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Full text of "History of Essex County, Massachusetts, with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men"

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Cupyriijht, 1887, 
By J. \V. LEWIS & CO. 

^/i: /i'/(//i<s Reserved. 





Nearly four years ago the attention of the publishers, who have long made a specialty 
of this class of work, was called to tiic fact that a history of Essex County was needed. 
After mature deliberation the work was planned, and its compilation commenced. The best 
literary talent in this section of the commonwealth for this especial work was engaged, whose 
names appear at the head of their respective articiles, besides many other writers on special 
topics. Tliese gentlemen approached the work in a spirit of impartiality and thoroughness, 
and we believe it has been their honest endeavor to trace the history of the development of 
the territory embodied herein from that period when it was in the undisputed possession of 
the red man to the present, and to place before the reader an authentic narrative of its rise 
and progress. The work has been compiled from authenticated and original sources, and no 
effort spared to produce a history which should prove in every respect worthy of the County 

The Puhm.shek-s. 

Philadelphia, January 24th, 188S. 




Ghaptehs. Page. 

I. Introductory, i. 

II. Bench and Bar, xv. 

III. Old Modes of Travel, Ix. 


IV. Science in Essex County, . . 
V. Spiiit of the Early Lyceums, 
VI. Miscellaneous, 

. Ixxvi. 
. Ixxxiv. 
. xcvii. 


Chap. Page. 

I. Salem 1 

II. " continued. Ecclesiastical 17 

III. " " Commercial, 63 

IV. " " Banking lU 

V. " " The Press 115 

VI. " •• Educational, 129 

VII. " " Literature, 135 

VIII. " " Manufacturing, l>i 

IX. " " Miscellaneous, 161 

X. " ■* Societies, etc., 1G6 

XI. " " Military 184 

XII. " " Civil History, 225 

XIII. Lynn 249 

XIV. " continued. Ecclesiastical 263 

XV. " " Schools, Libraries, Newspapers 272 

XVI. " •' Industrial Pursuits, 280 

XVII. " " Military 291 

XVm. '• " Burial Places 299 

XIX. •■ " Old Families, etc., 306 

XX. " " Taverns— Modes of Travel, . . 320 

XXI. •' ■' Miscellaneous 330 

XXII. " " Short Notes 337 

XXIII. Lynnfield, 377 

XXIV. Saugus 391 

XXV. " continued 394 

XXVI. '■ " One Hundred Years Ago, ... 396 

XXVII. " " Religious 399 

XXVIII. •• Manufacturing, 407 

XXIX. " " Taverns, Modes of Travel, etc., 41.') 

XXX. " " Miscellaneous 419 

XXXI. " " Military, 421 

Chap. Page. 

XXXII. Danvers 424 

XXXIII. " continued. Revolutionary 444 

XXXIV. " •• Ecclesiastical, 452 

XXXV. " " Educational 475 

XXXVI. •• •' Villages, 483 

XXXVII. '* *' Miscellaneous 49.5 

XXXVIII. ■' " Industrial, Societies, Physicians, 518 

XXXIX. • ■ Civil History, 525 

XL. " ■• Civil War 531 

XLI. Ipswii-li. Pre-l>istorical S66 

XLII. " continued. Municipal, 569 

XLIII. " " Ecclesiastical 679 

.XLIV. •• '• Educational 604 

XLV. •• •■ Military, 612 

XLVl. " •• Legal and Penal, 625 

XLVII. " " Business 033 

XLVIII. Beverly, 671 

XLTX. Methuen 709 

L. Georgetown, 794 

LI. " continued. Early Grants, 798 

LII. " •• Early Settlers 811 

LIII. " " Parish Organiz.ation, .... 817 

LIV. " " Educational, 821 

I.V. *' " Religious Movements, . , . 826 

LVI. " " General Town History, ... 830 

LVII. " " Religious 83-5 

LVIII. " " Manufacturing, 843 

LVIX. •• " Military 848 

LX. " " Conclusion, 852 

LXI. Lawrence, 861 

LXIl. Miilrllcton, 929 



History ob^ Essex Co., Massachusetts. 





The riyinoiith Council— Massachusetts Colony — Colonial Courts — Essex 
County Createil— Couuty Courts— Barristers — County Officers — Law- 

On the 20th of April, 1606, King James issued 
letters-patent dividing between two companies, popu- 
I.irly called the Northern and Southern Virginia 
companies, a strip of land one hundred miles wide 
along the Atlantic coast of North .America, extending 
from the thirty-fourth to the forty-fifth degree of 
north latitude, a territory which then went under the 
name of Virginia, so called after Elizabeth, the virgin 
Queen. The .Southern Company was composed of 
knights, gentlemen, merchants and adventurers of 
London, and received a grant of all the lands between 
the thirty-fourth and forty-first degrees, while the 
Northern Company was composed of persons of the 
same description in Bristol, Exeter and Plymouth, and 
received a grant of the lands between the thirty-eighth 
and forty-fifth degrees. That portion lying between 
the thirty-eighth and forty-first, which was included 
in both grants, was open to the company first occupy- 
ing it; and it was stipulated that neither company 
should make a settlement within one hundred miles 
of any previous settlement of the other company. On 
the 3d of November, 1()20, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and 
his associates, the members of the Northern Virginia 
("ompauy, reieived a new patent, which passed the 
seal on the 3<1 of the following July, under the 
title of "The council established at Plymouth, in the 
county of Devon, for the planting, ordering, ruling 
iind governing of New England in America." Under 
this patent the coini)any was .uithorized to hold terri- 
tory extending from sea to soa, and in breadth from 
the fortieth to the forty-eight !i degree of north lati- 
tude. This patent or charter conferred power to make 
laws, a])point tlovernors and other officers, and gener- 
ally to establish all necessary forms of government. 

On the 19th of March, 1627-28, the Plymouth coun- 
cil granted a patent to Sir John Roswell, Sir .John 
Young, Thomas Southcoat, John Humphrey, John 
Endieott and Simon Whitcomb, covering a territory 
extending from three miles north of the Merrimac 
River to three miles south of the Charles River. This 
patent was afterwards confirmed by letters-patent un- 
der the seal of England, i.ssued on the 4th of 
March, in the following year. Sir Henry Roswell, 
Sir John Young and Thomas Southcoat subsequently 
sold their interest to .Tohn Winthrop, Isaac .Tohnson, 
Matthew Cradock, Thomas Goff and Sir Richard Sal- 
tonstall, who, with John Humphrey, John Endieott 
and Simon Whitcomb, the remaining original 
entees, formed a new association. The pecuniary in- 
terests of the company were managed in England, and 
Matthew Cradock, who had been named in the charter 
by the King .as Governor, there chosen to that of- 
fice. John Endieott was, however, sent out in the 
summer of 1628, and began a plantation at S.alem. 
The charter was made in duplicate, one copy being 
sent to Endieott and the other brought to New Eng- 
land by Winthrop in 1630. By this charter a corpo- 
ration was created under the name of " the Governor 
and Company of the M.issachusetts Bay in New Eng- 
land," and twenty-six persons were named in it as the 
patentees. It provided that the oflicers should consist 
of a Governor, Deputy-Governor and eighteen assist 
ants, to be chosen annually by the freemen at the 
General Court to be held on the last Wednesday in 
Easter term. The General Court, consisting of the 
Governor, assistants and freemen, was to be held four 
times in each year, and by it officers were to be cho.sen 
and laws and ordinances enacted. 

Mr. Endieott was cho.sen Governor by the colony 
after its arrival at Salem, but in the latter part of 1621), 
the character and plans of the as.soeiates in England 
having been changetl and an extensive emigration 
been set on foot, .John Winfhroi> was chosen Governor 
in England, and Jolin Humphrey Deputy-Governor. 
Winthrop sailed in .\pril, 1630, and arrived in Mas- 


sachusetts Bay on the 12th of June, at once assuming 
power as Governor under the charter, which he had 
brought with him. The first General Court was held 
at Boston, October 19th, and at its first session the 
freemen of which it was composed made an important 
change in the form of government contemplated in 
the charter, surrendering to the assistants the election 
of Governor and Deput3'-Governor ; to the Governor 
and deputy and assistants the enactment of laws, reserv- 
ing to themselves only the election of the assistants. 
Soon after, however, they resumed the privilege of 
choosing the Governor and deputy as well as the as- 
sistants, and in 1636 the General Court also assumed 
the exclusive power of making the laws. In 1634, in 
order to obviate the inconvenience of convening the 
whole body of freemen, a law was passed providing 
for the choice of delegates with all the powers of the 
freemen, except those relating to the election of offi- 
cers. For this election the whole body of freemen 
met annually in the meeting-house in Boston ; but the 
inconvenience of this arrangement was felt also, and 
it was provided that Salem, Ipswich, Newbury, Sau- 
gus, Weymouth and Hingham might retain as many 
of their freemen at home at the annual elections as 
the safety of the towns required, and that the votes of 
these might be sent by proxy. A general law was af- 
terwards passed to the same effect, applicable to all the 
freemen in all the towns. 

At first the assistants and deputies met together; 
but in 1644, — inconsequenceof a dispute in which the 
deputies claimed that a majority vote of the whole 
court should rule, while the assistants claimed con- 
current jurisdiction, — it was finally agreed that the 
two branches should sit apart, and that each should 
have a negative on the other. The Governor presided 
at the Court of Assistants, and a new office of Speaker 
was established for the Deputies' Court. 

Until 1639 the whole judicial power was vested in 
the Court of Assistants. In that year, on the 9th of 
September, it was enacted that " for as much as the 
businesses of the ordinary Court of Assistants are so 
much increased as they cannot be despatched in such 
season as were fit, it is therefore ordered that such of 
the magistrates as shall reside in or near to Bo.ston, or 
any five, four or three of them, the Governor or Dep- 
uty to be one, shall have power to assemble together 
upon the last fifth day of the eighth, eleventh, second 
and fifth months every year, and then and there to 
hear and determine all civil causes, whereof the debt 
or trespass and damages shall not exceed twenty 
pounds, and all criminal causes, not extending to life 
or member or banishment, according to the course of 
the Court of Assistants, and to summon juries out of 
the neighbor towns, and the marshal or necessary 
officers are to give their attendance as at other 

On the 3d of March, 1635-36 it had already been en. 
acted that "there shall be four courts kept every 

quarter, — one at Ipswich, to which Newbury shall be- 
long ; two at Salem, to which Saugus shall belong ; 
two at Newtown, to which Charlton, Concord, Medford 
and Waterton shall belong; four at Boston, to which 
Roxbury, Dorchester, Weymouth and Hingham shall 

" Every of these courts shall be kept by such mag- 
istrates as shall be dwelling in or near the said towns, 
and by such other persons of worth as shall from time 
to time be appointed by the General Court, so as no 
court shall be kept without one magistrate at the 
least, and that none of the magistrates be excluded 
who can and will intend the same ; yet the General 
Court shall appoint which of the magistrates shall 
specially belong to every of the said court. Such 
persons as shall be joined as associates to the magis- 
trates in the said court shall be chosen by the General 
Court out of a greater number of such as the several 
towns shall nominate to them, so as there may be in 
every of the said courts so many as (with the magis- 
trates) may make five in all. These courts shall try 
all civil causes whereof the debt or damage shall not 
exceed ten pounds, and all criminal causes not con- 
cerning life, member or banishment. And if any per- 
son shall find himself grieved with the sentence of 
any of the said courts, he may appeal to the next 
great Quarter Court, provided that he put in sufficient 
caution to present his appeal with effect, and to abide 
the sentence of the magistrates in the said great 
Quarter Court, who shall see that all such that shall 
bring any appeal without just cause be exemplarily 

" There shall be four great Quarter Courts kept 
yearly at Boston by the Governor and the rest of the 
magistrates ; the first the first Tuesday in the fourth 
month, called June ; the second the first Tuesday in 
September ; the third the first Tuesday in December ; ' 
the fourth the first Tuesday in the first month, called 

It must be remembered that the term magistrate 
was synonymous with that of assistant, and that there- 
fore, under these various enactments, the assistants 
retained judicial power. On the 25th of May, 1636, 
the following magistrates and other persons were ap- 
pointed by the General Court to hold the courts re- 
ferred to in the above enactment of the previous 
March, to wit: For Salem and Saugus, John Humphrey, 
John Endicott, magistrates or assistants. Captain 
Turner, Mr. Scrugge and Mr. Townsend Bishopp, asso- 
ciates, and Ralph Fogg, clerk ; for Ipswich and New- 
bury, Thomas Dudley, Richard Dummer, Simon Brad- 
street, magistrates, and Mr. Saltoustall and Mr. Spen- 
cer, associates, and Robert Lord, clerk ; for Newtown, 
Charlestown, Sledford and Concord, John Haynes, 
Roger Harlakenden, Increase Nowell, magistrates, 
and Mr. Beeeher and Mr. Feakes, associates ; for 
Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Weymouth and Hing- 
ham, Richard Belliugham, William Coddington, mag- 


istrates. and Israel Stoughton, William Hutchinson 
and William Heath, associates. Under tliis law the 
first Quarter Court of Salem was held June 27, 1036, 
and the records of that session are well-preserved in 
the first volume of the Court Records in the office of 
the clerk of the courts in Salem. At that court one 
magistrate, John Endicott, and three commissioners — 
Nathaniel Turner, Townsend Bishopp and Thomas 
Scrugge — were present. The following certificate is a 
part of the record : 

"Thes three, viz., cp. Xathaiiiel Turner, mr. Tow- 
enshend Bishop and mr. Tho : Scrugge, did the day 
and yeare above written take the oath of Commis- 

On the 6th of June, 16.39, it wa-s enacted that " for 
the more speedy dispatch of all causes, which shall 
concern strangers, who cannot stay to attend the or- 
dinary courts of justice, it is ordered that the Governor 
or deputy, being assisted with any two of the magis- 
trates (whom he may call to him to that end), shall have 
power to hear and determine (by a jury of twelve men 
or otherwise as is used in other courts) all causes which 
shall arise between such strangers, or wherein any 
such stranger shall be a party, and all records of such 
proceedings sh.all be transmitted to the Secretary (ex- 
cept himself be one of the said magistrates, who shall 
assist in hearing such causes) to be entered as trials 
in other courts at the charge of the parties. This 
order to continue till the General Court in the seventh 
month come twelve month and no longer." 

On the 2d of June, 1641. it was enacted that 
" whereas it is desired by this Court to ease the coun- 
try of all unnecessary travels and charges, it is or- 
dered that there shall be four Quarter Courts kept 
yearly by the magistrates of Ipswich and Salem, with 
such others to be joined in commis.sion with them as 
this Court shall appoint, not hindering any other 
magistrates that will help them ; this order to take 
effect after the next Quarter Courts shall be ended at 
Salem and Ipswich, two of these Quarter Courts to be 
kept at Salem and the other two at Ipswich ; the first 
Court to be kept the last third day of the seventh 
month at Ipswich (and the next at the same time the 
former Courts were), the next quarter at Salem, the 
third quarter at Ipswich, the fourth at Salem, and the 
magistrates of Ipswich and S;ilem to attend every of 
these Courts, but no jurymen to be warned from Ips- 
wich to Salem, nor from Salem to Ipswich ; to each of 
these places a grand jury shall be warned once a year, 
and these Courts to have the same power both in civil 
and criminal causes the Court of Assistants hath at 
Boston, except trials for life, limbs or banishment, 
which are wholly reserved to Boston Court; provided 
it shall be lawful to appeal from any of these Courts 
to Boston. And it shall be in the liberty of any plain- 
tiff that hath an action of above an liun<ired pounds 
principal debt to try his cause in any of these Courts 
or at Boston ; the fines of these Courts to defray the 

charges of the same, and the overplus to be returned 
to the treiusurer for the public. And Salisbury and 
Hampton are joined to the jurisdiction of Ipswich, and 
each of them to send a grand juryman once a year to 

These enactments show the precise arrangement 
and distribution of judicial powers at the time of the 
division of the M:issachusetts Colony into counties, in 
1643. On the lOth of May in that year it was enacted "the whole plantation within this jurisdiction is 
divided into four shire.s, to wit: 

"Essex Shibe. — Salem, Linn, Enon, Ipswicli, Rowley, Newlmry, 
GlouceflTer and Chochicawick. 

"Middlesex.— Charlestown, Cambridge, Watertown, Sudbury, Con- 
cord, Woburn, Sledford, Linn Village. 

"SpFroLK.— Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Dedham, Bi-aiutree, Wey- 
mouth, Uingbam, Nantasket. 

" XouroLK— Salisbury, Hampton, Haverhill, Exeter, Buyer, Straw- 
berry Bank." 

These, of course, were at that time all the incor- 
porated towns in the Massachusetts Colony. In the 
shire of Essex, Salem was incorporated June 24, 1629, 
as a town, and March 23, 1836, as a city; Lynn, in 
Xovember, 1637, as a town, and April 10, 1850, as a 
city; Enon (afterwards Wenham), was incorporated 
May 10, 1643 ; Ipswich, August 5, 1634 ; Rowley, Sep- 
tember 4, 1639; Newbury, May 6, 1635; Gloucester, 
May 22, 1639, as a town, and Jlay 26, 1871, as a city; 
and Chochicawick (afterwards Andover), May 6, 1646, 
after the iucorporation of Essex County, 

In Middlesex, Charlestown was incorporated June 
24,1629; Cambridge, September 8, 1633; Watertown, 
September 7, 1630; Sudbury, September 4, 1639; Con- 
cord, September 2, 1635; Woburn, May 18, 1642; 
Medford, September 28, 1630; Linn village (after- 
wards incorporated as Reading), May 29, 1644. 

In Suflblk, Boston was incorporated September 7, 
1630, as a town, and February 23, 1822, as a city; 
Roxburj-, September 28, 1630, as a town, and March 
12, 1846, as a city, and annexed to Boston June 1, 
1867; Dorchester, September 7, 1630, and annexed to 
Boston June 4, 1869; Dedham, September S, 1636; 
Braintree, May 13, 1640; Weymouth, September 2, 
1635; Hingham, September 2, 1635; and Nantasket 
(afterwards incorporated as Hull), May 29, 1644. 

In Norfolk, Salisbury was incorporated October 7, 
1640 ; Hampton, September 4, 1639 ; Haverhill in 
1645, as a town, and March 10, 1869, as a city; Exeter 
and Dover and Strawberry Bank (now Portsmouth) 
became afterwards a part of New Hauij)shire. 

In addition to the towns above mentioned as a ))art 
of Essex County, Amesbury was incorporated April 
29,1668; Boxford, August 12, 1685; Beverly, October 
14, 1668; Bradford, in 1670; Dauvers, 1757; Essex, 
1819; Georgetown, 1838; Groveland, 1850; Hamilton, 
1792; Lawrence, incorporated as a town April 17, 
1S47, and as a city March 21, 1853; Lynnfield, July 
3, 1782 ; Manchester, May 14, 1645 ; Marblehead, May 
2,1649; Merrimac, April 11, 1876; Methuen, Decern- 


berS, 1725; Mirldleton. June 20, 1728; Nahant, March 
29, 1853 ; Newburyport, January 28, 1764, as a town, 
and May 24, 1852, as a city; North Andover, April 
7, 1855 ; West Newbury, as Parsons, February 18, 

1819, and under its present name June 14, 1820 ; Pea- 
body, March 18, 1855, as South Danvers, and its 
present name given April 13, 1868 ; Rockport, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1840; Saugus, February 17, 1815; South 
Danvers, May 18, 1855 ; Swampscott, May 21, 1852; 
Topsfield, October 18, l(i50 ; West Newbury, June 14, 

1820. As the towns of Amesbury, Haverhill and 
Salisbury were the only towns in Norfolk County, 
outside of the territory of New Hampshire, which 
became a royal province in 1679, the following act 
was passed by the General Court on the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, 1679-80 : 

" This Court being sensible of the great inconvenience and charge that 
it will be to Salisbury, Haverhill and Amesbury to continue their County 
Court, now some of the towns of Norfolk are taken off, and considering 
that these towns iiid formerly belong to Essex County, and attended at 
Essex courts, do order that these towns that are left be again joined to 
Essex and attend public business at Essex courts, there to implead and be 
impleaded, as occasion shall be; their records of lands being still to be 
kept in some one of their own towns on the North of Merrimack, and 
all persons according to course of law are to attend in Essex County." 

By this act Norfolk County, as incorporated in 

1643, was extinguished, to be revived in another sec- 
tion of the State by an act of incorporation dated 
March 26, 1793. The act above quoted alludes to a 
former union of Amesbury, Haverhill and Salisbury 
with Essex, which never actually existed. The allu- 
sion is probably to old court connections, which 
existed before the incori)oration of the county, in 1(!43. 
Amesbury was a part of the old town of Salisbury, 
Boxford of the old town of Rowley, Beverly a part of 
Salem and afterwards of Danvers, Bradford a part of 
Rowley, Danvers a part of Salem, Essex a part of 
Ipswich, Georgetown a part of Rowley, Groveland a 
part of Bradford and Boxford, Hamilton a part of 
Ipswich, Lawrence a part of Andover, North Andover 
and Methuen, Lynnfield a part of Lynn, Manchester 
a part of Salem, Marblehead a part of Salem, Merri- 
mac a part of Amesbury, Methuen a part of Haverhill, 
Middleton a part of Salem, Topsfield, Boxford and 
Andover, Nahant a part of Lynn, Newburyport a part 
of Newbury, North Andover a part of Andover, Pea- 
body formerly South Danvers and a jjart of Danvers, 
Rockport a part of Gloucester, Saugus a part of Lynn 
and Chelsea, Swampscott a part of Lynn and Salem, 
Topsfield was New Meadows, Wenham was Enon, 
mentioned in the act incorporating the county ; and 
West Newbury was a part of Newbury, incorporated 
as Parsons and changed to its present name Juue 14, 

Since the addition to the county of the towns of 
Amesbury, Salisbury and Haverhill, in 1679-80, the 
only change in the boundaries of the county is that 
already referred to, caused by the annexation of a 
part of Chelsea, in Suffolk County, to .Saugus. On the 

22d of February, 1841, it was enacted that "so much 
of the town of Chelsea, with the inhabitants therein, 
as is embraced within the bounds hereafter named is 
hereby set off from said town of Chelsea and annexed 
to the town of Saugus, to wit: beginning at thesouth- 
erly side of the Newburyport turnpike on Maiden line 
and running south 26 east 51 rods and 18 links on 
said Maiden line to a stake and stones ; thence north 
52 east to Saugus line ; thence by the line of Saugus 
South Reading and Maiden to the bounds first men- 
tioned; provided, however, that the inhabitants thus 
set off shall be holden to pay all taxes heretofore 
assessed in the same manner as if this act had not 
been passed; provided, also, that all persons who 
shall have gained a settlement upon said territory, 
and who are now chargeable to the said town of 
Chelsea, shall remain and continue to be supported 
by said town of Chelsea, saving and excepting one 
John Burrell, who shall hereafter be considered as 
belonging to and shall hereafter be supported by said 
town of Saugus. 

"If any persons who have gained a legal settlement 
in said town of Chelsea by a residence on said terri- 
tory, or by having been proprietors of any part 
thereof, or who may desire such settlement from any 
such residents or proprietors, shall come to want and 
stand in need of relief and support, they shall be 
relieved and supported by the said town of Saugus in 
the same manner as if they had gained a settlement 
in said town.'' 

Essex County, of which Salem, Lawrence and New- 
buryport are the shires, is situated in the northeast 
corner of Massachusetts, and is bounded on the north- by the Atlantic Ocean, on the southeast by Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, on the southwest by Suffolk and 
Middlesex Counties, and on the northwest by New 
Hampshire. It contains about five hundred square 
miles of territory, traversed by the Merrimac River, 
which enters the county between Andover and Me- 
thuen and flows into the ocean at Newburyport ; the 
Shawsheen, which enters the Merrimac at Lawrence; 
the Parker River ; River, navigable to Danvers- 
port; and the Ipswich River, which is navigable to 
Ipswich. The business of the county is chiefly that 
of manufactures and the fisheries, though a by no 
means insignificant portion of its inhabitants gains a 
livelihood from agriculture and general commerce. 
Statistics relating to these industries will be included 
in the town histories. The following table shows the 
population, valuation and number of schools in each 
town according to the last published returns : 


Amesbury 4,403 $1,.')(J0,S35 20 

Andover 6,711 5,0.")3,079 22 

Beverly 0,186 10,170,780 36 

Boxford 840 065,285 fi 

Bradford 3,106 1,338,230 10 

Danvers 7,048 3,761,.590 20 

Essex 1,722 903,121 




Georgetown 2,299 1,018,491 10 

Gloiicpster 21,713 9,S97,Mfi 80 

Gnoeliind 2,272 880,771 10 

Hamilton 850 602,4:13 4 

Haverliill 21,79.-> 11,91S,2«0 75 

Ipswich 4,207 2,097,482 Ifi 

Lawrence 38,845 26,670,644 104 

Lynn 45,861 25,056,5S.i 116 

Ljnnfield 7G6 654,496 3 

Manchester 1,638 3,827,6.%'i 7 

MiirWehead 7,.518 3,964,927 15 

Merrimic 2,.178 1,169,368 14 

IHotlmen 4,507 2,777,610 19 

Middleton 899 527,771 4 

Nahnnt 6,17 6,.524,446 4 

Newbury 1,690 1,C»59,405 T 

Newburyport 13,716 8,321,954 29 

North .\ndover .3,425 2,620,179 16 

Peabody 9,530 7,188,290 33 

Rockport 3,888 2,077,044 14 

Rowley 1,183 545,095 7 

Salom 28,084 27,765,824 84 

Salisbury 4,840 2,227,043 21 

SauguB 2,855 1,368,602 13 

Swanipecott 2,471 3,95.5,202 10 

Topsfiold 1,141 766,875 6 

■Weliham 871 540,277 5 

West Newbury 1,899 1,1.W,471 11 263,694 8180,665,573 328 

It has been already stated that atihe time of the 
formation of the counties, in 1(343, judicial power was 
veiitcd in the General Court, the Court of Assistants 
(or Great Quarter Court) the Quarter Courts (lield 
ill specified towns) and the Strangers' Courts. After 
the formation of the counties the above courts con- 
tinued, though the Strangers' Courts were modified, 
and the Quarter Courts, in their respective counties, 
were called County or Inferior Quarter Courts. It 
had also been provided by an act [massed September 
9, 1039, that records be kept of all wills, administra- 
tions and inventories, of every marriage, birth and 
death, and of all men's houses and lands. It had, be- 
fore the above date, been provided by a law passed 
April 1, 1634, "that the constable and four or more 
of the chief inhabitants of every town (to be chosen 
by all the freemen there at some meeting there), with 
the advice of some one or more of the next assistants, 
shall make a surveying of the houses, backside, corn- 
fields, mowing-ground and other lands improved or 
inclosed on, granted by special orders of the court, of 
every free inhabitant there, and shall enter the same 
in a book (lairly written in words at length, and not 
in figures), with the several bounds and quantities by 
the nearest estimation, and shall deliver a transcript 
thereof into the court within six months now next 
ensuing; and the same so entered and recorded shall 
be a sufficient a.ssurance to every such free inhabitant, 
his and their heirs and assigns, of such e-state of in- 
heritance or as they shall have in any such houses, 
lands or frank tenements. The like course shall be 
taken for a.ssurance of all houses and town lots of all 
such as shall be hereafter enfranchised, and every 

sale or grant of such houses or lots as shall be, from 
time to time, entered into the said book by the said 
constable and four inhabitants or their successors 
(who shall be still supplied upon death or removal), 
for which entry the jjurchasers shall jiay six pence 
and the like sum for a copy thereof under the hands 
of the said surveyors or three of them." 

A further provision of law had been made on the 
7th of October, 1640, as follows: 

" For avoiding all fraudulent conveyances and that every man may 
know what estate or interest other men may have in any houses, lands, 
or other hereditaments they are to deal in, it is therefore ordered tliaf 
after the end of the month no mortgage, bargain, sjilo, or grant, here- 
after to be made of any houses, lauds, rents, or other hereditaments, shall 
be of force against any other person e.\cept the gratitor and his heirs, un- 
less the same be recorded as is hel-eafter e.xpressed ; aud that no such 
bargain, sjile, or grant, already made in way of mortgage, where the 
grantor remains in possession, shall bo of force against any other but 
the graofDrur his heirs, except the same shall be eutered an is hereafter 
expressed, within one month after the end of this court, if the party be 
within this jurisdiction, or else within three months after he shall re- 
turn. And if any such grantor, &c., bo required by the grantee, .\:i-., to 
make an acknowledgement of any grant, Ac, by him made, shall refuse 
so to do, it shall be in the power of any magistrate to send for the party 
BO refusing and commit him to prison, without bail or mayneprise, until 
he shall acknowledge the same. 

"And the grantee is to enter his caution with the recorder, and this 
shall save his interest in the meantime ; and if it be doubtfid whether it 
be the deed or grant of the party, ho shall be bound with sureties to tho 
next court and the caution shall remain good as aforesaid. 

"And for recording of all such bargains, &c., it is further ordered that 
there shall be one appointed at Ipswich, for which BIr. Samuel Symonds 
is chosen for that court, to enter all such bargains. Kites, itc, of all lanils, 
Ac, within the jurisdiction of that court ; aud Mr. Kmauuell Downing 
is chosen in like sort for the jurisdiction of the court of Sjilem ; and all 
the rest to be entered by Mr. Stephen W'inthrop, the I'ecorderat lioston.*' 

The recorder was the clerk of the court. In IG41 
it was provided that in every town " a clerk of the 
writs" should be appointed, and a part of his duties 
was to record all births and ileaths, and yearly de- 
liver to the recorder of the court a transcript thereof. 
It was also provided that every married man shall 
bring a certificate, under the hand of the magistrate 
who married him, to the clerk of the writs, to be re- 
corded and returned by him to the recorder. Thus 
it will be seen how extensive the jurisdiction of the 
County Court was made. Aside from its ordinary 
judicial powers, it had charge of the records of deeds 
of probate matters and the laying out of highways, 
and included the departments now held by the judge 
and register of probate, the register of deeds, the 
clerk of the courts and county commissioners. 

With regard to treasurers, their duties, up to 1().')4, 
were performed by the treasurer of the whole colony 
or of the country, as he was called. In that year it 
was provided " that henceforth there shall be treas- 
urers annually chosen in every county, provided that 
no clerk or recorder of any County Court shall be 
chosen trea.surer of the county." The officer now 
called sherill' was, in the days of the colony, called 
marshal. There was a marshal of the General ("ourt 
alone up to the formation of the counties, in 1G43, 
and after that date each court a|)parently ajipointed 



its own marshal, though it is possible that even be- 
fore that time every Quarter Court had its own of- 
ficer bearing that name. So far as Essex County is 
concerned, it is proper to state that the present regis- 
try of deeds contains the entire records from 1638, 
and that the original probate records prior to 1671 
are to be found in the ofl5ce of the clerk of the courts, 
where they were originally kept. The registry of 
probate was located in Ipswich until 1851, when, un- 
der general powers conferred by law, the county com- 
missioners removed it to Salem. 

There is another court which should be mentioned 
to complete the colonial judicial system so far as it 
concerned the county. On the 6th of September, 
1638, it was ordered " that for avoiding of the coun- 
try's charge by bringing small causes to the Court of 
Assistants that any magistrate in the town where he 
may hear and determine by his discretion all causes 
wherein the debt, or trespass, or damage, etc., doth 
not exceed twenty shillings, and in such town where 
no magistrate dwells, the General Court shall, from 
time to time, nominate three men ; two thereof shall 
have like power to hear and determine all such ac- 
tions under twenty shillings ; and if any of the parties 
shall find themselves grieved with any such end or 
sentence, they may appeal to the next Quarter Court, 
or Court of Assistants. And if any person shall 
bring any such action to the Court of Assistants be- 
fore he hath endeavored to have it ended at home 
(as in this order is appointed), he shall lose his action 
and pay the defendant's coats." The jurisdiction of 
this petty court was afterwards extended to matters 
involving a sum not exceeding forty shillings. It 
should be added, however, concerning this petty 
court, that the selectmen of a town were authorized 
to try offences against their own by-laws where the 
penalty did not exceed twenty shillings, provided the 
by-laws did not extend to anything criminal. They 
were also competent to try cases where only one 
magistrate lived in a town and he was an interested 
party, and where there' was no magistrate and one or 
more of the commissioners were concerned. 

Up to 1685 the judicial system of Massachusetts 
Colony and its counties remained as has been traced 
above, as follows : 1st, the General Court with legisla- 
tive powers and a limited appellate jurisdiction from 
the Court of Assistants ; 2d, the Court of Assistants 
or Great Quarter Court, with exclusive jurisdiction 
in all criminal cases involving neither life, limb nor 
banishment, and concurrent jurisdiction with the 
County Courts in civil cases involving not more 
than one hundred pounds, and appellate jurisdiction 
from the County Courts ; 3d, the County Courts or 
Inferior Quarter Courts, with jurisdiction in civil and 
criminal cases, except cases of divorce and 
crimes involving life, limb or banishment, having 
power to summon grand and petit jurors, and to ap- 
point their own clerks and other necessary officers, to 

lay out highways, license taverns, to see that a proper 
ministry was supported, to prove wills, grant admin- 
istration and have general control of matters in pro- 
bate, and have appellate jurisdiction from the Commis- 
sioners' Courts ; 4th, Strangers' Courts, held at first by 
the Governor or Deputy-Governor and two magis- 
trates, or, in the absence of the Governor and deputy 
by three magistrates with the same jurisdiction as the 
County Courts so far as strangers are concerned, where 
judgments were final ; 5th, Petty Commissioners' or 
Selectmen's Courts in the various towns. 

On the 18th of June, 1684, a judgment vacating the 
colonial charter was issued, and a copy was received 
by the colonial secretary, Edward Rawson, on the 2d 
of July in the next year. Joseph Dudley was there- 
upon appointed, by the King, President of Massachu- 
setts Bay, Maine, New Hampshire and the Narra- 
ganset country, and received the commission May 
15, 1686. The Council appointed by the King were 
Simon Bradstreet, Robert Mason, John Fitz Win- 
throp, John Pynchon, Peter Bulkley, Edward Ran- 
dolph, Wait Winthrop, Richard Wharton, John 
Usher, Nathaniel Saltonstall, Bartholomew Gedney, 
Jonathan Tyng, Dudley Bradstreet, John Hicks and 
Edward Tyng, of whom Simon and Dudley Brad- 
street and Nathaniel Saltonstall declined. The 
Governor and Council possessed no legislative power, 
except to establish such courts as might be necessary. 
They were a court of themselves for the trial of causes, 
and had authority to appoint judges. They estab- 
lished a Superior Court, with three sessions a year, at 
Boston, and" Courts of Pleas and Sessions of the Peace " 
in the several counties. The President assumed 
probate jurisdiction, but in some counties appointed 
judges of probate. William Stoughton was appointed 
to preside in the County Courts of Middlesex, Suf- 
folk and Essex, and John Richard* and Simon Lynde 
were appointed his assistants. These appointments 
were made July 26, 1636. Appeals could be taken 
from these courts to the President and Council. 

But the administration of Dudley was of short du- 
ration. Governor Andros arrived in Boston on the 
19th of December, 1686, and a.s Governor assumed 
jurisdiction over the whole of New England, includ- 
ing the Plymouth Colony, which was not included in 
the commission of Dudley. He appointed thirty-nine 
members of his Council, and the Governor and Coun- 
cil possessed the exclusive power of making and exe- 
cuting the laws, subject to royal approval. He gave 
to justices of the peace civil jurisdiction in cases not 
affecting lands and not involving a sum exceeding 
forty shillings. He established next the " Quarterly 
Sessions Court," held by the several justices in their' 
respective counties, and next an "Inferior Court of 
Common Pleas," to be held in each county by ajudge 
assisted by two or more justices of the county. Their 
jurisdiction was limited to cases in which not more 
than ten pounds were involved and no question of 


freehold, except in Boston, where the limit was twenty 
pounds. Above these courts was the Superior Court 
of Judicature, in which no action could be com- 
menced involving less than ten pounds, unless it re- 
lated to a question of freehold, and which was to be 
hold in Boston, Cambridge, Charlestown, Plymouth, 
Bristol, Newport. Salem, Ipswich, Portsmouth, Fal- 
mouth, Northampton and Springfield. Joseph Dud- 
ley was appointed chief justice of this court. 

In 1691 a new charter was issued, embracing Mas- 
sachusetts, Plymouth, Maine, Nova Scotia and the 
intervening territory in one government, under the 
name of the " Province of the Ma.ssachusetts Bay in 
New England." This charter reached Boston May 
14, 1692, and under its provisions the government 
consisted of a Governor, Deputy-Governor and secre- 
tary appointed by the King, and assistants or Coun- 
cilors chosen by the General Court, and a House of 
Representatives chosen annually by the people. The 
Governor had the power of veto, and all acts and 
elections by the General Court must be transmitted to 
England and approved or disallowed by the King. 
The General Court was authorized " to erect and 
constitute judicatories and courts of records or other 
courts," and the Governor and Council could appoint 
udges, sheriffs, justices of the peace and other officers 
of the courts. The regulation and management of 
l)robate matters were given to the Governor and 
Council, and delegated by them to judges in each 
county. Under this charter the General Court no 
longer possessed judicial power. The first court es- 
tablished under the charter was a special Court of 
Oyer and Terminer, organized by Governor William 
I'hipps, the first Governor of the province, before any 
aw had been passed authorizing it, for the purpose 
of trying, chiefly in Essex County, persons charged 
with witchcraft. On the 2d of June, 1692, the Gov- 
ernor issued his commission appointing Wm. Stough- 
ton chief justice, and Nathaniel Saltonstall (who de- 
clined and was succeeded by Jonathan Curwin), 
John Richards, Bartholomew Gedney, Wait Win- 
throp, Samuel Sewall and Peter Sergeant associate 
lustices; Stephen Sewall, clerk; Thomas Newton, 
attorney-general (succeeded July 22d by Anthony 
Checkley) ; George Corwin, sheriff. The first meet- 
ing of this court was held at Salem on the 2d of 
June, 1692, and its last meeting on the 17th of Sep- 
tember following, after which the court was dissolved. 
During this time the expense of the court to Essex 
County was one hundred and thirty puuiids, and 
nineteen persons were tried, condemned and hung, 
and one was pressed to death. 

On the 25th of November, 1692, a law was passed 
establishing Courts of Justices of the Peace, four 
Courts or Quarter Sessions of the Peace in each county, 
an Inferior Court of Common Pleas for each county, a 
Superior Court of Judicature for the whole province, 
and a High CourtofChaucery for the province. This act 

was disallowed. On the 19th of June, 1697, another 
act was passed establishing County Courts, which was 
also disallowed. On the 26th of June, 1699. three 
acts were passed, e.stablishing in each county a Court 
of General Sessions of the Peace and an Inferior Court 
of Common Pleas, and a Superior Court of Judicature 
for the province. The Court of General Sessions of 
the Peace was authorized to be held at specified 
times and places " by the justices of the peace of the 
same county, who are hereby empowered to hear and 
determine all matters relating to the conservation of 
the peace and punishment of offenders." The Infer- 
ior Court of Common Pleas Wiis to be held at specified 
times and places "by four substantial persons, to be 
appointed and commissionated as justices of the same 
court in each county, who shall have cognizance of 
all civil actions arising or happening within such 
county, provided that no action under the value of 
forty shillings shall be brought into any of the said 
Inferior Courts, unless where freehold is concerned or 
upon appeal from a justice of the peace." The Su- 
perior Court of Judicature was to be held at specified 
times and places in the province, by " one chief jus- 
tice and four other justices, to be appointed and com- 
missionated for the same, who shall have cognizance 
of all pleas, — real, personal or mixt, — as well as all 
pleas of the Crown and all matters relating to the 
conservation of the peace and punishment of offend- 
ers," etc. This court was ordered to be held for the 
county of Suffolk, at Boston, on the first Tuesdays in 
November and May ; for the county of Essex, at 
Salem on the second Tuesday in November, and at 
Ipswich on the third Tuesday in May ; for the county 
of Middlesex, at Cambridge on the last Tuesday in 
July, and at Charlestown on the last Tuesday in 
January ; for the county of Hampshire, at Spring- 
field, on the second Thursday in August; for the 
county of York, at Kittery, on the Thursday before 
the Ipswich court ; for the counties of Plymouth, 
Barnstable and Dukes County, at Plymouth, on the 
last Tuesday in March ; and for the county of Bristol, 
at Bristol, on the second Tuesday in September. 

Jurisdiction in probate matters had, during the 
colonial period, been exercised by the common law 
courts. During the administration of Andros it was 
exercised by the Governor, but, by the charter of the 
province, it was conferred on the (iovernor and Coun- 
cil. Claiming, however, thepower of substitution, the 
Governor and Council appointed a judge of probate in 
each county, reserving to themselves appellate juris- 

The judges of the Inferior Court of Common Plea» 
for Essex County were as follows : 

Appointed December 7. 16D2. — Bnrtholuniow Gedney, Samuel Apple- 
ton, Jotin Hathorne, .lunalban Corwin. 
1C9G. — Wm. Br«)wne, in place of Samuel Appleton. 
1G98. — Daniel Peirce, iu place of Bartholomew Gedney, deceafc'd. 
1G90. — Same appointed. 


1702.— Nathaniel Saltonstall, in place of Jonathan Corwin ; Jonathan 
Corwin, in place of John Hathorne. 

1704. — John .\ppleton, in place of Daniel Peirce. 

1707. — Thomas Noyes, in place of Nathaniel Saltonstall. 

1708. — John Higgiusou, in place of Jonathan Corwin, appointed to 
the 'Superior Court. 

171i'>. — Samuel Brown, in place of his father, Wra. Browne. 

1720. — Jolin Burrill, in place of John Higginson. 

1721-22. — Josiah Wok-ott, in place of John Burrill. 

1729. — Timothy Linall and John Wainwright. 

1733.— TheophiluB Burrill and Thomas Berry, in place of Samuel 
Brown and John Appleton. 

1737. — Benjamin Mai-ston, in place of Theophilus Burrill. 

1739. — Benjamin Lynde, in place of John Wainwriglit, deceased. 

17-15-46. — John Choat, in place of Benjamin Lynde, transferred to the 
Superior Court., 

1754. — Henry Gibbs, in place of Timothy Linall, resigned ; John 
Tasker, in place of Benjamin Marston, deceased. 

1756. — Benjamin Picliman, in place of Thomas Berry, deceased. 

1759. — Caleb Gushing, in place of Ilenry Gibbs, deceased. 

1761. — Stephen Iligginson, in place of Benjamin Picliman ; Nathaniel 
Ropes and Andrew Oliver, in place of Stephen Higgiuson, deceased, 
and John Tasker, deceased. 

1766.— William Bourn, in place of John Choat. 

1770. — William Browne, in place of William Bourn, deceased. 

1772. — Peter Frye, in place of Nathaniel Ropes, transferred to the 
Superior Court. 

1775. — John Lowell, Caleb Cashing, Benjamin Greenleaf and Azor 

1779. — Caleb Gushing, Benjamin Greenleaf, John Pickering, Jr., 
Samuel Holten. 

1782.— Samuel Phillips, in place of Caleb Gushing. 

1798. — Ebenezer March, in place of Benjamin Greenleaf. 

1799. — John Treadwell, in place of John Pickering. 

1808. — Samuel Ilolten retired, and was appointed chief justice of the 
General Court of Sessions. 

The Inferior Court of Common Pleas continued un- 
til July 3, 1782, when the Court of Common Pleas 
was established, to be held within each county at spec- 
ified times and places, with four judges appointed 
by the Governor from within the county. 

Those in the above list, after 1779, were judges of 
this court. This court continued until June 21, 1811, 
when an act was passed providing that the common- 
wealth, except Dukes County and the county of 
Nantucket, should be divided into six circuits, as fol- 
lows : the Middle Circuit, consisting of the counties ot 
Suffolk, Essex and Middlesex ; the Western Cir- 
cuit, consisting of the counties of Worcester, Hamp- 
shire and Berkshire ; the Southern Circuit, consisting 
of the counties of Norfolk, Plymouth, Bristol and 
Barnstable ; the Eastern Circuit, consisting of the 
counties of York, Cumberland and Oxford; the sec- 
ond Ea.stern Circuit, consisting of the counties of 
Lincoln, Kennebec and Somerset; and the third 
Eastern Circuit, consisting of the counties of Han- 
cock and Washington. It further provided that 
there shall be held in the several counties, at the 
times and places now appointed for holding the 
Courts of Common Pleas, a Circuit Court of Common 
Pleas, consisting of one chief justice and two associ- 
ate justices, to whom were to be added two sessions 
justices from each county, to sit with the court in 
their county. The history of this court is so mingled 
with that of the General Court of Sessions that 
both should be sketched together. The Court of 

General Sessions of the Peace remained substantially 
the same during the provincial period, and up to 
June 19, 1807, when it was enacted that it should 
consist of one chief justice, or first justice, and a cer- 
tain number of associate justices for the several coun- 
ties, to be appointed by the Governor with the con- 
sent of the Council. These justices were to act as the 
General Court of Sessions in the place of the justices 
of the peace in each county. On the 19th of June, 
1809, the powers and duties of the General Court of 
Sessions were transferred to the Court of Common 
Pleas, and two years later, on the 25th of June, 1811, it 
was enacted, " that from and after the first day of 
December next, an act made and passed the 19th day of 
June, 1809, entitled ' an act to transfer the powers and 
duties of the Courts of Sessions to the Courts of Com- 
mon Pleas,' be and the same is hereby repealed, 
and that all acts, or parts of acts, relative to the 
Courts of Sessions which were in force at the time the 
act was in force which is hereby repealed, be and the 
same are hereby revived from and after the said first 
day of September next." 

Again, on the 28th of February, 1814, it was en- 
acted that the act of June 25, 1811, above quoted, 
" be repealed, except so far as it relates to the coun- 
ties of Suffolk, Nantucket and Dukes County, and 
that all petitions, recognizances, warrants, orders, 
certificates, reports and processes made to, taken for 
or continued or returnable to the Court of Sessions in 
the several counties, except as aforesaid, shall be re- 
turnable to, and proceeded in, and determined by the 
respective Circuit Courts of Common Pleas," already 
referred to as having been established on the 21st of 
June, 1811, in the place of the old Court of Common 
Pleas. It further provided, " that from and after the 
first day of June next, the Circuit Courts of Common 
Pleas shall have, exercise, and perform all powers, 
authorities and duties which the respective Courts of 
Sessions have, before the passage of this act, exercised 
and performed, except in the counties of Sufiblk, 
Nantucket and Dukes County ; and it was further 
provided that the Governor, by and with the advice 
of the Council, be authorized to appoint two persons 
in each county, who shall be session justices of the 
Circuit Court of Common Pleas in their respective 
counties, and sit with the justices of said Circuit 
Court in the administration of the affairs of their 
county, and of all matters within said county of 
which the Courts of Sessions had cognizance." The 
management of county affairs was controlled by this 
court until February 20, 1819, when it was enacted, 
"that from and after the first day of June next, an 
' act to transfer the powers and duties of the Courts 
of Sessions to the Circuit Courts of Common Pleas,' 
passed on the 28th of February, 1814, be hereby re- 
pealed ; and it was further provided, that from and 
after the first day of June next the Court of Sessions 
in the several counties shall be held by one chief jus- 



tice and two associate justices, to be appointed by the 
Governor, witli tlie advice and consent of tlie Coun- 
cil, wlio uliall liavc all the powers, rights and privi- 
leges, and be suhject to all the duties, which arc now 
vested in the Circuit Courts of Common Pleas rela- 
tive to the erection and repairs of jails and other 
county buildings, the allowance and settlement of 
county accounts, the estimate, apimrtionment and is- 
suing warrants for assessing county taxes, granting 
licenses, laying out, altering and discontinuing high- 
ways, and appointing committees and ordering juries 
for that purpose." 

The Court of Sessions continued in the manage- 
ment of county atlairs until March 4, 1826, when that 
I)art of their duties relating to highways was vested 
by law in a new board of county officers, termed 
" commissioners of highways.'' The act creating 
this board provided " that for each county in the 
Commonwealth, except the counties of Suffolk and 
Nantucket, there shall be appointed and commis- 
sioned by His Excellency, the Governor, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Council, to hold their 
offices for five years, unless removed by the Governor 
and Council, five commissioners of highways, except 
in the counties of Dukes and Barnstable, in which 
there shall be appointed only three, who shall be in- 
habitants of such county, one of whom shall be 
designated as chairman by his commission." The 
act further provided that the doings of the commis- 
sioners should be reported to the Court of Sessions for 
record, and that said court should draw their warrants 
on the county treasury for expenses incurred by the 
commissioners in constructing roads located by 

On the 26th of February, 1828, an act was passed 
providing "that the Act entitled, 'An Act to estab- 
lish Courts of Sessions,' passed on the 20th day of 
February, 1819; also the Act in addition thereto, 
passed on the 21st day February, 1820 ; also the Act 
entitled, 'An Act increasing the numbers and extend- 
ing the powers of Justices of the Court of Sessions,' 
passed on the 6th of February, 1822 ; also the Act en- 
titled, 'An Act in addition to an Act directing the 
method of laying out highways,' passed on the 4th 
day of March, 1826, be and the same are hereby re- 
pealed." It further provided that "there shall be ap- 
pointed and commissioned by His Excellency, the 
Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Council, four persons to be county commissioners 
for each of the counties of Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk 
and Worcester, and three persons to be county com- 
missioners for each of the other counties of this Com- 
monwealth, except the county of Suffolk," " that the 
Clerks of the Courts of Common Pleas within the 
several counties shall be clerks of said county com- 
missioners," and "that for each of the counties in the 
Commonwealth, except the counties of Suffolk, Mid- 
dlesex, Essex, Worcester, Norfolk and Nantucket, 

there shall be appointed and commissioned two per- 
sons to act as special county commissioners." 

On the 8th of April, 18;35, it w;ia provided by law 
that in everv county except Suffolk and Nantucket the 
judge of probate, register of probate and clerk of the 
Court of Common Pleas should be a board of ex- 
aminers, and that on the first JFonday of !May, in the 
year 1835, and on the first Monday of April, in every 
third year thereafter, the people should cast their 
votes for three county commissioners and two special 
commissioners. The law remained unaltered until 
March 11, 1854, when it was provided, that the county 
commissioners now in office in the several counties, 
exceiit in Suffolk and Nantucket, shall be divided 
into three classes ; those of first class shall hold their 
oflices until the day of the next annual election of 
Governor; those of the second class until the same 
election day in 1855 ; and those of the third class 
until the same election day in 1856, the commis- 
sioners now in office determining by lot to which each 
shall belong, and that at such annual election each 
year thereafter, one commissioner be chosen for three 
years. It was also provided that at the annual election 
in 185(1, and each third year thereafter, two special 
commissioners be chosen. 

Since the passage of the law of 1828 establishing 
Boards of County Commissioners the following per- 
sons have been appointed members of the Essex 
County Board : 

182S-33. — .\sa W. Wildes, of Newbnryport ; Joseph Winn, of Sulein ; 
Stephens Baker, of Ipswich ; Wm. B. Breed, of Lynn. 

1834, — John W. Proctor, of South Danvers, in place of William B. 

18:55-37. — Moses Newell, of West Nowlmry, in place of .\sa W, Wildes. 

1838-tU.— Asa T. Sewhall, of Lynn, in place of John W. I'roctor. 

1841-4.1. — Charles Kimball, of Ipswich ; Robert Patten, of Amesbury ; 
Wm. Whipple, of liockport. 

1814-46. -Asa W. Wililes, of Newbnryport, and Benj. F. Newhall, of 
Saugus, in place of Robert Patten and W'm. Whipple, 

1847-49— John 1. Baker, of Beverly, in place of Charles Kimball. 

1850-54. — Benjamin Mudge, of Lynn, in place of Benjaniiu F. New- 

In this last year — in accordance with the law passed 
March 11, 1854, providing for the division of the 
commissioners by lot into three classes, one going out 
each year, and another chosen by the people for a 
term of three years — John I. Haker drew the first 
class, Benjamin Mudge the second, and Asa W. 
Wildes the third. At the election of 1854, and at 
subsequent elections, the following were chosen : 

1854. — Stephens Baker, of Beverly, in place of Jolin I. Baker. 

1855. — Kben B, (Jurrier, of Lawrence, in jilace of Benjamin Mudge. 

185fi. — George Haskell, of Ipswich, in place of Asu W. Wildes. 

1857. — Stephons Baker, rechoseu. 

1858.— Ebeu B. Currier, recliosen. 

1859. — Abrani I). Wait, of Ipswich, in place of George Haskell. 

18G0. — James Kimball, of Saloni, in place of Stephens Rtker. 

1861. — JackS'iil B. Swott, of Haverhill, in place of Eben B. Ourrier, 

1862, — Abrani D, Wait, recliosen, 

1863, — James Kimball, recliosen, 

1864. — Jackson B. Swett, recliosen. 

1865. — Abrani D. Wait, recliosen. 

1866, — James Kimball, lecliosen. 


1867. — Jttckson B. 8w(?tt, recboeen. 

1868. — Cliarlea P. Preston, of Danvei-s, Id place of Abram D. Wait. 

1869. — .lames Kinibal), rechosen. 

1870. — Jttckfiun B. Swett, rechosen. 

1871. — Charles P. Preston, rechosen. 

1872.— *Jftnies Kimball, rechosen. 

1873.— Zachariah Graves, of Lynn, in place of Jackson B. Swett. 

1874. — Joseph 0. Proctor, of Gloncester, in place of Chaa. P. Preston. 

1875. — James Kimball, rechosen. 

1876. — Zachariah Graves, rechosen. 

1877. — Joseph O. Proctor, rechosen. 

1878. — John W. Raymond, of Beverly, in place of James Kimball. 

1879. — Geo. J. L. Colby, of Newbiiryport, in place of Zachariah Graves. 

1880. — Zachariah Craves, in place of Joaeiih 0. Proctor. 

1881. — John \V, Uaymuml, rectiosen. 

1882.— Edward B. Bishop, of Haverhill, in place of Geo. J. L. Colby. 

188;j. — Geo. J. L. CoUiy, in place of Zachariah Graves. 

1884. — John W. Raymond, rechosen. 

1885. — Edward B. Bisliop, rechosen. 

lS86.~David W. Low. of Gloucester, in place of Geo. J. L. Colby. 

The Circuit Court of Common Pleas, which was 
established in 1811, was abolished on the 14th of 
February, 1821, and the Court of Common Pleas es- 
tablished with four justices, one of whom it was pro- 
vided by law should be commissioned chief justice. 
On the Ist of March, 1843, the number of judges was 
increased to five; March 18, 1845, it was increased to 
six ; May 24, 1851, to seven. On the 5th day of 
April, 1859, the Court of Common Pleas was abol- 
ished, and the present Superior Court established, 
with ten judges, which number was increased, May 
19, 1875, to eleven. 

The Superior Court of .Judicature, which was es- 
tablished June 26, 1699, received no appointments to 
its bench after 1775. During its existence the fol- 
lowing judges were appointed: 

1692.— Wni. Sloughton (Chief Jnstice), Thomas Ilanforth, Wait Win- 
throp (Chief Justice, 17U8J, John Richards, Samuel Sewall (Chief Jus- 
tice, 1718). 

1690.- Eliaha Cooke. 

1700.— John Walley. 

1701.— John SalBn. 

1702. — Isaac Addington (Chief Justice, 1703), John Hathorne, John 

1708.— Jonathan Curwin. 

1712.— Benjamin Lyndo (Chief Justice, 1728), Nathaniel Thomas. 

1715. — Addington Ilavenjiort. 

1718.— Edmund Quincy, Paul Dudley (Chief Justice, 1745). 

1728.— John Gushing. 

1733. — Jonathan Remington. 

1736.— Richard Saltonstall. 

1738. — Tiiomas Graves. 

1739.— Stephen Sewall (Chief Justice, 1752). 

1745. — Nathaniel Hubbard, Benjamin Lyude (Chief Justice, 1771). 

1747.— John Cushing. 

1752. — Chambers RubSell. 

1766.— Peter Oliver (Chief Justice, 1772). 

1760. — Thomas Hutchinson (Chief Justice). 

1767. — Edmund Trowbridge. 

1771. — Foster Hutchinson. 

1772. — Nathaniel Ropes. 

1774. — William Brown. 

1776.— William Gushing (Chief Justice, 1777), John Adams (Chief 
Jnstice), Nathaniel P. Sargeant, William Reed, Robert Treat Paine. 

1776. — Jedediah Foster, James Sullivan. 

1777.— David Sewall. 

Of these. Judges John Hathorne, Jonathan Curwin, 
Richard Saltonstall, Stephen Sewall, Benjamin Lyude, 

Nathaniel Ropes, William Brown, David Sewall, 
Jedediah Foster and Nathaniel P. Sargeant were Essex 
County men. On the 20th of February, 1781, an act 
was passed establishing the Supreme Judicial Court 
as the successor of the Superior Court of Judicature. 
It was established with one chief justice and four as- 
sociates, but in the year 1800 the number of associates 
was increased to six, and the State was divided into 
two circuits, the East including Essex County and 
Maine, and the West including all the remainder of 
the State, except Suffolk County. In 1805 the number 
of associates was again fixed at four, and so remained 
until 1852, when their number was increased to five. 
In 1873 the number of associates was increased to 
six, and of one chief justice and six associates the 
court is now constituted. Those in the above list 
after 1774 were judges of the Superior Court of 
Judicature of the State of Massachusetts, and not of 
the province. Of the judges of the Superior Court 
since its organization, in 1781, the following have been 
Essex County men : Theophilus Parsons, Charles 
Jackson, Samuel Putnam, Caleb Cushing, Wm. C. 
Endicott and Otis P. Lord, who will be referred to in 
another chapter containing .sketches of the bench and 

The administration of probate affairs, as has been 
already stated, was in the hands of the County Court 
during the colonial period up to the accession of Pres- 
ident Dudley, in 1685. It has also been stated that 
he assumed the jurisdiction to himself, but delegated 
it in one or more counties to a judge of probate ap- 
pointed by him. Under the administration of Andros 
the Governor personally attended to the settlement of 
estates exceeding fifty pounds, and it is presumed 
that smaller estates came within the rules established 
by Dudley. After the deposition of Andros the old 
colonial method was resumed and continued until the 
charter of the province went into operation, in 1692. 
Under the provincial charter jurisdiction in probate 
affairs was conferred on the Governor and Council, 
who claimed and exercised the right of delegating it 
to judges and registers of probate in the several coun- 
ties. During the provincial period there was no Pro- 
bate Court established by law, but the judge and 
register exercised their powers under authority de- 
rived only from the Governor and Council. On the 
12th of March, 1784, a Probate Court was established, 
of which the judge and register were appointed by the 
Governor until, under an amendment of the Constitu- 
tion ratified by the people May 23, 1855, it was provided 
after some previous legislation that in 1856, and every 
fifth year thereafter, the register should be chosen by 
the people for a term of five years. In 1856 a Court 
of Insolvency was established for each county, with a 
judge and register, and in 1858 the offices of judge and 
register of this court were abolished, as well as those 
of judge and register of probate, and the offices of 
judge and register of probate and insolvency estab- 


Hshed. In the same year it was provided that the 
register of probate and insolvency should be chosen 
by the people, for a term of five years, at the annual 
election in that year and every fifth year thereafter. 
In 18G2 the Probate Court was made a court of rec- 
ord. The oflices of judge and register have been held 
by the following persons since the provincial charter 
went into operation, in 1692 : 






Bartholomew Geiiney. 


Stephen Sewall. 


JoDathau Curwin. 


Jotin Croade. 


John Appletou. 


.lohn llif;ginson. 


Thomas Berry. 


I>aiiiel Rogers. 


John Choate. 


Daniel .\ppIeton. 


Nathaniel Hopes. 


Samuel Rogers. 


Benjamin Lyniie. 


Peter Frye. 


Benjamin Greenleaf. 


Daniel Xoyee. 


Saninel Holten. 


Nathaniel Lord (3d). 


Daniel A. White. 


Kdwin Lawrence. 


Nathaniel S. Howe. 


George R. Lord. 


Abner C. Goodell, Judge 



James Ropes. 



Jonathan Perley, Jr. 


Henry B. Fernald, Judge of 


Abner C. GoodiMl, Register 


of Insolrency. 


George F. Choate, Judge 
P. and I. 



Charles H. Hudson, Register 
of P. 

Abner C. Goodell, Register 
of P. and I. 

Jeremiah T. Mahoney, Reg- 
ister of P. and I. 

The executive officer of the court was, in colonial 
times up to 1685, called marshal, except in the 
very earliest years, when he was called beadle. As 
early, however, as 1634 the records show that James 
Penn was chosen marshal. Under President Dudley 
he was called provost marshal, under Andros he was 
called sheriff, and after Andros, until the province was 
established, in 1692, he was again called marshal. As 
nearly as can be ascertained, the marshals in Essex 
were as follows : 

1663. Samuel Archard. 
1670. Henry Sherry. 
1685. Robert Lord. 

1686. Jeremiah Neale. 
16'.*1. John Rogers. 
1692. John Harris. 

The sherifls have been as follows : 

1692. George Corwin. 
1696. William Gedney. 
1702. Thomas Wainwright. 

William Gedney. 
1708. Daniel lienison. 
1710. WilliHiii Geduey. 
1715. John Denison. 
1722. Benjatnin Marston. 
1746. Robert Hale. 

1766. Richard .Saltonstall. 
1779. Michael Farley. 
1792. Bailey Bartlett. 
18;ll. Joseph E. Sprague. 
18.V2. Fredtfrick Robinson. 
18.M. Thomas E. I'ayson. 
18.*t6. James Cary. 
1S67. Horatio G. Herrick. 

Under a law passed in 1831 the Governor was au- 
thorized, with the power of removal, to appoint sher- 
ilTs for the several counties for five years. Under the 
nineteenth article of amendments of the Constitution, 
ratified in 1855, a law was passed in 1856 providing 
that in that year, and every third year thereafter, a 
sherifi' should be chosen by the people of each county 
at the annual election. 

The clerks of the courts were appointed by the 
courts during the colonial period. During the pro- 

vincial period the clerks of the County Courts and 
those of the Superior Court of Judicature, and after- 
wards of the Supreme Judicial Court, were distinct 
until 17'J7, and the clerk of the latter two courts had 
his oflice in Boston. The appointment lay with the 
courts until 1811, when the Governor and Council 
were made the appointing jiower. In 1814 the ap- 
pointment was given to the Supreme Judicial Court, 
and there remained until 1856, when it was provided 
by law that in that year, and every fifth year there- 
after, clerks should be chosen by the people in the 
several counties. As nearly as can be ascertained, the 
following is a correct list of the clerks of the courts 
in Essex County: 

1637. Ralph Fogg. 

1647. Henry Bartholomew. 

Robert Lord. 
1653. Elia.s Slilcman. 
1658. Hilliard Veren. 

Bart, (ipdney. 
1683. Beuj. Gerrisll. 
1692. Stephen;.';ewull.l 
1727. Mitchell Sewall. 
1750. Jos. Bowditch. 
1771. Wm. JelTrey. 
1774. Jos. Hlanc.y. 
1779. Samuel (Jsgood. 

17S3. Isaac Osgood 
179."). Thos. Bancroft. 

1797. Samuel Holten. 

1798. 'I'hos. Bancroft. 
1804. Ichahod Tucker. 

1812. Jos. E. Sprague. 

1813. Ichahod Tucker. 
1828. John Prince, Jr. 
1842. Shillaber. 
1852. .\8aliel Huntington. 
1872. Alfred A. Abbott. 
1885. Dean Peabody. 

During the colonial period the clerks of the courts 
were registers of deeds, and so continued until 1715, 
when it was provided "that in each county some per- 
son having a freehold within said county to the value 
of at least ten pounds should be chosen by the people 
of the county." In 1781 a law was passed renewing 
and continuing this practice, and the law remained in 
force until 1855, when it was provided that in that 
year, and every third year thereafter, a register of 
deeds should be chosen for the term of three years. 
The list of clerks, therefore, above given will cover 
the registers up to 1715. Since that date they have 
been as follows : 

1692. Stephen Sewall. 

1727. Mitchell Sewall. 

1774. John Higginsou. 

1780. John Pickering. 

1807. Amos Choate. 

iai2. Ralph H. French. 

1852. Kjihraim Brown, Jr. 

Up to 1869 the registry of deeds for the whole 
county was kept at Salem. I5ut on the 22d of 
June, in that year, an act was passed providing 
that the city of Lawrence and the towns of An- 
dover, North Andover and Methuen should con- 
stitute a district for the registry of deeds, under 
the name of the Northern District of Essex, and 
that the other towns in the county should con- 
stitute the Southern District. . It also ])rovi(lcd that 
the Governor and Council should, on or before the 
1st day of the following October, appoint a register 
for the Northern District to hold office until a regis- 

1870. EphniiiM Brown, South. 
1870. Gibert E. Hood, North. 
187.'>. Ephraiin BruWn, South. 
1875. Abiel Morrison, North. 

1878. John R. Poor, North. 

1879. Chas. S. (Isgood, South. 

1 Was also clerk during the adtuinistratiou of Dudley, 
during that of .\ndros. 

ind probably 


ter should be chosen by the people of the towns in 
the district at the annual election in 1870. It further 
provided that the register of deeds then in office 
should continue until a register for the Southern Dis- 
trict should be chosen b)' the people of the district in 
1870, and that he should deliver on demand to the 
register of the Northern District all original deeds or 
other instruments recorded and remaining in his 
office conveying or relating to land or estates in said 
Northern District. 

After the formation of the counties it was provided 
by law, in 1654, that each county should annually 
choose a treasurer. This provision was renewed by an 
act passed in 1692, after the formation of the province, 
and continued, it is believed, up to 1856, when it was 
provided that a county treasurer should be chosen in 
that year, and every third year thereafter, for the term 
of three years. Up to 1651, when provision was made 
for the election of county treasurers, the treasurer 
chosen by the General Court was the treasurer of the 
whole colony. These were as follows : 

lG3fi. Richard I>ummer, 
1G37. Bichard Bellinijluim. 
1640. William Tyng. 
lC4-i to 16S4. Eichard Russell. 

May 13, 1629, George Harwood, 
Dec. 1, 1620, Sam i-.el Aldesy. 
1632. Willinm Pynchoi). 
1634. William Coddiugtuii. 

No further record of county treasurers is accessible 
before 1771. From that date they have been as fol- 
lows : 

1774. Michael Farley. 

1702. Steplien Choate. 

1813. Bailey Hartlett. 

1814. Nathaniel Wade. 

1852. Daniel Weed. 
18.53. Allen W, Dodge. 
1878. Edward K. Jenkins. 

The only courts connected with the county remain- 
ing to be mentioned are the Police and District 
Courts. Of the Police Courts there are five — those in 
Gloucester, Lawrence, Lynn, Haverhill and New- 
buryport. That of Gloucester is for that city alone 
and its officers are James Davis, justice ; Ellridge G. 
Friend and Wm. W. French, special justices; and 
Sumner D. York, clerk. That of Lawrence is also 
for that city alone, and its officers are Nathan W. Har- 
mon, justice: Wilbur F. Gile and Charles U. Bell, 
special justices ; and Albert A. Tyler, clerk. That for 
Lynn is for that city alone, and its officers are Rollin 
E. Harmon, justice ; Ira B. Keith and John W. Berry, 
special justices ; and Henry C. Oliver, clerk. The 
Police Court of Haverhill comprises within its juris- 
diction Haverhill, Bradford and Groveland, and its 
officers are Henry Carter, justice ; Ira A. Abbott and 
Henry N.Merrill, special justices; and Edward B. 
George, clerk. That of Newburyport comprises New- 
buryport and Newbury, and its officers are John N. 
Pike, justice ; David L. Withington and Horace I. 
Bartlett, special justices ; and Edward F. Bartlett, 
clerk. The only district court is the First District 
Court of Essex, which comprises within its jurisdic- 
tion Salem, Beverly, Danvers, Hamilton, Middleton, 
Topsfield and Wenham, and is held at Salem. Its 

1 Chosen in England. 

officers are Joseph B. F. Osgood, justice ; Daniel E. 
Safford and Nathaniel I. Holden, special justices; 
and Samuel P. Andrews, clerk. Police Courts were 
originally established in Salem, 1831 ; Newburyport, 
1833; Lawrence, 1848 ; Lynn, 1849; Haverhill, 1854; 
Gloucester, 1858. That of Haverhill was re-established 
in 1867, taking Bradford and Groveland within its 
jurisdiction, and the jurisdiction of the Newburyport 
Court was enlarged by the addition of Newbury, in 
1879. The first Essex District Court was established 
in 1874. 

Little can be said in this chapter of the early history 
of the Essex bar. Of those who were early called to the 
bench were Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhill, born in 
1639, and a graduate of Harvard in 1659; Bartholomew 
Gedney, of Salem, born in 1640; Thomas Berry, of 
Ipswich, a graduate of Harvard in 1712; Andrew 
Oliver, of Salem, a graduate of Harvard in 1724; 
Samuel White, of Haverhill (Harvard), 1731 ; John 
Hathorne, of Salem, born in 1641; Jonathan Curvvin, 
of Salem, born in 1640 ; Eichard Saltonstall, of Hav- 
erhill, born in 1703 (Harvard), 1722; Stephen Sew- 
all, of Salem, born in 1702 (Harvard), 1721 ; Benja- 
min Lynde, of Salem, born in 1700 (Harvard), 1718; 
Nathaniel Ropes, of Salem, born in 1726 (Harvard), 
1745; William Brown, of Salem (Harvard), 1855,— all 
of whom were on the bench of the Superior Court of 
Judicature, but not all educated in the law. The 
bar was divided into two classes — barristers and at- 
torneys, and this division continued until 1836, 
though after 1806 under a rule of court counselors 
were substituted for barristers. 

The term " barrister " is derived from the Latin word 
barra, signifying bar, and was applied to those only 
who were permitted to plead at the bar of the courts. 
In England, barristers, before admission, must have 
resided three years in one of the Inns of Court if a 
graduate of either Cambridge or Oxford, and five 
years if not. These Inns of Court were the Inner 
Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn and Gray's 
Inn. Before the Revolution this rule seems to have 
so far prevailed here as to require a practice of three 
years in the Inferior Courts before admission as bar- 
rister. John Adams says in his diary that he became 
a barrister in 1761, and was directed to provide him- 
self with a gown and bands and a tie wig, having 
practiced according to the rules three years in the l\\- 
ferior Courts. At a later day the period of probation 
seeins to have been four years, and at a still later 
seven years. 

With regard to the continuance of barristers after 
the Revolution, the following entry in the records of 
the Superior Court of Judicature may be interesting: 

"SutTulk, SS. Superior Court of Judicature at Boston, third Tuctday 
of February, 1781, present William Cashing, Nathauiel P. Sargeaut, 
David Sewall and James Sullivan justices : and now at this term the fol- 
lowing rule is uuule by the court and ordered to be entered, viz.: where- 
as, learTiing and literary accomplishments are necessary as well to jiro- 
mote the haiipiness as to preserve the freeilom of the people, and the 
learning uf the law when duly encouraged and rightly directed being 


as well p<^uHnrly subservient to tlio great and good purpose aforeeaid, 
ivi |ii"omotivo of piililic and private justice : and tlie court being at al' 
tiniea ready tn bestow peculiar marks of approbation upon the gentlemen 
of the bar, wlio, by a close applic;iti<iri to the study of tbe science tlivy 
profess. Iiy a mode of conduct wliich gives a conviction of tlie rectitude 
of their minds and u fairness of i)nictice that does honor to tbe profes- 
sion of tbe law shall liistiiijriiihl) as men of Rcit-nce, honor and integrity, 
Po order Itiiit no t;entleman sliall be called to tbe degree of barrister 
until he 8b:ill merit the 8amo by his conspicuous bearing, ability and 
honesty ; and that the court will, of their own mere motion, call to tbo 
bar such pereons as shall render themselves worthy as afore>aid ; and 
that the maimer of eailing to tbo bar shall be n« follows : Tbe gentle- 
man who shall be a candidate sluvll stand within the bar ; the chief jus- 
tice, or in hif* alu^ence the senior justice, shall, in the name of tbo court, 
rept-at to biro the qualifications necessary for a barrister-at-law ; shall 
1ft him know thjit it is a conviction in tbo mind of the court of his being 
possessed of those (lualitications that induces them to confer the honor 
upon hini ; and shall solemnly charge him so to conduct biinself as to 
be of singular service to his country by oxurting his abilities for the 
defence of her Constitutional freedom ; an<l so to demean himself as to 
do honor to the court and bar." 

The act establishing the Supreme Judicial Court, 
July 3, 1782, provided that the court should and 
might from time to time make record and establish 
all such rules and regulations with respect to the ad- 
mission of attorneys ordinarily practicing in the said 
court, and the creating of barristers-at-Ia\v. Under 
the provisions of this act the following rule was 
adopted and entered on the records of the Supreme 
Judicial Court: 

"Suffolk SS. At tlie Supreme .ludicial Court at Boston the last Tues- 
day of August, ^'|K^, present \Villiam Cushing, Chief Justice, and Na- 
thaniel P. Sargeant, David Sewall and Increase Sumner, .Justices, 
ordered that barrister be called to the Bar by special writ to be ordered 
by the Court, and to be in tbe following form : 

''commonwealth of MASS.VfHl setts. 

'* To A. C, Esq., of , Greeting: We well hnowing your ability, 

learning and integrity, command you that you appear before our Justices 

of our Supreme Judicial Court next, to be holdeii at , in and for our 

county of , on the — Tuesday of •, then and there iu our said 

Court to tiike upon you the state and degree of a Barrister-at-Law. 

Hereof fail not. Witness , E8<i., our Chief Justice at Boston, the 

— day of , in the year of our Lord and in the year of our 

Independence , By order of the Court. , Clerk. 

" which writ shall be fairly engrossed on parchment and delivered 
twenty days before the session of the same Court by tbe Sheriff of the 
same county to the pi-rscm to whom din-ctcd and being produced in 
Court by the Barrister and there rend by tbe Clerk, and proper certiticate 
thereon made, shall be re-delivured and kept as a voucher of his being 
legjiUy cjilled to tbe bar: And the Barristers shall take rank according 
to the date of their re8i)ective writs.'' 

It is believed that no barristers were called after 
1784, and the following rule adopted in 1806 seems 
to have substituted counselors in their ])lace: 

"Suffolk SS. At the Supreme Judicial Court at Boston for the coun- 
ties of Suffolk and Nantucket the si-cond Tuesday of March, 18(HJ, pres- 
ent Francis Dana, Chief Justice, Theodon! Sedgwick, (Jeorge Thatcher 
and Is-uic I'arker, Justices, ordered: First. No Attorm-y shall do the 
business of a ruunsellor unless hv wliall hav«- hfvu m-.oh- t>r admittfd lu 
such b,\ tb« C-onrt. Second. All Altorueys of this Court who have hem 
admitted three years before the sitting of this Court shall be and hereby 
are made Counselloi-s and are entitled to all the rights and privileges of 
such. Third. No Attorney or Counsellor shall hereafter be admillcd 
without a previous examination, etc." 

In 183() the distinction between counselor and at- 
torney was abolished. The rule of court adopted in 
178;^ by the Supreme Judicial ('ourl was issued under 

the provisions of the law i)a8Sod the year before. The 
rule adopted in 1781 by the Superior Court of Judi- 
cature seems to have been provided for by no jirevi- 
ous law, and it is even doubtful whether before that 
time any rule had ever been maile by the Xew Eng- 
land courts providing for barristers. Precisely how 
early they were introduced into our courts it is im- 
possible to discover. It is known, however, as is 
stated by Washburne, in his history of the judiciary, 
that as early as 1708 there were twenty-five in Massa- 
chusetts, of whom Daniel Famliam, William Pynchon, 
John Chipnian, Nathaniel Peaselee Sargeant and 
John Lowell were of Essex. It is possible that be- 
fore the year 1781, during the provincial period, the 
English rule was followed and that the rule of that 
year was adopted in consequence of the new order of 
things brought about by the Revolution. 

It has been stated that the court termed "the Court 
of General Sessions," which consisted of the justices 
of the peace in each county and had existed during 
the provincial period, was changed to " the General 
Court of Sessions" in 1807. The judges appointed 
to this court for Essex County were Samuel Holt(!n 
(chief justice), Josiah Smith, Wm. Pearson, Thomas 
Kittcridge, John Sumders, Henry Elkins (justices), 
and John Punchard (clerk). In 1809 this court was 
abolished, and its powers and duties trausferred to 
the Court ot Common Pleas. In 1811, however, it 
was re-established, and its officers consisted of Sam*l. 
Holten (chief justice), Thomas Kitteridgc, Plenry 
Elkins, John Prince and Joseph Fuller (^justices) and 
Joseph E. Sprague (clerk). 

The sessions of the Supreme Judicial, Superior and 
Probate Courts, as now provided by law, are, — 

Supreme: Law term at Salem on the first Tuesday in November. Jiiry 
terms at Salem on the third Tuesday in April and the first Tuesday in 

Siijifrior: Civil term« at Salem on tbo fiiwt Hlondnys in Juno and De- 
cember ; Lawrence on the first Mimday in March ; Newburyjiort on the 
first Monday in September. t'riminal tenus, — Salem on tUv fourth 
Monday in .lanuary ; Newburyjiort on the second Moixlay in May ; 
Lawrence on tbe fourth Monday in October. 

PrnbaU- : Salem on the first Monday in every month and on the third 
Monday in every month, excej)! August ; Lawrence on the second 
Monday in .lanuary, March, May, June, July, September, Novemhtji ; 
Havf-rhill on tin- st-cond M-xiday in April ami October ; Newburyjnirt on 
the fourth Monday in January, March, .'^lay, June, July, September, 
November j Gloucester on the fourth Slonday in April and October. 

The record of admissions to tiic bar in Essex County 
begins in 1795, and the following is believed to be a 
correct list up to 1887, inchisive: 


Ichabod Tuker 

\Vm 11. S.-widl 


Charles Jackson 

John Pike 


Joseph Story 

Joseph Sprague (:Jd) 


Joseph Dana 

}Wt\\. K Nielmla 

Kal[ih II. French 

Wni. S. Titcomb 

Daniel A. White 

Klisha 3Iacke 

.Ii.hii I'rince. Jr. 

Moody Noy*'S 

Samuel Swt-It 

Samuel L. Knapp 


Kbem;zifr Moseley 


Kbenexer It ll<wkfotd 


Leverett Saltonstall 

Nathaniel Sawyt-r 

John Bickering 

Joseph Ilovry 


Ik-nry A, S. iH-arborn 


R L. l)Iiv<r, .Ir. 



David CummingB 


John W. Browne 

John Maurice O'Brioil. 

Geo. Lunt 


Jacub Gerrish 


Francis Silsbee 

Larlcili Thorndike 


Wm. Fattens 

Samuel Merrill 

Jonathan C. Perkins 

Joa. B. Mauning 

Otis P. Lord 

B. W. Swett 


Thos. B. Newhall 

John Gallison 


Joseph Couch 

Stephen Hooper 

Wm. Taggart 


Timothy Hammond 

Nathl. r. Safford, Jr 

James C. JMeniU 

Francis Cumuiina 

Wm. Birley 


Wm. 0. Moseley 

Jacob Willard 

Edward P. Parker 

John Glen King 

Richard West 

Frederick Howes 

Francis H. Upton 

Ebenezer Everett 

Jos. G. Gerrish 

Theodore Ames 


H. F. Barstow 


Geo. Newton 

Wm. Williams 

Edward Andrews 

Simon F. Barstnw 

ThoB. Stephens, Jr 


Frederick Merrill 

OctaviuB Pickering 

Luther A. Hackett 

John Scott 

Horace Pluuier 


Henry Peirce 


Geo. Haskell 


Jas. H. Duncan 


Alfred A. Abbott 

Elisha F. Wallace 

Jos. F. Clark 

W. A. Rogers 

Wm. L. Rogers 


Wm. Thorndike 


Moses Foster, Jr. 

RnHls V. Hovey 

Wm. F. C. Stearns 


Andrew Dnnlap 

David Kimball 

Solomon S. Whipple 

Benj. Barstow 

John Foster 

.leremiah P. Jones 


Ebenezer Shillaber 

Wra.D. Northend 

John W. Proctor 


Augustus D. Rogers 


A. W. Wildes 

Daniel Weed 


Isaac R. How 

Isaac Ames 

E. H. Derby 

Horace L. Conolly 

Jos. G. Waters 


W. Augustus Marston 


Robt. Cross 


Lonis Worcester 

G. C. Wilde 

George B. Lord 

Wm. Oakes 

A. G. White 

John A. Richardson 

Geo. F. Choate 

Rufus Choate 

N. S. Howe 

Thornton Betton 


Wm. H. P. Wright 

Robt. Rantoul, Jr. 

Jairus W. Perry. 


Jos. 11. Prince 

Nathaniel Pierce 

John Walsh 

B. Frank Watson 


Benj. Tucker 


Wm. C. Endicott 


A. Huntington 

E. W. Kimball 

Moses Parsons Parish 

Geo. Andrews 

Oilman Parker 

Dean Peabody. 

Stephen P. Webb 


Philo L. Beverly 

J. 0. Stickney 

Wni. C. Prescott 

David Roberts 

Stephen G. Wheatland 

W. S. Allen 

John B. Clarke 


Samuel Phillips 

Stephen B. Ives, Jr. 


David Mack 

Amnii Brown 

Nathaniel J. Lord 

Jacob W. Reed 

Geo. Wheatland 

Daniel E. Safford 

Ellis Gray LorinR 


Sidney 0. Bancroft 

John Tenney 

Calel) Lamson 

Edward L. Le Breton 

J. A. Gillis 

Nathaniel P. Knapp 

Joseph H.Robinson 

N. W. Hazen 

Abner C. Goodell, Jr. 


John Codman 

John N. Pike 

John S. Williams. 


Chas. J. Thorndike 


Alfred Kittridge 

Chas. H. Stickney 

Chas. Mi not 


Michael B. Mulklns 

Francis B. Crowninshield 

Hiram 0. Wiley 

Henry Field 


Francis S. Howe 

Chas. A. Andrew 

C. W. Upham 


N. Devereux 

Wm. G. Choate 

Ephraim T. Miller 

G. A. Peabody 

Joshua H. Ward 

Robt. S. Rantoul 

Geo. H. Devereux 


Harrison G. Johnson 

Wm. G. Woodward 

Jos. H. Bragdon 



C. Osgood Morse 
Edward L. Sherman 
Geo. W. Benson 
Benj. Bordman 
E. P. G. Mai-sh 
Jacob Haskell 
Wm. H. Paisons 
Harrison Gray 
Joe. Etistmau 
H. N. Merrill 
P. S. Chase 
John James Ingalls 
John B. Stickney 
Henry Carter 
Amos Noyea (,2d) 
Edgar J. Sherman 
Ephraim A. lugalls 
Wm. M. Kogers 
Chas. Kimball 
David B. Kimball 
Geo. P. Burrill 
Wm. P. Upham 
Benj. H. Smith 

B. T. Hutchinson 
John F. Devereux 
John S. Driver 
Wm. L. Peabody 
Chas. Sewall 
Arthur A. Peterson 
Thorndike D. Hodges 
Henry W. Chapman 
John K. Tarbox 
John C. Sauboru 
Wm. G. Currier 
Wm. Fisk Gile 
Thos. A. Cushing 
Wm. Cogswell 
John Millikin 
Francis H. Berick 
Micajah B. Mansfield 
Alphonso J. Itoberson 
Geo. A. Bousley 
Edward P. Kimball 
Henry G. Rollins 
Geo. Foster 

Geo. Wheatland, Jr 
Nathaniel J. Holden 
Caleb Saunders 
Frank Kimball 
Minot Tirrell, Jr. 
Chas. S. Osgood 
R. B. Brown 
H. L. Sherman 
A. R. Sanborn 
John W. Porter 
Geo. H. Poor 
H. W. Boardman 
W. H. Dalrymple 
Chas. A. Sayward 
Solomon Lincoln, Jr. 
N. Mortimer Hawkes 
David M. Kelly 
Elbridge T. Burley 
Porter T. K.-bi-rta 
John P. AdaniH 
Eben A. Andrews 
Wm L. Thompson 
Wm. E. Blunt 
John W. Berry 

C. A. Phillips 
Walter Parker 
Thos. F. Hunt 
Wm. S. Knox 
Warren H. Jlace 
Wm. C. Fabens 




Andrew C. Stone 
Geo. W. Cate 
Robt. W. Pearson 
Jas. L. Rankin 
Jas. L. Young 
Henry P. Moultou 
Henri N. Woods 
Geo. Holman 
Horace C. Bacon 
Benj. E. Valentino 
Geo. W. Foster 
Cha-s. Webb 
J. Kendall Jeuness 
Jeremiah T. Hahuney 
Job. 0. Goodwin 
Nathan N. Withiugton 
John Edwardd Leonard 
Chas. K. Briggs 
Fred. D. Burnham 
John S. Gile 
Hiram P. Harrimaa 
Clias. G. Saunders 
Wm. S. Huse 
Samuel A. Johnson 
James H. Giddings 
Ira Anson Abbott 
Chas. W. Richardion 
Fred. P. Byram 
IraB. Keith 
Wm. Henry Gove 
Leverett S. Tuckerman 
Josiah F. BIy 
Wm. W. Wilkins 
Arba N. Lincoln 
Jos. E. Buswell 
Chas. Upham Bell 
Frank P. Ireland 
Chas. A. Benjamin 
Andrew Fitz 
Chas. D. Moore 
Amos E. Kollins 
Louis W. Kelley 
Chas. H. Parsons 
A. L. Huntington 
Fred. A. Benton 
Arthur F. Morris 
Chas. Roberts Brickett 
John P. Sweeney 
Willis E. Flint 
Frank W. Hale 
N. D. A. Clarke 
Thos. Huse, Jr. 
Edward B. George 
Wilson S. Jenkins 
Samuel H. Hodges 
David L. Withiugton 
Francis H. Pearl 
Frank P. Allen 
Jerome H. Fiake 
Henry F. Chase 
Henry T. Croswell 
David C. Bartlett 
Jas. E. Breed 
Wm. F. M. Collins 
Peter W. Lyall 
Newton P. Frye 
Chas. F. Caswell 
Moses H, Ames 
Eben F. P. Smith 
Geo. F. Means 
Thos. C. Simpson, Jr. 
Geo. Galen Abbott 
Chas. A. Tobiu 
Boyd B. Jones 
John A. Page 


Geo. J. Can* 

Hintiii II, Browne 
Will. 11. Muoiiy 
Dcimis \V. (iuill 
Tliotf. K. GiiHiigher 
Wm. K. >ioves 
John C. M. HhjIcj 
Honue I. IliirtU-tt 
Danifl N. Cruwley 
Patrick I. McCuskin 
Ooo. H. Iv<-8. 

1879. Fmnk II. Clarke 
KdwKrd P. Teher 
JoBfpli V. Sweeney 
Michael J. JlrNeirny 
Josepti V, Hanuiiu 
Forrest L. Kvana 
(.'hiiiies Leighton 
Kilwin F. Cloutnian 
Charles 1). Welch 
Friiiik V. Wit;ht 
Jacob Otis WiinUvell 
Charles G. Dyer 
Charles 11. Syuionda 
Edward K. Frye 
Theodure M. Osborne 
N. Sumner Myrick 
Daniel J. M. O'Callaghan 
Charles A. Rns.sell 
Cliaries Howard Poor 

leSi). Hpiij. Newball Jubuson 
Joiiah F. Keene 
Jonathan Lainson 
Wm. W. Bvitlor 
Frank C. Skinner 
Charles S, Wilson 
Fmnk E. Farnbam 
Henry C l)urgin 
Alden P. White 
Charles E. Todd 
William Perry 
Calvin Il.Tnttle 
G. M. Steams 
John K. Baldwin 
Samuel Merrill 
Benj. K. Prentisri. Jr. 
Frederick G. Preston 
Edward C. Battis 

1881. Charles A. De Conrcy 
Albert Birnay Taaker 
John Milton Stearns 
Alfred L. Baker 

1882. Wm. F. Noonan 
Wm. II, Lucie 

Charles F. Sargent 
Wm. I). T. Trefry 
James W. Goodwin 
Edward H. Browne 
Benjamin C Ames 
Edward U. Uowelt 
John C. Pierce 
Nathaniel C. Bartlett 
Edwin A. Clark 
George L. Weil 
Tristmm F. Bartlott 
Nathaniel N. Jones 
Is;iac A. Lamson 

1883. Marshman M'. Ilazen 
Chaih'S .\. Woare 
Thomas n. Ronayne 
Sumner D. York 
Frank C. Richardson 
Wm. A. Pew, Jr. 
George E. Batchehler 
Jlelville P. Beckett 
Edmund B. Fuller 

1884. Samuel A. Fuller 
Eugene T. SIcCarthy 
Wm. T. McKone 
Joseph F. Quinn 

1885. John B. Poor 
George H. Eaton 
Warren B. Hutchinson 
John J. Flaherty 
Jeremiah E. Bartlett 
Byron E. Crowell 
Robert O'Callaghan 
Cornelius J. Rowley 
Robert T. Babson 
Thomas Keville, Jr. 
Richard E. Hiiies 
John C. Donavan 

1886. Marry J. Cole 
Wintield S. Peters 
Edward P, Morton 
Horace 51. Sargent 
Wm. O'Shea 

Wm. C. Kndicott, Jr. 
Wm. R. Rowell 

1887. George H. WilJianiB 
BeHJ*iinin G. Hall 
An<lrow Ward 
Rufus P. Tapley, Jr. 
Arcbibald N. Donahue 

There remains little to be included within this 
sketch of Essex County. The details concerning the 
jails of Ipswich, the first of which was built in 1652 ; 
of the court-house and probate building in that town, 
the latter of which was built in 1817, and held the 
records until they were removed to Salem ; of the 
erection of a jail and house of correction in Law- 
rence in 1853, and of the erection of a court-house 
in that city in 1859, and of the county buildings in 
Newburyport and 8alem, consisting in the latter city 
partly of a granite court-house, built in 1841, and a 
brick court-house built in 18til, will be included in 
tlie town histories. There are various corporations, 
associations and societies which would properly come 
within the scope of these histories, but in case they 
may be omitted it may, perhaps, be well to refer to 
them at least by name. Those best known are the 
Essex Institute, at Salem, established in 1821 and in- 

corporated in 1848 ; the Essex County Natural History 
Society at Salem, incorporated in 183(> ; the Peabody 
Academy of Science, established at Salem in 18G7with 
a fund of $140,000, of which the sum of $40,000 was ex- 
pended in the purchase of the hall and museum of the 
East India Marine Society; the Essex Agricultural 
Society, founded by Colonel Timothy Pickering, in 
1818 ; the Essex North and Essex South Medical Socie- 
eties, and the Essex County Homoeopathic Medical 
Society; the Merrimac Valley Dental Association; 
the Veteran Odd Fellows' Association, of Essex 
County; the Teachers' Association, incorporated in 
1827, and Unitarian Conference and Congregational 

This sketch, feared by the author to be imperfect, 
more especially in its enumeration of the early offi- 
ces and their incumbents, concerning whom the 
records are often confused, will close with a list of the 
present officers of the county : 

Judge of Probate and Insolvency, (leorge F. Chnate, of Salem ; Reg- 
ister of Probate and Insolvency, Jeremiah T. Mahoiicy, of Sale m ; Clerk 
of the Court, Dean Peabody, of Lynn ; County Treasurer, E. Kemlall 
Jenkins, of Antlover; Sheriff, Horatio G. Herrick, of Lawrence ; Regis- 
ter of Deeds (North DiMtrict), John R. Poor, of Lawrence ; (South Dis- 
trict), Charles S, Osgood, of Salem ; County Conimissiouera, John W. 
Raymond, of Beverly, until 1S87 ; Edward B. Bishop, of HaTerhill, 
until 18S8 ; David W, Low, of filoucetiter, until 18H!» ; Special Commi8- 
sioners, Aaron Sawyer, of Amesbury, until 18K9 ; Ivorj' Emmons, of 
Swampscott, ui.til 1SS9 ; Commiissioners of Insolvency, Sherman Nrlf>on, 
of Georgetown William L. Thomi)Son, of Lawrence ; Horace I. Bart- 
lett, of Newburyport ; Trial Justices, J, Scott Todd, of Kowley ; Na- 
thaniel F. S. York, of Kockport ; W'illiam M. Rogers, of Mothuen ; 
Orlando B. Tenny, of Georgetown ; Georgo II. Poor, of Andover ; 
George W. Cate, of Amesbury ; Amos Merrill, of I'eabody ; Orlando S, 
Bailey, of Amesbury ; William Nutting, Jr , of Marblehead ; Wesb-y K. 
Bell, of Ipswich ; Stejihen Gilman, of Lynnfiehl ; and .luattph T. Wilson, 
of Nahant. 




The preceflyig cluiiiter contains matter wiiicli 
might, perliaps, |iroperly be incliiik'il in this. That 
clia|»ter contains, in connoction witli a sketcli of the 
courts of Essex County, a list of persons admitted 
to the bar, chiefly copied from the records in the 
clerk's office in Salem. The present chapter will be 
devoted principally to sketches of the bench and bar, 
many of them necessarily short, but, [>erhaps, suf- 
ficient, if not to do justice to the subjects them- 
selves, to at leiist demonstrate the fruitfulness of the 
county from its organization, in 1G43, in eminent 
men. It is not too much to say that no county in the 
State can fnrnish so distinguished a list of men edn- 
ucated to the law among its native citizens. 



Amon^ those on the bench in the colonial and 
early provincial periods few of the judges were law- 
yers. Up to the Revolution only four judges, edu- 
cated in the law, had been appointed to the bench 
of the Superior Court of Judicature, — Benjamin 
Lynde, Paul Dudley, Edmund Trowbridge and Wil- 
liam Gushing. Few lawyers found their way across 
the ocean, and fewer still pursued a professional 
study here. A prejudice against them existed, and 
the inducements to enter the profession were small. 
The General Court of the Massachusetts Colony re- 
flected this prejudice by ordering, on October 21, 1G63, 
" that no usual and common attorney in any Inferior 
Court shall be admitted to sit as Deputy in this 
Court." In 1685, or immediately after that date, 
during the reign of James II., Edward Randolph 
wrote to England that there were only two attorneys 
in Boston, and asked to have sent " two or three 
honest attorneys, if any such in nature." 

A Bar Association was formed in 1806, and at that 
time there were probably only twenty-three members 
of the bar in Essex County, while to-day, as the list 
at the end of this chapter shows, there are two 
hundred and three. These twenty-three were John 
Pickering, Timothy Pickering, Benjamin Pickman, 
John Prince, Jr., Samuel Putnam, Leverett Salton- 
stall, Joseph Story, William Prescott and Samuel 
Swett, of Salera ; Joseph Dana, Michael Hodge, Ed- 
ward Little, Edward St. Loe Livermore, Ebenezer 
Moseley and Daniel A. White, of Newburyport ; Ste- 
phen Minot and John Varnum, of Haverhill ; Nathan 
Parks, of Gloucester ; Ralph H. French, of Marble- 
head ; Asa Andrews, of Ipswich ; Nathan Dane, of 
Beverly ; and Samuel Farrar, of Andover. 

This association probably dissolved about the year 
1812, and in 1831 another association was formed, 
whose records show that at the time of its formation 
there were fifty-two members of the bar. Leverett 
Saltonstall was the first and probably its only presi- 
dent, as it existed only a few years. Ebenezer Shilla- 
ber was its secretary, and Ebenezer Moseley, Jacob 
Gerrish, .Tohn G. King, Rulus Choate and Stephen 
Minot composed its standing committee. The pres- 
ent Bir Association was formed at the court-house 
in Lawrence October 20, 1856, and ,its constitution 
was adopted at a meeting held at the court-house in 
Salem December 16, 1856. Its presidents have been 
Otis P. Lord, Asahel Huntington, William C. Endi- 
cott, Stephen B. Ives and the present incumbent, 
William D. Northend. 

Samuel Appleton, born in Waldingfield, Eng- 
land, in 1624, came to New England with his father, 
Samuel, in 1635 and resided in Ipswich. He was 
named in the charter of 1692 as one of the Council, 
and was one of the first judges appointed in 1692 to 
the bench of the Court of Common Pleas for Essex, 
holding his seat until his death. May 15, 1696. He 
married Hannah, daughter of William Paine, of Ip- 

swich, and for a second wife, Mary, daughter of John 
Oliver, of Newbury. 

Daniel Pieece is believed to have been a native 
of Newbury. In 1698 he was appointed judge of the 
Essex Court of Common Pleas, and held his seat until 
his death, January 22, 1704. 

William Browne was the sou of William Browne, 
and was born perhaps in Salem in 1639. In 1689, after 
the accession of William and Mary, he was one ot 
the Committee of Safety. He was appointed to the 
bench of the Essex Court of Common Pleas in 1696, 
and died while in oflice, February 14, 1716. 

John Appleton, nephew of Samuel Appleton 
above-mentioned, and son of John, was probably born 
in Ipswich in 1652. He was town clerk of that town 
in 1697 ; deputy to the General Court in 1697 ; a 
member of the Council from 1698 to 1702, from 
1706 to 1715 and from 1720 to 1722. He was appoint- 
ed to the Essex Common Pleas bench in 1704 and re- 
moved by Governor Belcher in 1732. He was in the 
same year made judge of probate for Essex, and held 
that office until his death, in 1739. He married, Novem- 
ber 23, 1681, Elizabeth, daughter of John Rogers, 
president of Harvard College. 

Thomas Noyes was prob.ably born in Newbury in 
1649. He was appointed to the bench of the Essex 
Court of Common Pleas in 1707, and held that office 
until 1725. He died April 12, 1730. 

John Higginson, the son of Rev. John Higgin- 
son, and grandson of Rev. Francis Higginson, ot 
Salem, was a merchant by profession, and appointed 
to the Essex Common Pleas bench in 1708, and held 
thac office until his death, in 1720, at the age of sev- 
enty-three years. 

John BuRRiLLwas born in Lynn in October, 1658. 
He represented that town for many years in the 
Genera! Court and during ten years was Speaker of 
the House. He was crown counselor and appointed 
to the Common Pleas bench in 1720, and died Decem- 
ber 10, 1721. 

Samuel Browne, son of Judge William Browne 
already mentioned, was born in Salem, October 8, 
1669. He succeeded his father on the Common Pleas 
bench in 1716, and as associate and chief justice 
continued on the bench until his death, June 16, 1731. 

Bartholomew Gedney was a physician, and prob- 
ably born in Salem in 1640. He was one of the jus- 
tices of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, organized 
in 1G92 by Governor Phipps, for the trial of the 
witches. He was appointed in 1692 judge of probate 
for Essex County, under the authority assumed by 
Governor Phipps to delegate probate power vested in 
him. In the same year he was appointed one of the 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas. He seems to 
have mingled military with judicial occupations, and 
commanded an expedition against the Indians in 1696. 
He died February 28, 1698-99. 

Jonathan Corwin was a native of Salem, born in 


November, lfi40. In 1692, on the resignation by Na- 
thaniel Saltonstall of his seat on the bench of the 
Court of Oyer and Terminer, organized by(i(ivcmor 
William Phijips for the trial of the witches, he was 
appointed in his place. After the union of the col- 
onies he was appointed one of the judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas for Essex County, and in 1715 was 
appointed to the bench of the Superior Court of Judi- 
cature, holding the office until his death, in June, 

William Hathorne came in the "Arbella" with 
Winthrop in 1630, and first settled in Dorchester. In 
1636 he received a grant of lands from Salem, and 
took up his residence there. He was commissioned 
speaker of the House, counsel in court, judge and 

Johnson, in his " Wonder- Working Providence,'' 
says: "Yet, through the Lord's mercy we still retaine 
among our Democracy the Godly Captaine William 
Hathorne, whom the Lord has imbued with a quick 
comprehension, strong memory and Rhetorick, and 
volubility of speech, which has caused the people to 
make use of him often in Public Service, especially 
when they have had to do with any foreign govern- 
ment." He was the American ancestor of Nathaniel 

JoHX Hathorne, son of William Hathorne above- 
mentioned, was born in Salem August 4, 1641. Be- 
for the union of the Massachusetts and Plymcmth 
Colonies he was a representative or delegate to the 
General Court, and one of the assistants. At the acces- 
sion of William and Mary to the throne, after the 
deposition of Andros, he was one of the Council 
assuming the government of the colony. When the 
Court of Common Pleas for Essex County was estab- 
lished he was appointed one of its judges, and in 1702 
was promoted to the bench of the Superior Court of 
Judicature. While on the bench he was a member 
of the Council, and, under the direction of Lieutenant- 
Governor Stoughton, commanded an unsuccessful ex- 
pedition against the French and Indians on the 
Penobscot River. He continued on the bench of the 
Superior Court until his resignation, in 1712, and died 
on the 10th of May, 1717. 

Benjamin Lynde was born in Boston September 
22, 1666, and graduated at Harvard in 1686. He 
studied law at the Temple in London, and was admit- 
ted as a barrister before his return to America. 
Washburn, in his "Judicial History of Massachu- 
setts," says that he was the first regularly educated 
lawyer ever appointed to the bench of the Superior 
Court. In 1699, or thereabouts, he removed to Salem, 
and made that place his residence until his death, on 
the 28th of January, 1749. He was appointed one 
of the justices of the Superior Court of Judicature 
in 1712, and in 1728, on the resignation of Samuel 
Sevvall, was appointed chief justice. 

Blcx.iAMlN Lyxdk (2d) was the son of the above- 
named Benjamin Lynde, and was born in Salem 

October 5, 1700. He graduated at Harvard in 1718, 
and, though not a lawyer, was appointed in 1734 a 
special justice of the (>)urt of Common Pleas for 
Siiilblk, and in 1739 one of the standing judges of 
that court for Essex. He was appointed to the bench 
of the Superior Court in 1745, and on the appoint- 
ment of Chief Justice Thomas Hutchinson to the 
office of Governor, in 1771, he was commissioned in 
his place, resigning his seat in 1772. He was then ap- 
pointed judge of probate for Essex County, which 
office he held until his death, October 9, 1781. 

