil, was 
reirarded as tlie only normal eondilion of llir nrirro. 
and the instilntioii was lostercd and eni-ciiira;/i'd 
ihrciULdiont the proviiu-e. TIh' chnn-li neords ol 
.Marhleheiid hear I'videnee that rvra tin' i-ieriiymen ol 
the town owned ne,u-ro servants, some ol' whom were 
liapti/ed and rreeivi'd into (he ihnrrh. Slave 
marriaL'es are r.ei>riled also on the remrdsol all threr 
of the earlier elinrrhes. 

.\ very interesting; tradition is relalci! eonerrniiiL' 
tin- liev. I'eter Hours, one of ihr carlirr rir(..rs of St 
Michael's Cluireh. It seems that amoiiLT other ser- 
vants, the reverend irentleman owned a vi-ry ill-tcin- 
pered and vieioii.s woman. One nij;ht, in a lit of 
iigline.ss, she attempted to take tlie life of her master. 
and the next day, having.soiue regard for his personal 
safety, lie sold her. With Ihr money thus ohtained, 
.Mr. Hours proeiired a lifi-si/.e porlr.iit of iiimsi^lf, 
painted by one ol' the most eelehrated artists in the 
eonntry. 

The newspapers of this period and for ni.iny years 
previous offered ahnndant evidenee of tlie ixistenci' 
of negro slavery in Marblehead. .\ few of thr adver 
tisemenis copied from their liles will donbtle.ss be 
I'oniid of interest: 

" Rb[i ;iw;i.v rn.m l.i.s i.i:i»t.T. r^pl. Hi, l,.,i,l Tl.v.lt, ..f Miiil.ti'lMiul, .i 
NV^ro .Miili Niiuir.l l'.Miii»'.v, al...iit T«i-iil.v («•• y.-.-.i-, ,.r am- ; u l.iiHv ■ 
Tilll rcllovv. lie Im.l .Mi wlwTi ll.> «i-l.t a.v.iv a »ln|..-.l l,..lii,-.|.ii.l in, lirl, 
cotton « I,ili.-ii Mint, .;arl< i.il"ur.-,l Kns.j liiv.rli.s, ;;riiv ^ain-l.,. I, 
iiip., loniul ToM I..-:illi.r lu-.-I »li...s anrl K.-lI llul. 

■•(Note). -Ill- .l.-.-,TI.'il liM -Ma.^t-r's «Tvio- ii. tli.- Sl.all.)r. .\lill ac 
Pl.vmoutli. Wlioev.T .iliutl iipiiri-liciat tin- sai.l lluiiiiwa.v aii.l liiin .saf.-lv 
Olivt'.v to liM .'<iiiil M-.iMn- at 31arl>l<'l..'a<l mi to Mr. t'laiK is .Alilli'l in 
Ih.»l.>n, near tin- <;i.'<-ii Dragon, .sliall liavt- litt.v i-liilliiif;.s kw.ipI hiuI all 
nortssirj- charjiM |«.i.l. 
".\iiS. 0, I7■JI.•• 
"To^n■.<otll l.y.Imuli Fowl.-. K«.|,ari.l .Mt^. .Siwmnah l>almpr, .Admin- 
istrators of the .-Btali- of .lolni I'alllioi-. lato of Marl.lcluM.I, ,le,va.s.-.l, a 
liliol)- ^•l•^l•o Man, al.ont i'. yi-ars ..1.1, an.l n line Ni'^ni Hoy, al.oiit II. 
•'.Marl.l.>lM-ii.l, (lit. |.;, I7.-..I." 

-Ran away fvoin Uipt. .John Iliaii...l..|, .it Marl.l.li.a.l, >.). ■ru.s.l.iy. 
111.- lltli of S.-i.ti.iiil..T lii«lant, a S|.,ini»l. X.^-i.. l'.-ll..\v nai.,.-.l ('.ill.. 
aL.int ■!.-, yearn olil ; fipeiiU.. I.r..ken Kli^ll.-li, »n.l can tails Sl.al.isli I.ah- 
g.inije. lie i» a lull, Hliui K..-1I..W ; lia.l on a now fill llal, sliip...! I1..111.- 
»pnn JaiUet anil Itreeelien, N.'W Sli.ii-9 with ».)uare liu.kl.n. Wh..,.v,i 
will bring or «en.l the sniil N.-j-n. I.. .Mr. .N.irwo...l, Iniih..l.hT at l.vnn, 

nhall have Tw .llars Ki-wanl an.l all lieics-ary .liaiKes paj.l. .Ml 

niiisteiv of vefflols ami othi-rH are laiitioneil not to .on il or .•any otl 

the »iiil Negro, iw they wonl.l avoi.l th.- penally of the Law. 

".Sept. 2(1, 17.'>;i." 

The e.xeitement incident to the passage of the 
Stamp Act did not eanse the citizens of Marblehtad 
to forget other nuitters of local importance. At the 
annual meeting in March, 17li7, a board of trustees 
was elio.scn to direct and manage the alfairs of the 
schools. Tliere were several public schools in the 
town, but tlioy were in a deplorable condition, and 
the well-to-do families preferred to send their chil- 
dren to iirivate teticliers. The town approjiriated 



the sum of !;:'..'iO I'or the u~e ol the s.lio.>ls, an.l lli.' 
trustees were instrn.led to report annually as to their 
condition. .\t a meeting' hel.l by a.lj..iii niio'iit, it was 
v.ile.l t.i esi:ibli-h iIk-.'c iiivv s,-|io..ls lor tiaehing 
na.liii'j', writing an.l arilbeiiu-ti.'. .M.ssr-. .layiie, 
I'bipp.n and .\slilori were s.le.t.'.l as leaeli. is. an.l 
the trn-tee~ n p..rt.-.l that about .lu.' bniidre.l and 
sixiv scb..lar>atten.l.<l ( a. h ..t thes,- Mbo.ils. .\ lew 
years later the t..\vii v. it.. I to .'L.t two n.w >.|iool- 
houses oil ae.iiiiiil ol the .rowil.'d .■oii.lili.ui .,1' l\ir 
schools. Cbildnn uere .•\pe.t..l to be .|Ualili..l to 
rea.l before enl.iing tli.s.' xlio.ils. ami. as .1 eons.'- 
.pieiici'. the .■hil.lr.'ii of th.' poor, u li.iv.' parents in 
iiiaiiy iiislane.'s .(.ill. I ii.it r.a.l t b.-iiis.-U.s. were 
.bui.'.l a.liui>sioii. 'I'll.' I.iwii .-lei t..l a .■.uiiiiiidee to 
investigate the matter, ami it \\.i~ l.iumi tliat one hiin- 
dredaiid twenty-two b.i\ s u. r,' iiiitaiejlil. T.. remedy 
this evil, it was vote. I lii.il th.' .biblicn ol the ]ioor 
..b.iul.l bi- t.iu-bl the mv.'>s.-iry biaiicbe- f.. .|Ualify 
lb. ■Ill for eiitrauei' into the school- .it til.' .'\peiis,' ol 

till' town. 'Ibis w.'is lb.' f.iiimlati f primary scIlioIs 

.111.1 the begiiiiiiiig .if the pr.'seiit sysleiii of publb' iu- 
striictinn in Marblehea.l. 

(iovernor Harnard having .li-solved the Legislature 
of Masuachnsetts. .iiul rclusing to call it together 
again, a .-. m v. -1111011 u. 'is liebl in I '.o> 1 011. in .^.ptember, 
17b.S, "to deliberal.' on I'oiisl iliil ioiial lu.'.'isiires to 
.ibtain redress of tli.'ir grievances." Thi' day alter 
lb.' eonveiition adioiirn.'.l. a body of I'.i'ili-li troops 
lamle.l in H.islou an.l luar.b.-.l t.. tli.' ('..iMiu..n. The 
scleelm.'ii «er.' r(.|U.'sl..| I.1 luriiish .|iiai't.rs for the 
soldieis.aml. as lliey refused to <lo so, the Stale-l Ioil.se 
was openeil lor their reception. The presence of 
Hritish siddiers in the capital town ami the frequent 
impressnieiit of .\ iiieric.iii s.'aiiian by ships of the 
r.ritisb N.-ivy, e.xeil.'.l lb.' imliijn.it ion of the people 
throughout 111.' pr.ivinc.'. These atliiiipts to bring 
the people into snbjeetion to the will of lb.' iiiiui-try 
of (Ireat Hritain were firmly resisted by the eoloiiisls, 
j with a determination never to yiel.l. 

During the s|)riiig of I7b'.i a brig belonging in Mar- 
blehead was boarded oil' ('ape .\nn by a lieulenaut 
and a ]iarty (d' seamen from (hi' Hritish sloop-of war 
■•Hose." and aii attempt w.is mad.' to impress some of 
the crew into the Hritish iia\al ,-er\ ie.-. Tlie brig 
wasthe" I'itt l'acket,"cominaiided by ( 'apfain Thomas 
I'owers, returning from Cadiz to Marblehea.l. The 
crew at once determined to resist the transfer of any 
of their number to the Hritish si... .p. and a li;ind-to- 
hand light followcl. A party of iiiariii.'s was sent to 
the assistance id' the lieuteiianl, and for over three 
hours the herob- sons of Marbbh.a.l .bf.'u.l.'.l them- 
selves against every alteni|it lo c pel tlienito sur- 
render. During the struggle two of the .Vmerieans 
were severely wounded and the British lieiiteiianl was 
killed by a blow from a harpoon thrown by a .sailor 
named Michael Corbitt. At length, overpowered by 
force of numbers, tlic brave men surrendered, and 
Corbitt was taken to Boston to be tried for murder. 



1080 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



l-leil; 



fcstiilg our allegiance to 
ilproin« Icgisla- 
the uliole emjiire, except- 
L* for the purpose of a rev- 



He was imprisoned, but a jury of inquest finally vin- 
dicated his conduct and he was released. 

Tliis may lie said to Iiave been the first act ol' forci- 
ble resistance to British tyranny in defense of Ameri- 
can liberty. It occurred several months before the 
people of Boston were fired ujjon by the British 
troops, and six years before the battle at Lexiiiir- 
ton. 

On the 22d of May, 17(ii), th.' liihabitaMls of Mar- 
blehead again assembled in lown-meeting for the 
purpose of electing representatives to the (leneral 
Court and passing suitable instructions. Joshua 
Orne and John Gallison were elected representatives. 

The instructions were almost entirely devoted to a 
review of tin; troubles between the colonies and the 
mother country, concluding as follows: 

"That you do not allow, hy any vote or resohltiotl whatever, a right 
in any power on eartli to levy ta.vos on the people of the province, for 
the sake of raising a revenue, save in the General Assembly of the 
province. 

"Finally, embrace every opportunity of i 
our rightful Sovereign King (ieorge ; ackno 
tive authority of the British Parliament ovt 
inji the power of levying tu.\es in the provi 
enue, and endeavor to h ipe off that reproach for disloyalty and disobe- 
dience, which hiia been so liberally ca.st ujjon ns by malicious an<l malev- 
olent persons, at the same time vindicating the just rights and privi. 
leges of the country from the insults and designs of wicked and arbi- 
trary men." 

During the summer assurances were received from 
the British ministry that it was their intention at 
the next session of Parliament to remove the duties 
ujion glass, paper and colors, " upon consideration of 
such duties being contrary to the true principles of 
commerce." These concessions, instead of pacifying 
the people, had a far difi'erent effect. The repeal of 
the duty on tea wiis demanded as an evidence that 
the government had abandoned the right to tax the 
colonies. An agreement was made not to import any 
British goods until the tax was repealed, and not to 
purchase goods of any i)erson who should import 
them contrary to the non-importation agreement. All 
the inhabitants of Marblehead, with four exceptions, 
signed this agreement. Those who refused were bit- 
terly denounced as blindly preferring the chains of 
slavery to our most valued inheritance, English Lib- 
erty. During the excitement caused by this contro- 
versy a chest of tea was brought into town, but 
so indignant were the people that the purchaser re- 
luctantly consented to reship it the next day. The 
patriotic citizens assembled early on the following 
morning, and forming a procession, paraded about 
town with the obnoxious merchandise, and it wjis 
then carried to Boston. 

The events of the winter of 1770 produced the 
most intense excitement among the jieople of Mar- 
blehead. The presence of troojis in Boston, making 
the capital a garrisoned town, was considered an in- 
sult to the province, and when, on the oth of March, 
the soldiers fired on the people, killing three and 
mortally wounding others, an uprising of the masses 
seemed inevitable. 



Early in May a town-meeting was held, and a eom- 
mittee was chosen to circulate an agreement again.-i 
the use of India tea. A series of votes were adopted 
in favor of the enforcement of the non-importation 
agreement, and expressing the " highest indignatimi 
and resentment that a lawless, ignorant and blooih 
soldiery should attempt of its own authority to (in 
upon and destroy so many of our brethren of >■ 
town of Boston, and we hereby declare our readinry- 
with our Lives and Interest, at all times to support yr 
civil authority of this Province in bringing to jus- 
tice all such high-handed offenders against yc whole- 
some laws of this land." 

The c(mimittee chosen to circulate the agreement 
for the discouragement of the use of foreign teas re- 
ported that seven hundred and twelve heads of fanii- 
ilies had signed it, and only seventeen had refuscil. 
a list of whose names was reported for the action of 
the town. Of the seventeen who refused their sig- 
natures, seven appear afterwards to have repented, as 
their names are erased from the report. The punish- 
ment of the ten who were reported for their refractory 
disposition was both novel and amusing. The town 
voted that they should be recorded in the clerk's of- 
fice and published iu the £ssex Gazette as "Unfriend- 
ly to the community, and the Selectmen were de- 
sired not to approbate any of them to the sessions for 
license to sell spirituous liquors." 

In 1771 nearly one thousand men and boys were 
employed in the fisheries, besides those who cured 
fish. The year is chiefly memorable in the annals of 
the town on account of the sutfering caused by the 
disasters at sea. A large number of widows and 
fatherless children had been left in a helpless situa- 
tion, and the town, unable to provide for so large a 
number, applied to the provincial government for 
assistance. By means of a " Brief" issued by the 
authority of the Legislature, £117 were collected for 
their relief 

During the month of November a circular letter 
was received from the Committee of Correspondence 
of Boston, relating to the riglits of the colonists and 
.soliciting "a free communication of the towns" of 
''our common danger." The response of the people 
of Marblehead was prompt, hearty and characteristic. 
A petition was sent to the selectmen requesting them 
to Ciill a town-meeting on the 1st of December, which 
was couched in such patriotic and vigorous language 
.hat it was inserted entire in the warrant. On the 
day appointed, the inhabitants assembled at the town- 
house, and Thomas Gerry was chosen moderator of the 
meeting. The circular letter from the town of Bos- 
ton and the pamphlet of " 8tate Rights " were read by 
the town clerk, and it was voted to choose a com- 
mittee " to take the whole warrant into considera- 
tion." Col. Azor Orne, Elbridge Gerry, Thomas 
Gerry, Jr., Joshua Orne and Capt. John Nutt were 
the members of this committee. The meeting then 
adjourned to meet again on the following Tuesday, 



MAiMil.KIIKAK. 



1081 



when tlie committee reported several resolutions, 
which were read sei)ariitely and unanimously adopted. 
These resolutions denounced in the stron;rest terms 
the " recent act of Parliament and the British Minis- 
try in sendiu'i troops and ships to parade ahout the 
coast and in the streets of the towns of the Province ;" 
characterized the granting of stipends to the provin- 
cial judges as '' an attempt to bribe the present re- 
spectable gentlemen to become tools to their despotic 
administration," and to "turn the seats of justice into 
a deplorable and unmerciful inquisition." The dis- 
solution of the Provincial I^egislatnrc was condemned 
in language equally as forcible, and the resolutions 
coucluded by declaring " that this town is highly in- 
censed at the unconstitutional, unrighteous, pre- 
sumptuous and notorious jiroceedings, detesting the 
name of a Hillsborough, Barnard and every nnnister 
who promoted them. And that it not only bears 
testimony against, but will oppose these and all such 
meiisures until sojrie way for a full redress shall be 
adopted and prove efl'ectual.'' It was voted to elect a 
Committee of Grievances now, and from year to year 
as long as may be necessary, to correspond with like 
committees in Boston and other towns in the province. 
The committee consisted of Azor Orne, Klbridge 
Gerry, Joshua Orne, Thomas Gerry, Thomas Gerry, 
Jr., Capt. John Xutt, Capt. John tiioverand Deacon 
William Doliber. 

The circular letter of the tow'n of Boston was re- 
ferred to this committee, with instructions to prepare 
a reply, and the meeting adjourned to meet on the 
15th of December. When the meeting again as- 
sembled, Azor Orne, chairman of the committee, pre- 
sented a letter in which every patriotic sentiment 
contained in the circular letter of the town ol' Boston 
was indorsed. The reply of the Comniittce of (iriev- 
ance of Marblehead was worthy the patriots who 
composed it and the town which ado]>ted its language 
as its own. "We beg leave,'' it concludes, " to l)id 
adieu for the present, by assuring you that a de- 
termined resolution to support the rights confirmed to 
us by the (ireat King of the Universe engages the 
minds of this i)eople, and we apjjrehend that all who 
attemi)t to infringe them are, in obedience to wicked 
dictates, violating the sacred statutes of Heaven. 
And for the honor of our Sui>renie Benefactor, for our 
own welfare, and lor the welfare of posterity, we desire 
to use these blessings of Lil)erty w ith thankfulness and 
prudence, and to defend them with intrepidity and 
steadiness.'' 

There were tiiose among the merchants of Marble- 
head who, though firm friends of their country, and 
sympathizing fully %¥ith every jiroper method taken 
to obtain a redress of grievances, were un|)iepared lo 
indorse the language of the resolutions adopted at 
these meetings. To their conservative minds the ac- 
tion of the town appeared "rash and inconsiderate," 
and they accordingly protested against it. The pro- 
test was signed by twentv-iiine well-known merchants, 
68 



and was publisbeil in tlu- /■><■.(■ anzdlc. It was 
claimed that but a sin.-ill laction of the inhabitants 
voted in fMVorof the rcsolMlioiis, and that thry there- 
fore "did iiol fairly rcprrscnt tin- --riiliiiicnts of the 
people of Marbleliead." To this a reply was made 
in the next issue of the jiaper, in which it was claimed 
that the resolves "were fully and fairly discussed for 
more than an hour, and that when the vote was taken 
there was but one i)erson found in o])iiosition.'' The 
writer also stated that the protest was faithfully cir- 
eulateil four days before the twenty-nine signatures 
were obtained. 

Dining the year 177:'. the attention of the peojjle 
was for a time occupied in considering tlieir danger 
from another source than the oppressive acts of the 
British Parliament. In June the wife of Mr. William 
Mattliews was taken sick and treated for " poison." 
Her husband having recently arriveil home from a 
voyage to the (irand Banks, it was supposed that she 
had been poisoneil by washing his clothing with some 
soap which he had procured on board a French fish- 
ing vessel. In a short time other members of her 
family were afflicted, and in less than a month nearly 
all who had taken care of them were prostrate with 
the " poison." The kind-he;irted neighbors of these 
unfortunates took their turn in watchiiiij with and 
caring for ibeiii, when, to their i-iiiisteriiati.iii and 
alarm, the disease which had thus far batlled all their 
skill was pronounced the small-po.x in its most malig- 
nant form, 

A very small number, comparatively, of tlie iniiab- 
itaiits had ever lia<l the disease, and their excilement 
was increased when it was knowti that an ohl lady 
who had died with it had been visited by more than 
one huTiilred and fifty pers(.iis. The town— as an old 
gentleman expressed it in liis journal — was now in an 
"uproMr." The seleetmeii (jrdered all houses where 
the disease b.id ajipeareil to be closed and guarded, 
and "all the dogs in town to be killed immecliately." 
.Many of those who were sick were removed to a house 
at the " Ferry," and in h>s than two months twenty- 
three persons died there. Fight others, who died dur- 
ing two weeks of .Inly and .\ugust. were buried at the 
Neck in the ])lain,just tibovc what wa-; then known 
as "Black Jack's Oove," 

In August a town-meeting was lield, and .\zor ( Irne, 
.lonathan (Hover, .loliii (ilover and Flbridge Gerry 
petiti<ined the town lo builil a hospital on Cat Island 
for the treatment of small-pox patiints liy inocnl.-ition, 
"or allow certain individuals to build it .-il their own 
expense." The town voted noi u< build the hospital, 
but gave the desired permission to th.' petilioners to 
uinlertake it as a private enterprise, provided ihat the 
consent of the town of .'^aleni could be olilaiiied, ami 
that the hospital should be so regulated that the in- 
habitants of .Marblehead would be "in no danger of 
infection therefrom." 

The consent of the selectmen of Salem wa.s readily 
obtaineil, and early in September preparations were 



1082 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



made for the erection of the building. The work had 
barely commenced, however, before the people of 
Marblehead began to manifest great uneasiness, 
through fear that by means of the hospital the dread 
disease might take the form of a pestilence among 
them. The opposition at length became so great that 
a town-meeting was held on the lUlli of September, 
and the vote whereby permission was granted for the 
erection of the building was rescinded. The report 
had been freely circulated that the proi>rietors desired 
to establish the hospital for their own personal gain, 
and "to make money by means of the dangerous ex- 
periment." To allay the indignation created by these 
rumors, and to show their disinterestedness, the pro- 
prietors proposed to sell the materials for the building 
to the town at their actual cost. The citizens, un- 
reasonable now in their opposition, not only refused 
to buy the materials, but demanded that the work be 
abandoned. 

Indignant at the injustice of this action, the pro- 
prietors continued their work in spite of ail opposi- 
tion, and in a short time the hospital, a large two- 
story building, was completed. Dr. Hall Jackson, an 
eminent physician of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
who had attained a distinguished reputation for his 
success in treating the small-pox, was appointed 
superintendent, and, on the 16th of October, entered 
upon his duties and began the work of inoculation. 
Several hundred patients were successfully treated, 
but, unfortunately, a few, who had taken the disease 
more severely than the others, died at the hospital. 

The opposition to the enterprise which, from the 
beginning, had been very great, now took the form of 
the most bitter and angry hostility. The boatmen 
had landed patients at places nearer the town than 
those appointed by the .selectmen, and for this the 
excited citizens demolished their boats. Four men, 
who were caught in the act of stealing clothing from the 
hospital, were tarred and feathered, and, after being 
placed in a cart and exhibited through all the princi- 
pal streets of the town, were carried to Salem, accom- 
panied by a procession of men and boys, marching to 
the music of five drums and a tife. 

The fears of the people were still further increased 
when, a short time after this aflair, it was announced 
that twenty-two cases of small-pox had broken out in 
the town. The storm of indignation which for months 
had been brewing, and manifesting itself at intervals, 
now burst upon the proprietors of the hospital in all 
its fury. Threats of lynching them were opeidy made, 
and the angry populace demanded that the doors of 
the detested " Castle Pox " — as the hospital was ironi- 
cally called — should be closed forever. The pro- 
prietors momentarily expected to be mobbed, and it 
is said that one of them. Colonel Jonathan Glover, 
placed two small artillery pieces in one of the rooms 
of his house, fronting the street, intending to give the 
crowd a warm reception from the windows should 
they attempt to molest him. 



At length, unable longer to resist the imporiunatc 
petitions of their fellow-citizens, the proprietors 
closed the hospital and promised that no more jia- 
tients should be received. 

For a time the excitement was somewhat allaycl. 
but the injudicious remarks of one of the proprietors 
excited the suspicion of the people that the pronii,-r 
would not be kept, and the opposition broke out 
afresh. On the night of January 26, 1774, a body oi 
men closely disguised visited the island, and before 
they left the hospital and a barn adjoining were in 
Hames. The buildings and all their contents werr 
completely destroyed. 

Naturally indignant at this outrage, the proprietors 
determined to secure the speedy punishment of tlir 
incendiaries. John Watts and John (ruUiard werr 
arrested as being implicated in the aflair, and wt re 
confined in Salem jail. As soon as the news of the 
arrest became generally known in Marblehead, the 
cause of the prisoners was earnestly espoused by the 
inhabitants, and measures were adopted to rescue 
them from the hands of the authorities. A large 
number of men at once marched to Salem, and in a 
short time the jail was completely surrounded. At a 
given signal the doors were broken open, the jailer 
and hisassistants were overpowered, and the prisoners 
were rescued and conducted in triumph to their 
homes. A few days after, the sheritf organized a force 
of live hundred citizens, intending to march to Mar- 
blehead and recapture his prisoners. A mob equally as 
large at once organized in Marblehead to resist them. 
Fearing the disastrous consequences to life and prop- 
erty which a conflict would engender, the proprie- 
tors decided to abandon the prosecution, and the 
sheriff" abandoned his purpose. 

Some time after this affair a man named Clark, one 
of the persons who had previously been tarred and 
feathered, went to Cat Island and brought a quantity 
of clothing into the town. He was at once ordered to 
take the bundle to the ferry for examination. On his 
return to the town he was surrounded by an angry 
crowd, who threatened to inflict summary punishment 
upon him. The selectmen appeared upon the scene, 
however, and he was released. At about eleven 
o'clock that night, by a delegation of twenty men, he 
was taken from his bed, conducted to the public 
whipping-post in front of the town-house, and was 
there unmercifully beaten. One of the perpetrators 
of the outrage was subsequently arrested, but the 
others were not detected. The town having been dis- 
infected of the disease, and the hospital, the great 
cause of all the contention, having been removed 
pejice was once more restored to the community. 

The events of the winter and spring of 1774 were 
full of exciting interest to the people of Marblehead. 
On the 16th of December the famous "Tea Party '' 
occurred in Boston harbor, when the sturdy patriots 
of that town emptied three hundred and forly-two 
chests of tea into the sea, rather than allow them to 



MARBLETIEAD. 



1083 



111' laiideil contrary to tlic terms of tlic non-importa- 
tion ajrreement. In March (tovcrnor llutcliinson re- 
signed, and Tliomns (faire was apjiointcd in his stead. 
One bill :il'ter another was passed hy Parliament and 
readily sanctioned Uy the Kiiifr. having tor their ob- 
ject the subjection of the jieojik- of Massaehusetls. 
The (|uarterin}r of troops in lioston was Iciralized : 
town-nieetinjrs were abolisheil, except lor the idioice 
of officers, or by sjiecial permission <if the Governor. 
Finally, the infamous Port Hill was passed, which 
closed the port of Boston to cimimerce, and removed 
the scat of {rovernment to Salem. 

On the i-id of :\[ay, 1774, a town-meetin.s; was held 
for the purfiose, according to thewarrant, "of lakeinjr 
into consideration the alarminii; situation to which we 
are all reduced (it beinjr no less than 'his, irhethcr ire 
shall herenj'rer be j'rremcn frr .sVaivs), to choose a com- 
mittee of correspondence; and to a<Iopl any other 
measures that may appear to be constitutional, and 
calculated to procure relief from the dilliculties whicdi 
are hastening in all the coloniivs of America by acts 
of Parliament laximr and unjustly dcprivinir them of 
their interest.'' 

After organizing by the choice of Deacon Stephen 
Phillips as moderator, the meeting adjourned to meet 
in the afternoon, when a Committee of ('orrcspond- 
ence was elected, as follows: .loslnia < )rne, Deacon 
William l^oUiber, Deacon Stephen Phillips, Ivlward 
Fclty|)Iace, (^apt. .John Nutt and Ebenczer l'\)stcr. 
The meeting then a<ljonrDed to meet again May :!Ist. 

Under the last clause of the warrant for these meet- 
ings, the town could legally take action upon almost 
any political measures; and, in order to avoid the 
necessity of calling new meetings to consider the 
various issues as they arose, they were held by ad- 
journment from time to time under this uarr.int. 
Forty-six meetings, the largest number ever held in 
Marblehead under one warrant, were held ]iursnant 
to adjournment, the last taking place on the ;'d of 
April, 177'), ten months and ten days Ironi llu- time 
the first meeting was convened. 

On the ;{l.st of May, 177-1, the very day that the ad- 
journed meeting was to be held, an exceedingly com- 
]>limentaiy a<lilre.ss to the late (loveriior Hutchinson 
apj)eared in the columns of the Eftex Gazette, 'i'his 
address was signed by thirty-three citizens of Mar- 
blehead, and declared, among other things, "that the 
public good was the mark at which the ex-governor 
had ever aimed in his administration, and that this 
judgement was sustained by the opinions of all dispas- 
sionate, thinking men." The publication of the ad- 
dress caused great indignation, and as soon as the 
citizens assembled in town-meeting it was referred to 
a committee, who were instructed to take it into con- 
sideration and repfirt at an adjourned nie<'ting. 

On the 2il (d'.Iune, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, 
the <'itizens again assembled, and the committee pre- 
sented a long report concerning the address, which 
was unanimously adopted. The report denounced 



the signers as enemies of the province, and declared 
that tlie aildress was " insulting to both braio-hes of 
tin' Legislature and elfrontivc to the l..\\ii ; " "that it 
w:is false as it was mali<-i(iiis, and llial its signers 
should only be forgiven by a piililic ii'cnMtatioii of the 
sentiments contained in llic address." One of the 
signers pulilicly recaiilcd at the mi'ctiiig, and the 
town thereupon voted "that any of the subscribers 
who shall signify before the further adjournmenl of 
this mrcling tlial thry an- drsirons of detracting 
tlicms<'lvcs from all <'nrmics in yi' .-iddrcss so af- 
fronlive and justly obnoxious to lln' inhabitants of 
this town, shall be viewed in the same light as if ilu-y 
had not signed the address." 

Other recantations soon followed, and in a. short 
time all but ten of the subscribers had i>ublicly ex- 
pressed their sorrow for signing ihe address. Two of 
the signers, .lohn Fowlc and .John Prentiss, through 
llu' columns of the AW.c <Su:elte, expr<'ssrd the wi-li 
"that the address had been to the devil before lliry 
had either seen it or signed it."' 

At the annual election in .May .b.hn O.'illison, 
Ks(|„ had be<'n elected representative to the ( leiieral 
('ourt, and on the iltli of .liioe a town meeting was 
belli to adopt instriKiions wliieh had been prepared 
by the Committee of ( Irievances. The instrneti.ms 
weie siniihir ill lone to all the Votes of llie town in 

relation to the troubles with the iiiolher c itry. 

Thev declared that " We daiv aver, will ass.^rt and 
maintain the invaded ii;;lit> of a Iree people, how- 
ever surrounded by a hostile liaiid, poinliiig at their 
breasts glittering bayonets and threatmiiig instant 
destruction.'' The syiiipalhy of the lown was ex- 
pressed "for the melropolis of this I 'rovince under 
the operation of the det.slaMe Port I'.ill." "Our 
hearts Mud lor the distressr.l but truly respectable 
liostonians. The saerilice now making of their liber- 
tics is a sa<'rilice of the liberlies of this province and 
of all America; ther.'fore. let il b<' borne, if not by 
the provinces in general, by this in partiriilar." 

Ill .luly siiliscriptions were soliiiird liy mder of the 
I town in aid of the poor of lloslon, who were sulfering 
from the opeiati.pii of the Poll I'.ill, and, among other 
eiHitribntions, eleven cart-loads of .lamaica lish an<l 
a cask of oil were donated. The town-house and 
powder-house were placed at the disposal of the mer- 
chants for the storage of goods, and the <dlizens gen- 
erally tendered the use of tlieir wharves, store- 
houses and other unoccupied buildings for this pur- 
pose. As soon as the determinalion to hold a " Ooii- 
lincntal Congress" was made known, the town voted 
lo send one representative, and approjiriated nine 
(loiinds and eight shillings for the use of the Con- 
gress, .(eremiah Lee, Azor Oriie and KIbridge fierry 
were in turn elected to represent Ihe lown, but all 
three declined the honor, "as the condition of their 
jirivate allairs was such as to jirevent their accept- 
ance." At a subse(|uent meeting the town voted 
that "inasmuch as all three of the gcntkinen chosen 



1084 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



had been unable to accept the choice," in case any 
one of them should find it convenient to set out for 
Philadelphia, "he was authorized to draw upon the 
town treasurer for the amount of his expenses." 
Elbridge Gerry, the youngest of the three who had 
been chosen, then only thirty years of age, was 
finally induced to accept the position, and thus be- 
gan that distinguished public career which did not 
close until he had attained the office of Vice-Pres- 
ident of the United States. During the month of 
July the constables were instructed to notify the in- 
habitants personally to be held on the 2Gth of that 
month, as the "disuse of tea" was to come under 
consideration. On the day appointed the town voted 
that " the use of tea at a time when our inveterate en- 
emies are causing it to be enforced on the American 
colonies in the most violent methods, even by armed 
bands, is no less an injury offered to the colonies by 
all who vend or purchase it, than aflbrding assistance 
to those enemies to raise reveinies to pay dragoons 
who are to enslave us." It was also voted "that this 
town highly disapproves the vending or use of any 
India Tea .... and views all persons who shall 
offer it for sale as enemies to America and this town 
in particular." A tea committee of eleven persons 
was chosen to warn the inhabitants not to sell or use 
India teas, and it was voted that all who refused to 
discontinue the sale of the article after being warned 
by the committee, "should have their names posted 
at the Town-House and at the several churches, that 
the town may know their enemies." 

In defianceof the act of Parliament for the suppres- 
sion of town-meetings, the people of Marblehead 
continued to assemble, and to express their senti- 
ments concerning the great questions then agitating 
the country. Nor were they awed by the presence of 
a company of " British Regulars," which had been 
stationed on the Neck for the purpose of enforcing 
submission to this act, by order of the Governor. 

The presence of the British soldiers was a source of 
constant irritation to the inhabitants, and several 
times a collision between tliem seemed imminent. 
The excitement and indignation -which their inso- 
lence occasioned was fermented almost to fury when 
Captain Merritt, a worthy citizen, was wounded by 
one of the giuirds. The citizens hastily assembled, 
intending to march to the Neck and "exterminate 
the entire body of soldiers," but wiser counsel pre- 
vailed, and the officers in command, in order to 
|)acify the angry populace, promised that the offender 
should be punished with five hundred lashes. 

In September Governor Gage issued a proclama- 
tion dissolving the Massachusetts Legislature, which 
had been called to meet at Salem on the oth of 
October. Notwithstanding this order, the Legisla- 
ture convened on the day appointed, and imme- 
diately resolved itself into a Provincial Congress. 
As soon as this intention was made known, a town- 
raeeting was held, and Jeremiah Lee, .\zor Orne and 



Kldridge Gerry were chosen delegates from Marble- 
head. At the same meeting a Committee of Obser- 
vation and Prevention was chosen, with instruction- 
"to co-operate with other towns in tlie jirovince I'n 
preventing any of the inhabitants from supplying tin 
troops with labor, lumber, spars, pickets, straw-, 
bricks or any other material whatever, except such n^ 
humanity requires." 