Richard Saltonstall was the son of Richard 
Saltonstall, of Haverhill, and was born in that town 
June 14, 1703. He was the grandson of Miijor Na- 
thaniel Saltonstall, great-grandson of Richard Sal- 
tonstall, and great-great-grandson of Sir Richard Sal- 
tonstall, one of the original patentees of the colony 
of Massachusetts Bay. The subject of this sketch 
graduated at Harvard in 1722, and at the age of 
thirty-three was appointed a judge of the Superior 
Court of Judicature. It is not known that he was 
educated to the law, nor was it in either the days of 
the Massachusetts Colony orof the province thccustom 
to confine judicial appointments to those of the legal 
profession. At the age of twenty-three he held a 
commission as colonel of the provincial troops, and 
in 1737, while on the bench, he was the commander 
of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 
He was a man of scholarly habits, of considerable 
learning, of refined tastes and was conspicuous for 
the generous hospitality which his ample means 
enabled him to dispense. 

Judge Saltonstall held his seat on the bench until 
his death, which occurred at his residence in Haver- 
hill, October 20, 1756. He married three wives, the 
last of whom was a daughter of Elisha Cooke, one of 
the judges of the Court of Common Pleas for SuMblk 
(bounty, and granddaughter of Judge Elisha Cooke, 
one of the judges of the Superior t'ourt of Judica- 
ture, who married a daughter of Governor John 
Leverett. He left three sons — Richard Saltonstall, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1751, who died in England 
in 1785; Nathaniel, a physician, living in Haverhill, 
a graduate of Harvard in 1766, who died in 1815 ; and 
Leverett, a captain under Cornwallis, who died in 
New York in 1782. He left also two daughters, 
one of whom, Abigail, was the first wife of Colo- 
nel George Watson, of Plymouth, and the other the 
wife of Rev. Moses Badger, of Providence. 

Caleb Ciishini;, of Salisbury, was made Comninn 
Pleas judge in 1759, and after the Revolution, when 
the Common Pleas Court was reorganized, he was 
appointed chief justice. 

Stei'IIICN HlcittiNWON was born in Salem in 171<i. 
He was appointed judge of the Common Ple:w in 
1761, and died in the same year. 

Andrew Oliver, of Salem, wiis one of the 
"Mandamus Counsellors." He graduated at Har- 
vard in 1749, and wasa])pr)inted Common Pleas judge 


in 1761, and held office until the Eevolution. He 
died in 1799. 

William Bourne was the son of Sylvanus Bourne, 
of Barnstable, and graduated at Harvard in 1743. 
He settled in Marblehead, and was made judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas in 1766, holding his 
office until his death in August, 1770. 

Peter Frye was born in Andover in 1723, and 
graduated at Harvard in 1744. He was register of 
jirobate and judge of the Common Pleas Court, to 
which office he was appointed in 1772, and which he 
held until the Eevolution. He died in England 
in 1820. 

William Browne was born in Salem February 
27, 1737, and graduated at Harvard in 1755. In 
1764 he was appointed collector of Salem, and in 
1770 was made a judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for Essex. He was confirmed as judge of the 
Superior Court of Judicature June 15, 1774, and 
in the sameyear wasmadea "Mandamus Counsellor." 
He was a Loyalist, and, retiring from the counlry in 
1778, was made Governor of Bermuda in 1781, and 
died in England February 13, 1802. 

Samuel Sewall was born in Bishop-stoke, Eng- 
land, March 28, 1652, and died in Boston January 
1, 1730. His grandfather, Henry Sewall, born in 
1576, came to New England and lived in Newbury, 
where he died about 1655. His iather, Henry Sew- 
all, came to New England in 1634, and after begin- 
ning a settlement in Newbury, returned to England. 
In 1659 he again came to New England, and after 
making a permanent settlement in Newbury, was fol- 
lowed by his wife and children in 1661. The son, 
Samuel, graduated at Harvard in 1671, and after 
studying divinity preached for a time. On the 28th 
of February, 1676, he married Hannah, daughter of 
John Hull, a goldsmith of wealth in Boston, by whom 
he secured ami)le means of support without the 
drudgery of a minister's life. He was made an assistant 
in 1684, and continued in office until the arrival of 
Andros. In 1688 he went to England, resuming on 
his return, in 1689, the office of assistant, and from 
1692 to 1725 was a member of the Council. In 1692 
he was made a judge of the Court of Oyer and Term- 
iner and subsequently an associate judge of the Su- 
perior Court of Judicature, which position he held 
until 1718, when he was made chief justice. He was 
also judge of probate for Siiifolk, and resigned both 
offices in 1728 on account of old age. He had been 
a firm believer in witchcraft, and was one of the 
judges before whom the alleged witches were tried, 
but on the 14th of January, 1697, Rev. Samuel Wil- 
lard read a "bill," as it was called, before his congre- 
gation, in which the judge expressed his abhorrence 
of the acts in which he had been engaged, and peni- 
tently asked the forgiveness of God and man. 

Stephen Sewall, son of Major Stephen Sewall, 
was born in Salem December 18, 1704, and graduated 
at Harvard in 1721. He was for a short time tutor at 

Harvard, and afterwards taught school in Marble- 
head. He was appointed associate judge of the Su- 
perior Court of Judicature in 1739, and in 1752 was 
promoted to chief justice. He held his seat until bis 
death, which occurred September 10, 1760. 

Samuel Sewall was born in Boston December 
11, 1757, and graduated at Harvard in 1776. In 1808 
he received the degree of LL.D. from his alma 
mater. He studied law with Francis Dana, of Cam- 
bridge, and practiced in Marblehead, which town he 
represented in the Legislature. He was a member 
of Congress from 1797 to 1800, and in the latter year 
was appointed associate justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court. In November, 1813, he was made 
chief justice, and died in Wiscas-set, Me., June 8, 
1814. He married, December 8, 1781, Abigail, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Humphrey Devereux, of Marblehead. 

JosiAH Walcott, a merchant in Salem, was ap- 
pointed to the bench of the Essex Court of Common 
Pleas in 1722. He continued on the bench until his 
death, February 2, 1729. 

Timothy Linall was born in Salem November 4, 
1677, and graduated at Harvard in 1695. He was 
Speaker of the of Representatives in 1720, and 
in 1729 was appointed to the Common Pleas bench. 
He held his seat until 1754, and died October 25, 

JoJfN Wainwright was a merchant of Ipswich, 
and graduated at Harvard, in 1709, at the age of 
eighteen. He was appointed to the Common Pleas 
bench in 1729, and held his seat until his death, Sep- 
tember 1, 1739. 

Theophilus Burrill, of Lynn, was a nephew of 
Judge John Burrill, and was appointed to the Com- 
mon Pleas bench in 1733, and died in office in 

Thomas Berry', a physician of I|)swich, was born 
in Boston and graduated at Harvard in 1712. He 
was judge of probate of Essex County, as well as 
judge of the Common Pleas Court, to which office he 
was appointed in 1733, and which beheld until his 
death, in 1756. 

Benjamin Maeston was born in Salem, but in his 
later years lived in Manchester. He married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Isaac Winslow, of Marshfield, and 
great-granddaughter of Governor Isaac Winsbiw, of 
the " Mayflower." He was sheriff of Essex County, and 
was appointed to the bench of the Court of Common 
Pleas in 1737, which office he held until his death, in 
1754. He graduated at Harvard in 1689. 

John Choate, of Ipswich, was judge of probate 
for Essex County, and chief justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas. He died while in office, in 1766. 

Henry Gibbs, a native of Watertown, was born in 
1709, and graduated at Harvard in 1726. He settled 
in Salem as a merchant, and was appointed to the 
Common Pleas bench in 1754, and continued on the 
bench until his death, in 1759. 

John Tasker, of Marblehead, was made Common 


Pleas judge in 1755, and died in office November 9, 

Bex.) A MIX PiCKMAN, of Salem, was born in 1708, 
and was a merchant. He was appointed to the Com- 
mon I'lea.s l)eneh in 175(>, holding his otiice until 17()1. 
He died August 20, 1774. 

William Prescott wa< born in Pepperell August 
19,1762, and was the son of Colonel William Prescott, 
who di«tintruished himself at the battle of Runker 
Hill. He graduated at Harvard in 178:?, and after 
teaching school for a time in Brodklyn, ('onn., he en- 
tered the law-office of Nathan Dane, in Beverly, where 
he afterwards began to practice. He subseijueiitly 
removed to Salem and married a daughter of Mr. 
Hickling, American consul at St. Michael's, from 
whom the late distinguished historian, William Hick- 
ling Prescott, the son of William Prescott, derived his 
middle name. While in Salem he was a member of 
both the House and Senate in the State Legislature. 
He removed to Boston in 1808, and before his removal, 
in 1806, and afterwards, in 1813, he was offered a seat 
on the bench of the Supreme Judicial Court, which he 
declined. He was a member of the Executive Coun- 
cil from Suffolk County, a delegate to the Hartford 
Convention in 1814, and in 1818 accepted theajipoint- 
ment of judge of the Court of Common Pleas for the 
county of Suffolk. He died in Boston December 8, 
1844, and at his death a meeting of the bar was held 
in the Supreme Court room, at which Mr. Webster 
offered resolutions of respect, which were responded 
to by Chief Justice Shaw, at that time holding the 

Nathaxiel Saltoxstall, son of Richard and 
grandson of Sir Richard Saltonstall, one of the six 
patentees of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, was 
born in Ipswich in 1630, and graduated at Harvard in 
li)")ii, afterwards settling in Haverhill, on an estate 
still known as the "Saltonstall seat." He was chosen 
an assistant in 1670, and on the arrival of President 
Dudley, in 1685, was offered a place as member of his 
Council, which he declined. He took an active part 
in deposing Andros, and under the charter of 1692 was 
appointed one of His Majesty's Council. At the 
breaking out of the witchcraft delusion. Governor 
William Phipps, without authority of law, established 
a special Court of Oyer and Terminer to try the 
witches, and by commissions dated June 2, 1692, ap- 
pointed Wm. Stoughton chief justice, and Nathaniel 
Saltonstall, John Richards, Bartholomew Ciedney, 
Wait Winthrop, Samuel Sewall and Peter Sergeant 
associate justices. 

Judge Saltonstall, like many other judges of the 
time, was not bred to the law, but he was a man of 
strong mind and sound sense, and not easily imbued 
with the bigotry and fanaticism prevailing at the time. 
He left the l)onch evidently disgusted with the work 
it was called on to perform, his place l)eing taken by 
Jonathan Corwin. He married a daughter of Rev. 
J'hn Ward, of Haverhill, and die.l .May 21, 17(»7, 

leaving three sons, — Gurdon, the Governor of Con- 
necticut ; Richard, the father of Richard, whose sketch 
is given below ; and Nathaniel, who graduated at Har- 
vard in 1605, and died young. 

Jamew CtisHlxa Mehrill was the son of Rev. 
Giles Merrill and Lucy (Cushing) Merrill, and was 
born in Haverhill September 27, 1784. He married 
Anna, daughter of Dr. Nathaniel Saltonstall, of 
Haverhill, and died in Boston October 4, 1853. He 
fitted for college at Exeter and graduated at Harvard 
in 1807. He studied law with John Varnura, of 
Haverhill, and was admitted to the bar in 1812 at the 
September term of the Circuit Court of Common 
Plea.s, held at Salem. He not long after removed to 
Boston, where he continued to reside until his death. 
For many years he was a justice on the bench of the 
Police Court of Boston, resigning in 1852 on account 
of feeble health. Previous to his appointment to the 
bench he was a member of the Senate and House of 
the State Legislature. He was a scholar as well as 
a jurist, and his proficiency in Greek literature was 
recognized by liis alma mater by his continuance for 
thirty years on its examining committee for Greek. 

Joseph Gilbert Waters was born in Salem July 
5, 1796, and wa.s the son of Captain Josepli and Mary 
(Dean) Waters. He graduated at Harvard in 181<), 
and after completing his law studies in the office of 
John Pickering, was admitted to the bar at Salem at 
the October term of the Supreme Judicial Court in 
1821. In 1818 he went to Mississippi, where he spent 
several years, and returned to Salem, where for a 
short time he was the editor of the Salem Observer. 
In 1825 he married Eliza Greenleaf, daughter of 
Captain Penn Towusend. He was appointed special 
justice of the Police Court in Salem in 1831, and 
afterwards held the office of standing justice of the 
same court from 1842 until 1874. In 1835 he waa a 
member of the State Senate, and died in 1878. 

Bex.iamix Merrill was born in Conway, New 
Hampshire, in 1784, and fitting for college at Exeter, 
graduated at Harvard in 1804. He studied law with 
Mr. Stedman, of Lancaster, and was admitted to the 
bar in Worcester County. Removing to Lynn in 
1808 to enter into practice, he was required under the 
court rules to study one year within the county, and 
entered the oflice of Samuel Putnam, whose partner 
he afterwards became. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from Harvard in 1845, and died at Salem July 
30, 1847, at the age of sixty-three. When he settled 
in Lynn he w:is the first lawyer who had ever opened 
an office in the (own, and after a few months' resi- 
dence there, it is said that he was told that the pres- 
ence of a lawyer would be prejudicial to the interests 
of the community, and that he was requested to 

Joseph Perkixs ivas born in Essex July 8, 1772, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1794. In 1801 he wa.s 
apjiointed county attorney, and died in Salem Febru- 
arv 28, 1803. 


AsAHEL Huntington was born in Topsfield July 
23, 1798, and graduated at Yale in 1S19. He was 
county and district attorney, clerk of the courts and 
twice rejircsentative i'roni Saleni to tlie General Court. 
In 1853 he was mayor of that city, and died Heptem- 
ber 5, 1870. 

Theophilus Parsons. — Among the eminent law- 
yers of the last century, Chief Justice Theophilus 
Parsons stands pre-eminent, and to his autobiography 
by liis son, Theophilus Parsons, we are indebted for 
tliis sketch of his life as a lawyer, statesman and 
judge. His judicial knowledge and legal acumen 
won for him the title of "giant of the law," and his 
intimate knowledge of the structure of the Greek lan- 
guage, and acquaintance with its literature, in which 
he deliglited, and to which he turned for recreation 
from his legal duties, caused Mr. Luzac, the then 
Professor of Greek in the University of Leyden, to 
say of Mr. Parsons, that he should be called " The 
giant of Greek criticism." 

Chief Justice Theoidiilus Parsons was born in By- 
field, Massachusetts, 1750, and his father. Rev. Moses 
Parsons, was a settled minister in that place. His 
first youth was passed at Dunmer Academy, of By- 
field, under the Rev. Mr. Moody, and he entered Har- 
vard College in 1765. The minister's stipend was 
small, and his family la^ge, so that when the young 
Theophihis was ready to enter college pecuniary ditfi- 
culties stood in his way. So general, however, was 
the accepted idea, that his natural ability promised 
great things, great exertions were made to send him ; 
one of the maid servants offered to give him a year's 
salary, twelve pounds, to help him. This offer was 
of course refused, but the assistance proffered by 
friends and parishioners was gladly accepted. Theo- 
philus was an insatial)le student, but after his lessons 
were learned would turn for recreation, to a novel or 
self-imposed mathematical problem with equal relish, 
which practice he followed in after years, adding a 
devotion to scientific studies. He graduated in 1769, 
and went to Portland, Maine, then called Falmouth, 
where he taught a grammar school ; when not occu- 
pied with his school duties, he studied in the office of 
the eminent lawyer. Judge Theophilus Bradbury. 
Here he applied for admission to the bar. The com- 
mittee for examination to whom he referred himself, 
construed the rule that three years of preparatory 
study, meant three years of consecutive study, and 
that his employment of school-teaching prevented that 
from being so considered. However, the committee 
yielded to his solicitations, and his examination 
proved so entirely satisfactory, he was admitted to 
practice in Falmouth. This was in 1774. 

The following year Admiral Graves, commander of 
the British squadron in Boston Bay, despatched some 
ships of war to Falmouth with orders to destroy it, 
and it was almost totally burned. Mr. Parsons then 
returned to his home, greatly disappointed and cast 
down ; but he found at his father's house, Judge 

Trowbridge, and his learned help and counsel was as 
eagerly sought and received by Mr. Parsons as he was 
ready to give it. The latter remained in Byfield a 
considerable time, and when he found that Jlr. Par- 
sons was to be his companion and student, he ordered 
thither all his library, which was not only the best, 
but probably the only thoroughly good one, then in 
New England. 

He found in Mr. Parsons an intelligent student, of 
devoted industry prepared by previous habits, as well 
as by previous knowledge, to profit by this golden op- 

Edmund Trowbridge died in Cambridge, in 1793, 
at the age of ninety-four, and during half of his long 
life, he was, by common consent, regarded as the 
most learned lawyer of New England. In the seventh 
volume of the Massachusetts Reports (page 20), Mr. 
Parsons speaks of his excellence as a common-law 
lawyer, and says: "The late Judge Trowbridge was 
an excellent common-law lawyer, of whose friendly 
assistance in my early professional studies I cherish 
the most grateful remembrance," and Chancellor 
Kent, in his commentaries calls hiui "the oracle of 
the common-law of New England." 

About the time of the Declaration of Independence 
the formation of a Constitution became a matter 
of much moment to many of the colonies which had 
just become States. In Massachusetts the system of 
government went on with few alterations, although 
the charter had lost all force. In June, 1776, it was 
proposed in the general court to prepare a form of 
government, or constitution, — to be presented to the 
people. In 1778, a constitution was agreed upon by 
the General Court, and offered to the people, but was 
rejected by them by a vote of five to one. were 
the reasons for its rejection : 

The draft was imperfect, evidently drawn up with- 
out due care and consideration ; the peoj^le preferred 
that it should be made by a committee chosen for that 
express purpose and not by the Legislature. A Bill 
of Rights, clearly defining to the people what were 
their inalienable rights, was not prefixed, and lastly, 
the constitution so carefully avoided a strong govern- 
ment, the power of the executive was a mere cipher. 
It was this last objection which weighed most with 
many people. 

The conflict for the ado|)tion or rejection of the 
constitution seemed to be the early manifestation that 
a new question was brought before the minds of men 
which threatened, or seemed to threaten, the disruj)- 
tion of civil society, and has continued to this day to 
divide, not politicians only, but the whole people; 
and will ever do so. This question is, which shall 
prevail of the two great parties, into one or the other 
of which every man is forced by nature, habit, taste, 
education or circumstances. These are the parties of 
progress and conservatism ; of those who love the 
" largest liberty " with more regard to its quantity 
than its quality, and those who desire only the best 





liberty, and dread, as the greatest of evils, its corrup- 
tion into license. To all men of tliis last class the 
constitution offered to the people was wholly woith- 
k'ss ; and to this large party Mr. Parsons belonged. 
His home Wiis in Esse.x County, and there he was 
sustained by the warm .sympathy of excellent men, 
and perhaps, young as he was, strengthened their 
Idve of order or their fear of auarchy. A meeting of 
these men took place in Essex County, in 1778, in 
Newburyport ; a committee was appointed and then it 
adjourned to Ipswich ; and there it met in the last 
week of April of that year, when a term of the Su- 
preme Judicial Court was held there. At this ad- 
journed meeting a pamphlet was presented by the 
committee, approved and adopted by it and by its 
order published. 

It contained eighteen distinct articles, setting forth 
the leading objections to the Constitution proposed. 
Its title was: "The result of the Convention of 
Delegates holden at Ipswich, in the County of Essex, 
who were deputed to take into consideration the 
Constitution and form of government proposed by 
the Convention of the State of Massachusetts Bay." 
It was called the " E-sex Result." It went very 
fully into the consideration of the objects and prin- 
cii)les which should be regarded in the formation of 
a constitution ; it not only made the rejection of the 
proposed constitution far more decisive, but exerted 
an important influence on the structure of that Con- 
stitution which was soon after framed and adopted by 
the people. 

Mr. Parsons wrote this pamphlet, which is now very 
rare, but is reprinted in the Appendix to his auto- 
biography. The proof that he wrote it lies in the 
assertion of Chief Justice Parker, who says in his 
address to the grand jury after Judge Parsons' death : 
" The Report was undoubtedly his, though he was 
probably aided by others, at le;ust, with their ad- 
vice." This elaborate Report is called " The Essex 
Result." No doubt, he obtained all the assistance, 
by advice and suggestion, which could be rendered 
to him in a matter of this importance by the wise 
men with whom he acted. But he wrote every word 
of it, and this, perhaps, proved that the young man 
was already recognized by them, who were certainly 
among the ablest and most veneralde men of the 
county, as one with whose work they were satis- 
fied, and one whom they could trust to speak for 
them. Among the most distinguished peculiarities 
of the actual institutions and government of this 
country is the singular blending of the progressive 
and conservative principles in such a way that they 
do not 80 much neutralize each other as promote each 
other's activity, while they com[)ensate for each other. 
\\ hile our fathers were making history, there were some 
whose love for liberty had degenerated into a love of li- 
cense, and whose idea of happiness was to run riot 
through the fields of life ; they balanced and checked 
and were balanced and checked bv the stern lovers of 

order, who appeared, in their extremity of opinion, 
to think that the first use of legs is to wear fetter-i, 
while walking is but a secondary and conditional pur- 
pose. Ha])pily, there were wise men who were able 
to bring these extremes into compromise, and, by 
means of compromise, into union. The " E<sex Re- 
sult" was regarded as a very early encounter with 
the great question then dawning upon this country 
and upon the world. It was an earnest endeavor to 
discover and declare how progress and conservatism, 
liberty and order, might be so adjusted in human in- 
stitutions, that freedom should be secure, and peace 
and happiness be the children of freedom. 

The Old Confederation of the United States was 
formed Noveml)er 15, 1777, in the midst of war and 
danger and effort; and wdiile these lasted their pres- 
sure kept it together. But with the relaxati n of 
peace its debility and insufficiency became apparent. 
In May, therefore, 17S7, a convention of delegates 
from the states assembled at Philadelphia for the 
purpose of forming a Federal Constitution, and at 
once the new parties of the country — the Liberty 
party and the Government party — started into full 

The two antagonistic principles entered into imme- 
diate, constant and energetic conflict; and the good 
sense and caution and love of peace, ^nd the |iro- 
found conviction that union would be impossible if 
not then consummated, and that without union there 
must be destruction — all these were in perpetual 
requisition, and were only able to reconcile these 
hostile sentiments and principles so far as to produce 
the Constitution, which was throughout, and in al- 
most every paragraph and every provision, a com- 
promise. After the Constitution was framed, the 
man who most loved peace and union labored stren- 
uously to procure for it the signatures of all the dele- 
gates, that it might go to the people with the advan- 
tage of their unanimous consent. And all did sign 
but three — Randolph and Mason, of Virginia, and 
Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, afterwards gover- 
nor of the State. The Constitution contained a pro- 
vision that it should go into effect as soon as nine 
states should accept it. It was adopted by the Con- 
vention that framed it on the 17th of September, 
1787; then by Delaware, December 7, 1787; by 
Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787 ; by New Jersey, 
December 18, 1787; by Georgia, January 2, 1788; 
and by Connecticut, January 9, 1788. Then came 
the question whether the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts sh(]uld accept it. It was feared that Massa- 
chusetts would be ho.stile, and that her example 
would operate with much power upon New York, 
Maryland and Virginia for good or for evil. Janu- 
ary 9, 1788, tiie convention of delegates from the 
towns of Massachusetts assembled in Boston to de- 
termine whether the Constitution should be adopted 
or rejected by that State. The debates of this c(m- 
vention were republished by the Legislature of Mas- 


sachusetts in 1866. The editorial care of this volume 
WHS entrusted to Messrs. Bradford K. Pierce and 
Charles Hale. In their preface these gentlemen say : 
"The proceedings of the Convention were of great 
importance, and were so regarded throughout the 
country at that time. It is quite certain that, if 
Massachusetts had refused her assent to the Consti- 
tution of the United States, that well-devised scheme 
of government, the careful work of the patriots and 
statesmen of the last century, under which the nation 
lias enjoyed so large a degree of prosperity, would 
have failed." 

John Hancock and Samuel Adams were two of the 
most important members of the convention. Both 
were doubtful, but it was generally supposed that 
while they were not friendly to each other, they 
agreed in a decided leaning against the C institu- 
tion. General Knox, after the Constitution was 
adopted, writes to Washington as follows : " The op- 
position has not arisen from a consideration of the 
merits or demerits of the thing itself, as a political 
machine, but from a deadly principle levelled at 
the existence of all government whatever. ... It 
is a singular circumstance that, in Massachusetts, the 
property, the ability and the virtue of the State are 
almost solely in favor of the Constitution. . . ." 
The Massachnsetts convention was of the opinion that 
certain amendments and alterations in the Constitu- 
tion would remove the fears and quiet the apprehen- 
sions of the people of the commonwealth and more 
effectually guard against an undue administration of 
the Federal Government. These amendments were 
often called in the histories of the times, the " Con- 
ciliatory Resolutions," and they were eminently so. 
It was their purpose to reconcile conflicting opinions 
and to procure the adoption of the Constitution. 
Samuel Adams at once arose and declared himself 
satisfied with the Constitution with these amend- 
ments, and seconded them, and Hancock withdrew 
his opposition. They were referred to a committee 
and reported with little change. After some discus- 
sion, in which one or two of the opponents of the 
Constitution spoke of the amendments as reconciling 
them to it, the Constitution was adopted by a vote 
of one hundred and eighty-seven yeas to one hundred 
and sixty-eight nays. Mr. Parsons wrote these amend- 
ments, and it is always said that these " Conciliatory " saved the country. 

Mr. Parsons was now living with his wife in New- 
buryport in Green Street. He married Elizabeth 
Greenlief, daughter of Judge Greenlief, and he used 
to say that the suit in which he won his wife was 
worth all the others he ever gained. In 1800 he re- 
moved to Boston. When he left Newburyport for 
Boston, gentlemen in the town gave him a farewell 
dinner, at which Robert Treat Paine gave him an en- 
thusiastic toast: "Theophilus Parsons, the oracle of 
law, the pillar of politics, the bulwark of government." 
To which Mr. Parsons replied : " The town of New- 

buryport; may the blessing of Heaven rest upon it as 
long as its shores are washed by the Merrimac." I 
will pause here to mention a trait of character in 
which he did not stand alone in his profession. He 
made it an imperative rule, from which he never 
swerved during his professional career, never to make 
any charge against or accept any fee from a widow or 
a minister of the goxpel. 

In 1806 Chief Justice Dana resigned on account of 
the infirmities of age, and Mr. Parsons was invited to 
become the Chief-Justice, which office he accepted 
and held until his death, which occurred in 181.3. 

The last words of a distinguished man are often 
worthy of commemoration, for they not only fre- 
quently witness that his thoughts are occupied with 
the duties of his professiou, but sometimes seem to 
bear a certain relation to the life upon which he is 
about to enter. Judge Parsons' were: "Gentlemen 
of the jury, the case is closed and in your hands. You 
will please retire and agree upon your verdict." 
Judge Parsons always maintained that the authentic- 
ity of the gospels was proven by the fact of their una- 
nimity in all essentials and disagreement in unessen- 
tial details. After death his face wore an expression 
of triumph. It was that which he might have worn 
when he exhibited to a jury indisputable evidence of 
some great fact which he had asserted and others had 
denied. The expression was as if he said in words like 
these : " See there the proof. I have believed ; and 
when I could not believe I have hoped ; and through 
all objection, uncertainty and despondency I have 
kept my belief and my hope ; and now there is the 
proof that I was right." 

Benjamin Pickman, the son of Benjamin and 
Mary (Tappan) Pickman, was born at Salem Septem- 
ber 30, 1763, and married, October 20, 1789, Anstiss, 
daughter of Elias Hasket and Elizabeth (Crovvnin- 
shield) Derby. He studied law with Theophilus Par- 
sons at Newberyport, and settled permanently at 
Salem. He was at various times Representative and 
Senator in the State Legislature, a member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1820, a member of the 
Executive Council, and from 1809 to 1811 a member of 
the national House of Representatives. He died at 
Salem August 16, 1843. 

Timothy Pickering was born in Salem July 17, 
1745, and was admitted to the bar in 1768. He was a 
graduate of Harvard in 1763, and received a degree 
from New Jersey College in 1798. He commanded a 
regiment in the Revolution, was adjutant-general of 
the army in 1777, and was quartermaster-general in 
1780. After the war he settled in Pennsylvania, and 
between 1791 and 1800 was Postmaster-General, Sec- 
retary of \Var and Secretary of State. He returned 
to Salem in 1801, was chief justice of the Essex 
County Court of Common Pleas, United States Sen- 
ator from 1803 to 1811, and a Representative in Con- 
gress from 1815 to 1817. He died in Salem January 
29, 1829. 



<^^/^ ^-v 


John Pickering was born in Siilem February 17, 
1777. Ho was a son of Colonel Tiniotby Pickering, 
and griidimted at Harvard in 17'.t(). After several 
years' residence in Europe, he returned to Salem in 
1801, and w;i.s admitted to the Essex bar in ISOG. In 
1827 he removed to Boston, and in 1829 was appointed 
city solicitor, and held that oflice until his de.ath, at 
Boston, May 5, 1846. He was equally distinguished 
as a lawyer and a scholar, achieving in the latter 
capacity, however, his chief fame. His Greek and 
English Lexicon, his studies and |)ublication8 in 
philology, his proficiency in the languages, with more 
than twenty of which he was familiar, including He- 
brew, Chine-so and the Indian languages of America, 
made him an authority universally respected, and 
whenever appealed to, considered decisive. He re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from Bowdoin College in 
1822, and from his alma mater in ISS/). 

TiiKOPHlLUs Bradbury, a descendant from Thomas 
Bradhury, of Salisbury, was born in Newbury Novem- 
ber 13, 1739. He graduated at Harvard in 1757, and 
for a time taught a grammar school in Falmouth (now 
Portland) Me., where he afterwards opened a law- 
otlice and practiced law from May, 1761, to 1779. He 
then removed to Newbury, where he resided until his 
death, September 6, 1803. He was at various times 
Senator and Representative in the State Legislature, 
a member of Congress from 1795 to 1797, and in the 
latter year was appointed associate justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court. 

Nathax Dane was born at Ipswich, in the parish 
then called the " Hamlet," now the town of Hamilton, 
on the 29th of December, 1752. He was descended 
from John Dane, of Berkhamstead, England, who 
came to New England before 1641, and died at Rox- 
bury in 1658. The American ancestor, by a first wife, 
whose name is unknown, had John, probably born in 
Berkhamstead about 1612; Elizabeth, who married 
James Howard ; Francis, born about 1616, who had 
three wives, Elizabeth Ingalls, Mary Thomas and 
Hannah Abbot. The son John had a first wife, Eleanor 
Clark, and a second named Alice. His children were 
John and Philemon, who married Mary Thompson and 
Ruth Converse. He died in Ipswich September 29, 
1684. His son, John, married Abigail Warren and 
had John; Daniel; Susan, born March, 1685-86; 
Nathaniel, born June, 1691 ; Abigail ; Rebecca; and 
Elizabeth. Daniel married (1st) Lydia Day, an<l (2d) 
Mary Annable. and had Daniel, born about 1716; 
John, about 1719; Mary, about 1721; Lydia, about 
1725; and Nathan, about 1727. His son Daniel, 
born in Ipswicli, probably in 1716, married, in 
1739, Abigail Burnham, and was the father of 
the subject of this sketch. He worked on his 
father's farm until he was of age, when he prepared 
himself for college, and entered Harvard with the 
chuss which graduated in 1778. He then taught school 
at Beverly, pursuing at the same time his law studies 
in the oflice of .Judgp Wetmore, of Salem. In 1782 

he began the practice of law in Beverly and made 
that town his residence until his death, February 15, 
1835. He was a member of the Massachusetts House 
of Ile|)resent'.Uive8 from 1782 to 1785, of Congress 
from 1785 to 1787 and for five years, between 1790 and 
1798, a member of the Massachusetts Senate. He was 
a member of the Electoral College in 1812, and a 
member of the State Constitutional Convention in 
1820. In 1794 he was ai)pointed justice of the ('ourt 
of Common Pleas for Essex County, but resigned his 
place almost immediately after its acceptance. In 1814 
he was a member of the Hartford Convention. 

Mr. Dane was one of the founders of the Mii.ssa- 
chusetts Temperance Society, and for several years its 
president. He was a member of the Massachusetts 
and Essex Historical Societies, and of the American 
Antiipiarian Society, and received the degree of LL.D, 
from Harvard in 1816, tn 1829 he founded, in Har- 
vard University, the law profe-isorship that bears his 
name, and at a later date was a liberal contributor for 
the erection of the Dane Law College, He was a 
diligent student and his authorship of " A General 
Abridgment and Digest of American Law " gav(' him 
a fame in the profession which time has not dimmed. 
As a statesman, the identification of his name with the 
ordinance of 1787 for thegove rnment of the territory 
northwest of the Ohio, drafted by him, will give him 
a place in history as long as the institution of slavery, 
whose spread and power that ordinance checked, has 
a record in the annals of the land. 

So long, too, as the famous speech of Mr, Webster 
in reply to Robert Young Hayne, in the United States 
Senate, January 26 and 27, 1830, shall be read, Mr, 
Dane will be kept in memory by the eulogy which 
Mr, Webster uttered in his splendid effort. He said : 

" In tlie course of my obm-rvations tho other day, Mr. F'residciit, I 
p:ii(i a passing tril)iito,of respoct to a vi-ry wortliy man, Mr. Dnno, of 
Massjictmsetls, Iteoliappens tliat liodn.-w tlie orciinance of 17H7 fortlie 
guvernnient of tlie nortliwest territory, A man of so mucli aliility and 
so little pretence, of so great a ciipacity to do good and so \intnixeda dis- 
position to do it for its own sake, a gentlenniu who had acted an import- 
ant l>art forty years ago in a measure ihe influence of what is still deeply 
felt in the vi-ry matter which was tliesuliject of debate, might, 1 tiionght, 
receive from mr acnininendalory r4-cognttion. But the hononilde Seini- 
tor was inclined to he facetious on the subject. Ho was nither disposed 
to make it matter of ridicule that 1 harl intr(.HJuoe<l into the debate the 
name of one Nathan Dane, of whom he assures us he had never beloro 
heard. Sir, if the honorable member had never before hearii of Mr. 
Dane, I am sorry for it. It elit>ws him less acquainted with the public 
men of the country than I ha<l snpjjosed. Let lue tell him, however, 
that asneer from him at the meiitiott of the luluie of Mr. Dane is in bad 
taste. It may well In- a high mark of amliilion. sir, either w itli the lion- 
orable gentlentan or myself, to accoiuplisb iis much to make our names 
known to advantage and remembered with gratitude as .Mr. Dane has 

Those readers of this imperfect sketch of Mr. Dane 
who may wish to know what he said himself concern- 
ing his connection with the ordinance of 1787, are re- 
ferred to an interesting letter from him to Daniel 
Webster dated Beverly, March 26, 1830, which may 
be found in the " Proceedings of the 
Historical Society from 1867 to 1869," page 475. 

Wll.l.I.VM Wr.T.MoltE was born in Connecticut in 


1749, and graduated at Harvard in 1770. He was 
admitted to tlie bar in 1780, and began to practice in 
Salem. After a few years, having property in Maine, 
wliicli came to liim tlirougli his wife, who was a Wal- 
do, he removed to Hancock County, where for some 
years he held the office of judge of probate. In 1804 
he removed to Boston, where he liel 1 a seat on the 
bench of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas, and 
died in 1830. The wife of Judge Joseph Story was 
a daughter of Judge Wetmore. 

Daniel Farjtham was born in York, Me., in 
1719, and was the son of Daniel Farnhara, a native 
of Andover, Mass. He was fitted for college by 
Rev. Samuel Moody, of York, and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1739. He studied law with Edmund Trow- 
bridge, of Cambridge, who was considered the best 
lawyer of his time, and who, in 1759, became chief 
justice of the Superior Court of Judicature. Only a 
year after leaving college, in July, 1740, he married 
Sybil Angier, daughter of Rev. Samuel Angler, of 
Watertown, and granddaughter of Uriah Oakes, the 
fourth president of Harvard College. Soon after 
marriage Mr. P^irnham took up his permanent resi- 
dence in Newburyport, and began practice. At that 
time there was no lawyer east of Salem in Essex 
County, and the field was one in which a man of 
less ability would have won success. But Mr. Farn- 
hara was a man not only of learning, but of indomi- 
table energy and activity, and soon stood in the front 
rank at the Essex bar. In 1768 he was one of five 
barristers in Essex County, the others being Wm. 
Pynchon, John Chipman, Nathaniel Peaselee Sargent 
and John Lowell. The house which he built and oc- 
cupied was a fine specimen of that style of domestic 
arcliitecture which Harrison, the English architect, 
who came to this country with Bishop Berkely, in- 
spired, and which was freely adopted in Salem, Mar- 
blehead, Portsmouth and Newburyport. The house 
stood where the Kelly School-house now stands, and 
is remembered by many of the present generation. 

Mr. Farnham, or, as he is better known. Colonel 
Farnham, having received acommission from Governor 
Bernard in 1769 as lieutenant-colonel of the Essex 
Regiment, continued in active and successful practice 
until the Revolution. His attachment to the King 
was strong, and after all hope of a peaceable adjust- 
ment of the controversy with Great Britain was aban- 
doned, though he had taken an active part in opposing 
the Stamp Act and other measures of the home gov 
ernment, he remained a persistent, earnest and out- 
.spoken adherent of the crown. He was the only one 
in Newburyport who had the courage to avow loyal 
sentiments, and after his death, which occurred in 
1776, it was the boast of the town that it had been 
purified. There is some ground for the suspicion that 
his death was the result of abusive treatment at the 
hands of the patriots. Dr. Samuel Peters, in a letter 
dated June 19, 1783, says : " Messerve (collector of 
Portsmouth) and Porter, a lawyer of Salem, agree 

that there never was known to be in Newburyport 
more than four loyal subjects, one of whom went ofl 
to Scotland, Colonel Farnham was killed by the 
rebels, and Mr. Bass and Dr. Jones gave satisfaction 
to the rebels and remained there." 

Though the patriotic citizens of Newburyport 
looked upon the deatli of Colonel Farnhara as a 
purifying event, it is certain that during his long res- 
idence in that town, up to the Revolutionary period, 
he was an honored lawyer and citizen, prominent in 
every good work, and a means of purification to all 
who came within the sphere of his example and in- 
fluence. In his domestic relations he was a loving 
husband and a tender father. After his death the 
copy of a prayer which was found in his pocket-book, 
and which he was in the daily habit of repeating, 
shows him to have been a devout and faithful Chris- 

William Pynchox was born in Springfield in 

1725, and graduated at Harvard in 1743. In 1745 he 
removed to Salem, where he studied law with Stephen 
Sewall, one of the judges of the Superior Court of 
Judicature. He died in Salem in March, 1789. 

John Chipman was the son of Rev. John Chip- 
man, of Marblehead, and graduated at Harvard in 
1738. He died in Falmouth (now Portland) in July, 

Nathaniel Peaselee Sargent was born in 
Methuen November 2, 1731, and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1750. He practiced law in Haverhill. He 
was the son of Rev. Christopher Sargent, of Methuen. 
In 1776 lie was appointed judge of the Superior 
Court of Judicature, and in 1789 chief justice of that 
court, holding the place until his death, in October, 

John Lowell, the last of the five Essex County 
barristers in 1768, was not long identified with his native 
county. He was born in Newbury in 1743, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1760, receiving the degree of LL.D. 
in 1792. He studied law in Boston in the office of 
Oxenbridge Thacher, and after a short term of prac- 
tice in Newburyport removed to Boston, and finally 
to Roxbury, where he died in May, 1802. In 1781 he 
was chosen a member of Cf'mgress, and in 1782 was 
appointed one of the three judges of the Court of 
Appeals from the Court of Admiralty. In 1789 he 
was appointed judge of the LTnited States District 
Court, and in 1801 was made chief justice of the 
First Circuit of the United States Court, and held the 
office until the law establishing the court was re- 
pealed, in 1802. 

Nathaniel Ropes was born in Salem May 20, 

1726, and graduated at Harvard in 1745. In 1766 he 
was appointed judge of probate for Essex, and chief 
justice of the Court of Common Pleas for the same 
county. He lived in Salem until his death, which 
occurred March 19, 1774. 

Teistram Dalton, son of Michael Dalton, was 
born in Newburyport M.ay 28, 1738, and graduated at 




Harvard in 1755. He studied law in Salem and mar- 
ried a daughter of Robert Hoo[)er, of Marhk'hcad. 
He was a representative from Newburyport and 
Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tive.s, and a member of the State Senate. With 
Caleb Strong, he represented Massachusetts in the 
United States Senate from 1789 to 1791 in the first 
Congress after the adoption of the Constitution. He 
invested largely in property at Washington, and re- 
moved to that city, but eventually sustained serioug 
losses. He was appointed, in 1815, surveyor of the 
ports of Boston and Charlestowu, and died in Boston 
May 30, 1817. The house in which he lived in New- 
buryport is still standing on State Street, a gambrel- 
root house, a little above the Public Library, on the 
ojjposite side of the street. 

OfTAVHTs PiCKERlsi!, SOU of Colouel Timothy 
Pickering, was born in Wyoming, Pa., September 2, 
1792, during the temporary residence of his iiither in 
that place. His father returned to Salem, his native 
town, in 1801, and Octavius was a Salem youth of 
fourteen years when he entered Harvard, in 180(). 
He was admitted to the bar at Salem at the October 
term of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas in 1813, 
but very soon removed to Boston, where he was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk bar March 6, 1816. From that 
time until his death, October 29, 18(58, he was no 
longer identified with Essex County. He published, 
in 1867, the life of his father, and engaged in other 
literary works, but his twenty-four volumes of Mas- 
sachusetts decisions, known as " Pickering's Re- 
ports," arc his best title to a lasting remembrance. 

John Gali.ison was born in Marblehead in Oc- 
tober, 1788, and graduated at Harvard in 1807. He 
was admitted to the bar at Salem in 1810, at the Sep- 
tember term of Court of Common Pleas. After a 
short practice in Marblehead he removed to Boston, 
where he published, in 1807, two volumes of Circuit 
Court reports and engaged in literary work. He died 
December 25, 1820. 

Hon. Daniel Appleton White, for thirty-eight 
years judge of probate for Essex County, was born in 
Methuen, on ground now at the heart of the present 
city of Lawrence, June 7, 1776. He was the sixth 
son and eleventh child of John White, a gentleman 
farmer of that day, and was descended in the sixth 
generation from William White, one of the founders 
of Newbury and, in 1640, one of- the original gran- 
tees of Haverhill, his mother being Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Haynes. It was a happy country 
home of the best class in which his early years were 
passed, abounding in comfort, plenty, intelligence 
and alfection, with high-minded parents and a large 
family of brothers and sisters united by ties of unu- 
sual strength, and amid surroundings of natural 
beauty, on a noble farm of nearly three hundred 
acres, bounded by the Merrimac and the Spicket 
Rivers. As in most New England faiiiilics, the boy 
of less physical strength and of a studious bent was 

selected by these qualities for an cdii Mli.Mi, and he 
entered the academy at Atkinson, N. II., in June, 

1792, and Harvard College in the freshman cl.ass of 

1793, having completed his preparation in seven and 
a half months of actual study of from fourteen to 
sixteen hours a day. Although Cambridge has reared 
a host of loyal students, the college has rarely trained 
so devoted a son ;is he proved to be. Learning was, 
indeed, at a low ebb there in the last years of the 
eighteenth century, the apparatus of knowledge small 
and the opportunities were scanty, and in morals and 
religion the unsettling effect of the French Revolu- 
tion was marked ; but it was a place to train a strong 
character and to knit worthy friendships. In a class 
of exceptional talent, young White graduated the 
first scholar, in 1797, and, after two years spent in 
teaching the public grammar-school in Medford, in 
August, 1799, returned to Cambridge as tutor in 
Latin, a j)osition then of great responsibility and 
influence, in which he was enabled to be of much 
service to the college. Perhaps the four years thus 
occupied were the happiest part of his life, with his 
marked academic tastes and aptitudes. In Septem- 
ber, 1803, however, resigning his tutorship, he re- 
moved to Salem to complete, in the ofiice of Mr. 
(afterwards Judge) Samuel Putnam, the studies for 
the bar, which he had been pursuing while tutor. 
Here, with Mr. John Pickering, eminent later as a 
philological scholar, he prepared an edition of Sal- 
lust, "the first edition of an ancient classic ever 
published in the United States which was not a pro- 
fessed re-impre.ssion of some former and foreign edi- 
tion," the sheets of which were unfortunately de- 
stroyed by fire on the eve of publication, in 18u5. 
Having been admitted to the bar in June, 1S04, Jlr. 
White began the practice of his profession in New- 
buryport with success and distinction as a lawyer and 
citizen, residing in that town for thirteen years. Of 
strong political convictions as a Federalist, he became 
prominent in that party in Massacliusctts during the 
administrations of Jefferson and Madison, being a 
member of the State Senate from 1810 to 1815, and 
taking a leading part in public affairs, and in No- 
vember, 1814, being nominated for Congress as the 
Federal candidate in the Essex North District, he was 
elected by a nearly unanimous vote, the expression of 
a constituency not of hisown party alone of the general 
respect and trust in which he was helil. -At this junc- 
ture, on the threshold of a conspicuous public career, 
the offer by Governor Strong of the ofiice of judge of 
probate for the county of Essex altered the coui-se of 
his life. He accepted this position, and resigned his 
commission as Representative in the spring of 1815, 
against the judgment of many friends, who felt that 
he did not estimate his iiualifications for high public 
service at their full worth ; but he was led to this 
decision by considerations such as appealed with pe- 
culiar force to a lofty and unworldly character. De- 
voted to the principles of his party, he yet could not 


be its slave; his strong taste for literary studies and 
for a life of scholarly freedom from engrossing pro- 
fessional cares found an opportunity for satisfaction; 
but the controlling motive with him was due to the 
bereavement of his liome. He had married Mrs. 
Mary Van Schalkwyck, daughter of Dr. Josiah Wil- 
der, of Lancaster, May 24, 1807, whose early death, 
June 29, 1811, had left him with two young daugh- 
ters, a care and duty which the life of a public man 
at Washington would liave compelled him to sacrifice. 
In giving up the opportunity of a consjiicuous public 
career he did not, however, turn aside from a large 
sphere of honorable service. The office of judge of 
probate, when held for the length of time during 
which Judge White exercised its duties, brings its 
holder into important relations with the whole com- 
munity, and enables him to stand to the widow and 
the orphan for tlie justice of the commonwealth in 
their hour of need. Moreover, a special reason for 
the appointment of a judge of such weiglit of char- 
acter and high reputation had been the fact that the 
methods of several of the probate courts, and partic- 
ularly that of Essex County, needed revision and 
reform. To thi.s task Judge White addressed himself 
with results wliich made the court a model of admin- 
istration, which was followed in the other probate 
courts of the State. Still, the necessary changes 
which he introduced led to serious misunderstandings 
for a time in a public accustomed to loose and easy- 
going methods, and the feeling culminated in 1821 in 
a memorial addressed to the Legislature by sundry 
persons in complaint against the judge and the reg- 
ister of probate in Essex County. His former politi- 
cal opponents found this a favorable occasion of 
attack, and the special committee appointed by tlie 
House of Representatives held an ex parte investiga- 
tion, without giving the officers who were thus assailed 
any opportunity to vindicate their action. Yet the 
committee were compelled to do so in their own re- 
port, unanimously adopted by the Legislature, which 
stated that the changes which had been introduced 
were " some of them expressly required by difi'erent 
statutes, others by the Supreme Court adjudged to be 
necessary, and, as far as they could find, all of them 
useful." Judge White took this occasion to publish, 
in 1822, a careful historical account of the course of 
probate law and procedure from the earliest times in 
this commonwealth, with an account of the former 
practice in Essex County and the changes which had 
been introduced. This little work, entitled "A View 
of the Jurisdiction and Proceedings of the Courts of 
Probate in Massachusetts, with Particular Reference 
to the County of Essex," and which concluded with 
a dignified and just animadversion upon the mode in 
which the legislative investigation had been con- 
ducted, became an authority on the subject. The 
reforms which he had introduced were adopted in the 
courts of other counties, while fixed salaries were 
substituted for fees. When Judge White resigned 

his office, July 1, 1853, in his seventy-eighth year, 
but with his physical and mental powers unabated, 
nearly every estate in the county had passed under 
his care, and his fidelity and justice in the adminis- 
tration of his duties had been crowned with universal 
respect and honor. The opportunities of leisure 
which his judicial position afforded enabled him to 
meet the demands for those services which naturally 
devolve on a public-spirited citizen holding sucli a 
position in the community. He was one of the 
founders of the Essex County Lyceum, the pioneer 
in the system of public lectures which promised and, 
for a time, fulfilled the promise to be potent among 
the educational and moral influences of the time, 
being its president, and also the first president of the 
Salem Lyceum. Of the Essex Institute he was pres- 
ident from its foruuition, in 1848, until his death. 
Addresses on public occasions, as at the dedication of 
Harmony Grove Cemetery, and the eulogies on Dr. 
Bowditch, in Salem, and Hon. John Pickering, in 
Boston, were given by him. Harvard College lie 
served with unwearied devotion for many years in 
the board of overseers and on various committees, 
receiving from the university in 1843 the honorary 
degree of LL.D., and in 1844 delivering the address 
before its Association of Alumni. But his delight 
was in his noble library, rich especially in the ancient 
classics, historical works and English beUes-leftres, 
wliere his happiest hours were spent in liis favorite 
studies. These bore fruit especially in his writings 
concerning theological subjects and congregational 
polity. His early bent had been to the profession of 
the Christian ministry, from which he had been de- 
terred by the difference of his convictions from those 
of his honored parents, who were earnest members of 
the Baptist communion, while his own sympathies 
were with the liberal Christian movement, which 
took form in the Unitarian denomination, in which 
he became one of the most prominent laymen ; and 
his special interest in studies more congenial to the 
sacred profession than to that of the law never waned. 
In tlie earnest debate between the two branches of 
the Congregational body he took part with his pen, 
publishing in 1832 an elaborate work, marked by 
much learning, entitled " Correspondence Between 
the First Church and the Tabernacle Church, in 
Salem, in which the Duties of Churches are Dis- 
cussed, and the Rights of Conscience Vindicated," 
and the studies of many years were gathered up by 
him in his old age in his volume on "New England 
Congregationalism in its Origin and Purity," pub- 
lished in 18G1, just before his death. In these studious 
labors, however, he was no recluse, but his fine old 
mansion was the seat of a large and wide hospitality 
to friends and kindred and strangers. This had be- 
come his home wlien, after his removal to Salem, he 
had married, August 1, 1819, Mrs. Eliza Wetmore, 
daughter of William Orne, Esq., a prominent mer- 
chant, whose early death, March 27, 1821, again 


darkened his domestic happiness. His subsequent 
niiiriiage, January 22, 1824, to Mrs. Ruth Kogors^ 
(laughter of Joseph Hurd, Ksq., of ('h;irlosto\vn, 
pUiced once more at the head of his home a refined 
and charming lady, who shared and graced its hospi- 
talities, surviving him to die November 28, 1874, at 
the age of more than ninety years. 

Fn fuch serene and happy occupations the closing 
years of Judge White's life were spent after the resig- 
nation of his judicial otfice, which he continued able 
to have filled, if he had so chosen, to his death, 
March .30, ISOl, near the close of his eighty-fifth 
year, with undimmed powers of body and mind, and 
with a spirit ever young. His brethren of the Essex 
bar expressed the feeling of the community in reso- 
lutions adopted at a meeting called for the purpose 
after the death of Chief .Justice Shaw and of Judge 
AV'hite, which recorded their " appreciation of" his 
" fine intellectual and moral traits, of that elegant 
and varied scholarship, and that tliorough and exact 
learning of which a brilliant university career gave 
promise, and which the experience of so long a life 
did not disappoint; of his fidelity to his professional 
and judicial duties ; of the services which he has 
rendered to the probate law by his faithful adminis- 
tration and his published treatise; of the pure and 
simple course of his daily life ; of the unswerving 
integrity, the exquisite religious sensibility, the large 
philanthropy and the unlxninded and generous sym- 
pathy for all around him, which ennobled his life, 
even to its extremest close," and commemorating, 
"with afiectionate pride," "the influence of his ex- 
ample." Two enduring memorials in gifts ampler 
than are often bestowed by men of far larger 
estate remain to perpetuate his memory. The first is 
that by which he bestowed on the Essex Institute, in 
Salem, the greater part of his library, amounting in 
all to over eight thousand books and ten thousand 
pam|ihlets. The oiher is the noble White Founda- 
tions in the city of Lawrence, which now covers the 
green fields of what was his father's farm in Methuen. 
In selling to the Essex Company his portion of this 
territory, he had reserved six acres, including a fam- 
ily burial lot, with the restriction that it should not 
be built upon without the consent of that company. 
With this consent, in 18-52, he vested this property 
in three trustees, who were directed to make proper 
provision for the burial-place, after which the pro- 
ceeds of sales of the land were to be inve-<ted and the 
income applied to the establishment and support of 
an annual course of lectures and in the purchase of 
books for the Public Library, any further surplus to 
be used " in such manner as they, in the exercise of 
a sound judgment and discretion, shall consider best 
adapted to promote the moral, intellectual and Chris- 
tian advancement and instruction of the inhabitants 
of the town of Lawrence, earnestly requesting the 
said trustees constantly to bear in mind that the great 
object intended to be promoted and acciiniiilislie<l is 

the education and training up of the young in habits 
of industry, morality and piety, and in the exercise 
of true Christian principles, both in thought and 
action." From the income of this fund annual 
courses of lectures since 18G4-65 have been given in 
Lawrence, free to the industrial classes, and filling 
the largest hall in the city to overflowing, and since 
1872 a regular ai)propriation of one thousand dollars 
annually has been applied to the purchase of care- 
fully-selected books for the Public Library, while it 
is estimated that the principal of the fund will event- 
ually amount to one hundred thousand dollars, — a 
worthy fulfillment of a wise and comprehensive plan 
for enduring public benefit. The two daughters of 
Judge White by his first marriage were married to 
Hon. William Dwight, of Springfield, and Hon. 
Caleb Foote, of Salem, while two sous survived him, 
the children of his second and third marriages, — 
Rev. William Orne White and Dr. Henry Orne 
White. All of these children have ilescendants. 

Simon Gukenleaf was born in Newburyport 
December 5, 1783, and educated at the Latin school 
in that town. While he was a boy his father re- 
moved to New Gloucester, Maine, where he received 
his early education at the common schools. Without 
the advantage of a college career, at the age of 
eighteen he entered the law-ofiice of Ezekiel Whit- 
man, of Portland, and after a five years' course of 
study was admitted to the bar of Cumberland Coun- 
ty in 1806. He began to practice at Standish, Maine, 
removing, after a short time, to Gray, and from 
thence, in 1818, to Portland. 

In 1820 he was appointed reporter of decisions of 
the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, and held otfice 
twelve years, during which time be issued nine vol- 
umes of reports, which laid the foundation of his 
reputation and future distinguished legal career. He 
published at an early day a volume of " Overruled 
Ca^es," and later in life a treatise on the " Law of 
Evidence.'' This work, with his " Iteports," assures 
him a lasting fame. 

In 1817 he received from Bowdoin College the de- 
gree of Master of Arts, the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Harvard in 1834, and from Amherst in 184.5. In 
1834 he was appointed Royal Professor of Law in 
Harvard University as the successor of Profes.sor 
Ashmun, and after the de.ath of Judge Story he wius 
ai)pointed to the Dane Profcssorsliip in 1846. He 
was induced by ill health to resign in 1848, when he 
was honored with the title of Emeritus Professor of 
Law in the University. He died at Cambridge Octo- 
ber 6, 1853. 

Asa Waldo Wilde.s was born (1786) in Topsfield and 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1809. After leaving col- 
lege he taught school in Newburyport and Washing- 
ton, and finally returned to Newburyport and entered 
as a student the law-office of Stephen W. Marston. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1820, and began in 
Newburyport the practice of law, which he continued 


until 1826. In that year that part of the duties of 
the Court of Sessions which related to highways was 
transferred to a new board, " called commissioners 
of highways," consisting of five members appointed 
by the Governor. Mr. Wildes was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Lincoln a member of the board, with Robert 
Rantoul, of Beverly ; Stephen Barker, of Andover ; 
Joseph Winn, of Salem ; and William B. Breed, of 
Lynn, as his associates. 

In 1828 the Board of Highway Commissioners was 
abolished, and the Board of County Commissioners 
establi-hed. Mr. Wildes was appointed by the Gov- 
ernor chairman of the new board, and held office by 
successive appointments until 1835, when the office 
was made elective ; and again by election until 1856, 
with the exception of one term of three years, from 
1842 to 1845. 

Mr. Wildes was peculiarly fitted for the place he 
so long occupied, and his prolonged incumbency was 
as creditable to the people of Essex County as to 
himself. They appreciated his legal knowledge and 
sound judgment, and did not hesitate to call him 
into their service. He died in Newburyport, Decem- 
ber 4, 1857. 

Stephen W. Maeston was born in Fairlee, Vt., 
in 1787. He graduated at Dartmouth, and after com- 
pleting his law studies with Judge White, of Salem, 
settled in Newburyport. He was well read in the 
law, and at an early day took high rank at the Essex 
bar. He was one of the junior counsel in the cele- 
brated Goodridge robbery case, in which Daniel 
Webster was senior. Had it not been for the mas- 
terly management and skill of Mr. Webster, aided by 
the thorough work of his assistants, the Kenistons, 
Jacknian and Pearson, the defendants would doubt- 
less have been convicted of a crime which had never 
been committed. There had been no robbery, but 
Goodridge had been so ingenious in the arrangement 
of his plot and of the evidence to sustain it, that the 
proof against the parties charged seemed almost con- 
clusive. An account of this trial, perhaps the most 
remarkable one in the annals of the State, was pub- 
lished in a pamphlet, and is worthy of examination 
by all who are interested in the administration of 
criminal law. 

In 1833 Mr. Marston was appointed justice of the 
Police Court at Newburyport, and continued in office 
until 186G, when the increasing feebleness of age in- 
duced him to resign. His duties on the bench were 
conscientiously performed, and his decisions, which 
were rarely reversed, were always marked by a sound 
judgment as well as an exact perception of legal prin- 
ciples. He was a member of the Legislature in early 
life,and the Whig candidate for Congress in opposition 
to Caleb Cushing in that gentleman's first great con- 
test for the national legi-slature. He died at his resi- 
dence August 27, 1873. 

Samuel L. Knapp was a native of Newburyport. 
He was graduated at Dartmouth College, and studied 

law at Newburyport with Theophilus Parsons, and 
became a practicing lawyer in his native town. He 
afterwards removed to Boston, where he edited the 
Boston Galoxij, and for a short time the Commercial 
Oazette. He again removed to Washington, where he 
was engaged as editor of the National Journal, and 
finally to New York, where he edited the Commercinl 
Advertiser. He was one of the junior counsel with 
Daniel Webster in the famous Goodridge robbery 
case, and would have attained high rank at the bar 
had not a fondness for general literature enticed him 
away from his profession. He died at Hopkinton 
Springs in July. 1838. 

Henky Alexander Scammell Dearborn, son 
of General Henry Dearborn, of the Revolution, was 
born in Exeter, N. H., March 3, 1783, and died in 
Portland, Me., July 29, 1851. He. graduated at the 
College of William and Mary in 1803, and studied 
law with Joseph Story, in Salem, where he entered 
into practice, having been admitted to the bar in 
1807. He was brigadier-general in command of 
troops in Boston harbor in the War of 1812, collector 
of the ports of Boston and Charlestown from 1812 to 
1829, a member of the Constitutional Convention of 
1820 and a member of Congress from 1831 to 1833. 
In 1834 he was made adjutant-general of Massachu- 
setts by Governor John Davis, and removed, in 1843, 
by Governor Marcus Morton, for loaning theState arms 
to Rhode Island to suppress the rebellion. He was 
mayor of Roxbury from 1847 to 1851, the year of his 
death. He was the author of several works which 
added materially to an already well-established repu- 

Gayton Pickman Osgood was born at Salem, 
July 4, 1797, and was the son of Isaac and Rebecca 
T. (Pickman) Osgood. He graduated at Harvard in 
1815, and studied law with Benjamin Merrill. He 
began practice in Salem, and afterwards removed to 
Andover, at which place his parents had, while he was 
young, taken up their residence. He was in the Legis- 
lature, and was a member of Congress from 1833 to 
1835. He married, March 24, 1859, Mary Farnham, 
of North .\ndover, and died in that town June 26, 1861. 
RuFT'S King, son of Richard and Isabella (Brag- 
don) King, was born in Scarboro', Me., March 24, 
1755, and graduated at Harvard in 1777. His 
father had removed to Scarboro' from Watertown, 
Mass., in 1746. He studied law with Theophilus 
Parsons, of Newburyport, whose office was on the 
corner of Green and Harris Streets, and commenced 
practice in that place. 

From 1784 to 1786 he was a member of Congress, 
and it is said that in consequence of his dis.appoint- 
ment at the selection of Tristram Dalton for United 
States Senator in 1788, removed to New York. His 
career there is well known, and forms no part of the 
history of Essex County. He died at Jam.aica, Long 
Island, April 29, 1827. William King, the first 
Governor of Maine, was the son of Richard King, by 


his first wife, Mary, daughter of Samuel Blake, of 
Scarboro', and half brother nf Bufiis. 

Nathaxiei. Co(is\vi:i.i., son of Tliomas Cogswell, 
was born in JIaverhill January 19, 1773, and gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1704. He studied law with 
Ebenezer Smith, of Durham. N. H., and began prac- 
tice in 1805. In 1808 he established him-elf at New- 
buryport, and died at the Rapids of the Red River 
August, 181.3. 

IrHAnoi) TrcKER was born at Leicester April 17. 
1705, and graduated at Harvard in 1791. He re- 
ceived a degree from Yale in 1804, and from Bowdoin 
in 1806. He began the practice of law in Haverhill, 
having been admitted to the bar in 1705, and re- 
moved to Salem, where he held the office of clerk of 
the courts for Essex County for many years. He 
was the son of Benjamin and Martha (Davis) Tucker, 
of Leicester, and was twice married, — first. September 
16, 1798, to Maria, daughter of Dr. Joseph and 
Mary (Leavitt) Orne, and second, October 13, 1811, 
to Esther Orne, widow of .Joseph Cobat and daugh- 
ter of Dr. William an<l Lois (Orne) Paine. He died 
at Salem October 22, 1846. 

William Cranch, son of Richard Cranch, who 
was born in England in November, 1726, was born 
in AVeymouth, Mass., July 17, 1769, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1787, receiving the degree of LL.D. 
from his alma mater in 1829. After his admission 
to the bar he practiced first in Braintree, and after- 
wards in Haverhill. In October, 1794, he removed 
to Washington, and was appointed in 1801, by Presi- 
dent Adams, associate judge of the Circuit Court of 
the District of Columbia, of which he was chief jus- 
tice from 1805 to his death, which occurred Septem- 
ber 1. 1855. He publislied nine volumes of reports 
of the United States Supreme Court, and six volumes 
of reports of the Circuit Court of the District of Col- 

Joseph E. Sprague was the son of William and 
Sarah (S|irague) Stearns, and took his mother's 
maiden-name. He was born at Salem iSepteniber 9, 
1782, and graduated at Harvard in 1804. He studied 
law, and was postmaster of Salem from 1815 to 1829. 
In September, 1830, he was appointed sheriff of Es- 
sex County, and continued in office until 1851. He 
was, at various times. Senator and Representative in 
the State Legislature, and died February 22, 1852. 

Joseph Story was born in Marblehead Septem- 
ber 18, 1779. and was the son of Dr. Elisha Story, a 
native of Boston and a surgeon in the Revolution. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1798, and received de- 
grees of LL.D. from Brown (1815). Harvard (1821) and 
Dartmouth (1824). Among his classmates were Wm. 
Ellery Channing. .John Varnum.and Sidney WMllard. 
His education before entering college wiia received in 
Marblehead, under the direction of Rev. Dr. William 
Harris, afterwards president of Columbia College. 
He began his law studies in the office of Chief .Justice 
Samuel Sewall, in Marblehead, but on his appoint- 

ment to the bench he entered the office of Judge 
Samuel Putnam, and was admitted to 'the bar of 
Essex County in July, 1801. He was a Democrat in 
politics, and as such stood almost alone among the 
lawyers of the county. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts House of Re|)resentatives in 1805, '0(), 
'07, a member of Congress in 1808, again a memberof 
the J^egislature from 1809 to 1812, and was chosen 
Speaker of the House of Representatives in Janu- 
ary. 1811. 

In 1806 he advocated in the Legislature an increase 
of the salaries of the Supreme Judicial Court in op- 
position to the prejudices of his party against high ju- 
dical salaries, and more especially against Theophilus 
Parsons, whom it was proposed to place on the 
bench, but who could not afford to relinquish a prac- 
tice of ten thousand dollars for a position having at- 
tached to it the paltry salary of twelve hundred dol- 
lars. Mr. Parsons was especially obnoxious to the 
Democrats, but Mr. Story, with that sturdy indepen- 
dence which always characterized him, advocated 
and carried a bill to increase the salary of the chief 
justice to two thousand five hundred dollars, and of 
the associates to two thousand four hundred dollars, 
and Mr. Parsons was appointed and accepted the ap- 
pointment. In 1809 he advocated and was largely 
the means of securing a further increase of the sal- 
aries of the chief justice and the associates to three 
thousand five hundred dollars and three thousand 
dollars, respectively. 

On the 18th of November, 1811, he was appointed 
by Madison associate justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of William Cushing, which occurred on the 
18th of September, 1810. The ajjpointment had been 
previously ottered to John Quincy Adams, who de- 
clined it. Mr. Story was then only thirty-two years 
of age, and his appointment reflects credit on the sa- 
gacity of Mr. Madison, who discovered in so young a 
man the signs of promise which his career afterwards 
fully verified. In 1820, at the time of the separation 
of Maine from Massachusetts, he was a delegate from 
Salem to the Constitutional Convention. In 1828 
Nathan Dane, who, in founding the Law School at 
Cambridge, had reserved to himself the appointments 
to its professorships, appointed Judge Story Dane 
professor of law and John Hooker Ashniun, Royal 
professor of law, and in the next year, 1829, he re- 
moved from .Salem to Cambridge, where he continued 
to reside until his death, on the 10th of .September, 

Aside from his learning in the law and that won- 
derful fiuency in the use of language, both spoken and 
written, which made his learning available, nothing 
distinguished him more than his industry. With the 
labors of the judge constantly pressing upon him and 
the cares of his professorship, the press was kept busy 
in supplying the law libraries of the land with his 
coninientarics and treatises and nii.sccllaneous pro- 



ductions. His first publication seems to have been a 
poem entitled the " Power of Solitude," published in 
Salem in 1804. In 1805 appeared " Selection of 
Pleadings in Civil Actions with Annotiitions." In 
1828 he edited the Public and General Statutes 
passed by Congress from 1789 to 1827, and in 1836 
and 1845 supplements to thesedates. In 1832 appeared 
"Commentaries on the Law of Bailments, with Illus- 
trations from the Civil and Foreign Law ; " in 1833, 
"Commentaries on the Constitution;" in 1834, 
" Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws, Foreign and 
Domestic, in Regard to Contracts, Rights and Reme- 
dies, and Especially in Regard to Marriages, Divorces, 
Wills, Successions and Judgments." In 1835 and 
1836 appeared " Commentaries on Equity Jurispru- 
dence as Administered in England and America;" 
in 1838, " Commentaries on Equity Pleadings and the 
Incidents Thereto, according to the Practice of the 
Courts of Equity in England and America ; " in 1839, 
" Commentaries on the Law of Agency as a Branch 
of Commercial and Maritime Jurisprudence, with Oc- 
casional Illustrations from the Civil and Foreign 
Law;" in 1841, "Commentaries on the Law of 
Partnership as a Branch of Commercial and Maritime 
Jurisprudence, with Occasional Illustrations from the 
Civil and Foreign Law;" in 1843, " Commentaries on 
the Law of Bills of Exchange, Foreign and Inland, 
as Administered in England and America, with Oc- 
casional Illustrations from the Commercial Law of 
the Nations of Continental Europe; '' in 1845, "Com- 
mentaries on the Law of Promissory Notes." His 
decisions in the First Circuit, from 1812 to 1815, are in 
" Gallison's Reports ; " from 1810 to 1830, in " Mason's 
Reports;" from 1830 to 1839, in "Sumner's Re- 
ports ; " and from 1839 to 1845, in Story's " Reports." 
Among his numerous other publications were an 
" Eulogy on Washington at Salem," 1800 ; "An Eulogy 
on Captain James Lawrence and Lieutenant Lud- 
low," 1813; "Sketch of Samuel Dexter," 1816; 
" Charges to Grand Juries in Boston and Providence," 
1819; "Charge to Grand Jury at Portland," 1820; 
" Address before the Suffolk Bar," 1821 ; " Discourse 
before the Phi Beta Society," 1826; "Discourse be- 
fore the Essex Historical Society," 1828 ; " Address 
at his own Inauguration as Professor," 1829; "Ad- 
dress at the Dedication of Mount Auburn," 1831 ; 
" Address at the Funeral Services of Professor John 
Hooker Ashmun," 1833; "Eulogy on John Mar- 
shall,'' 1835 ; " Lectures on the Science of Law," 
1838; "Address before the Harvard Alumni," 1842; 
and his " Charge to the Grand Jury of Rhode Island 
on Treason," in 1845. In addition to this long list of 
his works might be mentioned a large number of essays 
and articles in magazines and reviews, and three un- 
printed manuscript volumes, finished just before his 
death, entitled " Digest of Law Supplementary to 
Comyns,'' which are deposited in the Harvard Col- 
lege library. 

John Vaknum was born in Dracut in 1783, and 

graduated at Harvard in 1798. He practiced law in 
Haverhill, and there married, October 9, 1806, Mary 
Cooke, daughter of Dr. Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Hav- 
erhill. He represented Haverhill in the Sta'e Legis- 
lature, and was also a member of the Senate. He 
was a member of Congress from December 5, 1825, to 
March 3, 1831. His law studies, before admission to 
the bar, were pursued in the office of Judge Smith, of 
Exeter. He died July 23, 1836. 

John Glen King, son of James and Judith 
(Norris) King, was born in Salem March 19, 1787, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1807. He studied law 
with William Prescott and Joseph Story, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1812, at the November term of 
the Supreme Judicial Court, sitting at Salem. He 
was Representative and Senator and the president of 
the first City Council of Salem after its incorporation 
as a city, in 1836. Aside from legal attainments, 
which were universally recognized as of a high order, 
he was proficient in historical study, and was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and one 
of the founders of the Essex Historical Society. He 
married, November 10, 1815, Susan H., daughter of 
Frederick Oilman, of Gloucester, and died July 26, 

Mr. King's baptismal name was John King, but by 
an act of the Legislature passed June 21, 1811, it was 
changed to John Glen King. He was descended 
from William King, who came from England in the 
" Abigail " in 1635. Though he graduated in 1807, he 
did not receive his degree until 1818, having been one 
of those engaged in'the famous Commons Rebellion, 
which occurred in his senior year. While a member 
of the House of Representatives he was appointed in 
the Prescott impeachment case to make the impeach- 
ment at the bar of the House, in the name of the 
House and the people, and also one of seven members 
to conduct the impeachment before the Senate. He 
was chairman of the committee and made the opening 

A letter from Boston, in the Salem Gazette, at the 
time of his death, paid the following tribute to his 
memory: "The Hon. John Glen King, whose death, 
at the ripe age of seventy years, has been announced, 
was a gentleman universally respected for his private 
worth and public services and example. All who 
have had the pleasure of an intimate acquaintance 
with him have been blest by his social qualities, his 
urbanity of manner and his kindness of heart. The 
odor of his virtues will long endure among his 
friends. Truly a good man has departed." 

Nathaniel Lord, Jr., though not a member of the 
bar, was so long register of probate of Essex County, 
and came in such close contact with lawyers in the 
performance of their professional duties, as to deserve 
an honorable place in this record. He was descended 
from Robert Lord, who came to New England in 1636 
and settled in Ipswich. Robert had five sons — Roli- 
ert, Thomas, Samuel, Joseph and Nathaniel. Of 




^^--T/u i/M, j/n^ c ^(^J^ /L. M 

/ ^ .■//it J C t) 

LA^-n C^ I 

t, yi 


these, Robert had six sons, — Robert, 1657 ; John, 

]65!» ; ThoiiKis ; ,Ii)se|)li, 1674 ; Xatlianicl, al)out If!".'); 
and Jiiiiio^, l(!7(). Of these, .James had James, .Joseph 
and Nathaniel. Of tliese, Xatluiiiiel married Eliza- 
beth Day, and hail Nathaniel, 1747 ; Abraham, 1751 ; 
Isaac, 17.53. Of these, Isaac, by wife, Susanna, had 
Isaac, 1777; .Joseph, 1778; Nathaniel, the subject of 
this sketch, Heptember 25, 1780; and Levi, 1704. Of 
these Nathaniel, by his wife I'-unice, had Nathaniel, 
James, Otis Philli[)s, Isaac, and (Jeorge Kobert. Of 
these, George Robert, by his wife Mary, had George 
Robert and four daughters, JIary L., Anna M., Ella 
K., and Elizabetli F. 

Mr. Lord graduated at Harvard in 1798, and be- 
came first connected with the probate oflice as clerk 
of Daniel Noyes, who had been register many years. 
In May, 1815, he was appointed register by Governor 
Caleb Strong, and continued in office until lie was re- 
moved by Governor Boutwell, in 1851. In 1851 Edwin 
Lawrence succeeded him, and in the next year the 
registry was removed to Salem. 

After leaving college and before going into the 
registry as clerk he taught school a few years in 
York, Me., and was also for a short time an assistant 
in the Dummer Academy. He married, in Decem- 
ber, 1804, Eunice, daughter of Jeremiah and Lois 
(Choate) Kimball, of Ipswich, and sister of Colonel 
Charles Kimball, of that town. His three sons, Na- 
thaniel James, Otis Phillips and George Robert, of 
whom only the last is living, owed many of their 
strong mental and physical traits to their father. 
Sketches of the first two may be found in another 
place in this record. To George Robert Lord, who, 
at one time, was register of probate, and is now the 
courteous and efficient assistant clerk of the courts at 
Salem, the writer of these sketches is indebted for 
facilities in the examination of records, which he 
most generously afforded. 

Too much praise can scarcely be awarded to Nathan- 
iel Lord lor the fidelity, thoroughness and courtesy 
with which he performed the duties of register during 
his incumbency of thirty -six years. Very many now- 
living have cause to remember his kindness of heart, 
his timely counsel and his honorable deportment, 
both in business and social life, and the admirable 
method and system of the office under its present 
management is largely due to the high standard 
which he set up, while it was occupied by him. 

David Cu.m.miss wa.s the son of David and Mehita- 
bel (Cave) Cummins, of Topsfield, and was born in that 
town August 14, 1785. He graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1806, and after completing his law studies in the 
office of Samuel Putnam, of Salem, was admitted to 
the Essex bar at .^alem in 18011, at the September term 
of the Court of Common Pleas. He began practice at 
Salem, afterwards removing to Springfield, and finally 
to Dorchester, wlierc he died March 30, 18,55. He 
was appointed justice of the Court of Common Pleas 
in 1S28, and remained on the bench until 1841. He 

was twice married, — first, August 13, 1812, to Sally, 
daughter of Daniel and Sarah (Peabody) Porter, of 
Topsfield ; and second, to Catherine, daughter of 
Thomas Kittridge, of Andover. 

Samuel Porter, of Salem, was admitted to the 
bar of E-sex County before the Revolution. He 
studied law with Daniel Farnham, of Newburyport, 
and became a Loyalist refugee and ended his days in 

Nathan W. Hazen was born in Bridgeton, Maine, 
July 9, 1800. He there received his education in the 
public schools and in the Bridgeton Academy. He 
studied law with Leverett Saltonstall, of Salem, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1828. He settled in An- 
dover, where he secured a large practice. He was a 
member of the Massachusetts House of Rcjjrcsenta- 
tives in 1834, and at a later day a member of the 
Senate. He died in Andover, March 1!>, 1887, the 
oldest member of the Essex bar. 

Benmamin Ropes Nichols, son of Ichabod and 
Lydiii (Ropes) Nichols, w:is born in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, May 18, 1786, and graduated at Harvard 
in 1804. He was admitted to the bar of E>sex County 
in 1807, and for many years practiced law in Salem. 
He married, April 12, 1813, Mary, daughter of Colonel 
Timothy and Rebecca (White) Pickering, of Salem. 
She was born in Philadelphia November 21, 1793, 
during her father's temporary residence in that city, 
and outliving her husband many years, died in West 
Roxbury March 22, 1863. Mr. Nichols removed to 
Boston in 1824, where he died April 30, 1848. He 
was a man of culture, and as an antiquary won more 
than c(mimon distinction. In 1820 he was appointed 
by the General Court on a commission, with Rev. 
James Freeman, of Boston, and Samuel Davis, of 
Plymouth, to superintend the work of copying such a 
portion of the New Plymouth records as they might 
think desirable. Under the direction of this commis- 
sion, six volumes of court proceedings, one volume of 
deeds, one volume of judicial acts and one volume of 
laws were copied, and the cojiies were deposited in the 
officeof the secretary of the commonwealth, where they 
still are. The original records were also put in proper 
condition for preservation, and to the intelligent per- 
formance of the duties of the commission the present 
state of the Old Colony records is largely due. 

RlTFUs Choate, the son of David ami Miriam 
(Foster) Choate, was born on Hog Island, in the town 
of Essex, October 1, 1799. He began the study of 
Latin in 1809 with Dr. Thomas Sewell, and continued 
his stu<lies with Rev. Thomsis Holt, Wra. Cogswell 
and Rev. Robert Crowcll. He afterwards spent seven 
months at Hampton Academy, then in charge of 
James .Vdams. and graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1S19, from which college he at a later day received the 
degree of LL.D. Degrees were awarded to him 
by Yale in 1844 and Harvard in 1845. After leaving 
college he studied law in the office of William Wirt, 
at WiLshington, and at the Dane Law School in Cam- 


bridge, and was admitted to the Essex bar, in Salem, 
at the September term of the Court of Common Pleas 
in 1823. He began practice in Danvers, where he re- 
mained until 1834. During his residence in Danvers 
he was a State Representative in 1825, State Senator 
in 1827, and member of Congress from 1832 to 1834. 
In the latter year he removed to Boston In 1841 he 
succeeded Daniel Webster in the United States Sen- 
ate, when that gentleman resigned his seat to become 
Secretary of State under President Harrison. In 
1853 he succeeded John H. Clifford as attorney- 
general of Massachusetts, and in the same year was 
a member of the Constitutional Convention. In 1858, 
in consequence of ill-health, he gave up professional 
labor, and in 1859 sailed for Europe. At that time 
the Cunard steamers from Boston touched at Halifax, 
Kova Scotia, and when reaching that port he was too 
feeble to proceed, and lauding, died in that city July 
13, 1859. 

Mr. Choate, before he removed to Boston, had been 
distinguished at the bar ; and after the death of Mr. 
Webster, in 1852, he was universally recognized as 
standing at the head of the bar of Massachusetts. In 
legislative fields he seemed out of his element. In 
the dominion of law, to which he gave his heart and 
soul and strength, he wa-s supreme. Though an ora- 
tor of the first class, his greatest forensic efforts were 
before a jury, and no gladiatorial show ever exceeded 
in interest the continuous exhibition of logic entwined 
with wreaths of eloquence in which he indulged be- 
fore a reluctant jury, until one after another of the 
panel yielded to him his judgment and was ready, as 
he triumphantly saw, to give him his verdict. The 
writer ha« seen him address himself for an hour to a 
single juryman, until he saw at last that he, with the 
rest, was secure. He was a man of large frame, broad 
shoulders and upright figure, surrounded by a head 
and face which it is as impossible to describe as the 
flash of the lightning in the cloud or the aurora in the 

Though contrasting strongly with Mr. Webster in 
every movement and feature, he was perhaps as 
striking in appearance, and in an uncovered crowd 
would have been as likely to arrest the attention of 
the stranger. There was a fascination about him 
which always won the sympathy of visitors to the 
court-room where he was engaged for the side in 
whose interest he was acting. The juror could uo 
more easily escape this fascination than the visitor, 
and to this may be attributed a part of his success. 
The writer was in court at Mr. Webster's last appear- 
ance before a jury in Boston, and Mr. Choate was op- 
posed to him. It was one of the many contests in 
which the heavy-moulded dray-horse, which would 
only exhibit his strength when he had tons to draw, 
was pitted against the racer. The racer won the case 
because there were no tons to draw, and because 
activity, alertness, swiftness and grace alone were 

Few lawyers in Massachusetts have been so much 
beloved as Mr. Choate. To the young members of the 
bar he was always courteous and kind; to his peers 
he was always considerate and liberal. His death was 
felt as a public loss, and not only the various societies 
and the bar to which he belonged put on record 
their tributes to his memory, but the citizens of Bos- 
ton met in Fanueil Hall and passed resolutions in his 

Charles Jackson, born in Newburyport May 31, 
1775, graduated at Harvard in 1793 and received the 
degree of LL.D. from his alma mater in 1821. He 
was a son of Jonathan Jackson, of Newburyport, who 
afterwards removed to Boston and there died March 
5, 1810. He studied law with Theophilus Parsons 
and was admitted to the Essex bar in 1796. In 1803 
he removed to Boston and attained very soon a high 
rank. In 1813 he was appointed by Governor Strong 
associate justice of the Supreme Judicial Court, and 
left the bench in 1823. He was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1820, and in 1833 was 
appointed one of the commissioners to codify the 
State laws. He died in Boston December 13, 18.55. 

Stephen Minot was born in Concord, Mass., Sep- 
tember 28, 1776, and graduated at Harvard in 1801. 
He studied law with Samuel Dana, of Groton, and 
was admitted to the bar in Middlesex County in 1804. 
He practiced for a short time in New Gloucester and 
in Minot, Maine, and finally settled in Haverhill. He 
was, from December, 1811, to June, 1821, judge of the 
Circuit Court of Common Pleas, and county attorney 
from 1824 to 1830. He died in Haverhill April 6, 

Samuel Putnam, LL.D., A.A.S.' — " Samuel Put- 
nam was born in Danvers, on the 13th of April, 1768. 
He was the son of parents of superior intelligence 
and worth, the line of his ancestry in that place run- 
ning back into our greatest American antiquity. His 
father. Deacon Gideon Putnam, amid the emergencies 
of an early settlement, seems to have exercised a 
variety of those needful functions which devolved 
upon men of most native sense and energy. His 
mother, who united to keen wit most acute feelings, 
having, of ten children, only this one spared, would 
often betray the smile and tear in the same moment, 
and this only one left of her offspring was naturally 
of so very slender constitution that faintly indeed 
in his youth could his after career have been antici- 
pated, and only a bold casting of the horoscope have 
meted out to him his coming years or attainments. 
Samuel went to school in Beverly, whither for a time 
the family removed, and afterwards, at the age of 
ten years, he studied in the academy at Andover. 
He saw the soldiers under Arnold as they were going 
down to attack Quebec, and they were pleased that 
the little boy — who appears to have had melody born 

1 Thij sketch is taken almost wholly from a sermon deliveretl in 1853, 
by Rev. A, U. Bal-tol, D.D. (Contributed.) 




in him, even at his tender age, so rarely cultivated 
was his faculty — could play the fife for them as they 
marched by. 

"Before the Revolution, too, he had seen a regi- 
ment of soldiers in command of General Gage, the 
British governor. He was himself distantly related 
to tlie celebrated Genera! Israel Putnam. But his 
vocation was not to the turbulence of battle, but to 
the serener air of peaceful studies, and having en- 
tered Harvard College, with others, a class-mate of 
John Quincy Adams, he received his graduation in 
July, 1787, and continued an enthusiastic friend of 
his alma mater to the end of his days. 

" His (iither had destined him to be a teacher, but, 
moved by the inspiration and other destiny of his 
own nature to a different sphere of greater intellectu- 
al study among men, he went to Newburyport to 
study law with the distinguished Judge Parsons, 
yet was by him — his class of pupils being full — direct- 
ed to Master Bradbury, as he was called, a sound 
and learned lawyer. He established himself in the 
practice of his profession, soon very extensively at 
Salem ; held a leading rank as an advocate, and, eminent opponents, was prompt, acute, ready, 
and able, with all the ingenuity at command needful 
to serve his client. No advocate of the time is under- 
stood to have been better versed than he in the prin- 
ci|)les of the common law^. He had peculiar slcill and 
fame in the branch of mercantile or commercial law, 
which was a rare reputation at that period, so that the 
great Samuel Dexter, in an important case sent his 
client to Essex, to Mr. Putnam, as the man to consult 
in that early school of the law in Massachusetts." 

So late as the year 1885, Lord Esher, the present 
distinguished Master of the Rolls, pronouncing the 
judgment of the Court of Appeals of England in an 
important commercial case said: "The first c;tse to 
be dealt with is the American case of Brooks vs. The 
Oriciitid Insura7ice Co. It came before a judge whose 
decisions I have often read with admiration, and from 
whom I have certainly received great assistance, Mr. 
Justice Putnam." 

" The renowned Justice Story, who had been his 
scholar, dedicated one of his works to his former 
teacher, with a high tribute to his sagacity and 
knowledge, as well as unspotted integrity. He took 
a decided and ardent part in the political questions 
of the time, but it is believed, in all the fire of parties 
that during his early manhood so hotly blazed out, 
he had no zeal that was not matched by his fairness, 
or at the core and in the seed outdone by liis charity. 
But so did he retain his earnestness, and so deter- 
mined was he in his opinions, that he always, to the 
close, considered it a duty, even at personal inconve- 
nience, to cast his vote. 

" Upon the death of Chief Justice Sewall, in 1814, 

he was, by Governor Strong, for whom he had a great 

reverence, appointed judge of the Supreme Juilicial 

Court of this Commonwealth, and he continued to 


exercise this high ofiice for twenty-eight years. I 
state what is in the cognizance of those familiar with 
the subject, in saying he had the respect of all good 
men for the manner in which he performed its sol- 
emn and responsible duties. No man ever held the 
scales of justice more even. None was ever more in- 
tent on making righteous decrees ; none ever more 
fearless and independent in his decisions ; none more 
solicitous for the deliverance of the wrongfully ac- 
cused, and none more indignant against all trickery, 
lying and fraud. Members of the bar join with his 
compeers on the bench to declare that no opinions or 
judgments of a high tribunal were ever more like- 
ly to be sound, sober, practical, and to the point, 
than his, as they are recorded in the books. 

" He adhered with great conservative firmness and 
inflexibility to his principles ; but one of his associ- 
ates told me his principles were good to adhere to. 
It is the award of another sincere observer of his 
course that, engaged as he had been in politics, with 
his whole heart espousing one side, on his becoming 
judge he put the politician entirely ofl' and, in his 
place, knew no distinction of fellow or foe. It is an 
unequivocal sign of the goodness of his heart, that, 
while nobody could suspect he was at all influenced 
by any regard to human favor^so clearly and evi- 
dently above all personal reganls and consequences 
was he in his duty — he yet carried into the execution 
of that duty the singular urbanity which stamped his 
whole deportment in private life. 

" In 1825 he received from the University in Cam- 
bridge the title of Doctor of Laws. In 1842, while 
still able to accomplish well the work falling to him 
in his lofty sphere, he retired into private, there to 
prove completely that no role of oflSce, but what was 
solid and genuine, gave him his real consequence in 
the world. I am persuaded from every quarter will 
be confirnieil the assertion, that he bore himself with 
admirable fidelity and acceptance in all the relations 
he sustained. He was exceedingly hospitable, kept 
open door, cordially invited his friends to come in, 
delighted to serve them at his table, and forgot not — 
how could he with his inclination? — to send a portion 
to the stranger and the poor, or to some humble 
neighbor, after whose comfort his benevolence 
yearned. He was glad to go with his guests over his 
old paternal estate, which it was a special pleiusure to 
him to increase and improve. He cherished and 
fondled his farm, but had not the ambition of some to 
accumulate wealth. He loved to set out trees, whose 
growth and full flourishing only his posterity could 
see. I remember he once showed me how nuich a 
limb had grown on one of his trees; he had, I think, 
brought the branch to town, assuring ine it afforded 
him as much satisfaction as another man would de- 
rive from a dividend. 

" He desired kindly constructions of the deeds and 
motives of others, and would allow no ill intent to be 
ascribed where any excuse was possible, while all 


unfairness everywhere met his steady disapproval. 
Respecting harshness of remark he often quoted a 
saying of his own father: "That may be true, my 
.son, but you should not say so." This love of all 
that is spiritually accordant was naturally connected 
with or issued in a great love of music, especially of 
sacred music, under his own roof or in the temple. 
He had a very sensitive ear to the precision of the 
note ; could scarce abide any falseness of tune, was 
never more pleased than when some beloved old 
hymn rang up to heaven, and when not listening to 
the anthems of the sanctuary, or the voices kindred 
and dear to him, found, what was to him, a delicious 
feast in the minstrelsy of the birds. There was, in 
truth, an infinite sweetness in him; his face was 
favor, his look an invitation, and he could not keep 
his hand from blessing the head of a child as he weut 
along. He was, I think, a very happy man, not ex- 
empt from trial, tasting some pain and sadness as the 
springs of health and life were broken up, but finding 
in existence a large boon for overrunning thanksgiv- 
ing. He had favorite books and authors, and found 
in reading, and in hearing his friends read, the pleas- 
ant occupation of much time. The enjoyment which 
a good old age has of youth was his to an uncommon 
degree. The first time I saw him was with the 
young all around, evidently both attracted by his 
love for them, and overflowing him with the tokens 
of their own, so that in their looks and motions they 
seemed to make one life together; and I remember 
well his presence, like a blessing, once, on occasion 
of the usual gathering of the children of our own so- 
ciety on the afternoon of Fast Day. I have heard it 
repeatedly said, in gratitude to him or commendation 
of him, that he loved to encourage young men in 
their commencing efforts, and by a word or a line 
from the desk of his tribunal would cheer and stim- 
ulate them. 

" During the stormy period of our public affairs, 
before and after 1812, he was among the stirring spi- 
rits. He repeatedly represented, in both branches 
of the Legislature, his section of the State, and, we 
may not doubt, uttered always, withe ut compromise, 
the deliberate conclusions of a thoughtful mind, and 
the deep sentiments of a guileless heart." 

Judge Putnam was married October 28, 1795, to 
Sarah Gooll, of Salem, who survived him by eleven 
years. He had three sons and five daughters, who 
lived to grow up. All were married, and all but one 
survived their father. He died July 3, 1853, in his 
86th year. 

Leveeett Saltonstall was born in Haverhill 
June 13, 1783. It is probable that no native of Essex 
County who has held his residence through life 
within its limits has been so conspicuous and so uni- 
versally respected and beloved. It may be said, too, 
with perfect truth, that no family in New England 
can boast of a more extended pedigree or more gen- 
ie blood than that whose name he bore and whose 

fame he contributed so much to maintaiu. He was 
the son of Dr. Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhill, 
and Anna, daughter of Samuel White, of Haverhill, 
a descendant of William White, a settler in Ijiswich 
in 1035, and one of the first settlers of Haverhill in 
1040. Dr. Nathaniel Saltonstall, born February 10, 
1746, was the son of Richard Saltonstall, of Haver- 
hill, and his third wife, Mary, daughter of Elisha 
Cooke, whose wife, Jane Middlecott, was a great- 
granddaughter of Governor Edward Winslow, of the 
Old Colony. Mary Cooke was also great-granddaugh- 
ter of Governor John Leverett. Richard Saltonstall, 
born June 24, 1703, was the son of Richard Salton- 
stall, of Haverhill, and Mehitabel, daughter of Cap- 
tain Simon Wainwright, of Haverhill. The last- 
mentioned Richard Saltonstall, born April 25, 1672, 
was the son of Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhill, 
who was appointed in 1692, by Governor William 
Phipps, one of the judges of the Oyer and Terminer 
Court to try the witches, and refused to serve, and 
his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. John Ward, of 
Haverhill. Nathaniel Saltonstall, born in Ipswich 
in 1639, was the son of Richard Saltonstall and 
Muriel, daughter of Brampton Gurdon and Muriel 
(Sedley) Gurdon, of Assington, County of Suffolk, in 
England. Richard Saltonstall, born at Woodsome, 
County of York, England, in 1610, came to New 
England with his father. Sir Richard Saltonstall, in 

1630, returned in 1631, married in England about 
1633, and coming back to New England in 1635, set- 
tled in Ipswich. He died on a visit to England, at 
Hulme, April 29, 1694. Sir Richard Saltonstall, of 
Huntwick, Knight, baptized at Halifax, England, 
April 4, 1586, was lord of the manor at Ledsham. 
He was the son of Samuel Saltonstall, and his first 
wife, Anne, daughter of John Ramsden, of Longley. 
He married three wives, — first, Grace, daughter of 
Robert Kaye, of Woodsome, who was the mother of 
the son Richard; second, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas West, Baron de la Warre; and third, Martha 
Wilford. He was one of the original patentees 
of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, and after his 
first wife died he came to New England with Win- 
throp in 1630, bringing his children. He began the 
settlement of Watertown, returned to England in 

1631, and there died about 1658, giving in his will a 
legacy to Harvard College. Samuel Saltonstall, the 
father of Sir Richard Saltonstall, the date of whose 
birth is unknown, died January 8, 1612-13, and was 
buried in Holy Trinity Church, Hull. He married 
three wives, — first, Anne Ramsden, above mentioned, 
who was the mother of Sir Richard Saltonstall ; sec- 
ond, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Ogden ; and 
third, Elizabeth Armine, widow of Hugh Armine, 
mayor of Hull. Gilbert Saltonstall, the father of 
Samuel, had a seat at Rooke's Hall, in Hipperholme. 
He died in 1598 and was buried at Halifax Decem- 
ber 29th. In his will he mentioned his wife, Isabel, 
and left legacies to the Halifax Church and the 

^na '^s^,A H nxia^'-i 




Halifax Grammar School. It is unnecessary to follow 
tlie pedigree further in detail. It is sufficient to say 
that heyond Gilbert, above mentioned, through two 
Richards, another Gilbert and two other Richards, it 
goes back to either John or Richard, the sons of 
Thomas De Saltonstall, of the West Riding of York- 
shire, who flourished about the year l.'WO. Every 
generation has been distinguished for the eminent 
men it hiis produced, and in the direct line of the 
subject of this sketch, every ancestor back to Richard, 
who came with his father in 1030, hiis been a gradu- 
ate of Harvard. To this list of graduates the names 
of Mr. Salstonstall himself, and of his son, Colonel 
Leverett Saltonstall, the present collector of the port 
of Boston, may be added. 

Nor is the Saltonstall pedigree the only ancient 
one to which the family of Mr. Saltonstall may lay 
claim. The family of Gurdons, one of whom, Muriel, 
daughter of Brampton Gurdon, married Richard 
Saltonstall, who came to Xew England with his 
father in 1630, has a recorded pedigree in the hands of 
Sir William Brampton Gurdon reaching back to Sir 
Adam Gurdon, who lived in the thirteenth century. 
The mother of Muriel Gurdon was Muriel Sedley, 
and the Sedley family, too, has a pedigree which is 
only lost in the reign of Edward the First. And still 
another family mingles its blood with that of the 
Saltonstalls. Sir Richard Saltonstall, who came to 
New England with his son in 1630 and returned to 
England in 1631, married for his first wife, from 
whom the Essex branch of the family sprang, Grace, 
daughter of Robert Kaye, of Woodsome, and the 
pedigree of the Kaye family, as taken from the York- 
shire visitation, published by the Harleian Society, 
reaches through a plain channel back to the time of 
William the Conqueror. Thus it will be seen that 
Mr. Saltonstall, besides the blood of his own imme- 
diate family, carried in his veins not only that of the 
Winslows and Leverctts of New England, but that of 
some of the most ancient families in Great Britain. 

Mr. Saltonstall pursued his preparatory studies at 
Phillips Academy, and graduated at Harvard in 
1802. In 1838 he received from his alma mater the 
degree of LL.D., the degree of A.B., from Yale, in 
1802, and of A.M. from Bowdoin in 1806. 

He studied law with Ichabod Tucker, of Haverhill, 
and afterwards with William Prescott, and after a 
short term of practice in his native town, removed to 
Salem in 1806. At that time the Essex bar contained 
on its rolls the names of Nathan Dane, William Pres- 
cott, Samuel Putnam, Joseph Story, John Pickering 
and Daniel A. White. By the side of these eminent 
men, with whom he came constantly in competition, 
he grew step by step, until he became their profes- 
sional peer. Samuel Putnam was called to the bench 
of the Supreme Court in 1814, Joseph Story was 
appointed to the bench of the United Slates Sujirenie 
Court in 1811, Nathan Dane gradually relinciuished 
I ractiee, Daniel A. White was made juilge of probate 

and John Pickering finally removed to Boston. As 
these early rivals, one after another, left the field, Mr. 
Saltonstall attained the position, which he held for 
many years and until his death, of leader of the 
Essex bar. He possessed every qualification for a 
successful lawyer, especially in a county like Essex, 
made n|) of small towns with honest, plain, matter- 
of-fact people, among whom the character and life of 
a professional man were criticised and prized aa much 
as his acumen and learning. The character and life 
of Mr. Saltonstall were singularly pure. Every man 
in Essex County knew it, and, when involved in ditti- 
culties, felt sure that his counsel would be wise and 
his services discreet and honest. For many years the 
Essex bar has had a reputation for fair and honorable 
dealings not possessed by that of every county in the 
State, and that reputation Mr. Saltonstall did much 
to establish and maintain. The confidence of his 
fellow-citizens of both the city of Salem and of the 
county wa-s many times and in various ways mani- 
fested. By Hon. Stephen C. Phillips, who knew him 
well, it was said, that "at an early age he took his 
seat in the Massachusetts House of Reprasentatives, 
and in that body at different periods, even to the very 
close of his public life, he rendered perhaps his most 
valuable services, and was distinguished and honored 
beyond almost any of his cotemporaries. He was 
an ettective debater and in the committee-room none 
could surpass him in the faithful, patient and intelli- 
gent performance of all his duties. He was a member 
of the Massachusetts Senate in two most important 
political junctures, and as a leader of the majority he 
assumed a full share of responsibility for its acts. 
As president of the Senate, too, he performed his 
duties with admirable dignity and to universal accept- 
ance. In the political service of Massachusetts he 
felt him-self at home, and the State never a citi- 
zen who maintained her character with a nobler pride 
or labored for her welfare with a purer zeal." On the 
incorporation of Salem as a city, March 23, 183i), her 
citizens did him and themselves the honor of making 
him their first mayor, and in that capacity he served 
until 1838. In the latter year he was chosen Repre- 
sentative to Congress, and remained in office until 
1843. In the discharge of his duties as Representa- 
tive he was singularly faithful, useful and earnest. 

During the latter half of his Congressional life he 
was chairman of the Committee on Manufactures, and 
on his shoulders fell the burden of the investigation 
and inquiry, and of the prei)aration of the report and 
bill, which finally resulted in the passage of the tjir- 
ilfof 1842. He was an active and honorable member 
of the old Whig party, conscientiously devoted to its 
interests at a time when party policies were con- 
tinuously distinct ; and sincerely believing that the 
success of the policy of that party would best promote 
the welfare of the country. He was not a partisan in 
the sense in which so many are partisans to-day, and 
would have indignantly refused to follow his party 


into the support of new measures devised purely for 
party purposes, without reference to the public good. 
When he advocated a measure, therefore, he spoke 
with a conviction behind liis words, with a heart 
pouring out its fullness from the tongue, and hence 
the impressive and convincing eloquence of which he 
was a master. 

Mr. Salstonstall was conspicuous in other than 
legislative and legal fields. He was president of the 
Bible Society, president of the Essex Agricultural 
Society and of the Essex Bar Association, a member 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society and the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the 
board of overseers of Harvard University, 

The relations of Mr. Saltonstall with his family 
were to the last degree confiding and tender. To say 
that he was beloved is only to repeat what may be 
said of nearly every husband and father. To say 
that he was worthy to be beloved is a better and a 
juster tribute. The affection which is merely incident 
to relationship fades with time. The tears of his 
children, though forty years have elapsed since his 
death, still start when they recall the virtues of their 
father, and exemplar, and friend. 

Mr. Saltonstall married, March 7, 1811, Mary 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Sanders, of Salem, 
and died in Salem May 8, 1845. On the 8th of May 
a meeting of the Essex bar was held at Ipswich, at 
which Benjamin Merrill was chosen president, and 
Ebenezer Shillaber secretary ; and resolutions offered 
by Joseph E. Sprague, and seconded by Nathaniel J. 
Lord, were passed as a tribute to his memory. On 
the same day, in the Supreme Court, Mr. Merrill 
presented the resolutions of the bar, and addressed 
the court. Judge Wilde replied, expressing "his 
sympathy with the feelings of the bar, and his regret 
at the loss of so useful and excellent a citizen as Mr. 
Saltonstall, whose worth and excellence he had 
known and highly esteemed for forty years." 

On the 10th of May, at a special meeting of the 
City Council of Salem, Mr. Roberts submitted re 
solves concerning the loss sustained by the city in 
the death of Mr. Saltonstall, which wereunaninuiusly 

The Massachusetts Historical Society took ap[)ro- 
priate notice of his death by eulogies spoken by 
various members, and at a later day by a memoir in 
its published proceedings. On Sunday, the 18th of 
May, Rev. Dr. John Brazier delivered, in the North 
Church in Salem, a discourse on his life and charac- 
ter ; and a commemorative sermon was also preached 
in the East Church by Rev. Dr. Flint. 

Isaac Ridington How, son of David How, was 
born in Haverhill March 13, 1791, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1810. He studied law with William 
Prescott and continued through life in the practice of 
law in his native town, where he died January 15, 

Samuel Merrill was born in Plaistow, New 

Hampshire, in 1776. His preparatory studies were 
pursued at Phillips Academy under the instruction of 
Joseph S. Buckminster, and with his brother, .lames 
Cushing Merrill, he graduated at Harvard in 1807. 
He studied law with John Varnum in Haverhill and 
began practice of the law in Andover in partnership 
with Samuel Farrar. He was at various times a 
memberof both branches of the Legislature, and, aside 
from his law studies, was through life a diligent 
scholar, and especially proficient in Greek and Latin 
literature. He died in Andover December 24, 1869. 

Michael Hodge was born in Newbury port in 
1780 and graduated at Harvard in 1799. He studied 
law in his native town and there followed his profes- 
sion. Samuel L. Knapp describes him in his per- 
sonal sketches as a man "who was never perfectly 
satisfied with his profession, for in his character was 
exhibited that moral enigma which has so often per- 
plexed the metaphysicians, — great personal intrepidity 
united to a painful and shrinking modesty ; a fear- 
lessness of all the forms of danger to a diffidence in 
the discharge of professional duties." He married, in 
1814, Betsey Hayvvard, daughter of Dr. James 
Thacher, of Plymouth, Mass., and widow of Daniel 
Robert Elliott, of Savannah, Georgia, and had James 
Thatcher, a graduate of Harvard in 1836, who was 
lost on Lake Michigan with a career in the paths of 
science already brilliant, but yet full of hope and 
promise. Mr. Hodge died in Plymouth on the 6th of 
July, 1816. 

Jedediah Foster was born in Andover October 
10, 1726, and graduated at Harvard in 1744. He 
finally established himself in Brookfield and married 
a daughter of Brigadier-General Joseph D wight. He 
was appointed judge of the Superior Court of Judica- 
ture in 1776 and died October 17, 1779. 

Charles Amburger Andrew was born in Salem 
in 1805 and graduated from the Harvard Law School 
in 1832. He also studied in the office of Leverett 
Saltonstall and was admitted to the bar in 1831. He 
died at Salem June 17, 1843. 

Benjamin Lynde Oliver was born in Salem in 
1789 and studied law with Joseph Story and Samuel 
Putnam. He was admitted to the Essex bar in June, 
1809. He died in Maiden June 18, 1843. 

Ebenezer Mosely, son of Ebenezer and Martha 
(Strong) Mosely, was born in Windham, Conn., Nov. 
21, 1781, and graduated at Yale College in 1802. He 
studied law with Judge Chauncey, of New Haven, 
Judge Clark, of Windham, and Judge Hinckley, of 
Northampton. In 1805 he settled in Nevvburyport, 
and at various times had as students in his office John 
Pierpont, afterwards a clergyman ; Governor Dunlap, 
of Maine; Robert Cross, Asa W. Wildes and Caleb 
Gushing. In 1813-14 he was the colonel of the Sixth 
Regiment, and, as chairman of the Board of Selectmen , 
welcomed Lafayette on the occasion of his visit to 
Newburyport. From 1816 to 1820 and from 1884 to 
18.36 he was a member of the House of Representa- 

^ ^.^x... 



tives, and in 1821 and 1822 a member of the Senate. 
In 1832 he was a Presidential elector and threw his 
vote for Henry Clay. On the 17th of June, 1811, he 
married Mary Ann, daughter of Edward Oxnard, and 
died at Newburyport August 28, 1854. 

LoNSON Nash came to the bar in 1807 and settled 
in Gloucester, his native town. He Wiis a Represen- 
tative in 1809 and Senator in 1812. He retired in 
1860 and died at Great Harrington February 1, 1863. 

William Fabens, son of William and Sarah 
(Brown) Fabens, was born in Salem April 14, 1810, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1832. He early settled 
in Marblehead an<l was engaged in law practice until 
his death, March 11, 1883. He was trial justice from 
1860 to 1878, a State Senator in 18o9, a trustee of the 
Nautical School during the entire period of its exis- 
tence, and for many years an active member of the 
School Board of Murblehead. 

Caleb Cushixg. — Newburyport, from the first set- 
tlement of the country, has been greatly distinguished 
for the eminence attained by her sons, daughters and 
citizens, in letters and active life. She can point to a 
long list of state>men, orators, poets, jurists, divine.', 
inventors and merchants, who do her honor. One of 
the least of our cities in territory and population, 
she has made herself famous at home and abroad, in 
the States of the Union and the nations of the globe. 
Among the names of her jurists she counts Bradbury, 
Parsons, Jackson, Lowell, Greenleaf, Wilde and a 
host of others famous for their knowdedge of common 
law and international law, as well as for their legal 
opinions and decisions uttered in our courts ; but no 
one of them in his varied acquirements and duties 
has done more credit to himself and the place of his 
birth or residence than Caleb Gushing. There have 
been in this century, or in this country, few to com- 
pare with him. It has been said that no man is 
great in everything or great at all times; but as we 
look back on his career, from youth to old age, we 
discover no dimness, no weakness. As a polygon 
presents in its many sides and angles, in its roofs and 
towers, its lights and sliadows, the evidence of its 
own strength and beauty and the skill and genius of 
its designer and builder, so he, in deeds and words, 
through a long life and under varied circumstances, 
in success and in defeat, stands as an illustrious ex- 
ample of what a man may be and may do, when he 
puts a human will and indomitable persistency in 
what he undertakes to accomplish. He was a scholar 
lofty in bis attainments; an author and an orator 
equally expert with pen or voice ; a lawyer attractive 
at the bar, profound on the bench and celebrated as 
minister of justice — attorney-general for the country, 
uttering opinions which nations were bound to re- 
spect. He was a statesman the compeer of Webster, 
John Quincy Adams and Charles Sumner, who were 
his friends and admirers, and no man has shown 
greater knowledge of the science of government— of 
the principlis on which are based our own and for- 

eign institutions. He was a diplomatist of high rank, 

negotiating treaties in South America, Spain, (^hina, 
in pressing our claims before the extraordinary tri- 
bunal at Geneva, where sat the distinguished com- 
missioners from Germany, Italy, Spain, England and 
America, who listened to no other man more gladly. 

It did not matter where be was place<l, what duties 
he was to perform or with whom he was to act, he 
never failed in courage, capacity or power and perse- 
verance. He was equal to the occasion. The late 
Isaac O. Barnes, many years United States marshal 
for the district of Ma.ssacliusetts, who knew Mr. 
Gushing intimately, and was himself a scholar and a 
wit, being one day in the Public Library of Boston, 
was approached by a young man, who inquired where 
he could find an encyclopiedia. Mr. Gushing passing 
at the moment. Colonel Barnes, pointing to him, re- 
plied : " There is a living, self-moving cyclopedia, 
from whom you can obtain information upon every 
question that has interested any people in any age of 
the world." This seems almost a literal truth. He 
had made himself personally acquainted by his 
travels with all the continents of our globe, he had 
crossed the oceans and great seas, climbed the Rocky 
Mountains, the Alps and the Andes and sat on the 
foot-hills of the Himalayas ; had conversed with the 
Russian at St. Petersburg, the German at Berlin, the 
Italian on the Bay of Naples, the Frenchman at 
Paris, the Spaniard at Madrid, the Tartar in Eastern 
Asia, each in his own tongue, and at the reception of 
foreign ministers by President Pierce, surprised them 
all in his facility of language. He studied religions 
with the preachers of Geneva, the priests of Rome 
and the Brahmins of India, and he had discussed pol- 
itics and international law with the highest minister 
of state in China. The schools had found him a most 
enthusiastic student, the forum an eloquent advocate, 
and to his reading of books there was no end. He 
was literally the devourer of books and the digester of 
their contents. He was the only man we ever knew 
who could read a dictionary and delight in the study 
of every word ; and that did Caleb Gushing on the 
first appearance of Webster's Unabridged, containing 
one hundred and fourteen thousand words, and, more 
than that, unsolicited and without remuneration, like 
a proof-reader, he marked every error or mistake ; so 
he could study a volume of abstract principles be- 
cause he could surround each statement with the 
children born from it, and thus evolve from naked 
truths passages of beauty. This single fact of his 
reading we may cite: " When called to the Supreme 
Bench he had long been out of the practice of law, 
and to prepare himself for duty, read fifty-seven 
volumes of the Massachusetts Reports— all up to that 
date — in nineteen days, or three full volumes per day, 
and so thoroughly did he the work that he was famil- 
iar with every decision they contained. This he 
could do because he w^as untiring in labor and needed 
little sleeii. He often read eighteen hours a day 



tion and his feme and skill as a writer and debater." 
" Nor will I forget," added he, " his very amiable 
traits of character, which prevented difference of 
opinion or of party, sundering the ties of social inter- 
course. He knew how to abandon a policy or quit a 
party without quarrelling with those he left behind." 
Thus we see him, a Democrat, in the most friendly 
relations with Charles Sumner, at Washington, spend- 
ing an evening of every week in discussing public af- 
fairs and inquiring what might be done for their com- 
mon country. Like relations held he with Secretary 
Seward, and with all the Republican presidents from 
Lincoln to Grant inclusive. 

He retired from politics, after the Rebellion broke 
out, and spent most of his time at Washington, where 
every administration during his life had the benefit of 
his well-formed opinions; nor was there a single 
branch of the government that did not avail itself of 
his service. When not connected officially with them 
he was held in reserve for any emergency that might 
occur. Nothing personal or political prevented his 
serving his country. He was intensely loyal and pa- 
triotic; never man more so; ready to sacrifice anything 
for the unity and perpetuity of the government. We 
recall his words in dismissing the national Democratic 
convention, over which he was called to preside at 
Charleston, S. C, when we stood on the brink of the 
Rebellion :" I pray you, gentlemen, in returning to 
your constituents and the bosoms of your families, to 
take with you, as your guiding thought, the sentiment, 
the Constitution and the Union." Those were the 
waymarks and the guides of his life. 

After leaving Congress he at once entered upon the 
duties of minister to China, to which he had been ap- 
pointed by President Tyler to negotiate a treaty. This 
he did, going east to China and returning in the same 
direction, via Mexico, with the best treaty to that date 
ever made with that ancient people ; perfecting his 
work and circumnavigating the globe in fourteen 
months. The treaty was submitted to the Senate that 
had, on political grounds, three times rejected him as 
secretary of the treasury, and was so satisfactory as to 
be ratified without a dissenting voice 

His next important service was as attorney-general 
under President Pierce, to which he was called from 
the Supreme Bench of Massachusetts, which occa- 
sioned one of his associate judges to pay him this com- 
pliment, " when he came to the bench we didn't know 
what we could do with him; and when he left, we 
didn't know how we could do without him." As At- 
torney-General, he perhaps appeared to the country 
at large, better than in any position he had before 
held ; and when he retired, carried with him a higher 
reputation for profound knowledge, than any of his 
predecessors. He was then at his maturity, in the 
fulness of physical and mental strength, and his labors 
were the most arduous and varied. It was not uncom- 
mon, for weeks in succession, for him to be in his of- 
fice from four o'clock in the morning till midnight. 

and every conceivable question on our relations to 
matters at home and abroad, wsa submitted to him. 
His opinions fill three volumes, of the fifteen in the 
whole, to the date of his retirement ; and no less au- 
thority than William Beach Lawrence, in his edition 
of Wheaton, declares " they constitute in themselves 
a valuable body of international law." They show 
also his fidelity to the principles of the fathers of the 

In the short space allowed this sketch, we may not 
go into particulars. That he had the confidence of 
the country may be seen in this: President Lincoln 
appointed him a commissioner to adjust claims pend- 
ing between this country and Mexico, Spain and 
other peoples ; President Johnson made him a special 
envoy to the United States of Colombia; President 
Grant appointed him minister to Spain, counsel for 
the United States to Geneva and would have made 
him chief justice of the Supreme Court, had not Mr. 
Cushing asked him to withdraw the nomination, not 
made at his solicitation, upon the dissent of a single 
Senator ; and at every point his action was endorsed 
by the country, the public press ap[)lauding. 

He now retired to his home. Though still strong, 
but pressing hard upon four-score years, he could see 
that the end was near, and he heard the message : 
" What thou hast to do, do quickly." He obeyed, 
turned his attention to his private affairs and sought 
rest with personal friends, in the town and by the river 
he had loved so well, and where he had been loved. 
His mission was finished; he had all the honors de- 
sired ; his fortune was ample; he had really nothing 
more to do, than to be himself, as he was to the end, 
and utter his last prayer for his country. He died 
January 2, 1879, and was gathered to his fathers. He 
sleeps on the western slope of the hill, where the r,iys 
of the setting sun longest linger on the marble that 
bears his name, and the name of her who was dearest 
of human kind to him. He had built the tomb for 
his wife, and in it prepared his own resting place — a 
place for one; he determined at her decease, forty-five 
years before, there should be no more. 

Daniel P. King, though never admitted to the 
bar, passed through a course of study in law and de- 
serves a place in this record. He was born in Dan- 
vers January 8, 1801, and was the son of Daniel and 
Phebe (Upton) King, of that town. He fitted for 
college at Phillips Academy and graduated at Harvard 
in 182.3. In 1824 he married Sarah P., daughter of 
Hezekiah and Sally (Putnam) Flint, and finally set- 
tled down at Danvers as a farmer, following the occu- 
pation of his father before him. He was a Represen- 
tative to the Legislature from his native town in 1835, 
Speaker of the House in 1840 and 1841, president of 
the Senate in 1843, and was chosen in the last year 
Representative to Congress, continuing in olUce until 
1849. His natural gifts, cultivated by his collegiate 
and legal studies, specially fitted him for legislative 
duties, and more particularly for that class of them 



which attaches to the responsible position of presiding 
officer. He died in Danvers July 25, 1850. 

EuAS Hasket Dkkby was born in Salem Sep- 
tember 24, 1S03, and graduated at Harvard in 1824. 
He studied law in the office of Daniel Webster, and 
appears on the official list of lawyers admitted to the 
bar to have been admitted at Salem in the year of his 
graduation from college. He settled in Boston, and 
by an increasing practice in railroad cases soon 
became identified with railroad interests, in the pro- 
motion of which he was far-seeing and bold. He was 
a prolific writer for newspapers and magazines, hav- 
ing in all his productions an eye to the advancement 
and prosperity of Boston. He was at one time pres- 
ident of the Old Colony Railroad, and died in Bos- 
ton, March 31, 1880. 

George Lunt, son of Abel and Phrebe Lunt, 
was born in Newburyport December 31, 1803, 
and graduated in Harvard in 1824. He was ad- 
mitted to the Essex bar in 1833, and until 
1848 practiced law in Newburyport. In that 
year he removed to Boston, and in 1849, under the 
new Whig national administration, was appointed 
district attorney for Massachusetts, succeeding Rob- 
ert Rantoul. During the four or five years which pre- 
ceded the war he was one of the editors of the Boston 
Courier, and was earnest in his opposition to all the 
measures on the part of the North which tended 
to dissatisfy and estrange the South. His convictions 
were doubtless as sincere and pure as those who de- 
nounced him, but his love for an unbroken union min- 
gled w-ith a timidity which shrunk from a test of its 
strength, made him appear at times what he was not, 
an advocate of slavery and its attendant evils. 

Outside of the columns of newspapers, Mr. Lunt's 
publications were chiefly poetical, while the news- 
papers themselves contained many a poetical gem 
from his pen, which eventually found its way into a 
public collection. A volume of his poems was pub- 
lished in 1829, another in 1843, another in 1851 and 
still others in 18.54 and 1855. The last few years of 
his life Mr. Lunt spent in comparative retirement in 
Scituate, and died in Boston May 16, 1885. 

Stephen Palfrey Webb, son of Captain Stephen 
and Sarah (Putnam) Webb was born in Salem March 
20, 1804, and graduated at Harvard in 1824. He 
studied law with John Glen King, of Salem, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1826. He settled in practice 
in Salem, and was, before 1853, Senator, Representa- 
tive and mayor. In that year he went to San Fran- 
cisco, where he was also chosen mayor in 1854, and 
returned to Salem, again to be chosen mayor in 1860, 
'61 and '62. He was city clerk of Salem from 181)3 to 
1870, and finally removed to Brookline, where he 
died in 1879. He married, May 26, 1834, Hannah 
Hunt Beckford Robin.son, daughter of Nathan and 
Eunice (Beckford) Robinson. 

Robert R.*.xtoul, Jr.,' the son of Robert and 

"By Dr. A. P. P«abody. 

Joanna (Lovett) Rantoul, was born in Beverly, August 
13, 1805. In his childhood he gave no doubtful 
promise of the traits of mind and character that were 
prominent in his maturer years. Happy in home in- 
fluences, and in thoseof his earliest school-life, lie not 
only learned with wonderful facility, but manifested a 
power of thought and reasoning so unusual for his 
age, that there was never any purpose other than of 
securing for him the best means of education attain- 
able. He was fitted for college at Phillips Academy 
in Andover, and entered Harvard in 1822, graduating 
in 1826. His college life was one of untiring indus- 
try. Fourteen hours out of the twenty-four were, 
oftener than not, spent in study. He paid little at- 
tention to the college curriculum, easily reading Lat- 
in and Greek at sight, and in mental, moral and polit- 
ical science reciting from his own " inner conscious- 
ness," in words of which the professor could find no 
trace or analogue in the text-book. He devoted a 
great deal of time to the higher literature of conti- 
nental Europe. The French language he learned by 
reading it, and it early became :is familiar to him as 
the English. In German, under the tuition of Dr. 
Follen, he belonged to the first class in Cambridge 
that ever studied that tongue. His chief aim was to 
become conversant with the political history and in- 
stitutions of the European nations, and with the his- 
tory and science of government and legislation. He 
was as intimately acquainted with Grotius and Puff"- 
endorfl", Machiavelli and Beccaria, Montesquieu and 
Jeremy, as the foremost of his classmates 
were with their required chiss-work. But, notwith- 
standing his incessant labor, he was not inditlVrent 
to college society, though he took part in it mainly in 
behalf of the interests which he held in the highest re- 
gard, and with the view of raising the standard of 
general culture. " The Institute of 1770 " was formed 
by the union of three pre-existing societies, one of which, 
while surrendering the distinctive portion of its name, 
insisted on retaining the index of its birth-year. This 
new society was organized, virtually by him, for the sole 
purpose of literary and scientific work, and in its 
earlier years was among the most eflicient educational 
forces in the university. Mr. Rantoul's high place in 
the esteem of his classmates was manifested in his 
election as class-poet, and, although in after years he 
wrote but little verse, he had already shown, and cer- 
tainly showed by that very poem, a talent which, with 
adequate cultivation, might have given him no incon- 
spicuous place among American poets. Mr. Rantoid, 
on leaving college, entered tlic law-office of John 
Pickering, and at a later period that of Leverett Sal- 

He was admitted to the bar in 1829, and established 
himself for a time in Salem, where his principal bus- 
iness was as junior counsel for the Knapfis in thi^ 
celebrated White murder trial, in whicli he collected 
and prepared the evidence for the defense. In 1831 
he removed to South Reading, and in 1833 to Glou- 



cester, which town he represented in four successive 
Legislatures. In 1835 he was appointed on a com- 
mittee for revis-ing the statutes of Massachusetts, and 
in the three following years he served and performed 
very efficient service on the Judiciary Committee. 
He first distinguished himself in the Legislature by 
his opposition to the charter of a " ten million bank," 
at a time when paper money, often of difficult and 
doubtful currency, flooded the country, and shortly 
before the suspension of specie payment by the New 
England banks. His action was with the Democratic 
party ; but it was universally admitted that it was his 
able argument (which might stand now as an inde- 
pendent treatise on the philosophy of finance), that 
won over a sufficient number of the Whig majority in 
the House, though it was regarded as a party measure, 
to defeat the scheme. There was hardly an important 
subject before the House on which he remained silent ; 
and his speeches were not harangues, but thorough ar- 
guments, based on facts, statistics and principles, and 
requiring, in order to answer them, if not an ability 
equal to his own, at least an amount of diligent study 
and careful elaboration which few legislators were, or 
ever are, willing to bestow. 

The subject of capital punishment, commended to 
him by his father's lifelong interest in it, was among 
those which he early and often urged on the attention 
of the Legislature. As chairman of committees he 
made three reports in as many successive years in 
favor of the abolition of the death-penalty, besides 
as many carefully prepared speeches, and not a few 
shorter ones in the progress of debate. He after- 
ward wrote " Letters on the Death-Penalty," ad- 
dressed to the Governor and Legislature of Massa- 
chusetts, which were reprinted by order of the Legis- 
lature of New York. He also embraced every avail- 
able opportunity for delivering lectures and addresses 
on this subject. His writings upon it probably con- 
tain all that has been or can be said in opposition to 
capital punishment, and they have been largely 
quoted wherever the question has been discussed on 
either side of the Atlantic. 

In 1839 Mr. Rantoul opened an office in Boston, 
having his home in Beverly. In 1843 he was ap- 
pointed Collector of the port of Boston and Charles- 
town, and in the following year United States Attor- 
ney for the District of Massachusetts, which latter 
office he resigned in 1849. 

During the period of his legal practice in Boston 
he had the management of a singularly large number 
of cases of prime importance, both for clients of his 
own and in behalf of the government, and in several 
instances he not only gained his cause against the 
strongest possible array of opposing counsel, but won 
their hearty applause ; and when he lost a case he 
seldom failed to have the verdict of an intelligent 
public fcr what he had made to appear the better 
side. One of bis most remarkable cases was that of 
Sims, the fugitive slave, whose defence he was called 

to undertake without an hour's previous notice, yet 
in whose behalf he made an argument to which, as 
we read the report of it to-day, it seems as if nothing 
could have been added, whether on the score of con- 
stitutional law or of natural right. A large propor- 
tion of the cases in which he appeared as an advocate 
were, like this last-named, such as he espoused with 
his whole heart, equally from feeling and from prin- 
ciple, so that he identified himself fully and entirely 
with the person or cause under trial. 

Mr. Rantoul, at the outset of his public life, at- 
tached himself to the Democratic party from sincere 
conviction, and with full knowledge that this was not 
the way to obtain place or office, or even the recog- 
nition of ability or merit, in Massachusetts. But he 
never bore any part, nor felt any sympathy, with the 
pro-slavery sentiment, in which, for many years, the 
two great political parties had vied with each other 
in that sordid sycophancy to the South which cul- 
minated in the Fugitive-Slave Law. The passage of 
this law roused intense indignation in Massachusetts, 
and led to the building up of the Free-Soil party, 
with which the leaders of the Democracy were free 
to form a coalition, while loyalty to Mr. Webster re- 
strained the opposing party from giving unanimity of 
expression to the feeling which, beyond a question, 
was universal throughout the State. Mr. Rantoul 
had several times before been nominated for Congress 
and had received a very large minority cf votes. In 
1851 he was elected by the Massachusetts Legislature, 
in which the Free-Soil party held the balance of 
power, to fill out Mr. Webster's unexpired term in the 
United States Senate, on his becoming Secretary of 
State, and in the same year he was chosen as a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives for the Essex 
South District. 

During the brief period of his Senatorship there 
was no occasion which called upon him for more than a 
few short speeches, on matters of no permanent im- 
portance. But in the House he at once took a prom- 
inent part in debate, not wholly in connection with 
the slavery issue, but on other subjects of national in- 
terest. On the occasions on which he addressed the 
House he showed himself armed at all points, whether 
for defence or for assault, and was probably the man 
above all others, whom the abettors of such wrongs as 
had assumed to their view the aspect of right most 
dreaded to encounter. 

His vast learning, his tenacious memory and his 
prompt command of its resources, made him a most 
formidable opponent, while the same qualities fitted 
him for the efficient advocacy of measures conducive 
to the national progress and well-being. 

But his career was cut short at the moment when 
he was winning the highest distinction, and when es- 
pecially the friends of freedom were depending on his 
already well-proved strength as their champion. He 
was preparing a speech on the fisheries, a subject 
which he doubtless understood better than any other 

^'^9 hyA-H Rilc}ae. 



man in Congress, when he was arrested by an attack 
ot" erysipelas, which, after a very brief illness, termin- 
ated fatally on the 7th of August, 18.''2. 

In our summary narrative of Mr. Rantoul's profes- 
sional and official life, we have described but a small 
portion of his work in and for the community of 
whicli ho was a citizen. He was pre-eminently a pub- 
lic servant, unselfish and philanthropic, deeming it 
his highest privilege to advance the true interest and 
well-being of his country and his race. This was his 
ruling ambition, and it was an ambition that gave 
him no rest. He cared not for station or office, except 
a.s a post of usefulness. He would not have accepted 
the highest position in tlie world had it impaired the 
liberty of speech and pen ; while he was content to re- 
main a private citizen so long as he could make him- 
self heard and felt by multitudes. 

Mr. Rantoul bore no small part in the creation of 
facilities for travel and transportation. When the 
extension of the Boston and Worcester Railroad to 
Albany was first agitated, and the crossing of the 
mountain-spine in Western Massachusetts seemed an 
almost hopeless enterprise, he undertook the advo- 
cacy of this measure, and had large influence in pro- 
curing subsidy for it from the State and in winning 
for it the favor of private capitalists. 

Illinois was indebted to him for like se.'vice, attended 
with no small personal loss and sacrifice, in the con- 
struction of her Central Railroad, and his name, so 
beneficially connected with her history, is kept in en- 
during memory, and has been given to a town that has 
sprung into being since his death. 

In the cause of education Mr. Rantoul held a fore- 
most place. He was among the founders of the sys- 
tem of Lyceum lectures, and lectured himself when- 
ever he could find opportunity, in those early times 
when the lecturer sought onl}' to instruct, not to 
amuse, his hearers, and had no compensation other 
than their gratitude. lie started the publication of 
a series of Lyceum lectures and other popular tracts, 
in successive numbers, under the title of " The Work- 
ing Men's Library." 

He was one of the earliest movers in the establish- 
ment of the Ma.ssachusetts Board of Education, and 
was intimately associated with Horace Mann, as his 
defender and coadjutor in the reform of the common 
schools of the State. He procured the publication of 
two series of many volumes, which he virtually edit- 
ed, under the name of " The Common-School 
Library," — one series for the older, the other for 
less advanced pupils, — both consisting chiefly of 
standard works in various departments of knowledge, 
which in their ordinary editions were beyond the 
reach of common readers. He was an earnest advo- 
cate of the temperance cause, and, while conforming 
himself to the purest moral standard, he spared no ef- 
fort when, by public address or by i)rivate influence, he 
could hope to bring his fellow-citizens up to the same 
elevated views. Indeed, his high tone of character, his 

friendly interest in whatever was of real moment to around him, his perpetual propagandism of the 
primal truths and great causes that were dearer to 
him than success, prosperity or fame, gave him a com- 
manding and beneficent influence over men of all 
classes and conditions with whom he was brought 
into relations, more or less intimate. 

In 1831 Mr. Rantoul married Jane Elizabeth 
Woodbury, of Beverly. He had two sons, both liv- 
ing, — Robert Samuel, of Salem, a lawyer, who has 
been a member of both branches of theMassachu.setts 
Legislature; and Charles William, now a resident of 

Nathaxiel James Lord was born in Ijiswich 
October 28, 1805, and gr.aduated at Harvard in 182.'i. 
He studied law in the law school at Northampton, 
under Judge Howe and Professor Ashmun and in the 
office of Leverett Saltonstall, at Salem, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in September, 1828. He was asso- 
ciated with Mr. Saltonstall in business until 1835, 
and afterwards, until tlie autumn of 1858, was actively 
engaged alone in the practice of the law. After the 
death of Mr. Saltonstall, in 1845, he was the acknowl- 
edged leader of the Essex bar. In his earliest i)ro- 
fessional life, as the junior partner of Mr. Saltonstall, 
he had little opportunity as junior counsel to show 
his extraordinary ability, but as soon as he launched 
his own boat and assumed command, he only waited 
for the death of his old venerable partner and the 
removal of Mr. Choate to Boston to become identified 
witli his native county as its greatest lawyer. Besides 
tliese two eminent men, he had to cope with .lohn 
Glen King, Joshua Holyoke Ward, Caleb Cushing, 
Robert Rantoul and Ebenezer Closely, but his re- 
peated trials of strength with these skillful antago- 
nists, vindicated his claim to the first honors of bis 
profession. He died at Salem June 18, 186!). On 
the 21st a special meeting of the Essex Bar Associa- 
tion was held, to take notice of the death of their late 
associate, at which William C. Eridicntt, the president 
of the association, delivered an address, analyzing and 
eulogizing the character of the deceased. He was 
followed by Asahel Huntington, .Tonathan C. Perkins, 
Thomas B. Newhall and William D. Northend. At 
an adjourned meeting, held June 28th, Alfred A. Ab- 
bott, in behalf of a committee appointed at the 
previous meeting, presented a memorial on the life 
and character of Mr. Lord, which was accepted and 
ordered to be entered on the records of the associa- 

On the 2d of July, 1869, Mr. Abbott, in behalf 
of the Association, read the memorial in the Supreme 
Court, in session at Salem, and moved that it be 
placed on the records of the court. The motion wiis 
seconded by William C. Endicott, who was followed 
by Mr. Huntington in a motion that a copy be sent to 
the family of Mr. Lord. Chief Justice Brigham 
then addressed the bar, and in respect to the memory 
of Mr. Lord, the court .tdjourned. 



Jeremiah Chaplin Stickney, son of Jolin and 
Martha (Chaplin) Stickney, was born in Rowley 
January 6, 1805. He pursued his education at the 
Bradford Academy and at the Salem Latin School, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1824. He studied law 
with David Cummins, and was admitted to the bar in 
1826. He was postmaster of Lynn under President 
Jackson, Representative to the State Legislature in 
18.39 and 1840, reappointed postmaster of Lynn by 
President Pierce in 1853, and continued in office un- 
til 1858. He married, December 25, 1829, Mary, 
daughter of John Frazier, of Philadelphia, and died 
August 3, 1863. 

Jonathan Cogswell Perkins was born in Essex 
November 21, 1809, and graduated at Amherst in 
1832, of which institution he was chosen a trustee in 
1850. He studied law at the Dane Law School and 
in the office of Rufus Choate, and was admitted to 
the Essex bar, at Newburyport, in 1835. In 1845 
and 1846 he was a member of the Massachusetts 
House of -Representatives, in 1847 and 1848 a member 
of the State Senate, in 1848 president of the Salem 
Common Council, in 1853 a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, and in 1848 was appointed by 
Governor Briggs an associate judge of the Common 
Pleas Court, holding his seat until the abolition of 
that court and the establishment of the Superior 
Court in 1859. He received from his alma mater the 
degree of LL.D. in 1867. He edited and annotated 
" Daniels' Chancery Practice, with American Forms," 
" Sugden on Vendors," "Arnold on Insurance," " Ben- 
jamin on Sales," " Williams on Executors and Ad- 
ministrators," "Pickering's Reports," " Vesey's Re- 
ports," "Abbott on Shipping," "Angell on Water- 
courses," "Jurmin on Wills," and the several works 
of Chitty on Contracts, Bills, Criminal Law and 
Pleading. He died December 12, 1877, in Salem, 
where he had always lived after his admission to the 
bar in 1835. After he left the bench he was city so- 
licitor of Salem. 

Joshua Holyoke Ward was a native of Salem, 
where he died June 5, 1848, at the age of thirty-nine. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1829, and pursued his 
law studies in the office of Leverett Saltonstall at 
Salem, and at the Dane Law School at Cambridge, 
receiving the degree of LL.B. in 1832. In 1844 he 
was appointed one of the justices of the Court of 
Common Pleas, and remained on the bench until his 
death. He was a man of exceptional ability, witli a 
promise universally recognized of a brilliant judicial 

Otis Phillips Lord, brother of Nathaniel James 
Lord, was born in Ipswich July 11, 1812, and having 
fitted for college at Dummer Academy, entered Am- 
herst with the class which graduated in 1832. He 
was the son of Nathaniel and Eunice (Kimball) Lord, 
and descended from Robert Lord, who came from 
Ipswich, England. He studied law with Judge 
Oliver B. Morris, judge of probate in Hampden 

County and in the Dane Law School at Cambridge, 
from which he graduated in 1836. He was admitted 
to the bar in Salem in December, 1835, and began 
practice in his profession in his native town. In 
1844 he removed to Salem, where he resided until his 
death, March 13, 1884. He was a member of the 
House of Representatives in 1847, '48, '52, '53, '54, in 
which last year he was Speaker. In 1849 he was 
a member of the Senate, and in 1853 a delegate to the 
Constitutional Convention. Upon the organization 
of the Superior Court, in 1859, he was appointed by 
Governor Banks an associate justice, and held this 
position until he was appointed by Governor Gaston, 
December 21, 1875, an associate justice of the Su- 
preme Judicial Court. The latter position he re- 
signed December 8, 1882, and he died in Salem on 
the 13th of March, 1884. 

On the 22d of March, only a few days after his 
death, a meeting of the members of the bar of the 
commonwealth was held in Boston, at which senti- 
ments were expressed containing a just and deserved 
tribute to his character and services as a jurist and a 
man. Attorney-General Edgar J. Sherman, in pre- 
senting resolutions on that occasion, said that " for 
nearly a quarter of a century Judge Lord served the 
commonwealth as a judge of the tribunals 
with distinguished ability, and it was only when in- 
firmities became inexorable that he reluctantly 
abandoned the position which was dear to him both 
as the post of duty and of honor. . . . He had a nat- 
ural instinct for the law. His learning was not ex- 
tensive, and his temperament was always too impa- 
tient for much research ; but he could recognize a 
distinction or detect a fallacy at a glance. In his 
power to grasp and enunciate principles, to analyze 
and marshal evidence, to seize upon and with re- 
morseless clearness and logic to present the controll- 
ing elements of a case, he was seldom, if ever, sur- 
passed. . . His personal character was one of marked 
individuality, but it is no flattery of him to say that 
its most prominent features were the warmth and sin- 
cerity of his friendship, his rugged honesty, and a 
courage which never paltered with his convictions." 

Chief Justice Morton, in the course of his response, 
said, " Judge Lord was a rapid thinker, and quickly 
formed impressions upon any questions of law pre- 
sented to him. Whether his views were right or 
wrong, he saw them clearly and strongly ; and such 
was his power of forcible expression, that there was 
at times danger that he might make the worse the bet- 
ter reason. But he had such control over his mind 
that he could grasp and appreciate any fair argument 
which tended to refute his views, and had the candor 
to abandon at once his position when convinced that 
he was in error. ... In every relation of life he was 
a man of marked individuality and force. In every 
aspect of his character he was a strong man. He 
was strong in his intellect, strone in his emotions, 
strong in his friendships, strong in his dislikes and 


c?^^ c^r^==./r^^ 

McQOpob • 



prejudices, strong in thought and strong in language, 
and, above all, strong in his integrity." 

Nothing need l)e added to show what manner of 
judge and lawyer and man Otis Phillips Lord was be- 
lieved by his contemporarie.s to be. 

(tEoroe Minot, son of Judge Stephen Minot, of 
Haverhill, born in that town January 5, 1817. 
He graduated at Harvard in 183(), and studied law 
with Hufus Choate, preparatory to his admission to 
the Surtblk bar in 1839. He is best known for the 
" Digest of the Decisions of the Supreme Judicial 
Court of Massachusetts," which he pviblislied in 1844, 
and to which he added a supplement in 1852. He 
died at Heading, Mass., April 16, 1858. 

RoBEKT WoRM.STED Tkevett was bom in 1789, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1808. He studied law 
and settled in Lynn in 1813, where he died January 
13, 184:i. 

Stephen Bradshaw Ives was born in Salem 
March 9, 1827, and was the son of Ste])hen B. Ives, of 
that city. He received his early education in the 
I)ublic schools and graduated at Harvard in 1848. 
After leaving college he taught school one season in 
Newbury, and afterwards had charge as principal of 
one of the Salem grammar schools. He studied law 
in the office of Northend & Choate, in Salem, and was 
admitted to the bar at Salem at the March term of the 
Court of Common Pleas in 1851. For a year or two 
he was clerk of the Salem Police Court, and in 1853 
began active practice. By his eminent qualifications 
for his chosen profession, guided and spurred by an 
unusual enthusiasm in its pursuit, he early secured a 
large business and won an enviable reputation. He 
died at Salem February 8, 1884, and on the next day 
a meeting of the Bar Association of Essex County 
was held in the court-house, in Salem, and a commit- 
tee consisting of William D. Northend, George F. 
Choate, A. A. Abbott, Daniel Saunders and Charles 
P. Thompson was appointed to prepare resolutions of 
respect to be presented to the court. 

In the Supreme Judicial Court, sitting at Salem on 
the 24th of the following April, a worthy memorial 
was read by Alfred A. Abbott, who was followed in 
appropriate remarks by Mr. Northend, Mr. Thomp- 
son, Mr. Saunders, Charles A. Benjamin and Leverett 
8. Tuckerman. 

Chief Justice Morton, presiding, accepted the me- 
morial in behalf of the court and added his testimony 
to the high character, indomitable energy and pro- 
fessional skill of Mr. Ives. The whole bar acknowl- 
edged the truth of Mr. Abbott's statement that for 
" thirty years he pursued a career which has had few 
parallels in the history of the Esse.K Bar." 

Alfred A. Abbott, son of Amos Abbott, was born 
in Andover May 30, 1820. He was educated at Phil- 
lips Andover Academy and entered Yale College in 
1837. At the end of his junior year he left Yale and 
entered Union College, from which he graduated in 
1841. In 1843 he graduated also from the Dane Law 

School at Cambridge. His law studies were finished 
in the office of Joshua Holyoke Ward, and lie was 
admitted to the bar in 1844. He commenced practice 
in that part of Danvers which is now Peabody, and 
made that his residence nntil his death, October 27, 
1884. He represented the town of Danvers in the 
Legislature in 1850-52, and the county of Essex in 
the Senate in 1853. In the latter year he was a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention, and was ap- 
pointed district attorney for the Eastern District. 
He held office as attorney until 1869. In 1870 he was 
appointed, upon the death of Mr. Huntington, clerk 
of the courts, and in the same year he was chosen for 
Mr. Huntington's unexpired term. He continued in 
olfice until his death, having been twice re-elected. 

In a memorial read by William D. Northend, pres- 
ident of the Essex Bar Association in the Superior 
Court at Salem, December 8, 1884, Mr. Northend 
said : " Mr. Abbott was something more than a law- 
yer or clerk of the courts ; he was a man of broad 
culture and large knowledge and experience outside 
his profession. He read the best books and was a 
thorough student of English literature. His occa- 
sional public addresses were models of excellence. 
His style was elegant and graceful and his language 
most felicitous. . . . He had a very sympathetic 
nature, his delivery was forcible and impressive and 
as an orator he had no equal in the county since the 
days of Rufus Choate. If he had sought distinction 
in the general practice of his profession, there was no 
place at the bar or on the bench to which he could 
not have justly aspired ; or if he had cherished polit- 
ical ambition, he had the qualities which would have 
insured him a high position and reputation as a states- 

JoHX K. Tarbox was born in that part of Methuen 
which is now Lawrence May 6, 1838. His parents, 
of Huguenot extraction, were poor, and at tlie age of 
eight years he wasleft an orphan under the guardian- 
ship of Rev. Bailey Loring, of North Andover. lie 
was educated in the public schools of Methuen and 
Lawrence and the Franklin Academy of North Ando- 
ver, and while still a youth, entered as clerk the drug- 
store of Henry M. Whitney, of Lawrence. In 1857, 
attheage of nineteen, he became a student in thelaw- 
oflice of Colonel Benjamin F. Watson, of Lawrence, 
whose attention had been attracted by his exhibition 
of mental activity and who advi-sed him to jirepare 
him.self for the profession of law. In 1800 he wasad- 
mitted to the bar and also to a partnership with Col- 
onel Watson, and at a later day was a partner of Ed- 
gar J. Sherman, the present attorney-general of the 
commonwealth. During a part of the war he was a 
paymaster's clerk, and on the 28th of August, 1863, 
was mustered out of the service as lieutenant of Com- 
pany B, Fourth Massachusetts Regiment. 

After leaving the service he became the political 
editor of the Lawrence American, and in 1864 was a 
delegate to the Democratic National Convention. In 



1868, 70, '71, he was a Representative from Law- 
rence, in 1873 Senator and in 1873-74 mayor of that 
city. In 1870, '72, '76, '78, he was an unsuccessful can- 
didate of the Democratic party for Congress, but in 
1874 was chosen and sat in the Forty-fourth Con- 
gress. In 1879 he presided at the Democratic State 
Convention, and, in 1883, while city solicitor of Law- 
rence, was appointed by Governor Butler insurance 
commissioner. He was reappointed by Governor 
Robinson in 1886, and won a deserved reputation, not 
only for the faithful and thorough performance of the 
duties of that office, but also for his exhaustive labors 
in the revision and codification of the insurance laws 
of the State, in obedience to a resolve of the General 
Court. He died in Boston, May 28th, 1887. 

Nathax W. Haemon was born in New Ashford, 
January 16, 1813. His early life was spent on a farm 
with the educational ad vantages of the common schools. 
He fitted for college at Lenox and graduated at Wil- 
liams in 1836. In 1839 he was admitted to the bar in 
Berkshire County, and his name is on the list of ad- 
missions to the Essex bar in 1842. After practising 
law a few years in Berkshire County, a part of the 
time as partner of George N. Briggs, afterward Gov- 
ernor of the Commonwealth, he removed to Lawrence 
and made that place ever afterward his residence. In 
1857 he was a member of the House of Representa- 
tives, and at a later time a member of the State Senate. 
In 1876 he was appointed Judge of the Police Court 
of Lawrence and held office until January of the pre- 
sent year(1887), when, on account of enfeebled health, 
he resigned. He died September 16th, 1887, leaving 
two daughters, Harriet and Cornelia, and one son, 
Rollin E. Harmon, Judge of the Police Court of Lynn. 

Hon. James Henry Duncan was born in Hav- 
erhill, Mass., December 5, 1793. On the paternal side 
he was of Scotch-Irish descent. His great-grandfather, 
Cxeorge Duncan, was one of the colony that came from 
Londonderry, Ireland, and settled in Londonderry, 
N. H., 1719. His grandfather, James, came to Hav- 
erhill about 1740, where he established himself as a 
merchant. He died in 1818, aged ninety-two years. 
He had ten children, the sixth of whom was James, 
who married Rebecca White, and died January 5, 
1822, aged sixty-two years. He left two children — 
Samuel White, who died October 21, 1824, and James 
Henry, of this sketch. 

On the maternal side the family of Mr. Duncan 
covers the entire history of Haverhill, a period of 
more than two centuries, and on the paternal side the 
three generations cover more than half of this period. 

Mr. Duncan early evinced a fondness for books, and 
at the age of eleven years he was sent to Phillips' 
Academy at Exeter, N. H., then the leading classical 
school in the country. Here he was brought into the 
companionship of Edward Everett, Jared A. Sparks, 
Buckminster, John G. Palfrey and John A. Dix. 
The stimulating influence of such companions, aided 
by his own quick faculties, rapidly developed him ; 

and at the age of fourteen he entered Harvard Col- 
lege. He was graduated in due course, in the class of 
1812, with Dr. John Homans, Judge Sprague, Bishop 
Wainwright, Henry Ware, Franklin Dexter, Charles 
G. Loring and others. In college Mr. Duncan held a 
high rank, especially in the classics, the careful study 
of which was strongly apparent in the smooth, 
rounded. Latinized style that marked his conversa- 
tion and public speech. 

The career, thus happily begun, was followed by 
the study of the law, — first in the office of Hon. John 
Varnum at Haverhill, and afterwards with his cousin, 
Leverett Saltonstall, at Salem. In 1815 he was ad- 
mitted to the Essex bar, and entered upon practice at 
Haverhill. For several years Mr. Duncan gave his 
entire time to his profession ; but the death of his 
father, January 5, 1822, left him in the charge of a 
considerable estate, which gradually withdrew him 
from its duties, though he did not wholly relinquish 
practice until 1849, when he took his seat in Congress. 
It has been thought by many a misfortune for his own 
reputation, that the cares of property interfered with 
the ardent practice of his profession. His ready and 
sympathetic eloquence, his thorough honesty and 
comprehensive judgment gave promise-of a brilliant 
future. But probably his life was more widely useful 
than if he had remained an advocate. As a lawyer 
he was devoid of trickery, and he instinctively repu- 
diated those indirect methods often employed in the 
profession. Though richly gifted as an advocate, he 
had a constitutional aversion to litigation, and thus 
was oftener engaged in settling cases than in disputing 
them. We copy here from the resolutions of the Es- 
sex bar, passed after his death : 

*^ lieioh-ed. That we desire to expiess and put on record our respect 
for tile memory find character of the Honorable James H. Duncan, whose 
recent death was BO sincerely and deeply lamented in the particular com- 
munity where he was born and lived, as well as by the public at large. 
Mr. Duncan entered on the practice of the law in the courts of this 
county, more than fifty years ago, after a thorough preparation, ac- 
cording to the usages of the day, partly in the office of the late Lev- 
erett Saltonstall, so distinguished here in hia generation, and his kins 
man and friend. He pursued his profession here for many years, with 
marked fidelity and success, always trusted and respected by his breth- 
ren, until, having served his State honorably and usefully in both 
branches of the Legislature, he was called by the general voice of his 
fellow citizens into the public councils of the country, now more than 
twenty years ago, since which time he has withdrawn himself wholly 
from the practice of the profession, and attendance on the courts. Of 
late years he has been known as a lawyer, to much the largest por- 
tion now in practice at this bar, only by the ' tradition of the elders,' 
among whom, as well as in the courts, he had obtained and always 
held a 'good report.'" 

Mr. Duncan lived what might be called a public 
life ; yet it was through a certain evident fitness that 
led him to be called to its duties, rather than from his 
own seeking. A short time previous to his admission 
to the bar, he was elected major in the Haverhill 
Light Infantry; and, passing through the various 
grades of militia service, he rose to the rank of colo- 
nel, by which title he was afterwards commmly ad- 
dressed. He was early a trustee of the Essex County 

-"^ ty A.iLHvLchzi 





Agricultural Society, and from 1836 to 1838 its presi- 

On the formiitioii of the Xational Republican part\% 
popularly known as the Whig party, in 1827, he was 
elected to the State Legislature, and in the three suc- 
ceeding years to the Senate, when he declined re-elec- 
tion. In 1837-38, he was again found in the House; 
and in the two following years, he was a member of 
the Council. In 18-57 he was again elected to the 
Legislature. On the pa.^sage of the State Insolvent 
Law, in 1838, he was appointed one of the Comrais- 
sionere in Insolvency ; and on the passage of the 
United States Bankrupt Law, in 1S41, he was made 
Commissioner in Bankruptcy, holding the office until 
the law was repealed. In 1839 he was elected a dele- 
gate to the convention at Harrisburg that nominated 
General Harrison for the Presidency. In 1848 he was 
chosen to represent his district, then the largest man- 
ufacturing district in the United States, in the na- 
tional Congress ; and was re-elected in 1850. 

Of his Congressional career Hon. Amos Tuck, of 
Exeter, at the time United States Senator from New 
Hampshire, thus speaks : 

" Tie entered Congress at the first session of General Taylor's adminis- 
tration, when the problems in politics and government, which grew out 
of tile Mexican War and the acquisition of California and New Mexico, 
infused such intensity of feeling into the public mind. The old Whig 
party, with which Mr. Duncan had long been honorably connected, was 
becoming more anti-slavery ; while the Democratic party was gradually 
giving way to the entire leadership-of Southern men, and heconiiug 
hopelessly involved in the sin, shame and want of statesmanship, in- 
volved in the advocacy and support of slavery extension. Mr. Duncan 
had relations of friendship with the old leaders of the Whig party, and 
was welcomed into their fellowship at Washington on his arrival at that 
city. Itut his moral perceptions had been cultivated beyond what was 
common among the devotees of either of the old parties, and he knew 
and felt the force of the moral (luestions which were discussed through- 
out the country upon the relation of the government to slavery. At- 
tached to his party, and attached to his honored friends, he yet could 
not be blind or deaf or insensible to the claims for justice of the humble 
who could not even speak for themselves. He remembered those in 
bonds, as bound with them, and, at the expense of personal comfort. 
Toted, I believe, from first to last, during his Congressional term of 
four years, under all the circumstatices of an excited period of our his- 
tory, on the slavery question in all its phases, only as his best friends 
could DOW wish he had voted, after all the light since shed njjon the sub- 
ject. That he so signally and uniformly acted on the side of wisdom 
and right, while so many of his associates were misled by excitement, or 
failed for other reasons to see and maintain what it is now apparent they 
ought to have supported, I attribute in a great degree to his elevated 
moral character, to his cultivated sense of right, to his determination 
never to violate the dictates of an enlightened conscience. He was not 
a frequent debater in the House of Representatives ; but when he did 
speak, he commanded more than common attention. He was one whom 
to know was to love, who made many friends and no enemies, and who 
left Congress possessing universal esteem." 

The tribute of affection and respect which the poet 
Whittier paid to him after his decease makes honor- 
able mention of him as a man in public life and in 
his social relations. " His Congressional career was 
a highly honorable one, marked by his characteristic 
soundness of judgment and conscientious faithful- 
ness to a high ideal of duty. In private life as in 
public, he was habitually courteous and gentlemanly. 
For many years the leading man in his section, he 

held his place without ostentation, and achieved great- 
ness by not making himself great." 

Not the letist of Mr. Duncan's public services were 
his labors in behalf of the Union during the Civil 
War. He was active with voice and pen in strength- 
ening the hands of the government. He cheerfully 
acted as the medium of communication between the 
soldiers in the field and their families at home. They 
sent to him their well-earned money, which he per- 
sonally distributed, gladdening of^en many a humble 
home by his presence as the harbinger of good tid- 
ings and comfi^rt. 

These statements indicate how constantly Mr, Dun- 
can was in public life. Meanwhile, he was serving 
in other large public interests not of a political 
nature ; while in town matters his services were con- 
stantly demanded. For fifty years, scarcely an im- 
portant item of municipal business was transacted 
except under his advice or leadership. If a matter 
needed to be brought before the General Court he 
was delegated to do it. He took the leading part in 
the erection of two town halls, making, at the dedi- 
cation of both, historical addresses. In this connec- 
tion Hon, Alfred Kittredge says, — " He took great 
interest in the affairs of the town^ and frequently ad- 
dressed his fellow-citizens upon subjects of importance. 
He was listened to with great interest, and usually 
carried a majority with him. In all discussions he 
was in a marked degree gentlemanly, both in his 
manner of presenting subjects and in his treatment 
of those who differed from him, stating his own views 
forcibly, and giving others due credit for their own. 
He had a remarkably clear utterance, and a rich 
ringing voice that gave him great power over an 
audience. When in the Legislature, Samuel Allen, 
I think, gave him the cognomen of the 'silver- 
tongued member ' from Haverhill, 

This sketch would be incomplete if it overlooked 
Mr. Duncan's relation to the great religious and 
benevolent movements of his time. He took the most 
lively interest in the cause of education, and in the 
great missionary organizations of his own and other 
Christian denominations. He was a member of the 
Board of Fellows of Brown Univei-sity from 1835 till his 
death. In 1861 the Board conferred on him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws, It is not too much to say 
that his name and influence were a tower of strength in 
the councils of the corporation. It is thus that Barnas 
Sears, then jiresident of the University, speaks of him 
as he ajipeared at its annual meetings, or in the larger 
gatherings of the representatives of the Mi-ssionary 
Union, — "Long will men remember the impressions 
made on these and similar occasions by this Christian 
gentleman and scholar, with his finely-cut features 
and symmetrical form, his graceful and animated 
delivery, his chaste, beautiful, and musical language, 
his pertinent, clear and convincing arguments, his 
unHinchiiig fidelity, and spotless integrity. So bleiiil- 
ed in him were these various attributes of bodv and 



mind that we can think of them only in their union, 
and it would seem that a mind of delicate mould had 
formed for itself a bodily organ suited to its own 
purposes. In him we see how much Christianity can 
do for true culture, and how beautiful an orna- 
ment culture is to Christianity." 

Mr. Duncan during his whole life worshipped with 
the First Baptist Church in Haverhill, though he did 
not become a member of the church until the age of 
forty. His ancestors on both sides were among its 
founders. Thus a Baptist by birth and education he 
afterwards added to the principles thus inculcated 
the full conviction of his mature years. However 
attached to his own communion he was not in the 
narrow sense of the term a denomiuationalist. By 
nature he was catholic and took the broad and liberal 
side on all church questions. Every good cause had 
in him a friend. He wrought zealously with all true 
lovers of God and man. The cause of home and for- 
eign missions, of popular education and the dissemi- 
nation of a sound literature enlisted his earnest 
advocacy. Indeed, he was quick in his response to 
all good objects by which humanity could be elevated 
and God honored. 

Mr. Duncan remained single till the age of thirty- 
three, when, June 28, 182(5, he married Miss Mary 
Willis, daughter of Benjamin Willis, Esq., of Boston. 
Thirteen children were born to them. Three died 
in early childhood, and three passed away after they 
had attained to adult years, leaving seven, — two sons 
and five daughters. His home, of which Mr. Dun- 
can was pre-eminently the head, was the centre of 
a liberal culture and of a refined and generous hos- 
pitality. This hospitality was not the mere recipro- 
cation of society. His ample mansion was open 
alike to friends and strangers. If the town, or any 
religious or secular interest could be served by his 
hospitality, it was proffered without stint. His house 
was regarded as the temporary home of public speakers, 
lecturers, clergymen and all others to whom hospi- 
tality seemed due. The grace and tact and dignity 
which Mr. Duncan uniformly exhibited thus in his 
own home is remembered by multitudes. 

Mr. Duncan's last illness was brief, and its fatal 
termination was a surprise to all. Although he was 
seventy-five years old he bore no marks of age. A 
cold which caused no apprehensions at first, suddenly 
developed into pneumonia, which after only a few 
days of sickness terminated fatally, February 8, 1869. 
The announcement of his death passed r.apidly 
through the town, and was received almost with in- 
credulity. When the surprise passed, a general 
sorrow and sense of bereavement took possession of 
all hearts. Many had lost in bim a loved and faith- 
ful friend, and all felt that the town had been be- 
reaved of its most useful and honored citizen, and 
that his place would not soon be filled. By the 
general urgent desire of the community the funeral 
services were held in the church, instead of the house. 

as was first intended, and were attended by a large 
concourse of people. Though holding no office at 
the time, such was the appreciation of his services in 
the past, and such the sense of the love sustained by 
his removal, that the town adopted most appropriate 
resolutions upon the event. 

There are other deceased members of the bar of 
whom sketches would be interesting, if reliable mate- 
rials could be readily obtained. Some of these will be 
remembered by present members of the bar, and are 
as deserving of a place in this record as many who 
have been especially mentioned. Edward Pulling 
(H. C), 1775, John W. Proctor, Jacob Gerrish, Ellis 
G. Loriug, Francis B. Crovvninshield, George H. De- 
vereaux, George Andrews, Hobart Clark, Asa An- 
drews, Eben Shillaber, John B. Peabody, Wm. How- 
land, George Foster Flint, Frederick D. Burnham and 
Jairus Ware Perry are some of those whose sketches 
have been necessarily omitted. 

Hon. Stephen Henry Phillips ' was the eldest 
son of the Hon. Stephen Clarendon Phillips and Jane 
Appleton (Peele) Phillips, of Salem. His paternal 
great-grandfather. Deacon Stephen Phillips, a de- 
scendant of the Rev. George Phillips who reached 
Salem with Winthrop in 1630, and settled at Water- 
town, had removed from his ancestral home in that 
town to Marblehead, where he became a leading citi- 
zen, taking the Chair as Moderator of the tumultuous 
town-meeting called to protest against the Boston 
Port Bill of 1773, and was thenceforth an active pa- 
triot and a member of the Committee of Correspon- 
dence and Safety. His grandfather, Stephen Phil- 
lips, was a well-known citizen and merchant of Mar- 
blehead. His father's public services as a sturdy 
supporter of the interests of Salem, as an un- 
tiring friend of Freedom in Congress and elsewhere 
and of the Public School System of Massachusetts, 
will be recounted by others and are freshly remem- 
bered. Other descendants of the same Puritan an- 
cestry have won distinction. The same stock produced 
the founders of academies bearing the name at Exeter 
and at Andover. It produced the famous Boston pa- 
triot of the Revolution, William Phillips ; his son, 
the first mayor of Boston, John Phillips; in the third 
generation, Wendell Phillips, a son of the latter, our 
matchless master of English speech ; as well as that 
much admired divine, the Rev. Phillips Brooks. 

The subject of this sketch was born at the family 
mansion in Charter Street, Salem, now occupied as a 
City Hospital, August 16, 1823. His school exjjeri- 
ence was unique. Before 1831) he had been a pupil at 
the dame's school of Miss Mehetable Higginson, 
and from that date on he enjoyed the successive 
teachings of Henry K. Oliver, with whom Jones Very, 
David Mack, and Surgeon John L. Fox of the Wilkes 
Exploring Expedition were assistants, in Salem; of 
Frederick P. Leverett, at the Old South Chapel in Bos- 

• Robert S. Rantoul. 

-=»^ ? fcy A HHiUhif' 




ton ; of the Rev. Joseph Allen at his boarding-school 
in Northampton ; and of William J. Adams at a private 
school in Murray Street, New York City. The year 
1836 found him at the Select Cla.ssical School in 
Washington, D. C, founded by Salmon P. Chase 
when a law student in the office of Attorney-General 
Wirt, and there Charles Levi Woodbury, AUred Plea- 
santon, since known as a famous cavalry general, and 
Mansfield Lovell, the rebel commandant who evacuated 
New Orleans in faceofFarragut, were among his school- 
mates. The next year he passed in Salem at the school 
of Rufns T. King, in Chestnut Street, and another year 
under Master Oliver Carlton, of the Latin Grammar 
School, brought him a certificate with which, at the 
exceptional age of fifteen, he entered Harvard in 
1838, taking his degree in course, a winter spent in 
the West Indies in the senior year for the recovery of 
his health depriving him of the very high rank he 
had previously held. Here he had for classmates the 
Rev. Samuel Johnson, of Salem, the eminent Orien- 
talist, and a well-known essayist and magazine writer, 
Frederick Sheldon, of Newport, R. I. On graduating 
in 1842, he became a member of Harvard Chapter, 
Alpha, of the Society of the Phi Beta Kappa, and was 
j at a later date a founder, and for its first six years 
President, of the Harvard Club of San Francisco. 

The three years following his graduation, — the last 
three years of the life of its great patron. Judge 
Story, — Mr. Phillips spent at the Dane Law School, 
where Charles Sumner was an occasional lecturer 
and Simon Greeuleaf was Royal Professor. Ex-Presi- 
dent Rutherford B. Hayes ; Chief Justice Peters, 
of Maine; Chief Justice Morton, of Massachusetts; 
Chief Justice Lee, of the Sandwich Islands ; Ex- 
Chief Justice Foster, of New Hampshire, and Ex- 
Chief Justice Bradley, of Rhode Island, were among 
his fellow students. After a further period of study in 
the officeof theHon. Benjamin R. Curtis, at Boston, he 
was admitted to practice at the Suflblk bar in April, 
38-16, and for the years 1847, '48, '49, '50 edited the 
Boston Law Reporter. 

Having removed his office to Salem, Mr. Phillips 
was appointed by Governor Boutwell, in 1851, District 
Attorney for the County of Essex, a position which he 
filled with acceptance and which he resigned in 1854. 
Advancing rapidly in professional and general esti- 
mation, and having formed a business connection 
with James A. Gillis, since for many years City Solic- 
itor of Salem, — an office which Mr. Phillips himself 
filled for the years 1856, '57, — he had already achieved 
a leading position at the Essex bar, when he was 
elected in the last named year, at the unusual age of 
thirty-four, Attorney-general of the Conmionwealth. 
This responsible and dignified position he retained 
by popular election through the three years' admin- 
istration of Governor Banks, the first Republican ad- 
ministration in Massachusetts, and at its close, in 
1801, was by him appointed Judge-advocate-gcneral 
of the militia of the State. 

Continuing the practice of his profession in Boston 
and in Salera, with such interruptions as no patriotic 
citizen could honorably avoid during the five troubled 
years which followed, and acting, from November, 
1863, as chairman first of the ('ity Water Committee, 
charged with procuring an act for the introduction of 
a water-supply for Salem, and then of the Water 
Commission, upon which devolved the duty of con- 
struction, Mr. Phillips in 1866 accepted overtures 
from Kamehameha V. for a position as one of the 
four responsible ministers of his privy council, and 
temporarily left the United States for Honolulu. 
LTnder the Hawaiian constitution, modeled largely 
on our own, he acted, throughout his residence in 
Honolulu, as Attorney-general, and for a considerable 
portion of the time as Minister of Foreign Aflairs 
also. At times he added to these trusts that of Min- 
ister of Finance, and very generally he was the recog- 
nized head of the Royal Government in the House of 
Nobles, King's Cabinet and Privy Council. He was 
at liberty to practice in the courts of law in causes in 
which the interests of the State were not involved. 

A position as the responsible head of a government 
like this is not without peculiar difficulties. For rea- 
sons of their own, England, France and the United 
States had seen fit to recognize the Sandwich Islands 
as an independent sovereignty. But with a standing 
army of seventy men, it was no mean task to keep the 
peace amongst as many thousands of these tawny, 
mercurial, Malayo-Polynesiau subjects; to suppress the 
occasional armed outbreaks of religious fanaticism or 
of jealousy of foreign influence; to maintain at all 
times the dignity and self-respect of a reigning house 
under a form of government, nominally constitutional, 
in which the elements of strength were wanting, and, 
while yielding all that could safely be granted to 
foreign commercial and diplomatic agents and foreign 
missionaries, to see to it that none of them secured 
concessious injurious to rival denominations, nation- 
alities or interests, or to the State. And this was the 
task which confronted Mr. Phillips during his seven 
years' residence at Honolulu. He was largely instru- 
mental in the reciprocity negotiations of 1867-69, in 
which President Grant took so active an interest as 
to invite him to a private interview, and while secur- 
ing to the people of the islands a measure of domes- 
tic tranquillity and peace which made life and prop- 
erty as safe there as in any portion of the civilized 
world, he was able to apply to their foreign affairs 
the good, old American doctrine of Washington's 
farewell address, — "Friendly relations with all na- 
tions; entangling alliances with none." 

Upon the change of dynasty consef|uent njion the 
death of Kamehameha V., Mr. Phillips returned in 
1873 to the United States and established himself at 
San P'rancisco as Resident-Director and Solicitor of 
the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United 
States. During eight years spent here in the practice 
of the law he was at times retained as the official conn- 



sel of the State Board of Railroad Commissioners, and 
the California State Reports show that he appeared in 
important causes, of which Estate of Hinckley, 58 Cat, 
457, dealing in a radical w^ay with the State law of 
charities, is perhaps the most noteworthy. In 1881 he 
resumed the practice of his profession in the State of 
Massachusetts, residing in Danvers. He had previ- 
ously married, at Haverhill, Oct. 3, 1871, while on a 
temporary absence from Honolulu, Miss Margaret D., 
daughter of the Hon. James H. Duncan, of Haver- 
hill, a lady whose acquaintance he had made in the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

It will be seen that, throughout a somewhat varied 
career, Mr. Phillips has only in a single instance 
been a candidate for office before the people, and in 
that instance the office was a jirofessional one. Never 
slow to respond to the calls of good citizenship and 
good neighborhood ; never hesitating to show his 
colors in any exigency where the public has a right 
to his opinions, he remains first, last and always a 
lawyer. Coming to the Essex bar, one of the ablest 
in the country, at a time when the rough habits of 
bluster and brow-beating were passing out of vogue, 
he made it his rule to appeal directly and with em- 
phasis to the intelligence and convictions of jurors, 
and to the sound, legal discrimination of the Court, 
and in all cases to treat pei'sons whom chance placed 
in his power on the witness-stand with the considera- 
tion due to that most trying and unprotected of posi- 
tions. The thorough preparation which was insured 
to every cause entrusted to his hands left nothing to 
be decided by chance which could be foreseen and 
provided for, and the sagacity, energy, discretion and 
nerve which he displayed in his chosen calling were 
not slow in meeting their reward. It came to be a 
rare occurrence during his practice at the Essex bar to 
find a case of exceptional magnitude on trial from any 
part of the county in which Mr. Phillips did not appear 
on one side or the other. Among the most interest- 
ing of his cases may be noticed Boston and Lowell 
Railroad Corporation vs. Salem and Loivell Railroad 
Company, 2 Gray, 1 ; the famous Rockport liquor 
case, Brown vs. Perkins, et ux., 12 Cray, 89; and a 
case against the 8ergeaut-at-arms, upon writ of habeas 
corpus, Bwnham vs. Morrissey, 14 Gray, 226, which 
settled the constitutional prerogative of the House of 
Representatives, in matters of contempt. 

While Attorney-general of Massachusetts Mr. Phil- 
lips was called on to prepare papers for the removal, 
by process of address to the Governor, of the Hon. 
Edward Greeley Loring from the office of Judge of 
Probate for the county of Suffolk, a proceeding which 
excited the most intense political feeling at the time, 
for which the files of the office afforded no precedent, 
and which did more than any other single event to 
make of a comparatively unknown lawyer, John Albion 
Andrew, the great War Governor of Massachusetts. 
He was also called to Lynn by a threatening dem- 
onstration of unemployed workmen during the 

feverish period which succeeded the financial dis- 
asters of 1857, and by his firm bearing and calm, 
persuasive address did much to avert the grave dis- 
orders which seemed to be impending. He was pres- 
ent, as a member of the Governor's staff, at the great 
Concord muster of the State Militia in October, I860, 
and seconded in every way the efforts then making to 
put the Massachusetts contingent on a war footing. 
Not many months later he found an opportunity to 
present the sword there worn to a citizen of Marble- 
head, marching, in command of a company of his pa- 
triotic townsmen, the first company in the State to 
respond to the call of Governor Andrew, to the relief 
of the capital beleaguered with rampant treason, and 
it received no stain in the hands of Captain Knott V. 

Mr. Phillips was associated with ex-Governor Clif- 
ford as Commissioner of Massachusetts for the adjust- 
ment of a boundary question between this State and 
Rhode Island, which called for the intervention of the 
Attorney-General of the United States, and was in 
Washington on that errand in the closing days of Jan- 
uary, 1861. Brought, in this way, in daily contact 
with Mr. Stanton, at a time when Mr. Buchanan's 
Cabinet was in the last stages of disintegration, the 
Massachusetts Commissioners were not slow to divine 
the nature of the suspicions which distracted him, 
and reported confidentially to Governor Andrew, in 
the following letter: 

Washington, Wednesday night, January 30, 18G1. 
Dear Sik : — In an interview we had to-night with the Attorney-gen- 
eral of the United States, we have been authorized to express to you, 
ctmfidcntially , his individual opinion that there is imnunent, if not in- 
evitable peril of an attack upon the city of Wasliington between the 4th 
and the loth of February — with a view to secure the symbols of govern- 
ment and the power and prestige of possession by the traitors who are 
plotting the dissolution of the Union. 

We have but a moment before the closing of the mail to say to you, in 
this informal way, that no vigilance should be relaxed for Massachusetts 
to be ready at any moment, and upon a sudden emergency, to come to 
the succor of the Federal Government. 

This may be an unnecessary precaution, but we feel that it is a simple 
discharge of a plain duty on our part to give you this intimation after 
what we havo heard from a source of sucli high authority. 

In great haste, we are very truly and respectfully yours, 

John H. Clifford. 
Stephen H. Phillips. 
Gov. Andrew. 

Governor Claflin, in his in Doric Hall, 
February 14, 1871, accepting in behalf of the Com- 
monwealth the Statue of Governor Andrew, says it 
was upon this letter that action was taken, February 
5, 1861, to furnish two regiments with overcoats, not 
a company in the State being then ready for march- 
ing orders, and he attributes to this cause the ad- 
vanced state of preparation which enabled otir troops, 
though remote, to reach A\'ashington with the fore-- 

Bred among the Conscience Whigs, so called, Mr. 
Phillips became a Free Soiier from the start and 
acted with that party in the national campaigns of 
1848 and 1852. In 1856 he represented his native 


ilistrict in the first national Republican Convention 
wliich sat at Philadelphia and nominated Fremont, 
subsequently he served as president of the local cam- 
jiaign club, which met weekly at Lynde Hall, Salem, 
in support of that nomination, and in 1864 he sat again 
in the Republican Convention which named Lincoln for 
a second term. In 1884 he presided at a county dem- 
onstration in Salem in support of Blaine and Logan. 
His religious affiliations have been with the LTnitariau 
body, with such advanced leaders of thought as Chan- 
ning, Emerson and Parker. Mr. Phillips holds personal 
independence above sectarian and party allegiance. 

Nathaniel Ward was born in Haverhill, County 
of Suffolk, England, in 1570. He was the son of Rev. 
John Ward, one of a long line in direct descent be- 
longing to the clerical profession. He graduated at 

; Cambridge in 1603, studied law in the Temple and 
after extended travels on the continent, began his 
professional practice. He soon, however, abandoned 
the law, and studied divinity, finally settling as a 
clergyman in Standon, in Hertfordshire. As early as 
the year 1629 he seems to have become disaffected to- 
wards the English Church. The following is an ex- 
tract from the records of a meeting of the "Governor 
and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New Eng-. 

I land," held in London, November 2o, 1629 : 

r " Lastly, upon the mocou of Mr. Whyte, to the end 
that this business might bee pceeded in wth the first 
iiitencon, wch was cheifly the glory of God & to that 
jiurposethat their meetings might bee sanctyfied by 
the prayers of some faithfull ministers resident heere 
in London, whose advice would be likewise requisite 
upon many occasions, the Court thought fitt to admitt 
into the freedome of this company Mr. Jo : Archer & 
Mr. Phillip Nye, Ministers heere in London, who, be- 
ing heere psent, kindly accepted thereof: also Mr. 
AVhyte did recomend unlo them Mr. Nathaniell 
Ward, of Standon." 

On the 12th of December, 16.S1, he was ordered to 
appear before Bishop Laud and answer the charge of 
non-conformity. In 1633 he was forbidden to preach, 
mid in April, 16114, sailed for New England, arriving 
i'l June. He was settled at once, as the first minister 
oi' Agawam (now Ipswich), with Rev. Thomas Parker, 
us the teacher or assistant. In 1636 he resigned, on 
account of ill health, and seems after that time, as 
long as he remained in New England, to have been 
engaged, more or less, in public affairs, for the de- 
tails of which his early education in the law had spe- 

' cially fitted him. Win/ltrop's Journal, first printed in 
1790, says that " on the 6th of the 3d month. May, 
1635, the Deputies having conceived great danger to 
our State in regard that our magistrates, for want of 
positive laws in many cases, might proceed according 
to their discretion, it was agreed that some men shall 
be appointed to frame the body of grounds of laws in 
resemblance to a Magna Charta, which, being allowed 
by some of the ministers and the General Court, 
should be received for fundamental laws," 

The above extract does not appear in the records of 
the court, but the following entry is found in the rec- 
ord of the proceedings of the above date : 

" The Governor (John Hayues), Deputy-governor 
(Richard Bellingham), John Winthrop & Tho : Dud- 
ley, E-q,, are deputed by the Court to make a draught 
of such lawes as they shall judge needfull for the well 
ordering of this plantation, & to present the same to 
the Court," 

On the 25th of May, 1636, nothing having been yet 
accomplished in the matter of the laws, the records 
stale that " The Governor (Henry Vane), Dejiuty- 
governor (John Winthrop), Tho: Dudley, John 
Haynes, Rich : Bellingham, Esq., Mr. Cotton, Mr. 
Peters & Mr. Shepheard, are intreated to make a 
draught of lawes agreeable to the word of God, which 
may be the fundamentals of this commonwealth, & to 
present the same to the next Generall Court." 

In September, 1636, Mr. Cotton j-eported a code of 
laws, but no action was taken on their adoption. Un- 
der the date of March 12, 1637-38, the following en- 
try appears in the records of the General Court : 

" For the well ordering of these plantations, now in 
the beginning thereof it having been found by the 
little time of experience we have here had that the 
want of written laws have put the court into many 
doubts and much trouble in many particular cases, 
this Court hath therefore ordered that the freemen of 
every town (or some part thereof chosen by the rest) 
within this jurisdiction shall assemble together in 
their several towns & collect the heads of such neces- 
sary and fundamental laws as may be suitable to the 
times and places where God by his providence hath 
cast us, & the heads of such laws to deliver in writ- 
ing to the Governor for the time being before the 
5th day of the 4th month, called June, next to the 
intent that the same Governor together with the rest 
of the standing counsell & Richard Bellingham, Esq., 
Mr. Bulkley, Mr. Phillips, Mr. Peters & Mr. Sheapard, 
elders of several churches, Mr. Nathaniel Ward, Mr. 
William Spencer & Mr. William Hawthorne, or the 
major part of them, may upon the survey of such 
heads of law make a compendious abridgement of 
the same by the General Court in autumn next, add- 
ing yet to the same or detracting therefrom what in 
their wisdom shall seem meet." 

Winthrop's Jtiurnal states that in December, 1641, 
" The General Court continued three weeks and es- 
tablished one hundred laws, which were called the 
Body of Liberties, composed by 3Ir. Nathaniel Ward 
sometime past at Ipswich, who had been a minister in 
England, and formerly a student and practiser in the 
course of the Common I>aw," This was tiie first 
code of laws established in New England, and was 
so mingled in the subsequent codification of the laws 
with later statute-s, that for a long period its precise 
provisions were unknown. In or about 1823, how- 
ever, Mr. Francis C. Gray, of Boston, found in the 
Boston AtheniEum a manuscript of sixty pages which, 



probably, belonged to Elisha Hutchinson, who died 
in 1717, at the age of seventy-seven years. This 
manuscript contained a copy of the colonial charter 
and a " Coppie of the Liberties of the Massachusetts 
Colony in New England." This " Coppie" contained 
one hundred distinct articles separated by black lines, 
the introductory and concluding paragraphs not be- 
ing numbered. Unlike the code, which Kev. Mr. 
Cotton prepared, and which was not accepted, it did 
not follow closely the laws of Moses, nor did it cite 
Scripture except relating to punishments. Cotton 
went so far in tliis respect as to add to the provision 
" that the Governor, and in his absence the Deputy 
Governor, shiill have power to send out warrants 
for calling the General Court together," the Scripture 
authority contained in the first verse of the twenty- 
fourth chapter of Joshua, " And Joshua gathered all 
the tribes of Israel to Shechem and called for the 
elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their 
judges, and for their officers, and they presented 
themselves before God." 

The Body of Liberties followed the Scriptures so 
far as to make no crimes capital, not made so by the 
Mosaic law, and some of these were omitted, such as 
heresy, profaning the Lord's Day, reviling magis- 
trates, etc. As the author of this code, Nathaniel 
Ward, a resident in Essex County, as long as he re- 
mained in New England, is entitled to a place in this 

On the 1.3th of May, 1640, the General Court 
granted him six hundred acres of land at Pentucket 
(now Haverhill), which he sold November 26, 1646, 
to John Eaton. In 1641 he preached the election 
sermon. During the winter of 1646-47 he returned 
to England, and was settled at Shenfield, in the 
county of Essex, where he died in 1653. His son 
John, born in Haverhill, England, November 6, 1606, 
graduated at Cambridge iu 16.30, and was settled in 
Haverhill, Mass., in 1645, where he died December 
27, 1693. 

Mr. Ward was an author of some notoriety, if not 
repute in other fields than that of law. In 1648 he 
published a humorous satirical addi'ess to the l^ondon 
tradesmen, turned preachers, entitled " Mereurius 
Anti-Meclianicus on the Simple Coblers Boy," which 
was reprinted in Washington in 1844. On the 30th 
of June, 1647, he preached a sermon before the House 
of Commons, which was published, and in the same 
year published "A Religious Retreat sounded to a 
RBligious Army." In 1648 he published " The hum- 
ble petitions, serious suggestions and dutiful expos- 
tulations of some freeholders of the Easterne Associ- 
ation to the high and low Parliament of England," 
and in 1650 "Discolliminium a Reply to Bounds and 
Bonds." But ihe work by which, next to the Body 
of Liberties, he is best known, is a quaint political 
tract satirizing the afiairs and manners of the Massa- 
chusetts Colony and the fashionable ladies of the day, 
of which the following is a copy of the title-page: 

"The simple Cobler of Aggawam in America Willing To help mend 
his native country lamentably tattered both in the upper Leather and 
Sole with all the honest stiches he can talie 

And as willing never to be paid for his work by old English wonted 

It is his trade te patch all the year long gratis. 

Therefore /pray gentlemen keep your purses. 

By Theodore de la Guard 

In rebus arduis ac tenui spe, fortissima quaequo confilia tutissima 

sunt. Cic. 

In English. 
When boots and shoes are torne up to the lefts 
Coblers must thrust their awles up to the hefts. 
This is no time to fear .\pellis gramm : 
Ne sutor quidem ultra crepidam. 
Printed by J. D. & li.T. for Steplien Bowtell at the signe of the Bible in 
Popes Head Alley 

This work, though printed in England after the re- 
turn of Mr. Ward, was written in New England in 
1645. A careful reprint was edited by David Puisifer, 
of Boston, in 1847. 

Thomas Bancroft Newhall. — Mr. Newhall was 
born in that part of Lynn which is now the town of 
Lynnfield October 2, 1811. He is a lineal descendant 
from Thomas Newhall, the first white child born -in 
.Lynn, and a son of Asa T. Newhall, a prominent and i 
successful farmer and magistrate. ( 

Mr. Newhall was fitted for college at Andover and 
Lynn Academies, and graduated from Brown Univer- 
sity in 1832. He studied law in offices in Danvers 
and Boston and at the Harvard Law School, and was 
admitted to the bar at the March term of the Court 
of Common PJeas, 1837, and early in the following 
month established himself in business in Lynn. He 
soon acquired a very satisfactory practice, in which 
he has continued during the intervening fifty years, 
and with the discharge of the duiies of various offices 
of a public and private character with which he has 
been honored, his life has been active, useful and hon- 
orable. In 1852 he married Miss Susan S. Putnam, 
of Salem, and he has two children surviving — James 
S Newhall, of Lynn, and Mrs. Caroline P. Heath, of 

William Crowninshield EndicottIs descended 
from John Kndicott, who came to Salem in 1628 as 
Governor of the Colony, sent out by the Massachusetts 
Company. The family in his line has, during the two 
hundred and sixty years which have elapsed since 
that date, always lived in Salem and its vicinity, and 
most of the lime on the farm which included the . 
homestead of the Governor. John Endicott was born \ 
in Dorchester, Dorsetshire, England, in 1588, and 
married Anna Gouer, who came with him to New 
England. She died in 1629, leaving no children, and 
Governor Endicott married, August 17th, 1630, Eliza- 
beth Gibson, of Cambridge, England. He died March 
15th, 1665, and his children were John, born about 
1632, and Zerubbabel, born in 1665. Zerubba- 
bel married a wife, Mary, who died in 1677, and he 
afterwards married Elizabeth, widow of Rev. Antipas 

/3. ^A^^^^^oM^- 








Newman, and daughter of Governor John Winthrop. 
He was a physician, and lived in Salem. His chil- 
dren, all by the first wife, were John, born 1G57 ; 
Samuel, 1659; Zerubbabel, 1664; Benjamin, 1665; 
Mary, 1667; Joseph, 1672; and Sarah, 1673. Of 
these children Samuel married Hannah Felton about 
1694, and had John, born October 18, 1695; Samuel, 
August 30th, 1697; Ruth, 1699; and Hannah 1701. 
Of these Samuel, who was christened at South Dan- 
vers, September 30th, 1716, after he had reached 
manhood, married his cousin, Anna Eodicott, Decem- 
ber 20th, 1711, and widow Margaret (Pratt) Foster, 
February 11, 1724. He died in 1766, and was buried 
in the family burial-gi'cund at Danvers. His chil- 
dren by his first wife were John, born April 29th, 
1713; Sarah, September 19th, 1715; Samuel, March 
12,1717; Sarah, 1719; and Robert, 1721. By his 
second wife he had Hannah and Ann, twins, born 
November, 1727 ; Eliaa, December, 1729 ; Joseph, 
February, 1731; Lydia, 1734; and Ruth, 1734. Of 
the children of vSamuel, John was christened at South 
Dauvers, June 9th, 1717, and owned and occupied the 
old Governor Endicott farm. He married Elizabeth 
Jacobs May 18th, 1738, and died in 1783. His children 
were John, born in 1739; Elizabeth, 1741 ; William, 
1742; and Robert, 1756. Of these, John was chris- 
tened in the South Church, at Danvers, June 7th, 
1741, and lived on the old Endicott estate. He mar- 
ried Martha, daughter of Samuel Putnam, and had 
the following children : Samuel, born in June, 1763; 
John, January 13th, 1765 ; Moses, March 19th, 1767; 
Ann, January, 1769; Elizabeth, August, 1771 ; Jacob, 
1773; Martha and Nathan, twins, September, 1775; 
Sarah, September, 1778; Rebecca, May 20th, 1780; 
William, 1782; and Timothy, July 27, 1785. Of these, 
Samuel was christened iu the South Church, at Dan- 
vers, November 1st, 1767, and was in early life a ship- 
master. He retired from the sea in 1805, and, mak- 
ing Salem his place of residence, entered actively into 
mercantile pursuits. The records of the town of 
Salem show that he was prominent in town affairs, 
serving both as selectman and Representative in the 
General Court. He married, in 1794, Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Putnam, of Sterling, Mass., and 
with his brothers, John and Moses, owned the old 
family estate. He died May 1st, 1828, and his chil- 
dren were Samuel, born March, 1795; Eliza, who 
married Augustus W. Perry ; Martha, who married 
Francis Peabody ; William Putnam, March 5th, 1803 ; 
and Clara, who married George Peabody. Of these, 
William Putnam, who was christened in the North 
Church, at Salem, March 13, 1803, graduated at Har- 
vard in 1822, and married, in February, 1826, Mary, 
daughter of Hon. Jacob Crowniushield. He married 
again iu December, 1844, widow Harriet (French) 
Peabody. His children, all by the first wife, were 
William Crowniushield, born in Salem, November 
19th, 1826; Mary Crowniushield, February 4th, 1830, 
who died February 16, 1833; George Frederick, Sep- 

tember 11th, 1832, who died January 11th, 1833; and 
Sarah Rtgers, March 3d, 1838, who married George 
Dexter, of Boston. 

Of these children of William Putnam Endicott, 
the eldest, William Crowninshield Endicott, is the 
subject of this sketch. He was reared and educated 
in Salem, surrounded by families of wealth and cul- 
ture, and carrying in his veins a share of the best 
New England blood. Indeed, few places can boast 
of the careful training of youth for which Salem has al- 
ways been distinguished, and which has educated 
and developed that school of cultivated gentlemen of 
which Mr.Endicott is a marked example. He was fitted 
for College at the Salem Latin School, and graduated 
at Harvard in 1847. No man ever had better oppor- 
tunities for the studyof his chosen prol'e.'^sion, the law, 
than were alibrded to him in the office of Nathaniel 
J. Lord, of Salem, who during many years stood in 
the front rank of the Essex Bar. In 1850 he was ad- 
mitted to practice at Salem, and iu 1853 associated 
himself with J. W. Perry, who had been admitted to 
the bar in 1849. It was not long before his abilities 
as a lawyer were recognized, and these combined with 
a grace of deportment and dignity of character at- 
tracted and held a large and constantly increasing 

So marked was his prominence, both as a lawyer 
and a niau, that when a vacancy occurred on the 
Bench of the Supreme Judicial Court iu 1873, Gov- 
ernor William B. Washburne unhesitatingly selected 
him from the political party opposed to his own for 
an appointment to the vacant seat. He continued on 
the bench until his resignation in 1882, leaving it 
after a service of nine years, to the regret of members 
of the bar and his associates, and carrying with him 
the alfection and esteem of both. 

In 1884 he was the candidate of the Democratic 
party of Massachusetts for Governor, and in 1885, 
after the inauguration of Grover Cleveland as Presi- 
dent of the United States, was appointed by him Sec- 
retary of War, a position which he still holds with 
honor to himself, his native State and to the nation. 

Mr. Endicott married Ellen, daughter of George 
Peabody, of Salem, and has two children, a daughter 
Mary, and a son, William C. Endicott, Jr. 

William H. Niles was born in Orford, New 
Hampshire, December 22, 1839, and is the son of 
Samuel W. Niles and Eunice (Newell) Niles, of that 
town. At the age of five years he removed to South 
Reading (now Wakefield), and afterwards to North 
Bridgewater and East Bridgewater, in which Last 
place he grew into manhood. He pursued the usual 
courses of study in the common schools and for two 
years was a private pupil under the care of Rev. R. 
W. Smith, of East Bridgewater, in whose family he 
lived. He then pursued a classical in the 
Providence Conference Seminary, at East Greenwich, 
Rhode Island, and left, that institution in 1861 to take 
the situation of principal of an academy in Georgia. 



He remained in the South until the latter part of 
1865, when he came to Boston and there engaged in 
mercantile business. He not long after began the 
study of law under the direction of Caleb Blodget, 
now a judge of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, 
and at the March term of that court, at Lowell, in 
1870, he was, on examination, admitted to the bar. 

He at once opened an office in Lynn, where he has 
since pursued a succe.ssful career. In March, 1878, 
George J. Carr, who bad for several years been a stu- 
dent in his office, was admitted to the bar and became 
his partner. The business of the firm, which has rap- 
idly increased in volume and importance, is a general 
one, embracing all branches of the law. Mr. Niles 
has neither held nor sought nor desired public office, 
but has confined himself assiduously to the labors of 
his profession. He has rendered willing service on 
the School Board of Lynn, believing it to be one 
which every good citizen should render, if called 
upon, and one rather within the field of citizenship 
than that of public life. He married, on the 19th of 
September, 1865, Harriet A., daughter of L. D. Day, of 
Bristol, New Hampshire, and has three daughters, 
all under nineteen years of age. 

Charles Perkins Thompson is descended from 
John Thompson, who came to Plymouth in the 
" Ann," or the "Little James," in 1623. He was born 
in Braintree,, July 30, 1827, and was educated 
in the common schools of that town and in the Hol- 
lis Institute, which was established in Braintree in 
1845 by John R. Hollis, aud discontinued in 1865. He 
studied law with Benjamin F. Hallett, of Boston, and 
was admitted to the Suffolk bar in the spring of 
1854. Mr. Hallett was United States District Attor- 
ney from 1853 to 1857, and jMr. Thompson, after his 
admission to the bar, was employed by him as his 
second assistant, his son, Henry L. Hallett, now 
United States Commissioner, acting as first assistant. 
In the spring of 1857 he removed to Gloucester, and 
has since continued to make that place his residence. 
In 1871 and 1872 he was a member of the State 
House of Representatives, and in 1874 was chosen a 
member of the Forty-fourth Congress. In 1885, on 
the appointment of William Sewall Gardner, then a 
justice of the Superior Court, to a seat on the bench 
of the Supreme Judicial Court, he was appointed by 
Governor George D.Robinson to fill the vacancy. 

Judge Thompson has been for many years active 
in the interests of the Democratic party, and in 1881 
was the candidate of that party for Governor. His 
warm friends are far from being confined, however, 
to that political organization, and the number is not 
small of those who were only restrained by the 
shackles of party from giving him their support, and 
would have been glad to welcome him as the chief 
executive of tlie State. 

John James Marsh,' of Haverhill, is descended 

1 I)y Hon J. B. D. Cogswell. 

from an old family of that place, whose members are 
numerous and widely scattered. 

The ancestor, George Marsh, came from England 
in 1635 to Charlestown, and settled in Hingham, 
Mass. His son, Onesiphorus, settled in Haverhill 
in 1672. He located at what was long known as 
" Marsh's Hill," a mile west of the village, in modern 
times Wingate's Hill. 

In 1721, John Marsh, son of Onesiphorus, was 
chosen deacon of the first parish church. 

David, son of John, was chosen deacon in 1737, 
continuing in that office till his death, Nov. 2, 1777. 
Aljout 1728 he removed from Marsh's Hill to the 
village, to the site adjoining on the north, the Centre 
Church, still occupied by descendants. David Marsh 
had twelve children, who lived to a great age. The 
average of the twelve was eighty-three years, and the 
united age of all was one thousand. They were all 
noted for industry, temperance and frugality. Two 
of them, Lydia and Abigail Marsh, born in 1745 and 
1747 respectively and unmarried, gave, in 1825, a lot 
of land on the north side of what is now Winter 
Street, for the Haverhill Academy. 

Nathaniel Marsh, born 1739, was active in town and 
military aftairs, commanded a relief company which 
marched from Haverhill to Stillwater in the Bur- 
goyne campaign, was chosen in 1787 to the State con- 
vention to deliberate on the Federal Constitution and 
voted yea upon the question of its adoption. He 
was also a representative in the Legislature in 1786, 
1788, 1789, 1790, 1797 and 1798. 

Moses, son of David, had twelve children, like his 
father. Two of his sons, David and John Marsh, 
were partners in business for nearly fifty years in a 
store in Merrimack Street, on the river side. 

There they manufactured hand cards for carding 
wool, before machines for that purpose, driven by 
water, were introduced here. After their introduc- 
tion, and during the second war with England, they 
began to make the machines also and the cards with 
them. It is supposed that under the direction of 
Abraham Marland, an Englishman, who commenced 
woolen manufacturing in Andover as early as 1807, 
the brothers Marsh made the first carding machine 
used in this part of the country. Subsequently they 
sent many into New Hampshire and Maine. During 
their long career it has been said that the example of 
David and John Marsh was proverbial, not only for 
the fairness of their dealings and their promptness to 
meet all obligations, but also for the brotherly kind- 
ness which marked their intercourse with each other. 

Samuel Marsh, the youngest of this long-lived and 
estimable family, was born in 1786 and died in 1872, 
in the city of New York, where he had resided many 
years and was largely engaged in important transac- 
tions. He was heavily interested in the Fox and 
Wisconsin Improvement Company, and was president 
of the New York and Erie Railroad Company, being 
succeeded in the latter position by his nephew. 



Nathaniel Marsh, also a native of Haverhill. Marsh- 
field, now a thriving town in AVood County, Wiscon- 
sin, preserves tlie name and marks the foresight of 
Samuel Marsh. 

John James Marsh, son of John Marsh, tlie partner 
of David, was born at Haverhill May 2, 1820. His 
early education was received in its schools and at the 
Haverhill Academy. He graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1841. Of his seventy-six classmates, the 
largest number have deceased. Gardner Greene 
Hubbard, well-known to many through his early con- 
nection with the development of the telephone, 
Henry Elijah Parker, for many years professor of the 
Latin language and literature at Dartmouth, Edward 
Reed, son of " Honest " John Seed, many years in 
Congress from Massachusetts, and Edward Webster, 
son of the great stateman, Daniel ,Webster, may be 
mentioned, the first three still surviving. Mr. Marsh's 
law studies were pursued in the offices of Alfred 
Kittredge, of Haverhill, and Slossons & Schell, of 
New York City, and at the Dane Law School, Har- 
vard University. In 1846, he commenced the prac- 
tice of the law in Haverhill, continuing in it till 
about 1872, when the pressure of private business 
caused him to relinquish the profession. Upon the 
change from a town to a city government in 1870, 
Mr. JIarsh consented to act as city solicitor in that 
and the succeeding year. Otherwise he has never 
held public oflice. During the period of Mr. Marsh's 
active practice, he had many students, of whom may be 
mentioned John James Ingalls, United States Senator 
from Kansas, and Addison Brown, Judge of the Dis- 
trict Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of New York. He was always regarded as a 
sound, energetic lawyer and successful practitioner. 

The Children's Aid Society of Haverhill, a most 
deserving charity, established some years since a 
home upon Kenoza Avenue, which was ill-adapted to 
its beneficent purposes. In 1883, Mr. Marsh and his 
sister, Mrs. Ames, erected upon the lot on Main 
Street, which had been previously donated to the 
society by them and their cousin, Mrs. Kelly, a sub- 
stantial and commodious brick building, which, upon 
its completion, was, with simple ceremonies, trans- 
ferred to the society. Being in memory of their de- 
ceased sister it is known as the " Elizabeth Home." 

" John Marsh," as he is known in Haverhill, is ac- 
tive in his habits and social in his temperament. 
Apparently in vigorous health, he bids fair to rival 
the remarkable longevity in the past, of the family 
whose most conspicuous representative he at present 
is. His residence is on Summer Street, and he is fre. 
(juently to be seen driving out to his farm in the 
West Parish, on the shore of Crystal Lake, where he 
takes great satisfaction in the improvement of his 
acres, and the breeding and management of stock. 

Chakles Johnson" Noyes is a lineal descendant 
of Rev. James Noyes (one of the colony which settled 
at Newbury in 1G35), preacher and scholar, who 

erected what is now known as the "old Noyes 
house,'' standing a short distance to the right of the 
upper green, not far from the Old Town Church in 
old Newbury. His paternal grandfather was Parker 
Noyes. who was born September 25, 1777, at Haver- 
hill, Mass., and died in 1848. Parker Noyes married 
Mary Fifield, who was born at Hopkinton, N. H., in 
1780, and died in 1810. They lived for a time at 
Canaan, N. H., where Johnson Noyes, the father of 
the subject of this sketch was born, January 23, 1808. 
Johnson Noyes, while a young man, moved to Haver- 
hill, Mass., having learned the shoemaker's trade, 
and was married to Sally Brickett, daughter of John 
and Abigail Brickett, on the 10th of October, 1S33. 
They settled at what was known as the North Parish, 
in Haverhill, where he carried on a country store and 
manufactured shoes to a limited extent. Here one of 
four children, Speaker Noy&s, was born, August 
7, 1841, and lived until about nine years of age, when 
his parents moved into the main village, then a thriv- 
ing town, now a city of twenty- four thousand people. 
John Brickett was born at Newbury, Mass, in 17(>2, 
and his wife at Haverhill, in 1763. The former died 
December 27, 1845, and the latter in the March 
previous, each at the ripe age of eighty-five years. 

The other children of Johnson Noyes were Ann 
Augusta, who died when a mere infant ; Sarah B., 
who was born December 10, 1834, and died May 29, 
1862 ; and Elizabeth C, who was born December 23, 
1845, and died May 5, 1870. After moving to the 
village Speaker Noyes attended the schools and 
passed through all the various grades, graduating at 
the Haverhill Academy in 1860, the valedictorian and 
president of his class. And when, afterward, an 
alumni association was formed, he became its first 
president and held the oflice five years, finally declin- 
ing a re-election. He was twice the class orator and 
chairman of its senior catalogue committee. He was 
admitted to the bar at Cambridge, Mass., and began 
practice simultaneously in Boston and Haverhill in 
1864. The extent of his Essex practice soon necessi- 
tated the discontinuance of his Boston office. In the 
second Lincoln campaign, that of 1864, Mr. Noyes 
was made president of the Lincoln Club of Haver- 
hill, an organization composed of leading business 
men and citizens, and on the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln he was selected to deliver the memorial 
oration before the city authorities. In the f;ill elec- 
tion of 1865 Mr. Noyes was elected a member of the 
House of Representatives of 1866, in which he served 
on the committee on the judiciary. Declining a re- 
election to the House, he accepted a nomination from 
the citizens of Haverhill as candidate for the Senate, 
and was elected in a triangular contest, in whicli 
George S. Merrill, of Lawrence, and Moses F. Stevens 
were com|)etitors. 

In the Senate Mr. Noyes served on the committee 
on education, library (being chairman), and on the 
joint special committee on amendments to the Con- 



stitution. At the close of the session he declined 
further political honors and devoted himself to his 
profession. He again opened an office in Boston and 
carried on a successful practice in the two counties 
until the business in Boston required his whole time. 
In 1872 he located his family in South Boston, where 
he has since continued to reside. 

In 1876 he again entered the field of politics by ac- 
cepting a nomination for Representative, and was 
elected, thus re-entering the House in 1877. He 
served that year as chairman of the committee on 
mercantile affairs and on the committee on Hoosac 
Tunnel and Troy and Greenfield Railroad. Re- 
elected in 1878, he served as chairman of the com- 
mittee on harbors and Hoosac Tunnel. In the 
House of 1879 Mr. Noyes was a prominent candidate 
for Speaker, but was defeated by Mr. Levi C. Wade, 
who received the caucus nomination and consequently 
an election. Mr. Noyes was made chairman of the 
committee on amendments to the Constitution, and as 
such took charge of and secured the adoption in the 
House of a number of important amendments. Re- 
turning to the House of 1880, Mr. Noyes was elected 
Speaker over a number of competitors on the fourth 
ballot, receiving one hundred and twenty-one votes. 
Chosen to the House again the following autumn, he 
was elected Speaker by a practically unanimous vote. 
He was also again elected, and was Speaker in the 
House of 1882. 

In the following summer, when it became known 
that Governor Long would decline a renomination, Mr. 
Noyes' name was at once taken up' by the press as 
one in every way suitable for the head of the ticket, 
and friends from all parts of the State urged him 
to contest the nomination. After considering the 
matter some time he declined, however, to allow the 
use of his name in this connection. Had he gone 
iuto the convention as a candidate, the outcome 
would have been very different, with the probabilities 
largely in favor of the nomination coming to him. As 
it was, he received next to the largest vote for the 
Lieutenant-Governorship. In the campaign of 1883 
he received the unanimous nomination for the Gov- 
ernor's Council from the Republican Convention of 
the Fourth Council or District, and, although the dis- 
trict was Democratic, received a very large vote. 

He now sought retirement from active politics, de- 
termining to devote himself to the labor of his pro- 
fession and the care of his growiug private interests. 
He was soon after appointed as special justice of the 
Municipal Court of the City of Boston for the South 
Boston District, which position he has continued to 
hold. In 1886, however, he was again induced to be- 
come a candidate for the House, and though the dis- 
trict was more than doubtful, won the election. He 
at once began an active campaign for the Speakership, 
and, to the surprise of the other candidates and the 
consternation of their friends, won upon the first 

Mr. Noyes is a member of the Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, and has long been active therein, having passed 
the chairs respectively of the subordinate lodge and 
the encampment. He is also an active member of the 
Masonic fraternity. He is a member of Adelphi 
Lodge, and one of its Past Masters ; a member of St. 
Matthew's Royal Arch Chapter; a member of St. 
Omer Commandery, Knights Templar, and one of its 
Past Commanders ; a member of Lafayette Lodge of 
Perfection; a member of the Giles F. Yates Council, 
Princes of Jerusalem; a member of Mount Olivet 
Chapter Rose Croix, and a member of Massachusetts 
Consistory. He has also taken the council degrees in 
Boston Council, but has never taken membership. 
He was also for a time a member of the National 
Lancers and of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company. Mr. Noyes is connected with the directory 
of a number of business corporations, in two of which 
he is president. In his religious affiliations Mr. 
Noyes is Unitarian, and has at times been quite ac- 
tive in church and Sunday-school work. In politics 
he has taken an active part on the stump during the 
last fifteen years in different parts of the country, and 
in the Garfield campaign of 1880 he spent six weeks 
speaking for the Republican cause throughout the 
States of North Carolina and Florida. 

As a speaker, Mr. Noyes is fluent in utterance, 
easy and graceful in manner and remarkably apt in 
his choice of words. His memorial address at Wor- 
cester on Sunday evening, May 28, 1882, was a fin- 
ished production, and was listened to by an audience 
that packed Mechanics' Hall to its utmost capacity. 
It was published in the Worcester Gazette of the fol- 
lowing evening, and widely quoted by the press of 
the State. His ofl'-hand efforts are always appro- 
priate to the occasion and exceedingly felicitous. 

As a presiding officer, Mr. Noyes has few equals 
and no superiors. His fine presence and quiet dignity 
of manner awe and hold in check all turbulent dem- 
onstrations, while his unfailing courtesy is felt and 
acknowledged by all. Gifted with keenness of vision 
and a readiness of apprehension, any movement made 
by a member to get the floor is immediately recog- 
nized, while a motion coming from any part of the 
House is caught at once and clearly stated to that 
body. Added to these qualifications is a thorough 
knowledge of parliamentary law, which makes him at 
all times the master of the situation. No attempt at 
resorting to the most bewildering of parliamentary 
tactics can disturb his equanimity, or make him for a 
moment lose sight of the point in hand; but, through 
all the intricacies of motions and amendments and 
counter-motions, the debate is kept uuder rigid con- 
trol, and the final disposition of the question so clear 
and just that from the decisions of the chair there is 
no appeal. 

To those who have come in contact with Mr. Noyes 
there is no difficulty in discerning the occasion of his 
popularity. He possesses in a high degree that 



strong personal magnetism that at once draws one to 
him, while there is a sincerity and cordiality mani- 
fested by him that makes the bonds of friendship 
enduring. Easily approachable, genial and sun- 
shiny by nature, he makes a most delightful com- 
panion, and his personal popularity is very great. 

In 1864 Mr. Noyes was married to Miss Emily 
Wells, the only surviving daughter of Col. Jacob C. 
Wells, a well-known and successful merchant of Cin- 
cinnati, O. They have three children. The eldest. 
Miss Fannie O. Noyes, is a young lady of rare artistic 
talent, and is now studying in Paris as an animal 
painter ; the second, Mr. Harry R. Noyes, holds a 
fine position with a well-known firm of stock brokers; 
and the youngest, Miss Gracie L., is still in school. 