The militia of Marblehead consisteil at this time of 
a regiment of seven companies of well-disciplined, 
active men. This regiment was under the command 
of officers, all of whom had been commissioned by 
Governor Gage or former Governors, and the town 
voted that it was " not expedient for the people to be 
led or influenced by any militia officers who conceive 
themselves obliged to hold and execute these com- 
missions." The regiment was therefore reorganized, 
not, however, without considerable excitement caused 
by the refusal of several officers to resign in accord- 
ance with the request of the town. 



CHAPTER LXXXII. 

M.VRBLEriEAD— (C'o»<i'«Me(/). 

.MARBLEHEAD IN THE KEVOI.UTION. 

The Minute- Man— British Frigate in Marblehead Harbor— Briti.-ik Troopg 
Land 'in lIoman^B Beach — Battle of Lexington — Jeremiah Lee — Exye- 
ilition to liiver St. Lawreytce — The First American Prieateei — Captain 
John Manly in the Schooner " Lee" — First Naval Victory of the War— 
huring F-rploit of James Mugford in the Schooner " tynnlelin "— Log 
ahsts Driven from the Town-Sufferings of the People— Deeds of Daring 
— Iteturn of the Itefugees — Demonstrations on the Declaration of 
Peace. 

In accordance with a recommendation of the 
Provincial Congress, providing for the organization 
of an army, a town-meeting was held at Marblehead 
on the 2d of January, 1775, " to make provision to 
pay the persons who may enlist as minute-men, and to 
take other suitable steps for perfecting the militia in 
the arts of war." The subject was referred to a com- 
mittee, of which Gerry, Orne and Lee were mem- 
bers, and they reported that as a large proportion of 
the inhabitants would soon be called upon to " assist 
in defending the charter and Constitution of the 
Province, as well as the Rights and Liberties of Amer- 
ica, it was necessary that they should be properly 
disciplined and instructed ; and as those who were 
first to take the field would be required to devote a 
large proportion of their time to this exercise, it was 
but just and reasonable that they should be remuner- 
ated for their extra services." The sum of eight hun- 
dred pounds was accordingly granted for the purpose, 
and Captain James Mugford was appointed paymas- 
ter for the detached militia or minute-men. A com- 
pensation of two shillings a day was allowed to each 
private; sergeants, clerks, drummers and filers re- 



>[,\TMii,i;iii: AD 



1 0S5 



ceived three sliilliiiirs each; sei-nml liciitcnaiits tour 
shillings; first lieutenants four shilliriirs six ihmk'c, 
and captains six shillinjrs. A service ol' four hdurs a 
flay was reiiuired, hut conii>ens:itii)n was alldwed lor 
hut three days in each week. 

During the niontii of January the Kritish soldiers 
were withdrawn ("roni the town, and on the 9th of 
Kehruary His >[ajesty's ship "Lively.'' mounting 
twenty guns, arrived in the harhor and anchored oil 
the fort. All vessels arriving in the harl)or were dil- 
igently searched hy the otlicers of this ship, and 
arms, aninuinition and military stores of every de- 
scription found on hoard them were contiscaled hy 
order of the Governor. \ vessel containing a chest 
of arms was compelled to anchor near the " Lively ; '' 
hut a few nights after her arrival the prize wa.-- 
boarded by a party of intrepid young men, under the 
lead of Samuel H. Trevett. and the arms were re- 
moved and concealed on shore. Though a diligent 
search was made by the British otticers, the muskets 
could not be found, and, as was supposed, were after- 
wards used in completing the armament of the Mar- 
blehead regiment. 

On the afternoon of Sunday, February 2Gth, while 
the people were at church, a transport sailed into the 
harljor. Soon after a regiment of British .soldiers, 
under command of Colonel Leslie, landed on IIo- 
man's Beach. After loading their guns, they marched 
through the town. .'\n alarm gun wa.s beaten at the door 
of each of t lie churches, and as the people came into the 
streets, the Jfarblehead regiment was mustered, and 
active preparations were made for the defense of the 
town. Sus[)ecting the object of their expedition to 
be the seizure of several pieces of artillery secreted 
at Salem, Major John Pedrick hastened on horseback 
to that town, and gave the alarm at the door of the 
North Church. He was soon joined by a party of 
young men from Marblehcad, and together they pro- 
ceeded to the North Bridge, over which the regulars 
were obliged to pass. On their arrival the troojis 
found the draw raised and a large body of jieople de- 
termined to resist their passage. (^>loncl I,es!ie de- 
manded that " the draw be lowere<l in the King's 
name," hut was told that it was " not the King's 
highway, but a private road." Several of the sol- j 
diers then attem|)ted to cross in boats; but were told 1 
that, should they do so, tlie boats w-ould be imme- 
diately sunk. While Colonel Leslie and his oflicers 
were debating with the citizens, Robert Wormstcd, 
one of the young men from Marblehead, — who after- 
wards distinguished himself by his daring and brav- 
ery, — engaged in an encounter with some of the s<d- 
diers. He was a skillful fencer, and, with his cane 
for a weapon, succeeded in disarming six of the reg- 
ulars. Finally, upon their agreement to march a 
short distance and then return, the draw was lowered, 
and the .soldiers were allowed to proceed. Finding 
himself frustrated in his design, the disappointed 
colonel returned with his regiment to Marblehead, 



ami rc-cmbarknl ,,n Imard tUi- Iraiispori. 'I'lirir ill- 
coiiilitnre was rcridcnd Ihc nunr <oiii|ilrlc, as lli,y 

were obliged to pass llic Ma rlilrhcad regi nt, and 

reali/eil that, h:id ihrir niissiiiri proMd siiccissiid, it 
would liavensi.ll.d only in Mon.lshcd and utter de- 
feat on llicir return. 

'I'hc evi-iits which followc<l in r:ipid succession, 
<luring the months of.Man-li and .\pril, were such as 
to cause the utmost excileiui'Mt in Marblehead. Oil 
Ihc I'.llh of April the l.allli- of Lexington was fought, 
an. 1 the news of ill.' di<ii>troiis rout of tlic I'.ritish 
was rcceivcil with the grcatr-t enthusiasm. The war 
for freedom had i Hcmcd. and the patri. its every- 
where ileclares themselves ready for the struggle. 

The day before Ihebattlethc proviiu'e ( 'ominitteeof 
Safety and Supplies, of which .leremiah Lee, Klliridge 
( lerry and Azor Orne were members, held a meeting 
at Wetherby's Black Horse Tavern, on the road be- 
tween Cambridge and Lexington. After the session 
was concluded, several members of tin- committee, 
iuchidiug John Ihincock and Samviel Adams, went 
over to Lexington to pass the night, while the gentle- 
men from Marblehead remained at the tavern. Without 
the slightest thought of personal danger, tierry and 
his associates retired to rest. During the night an 
officer and a file ofs.ddicrs of the British army march- 
ed towards the house to search for the members of 
the rebel Congress. While the officer was posting 
their files the gentlemen found means to escape half- 
dressed into an adjoining cornfield, where they re- 
mained for over an hour until the lrooi)s were with- 
drawn. The night being very cold, the irentlemcn 
suffered very keenly from their exposure, and Colonel 
Lee was soon after attacked by a severe fever, from 
which he never recovered. He died on the loth of 
May following, at Newburyport, but his body was 
brought to Marblehead for internu-nt. 

The death of this eminent patriot, at a time when 
his inestimable services were of more value than ever 
to the town and province, was universally lamented. 
In the various positions of trust and honor which he 
had held, as an enterprising ami successful merrbant, 
and as " an ardent, active ami able advocate for tlic 
[>iberties and Lidependcnce of his country," he in- 
spired the confidence and esteem of all who knew 
him. In his private intercourse with his fellow-men, 
he was admired for the urbanity of his manners, and 
beloved for his generous disposition tiiui benevolence 
to the [loor. 

During the month of Mtiy the dislurhc<l condition 
of public affairs caused great commotion fhroughout 
tlic town. I'ress-gangs prowlcil about flic streets, 
seeking to inqiress seamen for the royal navy. An 
attack from the gun boat in the liarlior, whose i>fli- 
ccrs and men were irritated almost hi'yond endurance 
by the successful resistance of the people to their 
arbitrary measures, was considercil as not unlikely to 
occur. This, togctlu^r with the unprotected position 
of the harbor, led manv of the inhabitants to remove 



108o 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



their families to places not so dangerously exposed. 
On the 21st, the artillery company, commanded by 
Capt. Samuel R. Trevett, marched to the " Old 
Meeting-House," where a sermon was delivered by 
the Rev. Mr. Whitvvell. The next day recruiting 
officers marched about the town with drums and 
fifes, enlisting recruits for the Continental .\rmy. 

On the last day of May the frigate " Ijively" sailed 
for Boston, and her place was taken by the sloop-of- 
war "Merlin." A few days after tlie arrival of this 
ship a merchant vessel from the West Indies, be- 
longing to Col. Glover, arrived in the harbor. The 
commander of the " Merlin" sent an officer on board to 
order the captain to anchor his vessel near the ship ; 
but the vigilant owner had boarded her before him, 
and, disregarding the imperative commands of the 
officer and the threatening guns of the ship, had his 
vessel brought directly in to Cierry's wharf. Crowds 
of people were gathered along the wharves and head- 
lands, expecting that the schooner would be fired 
into by the " Merlin :" but the angry commander, 
knowing that the people were determined to defend 
the owner at all hazards, wisely refrained from an 
act which must have resulted disastrously to himself 
and his men. 

Colonel Glover's regiment consisted of ten com- 
panies, luimbering in all four hundred and five men. 
On the 10th of June the valiant commander received 
orders to continue with his regiment at Marblehead 
until further orders; and fo hold it " in readiness to 
march at a moment's warning to any post where he 
may be directed." 

Having been stationed at Marblehead until " fur- 
ther orders," the brave seamen of the marine regi- 
ment were deprived of an opportunity to distinguish 
themselves at the battle of Bunker Hill, which took 
place on the 17th of June. But there were other 
sons of Marblehead who participated in that mem- 
orable engagement and fought like heroes in de- 
fense of their country. The company of artillery 
under command of Captain Samuel R. Trevett, form- 
ing a part of Colonel Gridley's regiment, arrived on 
the field in season to engage in the latter part of the 
action. Captain Trevett lost a small four-pound can- 
non in the action, but made up for his loss by cap- 
turing two of larger size from the British, the only 
cannon captured by the Americans. Two men of the 
Marblehead company were killed and three were 
wounded. Of the killed, one was William Nutting; 
and of the wounded, one was the intrepid Robert 
Wormstead, who was struck in the shoulder by the 
fragments of a bursting shell. He narrowly escaped 
having his head blown from his shoulders, the fate 
which befell a companion whom he was assisting from 
the battle-field. 

On the 21st of June, Colonel Glover received or- 
ders to proceed with his regiment and report to 
General Ward at Cambridge. A general muster was 
lield, and the regiment, fully armed and equipped, 



made an imposing appearance as it marched tbroiiL;' 
the town. Every officer, soldier and musician in tl. 
entire regiment of ten companies were citizens of 
Marblehead, except one captain and seven privates. 

The officers, chosen some months before, were: 
Colonel, John Glover; Lieutenant-Colonel, John 
Gerry; Major, Gabriel Johonnet;' Adjutant, William 
Gibbs; Surgeon, Nathaniel Bond; Surgeon's mate. 
Nathaniel Harrington ; Quartermaster, Joseph Sta- 
cey. The uniforms of the regiment consisted of a 
blue round jacket and trousers, trimmed with leather 
buttons ; and Colonel Glovfer was said to be the most 
finely-dressed officer of the army at Cambridge. As 
no arrangements had been made for fitting out a 
naval armament, and as the army at Cambridge was 
greatly embarrassed by the scarcity of ammunition. 
General Wa.shington, who had assumed command, 
was instructed by Congress to intercept and capture 
two English transports, which were bound to Quebec 
with ammunition and stores for the British Army. 
Accordingly, Nicholas Broughton and John Selman, 
both captains in (Jlover's regiment, were ordered to 
take command of a detachment of the army, and 
proceed at once on board the schooners " Lynch" and 
"Franklin," then lyingin Beverly Harbor. Onthe21st 
of October, having fitted their vessels for sea — the 
" Lynch " with sixguns and the " Franklin" with four, 
— they sailed on the first naval expedition of the war. 
Each commander took his own company for a crew, 
and Broughton as commander hoisted his broad 
" pennant on board the ' Lynch.' " After a long pass- 
age, being detained by adverse winds and weather, 
they reached the river St. Lawrence, but found that 
the transports for which they were in search had es- 
caped. They, however, captured ten other vessels 
as prizes, and hearing that the authorities on the 
Island of St. John were raising recruits for the 
Bi-iti.sh Army, the zealous commanders, thinking to 
do essential .service to their country, landed their 
trooi)s on the island, besieged a fort, and detained 
and brought off as prisoners the governor (Wright) 
and Judge Colback a.s prisoners of war. In Decem- 
ber the expedition returned, when, much to their as- 
tonishment, the two naval officers were severely repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief for exceeding 
their instructions, and the prisoners and prizes were 
released. It was the desire of Congress to adopt a 
conciliatory policy towards the Northern Provinces, 
and Washington feared that this hasty action of the 
brave but over-zealous seamen would cause a rupture 
of the friendly relations existing between these 
colonies, which might be fraught with serious con- 
sequences. 

In the mean time the Legislature of Massachusetts 
had pa.ssed an act authorizing the fitting out of armed 
vessels to protect the sea-coast, and to cut off the sup- 



^Willinm Tj. Lee afterwards became major and Gabriel Johonnet, 
lieutenant-colonel. 



:\iAi;i;i,i;iiK \iv 



10S7 



|)lies iiili,''i<le<l lor lliu ISritisli army. This act. wliieli 
WHS ailopteil on the loth of Xoveniher, was ihittly 
due to the etl'orts of Elbridge Gerry, one of the repre- | 
sentatives Croni Marbleheail, by whom the preamble I 
was drawn up. Tlie tir.-t vessel to put to sea iiiuier 
this arrangement was tlie>eliooner •Lee." commandeil ^ 
by Captain John Manly, of .Marbleluail. I )n the 2!Uli 
of November he fell in with the briar "Naney," a 
vessel of iwo hundred and tifty tons burden, bound to 
Boston, with military stores, whieli he euptured and i 
sent into Gloucester harbor. Her eariro eonsisted ol 
several brass fiidd-pieees. two thousand stand of arms, 
one hundred thousand Hints, thirty-two tons ol' UmiI. 
11 large ipuintity of ammunition, and a thirteen-imh 
br:iss morlar, besides a complete assortno'nt of tools 
utensils and maehines, necessary for nulitary opera- 
tions. Maiily's sehooner sailed under the I'ine-Tret 
Hag of .Massacliusetls, and this was tlie first naval 
victory in which the British flag was struck to .\nicri 
can colors. The prize was of inestimal>le value tn 
Washington, and tlie ordnance stores and (icld-]dcce> 
were at once forwarded to the army at Cambridge. 

Early in the month (d" May, 177il, James Mugford. 
a young man who had previously sailed as master ol' a 
merchant vessel, applied to General Ward for jicr- 
mission to Ht out the Continental cruiser " Franklin," 
tlien lying in ordinary at Beverly. During the pre- 
vious year Mugford had been impressed into the 
Britisli service and confined on board a gunboat then 
lying in the harbor. He was soon released, however, 
through the interposition of his wife, who went on 
board the ship and represented to the captain thai 
they had been recently married, and that she was de- 
pendent upon him for support. While a prisoner, the 
young sailor learned from the conversation id' hi> 
captors that a "powder siiip" wa.s soon to sail from 
England, with ammunition and stores for the Brit- 
ish arniy. Immediately upon his release, he 
communieate<l tlie important intelbgence to the 
projier authorities, and requested permission to at- 
tempt the capture of the transport. After inucli 
importniiiiy, his reipiest was granted. Without de- 
lay, the intrepid commander collected a crew, and 
after fitting his vessel for sea, pushed into the bay. 
On Friday, the 17th of May, the British shi]) "Hope," 
of three hundred tons, six gnus and seventeen men, 
hove in sight. Xotwithstanding the fact that a 
British fleet lay at anchor in Nantasket Koads, only a 
few miles otf, and in full sight, Mugford at once bore 
upon thesliip and carried her by boarding. While the 
crew of the " Franklin " were engaged in taking posses- 
sion of their prize, the captain of the " Hope" ordered 
his men to cut the top-sail halyard ties, with a view 
to impede the sailing of the ship, and thereby givt' 
the boats of the squadron time to come up. Mugford, 
sensible of the danger of the situation, threatened 
the captain and all on board with instant death 
should the order be executed. His resolute manner 
terrified the crew, and they refused to obey the coni- 



inanil> ot ihcir ollicers. 'I'hc pri/.c wa^ ibcn lak.rj 
through I'uihiiug Point Gut. — a iliaiiiirl then but 
little known,— beyond tlu- rang.- ol ilic gnus of tb,- 
British si|nadroii, ami arrivcil -alcly in Boston Ikh- 
bor. This was llu- most valuald.- (apluro that bad 
been made during tin- war. The cargo cou.'-ist.d id 
one thousand carbines with bavoncls, several car- 
riages for lield-picccs, lil'tcen Innidred barrels of ]iow- 
der, and a most coniplele assortment of artillery 
implements and pioneer tools. 

Having seen his prize safely in port, the gallant I'om- 
mander of the •' l''raiikliii " took a ^uppiy of ammu- 
nition, and on the following Sunday ag.iin put to sea. 
In sailing through I'mlding I'oint (inl, the same 
channel through which the luize was brought up, the 
vessel grounded. This being perceived by the olhcers 
on board the ships of the r.rili>h lleet. fouiteen boats, 
manned by two Imndred >ailors lully armed, were sent 
to enptiire the unproteeled sehnoner. Mugford. how- 
ever, was piepaied to meet tli.ni. Waitini; until ibey 
came within range of his guns, be fired, and with 
such deadly ellect that two of the boats were imii[eili- 
ately sunk. The men in the renjaining lioats iheri 
surrounded the sehooner and altenii.led to board. 
Seizing picks and t-utlasses and whatever iniplctnenls 
they could obtain, the heroic, crew of the " I''ranklin " 
fought with ilesperalioii in defense of'lbeir vessel. 
Many of the lirilisb were shot as soon as the boats 
came alongside, uliile others had th.'ir hands .-irid 
fingers cut oil' with sabres, as they laid them on the 
gunwales of the sidiooner. The brave JIugfbrd, who 
throughout the conlliet had been lighting wherever 
his presence seemed most needed, enconiaging and 
animating his men by voice and example, was shot in 
the breast by an i.Hieer in one of the boats. With the 
utmost eoiu]iiisure, and with that ]ircsenee of mind 
«hiidi ever distinguishes heroes, he ctdlcd to his litu- 
tenaid and exclaimed: " J niii ti ihiid man; don't </ ire 
tip the rrsfc/ : i/ou iril/ /,<■ nhir U, hml thnn off." In a 
few minutes he e.xpired. The de.-itb of their gallant 
comniamler nerved the crew of the " l-'r.'inklin " to 
still greater efl'ort, and in a sliort time the men ii] the 
boats were repulsed and gave up the attack. The 
engagement lasled half an hour. The I'.rilish lost 
seventy men, while the ordy person killed on board 
flic sehooner was its heroic captain. 

With the advancing tide the Franklin lloated from 
the soft ground where slu- had struck, and taking 
advantage of the fresh breeze that had sprung up, the 
crew liroughl her in safety to .Marblehead harbor. 
The news of the capture of the powder ship, and of 
the death of the captain in the eonte.-.l with the boats, 
had preceded the arrival of the- schooner, and the 
wharves and headlands were thronged with people as 
the vii'toriou.s' seamen sailed up the harbor. 

On Ihc following Wednesday the funeral look i>lace 
from the "Now Meeling-Housc," the Uev. Isaac 
Story ollicialing. ,\mid the tolling of bell.-, and the 
firing of iniuutc-guus, the body was conveyed to its 



1088 



HISTORY OP ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



resting-place ou the "Old Burying Hill," where a 
volley was fired by the Marblehead regiment, which 
did escort duty ou the occasion. 

On the 17th of June, the first anniversary of the 
battle of Bunker Hill, the citizens of Marblehead, in 
town-meeting assembled, declared : 

" That if the Continental Congress thinlt it fur tlie interest of tliesi? 
unitetl colonies to declare them independent of Great Britain, and should 
Xmblish such declaration, the inhabitants of this town will support them 
in maintaining such Independence with lives and fortunes." 

The patriotic citizens had not long to wait. Early 
onemorning in July — so runs the tradition — a horse- 
man rode into town, bringing the joyful tidings that 
independence had been declared. The joy of the peo- 
ple knew no bounds. The bells of the churches were 
rung for an entire week and every evening fires were 
lighted on the hill-tops, in honor of the great event. 
During the excitement occasioned by these demon- 
strations St. Michael's Church was entered, and the 
royal coat of arms was removed from its place above 
the chancel, while the bell was rung till it cracked, to 
punish some of the communicants for their loyalist 
sentiments. 

In a few weeks printed copies of the Declaration of 
Independence were received, and Benjamin Boden, 
the town clerk, transcribed the entire document on 
the records of the town. 

The year 1777 opened with little encouragemert 
for the success of the American Army. True, glori- 
ous successes had been achieved at Trenton and Prince- 
ton, but the disheartening failures of the various ex- 
peditions north and south, and the extreme sutfer- 
ings to which the soldiers in the army had been sub- 
jected, were rai)idly breeding discontent and discour- 
agement among the people. On the 1st of January 
tw'o thousand of the regular troops were entitled to a 
discharge, and a general apprehension prevailed that 
their places might not be readily filled. But the peo- 
ple of Marblehead were not despondent; and though 
a large proportion of the able-bodied men were already 
in the .service of the colonies, either on land or water, 
a meeting was held early in February for the purpose 
of enlisting one-seventh of the remaining male inhab- 
itants " for the defense of the American states." An 
additional bounty was offered for volunteers, and in 
a short time the requisite number was obtained. 

The treatment to which the loyalists should be sub- 
jected had been seriously discussed by Congress and 
by the State Legislature, and in May the latter body 
passed an act authorizing the towns to procure infor- 
mation against those who were known to be of an un- 
friendly disposition towards the colonies. A town- 
meeting was accordingly held in Marblehead on the 
2fith of May, and Thomas Gerry, Esq., was chosen to 
report the names of all persons who were inimical to 
the American States. The names of seven persons 
were reported, among them those of the Rev. .Joshua 
WingateWeeks, the rector of St. Michael's Church, and 
Mr. Woodward Abraham, who conducted the services 



as a lay-reader for several years after the close of the 
war. 

But the zealous inhabitants had taken it upon 
themselves to punish the "Tories" in their own 
efl'ective manner, and a suggestion from the Legislature 
was hardly necessary to induce them to establish " an 
inquisition," — the term applied by one of the sufferers 
to the measures of his fellow-citizens. Nearly two 
years before, Thomas Eobie, one of the most defiant 
of the loyalists in Marblehead, had charged an exor- 
bitant price for about twenty half-barrels of powder, 
purchased of him by the town, and the indignant 
citizens voted that no interest should be allowed 
him for the time of the town's indebtedness. The ill- 
feeling thus engendered continued to increase, until 
Robie and his wife rendered themselves so obnoxious 
that they were obliged to leave the town and take 
refuge in Nova Scotia. Crowds of people collected 
on the wharf to witness their departure, and many 
irritating remarks were addressed to them concerning 
their Tory principles and their conduct towards the 
Whigs. Provoked beyond endurance by these insult- 
ing taunts, Mrs. Robie angrily retorted, as she seated 
herself in the boat that was to convey her to the ship : 
" I hope that 1 shall live to return, find this wicked 
rebellion crushed, and see the streets of Marblehead 
so deep with rebel blood that a long boat might be 
rowed through them." 

The effect of this remark was electrical, and only 
the sex of the speaker restrained the angry populace 
from doing her personal injury. 

Another of the loyalists who suffered keenly from 
the displeasure of the townspeople, during these ex- 
citing times was Mr. Ashley Bowen. He had seen 
active service in the French and Indian War, and was 
a midshipman on board the frigate " Pembroke," at 
the siege of Quebec. So indignant were the citizens 
at his steady resolution in defending the King, and 
denouncing the acts of the colonists as treasonable, 
that at one time during the war it was with great dif- 
ficulty that he obtained the necessaries of life. The 
store-keepers were afraid to sell their goods to him 
for fear of incurring the displeasure of their patrons, 
and he feared, with good reason, that the attempt 
would be made to starve hini into submission. In 
177S he made the following entry in his journal, 
which tells its own story : 

'* This has been a year of trouble to me. I was drafted twice as a sol- 
dier, and taken by Nathan Brown before old Ward on ye 25 of March. 
Then they trained with me so much that they would have me to get 
bondsmen for me not to speak nor look, nor deny them my money when 
drafted. As I would not get bondsmen, it was determined to send me 
on boartl the GvKird ship at Boston." 

Fortunately for Mr. Bowen, he met with an old 
friend, the captain of a merchant vessel, with whom 
he shipped as a mate, and so, as the journal expresses 
it, " was taken out of their way." 

Whatever else may be said of the loyalists of Mar- 
blehead, it cannot be said that they were cowardly. 
Thev were sincere in their convictions, and had the 



MARBLKHKAD. 



1089 



courage to declare them in defiance of an overwhelm- 
ing public sentiment in opposition. To do tliia re- 
quired a strength of elniraeter such as is seldom ex- 
hibited except by heroes in times of pulilic peril. 
They were actuated by no mercenary motives. Es- 
tranged from friends and kindred, liable at any mo- 
ment to be imprisoned or to have their projierty con- 
fiscated, many were obliged to leave the lunne of their 
childhood and seek a residence among strangers. Time 
has removed the jirejudice, the last actor in the great 
drama has long since passed from earth, and to-day, 
though the impartial reader of liistory may not in- 
dorse the sentiment nor ajiplaud the acts of t!ie zeal- 
ous loyalists, he will find much to admire in their 
evident sincerity and the fortitude with which they 
encountered danger and endured adversity. 

The hardshi[is and sufferings to wdiidi the people 
were subjected during the summer months of 1777 
were severe in the extreme. Many of the .soldiers in 
the army had been paid for their services in depreci- 
ated Continental notes, which passed for less than half 
their face value, while others had not been paid at all. 
As a consequence, their families at home were deprived 
of many of the necessaries of life, and the town was 
obliged to adopt measures for their relief The 
family of each soldier was allowed to draw provisions 
to the amount of half tlie wages due him, and for a 
time the distress was alleviated. 

The terms of enlistment of many of the soldiers in 
the army having expired, the Legislature voted, on 
the 1st of May, to raise two thousand men for a ser- 
vice of eight <ir nine months, .•md apportioned the 
number u|>on the town. ,\rdent and spirited appeals 
were made to the people, and, as usual, the rejily of 
Marblehead was prom[it and decisive. Three days 
after, a town-meeting was hebl, ancl the sum of 
twenty-five hundred and tifty-twu pounds was appro- 
priated " to ]iay the bounty due the ( luaiils at Winter 
Hill, and to raise thirty-four more men to serve in 
the Continental Army." 

Though the peoi>le had assented willingly to the 
numerous assessments made upon them for war pur- 
poses, the collectors, in many instances, were unable 
to obtain the full amount of the tax levied by the 
town. The patriotic treasurer, Jonathan Glover, 
supplied the deficiency from time to time with pri- 
vate funds of his own, rather than the town should be 
delinquent, and interest was allowed him for the use 
of the money. 

The financial emliarrassnient of the country, and 
the depreciated state of the currency, led the l^eoplc•, 
during the following year, to adopt measures for the 
prevention of extortion, and for tlu^ regulation of the 
prices to be charged by dealers and mechanics. 
"Any person guilty of buying or selling silver or 
gold for rent or otherwise " was to be deemed an 
enemy of tlu^ country, and treated accordingly. The 
price of wood was regulated at eighteen shillings per 
cord and candU-s at eighteen shillings a pound. 
08 i 



" Best made men's shoes were to be eight pounds a 
pair," and other shoes in proportion. Farriers, for 
shoeing horses all round, were to receive six pounds, 
and for shitting a single shoe, fifteen shillings. A 
committee of forty persons was chosen to detect any 
violation of these regulations, with iiistrui-tions to 
deal summarily with every offender. 

Though the condition of national all'airs at the 
close of the winter of 1780 was far from em-ouraging, 
the patriotic citizens were determined that nothing 
should be left undone by wliich the war could be 
brought to a successful termination. On the loth of 
June tiie sum of forty thousand pounds was appro- 
priated to hire twenty-four men tn reinf )ree the Con- 
tinental army ; and a few days later one hundrt-d 
bushels of corn and one hundred hard dollars, or the 
e<iuivalent of either, were offered to every man who 
would enlist in the army for six months. At the 
same time a committee was chosen to .solicit subscrip- 
tions of cash (in specie) or provisions to be used as a 
bounty in raising recruits. 

During the entire trying period of the war the peo- 
ple of Marblehead had submitted with becoming 
fortitude and resignation to the inevitable depriva- 
tions and distress incident to the struggle. Houses, 
stores and fish-fences were necessarily demolished 
and used for fuel; and in November, 1780, a com- 
mittee was apjiointed "to estimate the value of those 
used since the lieginning of the war. The whole 
number of men in town at this time was reported to 
be 831, of whom 477 were unemployed or out of busi- 
ness. There were lOG in captivity, and 121 were 
missing. The whole number of women was 10(59, of 
wh<nu 378 were widows, and of 2242 children, 072 
were fatherless. Eight years before, the number of 
ratable jiolls was 1202, while at this time there were 
but ■'i44. At the beginning of the war there were 
12,313 tons of shipping owned, employed and manned 
by the citizens of Marblehead, while at its close the 
entire amount owned in the town was but 1509 tons. 
The signal success of American arms during the 
year 1781, culminating in thesurreiuler of Cornwallis 
and his army at Yorktown on the 19th of October, 
excited the utmost joy and exultation in Marblehead. 
Nowhere in the country had such sacrifices been 
made as those to wbieh this people had uncomplain- 
ingly submitted. Nowhere was the dawn of peace 
more heartily welcomed. Their commerce was 
ruin<Ml; many who had been wealtliy before the war 
were rrdiiced to poverty, and the blood of their sons 
bad been poureil out like water. But there was no 
eomplaiiit. No sorrowing now, even for those who 
wouM Tini, return. Only joy that the great struggle 
was ended, ami that the independi'uce for which they 
fought hail been achieved. 

Upon the publication of the prelimimiries of peace, 
many of the refugees were glad to avail themselves 
of the opportunity to return to their former homes 
in America. During the month of April the town 



1090 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



was thrown into a state of the greatest excitement by 
the return of Stephen Blaney, one of the most objec- 
tionable of tlie loyalists who had left Marblehead. 
Rumors were prevalent that other refugees were 
also about to return, and, on the 24th of April, a town • 
meeting w:is held to consider the matter. Resolutions 
severely condemning the acts of the loyalists were 
adopted, and a committee of twenty-one persons was 
chosen to take measures to prevent their return. All 
refugees who made their ajjpearancc in town were to 
be given six hours' notice to leave, and any who 
remained beyond that time were to be taken into cus- 
tody and shipped to the nearest port of Great Britain. 
The restoration of peace to the United States was 
hailed throughout the land with every demonstration 
of joy, and nowhere with more hearty enthusiasm 
than at Marblehead. On the 29th of April a grand 
celebration took place in honor of the event. The 
day was ushered in by the ringing of bells, and a 
Federal salute from the battery at the fort. At noon 
the bells were accompanied by salutes from artillery 
on Training Field Hill. At two o'clock P. M. a large 
number of the most prominent citizens, together with 
invited guests from other towns, assembled " at the 
Coffee-House, and partook of a genteel entertain- 
ment." After dinner toasts were drank, with a dis- 
charge of thirteen cannon after each toast. Nor were 
the people in general forgotten. An ox, which had 
previously been provided and cooked, was sent to the 
town-house, where a sumptuous dinner was served. A 
large vessel filled with liquor — "rum punch," the 
tradition has it^was placed in front of the building, 
and flie beverage was freely dispensed to all who 
".hose to imbibe, the vessel being duly replenished 
.hroughout the day. In the evening many of the 
houses were brilliantly illuminated, and a beacon 
which had been erected at the beginning of hostili- 
ties was surrounded with combustibles and converted 
into a bonfire. 



CHAPTER LXXXlfl. 

U /^RRLEHK AD— {Continued). 

Departure o/ fh^ Marbtt-hrad Begwu^iU—JteorganUed as the Fourteenth Con- 
tinental RegimaU—TIie lielreat/rom Imhq Maud — The Boole manned by 
Glover's Brigade— The BallU nl fktst Ouster— OaUa>il Behavior of 
Glover's Brigade— The Battle of B7ii(e Plains— Washington's Arm;/ 
Cro«$t:s the Delaware — Tlte Marblehead Jtegiment in the Advance — The 
Victory at Traiton — Testimony of General Knox — (^1. William H. Lee — 
Battle of Bemifi's Heights — Statement of Gen, Bnrgoyne— Second Battle 
of Bemis's Heights-Gallant Charge of Marblehead Men-The Attack at 
Saratoga — Surrender of Burgoyne — Glover's Brigade at Valley Forge — 
Expedition Against Rhode Island — Volunteers from Marblehead — Thanhs 
to Mm of Marblehead and Salem— The Helreat from Rhode Island— 
Skirmish at Quaker Hill-Ront of the British— Evacuation of Rhode Isl- 
and— Snfferittgs of Ihe Soldiers— West Point— Execution of AndrC—The 
Army at Peekskill — Surrender of Cornicaltis, 

The narrative of the exploits of the men of Mar- 
blehead on land and sea during the War of the 



Revolution must of necessity be very much abridged 
for this work. While the events related in the last 
chapter were transpiring in Marblehead and else- 
where, the brave men of the Marblehead regiment 
were winning unfading laurels by their valorous 
achievements in the service of their country. 1 

The regiment left town on the 22d of June, 1775, 
and at once reported to General Ward, then in com- 
mand of the army at Cambridge. 

Early in October, Colonel Glover was appointed by 
General Washington to superintend the equipment 
and manning of armed vessels for the service of the 
colonies. Through his agency the expedition to the 
St. Lawrence River, under Captains Broughton and 
Selman, and the privateer " Lee," under command of 
Captain Manly, had been fitted out. 

On the 27th of November a long, lumbering train 
of wagons, laden with ordnance and military stores, 
and decorated with flags, came wheeling into the 
camp "at Cambridge," escorted by Continental troops 
and country militia. They were part of the cargo of 
a large brigantine laden with munitions of war cap- 
tured and sent into Cape Ann by the schooner "Lee," 
Captain Manly, one of the cruisers sent out by Wash- 
ington. 

"Such universal joy ran through the whole camp," 
writes an ofiicer, " as if each one grasped a victory in 
his own hands." " Surely, nothing," writes Washing- 
ton, " ever came more apropos." 