Marcu.s Morton is the son of Marcus and Char- 
lotte (Hodges) Morton and was born in Taunton, Mass., 
April 8,1819. His father was born in Freetown, Mass., 
in 1784, and graduated at Brown University in 1804. 
He received the degree of LL.D., from his alma mnter 
in 182(5, and from Harvard University in 1840. In 
1825 he was appointed justice of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court and continued on the bench until 1840, 
when he resigned to assume the duties of Governor of 
the commonwealth, which oiBce he held during that 
year and again in 184.3. He died in 1864. The father of 
Governor Morton was Nathaniel Morton, of Freetown, 
born in 175.3, who married in 1782, Mary Cary, of 
Bridgewater. The father of Nathaniel was Nathan- 
iel, born in 1723, who married in 1749, Martha Tup- 
per. The father of the last Nathaniel was Nathaniel 
of Plymouth, born in 1695, who married, in 1720, Re- 
becca, widow of Mordecai Ellis, and daughter of 
Thomas Clark, of Plymouth. The father of the last 
Nathaniel was Eleazer, of Plj'mouth, who married in 
1693, Rebecca Marshall, of Boston. The father of 
Eleazer was Ephraim, of Plymouth, born in 1623, 
who married, in 1644, Ann Cooper. The father of 
Ephraim was George, of Plymouth, who married in 
Leyden, in 1612, Julian, daughter of Alexander Car- 
penter, of Wrentham, I^nglaud, and came to Plym- 
outh in the '' Ann " in 1H23. Another son of George 
Morton, and a brother of Ephraim, was Nathaniel 
Morton, the secretary for many years of the Plymouth 
colony and the author of " New England's Memo- 

Thomas Clark, whose daughter, Rebecca, married 
Mordecai Ellis and afterwards Nathaniel Morton above 
mentioned, married three wives, and Rebecca was the 
daughterof the third wife, born in 1698. The father of 
Thomas Clark was James, born in 1637, who married in 
1657, Abigail, daughter of Rev. John Lathrop, of Barn- 
stable. The fatherof James was Thomas, of Plymouth, 
apas.sengerin the " Ann " in 1623, who married before 
1634, Susanna, daughter of widow Mary Ring, and in 
1664 widow Alice Nichols, of Boston, and daughter 
of Richard Hallet. It will thus be seen that this 
branch of the Morton family is descended from two 
of what are called the " First Comers '' of Plymouth. 

The gravestone of Thomas Clark, one of these, is still 
standing on Burial Hill, in Plymouth. 

Marcus Morton, the subject of this sketch, fitted 
for college at the Bristol County Academy, in Taunton, 
then under the charge of Frederick Crafts, a graduate 
of Brown University, in 1816, and a recipient of the 
degree of Master of Arts from Harvard in 1820. He 
graduated at Brown Universitv in 1838, and after 
having studied two years in Dine Law School, at 
Cambridge, received the degree of Bachelor of Laws 
from Harvard, in 1840. After studying another year 
in the law office of Sprague & Gray he was admitted 
to practice in Sutlblk County in 1841. He practiced 
law in Boston until 1848, living in Boston until 1850, 
and then removing to Andover, in which place he has 
since held his residence. In 1853 he was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention from Andover, and in 
1858, represented that town in the House of Represen- 
tatives. On the establishment of the Superior Court, 
in 1859, he was appointed by Governor Banks, one ot 
its justices, with Charles Allen, of Worcester, as chief 
justice, and Julius Rockwell, of Lenox; Otis Phillip 
Lord, of Salem ; Seth Ames, of Lowell ; Ezra Wil- 
kinson, of Dedham; Henry Vose, of Springfield; 
Thomas RiLssell and John Phelps Putnam, of Boston ; 
and Lincoln Flagg Brigham, of New Bedford, as his 
associates. In 1869 tw-o vacancies occurred on the 
bench of the Supreme Judicial Court, in consequence 
of the resignation of Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar and 
Dwight Foster, which were filled by Governor Clafiin 
by the appointment of Judge Ames, who had left the 
Supreme bench fn 1867, and by the promotion of 
Judge Morton. 

In 1S82 Horace CJray, of Boston, who had occupied 
a seat as associate justice of the Supreme Court from 
1864 to 1873, and since 1873 as chief justice; he re- 
signed the latter oflice on his appointment as one of 
the justices of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and Judge Morton was appointed by Governor 
Long to fill the vacancy. In 1870 he received the de- 
gree of LL.D. from his alma mater, and in 1882 from 

Judge Morton still occupies his seat as chief justice 
and, in the performance of his duties, upholds and 
maintains the high character for which the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Massachusetts has always been dis- 

William W. Story, son of J(ise|)h Story, was 
born in Salem, February 12, 1819, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1838. He also graduated from the Dane 
Law School at Cambridge, in 1840, but soon gave up 
the profession and devoted himself to sculpture, in 
which he has won an enviable distinction. Among 
his best known works are the statue of Edward Ever- 
ett, in the Boston Public Garden, and the statue of 
Chief Justice Marshall, at the west front of the Cap- 
itol in Washington. 

Edgar T. Sherm.vx was born in Weathersfield, 
Vermont, November 28, 1834, and is descended from 



an early New England settler, bearing that name. 
He was eilucated in the common schools of his native 
town, and in the Wesleyan Academy at Springfield, Vt- 
In his earliest manhood he tanght four years in the 
Academy at Harwich, Mass., and in 1853 went to Law- 
rence, where, in the next year he began the study of law- 
In 1858 he was admitted to the bar of Essex Co., and 
soon after took the position of clerk of the police court 
of Lawrence, which, after two years, he resigned to be- 
come a partner of Daniel Saunders, of Lawrence, in 
the active practice of law. During his six years' 
connection with Mr. Saunders he enlisted in 1862 in 
the Forty-eighth Massachusetts Regiment, and after 
the battle of Port Hudson was breveted major, for 
bravery in the field. Having served out his time he 
again went to the front as captain in the Sixth Mas- 
sachusetts Regiment, and served until the end of the 
war. His active military career was supplemented 
after the war by his appointment as chief of the di- 
vision staff and assistant adjutant-general on the staff 
of General Benjamin F. Butler, with the rank of 
colonel in the State militia, and he held that position 
until 1876. 

After the war he entered into a law partnership of 
short duration with John K. Tarbox, who had been 
admitted to the bar in 1860, and who had subsequently, 
as well as Colonel Sherman, seen service in the field. 
In 1865-66 he was a member of the House of Rei)re- 
sentatives, and in 1868 was chosen district attorney for 
the Eastern District, which included the towns of 
Essex County. To this office he was chosen for five 
successive terms, of three years each, and resigned In 
December, 1882, to assume the duties of Attorney- 
general, to which he had been chosen as the candidate 
of the Republican party at the November election. 

He was rechosen Attorney-general in 1883, '84, '85, 
'86, '87, and was, on the 14th of September of the pre- 
sent year, nominated by Governor Ames to fill the 
vacancy on the bench of the Superior Court caused by 
the promotion of Marcus Perrin Knowlton to the 
bench of the Supreme Judicial Court to fill the va- 
cancy caused by the resignation of William Sewall 
Gardner. Before the publication of this sketch the 
nomination of Colonel Sherman will be confirmed, 
and he will be in full possession of his judicial office. 
In 1884 he received from Dartmouth College an hon- 
orary degree of Master of Arts, but neither occupies 
nor seeks public positions outside of the professional 
field in which he has labored faithfully, and is now 
reaping his harvest. 

Lincoln Flagg Brigham, was born October 4, 
1819, in that part of Cambridge called the " Port." 
He was the son of Lincoln Brigham and Lucy 
(Forbes) Brigham, the daughter of Elisha and Hannah 
(Flagg) Forbes, of We^tboro, Massachusetts. The 
first American ancestor of the Brigham family was 
Thomas Brigham, who came to New England in 1635, 
and settled in Cambridge, where he died in 1653. 
The subject of this sketch, after leaving the public 

schools of his native town, entered the counting-room 
of Samuel Austin, of Boston, with a view to a com- 
mercial life. His plans in this direction were, how- 
ever, after two or three years abandoned, and he fitted 
for college under the care of Rev. David Peabody, 
the husband of his eldest sister, and afterwards Pro- 
fessor of Belles-Letters and Rhetoric in Dartmouth 
College, and graduated from Dartmouth in 1842. In 
1844 he received the degree of LL, B. as a graduate 
of the Dane Law School, at Cambridge, and in 1883 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from liis 
Alma-Mater. He finished his law studies at New 
Bedford, in the office of Clifford & Colby, a law firm 
composed of .John H. Clifford, afterward attorney- 
general and Governor of the commonwealth, and Har- 
rison G. O. Colby, who, while Mr. Brigham was a 
student in the office, was appointed by Governor 
George N. Briggs, a justice on the bench of the Com- 
mon Pleas Court, and who resigned in 1847, and died 
in 1853. Mr. Brigham was admitted to the Bristol 
county bar in June, 1845, and after the appointment 
of Mr. Colby to the bench, became in July of that 
year a partner of Mr. Clifford. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed by Mr. Cliftbrd, then Governor, district-at- 
torney of the southern district of Massachusetts, com- 
prising the counties of Bristol, Barnstable, Nantucket 
and Dukes county. In 1856 tlie office becoming 
elective by a recent law, he was chosen attorney by 
the people of the district, and held the office until he 
was appointed by Governor Nathaniel P. Banks to a 
seat on the bench of the superior court, then first 
established. Judge Seth Ames, chief-justice of that 
court, was appointed in 1869 by Governor William 
Claflin, a justice of the supreme judicial court, and 
Judge Brigham was promoted to the seat of chief- 
justice, which he has since up to this time held. 

Judge Brigham married October 20, 1847, Eliza 
Endicott, daughter of Thomas Swain, of New Bedford, 
and has four sons, one of whom, Clifford Brigham, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1880, lives in S-alem, and as a 
partner of George Burnham Ives, a graduate of Har- 
vard in 1876, is engaged in the practice of law in 
Salem and Boston. During the residence of Judge 
Brigham in New Bedford, which terminated in 1860, 
he was interested in military affairs, and for a time 
was the efficient and popular commander of the New 
Bedford Light Infantry, one of the most active and 
respectable volunteer companies in the State. In 
1860 he removed to Boston, and in 1866 to Salem, 
which jilace he has since made his residence. From 
the exacting labors of his official station he turns to 
music for his chief relaxation, and in whatever social 
circle he has lived he has done much to cultivate and 
refine its musical tastes. As a judge he has won not 
only the esteem, but the affection also of the mem- 
bers of the bar, and as a man he is universally be- 

Samuel Swett was born in Newburyport June 9, 
1782. He was the son of Dr. John Barnard and 



Charlotte (Bourne) Swett, and entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1796, having been fitted by his father at the 
grainmar-sehool in his native town. He studied law 
in Exeter, N. H., with Judge Jeremiah Smith, and 
afterwards with Judge Charles Jaotson and Judge 
Edward Livermore, and was admitted to the Essex 
Bar in lSO->. He began the practice of law in Salem, 
where he married, August 25, 1807, Lucia, daughter 
of William Gray. He relinquished practice in 1810 
and removed to Boston, where he became a partner 
in the firm of Wm. B. Swett & Co. In the last year 
of the War of 1812 he entered the army as a volun- 
teer on the staff of Geueral Izard, and served as a to- 
pographical engineer, with the rank of major. He 
was aide-de-camp on the staff of John Brooks, Gover- 
nor of Massachusetts, from 1816 to 1823, and wiis 
three years a member of the Legislature. His wife 
died May 15, 18-14, and he died in Boston October 
28, 1866." 

William S. Allen was the son of Ephraim W. 
Allen and born in Newburyport in 1805. He gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1825, and after study- 
ing law with Stephen W. Marston, was admitted to 
the Essex Bar in 1827. For several years he was a 
partner of Caleb Gushing, and a representative from 
Newburyport in the General Court. He was the first 
editor of the Newburyport Daily Herald, started by 
himself and his brother, Jere. S. Allen, in 1832. At 
that time the Herald and the New Bedford Mercury, 
which started a few months earlier, were the only 
daily papers in Massachusetts outside of Boston. 
About the year 1835 he removed to St. Louis, where 
he was elected to a judgeship, which he held for sev- 
eral years. During the last twelve years of bis life 
he was connected editorially with the St. Louis lie- 
vublican, and died in St. Louis in June, 1868. 

Stephen Hooper was the son of Stephen Hooper, 
a prominent merchant of iSewbur3'port, and was born 
in that town in 1785. He was fitted for college at the 
Dummer Academy, and graduated at Harvard in 
1808. He was admitted to the Essex County bar in 
1810, and opened an office in Newburyport. He rep- 
resented the town of Newbury, to which town his 
father removed while he was a youth, and which 
place he continued to make his residence in the Gen- 
eral Court when he was twenty-five years of age, and 
at the age of thirty-one he was chosen a State Sen- 
ator. In 1818 he removed to Boston, and there de- 
voted himself to the practice of his profession. He 
was for several years an alderman of the city, and 
there died in 1825. 

EDW.4RD St. Loe Livermoke was born in Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, April 5, 1762. His father, 
Samuel Livermore, born in Waltham, New Hamp- 
shire, May 14, 1732, died at Holderness, New Hamp- 
shire, in May, 1803, and was Attorney-General of New- 
Hampshire, member of the Continental Congress, 
member of the convention to adopt the Federal Con- 
stitution, president of the Constitutional Convention 

of 1791, judge of the Supreme Court, member of Con- 
gress and United States Senator. His son Edward 
was a counsellor at law, and United States Attorney, 
and judge of the Superior Court of New Hampshire. 
He removed to Newburyport, and while a resident 
there was chosen member of the tenth Congress in 
1806. He removed to Boston in 1813, and died at 
Lowell, September 22, 1832. 

Samuel Sumser Wilde, so long a distinguished 
justice on the bench of the Supreme Judicial Court, 
deserves as a resident in Esses County eleven years, 
a place in this record. He was born in Taunton, 
Mass-, February 5, 1771, and graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1789. He read law with David L. Barnes, 
of Taunton, who was afterwards judge of the United 
States District Court for Rhode Island. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1792, and removed to Maine, 
practising his profession in Waldoboro' and Warren 
and Hallowell, to which last place he removed in 
1799; while at Warren he represented that town in 
the General Court, and while at Hallowell was twice 
chosen one of the electors of president and vice-presi- 
dent, and in 1814 was a member of the executive 
council. In 1815 he was appointed by Governor 
Caleb Strong an associate justice of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts, and at the separation of 
Maine from Massachusetts he removed to Newbury- 
port, where he resided until 1831. He received the 
degree of doctor of laws from Bowdoin College in 
1817, from Harvard in 1841, and from Dartmouth in 

In early life he was an active Federalist, and lived 
to be the only surviving member of the Hartford 
Convention. He continued on the bench thirty-five 
years, and resigned in 1850, at the age of seventy-nine 
years. To those readers who remember Judge Wilde, 
and have been able by personal observation to meas- 
ure his abilities as a jurist and his high character as 
a man, the following letter written in Hallowell in 
1820, with its estimate of the judge iu the early days 
of his judicial life, will be interesting: 

" IIallowelt,, m.-iy 31, 1820. 

" It is witli much regret tbat we learn that .hi-lgc WiMe is making 
preparations to leave the town and tiie State of Maine in order to reside 
in Bliissacliusetts, and there exercise the fnnctionH of a Judj;o in tlie 
Supreme Court in that State. 

"In his several capacities of a judge, citizen, friend and acquaintance, 
liis value has been so generally known and felt among us that his de- 
parture must necessarily be viewed with concern. On the bench he is 
conspicuous for his talents and learning, as well as for his candor and 
impartiality. He is at all times affable, and yet be pre^erves order ; by 
his industry and arrangement ho despatches business ; though he knows 
how to bo p:itient when the case denninds it ; to his mildness he joins 
tirmness, atid by his personal character he adds weight to his judicial 
decisions ; since his sincerity gives assunince that these decisions are in- 
dei>endent and conscientious. As a citizen he was formerly much en- 
gaged in public affairs, and yet he continued never to lose his temper or 
to give personal offence, and his intentions and fair dealing never called 
in question either when conducting his own afTaii'S or those of his 
clients. Those who have known .ludge Wilde as a frieiul are those who 
will most feel his loss ; since the warmth of his feelings, the pleasant- 
ness of his temper, and his desire to render services were always con- 
spicuous in his intercourse with them." * * * 

Judge Wilde died in Boston, June 22, 1855. 



This record will be closed with a list of the present 
members of the Essex County bar: 

Amesbury. — Horace I. Bartlett (also at Newbury- 
port), George E. Bachelder, George W. Gate, George 
Turner, Frank C. Whiting. 

Andover. — George W. Foster, George H. Poor. 

Beverly. — Frederick W. Choate, Samuel A. Fuller 

D. W. Quill, (also in Salem). 

Bradford. — Henry Carter (also at Haverhill), Frank 
H. Pearl. 

Danvers. — Daniel N. Crowley (also in Salem), Wil- 
lis E. Flint, Edward L. Hill, Stephen H. Phillips 
(also in Salem), J. W. Porter, Alden P. White (also 
in Salem). 

Essex. — Frank C. Richardson (also at S.ilem). 

Georgetown. — W. A. Butler, Jeremiah P. Jones. 

Gloucester. — Archibald N. Donahue, John J. Flah- 
erty, Wm. W. French, M. J. McNeirny, Wm. A. 
Pew, Jr., J. C. Pierce, Charles A. Russell, Edgar S. 
Taft, Henri N. Woods, Sumner D. York. 

Hamilton. — Daniel E. Safford. 

Haverhill.— Khhoit & Pearl, N. C. Bartlett, Wm. E. 
Blunt, B. F. Brickett, Harry J. Cole, Edward B. 
George, J. P. Jonts, B. B. Jones, H. N. Merrill, Wm. 
H. Moody, Moody & Bartlett, John A. Page, Isaac E. 
Pearl, Winfield S. Peters, C. H. Poor, H. M. Sargent, 

E. B. Savage, Warren Tilton, R. D. Trask, H. H. 
Webster, John J. Winn. 

Ipswich. — George Haskell, Edward P. Kimball, 
Charles A. Sayward. 

Lawrence. — Benjamin C. Ames, M. H. Ames, Charles 
U. Bell, T. Burley, Joseph Cleaveland, Charles A. De 
Courcey, D. F. Dolan, Newton P. Frye, John S. Gile, 
W. F. Gile, N. W. Harmon (deceased), H. F. Hopkins, 
M.S. Jenkins, Wm. S. Knox, P. W. Lyall, D. B. Magee, 
J. J. Mahoney, Wm. T. McKeone, W. F. Moyes, John 
R. Poor, D. W. Proctor, Aretas R. Sanborn, John C. 
Sanborn, C. F. Sargent, Caleb Saunders, Charles G. 
Saunders, Daniel Saunders, Edgar J. Sherman, John 
M. Stearns, Andrew C. Stone, John P. Sweeney, Wm. 
L. Thompson, George L. Weil. 

Lytin.—D. 0. Allen, John R. Baldwin, T. F. Bart- 
lett, John \V. Berry, George J. Carr, N. D. A. Clarke, 
Wm. C. Fabens (also at Marblehead), Joseph F. Han- 
nan, R. E. Harmon, Nathan M. Hawkes, H. F. Hurl- 
burt. W. B. Hutchinson, Ira B. Keith, Caleb Lamson, 
Charles Leighton, W. H. Lucie, James R. Newhall, 
Thomas B. Newhall, M. P. Nickerson, Wm. H. Niles, 
AVm. F. Noonau, Dean Peabody, E. K. Phillips, T. H. 
Romayne, Wm. 0. Shea, J. H. Sisk, Eben F. B. Smith, 
Calvin B. Tuttle, Frank G. Woodbury, John Wood- 

Marblehead. — Wm. D. Trefry (also at Salem). 

Merrimac.—T. H. Hoyt, M. Perry Sargent. 

Mtthueii. — Wm. M. Rogers, W. R. Rowell. 

Newburyport. — J. C. M. Bayley, Charles C. Dame, 
John C. Donovan, Joseph G. Gerrish, Frank W. 
Hale, Harrison G. Johnson, Nathaniel N. Jones, 
Amos Noves, Nathaniel Pierce, John N. Pike, E. C. 

Saltmarsh, Thomas C. Simpson, Eben F. Stone, David 
L. Withington. 

Peabody. — Sidney C. Bancroft, Frank E. Farnham, 
Charles E. Hoag, George Holman, Eugene T. Mc- 
Carthy, Benjamin C. Perkins, Frederick G. Preston, 
Thomas M. Stimpson (also in Salem), Wm. P. Up- 
ham (also at Salem), F. W. Upton, Henry Wardwell, 
Charles A. Weare. 

Reading. — Solon Bancroft, Chauncey P. Judd, E. 
T. Swift. ' 

Rowley. — George B. Blodgett. 

Salem. — Edward C. Battis, C. A. Benjamin, Clifford 
Brigham, George F. Choate, W. F. M. Collins, Forrest 
L. Evans, Andrew Fitz, James A. Gillis, Wm. H. 
Gove, Joseph E. Quinn, Richard E. Hines, Nathaniel J. 
Holden, Thomas F. Hunt, A. L. Huntington, George 
B. Ives, Samuel A. Johuson, D. B. Kimball, Edward 
P. Kimball, George R. Lord, J. T. Mahoney, Eugene 
T. McCarthy, P. J. McCusker, Henry P. Moulton, 
Wm. D. Northend, Theodore M. Osborne, Charles S. 
Osgood, J. B. F. Osgood, B. C. Perkins, Sidney Per- 
ley, Wm. Perry, John W. Porter, D. W. Quill, Josiah 
F. Quinn, J. M. Raymond, C. W. Richardson, Daniel 
E. Safford, Charles Sewall, C. H. Symonds, Charles 
P. Thompson, L. S. Tuckerman, George Wheatland 
A. P. White, Frank V. Wright, J. C. Wyman. 

Saugus. — Benjamin F. Johnson. 

Topsfield. — Benjamin Poole. 




" You may ride in an hour or two, if you will, 
From Halibut Point to Beacon Hill, 
With the sea beside you all the way, 
Through the pleasant places that skirt the Bay ; 
By Gloucester Harbor and Beverly Beach, 
Salem Witch-haunted, Naliant's long reach. 
Blue-bordered Swampscott and Chelsea's wide 
Slarshes, laid bare to the drenching tide. 
With a glimpse of Saugus spire in the west, 
And Maiden hills wrapped iu hazy rest. 

" All this you watch idly, and more by far. 
From the cushioned seat of a railway-car. 
But in days of witchcraft it was not so ; 
City-bouud travellers had to go 
Horseback over a blind, rough road. 
Or as part of a jolting wagon-load 
Of garden-produce or household goods. 
Crossing the fords, half-lost in the woods. 
By wolves and red-skins frighted all day. 
And the roar of lions, some histories say. 
If a craft for Boston were setting sail, 
Very few of a passage would fail 
Who had trading to do in the three-hilled town ; 
For they might return ere the sun was down." 

— Peggy Blights Voyage, by Lucy Larcom. 

When this region of ours was first colonized by 
Europeans, they contented themselves for a time 



with the rude means of conveyance and transpor- 
tation Ijnovvn to their savage neighbors. The fav- 
orite way to Boston, Plymouth and Cape Ann was 
by water. The " dug-out " was much in use, being 
a pine log twenty feet long and two and one- 
half feet wide, in which they sometimes " went 
fowling two leagues to sea." These "cannowes" 
seem to have been inspected at stated intervals by 
a town surveyor, and p.assed or condemned according 
to their fitness for further survice. It was in swim- 
ming for one of these, from a desire to visit the 
Indian Village at "Northfield," that Governor Win- 
throp's son Henry, on the day after his arrival at 
Salem, was drowned in the North River. In one 
of these rude boats, no doubt, Roger Conant might 
often be seen making his way up Bass River, to 
visit his farm of two hundred acres, near the 
"great pond side." And Governor Endicott's little 
sloop-boat, or " shallop," flits across the pages of the 
ancient records, as, no doubt, she walked the waters 
of the bay and rivers, like a thing of life. 

The condition of the trail, which was the only 
land transit between Salem and Boston, is indicated 
by two contemporary writers of the first authority. 
On the 12th of April, 1()31, Governor Endicott 
wrote to Governor Winthrop the following letter from 
Salem : 

'* Right Worahipful: I did expect to Iiave been with yon in person 
at the Court, and to that end I put to eea yesterday, and was driven back 
again, the wind being stiff against us. And there being no canoe or 
boat at Saugus, I must have been constrained to go to Slystic, and thence 
afoot to Charlestonn, which at tliat time durst not be so bold, my body 
being, at this present, in an ill condition to wade or take cold. * « * 
The eel-pots you sent for are made, which 1 lia<I in my boat, hoping to 
have brought them with me," * * * * 

It will be observed that these worthies were not 
the plodders of the Colony. Their position insured 
them the best travelling facilities the times afforded. 
Governor Winthrop wrote in his journal, October 
25, 1031, "The Governor, with Captain Underbill 
and other of the officers went on foot to Saugus. 
and next day to Salem, where they were bounti- 
fully entertained by Captain Endicott, and on the 
28th they returned to Boston by the ford at Saugus 
River and so over at Mystic." 

In 1637 Governor Winthrop passed through Salem 
on foot, with a large escort, on his way to and from 
Ipswich, and next year visited Salem by water and 
returned by land. The first party of Salem people 
who visited Boston after its settlement are said to 
have spent four days on the way, and, on the follow- 
ing Sabbath, to have put up a note of thanks in our 
First Church (now restored and standing in the rear 
of Plummer Hall) for their safe guidance and re- 

In 1650, as we learn from Parkman's " France and 
P^iigland in North America," the first essay was made, 
at the instance of the Colony of Massachusetts, to- 
wards negotiating a reciprocity treaty between these 
English settlements and the French colonies in Can- 

ada. A Jesuit ambassador from Quebec set out in 
company with a converted Indian chief, to visit Bos- 
ton, and secure the military aid of this colony against 
the Iroquois, in consideration of some privileges of 
trade to be granted by the French. He made his way 
from "Kepane" (Cape Ann), where he was forced 
ashore by stress of weather, to Charlestown, " partly 
on foot — partly in boats along the shore," and from 
that peninsula the priest crossed by boat to Bosttm, — 
probably the first Romanist who ever received a wel- 
come in the Puritan Colony. On returning, he 
stopped at Salem, and dined with Governor Endicott, 
who, he says, spoke French. 

Some felling of trees and hoisting ofrocks was needed 
to convert these muddy trails into bridle-paths, and 
then the colonist moved about through the forest, ac- 
com|ianied by good-wife on a pillion behind aud fol- 
lowed perhaps by a pack-horse, sweating under well- 
stufl'ed panniers. " Such a way as a man may travel 
on horseback, or drive cattle," the court ordered 
laid out by Richard Brackenbury, Mr. Conant and 
others from the ferry at Salem, to Jeftrie's Creek, now 
Manchester. Poets sing false, or the saddle was 
sometimes mounted on the backs of neat cattle, in 
those early days, as now-a-days in South Africa and 
San Domingo : 

" Then, from a stall near at band, amid exclamations of wonder, 
Alden, tile thoughtful, the careful, so liappy, so proud of Priscilla, 
Brought out bis snow-white Bull, obeying the hand of its master,— 
Led by a cord that was tied to an iron ring in its nostrils, — 
Covered with crimson cloth and a cushion placed for a saddle. 
.She would not walk, he said, through the dust and heat of the noon- 
day ; 
Nay, she should ride like a Queen, — not plod along like a peasant. 
Somewhat alarmed at first, but reassured by the others, — 
riaclng her hand on the cushion, her foot in the hand of her hns- 

band, — ■ 
Gaily, with joyous laugh, Priscilla mounted her palfrey." 

After the bridle-paths came the roads. The con- 
figuration of our surface did not favor the use of 
canals, and we escaped that dreary stage in the devel- 
opement of transportation. Roads multiplied apace, 
but they were constructed not so much on mathemati- 
cal, as on social principles. Nothing is more enter- 
taining to the idler than to trace out some old aban- 
doned lane, wandering between crooked walls^ 
choked up with underbrush of barberry, alderberry, 
rose-bush, fern and bramble — arched with grand old 
elms, and seemingly leading nowhere. Some dilapi- 
dated cellar-wall or ruined well soon answers the ques- 
tion "whither wilt thou lead me?" The pioneers built 
their homes where the soil was tempting, the slopes 
attractive, and material at hand. Villages were small 
and infrefjuent. Hence roads were made to reach the 
homesteads of single colonists, and not with prime re- 
gard to directness between town and town. And an 
the distance around a hill was no greater than over it, 
and the cost of excavating must be avoided, these 
roads, in uneven places, became still more circuitous, 
from the hills they encountered. Their original cost 
has been expended many times over, in widening. 



straightening, and leveling them, so that the curious 
observer will find on either side of the present road, 
grass -grown bits of the old highway leading oft' a little, 
and soon returning to it. 

An old fiimily of the county has been in the habit 
of making a yearly pilgrimage from Cape Ann to 
Andover, over the road as it was two or three genera- 
tions back, faithfully tracing out, wherever it was 
possible, each oxbow in the way, with its ancient trees 
and low-roofed farm-house and well-sweep and brook. 
Hawthorne has thus described one of the most tempt- 
ing of these lovely by-ways, in his account of 
"Browne's Folly," written for the "Weal-Keaf" in 

"Along its base ran a green and seldom trodden lane, with which I 
was very familiar in my buylioutl ; and tliere was a little biook, which I 
remember to have dammed op till its overflow made a mimic ocean. 
When I last looked for this tiny streamlet, which was still rippling 
freshly through my memory, I found it strangely shrunkeD ; a mere ditch 
Indeed, and almost a dry one. But the green lane was still there, pre- 
cisely as I remembered it ; two wheel tracks, and the beaten path of tlie 
horses' feet, and grassy strips between ; the whole overshadowed by tall 
locust trees, and the prevalent barberry bushes, whicli are rooted so 
fondly into the the recoliections of every Essex man." 

These old roads belonged to the period when a 
journey to Boston was a thing to be thought of for 
days before — and only to be embarked on in pleasant 
weather. Dobbin must be brought in from pasture — 
be rested and fed up a little, and have his shoes 
looked to ; the " one-boss shay," with its capacity for 
stowage like that of the ark, — 

*' Thorough-brace bison skin, thick and wide, — 
Boot, top, dasher of tough old hide 
Found in the pit when the tanner died," — 

this lumbering conveyance was to be cleaned up over 
night and its wheels put in order ; the Sunday suit 
must be aired and dusted, and when at last the 
eventful morning dawned fresh and fair, and the 
leave-taking of several generations was accomplished, 
the journey of the day was to be performed, by not 
too burthensome stages, relieved by episodes of break- 
fast and bailing at the " Creature Comfort," or some 
other favorite lialf-way house, and a scrupulous with- 
drawal of Dobbin from the too active iniluence of 
the mid-day sun. 

A few figures will show how much distances from 
point to point have been reduced since these days. 
We find the following in " Travis's Almanac," Bos- 
ton, 1713. 

'^From Boston to Portsmouth (Ferry's excepted), 62 Miles, thus accounted. 
*' From Wimsimit, to Oweits 4 Miles, to Lewe3^s 2 & half, to the Sign of 
the Galley at Hirlevi 9, to tlie Ferry at lievcrly 1, to Fiekes at Wenlniiir 5, to 
Cromtoiis at Ipswich 0, to Beiitiels ;it Unwh'y 3 & half (which is called the 
half-way house), to Sargeants at Newbury, the upper way by ThwrcVs 
Bridge 8, but from Rowley the right hand way by the Ferry is hut 7 to 
said Sargeantis, to Tntes, or to Pikes Gate at Salisbunj 2 & half, to Nortons 
at Hampton 4 & half, to Shei-bnus at said Town 2, to Johnsons at Greenland 
S Sc half, and to Haruies at the three Tons at Portsmouth 5 Miles & half." 

In April, 1775, Col. Pickering marched his regi- 
ment from Salem on the alarm of the.fight at Lexing- 
ton. To explain his failure to reach the scene of ac- 

tion, he gives these distances in his journal. Salem 
to Danvers, two miles; to Newell's in Lynn, seven 
miles; to Maiden, six miles; to Medford, three miles; 
to Boston, four miles ; making the route from Salem 
to Boston, towards the close of the last century, 
twenty-two miles. 

The character of the ])ublic houses of the time is 
closely allied to our subject. The " Sign of the Galley 
at Salem," mentioned by Travis, was, no doubt, the 
"Ship Tavern," on School Street, at the corner of what 
are now Church and Washington Streets, the old 
Governor's house, brought up by water from Cape 
Ann, and rebuilt there and successively occupied by 
Conant and Endicott. It was kept, in 1713, by Henry 
Sharp, who, in 1701, advertised a calash to let, the 
first recorded instance of such a convenience in 
Salem. Modern travelers would hardly think these 
inns well described by the term "ordinary," under 
which they were licensed. They were conditioned to 
allow no tippling after nine at night ; the house must 
be cleared on week-day lecture of all persons able to 
attend meeting ; no cakes or buns to be sold, this was 
in 1637, on fine of ten shillings, the prohibition not 
to extend to cakes "made for any buryall or marriage, 
or such like special occation." In 1645, the widow 
of an inuholder is licensed "if she procure a fitt man, 
that is Godly, to manage the business." lu 1659. the 
law forbids dancing at taverns, and as late as 1759, 
the sale of spirits, wines, coffee, tea, ale, beer and 
"syder" on the Sabbath. 

At the middle of the last century a New York mer- 
chant, supercargo on board the ship "Tartar Galley," 
from New York for London, was disabled when a few 
days out, and put in to Boston for repairs. While 
detained there he seems to have moved among what 
he terms the "best Fashion in Boston." I make 
room for a passage from his Journal. 

'* October IDift, 1750. While at breakfast air, Nathaniel Cunningham 
waited on me at Capt. Wendell's, agreeable to promise & furnished me 
with a horse to go to Salem, being very desirous to see the country. 
Sett out about 10 o'clock. * * * Cross'd Charles Towne Ferry. 
* * * About 2 miles from thence we crosst Penny Ferry which is 
better than ^.i mile over. Being the neighest way to Salem. From this 
to Mr. Ward's is about 8 miles, and is about a mile this side of Lyn 
which is a small Country Towne of ab't 200 Houses very pleasantly sit- 
uated, & affords a Beautifull Rural Prospect ; we came to Mr. Ward's 
about one o'clock and dynd on fryd Codd. From this place is about 7 
miles to Salem. After dinner having refreshed ourselves with a glass of 
wine sett out on our Journey through a barren rocky country which af- 
forded us not the least prospect of anything but a desart country, abound, 
ing with Loffty Ragged Rocks a fine Pastering Ground only for their 
Sheep, the Ehoads are exceeding stony and the country but thinly 

" October \^th. Arrived at Salem ab't 3 a Clock put up our Horses at 
the Wid'o Prats from whence went to See Coll. William Browne where 
drank Tea with his Spouse, after which Mr. Browne was so Good as to 
Accomodate us with a Walk round the Towne, Shewing ua the wharfs 
warehouses Ac. ; went up in the Steeple of the Church, from whence 
had a Fine View of the Town, Harbour, Ac, which is Beautifully Sit- 
uated From which have a View of Mr. Brownes Country Seat which is 
Situated on a Heigh Hill ab't 6 Miles Eastward of Salem. Spent the 
Evening at his House where Joynd in Company by Parson Appleton, 
Miss Hetty his daughter_from Cambridge, they Being Acquainteuce of 
Mr. and Mrs. Bi-owne, we Supd togeather and after that where Very 
nieri-y, at Whist, &c. 




" Oct. 20th. Lodg'dat Mr. Brownes ; after Breakfast Saunterd round 
the Towne mayking Our Observations on the Buihl's itc. Dynd at his 
Huiiae, after Dinner had a Good Deal Conversation with liim upon Vari- 
ous Subjects, he being a Gent'n of Excellent Pai-ts well Adversed in 
Leaturate a Good Scholar a Great Vertiiosa and Lover of the Liberal 
Arts and Sciences haveing an Extraordinary Library of Books of the 
Best Ancient and Modern Authors, about .'i a Clock we Sett out in his 
Coach for his Country Seat rideing trough a Ple;isant Coiftitry and fine 
Rhoads. we arived there at 4 a Clofk the Situation is very Airy Being 
upon a Heigh Hill which Over Looks the Country all Round and affords 
a Pleasant Rural Prospect of a Fine Country with fine woods and Lawns 
with Brooks water running trough them, you have also a prospect of the 
Sea on one Part an On another A Mountain 80 Miles distant The House 
is Built in the Form of a Long Square, with Wings at Each End and is 
about So Foot Long, in the middle is a Grand Hall Surrounded above by 
a Fine Gallery witli Xeat turned Bamiester and the <_'ealing of the Hall 
Representing a Large doom Designed for an Assembly or Ball Room, the 
Gallery for the Musitians >kc. the Building has Four Doors Fronting the 
N. E. S. & W. Standing in the middle the Great Hall you have a Full 
View of the Country from the Four Dores, at the Ends of the Buildings 
is •! upper and 2 Lower Roonia with neat St^iir Cases Leadeiug to them, 
in One the Lower Rooms is his Library and Studdy well Stockd with a 
Noble Colection of Books, the others are all unfurnish'd as yet Nor is 
tlie Building yet Compleat, wants a Considerable workman Ship to Com- 
pli-at it, BO as the Design is. But Since the Loss of his first wife who 
was Governour Burnetts Daughter of \ew Yerk by whome he has yet 2 
Little Daughters Liveing, the Loss of her ho took much to heart as he 
was doateingly fond of her Being a Charming Ladie when married. But 
lie is now determind to Compleat it. we drank a Glass wine haveing 
Feaated our Eyes with the Prospect of the Country, Returned to liis 
House where Sup'd and Past the Evening A'astly -Agreeable being a Very 
merry Facitious Gentlemen, went to bed Intend'g to Proceed to Marble 
head Next Morning. 

'* Oct. 2l$t. Haveing Got our Horses rea»ly, after Breakfast took our 
Leave's of Mr. Browne and Spouse. Before proceed shall Give a Small 
Discription of Salem. Its a Small Sea Port Towne. Consists of ab't 450 
Houses, Several of which are noat Buildings, but all of wood, and 
Covers a (Ireat Deal of Ground, being at a Conveniant Distance from 
Each Uther, with fine Gardens back their Houses, the Town is Situated 
on a Neck of Land Navagable on either Side, is ab't L'*^ JUles in Lenght 
Including the build'gs Back the Towne, has a main Street runs 
directly trough, One Curch, 3 Presbiterian and one Quakers Meeting, 
the Situation is Very Pretty, Ac. The Trade Consists Chiefly in the Cod 
Fishery, they have ab't 6o or 70 Sail Schooners Employd in tliat Branch. 
Saw ab't 40 Sail in the Harb'r hav'g then ab't 4m at Sea. They Cure all 
their Own Cod for Markett ; Saw there a Vast \ntidjer Flakes Cureing ; 
IN the Harbour Lay also two Topsail Vessellsand three Sloops, on Ex- 
am'g into Ihe Fishery find it a very adventag's Branch." 

The travellers then ride to Marblehead "trough a 
])leasant country and o:ood Roades " — spend an hour 
there at breakfast with Mr. Read— see the town, 
of which they formed no very flattering impression, 
and push on to their friend Mr. Ward*s, at Lynn. 
'' Dyned upon a fine mongrel goose'" — proceeded on 
their journey "through Mystic, and came to Jlr. 
Wendell's in fioston, ab't 8 o'clock." 

r find passages illustrative of the times in the diary 
of John Adams, written when the author was "riding 
the circuit" in the practice of the law, at the age of 
thirty, and residing in Braintree. 

" IIGC), Noi\ 3d, Momlaif. Sett off with my wife for Salem. Stopped 
half an hour at Boston. Crossed the Ferry ; at three o'clock arrived at 
Hill's, the tavern in Maiden, the sign of the Rising Eagle * * * where 
we dined. Here we fell in company with Kent and Sewall. We all 
oated at Jlartin's where we found the new Shenff of Es-sex, Colonel Sal- 
tonstull. We all rode into town together. Arrived at my dear brother 
Cranch's, about eight, and drank tea and are all very happy. Sat and 
heard the ladies talk about ribbon, catgut, and Paris net, riding-hoods, 
cloth, silk, and lace. Brother Cranch came home and a very happy 
evening we had. Cranch is now in a good situation for business, near 
the Court House and Mr. Barnard's meeting-hoiuie and on the roa<l to 

Marblehead: his house fronting the wharves, the harbor and shipping^ 
hns a fine prospect before it. 

*'4. Tnesday. A fine morning : attended court all day. * * Prayer 
by Mr. Barnard, Deacon Pickering was foreman of one of the juries * « 
his appearance is perfectly plain, like a farmer. » * * * 

"o. Wednesday. Attended Court ; heard the trial of an action of tres- 
pass, brought by a mulatto woman for damages for resti-ainiiig her of her 
liberty. * * * Spent the evening at Mr. Pynchon's witli Farnham, 
Sewall, Sargent, Colonel Saltonstall, etc., very agreably. Punch, wine, 
bread and cheese, apples, pipes and tobiu-co. Popes and bonlires this 
evening at Salem, and a swarm of tumultuous people attending them. 

"6. 'llinrsday. A fine morning. Oated at Martin's, where we saw five 
boxes of dollars, containing, as we were told, about eigliteen thousand 
of them, going in a horse-cart from Salem Custom House to Boston, in 
oriler to be shipped for England. A guard of armed men, with swords, 
hangers, pistols and muskets, attended it. We dined at Dr. Tuft's in 
Medford. * * * Drank tea at Jlrs. Kneeland's,— got home before 
eight o'clock." 

On a previous visit to his brother (.'ranch in August, 
he rode after tea to Neck Gate, then back through the 
common, down to Beverly Ferry and about town. 
"Scarce an eminence," he says, "can be found any- 
where to take a view. The streets are broad and 
straight and pretty clean. The houses are the most 
elegant and grand that I have seen in any of the 
maritime towns." 

On Friday, June i^Hth, 1770, he set out on another 
"journey to Falmouth in Casco Bay." Dined at 
Goodhue's in Salem. Fell in with a London merchant, 
a stranger, who " made a genteel appearance," — was 
in a chair, himself with a negro servant; talked of 
American atTairs: thought the colonists "could not 
conquer their luxury," and this would make them de- 
pendent on Great Britain. "Oated my horse and 
drank balm tea at Treadwell's in Ipswich." Tread- 
well's wiis a favorite resort with him. On a visit there 
ten days before, he says, — " Rambled with Kent round 
Landlord Treadwell's pastures to see how our horses 
fared. We found them in the grass up to their eyes; 
excellent pastures. This hill, on which stand the 
Meeting-house and Court House, is a fine elevation, 
and we have here a fine air and the pleasant prospect 
of the winding river at the foot of the hill." 

On another visit he \vrites : 

"Landlord and landlady are some of the grandest people alive : land- 
lady is the great grand-daughter of Governor Endicott. * * As to 
Landlord he is as happy and proud as any nobleman in P^nglatid." 

And again — 

" The old lady has got a new copy of her great grandfather's, Governor 
Endicott's picture hung up in the lious<\" 

That picture is now among the collections of the 
Essex Institute. 

Next morning, Saturday, June 30th, he "arose not 
very early, drank a pint of new milk and set of!'; 
oated my horse at Newbury, rode to ('larke's at 
Greenland meeting-house, where I gave him hay and 
oats and then set off for Newington." Dined there 
with his uncle Joseph, minister of that town, then in 
his eighty-second year, and set off for York over 
Bloody Point Ferry * * "a very unsentimental 
journey excepting this day at dinner; have been un- 
fortunate enough to ride alone all tlie way and liave 
met with very few characters or adventures. I forgot 



yesterday to mention that I stopped and inquired the 
name of a pond in Wenham, which I found, was 
Wenham Pond, and also the name of a remarkable 
little hill at the mouth of the pond, which resembles 
a high loaf of our country brown bread, and found 
that it is called Peters' Hill to this day from the 
famous Hugh Peters." * * * 

"Juiyl, SftniUiy. Arose early. I took a walk to the pasture, to see 
how my horse fared. * * * My little mare had provided for herself, 
by leaping out of a bar© pasture into a lot of mowing ground, and had 
filled herself with grass and water. * * * * 

*'2. Monday morning. In my sulky before five o'clock, Mr. Winthrop, 
Farnham and D. Sewall with me on horseback : rode through the woods, 
the tide being too high to go over the beach and to cross Cape Neddick 
River: came to Littlefield's in Wells, a quarter before eight; stopped 
there and breakfasted. * * * Rode to Patten's of Arundel. Mr. 
Winthrop and I turned our horses into a little close to roll and cool 
themselves and feed upon white honey-suckle. P. M. Got into my 
chair : rode with Elder Bradbury tlirough Sir William Pepperell's 
woods: stopped and oated at Milliken's and rode into Falmouth." 

Compare this picture of Mr. Adams riding into 
Falmouth, in his dhobligeant, as he calls his narrow- 
seated chair or sulky, with an incident in the career 
of two statesmen of our time. During the negotia- 
tion of the British-American treaty wliich detained 
Mr. Webster in the cabinet of Johu Tyler, after his 
colleagues Iiad deserted all the departments but that 
of State, it was proposed to convey him, in company 
with Lord Ashburton, with the utmost speed, from 
Boston to Portland. Alexander Brown, a genial, 
trusty, energetic man, was chosen from among the 
drivers on the route to arrange the conveyance by 
stage from the railroad terminus, and the most 
thorough preparations were made. Relays of picked 
horses, frequent and fresh, awaited him at every stage- 
house, a groom to each horse, ambitious, both man 
and beast, to act well their parts in the struggle 
against time. Three minutes were allowed for each 
change of horses. Mr. Brown, afterwards depot- 
master at the railroad station in Boston, recalled the 
achievement of that day with pride until his death, 
and used to tell how the Britisli Ambassador got out 
at a stopping-place and, watch in hand, observed the 
process of " unhitching and putting to," remarking 
that it was done ;is quickly, within a few seconds, as 
in England. This was high commendation from an 
Englishman. And it certainly was a notable thing, 
to have driven for eiglit hours over American roads, 
well enough to keep an English peer in good humor, 
and to have brought him into Portland, whicli was 
the old time Falmouth, in company with the man 
described by Carlyle as a " Parliamentary Hercule-s," 
" a magnificent specimen," whom " that tanned com- 
plexion, amorplious, crag-like face and those dull, 
black eyes under their precipice of brows, and that 
mastiff mouth, lead one to back against all the extant 
world," and of whom Emerson wrote " He is a natu- 
ral emperor of men," and Sidney Smith is reported to 
have said that he must be a liumbug, " for no man 
could be a tenth part as great as he looked." 

Once more, Monday, June 17, 1771, Mr. Adams 
set out upon the Eastern Circuit. 

" I mounted my horse and rode to Boston in a cloth coat and waist- 
coat, but was mucli pinched with a raw, cold, harsh, northeast wind. 
At Boston I put on a thick flannel shirt, and that made nie comforta- 
ble and no more ; so cold am I, or so cold is the weather, June 17th 
■^^ * * Came over Charlestown ferry and Penny ferry and dined at 
Kettel's in Maiden. * * * Overtook Judge Cuehing in his old 
curricle with two lean horses, and Dick, his negro, at his right 
hand, driving the curricle. This Is the way of ti-avelling in 1771, 
— a judge of the circuits, a judge of the superior court, a judge 
of the king's bench, common pleas and exchequer for the Province, 
travels with a pair of wretched old jades of horses in a wretched old 
curricle, and a negro on the same seat with him driving. * * * 
Stopped at Martin's in Lynn with Judge Gushing ; oated and drank a 
glass of wine. * * « Rode with King, a deputy sheriff, who came 
out to meet the judges, into Salem : put up at Goodhue's, The negro 
that took my hoi-se soon began to open his heart. He did not like the 
people of Salem ; wanted to be sold to Capt. John Dean of Boston, His 
mistress said he did not earn salt to his porridge and would not find him 

Arrived at Falmouth, July 2d, he writes : 

"This has been the most flat, insipid, spiritless, tjisteless journey I ever 
took, especially from Ipswich." 

And this we can understand better when we read of 
his riding alone through Saco woods after night-fall. 

" Many sharp, steep hills, many rocks, many deep ruts, and not a foot- 
step of man except in the road ; it was vastly disagreeable." 

Before great advances could be made towards speed, 
comfort, safety and cheapness in travel, fords and 
stepping-stones must give way to ferries, — ferry-ways 
must yield to bridges, and turnpikes must supersede 
county roads on the great thoroughfares. Road- 
making was no new art. It had been carried to a 
high point by the ancients, but the costliness of their 
works made the lesson of little value to the new J. 
countries of the modern world. The Romans, for in- " 
stance, had magnificent roads leading out into the 
provinces, — as many of them as the hills upon which 
the eternal city sat. These roads were crowned with 
a surface of polished stone, over which wagons, on 
wooden wheels, were drawn by unshod beasts with 
ease and speed. But it was only at the beginning of 
this century that McAdam showed us how to bridge 
over a quagmire with a crust of concrete so firm as to 
bear loads that make the marshy substratum on which 
it rests quake like a jelly. 

From 1636 a ferry had been supported between 
North Point or Salem Neck, so-called, and Cape Ann 
or Bass River side, now Beverly. From time to time 
it was leased for the benefit of the grammar school- 
masters of Salem. At first it provided only for the 
crossing of persons. But, in 1639, these were the 
regulations : " Lessee to keep an horse-boate— to have 
for strangers' passadge id. apeice, — for towne dwellers 
Id. apeice, — for mares, horses and other great beasts 
&d. apeice, and for goats, calves and svvyne '2d. apiece." 
For more than a century, an inn known as the "Old 
Ferry Tavern," stood hard by on the Salem side. The 
ferry touclied at Salem side near the present bridge, 
but a little to the east. 

In 1787, Beverly, somewhat aggrieved at the manage- 



ment of the ferry in the interest of Salem, moved for a 
bridge. A charter, now on deposit with the Essex In- 
stitute, was granted to the Cabot^, and Israel Thorn- 
dike of Beverly, and to John Fiske and Joseph White 
of Salem, and the old ferr\--way was laid out as a 
highway by the Court of Sessions. December 13th, 
the proprietors of the bridge organized at the Sun 
Tavern. Nathan Dane was moderator, and William 
Prescott, clerk. The bridge was opened for use 
September 24, 178S. It was one of the modern won- 
ders. Gen. Washington, on his northern tour the 
next year, dismounted to examine it and observe the 
working of the draw. And a Russian engineer was 
specially commissioned to acquaint himself with its 
structure. But this beneficent work was not carried 
through without violent opposition, of which Spite 
Bridge was one of the fruits. Salem voted to oppose 
the petitioners and invited other towns to do so. 
Competition was threatened from a parallel bridge. 
The navigation of North River, it was urged, would 
be annihilated, and forty vessels of various tonnage, 
then employed there, would be driven from the river. 
Orue's Point was insisted on as the proper terminus 
in Salem. "Prejudices, strong party feeling and 
much excitement" are spoken of by Felt, and he 
adds that one Blythe, a wit of the time, was prompted 
to observe that there never was a bridge built with- 
out railings on both sides. This timely succes.sor of 
the old ferry-way, after compensating its projectors 
for their risk and outlay, reverted, at the expiration 
of its seventy years' charter, to the State. I may be 
pardoned a personal reminiscence in this connection. 
My grandfather walked over the bridge on the day it 
was opened for travel, being then a Salem school-boy 
ten years old, and again in his eightieth year on the 
day of the exjjiration of its charter in IS^'iS, having 
been president of the corporation in the interval. 

In 18(58 the bridge was surrendered by the State to 
the towns and thrown open to the public, in accord- 
ance with that enlightened social economy which 
teaches that all needless restraint upon the inter- of neighbors is barbarism. 

Another monument of Essex County enterprise is 
the turnpike connecting us with Boston, now also, in 
the same liberal spirit, dedicated to free travel. 
March 6, 1802, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Wil- 
liam (Iray, Nathan Dane, Jacob Ashton and Israel 
Thorndike, with their associates, were incorporated to 
build a turn])ike from Buffum's corner, through (treat 
Pastures, over Breed's Island in Lynn Marshes, across 
Mystic River, and from a point near the Navy-yard 
to Charles River Bridge. The Statute Books are full 
of similar acts at this period. The Essex Turnpike 
from Andover, intended to bring the travel of Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire through Salem to Boston, 
was chartered the next spring, as was also another 
from State street, Newburyport " by as nearly a 
straight line as practicable " to Maiden Bridge. 

Here again we were not behind the times. Telford 

and McAdam had not completed their grand experi- 
} ments nor demonstrated their rival systems for some 
years later. But the turnpike corporators used the 
best science of the day and a wonderful road they 
made. In the famous records kept at Benjamin 
Blanchard's Barber Shop, in which his distinguished 
patrons noted current events, while wailing for an 
empty chair, it appears that work began near " Pick- 
ering's Pen " June 7. 1802. Of course there was 
vigorous opposition and wild disparagement on one 
side, — great enthusiasm on the other. Dr. Stearns, 
one of its most ardent promoters, is said to have de- 
clared that, when the turnpike was done, a man 
might stand on Buffum's corner and look straight in- 
to Charlestown Square. The extent of the work of 
building may be judged of by the fact that a village 
of huts covered the high ground now occupied by 
Erastus Ware, which soon became a resort for toddy 
and tenpins, and that the material and tools em- 
ployed, sold on the completion of the work, brought 
at auction, October 27, 1803, thirty-two hundred 
dollars. Captain Richard Wheatland paid the first 
toll, July 12, 1803, on his way to Boston to take 
command of his ship for Calcutta. How much the 
new route, only twelve miles and a fraction long, did 
to bring us and the metropolis together, will be re- 
called with pleasure by some yet living who enjoyed 
for the first time, in the early years of the century, 
an evening ride to Boston with a ball, a concert, or a 
play in prospect to give zest to the excursion. 

The largest sum, taken in a year at " Toll-Gale No 
1," near our great pastures, was $5300, in 1805 ; — the 
day of the greatest travel was June 1, 1813. On 
that summer afternoon the smoke of conflict between 
the " Chesapeake" and "Shannon" was rolling over 
the bay. One hundred and twenty stages, crowded 
to repletion, passed up that day. Thousands of spec- 
tators prayerfully watched the fight from every hill- 
top and gloomily retired when the issue was but too 
plainly seen. 

On the morning of November G, 1809, the old 
gate-keeper at "No. 1," gets orders to take no more 
tolls. Gravely he sets open, for the last time, the 
last toll-gate in Essex County and breaks out in 
rhyme : 

"Tlie last toll is taken, — I've ewmig wide the gate. 
The wuni liAS been spoken, — We yield to our fate ! " 

The distinctive character of the turnpike among 
roads is departed. It is as wholly a thing of the past 
as that negro village which once clustered about the 
entrance at Buffum's corner, with its fortune-telling 
and cake-baking and fiddling and dancing. But the 
great road will stand. Years will not destroy ils 
traces of heavy blasting and grading, — its viaducls of 
splendid masonry across deep, i)icture.sque ravines, 
their granite sides and terraced buttresses backed up 
with sturdy trunks and roots of ancient elm and wil- 
low, fit types of the blended beauty and utility which 
mark its course. No son of Salem returning from 



his wanderings, however great a truant, but will 
pause delighted on that hill top, where bursts upon 
the eye the eldest born of New England cities, 
whether the morning sun is touching with an early 
glory the score of spires and towers, clustered about 
that thing of beauty, the South Church Steeple, or 
whether at night-fall, broadsides of factory windows 
are blazing with their perpetual illumination in hon- 
or of the triumplis of industry. While lovers ram- 
ble and young limbs are strong, — while Bitter-sweet 
Rocks live in song, and Great Pastures find a place 
in story, — .so long shall there be brisk walking among 
its rugged scenes in Spring and Autumn, and willing 
steeds shall be urged to speed over No-bottom Pond 
Bridge on the moonlight gallop, so long as water 
plashes up like molten silver through the chinks in 
the planking, — until, indeed, the poet sings to deaf 

" 'Tislife to guide the fiery Barb 
Across the moonlit plain I " 

The first public conveyance noticed by Felt was a 
" large stage chair," or two-horse curricle which ran 
from Portsmouth to Boston and back each week, in 
1761. "An epidemical distemper" among horses 
interfered with the business in 1768, but, two years 
after, Benjamin Coats, who was then landlord at the 
Ship Tavern in School (now Washington) Street, 
gave notice that he had bought a " new Stage chaise" 
which would run between Salem and Boston "so that 
he will then, with the one now improved in that bus- 
iness, be able to carry and bring passengers, bundles 
and the like everyday except Sunday." He has also 
five fall-back chaises, one fall-back curricle, six stand- 
ing top chairs and three sulkies to let. In December, 
1771, Benjamin Hart advertises that " he has left 
riding the single horse post between Boston and 
Portsmouth and now drives the post stage lately im- 
proved by John Noble. He sets out from Boston 
every Friday morning and from Portsmouth on Tues- 
day morning following. The above conveyance has 
been found very useful and now more so, as there is 
another curricle improved by J. S. Hart, who sets off 
from Portsmouth the same day this does from Boston, 
by which opportunity offers twice a week, for travel- 
lers to either place." 

Systematic staging probably began here about 1796, 
and in this business Benjamin Hale, of Newburyport, 
seems to have been the pioneer on the route between 
Boston and Portsmouth, as was Seth Paine, of Port- 
land, on the lines further east. Mr. Hale was a reso- 
lute, persevering man, and there was nothing worth 
knowing about staging which he did not know. Many 
improvements in stage springs are accredited to him, 
as well as the introduction of the trunk-rack, by 
which means the passenger's luggage was employed 
to ballast the coach, whereas formerly it had rested, a 
dead weight, on the axles, jolting and- tossing as 
though springs were yet to be invented. Pie had 
made his way up from small beginnings against dis- 

couragements and trials, but his single coach, driven 
by his own hand, in the early years of the century, 
had given place to a large establishment of horses, 
carriages and drivers. Mr. Paine's career had not 
been different. He was a postman in Maine when 
all the mails were carried on horse-back ; a man of 
few words, prompt, inflexible, and of great energy. 
He came to be the largest owner and sole manager of 
coaches east of Portsmouth and government con- 
tractor for the eastern mails, while the stages on this 
side of Portsmouth were under the able and exclusive 
management of Mr. Hale. The proprietors, at this 
time, were few, — not more than five or six. Besides 
those named, were Judge Elkins, of Wenham and 
Salem, and Samuel Larkin, of Portsmouth. Dr. 
Cleaveland, of Topsfield, bought an interest about 
1806. The profitable character of the business could 
not long be concealed. Tributary lines spring up. 
Thus a stage connected with the Boston Line set off 
from Salem, August 20, 1810, for the Coos County. 
Three were to be despatched every week. Competi- 
tion, of course, followed, and, in 1818, opposing lines 
were absorbed by the original proprietors, and the 
Eastern State Company was incorporated. It is not 
too early to write in a historic strain of that once 
familiar visitant, the Stage Coach. And the books of 
this corporation, now in po.ssession of the Essex In- 
stitute, shed ample light upon one of the largest and 
most successful staging enterprises of New England. 

The Eastern Stage Company was chartered by the 
State of New Hampshire, for a period of twenty 
years. Its act of incorporation, approved June, 1818, 
contains three sections, and, singularly enough, by 
no word except its title, from beginning to end, indi- 
cates the business to be facilitated thereby. By this 
act, Samuel Larkin, William Simes, Elisha Whidden 
and their associates are made a body corporate, the 
"Eastern Stage Company," by name, are to sue and 
be sued, have a common seal, make rules and by-laws, 
and generally to do whatever appertains to bodies 
corporate, with a capital stock not exceeding one 
hundred thousand dollars, and shares not more than 
five hundred in number, and that is all. To one fa- 
miliar with the guarded language of acts establishing 
the railroad lines which superseded this great stage 
route, the absence of all limitations of power is strik- 
ing. In the early railroad charters every function 
that could be anticipated is provided for, even to the 
grade of the road-bed, the curves of the track, and the 
erection of toll houses and toll-gates, after the analo- 
gy of the turnpike, where trains were to stop and 
travellers pay fare. 

But these corporators did not abuse their powers, 
however loosely conferred. Their first meeting, duly 
notified in the Portsmouth Oracle, the Boston Centinel 
and the Newburyport Herald, was held at Langmaid'.H 
tavern, at Hampton Falls, on Friday, October 9, 1818. 
They chose Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland, of Topsfield, 
Moderator, and Samuel Newman, Clerk, accepted the 



charter, adopted by-laws and fixed their capital stock 
at lour hundred and twenty-five shares, of one hun- 
dred dollars each. The by-laws provide for eight 
directors and a proprietors' clerk, to be chosen annu- 
ally by the share-holders, who were to throw a vote 
for each share owned, not exceeding twenty — the di- 
reciors to chose a president from their number, ap- 
point "a principal agent and treasurer" and such 
" agents, drivers and servants as they may find neces- 
sary for the due management of the property." 
They are to close accounts and declare dividends in 
March and September, and are allowed two dollars 
per day and expenses for attendance at directors' 
meetings. The clerk was under oath, and the agent 
and treasurer under bonds in the sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars. 

Article VI. provides a form of stock certificate, as- 
signable by indorsement and transfer on the books of 
the proprietors' clerk. 

Article VII. " Xo person whatever shall be privi- 
leged to ride in any of the company's carriages with- 
out paying common stage fare.'' 

They organized thus, — President, Dr. Cleaveland, — 
Proprietors' Clerk, Seth Sweetser, — Directors, Josiah 
Paine, Stephen Howard, Seth Sweetser, Samuel Lark- 
in, Thomas Haven, Henry Elkins, Ephraim Wildes. 
Col. .leremiah Coleman was principal agent and 

If the charter said nothing of the purposes of this 
corporation, their own by-laws said about as little. 
Xowhere is there a distinct announcement of the 
function which they proposed to discharge, nor any 
description of the extent nor location of their field 
of operations. This is to be explained, no doubt, by 
the fact that some of these gentlemen were, before 
their incorporation, already successful operators and 
proprietors of stages running over portions of the 
routes they now proposed to combine, and no words 
were needed to teach them the duties and liabilities 
of common carriers of persons. 

Thus at the first directors' meeting we seem plunged 
at once into the dust and whirl of stage- coach travel. 
The six o'clock stage from Portsmouth (they vote) is 
to be discontinued. What a chapter might be writ- 
ten on that early coach, leaving "Wildes' Hotel" at 
six o'clock each frosty October morning or, better 
still, on the stage which, all winter long, in storm or 
by starlight, left Boston for the East at five o'clock 
in the morning. The hurried breakfast, — the smok- 
ing corn-cake, — the savory rasher, — the potato raked, 
glowing hot, out of its bed of ashes, — the steaming, 
creamy, aromatic coflVe, — the chill, crisp morning, — 
lanterns flitting ghostly thrimgh the ample stables, 
— reluctant horse-boys shivering about the door-yard 
and wishing themselves in their bunks again, — the 
resonant crack of the whip, — the clear, sharp click of 
well-shod hoofs on frozen ground, — the clatter of 
wheels, — the scramble in the dark for seats, — the 
long, dull ride with fellow-travellers chilled and 

grim, half concealed by twilight and half in mufflers, 
— that crying baby, who seems to have found vent, at 
that unlucky hour, for all the pent-up sorrows of its 
little life, — the gradual warmth of conversation and 
day-break stealing at last over the coach-load, — the 
side-lights fading out and good nature once more pre- 
vailing over cramped legs, sharp elbows and cold 
feet shuffling among the scanty straw, — all these 
things must now be given over to the romancer, 
whose ready pen, ever busy with the past, will not 
long neglect them. 

The late President Quincj' gives a well-drawn pic- 
ture of staging facilities at the close of the last cen- 
tur)'. He was then paying court to a New York la- 
dy, to whom he was privately engaged and after- 
wards married. Boston had twenty — New York, 
thirty thousand souls. Two coaches and twelve 
horses sufficed the travel between the two commercial 
centres of the continent. The journey was almost as 
rare an event then as a voyage to Europe is now, and 
took about as long. To one bent on Mr. (.^uincy's 
errand the way no doubt seemed doubly tedious. The 
impatient suitor writes : 

*' The carriages were old. aud the shackling and much of tlie harneBs 
made of ropes. Cue pair of horses carried us eighteen miles. We gen- 
erally reached our resting-place for the night, if no accident intervened, 
at ten o'clock, and after a frugal supper, went to bed with a notice that 
we should he called at three, next morning— which generally proved to 
he half-past two. Then, whether it snowed or rained, the traveller 
must rise and make ready by the help of a horn lantern and a farthing 
candle, and proceed on his way, over bad roads, — sometimes with a 
driver showing no doubtful symptoms of drunkenness, which good- 
hearted piissengers never failed to improve at every stopping-place, by 
urging upon him the comfort of another glass of toddy. Thus we trav- 
elled eighteen miles a stage, sometimes obliged to get out and help the 
coachman lift the coach out of a quagmire or rut, and arrived at New 
York after a week's hard travelling, wondering at the ease as well as the 
expedition with which our journey was effected." 

Contrast with this picture an " Old Driver's Remi- 
niscence," which I give in his own words. The stage 
that left Newburyport for Boston at 8 o'clock in the 
morning usually took the passengers who had stopped 
for rest over night, many of whom were strangers to 
our New England custom.s. One morning, as the 
passengers were about taking their seats, a gentleman 
asked the driver it he would accommodate him with 
a seat on the box. " Certainly," says the driver, 
" please step right up before another occupies it." 
Our first stop was at Rowley, a seven mile drive, dur- 
ing which many questions were asked by the stranger 
and answered according to the driver's knowledge. 
At this place we took some passengers. While the 
driver was arranging the baggage, the gentleman on 
the box asked him to step in and take something to 
drink. His reply was, " No, I thank you, sir, I have 
no occasion for anything," and he mounted the box 
and drove tn Ipswich, where the horses were changed. 
Here most of the passengers alighted while the shift- 
ing was taking place. At the same time the stranger 
came off the box and urged the driver again to take 
something to drink. The answer was the same as be- 



fore. When the horses were ready, the driver, as 
was the custom, says — " the stage Is ready, gentle- 
men I " and they take their seats in the coach. Off 
they start down the crooked hill and over the stone 
bridge, called by some short-sighted people " Choate's 
Folly." The next stop was at Wenham, where it was 
the usual practice to take the fares, it being the Half- 
Way House ^to Boston. And here the outside pas- 
senger says to the driver again, — "Come, now, you 
have accomplished one-half of the distance, — you 
must certainly take a drink with me." " No, I thank 
you, sir." " What kind of men are you drivers here 
in this section of the country ? Drivers where I 
came from will drink at every stopping-place, and it 
is with much fear that we travel there, but here I see 
that passengers are perfectly at ease when seated in 
the coach." "Sir, things have changed here within 
a few years. You were saying that passengers in 
your section were uneasy, and often had fears for 
their safety while riding with your drivers. Here all 
that is reversed, for in former years the travellers 
used every precaution to keep the drivers sober, but 
now the drivers by their example try to keep the 
passengers sober." " I will never ask you to drink 
again," says our outside passenger, and he was mum 
on the drinking question the rest of the way to Bos- 

The arrangements for the main route of the Eastern 
Stage Company, in the winter of 1818, may be 
sketched thus : A coach left Portsmouth for Boston at 
9 A. M., (the same carriage running through), dined 
at Topsfield, then through Danversport and ^alem to 
Boston, and back the same way next day, dining at 
Newburyport. A portion of the Newburyport turn- 
pike was used, and this made Topsfield quite metro- 
politan, so much so that conventions often met there. 
In 1808 a great caucu.s was held at Topsfield to de- 
nounce the embargo. The County Convention which 
established Lyceums met there in 1829. The Essex 
Agricultural Society, formed at Topsfield in 1818, 
held its annual meetings there in 1820, '22, '23, '24, 
'25, '37 and '38, but never after. 

Of course the records plunge us at once into all 
sorts of questions of law and policy, — they meet us at 
the threshold, — they linger to the end ; — questions 
of tolls on turnpikes and bridges,— conferences ar- 
ranged with this and that corporation, — new terms 
made or war declared. Once it is voted that seven 
hundred dollars be accepted by the Newburyport 
Turnpike as toll for the year, or the stages go by Old 
Town Bridge. Complications grow out of the delicate 
relations of carriers to the public. Too accommodat- 
ing drivers are induced to act as expressmen on their 
private account, and attempts are made to hold the 
company liable for their losses. At the first meeting 
" Drivers are expressly prohibited from carrying any 
money or packages, not accounted for to the company's 
agent; " and almost at the last a " committee is con- 
sidering the subject of drivers carrying provisions 

from sundry places to Boston for sale, contrary to a 
vote of the directors." In April, 1819, " the company 
do not consider themselves accountable for the loss 
of any baggage, bundles, or packages whatever, com- 
mitted to the care of the drivers, or otherwise put into 
their stages." This sweeping announcement, so like 
what is sometimes read on the backs of railroad tick- 
ets to-day, was followed up in the same spirit in 1826 
and 1829. Now they vote that no driver shall carry 
anything, except in his pocket, without paying the 
company's agent, on pain of instant dismissal ; and 
again, the driver must " agree with the agent to ex- 
clude his private or pocket business from his compen- 
sation, so the company shall have no participation, 
direct or indirect, with such business of the drivers, 
meaning especially Bills of any Bank which may be 
entrusted to them." " But is this law? " ask the per- 
plexed proprietors of Benjamin Merrill, Es(|., in 1832, 
and that eminent counselor finds himself unable to 
give the desired assurance, but on the contrary, they 
record a long opinion advising them that their con- 
tract with drivers will not discharge them from lia- 
bility, unless notice of it is brought home in each case 
to the sender of the bill or parcel. And accordingly a 
notice, drawn by him, is formally served in person on 
every bank president and cashier on the route, posted 
in the taverns, and widely advertised in the news- 

The record is rich in little incidents which give life 
to the picture of the times. A driver is fined fifty 
dollars, the value of a horse killed by his carelessness. 
Afterwards, for good conduct, the forfeiture is reduced 
to one month's wages. Owing to the appreciated state 
of the currency, in 1820, wages were reduced, and 
fares from Boston to Exeter put at three dollars. 
Once in awhile a coach is overturned. In one case, if 
payment of damages is refused by the Salem Turn- 
pike, the agent is to enter complaint and present the 
road to the grand jury ; in another, forty dollars are 
received in liquidation. Again, a director is to settle 
for damages done by loose horses breaking out of the 
Salem stable. And again, fines imposed by the post- 
otfice department for loss of mails, are to be charged 
off to the drivers who lost them. Sub-agents were 
selected for the principal points on the route, placed 
on salary, and under bonds, and quartered at the best 
hotels. Blacksmith's shops were established at many 
points, and extensive stables in Bo.ston and elsewhere, 
many of them built of brick. Not more than seven 
shillings were to be paid for shoeing, out of Boston, 
and but ten cents for caulking or resetting shoes. Dri- 
vers are forbid taking letters, in violation of laws reg- 
ulating the United States General Post-office; and fre- 
quent embassies are dispatched to Washington to con- 
tract for carrying the mails, or to change the times or 
terms for delivering them. " Accommodating Stages " 
are sometimes to take mails at the desire of govern- 
ment or the postmaster at Boston, but " Mail Stages " 
are regularly designated, and these make better speed 


and collect higher fares than the former. Mail-con- 
tracts are exchanged among difterent companies, and 
combinations formed with other lines where compe- 
tition would be ruinous, and sub-agents are withdrawn 
from inns which harbor the books of hostile compan- 
ies. In April, 1823, it is significantly voted that sev- 
eral sub-agents be discharged, and hereafter it shall 
be an " indispensible requisite that their moral char- 
acters be good, and that they have no horses and car- 
riages to let." In August, 1823, it is voted to " keep 
a horse and chaise in Boston to accommodate passen- 
gers, and carry and fetch their baggage." This under 
the str&ss of a vigorous opposition, when the exigen- 
cy called for unusual efl'orts and the running of ex- 
tras at "about the same time the opposing stage goes, 
but always a little liefore that conveyance and at the 
same fare." In October, a number of horses and 
chaises are to be kept on hire at Newburyport. In 
December, the extras run a little before the opposition 
coaches are to charge but half fare. The Ann Street 
stage-house at Boston is leased and furnished, and 
Col. Wildes placed there as landlord, with an interest 
in the jirofiw not to exceed one-half. Next summer 
the horses are to be fed with cut hay and meal. April 
19, 1825, the directors met at Oilman's hotel, in New- 
buryport. They found their enterprise thriving, — 
established a sinking fund to be swelled by semi-an- 
nual additions; carried one thousand dollars to that 
account ; <leclared a semi-annual dividend of four i)er 
cent. ; created seventy-five new shares, making up the 
full five hundred to which they were limited in 
their charter, and provided for selling the new shares 
at not less than six dollars i)remiura on a par of one 
hundred dollars. To the sinking fund was afterward 
voted the net income of the Ann Street stage-house, 
and the agent was directed to sell at auction, from 
time to time, collections of articles left in their oflices 
and coaches " for which no owners can be found." 
The second dividend for this year was six per cent., 
and in 1826 eleven per cent, was divided. 

At the end of ten years the prosperity of the com- 
pany was established. It had now substantial stables, 
not connected with public houses, at all the chief 
points of the route, one of them on Church Street, in 
the rear of the Lafayette Coffee-house, in Salem ; and 
it owned hotels, or a controlling interest in hotels, at 
Boston, Newburyport, Exeter and Dover. It was 
sending deputations to the New England Stage Asso- 
ciation, which met at " Holbrook's," in Milk Street, 
Boston, with a view to bring together, at least once a 
year, representatives of all the stage companies of this 
section. In October, 1828, it held its shares at a pre- 
mium of fifty dollars, and made a semi-annual divi- 
dend of eight per cent., on one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars per share. At this time the management of the 
stage-house in Ann Street passed into the hands of 
Mr. Leavitt, upon the death of Col. Wildes and Uol. 
Henry Whipple of Salem, became a director in place 
of Judge El kins, resigned. 

In 1830, the company was incorporated in Massa- 
chusetts, with a capital of one hundred thousand dol- 
lars. In 1832 it sent delegates to a Mail Contract 
Convention, which sat at " Wyatt's " in Dover, to 
apportion the mail routes for New England, and its 
bid shows that it was running coaches from Concord 
to Portsmouth ; Dover, by two routes, to Newbury- 
port ; Portsmouth, by Exeter, to Newburyport, Salem 
and Boston; from Salem to Haverhill mikI Lowell; 
from Gloucester to Ipswich ; and from Lowell, by two 
routes, to Newburyport. 

January, 1838, found them free from debt and their 
stock higher than ever. They owned near five hun- 
dred horses. A steamboat had been built on Lake 
Winnepessaukee and they were running stages from 
Dover to meet it. At times they ran a daily to Port- 
land. In October, 1834, the stock stood at $202.13 
per share on their books, par being $100. In Janu- 
ary, 1835, they were paying between eight and nine 
thousand dollars in tolls for the year, had bought 
turnpike, bridge and bank stocks, and amongst other 
real estate the Dalton House, between the West es- 
tate and Church Street, in Salem, which they sold, 
retaining a way out from the stables to Church Street. 
Up to this point their career must be considered as 
one of unmixed prosperity. The Eastern Railroad 
was not chartered; the Boston and Maine was but a 
spur from the Boston and Lowell,. extending as far as 
Andover. Travel increased apace, —with it the run- 
ning stock and corps of employes. The directors' 
record-book is pleasant reading now. They meet at 
comfortable inns, spend two or three days together, ex- 
amine lucrative accounts, pass the evening over 
plethoric way-bills, compute their dividends, make 
combinations with kindred bodies all over the Eastern 
States, and New York if need be, and smile at com- 

What a text is here for another volume of pen and 
ink sketches, — these old stage houses which figure in 
the record, — "Wildes' Hotel" at Portsmouth, "Lang- 
maid's" and "Wade's" at Hampton Falls, "Oilman's" 
and the "Wolfe" at Newburyport, the "Sun Tav- 
ern," the " Lafayette Coffee House " at Salem, " Ann 
Street Stage House" and "City Tavern " in Boston I 
What pleasant memories start up at the recital, as of 
those ancient hostelries of London, once, as Mr. 
Dickens says, " the headquarters of celebrated coach- 
es in the days when coaches ijerformed their journeys 
in a graver and more solemn manner than they do in 
these times, but which have now degenerated into 
little more than the abiding and booking places of 
country wagons." Of these he says, "there still re- 
main some half-dozen in the borough, which have 
preserved their external features unchanged, and 
which have escaped alike the rage for public im- 
provement and the encroachments of private specu- 
lation. Great, rambling, queer, old places they are, 
with galleries, and passages, and stair-cases wide 
enough and antiquated enough to furnish materials 



for a hundred ghost-stories, supposing we should 
ever be reduced to the lamentable necessity of in- 
venting any." Such was our own poet's Wayside 

" Built in tbe old colunial day, 
Wlieii men lived in a grander way 
With ampler hospitality — 
A kind of old Hobgoblin Hall, 
Now somewhat fallen to decay. 
With weather-fltains upon the wall 
And stair-ways worn and crazy doors 
And creaking and uneven floors. 
And chimneys huge, and tiled and tall. 
A region of repose it seems. 
By noon and night the panting teams 
Stop under the great oaks that throw 
Tangles of light and shade below. 
Across the road the barns display 
Tbeir lines of stalls, their mows of hay. 
Through the wide door the breezes blow, — 
The wattled cocks strut to and fro, — 
And, half effaced by rain and shine. 
The ' Red Horse ' prances on the sign." 

_ One seems to recall the impatience with which the 
tired traveller looked forward to alighting at these old 
inns, — to see again the village steeple peering over 
the hill, its gilded cockerel glistening in the sunset, — 
to hear the stage-horn once more bidding the post- 
master expect the evening mail, the landlord serve 
the welcome meal ; to see honest, little, nervous Jack 
Mendum, or sturdy, robust, reliable Robert Annable, 
or good-natured Knight, or the voluble but substan- 
tial Pike, or some other famous whip, gather up his 
reins and muster his strength for a final sweep across 
the tavern yard, the crowning effort of a day of toil 
to dusty traveller and smoking, jaded team, and then 
down go the steps and cramped legs are free at last! 
Or we seem again to be bowling down that grand 
old turnpike from Newburyport, with Ackerman or 
Barnabee or Forbes, rumbling by old Gov. Dummer's 
Academy at Byfield, telling off the milestones through 
the Topsfield of fifty years ago, over the gra.ssy hills 
and by the beautiful lake at Lynnfield, on the coach 
that left "Pearson's" at six every summer morning; 
or to be whirling by Flax Pond, where, a cen- 
tury ago, Mr. Goldthwaite asked John Adams to 
a "genteel dinner" of fish, bacon, peas and incom- 
parable Miideira, under the "shady trees, with half a 
dozen as clever fellows as ever were born ;" or to be 
rattling through the old toll-gate and dashing down 
Great Pasture hills into Palein town on the topmost 
seat of the early Boston Mail Stage which, in 1835, 
was to "breakfast in Salem and dine at Portsmouth," 
while all the eastern landscape is aglow with the 
tints of morning and the dews of spring make every- 
thing in nature .sparkle. Or perhaps it is winter. 

" Now the incre.Tfiing storni makes all the plain 
From field to highway a vast foaming sea ! 
And sculptors of the air, with curious skill, 
Have graven their images of stainless white. 
Pagodas, temples, turrets, columns raised 
From the exhaustless quarries of the snow, 
Afar and near, — the artwork of the wind !" 

and we reach perhaps the little court-house on the 

hill at Ipswich, with the bar of Southern Essex, to 
find that another coach-load of jurisprudence is stuck 
fast on Rowley Marshes, while judge and counsellor 
alike have committed trespass quare dansumfregit, in 
prying their coach out of a snowdrift with the near- 
est fence rails. 

The Hon. Allen W. Dodge writes of the drivers of 
those days as follows : — 

" In those days of old-fashioned winters, there were many trials and 
difficulties in getting through the route, but let the storm or the snow 
blockade be ever so bad, they were always ready to do, to the uttermost, 
all that men could do to accomplish it. These drivers, too, were the 
most obliging and kind-hearted men that ever handled reins, cracked 
whip or sounded stage-horn. 

"They were great favorites with all tbe boys who rode with them. 
Many of us who were then at Exeter Academy came home at the end ot 
the term by the Eastern Stage route, and a lively time we used to have 
of it. Quite a number of stage coaches were always sent on to take us. 
When they arrived what a scramble ensued to see who should ride with 
Pike, who with Annable, or Knight, or Forbes, or some other good- 
natured driver, experienced in stages and careful of their young charges 
as if they were all destined to be governors, or judges, or presidents. 
We used to consider it the seat of honor on the outside with the driver, 
there to listen to his stories and to enjoy his company. Many a scrap of 
practical wisdom did we youngsters thus pick up to turn to good account 
on the great road of life. 

'* ,\nd then too what a gathering at the old Wolfe Tavern in Newbury- 
port, when the noon stage-coaches arrived from Boston ! The siiiewalk 
was often crowded with anxious boys, and men too, to catch a sight of 
distinguished passengers and the last fashions, and to hear the latest 
news. Why, it was jis good as a daily paper, or a telegraphic dispatch — 
better indeed, for the living men, actors sometimes in the scenes de- 
scribed, were there to tell what had happened." 

I find related in a contribution to the Salem Gazette, 
one of those little incidents that sparkle like jewels in 
the sand : 

*' Once when a mere child it was necessary for nic to go from Saco to a 
town near Boston. This was ijuite an undertaking in those days, as one 
was obliged to pass the night in Poi-tsmoutb. Being without a protector, 
my mother confided me to the care of one of those old, faithful drivers. 
It was evening when we reached Portsmouth and very cold. Everything 
was new and strange to me. How carefully was I taken by the hand 
and led up tiuit long flight of staii-s to the excellent accommodations 
which awaited me ! How well I remember the kind, smiling face of 
Robinson, as next morning, whip in hand, he appeared at the parlor 
door and inquired for the 'little girl' who was to go with him! His 
hearty 'good morning' and 'all ready, miss,' as I presented myself, are 
still sounding in my ears. While changing horses at Newburyport I was 
comfortably seated before a warm file in the sitting-room. Indeed, I do 
not know that I could have been more comfortably atten<led to had I 
been the daughter of the President. I was the daughter of a poor 
widow instead, and an utter stranger to the man whose memory I have 
ever cherished as one of the pleasant recollections of my childhood." 

What stalwart men thi^i sturdy, out-door life pro- 
duced! Moses Head, of Portsmouth, drove into that 
town, from Boston, the stage that brought news of 
peace in 1815, with a white flag fastened to the box. 
News of the battle of New Orleans came at the same 
time. That evening there was a procession in honor 
of these events. Head, who was then Ensign of the 
artillery comi)any, and resembled General Jackson in 
appearance and stature, arrayed himself in a military 
suit and chapeau, and personated the hero of New 
Orleans in the ranks of the procession to great accept- 
ance. He was born among the granite hills of New 
Hampshire, and died at the age of seventy-two, after 
a sickness of a day, the only sickness of his life. 



Another old driver sends me his recollections of | 
" life on the road," and I insert them here. 

" I began to drive on an opposition line in 1823, and after about nine 
months I bad an application from Col. Coleman to come over to the old 
company. As I thought it a more permanent job, I came over to drive 
* Extra." I had not been long at it before the travel increased very 
much, 80 the directors ordered one hundred more horses to be bought, 
and carriages in proportion, to accommodate the public. The business 
caiue on so bard that I had all I bargained for. I followed the mail 
twelve days in succession, starting from Boston at 2 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, breakfasting in Newburyport, dinner at Portsmouth and back again 
to supper in ^aleni, getting into Boston anywhere from nine to eleven 
o'clock, so there waa not much sleep or rest for me. The twelfth day, 
when I drove into the yard at Salem, Col. Coleman was there, and said 
he, 'young man. you had better stop here and get a little rest and take 
your team in the morning at four o'clock.' So Mr. Rand took the team 
to Boston and bai^k. 

"The worst of it was, I bad the same horses out and back every day. 
It was hard keeping up with the mail, as their horses rested one or two 
days in the week, and they were like wild ones. Only bold on and they 
would go as fast as any one wisbeii to ride. As a general thing we made 
good time. I have been through Charlestown Square on time, for three 
weeks, not varying five minutes by the clock, although we hjvd some 
trying storms. 

"I was compelled to stop at Hamilton one night, after beating with 
the storm from seven in the morning till ten at night, with a single 
sleigh and two horses, and so, completely used tip, we slept well. It 
cleared up about three o'clock, so that nncle Robert Annable, with the 
morning coach, came along l>retty well, and passed ua while we were 
asleep, and took otT his bells so as not to awake us, and then he was very 
joyotis to think be had got ahead. It was something, to be sure, that 
never happened before nor since. 

"On the whole it was a very pleasant life, for every one on the road 
was very hospitable to us. I never got stuck in the mud nor snow, w hen 
all the people on the road were not willing, night or day, to lend a hand. 
So we felt that we were among friends, and that was comforting to us. 
The wealthy Southerners, who used to come east in summer, would al- 
most always want us to keep on and drive them to Providence or New 
York, for they did not get so good accommodations at the South. .\nii 
as we refused the refreshments they offered us at every stopping place, 
we were pretty sure to get a handsome present before they left, which 
was far more satisfactory. It was a very pleasant business, and we bad 
our choice of company outside, and that was worth a great tleal, 

" When it was decided by the Legislature that there should be a Rail- 
road, you may depend upon it there were heavy hearts. For we had 
spent so much time in staging we did not know what we should do. But 
all who wished had something to do. The corporation empli>yed a 
large number of the drivers as conductors, baggage-masters and brake- 
men. I withdrew and took up the e.xpress business, and followed that 
until 1860. So I had served the public from '2.3 to '60." 

These drivers, so freely trusted with life and treas- 
ure, with the care of helpless infancy and age, de- 
served well of the coiuinunity they served, and are 
held in kindly remembrance. They knew of old the 
wants and habits of the travelling public, and railroad 
corporations were glad to secure agents from among 
their numbers. 

Has anybody forgotten rare James Putter, of the 
Salem and Boston Line, — active, clear-headed, cour- 
teous and prompt, who for forty years drove with 
such care and skill to Boston and back that, it was 
said, he was as well known and as much respected by 
Salem people as Dr. Bentley '? Here he comes up the 
street from the old "Sun Tavern" with the seven 
o'clock moriiiug coach, his dapple-greys groomed to a 
hair and well in hand, — the model driver, trusted by 
the banks, by the old sea-kings, by everybody with 
uncounted treasure, — the splendid reinsman, chosen 
in August, 1824, to bring the beloved Lafayette in 
safetv into Salem ! 

Has anybody forgotten the scene in College yard at 
Cambridge, when Peter Ray arrived, at the end of the 
term, with his coach and six sorrels, to take home what 
might well be styled the " flower of Essex ! " How he 
displayed, before admiring eyes, his mastery of curves 
and functions, by turning six-in-hand, at a cheerful 
trot, in the little corner between Hohvorthy and 
Stoughton, and how the Essex County boys, cheered 
by their fellows and eager for the long vacation, 
whirled out of college gate and down the historic 
roads by Washington's Elm, and Letchmere's Point, 
and Bunker Hill, to their welcome home ! Handsome 
Peter, they called him — a favorite with children and 
ladies — for with him, on the introduction of the fam- 
ous steel-spring coaches, they first knew what it was 
to ride comfortably outside, with an intelligent and 
entertaining driver, whose tongue kept pace with his 
team, and whose castles in the air often reached stu- 
pendous proportions before half the distance between 
Lynn and Salem had been accomplished 1 

And here comes Page! witty, large-hearted, strong- 
handed Woodbury Page, his two bays on the jump, 
swinging round the terner from Beverly, sweeping 
round the Common to the old stable in Union Street, 
shifting horses, and then round the big elm and otf 
again in a twinkling, with those very four milk-whites, 
with which he drove Henry Clay, in October, 1833, 
from Senator Silsbee's door-step in Wa.shington Square 
to the Tremont House in sixty minutes ! 

And what shall be said of the polished and agree- 
able Jacob Winchester, favorite driver on wedding 
journeys and pleasure parties, who carried bags of 
specie to and from New York, when our merchants 
wanted a messenger who would neither play the nigne 
with funds nor sutler anybody to take them from him ; 
what of the popular driver and consummate reinsman 
Lot Peach, who would get to Boston about as soon 
with criiws' meat as moderate drivers did with choice 
teams of horses; — what of Albert Knight, always on 
good terms with passengers and steeds; — what of stout, 
little, talkative Major Shaw, who was off at three with 
the sorrels and the last coach up, rather than not go 
with whom ladies would often lose the morning stages 
and some hours of shopping and visiting in Boston ; 
— what of stalwart, kind-hearted, deep-voiced Adrian 
Low, whose cheerful life ended in mystery and an un- 
known grave; — what, indeed, of the hundred and fifty 
good, sound, trusty men who, from first to last, drove 
stages over these routes in the employ of regular or 
opposition lines, whole families of them, like the four 
Potters, the three Annables, the three Akermans, the 
brothers Canney, Conaut, Drake, Knight, Marshall, 
May, Manning, Patch, Robinson, Shaw, Tenney, T(iz- 
zer, Winchester, seeming to have been born on wheels, 
or descended from the hippocentaurs of ancient fable, 
— men who combined energy and good nature in u 
ratio not likely to be developed by any vocation now 
in vogue, — men who cracked their joke as they swung 
their whip, — men who knew what it is vouchsafed us 



to know of that fascinating uncertainty, the horse, 
and supplemented this with a wonderfully shrewd in- 
sight into the nature of their fellow-creatures ! ' 

And what shall be said of those elegant coaches 
built at the Union Street shop for the Salem and Bos- 
ton Stage Company, — 

*' step and prop-iron, bolt and Bcrew, 
Spring, tire, axle, and linch-pin too, 
Steel of the finest, bright and blue," 

the first in the country mounted on steel springs, and 
provided behind with a •' dicky " and trunk-rack after 
the English pattern ! And what of those noble teams 
of blacks and bays and buckskins and roans and 
chestnuts, clean-limbed and strong, that moved out, 
with coats like velvet, every afternoon when dinner 
was over, before the City Tavern in Brattle Street, the 
Ann Street Stage House or the Marlboro Hotel, sweep- 
ing the ground with flowing tails, too often, it must be 
added, tails of fiction, in which the cunning hand of 
Lancaster had eked out the unsuccessful efforts of na- 
ture! What of those scores of coach-builders and 
blacksmiths, and harness-makers, who plied the awl, 
and bent the tire, and drove the plane, with such pride 
and spirit in these old days, when Harding shod, and 
Daniel Manning ran with orders from the Sun Tavern 
to the yards in Union Street, and William H. Foster 
balanced accounts and made up dividends, and 
Mackie, over his saddlery, fought out the battle of 
Waterloo, in which he took a part, and that shy boy, 
since known to fame as Nathaniel Hawthorne, was 
keeping stage-books in his uncle Manning's office! 
What of that ancient negro hostler at Breed's Hotel, 
in Lynn, with his little competency accumulated from 
the trifles dropped into his hat for many a year by 
kindly travellers as the stage rolled off, who fell on 
his knees on the stable floor and wept great tears when 
the steam whistle sounded at last and he felt indeed 
that he must say with his Shakesperean prototype, 
"Farewell! Othello's occupation's gone!" Too many 
of this company of worthies are now 

" Where rolling wheels are heard no more 
And horees' feet ne'er come." 

Twenty-one surviving drivers of the Eastern Stage 
Company honored themselves and the memory of the 
agent under whom they served, by attending, in April, 
18(i6, the funeral of Colonel Coleman, the man to 

1 It was a happy thonght which brought two hundred and fifty " old 
fitagera" of the Connecticut Valley,— Drivers, Proprietors and Agents, — 
together at Springfield for a merry Christmas in 1859, Hon. Ginery 
Twitchell and James Parker, Esq., of the Western Railroad, seem to have 
been promoters of this "gathering of the whips," and two dai'S were 
given up to their entertainment in Springfield during which the hospi- 
talities of larder and stable were tested to the utmost. At a i)ub!ic din- 
ner on the occasion were produced those spirited lines of Kdwin Ilynner, 
now familiar to newspaper readers, beginning, 

" Oh ! the days are gone when the merry horn 

Awakened the echoes of smiling morn 

As, breaking the sliunber of village street, 

The foaming leaders' galloping feet 

Told of the rattling, swift approach 

Of the well-appointed old stage coach !" 

whose vigorous and intelligent oversight that enter- 
prise had almost owed its success for a quarter of a 
century. During the same years the Salem and Bos- 
ton Company was under the courteous management 
of "William Manning, another model stage agent, 
known among the "whips" as "Sir William," and to 
have been trusted by whom they thought enough for 
an epitaph. 

We come now to the closing scene of the Eastern 
Stage Company. In July, 1835, the ominous words 
" Rail Road " appear for the first time in their volumi- 
nous records. Let us see what these words meant. 

Passengers had been transported in carriages drawn 
by steam over the Darlington and Stockton Railway 
in England, for ten years. The engines employed 
were stationary, and inventive genius had been as 
busy with the problem of travelling in steam carriages 
over turnpikes, as with the twin problem, which has 
since completely overshadowed the other, of locomo- 
tive machinery for railways. During the first ten 
years of the century, indeed, the steam engine, both 
stationary and locomotive, began to be applied to 
transportation. And long before this, the simple tram- 
way of wood, stone or iron, operated by horse-power, 
had been employed for the conveyance of passengers 
and freight. As early as the settlement of New Eng- 
land, wooden rails were in use between the coal mines 
of Newcastle and the river, and these were so far per- 
fected that in 17(;.5 they had been introduced exten- 
sively in England, and enabled a horse to drag from 
two to three tons on an easy grade. Plates and wheels 
of iron had still further and very largely increased the 
draft-capacity of the horse. On the Darlington and 
Stockton road, trains had been provided with stable- 
cars, in which the horses employed for motive power 
on level and up grades, rested and fed in quiet while 
the momentum of the train carried it down hill. 

The use of the Railway was no less familiar on this 
side the ocean. Our former townsman, Wm. Gray, 
after leaving Salem, in 1809, owned a wharf in Boston 
on which trucks were moved by hand over a plank- 
walk, provided on its edges with round iron bars, on 
which ran grooved wheels, thus forming a freight 
Railway from the ship in her dock to the warehouses 
on Lynn (now Commercial) Street. In grading Bea- 
con Hill for the erection of the State House, late in 
the last century, an inclined Railway was used, on 
wliich the gravity of the loaded cars, in their descent, 
served to bring up on a parallel track those which had 
been emptied, and the same e-xpedient, also in use in 
England, was employed at Quincy when the blue 
sienite of the quarries began to supplant, as a build- 
ing material, the familiar gray granite of our hills, 
ledges and bowlders. The first Railroad charter 
granted by Massachusetts, authorized, March 4, 182(i, 
the building of a Railway from these quarries to Ne- 
ponset River, and the first freight transported over it 
was the cqrner-stone of Bunker Hill Monument. It 
was operated by horse-power. 



That unrest which prognosticates some great step 
in inventive art was stirring the public mind and 

bringing to light every clumsy expedient of cogs and 
ropes and wheels for mounting grades, and for moving 
by steam on common roads, as well as on rails, when, 
in 1829, the Stephensons, father and son, produced 
the Locomotive " Rocket," and placed it upon the 
Liverpool and Manchester road. Its success was at 
once complete and transportation by horse-power was 
doomed from that hour. In America we were not 
behindhand in applying steam to propulsion. It was 
already in use since 1807 on our rivers, canals and 
lakes. Indeed, the Hon. Xathan Reed, of Salem and 
Danvers, formerly a member of Congress from this 
district, had made a paddle-wheel steamboat in 1789, 
in which he navigatetl the river from his iron-works 
to Essex Bridge, taking Governor Hancock, Dr. Prince, 
Dr. Holyoke and Nathan Dane a.s passengers with 
him. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was begun 
in 1827 ; other routes from New York and Philadel- 
phia soon after. In 1829-30-31 Massachusetts char- 
tered Railroads from Boston to Lowell, to Providence 
and to Worcester. 

In 1833, the Boston and Lowell road was extended 
to Andover and Wilnungton, and to Haverhill in 
1835. This was the first incursion of the iron mon- 
ster into Essex, but he rapidly made his way over the 
county, enfolding in his fatal coils the poor struggling 
Stage Companies, whose nightly dreams were dis- 
turbed by the scream of the whistle, and whose waking 
eyes, turn where they might, were blasted with those 
words of doom, " Look out for the engine." ' For a 
time our directors stood up manfully to their struggle 
with fate. First they tried to curtail their expenses, 
— oftered to sell real estate, — to buy in their stock at 
par, then at SGO and then at i?.50, and pay for it in the 
personal effects of the company. Fifty horses were to 
be disposed of at a stroke, and again and again another 
fifty, — hay and grain were high, — the appetites of live- 
stock inexorable. To add to their embarrassment, 
travel went on increasing as the hour of dissolution 
drew near. More horses and more were required, and 

1 Mr. Tony Waller has favored the English-reading public with his 
views on the Itailway and its invasion of his native Island, in words 
which I am forced to*recall at this point. Said that eminent driver, us 
reported in "Master Humphrey's Clock," "I consider that the rail is 
unconstitutional, and a inwader o' privileges. As to the comfort— as an 
old coachman I may say it— veresthe comfort o' sitting in a harm-chair, 
a lookin' at brick walls, and heaps o' mud, never comin* to a public 
'ouse, never seein* a gliiss o' ale, never goin' thro' a pike, never mcetin' 
a cliange o' no kind (bosses or otherwise), but always comin' to a plate, 
ven you comes to vun at all, the werry picter o' the last t As lo the 
honor and dignity o' travellin', vere can that be vithout a coachman, 
and vats the rail to sich coachmen as is sometimes forced to go by it, but 
a outrage and a insult ! and as to the iugen,a nasty, wheeziu', creakin', 
gaspin', puthn', bustin' monster, always out o' breath, with a shiny 
green and gold hack like a onpleasant beetle ; as to the iiigon as is 
alvays a pouriu' out red-hot coals at night and black sraoke in the day, 
the sensiblost tiling it does, in my opinion, is ven there's soniethin' in 
the vay, and it sets up that 'ere frightful scream vich seems to say ' now 
eres two hundred and forty passengei^ in the werry greatest extremity 
o' danger, and eres their two hundred and forty screams in vun I' " 

again and again they were forced to replace those 
sold. To sell so large a stud at once, when the end 
came, would bring prices down to a ruinous figure, 
and the theory was generally accepted, that upon the 
i establishment of steam cars, horse flesh would be 
j worth little more than dog's meat. Before the end of 
1835 they had joined the other proprietors of New- 
buryport turnpike in oflering five miles of it for the 
use of a projected Railroad to Salem. In 1836 the 
Eastern Railroad was chartered. 

Still they go on voting to sell their horses, still 
buying more. Late in '36 they try adding twenty 
per cent, to their fares. The directors meet once a 
month without notice, sometimes at half past six in 
the morning. They combine with thirteen like com- 
panies to keep up prices. Opposition coaches take 
the road and prices come down again. Late in '37, 
! they try a reduction of wages, the peremptory sale of 
j thirty horses, " as the company is fast approaching 
dissolution," they say, — sell the lease they hold of 
Henry Codman, of the Ann Street House, and agree 
with the purchaser to keep their teams from day to 
day, — sell the Exeter Stables, the Portsmouth and 
Concord Stages, — apply without success for a short 
extension of their charter to close the business, and 
in February, '38, — their charter expired in June, — 
offer for sale the whole remaining assets of the cor- 

This eflbrt failing, the shareholders were for the 
last time summoned to Hampton Falls, — detailed 
reports submitted, — a fruitless effort made to start a 
new company, and the property turned over to trus- 
tees for final administration. And so this respectable 
body-corporate died without issue, at the stroke of 
midnight, June 26, 1838. Says the late Col. Whip- 
ple, who had been a director for ten years, and be- 
came its president on the death of Dr. Cleaveland in 
1837, "the holders of stock, during twenty years, re- 
ceived eight and one-third per cent, in dividends an- 
nually, and after paying all debts, between $66 and 
$67 on each share. It does not ap[)ear that a pas- 
senger was killed or injured." 

In August, 1838, the steam cars from Boston reached 
Salem. The Register speaks of immense crowds on 
every arrival and departure, covering the depot 
grounds and the banks of the mill-pond. In the 
belfry of the wooden station house hung a bell, taken 
from a ruined Spanish convent, and sold to one of 
our West Indiamen for old metal, which was vigor- 
1 ously rung to summon passengers on the departure of 
a train. At first, the cars took eleven hundred ])er- 
sons per day, but this, said the pa[)ers, was evidently 
due to their novelty, and could not be expected to 
continu,e. From six to eight hundred, it was thought, 
could be relied on. In about a month, sixteen hun- 
dred passengers were carried in one day, "the best 
day's work yet," said the ]iress with entlmsiasm I 
The Boston Courier stated that the cars used were not 
of the prevailing style, shaped like a coach-body with 



the door on the side, but were of a new pattern, in 
which a man may stand erect or pass from one to an- 
other, the whole length of the train, while in motion, 
with perfect safety. The passage from Salem to the 
Boston side of the ferry occupied from thirty-five to 
forty minutes, and it was hoped that about thirty-two 
minutes would be the average time consumed, when 
all was completed. TheBosfon Post announced that the 
witches came out of their graves to see these new con- 
veyances. They met all expectations, and Mr. George 
Peabody, the first president of the road, in his open- 
ing address delivered before the six hundred stock- 
holders and others, August 27th, called attention to 
the fact that those doing business in Boston could 
now live more cheaply in Salem than in Boston. 
What the railroad has done for us, in common with 
all the environs of Boston, cannot be briefly stated. 
If Boston is the Hub, the railroads seen from the 
State House dome are the living spokes, which bind 
it to an outer circle of social and business relations. 
If these have carried off our men of enterprise in 
search of a larger market, they have brought back 
the wealth they accumulate to beautify our estates and 
elevate our culture, and make of Massachusetts Bay, 
from Plymouth to Cape Ann, one great suburb in 
which the arts of cultivated life are brought to aid 
the native charms of country living. 

Of the two presidents of the Eastern Stage Com- 
pany, the first, Dr. Cleaveland, was a man of no com- 
mon stamp. Hecame of the staunchest Puritan stock, 
his great-grandfather, Moses Cleaveland, having emi- 
grated in his prime from Ipswich, in England, to 
Eastern Massachusetts and left a numerous and dis- 
tinguished progeny. Some of them appear among the 
founders of Connecticut; many of them adorn the 
learned professions or fill chairs in the universities. 
Dr. Cleaveland's father died on his 77th birthday, in 
1799, having been for more than half a century the 
pastor of Chebacco Parish in this county — a chaplain 
in both the French and Revolutionary wars, present 
with the army at Ticonderoga in 1758, at Louisburg 
in 1759, at the siege of Boston in 1775, on the Con- 
necticut shore in 1776, and in 1778 in New York and 
New Jersey, and having given three sons to the Con- 
tinental army. 

Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland was a man of large 
stature, and of erect, dignified and commanding as- 
pect. A tall stripling of sixteen, he attended his 
father upon his service as chaplain during the siege 
of Boston, and in 1777 enlisted in the army as a com- 
mon soldier. The stress of war deprived him of the 
collegiate training to which he had looked forward 
fondly, and kept him, during his minority, either in 
the camp or at the plow. Having subsequently mas- 
tered the science of medicine he began practice at 
Topsfield in 1783, purchasing the stock of a suc- 
cessful predecessor, as well as his library of just two 
volumes. He was soon after complimented with a 
commission as Justice of the Peace, and began to in- 

terest himself in the public affairs of town and coun- 
ty. As a politician he was earnest, ardent and patri- 
otic. He was chosen, through Federalist support, to 
the State Senate in 1811, and lost his seat next year, 
under the operation of that famous districting sys- 
tem known as the "Gerrymander." From 1815 to 
1819 he was re-elected, and then withdrew. In 1814 
he was a Sessions Justiceof the Circuit Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. From 1820 to 1822 he was an Associate 
Justice of the Court of Sessions for the county, and in 
1823 became its Chief Justice. This station he filled 
with ability and firmness until 1828, when he retired 
from public business, receiving at the same time from 
Harvard College the honorary degree of Doctor of 

With an iron constitution and health, up to his . 
fiftieth year, untouched by disease, Dr. Cleaveland 
never laid aside the practice of his profession, how- 
ever interrupted, but had extended it to all the 
neighboring towns. And until his death, in Febru- 
ary, 1837, at the age of 77, he continued to serve, as 
their trusted physician, the community with which he 
had for fifty years identified himself by rare activity 
in every enterprise of moment. As a neighbor he was 
sought for his willing and judicious counsel, while his 
public career was marked throughout by good judg- 
ment, sound sense and solid worth. 

He was twice married and left five children, among 
whom the eldest son, an honored graduate of Bow- 
doin, a distinguished educator, man of letters and 
Doctor of Laws, perpetuates his name and title. 

Dr. Cleaveland's was one of those monumental 
characters which deserve study both for themselves 
and because they are typical of their times. Formed 
in our Revolutionary period, it was consolidated like 
the arch by the pressure which events imposed upon 
it. If his principles were austere, he applied them 
as rigidly to his own conduct as to his judgment of 
others. Thus he could in youth forego, without a 
murmur, the college training he had been promised, 
and, at the last, reject narcotics which would have 
spared him excruciating torture, because they might 
deaden his mental and moral sensibilities. Says the 
late Dr. Peirson, of Salem, in the Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal, " He was a much respected member of 
the Essex South District Medical Society. No man 
amongst us set a better example of professional integ- 
rity and honor. The few who could boast of his 
friendship will long remember with pleasure the vir- 
tuous and kind-hearted old man, whose influence was 
uniformly and efliciently exerted in support of good 
order and the true advancement of society." 

Colonel Henry Whipple, the second and last presi- 
dent of the Eastern Stage Company, has left us so 
lately that the mention of his name is enough to re- 
call a venerable presence and an exemplary life. He 
was born at Douglass, in Worcester County, June 24, 
1789, and died in his eighty-first year, December 2, 
18(39. He served his apprenticeship with his brother 


Charles, at Newburyport, and opened a book-store in 
the Franklin (then Archer's) Building, in Salem, Oc- 
tober, ISIO. For three-score years Irom that time, 
including part of that golden era when the story of 
Salem ('ommerce reads like an eastern fiction, Colonel 
Whipple was constant at his post, supplying our dar- 
ing navigators with charts and bonks of travel, — our 
busy thinkers and bold projectors of enterprises dis- 
tant and domestic with the best intelligence of the 
day. Said the Danvcrs Wizard, in July, 1861 : " It 
would be difficult to point to a man now living so 
identified with the social, literary and denominational 
interests of Salem as is Colonel Whipple. In almost 
all the .societies of a social and benevolent character 
he has been prominent and active. With the grace 
of native dignity and the bearing of a gentleman of 
the old school, the suavity of his manner attracted to 
his place of business the elevated and refined of 
Salem. His store was the resort and lounging place 
of all the eminent men of the past who have given a 
name to Salem in its modern history. Here met 
Bowditch, Story, Prince, Pickering, the elder Wor- 
cester, Barnard and Hopkins. Here Cummins dis- 
cussed politics with Glen King and Saltonstall, while 
Dr. Flint and Judge White made criticisms on the 
last new book." 

It was well said of Colonel Whipple that in his 
death Salem had lost one whom slander never 
touched, and who had probably never made an 
enemy, — his religious persuasion a consistent sup- 
porter, — the militia a veteran whose commissions 
bore date and expired before those of anj' officer now 
living, — and the Masonic body its oldest member. 
First from seniority on the roll of the Active Fire 
Club, and lately President of the Salem Dispensary, 
— a promoter in 1821 of the Salem and Danvers Asso- 
ciation for Mutual Protection against Thieves and 
Robbers, as well as an active militiaman from his en- 
listment in the ranks of the Salem Ligiit Infantry in 
1811, until he resigned the command of the Artillery 
Regiment of Southern Essex, he was, in earlier as in 
later life, ready at all times for whatever service de- 
volves upon the good citizen and Christian neighbor. 
At the close of the year 1869 he fell peacefully asleep 
at his home in Salem, alter enjoying for a while a 
tranquil retrosjiect of the memories he was to leave 

The good old days of stage coach travel are over. 
Gone, too, are moat of those to whom they owed their 
charm. The stage-driver, — that next best man, it 
was quaintly said, to the minister, out of jail, — we 
have no longer. The old stage houses are for the 
most part, as in London, closed and deserted, or 
stand, like the old Bell Tavern, "with a kind of 
gloomy sturdiness, amidst the modern innovations 
which surround them." Never again shall 

" The windows of the wayside inn 
Across the meadows, bare and brown, 
Gleam red with firelight through the leaves 

Of woodbin*, hanging from the eaves. 
Their crimson curtains, rent and thin !" 

Even the Ann Street Stage-House, — the very focus of 
New England travel, — has vanished, and the name of 
the street it stood on is fading out of mind! Never 
again, about its hospitable hearth, that well known 
company of" whips" shall gather for a parting pipe, 
when guests are dreaming, and night coaches in, and 
horses well-bestowed, and smouldering embers, in its 
ample tire-place, give & fitful, fiickering light. I see 
them now, in their quaint old chairs, whifl's of smoke 
curling lazily about their cheerful, ruddy, weather- 
beaten faces, — heavy, wet jack-boots steaming on the 
hearth, — ample capes and top-coats Hung dripping on 
the benches, — while they chat by turns and stir the 
fire and laugh at the storm. There aits burly Sam 
Robinson, telling how he served the sneak who stole 
a ride on the trunk-rack every day as the noon coach 
passed through Wenham, by driving into the pond at 
Peter's Pulpit, under pretence of watering his horses, 
and then making such vigorous application of the laoh 
that whoso rode behind was glad to escape his par- 
thian blows by dropping ofl" into the water! Or lit- 
tle Jack Mendum mounts a chair to tell how he drove 
the " mail," and " something broke," and the hungry 
passengers were all out hurrying him on, and the 
neighbors bustled about, and he lost his patience, and 
making up in oaths what he lacked in stature, bid 
them all stand aside and let him manage, " for while 
I drive that mail, I am the L'nited States of Amer- 
ica!" Or Peter Ray recounts the driving of the first 
steel spring coach to Boston on its trial trip, freighted 
with the mechanics who were its builders, and what a 
stir it made on 'change! l,)r Major Shaw, blinded by 
his great popularity, utters his famous threat of run- 
ning the railroad off" the route, by opposition coach- 
es ! Or Woodbury Page enjoys the discomfiture of 
the Cliarlestown driver, who roughly asked him to 
" get his bean pot out of the way," when he was tak- 
ing up a pa.ssenger from that city for Beverly, and he 
replied, " wait till I get the pork in!" Or they all 
debate, with the warmth of conviction, the relative 
merits of the northern and southern routes to the 
eastward, until Alex. Brown declares that stage 
routes to the east are like different creeds in re- 
ligion, for all creeds lead to heaven, if faithfully fol- 
lowed, — upon which reticent little Conant taps his 
pipe on the great iron fire-dog, and as the ashes drop 
upon the hearth, puts it tenderly away in his waist- 
coat pocket, remarking that he would rather not go to 
heaven at all, if he must go by the Dover route, and 
retires to bed. 

" Each had his tale to tell, and each 
Was anxious to be pleased and please, 
With rugged arts of humorous speech." 

Never again, in that quaint old hostelry, shall 

" The fire-light on their faces glance. 
Their shadows on the wainscot dance." 

And the coaches which once, says a writer in the 



Lynn Reporter, " raised such a dust on the turnpike, 
night and day, that Breed's End knew no rest, and 
the road seemed made for their accommodation, so 
much at home were they on it in their day of glory," 
are all gone now. Over Essex Bridge, over the turn- 
pike, through Salem streets, horse-cars now rumble 
and rattle with their growing ireight. And at last 
the single coach, which brought us daily the dust and 
mail bags of Cape Ann, has disappeared forever. 
Never again shall we gather at the cottage gate, as 
the clatter of wheels and the cloud of dust approach, 
to welcome the aged parent, — the coming guest, — the 
daughter home from school. Never again shall we 
linger in the open doorway of a New England home- 
stead, in tender parting with the young son setting 
out for sea, or on some distant westward venture, — 
to speed the lovers starting together on the life-long 
journey, — never again cast longing glances after that 
receding freight of dear ones, until at last the wind- 
ing road and over-hanging elm trees part us, and we 
sit sadly down to listen, 

" While faint from farther distance borne 
Are heard th« clanging hoof and horn," 

Never again will the midnight watcher by the si- 
lent bedside hear the mail-stage arrive and go, leav- 
ing its messages of love and sorrow for the sleeping 
townsfolk, and sing, with Hannah Gould, 

" The rattling of tliat reclvless wlieel 
That brings tlie bright or boding seal 
To crown tliy Iiopes or end tliy fears, 
To light thy smiles or draw thy tears, 
As line on line is read." 

Famous levelers were these old stage coaches and 
masters in etiquette also ! What chance-medley of 
social elements they brought about ! What infinite 
attrition of human particles, — what jostling of ribs 
and elbows, — what ' contact inconvenient, nose to 
nose' ! What consequent rounding and smoothing of 
angles and corners, — what a test of good-nature, — 
what a tax on forbearance, — what a school of mutual 
consideration ! For how else could a dozen strangers 
consent to be boxed up and shaken together for a 
day, but upon condition that each was to exhibit the 
best side of his nature and that only ! 

To the next generation the old stage coach will be 
as shadowy and unreal a thing as were those which 
appeared, musty and shattered, to the uncle of the 
one-eyed Bagman in Pickwick, while he dozed at 
midnight in the Edinboro' courtyard. "My uncle," 
says the Bagman, in telling the story, "rested his 
head upon his hands and thought of the busy, bustling 
people who had rattled about years before in the old 
coaches and were now as silent and as changed. He 
thought of the numbers of people to whom one of 
those crazy, mouldering vehicles had borne, night af- 
ter night, through all weathers, the anxiously ex- 
pected intelligence, the eagerly looked for remittance, 
the promised assurance of health and safety, the sud- 
den announcement of sickness and death. The mer- 

chant, the lover, the wife, the widow, the mother, the 
school-boy, the very child who tottered to the door at 
the postman's knock, — how had they all looked for- 
ward to the arrival of the old coach ! And where 
were they all now ! " 



Ix the sketch here attempted of a collection of 
subjects which may be classified under the general 
head of scientific, no pretence is made of complete- 
ness of detail, or even that many points are not 
omitted which are as well worthy of notice as some 
others which are included. The breadth of the term 
scientific might easily be made to embrace much mat- 
ter which can be more properly treated under the 
separate histories of this volume by writers more fa- 
miliar with the individual worker or his special sub- 
ject; nor will space be given to the scientific institu- 
tions of the county or their work, as they will be fully 
treated elsewhere. It will, therefore, only be under- 
taken to show, before directly taking up the subjects 
of natural history, the principal ground intended to 
be covered by this article, that in science of almost 
every sort Essex County has produced workers, and 
workers, too, of no mean order. In the special field 
of natural history a very remarkable amount has 
been accomplished, especially in the direction of local 
investigation, and, besides, the county ofters notewor- 
thy inducements to encourage students of the natural 

There are many names, to which we may point 
with pride, of men who, at home and abroad, have 
received high honors, and, either by birth or residence, 
have added to the fame of Essex County. In medi- 
cal science the name of Edward Augustus Holyoke, 
and in mathematics and astronomy those of Andrew 
Oliver, Nathaniel Bowditch and Benjamin Pierce, are 
remembered with gratitude and respect. In connec- 
tion with the early established scientific institutions 
Essex County held a prominent place. The original 
membership of the American Academy of Arts an 
Sciences included seventeen names, which may be 
claimed as belonging to Essex County, and the initial 
volume of the memoirs of that institution published 
in 1785 was very largely composed of papers and 
communications from Essex County scientists. In 
chemistry many workers might be enumerated who 
have contributed their share towards the increase of 
general knowledge of the subject. 

Dr. James R. Nichols of Haverhill, well known 
through his long connection with the " Boston Journal 
of Chemistry,'' of which he was the editor, has been 
a worker in science and a writer of note. Among his 




published works are " Fireside Chemistry " and 
" Chemistry of the Farm," but the one which has 
prcbably arrested the most attention is a little volume 
printed in 1882, entitled " From Whence, What, 
Where?" which has already passed through several 

Mr. Chas. Toppan is conspicuous as the inventor of a 
very successful process for bleaching, and for the 
new products of petroleum which he has introduced, 
having also published accounts of his experiments. 
In this place should be mentioned the name of Fran- 
cis Peabody, a patron of the sciences, who was among 
the first to become interested in the establishment of 
the " Lyceum " system of scientific lectures, and 
whose valuable library, ever open for the use of the 
earnest student, now enriches the shelves of the Essex 
Institute, of which, as well as the Peabody Academy 
of Science, he was president. In physical science 
the record is interesting. Jloses G. Farmer, of Salem, 
the well-known electrician, was for many years con- 
nected with the United States Government torpedo 
station at Newport, R. I. Prof Charles Grafton Page, 
in 1837, made experiments with magnetic currents 
and musical sounds, which excited much attention 
both in this country and abroad, and which paved the 
way to that great invention, the speaking telephone, 
which Prof. A. Graham Bell, a resident of Salem 
during the years of his experimenting, first publicly 
exhibited before a meeting of the Essex Institute in 
that city in 1877. 

With these brief references to other branches of 
science, we will proceed to consider the natural his- 
tory of the county and the work of students in its va- 
rious departments. 

Geology and Mineralogy. — The entire absence 
of fossils and the obscure nature of the rocks of the 
cimiity render the study of these branches of science 
uninteresting to the beginner, who is usually attracted 
at first, and led to more serious study, by the beauty 
of the minerals or the curious forms of petrifactions 
It is, therefore, easy to explain the rather limited 
number of students of geology and mineralogy, as 
compared with those interested in zoology and botany. 
The work, too, in the county, although in many eases 
emanating from prominent sources, has been carried 
on by many diflerent persons, no single student having 
attempted any general survey of the whole county, so 
that a thoroughly satisfactory account of the geology 
and mineralogy of the region cannot as yet be given. 

A great number of papers and notices of local inter- 
est have been published in the scientific journals and 
proceedings of scientific societies; but as the larger 
portion of these refer to a region of which Boston is 
the centre, most of the work only covers the southern 
and eastern portions of Essex County. A very full 
list of published articles referring to the region of 
Eastern Massachusetts, collected by Professor M. E. 
Wadsworth and printed in the " Proceedings of the 
Boston Society of Natural History" (vol. xix. p. 217), 

includes upwards of ninety titles of articles in the 
" Memoirs and Proceedings of the American Academy," 
" Boston Journal of Philosophy and Arts," "American 
Jourualof Science and Arts," " Proceedings of the Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History " and the " Proceedings" 
and "Bulletin of the Essex Institute," of greater 
or less length, which relate more especially to the geolo- 
gy and mineralogy of Essex County. Many of these, 
articles are of course very brief and possess only a 
negative value, while others are communications of 
much interest and importance. 

The list of writers of the earlier articles include the 
names of Dana, Agassiz, Hitchcock, C. T. Jackson, W. 
B. Rogers and Chas. Pickering, while the papers and 
notices of more recent date, outside of the local work- 
ers, include the names of N. S. Shaler, Alpheus Hyatt, 
T. Sterry Hunt, W. O. Crosby and M. E. Wadsworth. 
Among the residents of Essex County who have made 
these subjects a study and who have published the re- 
sults of their work are Dr. Andrew Nichols, of 
vers; B. F. Mudge, Esq., andC. M.Traey,of Lynn ; J. 
J. H. Gregory, of Marblehead ; Rev. S. Barden, of 
Rockport ; Dr. H. C. Perkins and Alfred Osgood, of 
Newburyport ; Rev. G. F. Wright, of Andover, and 
D. 51. Balcb, of Salem. 

Taking the more recently published work as a guide, 
the following synopsis of the underlying rocks has 
been prepared by Mr. J. H. Sears, of the Peabody 
Academy of Science, as a provisional arrangement, but 
one which, however, a more careful study of the rocks 
of the county now in progress may in some respects 
require to be changed : 

NoKlAN. I Xaugus Head Series. 

f Syenite, Hornblemlic and Binar.v, Peabody, Salem. 

I Feldsite, Blarbletiead Neck, Lynn, Newbury. 
Dioryte, Salem, Danvera, Peabody, Nahant, etc, 
Horublendic Gneiss, Salem Neck, Danvens, Beverly. 
Limestone, Lynufield, Danvere, Newbury. 


Gneiss, West Danvere, Andover. 

Mica Slate, Merrimac, Araesbury, Haverhill. 

Argillite, Middleton, Topsfleld. 

Shawmdt. i Amygdaloid, Saugus, River Parker, Newbury. 

Slate, River Parker, Newbury. 
Conglomerate, River Parker. Kent's Island. 
Trachyte, Marblehead Uarbor. 

The most conspicuous geological features of Essex 
County are the trap-dykes, of which fine specimens 
are to be seen at Nahant, Marblehead and Cape Ann, 
and the curious drift boulders which are met with 
in almost every part of the county, and which, to- 
gether with the many wonderful glacial scratchings 
and groovings, ofl'er a most favorable opportunity for 
the study of this epoch in geology. 

Many of the drift boulders are of great size and 
are often found in most remarkable situations, pro- 
jecting over ledges, mounted upon other stones or 
crowning the summits of the hills. Among the 
most noted boulders are Ship Rock, in Peabody, 
the estimated weight of which is eleven hundred 



tons; AgassizRock, in Manchester; and Phfeton Rock, 
in the woods between Peabody and Lynn. M;^ny of 
these, inchiding some of several tons in weight, 
perched upon the bare hill-tops, may be rocked by 
the hand, some even by a child. Were some of these 
erratics in the grounds of any popular summer re- 
sort their fame would be heralded abroad and thou- 
sands flock to see them ; but, as it is, the country boy, 
with his bare feet and berry pail, or the infrequent 
pedestrian on his woodland rambles are their only 

Careful study is continually bringing to light 
minerals previously unknown in the county. Many of 
these, although insignificant in appearance, are of 
great interest to the student, and serve to show the 
relations between the characters of the Essex County 
rocks and those of other regions. The number of 
known or authentically reported minerals may be 
placed at fifty-nine species. 

The most general interest is naturally attached to 
those minerals, chieHy the metals, of value in com- 
merce or the arts. In the earliest colonial times bog 
iron was worked at Saugus, and later, at Topsfield 
and Boxford, it was taken out in two or three places 
for mechanical purposes. The history of the old 
iron-works at Saugus River is a very interesting one. 
They were started in 16-13 and continued in opera- 
tion under many difficulties until about 1688, but now 
only cinder-heaps, covered with soil and herbage, 
remain to tell of their existence. At these works labor- 
ed Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, Eng- 
land, the founder of a prominent New England 
family. Jenks was an inventor of considerable note 
in his day and deserves to be remembered as one of 
the earliest men of scientific tendencies in the county. 
A bit of romance attaches itself to him as the en- 
graver of several of the dies from which the famous Pine 
Tree shillings were struck off in 1652 and later. Iron 
pyrites had been mined in Boxford, and gold was at 
one time found in small quantities near Hood's Pond. 
The so-called Governor Endicott copper mine in 
Topsfield, has been worked within the century ; but, 
probably, at a profit too small to warrant a continu- 
ance of operations. Serpentine at Saugus, Lynnfield 
and Newburyport has been quarried in small quan- 
tities for ornamental purposes and for the manufac- 
ture of magnesia. 

But the most conspicuous effort, however, to turn 
our mineralogical resources to account was that at 
Newburyport, when the wave of speculation in lead 
and silver passed over the once valueless pastures 
of that locality. The result, not unexpected to the 
miner of more practical experience in other regions, 
although it may have placed profit in the hands of 
some of the original land-owners or speculators in 
land, proved of greater interest to the student for 
whom specimens were brought to hand without cost, 
than to those who were unfortunate enough to invest 
their capital in the enterprise with the hope of large 

financial returns. All attempts thus far made in the 

direction of working our precious metals have re- 
sulted, as similar attempts in the future are likely 
to result, in small profit, if not actual loss. But 
aside from this, there is left, however, as the pride 
and prize of Essex County's geological and mineralog- 
ical resources, the solid granite whose mass not only 
assure us an enduring foundation and probably ex- 
emption from natural convulsions, but which, un- 
questionably, is to be looked upon as the mineral pro- 
duct of the greatest commercial value in the county. 

OuE Scientific Frontier. — From the fact that 
the geographical boundaries of Essex Co. are largely 
natural ones, it is possible to study its flora apart 
from that of surrounding regions, with much more 
satisfactory results than is usually the case in small 
areas of territory bounded by arbitrary lines. Indeed, 
with the exception of Barnstable County, Mass., where 
the ocean marks nearly its entire outline, no county 
in New England ofl'ers better opportunities for such 
work than our own. For the botanist, the Merrimac 
Valley to the northwest and the ocean on the northeast 
and southeast form most natural limits, while toward 
the south a solid mass of cities separate the county 
from the region beyond Boston, the flora of whicli 
shows many immediate and marked changes in char- 
acter from that of Essex County. The southwestern 
boundary is, however, a less natural one, although 
the line of hills beginning at Chelsea and running 
through Melrose and Saugus to Wakefield and Read- 
ing forms a natural division between Essex and Mid- 
dlesex a portion of the distance. The dividing line 
between these counties, where Andover and Methuen 
join Tewksbury and Draeut, is less satisfactory. This 
is but a short distance, however, and there is no 
marked difference in the character of the plants on 
the opposite sides of the line at this point. 

Botany and ZooLOtiY: General Features. — 
Essex County contains upwards of fifty ponds rich in 
water and marsh jflants, while the deep woods of Mid- 
dlet(ni, Boxford and Andover and those of Manches- 
ter and Essex closely resemble the interesting region 
at the base of the White Mountains of New Hamp- 
shire, and with these woods the bare and rugged 
shores of Cajje Ann form a striking contrast. 

The land plants belong to the northern flora, and 
some mountain sjiecies may yet be found, while a 
paradox in the shrubby form of the Magnolia g/auca, 
still abundant in the Gloucester swamps, ofl'ers a sub- 
ject for speculation. The marine algie belong decid- 
edly to the arctic flora, for the long arm of Cape Cod 
projecting into the ocean seems to form a natural bar- 
rier to the farther progress of southern species north- 
ward. At this point, too, the warm current of the 
Gulf Stream bears ofl^ to the eastward, while toward 
the shore, in Massachusetts Bay, the almost expended 
influence of the cold Labrador current is felt. A 
marked distinction is therefore found between the 
marine animals and plants north of Cape Cod and those 



at the south of it, although in favorable situations, 
in warm nooks, some southern species are found north 
of this barrier, while some northern ones retain a foot- 
hold south of it, and there are certain cosmopolitan 
species which flourish in all waters. 

It will be seen, therefore, that with the great va- 
riety of animals and plants which may be collected, 
and the natural limits which may be placed to the 
study of their distribution, attractions are offered 
which have proved suHicient to develop many stu- 
dents of botany and zoology at home, and to induce 
many others from abroad, among them some of the 
most eminent naturalists of the day, to come hei'e to 
pursue their investigations. 

Introduced Plants — The early settlement of the 
county and numerous historical data available to the 
botanist render this a particularly favorable region 
to observe the introduced plants. Many species, such 
as the genista, barberry, white-weed and others of 
European origin, earl}' established themselves in 
places where they now flourish to an extent it would 
seem difficult for them to exceed in their native 
lands. The natural fruits and vegetable productions, 
and such plants of the old country as could be made 
to succeed in this soil, were among the first things to 
which the colonists gave their attention, as early ac- 
counts amply testify, and thus we are, in many cases, 
able to trace the date of introduction of species now 
thoroughly naturalized. The study of these plants 
is aided by the little work entitled, " New England 
Rarities Discovered," by John Josselyn, an early 
traveler, who made several visits to this country, the 
most extended being from 1663 to 1671, when he 
seems to have given much attention to the native and 
introduced plants. A reprint of Josselyn's work, 
with notes by Professor Edward Tuckerman, is now- 
available. In studying the Essex flora, it must be 
borne in mind that, by the clearing of the land and 
other great changes incident to the settlement, such 
native plants as were best able to endure these 
changes, and those which the changes favored, have 
now been given prominent places, while those which, 
at the time of the settlement, may have been abun- 
dant, but which were unable to endure the changed 
surroundings, arc now scarce or have entirely disajv 
peared. To the botanist all these questions add in- 
terest to the study of the local flora, and perhaps ex- 
plain why the plants have received more continuous 
attention than either the animals or the minerals of 
the county. 

The Native Plants. — The fallowing table, taken 
from the catalogue of the flora of Esse.K County, pub- 
lished by the Essex Institute in 1S80, with addi- 
tional notes made from the herbarium of the Pea- 
budy Academy of Science, gives a fair idea of the 
material available for botanical study and the dis- 
tribution of species among the different families, as 
well as the number of introduced plants to be found 
in the countv : 

Tabu showing the character of the plants, native 'tnd naluriilised, groioing in 
Essex County, Mass, 




Intrudnced fruni 

other portiuna of 

United States. 

Introduced from 
foreign countrieB 





85 1 371 

1 ' 7 
17 124 

5 21 

2 69 

2 2 

3 115 








39 1 210 157 
3 4 10 

6 41 1 t 


Vaectilar (.'ryptogama 

'.'.'.'.'.'. 1 



U/-. 699 



48 1 263 




Total number of species recorded 1776 

Species of Fungi (estimated) 1200 

Species of fresli water .\lga' (estimated) 2(X) 

Diatomacea; (estimated) 250 

Total of all species recorded and estimated 3426 

In this table the introduced plants enumerated are 
chiefly such as have become thoroughly estal)lished, al- 
though sometimes very locally.^ The Thallophytes in- 
clude only the lichens, of which forty-five genera, one 
hundred and fifty-seven species, are recorded, and the 
marine alg:e, of which there are seventy genera, one 
hundred and fifty-four s|iecie,s. The fungi of the 
county have never been catalogued, owing to their 
great number and the difficulties attending their 
study ; but, judging from the catalogues of other re- 
gions, it is quite probable that twelve hundred spe- 
cies would be a fair estimate of their number. Nei- 
ther has any list been prepared of the Diatoms and 
Desmids, a numerous class, which, together with a 
large part of the fungi, are microscopic, and, al- 
though numerous in species, possess but little value 
in considering the flora as a whole, or the general 
distribution or character of the plants of the county. 

Prominent Botani.its. — The study of botany in Es- 
sex County, it may be said in New England, properly 
dates from the time of Kev. Manasseh Cutler, at the 
close of the last century. Early writers, as Francis 
Higginson, John Josselyn, William Wood, John 
Winthrop and others, refer to the native fruits and 
flowers. Josselyn published the well-known " New 
England Earities Discovered," 2>reviously referred to, 
and Higginson, in a letter written from Salem in 
1629-30 (Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. 1. p. 121). speaks of 
the " Flowering Mulberry," or raspberry, and 
"Chervil," or sweet Cicely, as growing near Salem 
in places where, certainly until a few years, these in- 
teresting historical plants still flourished. None of 
these writers can, however, be considered as Essex 
County botanists, and it is not until the close of the 
American Revolution that we find any serious or 
scientific study given to the plants of the county. 
Manasseh Cutler, of Hamilton, after his varied ser- 
vices of Revolutionary chaplain, lawyer, doctor, pas- 
tor, reformer and pioneer, found time to prepare, in 
1783-84, as the the title of his paper says, " An ac- 
count of the vegetable production growing in this 




part of America, botanically arranged." This was 
published in the first volume of the "Memoirs of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences," which 
was printed in 1785, where some three hundred and 
fifty species of flowering plants were described, and 
several important scientific points suggested, which 
have been since adopted in botanical treatises. Dr. Cut- 
.ler's paper bears the date of presentation, January 2(i, 
1784, and it was his intention to extend the work, 
several manuscript volumes now being in existence 
prepared toward this end. 

Following Cutler came Dr. George Osgood and Dr. 
Andrew Nichols, both of Danvers. The former con- 
tributed notes for''Bigelow's Florula Bostoniensis," 
and published a partial list of plants in the vicinity of 
Danvers and Salem; and the latter delivered, in 1816, a 
series of lectures on botany, the first of such ever 
given in this neighborhood. Dr. Nichols was one of 
the founders of the Essex County Natural History 
Society, and for some years its president, and he thus 
had an important influence on local botanical work. 
In 1823 two young men, both destined to be long re- 
membered on account of their contributions to botani- 
cal knowledge, began their work in Essex County. 
These were William Cakes, of Danvers, later of Ips- 
wich, and Charles Pickering, then speuding much of 
his time at the homestead of his grandfather. Colonel 
Timothy Pickering, at Wenham. 

Oakes, disgusted with law, his chosen profession, 
became the first critical botanist of the region, and 
at this time converted Dr. Pickering from entomology 
and conchology, studies he had first chosen, to bot- 
any. Oakes botanized with Pickering extensively 
in Essex County, particularly in the Creat Swamp, 
Wenham, a region then almost in its primitive wild- 
ness. He afterwards prepared a list of Vermont 
plants for Thompson's history of that State, and had 
in contemplation a work on the plants of New Eng- 
land, which, owing to the appearance of Beck's Bot- 
any, was never completed. His most elaborate work 
was a folio volume on White Mountain scenery, illus- 
trated by Sprague, which, however, was not published 
until after his death, in 184S. Oakes was impulsive 
and generous, and thoroughly in earnest in his favor- 
ite study. Like many men of note, he was little appre- 
ciated while living, yet no monument could have been 
erected to make his memory more cherished and his 
labors more respected by the present generation of 
botanists than that which he left behind, — an exten- 
sive collection of beautifully prepared botanical speci- 
mens determined with faultless accuracy, a portion of 
which formed the nucleus of the present county 
botanical cabinet, now in the hands of the Peabody 
Academy of Science in Salem. 

Professor Tuckerman dedicated to him a pretty 
little plant common in the region of Plymouth, but 
as this was afterwards transferred to another genus, 
the name " Oakesia " has been given to the sjjriug 
belhvort, a common Essex County plant, by Professor 

Watson, of Cambridge, who, in his revision of the 
Liliacea?, has thus named it to perpetuate the mem- 
ory of William Oakes. 

In 1838 Dr. Pickering was appointed naturalist to 
the United States (Wilkes) Exploring Expedition, 
and, to perfect his knowledge of animals and jjlants 
in foreign countries, he made extensive journeys after 
his return from that expedition. He was the author 
of several works of great value, the production of 
which required untiring research. Among them are 
the " Geographical Distribution of Animals and 
Plants " and the " Chronological History of Plants," 
the latter occupying the last sixteen years of his life 
in its preparation. 

It is but right that Essex County should claim a 
share of the honor of his name, for it was here that 
his attention was drawn to the study of botany, and 
in the " Chronological History of Plants," page 1063, 
we find the following entry : " 1824. In this year, 
after an excursion in 1823 with William Oakes, di- 
verting mj' attention from entomology, (I made) my 
first botanical discovery." Dr. Pickering retained 
the deepest interest in botanical work in Essex 
County until his death, which occurred at Boston 
March 17, 1878. 

The work of the Essex Institute from its founda- 
tion, in 1848, following that of the Essex County 
Natural History Society, from which it was in part 
developed, was largely devoted to botany and horti- 
culture, a leading speaker at its meetings and con- 
tributor to its publications being Rev. John Lewis 
Russell, who made his home in Salem in 1853. 

Mr. Russell devoted himself principally to crypto- 
gamic botany, publishing accounts of his investiga- 
tions from time to time as he proceeded. He was, 
besides, the author of many popular articles on va- 
rious families of plants. He lectured frequently on 
botany, and was for many years vice-president of the 
Essex Institute, and contributed much to the general 
knowledge of botany in Essex County, but his most 
extensive collections were made in other places. 

Among the earlier published catalogues of the 
plants of portions of the county was the " Studies of 
the Essex Flora," by Mr. Cyrus M. Tracy, of Lynn. 
This was intended to give a list of the flowering 
plants found in the neighborhood of Lynn, and 
enumerated five hundred and forty-six species. Be- 
sides possessing a very happy gift as a botanical lec- 
turer, Mr. Tracy has contributed several valuable 
articles upon local botany to the publications of the 
Essex Institute and elsewhere. 

At the evening and field meetings of the Essex 
Institute many papers on botanical subjects have 
been presented, including, in addition to those pre- 
viously referred to, contributions from George D. 
Phippen, S. B. Buttrick, John Robinson and John H. 
Sears, of Salem ; Rev. A. B. Alcott, of Boxford; 
Miss Mary N. Plumer, of Newburyport ; Miss H. A. 
Paine, of Groveland ; and others. Many students of 


botany are distributed throughout the county, and 
numerous private herbaria have been formed, and, at 
tlie rooms of the Peabody Academy of Science in 
Salem, a large and valuable collection of the plants 
of Essex County is accessible to botanists. Special 
work has been done by several authors and collectors 
outside of the county, who have either visited this re- 
gion to study the plants, or who have made compar- 
ative observation from specimens sent to them from 
the county for the purpose. W. H. Harvey visited 
Nahant about 1850 to stndy the marine alg;i' in pre- 
paring his famous work, " Nereis Boreali-Amcricana," 
which was published by the Smithsonian Institution 
in 1852-57. Professor W. G. Farlow, in his "Algae of 
New England," and in his monograph of the Gymno- 
sporangea, includes the Essex County species studied 
by him at various stations. Dr. B. D. Halstead and 
Dr. T. F. Allen have studied the Charaeea>, and have 
published articles on the .species ; Mr. F. S. Collins 
has carefully studied the marine algas, Mr. C. E. 
Faxon the grasses, sedges and mosses, and Mr. C. J. 
Sprague the lichens. Rev. A. B. Hervey, now of 
Taunton, worked almost entirely in Essex County in 
preparing his "Collector's Guide and Introduction to 
the Study of Marine Algie." Nearly all of the work of 
Essex County botanists has been systematic ; at least 
little, if anything, in the way of original research has 
been published by any county author in relation to 
the physiology or morphology of plants. 

HorlicuUure. — In horticulture, a science too seldom 
treated as such, the citizens of Essex County have 
furnished valuable contributions. The establishment 
of the Essex Agricultural Society and the horticul- 
tural department of the Essex Institute have doubtless 
fostered the interest which has been shown from the 
earliest date in this subject, and which at times has 
been given considerable prominence in the county. 
There are several names worthy to be mentioned as 
promoters of the science of horticulture. Robert 
Manning, of Salem, whose death in the midst of his 
labors occurred in 1842, at one time cultivated in his 
own gardens, for the purpose of critical comparison, 
nearly one thousand varieties of pears, together with 
other fruits, sufficient to make the total of two thou- 
sand varieties, several of which he originated. John 
Fisk Allen, as early as 1843, produced some valuable 
varieties of grapes, the famous "Allen's Hybrid" be- 
ing one of the number, and during the years of his 
experimenting in horticulture he tested the large 
number of four hundred varieties of grapes under 
glass. Mr. Alien was the first person in New Eng- 
land and the second in the United States to success- 
fully cultivate the great water lily of South America 
{ Fictoria regia), which he flowered in Salem in 1853, 
and later he published, at great expense, a superbly 
illustrated folio work on its habits and cultivation. 
Between 1830 and 1877 Mr. Geo. Haskell, ol' Ipswich, 
made many scientific experiments in the culture of 
the grape l)y grafting, inarching amd hybridization. 

the results of which he published in pamphlet form 
in 1877. During this time Mr. Haskell produced sev- 
eral hardy hybrid grapes of acknowledged merit. 
Beginning in 18()1 and continuing for several years 
afterward, Mr. Edward S. Rogers, of Salem, by a 
strictly scientific experiment, the result of excellent 
botanical knowledge, produced the famous hybrids 
between the native fox grape and the more tender, 
hot-house varieties, known as the "Rogers' Grapes." 
These have given to cultivators a class of hardy 
grapes of rare excellence and world-wide reputation, 
and have won for the oriiiinator the gold medal of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, the highest 
award of the most eminent institution of its character 
in America. 

Zoology} — Though Essex County has been a favor- 
ite collecting ground for naturalists for many years, 
exact statistics of its fauna are lacking. For this 
there are several reasons, the most prominent of 
which is that in recent years students have failed to 
record the results of their researches. Thus, of the 
mollusks, no catalogue has been published for half a 
century, while not a single group of insects has been 
thoroughly worked up. In fact, the only group con- 
cerning which we have definite statistical knowledge 
is that of the vertebrates, where we have, thanks to 
the labors of Messrs. Goode and Bean, of the United 
States National Museum, a catalogue of all the fishes 
that are known within the county limits, and the ex- 
cellent catalogue of the birds by F. W. Putnam, which, 
although the work of his youth, has required but few 
corrections to bring it up to the present time. Of the 
other vertebrates, the turtles, snakes and batrachians 
are comparatively few in number and fairly well 
known, while to the knowledge of the existing mam- 
mals but little can be added, although a very interest- 
ing chapter could be written upon those which have 
disappeared, and whose story must be looked for in 
the early colonial records and the Indian shell-heaps. 
We have many catalogues of New England animals, 
but it is a diflicult task for a student to predict from 
these exactly what forms will be found in a certain 
restricted region. Thus the land forms to be found 
in Northern Maine or on the White Mountains would 
ditt'er greatly from those occurring near the shore of 
Long Island Sound, and from neither could we ex- 
actly tell those which would be found in Essex 
County. In the marine fauna, too, a similar difficulty 
is noted, for Cape Cod divides the animals occurring 
in the salt water into two groups, each with its own 
fades, although there are of course many species 
which occur on either side of that barrier. 

The following estimate of the number of species, 
although but rudely approximate, may serve as a 
guide for the present and until further published 

1 Th« writer 13 largely imlebted to Prof. J. S. Kitigsloy, of the Stat« 
University of Truliana, formerly a special Htiuleut at tliM I'ealioiiy 
Academy of Science at Salem, for tlio account of this branclt of tlie 
natural history of the county. 



work shall furnish us with accurate figures (in some 
groups there are almost no data to base any conclu- 
sions upon, while others, however, are comparatively 
well known) : 

Sponges 30 

Cwlenterates 100 

Ecbinodenas 30 

MoUuacoiilea 60 

MolluBca 390 

Worms 225 

Crustacea 250 

Insects 2500 

Veytebrales : 

Ascidia 20 

rishes 150 

Batrachia 18 

Reptiles 22 

Birds 266 

Mammals 41 517 


In the above estimate both the fresh water and ma- 
rine fauna are included. Of the simplest forms of 
animal life, the Protozoa, no account is made for the 
reason that absolutely nothing is known of them be- 
yond the fact that the species are very abundant ; 
every stagnant pool has its population, while the mud 
near the shore is actually alive with them. Incon- 
spicuous as they are, they play an important part in 
the food supply of many of the economic fishes, as 
well as in destroying still smaller forms which might 
otherwise be injurious to human health. Of the 
sponges of the county but little is known ; many of 
them are inconspicuous, and none are of value for the 
ordinary purposes for which sponges are used, as all 
lack that resilience of fibre characteristic of commer- 
cial sponges. The finest examples of sponges in Essex 
County have been found on the piles of Essex bridge. 

The marine worms are very abundant, and furnish 
a large amount of food for fishes. While the ordinary 
conception of a worm is that of a disgusting animal, 
many of the marine worms are marvels of beauty both 
in shape and color. In this respect however they 
must yield to some of the Ca'lenterates, a group which 
includes the jelly-fish, sea-anemones and those other 
flowers of the sea which the naturalist calls hydroids. 
None of these, however, have the economic importance 
possessed by some of the mollusks and Crustacea, 
groups which furnish the oyster, clam and lobster. 

The insects are almost solely terrestrial and, as will 
be seen from the above table, include over half the 
total number of species occurring in the county. Of 
tliese the beetles are the most numerous in species, it 
being estimated that from twelve to fifteen hundred 
can be found within the boundaries. Next in nu- 
merical importance come the flies and bugs, followed 
in turn by the bees and ants on the one hand, and the 
butterflies and moths on the other, the remaining 
forms of insects being few in number of species. The 
vertebrates are so well known that they need no fur- 
ther mention than the figures against the different 
orders in the table above. 

The marine fauna of Essex County is decidedly 
northern. The majority of the species found along 
the coast range north to the British provinces, and not 
a few may be collected on the shores of Europe, mak- 
ing the passage by the way of the Arctic seas. A 
smaller number range southward and pass the bound- 
ary line of Cape Cod, though but few extend in this 
direction beyond the Jersey shore. The land animals 
are likewise northern in character, and Essex County 
may be regarded as a portion of the " AUeghanian 
region " of the " Eastern province " of zoological geog- 

Several localities in the county have become famous 
as zoological centres, either from the students who 
have lived near them or from the profusion of the 
material they offer for study. To the first category 
belongs Salem, for the Essex Institute and thePeabody 
Academy of Science have drawn many zoologists 
hither. Here Wheatland, Putman, Packard, Hyatt, 
Morse, Emerton and Cooke have labored, while for 
several years students came from all parts of the 
country to attend the Academy's Summer School of 
Biology. Salem may also rank among the places of 
the other group, for there are few spots on the whole 
New England coast which furnish better collecting 
ground than that around Essex (Beverly) Bridge, 
where the number of species to be found is very large, 
although indiscriminate collecting would soon deplete 
it. Next in order is Nahant where the Agassizs, fa- 
ther and son, with their assistants and pupils, did so 
much to enlarge our knowledge of the marine life. 
More lately Annisquam has come into prominence 
through the laboratory there established in 1881 by 
Professor Hyatt and maintained by the Women's Ed- 
ucational Society of Boston. 

The interest in zoological studies has been fostered 
by the various scientific societies within the county, 
the most prominent among which are the Essex In- 
stitute and thePeabody Academy of Science of Salem. 
Besides these may be enumerated the Lynn Natural 
History Society, the Cape Ann Literary and Scientific 
Society, at Gloucester, the Danvers Natural History 
Society, the Bradford Natural History Society, the 
West Newbury Natural History Society, the Merri- 
mac Natural History Society, of Amesbury, and the 
Cuvier Club, of Salem, which last, although composed 
entirely of young people, gives promise of good results, 
For two years the United States Fish Commission 
made Essex County the centre of its explorations, 
contributing much information of value, especially in 
relation to the deep-water animals. 

The fiiuna of Essex County has been made the sub- 
ject of several studies, some of which are worthy of 
mention in the present sketch. Professor Hyatt has 
studied the sponges ; the Agassizs, father and son, and 
the late H. J. Cook have investigated the radiates 
the development of the worms has been studied by 
Alexander Agassiz and Charles Girard; the mollusca 
have been investigated by John Lewis Russell 



William Stimpsoa and Edward S. Morse ; Professor 
ilorse, also, was the first author to point out the true 
position of the brachiopods among the worms, his 
theory now being adopted by the most eminent scien- 
tists. The Crustacea and their development have been 
studied by A . S. Packard and J. S. Kingsley ; the 
harvestmen have been described by H. C. Wood, and 
J. H. Emerton has made and published researches on 
the spiders. Among the insects, the work of A. S. 
Packard, S. H. Scudder and F. W. Putman deserves 
mention. J. S. Kingsley has described the develop- 
ment of one of the acsidians, while among the fishes 
the papers of G. B. Goode and T. H. Bean and of F. 
W. Putman upon the species, and the investigations 
of J. S. Kingsley, H. W. Conn and B. H. Vantleck 
upon the development, should not be omitted. F. W. 
Putman has studied the reptiles and birds, furnishing 
the list of county species pulilished in the proceedings 
of the Essex Institute previously referred to. The 
birds have also been investigated by Dr. Elliot Cones. 

In spite of the work above referred to, and the ex- 
cellence, even eminence, of many of the workers, the 
field is so large and the supply of materials so great 
that there still remains an enormous amount of work 
to be accomplished before a knowledge which may be 
termed exact is obtained of the animals of the county. 

Arch.eology. — In archaeology, a study but re- 
cently given its proper position among the sciences, 
considerable work has been done in tlie county. The 
surface relics of the race which formerly occupied 
this territory have long been observed, and, in a few 
instances, preserved specimens of the so-called axes, 
celts and arrow-heads were placed in the East India 
Museum in Salem as early as 1802, and examples 
were figured in the first volume of the American 
Academy, published in 1785, from the cabinet of that 
institution. But it is only in comparatively recent 
years that any scientific observations have been 
ma le in relation to the graves, village sites and 
shell-heaps of this early race. Much has been writ- 
ten of late, speculative and otherwise, in relation to 
the pre-historic people, which may be read by those 
desiring to form opinions as to the correctness of the 
various theories advanced, but it is sufficient here to 
say that the most reasonable theories point to the 
Algonquin Indians of the region at the time of the 
settlement of this country, and their direct ancestors, 
as the people who fashioned the implements of stone, 
bone and clay which are daily turned up by the 
jdough and occasionally met with in graves and 
shell-heaps. Yet it is reasonable to accept the theory 
that another and earlier race once occupied the 
country, perhaps the ancestors of the Esquimaux, 
even ruder in their way than the Indians, and who, 
being driven to the North by a more aggressive race, 
left their relics behind, which are now found con- 
fused with those of later date. It was supposed 
formerly that tiie shell-heaps found all along our 
coast were natural deposits, and not until recently 

were they connected with the early inhabitants of 
the county. Professor Jeffrys Wyman, of Cam- 
bridge, investigated the shell-heaps at Ipswich, with 
Putnam, Cooke and Morse, and later these investi- 
gations have been continued by many others. 

The most interesting result of the study of these 
shell-heaps is perhaps that learned from the ex- 
amination of a very old deposit at Ipswich, composed 
of shells of the oyster, a species now practically 
extinct along our shore, but which at the time of 
the deposit of this shell-heap must have been very 
abundant. From the relics there found, it was clearly 
shown that cannibalism was practiced by the people 
who left us this record of their existence. In 1867 
Mr. J. F. Le Baron prepared a map of the shell- 
heaps on Castle Neck, Ipswich, and throughout the 
county are numerous collections of so-called " Indian 
relics," most of which may be classed as "surface- 
finds," owned by private individuals and public 
institutions. The largest collection of pre-historic 
relics is that of the Peabody Academy of Science 
in Salem, which numbers several thousand speci- 
mens and includes many objects from graves and 
shell-heaps, besides skeletons and crania. 

Besides the work of Wyman, I'utnam and others 
and the articles published by the Essex Institute on 
this subject. Dr. Abbott, of New Jersey, has made 
some field observations here and has published in his 
work entitled " Primitive Industry" much of interest 
in relation to tbe local archaeology, besides giving fig- 
ures of specimens collected in Essex County. Pro- 
fessor Jlorse, of the Peabody Academy, during his 
visit to Ja|>an, made several explorations in connec- 
tion with the archa?ology of that country, the results 
of his work being published in the memoirs of the 
University of Tokio, Japan. 

Archaeology is now one of the most progressive 
among the sciences, and one of Essex County's gifted 
sons, Professor Frederick W. Putnam, formerly of 
Salem, now Peabody Professor of Archieology and di- 
rector of the Archieological Museum at Cambridge, 
profiting by his early training as a zoologist, is for 
the first time teaching the country the proper and 
only way of exploring the mysterious mounds of the 

It will be seen by this sketch that a large portion of 
the scientific work has centered in and around Salem. 
This is undoubtedly due to the facilities there ofi'ered 
for study. Museums and scientific institutions had 
early become established in Salem, and many society 
and private libraries and microscopes were available. 
But with the interest in these sulijects and the estab- 
lishment of good lecture courses and libraries in 
nearly every city and town, natural history and 
scientific clubs and societies have sprung up in vari- 
parts of the county, and students of natural history 
may now be found at every hand, both ci)llectors and 
those who are pursuing their studien of the minerals, 
the fauna or the flora, without forming collections. 






Timothy Claxton was born in Norfolk, England, 
August 22, 1790. His father was a gardener, in the 
service of the Windham family, at Earshani Hall. 
Neither hia father nor his mother could read or write, 
but, with the generous aid of the Honorable Mrs. 
Windham, the mistress of the house, they were en- 
abled to educate their children. Timothy was from 
boyhood a marked character, and, as a young man, 
identified himself with the great movement for the 
general diflusion of knowledge, which, under the lead 
of Henry Brougham and other less conspicuous and 
comprehensive minds, swept over England and Scot- 
land in the third decade of the present century. It was 
in the year 1823 that the so called '' Mechanics' Insti- 
tutes '■ began to attract the attention of all classes in 
Great Britain by their marked success. In that year, 
Claxton, who had spent sometime in Russia, engaged 
in the introduction of fgas-works, sailed from St. 
Petersburg and landed at Boston, whence, in Septem- 
ber, he removed to Methuen, in this County, and con- 
nected himself with the machine-shop of a cotton- 
mill established by Stephen Minot, of Haverhill, at 
Spicket Falls, and at that time operated under the 
supervision and agency of the afterwards well-known 
political economist and writer, Amasa Walker. 

In detailing, in his autobiography entitled the " Me- 
moir of a Mechanic,'' the years passed in Methuen, 
this remarkable man says : 

*' In the spring of 1824 an opportunity offered itself for me to attempt 
the formation of a society for mutual improvement. A small society, 
for reading and general inquiry, had existed for ahout five years in the 
village, and was at a very low ehb at that time. I attended it and 
found a respectable number of both sexes, .issembled at the house ot one 
of the members. They were engaged in reading by turns, and the 
president put questions to them ;is they proceeded. I inquired what 
other exercises they had. He told me that was all, except an annual ad- 
dress by the president. I asked if it would not be well to try the debat- 
ing of questions and familiar lectures on science and the arts. He 
thought well of it. I told him I thought they need not be afraid, for I 
bad seen persons engaged in such exercises whose opportunities were in- 
ferior to theirs. I was asked if I could give them a lecture. I said I 
would try, and prepared myself accordingly. I had brought a small 
air-pump with me from Russia, which I made from apiece of gas-tubing, 
with a ground brass plate, on a mahogany stiiud. I bought a few glass 
articles, which I ground to tit the pump-plate, with a little sand and wa- 
ter, on the hearth-stone of my room. I procured a small wash tub and 
fitted a shelf to it, for a pneumatic cistern. In this way I succeeded, 
with a very simple apparatus, in explaining the mechanical and some of 
the chemical properties of air. This put new life into the society. 
Their constitution was revised, to make provision for a library and ap- 
paratus. Debating was introduced with success, and the ladies handed 
in compositions which were read at the meetings. Several members 
were prevailed upon to give lectures on subjects connected with their 
professions or callings. I served as vice.president* for the remainder of 
my stay in the town, and took an active part. The society became too 
large for the members' houses. It tried the School-House and then the 
Tavern Hall, but, not satisfied with either, built a two-story building for 
its own use, and continued to prosper. It held weekly meetings, with a 
routine of exercises for the month, comprising, for the first week, Read- 
ing by all ; for the second, Reading by one memberspecially designated ; 
for tile third, Original Lectures, and for the fourth. Discussion." 

Here we have germinating, in the spring of 1824, 
in Essex County, the root-idea of the American Ly- 
ceum. The society, which Claxton left behind him 
well-established in Methuen, when, in October, 1826, 
he removed to Boston, possessed every characteristic 
feature of the novel organization now to be described, 
and which, under the uew name of "Lyceum," soon 
to be applied to it by another, was about to challenge 
the approval and enlist the interest, and even the en- 
thusiasm of the best minds in the country. I have 
been thus minute in describing Claxton's enterprise, 
because no earlier date than this can be assigned to 
the origin of "the Lyceum system in America. On 
his removal to Boston, he became well known for his 
mechanical ingenuity, his large scientific attainments 
and his whole-souled devotion to the diffusion of use- 
ful knowledge. He at once associated himself with 
Josiah Holbrook, who had just come there from Con- 
necticut, and with other kindred spirits and before 
the end of the year 1826 had established the " Boston 
Mechanics' Institution." In 1829 he bore an active 
part in the formation of the first Boston Lyceum, and 
in 1831, with Holbrook and others, established the 
"Boston Mechanics' Lyceum," of which, for the next 
five years, Claxton was chosen president. Finally, 
having inherited an estate in England, he returned 
thither to enjoy it, and there closed his life. In 1839 
he issued, from the London press, a book of "Hints 
on Self-Education," of which the London Civil En- 
gineer and Architects' Journal remarked, in a strain of 
high commendation, that "it had all the ease and 
simplicity of De Foe, and the exemplary utility of 

Dr. George A. Perkins, of Salem, who passed his 
early years in Boston, well remembers Claxton as a 
valued friend of his boyhood, always genial, gracious 
and kind, who would interrupt his work, not for 
hours merely, but for days, in order that some willing- 
minded youth might not go unenlightened. 

Attention was first publicly called to the general 
practicability of organizations like this in an anony- 
mous article which appeared in the October number 
of the American Journal of Education for 1826. It 
proved to have been written by one Jo.siah Holbrook, 
an alunmus of Yale College and a native of Derby, 
Conn., born in 1788. Mr. Holbrook afterwards be- 
came well known as an enthusiastic devotee of popu- 
lar education in all its phases. At different periods 
of his career he was a lecturer upon science, a maker 
of school apparatus, and a compiler of school text- 
books, and in 1824 was conducting at Derby an agri- 
cultural and manual-labor school, in which he had, 
in some measure, anticipated the modern theory of 
object-teaching. His .scheme for " Associations of 
Adults for Mutual Education," as he called them, the 
name "Lyceum" being only applied a little later, 
was introduced to public notice in a guarded editorial 
indorsement as "of uncommon interest," as "impor- 
tant in a political point of view," as "intimately con- 



nected with the diffusion of intelligence and with the 
elevation of character among the agricultural and 
mechanic classes," as " a sure preventive of those in- 
sidious inroads of vice which are ever ready to be 
made on hours of leisure and relaxation." With such 
high liopes, prompted by motives so unmistakably 
humane, ingenuous and noble, did the pioneers in this 
unique undertaking make their modest, though con- 
fident appeal to public favor 1 

On January 7, 1879, the Concord Lyceum com- 
memorated its fiftieth anniversary. The name 
on its original roll and its first jiresident had been 
the venerable and Reverend Dr. Ripley, the Revolu- 
tionary sage who had, from his study window in the 
Old Manse, watched his parishioners defending the 
bridge on that fateful day when there 

*' The embattled farmers stood 
And fired the shot heard round the world !" 

The last of the original signers of its constitution 
had been Judge Hoar, then a lad of twelve, now be- 
come a personage of the distinction, introduced 
in 1870 by Emerson to C'arlyle, as "a friend whom 
you saw in his youth, now an inestimable citizen in 
this State, and lately in President Grant's Cabinet, 
Attorney-General of the United States. He lives in 
this town and carries it in his hand." 

Naturally called on to speak on such an occasion, 
Judge Hoar remarked : — 

" The Lyceum began, aa most thin^ do that are eood, by the gratui- 
tous labors of an enthusiast, BIr. Josiah Holbrook, of Boston, a man who 
was interested in geology and mineralogy, and went about the State de- 
livering lectures upon these subjecta, and urging the people of the cities 
and towns to form Lyceums for popular education. His scheme embraced 
a good deal. He l>ersuaded the people of various towns and cities, of 
Boston, and Charlestown, and Salem, and Worcester, and many of the 
smaller towns of the commonwealth to start his Lyceums. There has 
beeu but one, however, that has grown up into anything like the pro- 
portions of the institution which he contemplated and recommended, 
and that 'is the Essex Institute at Salem. It has, as he proposed each 
Lyceum should have, a large library, an extensive collection of objects 
in natural history, cabinets of mineralogy, having courses of lectures, 
and th« members dividing themselves into sections for the prosecution of 
the study of history, science and art." 

The large expectations entertained of Holbrook's 
novel scheme will appear from the contemporary ex- 
pressions of its prime mover and his coadjutors, and 
from the sympathetic utterances of the journals of 
the day. There was nothing new in the Debating 
Club, the Social Library, the Literary Circle, the 
Union for General Inquiry and for Scientific Research. 
These had long been known, and in one form or an- 
other had sprung into a sporadic life in all the active 
centres of the world. Paris and London had not 
been without them for centuries, and Franklin had, 
just a hundred years before, established his "Junto," 
where the select coterie of a dozen friends, picked 
from his " ingenious acquaintance," who spent Fri- 
day evenings at the Ale House in Philadelphia in 
1727, discussed curious queries on points of morals, 
politics or natural philosophy, propounded a week in 
advance of their consideration, heard original essays 

from each member in turn, and finally established a 
"lending library,"— the germ of the American Philo- 
sophical Society. But the idea of combining the 
functions of libraries and literary, scientific ami de- 
bating clubs all in one body — of throwing the doors 
wide open and inviting in all who would assume their 
shareof the work — of systematically organizing such 
clubs in every village and hamlet and then, for mu- 
tual encouragement and help, joining them all in a 
common league together, was indeed a new conceit, 
and if impracticable in its details, was not unworthy 
of that tbrmative period which preceded Boards of 
Education, Normal Schools and Teachers' Institutes 
and Conventions, — the day of slow mails, stage-coach 
travel, rare newspapers, scant amusements and un- 
systematic teaching, before the cylinder-press, the 
electric telegraph, the locomotive engine, the subma- 
rine cable and the ocean steamer had made the world 
one family, — the day which ushered in our " revival 
of learning," when the depressions resulting from two 
wars waged to effect our independence of Great Bri- 
tain were happily over, when a distinctly American 
literature was beginning to show itself in the writings 
of Dana, Bryant, Irving, Cooper and Halleck, when 
Mann and his co-workers were just extorting from the 
close-locked Teutonic intelligence the secrets of the 
Prussian school sy.stem for the advantage of our new 
republic, when Bancroft, Everett, Ticknor and Hedge 
were just returning from their first taste of German 
University culture, burthened like honey-bees with 

' their delicious store, and when the English speaking 
peoples on both sides of the water seemed suddenly 
waking up to the consciousness as of newly discov- 
ered truth in the now familiar postulate that demo- 
cratic government, while it is the safest and most sta- 
ble of all if it rest on generally diffused intelligence, 
becomes, when based on prevailing ignorance, the 
most intolerable of despotisms. 

Holbrook's confidence in his scheme was contagious 
because it was enthusiastic and exuberant. He sup- 
posed the Lyceum system would rapidly pervade the 
country and ultimately the world at large. " It seems 
to me," he said in his original prospectus, "that if 
associations for mutual instruction in the sciences 
and other branches of useful knowledge could once 
be started in our villages, and upon a general plan, 
they would increase with great rapidity and do more 
for the general diffusion of knowledge and for raising 

! the moral and intellectual taste of our countrymen 
than any other expedient which can possibly be de- 
vised. And it may be questioned if there is any 
other way to check the progress of that monster, in- 
temperance, which is making such havoc with talents, 
morals and everything that raises man above the 
brute, but by presenting some object of sufiicient in- 
terest to divert the attention of the young from places 
and practices which lead to dissipation and to ruin." 
In this initial article and in the subsequent allus- 
ions to the subject with which the public jiress and 



educational periodicals fairly teemed, the general 
mechanism of the proposed organization is sufficient- 
ly disclosed. Each " Association of Adults for Mu- 
tual Improvement " was to have its president, secre- 
taries, treasurer, curators and other needful function- 
aries and also three delegates to meet, twice a year, 
delegates from other branches of the organization in 
the same county, for the furthering of its various ob- 
jects, especially " for qualifying teachers." And this 
board of delegates for the county, duly organized, 
shall appoint a representative to meet representatives 
from other like boards, who shall be .«tyled the 
" Board of Mutual Education for the State." These 
State boards are to organize in turn, to meet annually 
for certain prescribed functions, and to send delegates 
to a general conclave embracing the whole country, 
whose permanent headquarters were ultimately to be 
established at Washington. The society was to be 
open to all adults of both sexes who were willing to 
share its labors and its cost, and the monies accruing 
from fees for admittance or from the generosity of 
patrons were to be applied to the purchase of books, 
cabinets, philosophical and scientific apparatus, the 
collection and exchange among the Lyceums of the 
country of specimens in botany mineralogy and natural 
history, the preparation and publication of town and 
county maps and histories and the observing and 
communicating through publication and correspond- 
ence of atmospheric, meteorological and climatic phe- 
nomena, the chemical analysis of soils, the character 
of quarries, minerals and mines, and such other facts 
of importance as might from time to time come to the 
knowledge pf the corresponding secretaries. Funds 
might also be applied to the aid of institutions for 
" practical instruction," and even to the help of de- 
serving aspirants in pursuing the higher branches of 
study. In science " classes" were to be formed, each 
choosing its " foreman," and conducting its investiga- 
tions in its own way, and each in turn occupying the 
floor on its allotted night and c'aiming the attention 
of the whole Lyceum, be it in geology, astronomy, nat- 
ural philosophy, chemistry or mechanics. The plan of 
itinerant, migratory or perambulating libraries was 
commended to the attention of counties and towns. 
This plan consisted in combining the funds devoted by 
several neighboring towns to the purchase of books 
for general circulation, so that more books should be 
obtained for the money expended and no duplicates 
bought. Thus each town in a group, say of five towns 
for instance, would take possession of one fifth of the 
books purchased, keep them for an agreed period and 
pass them on to the next town of the group, receiving 
a second fifth at the expiration of the stipulated 
term. But in the estimation of the projectors of the 
Lyceum the library in all its forms had failed as a 
stimulant to independent thinking amongst the mass 
of the people. Some more pungent flavor must be 
imparted to general education. This was to be 
eflected through the immediate contact and clashing 

of mind with mind in neighborly bouts over issues of 
real, living, dominating importance. Questions upon 
which all the townspeople had finally to pass were to 
be debated before all the town by friends and neigh- 
bors who had serious convictions, pro and contra, as 
to how these questions ought to be determined. 
Moreover, scholarship was seen to possess intrinsic 
and inherent values of its own, quite aside from the 
consideration it buys. Why, it was asked, may not 
all men enjoy these in equitable measure? The 
locking up of learning in cloisters and colleges had 
been denounced by our forefathers from the first, as 
among the " wiles of Satan." Why not seize, per- 
force, upon the cherished heir-loom of the schools? 
If eloquence and culture, if the gifts of tongue and 
pen and the power of deep thinking were precious 
boons, entitling the possessor to the deference they 
claimed, why, it was impatiently asked, might they 
not be more evenly distributed ? If science and the 
arts really conduced to the amelioration of mankind, 
why be longer indebted for their blessings to a few 
favored devotees? Why not snatch them for our- 
selves? Was it the spirit of the Renaissance and the 
Reformation abroad again? Or was it rather the 
error of the French Encyclopiedists masquerading in 
a new disguise? It wa.s no spirit of hostility or jeal- 
ousy towards the higher learning, for it assumed that 
happiness was possible in the ratio of the learning 
attained. It was not proposed to raze the citadel, but 
only to assault its keep and divide its hoarded treas- 
ure. It was an uprising in behalf of more light. 
Perhaps it was the socialistic principle applied to 
culture. Perhaps it was communism in brain-food 
and brain products. It wandered far away from its 
English prototype, — so far that we find Sir Thomas 
Weise, a member of Parliament, discussing 
the doings of the National Lyceum of America in 
1831, with a view to adapt its methods to the needs of 
the Mechanics' Institutes of England. Holbrook 
claimed it as a thoroughly American product, and it 
certainly seemed well suited to the genius of the 
country, for it was democratic in spirit and republican 
in form ; it was free and voluntary and spontaneous 
in its origin ; it was elastic and self-adapting in its 
organization ; it was social and humanizing in its 
aims, and kept before it the great and dignified causej 
ot self-culture and mutual improvement, while it cer9^ 
tainly might claim continental scope and dimensionsj 
after its first national meeting in 1831, when no lesa 
than eight or nine hundred town Lyceums were re-l 
ported in different parts of the country, with fift}' oi; 
sixty county Lyceums, as well as several State organ-1 
izations. The end showed that vitality resided in the! 
town Lyceums and not in the attempted confedera- 
tions of them. 

The reader who finds it hard to recognize in all 
these anticipations the lyceum of actual fact as we 
have known it for the last half-century, may easily 
reconcile himself to the truthfulness of the picture I 



have drawn by a little study of the journals of the 
day, — by an examination of the score of articles which 
appeared in the first five volumes of the American 
Journal of Education, — and by a passing glance at the 
state of opinion and conditions of life which prevailed 
in the New England of 1820-30. 

When Claxton was lecturing on air before his 
townsmen of Methuen, there was not a rod of steam 
railway in existence. That potent leveling and cen- 
tralizing agency had not begun its work. The ques- 
tion was still an opeu one whether horse-power or 
steam would ultimately prove the better motor for the 
new roadways already being provided with rails of 
wood, iron and stone. And it was only in 1828-29 
that the Stephensons succeeded in applying the tubu- 
lar boiler to the traction engine "Rocket," and that 
the trium]ih of steam was established. The first 
locomotive-engine which invaded Essex County ran 
on a spur track laid by the Boston and Lowell cor- 
poration to Audover in 1833, and to Haverhill in 1835. 
The Eastern Railroad reached Salem in 1838. Tops- 
field was, up to this time, the recognized centre of the 
county, and its Academy Hall and its famous Stage 
House, since removed to Phillips' Beach, Swampscott, 
and there consumed by fire, were the usual meeting- 
places for all county gatherings. Each town had then 
a social autonomy of its own, not yet impaired by the 
draft on its active citizenship, necessary to meet the 
business demands of our great railroad centres, build- 
ing up great hives of industry and bringing together 
great swarms of population, nor by the superior 
attractions of city art galleries, concert-halls, lecture- 
rooms and theatres for our hours of ease. Each was 
a social centre for itself, — a planet, as it were, revolving 
with its own satellites in its own sphere, and not yet 
swung out of its appointed course by the disturbing 
attraction which, when brought near, the greater 
body, be it material or social, possesses for the less. 
Each had its traditions, its ancient families, its lead- 
ing people, — both those of approved hospitality, of 
the great house and the long purse, and those who 
based their claims on superior knowledge, character, 
discrimination and taste, — its clergymen and deacons, 
its 'squires, doctors, teachers, ship-masters and own- 
ers of shipping, — its town elite, — and for better or 
for worse, its own townspeople must suffice, in the 
main, for its own ueeds. 

Our county, one of the original four incorporated 
and set off in 1C43, has an area of not far from live 
hundred square miles which, at the time we speak of, 
supported a population of about eighty thousand 
souls, and of these fifty-four or fifty-five thousand 
lived in thirteen large towns, every one of them incor- 
porated before 1650, and seven of them as early as 
1640. Of the towns in Ma-ssachusetts possessed of 
four thousand inhabitants and upwards, Esse.x County 
contained nearly one-half. Of our six prosperous 
cities the largest, Lynn and Lawrence, held no such 
places in the census tables then. Lynn, now the 

larger of the two, was a town of not half the size of 
the Salem of that day, and smaller than either New- 
buryport or Gloucester, while Lawrence, which now 
bestrides our great water-way like a Colossus, had 
neither "promise" nor "potency" before 1847. In 
many ways ours was a peculiar county. Nowhere on 
this continent, outside the great cities, were so many 
people brought together in so small a space. Nowhere 
was there greater average wealth or more generally 
diffused intelligence, independence, comfort and thrift. 
Save in a few exceptional situations, as of the counties 
of Dukes and Barnstable, there was nowhere in the 
country a population living on an equal area and 
touched by navigable water at so many points. Be- 
sides the lordly Merrimac, flanked on either hand 
with growing towns, turuing more spindles than any 
other river in the world to-day, and weaving miles 
enough of cloth every three weeks to swathe the earth, 
which furnished to our thirty miles of northern 
frontier a cheap highway for freight, the county 
could claim, within its limits, no less than five val- 
uable and commodious harbors, at Newburyport, 
Gloucester, Beverly, Marblehead and Salem, not to 
omit others of lesser draught, but fully equal to the 
more moderate demands of local trade. Treading 
hard upon the heels of the great towns already 
mentioned came Andover, Haverhill, Newbury, 
Ipswich and Danvers. Amongst the counties of the 
State Essex had no rival. — not even Suffolk, — in the 
aggregate of her population, unless, perhaps, Worces- 
ter, and probably she overtopped them all. Her 
lands were held in small hereditary estates by the men 
who tilled them. Her capital and her enterprise 
found ready employment at home, or if they looked 
abroad, turned eager glances to the East, and not as 
lately toward the setting sun. 

Content in earlier years with the hard fare and 
meagre earnings of the fisheries and the export trade 
in fish, and later trained on the gun-decks of ships of 
war, or of their own privateers, the people of Essex 
County had come, since the days of peace, to push 
their ambitious ventures into every sea. Foreign 
commerce, which is in itself a liberal education, had 
taught them what the bold and strenuous life of the 
fishing-smack or the man of-war could never have 
engrafted upon their sturdy. Puritanic thought, and 
they brought home from their distant voyaging a 
freight more remunerative than silks, or gums or spices, 
made up of broadening views of life and liberal esti- 
males of men and things. Geography and ethnol- 
ogy they studied at first hand. The i)opulations which 
their enterprise employed, and the trade which their 
successes and their hospitality invited, built up large 
markets for the consumption of all that the interior 
sections of the county could produce. The popula- 
tion was singularly homogeneous, the fevf mills there 
were being operated by the sons and daughters of 
Essex County farmers and mechanics, amongst whom 
the average of intelligence and character Wiis not a 



whit lower than where mills did not eyjst. This high 
average was not reduced — possibly it was advanced — 
by another manufacture which formed a peculiar fea- 
ture of the industry of the county. Khoes were then 
made by hand, and as the occupations of husbandry 
and the fisheries left much of the inclement season 
unemployed, these callings were very generally sup- 
plemented in the winter months by the making of a 
coarse kind of shoe for the southern market. This 
was a craft which called for little capital, since 
the shoe-stock was distributed in weekly portions 
from Lynn or Haverhill, the great centres of this pe- 
culiar industry, nor did it require any great degree of 
dexterity or skill. And thus the frugal yeomanry of 
Essex, whose summers were employed on the Grand 
Banks or on their ancestral acres, clubbed together 
by half-dozens to build the little box-like shoe-shops 
which once dotted all our country roads, apd in which 
they wrought lustily all winter with lapstone and 
awl, in a temperature less conducive to longevity, 
perhaps, then stimulating to cerebration. And here 
all unconscious of the dictum of Pliny — " ne sutor 
ultra crepidam." — they were so eftectually over-ruling, 
as well as of the supercilious slurs of Cicero, and 
Plautus and Horace on their indoor habits and un- 
military pose, they passed judgment from the bench, 
so to say, on the latest sermon, newspaper leader, po- 
litical harangue and local gossip, with as much crit- 
ical acumen, and as deep, earnest consideration of 
each passing topic as though, in very truth, time's 
noblest offspring were the last. 

I do not know that I need sketcli in further detail 
the salient features of this sturdy people. General 
the Baron von Riedesel's remark upon the Bay Colo- 
ny in Revolutionary days, — high praise from an ene- 
my, — " the inclination of the people is for commerce, 
navigation and the military art," as well described 
them half a century later, and no local community 
could with lass presumption take to itself the glowing 
encomium of Burke upon the commerce and fisheries 
of New England. Theirs was the county which had 
produced the Pickerings, the Cabots, the Crownin- 
shields, the Lowell-', — Nathan Dane, Manasseh Cut- 
ler, Rufus King, Theophilus Parsons, Joseph Story, 
— the Derbys, the Thorndikes, the Peabodys, the 
Jacksons, the Graj's, the Lees, the Pickmans, the 
Hoopers, the families of Cleavelaud and Phillips and 
Bowditch, and, earlier than all these, the fine old 
stocks of Lynde, of Sewall and of Dummer. Theirs 
was the sod upon which Endicott and Higginson 
and Saltonstall and Winthrop first stepped ashore. 
Theirs was the soil upon which Gage had mus- 
tered his myrmidons, in the vain hope to quench 
the insurgent spirit flaming up in a Provincial 
Assembly which defied his sovereign from the old 
town-house in Salem. And while it may be the 
fact that no actual collision of troops ever conse- 
crated in blood the soil of Essex County, although 
we sutlered from Indian butcheries in the vallev of 

the Merrimac, and felt the shots of British cruisers 
along our seaboard, and saw from the north shore of 
the bay the smoke of battle between the " Shannon " 
and her doomed antagonist, — that unequal contest 
over which English school-boys still regale their 
drooping spirits in the choru.s, — 

" The Chesapeake, so bold, out of Boston. I am told, 
Came to take a British frigate neat and bandy, 
.^nd tlie people of the port came out to see the sport, 
With their music playing ' Yankee doodle dandy I' " 

— while all this may be true, certain it is that no 
equal number of people had borne a heavier share in 
Indian, French or British hostilities, or contributed 
more victims to the horrors of Mill Prison, Dartmoor 
and the slave-pens of Algiers, from the gloomy days 
of Bloody Brook, of the Pequots and the Narragan- 
setts, — from the days of the brilliant assaults upon 
Port Royal, Louisburgand Quebec, — down through the 
times when Washington took command of the Conti- 
nental forces and called on us, without waiting for the 
action of Congress, to improvise a navy, — the times 
when Mugford and Manly and Harraden and Hugh 
Hill were afloat, — when Marblehead set her amphib- 
ious regiment on foot, — down to that later day when all 
our seaboard towns vied with each other to do homage 
to the naval heroes of the second war of Independence. 
The doubtful claim to the first bloodshed of the 
Revolution on that Sunday afternoon in February, 
1775, at the old North Bridge in Salem, might be 
worth contesting in another county, but not here, for 
our [)eople have twice sought out and attacked, on 
her own chosen field, the naval power which claims 
to rule the waves, closing with her wherever they 
could find her, be it in the Indian Ocean or the Irish 
Channel, or in whatever waters her red flag pro- 
claimed her the terror of the seas, and giving battle 
until she cried enough. Facts like these go far to 
justify the ancient boast that Essex County produces 
more history to the acre than any equal area in the 
country. Antecedents like these had well prepared 
the people of the county for the new educational dis- 
pensation of which we speak, and they were as ready 
as any of their neighbors to distinguish the wheat 
from the chaff in Holbrook's singular proposals. 

Enough has been said to indicate in a general way 
what these proposals were. It must be remembered 
that the first scientific survey of an American State 
was Hitchcock's survey of Massachusetts, the report 
of which became public in 183.3 ; that we had no 
State Board of Education before 1837, and no author- 
ized map of the commonwealth until 1842, and that 
our first Normal School, established at Lexington in 
1839, and which it had been proposed, the year be- 
fore, to establish at Dummer Academy, was the first 
in America, although the Prussians had known them 
for a century. The Lyceum was accordingly hailed 
as a cheap and much needed training-school and ex- 
amining board for common-school teachers, while its 
semi-annual county gatherings were to serve the pur- 



poses now met by Teachers' Institutes and Conven- 
tions. It was the impression of its projectors that 
scientific topics were to prove the most attractive, and 
that by adhering rather exchisively to these they were 
to escape at once both the Scylla and the Charybdis 
of religious and political contentions. To suppose, 
however, as is common, that at any time troublesome 
questions were successfully excluded from the Lyceum 
platform is to accept an error. No question was more 
generally discussed from the outset than that of the 
relative disadvantages of a free black and a slave 
population, the Colonization Society's methods, and 
abolition in the District of Columbia, and while the 
heat engendered was probably less than it would 
have been a little later, — the Garrison mob was in 
October, 1835, — I am convinced that the most volcan- 
ic topics were not interdicted, from reading a letter 
now before me, addressed by the Hon. Horace Mann 
to my father, both being members of Governor Ev- 
erett's first Board of Education, in which is reported 
an attack made in a lecture before one of the best- 
conducted and most conservative Lyceums of the 
county, denouncing the board "as a machination of 
the Devil, — showing the preponderance of Unitarian- 
ism in it, — that the next element in point of .strength 
was infidelity, two members being infidels, and its 
orthodoxy confided to one poor, weak old man 1" 

Another mode proj)Osed to quicken the public 
mind was through "cheap and popular" publications. 
The Middlesex County Lyceum, under the Presidency 
of Edward Everett, began the publication of a series 
of treatises, of which the first was a popular Lyceum 
lecture on taxation by Andrew P. Peabody. It is 
now before me, and is designated on its title-page as 
Vol. I., No. 1, of the " Workingmen's Library." A 
prospectus follows, from which it appears that the 
publications were intended, in part, for reading as 
Lyceum lectures in small towns where there might 
be difficulty in procuring speakers. They were 
to be published monthly, and furnished by a com- 
mittee of five. They were not to fail for want 
of being "plain and intelligible;" each writer to 
be " answerable for his own statements and opin- 
ions ;" the price to be seventeen cents each. In a 
letter to my father, who was associated with him 
on the board of management of the Jliddlesex 
County Lyceum, Mr. Everett, whose clerical habit 
had not wholly worn off, although he franks his letter 
as a member of Congress, speaks of these publica- 
tions as " tracts," is " more and more favorably im- 
pressed " with the plan, " if it be made sufficiently 
cheap to penetrate the community," and recommends 
" short tracts, such, for iustance, as may be read thro' 
aloud in an hour & a quarter at the farthest," — offers 
as his own contribution a lecture lately repeated at 
Charlestown, Waltham and Framingham, — hopes it 
" might do as one of the tracts," and thinks " the 
rule should be to put them as low as they can possi- 
bly be afforded." Henry Brougham was promoting 

publications of a similar character at this time in Great 

One marked result of the Lyceum system, the pro- 
duction of a school of trained and able debaters in 
every town, does not seem to have been anticipated 
by its projectors. Among the long lists of prospective 
benefits I do not find this enumerated. But it was 
plain from the start that the Lyceum was to aflbrd a 
free-school of debate for questions calculated to shape 
public opinion, questions involving expediency and 
policy, quite as much as questions of pure science. 
Thus Emerson seems to have found in the Lyceum 
the freedom denied him in the pulpit. How far he 
shaped the Lyceum, how far the Lyceum shaped him, 
is a question upon which we may not eater here. 
His biographer, Cooke, states that at once upon his 
return from Europe in 1833 " he took advantage of 
the interest in this new mode of popular instruction 
and working with many others served to mould the 
Lyceum into a means of general culture; helped make 
it a moral and intellectual power, a quickening influ- 
ence on life and thought," while his admirer, Marga- 
ret Fuller, lets us see that in his lectures he was en- 
listing a following which made the later essays possi- 
ble. Whether, without the Lyceum, Wendell Phil- 
lips and Henry Ward Beecher would have achieved 
their triumphs in the mastery of popular audiences, 
is a debatable question. Even of such men as Garri- 
son and Parker, — men whose natures are an endoge- 
nous rather than an exogenous product, — it is not 
quite safe to say that they would have been just what 
they were without the Lyceum. But I had better 
let Mr. Emerson tell his own story. 

Mr. Emerson stepped from the pulpit to the Ly- 
ceum platform. He describes his appearance in the 
new field, which occurred in the winter of 1833-34, 
as his " first attempt at public discourse after leaving 
the pulpit." His subjects had at that time a marked 
leaning towards natural science. Two years later he 
detailed to Carlyle the reasons which ought to bring 
the latter to America. " Especially Lectures. My 
own experiments for one or two winters, and the 
readiness with which you embrace the work, have led 
me to expect much from this mode of addressing men. 
In New England, the Lyceum, as we call it, is al- 
ready a great institution. Besides the more elaborate 
courses of lectures in the cities, every country town 
has its weekly evening meeting, called a Lyceum, and 
every professional man in the place is called upon, 
in the course of the winter, to entertain his fellow- 
citizens with a discourse on whatever topic. The 
topics are miscellaneous as heart can wish. But in 
Boston, Lowell and .Salem courses are given by indi- 
viduals. I see not why this is not the most flexible 
of all organs of opinion, from its poj)ularity and from 
its newness, permitting you to say what you think, 
without any shackles of prescription. The pulpit of 
our age certainly gives forth an obstructed and un- 
certain sound, and the faith of those in it, if men of 



genius, may differ so mucli from tliat of tliose under 
it as to embarrass the conscience of the speaker, be- 
cause so much is attributed to him from the fact of 
standing there. In the Lyceum nothing is presup- 
posed. The orator is only responsible for what his 
lips articulate. Then what scope it allows ! You 
may handle every member and relation of humanity. 
What could Homer, Socrates or St. Paul say that can- 
not be said here ? The audience is of all classes, and 
its character will be determined always by the name 
of the lecturer. Why may you not give the reins to 
your wit, your pathos, your philosophy, and become 
that good despot which the virtuous orator is ? 

"Another thing. I am persuaded that if a man 
speak well, he shall find this a well-rewarded work 
in New England. I have written this year ten lec- 
tures; I had written as many last year, and for read- 
ing both thcoe and those at places whither I was in- 
vited, I have received this last winter about three 
hundred and fifty dollars." 

The next year he wrote to Carlyle: " I find myself 
so much more and freer on the platform of the lec- 
ture-room than in the pulpit. . . . But I preach in 
the Lecture-Room and there it tells, for there is no 
prescription. You may laugh, weep, reason, sing, 
sneer or pray according to your genius. It is the new 
pulpit, and very much in vogue with my northern 
countrymen. This winter, in Boston, we shall have 
more than ever; two or three every night of the week. 
Wheu will you come and redeem your pledge?" And 
again, " I am always haunted with brave dreams of 
what might be accomplished in the Lecture-Room, so 
free and so unpretending a platform, a Delos not yet 
made fast. I imagine eloquence of infinite variety, — 
rich as conversation can be with anecdote, joke, 
tragedy, epics and pindarics, argument and confes- 
sion." In an earlier letter, dated April, 1835, he had 
said to Carlyle : " If the lectures succeed in Boston, 
their success is insured at Salem, a town thirteen 
miles off, with a population of fifteen thousand. 
They might, perhaps, be repeated at Cambridge, 
three miles from Boston, and probably at Philadel- 
phia, thirty-six hours distant. . . . They might be 
delivered, one or two in each week. And if they 
met with sudden success, it would be easy to carry on 
the course simultaneously at Salem, and Cambridge, 
and in the City." 

To all which solicitations, Carlyle, not taking very 
kindly to the proposal, though thinking " I could 
really swim in that element were I once thrown into 
it," " a thing I have always had some hankering af- 
ter," " could any one but appoint me Lecturing Pro- 
fessor of Teufelsdrockh's Science, — 'Things in gen- 
eral ' ! " replies from time to time with an occasional 
growl, and they keep the plan "hanging to solace 
ourselves with it, till the time decide," until, in De- 
cember, 1841, he writes in this characteristic strain of 
Emerson's " Lectures on the Times", "Good speed 
to the Speaker, to the Speech.] Your Country is luck- 

ier than most at this time ; it has still real preaching ; 
the tongue of man is not, whensoever it begins wag- 
ging, entirely sure to emit babblement, twaddlement, 
sincere cant and other noises which awaken the pas- 
sionate wish for silence." 

Of course there were objectors and doubters, and 
the Lyceum was opposed on the very grounds upon 
which its promoters supported it. For those who 
shook their heads over Pope's line, 

"A little learning is a dangerous thing," 

and Bacon's warning, 

*' A little pUilosopliy inclineth man's mind to atheism,'* 

the answer was ready, — that we cannot have much 
unless we first have little, and that the having of lit- 
tle begets the desire for much. If these organiza- 
tions might not hope to carry higher aloft the apex 
of the pyramid of human knowledge, they might hope 
to be able to broaden out its base and set the vener- 
able pile upon a more firm, stable and comprehensive 
footing. It was the diftiision of information, primar- 
ily, and not the advancement of science, which the 
Lyceums aimed at. The systems of education they 
recommended were always described as practical, and 
were pretty sharply antagonized with those of the 
colleges and higher schools. They seem to have had 
a strong leaning towards manual labor academies, 
which were then much in vogue, and one of which 
enjoyed a brief career at the Cherry Hill Farm, in 
North Beverly. They proposed to insist, amongst 
other branches, upon instruction in practical politics, 
and called for the study of the State and Federal Con- 
stitutions, and for text-books on familiar principles of 
law. The lottery was one vulnerable member of the 
hydra-headed monster, and they proposed to attack 
that. lu temperance was another, and they proposed to 
have a tilt at that. As a Board of Education, as a 
Lecture Bureau, as an Agricultural, Geological and 
Topographical Survey, they made no doubt, the Ly- 
ceum was to prove invaluable. They proposed a 
great central School, for the dissemination of their 
ideas, connected with which a central work-shop was 
to manufacture and send forth at cost, school ajipar- 
atus, philoso|)hical, astronomical and geometrical in- 
struments and chemical and other scientific prepara- 
tions. They went so far as to propose, in much the 
same spirit in which we have set apart a Labor Day 
and an Arbor Day, to consecrate the second Monday 
of December to the interests of the Lyceum. The 
Lyceum was to do for the head, if not perhaps ' 
for the moral nature, what religion was doing for 
the heart, and one of our judges, holding a criminal 
term of court, charged his grand jury to go home 
and devote themselves to the establishment of town 
Lyceums, as a measure of prevention against crime. 
The mistakes they made were due in part to san- 
guine temperament, and partly to the spirit of the 
times, which was a spirit of unrest. These were the 
days of Fourier and of Owen, of Brook Farm and the 


Phalansteries, when phrenology and mesmerism were 
struggling hard for a place among the sciences, and 
all sorts of experimental sociology were in the air. 
By undertaking a great deal too much ; by claiming 
a great deal more than they could maintain, the pro- 
jectors of the system had well nigh obscured the real 
merits of their conception. They had discovered a 
valuable specific, but it was not a panacea for all 
human ills. They had found a pearl of great price. It 
was not the philosopher's stone. Fortunately there 
were not wanting keen-eyed scholars who could ap- 
preciate the value of the discovery, and Essex Coun- 
ty had her share of these. 

It was in November, 1820, that Ilolbrook addressed 
thirty or forty of the farmers and mechanics of Mill- 
bury, a little town of a thousand inhabitants just 
south of 'Worcester, and at the close of a lecture on 
natural science induced them to organize themselves 
for mutual improvement, and to assume the somewhat 
pretentious title of "Millbury Lyceum, No. 1, Branch 
of the American Lyceum." This little group of per- 
sons, — there is no reason for supposing they ever met 
earlier than September, lS2l), — included among its 
number several marked characters of whom perhaps 
Thomas Blanchard, the great inventor, was the most 
conspicuous. The United States Government had, at 
that time, a manufactory of small arms at Millbury, 
under the supervision of a very able mechanic named 
Morse, and with the co-operation of Blanchard and 
another mechanic named Andrews, who had correctly 
calculated an eclipse of the moon, he established this 
society: It w,as by no means the first of the kind, 
nor the first to take the name of Lyceum, but it was 
the first in Holbrook's system. Troy, X. Y., had 
maintained its Lyceum since 1818, but it was a col- 
lection of curiosities and specimens, such as we of- 
tener call a museum. Gardiner, Me., had a Lyceum 
in 1822, but that was an academy established by a 
benevolent gentleman of the town bent on trying the 
experiment of the manual labor system. Professor 
Hitchcock may have applied the name as early to 
one of the natural history societies at Amherst Col- 
lege, but what Holbrouk kuew of these things or what 
guided him in the choice of this classic word he has 
not told us. It was so new and strange a word that 
we are instructed by the Journal of Education to pro- 
nounce it "Li-see-um." To designate a new thing 
he had a right to a new word, and these Greek names 
have been most arbitrarily impressed into the service 
of modern ideas. An Athemeum with us is likely to 
be a library, but this is not what it was at Athens nor 
what it means in Englaud. A Gymnasium with us 
imports a place for physical training, but the Greeks 
used it much more comprehensively to cover all 
sorts of culture, especially mental, and the (iernums 
follow them. The word Museum, quite divorced from 
the muses who gave it once a graceful significance 
and an affiliation with music, genorally designates 
with us a gathering of rather dry subjects. In Ger 

many, equally without relation to its native origin, it 
means a club house. In Paris the Lyceum is a Gov- 
ernment preparatory school; in London it is a thea- 
tre; in modern Greece a university, — so that what- 
ever the word meant to the ancient Athenian, Hol- 
brook might, without greater violence, apply it to his 
new club for mutual improvement. In fact the Ly- 
ceum of ancient Athens was a grove where Aristotle 
daily imparted his learning and inspiration through 
the medium of conversations and discu.ssion, as did 
Plato in another grove called the Academy. And if, 
as is probably true, the word Lyceum is related in its 
origin to the words /-iKof, 'Acvui/^ lux, light, Holbrook 
might turn the laugh on his too fastidious critics, 
for surely Aristotle's grove was no luciis a non 

From whatever source derived the word met a want 
and while the more scholarly amongst his recruits 
objected that it was stilted and inapt and that it made 
a very bad plural withal, no movement was made for 
substituting any other, and those who cared much 
for the thing and little for the name were both aston- 
ished and delighted to see the number of societies 
throughout the country calling themselves Lyceums, 
increasing before the close of 1831 to something like 
a thousand. 

Of these none were earlier in the field than Clax- 
ton's, at Methuen, and this was one of the very few 
which provided itself with a local habitation. The 
structure stood on what is now Broadway, near Park 
Street, and has since been removed and converted 
into a dwelling. One other in this county, organized 
at Salem, in January, 1830, and at once incorporated, 
completed and occupied in January, 1831, and paid 
for out of the proceeds of its lecture courses, the com- 
modious structure for its own accommodation, still in 
daily use, and known as Lyceum Hall. Of the Salem 
movement, Judge White, Col. Francis Peabody, Hon. 
Stephen C. Phillips, and Rev. Chas. W. Upham seem 
to have been the central figures. The first address 
delivered before the Salem Lyceum was given by 
Judge White, its first president, in the Methodist 
cha()el in Sewall Street. The preliminary meetings 
for its formation had been held at Col. Peabody's 
house, and brought together, as we learn from the 
memoir of that conspicuous citizen by Mr. Upham, 
such active and able coadjutors as Dr. A. L. Peirson, 
Leverett Saltonstall, Rufus Choate, Benjamin Crown- 
inshield, Robert Rantoul, Jr., Elisha Mack, Dr. Geo. 
Choate, Warwick Palfrey, and others, of whom Hon. 
Caleb Foote. Hon. Geo. Wheatland and William P. 
Endicott, Esq., are the last survivors. An address 
from Hon. Stephen C. Phillips opened the new hall 
the walls of which were decorated with frescos ot 
Judge White and Captain Joseph Peabody, of Demos- 
thenes and Cicero, and also with a somewhat airdii- 
tious design over the platform, in which the J^ycean 
Apollo apiieared resplendent in his cloud-borne car. 
But of this tradition relates that an unlucky janitor, 



groping in the attic, presumably to regulate the ven- 
tilation, put his stumbling foot through the ceiling, 
and found himself occupying, uninvited, a seat in the 
chariot of the god of light! This famous Lyceum, 
with its unbroken continuity of lecture courses now 
reaching the limit of fifty-seven consecutive years, — a 
record only paralleled, so far as I know, by that of 
another, formed December 21, 1829, in the little red 
brick school-house in Littleton, a 'own of one thou- 
sand inhabitants, between Concord and Groton, which, 
under the name of the Littleton Lyceum, has sus- 
tained itself with spirit and success, and without a 
break, to the present time, — this famous Lyceum has 
called to its platform the most eminent men and 
women of our era. While few names are wanting 
which could add lustre to its record, the name of most 
frequent recurrence is that of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

The next Lyceum formed in Essex County, after 
that at Methuen, of which I have definite information, 
was an organization for lectures and discussion formed 
at Beverly, certainly as early as December, 1828, — 
probably earlier, — and which took the name, Novem- 
ber 5, 1829, of the Beverly Lyceum. It owed its origin 
to the activity and public spirit of Robert Rantoul, Jr., 
Dr. Augustus Torrey and T. Wilson Flagg. Hon. 
William Thorndike was its first president, and on its 
original roll of members, it is interesting to find, in 
company with the names of William Endicott, John 
Pickett, Augustus N. Clark and Warren Prince, prob- 
ably the last survivors of the Beverly worthies who 
joined it, that of Caleb Foote, of Salem. 

A Lyceum, formed at North Andover, April 13, 
1830, is claimed to have been the outgrowth of an 
association for mutual improvement organized early 
in the year 1828, and such a society existing. May 15, 
1830, in the North Parish of Danvers, is also thought 
to have been gathered in some form and at some time 
during the same year. 

At South Danvers, the " Literary Circle," devoted 
at first to reading and conversation solely, opened its 
meetings with an address from Dudley Stickney, its 
first president, on December IG, 1828, at Dr. Shed's 
Hall, nearly opposite the South Danvers Bank, and 
although it enjoyed from the outset the countenance 
of Rufus Choate, Dr. Nichols, Fitch Poole, Dr. Joseph 
Osgood, and others hardly less honored, it could not 
be called a Lyceum before January 9, 1834, when it 
took that form of organization. 

A movement began in Lynn, also, as early as De- 
cember 23, 1828, and in this Alonzo Lewis seems to 
have been active; but of its nature I know nothing. 

So far as I can learn, there was not in existence in 
Essex County, on the fifth day of November, 1829, 
any organized body, in full working order, calling 
itself a Lyceum, and supporting an established course 
of debates and lectures, except at Beverly. 

Of the extent to which the late Hon. Robert Rantoul, 
Jr., contributed to the success of the organization, it 
does not become me to speak. His college experience 

had qualified him to be of service in this way, for he 
had succeeded, in 1823, before the end of his freshman 
year, in establishing a debating club called the 
AKPIBOAoroTMENOl, which, in November, 1825, 
united with the Hermetic Society and the old Speak- 
ing Club or Fraternity of 1770, forming, under a con- 
stitution drawn by him, the Institute of 1770. Hon. 
Chas. W. Upham, in his memoir of Col. Peabody, has 
recorded his high estimate of my father's services, and 
the late Ellis Gray Loring, of Boston, Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, Rev. James Freeman Clarke, and Dr. O. 
W. Holmes, all near his time in college, with Dr. 
Andrew P. Peabody and the late Richard Hildreth 
and J. Thomas Stevenson, his classmates, have tes- 
tified at various times that they then regarded his 
power in organization and in debate as phenomenal. 
Mr. Rantoul left college in August, 1826. He resided 
at Beverly for the next five years, while studying his 
profession in the offices of Hon. John Pickering and 
Hon. Leverett Saltonstall, and afterwards occupying 
an office in the Stearns Building at Salem. In the 
summer of 1831, he was residing and practising his 
profession at South Reading, and there became a 
member of the publication committee of the Middle- 
sex County Lyceum. 

Rufus Choate, who was some years Mr. Rantoul's 
senior, was practising law at South Danvers, in 
an office facing the Square, from September, .1823, 
until his removal to Salem in 1828. Before those 
dates he had pursued his studies in the offices of Mr. 
Andrews, of Ipswich, and of Judge Cummins, of Sa- 
lem, as well as in that of Attorney-General Wirt, at 
Washington. He seems to have taken an early and 
very active interest in the Lyceums springing up 
around him, as so rare a nature could not fail to do, 
and to have identified himself, both before and after 
his establishment in Salem, with the eftbrts of his 
neighbors in behalf of mutual improvement. His 
name appears for the first time, as a lecturer, in the 
roll of the Salem Lyceum, — he was a member of its 
first board of managers, — in 1831, and but twice there- 
after; but his lecture, entitled the "Romance of the | 
Sea," originally known as the " Literature of the 
Sea," when first delivered in Salem, in 1837, became I 
at once famous. AVhipple says of it in his "Recol-l 
lections of Eminent Men," — "Those who heard it! 
forty years ago now speak of it as a masterpiece of ] 
eloquence. It enjoyed a popularity similar to that of 
Wendell Phillips's lecture on 'The Lost Arts.' " 

The first steps towards the organization of an Essex 
County Lyceum were taken at a gathering at Topsfield, 
December 30, 1829. It was not composed largely of 
delegates, but some eighty public-spirited professional 
and scholarly gentlemen came together there in Acad- 
emy Hall, for mutual enlightenment on this interest- 
ing theme. Besides the Methuen and Beverly Ly- 
ceums, there were then existing in the county, one at 
Newburyport, organized November 25, 1829, on a 
very independent footing, and holding weekly meet- 



ings ; and another at Bradford, East Parish, now 
Groveland, called the Frauklin Lyceum, organized 
December 23, 1829, holding weekly meetings in the 
hall of Merrimac Academy. If others were repre- 
sented in the gathering at Topsfield, I have failed to 
trace them; but of those then in existence three, 
probably those of Newburyport, Bradford and Me- 
thuen, declined to send delegates or be in any way 
subjected to the authority of the proposed County 
Lyceum ; and one, Beverly, sent delegates to protest 
against the scheme of confederation, except on condi- 
tion that the autonomy of the town Lyceums w'as 
fully recognized and assured. The feeling of these 
remonstrants was well expressed by Icbabod Tucker, 
of Salem, who said : " For purposes of mutual improve- 
ment, the County Lyceum will be useless. He had 
no objection himself to ride ten or twelve miles once 
in three or four months, to shake hands with his 
friends from distant parts of the county, and to take 
a social chat and eat a social dinner together. He 
thought it would be a very good thing. But it was 
idle to think of forming a government while there was 
nothing to govern, or of forming any board of control 
without the consent, i5rst asked and obtained, of those 
who are to be controlled by it." This spirit of oppo- 
sition to the plan of confederation was by no meaus 
exceptional here, but cropped out elsewhere. The 
opening address, by Dr. Thomas A. Greene, before the 
New Bedford Lyceum, December 18, 1828, says: " We 
have adopted the name of New Bedford Lyceum, in 
preference to calling ourselves a branchof the Ameri- 
can Lyceum, as has been done in some other places. 
This involves no necessary connection with other 
societies, but leaves us at liberty to pursue our own 
course." The very vigorous Lyceum at Newburyport 
was started on the same basis, and there is reason to 
think that many of the most promising of the early 
organizations kept aloof at least until they could be 
assured that no undue control would be attempted by 
the County L3-ceum, and also that all efibrts (m the 
part of the evangelical element to give it a sectarian 
or denominational caste would be defeated. The dif- 
ferences of opinion which thus developed themselves, 
and the warmth with which opposite views were 
maintained throughout an extended session, showed 
that this gathering was no dilettanti excursion. It 
was called to order by Rev. tiarduer B. Perry, of 
Bradford, who was its secretary, and Hoc. Robert 
Rantoul, St., of Beverly, was its president. The 
question whether Lyceums should be of spontaneous 
growth and self-sustaiued, or should derive their 
charters and powers from a central head, such as a 
County or a State Lyceum, was vigorously discussed 
by Judge Cummins, Elisha Mack, Ichabod Tucker, 
Robert Rantoul, Jr., Dr. George Choate and Rev. 
Chiis. W. Upham, all of Salem, and Rev. Leonard 
Withington, of Newbury, in favor of the view which 
prevailed, and by Dr. Spotlord, of Rowley, and Rev. 
Henry C. Wright, of West Newbury, in opposition. 

and the convention recommended a County Lyceum, 
as a means of strengthening town Lyceums previously 
formed, but in no sense or degree as a source of power 
or authority, and after appointing the necessary com- 
mittees, dissolved. One of these committees, of which 
Rev. Chas. W. Upham was chairman, issued, January 
24, 1830, a circular letter, inviting the towns to form 
Lyceums, to send delegates to proposed semi-annual 
county gatherings, and to adopt constitutions modeled 
either on Holbrook's or that of the Beverly or of the 
Salem Lyceum, each of which was quoted in extenso. 
The letter concludes with an urgent appeal to the 
town Lyceums to send delegates to a county ccmven- 
tion, called to meet at Ipswich Hotel, March 17, there 
to consider a couuty constitution to be submitted by 
the committee. Representatives of seventeen Lyce- 
ums attended this meeting, — there were then twenty- 
six towns in the county, — and adopted a county con- 
stitution ; they chose Judge White president, fixed 
the annual meeting on May 5th, at Ipswich ; requested 
an address from Judge White, which was delivered, 
and is in print; and apportioned the county among.-t 
a Board of Managers, in the following districts: To 
Mr. Howe, of Haverhill, his own town, Methuen and 
Bradford West Parish; to Mr. Crosby, of Amesbury, 
that town and Salisbury; to Rev. Mr. Withington, 
Newburyport and Newbury; to Rev. Mr. Perry, 
Bradford East Parish, West Newbury and Rowley ; to 
Rev. Mr. Vose, of Topsfield, that town and Boxford ; 
to Mr. Cutler, of Lynn, Lynn and Saugu*; to Rev. 
Mr. Bartlett, of Marblehead, and Rev. Jlr. Badger, of 
Andover, their own towns respectively ; to Hon. Wm. 
Thorndike, Beverly and Essex; to Hon. Israel Trask 
and Rev. Mr. Hildreth, Gloucester and Manchester; 
and the towns of Salem, Ipswich, Dan vers, Lynnfield, 
Hamilton, Middleton and Wenham, to Hon. D. A. 
White, Rev. John Brazer, Eben Shillaber and Icha- 
bod Tucker, E-quires, all of S.alem. 