Shortly after this event an affair occurred in the 
camp, in which the Marblehead regiment figured 
rather prominently. It seems that "a large party of 
Virginia riflemen, who had recently arrived in camp, 
were strolling about Cambridge and visiting the collegi- 
ate building,-, now turned into barracks. Their half-In- 
dian equipments, and fringed and rufllcd hunting 
garbs, provoked the merriment of the troops from 
Marblehead, chiefly fishermen and sailors, who 
thought nothing equal to the round jacket and trous- 
ers. A bantering ensued between them. There was 
snow upon the ground, and snow-balls began to fly 
when jokes were wanting. The parties waxed 
warm in the contest. They closed and came to 
blows; both sides were reinforced, and in a little 
while at least a thousand were at fisticuffs, and there 
was a tumult in the camp worthy of the days of 
Homer. At this juncture (writes our informant) 
Washington made his appearance, whether by acci- 
dent or design I never knew. I saw none of his aids 
with him ; his black servant just behind him, mount- 
ed. He threw the bridle of his own horse into his 
servant's hands, sprang from his seat, rushed into the 
thickest of the melee, seized two tall, brawny rifle- 
men by the throat, keeping them at arms-length, 
talking to and shaking them." ' 

This prompt and energetic action on the part of 
the general quickly put an end to the tumult, and in 



1 Memoir of an eyc-witueas. living's Washington, Vol. II. 



MAKULKIIKAl). 



1091 



a t'cw moments order was restored throiiglunit tlie 
camf). 

On the 10th of Doeember ;in express arrived at 
General Washington's head(]uarters I'rom JMarblehcad, 
with intbrmation tiiat three IJritish ships-ol'-war were 
standiniT in the harbor. Colonel (Hover's regiment, 
with Captain Foster's company of artillery and a 
corps of ritlemen, were ordere<l to mareli with all ex|ie- 
dition for the defense of the town. As no attempt was 
made by tiie enemy to land troops, and the s(|uad- 
ron havinj; left the coast .soon after, the artillery and 
rifle companies returned to eamp and the rej;iinent 
was sent to Beverly for the defense of that town, 
which was considered in imminent danger of attack. 

On the 1st of January, 1770, the regiment was re- 
organized as the Fourteenth Continental Regiment, 
and the term of enlistment having expireil, nearly 
every soldier enlisted for tiie war. 

In July, (ilover and his regiment were ordered to 
proceed at once to New York. They marched from 
Beverly on the 20th, and having arrived at New York 
on the yth of August, were onlereil to join General 
Sullivan's brigade. 

During the memorable battle of Long Island, on the 
27th of August, Glover's regiment was stationed on 
Kew York Island. It was not until the battle was 
over that the brave men of that distinguished corps 
performed the dillicult feat, which saved the Ameri- 
can Army from total destruction. Early in the morn- 
ing of the 28th of August the regiment crossed over 
to Long Island and was stationed at an iuipcjrtant 
post on the left of the American Army. 

" Every eye brightened as they marched briskly 
along the line with alert step and cheery aspect." 
On the morning of the 2!)th, Ijeing convinced that 
the only safety of Iiis army lay in a successful retreat, 
General Washington called a council of war. The 
council decided ujjon a speedy witlulrawal of the 
troops. The embarkation was to take [)lace in the 
night, and preparations were made with the utmost 
secrecy, C(doncl Glover being called upon with his 
entire regiment to take command of the vessels and 
flat-bottomed boat<. 

The colonel went over to Brooklyn with his officers 
to superintend the embarkation, and at about seven 
o'clock in the evening the odicers and men went to 
work w^ith a sjjirit and resolution peculiar to that 
brave corjis. The retreat was conducted in silence 
and willi the utmost precaution against discovery. 
With mnflled oars and steady strokes, the hardy .sea- 
men of the Marblehead regiment rowed with such 
precision and regularity, that not a sound broke upon 
the stillness of the night. When the morning broke 
the whole embarkation had been happily elfcctcd. 

"This extraordinary retreat," writes Wasliington 
Irving, " whicli in its silence and celerity equaled the 
midniglit fortifying of Bunker's Hill, was one of the 
most signal achievements of tlie war, and redounded 
greatly to the reputation of Washington." But with- 



out the aid of tJlover and his heroic li-bermen from 
Marl)lehead, by whose skill and activity the orders of 
the comm,uider-in chief were successfully exe<'nted, 
the retreat would have been impossildc. By their ef- 
forts alone tlie American Army was saved from de- 
struction. 

It is impossible in the limited space at our com- 
mand to recount the valorons deeds of the Marble- 
head regimeut during the memorable campaign of 
the summer and autumn of 177(;. 

On the night of December 2')lh. when General 
Washington and his army crossed the Delaware River 
to attack the British army at Trenton, "(.'olonel 
(ilover, with his amphibious regiment of Marlile- 
head " to again quote Washington Irving — "was in 
the advance, — the same who had navigated the 
army across the Houinl in its n-treat Irom I'.rooklyii, on 
Long Island, to New York. They were men accus- 
tomed to battle with the elements ; yet, with all their 
skill and experience, tlie crossing was difficult and 
perilous. Washington, who had crossed with the 
troops, stood anxiously, yet i)atiently, on the eastern 
bank, while one precions hour after another elapsed 
until the transportation of the artillery should be ef- 
fected. Till! night was dark and tenipesluous ; the 
drilting ice drove the boats out of their course and 
threatened them with destruction." Before daybreak 
the transportation had been ed'ei^ted. 

The story of the successful attack uiioii Trenton, 
which resulted in the capture of nearly one tlioiisand 
jirisoners, with their arms anil ammunition, and com- 
pelled the iJritish army to aliandon New Jersey and 
retreat to New York, needs no repetition here. Years 
afterwards, in a speech before the Massaehu.sctts 
Legislature, General Knox, who was chief of artillery 
at Trenton, paid the Ibllowing tribute to the brave 
men of the Marblehead regiment: "I wish the mem- 
bers of this body knew the people of Marblehead as 
well as I do. I wish that they had stood on the banks 
of the Delaware River in 177(i, in that bitter night 
when the commander-in-chief had drawn up his lit- 
tle army to cross it, and seen the powerful current 
bearing onwa.rd the floating masses of ice, which 
threatened deslrnetion to whosoever should venture 
upon its bosom. I wish that when this occurrence 
threatened to defeat the enterprise, they could have 
heard that distinguished warrior deman<l, ' \Min will 
lead )tii on :" and seen the men of Marblehead, and 
Marblehead alone, stand forward to lead the army along 
the perilous path to unfading glories and honors in 
the achievements of Trenton. There, sir, went the 
fishermen of Marblehead, alike at home upon land or 
water, alike ardent, [latriotic and unlliiiehing wher- 
ever they unfurled the flag of the country." 

f-hortly belbre the engagement at Trenton, Congress 
had clothed General Washington with additional 
powx-rs, and as soon as practicable, measures were 
adopted for recruiting new regiments of cavalry and 
artillery. The gallantry and meritorious conduct of 



1092 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the ofBcers and men of the Maiblehead regiment had 
not escaj'ed tlie notii.-e of the commander-in-chief, and 
on the 1st of Jannary, 1777, William II. Lee, major of 
the regiment, who for some time had been acting as 
brigade major, was promoted to the rank of colonel. 
Immediately upon receiving his commission, Colonel 
Lee returned to Massachusetts to recruit and organ- 
ize his regiment. Many of the officers and men of 
the new regiment were from Marblehead. Joseph 
Swasey was major, Joseph Stacey quartermaster, and 
Joshua Orne was captain of one of the companies. 
Among the lieutenants were William Hawkes, Sam- 
uel Gatchell, Jeremiah Reed, John Clark and John 
Barker. 

In March, the office of adjutant general having be- 
come vacant, Colonel Lee was recommended by Con- 
gress for that office. General Washington conferred 
the appointment, however, upon Colonel Pickering, 
of Salem, and upon his refusal to serve. Colonel Lee 
was immediately summoned to headquarters. Upon 
his arrival, Lee, with becoming modesty, de- 
clined the honor, and recommended Colonel Picker- 
ing, " whom he considered, from a very friendly and 
intimate acquaintance, as a first-rate military charac- 
ter, and that he knew of no gentleman so well quali- 
fied for the post.'' 

Washington afterward declared, in a letter to Con- 
gress, that nothing derogatory to the merits of Col- 
onel Lee, who held a high place in his esteem, and 
who had " deservedly acquired the reputation of a 
good officer," influenced him in giving the preference 
to Colonel Pickering. 

On the 2od of February, Colonel Glover, who had 
temporarily left the army to attend to his private af- 
fairs, was appointed a brigadier-general by Congress. 
Receiving orders from General Washington to join 
the army at Peeki-kill, he immediately set out from 
home, and took command of his brigade on the 14th 
of June. From this time until the 27th of July the 
men under his command rendered efficient service in 
resisting the encroachments of the enemy at New 
York. 

On the 7th of October, during the battle which re- 
sulted in the disastrous rout of the British, Glover's 
brigade, being a part of the right wing of the army, 
under command of Gen. Lincoln, was held in reserve. 
A part of the brigade, however, including the Mar- 
blehead regiment, were engaged under General Ar- 
nold during his impetuous assault upon the I?ritish 
camp during the latter part of the day. The British 
having abandoned their artillery, and knowing that 
the field was lost, retreated to their camp, which they 
were determined to preserve at all hazards. Scarcely 
had they entered their lines when they were attacked 
by the intrepid troops under Arnold. The attack 
was made by a determined charge with the Jbayonet, 
resulting in one of the most desperate hand-to-hand 
fights ever known. The camp was del'ended with 
great bravery, the Americans being greeted with a 



tremendous fire of grape-shot and small arras. "Even 
the stolid Hessians," says a writer of the aflUir, '"ex- 
pressed their amazement when they saw these br:iVf 
Marblelieaders dash through the fire of grape inil 
canister, and over the dead bodies of their comraik>, 
through the embrasures, over the cannon, with the 
same agility with which they had formerly climbed to 
the main-top or traversed the backstays, bayimit- 
ing the cannoneers at their posts." During the en- 
gagement Gen. Glover had three horses shot undt i 
him. 

On the following evening the British army retreatei 1 
to Saratoga, and on the 13th of October Gen. Bur- 
g()yne surrendered to Gen. Gates. The duty of guard- 
ing and conducting the prisoners to Massachusetts 
were assigned to Gen. Glover and the men under his 
command, whose brilliant achievements during the 
campaign had made them famous throughout the 
country. The prisoners arrived at Cambridge on the 
7th of November, and were received by Col. William 
R. Lee, as the commanding officer of the cantonment. 
Gen. Glover was detained in Massachusetts a much 
longer time than was expected would be necessary to 
finish the business with which he had been intrusted 
by Gen. Gates, and did not again join the army 
until the following summer. During that ever-mem- 
orable winter of 1778 his brigade formed a part of the 
army of Washington, and experienced all the suffer- 
ing which must forever make the camp at Valley 
Forge famous in American history. But through it 
all they behaved like men. Neither want, nor hun- 
ger, nor nakedness, nor all combined could induce 
them to forsake the service of their country. To the 
patient forbearance and fidelity of men like these we 
owe the foundation of the American Republic. 

We must pass, though regretfully, over the events 
of the intervening time to the summer of 1780, when, 
with the exception of a few weeks spent in Massa- 
chusetts, Gen. Glover was with his brigade at West 
Point. At the time of the capture of the unfortunate 
Major Andre, Glover had rejoined his brigade, and on 
the 29th of September was a member of the court 
which sentenced the spy to death. On the 2d of 
October, when the execution took place. General 
Glover was officer of the day, and was deeply aflected 
by the scene. Even old soldiers, who had many 
times braved death on the battle-field, shed tears on 
the occasion. But though the necessity of the exe- 
cution was sincerely regretted, no one questioned the 
equity of the sentence. 

The surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in Octo- 
ber, 1781, decided the great contest in favor of the 
Americans, and though the army was not disbanded, 
nor the treaty of peace signed till two years later, the 
war was virtually at an end. Enlistments for the 
army went on, however, for some time, and in the 
spring of 1782 General Glover was ordered to Massa- 
chusetts " to take charge of the mustering and for- 
warding recruits." This was the last service rendered 



MARBLEHEAD. 



1(103 



liy (ilover as a geneiiil in the American army, and 
willi it must end our account of the part taken by 
the men of Marbleliead in the various movements up- 
on the land. 'J'hrougiiout tlio war tiiey were distin- 
guislied for tluir l)ravery and tlic faitlifnl perform- 
ance of duly. Wliethcr in camp, or on tlie march; 
leading the advance in an attack, or coverinjr a 
retreat; everywhere, and under all circumstances, 
the same steady resolution characterized their 
actions. 



CHAPTER LXXX I V. 

ilARBLEHEAV—iConlinurd). 

Naval nitlory of itarhlthead in Ihe JffiodidV.u— ;>;<(..ii r,/ Heroic Mnr- 
blrhtadiTB— Oymnuidora Jolin Manlii and Samuel 'ISiclcer - Ciii)tmn 
John Lee in the I'rivatner ".V'i«cy" — Prizft Tuken— Murder of Cajit- 
John Harris— The Leila- of Marque "l:'reemasnu"^V.xid,:,t of Itoberl 
WormMtd-aipt. CuiccWt Vielonj—The Lost .Viiv.i hMlle of Ihe 
Itcvduli„n. 

H.vviNG followed the men of Marlilehead as far 
as po8.sible through the various cauii)aigns of the 
Revolution, let us now turn our attention to their ex- 
ploits upon the water. The naval history of the war 
for Independence can never he fully written. JIany 
of the most daring exploits of men in i-rivate armed 
vessels must forever remain unknown. The infor- 
mation to he obtained from the records of the period 
is very meagre, and reliance must be placed princi- 
pally upon newspaper reports of engagements, and 
the log-books and private journals of seamen. The 
rest is traditionary. 

In another chapter an account has already been 
given of the early captures by Captains Broughton. 
Selman and Manly, in privateers fitted out l>y (nder 
of General Washington, and of Captain Mugford's 
heroic capture of the transport " Hope," and his sub- 
sequent death while defending his vessel against the 
boats of the British fleet. 

On the 1st of January, 177<), Captain Maidy was 
given the command of the armed schooner " Han- 
cock," and became commodore of a fleet of six vessels 
fitted out by order of General Washington. The other 
schooners were the " Lee," Captain Waters ; the 
'' P'ranklin," Captain .Samuel Tucker ; the " Harri- 
son," Captain Dyer; the "Lynch," Captain Ayres; 
and the " Warren," Captain ISurke. Captains Wat- 
ers, Tucker and Dyer were commissioned on the 
20th of January, 177G, while the last three comman- 
ders did not obtain their commissions until the 1st 
of February. 

It is related of Captain Tucker, that when the ex- 
press with his commission rode up to his d(jor, the 
gallant captain, with his sleeves rolled uj), and with 
a tarpaulin hat slouching over his face, Wius engaged 
in chopping wood in the yard. The ofiicer thought 
that he must have mistaken the direction, and ex- 
claimed, somewhat roughly — 



" F say, fellow, I wish you would tell me if the 
Honorable JSannnd Tucker lives hcrealiouis ! " 

" ironoral)le! honorable!'' said Tmdcer, with a 
shrewd look at the stranger ; " there is not any man 
of that name in Marbleliead. He must be one <if the 
family of Tuckers in Salem. I am the only Samuel 
Tucker there is here." 

The gallant look and deportment of the young man 
convinced the uflicer that he could not be mistaken, 
and, after handing him his commission and jiartaking 
of refreshments, he returned to the eamii at Cam- 
bridge.' 

On the following day Captain Tucker was at l'.rv- 
erly, superintending the fitting out <jf the " Franklin," 
and in a short time sailed on his lirst cruise. The 
small arms necessary for the proper armament of his 
vessel were purchased with liis own priv.ite funds, 
and the banner under which lie suil.il was the handi- 
work of his wife. In a sh(jrt time lie fell in with the 
British shiji "Gem-ge" and the lirig '■Annabel." 
The two vessels were transports, and had on board 
about two hundred and eighty Higlilaii<l troops under 
command of Colonel Archibald Campbell. It was 
about ten o'clock in the evening, and a conlliet en- 
sued which lasted nearly two hours and a half. At 
length the British, having lost a large number of 
men, including the commander of one of the trans- 
ports, struck their colors and surrendered. The 
])ri/.es had on board a large amount of ammunition 
and military stores. Tucker sustained no damage in 
the loss of men, but the sails of his schooner were 
com|)letely riddled. 

During the month of .\pril, Commodore Manly 
was transferred to the comiiiand of tlie frigate " Han- 
cock," of thirty-two guns, and, on his promotion, the 
ciMiimanil of the schooner " Hancock ' was given to 
("aptain Tucker. Shortly after taking command of 
this schooner Tucker captured two brigs within sight 
of a British man-of-war, and carried them into Lynn. 
One of the brigs was from t^irk, ninety-two tons Inir- 
tlen, laden with beef, |)ork, butter and coal ; the 
other, of about one hundred tons burden, was from 
the Western Islands, and laden with wine and fruit. 

Early in the spring of 177ij, Captain John Lee, of 
Marblehead, was commissioned commander of the 
privateer "'Nancy," a small vessel carrying six guns. 
One afternoon, just before night, be discovered a 
heavy armed merchantman, which, though much 
larger than his own vessel, he resolved to capture. 
The '' Nancy " was .so low in the water that she was 
not ilLscovcred by the enemy. As soon as the night 
became snfliciently dark, Lee sailed up to the ship, 
having extended indistinct lights beyond the bow- 
sprit and from the stern of his vessel, which gave her 
the appearance of great length. The ICnglish cap- 
tain, thinking it idle to contend with a force so much 
superior to his own, as he thought her from this 
stratagem, struck his colors. His men were sent on 

iSlio|>|mr.l'» " Ufo of TuikiT." 



1094 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



board Captain Lee's small vessel in boat-loads, and 
were easily secured. The captain was among the last 
to leave the ship; and when he stepped on to the 
deck of the schooner, and saw how he had been de- 
ceived, he attempted to kill himself. He was pre- 
vented by Captain Lee, who, by courteous and gentle 
treatment endeavored to soothe his wounded feelings. 
During this cruise Lee captured thirteen prizes, which 
were sent into the port of Bilboa, in Spain. The last of 
these he followed, in order to superintend the trial, 
condemnation and sale of the vessels and cargoes, and 
to repair his own vessel. 

After refitting, he sailed into the British Channel 
on a cruise, and was chased by the flag-ship of Ad- 
miral Jarvis. Captain Lee made every effort to in- 
crease the speed of his vessel by throwing his guns 
and other heavy ordnance overboard ; but finding 
it impossible to escape, ran her on shore. The wreck 
was immediately surrounded by the boats of the ship; 
and the officers and crew were captured, and ulti- 
mately landed in England and sent to Forton Prison. 

During the latter part of the month of October, 
Tucker captured the brig "Lively," bound from Air 
to Newfoundland, which, together with the cargo and 
crew, was sent into Boston. Mr. Sheppard, in his 
" Life of Commodore Tucker,' states that during the 
year 1776 the number of prizes captured by that dar- 
ing commander was from thirty to forty, including 
ships, brigs and smaller vessels, many of them with 
very valuable cargoes, and some of them armed vessels. 

In March, 1777, Captain Tucker was received into 
the navy, and was commissioned as commander of 
frigate " Boston." It is probable that he did not as- 
sume the command of the frigate for some time after 
however, as would seem from the following incident 
of naval warfare, during which the " Boston " was 
commanded by Captain Hector McNeil : 

" In May of this year, the ' Hancock,' 32, Captain John Manly, and 
the 'Boston,' 24, Captain Hector McNeil, sailed in company from Boston, 
on a cruise to the eastward. A few ilnya out, or in the month of May, 
the ' Hancock' made a strange sail, early in the morning, and succeeded 
in getting near enough to her to exchange broadsides, on opposite tacks, 
the ' Hancock ' using her starboard and the enemy her larboard guns. At 
this time the * Boston ' was out of gunshot. Finding that he had to deal 
with an antagonist of superioi force, the English vessel, which was a 
frigate, stood on, crowding sail to escape. The ' Hancock ' now went 
about in pursuit, when Captain Manly sent his people from the guns, and 
ordered them to get their breakfasts. As the * Hancock ' was one of the 
fastest ships that was ever built, she quickly drew up abeam of the 
chase, which renewed lier fire as soon as her guns would bear. Captain 
Manly, however, commanded his men not to discharge a gun until fairly 
alongside, wlien a warm and close action commenced that lasted an hour 
and a half, when, the 'Boston ' drawing near, the Englishman struck. 
The prize proved Ut be the ' Fo.\,' of 28 guns. In this action the ' Han- 
cock ' lost eight men, and the ' Fox ' thirty-two. The ' Boston ' did not 
fire a gun until just after the 'Fox' had struck, when she is said to 
have given her a broadside, the ' Hancock ' being in the act of lowering 
the boats to take possession as her consort ranged up on the beam of 
the prize. 

" Captain Manly now put a crew on board of the ' Fox ' and contin- 
ued his cruise, but was not fortunate enough to fall in with anything of 
moment. On the 1st of June the three ships appeared off Halifax, in 
company, looking into the harbor. This brought out the ' Rainbow, ' a 
44 on two decks, Sir George Collier, the * Flora,' 32, and the ' Victor' 
18, in the chase. The Americans scattered, the ' lUiinbow ' and ' A'ictor ' 



pressing the ' Hancock,' the ' Flora ' the ' Fox ' while the * Boston ' had so 
much the start as to be able easily to keep aloof. The * Flora' lii-st closed 
with the ' Fox,' which ship she recaptured after a short but spirited ac- 
tion. The wind being very light. Captain Manly attempted to lighten l 
ship by pumping out the water, and is believed to have hurt her sail 
by altering her trim. Finding the 'Rainbow' closing, that gall.u 
officer made his disposition for hoarding, and, doubtless, would have 
made a desi>erate effort to carry his powerful antagonist, had the wind 
permitted. The air remained so light, however, that the 'Rainbow' 
got him fairly under her guns before he could get near enough to 
accomplish the object, the 'Victor' getting a raking position at the 
same time the ' Hancock ' struck. 

"Captain McNeil was much censured for abandoning his consort on 
this occasion, and was dismissed the service in consequence." i 

Shortly after this event Captain Tucker, upon 
whom the rank of commodore had been confierred, 
sailed on a cruise in the " Boston." While out he fell 
in with a frigate much larger than his own and car- 
ried her by boarding. The marines were led by 
Lieutenant Magee, a brave young officer, who was 
killed the moment his feet struck the enemy's deck. 
Captain Tucker, who had brought his ship gun to gun 
with the Brilish frigate, leaped into the midst of his 
adversaries, cutting down all before him. The loss of 
life on board the frigate was very great, and she soon 
struck her colors and became the prize of the " Bos- 
ton.'' 

During the latter part of October, or early in the 
month of November, 1777, the brigantine "Penet," 
Captain John Harris, of Marblehead, master, s.ailed 
for the port of Nantes, in the kingdom of France. 
Captain Harris was charged by the Board of War with 
the important duty of conveying Mr. Austin, who 
carried important papers from the government, to the 
first port that could be made in France or Spain. The 
passage was made in safety, and the "Penet" re- 
turned with a cargo and several seamen who had been 
discharged from American ships in France. Captain 
Harris subsequently sailed in private armed vessels, 
and in 1779 was sailing master on board a ship com- 
manded by Captain John Conway, of Marblehead. 
On the 19th of November of that year they fell in 
with and were captured by a British ship of a larger 
size than their own, though not without a spirited 
engagement. The American vessel was at length 
obliged to strike her colors. After the battle was 
over, asd the American seamen had surrendered 
themselves as prisoners, a lieutenant of the British 
ship seized a musket, and aiming at Captain Harris, 
shot him through the head, killing him instantly. 
The murder was deliberate and intentional, and is 
only one of many instances of brutality on the part 
of British oflicers. 

On the 10th of February, 1778, Commodore Tucker, 
who had again been commissioned as commander of 
the " Boston," received orders to carry the Hon. John 
Adams as envoy to France. Mr. Adams took with 
him his son, John Quincy Adams, then about eleven 
years of age. The " Boston " experienced a great 
deal of unpleasant weather during the passage, and 



"Cooper's Naval History." 



MARBLEHEAD. 



1095 



was several tiiiiea chased Uy British cruisers which 
had been sent out to capture lier. Commodore Tucker 
succeeded in ehiilinj^ them all. On the lllh of March 
he fell in willi the armed ship " JIartha," hound Irom 
London to New York with a valuable cargo. As the 
" Bo.ston " sailed up to her. the decks were cleared for 
action, and the men were at the guns ready for battle. 
Noticing Mr. .\dams standing among the marines 
with a gun in his hand. Commodore Tucker, in tones 
of authority, ordered him to leave the deck. Mr. 
Adams, however, continued at his post, when, at last. 
Tucker seized him and forced him away, exclaiming 
as he did so, " I am commanded by the Continental 
Congress to deliver you safe in France, and you must 
go down below, sir." Mr. Adams accordingly left the 
deck. The " Boston " tired but one gun at the enemy, 
who returned three, and then struck his colors. The 
prize was manned and sent into Boston, and Tucker 
kept on his course to France, arriving at BordiMU.'con 
the 31st of March. 

During the spring and s^ummer of 1779, Commo- 
dore Tucker, in the frigate " Boston," saileil on several 
remarkably successful cruises. In the month of .lune 
alone he captured seven prizes, six of which were 
armed vessels. Of these, the most iniporlant were the 
" Pole," a frigate of two hundred tons luirdeii, mount- 
ing twenty-four guns, ami the sloop-oi'-war "Thorn," 
mounting sixteen guns. The " Pole " w'as ca])tured 
without the firing of a gun on either side. As soon 
as Tucker saw the ships in the distance he knew her 
to be an English frigate, and boldly sailed up to her. 

Disguising his own ship with English colors, he 
prepared for action, and, having obtained a command- 
ing i)fFsition, hoisted the American flag and ordered 
an instant surrender. The commander of the British 
frigate, seeing that resistance was in vain, struck his 
colors. The prize was subsciiuently sold for one hun- 
dred and three Ihousarnl pounds, the sale of the coal 
and provisions found on board increasing the amount 
to nearly one hundred and twenty thousand pounds. 

In the meantime, Commodore Manly, who two 
years before had been captured by the British and 
sent to prison, was e.xchanged. Upon regaining his 
freedom he at once assume<l command of the priva- 
teer " Cumberland." While cruising in her he was 
captured by the British frigate "Pomona," and carried 
into Barbadoes, where he and his officers were im- 
prisoned. All their ai)plications to obtain paroles 
were rejected. They finally succeeded in ofl'ecting an 
escape, and seizing a sloop, sailed for Martinico, where 
they arrived in safety. Manly was afterwards in 
command of the privateer ".Jason," which had been 
captured by the British shortly before his escape. 
While on a cruise, duiing the month of July, he was 
attacked by two British privaterra, one of eighteen 
guns, and the other of sixteen. In the engagement 
which ensued. Manly behaved witli great bravery, and 
reserved his fire until he came close up with his ad- 
versaries. Running between them, he first discharged 



a broadside into the eighteen-gnn vessel, killing and 
wounding nearly thirty of her crew. Il<' then gave 
her consort tlu' otlicr liroadsiile, when Imth vessels 
surrendered, and lieeanu; his prizes. 

In November of this year the letter of maniue 
" Freemason," (;'a])tain lieiijamin Boden, sailed from 
Marblcliead to Martinico. .She carried six guns and 
fifteen men. On her passage she was taken by a Brit- 
isli iirivateer sloop, mounting sixteen guns. The 
captain, second male and a l>oy were left on board 
the " Freemason," but the first male, Ivobert Worm- 
sted, with the rest of the crew, was carried on board 
the privateer. The jn-isoners were haiulculTed and 
thrust into the hold, and at night the hatchw'ay was 
closed. Here W'ormsted conceived a plan uf escape 
which was successfully executed. His haiidcufl's were 
so large that he could with little exertion get rid of 
them and set the rest at liberty. He proposed rising 
upon the privateer the next day, when the captain 
should be taking the sun. At first the attempt was 
thought to be too desperate, they being so few in 
number compared with the crew on board. At 
length, however, Wormsted prevailed with his com- 
panions, and they solemnly bound themselves to do 
their utmost. His plan was to spring upon deck and 
knock down the captain, and they were to follow and 
<lo their part. At twelve o'clock the next day their 
courage was put to the test, and in a few moments the 
cai)tain and many others were laid prostrate upon the 
deck. Their pistols were taken and aimed at the 
enemy in the cabin, who surrendered without opposi- 
tion. Wormsted then bore down upon the schooner 
and ordered her to strike her colors. Captain liodcn 
cried for joy, and his captors were as niiich chagrined 
as astonished at litis unexpected reverse of fortune 
Wormsted, as commander, hail the English flag low- 
ered and the American hoisted. Having ordered the 
]5ritish oiHcersand sailors to be handcull'ed and thrust 
into the hold, he a])pointed Captain Boden jn-ize- 
master, and directed him to steer for Guadaloupe. 
There indue time they arrived in triuMi[)h, and were 
received with unnsiial testimonials of extiltation. 
The crew of the privateer were sent to prison and the 
prize was sold at auction. Having loaded his vessel, 
Wormsted sailed fiir Massachusetts, and on the second 
day was again captured and lost everything. 

On the second cruise of the sloop-of-war "Thorn," 
Capt. Richard Cowell, of Marblehead, was appointed 
commander, and she had a crew of one hundred and 
twenty men. Being a very enterprising and brave 
oflicer, he made many captures, to man out which took 
so many of his seamen that his crew was reduced to 
only sixty, includi;ig officers and boys. He therefore 
concluded to return to port for the i)urpose of ob- 
taining a reinforcement of seamen. 

Within a few days after having commenced his 
homeward passage he fell in with the British letter 
of mar(]Ue " St. David," of twenty-two guns He first 
asked the opinion of his officers as to the expeilicncy 



1096 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of engaging a ship of such superior size and arma- 
ment, and apparently fully manned. Finding that 
the officers were in favor of attacking her, he ordered 
the crew to be mustered, and having represented to 
them the great disparity of force between the two 
ships, he observed, "Still your officers are anxious to 
attack her ; are you ready to go into action ?" They 
instantly gave three hearty cheers, as an emphatic 
affirmative response. The "Thorn " immediately ran 
down alongside of the enemy, and began a desperate 
engagement at close quarters. The contest lasted 
an hour and a half, when the " St. David " struck her 
colors. On boarding her it was found that she had a 
crew of one hundred and seventy men, having taken 
on b lard seventy marines from a transport, which she 
had fallen in with in distress. The captain was mor- 
tally wounded, and one-third of the crew killed or 
wounded. The cargo consisted of six hundred 
puncheons of Jamaica spirit. Captain Cowell put an 
officer and twenty-five men on board the prize, and 
ordered him to make the nearest port ; but the ship 
was never heard of again. 

On the next cruise of the " Thorn," she was com- 
manded by Commodore Tucker, who had been re- 
leased from his parole given at Charleston by being 
exchanged for a British officer of equal rank. The 
crew of the " Thorn " was composed of eighty-one men 
and eighteen boys. "She had been cruising about 
three weeks, when they fell in with the ' Lord Hyde,' 
an English packetof twenty-two guns and one hundred 
men. As the two vessels drew near, the commanders 
hailed each other in the customary way when ships 
meet at sea, and the captain of the English packet 
cried out roughly from the quarter-deck — • 
" ' Haul down your colors, or I'll sink you.' 
" ' Ay, ay, sir, directly,' replied Tucker, calmly and 
complacently ; and lie then ordered the helmsman to 
steer the ' Thorn ' right under the stern of the packet, 
lutr up under her lee quarters, and range alongside 
her. The order was promptly executed. The two 
vessels were laid side by side within pistol-shot of 
each other. While the ' Thorn ' was getting into 
position the enemy fired a full broadside at her, 
which did but little damage. As soon as she was 
brought completely alongside her adversary, Tucker 
thundered to his men to fire, and a tremendous dis- 
charge followed, and, as good aim had been taken, a 
dreadful carnage was seen in that ill-fated vessel. It 
waii rapidly succeeded by a fresh volley of artillery, 
and in twenty minutes a ])iercing cry was heard from 
the English vessel : ' Quarter, for God's sake ! Our ship 
is sinking ! Our men arc dying of their wounds I' To 
this heart-rending appeal Commodore Tucker re- 
plied : ' How can you expect quarter while that 
British flag is flying?" The sad answer came back: 
' Our halliards are shot away !' ' Then cut away 
your ensign-mast, or you'll all be dead men.' It was 
done immediately ; down came the colors; the din of 
cannonading ceased, and only the groans of the 



wounded and dying were heard. Thirty-four of the 
crew of the prize, with the captain, were either killed 
or wounded. Her decks were besmeared with blood, 
and in some places it stood in clotted masses to tin- 
tops of the sailors' slipper.s."' On going on board tlu- 
prize. Commodore Tucker is said to have exclaimed, 
as he witnessed the suffering of the wounded, " Would 
to God I had never seen her !" 

During the year 1780, while cruising in the ship 
" Marquis " of sixteen guns, many of which were small 
four-pounders. Captain Richard Cowell fell in with a 
British letter of marque. She mounted twenty-four 
guns, and a complete set of men, far superior in 
numbers to his own. Relying, however, on the spirit 
and braver}' of his officers and crew, he laid his ship 
alongside the enemy, and continued there for nearly 
three hours. So near were the two ships in this sit- 
uation that the sponges were freipiently taken from 
one to the other while the men were in the act of 
loading. One man on board the " Marquis " was near- 
ly taken out of the port at which he was stationed, by 
one of the crew of the enemy. This gallant and 
heroic action would undoubtedly have resulted in a 
glorious victory for Captain Cowell; but the enemy, 
after having expended all his ammunition, hauled off 
from his opponent, and the disabled state of the spars 
and rigging of the "Marquis" prevented the gallant 
captain from pursuing him. 

In the spring of 1781, Commodore Tucker, in com- 
mand of the " Tliorn," captured the English ship 
" Elizabeth " of twenty guns. The ship was bound for 
Halifax under convoy with the brig "Ob-server " of 
sixteen, and the sloop-of-war "Howe," of fourteen 
guns. Ascertaining that two smaller vessels with 
valuable cargoes were sailing under protection of the 
convoy, Tucker determined to intercept them. On 
the appearance of the fleet Tucker hoisted the Eng- 
lish flag and boldly sailed into the midst of them. 
Coming up between the "Elizabeth" and the "Ob- 
server," he made friendly inquiries of them, and 
then, as if by accident, managed to get his vessel en- 
tangled with the " Elizabeth.'' When all was in 
readinesis. Tucker lowered the English flag and 
hoisted the American, at the same time giving orders 
to fire a broadside. The " Elizabeth " fired at the 
same time. Before the English captain had time to 
discharge another gun, thirty picked men from the 
"Thorn" boarded his vessel. Obtaining possession 
of the deck, they drove the crew below, and hauled 
down the colors. The brig and the sloop-of-war then 
attempted an attack upon the "Thorn," but Tucker 
assumed a threatening attitude, and after the sloop- 
of-war had discharged a broadside both vessels sailed 
away. During the engagement the "Thorn" had 
nine men killed and fourteen wounded. 