The first annual meeting was held, as announced, 
on May.iith, in the First Parish meeting-house at Ips- 
wich, and it is proof enough of the quickening influ- 
ence of the county movement inaugurated at Tops- 
field December 30, 1829, that between that date and 
the meeting at Ipswich, May 5, 1830, Lyceums had 
been formed at Salem, January 18th ; at Andover, 
February 10th; at Manchester, February 18th; at 
Gloucester, February 19th ; at Topsfield and New 
Rowley, some time in February; at West Newbury, 
March lf>th ; at Essex, some time in March ; at North 
Andover, April 13th; and one at Amesbury and Sal- 
isbury in common, and others, at dates which I cannot 
determine, at Lynn, Haverhill and some of the par- 
ishes. Delegates were present on the otli of May from 
eighteen established Lyceums. 

The County Lyceum met next, November 24th, at 
the Tabernacle in Salem, where it was addressed by 
Rev. Mr. Perry, who succeeded to the presidency upon 
the retirement of Judge White, and whose address was 
printed. The second annual meeting was held, May 



27, 1831, in the First Parish meeting-house at New- 
buryport, and was addressed by Rev. Dr. Brazer, of 
Salem, whose remarks were also printed. Ipswich 
had formed a Lyceum since the last report, and was 
now represented in the convention. But so far as I 
can ascertain, this was the last meeting of the Essex 
County Lyceum. Teachers' Institutes were coming 
into favor; some element of internal discord may 
have relaxed its hold on public support, or it may be 
that the town Lyceums had found themselves so 
strong as to be perfectly well able to get on without it. 
Meantime the State Lyceum of Massachusetts, the 
second in the country (New York being a month be- 
fore us), was coming into prominence from the char- 
acter of the men who were conspicuous in it, and, to 
Holbrook's mind at least, his scheme was also taking 
on national, if not even international dimensions. 
But before passing from the local Lyceums, let us look 
for a moment at the nature of the subjects with which 
they mainly concerned themselves. I shall not enu- 
merate the long list of subjects upon which lectures 
were delivered, because in the selection of these the 
listeners had little voice. But the topics chosen for 
debate and the character of their other exercises cer- 
tainly furnish a fair criterion of the prevailingstandard 
of intelligence and the drift of public feeling. In the 
large towns, where either the services of professional 
men were to be had for the asking or the money re- 
quired to secure them was readily forthcoming, the 
lecture was the common medium of instruction. No- 
thing else was ever offered in Salem. But it was in 
the small towns, as the annual reports assure us, that 
the institution did its greatest work, and here debates 
were the chief attraction. These were both written 
and extemporized, but in both cases the subjects were 
announced in advance and disputants appointed to 
open the discussion. In North Danvers, in Topsfield, 
in Haverhill and in Beverly debates seem to have 
proved a special attraction. Among the questions 
discussed were these: "Ought the habit of wearing 
mourning apparel to continue?" "Ought imprison- 
ment for debt to be abolished iu Massachusetts?" 
" Are railroads likely to jirove advantageous? " " Is it 
expedient to authorize a lottery for completing Bun- 
ker Hill Monument?" "Ought the government to 
remove the Seminoles and Cherokees, and have In- 
dians a right to tribal government independent of 
that of the State and of the Union?" "Do newspa- 
pers, on the whole, contribute to the morals of a 
people?" "Do the evils of the militia system counter- 
balance its advantages?" "Is capital punishment 
justifiable in Massachusetts? " " Are the poor laws in 
their present state beneficial?" "Ought public roads 
to be maintained by the town or the county?" 
"Ought representatives, in voting, to be governed by 
their own convictions or those of their constituents?" 
"Is it expedient to divide the town of Danvers?" 
" Is Free Masonry calculated to promote virtue, reli- 
gion and good government?" "Ought immigration to 

be discouraged ? " " Is it right, is it expedient to abol- 
ish slavery in the District of Columbia?" "Ought 
the incorporation of factories to be encoui'aged ? " 
" Is it expedient to take legal measures to prevent the 
distillation of ardent spirits? " "Which sex has pro- 
duced the best authors, according to their respective 
opportunities for literary acquirement?" "Does pub- 
lic policy require that females be excluded from the 
public offices of government and exempted from the 
active duties of citizens? " " Is the use of ardent spir- 
its and stimulating liquors beneficial to the commu- 
nity?" " le it for the advantage of Christendom that 
the Russians expel the Turks from Europe?" "If the 
Greeks gain their independence, what form of govern- 
ment will best suit their circumstances?" "Is the 
present government of France likely to be perma- 
nent?" "Has the career of Byron been beneficial or 
injurious?" " Of Napoleon ?" "What occasions the 
stillness of the air which precedes earthquakes?" 
" Is the use of anthracite coal likely to conduce to 
economy and comfort?" 

In many instances the same question was discussed 
for several sittings and often referred to a committee 
for final determination. Ladies made their contribu- 
tions, if at all, in writing, and often anonymously, 
through the medium of the post-office or of a special 
receptacle for their communications and essays estab- 
lished by each Lyceum. In some places, notably in 
Gloucester, Boston and Philadelphia, ladies were en- 
couraged to take part, but their co-operation was not 
always invited. In Salem, Haverhill and elsewhere 
ihey were at first admitted on special terms, and each 
required the guaranty of a male sponsor for her good 
behavior. The sex seems to have been treated with a 
vague distrust, like some untried, monstrous and ex- 
plosive force, only to be experimented on, if at all, 
with the utmost circumspection. Where the)' ap- 
peared they were cautioned to come with heads un- 
covered, for bonnets were ample, and the presence of 
these fascinating obstructions, it was said, tempted 
auditors to rise from their seats when experiments 
were shown, and thus still further to intercept the 
vision. Of topics for lectures, I think that electricity, 
experimentally illustrated, was the universal favorite. 
In Salem Colonel Peabody owned costly apparatus for 
these experiments ; in other less fortunate places the 
funds of the Lyceum were devoted to its purchase, 
and everywhere men of scientific knowledge enough 
to exhibit and explain the phenomena of galvanism, 
magnetism and kindred manifestations of this tremen- 
dous agent were in unfailing demand. In this con- 
nection the fact is not without interest that Professor 
Charles Grafton Page, of Salem, whose name was a 
household word amongst early Lyceum-goers, and 
who was afterwards for many years a principal exam- 
iner of patents at the Patent Office, and also connected 
with the early stages of the Smithsonian Institute at 
Washington, succeeded, in 18.51, in driving a loco- 
motive electric engine on the Baltimore and Ohio 


Railroad from Washington to Bladensburg and back, 
reaching a maximum speed of nineteen miles per 
hour. It was not an uncommon practice in the Ly- 
ceums to engage some attractive celebrity for the 
opening lecture of a winter's course, and to make tluit 
lecture free, with a view to invite a large attendance 
and to recommend the institution to general favor. 
This policy was a justification of the remark of Dr. 
Holmes, in his " Lecture on Lectures and Lecturers," 
that the Lyceum served the purpose, among others, 
of a cheap menagerie for showing the lions to the 
people. I recall a course at Beverly, probably in 
1842, ojjened by John Quincy Adams, who was after- 
wards entertaintd at the Brown mansion, on Cabot 
Street, now the residence of Mr. Perry Collier. Cura- 
tors were chosen where there were cabinets and appa- 
ratus, and other officers for the care and administra- 
tion of libraries. In some places, where the repetition 
of lectures was made necessary by the straitened 
accommodations of halls and churches, the lecturer 
read the same address on Tuesday evening and on 
Wednesday afternoon, and his audiences, by a 
process of natural selection, divided themselves 
between those whose occupations left their even- 
ings free and the school attendants, teacher and 
pupil, with ladies and persons of leisure who could 
spare the hours of daylight, and so made a " lec- 
ture afternoon" in a new sense on Wednesday. In 
other places, as in Salem for the years between 
1851 and 1856, when we had outgrown our little am- 
phitheatre and were yet repelled by the cost and vast- 
ness of Mechanic Hall, courses were repeated on Tues- 
day and Wednesday evenings, and the former being a 
night devoted by the Evangelical Churches to relig- 
ious gatherings, the atmosphere on the first reading 
of a lecture was considerably more heretical than on 
the second. The lecturer's fee was generally ten dol- 
lars, rarely twenty, and in most cases lectures, like 
other services, being rendered by public-spirited 
townsmen, — Mr. Emerson delivered ninety-eight in 
Concord, — were gratuitously rendered. Dr. Chapin's 
mot, "I lecture for FAME, Fifty-And-My-Expenses," 
belougs to a later epoch. In some instances the ex- 
ercises of the Lyceum were opened freely to the pub- 
lic, but generally a little contribution to the funds 
was exacted, say fifty cents or a dollar per year. The 
magic-lantern took the place of our elaborate appa- 
ratus for illustration, but the name "Phantasmagoria," 
perhaps, made up for some of its deficiencies. 

The Lyceums, while alike in general drift, differed 
nmcli iu methods and details ; that at Gloucester was 
organized under the general act for incorporating 
Lyceums approved March 4, 1829, and for the first five 
years continued its sittings through almost the entire 
year. It devoted its attention at once to the schools 
of Gloucester and to the history of the town. To the 
distinguished names I have mentioned in connection 
with it, may be added those of Dr. Ebenezer Dale, 
Benj. K. Hough, Dr. William Ferson and John W. 

Lowe. The Lynn Lyceum encouraged the produc- 
tion of dissertations and essays and divided itself into 
ten classes or departments covering agriculture, trade 
and manufacture.<, education, letters, morals, art and 
sciences, physiology, natural iiistory — including min- 
eralogy, geology, botany and chemistry — history and 
public improvements. Two outlying districts of 
Lynn, namely, Woodend and Swampscott, had early 
Lyceums of their own. The Beverly Lyceum often 
had a lecture, followed by a debate on the same even- 
ing. At one time it met twice in each week for 
debate, and the debates sometimes extended over 
several adjournments. It also voted by j-ea and nay 
vote on the weight of argument, as well as on the 
merits of the question. And the president of the Ly- 
ceum did not preside over the debates, but was re- 
quired to appoint in each case a chairman of the 
committee of the whole. Robert Rantoul, Sr., con- 
tributed a course of lectures on the history of the 
town which became the acknowledged basis of Stone's 
" History of Beverly." In a course on physiology, by 
Dr. Augustus Torrey, resort was had to the expedient 
of distributing a full printed synopsis of each lecture 
before its delivery. The Lyceum of Amesbury and 
Salisbury had expended nearly a hundred dollars for 
books and apparatus during its first season. That at 
Andover had followed an introductory by Holbrouk, 
and a second address by Judge White, with a course 
of six illustrated lectures on astronomy from Rev. 
Harvey Wilbur, which were delivered at intervals of 
two or three days, and cost seventy-five dollars. 
Then Rev. Calvin Stowe pointed out the dangers of 
the prevailing ideas iu education, especially those in- 
cident to Lyceums, and he was followed bj' Rev. E. 
W. Hooker in an essay claiming the Scriptures as the 
only basis of ethical science. At Bradford Merrimac 
Academy, one of the six large institutions of the kind 
then flourishing in the county, the students from 
abroad were allowed free admittance to the meetings 
of the Lyceum, probably in consideration of the use of 
Academy Hall, and a collection of mineral and vege- 
table specimens and other curiosities was begun, in 
1830, having amongst them what was thought to be 
a foot and leg of aboriginal sculpture. At North 
Andover meetings were held once a fortnight, the 
year round, save in the summer month-i, and head- 
quarters were established, with a reuling-room, in 
the brick building opposite the meeting-house. At 
North Danvers the meetings were largely attended, 
occurred three times each month, and were occupied, 
with " Lectures, Debates, Compositions on Miscella- 
neous Topics, Reports of Committees appointed to 
solve questions in Natural Philosophy and Mathe- 
matics, and to criticize Declamations and Composi- 
tions." Lectures were read on chemistry, mechanics, 
geography, natural history, phrenology, geometry, 
natural theology, anatomy and architecture. 

It would only be necessary to look beyond the 
countvin order to extend indclinitely this catalogue of 



idiosyncrasies. The Nantucket Lycenm, one of the 
very earliest, incorporated bj' a special charter ap- 
proved February 12, 1827, at once took steps for the 
gathering of a museum of local industry, by issuing a 
printed call to whalemen, urging them to neglect no 
opportunity for bringing home specimens illustrative 
of their venturesome and romantic calling and giving 
them directions as to the best known means of secur- 
ing and preserving them. The Worcester Lyceum 
made the common law of business a special topic for 
instruction, and organized classes in chemistry, his- 
tory, geography and practical mechanics. Many of 
the Lyceums anticipated the functions of village im- 
provement clubs, embellishing, with shade-trees, the 
roads and lanes, beautifying the borders of lakes and 
streams, opening vistas and caring for the village 
green. And one at Williamstown, if the journals of 
the day may be trusted, attempted the introduction of 
a new industry and undertook the planting, in the 
spring of 1830, of twelve thousand white mulberry 
trees at its own cost. 

Such were the early Lyceums of Massachusetts, and 
Essex County contained between a fourth and a third 
of the whole number, when, in February, 1831, Mr. 
Secretary Vose, of Topsfield, presented the best re- 
port made by any county to the first gathering of the 
Massachusetts Lyceum at the State House in Boston. 
With a brief review of the doings of the State and 
National Lyceums this paper may fitly close. 

The first movement looking towards the organiza- 
tion of a State Lyceum in Massachusetts took place 
at the Exchange Coffee-House in Boston, November 
7, 1828. Daniel Webster filled the chair and en- 
dorsed the scheme, and George B. Emerson was secre- 
tary. Josiah Holbrook reported progress. Edward 
Everett pledged his support and urged that books 
and apparatus quite beyond the reach of single per- 
sons, could be owned and made of general use by Ly- 
ceums. The meeting adjourned for one week, and 
met again at the same place for the report of its com- 
mittee on the present condition and needs of the 
Lyceum system, when Edward Everett was called to 
the chair, atd after, discussion, another adjournment 
for one week was had. At the last meeting Dr. 
Charles Lowell took the chair and an elaborate re- 
port was submitted and adopted after debate, and laid 
before the people of the State, setting forth very forci- 
bly and plainly the purposes and advantages of the 
Lyceum and urging general attention to its claims. 
The movement had the endorsement, also, of Henry 
Ware, then acting president of Harvard College, of 
Alexander H. Everett, and of other names hardly 
less conspicuous and influential, but it lacked the 
vital energy of the town Lyceums. 

Later in the same winter, February 6, 1829, a meet- 
ing of members of the Legislature and others inter- 
ested, was held at the Representatives' Hall, resolu- 
tions voted and given to the public, and a committee 
raised to collect and report information on Lyceums 

in the commonwealth. This report was made at an 
adjourned meeting at the same place, February 19, 
1830, at which Governor Lincoln presided. It re- 
commended, through Alexander H. Everett,its chair- 
man, the formation of town and village Lyceums and 
of county Lyceums as an outgrowth and supplement 
to these, defined and described their objects, urged 
teachers to join them, proposed a State Lyceum, ap- 
pointed a State Central Committee, including many 
of the foremost names in Massachusetts, upon which 
Essex County was represented by Stephen C. Phillips, 
Riifus Choate, Benjamin Greenleaf, William Thorn- 
dike, Gayton P. Osgood, Alonzo Lewis and others, re- 
commended the Lyceums to co-operate in the pro- 
posed survey by Colonel James Stevens for a map of 
Massachusetts, proposed a scientific and practical ex- 
amination of the resources of each town, gave a defi- 
nition of the Lyceum as " a voluntary association of 
persons for mutual improvement," sent out a circular 
letter, with a promise of others, and urged in return a 
general response in the form of systematic reports from 
all the Lyceums in Massachusetts. 

In consequence of this action the Massachusetts 
State Lyceum was organized February 25, 1831, and 
of this Alexander H. Everett was president and Jo- 
siah Holbrook secretary. Dr. James Walker, Hon. 
John Davis and Judge White were among its vice- 
presidents. It arranged for an elaborate lecture course 
at the State House during the annual session of the 
Legislature, with a most exhaustive catalogue of sub- 
jects and a most distinguished list of speakers, includ- 
ing Judge Jackson, Horace Mann, Theodore Sedg- 
wick and James Savage. Its first anniversary meet- 
ing was held at the State House, February 1st, 2d and 
6th, 1832, the president in the chair and Stephen C. 
Phillips, of Salem, secretary. It appeared that the 
twenty-six towns in Essex County supported twenty- 
three Lyceums, a record quite in advance of any other 
section of the country. Salem had the largest Lyceum 
in the State, numbering twelve hundred members. 
That at Newton ranked next, and after Newton camei 
Newburyport, with four hundred and fifty, and Glou-| 
cester with four hundred. Haverhill with three huu'^ 
dred and fifty, was amongst the largest. Timothy 
Claxton took part in this meeting in an etfort toshov 
how Lyceums might be of service to struggling invenl 
tors in perfecting their designs and models. At the 
next meeting of the State Lyceum, which proved to" 
be its last, held February 20, 1833, Dr. Gannett and 
Rev. John Pierpont a])pear among the speakers. But 
the efforts of all these good men and true were unable 
to save it longer. 

The National Lyceum did not succeed much better. 
Organized in the United States Court Room in the 
City Hall at New York, May 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 1831, in ac- 
cordance with a call issued January 13, by the State 
Lyceum of New York, sitting at Utica on its first 
gathering, the National Lyceum of America proceeded 
to adopt a constitution based upon the representation 


of local Lyceums, each State and territory to send not 
less than three delegates, and not more than half its 
number of members in Congress. This body elected 
Hon. Stephen van Rensselaer, of Albany, N. Y., as 
its president, and Hon. Edward Everett and Hon. 
Thomas S. Griinke, of South Carolina were two of its 
five vice-presidents. It issued the usual appeals for 
support ; commended to the aid of local Lyceums the 
work of Colonel James Stevens, an eminent engiueer, 
then engaged in Massachusetts on the first State topo- 
graphical map produced in the country ; called for the 
establishment of normal schools ; questioned the poli- 
cy of retaining Latin and Greek in the advanced 
schools as a required study; urged the introduction of 
the natural sciences; and, after much labor of a more 
formal character, adjourned for a twelve-month. Its 
next meeting was in the Aldermen's Room in the City 
Hall at New York. May 4, 5, 6, 7, 1832, and here it 
was honored with the presence of an ex-president of 
the Spanish Cortes, of Zavala and Salgada, two 
Mexican ex-governors, and of Fortique, a representa- 
tive in the Congress of Venezuela, as well as at other 
times of the consul-general of Colombia, the Prussian 
Envoy, an Armenian essayist from Constantinople, an 
Atheuian professor, and a philosopher from London. 
It met again May 3, 4, -5, 6, 1833, in the same place, 
and elected President Duer of Columbia College its 
presiding oificer. It recommended a uniform system of 
meteorological observations, amongst the Lyceums of 
the country ; the introduction of vocal music and man- 
ual labor in the common schools; commended .Audu- 
bon's great work on the birds of America; heard let- 
ters from several leading personages in the West In- 
dies and the Central American States, as well as in 
various parts of the Union, and urged the formation in 
New York of a National Cabinet of Natural History, 
to be made up of contributions from local Lyceums. 
At a meeting in the same place. May 2, 3, 5, 1834, 
Massachusetts made a good report through Hon. Wm. 
B. Calhoun, and the state of education in Cuba, Po- 
land and Mexico were considered. It was voted to 
print an essay on the North American Indians by 
Schoolcraft, and a text-book on Constitutional Juris- 
prudence, furnished by President Duer. In May, 1835, 
the annual meeting was again held in New York, and 
the teaching of political economy and the fine arts in 
the public schools was advocated. John Pickering's 
researches in the dialects of the North American 
tribes were highly commended. Signs of approach- 
ing dissolution began to manifest themselves. At 
the meeting of May G, 7, 9, 1836, at the same place. 
Dr. Howe, of Massachusetts, explained his method of 
educating the blind, and New Grenada reported the 
purchase, at government cost, of twenty thousand 
slates and two hundred thousand slate-pencils ! Hol- 
brook proposed supplying every one of the eleven 
thousand counties in the United States with a cabinet 
of minerals of its own, furnished through the system 
of Lyceum exchange. In May, 1837, the annual meet- 

ing was held in Philadelphia. The disposal of the 
surplus revenue was discussed and Espy's theory of 
storms was commended, with a request to the local 
Lyceums to report their weather observations to Espy. 
Government was memorialized in favor of a weather 
bureau, Holbrook now produced his twelve-page 
prospectus of a "Universal Lyceum," with Henry 
Brougham at its head, a list of fifty-two vice-presi- 
dents, one for every week in the year, taken from all 
the nations of the earth, and one hundred and thirty- 
nine secretaries, besides Josiah Holbrook, who is 
styled " Actuary." The declared objects w^ere " the 
diffusion of knowledge over our globe," and " the ex- 
change of shells, minerals and plants." The meeting 
of 1838 was held at the free church in Hartford, Con- 
necticut, and sat but one day, May 15. Common- 
school matters occupied it largely, but it found time 
to consider also the questions of international copy- 
right and the improvement and embellishment of 
towns and villages. It complains of lack of funds and 
finds the American Institute of Instruction a growing 
competitor. It met once more ; this time at New York 
again, May 3, 4, 5, 1839 ; fifty-five delegates were pre- 
sent, but none from Massachusetts. It proposed a 
convention to sit for one week from November 22d, 
at Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, just before the 
session of Congress, in order to influence that body in 
applying the Smithson Legacy, and also in favor 
of selling the public lands for educational purposes. 
It proposed to call for educational statistics in the 
next decennial census, and finally it proposed a Gen- 
eral National Convention of the whole L'nion to sit at 
Washington, D. C, in May, 1840. These never met, 
and so ended all but what survived in the town Ly- 
ceums, and possibly here and there a scattered county 
organization, of the Lyceum system of .Tosiah Hol- 
brook. This remarkable man seems to have died as he 
had lived, reaching out for more thau he could grasp. 
His lifeless body was found floating in a stream near 
Lynchburg, Va., May 24, 1854, and there was reason to 
believe that in clambering alone up the rugged blufl' to 
secure some rare mineral specimen or delicate flower 
of which he was iu search, he had missed his footing, 
and so lost his life. Few in any age have shown 
more unselfish devotion to a noble idea, and what he 
really did, however it may have fallen short of what 
he hoped, is monument enough for any num. 


Agriciilliirul— Medical — Railroad;*. 

EssE.x AoRlGiTLTUKAL SOCIETY.' — The idea of the 
formation of this society originated with Col. Timothy 
Pickering, who, at the head of forty men, made the 

1 By Benjamin P. Ware. 


first armed resistance to British forces, February 28tli, 
1775, at Nortli Bridge, Salem. He called a meeting 
of farmers, and other inhabitants of Essex County, at 
Cyrus Cummings' tavern in Topsfield, Monday, the 
16th of February, 1818. Ichabod Tucker was chosen 
moderator, and Daniel Cummings, secretary ; these, 
with John Adams, Paul Kent and Elisha Mack, were 
appointed a committee to report a plan of organiza- 

Timothy Pickering was chosen president, and Wil- 
liam Bartlett, Dr. Thomas Kittredge, John Heard 
and Ichabod Tucker, vice-presidents, Leverett Sal- 
tonstall, secretary, and Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland, 

Timothy Pickering was annually chosen president, 
for ten years to 1829 ; Frederick Howes, four years, 
from 1829 to 1833; Ebenezer Mosely, three years, 
from 1833 to 1836 ; James H. Duncan, three years, 
from 1836 to 1839 ; Joseph Kittridge, two years, from 
1839 to 1841 ; Leverett Saltonstall, four years, from 
1841 to 1845 ; John W. Proctor, seven years, from 
1845 to 1852 ; Moses Newell, four years, from 1852 to 
1856; Richard S. Fay, two years, from 1856 to 1858 ; 
Daniel Adams, two years, from 1858 to 1860; Allen 
W. Dodge, three years, from 1860 to 1863 ; Joseph 
How, two years, from 1863 to 1865 ; William Sutton, 
nine years, from 1865 to 1874; and Benjamin P. Ware, 
thirteen years, from 1874 to 1887, now holding the 

The secretaries and treasurers of the society have 
been as follows : — 


David Cummings 1818-19. 

Frederick Howes 1819-20. 

John W. Proctor 182U-42. 

Daniel P. King 1842-44. 

Allen VF. Dodge 1844-fiO. 

Charles P. Preston 18r,0-85. 

David W. Low 1885- 

(Now in office.) 


Ichabod Tucker 1818. William Sutton 1841-66. 

Edward H. Payson 1850-81. 

Gilbert L. Streeter 1881- 

(Now in office.) 

Daniel A. White 1819-23. 

Benj. R. Nichols 1823-26. 

Benj. Merrill 1826-28. 

Andrew Nichols 1828-41. 

There has been a carefully prepared address deliv- 
ered before the society, at its annual meeting, every 
year since its organization, except the five years be- 
tween 1823 and 1829. These addre.*se.s have been de- 
livered in every instance by a citizen of the county, 
invited by a vote of the trustees, and have been pub- 
lished in the transactions of the society, and form a 
valuable part of the agricultural literature of the so- 
ciety. Col. Timothy Pickering delivered the first ad- in 1818, and again in February, 1820. The 
others were as follows : — 

Andrew Nichols, in October, 1820. 
Kev. Abiel Abbott, in 1821. 
Kev. Peter Eaton, in 1822. 
Hon. Frederick Howes, in 1823. 
Col. Pickering, again in 1829. 
Hon. James H. Duncan, in 1830. 
Kev. Henry Colman, in 1831. 
Rev. Gardner B. Perry, in 1832. 
Dr. Jeremiah Spofford, in 1833. 

Hon. Ebenezer Moseley, in 1834. 
Hon. Daniel P. King, in 1835. 
Hon. Nathan W. Hazen, in 1836. 
Eev. Nathaniel Gage, in 1837. 
Rev. Leonard Withingtou, in 1838. 
Rev. Allen Putnam, in 1839. 
Hon. Ashael Huntington, in 1840. 
Alonzo Gray, A. M., in 1841. 
Hon. Allen W. Dodge, in 1842. 

Hon. Leverett Saltonstall, iu 1843. 
Hon. John W. Proctor, in 1844. 
Rev. Edwin M. Stone, in 1845. 
Hon. Moses Newell, in 1846. 
Thomas E. Payson, Esq., in 1847. 
Josiah Newell, Esq., in 1848. 
Hon. Asa T. Newhall, in 1849. 
Hon Caleb Cushing, in 1850. 
Rev. Milton P. Braman, iu 1851. 
Hon. Henry K. Oliver, in 18.52. 
Hon. Joseph S. Cabot, in 1863. 
Hon. R. S. Fay, in 1854. 
Dr. James R. Nichols, in 1855. 
Ben. Perley Poore, Esq., in 1856. 
Dr. E G. Kelly, in 18,57. 
Dr. Geo. B. Loring, in 1868. 
Edward Everett, in 1858. 
lion. J. J. H. Gregory, in 1859. 
Rev. .lohn L. Russell, in 1860. 
Hon. Alfred A. Abbott, in 1861. 
Geo. J. L. Colby, Esq., in 1862. 
Hon. Daniel Saunders, in 1863. 
Hon. Darwin E. Ware, in 1864. 

Nathani^ Cleavland, Esq., in 1866. 
Hon. Otis P. Lord, in 1866. 
Rev. R. H. Seeley, D.D., in 1867, 
Dr. Geo. B. Loring, again in 1868. 
Benjamin P. Ware, Esq., in 1869. 
Hon. Benj. F. Butler, in 1870. 
Hon. Joseph S. How, in 1871. 
Hon. Wm. D. Northeud, in 1872. 
Rev. Charles B. Kice, i n 1873. 
John L. .Shorey, Esq., in 1874. 
Rev. Dr. E. 0. Bolles, in 1875. 
Cyrus M. Tracy, in 1876. 
Rev. O. S. Butler, in 1877. 
T. 0. Thurtow, Esq., in 1878. 
Dr. Gen. B. Loring, again in 1879. 
David W. Low, Esq., in 1880. 
Dr. James R. NicholB,again in 1881. 
Francis H. Appleton, Esq.,in 1882. 
Hon. Chas. P. Thompson, in 1881. 
Asa T. Newhall, iu 1884. 
Thomas Saunders, in 1886. 
Rev. John D. Kingsbury, in 1886. 
Dr. William Cogswell, in 1887. 

In connection with these addresses, fifteen original 
hymns, odes and songs, have been sung by selected 
choirs, and published in the transactions. There 
have also been published in the transactions of the 
society, (67) sixty-seven prize essays upon various 
subjects connected with agriculture, for which has 
been paid premiums varying from eight to twenty- 
five dollars each ; also (49) forty-nine prize reports of 
committees ; premiums paid for these from six dol- 
lars to ten dollars; in addition there have been pub- 
lished (626) six hundred and twenty-six extended re- 
ports of committees, containing original ideas and 
suggestions, each filling from one to ten pages of 
printed matter. 

These addresses, essays and reports contain the best 
thoughts, the broadest experiences and wisest sug- 
gestions of the most prominent farmers and profes- 
sional men of Essex County, in the last sixty -five 
years, and make up, principally, the agricultural lit- 
erature of the county. 

The Essex Agricultural Society, unlike all others 
in the State, owns no grounds, including a trotting 
track and show buildings ; it has no local abiding 
place. But instead, owns a tent, some portable cattle 
pens, twelve hundred exhibition fruit dishes, an expe- 
rimental farm of one hundred and fifty acres, which 
brings an income of from three hundred to .five hun- 
dred dollars per annum, besides conducting such ex-v! 
perinients as are required by the committee having 
that matter in charge. A library of eight hundred 
volumes of valuable books for reference and study, 
and funds invested in bank stock, the market value 
of which is $17,119.83. 

This society needs no trotting track, for it never 
paid a dollar for speed since its organization ; or for 
any other attraction, nor allows any on its grounds, 
except of a purely agricultui'al or horticultural char- 
acter, which must be grown or owned within the 
county. Domestic manufactures and works of art 
from citizens of the county receive the encourage- 
ment of the society. All stock competing for a pre- 



mium must be owned in the county at least four 
months previous. Agricultural implements, from any 
source, are admitted for competition ; no entrance 
fees required from any competitor for premiums. 
The whole of the exhibitions are open, free to the 
public, except for admission to the exhibition hall, 
where twenty cents is charged. An average sum of 
three thousand dollars has been offered in premiums 
annually for the last ten years, and since its organi- 
zation the society has, as near as can be ascertained, 
awarded in premiums and gratuities an aggregate of 
§48,727.54. In addition, the society has supported 
three scholarships at the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College through the entire course of four years, at 
fifty dollars each per year, and for three years had a 
premium of one hundred dollars offered for the best 
prepared student, who shall enter the college from 
Essex County and continue through the four years' 

This society holds its annual exhibitions in differ- 
ent parts of the county where most needed and where 
suitable accommodations cau be provided. Since its 
organization, it has held its shows at Danvers, ten 
times; Lawrence, seven times; six each at Lynn, 
Topsfield, Haverhill and Xewburyport ; five times at 
Georgetown and Salem; four times at Gloucester; 
three each at Andover and Ipswich ; two at Peabody ; 
one at Newbury; and two others in doubt. This so- 
ciety has held, since required by the State Board of 
Agriculture, 1879, forty-eight institutes in different 
parts of the county where most wanted. At each 
meeting two sessions have been held, with a large at- 
tendance, and the subjects selected discassed with 
much interest and satisfaction to the farming com- 
munity, resulting in promulgating much practical 
knowledge and a growing interest in the farm. Two 
trials of mowing machines and other machines for 
mating hay, have been organized and conducted by 
the society, and two of plows and other implements 
for cultivating crops, each proved of great value to 
the farmers and were a complete success. The whole 
number of members since its organization is twenty- 
nine hundred and eighty-six ; the present number 
now living is fifteen hundred and eight. 

The society publishes annually an edition of from 
fifteen hundred to two thousand copies of its transac- 
tions, containing from one hundred and twentj' to 
, two hundred and twenty pages, for distribution 
I among its members and others 

The transactions published since the society's or- 
ganization make in the aggregate eighty-seven hun- 
dred and sixty-one pages of valuable and interesting 
: reading matter, and which are no inconsiderable part 
i of the agricultural literature of the State. 
1 Es.SEX South District Medical Society. - 
I This is one of the oldest of the district societies 
' that form the JIassachusetts Medical Society. It was 
organized Xovember 4, 1805, by ten physicians, who 
met at the Sun Tavern, in Salem ; Dr. Edward Aug- 

ustus Holyoke president and Dr. John Dexter Tread- 
well secretary. It consists of those members of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society who reside in Lynn, 
Swampscott, Xahant, Saugus, Lynnficld, Marblehead, 
Salem, Peabody, Danvers, Middleton, Beverly, Wen- 
ham, Topsfield, Ipswich, Hamilton, Essex, Manches- 
ter, Rockport, Gloucester. 

Its meetings are held every six weeks, either in 
Salem or Lynn, except occasionally during the sum- 
mer months, in other towns within the district. At 
these meetings written pa])ers are read and oral com- 
munications are made, giving an account of interest- 
ing cases that have occurred in their practice. 

The Library, which was established by a vote of the 
society at its first meeting, contains about twenty-five 
hundred volumes. The books from the libraries of 
the late Drs. E. A. Holyoke, A. D. Pierson and Samuel 
Johnson compose a large portion and are very valua- 
ble additions. The cireulatiuu is limited to members 
of the society. The library is deposited in Plummer 
Hall, Salem. 

The Es.SEX North District Medical Society 
was organized November 3, 1841. An application had 
been previously made to the Massachusetts Medical 
Society and granted by that body for the formation of 
the fellows of that Society practicing in Amesbury, 
Audover, Boxford, Bradford, Georgetown, Haverhill, 
Lawrence, Methuen, Newbury, Newburyport, Row- 
ley, Salisbury and West Newbury into an association 
to be entitled the Essex North District Medical So- 
ciety. At the date above mentioned Dr. Jonathan G. 
Johnson, of Newburyport, was chosen president; Dr. 
Rufus Lo'ogley, of Haverhill, vice-president ; Dr. F. 
V. Noyes, of Newburyport, secretary ; Dr. Isaac Boyd, 
of West Newbury, treasurer; and Dr. J. Spoflbrd, of 
Groveland, librarian. The Society chooses annually 
eight counsellors, and these in connection with the 
counsellors of other district societies in the State 
constitute the Board of Counsellors of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society. Five censors are also 
chosen annually, who examine applicants for admis- 
sion as to character and professional qualifications, 
and the consent of three censors is necessary (or ad- 

Stated meetings are held quarterly. The annual 
meeting is held at Haverhill on the first Wednesday 
in May, at which ofllcers for the year are chosen, and 
other meetings in August, November and February 
at such places as may be from time to time deter- 

BcsTON AND Maine Railroad extends from 
Boston to Portland, Me., a distance of 115.50 miles. 
This road was originally organized as the Andover 
and Wilmington Railroad Company. It took its pre- 
seut name in 1839. This company is now- the largest 
railroad corporation in New England. Its leased 
lines in Essex County are as follows : Eastern Rail- 
road, chartered April 14, 1830; Danvers Railroad; 
Lowell and Andover; Newburyport; WeH Amesbury; 


Chelsea Beach; Newburyport City; and Boston and 
Lowell and branches. President, George C. Lord ; 
General Manager, James T. Furber. 

Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad 
extends from East Boston to Lynn, along Revere 
Beach. It was chartered May 23, 1874, and was 

opened July 29, 187.5. It does a large summer busi- 
ness. Gauge three feet. Honorable Edwin WaUlen, of 
Lynn, is president. 

Boston, Winthrop and Shore Railroad extends from 
Point Shirley to Point of Pines. Honorable Edwin 
AValden, president. 


History of Essex Co, Massachusetts. 






The writer of this iutroductory chapter is released 
from the ordinary duties and responsibilities of the 
chroniclers whose work he prefaces wfth some general 
views of the various epochs of the history of Salem. 
The careful precision a.s to names, dates and the 
order of events required of them must here give 
place to general views, rapid sketches and such 
characterization of men and times as may be ex- 
pected of the essayist rather than the historian. 

For more than a hundred years after the discovery 
of America by Columbus, New England was un- 
known. It was a century of exploration and dis- 
covery, and the Catholic Spaniard played a leading 
part in the process of opening a new world to civiliza- 
tion. His imagination was inflamed by what are 
now incredible stories of treasure to be discovered, 
of magical and supernatural manifestations to be 
noted in nature and human life, and by hopes of at- 
taining to some new and unheard of power over the 
secret forces of nature, then go unknown, and yet so 
tempting to the unscientific mind of the sixteenth 
century. He was animated,, by zeal to convert 
or dispossess the infidel, and to commend himself as 
a loyal son of the church, thus at one happy stroke 
making his fortune both for this world and the next. 
In 1565 St. Augustine was founded, and in 1582 
Santa Fo was colonized and made a station of the 
church, and the Spaniard, keeping for the most part 
within those isothermal lines which, by an unwritten 
law of nations l\ave so largely controlled the course 
of empire, was elated by visions of inexhaustible 

wealth, national glory and religious propagandism 
for which the western continent ofiered such unex- 
ampled opportunities. 

To the Protestant Englishman during all this time 
New England was unknown except as au undistin- 
guished part of the western world. With the seven- 
teenth century the French, English and Dutch began 
to establish colonies in Nova Scotia, Canada, Vir- 
ginia and New York. Then New England begins to 
emerge slowly from the vast, unsurveyed bulk of the 
continent, and to attract the attention of those in 
whose keeping were the seeds which, for a hundred 
generations of English and Germanic life, had been 
preparing to grow into the social, civil and religious 
institutions of New England. "God sifted a whole 
nation," said Stoughton, " that he might send choice 
grain out into this wilderness." He might have said 
that the civil and religious institutions of the Ger- 
manic race were sifted to furnish precedents, apti- 
tudes and the specific religious impulses out of which 
to produce the Puritan Church and the New England 

Reviewing the events recorded in this volume, and 
contemplating the rare and great qualities of the 
founders of Salem as manifested in some of the most 
heroic and dignified aspects of human life, and in 
crises of difficulty and danger ; regarding, also, with- 
out flinching or apology, the grim and cruel traits 
and deeds which disfigured their lives and stained 
their record, one need not be ashamed of his interest 
and admiration. The founders of Salem were not 
greater, wiser or better than other men. But the 
narrowness of their opportunity, together with the 
great use they made of it, rendered their qualities 
conspicuous, and the record of them a just cause of 
pride to all who inherit any share in their labors and 
rewards. As in some little Swiss canton, whore 
nature has thrust together and pushed high into the 


air the sublimities of that Alpine scenery, of which 
every detail may be surpassed elsewhere, while the 
general efl'ect has no rival, so in this little township 
were to be brought together and set to do the drudgery 
of common life such gifts of culture, courage, wisdom 
and strength as commonly go to the founding of 
kingdoms and the conduct of empires. Indeed, in 
their own way, the way of intelligence and freedom, 
they were laying the foundations of institutions with 
influence more powerful and enduring than any em- 
pire which has risen or fallen since they lived their 
strenuous lives of homely toil and great endeavor. 
The events which wore crowded into the first century 
of what was then their obscure history, spread over a 
larger surface and connected by more evident ties 
with the fortunes of civilization, would have attracted 
universal attention. Now they become an imperish- 
able part of the history of human progress. 

In 1614 Capt. John Smith, prince among adventurers 
and good fellows, coasted, named and praised New 
England, and going home to England he spent much 
time in commending the newly-discovered "Para- 
dise" to rich and influential people. Then came the 
Pilgrims bound for a more genial climate; but driven 
out of their course by fortunate accident, they settle 
in Plymouth, and establish their church. But even 
in their little and well-sifted band there was not per- 
fect agreement in matters of religion, although that 
was their chief concern, and soon we see John 
Lyford, of no enviable reputation, with John Oldham 
and others, because they could not agree to " sepa- 
rate " from the Church of England, pushing out and 
exploring the coast to the northward to find or found 
a home. Among them was one Roger Conant, well 
commended then and afterward for his homely good 
sense and perfect honesty. They tarry awhile at 
Nantasket, where Capt. Miles Standish, coasting that 
way, had built a hut a year or two before, and there, in 
somewhat dubious case, they are waiting when the 
Dorchester Company in England, having by this time 
(162.3) forty or fifty ships passing to and fro, bringing 
over fishermen, salt, etc., and taking home cargoes of 
fish, beaver skins and such furs and other spoil of 
the wilderness as may be gathered there, summon 
Roger Conant to take charge of their station at Cape 
Ann. A charter has been secured, and hopes are en- 
tertained that now, after many misfortunes, some 
profit may accrue to the adventurers. Conant is to 
be Governor, Lyford minister to the half a hundred 
people gathered there, and Oldham is asked to come 
and trade with the Indians, which ofiice he declines. 
Misfortunes continue, however. Fire, sickness and 
quarrels (a fierce one with Miles Standish) break 
their courage, reduce their profits and finally cause 
the abandonment of the undertaking. 

Conant now has in mind an undertaking of another 
kind. Finding on the peninsula of Naumkeag a 
sheltered place where he thinks it possible for colo- 

nists to maintain themselves in comfort, he proposes 
to the Rev. John White, of the Dorchester Company, 
to establish there a jjlantation. It has been com- 
monly believed that he proposed to provide here a 
shelter for such unhappy creatures as might in Eng- 
land be persecuted for their religion. This is now 
disputed on the ground that he was not a " sepa- 
ratist " in Plymouth, and did not agree with John 
Endicott when he came, and that he was now proba- 
bly only looking out for a place where he and others 
might find life a little less hard to support on the 
usual terms. It is not impossible, however, that, 
" churchman" though he was, he had suffered enough 
for his religion to long for a place where the cursed 
jangle of theological discord might be forgotten, and 
other interests be made prominent. White promised 
him assistance of all needed kinds, and in 1626 Roger 
Conant, John Woodbury, John Balch and Peter Pal- 
frey (names to be remembered) begin the clearing of 
the forest and the building of houses. About twenty- 
five, all told, are gathered there, and Naumkeag (not 
yet Salem) begins to be. Two years later there were, 
it may be, thirty or forty persons in the colony. 
Some had followed Lyford to Virginia, and some had 
returned to England. Conant, resolute and patient, 
remained and kept with him those who were inspired 
by his confidence and shared his hopes, whether re- 
ligious or commercial. But, as so often happens, he 
was to sow that others might reap. He was too 
modest and undemonstrative to figure as a " person- 
age," and to meet the more ambitious views of those 
in England who were influential in the management 
of affairs; and so it happened, when the property of 
the Dorchester Company passed into the hands of the 
New England Company, that Conant was superseded 
by Capt. John Endicott. 

It was not Roger Conant, mild, tolerant, concilia- 
tory and unambitious, that the feeble colony needed, 
but John Endicott, the man of the iron hand and 
determined will, the man to tear the cross from the 
flag of England and defy the world when his blood 
was up and his religion was in question. As a btisi- 
ness transaction the transfer was justifiable enough. 
The parties to it on the other side of the water were 
buying and selling so much property at its commer- 
cial value. But on this side of the water it looked 
like the betrayal of a trust. Having no rights which 
they could legally defend, the old colonists felt the 
change to be grievous when, from being masters of 
the situation, if not the guardians of a refuge sacred 
to those who were oppressed for conscience' sake, they 
were suddenly and unexpectedly reduced to a hand- 
ful of ordinary colonists who were transferred with 
the soil, and could only take the hard choice to go or 
conform to the law of the land. They were heard to 
talk about "slaves" and "slavery," and for some 
months held aloof from the meetings of the new- 
comers. But Capt. Endicott occupied a higher social 


position than they, and he was not a man to be 
trifled with. In 1629 Governor Endicott receives in- 
tclligenoc as follows: that the company at home has 
obtained a confirmation of their grant by letters 
jiatent from His Majesty, Charles I., and that he is 
confirmed as Governor, with a council styled " the 
Councill of Massachusetts Bay." The new-comers 
had the power. But they saw that it was hard for 
the others to submit, and were disposed to use their 
power kindly. The colony was now grown to in- 
clude, perhaps, three hundred persons, and at last 
the old settlers determined to make the best of it, 
and united in one body under Governor Endicott, and 
then, as we are told, " in remembrance of a, peace set- 
tled upon at a conference at a general meeting be- 
tween them and their neighbors after the expectance 
of some dangerous jar," they called the place Salem, 
or Peace. The story is a pretty one, and seems to 
furnish a natural and probable explanation of the 
change of name, but it is necessary to say that all 
such interesting statements are doubted or denied by 
modern investigators. It is held by some that Couant 
gladly received Captain Endicott and that their dif- 
ferences of ojiinion related to such matters as tlie 
morality of raising tobacco and other such affairs of 
minor importance. 

The story of ihe ecclesiastical and commercial for- 
tunes of Salem will be told elsewhere in the succeed- 
ing narratives. They were inextricably intertwined 
with each other. Both begin now to assume impor- 
tance, although many a weary day must pass before 
either of them will lie settled and prosperous. For a 
time the religious interests which they had at heart 
compelled them to postpone somewhat the temporal 
enterprises upon which depended their comfort and 
success. Whatever we may say of the purposes of 
Roger Conant, nobody need be in doubt as to the 
purposes of John Endicott. Religion was with him 
the first concern. He believed his creed. He had 
come here to give it room to grow into a new mode of 
life, and he did not intend to let anything among the 
powers terrestrial or demonic interfere with his pur- 
pose. But, before the temporal plans of the little 
community could be carried out, some very stern ne- 
ce.ssities were to try and to strengthen their faith. 
The winter of 1029 brought them little but trouble 
and sorrow. The climate, then as now, was rough 
and unsparing. No proper accommodations could be 
provided for so many families, their base of supplies 
was three thousand miles away, they were unused to 
such hardships and were ignorant of the dangers to 
be provided against. While, therefore, their friends in 
England were tkinking of them as happily established 
in the " Paradise " of New England, and were look- 
ing forward to the pleasure of joining them in the 
spring or summer following, they began to sicken 
and die of exposure to cold, and the hunger which 
comes not with absolute famine, but inability to eat 

the coarse food which they had. Some epidemic 
disease probably brought on shipboard, had been 
communicated to them, and the place had become in- 
fected and pestilential. When Winthrop came with 
Saltonstall, Dudley and Johnson, and a company, in 
seventeen ships, in all, a thousand or more before the 
season was over, they found a colony of men and 
women haggard with weakness and want and de- 
pressed with sorrow. More than eighty had died in 
that awful winter, and of those who remained many 
had scarcely strength to stagger to the shore to meet 
the new-comers and give them tearful welcome. To 
the gentlemen and ladies who had come to transfer 
the government of the colony to the soil of New 
England, and establish here homes even more splen- 
did than those they had left behind them, Salem of- 
fered at that time but few inducements. Winthrop 
therefore pushed along the coast, and soon he, with 
Dudley, Johnson, Saltonstall and the most of the 
new colonists, were laying the foundations of Charles- 
town, Boston and Watertown. The seat of govern- 
ment was transferred to Charlestown, and again the- 
hopes and ambitions of the men of Salem had ended 
in a bitter disappointment. To Governor Endicott 
was now measured out that which he had meted to 
Roger Conant, and probably he was no better pleased 
than he with the result. But this time there was 
no rebellion. Endicott was too good a discipli- 
narian to resist a higher authority, and it happened 
then, as it has many times since in Salem, that the 
good things provided for home use were passed over 
to the common account, and the commonwealth 
gained by her loss. 

We need not waste much time in praising the con- 
summate wisdom of the founders of Mas.-!achusetts. 
They were wise, and they did well, and what they 
wrote in their charters and constitutions, and estab- 
lished in their customs and laws, show that they were 
seeking the best things in human institutions and 
knew the value of them when found. 

But it is clear enough now that the Puritans were 
not the inventors of the system they established in 
New England, nor of the many complicated devices 
by aid of which they made their ideas effective in the 
conduct of aflairs, social and civil. They selected, in- 
deed, but they did not create out of pre-existen,t 
nothingness the institutions which here they cleared 
from much rubbish of ecclesiasticism and from the 
burden of the monarchy of England. Th^ begiiji- 
uings were small. Seen from the outside, they were 
mean and bare. The homes, labors au<l successes of 
the first colonists of Salem would Ije unworthy of our 
attention were they associated the lives of or- 
dinary settlers in a new country. But^ small though 
the beginnings were, these m«fn were beginning to 
store up and to train the energy which was afterw«rd 
to expand with tremendous force ia the (^peinng of 
the whole world tu cownierce and civilization, and in 


the establiahment of the best things in American 

In tlie New World, free to follow the bent of their 
minds, they emancipated themselves from many an 
impediment and returned to the natural tendencies 
of the Germanic race, to which they belonged, and 
which, in Europe, has ever since been slowly attain- 
ing to that which they arrived at quickly. Of that 
race they brought the traditions and tendencies, and, 
almost unchanged, some of its most ancient customs 
and laws. The town, the town-meeting, the common 
holding of lands, the pasturage under herdsmen of 
their goats, swine and neat cattle, the pastor who was 
not a priest and many curious customs which have 
seemed to us to be evidences of their independence, 
skill and ingenuity, or which look like the temporary 
expedients of necessity, were simply survivals of 
English and German habits, dating back sometimes a ' 
thousand years, or even in some cases as we now 
know, antedating European civilization itself, and 
originating as in that immemorial past of our race 
when its home was in Asia. 

Indeed, during the whole of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, the daily life of the people of Salem, if accur- 
ately represented to us now, would suggest European 
rather than American associations. Religion was 
the most important concern in that little settlement 
when it held a thousand souls. But, after all, the 
business of getting a living then, as now, occupied 
most of the waking hours. For the most part, their 
life on shore was rural, and their occupations and 
customs such as may even now be noted in secluded 
parts of the Old World. 

On a summer morning the good man and good 
wife were up with the sun, attending to their various 
tasks, for by six o'clock at the latest, and in some 
years by half an hour after sunrise, the herdsmen of 
various kinds will be heard blowing their horns as 
they pass each man's door, gathering all the swine, 
goats and neat cattle of the town into flocks and 
herds, to be cared for during the day in the great 
pastures and other common fields. " The Great 
Pen " is provided for the cattle, and if, at six o'clock, 
any townsman shall not have his cows milked and 
ready for the herdsman, he must follow after as he 
may, and be responsible for any damage done to (ir 
by his stray cattle. At half an hour before sunset the 
horns of the approaching herdsmen were heard again, 
and every man was required to care for his own 
swine and goats at home. Sometimes in town-meet- 
ing it was a matter which divided the suflrages of 
freemen, as it was voted, that in a given season, the 
swine should or should not be allowed to run at 
large by night. Such customs are unknown now in 
America. But they still survive in many of the pas- 
toral regions of Europe, such as the Black Forest and 
secluded valleys of Switzerland. 

Bimple, honest, God-fearing men and women made 

up the majority of the population. Their tasks were 
homely and laborious, and their tastes simple. But 
although from necessity their life externally was not 
unlike that of the European peasantry, they were 
neither stupid nor ignorant. Even those who had 
belonged to the servant class, and there were many 
of them, had passed through experiences which had 
sharpened their wits and greatly enhanced in their 
eyes the value of liberty. They had come over "un- 
der bonds " to serve a specified time in a condition 
not much better than slavery. Some had regained 
their freedom on the failure of commercial and in- 
dustrial enterprises, it being cheaper to let them shift 
for themselves than to find work for them or to re- 
turn them to England. 

The yeomanry were picked men who had come 
over, not only because they hoped to better their con- 
dition and give their children a better chance than 
they could have at home, but also because they were 
interested in great problems of religion and govern- 
ment, and believed that these problems could be 
worked out to better advantage in a new country 
where they might be free from tradition and adverse 
precedent. They were trained in a school of experi- 
ence which will show results in later generations. 

Among these were some who held with tenacity to 
the social distinctions of the old country. They were 
those of official and professional standing, such as in 
England would, if not bearing a title, be permitted to 
write " gentleman " after their names. In spite of the 
leveling influence of their experiences and of the 
theories they held, the old habits were not easily 
given up, and, unconsciously, even, the relations of 
master and servant were retained on the Old World 
footing, and the mutual reserve remained after such 
relations had ceased. It took two hundred years, under 
the most democratic of institutions, to abolish the 
distinctions of aristocracy, and to make a " yeoman " 
of like character and education seem as good as a 
"gentleman."' It was years before the possibility of 
establishing in Massachusetts an hereditary aristoc- 
racy ceased to be either a menace or a temptation. 

With the founding of Boston, Salem lost its rela- 
tive importance, but continued to be a centre of intel- 
ligence, and gradually, after long discipline, becamei 
one of the most influential towns in the common-i 
wealth. Its liberality and intellectual alertness werel 
shown very early in the treatment accorded to Roger 
Williams, who was loved and honored in Salem long 
after he was proscribed by the colonial authorities. 
Even John Endicott admired and defended him until 
further resistance to authority would have been re- 
bellion. The enthusiasm, humaneness and free 
thought of Roger Williams seem to belong rather 
to our time than to that of the Puritan, who, with 
all his goodness, was grim and sometimes cruel. The 
man who, in 1631, could advocate, aa he did, the 
rights of the savage, and in later years make his noble 


plea for toleration, must have been a rare creature, 
and those who loved and honored him, as he was 
loved and honored in Salem, must have been, even 
then, capable of better things than the circumstances 
of the hard times in which they lived could offer 
them. When he goes into exile in l(i36 it is pleasant 
to read that Governor Winthrop, not in otflce, how- 
ever, gives him a private hint that he is wanted by 
the government, and that the safest place for him will 
be found on the shores of Narragansett Bay. 

The Puritan minister was a great personage in the 
little colony. From the nature of the case, religion 
being avowedly and actually first among the concerns 
of the community, he was a man of much official dig- 
nity and influence. He could not be elected to office 
nor long hold it in comfort unless he represented the 
best thought and feeling of the people and showed a 
gift for mastery. He was the most highly-educated 
man in town. He had leisure to correspond with 
men of like standing abroad. He was the organ of 
communication with the outside world. He had no 
competitors. The intellectual appetite of his towns- 
men was keen, and there were no adequate means of 
satisfying it in a time when they had no lectures, no 
concerts, theatres, newspapers, magazines, or many 
books. He was the peer of the best, and was freely 
consulted both in public and private by parishioners 
and magistrates as to questions of conscience and 
questions of policy. The first ministers were men of 
such parts and learning that they were largely inde- 
jieiident of each other and of their congregations. 
They seemed to have moved back and forth between 
the two continents with great freedom, and to have 
e.xcited great interest, both by their coming and their 
going. They have been over-praised, and condemned 
beyond their demerits; for they were neither so good 
nor so bad as they have sometimes been represented 
to be. They would not have been human had they 
not been tempted to magnify their office unduly, and 
they must have been more than human to emancipate 
themselves wholly from the bigotries and superstitions 
of their times. We shall soon see them doing some 
cruel work, and our modern blood will find it difficult 
to keep cool as we helplessly watch the unmerited 
sufferings of good, even if misguided, men, and we 
shall helplessly writhe as we hear the hissing whip fall 
upon the naked backs of women whom pastors and 
magistrates alike agree to punish in the name of God. 
But if we are wise, we shall reflect on all the circum- 
stances of the time and make such allowance as is 

The Puritan attempted to crush the imagination, 
and is, therefore, supposed to have been devoid of it. 
Hut the imagination is a faculty nimble of foot and 
light of wing. It goes where it is not sent, and 
works where it is most contemned. Often it trans- 
forms itself, and, because its lighter moods are not in 
favor, plods in the disguise of some heavy-footed fac- 

ulty, and masquerades as a phase of the sober reason, 
or still more homely common sense. In the Puritan 
the imagination did not exercise itself in the modern 
fashion nor after the manner of " ungodly play- 
wrights." It was not stimulated by such visions of 
wealth and conquest as turned the head of the Catho- 
lic Spaniard. It was in him a sober faculty, dealing 
with the well-attested realities of common life, and 
what he considered the equally well-attested realities 
of the supernatural world. Given the facts to work 
upon, and this creative faculty was capable of producing 
sur|)rising results. As the sober-visaged, plainly-clad 
Puritan sat in church listening to the long prayers 
and still longer sermons and lectures in which his 
favorite preacher described the city of G d, his im- 
agination, released from all restraint by his godly 
purpose, made many an excursion into the realm of 
those fair possibilities which on the earth were no- 
where actual. He saw new and holier churches, so- 
cieties, commonwealths arising to make the earth a 
safer home for the chosen children of God. He saw 
cities arise in the wilderness; fleets sailed over un- 
known seas, and broad lands, cleared, inhabited and 
wisely ruled, stretched in peaceful expanse before his 
comprehensive and creative imagination. These 
visions were not a waste of his time and energy ; for 
they were the working plans of the architect and the 
engineer, who was able to create that which he imag- 
ined. He could understand the proud boast of the 
Roman, who, if he could not play the fiddle, could 
make a small village into a great city. To describe 
the Puritan as without imagination is to deny to him 
that which w;is a chief characteristic of his laborious 
life. His stinnihis and delight came with and from 
the exercise of this power, by which the mind clearly 
sees that which, as yet, has never been. That which 
distinguished him from those who commonly and con- 
sciously use this power was the capital fact that they 
never used it solely for pleasure. It was an instru- 
ment as useful as the more homely tools of the work- 
ing intellect. That which in the Puritan was active, 
but disguised, in his posterity two hundred years later 
was to break out into the full fruit and flower of the 
imagination. Hawthorne was the legitimate product 
of the ancient stock. All along the line of modern 
life, when Puritanism had completed its emancipa- 
tion, there broke a wave of poetry. Bryant, Long- 
fellow, Holmes, Lowell and the rest of that distin- 
guished company only revealed the inherited traits 
which were in their ancestors, though not then mani- 
fest. Even Quakerism now sings in the poetry of 

That Puritanism not, in all its parts, so grim as 
we sometimes imagine was shown by the love the 
people of Salem hore to Roger Williams. It was 
made still more apparent that it was not without 
tenderness of heart and susceptibility to change of 
ibougbt when the great ".\ntlnomian Controversy" 


came. In 1637 Anne Hutchinson, a great-hearted 
woman, nearly overturned both church and state. By 
her liberal ideas and impassioned eloquence she car- 
ried with her Henry Vane, the Governor, and a major- 
ity of the people of Boston, the ministers almost 
unanimously opposing her. She was, as even her 
enemies admitted, a woman of wonderful power and 
attractiveness. Her philosophical ideas were not un- 
like those of modern Transcendentalism, and in many 
ways she only anticipated the thoughts which two 
hundred years later Emerson was to make familiar to 
sympathetic audiences in Lyceum Hall. The dis- 
pute was carried into everything, interfering with the 
course of government, even down to the conduct of 
town affairs. It made it more difficult for John Endi- 
cott to carry on the Pequot War. The reaction from 
Antinomianism brought back into power VVinthrop, 
Endicott and the other old settlers — the " fathers and 
founders" — who were already, because of their seni- 
ority, becoming "distinguished townsmen." Mrs. 
Hutchinson found little open sympathy in Salem, 
because Hugh Peter was then at the full tide of hia 
remarkable success, and he, with Governor Endicott, 
severely punished all who rebelled. They gave Gov- 
ernor Winthrop their hearty support, and helped him 
back into power, thus re-establishing Puritan rule in 
Massachusetts. Still, before her tragical death at the 
hands of the Indians, in 1643, this remarkable woman 
had made an ineffaceable mark on the institutions of 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island and greatly strength- 
ened the impulse to grant, as well as claim, liberty of 

From this time on there are two parties in church 
and state, representing Puritanism and Puritanism 
ameliorated. They go on in Salem together until 
the cruel policy of Governor Endicott, together with 
the absurd notions of demoniacal influence then cur- 
rent, bear their proper fruit in the " Witchcraft De- 
lusion." Then Puritanism begins to relax its arbi- 
trary and merciless tyranny and milder counsels pre- 
vail. Meanwhile, we shall see the two in conflict 
and shall see how a false theory of duty can, in the 
name of righteousness, drive humane men to the most 
inhuman deeds. 

But the townsmen of Salem during this eventful 
seventeenth century were not solely given up to re- 
ligious contention. They had many other interests, 
some of them very absorbing. Their lives were not 
stagnant or dull. To have in rapid succession two 
such ministers as Roger Williams and Hugh Peter, 
and to trace with intelligent interest as they did their 
subsequent career, the one founding a colony, the 
other going to the scaffold to expiate the death of a 
king, was enough to sharpen the wits of the dullest 
and give him a lively interest in the aftiiirs of two 
continents. The great events of the rebellion, the Com- 
monwealth, the restoration of th e Stuarts and the Revo- 
lution all passed within the limits of a single lifetime. 

and every change in the fortunes of England was felt 
in the homes of Salem. Each man felt a responsibility 
for the issue of the battle over the seas, and when 
the commonwealth of England fell, the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts was accounted its lawful 

But at home were many and engrossing occupa- 
tions and interests, some good and some to modern 
consciences, as much to be condemned as any of their 
religious excesses. Commerce began its beneficent 
career, and was for a hundred and fifty years a 
source of good things innumerable. It kept the in- 
tellect alert, gave knowledge of other nations and 
gradually liberalized the minds of all who were en- 
gaged in it. It produced a remarkable breed of men, 
to whom in time the burdens of ecclesiasticism became 
insupportable, and the Puritan spirit was at last trans- 
formed and a broad catholicity took the place of 
bigotry. But as yet we see only the beginnings, and 
we see them marred by many an evil practice. The 
distillery arose in the colony and began to pour its 
poisoned stream into all the homes of savagery. The 
ships which went out laden with New England rum 
returned sometimes freighted with African slaves, 
and tender consciences did not seem to be hurt by 
the transaction. It is recorded that negroes were 
brought to Salem as early as 1638. The laws of na- 
tions were not well defined in those days, and a war 
with any nation, or a war among unfriendly nations, 
gave excuse for privateering, which easily slipped 
into piracy. Pirates who preyed upon their own 
commerce were punished when caught, but those who 
only molested unfriendly nations were winked at, and 
it was not a thing unknown for a pirate to sail into 
Salem harbor and sell his plunder to the townsmen, 
who asked no questions so long as they got good 
bargains. Indeed, it is now quite impossible to tell 
the true story of those times without doing injustice 
to them, so greatly has our moral standard in many 
things been elevated. One can easily see, however, 
that there were many compensations for the Puritan. 
His world was not so colorless as it seems to us when 
we think only of his religion, and imagine that to 
have been his only absorbing interest. 

The internal arrangements of the colony at Salem 
were for many years matters of constant and grave 
concern. Things which seem to us trivial were then 
of great importance. The public lands were at first 
held by the government, and the towns, as agents of the 
colony, distributed them among their inhabitants. 
A law restricting this power of distribution to the 
towns was passed (as William P. Uphara, Esq., in- 
forms us) in 1635. The land was granted in small 
building-lots and planting-fields to those who were 
admitted to the privileges of the town. There could 
be no specu'lation in town lots. Only the occupiers 
could hold them. The rights of forest, field and shore 
were common, and to the householders pertained cer- 


tain privileges of pasturage and other rights peculiar 
to the proprietors. A man was made a freeman by 
the General Court, and when he desired to settle, 
asked to be " admitted an inhabitant," and, if his re- 
quest was granted, became a member of a corpora- 
tion consisting of certain named persons and such 
others as they chose. 

Land was given to any one who became an inhabit- 
ant. At first there was no difficulty. But the ques- 
tion which arose when the late-comers were numer- 
ous, and insisted upon their full sliare of these privi- 
leges, became troublesome. Among the old settlers 
there were at least three distinctions of social rank 
attaching to freemen, non-freemen and servants. 
These were increased by an additional line drawn be- 
tween the cottagers and commoners, — those who liad a 
share in the original common rights and those who 
had not been admitted to such rights. The cottagers 
had great advantages, and for many years clung to 
their privileges. They even held meetings separate 
from the town. The contention at times must have 
been much more exciting than the news of a change 
of government in England, or the loss of the colo- 
nial charter, because it affected the fortunes of every 
householder in a direct way. It was not until the 
eighteenth century came in that the dispute was 
closed. In 1660 the general government passed a 
law that those who then had cottages or houses built 
should have rights in common land. About a gen- 
eration later it was a serious question what rights 
they should have (then a large number) who were 
not included under that law. The cottagers were those 
who held under the law ; the commoners were those 
who claimed a right, not by virtue of the act of 1660, 
but by right of habitation. In 1702 the town passed 
a vote settling this difference and admitting to a 
right in the commons all houses then built. In 1713 
the commoners, which term then included both com- 
moners and cottagers, organized under the province 
law, and are to this day represented by the " Great 
Pasture Corporation." These various measures were 
not agreed upon without great friction and excite- 
ment, and even the famous "witchcraft year," which 
came when the dispute was at its hottest, could only 
postpone the excitement over a matter which affected 
the fortunes of every townsman. The commoners at 
last voted to give up to tlie town the highways, burying- 
places, the common lands which lay within the town, 
bridge and the block-houses, with the training- 
grounds and various other relinopiishments, which 
brought the affairs of the town on to a modern 
footing. Hospitality was not a characteristic of those 
days. People were suspicious and jealous of new- 
comers and required of them proofs that they w-ould 
be safe and agreeable neighbors before the}' admitted 
them to a share of the common property. For tempo- 
rary purposes they granted them cottage rights and 
garden spots, but not every new-comer was welcome. 

Strolling adventurers were promptly arrested and re- 
quired to give an account of themselves. For a 
hundred years these internal relations of the com- 
munity were very important and influential. They 
have now nearly passed out of the memory of all but 
the students of antiquity. But they were important 
then, and in the various attempts made to adjust 
differences and find out that which was for the com- 
mon welfiire, the community was being compacted 
and trained to common action in a way which made 
all its strength available in its great days when it 
covered the sea with privateers and merchantmen. 

But before we take leave of the seventeenth century 
there are still some grievous things to be noted. The 
Friend is to us an emblem and suggestion of peace. 
But in 1657 he was to the people of Salem a creature 
to be abhorred and, by force if necessary, expelled 
from the community. It must be remembered that 
during all this century any, even the most innocent, 
trespasser was there illegally if he was not permitted 
by the authorities to make his home there. No mat- 
ter what his business, if he was forbidden to dwell 
there, and still persisted in ojjposition to the proprie- 
tors, he was regarded as being as much outside of his 
rights as a poacher or a burglar. There was not even 
a sidewalk where he could claim to be on public soil, 
or on the "King's highway." Every inch of soil 
belonged to the town and the proprietors. When 
undesirable persons, therefore, were present and re- 
fused to go away when warned, it was easy and alto- 
gether too natural for those in authority to begin with 
threats and then proceed to force, which became at 
last cruel much beyond the original intention. When 
Massachusetts decreed that Quakers remaining within 
her bounds must die, it was hoped and believed that 
the threat of death would be effectual. When it was 
discovered that martyrdom had its charms, and that 
for every Quaker hung there would be five more 
ready for hanging, the brief madness of the magis- 
trates yielded to the excited protests of all tender- 
hearted people, and the shameful law was repealed, 
but not until it had caused such deeds of cruelty in 
the colony, especially in Boston, as no good man can 
now contemplate without horror. The only plea to 
be offered in mitigation is that the magistrates feared 
overmuch a popular revolution and were driven to 
excess by overplus of official zeal. Still, we must 
remember that it was a century of perils and of fears. 
Safety lay in concert of action. The Jesuits, the 
Anabaptists, the Quakers, if permitted to come and 
proselyte, might bring in all kinds of political trouble 
and danger from foreign nations. The Dutch and 
Indians were near and dangerous, and the whole 
community lived in such fear of unseen perils as we 
can scarcely imagine. For all that, we cannot be 
reconciled to the whipping of women at the cart-tail 
nor the ofl'ering to sell Quakers to be taken as slaves 
to the Barbadoes. 



But the latter daya of the century approach with 
many fears, some prosperily and great distraction of 
mind and purpose. John Endicott had moved to 
Boston and died there in 1665. The race of great 
mercliants had begun with Holliugworth and others. 
Philip English, the famous Episcopalian, was dazzling 
the eyes of his neighbors with his enterprise and the 
magnificent style of his living. His house and offices 
were full of "bound servants," and he evidently paid 
little attention to the strait ways of Puritanism. 
The "founders " who came to old age all died before 
the century was out. There were among them Major 
Hathorne and Captain Curwen, the Hon. W. Browne, 
who, coming over before 1638, lived half a century in 
Salem, and were regarded as " distinguished towns- 
men " when they died. There was much wealth 
accumulating already and life began to go on with 
considerable stateliness and dignity. Even those who 
did not for themselves expect to arrive at any station 
of especial honor still easily lent themselves to the 
general mode of life and assisted in creating a public 
sentiment favorable to the production of men of grave 
manners, weighty ideas and comprehensive plans of 
public and private advancement. With this outward 
gravity, and not altogether consistent with it, there 
were many grotesque and extravagant notions con- 
cerning both nature and the supernatural. At a time 
when men knew so little of the world and its natural 
products as to expect to find lions in the American 
wilderness, and when the loadstone was supposed to 
have some magical power of indicating the place of 
the precious metals, when devils and demons, both in 
their own form and as possessing human beings, were 
supposed to be as common as bats and owls, at any 
time events might happen which would break the 
outward calm and throw the community into a fever 
of curiosity or of apprehension. 

At the end of the seventeenth century the town 
was, in many ways, in an unnatural condition. There 
had been numerous alarms and the real dangers were 
many. At any time enemies at home might trouble 
them, and against an irruption of foreign enemies 
there was no protection which was trustworthy. The 
more wealthy the community became the greater the 
danger that the ships of an enemy might sail into the 
ill-defended harbor and lay waste the town. Many 
losses had been incurred and the people were sore 
with apprehension, restless and ready for a panic of 
any sort. The occasion came, and Salem won an 
unpleasant and ill-deserved fame as the scene of the 
" Witchcraft Delusion." The sad tale will be hon- 
estly told in the narrative to follow. It is only 
necessary to say here that in our time men forget the 
multitudes who have been burned in Europe as 
witches and remember the score who went to an 
unhappy death on the scaffold in Salem, as if there 
were something peculiar in Salem witchcraft to dis- 
tinguish it from the common experience in such 

matters of the rest of the civilizred world. When the 
Zuni Indians came to Salem, a few years since, one ot 
them, speaking in Plummer Hall, told the people that 
he heard that they put their witches to death. He 
told them that they did right; the Zunis did the 
same. It was the only way to deal with them. The 
Indian had a face like Dante's, and his opinions were 
only the same as were held by all the civilized world 
down to the time when in Salem the long delusion of 
the ages finally gave way to the humaneness of 
modern feeling. In Northern Europe, as Topelius 
testifies, witches were slain by the hundred. This 
eruption in Salem was the last infamous outbreak of 
Puritan fanaticism, and it cleared the air for all the 
generations since. 

To do anything like justice to the people of those 
days we must remember that they were at the same 
time more happy and, in many ways, more cheerful 
than we are apt to think, and that they also were 
more hard and insensible to certain forms of human 
suffering than we are, and that, moreover, great sensi- 
bility could be a trait of the character in which were 
qualities which, to us, seem quite incompatible with 
it. We must also remember that many things which 
to us seem like acts of their free will did not seem so 
to them. To be obliged to whip an Anabaptist or a 
Quaker seemed to many a tender-hearted Puritan as 
necessary and as grievous as to us seem the unavoid- 
able sufferings which come by " act of God." That a 
certain brutality was cultivated by such theories is 
certain. The best argument against the whipping- 
post is that whatever the crimes of the culprit who 
suffers at one end of the whip, there will always be a 
brute at the other end of it — probably the worse brute 
of the two. When Hugh Peter died in England for 
his political offenses we have a picture of the times 
which it is now difficult to contemplate without a 
shudder. As he waited for his turn at the gallows he 
was compelled to see his friend Cooke cut down and 
quartered. "How like you this?" asked the execu- 
tioner, rubbing his bloody hands. When such things 
were going on it is hard for us to remember that the 
sun shone as brightly then as now over the lovely 
shores and bays of Salem ; that in summer the east 
wind was fresh and cool as it swept over the sparkling 
water, where the fisher boats floated and the fisher 
boys sang their ancient ballads or shouted to each 
other in careless jollity; that there was a merry sound 
from the herdsmen's horns as the kine came in fresh 
from the pastures in June, and that for anyone life 
was easy and careless and happy. But it was so, and 
many a legend, tradition and reminiscence of those 
early days show that sailors danced and were jolly, 
that rustics were as light-hearted at times, and even 
more content and satisfied than now. Society went 
on, as society must, with love-making and marriage, 
the love of children and the association of friends; 
and what men could not prevent, or thought they 


could not, that they contrived to shut out and forget. 
In the days of the witchcraft excitement, however, 
there was no possibility of shutting out or forgetting 
the grizzly horror which might look in at any window 
and claim any victim. Whether one believed in all 
the possibilities of demoniacal i)ossession or only 
feared the passion of enemies and the mania of the 
populace, the danger and the fear were inevitable and 

But those unhap]iy days passed. The common 
sense and good feeling of the community reasserted 
themselves, and the humaneness which had never 
been able to justify itself assumed an authority it had 
never had before. The modern period may be said to 
begin with the eighteenth century, although many a 
lapse and " many a backward streaming curve " show 
that progress then, as now, was not a regular progres- 
sion from evil to good or from good to better things 
in public and private life. 

The eighteenth century opened with renewed pros- 
perity. Commerce was establishing itself, and with 
many and wide relations with the foreign world, Sa- 
lem was becoming what it has always been since that 
time — remarkable for the number of its inhabitants 
who were cosmopolitan in their tastes and habits. 
The influence of a few men fostered a habit which, in 
time, produced a very peculiar and remarkable race 
of sailors and traders. Abandoning the ponderous 
methods of the older merchants, who built huge ships 
and founded permanent colonies, or occupied posts 
in foreign lands and carried on operations involving 
great expense and requiring to be protected by costly 
convoys and garrisons, the fishermen and traders of 
Salem learned to skirmish all abing the border-lines 
of the civilized world, and prepared themselves for 
the brilliant exploits of later years. But it took a 
hundred years to train the whole population and 
compact it so that when the time came, whether for 
privateering or commerce, every varied need could be 
quickly, naturally and cheaply provided for at home. 
For these purposes there were needed on the spot 
men of universal knowledge of the known world, able 
also to make a shrewd guess as to what lay out of 
sight in the undiscovered parts of the world. They 
needed trusty agents as intelligent, if not as far-see- 
ing, as themselves — men who could obey orders of a 
comprehensive character, with wit enough to modify 
them when new conditions arose. With them must 
go sailors who were bold, trusty, enterprising and in- 
telligent, coming out of families whose interests were 
identical with those of the merchants and traders. 
About these there must be a homogeneous and inter- 
ested population ready and skillful in all the trades 
and handicrafts needed by the main business of the 
place. We shall see, by and by, how all these con- 
ditions were prepared and what a mark .Salem made 
on the business of the world. For the present we only 
note the fact that the process was beginning. The 

fishing-boats and coasters, the trading smacks and 
larger craft plying between the West Indies and Sa- 
lem, and the ships which were slowly extending the 
European commerce of the colony, were training such 
a hardy, brave and intelligent seafaring population as 
can now be found in no city or town of any size any- 
where in the world. 

From this time on religious matters are less en- 
grossing and less distracting. Education, business 
and politics claim an increasing share of their atten- 
tion, and a town is slowly built up of a homogeneous 
population, prosperous, well educated, capable of 
taking an intelligent interest in all the affairs of the 
town and the Commonwealth. But the colonies, 
provinces now under royal Governors who are inclined 
to haughty ways and the exercise of irresponsible au- 
thority, are still small, isolated and feeble. The set- 
tlements are still scattered. Communication is infre- 
quent. Horses are few, and, until the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, carriages were almost unknown, 
while turnpikes and stage-coaches were yet to be in- 
triiduced as the novel apjilianccs (if a new civilization. 
Roads everywhere were bad, bridges were few, and 
the obstruction to public travel, except by a very 
few main highways, was so great that each separate 
community was nearly reduced to dependence upon 
its own resources, excepting such supplies as might 
come by water, the great common highway of com- 
merce. The water-ways were still used for most kinds 
of transportation, even among neighbors in Salem. 
For, as the town grew along the water's edge, with the 
frontdoors of the houses opening towards the harbor 
or the various rivers, while the lanes, out-houses 
and swine pens were behind, where the principal 
streets now are, it was more easy to convey all bulky 
articles a long distance by water than to carry them 
but a little way on land. The settlements sjiread 
along the bays and rivers, and even little creeks 
were useful to the farmer who sought a market for 
his surplus produce in exchange for needed supplies. 
With all their increased wealth and comfort, we must 
still think of them as a "feeble folk," scattered and i'evi, 
too few to live up to the independent ideas they have 
now been nourishing for a century. Money was 
scarce, even when comfort abounded, and stores 
could be provided at any time in a given place only 
by transporting them in kind. Virginia could not 
give a thousand bushels of wheat to Boston by send- 
ing a bill of exchange, as we might do to-day if a fam- 
ine occurred in Asia Minor, but must laboriously col- 
lect the grain from her own scattered wheat-fields 
and transport it from Virginia to Boston. 

With the fall of the colonial government and the 
coming of the royal Governors, new problems of the 
must perplexing kinds mllcd in upon them. From 
the beginning of the century the American Revolu- 
tion was preparing itself It took seventy-five years 
to breed the ideas, train the men and make it possi- 



sible to provide the supplies which were at last to 
come to their highest uses'and expression in the repub- 
lic. During these years attention was more and more 
called to what were to become national problems- 
Provincial governors, however bad, served an excel- 
lent purpose when they turned the attention of the 
colonists away from the idiosyncrasies of religionists 
(good and bad alike), and concentrated the energies 
of the people in defense of their common rights and 
privileges. From the time that Sir Edmund Andros 
said to Mr. Higginson, in Salem, "Either you are 
subjects or you are rebels" it was certain that rebel- 
lion would come. It was already prepared for in the 
mind of every Salem householder who believed that 
his tenure was independent of the King. Even then 
it was claimed by Mr. Higginson that the lands of 
New England belonged not to the King, but to the 
people who occupied and paid for them. There miglit 
be doubt as to who were the rightful proprietors of 
the town lots and " common lands '' of Salem, but 
there was no doubt that the King was not one of them. 
In the "great pastures" even the "swineherds" 
would have resisted his claim to the feeding of a pig 
so long as he was not a " householder" in Salem. 

The reaction from the intolerance and over-religi- 
ousness of the preceding century was largely brought 
about by the enfoixed practice of the toleration which 
they had feared and abhorred. Being obliged to live 
in peace with Anabaptists, Episcopalians and Qua- 
kers, they learned, if not to like them, at least to do 
business with them, and at last to respect them as 
valuable members of the connnunity. Wearied with 
long strife which had proved to be so profitless, the 
peace which followed the establishment of public 
worship after the manner of the Friends and the 
" Churchmen " must have been a grateful surprise 
even to those who had predicted dire evils to follow 
the toleration of Episcopacy or heresy. The minds 
of men were now somewhat released from the contem- 
plation of insoluble theological problems, and the 
fears which had hung over the colony for a hundred 
years began to drift away or to dissolve before the 
splendor of the rising sun. Religion began to be re- 
garded as the beneficent guide of life to be privately 
followed and not publicly enjoined upon others. 

Many now living remember Dr. Holyoke, whose 
one hundredth birth-day was celebrated by a dinner 
at the Essex Coffee-House, in 1828, which he attended 
and at which he spoke. He was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 174(1, and therefore knew all of the 
men and women of the last half of the eighteenth 
century in Salem, and those older men and women 
also whose memories went back to the lifetime of the 
condiiores themselves. To men now living he may 
have told the stories related to him by men who heard 
them from the lips of John Endicott. His own mem- 
ory must have held some wonderful reminiscences of 
the hundred years in which the feeble provinces were 

growing to be a great nation, able twice within his 
knowledge successfully to meet the mother-country in 
arms, and on sea and land to prove herself invincible 
to any foreign foe. As a boy, in 1736, he may have 
ridden over from Marblehead on a pillion behind his 
father, or have sailed around Naugus Head in a fish- 
ing boat to see the funeral procession of Philip Eng- 
lish, and have listened that day to the tales of the 
grandams and goodies who remembered when he and 
his wife were arrested as witches. Perhaps he heard 
some of them slyly remind each other of having had 
a hand in the sport when the mob stripped and i)lun- 
dered his house. Some of them were in that proces- 
sion which marched out to the edge of the wilderness 
at Gallows Hill, or stood near enough to hear the dy- 
ing groans of Giles Corey. The older men that day 
would be sure to recall that other funeral when John 
Endicott was followed to his grave, in 1GG5, by his 
old companions, " the founders of the Colony." 
There would be several there who remembered seeing 
Robert Wilson's wife tied to the tail of a cart, and 
whipped from " Mr. Gedney's house to her own door 
in '61.'' As Dr. Holyoke iu later years recalled these 
things, and contrasted the hardships and perils of his 
own century and theirs, he must have remarked the 
fact that the hard and perilous experiences of his 
time were memories to be proud of and to rejoice 
over as their anniversaries came, while the most ex- 
citing and perilous experiences of the preceding cen- 
tury left shameful memories and bitter regrets. Be- 
ing born in Marblehead in 1728, Dr. Holyoke could 
not remember that in that year Gov. Burnet, finding 
it impossible in Boston to obtain an appropriation 
from the General Court for his salary, called a session 
in Salem, where he found the members still intracta- 
ble and unwilling to provide supplies for a " royal 
Governor." He would (piite naturally have been one 
of that crowd of six thousand people who assembled 
on Salem Common to he:irGe(^rge Wliitefield preach, 
and he certainly heard much of the heated contro- 
versy which began at that time and continued until 
the Congregational Church of New England was di- 
vided, three-quarters of a century later. Those who 
sympathized with George Whitefield and Jonathan 
Edwards at the time of the " great revival " then 
formed one party ; those who disapproved of their 
methods and doctrines formed another, and the lineal 
descendants or natural inheritors of the ideas and 
moral sympathies of these two parties are to-day in 
Salem, respectively called Orthodox and Unitarian 
Congregationalists. George Whitefield, loved, ad- 
mired and praised by one party, was by the other dis- 
trusted and condemned. But to all he was an object 
of exceeding interest and curiosity. Holyoke felt 
the earthquake shock in '55, the year that Lisbon 
went down. He saw Timothy Pickering as a boy in 
the streets and saw the children growing up who were 
to march with him to Winter Hill, when the British 



were retreating from Lexington, and get for a hard 
day's march, with none of the fighting which they 
went for, only curses hecause they did not get there 
sooner and capture tlie wliole force. He must have 
stood at the North Bridge when Colonel Leslie march- 
ed that way iind was met by the " proprietors of the 
North Fields," who a.ssured him that the way beyond 
the bridge was not the "King's Highway," which he 
claimed it to be, but a private way where passing was 
" dangerous " for those who were forbidden by the 
lawful owners. He was a man in middle life when 
the great events of the Revolution were coming to 
pass. He might have seen Lafayette in Salem in 
1784, and Washington in 1789, and may have owned 
one of the numerous beds occupied on that memora- 
ble occasion by the " Father of his country." No 
doubt he stood on the wharf when the "Grand Turk " 
sailed on her famous voyage to India and China, and 
went down to see her when she came in, the first 
to bring a cargo direct from Canton to New Eng- 
land. Some writers describe days as provincial, 
dull and uninteresting to any but traders and sailors. 
But the man must have been curiously made who 
could stand in the distinguished company certain to 
assemble at such a time and see the treasures of the 
oriental world begin to pour into that little old 
Puritan town and not have sensations which would 
stir his blood and cause his nerves to tingle as scarce- 
ly anything would but war. These men, whose ances- 
tors would not willingly associate with Anabaptists, 
Episcopalians or Quakers, were now ready to trade 
with Catholics, Buddhists, Mohammedans, Parsees, 
and idolaters of every hue and creed. Trading with 
them, they learned to respect them, and sometimes 
they even formed life-long friendships with men of the 
most diverse religious opinions. During his own life- 
time Dr. Holyoke had seen revolutionary changes of 
many kinds. He saw jthe little provinces become 
a powerful nation. He saw religion cast off its 
gloom and severity, while in social life austerity 
gave place to animation and a joyous activity. He 
saw also in their cradles, or playing in the streets, the 
boys who were to bring literary renown to the old 
town when her commercial laurels faded. Perhaps 
the boys are now growing up who, by the fame of 
their scientific achievements, will take up the succes- 
sion and make Salem as illustrious in science as she 
is now for the fame of her children, — Prescott and 

Of the last cetitury Timothy Pickering was perhaps 
the most distinguished man born or living in Salem 
after 1750. He was conspicuous for the force and 
dignity of his character, for his many attainments 
and for his notable public services. Born in 1745, and 
dying in 1828, a descendant of one of the "founders," 
graduated at Harvard College, in his later years an 
oflScer of the First Church, a Unitarian before Chan- 
ning had begun to preach, his life was almost an e])it- 

ome of Puritan history in all its phases. From the 
time, in 1774, when the Colonial Legislature assem- 
bled in Salem and took measures to call a General 
Provincial Congress in Pliila(lel|)hia, Pickering was 
at the centre of events. A mere catalogue of the 
offices he held in that-half century will suggest the 
many services he rendered and his eminent fitness for 
public life. He was adjutant-general and quarter- 
master of Washington's army; delegate to the Con- 
stitutional Convention at Philadelphia ; Postmaster- 
General, Secretary of War and Secretary of State un- 
der Washington and Adams; United States Senator; 
Representative in Congress ; and president of the 
Essex Agricultural Society. But, eminent as he was, 
he was but one in a group of professional and busi- 
ness men of rare ability and great attainments. Many 
of the educated people of that time, as in the next 
generation, were familiar, not only with public 
affairs in their own country, but also were at home in 
foreign lands, and had much of the culture which is 
gained by travel after the usual course of education 
is finished. They were not provincial in any narrow 
sense. Those merchants who had no academic train- 
ing acquired a comprehensive knowledge of the world, 
which gave them great infiuence as advisers, and a 
large number of them were eminent outside of their 
counting-rooms. Such names as those of Benjamin 
Goodhue, Nathaniel Silsbee, the two brothers Jacob 
and Benjamin Crowninshield, Benjamin Pick- 
man and William Gray suggest to those who are fa- 
miliar with the history of the country the great ser- 
vices rendered by merchants in the early days of the 
republic. Goodhue and Silsbee were United States 
Senators. One of the Crowninshields was Secretary 
of the Navy, and one declined the same position some 
years before. Mr. Pickman was Representative in 
Congress after holding many posts of honor in Massa- 
chusetts, as did the other merchants named. Nathan 
Reed was well known, not only as member of Con- 
gress, but as jurist and inventor. He made a steam- 
boat with paddle-wheels as early as 1789. B. Lynde 
Oliver was a learned and famous physician of that 
time, being well versed in such knowledge as was 
then current in scientific circles, and an authority in 
optics. Nathaniel Bowditch everybody has heard of 
who ever smelled salt-water. He was famous both 
on sea and shore. His fame was so extensive and 
stable that even his contemporaries who used his 
"Navigator" and worked out their i)roblems by use of 
his tables, often thought of him as being as ancient 
and famous as^Sir Isaac Newton. After his marine 
experience was over he lived as a quiet business man 
in Salem, not especially conspicuous in a place and 
at a time when first-rate attainments and achieve- 
ments were expected of many men in many modes 
of action. 

As merchants at that time, no men were more con- 
spicuous in Salem, or elsesvhere, tlian Klias Haskett 



Derby, Joseph Peabody and William Gray. The 
story of the commercial fortunes of the town will be 
told elsewhere. They were at their brightest in the 
period between the two wars with England and were 
the direct result and continuation of one of the most 
interesting and exciting episodes in the varied histo- 
ry of Salem. America had no navy when the Revo- 
lutionary War began. Exposed along all her line of 
coast to a descent of the enemy, but one defense was 
possible. Instant submission must have followed had 
not the whole merchant service of every kind offered 
itself with ships and men trained to enterprise and 
eager for adventure. It was to Salem, Beverly and 
Marblehead that Washington looked at once for an 
armed fleet, without awaiting the slow action of a 
loosely organized Congress or taxing the inadequate 
resources of scattered and half-appointed ship-yards, 
and these old sea-poris did not fail him in his neces- 
sity. They furnished, ready-made, the first navy 
of the war. Shipbuilding of every kind was 
pushed with all speed. Vessels of all kinds, large 
and small, were commissioned to sweep the seas and 
make lawful prize of war whatever could be captured 
belonging to the enemy. Salem entered into this 
form of war with great enthusiasm. It suited the 
adventurous spirit of her boys. Jonathan Ilaraden 
was a sea-dog of the approved pattern. Bold, perse- 
vering and indomitable, he made himself a terror to 
the enemy, and, with others of like temper and 
spirit, soon made Salem a magazine of supplies of 
every kind, taken from the merchantmen of Great 
Britain. At one time a famine was averted by the 
timely arrival of a prize laden with flour and dry 
goods. More than one hundred and fifty privateers 
sailed from this port during the Revolution. The 
extraordinary activity of the marine forces of the 
town left few to take part in the war on land, although 
when Colonel Pickering marched after a drum 
through the aisles of the First Church, calling for 
volunteers, the full quota of the town fell in behind 
him and followed him into the street. Privateering 
had all the charm of piracy without its crime and 
outlawry. It furnished adventure to match the de- 
sires of the most inflamed youthful imagination. The 
town was full of well-educated young fellows who 
were eager for excitement. The people were of a 
homogeneous breed, mostly the descendants of the 
English yeomanry. Every one knew his neighbor, 
and each one had a reputation to make or to main- 
tain. Every sailor boy expected some day to be ad- 
miral of a fleet or master of a vessel at least. All 
were intelligent, and sailed with a purpose. The re- 
sult was the training of a merchant marine of unex- 
ampled intelligence, enterprise and experience. When 
the war was over it was easy to see that the little town 
of five or six thousand inhabitants was swarming 
with sailors and privateersmen, rough, boisterous, im- 
patient of the plodding ways of business, spoiled for 

anything but a life of adventure. With the harbor 
crowded with swift-sailing vessels and the streets 
filled with idle sailors, with ship-owners not averse to 
the life of enterprise and adventure made familiar by 
war, all the conditions were prepared for the sudden 
enlargement of the mercantile resources of the town 
which followed. Many volumes would be required 
to hold the record of the times, the adventures in 
foreign lands, the hunt for new markets, the unex- 
pected discovery of obscure corners of the world, 
where salable products of the earth, rare in Europe 
and America, were common, and to the natives of lit- 
tle value, the conflicts with natives often murderous 
in disposition and cannibals to boot, the rivalries of 
fellow merchants, and the dangers from foreign na- 
tions, both on sea and shore. These, often told in 
part, familiar to many, have as yet never been pre- 
sented to the public in the fuUnes's which the great 
interest of the subject would justify. 

In this place it is possible only to call attention to 
the features of society at that time which are often 
overlooked, the dash and excitement of the common 
life and the brilliant cosmopolitanism of the rich, en- 
terprising and educated men who conducted these en- 
terprises. The sudden quiet which fell upon the 
town when the foreign commerce departed, the grave 
demeanor of the elders, who, their business being 
done, and their sons having gone to conduct other 
enterprises, quietly settled down to the enjoyment of 
wealth and leisure, have given the impression that it 
was always so in Salem. When those who are in mid- 
dle life now came upon the stage the play was over, 
the curtain was falling and the lights were going out. 
But when everything was fresh and all enterprises in 
full operation, when the store-houses were full, the 
wharves scenes of busy activity, and the young men 
of the town were coming and going on their travels 
and voyages, there was nothing dull or sluggish in 
the movements of society. Youth was predominant 
and hopefulness characteristic of the times. The un- 
exampled opportunities for young men drew them 
from all the neighborhood, and in those days the in- 
crease of population was largely of this class. An 
impression of gravity and severity is given by pic- 
tures of the men and women of that time, who, in 
dress and manner, seem ancient and stiff. At that 
time it was customary to mark distinction of age and 
standing by the fashion of the garments. Old men 
did not affect the sprightliness of youth either in gait 
or garment. In middle life one's coat was a little 
longer, his waistcoat a little more voluminous, his 
shoe buckles a little broader, and there was an air of 
repose and a suggestion of solidity which was regard- 
ed as not inappropriate to one who might be supposed 
to have done something and had passed the need of 
hurrying overmuch. It was a gravity not altogether 
without the compensations and quiet cheerl'ulness 
which come with well-filled pockets, and a heavy 



balance at the bank. The young men as they pros- 
pered were not averse to a little of the dignity which 
began to indicate that they were men of weight. All 
social distinctions were still marked by etiquette and 
<lrcss in a way now quite unknown. Until just be- 
fore the Revolution names of students were printed 
in the catalogue of Harvard College in the order of 
the social rank of their parents. Something is to be 
said for customs which mark off society into classes 
according to age and merit, and make it easier to 
grow old and more desirable to succeed in lawful en- 
terprises, because of the increased respect paid to the 
aged and the honorable. Old age in some ways began 
earlier than now. It is difficult for us to realize what 
an extension of the working capacity of the race has 
followed the great improvement of optical instru- 
ments since the beginning of this century. Timothy 
Pickering was near-sighted and wore glasses. A sol- 
dier has left on record the emotions with which he 
saw him ride along a line of camp-fires in the even- 
ing, his eyes blazing at intervals like balls of fire. 
He had never seen such a sight before. Many near- 
sighted people, having no glasses, were accounted 
queer, because they could not join with others in 
sports or many occupations, and the middle-aged, 
who were not rich enough or enterprising enough to 
provide themselves with the costly and ugly specta- 
cles then made, were early victims of old age and 
were laid on the shelf prematurely because they could 
not see. 

The intellectual excitements of the last part of the 
eighteenth century were many and strong. Inter- 
course with the whole world brought freight of many 
kinds besides that which paid duty at the custom- 
house. Puritanism had lost its hold upon the lead- 
ing classes and English Unitarianism waa coming in 
to make Salem a " peculiar place." But this, though 
influential, was as yet a silent force, working persua- 
sively, but not noisily. French Democracy, working 
in some ways to the same end, was a disturbing force 
of which more account was taken. France had been 
the friend of America in her well-nigh hopeless strug- 
gle. Lafayette was loved there next to Washington, 
and it was natural that French ideas should be popu- 
lar. But in the admixture of French ideas with Pur- 
itanism it is easy to see there were difficulties not 
easily overcome. " Infidelity " was a word of ominous 
meaning, and the atrocities of the French Revolution 
made it hard to keep one's balance when attempting 
to take from the French philosophers the good there 
undoubtedly was in their theories, and to avoid the 
evil which was only too apparent. Dr. Bentley was 
a Democrat and a sturdy fighter. He did not hesi- 
tate to avow his liberal opinions as to church and 
state and to take the consequences, and the conse- 
quences were sometimes unpleasant. He stood almost 
alone because of his opinions, a Roger Williams of 
later date, not doomed to banishment because the 

times had changed. Even so early as 1787 he was a 
leader in the ways which were by many accounted 
destructive. The story of the theological contests of 
the time belong in the ecclesiastical history of Salem, 
and will be told in its proper place. But the struggle 
was not wholly, perhaps not at this time mainly, the- 
ological. The questions in dispute were by all par- 
ties supposed to relate to the very foundations of 
social institutions and civil government. The new 
world of modern life was in jirocess of discovery. New 
ideas were pouring into minds both trained and un- 
trained in a tumultuous profusion which was bewil- 
deriug. Everybody knew that the old familiar forms 
into which society had been shaped by Puritanism 
were shifting and changing. To some the changes 
were welcome; to some they were alarming. Few- 
were indifferent to them, and no one knew what would 
come next, nor exactly what was desirable. The de- 
scendants of the Puritans, then as now, were conser- 
vative in action and slow to change the outward habit 
of their lives. The intellectual tumult, however, was 
none the less because veiled by the decent garb and 
weighty manners of the " respectable citizen." The 
peculiarities of Salem life cannot be understood by 
those who do not take into account the stress and 
tension of the minds of the men and women of tho-e 
days, and the great activity of intellectual faculties 
exercised on numerous questions which had no rela- 
tion to business and no concern with the traditional 
religious beliefs. It is not possible to account for the 
outburst of literary expression in the generation fol- 
lowing this on the supposition that the best society of 
the last days of the eighteenth century was a " purse- 
proud " aristocracy, of which the most conspicuous 
members were those who, by patient and unscrupulous 
dealings in Xew England rum, negroes, tobacco and 
salt codfish, had amassed wealth and were enjoying it 
in an atmosphere of dignified and exclusive dullness. 
The evil and the stupid elements of a commercial 
town were there, and no doubt in their full propor- 
tion. But there was that other something, the intel- 
lectual unrest and voiceless activity which came to 
expression a little later in sons and daughters trained 
to think, accustomed from childhood to familiar 
intercourse with the masters of thought and literature, 
and able themselves to contribute to the world's slowly 
accumulating treasure of immortal books. The liter- 
ature of a generation springs out of nothing but a 
previous generation prepared to nourish thoughtful 
sons and daughters. In the generation to come upon 
the stage as the great merchants pass away we shall 
see how the brilliant literary history of Salem was 
prepared for in these busy and laborious days after 
the Revolution. There was, in general society, at 
that time great formality and exclusiveness, due in 
part to the perilous strength of thought, out of which 
may come new dispensations of peace, or, with unfavi r- 
able conditions, contentions and disaster. Many of 



the more " aristocratic " families had naaintained their 
loyalty to the royal government, and were perhaps all 
the more attached to their King because at a distance 
from their " old home " they idealized him. They 
had found Salem too hot for " tories," and at the be- 
ginning of the war had gone to England or the Brit- 
ish provinces. Among the " patriots " who remained 
the lines were strictly drawn between Federalists on 
the one side and Republicans on the other. The 
principles which were approved on either side were 
illustrated in many ways, and social life took its tone 
largely from the color of the political party to whiclr 
a family belonged. The one would give society some- 
thing of the stateliness of aristocratic society abroad, 
while the other would abandon all formal etiquette 
and return to the unconventional ways " of nature." 
To the P^ederalist, Thomas Jefferson riding unattended 
on horseback to take the oath of ofBce as President of 
the United States was simply demeaning him.self and 
degrading his office. To the Republicans he seemed 
to be setting an example of glorious republican sim- 
plicity. The two social ideals created social distinc- 
tions and produced rivalries which seem now incredi- 
ble and foolish. But we must remember that nothing 
is of small value when it illustrates a principle, and 
that by outward signs a community is educated to 
loyalty or dislike for a theory of social order upon 
which the safeiy or prosperity of all may depend- 
The men of these times were at the head of the 
streams <iut of which were flowing the main currents 
of the national life. They knew it and they felt their 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Salem 
was still a small town. The century was well on its 
way before fifteen thousand people gathered there. 
But it was the home of a vigorous race, — the product 
and flowering of the Puritan stock, enriched by cul- 
ture, made wise by many experiences of adversity 
and polished by travel and a wide experience with 
men of many creeds and customs. In a letter written 
at the time, Haskett Derby is described as "a fine, 
majestic-looking man." " He says little, yet does not 
appear absent ; has traveled much, and in his man- 
ners has an easy, unassuming politeness that is not 
the acquirement of a day." Such a description may 
be taken as almost typicil of the society of that time 
in its best aspects. There was no doubt pride, pre- 
tension and folly, such as always come and go with 
rapid changes of fortune. Tliere was no doubt a class 
whose arrogance was not justified by any service ren- 
dered to the public by themselves or their ancestors. 
Others were unworthy heirs of great names, and unfit 
custodians of family renown. There were the purse- 
proud who were ignorant, and the exclusive who, in 
order to be so, were obliged to forget their ancestry 
and exclude their kindred. But after making all the 
allowances which could be suggested by envy, by the 
ill-natured rivalry of other towns, or by jealous rivals 

at home, granting all that reason and the democratic 
sentiment of America claims for the rank and file of 
citizenship, still it remains true, and after making all 
deductions, fiiir and unfair, only the more conspicu- 
ously true, that in those days the little town of Salem 
was the home to a remarkable degree of intellect, cul- 
ture and high-bred character ; that it was not merely 
the dwelling-place of traders and speculators, but was 
an exceptional centre of attraction for a large number 
of men of comprehensive ideas, broad culture and a 
certain largeness of life not common then or now. In 
the chapters which follow on commerce and on litera- 
ture the story of the achievements of the men of Salem 
will show in what ways the energy which had been 
stored up and the knowledge which had been accum- 
ulating were put to use both in enriching the world 
and making it wiser, — two processes not always carried 
on together. Aside from this history of activity on 
the sea and the gathering up of literary power there 
is little to tell of these times before the War of 1812. 
What there is to be noted shows that a settled pros- 
perity has begun. The common is laid out, two banks 
are incorporated, the turnpike was opened, making 
rapid travel possible, two new banks were incorpo- 
rated, two military companies held their first parade, 
a ship came in from a voyage round the world and 
another made the first voyage for trade at the Fiji 
Islands, Nathaniel Hawthorne was born, the Athe- 
nieum was incorporated, and Messrs. Judson, Newell, 
Nott, Hall and Rice were, in the Tabernacle Church, 
consecrated the first missionaries to India. This lat- 
ter event, to many the most notable of the century, 
was one of the remarkable modern illustrations of the 
earnestness of the Puritan spirit in matters of religion, 
and it was a direct result of the meeting of two phases 
of the Puritan character. The spirit of enterprise 
opened the heathen world to commerce and the pious 
zeal of the church which had maintained the Puri- 
tan creed sent the gospel to complete the work of civ- 
ilization. The two purposes which united at the 
founding of Salem made the third century of its lile 
illustrious with the double triumphs of commerce and 
religion. The record of the Christian missionaries 
of New England shines with all the traits of heroism. 
In all the years which have followed since the sailing 
of the first missionaries in the brig "Caravan "in 1812, 
the Orthodox people of S.ilem have retained their in- 
terest in their work, and have been able with both 
money and advice to assist in generous measure. 

It would be a mistake to suppose that the large 
amount of liberal " leaven " in the ecclesiastical life 
of Salem was the result of any easy-going optimism 
on tlie part of the people, or that the changes which 
have passed over the Puritan spirit indicate any 
wholesale lapse of the people from the standards of 
their fathers. The change was the result of a battle 
fiercely but fairly fought, and it has left all parties in 
possession of an inheritancedirectly derived from their 



forefathers. The strife which followed the division of 
the Congregational body of Salein was probably the 
last one of its kind in Puritan history, and it would 
be an instructive exhibition if one could put the sym- 
bols of ecclesiastical discipline in chronological order, 
marking the two hundred years, with the gallows at 
one end and a "union Thanksgiving service " at the 
other. Tolerance in all matters of religion has become 
common-place in Salem. But all parties who date 
their ecclesiastical ancestry from the beginning are 
equally proud of their fathereand all claim, whatever 
their modern differences, to illustrate in important 
particulars the principles of the founders. Even the 
Episcopalians and the Quakers now live in peace 
with the descendants of those who persecuted them, 
and claim their share of the common inheritance, 
while not a few of the children of the persecutors 
have accepted the tenets of the men and women who 
suffered as disturbers of the peace and rebels against 
the ciiureh of God. Of no portion of her population 
is Salem more ])roud than of her " Friends." It is 
hard for her to forgive herself that in her borders 
they suffered violence. Their love of peace and their 
zeal for human liberty have conquered. Left to 
themselves, they have proved themselves to be not 
disturbers, but keepers of the peace, and as others 
adopt their rule of conduct their protest dies away 
and they are no longer to be distinguished from their 
friendly neighbors. 

The founding of the Andover Theological School 
and the oath imposed upon its pnjfessors, with its list 
of things to be opposed, are part of the ecclesiastical 
history of Salem, and show some of the influences at 
work in shaping her religious and social life. John 
Norris, of Salem, gave ten thousand dollars of the 
original endowment. The school was intended to 
ofiset the " latitudinarianism " of Harvard College. 
The heresies mentioned were those which in Salem 
were, or had been, regarded with more or less sym- 
jiathy and toleration. It is a list w hich could never 
liave been made in a western town. The professors 
were sworn to opposition, " not only to Atheists and 
infidels, but to Jews, Papists, Mohammedans, Ai'ians, 
Pelagians, Antinomians, Arminians, Socinians, Sabel- 
lians. Unitarians and Universalists." Now every one 
of these words stood for that which had been a be- 
lief heltl by men of Salem or their friends and busi- 
ness correspondents at some time in their troubled 

The war with England in 1812 was a disaster to 
Salem which her merchants dreaded and would have 
avoided. Their ships were abroad on all seas, and 
they protested against the peril and loss which they 
saw to be inevitable. But the war being declared, 
they turned their attention with characteristic vigor 
to the prosecution of it to a victorious conclusion. 
As in the Revolution, an efficient navy being wanted 
and not being available, an extemporaneous navy was 

speedily organized, and, as usual, the privateering 
fleet of Salem was greatly out of proportion to her 
small population. Ships and seamen were abundant, 
and the boys were natural sailors and sea-fighters. 
Of the enemy much spoil was taken and many prison- 
ers. But of the forty privateers, twenty-six fell into 
the hands of the Briti>h, and their crews lay in prison 
at Barbadoes and elsewhere. Dartmoor was filled 
with them, and until within a few years the survivors 
of captivity in that gloomy place recited the stories of 
their sufierings and release to admiring listeners. 

As commerce culminated and passed away, the in- 
tellectual vigor which had been evolved or educated by 
its enterprise and wide experience of the world began 
to manifest itself in other ways. The life of ])rofes- 
sional men in the town was attractive and their work 
lucrative, according to the modest standard of the 
time. Ministers, lawyers and doctors, of learning and 
ability abounded. Scholars were numerous and well 
equipi)ed. The men of native mental power, who had 
not been highly educated, sent their boys to Harvard 
College, and young men of wealth, education and the 
habit of foreign travel were in many families where 
culture was accounted at least as good as wealth. At 
that time all classes lived the year round in Salem. 
They might have outlying farms, and were in the 
habit of traveling much abroad, but the principal in- 
terests of the rich and educated families were at 
home. The influence of this concentration of in- 
terest, and the maintenance of a permanent domestic 
life in one place was favorable to the cultivation of 
the whole community. Men of exceptional gifts were 
not isolated from their townsmen. Those who were 
conspicuous for their wi-sdom were held in honor at 
home, and served the community like other citizens. 
For illustration every institution of the town might 
furnish an example, — Timothy Pickering was pres- 
ident of the Essex Agricultural Society ; Nathaniel 
Bowditch was president of the Essex Fire and Marine 
Insurance Company; Daniel A. White was president 
of the Athena'um and of the Essex Institute; Lever- 
ett Saltonstall held similar offices ; Colonel Francis 
Peabody founded the Lyceum ; and in the school 
committee for 1821 we find the names of Tim. Picker- 
ing, Joseph Story, Nat. Silsbee, Gid. Barstow, Lever- 
ett Saltonstall, John Pickering and others. In the 
list we have one who had been a cabinet officer under 
two Presidents, a member of Congress, an United 
States Senator, a justice of the Supreme Court, with 
others almost equally eminent, together with two 
physicians of fine attainments, and business men of 
prominence. Not one of the whole list is insignifi- 
cant. John Pickering made the first Greek lexicon 
with definitions in English, and not Latin, while 
among the teachers with whom the committee had to 
deal with then or a little later were such men as the 
author of "Worcester's Dictionary" and Henry K. 
Oliver. Rufus Choate was practicing law ; Nathaniel 



Hawthorne was just going to college at Brunswick ; 
the sculptor and poet, W. W. Story, was not quite old 
enough to enter school ; Jones Very, the poet, was a 
shy and modest lad of eight years ; Samuel Johnson, 
the eminent historian of the "Oriental Religions," 
was getting the first impressions of the East which 
were to turn his attention to its literature, and make 
him the first American scholar in that department of 
learning; and many boys were fitting themselves in 
the public, schools to become what they have been 
ever since — most important factors in the evolution of 
American society. Education was a "hobby" at 
this time, and money was at rapid rate being turned 
into brains and brain culture. Between 1815 and 
1832 seventy-nine Sali^m boys were graduated at Har- 
vard College alone. In 1828 seventeen boys entered 
Harvard College, and seven the same year went to 
other colleges. In those days young men, their 
travels being over, returned to live at home, and a 
proportion of the men to be met on Essex Street, 
unusually large for a town of its size, were college 
bred. The intense mental energy directed by the 
fathers into the channels of commerce could not be 
limited to them, and their sons, inheriting their 
ability with a wider range of experience and a greater 
knowledge of the world of books, became lawyers, 
judges, theologians, physicians, men of' science and 
men of letters, and exponents in all New England 
and the Northern States of the intellectual and 
"gentle" life." It was a period of wonderful intel- 
lectual stimulus and fertility. Within a radius of 
twenty miles from the custom-house, from which the 
" Scarlet Letter " was dated, the stock being homo- 
geneous and the conditions similar, there were pro- 
duced in the early part of the century in Boston, 
Cambridge, Salem and other towns. Story, the two 
Danas, Sparks, Everett, Ticknor, Prescott, Norton, 
Ripley, Emerson, Parker, Hawthorne, Rantoul, 
Holmes, Whittier, Motley, Lowell and many another 
of equal or lesser light, and they drew into their fel- 
lowship such men as Channing, Bancroft, Longfellow, 
Agassiz, Choate and Webster. The common family 
life out of which they came was, to a great extent, the 
common life of an ordinary social circle in Salem. 
Henry R. Cleveland, son of a ship-master, was one of 
the "five of clubs," and brought his companions, 
Sumner, Longfellow, Hillard and Felton, to enjoy 
the gay and witty society to be found about his home. 
Many a visitor from Cambridge and Boston sought 
the company of the accomplished men and beautiful 
women who constituted a genuine " society," and 
many of the daughters of Salem were taken away to 
grace the homes of other cities. 

Certain writers have much to say about the '' pro- 
vincialism " of Salem in the fir.'it half of this century. 
It is not necessary to deny any charge they may 
make, for no doubt it was provincial. But it was less 
so than any sea-port town of England at the same 

time, and was behind few English towns in the 
knowledge the people had of English literature of the 
better sort. Dr. Kirwan's philosophical library, made 
a prize of war in the Channel, became the basis 
of the present Athenfeum Library, a rare collection 
of good books both new and old. But it is safe to say 
that there was in that library no book so abstruse, so 
philosophical, or printed in language so uncommon 
as to be unfit for the use of numerous men and women 
in Salem. Rummage the closets of any old gambrel- 
roofed house to-day, and along with crackle-ware tea- 
pots and old silver porringers you will find some rare 
volume of "Seneca," the "Spectator," the "Dial," 
the common reading of Hawthorne and his playmates 
of seventy years ago or later. 

Salem became a city about the time when its most 
famous days were over. With the transference of its 
trade to the larger cities and more accessible markets 
its local prominence was greatly reduced. The build- 
ing of railroads and the multiplication of modern in- 
ventions reduced, instead of increasing, its relative 
importance. Great eflforts were made, and hopes 
were entertained, that the port of Salem might again 
become the centre of a great inland trade. Stephen 
C. Phillips lost his life in a burning steamer on the 
St. Lawrence River, while making an effort to open 
new provinces to the enterprise of Salem. His 
sons were prominent in the movement which resulted 
in the provision made by the city for an abundant 
supply of pure water. When the city charter was 
procured, most of the wealth wou by enterprise in all 
quarters of the globe was still held by citizens at 
home, or so invested as to swell the general resources 
of the city. But the inviting fields for enterprise 
opened in the Western States have caused the trans- 
ference of a large part of it to other places, and with 
it have gone many of those who have inherited it. 
Some of them are to be found in most of the large 
cities of the Eastern States and in Europe. The sons 
of Salem are officers of many western railways, and 
the money won in oriental trade now facilitates the 
transport of the grain which feeds the millions of 

The old Salem is gone. The men, the commerce, 
the Puritan spirit, the high-bred courtesy, the stately 
ways, the great men and women with strong local at- 
tachments,— these are gone. Nothing remains of the 
most stirring epoch in the life of the town but names, 
places, and a decreasing number of the families who 
trace their ancestry back of the nineteenth century, 
in Salem. 

A new Salem has taken the place of the old. A 
city stands where the old town won its renown, — a 
city with railroads,, electric lights and cot- 
ton-mills, and a large foreign population. The man- 
sions built by merchants of English descent and train- 
ing are inhabited b_v operatives in the mills or labor- 
ers, who have no interest in the old ways or the 



former inhabitants. The Irish brogue and the 
French language are heard now where pure English 
was once the rule. The old wharves are rotting ; the 
ancient warehouses are silently falling to decay, and 
the beautiful shores of streams and harbors, which 
once delighted the eyes of their owners, are becoming 
an oflense to the poor who dwell along their borders. 
The custom-house, always too large for any reason- 
able expectations of prosperity, is much too vast for 
the diminishing commerce in dutiable goods. The 
old Salem is dead aud gone. Most of it does not even 
exist as a relic of a fast-fading antiquity. 

But a new Salem is rising. The points of activity 
and interest are no longer on her shores, which, for 
the present, are abandoned to chance and fate until, 
with renewed life and a more abundant leisure, meas- 
ures shall be taken to make them once more as 
beautiful and attractive as they were when " Lover's 
Lanes " and clean beaches were the resorts of the 
youth. The centres of life and business activity are 
DOW within the town, along that highway which, 
once a lane and then a street, took its curves from 
the line of the shores where the merchants lived and 
business was done. Two hundred years ago what is 
now Essex Street was a shady lane, where the goats 
and swine and cattle passed on their way to and from 
their pastures, and where, in the dewy freshness of a 
summer morning, the horns of the herdsmen sum- 
moned their flocks and herds, to be driven away to 
fields now inhabited by prosperous citizens. The 
shores are now deserted by commerce, and the shaded 
lanes of the old time are now the paved and lighted 
highways through which begins to move, with in- 
creasing energy, the business which is to repair and 
rebuild the fallen fortunes of the city. Home indus- 
tries, domestic commerce, manufactures, science, 
literature, music, art and education are now restoring 
the vanishing wealth, renewing the ancient renown, 
and making the city a centre of enterprises which are 
already enriching the national life. 

Since the nineteenth century began there have 
been three distinct periods in the progress of the city. 
First, there was the commercial and intellectual 
energy of the first thirty years. They were supposed 
to be without limit. But they were appropriated by 
the larger life of New England. Then came the 
slowly diminishing prosperity of the thirty years be- 
fore the War of the Rebellion, in which, in spite of 
costly endeavors to prevent it, the city lost its an- 
cient importance as a centre of business. The war 
ended the career of " Old Salem," and the new Salem 
began to be. The city lives no longer on its mem- 
ories alone, and is not distinguished solely for its an- 
tiquity. Business activity and scientific enterprise 
are rapidly preparing the conditions for a new career 
of progress, on new lines. The history of Old Salem 
is closed ; but in the new city, which is rising on its 
ancient foundations, its memories will be cherished, 
its annals will be preserved with care and enriched 

with fresh discovery. The historic places where the 
good and evil passions of men were displayed in con- 
flict, and where great virtues made the contest illus- 
trious, will be visited, as the years pass, by an incrciis- 
ing number of pilgrims from all the newer parts of 
the country. The ideals of character which were the 
Puritan's finest contribution to the resources of mod- 
ern civilization, honored and revered on the spot 
which g.ave them birth, will be constant sources of 
virtue and intelligence. 

The people of Salem are proud of their ancestry and 
history, and a diligent band of local antiquarians is 
working out the story of the past, with results of more 
than local fame. But the city is entering upon a new 
career, and may become as notable for its achieve- 
ments in the years to come as it was justly famous in 
the past. 

The Athensum, the Essex Institute, the Pea- 
body Academy of Science and the societies and indi- 
viduals that are attending to music and art are yet to 
be heard from in a way not unworthy of Salem. The 
idea is being cultivated that wealth is not the sole 
foundation of good society, aud that the money made 
in the old times was not the princii^al gain. That 
money is now flowing in other channels, but it has, 
in flowing away from the place where it was accumu- 
lated, made it only the moi'e evident that it was one of 
the least of the treasures gained in the enterprising 
days of foreign commerce. Now attention is turned 
to the other things which are seen to be permanent 
and of staple value in good society. The new Salem 
will be rich, but its cultivation will be not incidental. 
It will be held to be of primary importance, and, with 
religion, good morals and wisdom, will enrich the 
national life far beyond any material contributions 
which it may make to the national prosperity. 


SALEU— {Continued). 


Thi.s history lays no cl.aim to completeness. It 
deals but slightly with the interior, the unorganized 
religious life of the first settlers of Salem, or of the 
later inhabitants of the place. It is little more than 
a liistorical sketch of the church-life of its people. 

Nor is it for the most part history now written for 
the first time. The main facts relating to nearly 
every church in the towu have been already collected 
and priuted — those of earlier date than the present 
century by the very competent hand of Rev. Mr. 
Bentley, minister of the East Church ; those falling 



within the present century by Charles S. Osgood and 
Henry M. Batchelder, in their historical sketch of 
Salem, published in 1879, whose contents vreie mani- 
festly verified with painstaking care so far as the 
authority for them could be had and the scope of 
that work permitted them to be included. 

The settlement of New England, it is to be borne 
in mind, was an enterprise in the interest of religion. 
"Civilized New England," says Palfrey, "is the child 
of English Puritanism." To know the child, there- 
fore, we should know something of its ancestry. Only 
briefest notices of the ante-migration period of Eng- 
lish Puritanism, however, can find rfiom here. 

When it is said that the colonizing of New Eng- 
land was in the interest of religion, it is not meant 
that secular interests had no voice in the councils 
that directed it. Hopes of advantageous trade and 
prospects of opening new fishing-grounds were not 
wanting. Philanthropic plans for converting and 
civilizing the Indians mingled with schemes for 
reaping solid gains from exchanging English goods 
for land, peltry, fish, whatever products might turn 
to account in a commerce between the Old World 
and the New. The sleepless love of adventure, thirst 
for roving and change, sure to be dreaming its fasci- 
nating dream of voyage and exploration in every tenth 
young Englishman's brain, of course played its part. 
The never failing, restless, religious adventurer — 
source of constant danger to the peace of the new 
settlement — would also be ready to embark in the 
first ship that sailed. It remains true that a religious 
purpose was predominant and controlling in the 
Puritan company that settled Salem. 

Up to the time of its leaving its English home for 
the West, the history of Puritanism is to be studied 
chiefly as the history of a national religious move- 
ment, of the rooting, spread and final prevailing of 
the ideas of the Reformation on English soil. It is 
our province to trace it more particularly after its 
landing in America, and more particularly still in the 
planting, growth and shaping of the institutions 
which it founded and fostered in this town. It lost 
nothing of its intensity of religious purpose when it 
left its native land. It became even a larger element 
in the life of the settlers of New England after their 
removal than it had been before, in that here they led 
a life of narrowed and simplified conditions. It had a 
more undivided supremacy. It had deeply colored 
and characterized their life and history before they 
came ; now it was the very life of their life. It im- 
bedded itself in their social and domestic customs, 
and took control of their political aims and plans. 

Lines of minor divergence naturally came to be 
drawn among the English reformers themselves, and 
that a good while before they sailed for these shores, 
as they found they were not agreed as to the ex- 
tent to which church reform should go, or what were 
the methods most hopeful for effecting it. Some 
counseled separation from the established church as 

the only way to realize a pure worship, with entire 
freedom of mind and conscience, seeing no other 
sure way to obtain relief from the despotism of the 
Church of Rome, whose spirit was still present and 
ruling, and whose methods still lingered in the 
Church of Episcopal England. Those who took this 
view were the Separatists, Brownists, Independents 
of their time, avowed advocates of democracy in 
church government, for which Robert Brown of 
Norwich was a strenuous contestant, and in which 
he led a considerable following. Others regarding 
the national church as a true church still, even in its 
degeneracy, and having an invincible antipathy to 
the least semblance of schism, firmly resisted the 
secession movement, and sought rather to purify the 
church of its formalism by the leaven of a more sin- 
cere and fervent piety. These were the Puritans. 

From the former class came the Plymouth colo- 
nists, — by the way of Holland, where they tarried a 
few years, and contemplated for a time making a 
permanent religious home under the tolerant laws, 
the Protestant leanings and the comparatively hos- 
pitable public sentiment of that country. 

The Puritans continued for a while their experi- 
ment of staying in the national church and there 
working out its reformation. They never formally 
abandoned it. But practically they did. They con- 
fessed to themselves after a time that they were not 
succeeding. Reluctantly they became more and 
more accustomed to turn their eyes to the sea and to 
think of the shores beyond. English trading com- 
panies were sending their ventures meanwhile to the 
wild and little-known bays and rivers of Virginia 
and their ships were ranging the whole long Eastern 
coast of the new continent. They might try their 
experiment there, they thought, under a less close 
and jealous scrutiny, and possibly pursue there, un- 
molested by savage neighbors, as they could not at 
home, unmolested by priests and prelates, the better 
religious life they craved. 

The reports that came from Plymouth were, to be 
sure, of hunger, cold, sickness, death and of return- 
ing malcontents, but also of an undaunted faith, a 
peaceful following of their own way in religion, and 
a fixed purpose to stay on the part of the conductors 
and earliest members of that community. A schis- 
matic the Puritan would never be, but a non-con- 
formist he could be. But at length non-conformity 
came to be no longer permitted in England. He 
looked now, then,oftener toward the sea, and thought 
more of a home and a church in the wilderness. 

John White, of the English Dorchester, " a famous 
Puritan divine," perhaps not thinking of a possible 
Puritan church at all, but only of a plantation com- 
bined with a fishing and trading-post, — John White, 
of whatever thinking, interested himself, at any rate, 
to induce some faithful men among the number of 
those who made voyages from his town for the pur- 
pose of fishing in these neighboring waters and bar- 



tering along these neighboring American coasts, and 
who were often for months together detained about 
these parts, to make a station at Cape Ann, " where 
the mariners might have a home when not at sea, 
where supplies might be provided for them by farm- 
ing and hunting, and where they might be brought 
under religious influences." 

In 1623 a plant was made, with this view, under 
Thomas Gardner as overseer. For some cause it 
failed. Two years later Mr. Eoger Conant, who had 
left the Plymouth colony from disaffection, and had 
come up the coast as far as Nantasket, being reported 
to the Dorchester associates as a "religious, sober 
and prudent gentleman," was invited by them to 
come to Cape Ann and to take charge of the planta- 
tion there. Though this confidence in the newly- 
installed director was not misplaced, the plantation 
still languished, and a year or two after, those en- 
gaged in it sold what remained of their vessels and 
supplies, disbanded, and, as a company, quit their 
joint proceedings. But a few, of better stuff" than the 
rest, and of more staying qualities of character, re- 
mained behind, and kept charge of the last importa- 
tion of cattle. Mr. White was not one to accept 
defeat. He kept up communication with Conant, who 
meantime had removed to Kahumkeike, as a preferable 
seat for the general purposes of colonization, and 
pleaded with him not to be discouraged nor to desist 
from the undertaking to which he had set his hand. 
If Conant and three others whom he named would 
engage to stay at Xaumkeag, he promised to obtain a 
patent for them and send them recruits, with provis- 
ions and goods suitable for trade with the Indians. 
The drooping spirits of the settlers were with some 
difficulty roused again, the faith of the English mer- 
chants was reinforced by the energetic representations 
of the Dorchester patron, so that they became willing 
to risk a portion of their wealth in another attempt. 
Not only Dorchester fishermen, but London mer- 
chants and gentlemen and others, were brought to 
put some capital at stake here. And it fell out that 
John Eudicott, "a man well known to divers persons 
of good note," "manifested much willingness" to 
accept the leadership of the new effort proposed, and 
came in the summer of 1628, at the head of a not 
large party, to take the management, which, after 
some objection from those already on the ground, 
was finally yielded to him, and the name of Salem, 
which has since come to honor, commemorates, it is 
said, the pacification of the dispute between the new- 
comers and the old, which for a while threatened to 
wreck the project. 

So Salem began in 1628. With its beginning began 
its worship. Probably under some tree, or if a shelter 
had been reared before the first Sabbath day came 
round, under its roof, it might be the roof of Conant's 
house, or of some original " planter's house " at first 
designed for common use. Their worshi]) followed the 
prayer-book of the English Church, in part, it is 

likely, but they easily loosened themselves from its 
ritual, and their worship became informal and spon- 
taneous — exposition, free prayer, mutual exhortations, 
— largely modifying the traditional forms of their 
Old World church-life, all parts recognizing the pecu- 
liarity of their situation as they supplicated for pa- 
tience, faith and constancy in the way of duty and 

Let us pause for a moment to observe this type of 
man who stands for the Salem founder. His portrait 
has often been drawn, but it differs pretty widely in 
the hands of diflferent delineators. The differences, 
however, will turn out to be mainly in the strength 
of the lines and the depth of the coloring. Under 
them all the same man is easily recognized. He is of 
firm make, and his figure, face and spirit always hold 
their place and are to be identified at a glance. It is 
thus that the author of the " History of New England 
during the Stuart Dynasty,"' has sketched his feat- 
ures. " The Puritan a Scripturist — a Scripturist 
with all his heart, if, as yet with imperfect intelli- 
gence. . . . He cherished the scheme of looking 
to the word of God as his sole and universal directory. 

The Puritan searched the Bible, not only 
for principles and rules, but for mandates — and when 
he could find none of these, for analogies — to guide 
him in precise arrangements of public administration 
and in the minutest points of individual conduct. 

His objections to the government of the 
church by bishops were founded, not so much on any 
bad working of that polity, as on the defect of author- 
ity for it in the New Testament ; and he preferred his 
plain hierarchy of pastors, teachers, elders and dea- 
cons, not primarily because it tended more to edifica- 
tion, but because Paul had specified their offices by 
name. . . . The opposing party in the State was 
associated in his mind with the Philistine and Amor- 
ite foes of the ancient chosen people, and he read the 
doom of the King and his wanton courtiers in the 
Psalm which put the ' high praises of God ' in the 
mouth of God's people ' and a two-edged sword in 
their hand, to bind their King with chains and their 
nobles with fetters of iron.' . . . He would have 
witchcraft. Sabbath-breaking and filial disobedience 
weighed in the judicial scales of a Hebrew Sanhe- 
drim. His forms of speech were influenced by this 
fond reverence for the Bible. ... He named his 
children after the Christian graces, still oftener after 
the worthies of Palestine, or, with yet more singular- 
ity, after some significant clause of holy writ. 

"The Puritan was a strict moralist. He might be 
ridiculed for being over-scrupulous, but never re- 
proached for laxity. Most wisely, by precept, influ- 
ence and example — unwisely by too severe law, when 
he obtained the power — he endeavored to repress pre- 
vailing vice and organize a Christian people. Hia 
error was not that of interfering without reason, or 

■John Gorham Palfrey, vol. i. pp. 274-277. 



too soon. When he insisted on a hearing, villainous 
men and shameless women, whose abominations were 
a foul offense in the sight of God and of all who rev- 
erence God, were flaunting in the royal dressing-rooms. 
The foundations of public honor and prosperity were 

" In politics, the Puritan was the Liberal of his 
day. If he construed his duties to God in the spirit 
of a narrow interpretation, that punctilious sense of 
religious responsibility impelled him to limit the as- 
sumption of human government. In no stress, in no 
delirium of politics, could a Puritan have been brought 
to teach that, for either public or private conduct, 
there is some law of man above the law of God.'' 

The Puritan came to New England, as before stated, 
as a non-conformist, not as a separatist, with not less 
definite conceptions of whathe did not want in church 
forms and institutions than of what he did want. 
The ideal of the true church, which he had derived 
from the Scriptures, was of a brotherhood — a church 
of equals. The elder, the bishop, was but a minister. 
In him was no official superiority or authority, but 
such as he had been invested with by his brethren. 
To be rid altogether of the false claims and assump- 
tions of authority which the English, as well as the 
Romish hierarchy asserted, and sought to enforce, was 
what the Puritan saw clearly as his right ; it was one 
of the promised advantages dearest to his heart, lobe 
gained by his removal to some distant and obscure 
retreat, that there he would be less subject to jealous 
observation and easy interference, than under the 
immediate eye of the Lords Spiritual of England. 
Seeing his way so far, plainly, he set about modeling 
his church order accordingly, when he arrived in his 
new home. The church brotherhood was sufficient 
unto itself The local group of Christian people ac- 
quainted with one another, and assembling together, 
were competent to proceed with their worship in their 
own preferred way and to maintain their Christian 
fellowship on such grounds and conditions as seemed 
to them Scriptural and fitting, always under a common 
acknowledged responsibility to their consciences and 
their God. This was practically " separatism," or 
" independency," but as yet they did not call it by 
that name. 

This state of things was favorable to the growth of 
a free and natural church life, such as would develop 
spontaneously under the existing conditions. There 
was no preconceived form to which all intellectual 
conclusions, spiritual aspirations and prophetic vis- 
ions must mold their expression. Precedents sat 
loosely upon them. They asked themselves what they 
wanted, and what best satisfied their religious hunger 
and need, with the consciousness of a liberty of 
choice to which they had not been accustomed. So 
they felt their way along tentatively into the adoption 
of a church life such as suited their case as they found 
it then and there existing, regarding it at the same 
tinie s^s subject to modification as they should find it 

thereafter to require. If they made mistakes, they 
were free to repair them. They did make mistakes. 
They could not help it. They were made up in their 
individuality of the old traditions and the new long- 
ings. They put their free principles on trial, and 
when they ran against some rock of rare and excep- 
tional individualism like Roger Williams, or some ap- 
prehended social outcome of the largest liberality, 
like the familism or antinomianism, as they regarded 
it, of Ann Hutchinson, they felt a strain upon their 
before unquestioned postulates, and studied out the 
problem as they best could, to arrive sooner or later at 
some practical conclusion as to the next step neces- 
sary to be taken. They made their church polity, as 
has been happily said, as they went along. The churches 
of New England had this opportunity to grow up 
without an excess of swathing prescriptions, and 
profited by it as a child in an out-door life, and with 
not too much sheltering, dictation and repression of 
its activity, often derives strength from its freedom. 

This little Puritan colony was yet a child — in the 
principles and art of constructing society, framing 
government and learning how to live together in a 
self-controlling community, how to draw the line be- 
tween what might be safely conceded to individual 
choice and what must be enacted for the general 
good ; it was a child, it thought as a child, it under- 
stood as a child, in this new learning. In finding out 
how to use its newly-acquired liberty without abusing 
it, it could not leap to the highest wisdom at a bound. 
It must sometimes stumble and fall. If it rose again 
and went on to better things, taught by experience to 
avoid its earlier mistakes, its experiment was to be 
accounted a success. Man's idealism and his hard, 
practical wisdom for daily use in every-day life never 
walk together with even feet. The one hastens, the 
other lags ; the one sees forward, the other is half- 
blind, and only trusts in experience looking backward. 
Each corrects the other with much confidence that, 
both as to speed and direction, it is entitled to govern. 
It was as inevitable as it was human that the Puritan 
should sometimes push on with a daring that, to his 
old associates, seemed rashness, and sometimes mani- 
fest what posterity, with the teachings and experience 
of centuries behind it, to assure and reassure itsjudg- 
ment, loftily pronounces timidity and inexcusable in- 
consistency. A sufferer for his own dissent, how could 
he be so inconsistent as to turn and excommunicate, 
exile and crush out the dissenter from his own creed 
and church order ? It was simply because it fell to him 
to pass upon the questions that came to him for judg- 
ment two and a-half centuries ago, and not now. 
Where to draw the line between the liberty that is 
permissible and safe and the license that is reckless 
of consequences and destructive and must be checked 
— this is the question that is always up, with the in- 
dividual and with society, lasting on from age to age, 
but with applications new and difficult perpetually 
ar'sing in practice. It is as much our predicament as 



it was that of EnHicott and Winthrop, of Cotton and 
Higginson and Williams centuries back. Have we 
not to decide to-da_v «lietlier men who, for aught we 
know, are as honest and sincere as we are, shall be 
allowed openly and enthusiastically to teach any crowd 
it can gather, in the streets of any city, that the laws 
that they live under are oppressive, were enacted in 
the interest of the strong and rich and overbearing, 
and may be cast off, and the very foundations of so- 
ciety upturned and overthrown without scruple, 
whenever the power can be obtained for the purpose? 
Add to this, that a problem more delicate and diffi- 
cult still was before the Puritan mind, viz., how to 
steer clear of offense to the jealous and watchful home 
government, and at the same time preserve the liber- 
ties they had come here to enjoy, and were fully de- 
termined to maintain, and the hard conditions under 
which this Puritan child community was taking its 
tutelage may be the better appreciated, and a too free 
criticism of the inhabitants of New England in the 
first half of the seventeenth century will be likely to 
be postponed. 

Another condition in the circumstances under which 
the first settlers of New England organized their 
church system must not be overlooked, for it had a 
constant influence in giving a cast to the thought as 
well as a shape to the covenants, the discipline, the 
teachings and the whole institutional life of the peo- 
ple. This was the fact that the same community was 
regarded as both a church and a state. It was work- 
ing out a double problem. Half consciously and half 
unconsciously, its citizens were striving, in the dual 
capacity of citizens and Christian disciples, to realize 
at once, and in one, an ideal commonwealth and a 
true church. So, half consciously and half uncon- 
sciously, each of them, the church and the common- 
wealth, was tending to usurp at any time the func- 
tions of the other, and for a considerable period these 
New England communities were in the process of 
finding out whether or not the one could stand fir the 
other ; if not, how far the union was possible, and the 
identification could be made to hold. Though to the 
mind of the Puritan the problem inclined always to state 
itself in the form of the question, whether, in the last re- 
sult, the church, as representing more nearly the divine 
government, must not of right absorb to itself, as the 
higher and as sole heir of both, all inferior authorities, 
and take the ordering of human society in all its in- 
terests and relations under its own direction, and 
whether thus the ancient dream of a theocratic rule 
was not to come to realization in the earth, and that 
here, first, upon these American shores. The spell of 
this great hope was upon him alike when he set up 
tribunals for the trial and punishment of offenders 
against the peace of society, and when he fixed upon 
th'i true order of proceeding in church affairs. Qual- 
ifications for citizenship and for church membership 
constantly threatened with him to run into each other, 
get mixed and to become one and the same thing. 

And in the civil and the spiritual sphere alike he was 
free to enter on experiments which should test the 
practicability of his long-cherished theories. He 
made laws, and instituted courts, and prescribed mag- 
istracies, and called into being agencies of government, 
a step at a time, as exigencies arose and as new con- 
ditions pushed him to decisions, which he had been 
willing to leave till some necessity drove him to 
judgment and action. 

As a fact going to show in strong relief the predomi- 
nance of religious motive and purpose in the settle- 
ment of New England, the very leading part taken 
by the ministers in the administration of public 
affairs is to be noted. For a considerable period they 
were but little less conspicuous as counselors and 
founders in the establishment of civil government and 
in its conduct, than in constituting churches, settling 
what should be done in ecclesiastical matters and di- 
recting both worship and religious instruction. And 
these ministers of the earlier times of New England 
possessed high qualifications for the duties they were 
called to perform. Belonging to that class of persons 
whose original force of character and independence of 
thought and action had caused their exclusion from 
church dignities and chances of preferment in 
the Church of ilngland, they had had the best train- 
ing which the universities of Cambridge and Oxford 
afforded. " By the practice in the colony," it has 
been said, "the General Court, from time to time, 
propounded questions to the ministers or elders which 
they answered in writing. The proceeding was simi- 
lar to that under a provision of the Constitution re- 
quiring the justices of the Supreme Judicial Court to 
give to either branch of the Legislature, or the Gov- 
ernor and Council, upon request, opinions upon im- 
portant questions of law and upon solemn occasions. 
The opinions given by the ministers, which have been 
preserved, are very able, and will, in logic and sound 
reasoning, bear a not unfavorable comparison with 
opinions of justices given under the provision of our 
Constitution." ' 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., whose large informa- 
tion respecting early American history justly gives 
great weight to his statements, while discrediting the 
common notion that the early ministers of Massachu- 
setts exercised the controlling or leading influence in 
affairs of civil government which history and tradi- 
tion have ascribed to them, nevertheless says this of 
them: "There can be little doubt that John Cotton, 
minister of the First Church [in Boston], had very 
great authority here, while he lived, of a social or po- 
litical character. There can be no doubt, humanly 
speaking, but that Boston is Boston, because he came 
and lived here, be it observed, because Winthrop and 
Dudley wanted him to, and begged him to. 
Ami probably few affairs of importance were decided 

> Hon. William D. Northend : Address before Essex Bar Association, 

p. 7. (NJ 



in which Cotton did not take part, and in which his 
advice was not respected." It is difficult to see upon 
what grounds Cotton is thus assigned a weight of in- 
fluence wholly exceptional, so that it could be said 
that " no trace of any such power appeared after- 
ward." If " there were countless instances," as Dr. 
Hale says there were, " when the ministers met with 
the court, advised with them and were consulted as any 
other intelligent gentlemen might be consulted," we 
read between these lines that many ministers were 
found to be " intelligent gentlemen," whom the court 
deemed it important to consult. Official respect 
purely, and authority as ecclesiastics it is not claimed 
that they received. Quite otherwise. In the first 
church organized in Massachusetts — that in Salem — 
those who had been ministers in the English Church 
were first " reduced to the ranks " among the Salem 
brethren, and then by those brethren raised or set apart 
to the position of ministers. " There were present, at 
the time, and on the spot," says Upham, "at least four 
persons who had borne the ministerial office in distin- 
guished positions, men of talent, learning and repu- 
tation, and eminent in worth as well as station." ' If 
they had great influence afterward, it was because by 
their solid intelligence and their consistent Christian 
carriage they entitled them.selves to a leading influ- 
ence. " The leaders led as they always will," says Dr. 
Hale,words emphatically applicable to men likeHiggin- 
8on, Williams and Peters, as well as to Cotton. "The 
clergy," says Palfrey, in a resume of the state of the 
Massachusetts colony in 1634, " now thirteen or four- 
teen in number, constituted in some sort a separate 
estate of special dignity. Though they were excluded 
from secular office, the relation of their functions to 
the spirit and aim of the community which had been 
founded, as well as their personal weight of ability 
and character, gave great authority to their advice. 
Nearly all were graduates of Oxford or Cambridge, 
and had held livings in the Established Church of 
England. Several had been eminent among their fel- 
lows for all professional endowments." 

The theology of the Salem colonists, as of the set- 
tlers of New England generally, was Calvinistic. 
The formularies emanating from the Westminster 
Assembly of divines embody it with virtual accuracy. 
It was held with no half indifference, no mental reserva- 
tions; not merely for substance of doctrine. Face to 
face, with a will to blink nothing of the terrible in- 
ferences involved, as before God, the sombre creed 
was confessed. And though, with Robinson, these con- 
fessors believed that more light would break forth 
from the word of God, they anticipated no such light 
as would soften the rigors of the divine government 
or lift the crushing doom of eternal pains from the 
non-elect — from the unbeliever and the impenitent 
who remained hardened to the hour of death. This 
was the Puritan's creed. His human feeling of com- 

> Address at rededication of the church, 1867, p. 12. 

passion and justice was too strong against it in many 
a genial hour, and in many a sympathetic tempera- 
ment, and he took refuge, as often as occasion required, 
from unbearable thoughts of the fate of the wretched 
lost, and unbearable thoughts of God, in the comfort- 
ing sentences of Scripture that reminded him that 
God would have mercy and not sacrifice. 

The first church in New England was that at Ply- 
mouth. It landed a completed church. The next, 
the first gathered upon the soil, was that at Salem. 
Its beginning possesses a curious interest and throws 
invaluable light upon the principles and aims that 
guided the founders of the earlier colonial churches. 
At every point in the proceedings it may be seen that 
it was a natural and gradual growth, rather than an 
artificial construction, built upon precedents. It ap- 
pears that seventeen days intervened between the first 
step taken in the business of organization and the 
final one. The 6th of August, 1629, has usually been 
assumed as the date of its institution. We should 
rather assign it to the 20th of July. On that day it 
exercised the highest functions of a corporate body, 
viz., held an election — voting in the choice of its most 
important officers, viz., those of pastor and teacher. 
True, it had no written constitution yet. Its cove- 
nant was not adopted till more than two weeks after- 
wards. So far as appears, it had not yet a list of en- 
rolled members. " Every fit member wrote, in a note, 
his name whom the Lord moved him to think was fit 
for a pastor, and so likewise, whom they would have 
for teacher." But nothing indicates how it was de- 
termined who were to be deemed " fit members." 
Perhaps it was by general assent of the assembly, any 
ballot being received if no objection was made. Per- 
haps each one was put upon his own conscience to 
decide for himself whether he ought to participate in 
the vote. At least the result was accepted without 
question or dispute. The day had been appointed as 
a " solemn day of humiliation for the choice of a pas- 
tor and teacher." It was a public assembly, meeting 
in response to this appointment which took action. 
" The former part of the day being spent in praise 
and teaching, the latter part was spent about the elec- 

We are forbidden to suppose that this was a mere 
preliminary and informal selection, intended tobe rati- 
fied later, by the fact that the church then and there pro- 
ceeded to set apart the pastor and teacher-elect with 
solemn and formal ceremony of official investment. 
"So the most voice was for Mr. Skel ton to be pastor and 
Mr. Higginson to be teacher ; and they accepting the 
choice, Mr. Higginson, with three or four more of the 
gravest members of the church, laid their hands on 
Mr. Skelton, using prayers therewith. This being 
done, then there was imposition of hands on Mr. 
Higginson." Here are all the circumstances indica- 
tive of a completed installation of these two chief 
officers of the church ; and this was on the 20th of 
July. When the church or assembly proceeded to its 



next action, which was the choice of elders and dea- 
cons, it did leave ihnt business uncom)ileted, at that 
time, to be finished at a later day. Atter going so far 
as to designate the persons of its choice — perhaps by 
what we might call an informal ballot — it is quaintly 
added by Mr. Charles Gott, in his letter to Governor 
Bradford, that " they were only named, and laying on 
of hands deferred to see if it pleased God to send us 
more able men over." It is true that at the meeting 
which followed, August 6th, " appointed for another 
solemn day of humiliation for the full choice of elders 
and deacons, and ordaining them," not only were the 
elders and deacons chosen and set apart to their re- 
spective offices in a formal and solemn manner, but 
some ceremony of ordination took place also, in seem- 
ing repetition of that by which, on the 20th of July, 
the pastor and teacher had been ordained. In look- 
ing for the reasons for this we are left largely to con- 
jecture. AVhatever may have occurred in the consul- 
tations held by those interested between July 20th 
and August 6th, the election, which had taken place 
on the former day, must have been deemed valid, for 
it was left undisturbed, and no like form was gone 
through with again. But the church at Plymouth 
had been notified of the occasion, and representatives 
of that church had been invited and were expected 
to be present on August 6th. Their approval and 
assurance of fellowship were also expected to be given, 
and were valued, though especial care was taken that 
it should be understood beforehand that this proffered 
fellowship would be welcomed on the part of the 
Salem Church simply as an act of Christian courtesy 
and brotherly communion, and not as implying any 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction in one church over another. 
There had been correspondence previously between 
them of Plymouth and these of Salem in regard to 
the true principles and right method of church founda- 
tion and organization, in which there had appeared 
to be a general harmony of views and the utmost good 
feeling, though not entire concurrence in all points. 

On the 6th of August a covenant was to be present- 
ed for adoption, and a more definite recognition and 
enrollment of the members of the church was to be 
made by signing and accepting the covenant. In the 
absence of any definite testimony going to show the 
motive for the renewal of the act of ordination— the 
laying on of hands — upon the pastor and teacher- 
elect, we venture to think that it may have been part- 
ly that, upon review of the proceedings of July 20th, 
it was thought that the adoption and signing of the 
covenant would more properly have preceded the or- 
daining of the ministers; partly, perhaps, that the 
contemplated full constitution of the church designed 
to go into effect on the later day, together with the 
expected presence on that day of the Governor and 
others, messengers from the Plymouth Church, as 
guests of the Salem brethren, and appointed to bring 
greetings from the older sister church, made it seem 
to those who arranged the proceedings, fitting that 

the induction of the chosen ministers of the church 
into office should form a part of the observances of 
the time, as essential to their completeness. Gover- 
nor Bradford and his associates from Plymouth, "com- 
ing by sea and hindered by cross-winds," did not 
arrive till late in the day; but though not present 
at the beginning, " they came into the assembly after- 
wards, and gave them the right hand of fellowship, 
wishing all prosperity, and a blessed success unto 
such good beginnings." 

To assist us in determining — if that is possible — what 
was the form of the covenant adopted by the Salem 
Church in 1629, and to explain some of the contro- 
versies which have arisen over this nueation, it is nec- 
essary to present here certain facts in regard to the 
history of the records of this church. 

No records made contemporaneously, or nearly so, 
with the events and facts which they record are now 
in existence of an earlier period than 1660, the time 
when the ministry of John Higginson began. John 
Higginson was the son of Francis, who was chosen the 
first teacher in the Salem Church July 20, 1629, and 
who drew up the covenant adopted August 6th of the 
same year. There was a book of records purporting 
to cover the period from 1629 to 1660 in existence 
when John Higginson was ordained, or at least from 
1636 to 1660 ; when and how it began is obscure. It 
appears to have borne upon its pages some things 
which it seemed to the most considerate and exem- 
plary members of the church not well to hand down 
to posterity. A committee was appointed accordingly 
"to review the church book and to report such things 
to the church as they conceive worthy of considera- 
tion." In their report the committee say that : 
" They conceived the book itself and paper of it 
being old, not well bound, and in some places having 
been wet and torn, and not legible, is not like to last 
long to be of use to posterity ; therefore they thought 
it best if it were kept in a place of safety by the 
Elders — by that means it will be of use so Ion;/ as it will 
last. Only some few passages in it, which do reflect 
upon particular persons, or upon the whole church, 
without any church vote, and without the proof, they 
did mark in the book as thinking they should be 
struck out." At the same time, " some of the breth- 
ren propounded, which was readily consented to, that 
there might be liberty, to such as desired it, to see 
those passages mentioned in the former book for a 
month's time." This recommendation appears to 
have been satisfactory to the church, and to have 
been adopted and carried into effect. It accomplished 
all that was expected of it — perhajis more. Not only 
were the objectionable parts withdrawn from sight, 
but the book itself disappeared, and except some jior- 
tions of it which were transcribed into the new book 
of records, begun by John Higginson in 1660, its con- 
tents are unknown. It has been assumed that all that 
was important in it would be likely to be preserved, 
and to be contained in the record of the second Hig- 



ginson. Very likely. We shall probably never know. 
Some will never cease to regret that they cannot know. 
If not important in any other sense, some will always 
think that even the expunged records are important 
to the completeness of history, and wish that it had 
been permitted them also to judge for themselves the 
wisdom of suppressing them. It would be interesting, 
no doubt, to see what picture the stormy time of Roger 
Williams' ministry left of itself on the old record- 
book. At least, as to the faithfulness and accuracy of 
the copy of those portions, purporting to be trans- 
cribed from the first book into the second, as far as 
they go, there should be no valid ground of doubt. 
But just here a new question, and an important one, 
precipitates itself upon us as tothis very point — name- 
ly, the accuracy of the copy. The old book, the first 
book of records, appears to have been begun no earlier 
than 1636, with the beginning of the ministry of Rev. 
Hugh Peters;^ consequently its record of events at 
the organization of the church, in ]629,was not strictly 
contemporaneous with the events. When we read there 
the covenant of 1629, as renewed in 1636, what confi- 
dence may we rightly have that the renewed covenant 
was the same that Francis Higginson wrote, and the 
church in Salem adopted August 6, 1629? Was it the 
same in substance only, or likewise in form? Over this 
question a spirited controversy has arisen within the 
last fifty years. 

John Higginson, minister of the church from 1660 
to 1708, and son of the framer of the covenant, him- 
self, as a youthof thirteen, having joined the church in 
1629, solemnly renewing this covenant with the church 
in 1660, records it as having been already "renewed" 
by the church in 1636, and he is our authority for say- 
ing that it is the covenant adopted in 1629, as he in- 
dorses it as such, the record in the margin running 
thus: "6 of 6th month, 1629, this covenant was public- 
ly Signed and Declared, as may appear from page 85, in 
this book." To this, as renewed in 1660, is prefixed 
a preamble adopted with it in 1636, which states the 
fact and shows the motive of the renewal at tha t 
time, 1636, and an additional article is appended to it 
at the end, which was adopted with it at the renewal, in 
1660, as applicable to the relation of the church to the 
Quakers at thai time, the fact and the motive of the 
addendum being likewise plainly stated, Mr. Higgin- 
son's intention seems clearly and unmistakably to 
have been to present the covenant of 1629 in its orig- 
inal and unaltered form, and to distinguish from it 
carefully the prefix and suffix above referred to as no 
part of it. We introduce it here as it stood, unques- 
tioned, for more than two hundred years. And to 
make evident the parts added in 1636 and in 1660, it 
is given as it stands in the record of Mr. John Hig- 
ginson in 1660, — 

' He wrote his own name Peter. It has been the modern usage to 
write it Fctcra. Dr. Palfrey, in his "History of New England," writea 
it Peter. 

O-ather my Saints together unto me Ifiat have made a Coveimnt with me by 
SdcrificK. Psa. 50 : 6: 

0. of 6/ft Month. 1629, Wee ichose names are here under icrtUen^ mem- 
This Covenant was bers of the present Church of Christ in Salem, 

ublickly Signed and having found by sad experience how dangerous 

Declared, as may it is to sitt lonee to the Covenant wee make 

appear from page 85, with our God : 2nd How Apt wee are to wan- 

in this Book. der into by pathes, even to the looseing of our 

Jirst aim.e-8 in entring into Church fellotoship : 
Doe therefore solemnly in the presence of tfie Eternall God, both for our 
own comforts, and those which shall or maye be joyned unto vs, renewe 
that Church Covenant we find this Church bound unto at theire first be- 
ginning, viz: That 

We covenant with the Lord, and one with an other; and doe bynd 
ourselves in the presence of God, to walke together in all bis waies, ac- 
cording as he is pleased to reveale himself unto us in his Blessed word of 
truth. And doe more explicitely ia the name and feare of God, profess 
and protest to walke as followeth, through the power and grace of our 
Lord Jesus. 

1 first wee avowe the Lord to be our God, and our selves his people in 
the truth ami airaplicitie of our Spirits. 

2 Wee give our selves to the Lord Jesua Christ and the word of his 
grace, fore the teaching, ruleing and sauctifyeing of us in matters of 
worship, and Conversation, resolveing to cleave to him alone for life and 
gtorie ; and oppose all contrarie wayes, cannons and constitutions of men 
in his worship. 

3 Wee promise to walke with our brethren and sisters in this Congre- 
gation with all watchfuUnes and tendernes, avoyding all jelousies, suspi- 
tions, backbyteings, censurings, provoakinga, secrete risings of spirite 
against them ; but in all offences tu follow the rule of the Lord Jesus, 
and to beare and forbeare, give and forgive, as he hath taught us. 

4 In publick or in private, we will willingly doe nothing to the ofence 
of the Church but will be willing to take advise for our selves and ours , 
asocasion shall be presented. 

5 Wee will not in the Congregation be forward eyther to shew cure 
oune gifts or parts in speaking or scrupling, or there discover the fayl- 
ingof oure brethren or sisters butt atend an orderly cale there unto ; 
knowinghow much the Lord maybe dishonoured, and his Gospell, in 
the profession of it, sleighted, by our distempers, and weaknesses in 

We bynd our selves to studdy the advancement of the Gospell in 
all truth and peace, both in regard of those that are within, or with- 
out, noe way sleighting our sister Churches, but using theire Coun- 
sell as need shalbe : nor laying a stumbling block before any, noe, 
not the Indians, whose good we desire to promote, and soe to con- 
verse, as we may avoyd the verrye appearance of evill. 

7 Wee hoarbye promise to carrye our selves in all lawful! obedience, 
to those that are over us, in Church or Commonweale, knowing how 
well pleasing it will be to the Lord, that they sliould have iocour- 
agement in theire places, by our not grieveing theyre spirites through 
our Irregularities, 

8 Wee resolve to approve our selves to the Lord, in our perticular cal- 
ings, shunning ydlenessaa the bane of any state, nor will wee deule 
hardly, or oppressingly with any, wherein we are the Lord's stew- 
ards : 

9 alsoe promysing to our best abilitie to teach our children and 
servants the kn jwledg of God and his will, that they may serve him 
also ; and all this, not by any strength of our owue, but by the Lord 
Christ ; whose bloud we desire may sprinckle this our Covenant made 
in his name. 

This Covenant teas renewedby the Church on a sollemne day of Hnmil- 
iation 6 of \ m^netk 1600. When also considering the potcer of Temptation 
amongst us by reason nf ije Quakers doctrine to the leavening of some in the 
place where we are and endangering of others, ih>e see cause to remember the 
Admonition of our Saviour ChiHstto his disciples Math. 10. 

Take heeil awl beware of ye leaven of the doctrine of the Pharisees and 
doe judge 80 farre as we utiderstand it yt ye Qnakers doctrine is as bad or 
worse tha7i that of ye Pharisees; Therefore we doe Covenant by the kelp 
of Jesus Christ to take heed and beware of the leaven of the doctrine of 
the Qnakers. 

The preamble, postscript and marginal note we 
have italicized. 

Until about fifty years ago, no doubt is known to 
have been publicly expressed or privately entertained 



that the covenant, as renewed in 1636, was, with a 
near approach to verbal accuracy, the same that was 
adopted in 1629. In connection with a " discourse 
delivered on the First Centennial Anniversary of the 
Tabernacle Church," in 1835, by Rev. Samuel M. 
Worcester, pastor of that church, and published, the 
author places the covenant of 1636 — the foregoing 
covenant of these pages — in an appendix, with the 
following passage taken from its lirst paragraph in 
quotation marks, namely : " That we covenant with 
the Lord, and one with another, and do bind our- 
selves, in the presence of God, to walk together in all 
his ways, according as he is pleased to reveal himself 
unto us in his blessed word of truth : " and follows 
the quotation with this explanatory observation, " I 
have seen fit to throw into the form of a quotation 
that part of the Preamble of the foregoing Covenant, 
which I suspect was, in substance at least, The Cove- 
nant ^ which the church was bound unto at their first 
beginning.' " [The italics are ours ] This conclu- 
sion, though couched at first in the form of a suspi- 
cion, was fortified with sundry reasons to support it, 
and affirmed later in more confident terms : " The 
conclusion is to my mind irresistible from the internal 
evidence alone, that the covenant printed in the Mag- 
nalia of Mather [that of 1636 as given above], and 
often cited as the covenant of the First Church at its 
beginning, could not have been the first Covenant of 
that church." 

Again, in a discourse delivered at Plymouth De- 
cember 22, 1848, and published the following year. 
Dr. Worcester reiterates the same opinion with 
greater emphasis, and qualified by no doubts : " W^hat 
has been generally printed, for a hundred and fifty 
years, as the First Covenant of that church, and 
adopted August 6, 1629, is not that covenant. It was 
adopted as a special covenant in 1636 " is his confi- 
dent decision, which he proceeded to support with 
the asserted facts and resulting reasonings which had 
brought his mind to this conviction. And yet, again 
in 1854, in discussion of the same subject before the 
Essex Institute, the same ground was firmly main- 
tained by him. In the next year, 1855, two publica- 
tions appeared, both issued by the Congregational 
Board of Publication, which gave their sanction to 
this later view of the first covenant. One was "The 
Ecclesiastical History of New England," etc., by Jo- 
seph B. Felt, Vol. I., and the other a new edition of 
Morton's " New England's Memorial," in the appen- 
dix to which the editor, or editors, indorse the same 
conclusion. Mr. Felt says, ' that " this cove- 
nant [of 1629] differs from the second, formed 1636, 
which has long been supposed to be the, and 
from the hand of Higginson, when it was probably 
drawn up by Peters at the later date." He api)ears 
to have relied, as Dr. Worcester had done, mainly on 
internal evidence as his warrant for this belief^ 

1 Pago 115. 


= Page 267. 

In the new edition of "Morton's New England's 
Memorial," Appendix A, under the heading "The 
Articles of Faith and Covenant of 1629," there is 
attributed to the editor of an earlier edition of the 
work, the learned Judge John Davis, an important 
oversight in not discovering that with the covenant 
of 1629 was adopted a separate confession of faith, 
and in misinterpreting history, in that he omitted to 
connect this confession of faith with the covenant of 
1629 as a virtual part of the constitution of the 
church at its beginning. 

The foregoing authorities, — Worcester, Felt and 
the editors of " Morton's Memorial," edition of 1855, 
witnessing to the strong probability, if not moral 
certainty of considerable and important differences 
between the covenant of 1629 and the renewed 
covenant of 1686 {if they be not reducible to one 
authority, viz. : the Rev. Dr. Worcester, followed by the 
others), lay especial stress upon the indications, or 
proofs, that the covenant of 1629 was adopted Jointly 
with a creed, or confession of articles of belief. The 
covenant proper of 1629 they believe to have been 
materially shorter than that of 1636, but to have had 
this credal adjunct, which made the church constitu- 
tion of 1629 to diti'er greatly from the renewed cove- 
nant of 1636 in being distinctly and emphatically 
doctrinal in its aspect. 

An arraignment so weighty as this of what had 
passed for verified history for many generations, 
though sustained by a sujiport so considerable, and 
by names of repute, was not likely to go long un- 
challenged. Nor did it. Taking only the time neces- 
sary to subject the evidence in the case to a rigid 
re-examination, the Hon. Daniel A. White, judge of 
probate of Essex County, and a leading member of 
the First Church for many years, replied to the 
published statements of Rev. Dr. Worcester, in which 
the traditions current for a couple of centuries as un- 
disputed truth were set aside as we have seen with 
great assurance as founded in misconception — as 
sanctioning "an egregious and singular error." Point 
by point the champion of the long accredited ojiinion, 
— namel.v, that the covenant of 1636 was, with no mate- 
rial difference, the covenant of 1629, — stoutly contend- 
ed for the trustworthiness of the ancient and long 
unquestioned opinion. The testimony of John Hig- 
ginson was held to be explicit. His knowledge of 
the facts was not to be impeached. What Cotton 
Mather said of the first covenant was also to be ac- 
cepted, he contended, with as much confidence as if 
it had been said by Higginson himself, for he, Hig- 
ginson, wrote that, having " known the beginning and 
progress of these (New England) churches unto this 
day, and having read over much of this history (in 
the Magnalia), I cannot but in the love and fear of 
God beaj witness to the truth of it." The first cove- 
nant is given by Mather as agreeing with that of 
1636, only differing from it in lacking its jueamble. 
The important testimony of Rev. John Fiske is also 



cited by Mr. White — only lately brought to light, but 
dating almost from the renewal of the Covenant in 

1636, as Mr. Fiske came to Salem, from England, in 

1637, and was for some time an assistant of Rev. Mr. 
Peters. In Mr. Fiske's private book of records " we 
find recorded," says Judge White, " in the handwrit- 
ing of Mr. Fiske, the First Covenant of the Salem 
Church, with the preamble to its renewal, . . . 
Mr. Fiske's record of the Covenant being essentially 
the same as that which we have taken from the Salem 
Church book " (that already presented in this writ- 
ing)- • 

The "confession of failh," which Dr. Worcester 
supposes was adopted by the church in 1629, in con- 
nection with the first covenant, Mr. White believes 
— and believes he has proved — was of much later 
date, probably 1680, and was expressly declared not to 
be intended, even at that date, to be imposed as a rigid 
test upon all candidates for admission to the church. 
He produces much evidence to show that the impo- 
sition of doctrinal tests as a uniform and indispensa- 
ble condition of admission to church membership 
was expressly disavowed by the church at the begin- 
ning, and that for a long time at least it consistently 
adhered in practice to the position thus taken. Not 
denying that Mr. Francis Higginson was commis- 
sioned "to draw up a confession of faith and cove- 
nant in Scripture language," or that he did so, he 
finds all that these terms describe and define in the 
single instrument commonly known and spoken of 
as the first covenant; "covenant," or "confession 
of faith and Covenant," he finds it called, the terms 
being used interchangeably, and when designated as 
"the confession of faith and covenant," the pro- 
noun referring to it is in the singular number, indi- 
cating but one instrument or writing. Morton, hav- 
ing full knowledge of things from the beginning, 
writes, in his "New England's Memorial:" "The con- 
fession of faith and covenant fore-mentioned was 
acknowledged only as a direction, pointing unto that 
faith and covenant contained in the holy Scripture, 
and therefore no man was confined unto that form of 
words, but only to the substance, end and scope of 
the matter contained therein. . . . Some were 
admitted by expressing their consent to that written 
confession of faith and covenant ; others did answer 
to questions about the principles of religion that 
were publicly propounded to them ; some did present 
their confession in writing, which was read for them, 
and some that were able and willing, did make their 
confession in their own words and way. A due re- 
spect was also had unto the conversations of men, 
viz. : that they were without scandal." ' 

Besides much other external and historical evi- 
dence, too voluminous to be introduced here, but pre- 

• i 

1 '* New England's Memorial," Davis* edition, pp. 146-147. See also a 
tract, without date (in Boitun Athenaium Library. "B. 76; Sermons"), 
entitled "A Direction," etc. Ruferred to by both I>r. Worcester and 
Judge White as bearing upon this question. 

sented as bearing upon the writer's main conclusion 
and fortifying it. Judge White comments also care- 
fully upon the internal evidence in the alleged anach- 
ronisms contained in the covenant of 1636, much 
relied upon to prove that it could not have been the 
same as that of 1629. On this point he dissents from 
the judgment expressed by Dr. Worcester, Mr. Felt 
and the editors of "Morton's Memorial," edition of 
1855, and at the same time equally forecloses, it may 
be here observed, by unconscious anticipations, so 
far as the weight of his name goes, a similar opinion 
from another source presently to be noticed, — an 
opinion not expressed till after Judge White's death, 
— by his former pastor. Rev. Charles W. Upham. 

This opinion of Rev. Mr. Upham is remarkable, not 
only for the weight that justly attaches to any opinion 
of his upon matters to which he had given many 
years of study, and to which he brought a trained 
mind and habits of research, but still more for the 
reason that it is a direct reversal of an earlier opinion 
of his own on a point since strenuously controverted, 
without so much as an allusion on his part to any 
change of opinion, or to any judgment previously en- 
tertained and expressed, and now abandoned or mod- 
ified ; remarkable, moreover, as being in direct oppo- 
sition to the well-known and elaborately-maintained 
opinion of his able and candid parishioner. Judge 
White, with whom he had been in life-long associa- 
tions of intimacy, and the worth of whose deliberate 
judgment he knew so well how to estimate, and yet 
to his dissent from whose judgment he makes no ref- 
erence whatever that we have been able to discover. 
Mr. Upham's last conclusion, in regard to the identity 
of the covenant of 1629 with that renewed in 1636, is 
against it, and agrees with that of Dr. Worcester^ 
that thore were two covenants ; that of 1629 very 
short, that of 1636 quite long. But on Dr. Worces- 
ter's more important position, that there were articles 
of belief required to be adopted as a confession of 
faith, distinct from the covenant, but in force in con- 
nection with it, in 1629, — against this opinion Mr. 
Upham expresses himself on all occasions distinctly 
and emphatically. 

It is to be remembered that Rev. Charles W. Up- 
ham, whom we now cite, was for twenty years pastor 
of the First Church (from 1824 to 1844), conversant 
with its records and with early Salem history, and 
the author of important historical discourses of com- 
memoration, delineating with great fullness of detail 
the story of the early days of the Salem Church. 
Mr. Upham delivered a " Seco/id Century Lecture of 
the First Church." in 1829 of a historical character, 
and gives in an appendix, as the "first covenant of 
the First Church," the covenant already given on a 
preceding page of this work, it being the same as that 
which was renewed in 1636, he holding — that is, at 
that time — to the long-established and settled opinion 
upon the question in hand. Mr. Upham remarks at 
the end of the covenant that "at a veiy early period 



this covenant was displaced by another. It was re- 
stored and renewed at the ordination of John Hig- 
pinson in 1660. In the course of time it was again 
superseded, and for many years has not been used in 
the church." How much he may have meant by the 
expression, "at a very early [>eriod this covenant was 
dis|)laced by another," we cannot tell. He does not 
specify as to the time or the extent of the displace- 
ment. He may have had in mind the preamble of 
1636 ; if more than that, we cannot interpret his lan- 
guage, since no other changes are known to us pre- 
vious to 1660. 

On the 8th of December, 1867, Mr. Upham deliv- 
ered an address at the re-dedication of the First 
Church building. Without intimating an abandon- 
ment of a former judgment, he incidentally shows that 
his judgment upon the matter in question was quite 
difterent in 1867 from that he had expressed nearly 
forty years before, thus: "This renewed covenant of 
1636 bears the impress of the style of thought and ex- 
pression of Hugh Peters, whose name heads the list 
as from that date. . . . In most of the clauses the lan- 
guage and forms of thought were, as plainly appears, 
suggested by circumstances that had disturbed the 
peace and harmony of the church during the stormy 
agitations and conflicts of Roger Williams' period, 
and are therefore of temporary and retrospective in- 
terest. The passages that have no such special refer- 
ence, hut express sentiments of universal and perpet- 
ual obligation, are inscribed on the opposite wall. It 
will be noticed that it begins by quoting from the 
covenant at the ' first beginning ' of the church. From 
the aspect of the document in the church book, and 
its entire construction and import, it is highly prob- 
able that what is inscribed on that tablet in German 
text is all that wis taken from the first covenant. It is 
so complete in itself that the inference which the form 
of the document and the bearings of the contents seem 
to suggest, that it was the whole of that document, is 
almost unavoidable." 

What was "inscribed on that tablet in Geiman 
text" was this, — 

" We covenant with the Lord, and one with another, 
and do bind our.'^elves in the presence of God, to loalk to- 
gether in all his ways, according as He is pleased to re- 
veal Himself unto us, in His blessed word of truth." 

And this, says Mr. Upham, "it is highly probable 
is all that was taken from the first covenant." 

Perhaps no expression of our own opinion is called 
for, as to who is right in this controversy. If we have 
fairly placed the facts before the reader, and espe- 
cially if we refer him to the authorities in which he 
may find the merits of the question exhaustively 
treated (as we propose to do at the end of this ar- 
ticle), we shall put him in the way to form his own opin- 
ion for himself, if he cares to do so. We dismiss the 
interesting inquiry by simply calling attention, fur- 
ther, to the fact that those who have sought to invali- 
date the long-settled opinion that the covenant "re- 

newed " in 1636 is the same that was adopted at the 
founding of the church in 1629, appear to rest their 
argument and conclusion mainly upon the internal 
evidence aflbrded by the document itself In resting 
their case upon that, they give it, as it seems to us, its 
best support, the weight of the historical evidence 
alone being insufficient to sustain their position. 
Both Mr. Upham and Dr. Worcester think they find 
in the covenant, as renewed in 1636, traces of the 
church agitations, and of the special controversies in- 
tervening between 1629 and 163i). Mr. White does 
not. Mr. Upham, moreover, finds that " this renewed 
covenant of 1636 bears the impress of the style of 
thought and expression of Hugh Peters." Mr. White 
could not discover this . 

It should be borne in mind that this kind of evi- 
dence, while it may be strong and convincing in 
some cases, is peculiarly liable to take a more marked 
or a slighter coloring, or even an opposite hue, ac- 
cording to the interpreter's direction of approach 
and resulting point of view. It needs a judicial im- 
partiality, a very complete knowledge of the religious 
history of the time, and a keen and much practiced 
literary perception, to pass intelligently and convinc- 
ingly upon such points. The dilficulty is heightened 
by the circumstance that the very power of the recre- 
ative imagination, so necessary to reproduce vividly 
the life and thought of a past period, is itself often a 
snare and becomes an easy and frequent cause of the 
misconstruction of language. We follow with cau- 
tion, and not without a measure of distrust, a line of 
argument which grounds important inferences upon 
what are at best only inferences from premises incap- 
able of verification, therefore not compelling assent. 

No fact comes out more conspicuously in the early 
history of the Salem Church than that it intended to 
guard well its own independence. It was conscious 
of a new departure. It trod its untried way with 
caution, but with a firm foot. It was determined to 
make sure of this, namely, that the unit of human au- 
thority in matters ecclesiastical should be the body 
of members congregating and covenanting together in 
church fellowship, in any one appointed place which 
should give it local habitation and name. Each such 
congregation was competent and commissioned to 
manage its own affairs. It need acknowledge no 
earthly superior. The Scriptures were its law-book. 
In them it would seek to find out the mind of Christ, 
the Head of the Church, in whom resided, for it, 
the ultimate sovereignty in s[)iritual things. It was 
glad to exchange assurances of mutual good-will and 
fellowship with the elder sister church at Plymouth. 
It had no intention of cutting itself off from Chris- 
tian fraternal relations with the churches of the 
mother-country, and stood with an anticipating hand 
of welcome stretched forth in brotherly recognition 
to all the New-World congregations of Christian 
people which it foresaw planting themselves in a long 
succession by its side, and all around. But each church 



within its own borders constituted, under the Divine 
Head, a dominion of its own. It was in pursuance of 
this principle that the First Church in Salem had un- 
made the before-ordained ministers found within its 
own fold at the beginning, that it might make them 
ministers of its own creation and invest them with 
right and title to their office from itself. 

In other ways, it availed of every opportunity that 
offered to rea.ssert this principle. It looked with dis- 
trust upon a proposed affiliation of its ministers with 
the ministers of other churches in pastoral associa- 
tions, fearing that these associations would come in 
time to claim some power of direction and control 
within the churches, or would invent some form of 
ecclesiastical bondage, into which the churches of 
the colony might be drawn unconsciously, to the loss 
of their complete self-government. It was not long 
after its foundation before it conceived its independ- 
ence to be seriously threatened. Other churches 
which had sprung up around it, and such as had an 
honorable and weighty constituency, showed a dispo- 
sition to meddle in its affairs by taking cognizance 
of teachings by the ii^alem ministers, which they re- 
garded as not agreeing with the Scriptures, nor as 
being consistent with the peace and welfare of the 
community of new settlements in the colony. As 
often as there appeared to be occasion for it, this 
church reaffirmed, in clear and strenuous language, 
its purpose not to suffer its fellowship, — which it ex- 
tended freely and gladly as a sympathetic, helpful, 
brotherly communion, to all churches and all Chris- 
tians, — not to suffer it to become an entangling alli- 
ance, which might endanger its own freedom and 
autonomy. There was abundant justification for 
these precautions in the usurpation of ecclesiastical 
authority with which these Salem Christians had 
been lately only too familiar in England, and which 
warned them to keep a jealous guard against the 
forging of new fetters of spiritual domination and op- 
pression this side the sea, under the guise of better 
symbols of church order and of Christian living. 

The officers of the church as first organized in 
Salem were, besides the pastor and teacher, one or 
more ruling elders, deacons and deaconesses. Between 
pastor and teacher no distinction of precedence ap- 
pears to have been observed. It is probable that in 
the performance of their respective duties it was 
found that the work of each naturally overlapped 
that of the other to a considerable extent, and that 
experience showed before long that it was better to 
combine the two offices in one, as was done. 

The duties belonging to the office of the ruling 
elder were not very distinctly defined. He was an 
assistant to the pastor and teacher, but while under 
their general direction, he had an independent voice 
also as adviser and administrator in church affairs. 
The office came to Plymouth from Holland with the 
Pilgrim Church. That church found it in the Ee- 
formed Churches of the Continent and referred to the 

French Reformed Churches as its own precedent for 
establishing it, though in the French Churches the 
ability to teach was not held to be a necessary quali- 
fication for a ruling elder, as it was in the Dutch- 
English and American Churches.' For a hundred 
and fifty years, at least, ruling elders were chosen by 
some churches in Massachusetts as necessary to their 
complete organization, although Mr. Bentley says, 
" the office never existed but in name, and did not 
survive the first generation."^ Mr. Bentley regards 
the office as having been designed to represent the 
power of the church itself on the part of its general 
membership, the elder standing as a permanent 
watchman and makeweight against all assumptions 
of special authority on the part of the ministers. 
After his brusque and vigorous fashion he indicates 
how far short of answering its end was the device, by 
his brief and contemptuous notice of those who were 
elected to the place. " In the choice of an elder to 
rule the church, care was taken not to accept a civil 
officer, and Elder Houghton was appointed. He was 
a man of inotfensive ambition, and died in the next 
year after his appointment. Mr. Samuel Sharpe suc- 
ceeded him, but he was frequently absent, and never 
possessed even the shadow of power. He died in 1658. 
The independence of Mr. Williams and the sover- 
eignty of Mr. Peters rendered the office useless in 
their time, and it never obtained its influence. When 
Mr. John Higginson, the son of Francis, in 1660, re- 
turned to Salem and attempted to revive the form of 
government which his father had adopted, Mr. John 
Browne was elected elder, but we find no other ser- 
vices but of attending, for a short time, the private 
instructions of the pastor, who had secijred all the 
power." We have said that the office did not cease to 
be known with the first generation, or for a century 
and a half after, and it is true that the men called to 
the office even in the later years of its existence were 
not all colorless and valueless ciphers. But the fcHr 
of ministerial usurpation had very much died away, 
and the ruling elder was, in time, without functions, 
and disappeared. Mr. Bentley's assertion that it soon 
came to stand for little more than a name seems to be 
borne out by the history of the churches of the Mass- 
achusetts Colony. 

Deacons, but not deaconesses, are mentioned as offi- 
cers chosen at the organization of the Salem Church. 
They received the contributions of the church and 
distributed them, and made provision for the table of 
communion, serving also in the dispensation of the 
bread and wine in the observance. Deaconesses, if 
not chosen at once by the church at Salem, were, ac- 
cording to custom, regularly selected in the churches 
of the earliest colonial period. As at Plymouth, so at 
Salem. They were widows by preference, of at least 
three-score years, without carefully prescribed duties 

1 Felt's Eccl. Hist. Vol. i. p. 34. 

2The North Church in Salem chose a rulingelder as late us 1826 — pro- 
nounced by Felt " the only continuation of an ancient custom here." 



as to details, but were appointed to carry on a general 
ministry of visiting and comforting among the sick, 
poor and distressed. 

We have been more minute and explicit in specify- 
ing some of these forms of church-life and organiza- 
tion first adopted here, because this was the pioneer 
church. Offices, titles and usages now long familiar to 
every New England village were then new, or known 
only as existing in the English churches under other 
conditions, and where they had a diflerent signifi- 
cance; here, under an old name, went a new thing. 
New methods were on trial, and were carefully ob- 
served and studied, and sought to be adjusted to the 
circumstances of the time and people, and were not 
immediately and onre for all fixed in an unalterable 

Francis Higginson lived but a year after the found- 
ing of the church. On the 6th of August, 1630, just a 
year from the day when its organization was com- 
pleted, a day in whose doings he bore the leading part, 
he closed his earthly labors. He was born in 1588, 
and was, therefore, a little more than forty years of 
age when he came to Salem. He was a graduate of 
the famous English University of Cambridge — of 
Emanuel College, according to Mr. Upham ; of Jesus, 
says Judge White; of St. John's, says F. S. Drake 
(American biography); and Mr. Savage (Geneal. 
Diet.), seemingly warranting and reconciling all these 
assignments, has it : " Bred at Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his A.B., 1600, but was of St. 
John's when his A.M. was given, 1613, though Mather 
asserts he was of Emanuel.' He was first settled in 
Leicester, England, where he had so high a reputa- 
tion as a preacher that " the people flocked to hear 
him from the neighboring towns." Neal, historian 
of the Puritans, says, " he was a good scholar, of a 
sweet and atfable behavior, and having a most charm- 
ing voice, was one of the most acceptable and popular 
preachers of the country." Becoming a non-con- 
formist he was ejected from his living and forbidden 
to preach in England. After this he resorted to 
teaching for a livelihood. He is characterized by Mr. 
Bentley as " grave in his deportment and pure in his 
morals. In his person he was slender, not tall ; not 
easily changed from his purposes, but not rash in 
declaring them. His influence in giving form and 
direction to the iirst church polity in America was 
second to none." Mr. Bentley, by a few strokes, pic- 
tures some of the results of Mr. Higginson's brief 
ministry in the social customs of the newly-gathered 
community at Salem, and shows in what spirit and 
along what lines of influence he wrought : " He 
lived to secure the foundation of his church, to de- 
serve the esteem of the colony and provide himself a 
name among the worthies of New England. When 
he died, he left iu the colony the most sacred guards 
U]>on the public manners. Cards, dice, and all such 
amusements, had no share of favour. Family devo- 
tions were inculcated and established, and the most 

constant attendance on public worship. The minis- 
ters visited families to assist in their devotions. Con- 
stant care of the poor was required ; the Indians were 
not permitted to trade in private houses ; all the 
inhabitants were instructed to unite in the labours 
which promoted their common interest; and the 
greatest confidence was required in all who were 
appointed in civil trusts." (Pp. 2-14-24.5.) 

Rev. Samuel Skelton, ordained the first pastor of 
the church, in association with Mr. Higginson as 
teacher, on the 20th of July, 1629, survived his col- 
league four years. He had been the minister of Gov- 
ernor Eudicott, in England, and was held by him in 
especial affection and esteem, as one to whom he had 
rea.son to look up as his spiritual father. His name 
is less conspicuous in the early annals of the Mass.a- 
chusetts churches than that of Higginson. He seems 
to have been a modest and retiring man, and is de- 
scribed by a contemporary as ''of gracious speech, 
full of faith, and furnished by the Lord with gifts 
from above." He was content to yield precedence to 
others, nor soured with jealousy when to them went 
the harvest of fame. " As he never acted alone,'' 
says Mr. Bentley, "he yielded to others all the praise 
of his best actions." The scant recognilion accorded 
to him among those who led in church afi'airs in the 
earliest days is further explained by his biographer 
by the fact that "there was a want of friendship be- 
tween the ministers of Boston and its neighborhood 
and the ministers of Salem. Everything which one 
party did was found fault with by the other." That 
he was a man of positive convictions and not lacking 
in courage would appear from his standing forward 
in defense of his colleague, Roger Williams, when 
the latter was assailed and in danger of being over- 
borne by those who uttered the sentence of popular 
condemnation against him. Mr. Skelton was prob- 
ably of about the same age as Mr. Higginson, having 
taken his first degree in 1611, two years later than 
Mr. Higginson. He was of Lincolnshire, educated at 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, and died August 2, 1634. 

Francis Higginson had been dead six months, and 
Mr. Skelton was carrying on his ministry alone in the 
Salem Church, when Roger Williams arrived in Bos- 
ton, early in February, 1631. Rev. John Wilson, 
minister of the First Church in Boston, was contem- 
plating a visit to England, and Mr. Williams was in- 
vited to supply his place during his absence, but de- 
clined on the ground that the members of that church 
were " an unseparated people." 

April 22d, following, he was invited to Salem as an 
assistant to Rev. Mr. Skelton. Having already 
promulgated some novel and unacceptable notions 
deemed subversive of the just authority of the magis- 
trates, the Massachusetts Court interposed a remon- 
strance against the action of the Salem Church, and 
succeeded in preventing Mr. Williams' coming to 
Salem. He soon went to Plymouth, and even there, 
though the teachings of the separatists were more in 



favor ia Plymouth than in Boston, and his personal 
qualities gained him a large influence, his "singular 
opinions" were not welcome to all, and after serving 
a while as assistant to Rev. Ralph Smith, he applied 
himself to manual labors and to trade for a liveli- 
hood, devoting much time also to acquiring the lan- 
guage of the Indians, though meanwhile never losing 
sight of the then agitating questions of church gov- 
ernment, and of individual responsibility in civil and 
ecclesiastical affairs. 

In 1633 Mr. Williams obtained, not without some 
difficulty, a dismission from the church in Plymouth, 
and returned to Salem ; returned accompanied by 
several members of the Plymouth Church, who pre- 
ferred to give up their home and church relations to 
severing the tie that bound them to their pastor. 
Arrived in Salem, he became an assistant to Mr. 
Skelton, though without formal ordination. And 
notwithstanding that he had come again under the 
censure of the Governor and Assistants of Massachu- 
setts for offensive writings and publications, in some 
of which he had denied the validity of the title of the 
Massachusetts Company to its territory, in that they 
had not the assent of the natives of the soil, yet he 
was invited and ordained, upon the death of Mr. 
Skelton, in August, 1634, to succeed him in the pas- 
toral charge of the church. In this office he con- 
tinued till October 19, 1635, when the opposition 
which his vigorous assertion of his views had aroused 
culminated in a sentence pronounced by the General 
Court that he should depart out of the jurisdiction of 
Massachusetts within six weeks, on account of hav- 
ing " broached and divulged divers new and danger- 
ous opinions against the authority of the magistrates, 
as also writ letters of defamation, both of the magis- 
trates and churches." " The colonial records," says 
Arnold, the historian of Rhode Island, " fix the date 
November 3d." Consent was given afterwards to the 
postponement of his removal till spring, upon con- 
dition of his refraining' from promulgating his 
objectionable doctrines. It was withdrawn subse- 
quently, upon the allegation that the conditions had 
been violated. Learning that he was to be sent at 
once to England, he anticipated the plans of his 
judges, escaping early in January to the South, 
through the wintry snows and storms, and finding a 
refuge on the banks of the Seekonk River, where he 
founded the State of Rhode Island. 

The teachings of Mr. Williams which gave offense, 
to be fully understood, must be sought for and ex- 
amined in the history of the time, at greater length 
than it is possible to consider them here. They 
dealt largely with definitions and distinctions bearing 
on the relations of the civil and spiritual authorities 
to each other, showing their respective limits, con- 
stantly raising questions of much nicety and diffi- 
culty, and yet questions immediately and vitally 
practical, as affecting issues at the moment pressing 
upon the people. The whole field of discussion 

being at the same time complicated with that larger 
problem which had exercised the minds of the colon- 
ists from the first, namely : the possibility of con- 
structing a civil order on a Biblical foundation. The 
severity of the course pursued by the magistrates and 
ministers has been ascribed in part, and probably not 
unjustly, to a feeling in the churches of Boston and 
the neighborhood not friendly to the Salem Church, 
which church had shown, from the first, a commend- 
able of interference by other churches, and 
a determination to maintain strictly its independence. 
It has been mentioned as a noteworthy fact that " in 
this court [for the trial of Mr. Williams], composed 
of magistrates and clergy, while some of the laymen 
opposed the decree [of exile], every minister, save 
one, approved it." ' 

If it be conceded " that there were faults on both 
sides, and that they were faults of the age rather than 
of the heart," it must be conceded, too, that this 
marked man was before his time in the discernment 
and announcement of some principles ecclesiastico- 
political, destined to stand the test of after-trial, 
since, in his transmitted ideas, as well as his charac- 
ter and bearing during those troublous days which he 
spent in Salem, he grows more illustrious under the 
light of experience, while the proceedings of those 
who drove him out from their company become 
more difficult of apology. Roger Williams has had 
the credit of being the promoter, if not the cause, of 
the act of Governor Endicott in cutting the cross 
from the English colors. It is not clear what part he 
had in it, if any. If any, he was not the man to dis- 
avow it; if any, he but represented a feeling dominant 
in many a Puritan's breast at the time, who, perhaps, 
more prudent than he, would not have counseled it, 
though pleased to see it done. Such was Roger 
Williams. " Open, bold and ardently conscientious, 
as well as eloquent and highly gifted, it cannot be 
surprising that he should have disturbed the magis- 
trates by divulging such opinions, while he charmed 
the people by his powerful preaching, and his ami- 
able, generous and disinterested spirit." 

Mr. Williams was born in Wales in 1599, resided 
in London during his youth, was elected a scholar of 
Sutton's Hospital (now the Charter House), July 5, 
1621, admitted to Pembroke College, Cambridge, Feb. 
8, 1623, graduated B. A. January, 1627, took orders 
in the Church of England, obtained a benefice in 
Lincolnshire, became a non-conformist, or "Separa- 
tist," and embarked at Bristol, Dec. 11, 1630, for New 
England. He died at Providence, R. I., in April, 

1 "Arnold, History of Rhode Island," p. 38. 

- Porter C. Bliss, in Johnson's Cyclopiedia. — Since this notice of Roger 
Williams was prepared, intimations have come to ns that new liglit may 
be expected to be let in soon, upon the origin and early days of this 
striking figure in the history of primitive New England. The new 
matter found claims to be not only additional to the old and hitherto- 
accepted story, but corrective also. For example: It is sjiid that "the 
Roger Williams who was a foundation scholar at the Charter House in 



The infant church, already served by three minis- 
ters in half a dozen years, found its fourth in one 
horn to lead, Rev. Hugh Peters, who, after tilling the 
pastoral office for five busy and fruitful years, in 
which he governed and shaped with the decision of a 
master, was summoned away from this humbler field 
of labor to a broader theatre and a more famous ca- 
reer, in which his life assumed historical importance, 
and set him among the conspicuous actors of his age, 
ending tragically at the executiontr's block. Mr. 
Peters was born at Fowey, in Cornwall, in 1599, the 
same year as Roger Williams, and was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, taking the degree of A. 
M. in li)22. Appointed to a London lectureship while 
still very young, he drew a large following by his for- 
cible and eloquent preaching. Li 1G29, it having be- 
come not only uncomfortable but dangerous for such 
as he, a Puritan and a popular preacher, to stay in 
England, he withdrew to Holland and became the 
pastor of a church at Rotterdam, whence he came to 
New England, Oct. 6, 1G3.5. He was invited to take 
charge of the church in Salem after the departure of 
Mr. Williams, and was settled Dec. 21, 1636. He was 
an able minister and something more, a clear-sighted 
administrator in civil-political and politico-economi- 
cal affiiirs. Without neglecting his duties as pastor, 
which he discharged with rare energy and faithful- 
ness, he set himself diligently to improving all the 
social regulations and habits of the place, on which 
the welfare of the new community depended. In the 
controversies, which he inherited from Mr. Williams, 
he showed no sympathy with the adherents of the 
latter, nor toleration for the opinions which had 
brought on him the condemnation of the ministers 
and the General Court. He spent little time over the 
comprehensive principles and enlightened distinc- 
tions laid down by his predecessor as to the relative 
authorities of the secular and ecclesiastical govern- 
ments, and the rights of the individual soul under 
each, while he plunged with assiduous zeal into stud- 
ies which he deemed of a more immediate and press- 
ing importance. He gave his attention to projecting 
measurps for promoting the business prosperity, the 
orderly living, the growth in population of the town; 
he devised measures for the better execution of the 
laws, for the preservation of peace and the establish- 
ment of beneficial industries. 

Respecting no man, says Mr. Bentley, has the pub- 
lic opinion been more divided than respecting Mr. 
Hugh Peters. This division of opinion he ascribes 
to the part he took in the commonwealth of England 
and in the death of King Charles, though intimating 
that " unkind reports " had been connected also with 

1C21. and who was Bent to the University in July, 1624, being a good 
scholar, was not the Roger 'Willianis of Rhode Island." So much, Rev. 
Gf*>rge E. Ellis, D.D., president uf the Massachusetts Historical Socie- 
ty, is reported— in the Boston D.o7y Atlverliser of March 11, 1887— to 
consider proven by the investigativns of the librarian of Brown Uui- 
versitj, Mr. Reuben A. Guild. 

the early part of his life, which reports, however, 
either never reached New England or were unheeded 
there. The Rev. Charles W. Upham, in his Second 
Century lecture, has vindicated his fame with a gen- 
erous and warm enthusiasm. But there is no differ- 
ence of opinion as to the great benefits which his life 
and labors in Salem, from 1636 to 1641, conferred up- 
on its people and its forming social habits and insti- 
tutions. He objected to the devotion of so much 
time as had been given to the numerous weekly and 
occasional lectures, to the neglect of the daily indus- 
tries, which he fostered as being nearest in the line of 
evident and pressing duties. His church greatly in- 
creased, showing that there had been no lack of faith- 
ful tillage therein. New and valued citizens were 
attracted to the place. He interested himself in re- 
forming the police system, encouraged commerce, 
caused new arts and employments to be introduced, a 
water-mill was erected, a glass-house, salt works, the 
planting of hemp was advised, and a regular market 
was set up. He formed a plan of carrying on fishery, 
. and of coa.sting and foreign voyages. Amid all his ac- 
tivities, it is repeated, "he did not forget his church." 
In Synod and Salem pulpit alike, he made his power 
constantly and beneficently felt. Clear-headed and 
wise, he was a check upon the invasion of supersti- 
tion, and in the excitement caused by Mrs. Ann 
Hutchinson's doctrine and influence, kept his church 
in the main free from its disturbing effects, and went, 
Mr. Bentley thinks, full far in the opposite direction 
of repression. The Massachusetts Colony, having 
occasion to find suitable persons to represent their in- 
terests in England with reference to the laws of excise 
and trade, it was not strange that Mr. Peters 
should be selected to be one for this commission. His 
qualifications for it were evident. His people resisted 
his acceptance of the appointment and remonstrated 
against it; they could not spare him. But they were 
overborne by the urgency with w-hich the claim for 
his services was pressed, and finally a reluctant assent 
was yielded, and on the 3d of August, 1641, he left 
with his colleagues for England. There he became 
involved in the revolution which brought Cromwell 
to supreme power. Peters was his counselor and fa- 
vored friend, and when the restoration gave back 
power to Cromwell's enemies, the lives of all his 
friends were held forfeited. Hugh Peters was a se- 
lected victim, and as such was beheaded in the Tower 
Oct. 16, 1660. 

Mr. Peters was assisted in his pulpit duties between 
1637 and 1640 by Rev. John Fiske, who taught a 
school in Salem about that time. Mr. Fiske was set- 
tled afterwards over a church in Wenham and still 
later in Chelmsford, Massachusetts. It was he — be- 
fore alluded to in these pages — who copied from the record-book of the church the covenant con- 
tained therein, with some other minutes, which have 
lately come to light, and have furnished important 
evidence as to the form of the first covenant. 



The Rev. Edward Norris was settled as a colleague 
with Mr. Peters Miirch 18, 1(340. Mr. Bentley says his 
was the first ordination which was performed with 
great public ceremonies in Salem. He had come 
from England the year before, and joined the church 
here in December of that year ; had been a teacher 
and minister in Gloucestershire ; was distinguished 
for learning, was of a tolerant spirit, and had a large 
and well-balanced mind. He was a man to wield a 
wide and strong influence, and that for good. He 
fell upon troubled times, inheriting in his turn the 
unsettled controversies of his predecessor's ministry. 
A Mrs. Oliver, a follower of Mrs. Ann Hutchinson, 
had claimed, in the time of public service, the right 
of communion, without a covenant, and was sent to 
prison for disturbing the congregation, though soon 
set at liberty. During Mr. Norris' ministry she again 
openly asserted the same right, and was publicly dis- 

The Anabaptists were busy. Mr. Endicott set his 
face against them as disturbers of the peace of the 
church and of the community ; a few were subjected 
to punishment, some confined to the town, or laid un- 
der other humiliating and annoying prohibitions. Mr. 
Norris took no active part in these proceedings, and 
seems rather to have endeavored to quiet and repress 
the public excitement than to promote it, and suc- 
ceeded in keeping the town in comparative tranquil- 
lity during his life. He died December 23, 1659, in 
time to escape the full force of the still greater dis- 
traction caused by the Quakers who had appeared in 
Salem in 1657. His abilities, attainments and high 
character were recognized throughout the colony. 
He wrote upon affairs of public interest temperately, 
yet forcibly. He assisted in constructing the system 
of ecclesiastical discipline " substantially contained 
in the Cambridge Platform,'' and yet he refused to 
substitute in his own church the platform of 1648, 
which he had helped to shape, for the one already in 
use, resolutely insisting on the maintenance of his 
church's independence. At the same time, with a 
rare consistency, he successfully restrained his own 
church from meddling in the controversies and the 
management of other churches. 

Mr. Norris was the last of the ministers of the first 
generation. " The consistent politicks, the religious 
moderation, and the ardent patriotism of Mr. Norris," 
says Mr. Bentley, " entitle him to the grateful mem- 
ory of Salem. He diverted the fury of fanaticism by 
industry, he quieted alarms by inspiring a military 
courage, and in the public morals, and a well-di- 
rected charity, with a timely consent to the incorpo- 
ration of towns around him, he finished in peace the 
longest life in the ministry which had been enjoyed 
in Salem, and died in his charge." ' 

Mr. Norris' ministry of nearly twenty years seemed 
long as measured by the average term of service of 

1 Col. Mass. Hist. Soc. for 1799 : p. 259. 

those who had preceded him. But it was short as 
compared with that of his successor. John Higgin- 
son, the son of the Eev. Francis, the first minister — 
"Teacher" — of Salem, was born at Claybrook, Eng- 
land, August 6, 1616, and accompanied his parents 
when they came to New England, in 1629, and was 
thirteen years old, therefore, when he arrived ; and at 
that age he joined the church. After his father's 
death he was assisted by the magistrates and minis- 
ters, who could not forget what the young church 
owed to the father, in continuing his education. At 
the age of twenty, and for four years after, he was 
chaplain at Fort Saybrook, Connecticut.. In 1641 
he taught a school in Hartford, and studied divin- 
ity with the Rev. Thomas Hooker ; in 1643 be- 
came an assistant to Rev. Henry Whitfield, of Guil- 
ford, whose daughter he married. From 1651 to 1659 
he was in sole charge of the church in Guilford. In 
that year, 1659, he took passage for his native land. 
The ve.ssel in which he sailed was obliged by stress of 
weather to put into Salem harbor. The church in 
Salem had recently lost its minister. A negotiation 
with Mr. Higginson entered into which issued in 
an engagement on his part to remain and preach for 
one year. At the end of the year he was invited to 
become the pastor, accepted the invitation, and was 
ordained in August, 1660. Already forty-four years 
old, he continued in the ministry in Salem forty-eight 
years, till his death, December 9, 1708, at the age of 
ninety-two years. He was sole minister for twenty- 
three years, till 1683, — except that for four years, 
from 1672 to 1676, he had a so-called " assistant," ^ 
who did not assist, as is explained farther on. In 
1683, he being then sixty-seven years of age. Rev. 
Nicholas Noye< became his colleague. The settle- 
ment of Mr. Higginson was signalized by an addition 
to the covenant of the church, as a solemn declara- 
tion against the teachings and practices of the Qua- 
kers, as has been mentioned. It had been the custom 
of the church, from time to time, to " renew " the 
covenant, as has been noticed before, an act equiva- 
lent to a solemn re-affirmation of loyalty to its vows, 
and which was accompanied, in two instances at least, 
by an addition to Its original form, for the purpose of 
putting on record the church's sentiment or verdict 
upon special dangers and evils existing at the time. 
Thus, at the settlement of Rev. Mr. Peters, the church 
prefaced a " renewal of the covenant " with a pream- 
ble which has already been given on a previous page, 
it being of the nature of a penitent confession that 
they had experienced the danger of coming to " sit 
loose to the covenant made with God," and found 
how apt they were "to wander into by-paths, even to 
the loosing of their first aims in entering into church 
fellowship." So, now, in 1660, we come upon anoth- 
er tide-mark, showing how high had arisen the feel- 
ing against the Quaker invasion, the following being 

- Charles Nicholet. 



appended to the covenant : " When also considering 
the power of temptation amongst us by reason of the 
Quakers' doctrine to the leavening of some in the 
place where we are, and endangering of others, [We] 
do see cause to remember the admonition of our 
Savior Christ to his disciples. Math. 16 : Take heed 
and beware of the leaven of the doctrine of the Phar- 
isees, and do judge so far as we understand it that the 
Quakers' doctrine is as bad or worse than that of the 
Pharisees; therefore we do covenant by the help of 
Jesus Christ to take heed and beware of the leaven 
of the doctrine of the Quakers." "This ap])endix to 
the covenant sufficiently shows the stand taken by 
Mr. Higginson towards the Quakers. It is difficult 
in our time to conceive the excitement which the ar- 
rival of a shipload of Quakers from England in 1660, 
the year of Mr. Higginson's ordination, caused in the 
Massachusetts colony. A vigorous persecution had 
been iu progress for some time before, with the usual 
rewlt of increasing the boldne.'S and multiplying the 
number of the new sect. They were not altogether 
an inoffensive people. For, though they disclaimed 
the use of physical violence even in protection of 
themselves, among them were those who knew the 
irrit.iting power of arrogant and exasperating speech, 
and did not spare the use of it, accusing the magis- 
trate.s, miuisteri and the members of the churches of 
ignorance of the true religion, and of being unac- 
quainted with its spirit. Their interruption of pub- 
lic worship, their open denunciations of time-serving 
and hireling ministers, and their fanatical violations 
of good order and the public quiet in some cases, 
were calculated to inflame the popular mind to the 
highest pitch of anger ; and while this does not ex- 
cuse the heavy hand of persecution raised upon them, 
it explains and palliates the disgust and antipathy 
felt by many reasonable and worthy persons towards 
such intemperate revilers of men and women, who 
were, at least, as good as themselves, and were held 
in honor — deservedly or not — as appointed chiefs in 
church and state. " The wildest fanaticism on their 
part was met by a frenzied bigotry on the other." Mr. 
Higginson was active in turning upon them an unre- 
lenting harrying, for which Mr. Bentley says he was 
sorry afterwards. Eighteen of these unhappy per- 
sons are said to have been jjublicly punished in Sa- 
lem in the year 1661. And, as is always the case 
when men suffer for their opinions, the most blame- 
less met with the same fate as the most turbulent and 
aggressive. After the restoration of King Charles 
II., he took their case into consideration and put a 
stop to the persecution. It had lasted about five 
years. The excitement soon died away when the per- 
secution ceased. 

A " Direction " for a public profession of faith was 
lire|)ared by Jlr. Higginson, and printed in a dateless 
tract, already referred to, probably, says Ju<lge White, 
iu 1680, which, however, was " to be looked upon as 
a fit means whereby to express that their common 

faith and salvation, and not to be made use of as an 
imposition upon any." This "Direction" became 
famous in the friendly but controversial discussion, 
already alluded to as having occurred thirty to forty 
years ago, between Rev. Dr. Worcester and Judge 
White, as to the form of the first covenant, it being 
regarded by the former as substantially identical with 
a confession of faith adopted by the church in 1629, 
along with the covenant, a position earnestly con- 
tended against by the latter as wholly untenable. 

In 1672 there came a man to Salem from Virginia, 
who, for a few years, filled quite a large place in the 
town and church — Mr. Charles Xieholct. He was 
invited to be the assistant of Mr. Higginson for a 
year, " for trial."' At the end of the year the engage- 
ment was renewed upon the same terms for another 
year, one condition of which being that he should 
have for. his maintenance "a free voluntary contribu- 
tion every Lord's day." When, at the end of the 
second year, he w-as offered again the same terms, 
they were j)robably not accepted, as, a little later, it 
was voted that, "it is agreed by a hand and free vote 
of the town for Mr. Xicholet's continuance amongst 
us during his life." At the same time (that is, early 
in 1674) the town voted a grant of as much land on 
the common as should be needed " for to build a new 
meeting-house for the worship of God." ' This meet- 
ing-house was begun and its frame erected, but was 
never finished. The invitation to Mr. Xicholet, ex- 
tended by the town instead of by the church — an 
unusual, if not an unprecedented proceeding — and the 
building of another meeting-house at some distance 
from the established place of worship, were painful 
proofs to the elder minister that there were restless and 
disaffected persons in his congregation not unwilling 
to show their discontent. "His enemies," says Mr. 
Bentley, " made by persecution, now had power to dis- 
tress him." His support had been partly withheld. 
Some who were not unfriendly thought it time that a 
portion of his burden of varied duties and wearing 
responsibilities should be transferred to an assistant. 
But the church had taken offense and exception at 
the manner in which the assistant was called — that is, 
in the town's having acted by itself. A remonstrance 
was sent to the General Court, which tribunal answered 
by declaring its disapprobation of such a departure 
from established usages, characterizing it .as not only 
very irregular, but as " expressly contrary to the 
known wholesome laws of this jurisdiction." Mr. Hig- 
ginson disapproved the course pursued by his assistant 
and the town. Mr. Xieholct explained and promised 
to be on his guard, but apparently continued his 
ministry and drew to himself a following of malcon- 
tents, and kept up the discord till, happily for the 
town, "after many farewell sermons," he "departed 
from America forever," in 1676. 

As time healed or softened the dissensions that 

iTowD Becards, pp. ITli, 208, 217, i-'S. 



attended Mr. Nicholet's ministry, it also made the 
burdens carried by the senior pastor, now without an 
assistant, to be felt more oppressively as he advanced 
in years. The way was thus prepared for another 
trial of the experiment of a colleague. In 1C82 Mr. 
Higginson recommended it; and on the 14th of No- 
vember, 1683, Mr. Nicholas Noyes was ordained. It 
was a choice fortunate for the church. Mr. Noyes' 
character, as drawn in the record-book of the church 
when he died, on the 13th of December, 1717, at the 
age of nearly seventy years, and at the end of a min- 
istry of thirty-five years, has been accepted as a just 
portraiture of the man — a portraiture the more enti- 
tled to be preserved and reproduced on suitable occa- 
sions, in that it is a calm after-judgment respecting 
one who bore a prominent part in the ever-memorable 
and mournful proceedings of the dark days of the 
witchcraft trials. It is the testimony of his contem- 
poraries; of those who should be presumed to know 
him best; who knew his mistakes and the sincerity 
of his lamentation on their account. " He was extra- 
ordinarily accomplished for the work of the ministry, 
whereunto he was called. . . . Considering his 
superior genius; his pregnant wit; strong memory; 
solid judgment ; his great acquisition in human learn- 
ing and knowledge ; his conversation among men, 
especially with his friends, so very pleasant, enter- 
taining and profitable; his uncommon attainments in 
the study of divinity ; his eminent sanctity, gravity 
and virtue ; his serious, learned and pious perform- 
ances in the pulpit ; his more than ordinary skill in 
the prophetical parts of Scripture; his wisdom and 
usefulness in human afl'airs ; and his constant solici- 
tude for the public good : it is no wonder that Salem 
and the adjacent part of the country, as also the 
Churches, University and people of New England, 
justly esteem him as a principal part of their glory." 
For one to have saved such a reputation as this, who 
had been a chief actor in bringing those accused of 
witchcraft to punishment, argues rare excellences of 
character. Mr. Bentley accords him exceptional 
honor as the one among all those ministers who were 
swept along by the storm, misled, silenced, non-pro- 
te.sting, accountable — the one who made all possible 
reparation afterwards ; an open, confessing, self-sacri- 
ficing atonement for the evil he had done and caused, 
to the extent of his ability. " Noyes came out and 
publicly confessed his error ; never concealed a cir- 
cumstance ; never excused himself; visited, loved and 
blessed the survivors whom he had injured; asked 
forgiveness always, and consecrated the residue of 
life to bless mankind. He never thought, in all these 
things, that he made the least compensation, but all 
the world believed him sincere." The glooms of the 
period of the witchcraft visitation have had no parallel, 
before or since, in the ancient town. It is not our 
province to depict its creeping horrors. It stands 
apart, a story of unrelieved tragedy. It was connected 
with the church-life of the people, but it was an epi- 

demic mania, an outcropping nightmare of supersti- 
tion, that swept like a sudden torrent over the region. 
" From March till August, 1692, . . . business 
was interrupted. The town deserted. Terror was in 
every countenance, and distress in every heart."' 
We thankfully leave the sombre task of telling the 
sad tale to another. 