During the latter part of the month of July the 
" Thorn " was captured by the British frigate " Hind." 



1 Sheppard'a *' Life of TuCKer.' 



M.\IiHI,EHKAI). 



1097 



She was captured near the nnuith of the River St. 
Lawrence, and ('onimodore Tucker, with his crew ol 
eiglity men, was hmded at the Ishind ol' St. .John's, 
to be conveyed to llalifa.x. 

Shortly after they were hmded at St. Jolin's, 
Tucker and the officers of the "Thorn" were phiced 
in an open iioat for the purpose of heiiifr carried lo 
Halifax. A verl>al promise was exacted from Tuck- 
er, that he would coast along the shore and proceed 
direct for Halifax; but he was overpowered by his 
officers, who were determined to escape. They ac- 
cordingly sailed across Massachusetts J5ay, and about 
the middle of August arrived .at Boston in safety. 

This was the last cruise made by Commodore Tucker 
during the Kevohitionary War. His biographer 
claims that he " took more prizes, fought more sea- 
fights and gained more victories than, with a very 
few exceptions, any naval hero of the age." And it 
is true. 

During the month of Xovenilnr. 17SL', the shiji 
"St. Helena," commanded liy (Japtain .lohnStillwell. 
sailed with a fleet from Havana for Philadelphia. 
She mounted twenty gun,s between decks, — ten of 
which, however, were of wood, — and had under con- 
voy fifteen .Vmerican vessels, which had previously 
been subjected to an embargo. On the day they were 
permitted to leave port the "St. Helena," in attempt- 
ing to get under way, met with a disaster which de- 
tained her till sunset. The fleet wa.s beating back- 
ward and forward during the night, which was dark, 
waiting for the convoy. The " St. Helena " passed 
and repassed a number of the vessels. In the mean- 
time several guns were heard, sup)>o.sed to be from 
one of the fleet .At length, about tuidnight, she was 
saluted with a broailside. Ft w.as something wholly 
unexpected; the men were fatigued ; no one seemed 
to know his station, and great confusion ensued. 
Some of the guns, however, were soon got into opera- 
tion, and the firing continued till daylight, when the 
antagonist was found to be His Britannic >[ajcsty's 
brig " Lively," commanded by Captain Michael 
Stanhope. The " St. Helena " was also within reach of 
the guns of the "Jupiter," a ship of the line. Of 
course, her color.s were lowered, and the men taken 
on board the " Lively." Six days afterwards it was 
discovered that the crew of the " St. Helena " were 
preparing to rise. All the men were consequently 
confined below, and were sutl'ered to come up only 
througha narrow grating, one at a time, the hatchway 
being constantly guarded by a sentinel. After six 
days' close confinement, five of the .Americans — name- 
ly, Anthony Garner, John Prince,' Seth Farrow, Lewis 
I'u.ssell' an<l Nathan Walker — concerted a plan for 
taking the brig. Accordingly, about no<m. Walker 
disarmed the sentinel, took out the bar which fastened 
the hatchway, and the other four instantly rushed 
upon deck, fought in a most desperate manner and in 



a few niomenls loiik the vessel." The number of .\nicri- 
rans on bo.-ird the " Lively " was forty-six. They im- 
mediately bon> away for Havana, and upon their 
arrival at that port a connuilter was cliosrri to sell the 
prize and settle with the crew. 

The end of the year I7S2 closed the niarilime war 
of the .American Rivolntion. As it had been be- 
gun by the men of .Marblehead, so it was reserved 
for a Marblehead commander to close it with a bril- 
liant achievemenl. ( 'oiiniHxlore Mardy. who in l77o 
hoisted the first .\mrrican Hag, and on lioard the 
little schooner " Lee " made the first important cap- 
ture of the war, had been appointe<l to the command 
of the United States frigate " Hague." While cruising 
about the West Indies he was chased by an English 
seventy-four, and grounded on a sand-bank near 
Gruadaloupe. Three ships of the line having joined 
the seventy-four, they came to anchor within gunshot 
of the " Hague." With s|irings on their cables, they 
opened a most tremendous lire. Commodore Manly 
■iU[i]iorted this cannonade for three days. On the 
fourth day he succeeded in extricating his ship from 
her perilous position, when, hoisting Continental 
colors at the maintop-gallant-nutst, he fired thirteen 
guns as a fiirewell defiance, and boldly sailed away. 
In due time the "Hague" arrived safe in licjston. 



CHAPTER LXXXV. 

MARBLEHE.\n-(A,«^«»f^). 

MIfmpli: In Beilf're rrcsperily—Vu'il of G,ncr,,l ,h' J.afmjcfle—Tlie Federal 
Om>tllulion—aifl and Ad'hesi nf 'SInrhMmxd Ir, Vke-Pr.-sUlejlt John 
Ad'tnis—The Mnrhli-hmd Anidemi/ }M:iblMed—The First CoUechr of 
Ihf Porl—Viait of IWsiflnil Wmhniijltm — Viivtrtij of the Town— The 
Grimd LoUtry — Methodist Church llnjanixd—The Firgl Poslmofter— 
Drath of Colonel A;or Orm — Hon. Siimiiet Sewiill elected n Memlier of 
Cnrirrts—Dequesl of John ilarehinit— Erercues on the Death of Wath- 
in'jton- -Doctor Elisha Story's Fatal Mistake— Ilavaijes of Small-Pox— 
Marldehcad Hank Iiicorpivatrd—The Kmjlish Ship •• Jnpih-r''—Dei>reda- 
lion' of British Crjuarrs. 

Ox the return of jieace, with thai determined s|iirit 
of enterprise for which they liad always lieen distin- 
guished, the people of Marblehead entiTed at once 
upon their accustonu'd commercial pursuits. Under 
the direction of merchants of the character and abil- 
ity of Colonel William R. Lee, John Hooper, Thomas 
and Knott Pedrick, and a score of others equally 
well known and respected, large ships were fitted 
out, some of which made successful voyages to France, 
Spain, Portugal and the West Indies. The Grand 
Banks fisheries were also, in a measure, revived, and 
every attempt was made to restore the prosperity 
which the town enjoyed befiire the war. It was not 
UTilil these attempts were found to be well-nigh futile 
that the disastrous effects of the great struggle were 
realized. The days when Marblehead gave pronii.se 
of being a great commercial port were gone, and they 



I or Marbleheml. 



01) 



« Altlon'n " C<illecli( 



1098 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



were gone forever. The only recourse of the inhab- 
itants was to prosecute tlie fishing business, and in a 
few years it became almost the sole industry of the 
town. 

On Tuesday, November 2, 1784, the Marquis de 
r>afayette visited the town. The general was accom- 
panied by the Chevalier (rrandcharaps, the Chevalier 
Caraman and Samuel Breck, Esq., of Boston. The 
distinguished visitors were met on Salem Road by a 
procession of prominent citizens, and escorted to the 
entrance of the town, where they were received with 
a band of music by a large concourse of people. As 
the procession marched into town, the church-bells 
were rung, and the marquis was received on all sides 
with prolonged cheers and cries of " Long life to the 
Marquis de Lafayette!" Arriving at the residence of 
one of the citizens, he was introduced to "the gentle- 
men of the place," and was presented with an address 
of welcome, to which he feelingly and appropriately 
responded. He was then escorted t« another private 
residence, represented in the newsjjaper reports as a 
"genteel house," where a grand dinner was served. 
After dinner, an hour was devoted to speeches, and 
the customary thirteen toasts were drunk, the senti- 
ment offered by Lafayette being "The Town of Mar- 
blehead, and Unbounded Success to its Fisheries." 
At six o'clock the distinguished visitors departed 
amid the booming of cannon, the ringing of bells 
and the joyful acclamations of the people. 

On the 2ilth of May, 1787, the Constitutional Con- 
vention, composed of delegates from all the States, 
met in Philadelphia. Elbridge Gerry, of Marble- 
head, was one of the delegates from Massachusetts, 
and labored earnestly throughout the entire session 
of the convention to " secure a Constitution adequate 
to the exigencies of the government and the preser- 
vation of the L^nion." He was, however, one of the 
sixteen members who withheld their signatures from 
the document when completed. When the instru- 
ment was referred to the States for ratification, Isaac 
Mansfield, Azor Orne, Jonathan Glover and John 
Glover, as members of the Massachusetts Convention, 
voted in favor of its adojjtion. 

The election of George Washington and John 
Adams as President and Vice-President of the United 
States gave unbounded satisfaction to the people of 
Marblehead. For Mr. Adams, especially, they en- 
tertained feelings of the deepest gratitude for his in- 
estimable services " in preserving to the United 
States of America in the Treaty of Peace the exten- 
sive advantage of the cod-fishery." These advan- 
tages were considered as especially beneficial to Mar- 
blehead, and the citizens, in the fullness of their 
hearts, resolved to present Mr. Adams with an ad- 
dress and some slight testimonial of their apprecia- 
tion of his efforts in their behalf. Accordingly, on 
the (5th of March, 1789, a town-meeting was held, at 
which it was voted to " present his Excellency John 
Adams, Esq., with six (|uintals of table fish." The 



gift was presented, together with an address, which 
concluded as follows : 

" We therefore, being now legally assembled in Town-meetint: ! 
your Excellency to accept this, our unanimous address, as expressi i ' . 
sense of those essential beuetits which we now enjoy in the preser\ .1 ' 
of the fishery, for which we believe ourselves more especially indebted 
to your Excellency. While we are enjoying the fullness of those bene- 
fits, we pray your Excellency will indulge us to furnish your table with ' 
a small share of the fruits of your gocKl services, which we wish may be ] 
acceptable as a mark of our gratitude.'* | 

During the year 1788, or during the year 1789, sev- 
eral influential citizens, who appreciated the necessi- 
ty of greater educational advantages for the youth of 
the town, contributed the funds for the establishment 
of an academy. These gentlemen, who styled them- 
selves " benefactors," were Samuel Sewall, Robert 
Hooper, Samuel Hooper, William Raymond Lee, 
Elisha Story, Samuel Russell Trevett, John Hum- 
phreys, John Goodwin, Marston Watson, Richard 
Homan, Joseph Sewall, Samuel Rartoll, John Dixie, 
Richard Pedrick, Ebenezer Graves and Burrill Dev- 
ereux. In a short time a building was erected on 
Pleasant Street, and Mr. William Harris was em- 
ployed as preceptor. 

For many years previous to the Revolution Marble- 
head had been a port of entry, but as the records 
were taken away by the Tory refugees during the war, 
we are thereby deprived of much valuable informa- 
tion concerning the commercial and maritime history 
of the town. Thefirst collector after the organization 
of the national government was Richard Harris, who 
was evidently commissioned in the autumn of 1789. 
The district comjirised all the waters and shores in 
the towns of Marblehead and Lynn, though since that 
time the towns of Swampscott, Nahant and Saugus 
have been set off' from Lynn and are still included in 
the district. The first entry made in the records is 
under date of October 2, 1789. The number of 
licenses granted during the year ensuing was one 
hundred and thirty-two, twenty-seven of which 
were sloops, schooners and brigantines registered 
in the foreign trade 

On the 29th of October President Washington, 
who was making a tour of the New England States, 
visited the town. He was accompanied by Major 
Jackson and Mr. Lear, gentlemen of his family, 
and was received at the entrance of the town by 
a procession composed of the selectmen, the clergymen 
of the town and a large body of citizens. The 
accounts of the celebration on this important occa- 
sion are very meagre; but we are informed that 
he " was conducted to the bouse of Mrs. Lee, 
where a collation was provided, of which he very 
cheerfully partook with the gentlemen of his suite, 
the selectmen, clergymen and other gentlemen of 
the town." President Washington was welcomed 
by the selectmen, who presented an address in the 
name of and on behalf of the town, in which he 
was assured that his presence " inspired the in- 
habitants of Marblehead with the most unbounded 



MARBLPillEAD. 



1099 



joy ; but they cannot express as they would wish, 
their great sense of the honor done them on this 
occasion. The too visible decay and pnverty ol 
this town must be their excuse that they have 
not otlered to the illustrious cliaracter who now 
visits them a rece[)tiou more answerable to his 
dignity and more expressive of their own venera- 
tion.'' 

Before leaviiijr the town I'lesident Washing-ton 
visited one of the fish-yaids ami several other places 
of interest, after which he proceeded on his journey. 
Two days later, having arrived at Portsmouth, N. H., 
he forwarded a letter, saying tliat " the reception with 
which you liave been pleased to honor my arrival in 
Marblehead, and the sentiments of approbation and 
attachment which you have exjiressed of my con- 
duct and of my person, are too ilattering and grate- 
ful not to be acknowledged with sincere thanks, and 
answered with unfeigned wishes for your prosperity." 

The plea of poverty, offered in ajiology for not re- 
ceiving the President of the United States in a man- 
ner more becoming to his station, gives but a faint 
conception of the condition of the town at this time. 
For two years the fishing business liad failed to be 
remunerative, and many of the inhabitants were re- 
duced to a state of extreme wretchedness. There 
were four liundred and fifty-nine widows and eight 
hundred and sixty-five or|)han children in the town, 
nearly all of whom were dependent in some degree 
upon the tax-paying inhabitants for support. As 
the winter of 17!)0 advanced, their sutl'erings were 
greatly augmented, and several perished from hunger 
and exposure. 

Added to the general distress from this cause, was 
the anxiety produced by the visible decay of property, 
both public and private. Houses, liarns and fences 
were falling to pieces, and without the means to re- 
pair them, their owners were powerless to prevent it. 
The town-hou.se and work-house were in a ruinous 
condition, and River-Head Beach had been so long 
out of repair that it was in great danger of being en- 
tirely washed away by the constant inroads of the sea. 
The ])eople knew not where to seek relief, and various 
expedients were resorted to for the |)Urpose of obtain- 
ing money for the a.ssislance of those in distress. At 
length, driven to desperation by the misery about 
them, the citizens, in town-meeting assembled, voted 
to petition the J.,egislaturc for permission to hold 
a lottery for the relief of their necessities. Permis- 
sion was readily granted, and the final drawing took 
place on the 'M of June. By means of this lottery, 
and two others subse()ucntly held, the beach at the 
head of the harbor was repaired ; the distress of tlic 
inhabitants was alleviated and the general appearance 
of the town was greatly improved. 

During the year 1790 the Methodist Church was 
organized in the house of Mr. Prentiss, on Mugford 
Street. The new society consisted of seven members 
only, but so rai)idly did it increase in numbers that 



ill a lew years a pastor was settled and religious ser- 
vices were regularly maintained. 

The .Marblehead .\cadcniy had now become an es- 
tablished institmioM. Induration was encouraged in 
Ma^.sachusetts, as in no other Stale in the I'liioii, by 
wise laws and judicious ap[>ropriations, ami when, in 
1792, an act of incorporation was apjilied for, it was 
readily obtained. The act becanx' a law on the 17th 
of November of that year, and the corporation Wiis 
established by the name of " The Trustees of the 
Marblehead Academy." Shortly after the Legislature 
granted a township of land, six miles square, lying 
between the rivers Kennebec and Penoliscot, in the 
county of Hancock, for the purpose of supporting the 
academy. This land was subsequently sold to Sam- 
uel Sewall, Ksq., for one thousand five hundred 

p(iUIlils. 

The mails had been carried to Marblehead from 
Salem, regularly twice a week, for many years, and 
on special occasions it had been customary to dis- 
patch a messenger on horseback to carry important 
news or documents. On the 20th of March, 1793, 
the first post-office was established, and Thomas 
Lewis was appointed postmaster. 

On the 6th of June, 1799, Colonel Azor Orne, be- 
loved and respected as one of the most prominent of 
the Revolutionary patriots, died in Boston, and his 
remains were brought to Marblehead for interment. 
On the Sunday following his death the Rev. Kbenezer 
Hubbard, pastor of tlie First Congregational Society, 
preached an appropriate sermon, taking for his text 
the words found in chapter eleven of the gospel ac- 
cording to St. .lobii, thirty-fifth verse, — "Jesus 
wejit." 

Another event to which considerable local import- 
ance was attached was the election of the Hon. Sam- 
uel Sewall as a member of Congress. Mr. Sewall was 
an eminent member of the Kssex bar, and had for 
several years represented .Marblehead in the General 
(Jourt. Having been prominent iiiall local niatters,and 
deeply interested in the welfare of his fellow-citizens, 
his election gave the most sincere [ileasiire to the 
peo|)le of Marblehead, who Idt that in him they had 
an able advocate of tlu-ir interests at the national 
capital. 

The first bequest made to the town was the sum of 
nine hundred and thirty-seven dollars, given by Cap- 
tain .lohn Marchant, for the benefit of the poor. 
During the month of .June, 1797, Captain ALirchant, 
who was about to sail on a foreign voyage from Phila- 
delphia, placed a i)romissory note for that amount, 
which he held against a citizen of Dorchester, in the 
hands t)( Colonel William R. Lee, with instructions 
to collect it, and in ciuse he never returned, to donate 
theaniount to the poorof the town. Cajitain Marchant 
died in Batavia during the following year, and the 
note was collected in accordance with his instructions. 
It is doubtful, however, whether the benevolent inten- 
tions of the donor have ever been carried into efl'ect. 



1100 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



After an unsuccessful attempt to invest the fund, the 
overseers of the poor turned it over to the town, and 
it was appropriated for the erection of two grammar 
school-houses. 

On the 14th of December, 1799, George Washing- 
ton died at Mount Vernon in the sixty-seventh year 
of his age. The day of the funeral was appropriately 
observed by the tolling of bells, the firing of minute- 
guns and a general suspension of business. In the 
afternoon a procession of the Lodge of Masons and 
the pupils of the public schools marched to the new 
meeting-house, where an oration was delivered by 
Joseph Story, then a student of law in the office of 
Hon. Samuel Sewall. 

In the autumn of 1800 the town was once more 
thrown into a state of excitement, by the breaking 
out of the small-pox. Doctor Elisha Story, who had 
for many years been a popular and successful physi- 
cian in the town, having learned of the important 
discovery by Dr. Jenner, that contagion from small- 
pox could be averted by inoculation with cow virus, 
sent to England and procured a quantity of virus, 
with which he inoculated several of his own children 
and those of some of his friends. It was soon evi- 
dent that a fatal mistake had been made. 

The virus proved to be that of the genuine small- 
pox, and as the disease spread from house to bouse, 
the people were panic-stricken with fear. Several 
town-meetings were held to consider the matter, and 
the town-house being too small to contain the crowd 
of excited citizens that assembled, the meetings were 
adjourned and again convened at the " New Meeting- 
house.'' All intercourse with other towns was pro- 
hibited, and a committee was chosen to adopt other 
necessary measures of precaution against the spread 
of the pestilence. The wrath of the unreflecting and 
ignorant portion of the community was directed with 
especial severity against Doctor Story, to whom they 
attributed the cause of the entire trouble. Threats 
of lynching him were publicly made, and fears were 
entertained by his friends that some serious injury 
would be done him either in person or property. 

The counsels of the wise prevailed, however, and the 
good doctor, who suffered keenly in his mind on ac- 
count of the distress wliicli he bad innocently 
caused, was unmolested. 

To add to the general distress, a large proportion 
of the community were suffering from the most ex- 
treme privations of poverty. " Melancholy indeed," 
wrote the town's committee a few weeks later, "was 
the prospect of six hundred inhabitants (one-twelfth 
of our population), who, independent of disease, 
were destitute of the common comforts of life ; who 
had little else than hunger and cold in prospect, 
with the appro.aching inclement season." The town 
had voted to care for the poor and destitute, but it 
was found impossible to furnish relief proportionate 
to such a demand. Succor was at hand, however, 
for upon their necessities being known, contributions 



began to pour in from several of the neighboring 
towns, and in a short time the distress was alleviated. 
On the 13th of January, 1801, a little less than two 
months after the breaking out of the disease, the 
town was declared cleansed, and the inhabitants of 
other towns were invited to resume their usual inter- 
course. But before this could be done, the grave had 
received sixty-four victims of the pestilence, twenty 
of whom were adults. 

Early in the month of January, 1804, the principal 
business men and capitalists of the town subscribed 
$100,000, as the capital stock of a bank, and applied 
to the Legislature for an act of incorporation. The 
act received the signature of the Governor on the 7th 
of March, and the institution was established as the 
Marblehead Bank. Capt. Joseph Barker was elected 
president, and Mr. John Pedrick (3d) cashier. The 
"Lee Mansion " was subsequently purchased of Hon_ 
Samuel Sewall for five thousand dollars, and has ever 
since been owned and occupied by the bank. 

Instances of great bravery are not uncommon when 
men are fighting for the honor of their country or in 
defense of their homes. The deeds of the soldier 
who bravely faces death upon the battle-field are 
recorded on enduring monuments, and all men unite 
in doing honor to the hero. But there are deeds of 
heroism when the country is at peace, and the home 
is free from danger, when the ocean is the battle- 
field and the mighty wind the foe. These, too often, 
are allowed to fade from the memory, and to perish in 
oblivion. Thus there are few persons living to-day 
who have ever heard of the many acts of heroism 
performed by the Marblehead fishermen while at sea. 
Much has been done to perpetuate the memory of an 
act of injustice to an innocent man, who had been 
accused by a cowardly crew of wilfully refusing to 
assist a vessel in distress; but the following incident 
so worthy to be held in remembcrance, has been 
almost forgotten : 

In the spring of 1805 the English ship "Jupiter" 
foundered at sea, and three days after the sad event 
Skipper "William Powers'' fell in with her long boat, 
having on board thirty-nine of the passengers and 
crew. The fresh wind and heavy sea rendered it 
impossible for the boat to board the schooner, and for 
a time it was feared that all attempts to rescue the 
unfortunate occupants must be abandoned. Finally, 
as a last resort, the heroic "skipper" placed a rope 
about his waist, and by flinging himself over the "lee 
quarter," succeeded in lifting each ])erson separately 
on board the vessel. It was nobly done; but the dis- 
interested skipper performed the act of mercy at the 
risk of his own life, and, though a strong and power- 
ful man, was completely exhausted and severely 
bruised. The rescued passengers were shortly after 
distributed among three other vessels, commanded by 
Skippers John Powers, Green and Dennis, by whom 
they were brought in safety to Marblehead. Their 
arrival was the signal for similar acts of generosity on 



MAKIil.KHKAl). 



1101 



the part of the inliiibitanta, wlio vicil with each other 
in supplying their necessities, and niaiiiiij; them ax 
comfortable as their friendless situation would permit. 
Shortly after this event the town was again thrown 
into a state of exeitement by the news of an outrage 
committed by the British frigate " Ville de Milan" 
upon several fishing vessels from Marblehead, Salem 
and Beverly. The frigate was cruising <jn the banks, 
and her commander, Captain Lowrie, boanled the 
vessels and impressed twelve or fourteen of their best 
men into the British naval service. Thougli only 
one of many similar outrages, this incident is impor- 
tant as an illustration of the depredations committed 
by British cruisers upon American seamen, which 
resulted in the jiassage of tiie Embargo Act, and the 
subse<pient war between the I'nited States and Great 
Britain. 



CHAPTER I, .\ XXVI. 

MAKHLEUE.VD— (('</H«/HHf(/). 

The EmUrgo-^iziirc ../ MnrhM.ead Iws.Ls— TA.' Tnt, SU^ "/ SHpf" r 
IrtAon — Actum of Marblvheitit in Support o/ the Embargo Law — lieception 
of MaihUluad UctolulUim in Congress — Murhlehecid Light lli/anlrij 
Organized — Ktbritlge Gerry Elected (Governor — litipt'ist Church Organized 
— War Iftclared Againitt Great Hritiiin — Patriotic Action o/ M<i rblehead — 
Firit Pi ivateer Fitted Ont—Marbleheaders Man the Frigate ' ' (kinslitiUion" 
—Ueroimt of Willi'ini Eurnets— Battle heticeen Hie " Cousliliitiim" and 
the ** t!uerriere"~lCibridge Gerry Elected Vice-Prci>ident — Engageineiit 
Betireen the " OJi«/t/w<»o» " and the *'J<ira" — The '* Chenaiieake" and 
the "Shannon"— Ilie Town Fortified— Tu:o Men Stiol in the greets— 
Briiijih CVuwera Chase the ^^Constitution'''' into Marblehead Harbor — 
Heroic beaUt of Lieutenant John G. Coicell — lietnoiistruli"ii oit tlie 
Declaration of I'eace— Marblehead Men in Ilrilish I'ris,m.i. 

TiiF. repeatt'd itidignilies to which American vessels 
were subjecte<l by British cruisers had the etfect to 
impress upon Congress the necessity of legislation for 
the protection of the commerce of the country, and 
on the 8th of January, ISOS, the famous embargo law 
wa.s passed. This act, which was adopted at the 
instance of the President, detained all vessels in 
American ports, and recpiired all American vessels 
then away to return home. But the depredations of 
the British continued in spite of the embargo. Ves- 
sel after vessel was captureil and confiscated, and 
many were overhauled wliile returning from Ibreign 
ports in compliance with the law. .\mong these were 
the schooners "Minerva" and "Perseverance," of 
Marblehead, commanded by Captains Poor and Mes- 
servey. The captaiti of the " Perseverance," on his 
arrival home, reported that he had left si.\ty Ameri- 
can vessels at Plymouth, among which w'as the 
schooner " Betsy Hooper," of Marblehead, which 
had been con6scated. 

Though firmly in fovor of the end)argo, and sin- 
cerely believing in its necessity as a mea-sure of pre- 
caution, the inhabitant-s of Marblehead were among 
the greatest sufferers from its elfecta. With a j)oi<ula- 



tion of si.x or seven thousand, nearly all of whom 
were entirely dependent upon the fishing busine.'^s for 
subsistence, the condition of the town was deplorable. 
I'.ighty-seven vessels, averaging eighty tons I'arh, 
were necessarily idle ; and the warehouses were 
stored with the fish caught during that and the pre- 
vious year. The law prohibited their u.xportation and 
there was no market for them at home ; eonseiiuently 
they could not l)e sold, and Ihi'rc was great distress 
among tlu' ]ii'(i()lf. 

On Saturday, tlic .'■.iMli of October, the schooner 
"Betty," commanded by Skipper Benjamin Ireson, 
arrived from the (irand Banks. Shortly after their 
arrival the crew reported that al midnight on the 
previous Eriday, when oti' Cape Cod light-house, they 
passed the schooner "Active," of PortUuul, which 
was in a sinking condition ; and thai the ski[>per had 
refused to render any assistance Id the unfortunate 
men on board the wreck. The excitement and indig- 
nation of the people upon the reception of the news 
can be better imagined than described. Two vessels, 
manned by willing volunteers, were immediately dis- 
patched to the scene of disaster, with the ho[)e of 
their arrival in time to save the shipwrecked sailors. 
I5ut their mission was a failure and they returned 
with no tidings of the wreck. The resentment of the 
people was still further provoked when, on the follow- 
ing day, the sloop "Swallow" arrived, having on 
board Captain Gibbons, the master of the ill-fated 
schooner. He corroborated the story told by the 
crew of the " Betty," and stated that the " Active " 
sprung aleak at about eleven o'elock on Eriday niglit. 
An hour later the " P.etty " was sp<dtcn, " but con- 
trary to the princi[de.'S of liuiiKiiiity," slu.- sailed 
away without giving any assistance. On Saturday, 
Captain Gibbons and three of the passengers were 
taken off the wreck by Mr. J lardy, of Truro, in a 
whale-boat. Eour other persons were left im the 
wreck, but the storm increased so rapiilly tliat it was 
found impossible to return to their rtscu<'. ( aptain 
Gibbons was placed on board tlie revenue culter 
" Good Intent," and afterwards went on board the 
"Swallow," in which he came to Afarblehead. This 
statement by one who had so narrowly escaped a 
watery grave made a deep impressi(jn upon the 
fishermen, and they determined to demonstrate their 
disapjjroval of Skipper Ireson's conduct by a signal 
act of vengeance. -Accordingly, on a bright moon- 
light niglit, the unfortunate skip|ier was suddenly 
seized l)y several powerful men, and securely bound. 
He was then jdaced in a dory, an<l, besmeared from 
head to feet with tar and feathers, was dragged through 
the town, escorted by a multitude ai' men and boys. 
When opposite the locality known as Work-house 
Rocks, the bottom of the dory came out, and the 
pri.s<iner finished the remainder of his ride to Salem 
in a cart. The autlnnities of that town forbade the 
entrance of the strange procession, and the crowd re- 
turned to Marblehead. 



1102 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Throughout the entire proceeding Mr. Ireson main- 
tained a discreet silence, and when, on arriving at his 
own home, he was released from custody, his only re- 
mark was, " I thank you for my ride, gentlemen, but 
you will live to regret it.'' His words were prophetic. 
Wlien too late to make reparation for the wrong they 
had committed, the impulsive fishermen realized that 
they had perpetrated an art of the greatest injustice 
upon an innocent man. 

At this late day, when for years his memory has 
been defamed throughout the land, and the fair name 
of the women of Marblehead has been sullied by the 
fictitious story of one of our best New England poets, 
it is but just that the true history of the affair should 
be written. Skipper Ireson was not more to blame 
than his crew, and, it is believed, not at all. When the 
wreck was spoken, and the cry of distress was heard, 
a terrible gale was blowing. There was a consultation 
on board the " Betty " as to the course to be pur.sued, 
and the crew decided not to endanger their own lives 
lor the sake of saving others. Finding that they were 
resolute in their determination. Skipper Ireson pro- 
posed to lay by the wreck all night, or until the 
storm should abate, and then go to the rescue of the 
unfortunate men. To this they also demurred, and 
insisted upon proceeding upon the homeward voyage 
without delay. On their arrival in Marblehead, fear- 
ing the just indignation of the people, they laid the 
entire blame upon the skipper. This version of the 
affair is generally accepted as true; and for thecredit 
of the town, be it said, that it is one of the few inci- 
dents in its entire hi.story that its citizens have any 
reason to regret. 

The embargo, which had now been in ojieration 
nearly a year, had been strongly oi>posed by the 
Federalists from the beginning, and as the ill eflects 
of the measure began to be felt, their hostility in- 
creased. Town-meetings had been held in nearly all 
principal sea-ports to remonstrate against the law, 
and many of the speeches at these meetings were 
seditious and inflammatory in the extreme. Not so in 
Marblehead. Though starvation stared them in the 
face, the citizens were loyal to the government, and 
at a town-meeting, held on the 7th of December, the 
following resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

" Rf^solved, That tbiu town continues steadfast in tlie faith that the 
emhargo Jaw was a law of wisdom, and that tiie President and Congress 
of the United States are entitled to and shall receive our warmest 
thanka for their early attention to the Independence, Liherty and just 
rights of the Union, and particularly the commercial part thereof. 

" Ittsolved, That this town will use all the energy they possess to carry 
into full effect all the laws the present Congress have enacted or may 
enact for the support of our just and equal rights, against the unjustifia- 
ble and imperial decrees of the belligerent powers of Kurope, by proffer- 
ing to our country our property and services." 

Captains William Story, Nathan B. Martin and 
Joseph Pedrick were elected a committee to forward 
the resolutions to the Hon. Joseph Story, member of 
Congress from this district. The resolutions were 
forwarded, accompanied by a letter signed by every 
member of the committee. 



" Uaving learned that the government intends employing some culli ! - 
as gun-hoata, to prevent evasions of the laws of the Country (they wr^t. 
we with humility beg leave to suggest to you our opinion, that on tin 
coast (that is to say, from Cape Cod to Cajie Sable), any cutter which th.. 
government niaysend will not so well answerthe purpose ; the gun-boats 
will be useless, for they would not, in this inclement season of the year, 
be able to keep at sea without great risk. From the knowledge we li:i\( 
of our fishing-vessels, we think they will answer every purpose and i 
a saving to the government to employ them in defense of their ]a\'. 
We also beg leave to offer the government as many vessels of thin.h 
scription as will prevent any evasion whatever, from any port^ 
places between the above-mentioned cape^, or wherever other\M 
wanted, knowing, as you do, the peculiar situation of the people of t li , 
place, that they have now on hand two years catching of fish and 
vent for the same. Notwithstanding this, they look upon the meastu. - 
of the government as the only means of retaining our future commerce. 
They therefore feel disposed, to the utmost of their abilities, to support 
the general government with the risk of their lives and property, and 
beg leave through you to tender their services to man out, and hav'* 
manned, any vessels which it may please for the service of the Unil.-ii 
States." 

This action of the town gave great satisfaction to 
the friends of the administration throughout the 
country. The resolutions were published by Repub- 
lican (Democratic) newspapers everywhere; and 
from one and all the town received words of praise 
and encouragement. Of the manner of their recep- 
tion in (congress. Representative Story wrote to his 
brother, under date of December 21, 1808: 

" This day I had the pleasure of presenting the Marblehead petition, 
and an a part of my address on this occasion, which was short, 1 read in 
the hearing of the House the resolves of Marblehead. The effect was 
electrical. It gave a degree of delight, it awakened a sensation of ad- 
miration far beyond what I ever knew in a public body. On every side 
the patriotism, the honr^rable, the tried and uniform patriotism of Mar- 
blehead resounded. All the Kepublicans declare their determination to 
assist in some way to honor and relieve the citizens of the Town, and 
I feel an assurance that some of our fishermen will be employed as pro- 
tectors of our coasts. One able Republican member from South Carolina 
(Mr. D. R. Williams) declared that such was his sense of the virtue and 
character of the town, that he would willingly gi\-e them a thousand 
bushels of corn from bis plantation. But all the fiiends of the Govern- 
ment rejoiced that in this day of disalToction in the Kasteru States a 
people could be found who were so true to the honor and rights of their 
country. Mr. Giles, of the Senate, hearing of my having the resolves, 
sent for them, and, in a speech which ho made to.dayiu the Senate, read 
them, and complimented you all. You may depend that a more reason- 
able and welcome resolution never came to Congri-ss. It is an example 
worthy to be followed. When I named the fact.s to the President he ap- 
peared highly delighted." 

The anxiety expres.sed concerning the effect of the 
opposition to the embargo, manifested by the people 
of the Eastern States, was not without reason. Sena- 
tor Adams expressed his belief, in a communication to 
the President, that " from information received by 
him, and which might be relied upon, it was the de- 
termination of the ruling party in Massachusetts, and 
of the Federalists in New England generally, if the 
embargo was persisted in, no longer to submit to it, 
but to separate themselves from the Union, at least 
until the existing obstacles to foreign commerce were 
removed." This, it has been said, was a false alarm ; 
but that such was the sincere belief of the citizens of 
Marblehead, is evident from the following resolutions 
adopted at a town-meeting, held on the 9th of Feb- 
ruary, 1809: 

" Bisohed^ Tbat w^ view with the iitniu.st ubburreuce aii>1 indigiiatiuD 
the conduct of a party auiuug ua, whu aru coDtiuually undcavoriug to 



M \i;ni,F.ii(':\n. 



1103 



excitt^ the gooH peopK- of tbis ncniiiii'inweullli to a disoheiiifiu'i' of tl 
laws of tho Union, by fulsp ami I.IkIIuhs piiLlnatidns rcsppiiiiiK t) 
motivo8 anil measures of thf KiMifriil ^'uv.TruntMit, unci );r<»^ niiKstiit 
menis of tho natnre anil stnirws of our pn-wt'iit (MiihiUTaHHini-rits ; tin 
till' real oliji-ct of llii$ party is to Beparatf 1|»' I'liilwl Statos, jinil .•xri 
rebellion and civil war lor tli.- purp<i8e ••( e^lablisliini: a niunan liy niuli 
the pr.teiu-e of a XorlliiTU C'..nfe.l..iacy, ..r fore- ii« into a .l.-slrmli' 
uar witli the rontinent of Kuropi-, .111,1 .-oijs.-.in.Mitlv a fatal alliami' « il 
the r-orriipl monarrhv of llritain. wlo.so euibra.-.. in .l.ath. 



■•He«..^■.■,^ TImt «o an- .Kl.iinin...l nw.-r to yicl.l our l.ih.-rlios an.l 
RiKhts, punhascrl by the l.e,-t bhxKl of our .■..iiiitry. .-itlier t.. .■Mi-rnal 
foe# or dotneiitii- tniitors ; hnl we are detcrniini-d, al all lia/iinis, 10 iiiairi- 
Inin the Constitution of tlie I'nitoii States an<l all law.; inaile in pursu- 
ance thereof; an.l we .!o nmst solemnly pleclj;,. mir lives, ,oir property 
and our sacred honor for their support, tIirou),:h ev.-iy peril of insiirrer 
tion, rebellion or invusion. 

" Kemlral. That we hold sacred those ineslinialile privileges re8i|;ned 
to our hand," by a numerous clas.s of bmve and hardy townsinen, who 
eacriliceo their lives for the achievement of our glorious iudep,.ii,l,.n.i. ; 
that in order to pr.itect and defend thesi: privileges, ever to be liel.l 
sacred by Anioricaus, we will arm and e.iilip ourselves in such a manlier 
as onr circumstances will admit, and do hereby publicly declare that «. 
will die Kreemeri, and never live shiMS." 

Tlio i)t'()|ileof .Marl>li'lie:ul did imt loiofl tluii rc^^o- 
liilioii til arm mid 0(|iiip theiiisi'lvrs, and diniiif; llic 
nicintli (if .June l!u' company known as the Mai-lilc 
liead l.i;;lil rnl'antrv wa..* (njraiii/.t'd. .losliiiii <). liow- 
den was llie first foinmaiider, and the comjiany lias 
maintained its organization ever since. 

Tlie events of tlie year ISIO witc of more than 
ordinary interest to the people of ^Marlileliead, lOarly 
in the inonth of January two schooners were ca|> 
tared hy Uritish cruisers and carried into St. Jean dr 
l..uoe. This was consiilcred an eviilence tliat the 
British government intended to eontinne its policy 
of stizin,g American ve.s.sels and im|iressing .\meii 
can seamen, and had the eifect to increase the indig- 
nation felt hy tlie people. " Free Trade and Siulors' 
Rights " was tlie cry everywhere, ami when, in the 
month of May, tlie annual State election took )dace, 
Elhriilge (ierry, the Democratic candidate for ( !ov- 
ernor, received four hundred and seventy-one of the 
five luindreil and twenty-four votes cast in Marlde- 
head. Mr. Gerry was idected, and in lioth branches 
of the Ije.gislature the majorities were I 'emocratic. 

By the census of this year, it appeared that the 
nuniher of inhahitaiits in the town was five thousiiiul 
eight hundred and forty-two, of whom sixty-three 
were pe.^ple of I'olor. 

During the month of l''ebriiary the First Baptist 
Churcii was organizeil, twenty-one iiersons luing reg- 
ularly dismissed from the First liaptist Cliiirih of 
Salem for this purpo.so. 

On the LSth of June, 1S1l>, war was formally de- 
clareil agtiinst (treat Britain hy the ( 'ongress of the 
I'nited States. 

F'rom the moment when was was declared, the cit- 
izeii.s of Boston, the inelropolis of New ICnglaiid. 
" clamored for [leace and reproliated the war as wick- 
ed, un,just anil unnecessary.'' .Many other towns in 
the State were only too ready to follow the example 
set by Boston, and on the 2'.lth of June the citizens 
of Newburv declared : 



" W isi.ler lb.- war rone. us to tb.. pro|i.rl> a^ well as the happi- 
ness „„d ne.ralsof llie iiali..n. ll is broii-lil on lie- conlry bv Mir 

prise ; it Wase.MirelVe.l 111 .larliUeSs aUd -eeiel .-onel.ii.. ; lb.' |.eop|e «, ,.■ 

kept in profiuind isiiioranci? of their iiupeudinK destruction." 

F'ar ditrerenl were the resolutions adopted bv the 
rilizciis of MarbK-lic.id. I »n the very day thai the 
ini'cliiio was held ill Newbury a tou 11-iiiirliiig was 
hell! ill Marblelirad .-111.1 lb.' f..ll..wing ns.dnlioiis 
were unanimously ad.iple.l : 

•• ;,Va,.;, . ,;, That w.. vo-iv the late soleiun ail, de. larinj; viar aRainst 
IJn.at liritain an.l li.r .lepen.len. ies, as the last ivsorl ..fa lull. Ii injured 
piople, frei.ly ]iel-»imdeil that itsiustice iiu.l n...i-s«ily will I... a.knowl. 
ed.eed by all who camli.lly pass in review tli.. .1... trines of .lur enemy ; 
iiid nothiuK .sborl of a birsr subiiiis,sion woul.l hav.. piolfjUKed pcaiTC. 

" /,', »i./r.'./, ■rliat, wliatever sacrifices may resiill, we ide.JKe ouikelvea 
to support our povenuu.-nt.our laws, an.l o.ir Liberty, tlin.uKli the 
pr.seni ar.luons lonlli.t. W.. also pleilg,. ourselves to sU].port and pi... 
I,< t tl... rni.ili of the Stat.'s as th.' ark of our polilbal safety ; an.l that 
u..\iew all those who .Ian- intimate a « isli l.n the s.p,anili,.ii .,1 the 
I iii.m as the w.irsi .■n.-niies to our pea,-,., pro-perity an.l bappin..-ss ■■ 

.\s soon ;ts the news of I hi' .Irclinilion of war 
was received in Mtirblehead ibc town was the scene 
of the utmost activity, \owber,' in I he country did 
the people spring to arms with mole ahurily. Four 
privateers, namely -the "Finn," ihc " Thorn," the 
■'Snovvliird" and the " Indii.stiy '' — were immediately 
iitted out, and begun a seii.'s of leniarkably successful 
lauises ag:iiiist the ships of the British nation. 'I'his 
was mil all. Forty private armed schooners were 
s'l.iii litli'd out in Salem, a hirge proportion of 
whbdi were manne.l by Marlilehrad seamen. One 
siho.iner. the " ( ir.iwler," was i-.,niiiiandeil by Cap- 
tain Nathaniel Liii.lsev. of Marbhdiead, and had an 
entile crew of Marbhhea.l men. Of the shi]) 
"America," one of ihe most cinspiciioiis and suc- 
cessful cruisers during llii' entiic war, tliirly were 
from Marblehea.l. 

The fishermen of Marblehead were als., hugely 
represenled on board tlie IVigales of tlu' Fiiited 
Slates Navy. I"iglity nun of (he crew of the 
" Ciinslilution " were from .M.aibhhead, and were 
on board her througlnmt the entire [leriod of her 
brilliiint career. 

The war hail now begun in earnest. On the :.'oth 
of July the ship "Orient," of Mtirblehcad, Captain 
.Andrews, cominauder, while on the passage home 
from a merchant voyage to ( uhr.iUar, was captureil 
on the banks of Newfoundland by ihe British sloop- 
of-war "Harvard." The " Orieiil," whicli bail on 
board a rich cargo and tibmit thirteen thonsaml 
dollars in specie, was sent into St. .John's, N. B. 
The crew, ten in number, were phieed <.n board 
a pri.ion-shi]), from which they were stibseipienlly 
reletised by the Fnited States frigate " Fsse.\." and 
sent to New York on board a cartel ship. 

I'.arly in the monlli of August the schooner " Dol- 
phin,"' of Salem, was ca|itured by the British cruiser 
" I'.elvidera." Among the crew of the "Dolphin," 
who became prisoners of war, wtis Joseph Furne.ss, of 
Marhlidiead. Shortly after his coufineinenl on board 
the " Belvidera " he was carried on board the ship 



1104 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



"San Domingo," where an attempt was made to im- 
press him into the British naval service.' With 
manly heruisni, Furness declared that he would not 
fight against his country, and told his captors to shoot 
him as he stood if they chose to do so. They then 
placed hira on board the guard-ship, where his steady 
resolution and undaunted courage inspired the ad- 
miration of the British officers. Soon after, docu- 
ments were sent down for his release and he returned 
home. 

On the 10th of August the celcl>rated battle be- 
tween the Uuited States frigate " Constitution " and 
the British frigate " (iuerriere" took place, which re- 
sulted in a gk)rious victory for the " Constitution." 
The loss on board the " ( Juorriere '' in killed, wounded 
and missing, was one hundred and one. The loss on 
board the " (tonstitution " was seven killed and seven 
wounded. 

The news of this engagement wa-s received in Jlar- 
blehead with the greatest enthusiam ; and so large a 
proportion of the crew of the "Constitution " were 
citizens of the town, it was considered almost a local 
victory. 

The Presidential election of 1S12 resulted in another 
triumph for the Democratic party, and the re-election 
of President Madison. This was accepted as an in- 
dorsement of the war policy of theadnjinistration and 
gave great satisfaction to its friends throughout the 
country. In Marblchead, especially, the event was 
hailed with great rejoicing. Elbridge Gerry, who 
was revered and honored as a patriot and a states- 
man, had been elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and nowhere was the honor conferred upon 
him and Massachusetts more sincerely appreciated 
than in his native town. 

On the 29th of December a desperate engagement 
was fought ofl" San Salvador between the United 
States frigate "Constitution," then commanded by Com- 
modore Bainbridgc, and the British frigate "Java," of 
thirty-eight guns. The combat lasted more than 
three hours, and when the " Java " struck she was re- 
duced to a mere wreck. Of her crew, one hundred 
and sixty were killed and wounded, while on board 
the " Constitution " there were only thirty-four. Among 
the killed on board the " Constitution " in this action 
were two brothers named Cheever, of Marblchead, 
the only sons of a poor widow. 

On the 1st of June, 1813, a battle was fought in the 
bay back of Marblchead Neck, in sight of a multitude 
of anxious spectators, between the United States frig- 
ate " Chesapeake," commanded by Captain Lawrence, 
and the British frigate " Shannon," commanded by 
Captain Broke. The action terminated fatally for the 
" Chesapeake," and the intrepid Lawrence was mortally 
wounded. Of the crew of the " Shannon " twenty-four 
were killed and fifty-six wounded. Of the crew of 
the " Chesapeake" forty-eight were killed and nearly 

1 Twenty-uue citizens of Marbloiiead were iiitpret^ed intu the Jiritieli 
naval wrvice. 



one hundred wounded. When carried below and asked 
ifthe colors should be struck, Captain Lawrence replied 
"No; they shall never while I live." Delirious from 
excess of sutl'ering, he continued to exclaim : " Don't 
give up the ship '. " an expression consecrated by 
the people of Marblehead as the last words also of the 
heroic Mugford thirty-seven years before. During : 
the engagement three Marblehead sailors were on ! 
board the "Shannon "asprisonersof war,by whomthe j 
progress of the battle was watched with the utmost : 
interest. They bad been taken on board a prize of i 
the privateer " America," several days before, and their 
hopes of a speedy delivery were suddenly brought to 
an end by the capture of the " Chesapeake." 

The body of Captain Lawrence was carried to Hal- 
ifax, but was subsequently brought to Salem, and re- 
buried with great parade, the Hou. Joseph Story, 
a native of Marblehead, acting as orator of the day. 

The large number of British sloops-of-war which 
were cruising about the bay, caused the inhabitants 
to fear an attack upon the town, and in the spring 
and summer of this year active preparations were 
made for its defense. Fortifications were erected, and 
batteries were stationed on Twisden's Hill, Goodwin's 
Head, Hewitt's Head and on the Neck. The town was 
divided into two wards, and all the able-bodied men re- 
maining at home were enlisted into companies and de- 
tailed for general duty. The Marblehead Light In- 
fantry, which now numbered one hundred men in its 
ranks, acted as a reserve force to be called upon in 
case of an attack. A company was also recruited and 
mustered into the service of the United States for 
duty at Fort Sewall. This company was under com- 
mand of Captain John Bailey, and Joshua O. Bow- 
den, the efficient commander of the Light Infantry, 
was its first lieutenant. 

Guards were stationed along the coast, on the Neck 
and at various localities in the town, for the purpose 
of alarming the inhabitants should an attack be 
made. 

Thesoprecautionary mc;i.siires were not adopt t>(l with- 
out sufficient cause. The Briti.sh cruisers had become 
.so bold that in several instances tinarmcd American 
vessels were captured within full sight of the shore, 
and almost within range of the guns of the fort. On 
one occasion, during the month of August, two Eng- 
lish ships-of-war sailed close to the Neck and cap- 
tured six coasting- vessels which were bound to 
Boston. 

During this period of excitement two lucn were 
killed by the guards in the public streets of the town. 
Both of the unfortunate incidents occurred in the 
night, when it was impossible for the sentinels to see 
who was approaching. One of the victims was a 
young man named Joseph Butman, who was foolishly 
trying to alarm the sentinels stationed at the town- 
house. The other was a negro known as Black 
Charley, who was shot by the sentinel stationed at 
Lovis's Cove. Charley was on his way home from a 



MARRr.EHEAD. 



1105 



iliiticinjr-[)arty, where he had performed theimporlaiu 
service of tiddler, and heiiifr soinewliat deaf, it is pre- 
sumed did not hear tlie ehallenge of tlie guard. Phese 
sad events east a jreneral gh)om over the coMiinunity, 
anil were dee|)ly regretted ; liut the stern necessities 
of war demanded that the guards should he eom- 
nienihd for the faitliful |)erfornianee of <hity. 

On Sunday, (he Md of April, 1814, the people were 
alarmeil by the suilden appearance of three ships-of 
war, which ap[ieared to he sailing directly for Marble- 
head harbor. Two of tlie frigates were ascertained t« 
have British flags al their mast-heads, while the third, 
which was in advance of the others, carried the star? 
anil stripes. It proved to l)e the frigate "Constitu- 
tion," which for three days had been chased by the 
English frigates "Tenedos"' and '" Kndymion." .-^s 
the three stately ships neared the l.ind, and the excit- 
ing chase could be more distinctly witnessed, the 
headlands and house-t0[)S were filled with interested 
and an.xious spectators. The "Constitution" suc- 
ceeded in escaping from her i)ursuers, and as she ma- 
jestically sailed into the harbor cheer after cheer rent 
the air, and from many a heart a prayer of thanks- 
giving went forth for the preservation and safety ol 
'■ Old Ironsides." When about three miles out the 
commander of the "Constitution" inquired if any of 
the Marblehead seamen felt competent to pilot the 
ship into the harbor. " Aye, aye, sir! " was the an- 
swer from a score of volunteers, and from the nurnbei 
Samuel Green was selected, by whom the good sliip 
was successfully brought in. Towards evening she 
again weighed anchor and sailed into Salem harbor, 
where she was not so much expo.sed, and was les!- 
liable to attack. 

While the.^e events were transpiring at home, the 
heroic sons of Marblehead were winning unfadinf; 
laurels by their valorous conduct upon the water. In 
the spring of 1.S14, Capt. David Porter, in the frigate 
" Essex," engaged the British frigate " Phcebe," ol 
fifty-two, and the sloop-of-war " Cherub," of twenty- 
eight guns, in the harbor of Valparaiso. For more 
than two liours he sustained the uneqal encounter 
before he surrendered, and his crew fought with a 
bravery never exceeded. Of his intrepid officers and 
seamen, fifty-eight were killed, thirty -one were miss- 
ing, thirty-eight were severely and twenty-five 
sliglitly wounded. During the action Lieutenant 
John Glover Cowell, a son of the intrepid Ca|>taiii 
Richard Cowell, and a grandson of General ,lohn 
Glover, of Revolutionary fame, was wounded. After 
having the wound dre.s.sed a .second time he returned 
to his station, where another shot severely wounded 
him in the leg. He was taken up to be carried below, 
but peremptorily refusing to go, he continued at his 
post until lo.ss of blood rendered him insensible. He 
was then taken below and placed under the care of 
the surgeon. 

.\fier the battle he was taken on shore, where Ids 
leg was ampntaled, and after sulfering with exem- 



plary fortitude for twenty-one days, he expired in 
the presence of his gallant companions. " His case 
excited in Valparaiso the liveliest interest. The 
whole city most feelingly and deeply sympathized in 
his sufferings, and lamented his fate. His heroism 
had maile everyone his friend and his mourner. He 
was buried with ihciiiost distinguished honors, both 
military and civil, thai the ].lacc roiild alford. .All 
the American ami l!rili>h olliccrs, the cn-ws of the 
'Essex' and the 'Essex .Iiiiiior," of the 'I'hiebe' 
and 'Cherub,' and of every other vessel in ]iort, 
joined to swell the funeral procession. But the chief 
pomp that was displayed on this suleinn and interest- 
ing occasion arose from the attention of the inhabi- 
tants of the place. It would be scarcely hyperbolical 
to say that I be ashes of llie gallant (^'owell were wa- 
tered by the tears of all Valparaiso. 'The concourseof 
Spaniards, headed by the (iovernor of the district 
and a large military escort, was immense. 

"Followed by this vast and magnificent procession, 
and attended by solemn music and lighted tapers, the 
remains of the hero were carried to the principal 
church of the city. Here, after having been exposed 
to pul)lic view for two days, shrouded in elegant fun- 
eral apparel, they were interred in consecrated 
ground within the walls of the building, an honor 
never |ierhai>s before conferred on a stranger in that 
part of the world." 

The war virtually ended in December of this year, 
when the treaty of peace was signed at (ihent by the 
representatives of the United States and Great Brit- 
tain. In February, 1815, the treaty was ratified by 
the two government.s, and President Madison issued 
a proclamation to that effect. On the reception of 
the news in Marblehead, every house in town was 
illuminated and from nearly every hou.se-top some- 
thing was set flying to the breeze; those who could 
not procure flags, hoisting sheets, |)illow-cases, and 
in some instances even petticoats, in honor of the 
great event. For an entire week the church-bells 
were rung, and as day after day their merry peals 
rang out, they lefl full conviction on every heart of 
the sincere joy and rimsl ardent patriotism of the 
people. 

Though peace had been declared, over seven hun- 
dred citizens of Marblehead were confined in British 
prisons. Halifax, Chatham, Plymouth and the 
loathsome prison-ships each had their quota, while 
in Dartmoor Prison alone more than five hundred 
were confined. The majority of these men were cap- 
tured in privateers of many times their size and 
armament. Many, however, were taken from un- 
armed merchant vessels on their voyages to and from 
the various foreign ports. 

During the massacre in Darlmour Prison on the 
lith of .Vpril, 181."), when the .soldiers tired on the 
defenseless prisoners, ,lohn Peach and Thomas Tiiul- 
ley, of Marblehead, were wounded. Over one thou- 
sand men from Marblehead were engaged in the war 



1106 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



for "Free Trade and Sailors' Rights." Of these, seven 
hundred and twenty-six were on board privateers, 
one hundred and twenty were in the navy, fifty-seven 
were in the army, and one hundred were members of 
the Marbleheiid Light Infantry. 



CHAPTER L X X X V 1 1 . 
MAUBLEUEAD— (Continued). 

Sacrijices Math hy the Town — Visit of Pi-esident MonroeSabbaih -schools 
Organized — Second Visit of General de I^fayette — The Columbian So- 
ciety — Public Streets Named — Shoe Manufacturing Established — First 
Local yetcspaper Established — Grand Bank Incorporated — Marblehead 
Seamen^s Cbariiabte S^xyiettf Organized— Female Humane Society Or- 
ganized— Visit of President Jackson — Rival Celebrations on the Fourth 
of July— Reorganization of the Fire Department— Hi^h School Estab 
lished— The Surplus Revenue Controversy — Eastern Railroad Opened — 
Liberty Party Organized — Lyceum Hall Built — Tlie Creat Gale of 
Mi6— Railroad Disaster of ISiS -Ship-Buildiug in Marblehead- Be- 
quest of Moses A. Pickett— I'reseulations to Infantry Companies — Cel- 
ebration of American Independence — Third Congregational Church 
Organized— Hibernian Friendly Society — Waterside Cemetery Dedi- 
cated — Catholic Church Founded— Fire at BassetVs EoXl—tSreat 
Strike of 18C0. 

At the close of the war the people applied them- 
selves earnestly and industriously to the task of re- 
storing their shattered fortunes. There were now 
only forty-eight vessels employed in the bank fish- 
eries, eighteen of which were of less than fifty tons 
burden. When the embargo of 1807 went into oper- 
ation there were one hundred and sixteen vessels en- 
gaged in the business, ninety-eight of which were of 
more than fifty tons burden. This great reduction in 
tlie number of vessels engaged in the industry, by 
which the inhabitants obtained a livelihood, is the 
best evidence that can be given of the sacrifices made 
by the town during the period of controversy and 
war with Great Britain. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, .James Monroe, of Vir- 
ginia, was inaugurated President of the United States. 
A few months after his inauguration he made a tour 
of the Eastern States, and in so doing, honored the 
town of Marblehead with a brief visit. He was re- 
ceived at the entrance of the town by a procession 
consisting of the military, the boards of town officers, 
the pupils of the public and private schools, the clergy, 
and a large concourse of citizens. He was escorted 
to the " Lee Mansion, where a large number of 
prominent citizens assembled " to pay their respects, 
and afterwards visited Fort Sewall and other points 
of interest. 

The organization of Sabbath schools in Marble- 
head, began in the spring of 1818, when measures 
were taken for the formation of the " Sabbath-School 
Union Society." Hon. William Reed was chosen 
president of the society. The scho(ds of the several 
churches continued under the direction of this society 
for eleven years, when each church assumed control 
of its own school. 



The year 1824 was marked by an event of the 
greatest interest to the people of Marblehead. The 
venerable Marrjuis de Lafayette, who had come to the 
United Slates at the express invitation of Congress, 
was traveling through the country, and the citizens 
voted unanimously to invite him to visit the town. 
The invitation was accepted, and a day late in the 
month of August was appointed for his reception. 
The distinguished visitor, accompanied by his son, 
George Washington Lafayette, was received at the 
entrance of the town by a procession of civic and 
military organizations, and escorted through the 
principal streets amid the joyful acclamations of the 
people. He was then conducted to the " Lee Man- 
sion," where a grand dinner was served, and a public 
reception was given to the citizens. The dinner- 
table, it is said, presented a magnificent appearance. 
All the '■ well-to-do " families of the town contributed 
their silverware to grace the festal board, and neither 
pains nor expense were spared in its arrangement. 
General Lafayette remained in Marblehead several 
hours, and before departing made a brief call upon 
Mrs. Mary Glover Hooper, the wife of Robert 
Hooper, Esq., and the only surviving daughter of his 
old friend and companion-in-arms, Geu. John Glover. 

Among other interesting incidents of this memora- 
ble day was the first appearance of the military com- 
pany known as the Lafayette Guards, which had been 
organized a short time before, under command of 
Capt. William B. Adams. 

Early in this year a society was incorporated by the 
name of the "Columbian Society," which, for more 
than fifty years, exercised a perceptible influence 
upon the political sentiments of the citizens. I'^or 
many years the best moderators of our town-meetings 
were graduates of the president's chair of the Colum- 
bian Society, and the most skillful debaters who par- 
ticipated in town-meeting discussions obtained their 
experience at the weekly meetings of that institution. 

During this year the public streets were named by 
vote of the town. Nearly all of them had been known 
as " lanes," from the time of the settlement of the 
town, and Mugford, (Jreen and State Streets are still 
familiarly known to many of the older inhabitants 
as "New Meeting-Uouse," "Ferry," and "Wharf" 
Lanes. Previous to the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tion, State Street was known as " King Street," but 
the patriotic citizens declined to recognize the name 
after the close of the war. 

As early as 1S25 the manufacture of misses' and 
children's shoes was introduced into Marblehead. 
Previous to this time the only boots and shoes made 
in town were heavy leather boots for the use of fisher- 
men and custom shoes for ladies and gentlemen. 
The first manufacturer to engage in the new enter- 
prise was Mr. Ebenezer Martin, who made his own 
shoes and sold them at retail. His work-shop was in 
the old " Reynolds House," on Darling Street. It 
was his custom to carry his goods about in a cart, and 



MARBLEHEAD. 



1107 



drive Irom one town to anotlier, until lie disposed of 
them. The next earliest inanul'acturer waa Mr. 
Thomas Woohlredge, wliose laitory was on Orne 
Street; and a tew years later Messr.s. Benjamin 
Hawkes, Thomas Garney and Adimirani C. Orne 
engaged in the business as a firm. Shortly after, 
Messrs. Samuel and Peter Sparhawk began business. 

On Saturday .Mareh 13, 18:i0, the first local news- 
paper ever established in town made its apjiearance. 
It was called the Marbhhaid Rif/is/er, and was 
publisiied by Henry Blaney. For three years the 
editor struggled lieroically to make the enterprise a 
success; but his efforts were futile, and he was 
obliged to suspend publication. Several newspapers 
have since been establislied, but a similar fate has 
befallen them all e.\ce[>t the yfarhleheod Afexnoigcr, 
which was established in 1S71, and is still published. 

huriiig the year 18:^1 several im|iortant local insti- 
tutions were established. 

On the ISth the Grand Hank was inc<iri)orated 
with a capital of :ilO(l,OUl). .loseph \V. Green was 
the first president, and .Fohii Sparhawk, .Ir., cashier. 

On the 30th of August the town voted to petition 
Congress for the erection of a light-house on Point 
Neck. The light-house was erected in accordance 
with the wishes of the town, Mr. Ezukiel Darling be- 
ing the first keeper. 

Early in tiiis year the Marblehead Seamen's 
Charitable Society wiis organized. This society is 
still in existence, there being only one older society 
in town. The Marblehead Female Humane Society' 
antedates it, having been organized in 181(5. 

1m the summer of 1833, President Andrew Jackson, 
who had entered upon his second term as the execu- 
tive of the nation, made a tour of the Middle and 
New England States. On the 28tli of .June, accept- 
ing the urgent invitation of the citizens, he visited 
Marblehead. He was received at the entrance of the 
town by a procession consisting of the military com- 
panies, a cavalcaile of fifty horsemen, the Fire Depart- 
ment, pupils of the public schools and a large con- 
course of citizens. Along the route of the j)rocession 
triumphal arches, decorated with flowers and bearing 
appropriate mottoes, were erected, and many [irivate 
residences were elaborately decorated. President 
Jackson rode through the principal streets in an 
open carriage, after which the procession halted at 
the " Lee Mansion" where an address of welcome was 
delivered by Frederick Robinson, Esij. A dinner 
liad been provided for the occasion, but to the great 
disappointment of the citizens, their ili.stingui>lied 
visitor was obliged to proceed as soon as possible to 
Salem, and they were deprived of tlie pleasure of his 
company. 

The violent opposition to the meiusures of Presi- 
dent Jackson's administration gave rise to a new 
political organization, known as the Whig party. 
Between this party and the Democrats there existed 
a feeling of the most bitter hostility. This was especi- 



ally true of the adherents of both parties in Marble- 
head. Their ojiixisition to each other was so intense 
that on tlie occasion of u Fourth of .July celel)ratioii 
in 1834, they refused to act in concert, and the re- 
sult was two rival celebrations. The Democrats 
formeil a [irocession, and, escorted by the Lafayette 
Guards, with a drum and fife and two bugles, pro- 
ceeded to the Methodist Metting-IIouse, where an 
oration was ilelivered by Mr. Frank Knight, a native 
of the town. They tlieii marched to Fort Sewall, 
where a diumr was proviiled, ati<l ap|)ropriate 
speeches were made by prominent members of the 
party. The Whigs were escorted by the Marblehead 
Light Infantry, a majority of whose members were of 
that iiolitical faith. Led by a band of music, they 
marched U> the old North meeting-house, where an 
oration was delivered ; after which they s;it down to 
a dinner at Academy Hall. 

During the year 1835 the Fire Department was 
thoroughly reorganized. The town at this time owned 
four hand-engines, — the " Friend," the " Endeavour,'' 
the " Union " and the " Liberty." Beside these, there 
were two engines owned by private parties, one of 
which was named the "Torrent," and the other the 
■' Relief." \ committee, appointed by the town to 
examine the several engines belonging to the Fire De- 
partment, reported that only <«ie, the " Liberty," was 
" worth spending a dollar on." That engine was 
accordingly reiiaired, and refitted with all the modern 
improvements, and two new suction engiiie.s — the 
"' Marblehead " and " Essex " — were purchased. 

During the year 183(5 the Universalint Society was 
organized. For a time the meetings were held in the 
hall on thecornerof Washington and Darling Streets; 
but the following year, so rajiid had been the growth 
of the society, that a church edifice was erected on 
the corner of Pleasant and Watsoti Streets. 

For years the town had maintained three grammar 
schools, known as the North, Centre and South 
Schools. In 1S37 it was voted to establish a High 
School, with gei)arate departments for boys and girls. 
The school was (istal>lisbc(l in accordance with the 
vote of the town, and ibe building known as the 
.Masonic Loilge was rented for its acconunodatiou. 

It was during this year, also, that the famous con- 
troversy over the "Surplus Revenue" took place. 
During the administration of Pn-sident Jack.son a 
large amount of money accumulated in the treasury 
of the United States. By an act of C'ongress the 
Secretary of the Treasury was authorized to distribute 
the amount among the several Slates, and the State 
cjf Massachusetts, on the reception of its proportion, 
distributed it among the towns of the commonwealtli. 
By this act of the Legislature the town of .Marblehead 
received about thirteen thousand dollars. The town 
voted to appropriate the money for the purchiuse of a 
town farm and the erection of a new almshouse. A 
controversy ensued in regard to the matter, and 
after the vote had been several times reconsidered, 



1108 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



it was ascertained that the town was under legal ob- 
ligation to purchase the farm belonging to Humphrey 
Devereux, Esq. The farm was accordingly purcha.sed 
for thirteen thousand dollars. Two years later the 
farm was sold for eleven thousand dollars, and the 
money was turned over to the treasurer, the town 
losing two thousand dollars by the transaction. 

The date of the regular establishment of stage com- 
munication between Marblehead and Boston was 
about the year 17G8. The establishment of a regular 
line of stages between Marblehead and Salem, how- 
ever, did not take jjlace until twenty-six years later. 
The first projirictor of a line of stages in Marblehead, 
of whom we have any knowledge, was Mr. Hooker 
Osgood, who drove regularly to Boston for many 
years previous to the War of 1812. He died in 1811, 
and the business was purchased by Messrs. Israel 
Putnam and Jonathan Cass. This firm subsequently 
sold out to a companj', under whose management the 
business was conducted for several years. Upon the 
abandonment of the enterprise by the company, Mr. 
Cass resumed the business with Mr. Increase H. 
Brown as a partner. In 1829 Mr. Cass withdrew, 
and Mr. Brown entered into a co-partnership with 
Messrs. Stephen P. Hathaway and Benjamin Thomp- 
son, the style of the firm being I. H. Brown & Co. 
A stage was driven to Boston daily, and to Salem 
twice a day, Mr. Thompson being the driver of the 
former, and Mr. Hathaway of the latter. On the 
opening of the Eastern Railroad between Salem and 
Boston, in 1838, the stage to Boston was discontinued, 
and, instead, stages were driven four times a day to 
the Marblehead Depot, then located in Swampscott, 
on what is now known as the "Old Lynn Road." 
On the opening of the Marblehead and Salem Branch 
of the Eastern Railroad, in 1839, the stage to Salem 
was discontinued. 

The year 1839 may be said to have been the period 
when the fishing business of Marblehead reached the 
zenith of its prosperity. At that time ninety-eight 
vessels, only three of which were under fifty tons 
burden, were employed in the business — a larger 
number than had ever sailed from this port since the 
time of Jefl'erson's embargo. 

In February, 1841, an Anti-Slavery Convention 
was held at Georgetown, Massachusetts, and, as 
a result of its deliberations, the political organi- 
zation known as the Liberty party came into ex 
istence. This i)arty advocated the total abolition 
of slavery in the District of Columbia, over which 
Congress had the sole legislative power. The only 
person from Marblehead who attended the Conven- 
tion at Oeorgetown was Mr. Samuel Goodwin, a gen- 
tleman who had long been an earnest and outspoken 
Abolitionist. Three years later, at the Presidential 
election of 1844, six votes were cast in Marblehead 
for the candidates of the Liberty party. These voters 
appeared regularly at the polls at each recurring 
State election, and their party gradually increased to 



fifteen members. For years they made little or no 
progress, but they succeeded in maintaining their 
organization, forming the nucleus of the great anti- 
slavery party, which, under two names, has assumed 
such proportions in Marblehead. 

The year 1844 was marked by the erection of the 
building known as " Lyceum Hall," and by the or- 
ganization of two of the most prominent and influen- 
tial societies in the town. These were Samaritan 
Tent of Rechabites and Atlantic Lodge of Odd Fel- 
lows. 

In 1845 another engine was added to the Fire De- 
partment. This engine was the " Gerry," and upon 
its reception the engine company of that name was 
organized. 

The year 1846 marked a memorable period of dis- 
tress in the annals of the town. On the 19th of Sep- 
tember of that year one of the most terrible gales 
ever known took place on the Grand Banks of New- 
foundland, and ten vessels belonging in Marblehead, 
containing sixty-five men and boys, were lost. Forty- 
three of these unfortunate seamen were heads of 
families, leaving forty-three widows and one hundred 
and fifty-five fatherless children. This great calamity 
may be said to have given the death-blow to the fish- 
ing interests of the town. Gradually, as the years 
have passed, one vessel after another has dropped 
from the roll of "Bankers," until not one remains, 
and the great industry of former years is but a 
memory of the past. 

In 1848 the Marblehead Seamen's Charitable So- 
ciety erected a monument in the "old Burying Hill," in 
memory of its deceased members, fourteen of whom 
were lost in the September gale of 1846. The monu- 
ment is of white marble, fifteen feet high, and stands 
upon the highest point of ground on the hill, being 
visible from ten to fifteen miles at sea. 

The inhabitants had not recovered from the calam- 
ity of 1846, when another of a difl^erent nature, but 
not less appalling, cast a gloom over the entire com- 
munity. The Presidential campaign of 1848 had 
nearly drawn to its close, when, on Thursday evening, 
November 2d, two large political gatherings were 
held, one in Lynn and the other in Salem. 

The Hon. Daniel Webster was advertised to ad- 
dress the Whigs at Lynn, and Gen. Caleb Gushing 
the Democrats at Salem. Special trains were run to 
these places from all the towns in the vicinity, and 
more than two hundred citizens of Marblehead availed 
themselves of the oi>portunity to listen to the eloquence 
of the great orators. At twelve o'clock that night, 
as the Marblehead train was returning from Salem, 
a collision took place with the down train from Lynn, 
The engine, tender and forward car of the Marble- 
head train were utterly demolished. Six of the occu- 
pants of the car were killed, and five were seriously 
wounded. 

During the year 1849 the ship "Robert Hooper," 
owned by Mr. Edward Kimball, was built at " Red 



MAKIilJOilKAD. 



1109 



Stone" Cove. The launching;, which took place on 
the 31st of Octoher, was witnessed liy luiniireds of 
people, many of whom came t'roin the neighborinK 
cities and towns. IJusines.-* was generally su.spended, 
and the day was oh.served as agenerai holiday through- 
out the town. The enterprise thus begun, tor a lime, 
gave promise of becoming oni^ of the permanant in- 
dustries of the town. Six other ships, of from eight 
hundred to twelve liundred tons burden, were sub- 
sequently built for Mr. Kimball; and within a period 
of nine years twenty scliooncrs, of from eighty-seven 
to one hundred and twelve tons Inirden, were built 
for various persons engaged in the fishing business. 

In 18.')0 a hook-anil-ladder carriage was bought 
and placed in the Fire Department. It was named 
the •' Wiishington," and a company was organized 
for its management. 

In 1S'')2 the infantry company known as the (iln- 
ver Light Guards was organize(l. The first captain 
was Mr. William H. Hooper, a descen<lant of (ieneral 
Glover. 

On the 31st of March, IS.").",. Mr. M<.ses Allen I'ick- 
ett, a gentleman who had for years been a noted 
character in the town from his odd, eccentric man- 
ners, died and was buried. The event attracted 
little or no attention at the time beyond llic ciicU' of 
his few immediate relatives and friends; but when his 
will was opened it was found that he had bequeathed 
the entire residue of his estate, after paying a few- 
small legacies, to be used as a fund to " comfort the 
widow and the fiitherlcss, the aged, the sick and the 
unhappy." His house he directed should be ke]it in 
repair and "let to widows at a moderate rent." The 
entire amount of the bequest was about SI3,400. 

In his lifetime Mr. Pickett had been considered a 
man of a very penurious and miserly disposition; 
but when the contents of his will were made known, 
the mouths that fi)r years had been sealed were opened. 
Then, for the first time, his (piiet and unostentatious 
charities were made known. The widow, the 
fatherless, the aged and the sick had many times 
been the reeii)ients of his never-failing helji in time 
of need. They hail not known the mime of their 
mysterious benefactor, and the lo<al dealers who were 
the almoners of his charity hail been pledged to 
secrecy. It was not until he had been called to bis 
reward that his fellow-citizens saw and appreciated 
the true worth of the man who had lived among 
them. 

The remainder of the year 1S.">3 is chielly mem- 
orable on account of the three great military fi^stivals 
which took place before it closed. On Tuesday, 
June 2Sth, tlie Marblehead Light Infantry, which 
had adopted the name of ".Sutton," in honor of (ien- 
eral William Sutton, appeared under command of 
Captain Knott V. Martin. Among the distinguished 
visitors present were His K.\celleney, (iovernor ('lif- 
ford, the Hon. Charles W. TJpliam, who at that time 
represented the Ivjscx District in Congress, and 



a large number of military nlliiers from other 
towns. 'I'be (Hover Light (inai'ds, under ('aplaiii 
.lolm M. Anders(jn, appeared in a grand parade on 
the :i'.»th of Septendier, and on the I'.Mh ol (letoher 
tlie Lafayette (luanls, under eonimand id' Captain 
John Carroll, .li., made a ^iniihir demonstration. 
On eaidi of the>e iieeasi(pTis the enmp:iny |):irailii:g 
was presented with a silk banner, llie gill of the 
ladies of the tnwn. 

The anniversary nl' .\meriean iiidepeiideiiee had 
been eeb-liraled from time to lime wilb great parade, 
but prob.-d.ly the greatest celebration of the kiml ever 
known in town u|i to this time was that wbieb took 
place on the 4tli of .Uily, 1S.')(;. At nine o'clock in 
the morning of that day a processioM was formed in 
seven divisions, consisting of the tliree military com- 
panies, the entire Fire Department, the pupils of the 
public schools, the town ollicials and their predeces- 
sors in oHice, aged citizens in carriages, a party ol' 
mounted Indian warriors and a cavalcade of horse- 
men. Mr. .loseph I'. Turner acted a> eliief marshal. 
I'he iirocession moved through all the ]iiinci|>al 
streets to the " Old .North Church, ' where an oration 
was delivered by W. C. Kndicott, Esq., of Salem. The 
other exercises consisted of |)rayer by the Rev. IS. 11. 
Allen, and reading of the Heclaralion (pf Indepen- 
dence by Mr. Franklin Knight. An ode, written for 
the occasion by Mrs. Jlaria L, Williams, was sung by 
the choir. In the evening there was a brilliant dis- 
play of fireworks, under the direction of a I'oston 
pyrotechnist. 

In IS5() a lodge of the "Sons of Tenqierance," 
was organized, known as " Washington Division, No. 
•■',." The following year the .Marblehead Musical 
As.sociation was organized. 

In 1858 several eommunicarits of the b'irst I'on- 
gregational t'hurch withdrew from that body and or- 
ganized the society wdiich, for nearly twenty years, 
was known as the " Third ('ongregational Churcli," 
During the year ISlSO the .society erected the bouse of 
worship known as the " South Church," on the cor- 
ner of Essex and School Streets. This building was 
destroyed in the great contlagration of 1877, and the 
society united with the First (Congregational Church, 

On the 5lh of December, 1S.')8, the Hibernian 
FrieiuUy Society was organized. 

The year 18.0'J was as remarkable for local events 
as any in the history of the town. (In the Ut of 
January a new engine, named the " Mugford," was 
added to the Fire De|partnient, and the engine com- 
pany of that name was organized. 

.•\ controversy had arisen relative to the purchase 
of another hand-engiiu', and nnuiy of the tiremen 
were loud in their praises of a machine kmiwn as the 
"Ihltton Tub." The town ilecided advers.ly to the 
proposition to obtain one, however, and the engine 
known ius the "( ieneral ( Hover " was purchased. The 
"Cenend (ilover" Kngine (Jompany was organized 
ui>on it,> reception. 



1110 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



On the 16lh of October the Waterside Cemetery was 
consecrated with appropriate exercises, consisting of 
prayer, singing and an address by the Rev. Benjamin 
R. Allen, pastor of the North Congregational Church. 

For several years the people professing the faith of 
the Roman Catholic Church had maintained occa- 
sional services at private houses and in various halls 
in the town, going to Salem to receive the holy com- 
munion. In 1859 the Church "Our Lady Star of the 
Sea" was erected, and since that time services have 
been regularly held. During the same year Wash- 
ington Lodge of Good Templars and the Young 
Men's Christian Association were organized. 

Ou the 2t)th of January, 1860, a large building on 
Essex Street, known as Bassett's Hall, was totally 
destroyed by fire. This hall had been erected but a 
short time before, and was dedicated to the use of the 
Spiritualiiits of the town. The house of the General 
Glover Engine Company was also destroyed. An- 
other house was erected on Pleasant Street, for the 
use of the company, and at the same time a house 
was built on State Street for the use of the Gerry En- 
gine Company. 

A reduction in the price paid for labor by the shoe 
manufacturers of Lynn and Marblehead in the spring 
of the year 1860 resulted in one of the greatest strikes 
ever known in either place. Nearly every man, 
woman and child employed in the manufacture of 
shoes in Marblehead participated in the movement, 
and there was a general determination not to submit 
to the reducticm. On the 2d day of March the 
"strikers" made a grand demonstration, and in their 
parade about town they were escorted by the entire 
Fire Department and the three military companies. 
Five days later a similar demonstration took place in 
Lynn, when the shoemakers of Marblehead, escorted 
by the firemen and military, visited that city and 
participated in the proceedings. On the 29th of 
March the "women strikers" paraded about town 
and one of their number acted as drummer. With 
commendable gallantry the firemen and military 
again tendered their services as an escort, and the 
art'air passed off very pleasantly for all concerned. 
At length, after a strike of si.x weeks in duration, the 
shoemakers accepted the terms of the manufacturers, 
and returned to their labor. 



CHAPTER LXXXVIII. 
ilXRHLVAlEAD— {Continued). 

Indu^l/-Mil Dwelopmtrnt — Sew Settteynentn — Opening oj the Itailroad to Stttcm 
— Kxteniriono/ I'lewsnnt :3tre£t — Joseph It. Btuuett—New Utreett Opened 
— Panic o/ 1857— irWUam T. Uu$keU i Company -Joseph HurrU i 
S(yn$—Metliod of Mnnufuctnrinij Shoett — Industry of tJte People — The 
McKay Machine — Campo Work. 

The end of the year 1860 closed a quarter of a 
century of great industrial development in the his- 



tory of Marblehead. For a period of fifty years pre- 
vious to the year 1835 not a street or road was laid 
out in the town. Nearly every street was over- 
crowded with houses, and there were few vacant lots 
to be obtained in the settled portion of the township. 
A general apathy seemed to have settled over the 
entire community. Those who owned land would 
not sell it for business enterprises or other purposrs, 
and, as a natural consequence, there came to be liti Ir 
or no demand tor it. In 1835 a new order of thiiu^ 
nas inaugurated. During that year, through ilir 
persistent efforts of Mr. Adoniram C. Orne, a ro;ul 
was laid out by the county commissioners, which 
may properly be called an extension of Pleasant 
Slreet. This road began at a point near the corner 
ol Spring Street, and extended through a field known 
as the "tan-yard," in which the " Brick Pond" was 
situated, into Washington Street. This was a great 
improvement, as j>reviou8 to that time Pleasant Street 
opened into Washington Street through what is 
known as Essex Street. 

With the opening of the railroad to Salem in 1839, 
an impetus was given to the manufacturing interests 
of the town and an era of prosperity began. One of 
the first to avail themselves of the advantages pre- 
sented by this ready means of transportation by rail 
ivas Mr. Joseph R. Ba.ssett, an energetic and enterpris- 
ing young man, who had established himself. in the 
shoe business a few years before. As his business in- 
creased he built a factory near the depot, and began 
to devise measures for the improvement of the town. 
For years a twine-factory or rope-walk had been sit- 
uated in a field fronting on Washington Street, and 
a few feet back of this building there was a tan-yard 
and cordage-factory. The only access to these build- 
ings, until another way was opened by the extension 
of Pleasant Street, was by means of a narrow foot- 
path which led from Washington Street to a gate at 
the entrance to the pastures on Reed's Hill. Tiie 
first venture of this enterprising shoe manufacturer 
was to purchase the field in which the rope-walk 
stood, and in a short time the foot-path was tran.s- 
Ibrmed into a street, now know as School Street. A 
short time after he purchased the " SewaJl Lot," 
through which a street was laid out from the Cornish 
and Evans estate to a point on " Reed's Hill." This 
street was accepted by the town in 1844, and has 
since been known as "Sewall Street." "Spring 
Street " was laid out during the following year, and 
was so named from a spring of jmre water on the 
premises. Mr. Bassett's next movement was to lay 
out and build four streets over Reed's Hill and in 
that vicinity. 

The question which now perpexed the people was, 
" How could the house-lots on all these streets be 
sold, and by whom would they be purchased?" The 
problem was soon solved. On every street that he 
had laid out Mr. Bassett began to build neat and 
comfortable cottages, agreeing to lunii.sh tlmse ot his 



M AIIRLKIIK, \I). 



nil 



workinoii wlm piirihased lliiiii witli <'<)nst:iiil ciu- 
|ilo_vnieiil, and lo ili-iluct :i icrlain iini|iorliiiii rmiii 
their earninjrs cvitv week, uiilil llir luni-iis and luts 
were paiil Cor. This proiuisilinn was n-adily accipti'd 



by Itliiiiy of his workincn ; an 
tire sei'tion in the vicinity 
covered witli houses. 

During the year ist7 Mr. 
saw-niill on the sliore in th 
Ship-yard. Tliis was lor tlie 
shoe-hoxe.s; hut it liad an ( 



I ill a lew years llie eii- 
[if the new streets was 

l'.a->rtl ereeteil a steam 
■ sertion know II as the 
niannl'artiire "( wooden 
tleet i;ttle d.eamed of. 
even hy the saii'.'uine projector. 'I"he nii(s>iiy of a 
good road to the mill suggested the la\ing out ol 
streets, and the founding of a new settlement. Tin 
idea wa.s speedily put in execution. A large tract 
of land in the vicinity was piirdiased, and f'om- 
iiiercial Street, the two streets running parallel with 
it, and the cross-streets intervening, weii' laid out 
The growth of tlie settlement in tliis section wa> 
hardly less rapid than that ni' those in or near the 
depot and on Reed'.s Hill. 

As hefore, houses were eieiled and sold lo work- 
ingnicn at reasonable prices, and in a short time there 
was !i viUage of comfortable homes and wln-re once 
there were vacant fields and pasture lands. 

There were other manufacturers who were contem- 
poraries of Mr. Hassett during all tliese years ; of 
some of them we have already written, and space 
will permit mention of but two of the principal firms 
These were Messrs. William T. Ha.skell A Co. ami 
Joseph Harris iV Sons. The founders of both these 
firms began business as poor men. It is said of .Mr. 
I[:iskell that he olitained the luoncy with wliich he 
established his bu.siness by a fonunale lisi- in tin- 
price of wood. He was a clerk in his father's grocirv- 
store, and one day a coaster with a load ol wooil 
arrived in the harbor, and the owner, after vainly 
endeavoring to sell his loail, turned it over to young 
Haskell, telling him that all the money he could 
obtain for it over a certain amount should be his own. 
Shortly after there was a scarcity of wood in the 
market, and the wood was sold for a good prii'i'. With 
the capital thus obtained, the young man at once 
began the manufacture of shoes. His tir>t place of 
businetis w;us in a building on the corner of Front and 
State Streets. He subseiiuently removed to a building 
on Washington Street, near the " Lee JIansion," and 
filially to a small building on Pleasant Street, which 
was enlarged from time to time as his business in- 
creased. Here he con<luctcd operations during the 
remainder of the i)eriod of liis residence in .Marble- 
head. In I'ifil he removed his business to Lynn. Mr. 
Haskell was eminently successful as a business man. 
By his energy and perseverance he built up an indus- 
try which gave employment to hundreds id' his fellow- 
citizens and brought to him a rich rewanl. 

Mr. Joseph Harris, the founder of the firm of .lose|di 
Harris & Sons, began business in the year 1841. His 
workshop was an uii[ier chamber of his dwelling- 



house ill Harris's Coini, wlu-re for years he condnclcl 
his business. 'I'lic sons,,f Mr. Harris, of whom l,e 
had a large laiiiily, entered heartily and with the 
utmost synipalby into all the plans he projeeted. 
With untiring industry they toih-d, making all tli.' 
shoes manufactured by their father until, by rigid 
economy and self-denial, they laid the foundation ol 
a successful business. As the hiisiness increased a 
large number of workiiii'ii wen- employed and a fac- 
tory was erectec] on I'leasanl Sireel. This building 
was enlarged from time to time until it bi-caiiie one of 
the largest shoe manufaclories in the town. 

The shoes manufactured in Maiiilehcad during the 
period of which we write were made almost entiicly 
outside the factories. With the introduction of the 
sewing-machine the division <d' labor and the factory 
system began. This has had the elfect to abolish 
nearly all outside labor. It was viiy i;radiial in its 
growth, beginning with having a lertain prupoiiion 
of the upper stitched or lioiiinl in the lactory. Iliin. 
in KSo'.l, came the McKey Sewing-.Machine, intro- 
duced by Mr. Bassett for sewing uppers to the soles, 
t'ampo work began at about the same time. 



CHAPTER L X X X I X . 

MARHLEUK.^D— iC(;/////.»f./i. 

HrMhmt mil f'J fht Civil \\„i-M,iiljl.li.,i<l I '..>«,.,.„;. .<«>■«/ (.. /,•.*;... i,,/ (.. 
Ihe I'all/m Tro„j„-I',„,m,.i,s /.,r lh« fumUu-t o/ f..Iii,;(cr»-.-l, l/ow ,./ 
thr iMlks—M'irbleh'mt SnhUfn ill llie Se./f nj War—Deitiirlun' nf llir 
Mwifaril (iwtrds—IMun, i,/ Hit Tlirf-Mi-iilln' Mcii—flnl Murhleliciid 
M,-u mild ill nmilf—lMiilli of WilWim II. Uuhhiird on bourd Hie " • ■mii. 
Iieiliind" — Ailirilii in lltcniiliiig—l'iniillifKpiM Ihi- Soldiers— Tlic Siiir- 
Mmillia' Mill— The Ilrn/ls-Fort Seimtl IticoilMiucled—Forl., Miller 
iinil lUonr Krcrlrd—One Iltiudred liwjx' M.n—U'nrl- nf Ihe I.ndirt— 
I'upl. Miili'id B. Greij'irii — l'iipt. Joeiah P. Cressetf-Miirblthr'iid Mni in 
the S'iry — f'apl. Siimuel />'. Grrgonf — DrmonMrations on lite Snrri'ndrr of 
OVil. l.ri—ljenlliof rriiiilriil Unrohi^-Tlir T.nlli niillrrli-ll.ripli.oi !■• 
<!ia. Kdliiilriik. 

It is not the province <d' this work to treat of the 
causes which led to the great Civil War which for 
four years threatened the life id" the republic. The 
oiiening of the yi'ar IStll found the jieople of the 
United States excited, as they hail never been liefore. 
over the .piestion of slavery and State sovereignty. 
Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the Repuldican 
party, which advocated the abolition of slavery, had 
been elected rresidenlof the Lnited States, and seven 
Slates had passed ordinances of secession. .Nearly all 
the I'nited States forts and arsenals within the 
boundaries id'these States had been seized and fortified, 
and a large proportion of the arms, ammunition 
and military stores belonging to the general gov- 
ernment were in their po.ssession. On the iL'th of 
.\pril, (iencral Beauregard, commanding llii' Con- 
federate forces at ('harleston. South Carolin.i, 
opened fire on Fort Sumter, a United States garri- 



1112 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



son commanded by Major Robert Anderson, in the 
harbor of that city. Major Anderson and the small 
force under his command foui];lit nobly in defense ol 
their flag; but at lengtli, after sustaining a bombard- 
ment wliich contin\ie(l two fhiys without cessation, 
while their fort was on fire, iind the magazines were 
beginning to e.xplode about them, they were obliged 
to surrender and evacuate. 

The news of the fall of Fort Sumter aroused the 
entire North to action. The war which had .so long 
been threatened could no longer be averted, and in 
every town and hamlet from the Atlantic to the Pa- 
cific the people rose as one man to defend the integ- 
rity of the Union. 

On the 15th of April President Lincoln issued Ids 
first proclamation, calling for seventy-five thousand 
militia for a three months' service. Late in the after- 
noon of that day Lieutenant-Colonel E. W. Hinks, ol 
the Eighth Regiment, came to Marblehead and per- 
sonally notified the commanding officers of the three 
militia companies to be in readiness with their com- 
mands to take the early morning trains for Boston. 
The.se companies were the Marblehead Sutton Lighl 
Infantry, Company C, Eighth Regiment, commanded 
by Captain Knott V. Martin ; the Lafayette Guards, 
Company B, Eighth Regiment, commanded by Cap- 
tain Richard Phillips; and the Glover Light (Juards, 
Company H, Eighth Regiment, commanded by Cap- 
tain Francis Boardman. Captain Martin was found 
in his slaughter-house, with the carcass of a hog, just 
killed and in readiness for the "scald." Taking hi^ 
coat from the peg, he seemed for a mcmient to hesi- 
tate about leaving his business unfinished, and then, 
impatiently e.xclaiming, " Damn the hog!" put the 
garment on, with his arms yet stained with blood and 
his shirt-sleeves but half rolled down, left the prem- 
ises to rally his company. 

The morning of the 16th of April broke cold and 
stormy. Notwithstanding the rain and sleet which 
rendered the weather cold and uncomfortable in the ex- 
treme, the streets of Marblehead were filled with a 
throng of excited people. Wives and mothers and fath- 
ers and children were represented there in the dense 
crowd, all anxious to speak a word of farewell to the 
soldiers on their departure. The first companies to 
leave town were those commanded by Captains Mar- 
tin and Boardman, which marched to the depot and 
took the half-past seven o'clock train for Boston. 
Captain Phillips' company took the train which left 
Marblehead about an hour and a half later. 

Of the arrival of the Marblehead companies in 
Boston, Adjutant-General William Schouler wrote as 
follows : 

"There hiis beeu some controversy in military circles ns to wliieli 
coiupany can claim the honor of first reaching Boston. I cun answer 
tiiat the first wore the three companies of the Ki(;!)th Keginient belong 
ing to Marblehead, coninialided by Captains Martin, Pliillips and Hoard- 
man. I had been at the State-IIonse all night, and, early in tlie morn- 
ing, rode to the arsenal at Cambridge to a.scertain whether the orders 
from headquarters, to send anus, ammunition, overcoats and oquipineuts 



had been prop-rly attended to. Messengers had also been stationed at 
the different depots with orders for the companies, on their arrival, to 
proceed at once to Faueuil Hall, as a northeasterly storm of sleet and 
ruin had set in during the night and had not abated in the morning. 
On my return from Cambridge 1 stopped at the Eastern Itailroad Depot. 
A large crowd of men and women, notwithstanding the storm, had galli- 
ered there, expecting tlie arrival of troops. Shortly after eight o'rt.rk 
the train arrived with the Marblehead coiupanies. They wore rer.-i\.il 
with deafening shouts from the excited throng. The companies imin-- 
diately formed in line and marched by the flank directly to Faneuil 
Hall, the fifes and drums playing 'Yankee Doodle,' the people follow- 
ing and shouting like madmen, and the rain and sleet falling piteously, 
as if to abate the ardor of the popular welcome. And thus it waj the 
Marblehead men entered Faneuil Hall on the morning of the 16th of 
April." 

On the morning after the departure of the compa- 
nies, thirty more men left Marblehead to join them. 
The greatest enthusiasm prevailed throughout the 
town, and men everywhere were ready and anxious to 
etilist. Of the patriotic spirit of the people, no better 
evidence can be given than that contained in the re- 
ply of Governor Andrew to a gentleman who asked 
him if any more men would be needed. " For heaven's 
sake," replied the governor, "don't send any more 
men from Marblehead, for it is imposing on your good- 
ness to take so many as have already come ! " 

The citizens were not less prompt to act than those 
who had rallied for the defense of the nation. On 
the 20th of April a town-meeting was held to pro- 
vide for the families of the soldiers, and the old town- 
house was crowded to repletion. Mr. Adoniram C. 
Orne was chosen moderator. The venerable town 
clerk, Capt. Glover Broughton, a veteran of the War 
of 1812, was there beside the moderator, his hands 
tremulous with emotion, awaiting the action of his 
fellow-citizens. " It was voted that the town 
trea-surer be authorized to hire the sum of five thous- 
and dollars, to be distributed for the relief of the 
(iimilies of those who have gone, or are going, to fight 
the battles of their country." The town was divided 
into districts, and a committee of ten persons was 
chosen . to act as distributors of the fund. The 
liatriotism of the ladies of Marblehead at this time, 
and throughout the entire period of the war, cannot 
be overestimated. With loving hearts and willing 
hands, they contributed their time, their labor and 
their money for the benefit of those who had gone 
forth to battle. The work of some was of a public 
nature, and the deeds of these are recorded ; but the 
only record of hundreds who worked quietly in their 
own homes was written on the grateful hearts of the 
soldiers for whom they labored. 

On the 22d of Ai)ril a meeting of the ladies was 
held at the tow n-house, and a Soldiers' Aid Society 
was organized. The object was to perform such work 
as was necessary for the comfort of the soldiers, and 
to furnish articles of clothing, medicines and delica- 
cies for use in the hospitals. Mrs. Maria L. AVilliams 
was elected president. That lady subsequently re- 
signed, and Mrs. Margaret Newhall became president, 
and Mrs. Mary M. Oliver, secretary. 

On the following day eighteeen ladies met ;it the 



MARRLEIIEAD. 



1113 



Sewall (Triimniar .School-Mouse, ou S[)iing Street, and 
organized a coininiltee to .solicit money lor the heiie- 
fit of the soldiers. In less than one week iVom the 
time of their organization the ladies of this committee 
had collected the sum of ?=.")08.17. 

The teachens of the puhlic schools generously con- 
tributed si.\ per cent, of their salaries for the year in 
aid of the object ; and there was a disposition mani- 
fested by the people generally to give something, 
however small the amount. 

Stirring reports were now received from the coth- 
])anies at the seat of war. The blockading of the 
railroad to Baltimore by the .Secessionists; sei/.nro of 
the steamer " Maryland ;" and the saving of the old 
frigate " Constitution," in which their fathers fought 
so valiantly, caused the hearts of the people to swell 
with pride, as they related the story one to another. 

Tlie surterings of their soldier boys, who were 
obliged to eat pilot bread baked in the year IS-IS, 
brought tears to the eyes of nuiny an anxious mother. 
But the tears were momentary only, and the suf- 
ferings of the boys were forgotten in the joy that 
ilarblehead soldiers had been permitted to lead the 
advance on the memorable march to .Annapolis Junc- 
tion, and to relay the track which had been torn up 
to prevent the passage of the troops. The arrival of 
the troops in Washington ; the new uniforms fur- 
nished in place of those worn out in eight days ; and 
the (piartering of soldiers in the United States Capitol 
building, was all related in the letters that came 
home. 

During the latter part of .Vpril .active measnres 
were taken to recruit another company to join those 
already in the field. In a few days the " Mugford 
Guards," a full company of fifty-seven men was or- 
ganized, and Captain Benjamin D.iy was commis- 
sioned as comniaiuler. Every effort was made to get 
the new company in readiness for departure as soon 
as i)Ossible. The men were without nniform.s and 
the school-teachers at once v(jted lo furnish the 
materials for making them at their own expense. 
Jlr. .John Marr, the local tailor, ottered his services as 
cutter and they were gr.itefully accepted. On Sun- 
day, May 5th, the ladies of the Soldiers' Aid Society, 
with a large number of (jihers, a.ssembled at Academv 
Hall and industriously workeil throughout the entire 
day and evening to make up the uiutbrms. 

On the following day the town voted to appropriate 
the sum of four hundred dollars to furnish the com- 
pany with comlbrtable and necessary clothing. 

On the 7th of June anfjther meeting was held, and 
the town voted to borrow a sum not exceeding ten 
thousand dollars, to be applied by the selectmen, in 
aid of the families of volunteers. 

On the morning of Monday, June 24th, the new com- 
pany took its departure for the "seat of war." The 
soldiers were escorted to the entrance of the town by 
the Mugford Fire .Association and a large concoui-se of 
citizens. Almost the entire community assembled in 
70 



the streets to say " farewell," and to bid tluni "(iod 
speed." On arriving at the locality known as Work- 
house Kocks the proci'ssioii halted, and the sobliers 
were addressed by William B. Brown, F.si|,, in behalf 
of the citizens. Captain Day, in reply, e.xjiressed the 
most patriotic sentiments in behalf of the company. 

The sobliers embarked for Boston in wag'):is which 
were in waiting, and departed amid the deafening 
eheer.H of the citizens. This company was known in 
the army as Company C, First Keginieiit Heavy .\r- 
tillery. 

On Thursday, August 1st, the three Marlileheud 
comi)any arrived home. .Vrrangements had been made 
to give them an enthnsiastie welcome. At three 
o'clock in the afternoon a procession was formed, con- 
sisting of the Marblehead Band, the " Home Guards," 
the boards of town olliccrs, theentire Fire Department, 
and the pupils of the public schools. An interesting 
foature of the i>rocession was thirteen young ladies, 
representing the original States, wearing white clresses, 
and red, wliite and blue veils. The arrival of the 
train bringing the soldiers was announced by the 
ringing of liells, the firing of guns and the joyful 
acclamations of the people. They were received at the 
depot at about six o'clock P. M., and escorted to the 
Town- House, where an address of welcome was deliv- 
ered by Jonathan H. Orne, Ks([., a member of the 
Board of Selectmen. On the afternoon of the follow- 
ing day the veterans were given u grand reception. 
The procession was again formeil, and they were 
escorted about town to I'^jrt Sewall, where a dinner 
was served. 

Shortly after the return of IIk^ companies Captain 
Knott V. Alarlin resigned as commander of the Sut- 
ton Light Infantry, and recruited a company for the 
Twenty-third llegiment. More than half the num- 
l>er of this company were enlisted in Marblehead. 
They left for the seat of war during the month of Xo- 
vember. 

On the 21st of Decemlier the town voted to appro- 
priate the sum of three thousand dollars in aid of the 
families of volunteers. 

The news of the splendid triumpli of (ieneral 
Burnside in his cxpi'dilion against North Carolina, 
resulting in the capture of lioanoke Island on the 
Sth of Jaiuiary, 181)2, sent a thrill of exultation 
through every loyal heart in the country. But the 
joy of the peo|)le of JIarblehead was turned to grief 
by the news that three of their brave.st citizens li.ad 
fallen in the battle. These were Lieut. John Good- 
win, Jr., .Scrgt. (iamaliel H. Morse and I'rivate John 
Show, (jf Company B, Twenty-third Regiment. Messrs. 
(ioodwin and Morse were killed instantly; but Mr. 
Show was mortally wounded, and died after sev<-ral 
days of severe suffering. 

Just one month from the date of the battle of Ro- 
anoke Island the famous battle occurred between the 
ITnited.'^tates frigates " ("umberland" and " Congress" 
and the Confederate ram " Mcrrimac," in Hampton 



1114 



HISTOEY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Roads, Va. After an engagement of fifteen minutes 
the " Merrimac " ran into the "Cumberland," crush- 
ing in l;er side. The frigate immediately began to 
sink. Over one hundred .seamen on board the ill- 
fated vessel went down in her. One of the bravest 
of the heroes who lost their lives in this engagement 
was William B. Hubbard, of Marblehead. He was 
captain of one of the guns on board the " Cumber- 
land." When the ship was sinking, and death 
stared them in the face, the first thought of many 
was naturally that of self-preservation. Not so with 
Hubbard. His powder-boy had become frightened 
and could not be found. 

" I am determined to have one more shot at them," 
cried the gallant Hubbard, and immediately went be- 
low to procure ammunition. On his return, as he ap- 
proached his gun to reload it, a shot from the enemy 
laid him on the deck. He went down with the ship, 
nobly dying at his post. 

Among the crew of the " Cumberland" were David 
Bruce and John Hazel, of Marblehead. Nathaniel 
Koundey and John Flemming were on board the 
" Congress '' throughout the action. 

Late in the month of April the people received 
the precious bodies of their earliest dead, the first 
slain in battle. Then, for the first time, they realized 
the magnitude of the sacrifice to be made. Only 
the life blood of their best and bravest could pre- 
serve the institutions for which their fathers 
fought. The funeral services over the bodies of 
Messrs. Goodwin and Morse took place on Thursday, 
April 24th, at the Unitarian Church.' The services 
consisted of singing by the choir, prayer by Rev. 
George W. Patch, and an address by the Rev. Samuel 
R. Colthrop, pastor of the church. The remains were 
accompanied to their la.st resting-place in the Green 
Street Burying-ground by the three companies of the 
Eighth Regiment belonging to Marblehead and a 
large concourse of people. 

It is seldom that heroes are so honored as were 
these dead soldiers. His Excellency John A. An- 
drew, the war Governor of Massachusetts, was there 
in the procession, accompanied by Adjutant-General 
Schouler and the members of his staft'. Major-Gen- 
eral Sutton and the field and staff officers of the 
Eighth Regiment were also in attendance. 

On the 2d of July President Lincoln issued a call 
for three hundred thousand more volunteers to serve 
for three years or during the war. In accordance 
with this call, the most earnest eflcirts were made to 
recruit from Marblehead. On the 19lh of July the 
town voted to offer a bounty of one hundred dollars 
to every man who would volunteer on the quota of 
the town ; and Captains Richard Phillips, Samuel C. 
Graves, Francis Boardman, Messrs. Samuel Roads 
and John Goodwin were chosen a committee to assist 
the selectmen in recruiting. On the 31st of July the 



> The body of Mr. Shaw was not brought home. 



town treasurer was authorized to hire the sum of 
fourteen thousand four hundred dollars, to be used as 
bounties for volunteers in the sum of one hundrcii 
dollars each. A committee was chosen to wait up >ii 
the Governor and request him to appoint an addi- 
tional recruiting agent. On the 1st of August Gov- 
ernor Andrew issued the following permission to 
recruit : 

" In consequence of tlie request of tho town of MarblelieaiJ, ma<le hy 
a legal town-meeting lield yesterday, — a copy of the record of whic]i is 
handed nie, attested by the town-clerk, — I appoint at the nomiuatiun nf 
the ether gentlemen who came to represent the town, Samuel Rna!-, 
Esq., additional recruiting agent fur Marblehead. lie will co-op* i 
with tho town's committee and use his influence to forward the en 
meuts, and I ask the good people of Marblehead to support and help li; 
with all their hearts and hands.'* 

Mr. Roads at once established his headquarters at 
an office on Washington Street, and the enlistment 
progressed rapidly. In a short time sixty-nine men 
had enrolled themselves for a service of three years, 
or during the war. Of these, thirty-two were assigned 
to the Tenth Battery, then recruiting at Lynnfield ; 
ten to the Thirty-second Regiment ; eight to the 
Seventeenth Regiment; seven to the Twenty-third 
Regiment ; and the others were distributed among the 
First Mas-sachusetts Cavalry, and the Twentieth, 
Twenty-fourth, Fortieth and Forty-first Regiments. 

On Tuesday, August 26lh, the. town voted to pay a 
bounty of one hundred dollars "for each volunteer 
enlisting in the service of the United States for a pe- 
riod of nine months, uniil the quota of the town shall 
be full." It was also voted to request all shoe manu- 
facturers, all store-keepers and all others to close 
their places of busine-ss each day during the remain- 
der of the week from two to six o'clock P. if. ; and 
that all citizens be entreated to abstain from custom- 
ary labor during these hours, and assist the author- 
ized agent in procuring recruits." It was ordered 
that the bells be rung each day from two o'clock to 
three o'clock P. M. 

The Marblehead Band was invited to be present at 
the town-hall, and give their services during the hour 
in which the bells were to be rung. 

On the 27th of September another meeting was 
held, at which it was voted to pay one hundred dol- 
lars as a bounty to every volunteer enlisting over and 
above the quota of the town for a service of nine 
months. This action was intended for the benefit of 
the two Marblehead companies — the Sutton Light In- 
fantry and the Lafayetle Guards. The company 
known as the Glover Light Guards was disbanded 
shortly after its return from the three months' cam- 
paign, in consequence of the enlistment of a large 
proportion of its members in the various three years' 
regiments. 

On the 25th of November the Sutton Light In- 
fantry, un<ler command of Captain Samuel C. Graves, 
and the Lafayette Guards, under command of Captain 
Richard Phillips, left the State with the other com- 
panies of the Eighth Regiment for Newbern, N. C. 



MARBLKUEAD. 



1115 



The town liarl made generous provision for the 
families of sohliers from time to time sinee the begin- 
ning of the war. As the proportion of men wlio were 
absent in the army and navv inereaseil, adilitional 
appropriations were found necessary, and in March, 
18G3, the treasurer was authorized to hire twenty-five 
thousand dollars for this purpose. In the spring of 
1SG3 Congress authorized a draft to obtain reinforce- 
ments for the army. 

The draft took place at t^alem on the afternoon of 
July 10, in the presence of a large and deeply inter- 
ested audience. The names of one hundred and 
eighty citizens of Marblehead were drawn from the 
box. Of these, a large jiroportion were exempted by 
the examining surgeons on account of ])hysical disa- 
bility, or other causes. Many procured substitutes, 
and others paid the commutation fee of three hun- 
dred dollars. A very few — not more than twenty, it 
is said — of the number originally drafted were mus- 
tered into the United States service. 

When the war broke out old Fort Sevvall was in 
ruins. The exposed comlition of the harbor and 
the fact that ('onfederate gunboats were cruising 
about the coast, caused the (ntlzens to turn their at- 
tention to the fortification of the town. At a town- 
meeting, held on the 1.5th of August, it was voted to 
appropriate the sum of four thousand dollars, to be 
paid to laborers employed U]K)n the repairs of Fort 
Sewall. In a short time the fort was thoroughly re- 
paired and considerably enlarged. The government 
also erected two other fortifications, one at the head 
of the harbor, overlooking the River-head Beach and 
the Neck, known sis " Fort (rlover," and another on 
Naugus Head, overlooking Salem Harbor, known as 
" Fort Miller." AH three forts were garrisoned by 
companies from other parts ofthe State until the end 
of the war. 

On the Fourth of July, 18t!4, Congress passed an 
act authorizing the enlistment of recruits for the 
Union army in the insurgent States. On 23d of July 
the town of Marblehead voted to deposit five thou- 
sand dollars with the treasurer of the Commonwealth 
for the purpose of obtaining a portion of these re- 
L-ruits to serve on the quota of the town ; it wa.s 
also voted to pay a bounty of $12-5 to every recruit 
enlisting in its ipiota. 

On the 24th of July the Eighth Regiment, which 
had returned t'rom the nine months' campaign sev- 
eral months before, again left the State for a service 
jf one hundred days. The regiment at this time was 
under the command of Colonel lienj. !•'. Peach, Jr., a 
Marblehead boy who had risen from the ranks. The 
Sutton Light Infantry took its departure with the 
regiment. The Lafayette Guards subsequently left 
;own as an unattached company, and was assigned to 
;he Fourth Regiment of Artillery, being known as 
Oompany A. 

During the month of August the ladies of the Uni- 
Larian Society held a fair for the benefit of the sol- 



diers. The peo])le resi)oniled nobly, — as they hail 
done to every patriotic appeal, — and the sum of one 
thousand five hundred dollars was netted. Of this 
sum four hundred ilollars was given to the Sanitary 
Commission, and the balance was distributed among 
the sick and wounded soldiers and the needy families 
of those in the navy. 

The desire to do something to alleviate the snller- 
ings of those in the arnij' was almost universal. 
Xearly every organization in town sent boxes of 
luxuries and medicine to the soldiers in camp. 
Early in the year the members ofthe tierry Fire As- 
sociation jircsented eighty-two dollars to the Soldiers' 
.•\id Society, the proceeds of a dancing-party held 
under their auspices. The members of Washington 
Lodge of (Jood Templars presented thirty-live dollars, 
the proceeds of a social party held at their hall. 
These donations were a|i])lied to the purchase of 
materials which were made up into quilts, comforters 
and dressing-gowns for soldiers in the hospitals. 

In November of this year the ladies of Jlarblehead 
sup|died a table at a fair held in Boston for the bene- 
fit of the saibu's, and by their ellbrts alone the sum of 
thirteen hundred dollars was netted. 

Shortly after the return of the Eighth Regiment 
from the one hundred days' campaign, Ca|)tain Sam- 
uel (!. Graves resigned as commander of the Sutton 
Light Iid'antry, and organized an unattached com- 
[)any. The company left town in February, 18(j'), and 
was stationed for some time at Fort Warren, Boston 
harbor. It was then ordered to I'lymouth, where it 
remained several months after the close of the war. 

We have written only of the companies actually 
organized or enlisted in Marblehead. But it is im- 
possible to do otherwise. The history of the i)art 
taken by the men of Marlilehead in the great Civil 
War can never be fully written. They were in nearly 
every regiment that went from Massachusetts. In 
every battle of importance, from Bull Run to .Vppo- 
mattox tJourt-House, they proved themselves worthy 
of their ancestors, and of JIarblehead. 

Though the citizens of Marblehead did not take 
so prominent a part in the naval service of the coun- 
try during the Civil War as in the wars against 
Great Britain, the record of those who enlisted is, as 
a whole, creditable to the town. Captain Michael 
B. Gregory rendered ellicient service at the Charles- 
town Navy-Yard in the summer of ISfil, during 
which he was distinguished for his promptness ami 
ability in fitting out government ve.ssels. He after- 
wards commanded the United States ship " K. B. 
Forbes," during a short cruise along the Atlantic 
coast. Captain Josiidi P. Cressy commanded the 
United States ship " I no," eighty members of his crew 
being from Marblehead. 

After cruising in the North Atlantic, his ship 
sailed to the Straits of Gibraltar and there fi>rmed a 
blockade for the Confederate steamer "Sumter." He 
subsequently sailed to the Island of Tangiers, 



1116 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Morocco, and captured two Confederate officers, who 
were made prisoners of war. The distinguished ser- 
vices of Captain Samuel B. Gregory, in the U. S. 
steamer " Western World," and of his brother, Capt. 
William D. Gregory, in the steamer " Bahia," along 
the southern coast, are deserving of much more space 
than is at our disposal. Both were noted for their 
zeal, and were among the most successful comman- 
ders in the United States Navy. Their names are 
recorded, with honorable mention, in the archives at 
Washington. 

Throughout the entire period of the war the news 
of every Union victory was announced to the people 
by the merry peal of the church bells. On Saturday, 
April 8, 1865, news was received of the surrender 
of General Lee, at Richmond, Va., and the bells 
rang out their joyful tidings. The event, however, 
did not take place until the following day. On Mon- 
day, April 10th, the citizens formed in procession and 
headed by a band of music, marched through the 
principal streets to Lyceum Hall, where addre.-ses of 
congratulation were delivered by Dr. Briggs, of Sa- 
lem, and other speakers. In the evening many of the 
houses were illuminated, and beacon-fires were lighted 
on the hills in honor of the great event. 

The assassination of President Lincoln, on the 
night of April 14lli, gave a tragic ending to one of the 
greatest civil wars recorded in history. In Marble- 
head, as elsewhere throughout the country, every 
mark of respect was paid to the martyred President. 
On the day of the funeral many of the shoe manu- 
factories, private residences and other buildings were 
appropriately draped in mourning ; the church bells 
were tolled, and public services were held at the 
Baptist Church, where an address was delivered by 
the Rev. George W. Patch. 

Though actual hostilities ceased in April, the sol- 
diers who had enlisted for a service of three years 
were not discharged until June, when the war was 
considered as finally ended. On the 20th of that 
month the people of Marblehead gave a reception to 
the members of the Tenth Massachusets Battery, a 
large proportion of whom were citizens of the town. 
This battery had been engaged in all the most im- 
portant battles of the army of the Potomac, and had 
become distinguished for efficiency and bravery. 

On the 4th of December, a reception was given to 
General Kilpatrick, who delivered an address on the 
steps of the town-bouse. 

During the war Marblehead furnished for the army 
and navy one thousand and forty-eight men, which 
was a surplus of ninety-one over and above all de- 
mauds. Eight hundred and twenty-seven were in the 
military service, and two hundred and twenty-one 
were in the navy. Of these, one hundred and ten 
were killed in battle, or died from wounds and sick- 
ness, and eighty-seven were wounded, many of whom 
returned home only to die after months, and, in some 
instances, years of suffering. 



The whole amount of money raised for war I'lii- 
poses by the town, exclusive of State aid, nv:i- 
$139,725. The sum of §107,800.65 was raised by tlif 
town and paid to families of volunteers as State ail 
during the four years of the war. This sum was af- 
terwards refunded by the Commonwealth. 



CHAPTER XC. 

M.\RBLEHEAD— ( Continued). 

Improvements in the Shoe Business — New Street*^ Increase of livsi 

Fire on Pleasant Street — First Observance of Menwrial Day— John i ■ 
vin, Jr., Post 82, G. A. It , Organized— Other Local Organizations- ! 
Steam Fire Engine — Atlantic .'IreilKc' Opened — Firenten''s Dcmonstrtil' 
Catholic Cltarch Bnmed — Smalt Pox ExcUement — Manataug House Li' 
— Swampscott Branch Itadroai Opened — WUHam B. Brotvn — The Gi 
Fund— lieqved of Benjamin Abbot— Abliot Hall—GenerosUg of Vie i.^.- 
zens — Celebration of MugfortCs Viciorij—Mugford Monument Dedicated \ 
— Dedication of Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument — Abbot Public Library ' 
— Great Fire of lS17—Neui Local Newspaper Established — Murder of j 
William Frank Hathaway — Marblehead Improvement Society Organized — I 
Exercises on the Death of President Garfield — Presiitent Arthur Captured > 
—Tlie Loclioul of 1883— Ccfclirafioli of the Fourth of July— Horse Bail- 
roads Extended from Lynn and Solent — Attempts to Dirifle the Totpn and 
Form a Netv Township — Memorial Services on the Death of Ex'President 
U. S. Grant- Development of the Town (W a Summer Resort — Marblehead 
as a Yachting Centra. 

During the war, and the years immediately fol- 
lowing its close, the shoe business of Marblehead was 
in a more prosperous condition than it had ever been 
before. With the introduction of the McKay Sew- 
ing Mai-hine, a division of labor became necessary, 
and the entire system of manufacturing shoes was 
revolutionized. All work was now performed in the 
factories, and instead of the old system, under which 
boys were taught a thorough knowledge of shoemak- 
ing as a trade, they were taught to be simply profic- 
ient in some particular branch of the work. By the 
improved method of manufacturing, thousands of 
cases of boots and shoes were made in a much shorter 
time than it had formerly taken to produce as many 
hundreds. As the business increased and became 
remunerative, the effect was apparent in the improved 
condition of the town. Large buildings were erected 
in the vicinity of the depot for manufacturing pur- 
poses, while handsome residences in various parts of 
the town gave evidence of the prosperity of the 
people. The town was also greatly improved by the 
building of new streets, and by removing buildings 
and widening several of the older highways. 

On the night of February 5, 18()7, the town nar- 
rowly escaped a destructive conflagration. A fire 
broke out in the shoe manufactory of Joseph Harris 
& Sons, on Pleasant Street, destroying the building, 
together with the Baptist Church and the dwelling- 
house of Increase H. Brown. The flames were com- 
municated to several other buildings in the vicinity, 
but the fire was fortunately controlled before doing fur- 
ther damage. The work of rebuilding began early in 



MARnLKlIKAl). 



1117 



the spring. A comniKiious factory was erected liy 
Messrs. Harris A Sons "ii Klin Street, ami the Bajitist 
Society erected a new church on tlie site i'ornierly 
occupied by tlieir old house of worship. On the 14th 
of October, eisrht men at work on tiie new church 
edifice were thrown to the ground by the breaking 
away of a staging. One man was killed instantly, 
and another died from his injuries after several days 
of extreme sutlering. 

The custom of decorating the graves of soldiers 
with dowers was observed in Marbleliead for the first 
time on the Kith of June, IStlS, under the aus]>iccs of 
the " Soldiers" and Sailors' Union Liague." Nearly 
every organization in town participated in the proces- 
sion. The exercises, which took place on the com- 
mon, consisted of an oration by William B. Brown, 
Esq., an address by the Rev. William G. Haskell, and 
reading a poem written for the occasion by Benjamin 
K. Prentiss, Esq.. of Lynn, a native of JTarblehead. 
The procession then marched to the several ceme- 
teries, where the graves of those who gave their lives 
in defense of the country were reverently decorated. 
This beautiful custom has been annually observed on 
the 30th of Jlay under the auspices of the " ( irand 
Army of the Kepublic."' 

The most notable events of the year, besides the ex- 
citement attending a presidential election, were the 
organization of the Liberty Hose l!ompany, and the 
action of the town in authorizing the lighting of the 
public streets at night. 

Ijittle of importance marked the passage of the year 
18ti9. A prominent local organization was chartered, 
however: John Goodwin, Jr., Post 82, Grand Army 
of the Republic. During the following year, Unity 
Degree Lodge, Daughters of Hebekah, and Neptune 
Lodge, No. .'{1, Knights of Pythias, were organized. 

In 1871, the town voted to purchase anew steam 
fire engine, which resulted in a controversy among 
the firemen as to which company should have tlic 
custody of the new machine. At the annual >Lirch 
meeting, the citizens elected a board of fire-wards, in 
accordance with the time-honored custom of the 
town. This action was resisted by the Board of Se- 
lectmen, who appointed another set of fire-wards, and 
claimed that the election by the citizens was illegal. 

The question was finally carried before the courts, 
and a decision was rendered declaring the election by 
the people to be the only legal method of appoint- 
ment. The new engine arrived on the 8th of Septem- 
ber, and was given the name of "Marblehead, No. I.'' 

The Marblehead Savings' Bank was incorporated 
early in the year, and in iJecembera new local news- 
paper, known as the Murbkhead Mcssciiyer, nuide its 
appearance. 

During the year, also, .\tlantic Avenue, which had 
been the cause of great controversy for several years, 
and which the town had been ordered to build by the 
County Commissioner, was completed and opened for 
travel. 



On New Year's night, 1872, the fire clepartment 
made a grand dcnionsiralion in honor of the satisfac- 
tory ending of the cotitrovf rsy concerning the new 
steam fire-engine. After a torchlight procession 
about town, tlie several companies assembled at the 
rooms of the General Glover Fire Association, where 
a dinner was served. The Marblehead Steam Fire 
Kiigiiic C(mipany was organized the same evening. 

On the 8th of .luly, a new church, which had been 
erected a short time before on tiregory street, by the 
Roman Catholics, was burned to the ground. Soon 
after, a parsonage was erected on the same site for the 
use of the parish priest. 

During the month of August, Jfanataug Tribe, 
Improved Order of Red Men, was organized. 

The year 1873 was one of the most eventful in the 
annals of the town. F^arly in the winterseveral per- 
sons were reported sick with the small-pox, and great 
excitement prevailed among the people. The first 
to die with the disease was (ieorge Hatch, Esq., a 
member of the Board of Selectmen, and a gentleman 
well known and highly respei'ted in the community. 
Shortly after, a house on Water street was taken for a 
small-pox hospital, and several persons were placed 
there for treatment. The management of this hos- 
pital was not satisfactory to the citizens, and a con- 
troversy ensued which continued until the close of 
the annual town meeting. 

On Thursday morning, September H, a fire broke 
out in a stable on Darling Street, belonging to Mr. 
Thomas T. Paine, and before it could be extinguished 
a large hotel on Washington Street, known as the 
"Manataug House," and a dwelling-house adjoining, 
belonging to the estate of Samuel Homan, were des- 
troyed. Several other buildings iti the vicinity were 
badly damaged. 

On Monday, October litth, the railroad from Mar- 
blehead to Lynn, known as the Swamjiscott Branch, 
w'as ojiened for travel, and the event was celebrated 
in an appropriate manner. Five hundred persons 
were conveyed over the route in the first train, and on 
its return a dinner was served at Allerton Hall. The 
Marblehead Band was in attendance, and speeches 
were ma<le by many of the prominent citizens and in- 
vited guests. 

At the annual town meeting in March, 1874, Wil- 
liam B. Brown, Es<|., who had served as a member of 
the school committee for a (piarter of a century, de- 
clined a re-election. As soon iis his determination 
was made known to the citizens the following resolu- 
tion was unanimously adopted: 

•'WllKiu-.AS, Our liclovi'd Mlow-nili/.-n, Willkim I!. Hruuti, lias 
8orv.-.l lii» iialivn tc.wn luu iiuMubur of the .Sdiool Conimill.'i! lor tlin long 
period of twonty-fivo years ; ns Chairnmii of tlio Boftrd writiiii^ the ftii- 
niuil riiliorl, imil Kiviiig most freely of his lime, his iiilelligeliru iwid his 
hi-iirly Hyiii|iathy to Uio ctiiiNe of ediiention in our midst, without olio 
cent of rciiiunenitlon.eveii to the prejudice of his pecuniary interest and 
bodily health ; and vvhcreas, for the present IiIkIi standing of our public 
schools, we gratefully acknowledge a large indebteducss for his direct 
personiil elTorts, therefore be it 

"i^'iolrcd. That we, tho citizens of Marblehead, in town meeting 



1118 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



assembled, do hereby vote him our most hearty tlianks, for these rare 
and iuvahiablo services." 

At a town meeting held on Wediie-sday, May 27th, 
Mr. .Jame.s .]. H. Gregory geaeroiisly presented two 
thousand dolhirs to the town, to be used as a fund, the 
interest of which is to be applied once in four years 
to promote the moral, mental and physical welfare of 
the inhabitants. The method of investment for this 
purpose is to be decided by a committee consisting of 
the chairman of the selectmen, the chairman of the 
school committee, and all the ministers of the gospel 
settled over religious societies in the town. The in- 
come of this fund has been appropriated to the use of 
the trustees of the public library. 

During the year the selectmen were formally notified 
that Mr. Benjamin Abbot, who died in Boston, in 
September, 1872, had bequeathed all the residue of his 
propert)', after the payment of several other legacies, 
to the town of Jlarblehead. The property consisted 
of United States bonds and other securities to the 
value of one hundred and three thousand dollars. The 
will of the donor concluded as follows: 

" I have made this i)rovi>*jon for the town of Marblehead, because it 
Wiia my birthplace. And it is my desire that a building shall be erected 
for the benefit of the iniiabitants of said town, but I do not intend to 
limit the use of the lunacy to that purpose or to impose conditions which 
would prevent the use of it for such other general objects as the citL 
zens of said town may determine upon in their discretion. I desire that 
my name shall always be attached to said fund." 

The legacy was formally accepted by the town, and 
it was voted unanimou.sly to erect a building in ac- 
cordance with the wishes of the donor, to be known 
as Abbot Hall. This building, which is of brick, with 
stone trimmings, was completed during the year 1877. 
It is situated on the Common, on Training-field Hill, 
one of the highest points of land in the town and is 
visible for several miles %.t sea. It contains a large 
audience hall which is capable of seating fully twelve 
hundred persons, a public library and reading-room, 
a fire-proof vault for the storage and security of the 
records, and rooms for the u.se of the various boards 
of town officers. Its total cost was S75,000. Great 
credit is due to Messrs. Simeon Dodge and Moses 
Gilbert, of the building committee, under whose 
supervision the building was constructed. Many of 
the conveniences which render the new hall superior 
to most public buildings, are due to the faithful man- 
ner in which these gentlemen performed the work 
assigned them by the town. Upon the completion of 
the building, several of the citizens and natives of the 
town residing .abroad, generously contributed pictures 
aad other articles to add to its attractiveness. The 
Hon. James J. H. Gregory presented a clock and bell 
for the tower and a large oil painting for the reading- 
room. Mr. Thomas Appleton also gave a picture for 
the reading-room ; a piano for the use of the hall was 
presented by Mr. Henry F. Pitman ; and a carpet for 
the stage by Jlr. Joel Goldthwaite of Boston. Mr. 
Nathaniel Brimblecome, of Boston, gave a clock for 
the hall, and Mr. William F. Joy, of Boston, a book- 



case for the use of the town clerk. Subsequently, 
General John H. Devereux, of Cleveland, Ohio, pre- 
sented Willard's famous painting, "Yankee Doodle, 
or the Spirit of '76." The dedication of the building 
took place on Wednesday, December 12, 1877, under 
the direction of a committee of thirteen gentlemen 
elected for that purpose. The exercises consisted of 
instrumental music by the American Band, of Provi- 
dence, R. I. ; prayer by Rev. George Pierce, Jr., of 
Milford, N. H. ; singing by the Marblehead Musical 
Association ; an original ode written for the occasion 
by Miss Marcia M. Selman ; and an oration by the 
Hon. Edward Avery, of Braintree, Mass. The bene- 
diction was pronounced by the Rev. Edward Crow- 
ninshield, of West Dedham, Mass. In the evening a 
concert was given by the American Band, of Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Wednesday, May 17, 1876, the one hundredth an- 
niversary of the capture of the British transport 
" Hope," by Captain James Mugford, in the Conti- 
nental schooner "Franklin," witnessed one of the 
greatest celebrations ever known in the history of 
Marblehead. The day was ushered in by the ringing 
of all the church bells for an hour at sunrise, and a 
salute of thirty-nine guns from a battery on " Work- 
house rocks." The bells were also rung and salutes 
were fired at noon and sunset, ^t nine o'clock, a. >i., 
a procession was formed, consisting of military com- 
panies of Marblehead and Lynn, seven bands of mu- 
sic, distinguished visitors, soldiers and sailors of the 
War of 1812, veterans of the Civil War, town officers, 
secret societies, pupils of the public schools, and the 
entire fire department. The procession marched 
through the principal streets to the square at the 
junction of Pleasant and Essex streets, where a mon- 
ument, which had been placed in position the day 
before, was dedicated with appropriate exercises. The 
monument is a shaft of Hallowell granite, eighteen 
and one-half feet high, and four feet, nine inches 
square at the base. It is inscribed on all four sides as 
follows : 

On the northern side, — 

" A TRIBUTE or HABBLEHEAP. 

" To the memory of the bravo Captain Mugford and his heroic crew, 
who, in the 'Franklin,' of sixty tons, and four four-pounders, May 17, 
1776, under the guns of the British fleet, captured and carried into Bos- 
ton the transport ' Hope,' three hundred tons, ten guns, loaded with 
munitions of war, including 1,500 barrels of powder." 

On the eastern side, — 

"CREW OF TJIE 'FRANKLIN,* AS FAR AS K.VOWN. 

James Mugford Captain. 

Thomas Russell Lieutenant. 

Jeromiali Hibbard Lieutenant. 

William Thomas Gunner. 

Samuel It. Green Quartermaster. 

James Topham Carpenter. 

John Powers Boatswain. 



John Dove. 
Thomas Dove. 
John Withara. 



Samuel Roff. 
James Quilty. 
Qninn Bettis.' 



MARBLEIIEAD. 



111!) 



On the western side, — 

"Born in Mnrblolicad May 19, ^-^a■. krilwl May in, 1770, while suc- 
cessfully defemling his Vi-suel against thirlt-eu boats and two huiidrud 
men from the British flcit." 

On the southern siile, — 

•' EllliTi:i> MAV 17, lS7li." 

After tlie dedic;itiiiii of tlie monument the proees- 
8ion moved to the rnitarian Chureli, where the 
other exercises took place. They consisted of singing 
by the JIarblehead Musical Association, prayer by 
the Kev. Benjamin H. Bailey, an ode written for the 
occasion by the Kev. .John W. Chadwick, an oration 
by the Hon. George B. Loritig, of Salem, and an ode 
written by Miss Marcia M. (iilman. 

On the Fourth of July another celebration took 
place. At nine o'clock, a.m., a procession was formed 
consisting of the JIarblohcad Brass Baud, iho Mug- 
ford Monumental Association, the Hibernian Friendly 
Society, a delegation of the Mugford Fire Association, 
the Board of Selectmen, the clergy and the children 
of the North and South Church Sabbath Schotds in 
carriages. The procession moved through the princi- 
pal streets to the stiuare at the junction of Mugford 
and Elm Streets, where a monument erected in mem- 
ory of the soldiers and sailors of Marblehead who fell 
in the Civil War was dedicated with appropriate cere- 
monies. The monument is of Hallowell granite, be- 
ing thirty-four feet high, and eight feet square at the 
base. It bears four tablets containing the names of 
one hundred and thirty-eight .soldiers and sailors. On 
the face, directly in front, is the following inscription : 

I.\ MEMORY OF OfR COIXTRY's DEFENDERS. 

ITTf!, 1812, 18B1. 

ERECTED BY THE CITIZEN'S OF M.\RBI.EIIE.VD. 

Dedicated July 4, 1876. 

The other exerci.»es of the day took place at the 
Unitarian Church. They consisted of prayer by the 
Rev. Julius H.Ward; singing by the iMarldehead 
Musical Association ; reailing the Declaration of In- 
dependence, by Mr. Charles 11. Litchman ; and ad- 
dresses by Messrs. James J. II. Oregory and William 
B. Brown. .Vt the close of the exercises a dinner was 
served at Allerton Hall. 

The local events of the year 1877 were among the 
most memorable in the entire history of the town. At 
the annual March meeting the town voted to appro- 
priate twenty thousand dollars from the Abbot fund, 
to be placed in the hands of trustees and devoted, 
principal and interest, in their discretion, to the 
founding and maintenance of a reading-room and li- 
brary to be called "Abbot Library." It was al.so 
voted to place the unapprojjriated balance of the Ab- 
bot fund at interest, and to devote the income to the 
payment of the annual expense of maintaining the 
.\bbot building, including heating, ligliting, and the 



care of the building and grounds. The library was 
opened to the public early in the year 187S. 

On the 15th of May the town voted to make a reser- 
voir of Read's Bond, and to lay water-pipes therefrom, 
with hydrants in suitable places for u.se in case of 
fires. The sum of ten tliousand dollars was appro- 
priated for the purpose ami a committee was elected 
to carry the vote into effect. The work was linishcd 
during the summer of that year. 

The most extensive conflagration ever known in 
the annuls of the town took place on the morning of 
June 2i, 1877. At about half-past one o'clock a barn 
in the roar of a large three-story building known as 
the "Marblehead Hotel," situated on Pleasant Street, 
in the midst of the largest and finest buildings of 
which this tcjwn could l)oast, was discovered to be on 
fire. Before assistance could be summoned the tire 
had communicated to the hotel, and when the firemen 
arrived on the scene the building was in flames. Every 
effort was made to stop the progress of the destructive 
element, but without avail. The General Cilover en- 
gine-house, situated directly over the Brick Bond 
reservoir, was soon in flames, cutting off the supply of 
water from that source. The fire was now beyond 
the control of the firemen, and in spite of their almost 
superhuman efforts to stop it, spread from building 
to building with lightning-like rapidity. In a few 
moments a large shoe manufactory, known as Pope's 
Block, was on fire, the flames sjireading to a barn 
owned by E. V. Bartlett & Co., and from thence to a 
shoe manufactory owned and occupied by that firm. 
The fire now defied all efforts at control. Lea]>- 
ing around the corner of School street, the 
conflagration extended all the way from Rechabite 
Building to a shoe manufactory owned Viy Natha- 
niel Glover, thence to a large block iiwiied by 
Wonusted and Wotjdfin, and soon the shoe manu- 
factory of William Stevens, a stable owned by 
Thomas T. Paine, and fifteen other buildings, mostly 
dwelling houses, comprising every btiililing on 
Sewall Street, from the corner of School Street, to 
Spring Street were in flames. Extending along the 
North side of Pleasant Street, the fire consumed a 
building belonging to T. T. Paine, a small dwelling- 
house owned by William Humphrey, the beautiful 
depot erected a few years previously, said at that time 
to be the finest on the line of the Eastern Railroad, a 
barn and dwelling-house owned by Benjamin (f. 
Hathaway, a boarding-house owned by Henry F. 
Pitman, a large shoe manufactory owned and oceu- 
liied by Jonathan Brown, the dwelling-house of 
William C. Lefavour, ami a barn belonging to the 
estate of the late Dr. H. 11. F. Whittemore. On the 
South side of Pleasant Street every building save one 
was consumed, from a house belonging to the estate 
of Mrs. Leonora Chapman, nearly opposite the place 
where the fire originated, to the Mugford Monumeiil 
at the junction of Esse.\' and Spring Street. These 
included a large block owned bv Joshua O. Lefavour, 



1120 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



a house owned by John H. Brown and occupied by 
G. W. Forsyth as a boarding-house, a large and com- 
modious fourstory building known as "AUerton Block," 
a shoe factory owned by IM. J. Doak, and several 
dwelling-houses. On the southern end of School 
Street every building was destroyed, including a large 
building owned by Henry O. Symonds, the frame 
and materials of a new engine house, in process of 
construction, a stable owned by Enoch A. Perkins, 
the South Congregational Church, a dwelling owned 
by Edward Glover, and several smaller buildings. On 
Essex Street, every building was destroyed, including 
a large shoe manufactory, belonging to the estate 
of John H. Wilkins, a small shop occupied by a mar- 
ble-worker, and several dwelling-houses. On Spring 
Street, two shoe manufiictories owned by William 
C. Lefavour,and four dwelling-houses were destroyed ; 
the only building left standing being the Sewall 
School-house. On Bassett Street, two dwelling-houses 
were consumed, together with a barn, belonging to 
Henry F. Pitman, was destroyed, and several other 
buildings were seriously damaged. 

At one time every church in town was on fire ex- 
cept the Baptist and Roman Catholic. Then it was 
that strong men trembled, fearing that the town would 
be destroyed. But their desperation only nerved them 
to greater effort, and at length, reinforced by assist- 
ance from Salem, Lynn, and other cities, the firemen 
were successful and conquered the fire. But what a 
scene of devastation met the eye when the morning sun 
broke forth. Where but a few hours before had 
been large factories and comfortable homes — monu- 
ments of the enterprise and industry of the people- 
were only stone walls and tottering chimneys. The 
entire business portion of the town had disappeared 
in a single night. Seventy-six buildings, with all 
their contents, representing over half a million dol- 
lars' worth of property, had been consumed. Only 
four of the large shoe manufactories were left stand- 
ing in the town, while ninety families were made 
homeless, and fii'teen hundred men and women were 
thrown out of employment. 

During the afternoon a meeting was held at the 
town hall to devise measures of relief for the sufferers 
by the fire. The meeting was called to order by 
Capt. Knott V. Martin, and a citizens' relief com- 
mittee was chosen to solicit donations of money and 
clothing. Before an appeal could be issued, however, 
donations began to pour in from all parts of the 
country, and in a short time the committee reported 
that enough had been received to alleviate the dis- 
tress. The total amount of contributions received 
was $23,498.30. The clothing was distributed by a 
society of ladies known as the Women's Centennial 
Aid Society, who rendered efficient assistance to the 
committee in its charitable work. 

We cannot close our account of this terrible visi- 
tation without a few commendatory words concerning 
the fortitude and enterprising energy which charac- 



terized the business men throughout the entire 
trying period. They had received a blow, from 
which it was thought they could not recover; but 
with steady resolution they set themselves to the 
work before them, and in less than three months had 
rebuilt more than one-third of the number of build- 
ings destroyed by the fire. During the years which 
have elapsed since the great conflagration every 
building destroyed has been replaced by a new and 
commodious structure. 

Beyond the excitement incident to the State and 
Presidential elections, which intervened between 
this period and the year 1881, there is little of interest 
to record. On the 6th of January, 1881, a new local 
newsjiaper known as the Essex Statesman, and pub- 
lished by Charles H. Litchniaii, made its appearance. 
This paper was issued regularly for a period of three 
years, when it ceased publication. 

Early on the morning of Tuesday, May 3, 1881, 
a gloom was cast over the entire community by 
the news that Mr. William Frank Hathaway, an 
estimable citizen, had been murdered during the 
night. His body was discovered lying face down- 
ward in a ditch in a field near the old Powder House 
on the " Ferry Road." A bruise on the forehead, 
evidently inflicted with a stone or some other blunt 
instrument, gave rise to the theory that he was 
accosted on his way home and stunned by a blow on 
the head. He was then placed in the ditch and held 
down until death ensued from drowning. Robbery evi- 
dently was the motive for the deed, as his pocket-book, 
known to contain considerable money, was missing. 
No clue to the perpetrators of the deed has ever 
been discovered. 

On Tuesday, May 10th, the Marblehead Improve- 
ment Society was organized, and within a short time 
began its beneficent work by setting out-shade trees 
in various parts of the town. 

On the 2d of July President James A. Garfield was 
shot by Charles Guiteau. The news was received in 
Marblehead on the afternoon of that day, and the 
next morning arrangements were hastily made for a 
mass-meeting of the citizens to take action in regard 
to the matter. The meeting was held at Abbot Hall, 
on the evening of that day, and was called to order 
by Henry A. Potter, chairman of the selectmen. 
Benjamin F. Pierce was elected chairman, and 
Thomas Swasey, Jr., secretary. After prayer by the 
Rev. Benjamin H. Bailey, appropriate resolutions 
were read by Samuel Roads, Jr., and remarks were 
made by Capt. Benjamin Pitman, Jonathan IT. Orne, 
Rev. J. H. Williams, William B. Brown and Charles 
H. Litchman. 

September 26th, the day of the funeral of the 
murdered President, was observed by a general sus- 
pension of business. The public buildings and many 
private residences were draped in mourning. In the 
afternoon public exercises were held at Abbot Hall, 
consisting of singing bv the Marblehead Musical 



.mai;i!LKiii;ai). 



1121 



A-socialion ; prayer by the Rev. .1. II. Williani.s; 
singing by the Marbleliead Glee Club ; remarks by 
Charles IT. Litcliinaii, eliairnian of the nieetins;; 
singing by the Glee C'lul); euloiiy liy the Rev. l!en- 
jamin II. Bailey; sini;ing by the Jlarbh'head Musieal 
Assoeiation ; and the benedietion by Rev. Santbrd 1*. 
Smith. 

On Friday. September S, 1SS2, the United States 
.steamer " Despateh " arrived in the harbor. It was 
soon rumored that President Chester .\. Arthur \va« 
on board tlie steamer and that he would take a car- 
riage at Dixie's wharf for Salem. In a sliort time 
quite a goodly crowd had gathered at I he wharl', and 
on the appearance of the distinguisheil visitor he 
was greeted with hearty cheers. After his <leparlure 
arrangements were hastily made for a imblic recep- 
tion on his return, and a messenger was sent to 
Saleni to request him to meet the citizens at Abbot 
Ilall. This tlie President at first declined to do; 
but as his carriage neared .Marbleliead he was 
accosted by Capt. Benjamin Pitman, who informed 
him that he had been instructed to capture the 
President and his entire party in the name of the 
people of Marbleliead. Seeing that escape was im- 
possible, the President laughingly consented on con- 
dition that he should not be subjected to the ordeal 
of handshaking. As the carriage entereil the town 
a signal was rung on the electric fire alarm, and 
the church bells were rung. .V detachment of the 
Marbleliead Light Infantry marched to Work-house 
Rocks to act as escort. Fearing that an attempt would 
be made to drive rapidly through the town and thus 
deprive the people of an opporiunity of seeing the 
President, some of the enthusiastic citizens brought 
out the Washington IIook-and-Ladder truck and 
placed it across the street near the side entrance to 
Abbot Hall to stop the progre-s of the carriage. This 
was unnecessary, however, as the President had no 
desire to escape. On his arrival he wa< escorted to 
Abbot Hall, where fifteen hundred ])eisons hail 
assembled and organized a meeting with .lonath.an II. 
Orne as chairman and Samuel Roads, Jr., secretary. 
On his appearance, the President was greeted with 
a perfect ovation. The (leople cheered themselves 
hoarse in their delight and entiiusiasm. .Vfter a brief 
address of welcome by the chairman of the meeting, 
and a (l-w pleasant words in reply by President 
Arthur, the parly again took the carriage for the 
wharf, where they embarked on board the steamer. 
As the lioat in which the Presidential (larty was 
rowed to the steamer proceeded down the harbor, it 
was lu.slily cheered by hundreds of people who lineil 
the wharves and headlands. Shortly after the •' Des- 
patch " steamed out of the harbor. This was proba- 
bly one of the most hearty, enthusiastic and sponta- 
neous welcomes a President of the United States ever 
received. 

The year 1883 was marked by one of the greatest 
industrial disturbances ever known in the history of 
7(li 



the town. In the spring several of the manulactiirers 
formed a combination to resist the power of the 
" Lasters' Protective Union," a iirominenl labor 
organization, and a general lock-out was ordered in 
nearly all the factories. This was attended by con- 
siderable excitement and was of about seven weeks' 
duration, a few of the manufacturers removing a 
portion of their business from the town before the 
contest endi'<l. Fortunately for the town, an amicable 
settlement of the ditl'erences lietweeii the manufac- 
turers and their workmen was arrived at early in the 
summer. 

Xo special observance had been made of the anni- 
versary of the declaration of American Independence 
in Marblehe.id for a period of twenty-eight years. 
The Fourth of July, 1S84, was accordingly celebrated 
in a manner never to be forgotten by those who 
witnessed it. The bells were rung at sunrise, noon 
and sunset. At 7.:!() .^..M. a band concert was given 
at the stand at the Brick Pond Reservoir on Pleasant 
Street for one hour. At nine o'clock a ]iroeession, under 
the direction of Chief Marshal John (Juiiier, and 
headed by the iSalein (/'adet Band, moved through 
the ])rincipal streets. This was without e.xception 
the finest procession ever seen in Marbleliead. There 
were si.x divisions, consisting ollown olhcers, invited 
guests, veterans of 1812 and the <jralor of the day 
in carriages; secret societies ; an industrial display; 
the pu[dls of the public schools; the entire Fire De- 
partment ; and the JIarblehead Bicycle Club. All 
the societies illustrated their teachings and precepts 
by tableaux. The industrial display taught the les- 
siMi of the nation's progress in the mechanic arts; 
ami the public schools by appro|>riate tableaux beau- 
tifully illustrated every iniportiuit epoidi in the 
nation's history. 

All the public buildings and many private resi- 
dences ;iloiig the rouli' of the jiroeession were deco- 
rated with Hags and banting. 

.\t two o'clock the exercises of the day took place 
at Abbot Hall, consisting of an address by William 
B. Brown, ICsq,; music by the Salem Cadet Band; 
prayer by the Rev. William R. Harris; reading the 
Declaration of Inde])endence by Joseph W. Chap- 
man ; an original ode, written for the occasion by 
.N. Allen Lindsey; oration by the Rev. .lohu W. 
Chadwiek, <if Brooklyn, N. Y.; singing. "America," 
by the audience; and the benediction by the Rev. 
Frank R. Sanborn. Later in the day there were 
boat races and bicyi-le races, ojien to all who chose 
to participate. In the evening there was a grand 
display of lire-works from ''Skinner's Head." 

Ivirly in the summer of this year the Lynn and 
Bosloii Street Railway Company extended its tracks 
to Marbleliead and began running regular cars to 
and from Lynn. Shortly after, the Naunikeag Street 
Railway Ccniipaiiy exlended its lrack,s from Saleni 
through the town to Franklin Street, esl.ablishing 
regular horse car ciumectiori with that city. 



1122 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In the autumn of 1884 great excitement was caused 
by the petition of Caleb Chilcls and otliers to the 
General Court, praying for a division of the town of 
Marblehcad and the incorporation of a separate 
township to include Marblehead Neck and the sec- 
tion known as the " Farms district," the line being 
drawn near the village of Devereux. A similar peti- 
tion was sent to the Legislature from certain citizens 
of Swarapscott, who desired to have the sections 
known as Phillips' Beach and Beach Blufi' annexed 
to the proposed town. This movement was vigor- 
ously resisted by the inhabitants of both towns in 
interest. The subject occupied the attention of the 
■' Committee on towns" of the Legislature of 1885 
for several weeks, and after a full, fair and impartial 
hearing, the petitioners were given "leave to with- 
draw." Another attempt to divide the town before 
the Legislature of 1886 resulted in a similar report. 

On the 8th of August, 1885, memorial services 
were held at Abbot Hall in honor of ex-President 
U. S. Grant, whose death had recently occurred. 
Capt. Knott V. Martin jiresided. The exercises con- 
sisted of singing by a double quartette; reading of 
resolutions by Jonathan H. Orne, Esq.; remarks by 
Hon. James J. H. Gregory; an ode by Miss Marcia 
M. Selman ; prayer by the Rev. William R. Harris ; ora- 
tion by Capt. Benjamin Pitman ; singing, "America," 
by the audience; and the benediction by Rev. Wil- 
liam R. Harris. 

During the period of which we have written in 
this chapter, the town has gradually developed into a 
popular summer resort. Nearly every available spot 
along the shore has been purchased and built upon 
by summer residents, and every year brings a larger 
number of pleasure-seekers to our shore than its pre- 
decessor. The growth of the settlement on Marble- 
head Neck has been rapid and constant. Wide and 
well-kept avenues have been laid out in various 
directions, conjmanding a full view of the ocean, the 
town and the coast from Thacher's Island to the 
South Shore. There are one hundred and fifty houses 
already occupied during the summer, and others are 
being erected. The beautiful club-house of the 
Eastern Yacht Club, on the harbor side, is the finest 
to be found on the New England coast. The harbor, 
being the headquarters of the boats of this club, has 
attracted the attention of yachtsmen to its superior 
facilities, and for a few years past the most famous 
yachts in America and (ireat Britain have been fre- 
quent visitors. The advantages oflered for yacht- 
racing have also been recognized, and several regattas 
between the fleets of the great yacht clubs of the 
country have been sailed off" our coast. AVhat is true 
of the Neck is true also, though in a lesser degree, of 
various sections of the town. Peach's Point has 
grown within a few years into a beautiful village of 
commodious residences, and cvtry year new houses 
are erected in the sections known as Devereux and 
Clifton. The boarding-houses in these sections are 



always well filled during the summer, and the fu- 
ture prominence of Marblehead as a watering-place 
seems to be assured. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



URIEL CROCKEU. 

Uriel Crocker belonged to a family which has been 
well known in Barnstable County during its entire 
history. In 1634 two brothers, John and William 
Crocker, arrived in New England, and soon after 
settled in Scituate. William removed to Barnstable, 
October 10, 1639, and John followed soon after, dying 
there in 1669. He left a wife, Jane, and after provid- 
ing for her he gave his estate to the sons of his brother. 
William Crocker, the ancestor of the subject of this 
sketch, was a deacon in the church, an influential 
citizen, and the owner of a large landed estate. He 
first settled in the easterly part of Barn.-table, but in 
1643 removed to the westerly part, where, in 1655, he 
owned one hundred and twenty-six acres of upland 
and twenty-two acres of meadow. His first wife, 
whom he married in Scituate in 1636, and who was 
the mother of all his children, was named Alice and 
died soon after 1683. His second wife was Patience, 
widow of Robert Parker and daughter of Henry Cobb, 
who had removed from Plymouth, where he had ap- 
peared as early as 1629. William Crocker died in 
Barnstable in September, 1692, probably about eighty 
years of age. His children were John, born in Scitu- 
ate May 1, 1637 ; Elizabeth, born in Scituate Septem- 
ber 22, 1639; Samuel, born in Barnstable June 3, 
1642; Job, born March 9, 1644-45; Josiah, Septem- 
ber 19, 1647 ; Eleazer, July 21, 1650, and Joseph, 1654. 
Of the above children Job was also a deacon and a 
prominent business man. He lived on the estate of 
his uncle John at the northeast corner of the West 
Parish of Barnstable and there died in March, 1719. 
His first wife, whom he married in November, 1668, 
was Mary, daughter of Rev. Thomas AValley of Barn- 
stable. She died in 1676. His second wife, whom he 
married July 19, 1680, was Hannah, daughter of 
Richard Taylor of Yarmouth. She died May 14, 1743, 
in the eighty-fifth year of her age. His children were 
a son born in 1669, who died early ; Samuel, May 15, 
1671; Thomas, January 19, 1674; Mary, June 29, 
1681; John, February 24, 1683; Hannah, February 2, 
1685; Elizabeth, May 15, 1688; Sarah, January 19, 
1690-91; Job, April 4, 1694; David, September 5, 
1697; and Thankful, June 14, 1700. 

Of the above children Samuel, of Barnstable, mar- 
ried, December 10, 1696, Sarah, daughter of Robert 
Parker, who died in 1718. He afterwards married, 
April 12, 1719, Judith Leavet of Rochester. His 
children were Samuel, born December 12, 1697 ; Cor- 
nelius, October 24, 1698; Mary, April 8, 1700; Pa- 




^-t--'?'-z_,^--<^ -'^2^* 



mai!i;m:iikad. 



1123 



tieiice, April IS, 1701 ; Elizabeth, February, 17o2-(i;5 ; 
Cornelius !iu;ain, March 23, 1704; Howlaiul, June 18, 
1705; (Tershom. December, 170t); Ebeiu'zer, .Tune 5, 
1710; Benjamin. .July, 1711; Kebecca, Hachcl, David, 
Siirah anil Tabitha. 

Of these children Cornelius, of Harnstalile. niarrieil, 
November 9, 1727, Lydia, dauijhter of Joseph .Slurgis 
Jenkins, and <lied December 12. 17S4. his wife havins; 
died August 5, 1773, at the a<re of sixty-eight. His 
children were Elijah, born .\pril 12, 1720; Elisha, 
September 14, 17:50; ."Samuel, July 2'.i. 1732; Joseph, 
April 12, 1734; Lydia, April 14. 1730; Cornelius. 
August 21, 1740; Josiah, December 20, 1744; and Sa- 
rah, 1740. 

Of these cliildren .Josiah graduated at Harvard in 
17G.5, and was for some time a teac her in the Barn- 
stable Academy. He married, October (>, 17(5."), Debo- 
rah, daughter of Daniel Davis and sister of Daniel 
Davis, the distinguished solicitor-general of Massa- 
chusetts, and died in Barnstable, Jlay 4, 17SU. His 
widow afterwards married Benjamin (rorham. His 
children were Deborah, born 17t)i!; Robert, 1707]; 
Uriel, 1768; Josiah and Mehitable. Of the-e Uriel 
removed to Boston and served an apprenticeship to 
Joseph Eaton, whose relative, Mary, daughter of Israel 
Eaton of Marblehead, he afterwards miirried. After 
his marriage he removed to Marblehead, making that 
town his home and place of business until his death 
in 1813. His wife died within a year after Iheirmir- 
riage, and he afterwards married in February, 1702, 
Mary, daughter of Captain Richard James of Marble- 
head, who died in August, 1811. His children were 
Mary, born November 22, 1702; Riidiard .lames, Oc- 
tober 19, 1704; Uriel, the subject of this sketch, Sep- 
tember 13, 1701".; Deborah, Noveml)er 12, 1708; Rich- 
ard James again, October 29, 1800; .Josiah, November 
9, 1802; Abigail, October 1-5, ISO-'. ; Francis Board- 
man, April 17, 1808; and Elizabeth James, October 
9, 1809. Of these Josiah and Abigail alone survive. 

Capt. Richard James, above-mentioned, the grand- 
father of Mr. Crocker, was a shi[imaster and per- 
formed distinguished service in the War of the Revo- 
lution in bringing munitions of war for our armies 
from foreign neutral ports. His commission from the 
State of Massachusetts, appointing him to thatspeclal 
service, is in the possession of Mr. Crocker's family. 
He married Mary, ilaughter of Colonel Jonathan and 
Abigail (Burnham) Glover of Marblehead. Colonel 
Glover was a brother of Brigadier-tieneral .John Glo- 
ver, whose statue stands in Commonwealth Avenue, 
in Boston. The sword of General (ilover and the 
portraits of Colonel Jonathan Cilover and his wife are 
also in the pos.session of the family of .Mr. Crocker. 

Colonel Glover was the treiisnrer of the town of 
Marblehead during the whole war, and at the close it 
was found that a debt of twenty-seven hundred pounds 
had accumulated, more than half of which was due to 
the treasurer for advances made by him in behalf of 
the town. The services of General Glover, his brother. 



at the heal of the Marblehead (or Twenty-first) Regi- 
ment, designated by the army as the " .Marine K 'gi- 
ment," in transporting the army across the East River, 
after the battle of fjing Island, and saving it from 
further disaster, and also in crossing the Delaware on 
the eve of the victorious battle of Trenton, have l)cen 
revived in our mem )ries by the deeds of the sjldiers 
of Marblehead on land and sea in the late war, deeds 
which deserve a repetition of the words of the gallant 
General Kno.'C : " There went the men of Marblehead, 
alike at home, on land, or water; alike ardent, pa- 
triotic, and untlinching, wherever they nnfurl<Ml the 
(lag of their country." 

•Mr. Crocker in his earlie-'t j;oiith attended the con)- 
mon schools of Marblehead, his native town, and 
closed his education at the Marblehead .Vcademy, 
unilcr the preceptorship of .Samuel (Jreeley, from 
whom he received the certificate tor the best scholar- 
ship. Mr. Greeley, well known in Boston in his later 
years as deacon of the Bi;rry Street Church, i>ursued 
in middle life the business of type-founder, and his 
former scholar became one of his chief customers. 

Jlr. Crocker's childhood and early life in Marble- 
head were peculiarly happy. He was the second of 
eight children, and relatives, old and young, were 
about him, bound together by the strongest ties of 
alfection. Like every other Marblehead boy, the sea 
presented strong temptations to his youthful tastes, 
aiul his desire to adopt a sailor's career, apprfived by 
his father, was only checked by his grandfather, Cap- 
tain James, who had seen enough of sea life to know 
its hardships and perils. One of his early memories 
was the tarring and feathering of skipper Floyd Ire- 
son, celebrated by the ballad of Whitiier, which oc- 
curred when he was twelve years of age. A later 
memory, though still a memory of his youth, was the 
death of his mother, which occurred in August, 1811, 
at the age of thirty-seven. A still later one, but im- 
mediately following the last, w.is a ride to Cambridge 
in the old family chaise, with his grandfather, to at- 
tend the commencement of 1811 at which his school- 
mate, Robert Hooi)er of Marblehead, graduate<l. The 
class of that year was a notable one, including, be- 
sides Edward Everett, who gave the English oration, 
Thomas G. Cary, Charles P. Curtis, Nathaniel L. 
Frothingham, .Samuel (iilman, John ( ;. (iray, Robert 
Hooper, George .Morey, Harrison (iray Otis, Edwanl 
Reynolds, and J<din Fothergill Waterhouse. It is 
needless to say that the occasion made a deep imjires- 
sion on his taind. It is interesting, however, to note 
that the modest boy of fourteeti, looking for an oppor- 
tunity in some occupation more humble than that to 
which the graduates from an academic life were that 
day iispiring, became in later years their trusted and 
honored friend. 

On Saturday, the 14th of .September, 1811, the clav 
after his fifteenth birthday, his father carried him 
again to Boston, and on the following Monday he en- 
tered as an apprentice the book-store and printing- 



1124 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



office of Samuel T. Armstrong, then numbered 50 
Cornhill, the new building on the same lot being now 
numbered 173 and 175 Washington Street. He was 
the youngest apprentice, the so-called " printer's 
devil," and so remained until the Monday following 
the next Thanksgiving, when Osniyn Brewster, a boy 
eleven months younger, entered the office as an ap- 
prentice and Uriel Crocker received his first promo- 
tion. It was by his own choice that he was employed 
in the printing instead of the book-selling depart- 
ment. From the first he devoted himself with dili- 
gence to his work, and early acquired that knowledge 
and skill which f|ualilied liiin to direct, afterwards, the 
labors of many other.s. llis faithfulness and industry 
won the confidence and friendship of his employer, 
and at the age of eighteen, on the retirement of Ezra 
Lincoln, the old foreman, to set up an office for him- 
self, he was made the foreman, though four of his fel- 
low apprentices were his seniors in age and apprentice- 
ship. When the apprenticeship of Mr, Crocker and 
Mr. Brewster ended, Mr. Armstrong, with a just per- 
ception of their ability and trustworthiness, and with 
a wise foresight as to his own interests, took them into 
partnership, November 1, 1818. The articles of part- 
nership were drawn up by Jeremiah Evarts, the father 
of William M. Evarts of New York, and included the 
printing-office alone, Mr. Armstrong reserving, tempo- 
rarily, sole possession of the book-selling business. 
On the first of April, 1825, Mr. Armstrong retired, 
and the firm of Crocker & Brewster established in 
1818, a.ssumed the entire business. Mr. Armstrong 
was connected with them, however, in several joint in- 
terests until 1840, and his warm friendship and almost 
daily visits to their counting-room continued until the 
very day of his sudden death, in 1850. 

Crocker & Brewster continued in the building to 
which they had come as boys in 1811, until 1865, 
when their lease from Mrs. Armstrong, widow of their 
late partner, terminated, and they moved into the ad- 
joining building. In 1876 they gave up business as 
publishers and booksellers, and sold out their stereo- 
type plates and other partnership property to II. O. 
Houghton & Co. In the business of the firm Mr. 
Crocker had, from the first, the special charge of the 
printing office, and Mr. Brewster of the book-store. 
Mr. Crocker was always zealous for the credit of their 
press, and eager to introduce every improvement. 
Crocker & Brewster were the first in Boston to use 
the new iron and power presses, the product of the 
latter being more than tenfold that of th'e old hand- 
presses, which were both slow in their operation and 
fatigurag to workmen. 

Many of their publications were sprinkled largely 
with Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, but they were always 
found remarkable for their correctness, and their pub- 
lications were of the highest character, especially 
those in the departments of biblical learning and 
practical religion. Their edition of "Scott's Family 
Bible," in six volumes, royal octavo, containing 4200 



pages, is believed to have been the first stereotyped 
issue of any large work in America. Their issues of 
the works of Professor Robinson and Andrews & Stod- 
dard have largely contributed to the progress of sound 
learning. 

Mr. Crocker himself has said, — " It is not for me tci 
speak of the character of our publications. We believe 
they have done some good in the world, and it i^ 
pleasant to an old printer, when thinking of the many 
millions of pages issued from his press, to know 
there is 

"Not one immoral, one corrupting thought, 
No line, which, dying, he could wish to blot." 

On the 11th of February, 1829, he married Sarah 
Kidder, daughter of Elias Haskell, of Boston. Aftii 
his marriage he occupied for a few months a hou^^i' 
at the corner of Atkinson and High Streets, in Boston, 
and then bought the house numbered 26 Lynde 
Street, being the house adjoining the West Church. 
where he lived until 1847. He then moved to 2''. 
afterward 29, Somerset Street, where he lived until, 
in 1885, when his house, with others, was taken by 
the city to make room for the court-house now in 
process of erection. He has, since 1885, lived in the 
house numbered 319 Commonwealth Avenue, spending 
the warm weather in Cohasset, where he died July 1 '.'. 
1887, having nearly completed his ninety-first year. 
His wife died in Boston, January 4, 1866, and liis 
surviving family now consists of a daughter, who was 
devoted to the health and comfortof her father in his 
declining years, and two sons, Uriel Haskell Crocker 
and George Glover Crocker, both of whom have maile 
their mark at the Suffolk bar and as writers on law. 
Uriel was one of the three commissioners who re- 
vised the statutes of Massachusetts in 1882. Geon 
was president of the Massachusetts Senate, in 18>: 
and in the early part of the present year succeedi.. 
Thomas Russell as chairman of the Massachusetts 
Railroad Commissioners. 

Aside from his legitimate business career Mr. 
Crocker, though never holding public office, was con- 
nected with many public enterprises. The Massachu- 
setts Charitable Mechanics Association owes much of 
its prosperity to his valuable service in its behalf, and 
the final success of the Bunker Hill Monument As- 
sociation, of which he was a director since 1833 and 
several years vice-president, in raising funds for thr 
monument, was in no small degree due to his inge- 
nious plans and personal eftbrt. His efficiency in the 
management of the Old Colony Railroad Company, in 
which he was director, with the exception of a few 
years, from the date of its formation till his death, and 
his services in rescuing from threatened disaster the 
Northern Railroad Company of New Hampshire, ni' 
which for more than thirty-five years he was a dirci - 
tor, have been fully appreciated by the stockhoUh i s 
of the various companies. He was at various tin m - 
director, vice-pre^ident, and president of the South 
Pacific Railroad, director and president of the United 




Stf 'lyA HRiWat 



^ 



ei/yyiy^^^vK^ 



?.Wl 



e^y^^^ 



MARliLKIIKAD. 



1125 



States Hotel Conii)any for iimny years, presidoiit of 
the Revere House Assoiialiou, ami trustee in the 
Boston Disiieiisary and in other institutions too nu- 
merous too mention. As reeently as 1884 a list of 
eorporatioiis showed liini to he president of four, viee- 
I)resideiit of two, treasurer of two, and direetor in 
several others. 

In aeceptinsf these positions, which in early years 
were much more numerous, he deelined a merely 
nominal offieial title. The institution or association 
to which he lent his name was sure of havinji; a care- 
ful oversight and a rigid inspection, and thus with his 
name went confidence and trust. 

On the evening of Xoveudier 1, ISiiS, the liftieth 
anniversary of the co-partnership of Crocker & 
Brewster was eelehrated at the house of Mr. C'rocker, 
on Somerset Street by a gathering of a large number 
of their friends, on which occasion Rev. Dr. George 
W. Biagden made an a])]n'opriate address, wliich was 
responded to at length by Mr. Crocker. In the course 
of his remarks Mr. Crocker said: "Of Mr. Brewster 
and myself the fclhiwship in business and in friend- 
ship will, I trust, never be dissolved. During all the 
days of the seven years of our apprenticeship and of our 
fifty years of i)artnership, I have never received one 
unkind word from him, nor do I believe that he ever 
received one from me If he did, I certainly never in- 
tended it, as I know that he never deserved it."' 

The ninetieth birthday of Mr. Crocker occurred on 
the 13th of Septendier, ISStJ, while at his summer res- 
idence in Coluisset. During the day he received the 
congratulations of his neighbors and friends, and in 
the evening he was serenaded by the band of the Co- 
hasset Musical Association. Again, on the 2'Jth 
of November, 188(;, the friends of the two aged 
partners celebrated the seventy-fifth anniversary of 
their business connection at the house of Mr. Crocker 
in Commonwealth .Vvenue. The gathering wag u most 
dii-tinguikhed one, including (iovernor Robinson, 
Lieutenant-Governor Ames, e.x-Governor Rice, A. W. 
Beard, treasurer of the Commonwealth, Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, Hon. Sidney Bartlett, Hon. Leop- 
old Morse, Hon. Samuel ('. Cobb, Hon. 11. R. i!i-liop, 
and other gentlemen well known in public service. 
Their fellow-cilizens could not have shown more em- 
phatically their appreciation of the fidelity and con- 
scientiousness with which Air. Crocker .-iiid Mr. 
Brewster had performed the work of life. The words 
of Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, tlie president of the 
Bunker Hill Monument Association, in his address to 
the annual meeting in 1SS3, still further em[ihasize 
the respect and honor in which the subject idtliis 
imperfect sketch was held. 

" I cannot forRi't ihnt flrst in the orilor of aoiiiorlty on our roll of liv. 
inR 'lirt'Ctors, anil at thr hcail of OIl^vic(^•IlreHj(lcntfl, ^tantU tliu ttaiiic of 
a venerable printer, lK>ol(t4ell(ir, antl ]>nlilJ8lier of our <-lty, the itnprint 
of wlioBo firm, 'Crocker and Brcwuter,' has been the gmiranty of a 
goiKl book for mora years than I can count ; who has always been bebl 
am) if* Htill held in the liiglient regard and respet-t by our whole mniniii- 
nity; and who, liaTlng been elected a director In 18:13, hm this day in 



the eit;hty-tieventh year of his age completed a half century of lUithtiil 
service. I call upon y.u all to rise and unite with uio iti offerinj.- our 
tlianks and cout-ratulatiuns to our valued associate and excell-nt fellow- 
citizen andlrien.l, I'ri.l I 'rocker, and in expres»in(r the earnest li..|ie 
that ho may lonj- be spared in liealth and strengtli, not only lo Ihis as- 
sociation, but to the coiiuuuiiity in which he lias been so conspicuous an 
example i.f that industry, iule(;iity, public spirit, and patriotism, whiili 
bave charai'tiTized and distiuguisbod tlio mechanics of lioston from tlie 
days of their illustrious leader, Paul Revere." 



liHN.IAMIN I'OXl) W.MtK. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Salem on 
the ilth day of April, 1822. He was of the seventh 
generation from Robert Ware, whose enterprise and 
recognized ability secured a land grant in Dcdham 
on the 12th of July, I<;42. 

Robert Ware was undoubtedly a native of Wren- 
tham, Suflblk County, Kngland ; from which place he 
emigrated to America. 

The family of Ware, or Weare (as it is written in 
the early records), is easily traceil to .-i great anliipiily 
by the records of the counties of Devon and ."^unier- 
set, ICnglaiid. 

The three oldest sons nf Uubcit Ware were settled 
in that ptirt of Dedliam now known as Wrcnthani, 
in 1<)73. The youngest, Robert by name, was the 
father of Michael; and the direct descent of the sub- 
ject of this sketch is .Itdiez, Amos and Lrastus, from 
Michael. 

In the long line of ancestry, the Wares were own- 
ers as well as tilK-rs of ihe land ; and many of the de- 
scendants of Roberl have been niited as leading 
tetichers in ethics and pr.-irl icing physicians. 

Krastus Ware, the lalhcr of Benjamin P., moved 
from I'axton to Danvcrs in 1810, he, at that time, 
being a young man of tweuty-two years of age ; am- 
bitious and full of manly hope and enterprise, he 
commenced work on a milk farm and soon made 
himself a recognized leader and authority in all that 
a]ii>ertained to agricultural iiidnslry. 

In 18:il he purchased the llinkley Farm in Mar- 
blehead, and commenced work on the same in 18.'i;i, 
Benjamin I', at this time being eleven years of age. 
This farm had been greatly abused by tenants who 
had cultivated it for fifty years with a single eye to 
securing the best crop for the tenant, with the least 
outliiy of cither capital or labor, and with a total 
disregard of the good of Ihe land or Ihe interest of 
the owner. Krtistus Ware saw the possibilities of 
good husljandmanship upon the worn-out land; and 
ably seconrjed by his son, Benjamin I'., and a brother, 
commenced work in good earnest to repair the waste 
places and bring back this neglected soil to ;i much 
lietter than its primitive condition. The best meth- 
ods of agriculture learned by reading and observjition 
weri^ adopted in this work, and the systematic and 
well-ordered lalior soon made Erastus and his sons 
the observed of all observers. It is not too much to 
say tliat the production of vegetables lor the market 
was a leading feature ias well as a novelty in the 
town) in Ihe Ware system of farming. 



1126 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



With long-neglected buildings, poor fences, ne- 
glected orchards, the outlook was little better than 
that of a new country. But energy, frugality and 
persistent industry soon i)roduced a transformation 
from negligence and shiftlessness to thrift and pros- 
perity. 

So much physical exertion was required of the sub- 
ject of this sketch that three months in the winter 
was all that he could be spared for intellectual train- 
ing and supplementary to this public school educa- 
tion, two terras at Phillips' Academy, concluded his 
opportunities for rudimentary education. At the age 
of twenty-five, Benjamin P. married Hannah Clifton, 
of Salem, having the year previous built the beauti- 
ful Clifton House as a seashore summer resort, being 
a pioneer in the adaptation of the coast-lined land of 
Marblehcad as resorts for recuperation of professional 
and business men from the cares and anxieties inci- 
dent to city life. This digression from the routine 
life of the farmer was the cause of many criticisms of 
doubt expressed by short-sighted and narrow-minded 
men. But the increased value of the land on the 
North Shore, and its now world-wide reputation as a 
place for rest and recuperation have convinced the 
most incredulous that the work has been that of a 
well-balanced and far-seeing mind, and the distin- 
guished guests from this and other countries who 
have sought rest and repose amid the cooling breezes 
on this rock-ribbed coast gives full endorsement to 
this statement. 

Nor has the enterprise of Mr. Ware been limited 
to the little spot which he has so beautifully adorned. 
The grand Atlantic Avenue connecting Swampscott 
and Marblehead is one of his early conceptions; and its 
completion was largely the work of his own enter- 
prise. This great ocean boulevard met with violent 
opposition in its construction from both Swampscott 
and Marblehead, and but for the energy of Mr. Ware 
and a few others, the great increased valuation caused 
by its construction would have been long deferred. 

The Swampscott Branch of the Eastern Railroad 
owes its construction and completion largely to his 
individual work. 

Mr. Ware was also a valuable co-operator of John 
P. Palmer in what seemed, at the time, a most pre- 
posterous scheme, — the making free to the public of 
the Salem Turnpike. This act was unquestionably 
the initial cause of securing freedom by legislation of 
all the toll bridges and roads of the State. 

In matters of public education, he has long been 
prominent, having served sixteen years on the school 
committee of Marblehead, and ten years a trustee of 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College. He has also 
served as trustee of the Marblehead Savings Bank 
for five years; trustee of the New England Agricul- 
tural Society for nine years ; president of Marblehead 
and Swampscott Farmers' Club four years ; Master of 
Subordinate Grange No. 38, six years ; Master of the 
State Grange of Massachusetts two years; president 



of the Essex Agricultural Society thirteen years, and 
a leading member of the State Board of Agriculture. 

From the first of his public life he has recognized 
the necessity and importance of exact knowledge in 
every department of agricultural industry. With this 
end in view he was first and foremost by speech and 
resolution to urge the establishment of an Experi- 
ment Station by the commonwealth, and is a promi- 
nent member of its Board of Management. The ac- 
knowledged usefulness of the station, as now estab- 
lished, is a happy indication of his good judgment. 

In his own farm industry he has never feared new 
methods; ))atiently watching and learning, he has 
often proved a leader where at first he appeared to be 
only a timid and distant follower. Tlie adoption and 
introduction of the Silo and its successful result in 
the pi'eparation of ensilage on his own farm, is a ro 
markable instance of his readiness and ability to 
adapt himself to new conditions in agriculture. 

As a public speaker Mr. Ware has filled an impor- 
tant gap in the wants of the agricultural population. 
With a rich, full voice, an easy flow of language, an 
ability to express in a concise and readily understood 
manner the results of both observation and experi- 
ence, he is an ever-welcome guest on all public occa- 
sions where words of counsel from practical stan<l - 
points are needed or desired. As one of the commit - 
tee of the Massachusetts Ploughman Association he 
has been prominent by suggestion and speech, in 
making these well-known public gatherings pre-emi- 
nently useful and instructive. He has often presided 
and led at these gatherings, and his practical talks 
have had a wide reading as they have been reported 
phonographically in the Massachusetts Ploughman. 

Mr. Ware has made many other addresses on agri- 
culture and other subjects which have been reported 
to a greater or less extent in the daily and weekly 
papers. 

At the age of sixty-five, he is in the prime of lil\' 
and in full harmony and sympathy with every devel- 
ojiing feature of science and art which has to do witli 
the welfare of mankind and the prosperity and build- 
ing-up of men and communities. 



•TACOB M. CROPLEY. 

Jacob M. Cropley was born at Mt. Handly, An- 
napolis County, Nova Scotia, July 4, 1840. He re- 
mained there until he was twenty years of age. lie 
then, in ISOG, came to Massachusetts, and .-ix years 
later, in 1872, commenced >hoe manufacturing in 
Marblehead. This factory wa< burned in 1877 in the 
disastrous fire which swept the busine.<s portion of 
Marblehead. He commenced manufHCluring again, 
and in 1882 formed a co-partnership with his younger 
brother, William W. CropUy, under the firm name 
of Jacob JI. ("ropley & Brother. A factory in which 
they were interested at Woltboro', N. H., was burneii 
August 9, 1887. It was s-oon after rebuilt, and is now 




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the largest in the State. At the two factories in 
Wolfboro' and Marbldicad, alioiit seven hinuirfd 
operative.* are ein|ih)yed, and the Ini-^ine.-^s ol'the linn, 
whieh ha.* steadily inereused since first establiflinl l)y 
Mr. Jacob M. Cropley, is now one of the hirgest in 
its line in the country. 

Although a younjr man, Mr. Cropley already oecu- 
pieH a proininenl position aniontr the leadinjj shoe 
manufacturers of New Kiijrland. He is a clear-headed, 
practical, thorcugh»(iing business man. He is alive 
to the demands of his business, energetic in a marked 
degree, and with an indomitable will that command.s 
success. Mr. Oropley is open-hearted and benevolent, 
and all measures lending to advance ihe gf neral wel- 
fare of his adopted tow n find in him an earnest advocate. 

In May, 1872, Mr. Cropley united in marriage with 
Sarah D. Lyle, of Marbleliead, and their family con- 
sists of five sons, viz. : Eugene I., .lacob II., Walter 
L., Sydney M. and Ralph E. 



KNOTT V. MARTIN. 

Knott V. Martin was born in Marblehead July 11, 
1820. His early education wa.s received at the pub- 
lic schools of his native town. At the age of thirteen 
years he left school and learned the trade of shoe- 
making, at which he worked until his twenty-seventh 
year, when he was forced to abandon it on account of 
ill health. An out-of-door occuijatiou of some kind 
being necessary for his recovery, he engaged in busi 
ne.«s as a butcher. A taste of military life led him 
while still a boy to join Ihe Marblehtad Light In- 
fantry, as a member of which he becaujc so profi- 
cient that he was rapidly promoted from erne position 
to another, until on the (ith of October, 1X02, he was 
commissioned as its captain. Under his command 
the company soon reached a high standard of ex- 
cellence, and was recognized throughout the State as 
one of the bes