We introduce here the few remaining minutes to be 
noted respecting Rev. Mr. Noyes. He was born in 
Newbury December 22, 1647, and was the nephew of 
the first minister of Newbury, Eev. James Noyes. 
For thirteen years before coming to Salem he had 
been settled in the ministry at Haddam, Conn. He 
was never married. 

During the witchcraft storm Mr. Higginson held 
himself aloof. " His only fault was his silent con- 
sent." He had gone too far with the Quakers, and 
learned the lesson of caution. But it was not in him 
to be strong enough, old man that he was, where all 
were stricken with the madness, to sound an alarm 
and call a halt. It was what all were waiting and 
praying for, from some one. But probably if any had 
been brave enough and far-sighted enough to cry 
aloud in protest, it would only have availed when the 
tempest was subsiding and far-spent ; earlier it would 
only have added another victim, possibly, to the pop- 
ular frenzy. Such a panic-stricken community could 
only come to its senses slowly, and when the fury of 
the blast was passed. Mr. Bentley's just reflections 
are in place here, and in the history of the church 
should not be omitted : " As soon as the judges ceased 
to condemn, the people ceased to accuse. Just as 
after a storm, the people were astonished to see the 
light at once break out bright again. Terror at the 
violence and the guilt of the proceedings succeeded 
instantly to the conviction of blind zeal, and what 
every man had encouraged all professed to abhor. 
Few dared to blame other men, because few were in- 
nocent. They who had been most active remembered 
that they had been applauded. The guilt and the 
shame became the portion of the country, while Salem 
had the infamy of being the place of the transactions. 
Every expression of sorrow was found in Salem. And 
after the death of Mr. Higginson, whose only fault 
was his silent consent, the church, before the choice 
of another minister, publicly erased all the ignominy 
they had attached to the dead, by recording a most 
humble acknowledgment of their error. After the 
public mind became quiet, few things were done 
to disturb it. But a diminished population, the 
injury done to religion, and the distress of the ag- 
grieved were seen and felt with the greatest sorrow." ' 

For six years from the death of Mr. Higginson Mr. 
Noyes was the sole pastor of the church. He being 
then nearly sixty-seven years old, Mr. George Curwin, 
son of Hon. Jonathan Curwin, was ordained as his 
colleague. Mr. Bentley says that Mr. Curwin was 

1 Bentley, pp. 270-271. 



proposed by Mr. N^oyes in 1709, soon after the death 
of Mr. Higginson, and would have been immediately 
ordained if those living beyond the town bridge had 
not hoped to become a separate church. In 1713 an- 
other church was formed, which is the lower parish 
in Danvers. Mr. Curwin's settlement followed in 
May of the next year. The opening of his ministry 
was fnW of promise, and excited in his people high 
hopes of usefulness, — hopes destined to an early 
blight. He died Nov. 23, 1717, at the age of thirty- 
four years, only four and a half j'ears from his ordina- 
tion. He was horn in Salem May 21, 1GS3, graduated 
from Harvard College in 1701, and ordained May 19, 
1714. The entry made upon the church book of rec- 
ords, of date Xov. 23, 1717, after recording his death, 
adds : " He was highly esteemed in his life, and very 
deservedly lamented at his death, having been very 
eminent for his early improvements in learning and 
piety, his singular abilities and great labors, his re- 
markable zeal and faithlulness in the service of his 
^Master. A great benefactor to our poor. The Eev. 
Mr. Xoyes his life was much bound up in him." 
These last words read more as prophecy than as rec- 
ord of a past accomplished, when we look on to the 
next entry upon the book. It is but twenty days 
later. It records the death, Dec. 13th, of the Rev. 
Nicholas Noyes. Within three weeks the church is 
bereaved of both its pastors. 

Mr. Samuel Fisk was called with great unanimity 
the next year to the church in Salem, and was or- 
dained on the 8th of October, 1718. He was a grand- 
son of Rev. John Fisk, herein before mentioned as 
sometime assistant to Rev. Hugh Peters, afterwards 
minister of Wenham and Chelmsford ; was born 
April 6, 1689, in Braintree, where his father, Rev. 
Moses Fisk, was many years minister, and was grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1708. He was a man 
of acknowledged abilities and of great energy, but the 
unanimity with which his miui.stry was welcomed at 
the beginning gave place in no very long time to a 
rising alienation on the part of a portion of hit* con- 
gregation, which grew to a protracted and bitter con- 
troversy, — protracted and bitter even in comparison 
with other church contentions, proverbial as such are 
for their tenacity and implacability, — many of his 
parishioners becoming hopelessly estranged from him, 
the division culminating at last in the expulsion of 
Mr. Fisk from his pulpit in 173.5. Mr. Bentley as- 
cribes his loss of usefulness to high thoughts of church 
authority. Pamphlets of more than four hundred 
pages of printed matter remain in a Salem library 
(Athenieum) to represent the course of the correspond- 
ence and criticisms which grew out of the long con- 
test. The points involved were not chiefly theological 
or ecclesiiistical, but consisted largely of charges 
brought by members of the church of misrepresenta- 
tion and of a want of ingenuous, truthful and frank 
dealing on the part of Mr. Fisk as to an unwarranted 
interpolation in the church records in the matter of 

maintaining or discontinuing the church " lecture," 
an institution which had long existed, the interest in 
which had fallen off greatly, and the responsibility 
for whose decay, and close, and resunii)tion was mu- 
tually bandied back and forth between the minister 
and the dissatisfied brethren. Mr. Fisk was also accused 
of arbitrarily refusing to call church meetings except 
such as he pleased a.nd when he pleased, and of assert- 
ing a right of control in church matters generally 
deemed by a very considerable part of his congrega- 
tion to be unauthorized and inadmissible. As to one 
of the issues raised, Mr. Fisk and his followers seem 
to have planted themselves on unassailable ground. 
The aggrieved brethren seem to have been a confessed 
minority of the church. When, therefore, this ag- 
grieved minority, — supposing it to be such, — first 
called on a neighboring church,— the second in Bos- 
ton, — to come in, by its representatives, and endeavor 
to compose the existing difficulties, the majority de- 
clined to submit their case to this commi.saion for a 
hearing and decision. So, when a council of four 
churches made a similar attempt, and again, when a 
yet larger and more imposing council wjis summoned, 
they simply denied the jurisdiction of each and all 
such ecclesiastical courts, in steadfast adherence to 
that original principle laid down at the founding of 
the church, in 1(329, of the independence of each 
church, and they denied the authority of any other 
church or churches to interfere in its concerns. Unless 
by some formal vote it had surrendered this claim of 
autonomy in favor of some other paramount autliority 
as does not seem to have been claime<l, or the voice of 
the majority was arbitrarily suppressed by the pastor, 
which is perhaps charged by implication, it is difficult 
to see by what right the majority of this church and 
congregation were dispossessed of their meeting-house 
or any of their church rights, as was done, and sanc- 
tioned by the General Court. 

After the exclusion of Mr. Fisk from the pulpit, a 
majority of the members of the church withdrew and 
built another meeting-house near at hand.' The with- 
drawing members continued to use the title of " The 
First Church," their right to which could hardly be 
gainsaid, perhaps, except upon the ground taken by 
the courts of Massachusetts a hundred years later, 
viz. : that the church derives its designation from the 
parish out of which it has grown, and upon which its 
identification depends. Mr. Fisk took away with him 
the church book of records, retaining it through the 
peril d of his ministry. In 1762 Eev. Dudley Leavitt, 
the minister of the church which Mr. Fisk had led 
out in 1735 to a new home, died, much beloved and 
lamented. That church soon after opened a gracious 
and conciliatory correspondence with the church of 
the First Parish, proposing to relinquish to it the title 

1 They first placed it too near, — *• only twelve perches and eleven feet 
from the First parish ineeting-huiise." The General t.^urt interfered, 
iinil ordered that it should not »t*nd " nearer to the other Uian forty 
perches."' It was removed accordingly. 



of the First Church from that time, and took for itself 
the title of " The Church of which Eev. Dudley Leu- 
vitt was late Pastor," — known since, and now for 
many years, as the Tabernacle Church. These over- 
tures were met in a like spirit. An amicable division 
of plate and other church property accompanied and 
attested the healing of the old wounds of dissension. 

Leaving, for the present, the notices of other 
churches formed in the town from time to time, we 
follow out first the sketch of the p'irst Church. During 
the years from 1735 to 1762 the old First Church and 
Society was called, and called itself the Church and 
Parish of the Confederate Society, or, for a shorter 
title and common use, the Confederate Church. Dr. 
Worcester says the secedersgave them the title. The 
effect of the division by which the society was cleft in 
1735 was depressing for a while, undoubtedly. But 
on the 5th of August, 1736, Mr. John Sparhawk was 
called by " the brethren adhering to the ancient prin- 
ciples of the First Church in Salem," with substan- 
tial unanimity, to the ministry among them, and was 
ordained on the 8th of December following. He was 
the son. of Rev. John Sparhawk, of Bristol, R. I., and 
was born in that town in September, 1713, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1731. He died April 30, 
1755, in the forty-second year of his age. He was 
described by his parishioner, Dr. Edward Holyoke, as 
" large in person, a man of dignity and an excellent 
preacher." If that people is to be accounted happy 
whose history affords few incidents or experiences 
deemed worthy to be recited, the same evidence may 
be taken as ground for the belief that a church is 
happy, its life one of peace, of silent, healthful, spir- 
itual growth, when it affords little material for the 
historian to record. The First Church entered upon 
such a period after the close of the rather tempestu- 
ous ministry of Mr. Fisk. The usefulness of Mr. 
Sparhawk's labors, and the affection in which he was 
held, is shown by the sincere sorrow caused by his 
death. The ministries which followed were of a like 
character, and, even down to this day, have generally 
abounded in quiet and diligent service on the part of 
the ministers, and been characterized by general har- 
mony and co-operation on the part of the church and 
congregation in maintaining the institutions of re- 
ligion and cultivating the spirit of the Christian 

Rev. Thomas Barnard succeeded Mr. Sparhawk. 
He was the son of Rev. John Barnard, of Andover, 
and was born in that place August 16, 1716, grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1732, ordained at 
Newbury January 31, 1738, left his people there on 
account of " difficulties about Mr. Whitfield's preach- 
ing," and turned to the study and practice of law for 
a time. Re-entering the ministry, he was installed 
minister of the First Church in Salem September 17, 
1755. He was a man of solid excellencies, both of 
mind and character, not brilliant, but strong and 
rightly balanced, " much beloved by his society and 

esteemed by the public." He was disabled by paral- 
ysis in 1770, and a colleague was settled in 1772. Mr. 
Barnard died August 5, 1776. The colleague just re- 
ferred to was Mr. Asa Dunbar. There had been a 
division of feeling in the choice of a colleague, some 
desiring Mr. Barnard's son, Barnard, Jr., to 
be invited to take the place, while a bare majority 
were for Mr. Dunbar. The organization of the North 
Church, with Mr. Thomas Barnard, Jr., for its minis- 
ter, was the result of the disagreement. But the parting 
between the brethren who went out and those who 
stayed behind was friendly, and characterized by an 
affectionate reluctance to take the decisive .step, and 
by a generous surrender of some of the vessels and 
sacred things belonging to the church, because they 
had come to it by gift from those who were now de- 
parting or from members of their families. Rev. Asa 
Dunbar was born in Bridgewater May 26, 1745, grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1767, and ordained in 
Salem July, 22, 1772. His health before long be- 
came broken, and compelled him first to seek its res- 
toration in rest, and finally to resign his office, which 
he did April 23, 1779, his society consenting with re- 
luctance, and not until convinced that it was a neces- 
sity. Honorable and delicate testimonials of the 
mutual affection and confidence subsisting between 
the pastor and people were exchanged at parting. 
Mr. Dunbar studied law after leaving his ministry in 
Salem, and settled in Keene, N. H., where he prac- 
ticed his profession and lived greatly respected till 
June 22, 1787, the time of his death. He appears to 
have lived in Weston before coming to Salem ; he 
married there Mary Jones, in 1772, and had a child 
born there in 1776. After leaving Salem, and before 
settling in Keene, he probably lived in Harvard for a 
time, as he had children born there in 1780 and 1781. 
Mr. Bentley, a competent judge, and not given to un- 
meaning praise, characterized him as a man of genius. 
Rev. John Prince, who succeeded Mr. Dunbar, and 
whose ministry covered a period of fifty-seven years — 
for forty-five of which he had no assistance — was born 
in Boston July 22, 1751, graduated at Harvard College 
in 1776, and ordained minister of the First Church in 
Salem November 10, 1779.' Dr. Prince was a faith- 
ful and devoted minister and lived in the sincere af- 
fection and respect of his people during his long pas- 
torate. But he had greater fame as a devotee of 
natural science and an ardent philosophical investiga- 
tor than as a preacher. His parishioner, the late Hon. 
Daniel A. White, says of him that " he possessed the 
spirit of a true philosopher and a true Christian, and 
was alike distinguished for his mechanical ingenuity, 
his attainments in natural, in theological and general • 

1 The ministry of Dr. Prince has had no parallel for length in Salem, 
except in that of Rev. Dr. EinersoD, of the South Church, which ex- 
teniled over more than sixty-seven years, though for the first nine and 
the last thirty-two of the years of his ministry he was associated with col- 
leagues, and for many years before his death he performed almost no 
professional duties. 



learning, and for his various genius and taste, his ar- 
dent love of nature and of art, his single-heartedness 
and trulj- Christian temper, and for his amiable and 
generous disposition, especially as manifested in the 
gratuitous diffusion of his scientific discoveries and 
ini]irovements, and in imparting his rare knowledge 
at all times for the gratification and entertainment of 
others. His character will long be remembered with 
sincere admiration." He bequeathed to his society a 
library of nearly four hundred and fifty volumes. He 
was an honored member of various societiesorganized 
for the study of science, art and history, and received 
the degree of Doctor of Laws from Brown University. 
His death took place on June 7, 183(5. 

During the ministry of Dr. Prince the parish re- 
ceived valuable legacies from Charles Henry Orne, a 
merchant, and from Miss Mehitable Higginson, a 
descendant in the sixth generation from the first 
minister, and widely known as " a teacher of succes- 
sive generations of children," and " a blessing to the 
church and the town." More recently the permanent 
funds of the society were increased by a liberal be- 
quest from Hannah Haraden Ropes, and in 1867 
amounted to about ten thousand five hundred dol- 
lars. In the year 1817 the society became incorpor- 
ated as the First Congregational Society in Salem. 

In 1824 Mr. Charles W. TJpham was ordained as a 
colleague pastor with Dr. Prince. He was born in St. 
John, New Brunswick, May 4, 1802, graduated from 
Harvard College in 1821, and from the Divinity 
School in Cambridge in 1824. He was ordained in 
Salem the same year, December 8th, and filled a min- 
istry of twenty years, when impaired health caused 
him to resign, and he closed his ministry in Decem- 
ber, 1844. Mr. Upham was held in high esteem as 
an acceptable preacher and a man of scholarly at- 
tainments. He received, on retiring from his ministry, 
substantial tokens of the generous appreciation of the 
people whom he had served, and which he acknowl- 
edged with a warm recognition. He died in Salem 
June, 15, 1875, more than thirty years after his min- 
istry ended, having filled in the course of that time 
several important civil and political offices. He was 
mayor of Salem in 1852; elected to both Houses of 
the Legislature of the State at different times, and 
president of the Senate in 1857-58; member of the 
National House of Representativs in 1853-55 ; and of 
the State Convention of Massachusetts in 1853. In 
various sermons and addresses he sketched and illus- 
trated the history of the Salem Church, and contrib- 
uted for publication much historical and biographical 
material, relating to the men and times of early New- 
England. During his ministry he published a small 
work upon the " Logos, " another upon " Prophecy as 
an Evidence of Christianity ; " " Lectures upon Witch- 
craft," which, in 1867, he expanded into an elaborate 
work of two volumes of nearly one thousand duodec- 
imo i)ages. '' A Life of Sir Henry Vane," in iS/jarlcs' 
American Bioijrap/ti/, was from his pen. In 1856 he 

wrote the "Life, Letters and Public Services of John 
Charles Fremont," one of the Presidential candidates 
of that year. His last published literary work was a 
" Memoir of Timothy Pickering," in three volumes. 
He edited the Christian Ecgisfer in 1845-46, and was 
a frequent contributor to periodical publications, both 
religious and secular. 

Rev. Thomas Treadwell Stone was called to the 
vacant pastorship in June, 1846, and on the 12th of 
July following was installed in that office, with the 
simplicity of form observed in the primitive Salem 
Cliurch, the entire service being carried on and com- 
pleted by the congregation through its appointed rep- 
resentative and the pastor-elect. Mr. Stone was born 
in Waterford, Me., February 9, 1801, and graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1820. He was ordained in 
Andover, Me., September 8, 1824, and continued to 
be pastor of that church till September, 1830, when 
he became preceptor of Bridgton Academy. After 
two years he resumed the ministry, and was settled 
in East Machias May 15, 1833. The anti-slavery 
agitation which came to its crisis after a quarter of a 
century in civil war in 1861, and which had been 
long straining threateningly the civil institutions and 
the political integrity of the nation, had also deeply 
disturbed the peace of a large proportion of the 
churches of the free States. Some ministers caused 
discontent in their folds by preaching upon the 
country's responsibility and duty in regard to the in- 
stitution of slavery, some gave equal offense by 
wholly refraining from the theme, and still others 
displeased their hearers by what they said or their 
manner of saying it. The public feeling was ex- 
tremely sensitive. The congregations were divided 
in sentiment. Expressions used in the pulpit, which 
in ordinary times might not have produced a ripple 
of commotion, in the inflammable state of popular 
feeling then existing, broke friendships, and sun- 
dered in many instances the bond that held pastor 
and church together. Mr. Stone, incapable of giving 
offense by any breach of Christian charity or cour- 
tesy, yet felt himself constrained to utter an earnest 
testimony against slavery as subversive of the plain- 
est principles of justice and humanity, and as equally 
condemned by the fundamental teachings and the es- 
sential spirit of Christianity. While his personal and 
professional character was unassailable and unim- 
peached, as it respected the purity and disinterested- 
ness of his motives and the singleness of mind and 
the high ability with which he discharged the duties 
of the ministerial office, some of his society became 
dissatisfied, and he was dismissed in February, 1S52. 
He was afterwards settled in Bolton, and is now 
passing a serene and studious old age, dividing his 
time between his home in Bolton and the homes of 
Lis children. 

January 6, 1853, the vacancy caused by the dismis- 
sion of Dr. Slone was filled by the installation of 
Rev. George Ware Briggs. Mr. Briggs was borji at 



Little Compton, R. I., April 8, 1810, graduated from 
Brown University in 1825, and from the Divinity 
School at Cambridge in 1834, and was ordained in 
Fall River September 24, 1834, and installed in 
Plymouth, January 3, 1838, as colleague pastor with 
Rev. James Kendall, D.D. Dr. Briggs resigned his 
mini.stry in Salem April 1, 1867, and the same year 
was settled over the Third Congregational Society in 
Cambridge (Cambridgeport), where he still ministers, 
his society having refused not long since to accept his 
resignation. During Dr. Briggs' ministry in Salem 
the " irrepressible conflict " between slavery and 
freedom reached the stage of open war, and the at- 
tempted secession of the slave States brought the 
conflict to a termination in the emancipation of the 
slaves, the victory of the northern armies and the re- 
storation of peace between the North and the South. 
Dr. Briggs was a strenuous and able champion of the 
cause of freedom and of the maintenance of the na- 
tion's integrity during the war. 

Rev. James T. Hewes succeeded Dr. Briggs, Sep- 
tember 27, 1868. Mr. Hewes was born in Saco, Me., 
March 23, 1836 ; was ordained in South Boston, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1862 ; resigned June 4, 1864 ; settled over 
the Second Unitarian, in Portland, Me., June 
23, 1864. He resigned his Salem charge August 31, 

1875. With health already impaired before leaving 
Salem, he was installed in Fitchburg September 26, 

1876. After a ministry there of five years, seriously 
interrupted by ill health, he resigned, sincerely re- 
spected and beloved by his society, and after a year 
and a half spent in California, removed to Cambridge, 
where he died November 21, 1882. 

Rev. Fielder Israel, now in pastoral charge of the 
First Church, was installed March 8, 1877. He was 
born in Baltimore, Md., June 29, 1825, was in the 
]\Iethodist ministry for some years, and later had been 
pastor of the Unitarian Church in Wilmington, Del.> 
and of that in Taunton, Mass., before his settlement 
in Salem. 

The First Church has occupied successively four 
houses of worship on or near the same spot, Essex, 
corner of Washington Street. The first is still stand- 
ing — so much of it as to make its size, shape and gen- 
eral aspect visible and certain. The main timbers of 
its frame are preserved and are in their original 
places, the clothing of the skeleton only — that is, the 
boarding and plaster — having been from time to time 
renewed. "An unfinished building of one story," 
says Rev. Mr. Upham, "was temporarily used at the 
beginning for the purposes of the congregation." 
Houses had been provided at once, by order of the 
company in London, for dwellings for the two minis- 
ters, — Rev. Mr. Higginson's "directly south of and 
about fifty feet distant from the eastern part of the site of 
the present meeting-house " (ground covered at present 
by the southeastern corner of the Asiatic Block, now 
the rear room of the Salem Savings Bank, in which 
the corporation and its trustees hold their meetings). 

Mr. Skelton's house was farther south and to the east, 
on the southern side of the present Front Street. 
Neither of these two ministers lived to preach in the 
first meeting-house, which was contracted for in 1634, 
the year of Mr. Skelton's death, and which stood, it 
will be recalled, quite near the sites of their dwellings 
as just given. Mr. Norton was the builder of that 
first meeting-house. The trees for it were not felled 
till the beginning of 1635. and the house was erected 
the summer after. Its dimensions were twenty feet 
in length by seventeen feet in width, and twelve feet 
in the height of the posts. A gallery extended across 
the northern end, or side, whose front supporting 
beam rests now in its original position, the floor of 
the gallery rising towards the rear by a sharp pitch. 
The main floor of the house is supposed to have been 
of clay. The door opened on Essex Street when the 
building stood on its original foundation ; the gallery 
ran across the same end ; the preacher's place — and the 
pulpit's, when one was built — was opposite, that is, on 
the southern end. The windows were not glazed till 
1637. In 1639 the house was elongated southward by 
more than its original length, viz. : twenty-five feet. 
When a new house of worship was to be built, in 
1670, the town voted to appropriate the old house to 
the town's use for a school-house and watch-house. 
In the course of the next ninety years it was put to 
various uses by the town. It was in 1760, it is prob- 
able, that it was sold to Thorndike Proctor, and by 
him removed to a spot now in the field a few rods 
south of Boston Street, near the foot of Gallows (or 
Witch) Hill, a public road at that time running past 
it, and there it was occupied as a tavern, after which 
it stood awhile as a neglected and nearly empty stable 
and disused store-house. In 1864 it was presented 
to the Essex Institute by Mrs. David Nichols, its 
owner at the time, and removed to the rear of Plum- 
nier Hall, where it now stands restored to its primi- 
tive form by the liberality of the late Francis Pea- 
body, Esq., then president of the Essex Institute, in 
such a way that the original parts and the renewed 
portions, respectively, are easily to be distinguished 
from each other. The second meeting-house was built 
in 1670, on the western side of the site of the first. It 
was sixty feet long on Essex Street, fifty feet wide and 
twenty feet stud ; " cost one thousand pounds," says 
Rev. Mr. Upham, " had galleries, and was called by 
Cotton Mather ' the great and spacious meeting- 
house.' '' This house served the congregation nearly 
sixty years. In 1718 it was found to have become so 
decrepit as not to be worthy of repairing, and it was 
voted to build a new one to take its place on the same 

This third meeting-house was seventy-two feet long 
on Essex Street, and fifty feet wide, with two tiers of 
gallery and a spire. " The steeple," says Mr. Upham, 
"was probably like that still preserved in the vener- 
able meeting-house of the First Church of Hingham, 
built in 1681, rising directly over the centre of the 



roof, the bell-rope coming down to the broad aisle, 
half-way between the pulpit and the main entrance." 
Great changes were afterwards made in the interior 
arrangement and in the external appearance of the 
building. A picture of it,- as it appeared in its latest 
form, may be seen among the collections of the Essex 
Institute, and is also preserved in the appendix to the 
sermon preached by Kev. Mr. Upham at the dedica- 
tion of the church edifice at present occupied by the 
society. The old house was taken down in 1826, 
and the new was built and dedicated November 16th 
of the same year. There are a few still living who 
remember the former, with its three tiei^s of windows, 
its tower and spire on its western end, and its front 
entrance upon its Essex Street side. 

The meeting-house built in 1826, and now in use, 
was materially changed in appearance both within 
and without in 1875. Without, it was originally a 
plain brick structure, cruciform in general outline, 
the central and main portion, that containing the 
auditorium, being nearly square, and in appearance 
much the same as now on its northern front ; high 
porches projecting from the middle of the eastern 
and western sides made the arms of the cross ; the 
building stood above a lower story devoted to business 
jiurposes, — stores, etc., as now. On the Essex Street 
side of either porch were doors of entrance to the 
auditorium and the gallery; the ascent from the 
pavement to the entrances was made by a short flight 
of steps, an iron fence with gates inclosing the re- 
cesses between the street and the steps. Within, a 
gallery extended along the Essex Street front, in 
which was the choir and organ, and some space for 
sittings besides; on the opposite, the southern side, 
was the rather high pulpit. In 1867 considerable 
changes were made from its first interior appear- 
ance; a smaller organ was substituted for the one 
which had been in use, and was placed with the 
choir, in an alcove or gallery, within the upper part, 
of the eastern porch; the front gallery was removed, 
and appropriate inscriptions were placed upon the 
northern wall, against which it had stood. In 1875 
the whole interior was changed to its present form, the 
pulpit or preacher's desk being carried to the western 
side, and a large new organ built in its rear. At the 
same time the two porches upon the eastern and 
western sides were replaced by extended additions on 
those sides reaching the entire length of the build- 
ing, providing not only stairways of access to the 
audience-room, but rooms adjoining for the minister's 
use and his library, for the Sunday-school library 
and for other convenient purposes. 

Society of Friends. — We now turn back to find 
and trace the offshoots from this parent stem of eccle- 
siastical growth in the Salem settlement. The earli- 
est of these was a gathering of (Quakers. Mention is 
made of the appearance of these people in Salem 
first ill 1656 or '57, only about ten years after George 
Fox began his itineracy and public preaching in 

England. The peculiar tenets and practices of the 
Quakers exhibit one of the numerous phases taken 
on by the new and freer spirit to which the Reforma- 
tion of the sixteenth century had given birth. It was 
an emancipation from bondage to legalism, ecclesias- 
ticism and hierarchies. It was usually characterized by 
more or less spiritual exaltation and religious enthusi- 
asm, [n some sanguine, imaginative and emotional 
temperaments, this new spirit burst forth, like new 
wine from old bottles, into ell'ervescent prophesyings 
and extravagant claims of illumination. Sincere and 
pure in motive as most of these people were, they 
were yet protestants of the protestants, and in many 
instances boldly arraigned the existing churches as 
needing a new baptism of the Spirit; as leaning with- 
out warrant wholly on the letter of the Bible. They 
afiirmed that each human soul might have its own 
immediate communication with God, its own inter- 
pretation of Christ, and its own revelation of truth, 
not to be superseded by any external authority. 
Very innocent and even commendable aflirmations 
these would perhaps be pronounced to-day; and were 
Endicott, Higginson and Wilson here now, they 
w(mld, it is likely, assent to them; while we who 
are to-day sitting complacently in judgment upon 
their conduct and upon that of the Southwicks and 
Maules, if we had been among them in their time, 
should have been Quakers and denouncers of Quak- 
ers in just about the same numerical proportions as 
they were. We need not be unjust to those who 
fined, sold and hanged Quakers, in order to do 
justice to the Quakers. The members of the 
churches of Salem and Boston could not know just 
the nature, conditions and the probable outcome of 
the problem which they had to deal with in Quaker- 
ism in 1656, as we now know it, viewing it in the 
light of history. When they first heard announced 
the peculiar views of these people, they recognized 
in them something like and yet unlike the teachings 
of Mrs. Hutchinson and of the Anabaptists, which 
they deprecated with genuine dread. To what would 
the new doctrines disseminated by these preachers, 
of which they had some not reassuring reports from 
England, lead, and where would they endi" Did the 
preachers themselves know? Or were they on a drift 
whose tendency they were quite unable to forecast? 
Now it is but common-place wisdom to .say that it 
was not right to judge the whole body or the great 
majority by the vagaries of a few unbalanced spirits. 
But the judgment had to be nuide then and there, 
by the contemiwraries of Robinson, Stevenson and 
Mary Dyer, and they could not tell at once who were 
the typical disciples of the new school and who were 
the exceptional zealots whose ways would be eventu- 
ally repudiated by the majority, — nor indeed whether 
the few might not yet become the majority, which 
was what they feared. They could not tell, nobody 
could, to what pitch this excitement might rise. 
Alarming possibilities loomed np to their ajiprehen- 



sive imaginations. Tlie ways and doctrines of these 
Quakers appeared to them to lead out to the un- 
fenced wilderness of antinomianism [no-law-ism] ; 
so their propagators were honestly, if mistakenly, 
held to be dangerous to the security of the new com- 
munities struggling to set up here law and order in 
commonwealth and church. The latter were con- 
tending with teachings and influences sincerely be- 
lieved to be disorganizing and hostile to the peace, if 
not to the existence, of the newly-planted colony. It 
is asking too much to require that magistrates and 
ministers, church-members and citizens, in the in- 
fancy of a great and critical experiment in the con- 
duct of civil and ecclesiasticalaft'airs, acting under cir- 
cumstances of frequent perplexity and serious embar- 
rassment making their own precedents as they went, and 
daily treading paths of uncertain ending, should have 
been exempt from the limitations of their age, and 
should have made the discovery, at once and on the 
spot, that the extreme of tolerance towards dissent 
and contradiction was a discreet and safe policy, to 
be fearlessly followed out in practice without any 
restrictions and under whatever provocation — a dis- 
covery which, after two hundred years of social, hardly commands an unqualified and univer- 
sal acceptance. It would be disingenuous not to 
allow, however, that personal feelings, wounded pride 
and narrow and bitter prejudices doubtless mingled 
with considerations of public policy, however uncon- 
sciously, in promoting the persecution of the Quakers, 
Persecutors and persecuted were alike human. 
Grant that the doctrines of the Quakers had much 
truth to justify their earnest proclamation. They had 
too often, as uttered, the implication, if not the tone, 
of the Pharisee's " I am holier than thou," to the mem- 
bers of the New England Churches. Their authors 
were not sparing in the terms of self-humiliation, it 
is true, and this made the assumption of suj)erior in- 
sight, and nearer communion with God, the more irri- 
tating and offensive. The very truths and half-truths 
that were couched in many of the allegations made 
against the Christianity of the day, — allegations of un- 
due devotion to letter and form, and of lack of true 
religious experience and life, w-hich, if they had come 
from brethren within the church, or from supposed 
friends, might have been welcomed by the more 
spiritually-minded and conscientious of the fold, — were 
not to be borne when regarded as the false accusations 
of meddlesome, censorious and aggressive pretenders to 
superior piety. The cruelties visited upon the Quak- 
ers were simply horrible, almost beyond belief. Yet 
we may not flatter ourselves that it is because we are 
so much better than our fathers that we are to-day 
unanimous in this verdict. It is, that we are nearly 
a quarter of a millenium later than the Puritans of 
1650, and that between their time and ours a good 
deal has been learned. As to the aggravated sufferings 
to which the Quakers were subjected, however, this 
should be said : that in an age when all pains and 

penalties for crime were immeasurably heavier and 
more cruel than now, if the Quakers must suffer pun- 
ishment at all, the punishments inflicted upon them 
were not unusual, and therefore were such as should 
have been expected: fines, whippings, public disgrace, 
imprisonment, enslavement,' banishment and death. 
And furthermore it should be mentioned, though not as 
alleviating in the least the responsibility for the harsh 
treatment visited upon the Quakers, that some who 
suffered seemed rather to court martyrdom than to 
shriuk from it. The disturbances growing out of the 
visits of Quakers to the places of public worship ap- 
pear to have been less numerous and less violent in 
Salem than in some other places. As has been already 
mentioned, a Mrs. Oliver had, in Mrs. Hutchinson's 
time, and again afterwards, claimed in the open con- 
gregation the right to partake of the communion, 
though not a member of the church ; had denied the 
right of the church or the magistrates to prevent her ; 
and had suffered a brief imprisonment for the first 
offense, and was " publicly disgraced " after the second- 
One Christopher Holder, a Quaker, after being ban- 
ished, returned and spoke a few words in the meeting 
here, September 21, 1657, " after the priest had done," 
but "was hauled back by the hair of his head, and a 
glove and a handkerchief were thrust into his mouth." 
On the Monday he was sent to Boston, received 
thirty stripes and was imprisoned nine weeks. Samuel 
Shattock, for trying to prevent the stopping of Hol- 
der's mouth, was carried to Boston and imprisoned 
there. Lawrence and Cassandra Southwick, members 
of the church in Salem, for entertaining Holder and 
another of his sect,were sent to Boston and imprisoned. 
Some twenty persons are named by Felt [Annals] iis 
having been among the persons punished, or indicted 
for attending a Quaker Meeting at Nicholas Phelps'. 
So serious was the apprehension of evil to the churches 
from this source, that when the covenant was " re- 
newed," soon after the Rev. John Higginson's settle- 
ment, a special clause of warning against the leaven 
nfthe doctrine of the Quakers was added at the end, as 
has been noted already. 

The Quakers in Salem had their meetings at 
first in private houses. Their first meeting-house 
stood on the south side of Essex Street, on the 
space between the houses numbered at present 373 
and 377, and is said to have been built by Thomas 
Maule, in 1688. Maule had some years before been 
warned, as a Quaker, to quit the town, and two citizens, 
Samuel Robinson and Samuel Shadocke,had been fined 
twenty shillings each for "entertaining" him in 1669. 
In 1716 Maule bought the meeting-house he had built 
in 1688, for twenty-five pounds, the society having then 
built their second meeting-house, a plain building, as 
all Quaker meeting-houses are, on the present site of 

1 Mr. Bentley mentioned ttiat in 1659 "the heads of a family belonging 
to Salem were onlcreil to be sttlii." If, a& is probable, the reference is to 
Daniel and Provided Southwick, son and daughter of Ijawrence and 
Cassauira Southwick, the order waa not carried into effect. 



the Quaker burying-ground, at the corner of Essex 
and North Pine Streets, the latter street not having 
l)een opened. This second meeting-house is remem- 
bered by the older citizens of Salem, having been 
removed only about fifty-five years ago, that is in 
1832.' The brick meeting-house, on the corner of 
Warren and South Pine Streets, now occupied by 
the society, was built in 1832, upon land given for 
the purpose by a. friend, indeed, though not a Friend 
by sectarian designation, George S. Johonnot. 

A difl'erence as ti> discipline or doctrine, which arose 
among the New England Quakers towards the end of 
the first quarter of this century, led to earnest and 
protracted controversy, and finally to a practical divi- 
sion of the body into two sections, in 1843, sometimes 
popularly designated as " Gurneyites and Wilburites," 
from their adhesion, respectively, to John James Gur- 
ney, of England, and John Wilbur, of Rhode Island : 
each section claiming to be logically and spiritually 
in historical line with the founders of the sect. The 
latter conceived that the former " did not allow so 
full an agency to the Holy Spirit on the mind and 
heart as the primitive Friends did." The separation 
took effect in this region, at the New Enghind Yearly 
Meeting, in June, 184.5 ; and again at the Quarterly 
Meeting in August, and at the Monthly Meeting in 
September following, was ratified by the followers of 
the two representative men above named, and the two 
sections fell irreconcilably apart. The majority of the 
society in Salem held with Gurney, and those of the 
adverse views put up a small meeting-house at the 
corner of Essex and North Pine Streets, in 1847, which 
is now standing on the same spot, having been changed 
into a dwelling-house. 

Though the (Juakers have no fixed and salaried 
local ministers, the following persons are named 
in the " Historical Sketch of Salem," by Messrs. 
Osgood and Batchelder, as being "among the minis- 
ters acknowledged and recorded as such, from time 
to time, by the Salem Monthly Meeting of Friends 
(comprising the meetings of Salem and Lynn) : Mica- 
jah Collins, Mary Newhall, Moses H. Bedee, Avis 
Keene, Elizabeth Breed, Jane Mansfield, Benjamin 
H. Jones, William O. Newhall, Abigail Bedee, .Soph- 
ronia Page, Henry Chase, Hannah Hozier, Lydia 
Dean, Mary Chase, Daniel Page and Ruth Page." No 
records of the minority meeting in the house by the 
burial-ground, are known to have been preserved. Its 
numbers, not large at first, gradually diminished till 
the society became extinct. Among those who upheld 
that meeting, and were identified with it as ministers 
or well-known supporters, are remembered Nathan 
Page, David Butfum, Lois (Southwick) Ives and 
George F. Reed. Current rumor used to say that the 

1 The frame of it is now standiDg in Peabody, on tho Lynnfield road, 
liaving been purchased by the late Mr. Samuel Brown, taken down by 
hiui and eet up af;ain fur a barn near his dwelling-house. .\n addition 
baa been put to it, but its original size and form are easily to bo niailo 


last-named, a fine scholar and an able teacher,a mem- 
ber of the class of 1831 in Harvard College,- remarka- 
ble as a linguist, in character simple and guileless as 
a child, was sometimes, in the last days of the society, 
the only attendant at the meeting-house, and that 
then he sat there alone in silent worship and medita- 
tion what time the Spirit detained him. 

In 1671 the inhabitants of "the farms," or "Salem 
Village," as the lands now lying about " Danvers' 
Centre" were then called, regarding themselves as 
entitled by their numbers and their remoteness from 
the Salem Church to a nearer place of worship and 
the full services of a minister, began to hold religious 
services among themselves on the Lord's day, and 
constituted a church, the parent church assenting and 
regarding this church and congregation as a branch 
of itself Rev. James Bailey was the first minister, 
settled in October, 1671, and Rev. George Burroughs, 
of unhappy memory (as a victim of the witchcraft 
madness), succeeded him, November 25, 1680. On 
the 10th of November, 1689, this church was formally 
ge])arated from the mother church at Salem, and on 
the 15th of that month Samuel Parris was ordained 
its pastor. 

Marblehead, taken from Salem, was incorporated 
in 1649, but no church was gathered there till 1684; 
meantime .such of its people as had had or desired 
church fellowship continued to find it in connection 
with the church in Salem. On the other side of Bass 
River, in what is now Beverly, public worship was 
established in 1657, and Rev. John Hale was settled 
as the first minister in 1667. In 1713 a second church 
was formed in that part of Danvers, then called the 
lower parish, or " middle precinct," afterwards Souih 
Danvers, now Peabody. 

East Church. — The third church formed within 
the present territorial limits of Salem, regarding the 
Quaker " Meeting " as the second, was that commonly 
known by the title of the East Church. But as 
Quaker "meetings" were not held worthy to be 
counted as " churches " (members of Congreg.ational 
Churches being judges), and as the Quakers them- 
selves adopted another name for their assembly, this 
church styled itself the "Second " Church. It will 
be remembered that during the colleagueship of Mr. 
Nicholet with Rev. John Higginson (1672-76), eftbrts 
were made to establish a meeting, and that a meeting- 
house w!is partly built in the east part of the town, on 
the northeast border of the common. With the de- 
parture of Mr. Nicholet, the division in the society 
was virtually healed, and the meeting-house was not 
completed; but the idea of a church in that ipiarter 
did not wholly die out of the minds of the residents 
in those parts. When a committee of the First Parish 
reported " reasons for building a meeting-liouse" for 
the use of that parish early in the last century, it un- 

- Mr. Reed completed his college course, and had a part assigned him 
for commencement, but neglected to prepare for it, and did not take his 



designedly gave strength to the project long enter- 
tained by the Eastern District of a separation from 
the parent church, and of building a meeting-house 
in the midst of the population to be accommodated 
thereabouts. As quoted by Dr. Flint in his sermon 
on leaving the old East Church, in 1846, this commit- 
tee's report alleged that " the house [of the First 
Church] was not big enough to hold the people, and, 
for want of room, many of the eastern end of the 
town, and many others on other accounts, stayed 
away from public worship ; and a great many, under 
pretence of being of the Church of England, went to 
Marblehead in boats, [so] that our harbor appeared 
more like a day of frolicking than anything else." 
The First Church resisted separation as long as it 
could, and more than hinted in its acquiescence at 
the last that the " proceedings of some of the said 
brethren" had been "irregular" and "contrary to 
good order ; " but seeing a meeting-house already 
built, and knowing that a minister was selected and 
ready to be ordained, it finally, in 1718, made a virtue 
of necessity, ceased from further opposition, and gave 
the Second Church its benediction at parting. 

The year 1718 was an eventful year to the First 
Church, made so by its having recently lost by death, 
both within three weeks, its two ministers (Rev. Mr. 
Noyes and Eev. Mr. Curwin), by the settling of 
another (Rev. Samuel Fisk), by the erection of a 
large, new church building for its own use, and by 
the completing of the new East Church building for 
the people living in that section, and the organization 
of a separate church and congregation there, over 
which Rev. Robert Stanton was ordained the minis- 
ter on the 8th of April, 1719. The East Society's 
meeting-house was situated hal f a mile to the east of the 
First Church, on Essex Street, at the corner of what was 
then Grafton's Lane (now Hardy Street). In the sermon 
of Dr. Flint, just above quoted, it is thus described, 
— " The house was in dimensions originally forty by 
sixty feet, and what has been called tunnel-shaped, 
the belfry and spire ascending from the centre of the 
roof" In 1761 this meeting-house was new sashed 
and glazed ; iu 1766 clap-boarded ; in 1770, " there not 
being room to accommodate the congregation," it was 
voted to enlarge it, which was done the following 
year by dividing it in the centre, carrying the western 
half fourteen feet farther west, and covering in this 
additional space. The seams, showing the lines of 
junction between the old part and the new, were 
visible in the plaster of the ceiling till the house was 
abandoned, in 1846. At the time of the enlargement 
a new steeple was built at the western end, and a 
porch was added at the eastern end. In 1846 the 
present church edifice was built and occupied. 

The birth-place of Rev. Robert Stanton, the first 
minister of the East Church, is not known. Mr. 
Felt gives 1692 as the year of his birth. He 
graduated at Harvard College in 1712, and died 
May 30, 1727, after a ministry of eight years. Dr. 

Flint, the fourth in the line of his successors, inters 
that his ministry was peaceful and happy, from the 
fact that nothing to the contrary has been recorded, 
and that his early death was regretted alike by his 
people and the community at large. Mr. William 
Jennison was ordained the year following Mr. Stan- 
ton's death ; that is, in 1728, May 2d. He was born 
in Watertown in 1705, and died in the same town in 
April, 1750, having been dismissed from the East 
Church Sept. 13, 1736. He graduated at Harvard 
College in 1724. His letter of resignation is pathetic 
in its humility. A disaffection of his society towards 
him had become general, the cause of which is not 
now known. " Honored and Beloved," he wrote, " I 
esteem myself very unhappy that I have fallen under 
your displeasure. Glad would I be, if it lay in my 
power to fulfill the ministry I have received among 
you, [.so] as to approve myself to God and to the con- 
sciences of all of us ; but when I consider the great 
and long uneasiness and dissatisfaction you have la- 
bored under (for which I am heartily sorry), I despair 
of being re-instated in your love and affection, so as 
to answer the great ends of the sacred office among 
you. I am therefore willing to accept a dismission 
from the sacred office among you, which I write with 
fear and trembling, not knowing at present what will 
become of me and mine; but earnestly trusting to 
your favor and kindness towards us under the diffi- 
culties of my situation, and which you have encour- 
aged me to hope for, upon my being freely and wil- 
lingly dismissed. I heartily wish the best of blessings 
to your dear church and flock. . . ." 

The long ministry of Rev. James Diman fol- 
lowed that of Mr. Jennison. Mr. Diman was 
born on Long Island, N. Y., Nov. 29, 1707, grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1730, was librarian 
of the college two years, was ordained in Salem 
May 11, 1737, and died Oct. 8, 1788. His minis- 
try was peaceful for the most part, and so success- 
ful that an enlargement of the meeting-house was 
required in his day and was made. Towards the end 
of his pastorate, however, his society became desirous 
of a colleague. A large portion of the people had 
fallen out of sympathy with their minister's opinions 
and teachings, which were rigidly Calvinistic, and, in 
this, at variance with their own. i These divergencies 
led at length to an interruption of harmony ; feelings 
of personal coldness and alienation set in. After a 
reluctant assent to the expressed wishes of the society 
for a colleague, in 1783, and the settlement, the same 
year, of one who held theological views not in accord 
with his own, the senior minister manifested an in- 
creasing estrangement and withdrawal from his soci- 
ety. Mr. Diman is described as " of grave aspect, in- 
vested with the imposing dignity — rather stern and 
awe-inspiring — peculiar to the ministers of the age 
of huge wigs, which were a symbol of the clerical 
authority and the orthodox theology of the day." 

The colleague called to a.ssist Mr. Diman was the 



widely-known scholar, independent thinker, political 
writer and vigorous preacher, William Bentley, who 
" dispensed at once with the wig and creed of which 
it had been so long the symbol." Mr. Bentley wiis 
born in Boston June 22, 1759, graduated at Harvard 
College in 1777, was three years tutor there, ordained 
in Salem Sept. 24, 1783, died Dec. 19, 1819, the 
discourse at his funeral being preached by Professor 
Edward Everett, then connected with the college at 
Cambridge. The beginning of Mr. Bentley's ministry 
marked the transfer of the East Church from apparent 
allegiance to the theology of the Westminster Assem- 
bly to that of a liberalism not yet defined, but which 
later took the name of Unitarian. It cannot be said 
that the new minister brought about the change, since 
we have seen that the people of that church, in choos- 
ing a minister, showed a preference for one of a dif- 
ferent type from that of their senior pastor, even 
while the latter was yet preaching to them — they 
having already departed from the doctrinal faith up- 
held by him. This more liberal theology, which 
proved to be the nascent Xew England Unitarianism, 
was, to a wide extent, "in the air," in the last quarter 
of the last century, in Eastern Massachusetts, though 
not yet developed into an open and systematized con- 
fession of faith, nor exciting yet the opposition and 
alarm which it caused in the early years of the pres- 
ent century, greatly disturbing all the Congregational 
Churches of New England, and dividing a considera- 
ble portion of them into two polemic camps. Of the 
Boston clergy, a considerable number had ceased to 
hold to the creed of the New England founders. Some 
were pronounced in their disaffection and dissent; 
some simply refrained from teaching important parts 
of the creed of Calvin and the Westminster divines. 
Mayhew and Howard, of the West Church ; Chauncey 
and Clarke, of the First Church; and Lathrop, of the 
Second Church, who preached Mr. Bentley's ordina- 
tion sermon, were well known for their liberal opin- 
ions. So were Mr. Barnard, of the North Church, 
and Mr. Prince of the First Church in Salem; while 
the pastors of two churches of the Episcopal order in 
Boston and Salem, — Rev. James Freeman, of the 
King's Chapel in Boston, a friend and classmate of 
Mr. Bentley, and born the same year, and Rev. Na- 
thaniel Fisher, rector of St. Peter's in Salem — were 
by common repute of the same general way of think- 

It was with men like these that Mr. Bentley was 
cl.assed theologically, if, indeed, he was not more 
unorthodox than they; and this fact recommended 
him the more as an acceptable candidate to the wor- 
shippers in the East meeting-house. Chiefly on ac- 
count of his political opinions, which were in accord 
with those of the Republicans of his day, as opposed 
to those of the Federalists, and on account of his 
frequent and strong enforcement of these ojjinions 
through the press, he was not in close and cordial 
professional fellowship with his clerical brethren of 

the neighborhood, they being ibr the most part Fed- 
eralists. Consequently his intercliange of ])ulpit 
services with them was much more restricted than it 
would otherwise have been, being confined to a few. 
He was an ardent patriot. On the 22d of February, 
1793, he delivered an oration commemorative of the 
birthday of George Washington to a very large 
assembly in the North meeting-house. Again, after 
the death of Washington, he was invited by the citi- 
zens of Salem to pronounce a funeral oration, which 
he did in the same place before a vast gathering of 
people. When the UnitedStates frigate "Constitution" 
was driven into Marblehead harbor by the British 
cruisers Tenedos and Endymion, on Sunday, April 
3, 1814, and a messenger brought the news to the 
church. Dr. Bentley promptly dismissed the congre- 
gation and hastened, with many of his parishioners, 
to the scene of the expected attack. 

Dr. Bentley was a man of broad culture, of a wide 
range of reading and research, and of a catholic mind. 
Thedeepand long-enduring influcncewhich heexerted 
is attested by the traditions that still live among the 
people of Salem, showing the authority that went with 
his name and word. He did not write for ])Osterity, 
but for his own time, caring little for fame. His fame 
reached beyond his immediate neighborhood and out- 
lasted his time, not because he planned it to be so, 
but because of the powers of his large and many-sided 
personality and his wealth of resources. He had 
much and varied learning, had it at command, and 
possessed along with it that bracing, balanced, health- 
ful "common sense" which is so H)(conimon. His 
heart was warm, his sympathies were quick, his hand 
was always in practice, both for giving and serving. 
"From all that I have learned of him," says his suc- 
ces.sor. Dr. Flint, " I have conceived of him as pos- 
sessed of a vigorous and brilliant intellect, — rapid and 
exuberant in thought, — of great ease and fluency of 
speech. — uutrammeled by the authority of names or 
systems in philosophy or theology, — interpreting the 
universe and the Bible fearlessly by the light, which 
enlighfeneth every man that cometh into the world, — the 
light of the soul, which is greater than the outward 
universe, or the mere letter of the Bible." Dr. Bent- 
lev never married. " Having no family ties to divide 
his cares and responsibilities with his people, he made 
them his family. And the aflection he manifested 
for them he had the happiness to know was cordially 
reciprocated by them." Once he wrote for posterity — 
a " Historical Sketch of Salem," published in the 
" Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society " 
(vol. vi.). 

Dr. Bentley's successor, just above quoted, was 
Rev. James Flint, born in Reading December 10, 
1779; graduated at Harvard College in 1802; ordained 
over the church in Bridgewater [East Parish] Octo- 
ber 29, 1806; installed pastor of the East Church, in 
Salem, September 19, 1821; he died March 4, 1855. 
He was the sole ministerof the East Church for thirty 



years, till 1851, h-lien Rev. Dexter Clapp became his 
colleague. The period of Dr. Flint's ministry was 
one of steady prosperity for the society. In 1846 the 
beautiful brick church, with front of free stone, was 
built on what is now Washington Square (then Brown 
Street), over against the southwest angle of the com- 
mon. Dr. Flint was a man of scholarly tastes, had a 
poetic temperament, and his graceful and vivid writ- 
ing, combined with an animated and warm delivery 
of his discourses, made him an attractive preacher, 
welcomed always in the pulpits of his denomination, 
as his presence was acceptable also on those more 
public occasions which brought him before his fellow- 
citizens at large. 

Rev. Dexter Clapp, installed as colleague with 
Dr. Flint December 17, 1851, was born July 15, 
181G, in Easthampton, Mass. ; graduated at Am- 
herst College, 1839, and at the Cambridge Divinity 
School in 1842; was ordained pastor of the Unitarian 
Church in Savannah, Ga., November 2G, 1843, and 
continued in the ministry there for a few years, after 
which he was settled over the Second Church in Rox- 
bury (First in West Roxbury) five years. He was 
minister of the East Church twelve years, till Feb- 
ruary, 18G4, when he resigned on account of ill-health. 
He died July 26, 1868. During his ministry in Salem 
his society was united and strong. It was with sin- 
cere regret that his resignation was accepted. He 
was a spiritually-minded man, an earnest preacher, 
and a high ideal of ministerial duty made both his 
pulpit and his pastoral services acceptable and effec- 

A few months after his resignation Rev. Samuel 
C. Beane was called by the society to succeed him. 
Mr. Beane was born December 19, 1835, in Candia, 
N. H.; graduated at DartmQuth College in 1858, and 
from the Cambridge Divinity School in 1861 ; ordained 
in Chicopee, Mass., January 15, 1862; installed in 
Salem January 1, 1865; resigned January 1, 1878; 
installed in Concord, N. H., January 9,1878; resigned 
May 10, 1885, since which time hu has been a mis- 
sionary for Northern New England, appointed by the 
American Unitarian Association. Rev. George H. 
Hosmer was installed pastor of the East Church Jan- 
uary 1, 1879, and resigned January 1, 1886. He was 
born in Buffalo, N. Y., May 14, 1839; graduated at 
the Meadville Theological School, 1866 ; ordained as 
an evangelist in 1867, and after preaching in Deer- 
field, Mass., some time, was installed in Bridgewater 
December 17, 1868, where he remained ten j'ears. He 
was installed in Neponset February 20, 1887. Rev. 
William H. Ramsey, the present minister, was or- 
dained October 15, 1886. 

Episcopal. — St. Peler's.— The great majority of the 
first settlers of Salem brought with them no love of 
Episcopacy from the Old World home. John Lyford, 
the well-known disturber of the peace of Plymouth, 
"came hither also,'' as an associate of Roger Conaut, 
and held services for a time, before Endicott and his 

company came, according to the usages of the Eng- 
lish Church. He was here but a short time, however, 
as he went to Virginia in 1627, and died there the 
same year. Of Endicott's company there were a 
few — at least the two brothers Brown, John and Sam- 
uel — who did uot fail in loyalty to the Church of 
England. They were leading men and councillors. 
When they saw in the organization of the First 
Church that a new departure, amounting to a virtual 
secession from the National Church, was determined 
on, they, with some others of like mind, set up a sep- 
arate worship after the order of the Book of Common 
Prayer. When Governor Endicott summoned them 
to answer for their schismatic attitude towards the 
Salem Church, they persisted, " and therefore, find- 
ing those two brothers to be of high spirits and their 
speeches and practices tending to mutiny and faction, 
the Governor told them that New England was no 
place for such as they, and therefore he sent them 
both back to England at the return of the ships the 
same year." "This proceeding," says Palfrey, " had 
first raised, and for the present issue had decided, a 
question of vast magnitude. The right of the Gov- 
ernor and Company of Massachusetts Bay to exclude 
at their pleasure dangerous or disagreeable persons 
from their domain they never regarded as questiona- 
ble, any more than .a householder doubts his right to 
determine who shall be the inmates of his house." ' 
The experiment of Episcopal worship was not tried 
again with a view to permanency for a long time. To 
Mr. George R. Curwen's valuable notes, which I am 
kindly permitted to use, I am indebted for many in- 
teresting and important facts in the history of St. 
Peter's Church. He says that in 1727 Rev. George 
Pigot, then rector of St. Michael's, in Marblehead, 
delivered monthly lectures and administered rites of 
the English Church in Salem, from which he infers 
that there was an organized parish of that order here 
at that time. In 1733 a church was built on " Prison 
Lane" (now St. Peter's Street), and was consecrated 
June 25, 1734, the land on which it stood having been 
given in part for the purpose by Philip English and 
his family, a pew in the church being set apart to 
them as an equivalent for the rest. The gift was es- 
timated at nineteen-twenty-fourths of the value of the 
land, viz., ninety-five pounds, the other five-twenty- 
fourths representing the estimated value of the pew, 
viz., twenty-five pounds. This church had forty pews 
and a tower upon its western end. It gave place to the 
present Gothic stone building in 1833, which was en- 
larged in 1845 and further improved not many years 
since by the erection of the stone chapel annexed to 
it. Rev. Charles Brockwell, a graduate of Cambridge, 
England, was the first rector, entering upon his ofEce, 
says Mr. Curwen, October 8, 1738. (Mr. Felt says 
May 9, 1739.) November 27, 1746, he left St. Peter's, 
having been appointed by the Bishop of London to 

1 ' History of New England/' vol. i., p. 299, 



King's Chapel, in Boston. He died August 20, 1755, 
says Felt (April 20, 1755, say Osgood & Batchelder, in 
sketch of Salem), at the age of tifty-nine. 

Mr. Brockwell was educated at St. Catherine's Hall, 
Cambridge, and wa.s appointed by the Society (in 
England) for the Propagation of the Gospel in for- 
eign parts, to St. Andrew's Church, in Scituate, JIass., 
but " finding neither the place nor the people to an- 
swer his expectations," he removed to Salem. The 
officers of the Salem Church, in applying to the So- 
ciety in England for a clergyman to succeed him, in 
1747, testify to his faithfulness, and speak of theirs as 
"this infant, though tJourishing church." 

Rev. William McGilchrist was appointed his succes- 
sor. Mr. McGilchrist was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 
1703 ; graduated at Baliol College, Oxford, in 1731 ; 
ordained priest in 1733, and sent by the above-men- 
tioned missionary society, in 1741, to Charleston, 
South Carolina. After four years' service he was 
obliged, by the state of his health, to return to Eng- 
land. Recovering from his illness, he was appointed 
to succeed Mr. Brockwell in Salem, and entered on 
the duties of his office in 1747. He died in the min- 
istry in Salem, April 19, 1780, aged seventy-three 
years. His services seem not to have been quite con- 
tinuous, however, through the thirty-four years inter- 
vening between his settlement and his death. The 
opposition to the English Church establishment had 
not died out. The parish was not strong, though it 
gradually increased until 1761, when it was found 
necessary to add twenty feet to the length of the 
church building. It was not without difficulty, however, 
that, in the face of popular odium and legal ban, the 
small congregation upheld its standard. In 1777 the 
revolutionary spirit was impatient and intolerant. 
The Legislature passed a law prohibiting the reading 
of the Episcopal service under heavy penalties. 
Later, however, the service was reinstated by the 
rector. From 1771 to December, 1774, Rev. Robert 
B. Nichols, a native of the West Indies, educated at 
Queen's College, Oxford, was an assistant to Mr. Mc- 
Gilchrist. He was afterwards a chaplain in the 
British army, and became still later dean of Middle- 
ham, England. 

Rev. Nathaniel Fisher was the next rector. He was 
born in Dedhara July 8, 1742. The mother of Fisher 
Ames, the distinguished statesman and orator, was his 
sister. Mr. Fisher graduated at Harvard College in 
1763, taught a school in Granville, near Annapolis, 
Nova Scotia, under the patronage of an English mis- 
sionary society, soon after the Revolutionary War be- 
gan. In 1777 he went to London, and was there or- 
dained a priest by the celebrated Dr. Robert Liwth, 
Bishop of London, and was licensed on the 25th of 
September of that year as assistant to Rev. Mr. 
Wood, of Annapolis, and continued after the death of 
Mr. Wood, which occurred the following year, in 
charge of his mission in Annapolis and Granville, 
till the close of the vear 1781. On his return to Mas- 

sachusetts at that time he was invited to Saint Peter's 
Church, Salem, and entered upon his duties there, 
February 24, 1782. His ministry in Salem extended 
over a period of thirty years, and closed only with 
his life, on Sunday, December 20, 1812. Mr. Fisher 
became a man of leading influence in the Episcopal 
Church in Massachusetts, being active in the early 
years of his ministry in measures for the organization 
of that church in Massachusetts and parts adjacent, 
and was held in high respect by the clergy and laity. 
He was a man of independent mind and action, more 
than once casting a solitary vote in conventions of 
the Episcopal Church on important questions coming 
before them, when his voice alone broke the other- 
wise unanimous decision. He was a man of strongly- 
marked traits of character, " and very decided and 
fixed in his prejudices, which he took no pains to 
conceal." His demeanor, says his successor, Rev. 
Charles Mason, was somewhat stern, but he was a 
man of generous feelings and habits. In person he 
was strongly built and of a large frame. His consti- 
tution was vigorous, and remained firm till his death. 
In the preface to a volume of his sermons published 
several years after his death, it is observed that " to 
clearness of apjirehension the author joined a spright- 
ly imagination, which was exercised with care and 
modesty, and contributed equally to illustrate and en- 
liven his sentiments. This, as well as the other 
faculties of his mind, was regulated and enlivened by 
a devoted study of the ancient classics, which, to the 
latest period of his life, he read with the ardor of a 
true scholar.'' 

" In regard to these sermons," says Rev. Mr. Jla- 
son, " it may be proper to add that while they contain 
earnest and impressive appeals to the heart and con- 
science, especially those which the author last wrote, 
— we find in them no clear and distinctive instruc- 
tion upon the great orthodox doctrines of the church. 
They convey, indeed, no positive doubt in regard to 
any of these doctrines, but are deficient in such defi- 
nite statements as would show that the writer firmly 
and heartily maintained them. It is possible that 
they may not do entire justice to their author in this 
respect, and that the preferences of the editor, who is 
supposed to be a friend who afterwards joined the 
ranks of the Unitarian denomination, may have in- 
sensibly biased his judgment in the selection." The 
person referred to as having edited the volume of ser- 
mons was pr ibably the late Joseph Story, one of the jus- 
tices of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
Judge Story was a devoted friend and parishioner of 
Mr. Fisher, and to his pen is attributed a highly ap- 
preciative obituary notice of his pastor, which ap- 
peared in the Salem Gazette of December 25, 1812. 

At the time of Mr. Fisher's death the congregation 
worshipping in Saint Peter's Church was in a very fee- 
blecondition. Thecommercial misfortunes and restric- 
tions that led the way to the War of 1812 had operated 
disastrously upon the town, and especially upon the 



Episcopal Society. The clergy of the town, of various 
denominations, severally in turn, supplied the pulpit 
of the church through a series of Sundays succeeding 
Mr. Fisher's death. The ministry of Mr. Fisher was 
followed by that of Rev. Thomas Carlile, who first 
officiated as lay reader, and after ordination entered 
upon the duties of rector January 22, 1817. He was 
born in Providence, R. I., January 12, 1792, and 
graduated at Brown University, 1809. His ministry 
was eminently useful to the parish, raising it from 
the low condition in which he found it to a position 
of comparative prosperity. He resigned the rector- 
ship October 6, 1822, and died in Providence March 
28, 1824. 

Rev. Henry W. Ducachet, who followed Mr. Car- 
lile, was born February 7, 1797, in South Carolina. 
He was educated at Princeton, studied medicine and 
practiced as a physician some years in Baltimore and 
New York. Changing his profession for that of the 
ministry, he first served St. Peter's Parish, as lay 
reader, in 1823, and for a i-hort time as rector, after 
ordination as a priest. He resigned December 5, 
1825, and removed to Norfolk, Virginia. 

Rev. Thomas W. Coit, the next rector, was born in 
New London, Conn., June 28, 180.3, graduated at Yale 
College, 1821, was settled in Salem July 16, 182U, re- 
signed March 22, 1829, and became rector of Christ 
Church, Cambridge, Mass. • He died in Middletovvn, 
Conn., June 21, 1885. His ministry in Salem, though 
short, was very useful to the parish. He was highly 
esteemed in the Episcopal Church, and wrote vigor- 
ously in defense of churchmen, as against the Puri- 

The St. Peter's Parish was much disheartened 
when Mr. Coit left them, but entered into a corre- 
spondence with Rev. Alexander V. Griswold, bishop 
of the Eastern Diocese, and then rector of St. Mi- 
chael's Church, in Bristol, R. I., which resulted in 
his coming to Salem to take the pastoral charge of 
St. Peter's, which he did December 24, 1829. He 
continued in the office till June 26, 1834, when he re- 
moved to Boston. Mr. Gri.swold was born in Sims- 
bury, Conn., April 22, 1766, and died February 15, 
1843. He was widely known and universally esteemed 
through Eastern M;issachusetts for his personal vir- 
tues and his exemplary simplicity, dignity and fidel- 
ity in the responsible ofiice to whose duties he was 
devoted. During the ministry of Bishop Griswold 
the new stone church was built, his last official act 
being its consecration. 

Rev. John A. Vaughan was Bishop Griswold's 
s^uccessor. He entered upon his duties June 26, 
1834. Mr. Vaughan graduated at Bowdoin College 
in 1815, and resigned the Salem rectorship in 1836. 
Rev. Charles Mason followed him, being inducted 
into the ministry in Salem May 31, 1837. Mr. 
Mason wa-s a son of Jeremiah Mason, the eminent 
lawyer; was born in Portsmouth, N. H., July 25, 
1812; graduated at Harvard College, 1832. Dur- 

ing his ministry the church was enlarged by a chan- 
cel and vestry-room. The congregation increased 
and there was growing strength and constant 
union in the parish. Mr. Mason resigned May 30, 
1847, and became rector of Grace Church, Boston, in 
which office he continued until his death, March 23, 

Rev. William R. Babcock came to the vacant 
rectorship April 30, 1848, and resigned April 18, 
1853. He was born in Westerly, R. I., March 28, 
1814 ; graduated at Brown University, 1837. From 
Salem he removed to Natchez, Miss. Rev. George 
Leeds succeeded him in the St. Peter's rectorship 
September 4, 1853, and resigned April 8, 1860. He 
was born in Dorchester, Mass., October 25, 1816. Mr. 
Leeds removed from Salem to Philadelphia, and died 
there April 15, 1885. 

Rev. William Rawlins Pickman was the next 
rector. He took charge of the parish October 
7, 1860, and left it in 1865. There was a serious 
interruption, in the course of his ministry, to the 
harmony which had existed before, and the agita- 
tion did not cease while he continued in office. 
Rev. James O. Scripture succeeded Mr. Pickman in 
November, 1865. He was born June 26, 1839 ; gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College, 1860, and died August 9, 
1868, having officiated in all the usual services, in- 
cluding the communion, at St. Peter's Church, the 
Sunday next preceding his death. He died sincerely 
mourned by his warmly attached and suddenly be- 
reaved congregation. From May 1, 1870, to March 28, 
1875, Rev. Edward M. Gushee filled the rectorship of 
St. Peter's, having been previously settled over St. 
Paul's Church in Wallingford, Conn. From Salem 
he removed to Cambridge, Mass., and is in charge of 
a church in that city. In 1872, during the ministry 
of Rev. Mr. Gushee, the stone chapel was erected in 
rear of the church. The pre-ent rector of St. Peter's, 
Rev. Charles Arey, D.D., commenced his services in 
Salem September 26, 1875. He came to Salem from 
St. John's Church in Buffalo, N. Y. He was born in 
Wellfleet, Mass., August 22, 1822. 

Tabernacle Chuech. — The Tabernacle Church 
is next in age among the churches of Salem. The 
causes of its origin have been already mentioned, 
in part, in the story of the First. Church, to which the 
reader is referred. In 1735 the disaffection in the 
First Church towards Rev. Samuel Fisk, its minister, 
came to a crisis, as has been stated, in his exclusion 
from the pulpit of that church, and his withdrawal 
with a majority of its members : Dr. Worcester says, 
"three-fourths, at least, of the church and society;'' 
the remaining members, in their petition calling for a 
meeting for reorganization, assert that the late minister 
" was dismissed by a major part of the brethren of the 
church of the First Parish, qualified by law to act in 
that matter." The preacherof the first Centennial Dis- 
course says that neither the day nor the month can 
be ascertained when Mr. Fisk and his friends deter- 



mined to establish themselves upon aseparate founda- 
tion, or when they consummated their determination 
by any formal process. In inquiring for the birth- 
day of this, the " Third," or Tabernacle Church, I in- 
cline to fix on May 4, 1735, as its probable date. 
This church conceived of itself a.s having had a con- 
tinuous life and identity with the church of li320. 
It was not till the 23d of May, 1763, that, by a formal 
vote, it relinquished the title of the First Church and 
assumed that of the Third Church. But its date of 
actual beginning may be assumed to be the first time 
it assembled after its expulsion from the meeting- 
house of the First Church. If the exclusion was, as 
the record says, on the 27th of April, 173o, there can 
be no doubt that the congregation met somewhere, 
probably enough at the house of Joseph Orne, the 
next Sunday, which would be May 4, 1735. They 
soon began the building of a new meeting-house, 
which was coni])leled in 1736. It will be remembered 
that they first placed it too near the house of the old 
parish, "only twelve perches and eleven feet" from 
it, and that the General Court ordered it to be re- 
moved to a limit "not nearer to the other than forty 
perches." This house stood nearly upon the site of 
the Perley Block, and was completed early in 173(5. 

In 1744 Mr. Fisk asked for a colleague. The 
confidence felt at first in his leadership and in the 
wisdom of the step taken in separating from the mother 
church, had begun to wane. Some correspondence 
was had with that church relative to an accommoda- 
tion. No agreement could be reached. Rev. Dudley 
Leavitt was called to be colleague with Mr. Fisk. He 
declined to take the office of colleague pastor, but, it 
was understood, might consider an invitation to be- 
come sole pastor. August 12, 1745, the congregation 
voted that Mr. Fisk be discharged from ecclesiastical 
relations with the society ; the church had taken simi- 
lar action twf) weeks before. The way being now 
considered open for Mr. Leavitt's settlement, the call 
to him was renewed and accepted, and he was or- 
dained October 23, 1745, not, however, peacefully. 
Mr. Fisk's friends were present at the time and place 
appointed in sufficient force to interrupt the public 
services and prevent the orderly proceedings of the 
ceremony. Those who had come together to settle 
the new minister retired from the tumultuous scene 
to a neighboring garden, where, under the shelter of 
a tree, the service of ordination took place. Mr. Lea- 
vitt died, sincerely lamented, February 7, 1762. The 
society prospered during his mini^try. The church, 
says Mr. Worcester, became "more Calvinistic" un- 
der his preaching. Mr. Leavitt was born in Stratham, 
N. H., in 1720, and graduated at Harvard College in 
1739. That his influence was marked in calming the 
troubled waters of controversy, that his mind was 
large and his spirit catholic, and that the impression 
made by his labors was deep and lasting, is shown by 
the fact that the church which had been led by his 
counsels not onlv surrendered its claim to the title of 

First Church, soon after his death, but voted to take, 
in affectionate commemoration of him, the title of 
"The Church of which Rev. Dudley Leavitt was late 
Pastor." It kept this name from August 2, 1762, to 
May 23, 1763, when it voted to assume the name of 
the "Third Church." 

Mr. John Huntington was ordained successor of 
Mr. Leavitt Sei)tember 28, 1763, but lived less than 
three years from his ordination, dying May 30, 1766 
at the early age of thiry years. He was born in Xor- 
wich. Conn., iu 1736, and graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1763. 

The next ministry was that of Rev. Jvathaniel 
AVhitaker, D.D., which continued for fourteen or 
fifteen mostly stormy years. He was settled July 
28, 1769, and his connection with the society was 
dissolved February 24, 1784. He made some un- 
usual conditious as preliminary to his acceptance 
of the society's invitation to Salem. The cus- 
tomary services of installation were not to be ob- 
served. Certain articles of agreement between him- 
self and the church must be adopted, changing ma- 
terially the method of church government and organ- 
ization from that usual with Congregational Churches 
making it essentially Presbyterian. He afterwards 
endeavored to bring the church formally into connec- 
tion with the Boston Presbytery. He was himself a 
Presbyterian. With a view to substitute some equiv- 
alent for the omitted installation service, he proposed 
that the Rev. Messrs. Diman, Barnard and Holt, neigh- 
boring ministers, should be invited to be present " as 
friends to the society and the common cause of relig- 
ion." This was done, and the ministers invited re- 
turned an answer declining the invitation, not wish- 
ing to countenance proceedings which they character- 
ized as "irregular," and remonstrating against the 
course taken, though in an entirely friendly spirit. 
The church was prepared to comi)ly with all requisi- 
tions made by the pastor-elect. He was a man of 
popular gifts; his preaching was much admired. He 
was energetic, active, inclined to assume power and to 
take control in whatever matters engaged his interest. 
The conditions of the union between pastor and people 
had not been very distinctly drawn. The church 
under the blinding glamours produced by the i>rciich- 
er's brilliancy, accepted everything, and soon awoke 
to the fact that they were entangled in the meshes of 
various concessions not well defined, opening doors to 
misunderstanding and contentions which in due time 
ripened into open and bitter strife. On the 6th of 
October, 1774, the meeting-house of the society was 
burned. At this time those who had been pushing a 
resolute opposition to Dr. Whittaker withdrew and 
organized the church now known as the South 
Church. Reports unfavorable to Dr. Whittaker's 
character had been in circulation, and the secession 
of those who had withdrawn did not bring peace. 
The attendance upon his ministrations fell olf, and 
after long and persistent efforts to accomplish the end. 



the society relieved itself of its discredited pastor and 
of Presbyterianism, and resumed its place among the 
Congregational Churches of the town. 

After the burning of the first meeting-house the 
society built a new one on the corner of Washington 
and what was then Marlborough (now Federal) Streets, 
the site of the present church. The new church was 
built in 1776, though not Supplied with pews until the 
following year. The society was not in a condition to 
make the building of it easy, or to bring it promptly 
to completion. When dedicated, it was, says Dr. Wor- 
cester, without galleries, without pulpit and without 
even plastering upon the walls. Being modeled after 
Whitfield's London Tabernacle, the building, and 
from it the church and congregation took, in the pop- 
ular speech, its name, which in time was adopted by 
the society, though without any definite action au- 
thorizing it. The close of Dr. Whittaker's ministry, 
in 1784, was in striking contrast with its imposing 
beginning. His friends were few, he had no regular 
salary, his parish was weak, his fame tarnished. He 
was born in Long Island, N. Y., February 22, 1732, 
graduated at Princeton College, 1752, and died Janu- 
ary 21, 1795, in Virginia. 

Rev. Joshua Spaulding followed him. He was 
ordained October 26, 1785. The society recovered 
its strength under his ministry, and for a time 
prospered. The meeting-house, having added pul- 
pit and galleries, was finished and furnished. Mr. 
Spaulding, says Mr. Worcester, was a man of un- 
questioned piety, " but the vehemence and pungency 
with which he preached the distinguishing doctrines 
of grace often inflamed the enmity of the carnal 
mind," and tended to make him " less popular." En- 
gaging also in political controversy, both with pen 
and voice, and finally asserting his own right, as pas- 
tor, " to negative the votes of the church," he brought 
upon himself finally a warm and determined counter- 
action of his measures, within his church, and was led 
to ask a dismission, which took place April 23, 1802. 
He did not cease to minister to a portion of his flock, 
however, as those who disapproved of the action of 
the society in dismissing him withdrew with him 
from the church and organized " the Branch," or 
Howard Street Church, of which more is to be said in 
its place. Mr. Spaulding was born in Killingly, Conn., 
graduated at Dartmouth College, 1786, resigned the 
pastorship of the Branch Church May 4, 1814, and 
died September 26, 1825, at the age of si.\ty-five years. 

The next minister, the fifth in the ministerial line of 
the Tabernacle Church, was Rev. Samuel Worcester, 
D.D. He was installed pastor of the Tabernacle 
Church in Salem, April 20, 1803, and continued in 
the oflSce till his death, June 7, 1821. His ministry 
covered a period of great religious activity, in and out 
of his church, in which he bore a conspicuous part. 
The Unitarian controversy, which divided many of the 
principal Congregational Churches of Eastern Massa- 
chusetts, was at its height. Dr. Worcester was a promi- 

nent champion on the orthodox side, and wrote in 
opposition to Dr. Channing, especially in review of 
the sermon preached by Dr. Channing at the ordina- 
tion of Mr. John Emery Abbot over the North 
Church in Salem, April 20, 1815. He was an active 
promoter of the organization of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, in 1810, and 
became its corresponding secretary. In his church 
the first missionaries to India were ordained and com- 
missioned on the 6th of February, 1812. His influ- 
ence extended widely beyond his society, and was 
strong and deep within it. His labors outside his 
church became so weighty and engrossing that a col- 
league was settled in 1819, that his connection with 
his people might continue, though only a part of his 
time and strength could be devoted to their service. 
The meeting-house underwent no little change during 
these years. In 1804 it lost its dome and belfry in a 
tempest. The next year a steeple was built upon its 
front, changing it materially from its original tent- 
like form. Mr. Worcester was born in Hollis, N. H., 
November 1, 1770, graduated at Dartmouth College, 
1795, and had been five years pastor of a church in 
Fitchburg before his settlement in Salem. He was a 
younger brother of Noah Worcester, the " apostle of 
peace," and the author of " Bible News " and some 
other important contributions to the Trinitarian con- 
troversy, upon the Unitarian side. 

The colleague settled wi;h Dr. Worcester, July 21, 
1819, was Mr. Elias Cornelius, a native of Somers, 
N. Y., born July 31, 1794, graduated at Yale College 
1813, dismissed from the Tabernacle Church December 
22, 1826, to take a position in the service of the Amer- 
ican Education Society. He died February 12, 1832. 
His parish esteemed him an able and devoted man, 
and regretted his departure. February 14, 1827, 
John P. Cleaveland succeeded him. Mr. Cleaveland 
was born in Rowley July 19, 1799, graduated at 
Bowdoin College, 1821, was dismissed from the Tab- 
ernacle Church May 14, 1834. 

His successor, the eighth in the pastoral line, 
was Rev. Samuel Melanchthon Worcester, son of 
Rev. Samuel, chronicled above as the fifth in 
the line. He was born in Fitchburg, September 
4, 1801 ; graduated at Harvard College, 1822 ; 
from 1823 to 1834 professor in Amlierst Col- 
lege ; settled in Salem December 3, 1834 ; resigned 
January 31, 1860; died August 16, 1866. His tastes, 
though scholarly, and his training, though directed to 
service in the church, did not limit his sympathies 
and activities to scholastic or ecclesiastical lines. He 
was a true patriot and took a profound interest in the 
national crisis which the country passed through in 
the years from 1860 to 1865. He had represented 
the town of Amherst, the city of Salem and Essex 
County in the State Legislature. His orthodoxy was 
stanch and positive, but his spirit was genial and 
kind, and his bearing was courteous and friendly with 




A new church — the present building — was erected 
in 1854, on or near the site of the old, and a large 
new chapel, of two stories, was built in its rear and 
in connection with it, in 1868, — the ample size and 
commodiousness of theae buildings attesting the 
prosperity of the society, and the largeness of the 
wants they were designed to meet. 

Mr. Charles Ray Palmer was ordained pastor of the 
church August 29, 18(50, and dismissed June 13, 1872. 
Mr. Palmer was born in New Haven, Conn., May 2, 
1834 ; graduated at Yale College, 1855, and, after his 
dismission from the Tabernacle Church, became the 
pastor of a church in Bridgeport, Conn. From June, 
1872 to Dec. 31, 1873, the church was without a pastor. 
On the last-named date Rev. Hiram B. Putnam was 
installed. His health failed, causing him to seek a 
dismission, which took place March 15, 1877. Mr. 
Putnam was born in Danvers January 27, 1840; 
graduated at Amherst College, 18G0, and had been 
settled over a church in West Concord, N. H., 
before his installation in Salem. Rev. De Witt S. 
Clark, the present pastor of the church, wa.s installed 
January 15, 1879. He was born in Chicopee, Mass., 
September 11, 1841 ; graduated at Amherst College, 
1863, and had been pastor of a church in Clinton, 
Mass., before his settlement in Salem. 

North Church. — On the 3d of ^March, 1772, 
The Proprietors of the Xorfh Meeting Houae organized 
themselves into a religious society with the above 
title, in the Salem Town Hall. They had been mem- 
bers of the First Parish; there were forty-three. On 
the 19th of July of the same year, fifty-two persons, 
having received a dismission from the First Church on 
the 16th of May preceding, met at the house of Ben- 
jamin Pickman, on Essex Street, opposite St. Peter's 
Street, constituted themselves a church, which they 
afterwards voted should be called the North Church. 
This secession from the First Parish grew out of a 
disagreement in the choice of a minister. In 1770 the 
highly-esteemed minister of the First Church, Rev. 
Thomas Barnard, became disabled by paralysis, and 
his people looked for a colleague. Thomas Barnard, 
Jr., a son of the pastor, who had a little before com- 
pleted his preparation for the ministry, supplied hia 
father's pulpit for some months, and about half of the 
society earnestly desired his settlement as colleague 
pastor. A small majority preferred another man, 
who, after much delay, was called and ordained. The 
disappointed friends of the younger Barnard were 
unwilling to give him up, and organized the new 
(North) society, as above related. A site for a 
meeting-house had been selected and purchased on 
the 14th of February, 1772, on the corner of Lynde 
and North Streets, on the western line of what 
was early known as " Sharpe's Training-Field." This 
meeting-house was first opened for public worship 
August 23, 1772, though not nearly completed. After 
occupying it three Sundays, the proprietors deter- 
mined to add side-galleries, not originally contem- 

plated in the plan of the building committee. It 
was not considered finished till nearly five months 
after the society began to meet in it. It was a house 
of large capacity, and was on that account much re- 
sorted to for civic celebrations on tlie Fourth of July, 
and on other public days, for many years. Thomas 
Barnard, Jr., was ordained January 13, 1773, and 
continued in the pastoral office till October 1, 1814, 
the day of his death. He came of a ministerial an- 
cestry. His father, an uncle, a grandfather, a great- 
grandfather had all been preachers ; nor does this 
roll completely sum up the clerical kinsmen descended 
from the American progenitor. Rev. Francis Barnard 
of Hadley. Thomas Barnard, Jr., was born in New- 
bury, February 5, 1748 ; graduated at Harvard College, 
1766, and studied theology with Dr. Williams, of 
Bradford, afterwards professor at Harvard College. 
The North Society suffered in common with other 
churches during the Revolutionary War. Mr. Barn- 
ard at first leaned to the side of the Royalists, and a 
considerable number of his leading parishioners 
were pronounced Loyalists, including several who 
quit the country. He turned to the Whig side, how- 
ever, before long, and was afterwards steadfast in 
that way. Though but a young man, he made him- 
self prominent at the North Bridge, when Colonel 
Leslie, the British officer, came at the head of three 
hundred men from Marblehead, for guns supposed 
to be collected and deposited on the other side of the 
North River. He bore himself with dignity and firm- 
ness that day, albeit as a pacificator of the roused 
passions ready to burst into a flame. He has the 
credit of counseling the compromise which saved 
bloodshed, and led to the turning back of the King's 
troops, leaving the object of the expedition unac- 

Dr. Barnard's long ministry justified the loyalty 
of his early friends. He was broad-minded, wise and 
catholic in spirit, effective as a preacher, genial and 
trustworthy as a friend and a pastor, fond of chil- 
dren, and the society was united and prosperous 
through his ministry. As a scholar he stood well 
among the scholarly. He was held in such honor 
among the preachers of his day, and was of such repu- 
tation in the churches and in the State, as to be often 
sought to preach on days of general public conven- 
tion, both ecclesiastical and other. Among the able 
pulpit leaders of thought in a highly intelligent com- 
munity, and at a time when theological inquiry was 
exciting great interest, and becoming more free and 
earnest, he held an eminent place, held it long, and 
at the close of his forty years and more of service, 
his influence showed no sign of waning. In his theo- 
logical opinions he belonged to the liberal school, and 
so educated his congregation that they elected a Uni- 
tarian to succeed him with hearty unanimity. 

That successor was John Emery Abbot, son of 
the distinguished head of Phillips Academy, in 
Exeter, N. H., Dr. Benjainiti .\bbot. Mr. Ab- 



hot was born at Exeter August 6, 1793, graduated 
at Bowdoin College 1810, and pursued his professional 
studies partly at Cambridge, under the direction of 
Dr. Henry Ware, Sr.; and partly with Dr. Wil- 
liam Ellery Channing, of Boston, who preached at 
his ordination as minister of the North Church, 
April 20, 1815. The sermon of Dr. Channing on this 
occasion produced a deep and wide-spread impression, 
and was followed by strictures and controversial 
arguments against its positions from the pen of Dr. 
Samuel Worcester, of the Tabernacle Church, in 
Salem. Mr. Abbot, not yet twenty-two years of age, 
taking charge of this large society, and giving him- 
self with great devotion to the studies and labors 
incidental to a position so exacting and responsible, 
broke down in health within two years. Rest and 
travel brought only temporary and partial alleviation 
to his illness, and he died at his father's house in 
Exeter October 7, 1819. Though his ministry was 
so short, it left a lasting influence. Mr. Abbot 
was a good scholar and a conscientious student. But 
his highest power lay in a soul of deep religious sen- 
sibility, a character of rare purity and loftiness of 
aim, and a consecrated fidelity. 

Mr. John Brazer succeeded him. His ordination 
took place November 14, 1820. Mr. Brazer was 
born in Worcester, Mass., September 21, 1789, grad- 
uated at Harvard College 1813, was appointed tutor 
in Greek in the college 1815, and from 1817 to 
1820 was tutor in Latin. His ministry in Salem 
ended with bis life, February 26, 1846. In Jan- 
uary, 1846, he left his home in Salem for a milder 
climate, his health requiring rest and change; and 
he died at the plantation of his friend and class- 
mate. Dr. Benjamin Huger, on Cooper River, near 
Charleston, S. C. Dr. Brazer was of a sensitive 
and nervous temperament, which made him seem 
reserved, almost shy, to many, but he was a friend 
of the poor, and a minister of comfort to the sorrow- 
ing. Conservative by nature, he was a preacher of 
commanding power, clear and logical in thought, 
grave and dignified in manner, serious and searching 
in bringing truth home to the conscience. For the 
twenty-five years and more of his ministry he held 
one of the largest and most intelligent congregations 
in Massachusetts in close and united attendance upon 
his services. During all this period the society was 
in a condition of the highest prosperity. It was 
during the ministry of Dr. Brazer that the present 
stone church was built on Essex Street. The ques- 
tion of building was some time in agitation. The 
project was not finally approved by all. But the 
majority having decided upon it, the corner-stone 
was laid May 16, 1835, and the church was dedicated 
June 22, 1836. It was finished at first perfectly 
plain in its interior, with white walls. In 1847 it 
was completely changed within, and assumed its 
present appearance, under the direction of the late 
Francis Peabody, Esq. 

Mr. Octavius Brooks Frothingbam was ordained 
successor to Dr. Brazer March 10, 1847. He was 
born in Boston November 26, 1822, graduated at 
Harvard College 1843, resigned his charge in Salem 
April 9, 1855, and was installed pastor of a newly- 
gathered Unitarian Society in Jersey City, N. J., 
September 11, 1855. The year following he re- 
moved to the city of New York and became the 
minister of the Third Unitarian Society in that city, 
where for many years he was widely known as an 
eloquent expositor of so-called "radical" religious 
thought. Leaving this position in somewhat im- 
paired health, Mr. Frothingham, after a period of 
travel and rest, has taken up his residence in Boston. 
Mr. Frothingham's ministry in the North Society 
produced some results worthy of notice. In the first 
years of it his theological views and his ideal of 
the ministerial aim were in closest accord with those 
of his hearers. They were what were termed, in the 
phrase of the day, conservative. But a change came 
— by the fault of nobody. The minister was in 
earnest in the pursuit of truth. It led him, in time, 
to conclusions which modified materially his pulpit 
utterances. Some persons who could not change 
with him no longer enjoyed bis ministrations as 
before. But we have to notice that an important edu- 
cation went on under this experience of listening 
to teachings in themselves not welcome, not accepted, 
but heard with respectful attention, because of the 
recognized ability and sincerity of the preacher. It 
gave the society broader sympathies, a more fear- 
less spirit of inquiry, and a tolerant, self-possessed 
and catholic mind towards all forms of honest thought. 
A habit of candid hearing grew ; novel and unaccept- 
able teachings were heard with patience ; the mind 
was not thrown off its balance by hearing its cher- 
ished opinions arraigned or denied. During the min- 
istry of Mr. Frothingham the society built its vestry, 
in the summer of 1853. 

Rev. Charles Lowe succeeded Mr. Frothingham. 
Mr. Lowe was born in Portsmouth, N. H., Novem- 
ber 18, 1828, graduated at Harvard College 1847, 
was tutor in Greek and Latin in the college 1850-51, 
ordained colleague pastor with Rev. John Weiss, 
in New Bedford, July 28, 1852, resigned in 1854, 
on account of ill-health, installed minister of the 
North Church, Salem, September 27, 1855, and re- 
signed July 28, 1857, as before, on account of ill 
health. On the 28th of May, 1859, he was in- 
stalled minister of the Congregational (Unitarian) 
Church in Somerville, and after a ministry of nearly 
six years, was once more compelled by the state of 
his health to resign. With a partial regaining of his 
health there came, as was always sure to come with 
returning strength, a desire of active service, and he 
gave several years of etBcient administration to the 
American Unitarian Association, as its secretary, be- 
sides editing for a time the Unitarian Review. Mr. 
Lowe died June 20, 1874. 

1 "^ 

5.' -"^ -^3-^ 





The present minister of the North Society is Rev. 
Edmund B. Willson, who was installed June 5, 1859. 
He was born in Petersham, Mass., August 15, 1820, 
was a little while in Yale College, and graduated at 
the Cambridge Divinity School, 1843, ordained in 
Grafton, Mass., January 3, 1844, installed in West 
Roxbury July 18, 1852. 

South Church. — Mention has been made of a di- 
vision in the Third (now known as the Tabernacle) 
Church, in 1774, growing out of dissatisfaction with 
Dr. Whitaker, and a secession or dismission of some 
thirty-eight members has been noticed as having 
taken place after the church was burned. Those 
withdrawing purchased the Assembly House, as it 
was called, built in 1766, which stood on the site of 
the present vestry of the South Church, and estab- 
lished public worship there. They organized a 
church, which an ecclesiastical council, so far as such 
a council was empowered to confer and confirm a 
title, authorized to take the name of the Third Church. 
An issue was made later as to its right to do so. It 
was argued that not even an ecclesiastical council 
has retroactive power to alter facts, or to enact that 
a misrepresentation shall have the force of truth ; that 
this was not made the Third Church in Salem by a 
declaration that such should be its name. There was 
a Third Church of the Congregational order (chrono- 
logically), and this was not it. We must suppose that 
the church worshipping in Cambridge Street considered 
itself, on some ground or other, as having come right- 
fully into pos8es.sion of the title which its mother 
church, Dr. Whitaker's, had enjoyed, but had now 
forfeited. It can hardly claim that, by reason of 
Dr. Whitaker's or the church's defection from Con- 
gregationalism to Presbyterianism, the title of the 
Third Church had lapsed or become a disused and un- 
claimed waif, which any cliurch might pick up and 
appropriate at will. If the transfer of Dr. Whita- 
ker's church to the Presbyterian body, real or quasi, 
had broken the line of descent, it surely had broken 
it as fatally for the daughter church as for the 
mother. If Dr. Whitaker's church was not the 
Third Church, there was none, or the North Church 
wa.s that, for the North Church was organized in 
1772. If the church worshipping on Cambridge 
Street was the Third Church, what was that church 
still existing under the ministry of Dr. Whitaker? 
It was not extinct. Had the withdrawing portion of 
the society conveyed away with it the entire and 
identical body, of which it had been but a member — 
a part? and could it assert its lineal and unbroken de- 
scent from Rev. Samuel Fisk's church? It seems 
to do so. What did this withdrawal of the aggrieved 
do to Dr. Whitaker's church ecclesiastically, legally, 
or as simple fact? Here it is to-day, under whatever 
name, the same church that has had a continuous 
life from 1735 to this year of grace. 

Such has been the general line of argument and 
statement pursued by those who have questioned the 

historical truth of that name adopted by the church 
of the South Society in February, 1775. We do not 
see how it is to be answered. There w-as one more 
church in Salem after February 14, 1775, than there 
had been before. Can there be any question which 
one began at that time, or that, in fact, the church 
of the South Society was the new one, whose ex- 
istence dates from that time ? 

The meeting-house of the Third Church, on Essex 
Street, was burned on the 6th of October, 1774. 
The dismissed members and those who joined 
them iu the new enterprise had their purchased 
house of worship ready for occupation on the 18th 
of December following. The church was, in the 
phrase of its own preference, "recognized" by a 
council called for that purpose, February 14, 1775, 
and this may be taken, in our judgment, as the date 
of the beginning of the church's independent exist- 
ence. The society called itself the Third Congrega- 
tional Society till March 15, 1805, when it was incor- 
porated under the title of " The Proprietors of the 
New South Meeting-house," on entering its new (the 
present) meeting-house on Chestnut Street. This 
house, built in 1804, was dedicated January 1, 1805. 
It was remodeled and renewed throughout in its 
interior in 1860, but its fine exterior architectural 
forms and proportions were preserved unchanged. 

The first minister was Mr. Daniel Hopkins, a younger 
brother of Dr. Samuel Hopkins, of Newport, R. I., 
the famed theologian and founder of a school of 
diviuity well known in the beginning of the cen- 
tury. He was born in Waterbury, Conn., October 
16,1734, graduated at Yale College, 1758, and taught 
a school for young ladies in Salem from 1766 to 
1778, this being " the first school for the exclusive 
instruction of young ladies ever instituted in Salem, 
and taught by a gentleman." While teaching he 
preached as opportunity offered. He was ordained 
November 18, 1778, and his ministry continued till 
his death, December 14, 1814, he having the assist- 
ance of a colleague from 1805. Mr. Hopkins pos- 
sessed some of the traits of his more distinguished 
brother.. They were both more than ministers, warm 
patriots, and did good service for their country dur- 
ing the Revolutionary crisis. Mr. Hopkins, of New- 
port, was a resolute foe to slavery ; the Salem brother 
was a forward advocate of independence. He was a 
member of the Provincial Congress in 1775, and in 
1778 was elected a member of the Council of the Con- 
ventional government. His theological views were 
in substantial accord with his brother's. His sermons 
were not written beyond a mere outline. " The doc- 
trines he preached," says his son-in-law and colleague, 
Mr. Emerson, "and the plain, direct and pungent 
manner in which he presented them, procured for 
him warm friends and bitter enemies. Such was the 
opposition awakened against hiui, that a committee, 
consisting of some of the most influential men in 
the town, waited upon him at his residence, and made 



a formal and earnest request that, for the peace of 
the community, he would leave the town. . . . 
With characteristic shrewdness, he closed his eyes, 
smoothed down his face and mildly said, ' Gentle- 
men, I smoke my own tobacco.' The committee 
withdrew and gave him no further trouble." At the 
same time that he is described as giving offense by the 
severity and point of his preaching, enforced, too, 
with the vigor of a man of strong native talent, he 
is said to have been of a kind and amiable disposition, 
affable and courteous in social intercourse, his con- 
versation marked by good sense and pleasantry. 

April 24, 1805, shortly after entering the new meet- 
ing- house, Mr. Brown Emerson was ordained "col- 
league pastor, and commenced a ministry of the re- 
markable length of sixty-seven years, ending with 
his life, July 25, 1872. During thirty-five of these 
years he was sole pastor, having been for the first 
nine years the junior pastor with Dr. Hopkins, and 
the last twenty-three years the senior pastor with two 
juniors, successively. Rev. Mr. Dwinell and Rev. Mr. 
Atwood. For the last fifteen or twenty years of his life 
his participation in the duties of the ministerial 
office was slight and infrequent, and for a few years 
had ceased altogether. He was born at Ashby, 
Mass., January 8, 1778, and graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1802. The union and strength in which 
the society maintained itself, while he ministered to 
it, best attest the quality of the man. In the days 
of his highest vigor and fullest activity he was a 
preacher acceptable to his hearers, and fulfilled the 
duties of his office to the satisfaction of those who 
attended upon his ministry. 

Mr. Israel E. Dwinell was ordained colleague with 
Mr. Emerson November 22, 1849, and resigned on ac- 
count of loss of health in 1863, and removed to Cali- 
fornia, in whose more genial climate he has filled a 
pastorate of many years in Sacramento, and since, for 
some years, a professorship in the Theological Sem- 
inary in Oakland, California. He was born in East 
Calais, Vermont, October 24, 1820, and graduated at 
Burlington, Vermont, in 1843. Rev. Edward S. At- 
wood succeeded Mr. Dwinell and is the present pas- 
tor of the church. He was born in Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts, June 4, 1833, graduated at Brown University 
in 1852, and was installed in Salem October 13, 1864. 
He had been pastor of a church in Grantville (now 
Wellesley Hills) previous to his settlement in Salem. 

Branch Church (or Howard Street). — It 
has appeared more than once in these annals 
that the Puritans did not leave behind them, 
on quitting England and its church establishment, 
the elements of dissent and causes of division. 
From every form of dissent dissenters were sure 
in time to arise ; and if doctrines afforded no pre- 
text for non-conformity, administration did. Some- 
times voluntarily, sometimes upon compulsion, the 
division took place, only to be followed by sub-divi- 
sion. The multiplication of churches came ofteuer 

from explosive forces within, producing cleavage, 
than from the requirements of increasing population. 
Each portion, majority and minority, seoeders and 
seceded-from, kept in itself its proportion of the seeds 
of separatism. Separatists who had once tried non-con- 
formity and self-exile had had a lesson and an experi- 
ence which rendered a repetition of the experiment by 
them the more probable and the more easy. Sometimes 
the pastor headed the exiles, as did Rev. Sam'l Fisk, lea- 
ving the church without a pastor ; sometimes the pastor 
drove a restive portion of the flock into the wilderness 
without a shepherd, as in the case of the thirty-eight 
brethren and sisters of Dr. Whitaker's church. And 
now again, in 1803, from this same church goes out 
the minister. Rev. Joshua Spaulding, leading forth 
such as preferred sharing with him exodus and uncer- 
tainty to remaining safe in the fold of the mother 
church without his voice to guide. In this way 
came into being " the Branch " Church (as it was at 
first called, afterwards (from its location, the Howard 
Street Church). These emigrants from the Tabernacle 
Church possessed abundance of energy and faith, if 
they were not rich in this world's goods. Organized 
December 29, 1803, after a brief period of meeting in 
a private house, then in a vestry loaned them, and 
for a time in chance pastures with neighboring flocks, 
they built a large and handsome meeting-house on 
Howard Street in 1804, which they dedicated Febru- 
ary 8, 1805. They were not a quiet people. Their 
history is colored by varying fortunes. The spirit of 
zeal, independence and aggressive reform had its 
home among them. -Temperance and slave-emancipa- 
tion numbered warm and self-sacrificing advocates in 
both pulpit and pew. Those who "sat under" the 
preaching of Rev. George B. Cheever and Rev. Charles 
T. Torrey were in no danger of sleeping under it, nor 
of resting in indifference to the great social evils of 
their time. 

After the example of the mother church, from 
which it had its birth, this church, for a time — from 
1814 to 1827— allied itself with Presbyterianism, and in 
time returned, after the same example, to the Congre- 
gational order. The characteristics of the first min- 
ister. Rev. Joshua Spaulding, have been touched upon 
in the notice of the Tabernacle Church. His minis- 
try in the Howard Street Church extended from April 
17, 1805, to May 4, 1814, when he resigned and re- 
moved to the State of New York. He died Septem- 
ber 26, 1825. For nearly five years after Mr. Spauld- 
ing's removal the church was without a pastor. It 
joined the Presbytery of Newburyport. Rev. Henry 
Blatchford was installed in its ministry January 6, 
1819, and resigned December 20th of the following 
year. He was born in Lansingburg, N. Y., graduated 
at Union College 1811, and died September 7, 1822. 
Mr. William Williams was ordained his successor 
July 5, 1821, and remained pastor of this church till 
February 17, 1832, when he resigned, on account of a 
division in the church, and on the 22d of November, 



1832, was installed pastor of a newly-gathered church 
branch of this " branch," composed of a very consid- 
erable following of members of the Howard Street 
Church, who withdrew with the pastor. 

Mr. George B. Cheever, the next minister of the 
church, was ordained Feb. 13, 1833, and resigned Jan. 
4, 1S3S. He was born in Hallowell, Maine, April 17, 
1807, and graduated at Bowdoin College 1825. His 
ministry was a busy one. An irrepressible vitality 
and mental activity gave his pen as little rest as his 
voice. He wrote for the journals and the reviews. 
His eyes were about him to see what was wrong and 
reprehensible in the customs of society and iu the 
conduct of individuals. For giving his pen too great 
freedom in his strictures upon these he incurred a 
suit of libel and a judgment involving thirty days' im- 
prisonment. His theology was Puritanic and posi- 
tive. His convictions were strong and urgent. He 
was a zealous preacher of reform, a vehement orator, 
aggressive and unsparing in attack upon whatsoever 
and whomsoever he found, in his judgment, hinder- 
ing the cause of which he was the champion. In 1838 
he became the pastor of the Allen Street Presbyterian 
Church in New Yorlc, and in 184(5 was installed pas- 
tor of the Congregational Church of the Puritans in 
the same city. He still lives in a vigorous old age. 

Rev. Charles T. Torrey was installed on the day on 
which Mr. Cheever was dismissed, January 4, 1838. 
He had been settled before as pastor of the Richmond 
Street Congregational Church, in Providence, R. I. 
He was born in Scituate November 21, 1813, grad- 
uated at Yale College 1833, resigned his charge in 
Salem July 21, 1S39, and, after having twice sutfered 
imprisonment iu Baltimore, Md., for alleged viola- 
tion of the laws of that State in conspiring with slaves 
to effect their escape from bondage, died in the Mary- 
land penitentiary May 9, 184(5. 

Mr. Torrey regarded it as a great crime to enslave 
a fellow-man. He preached this conviction. He car- 
ried his faith into practice, and suffered for it. The 
story of his martyrdom, as told by Henry Wilson in 
" the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power," possesses a 
sad, an almost romantic interest. " Well-born, with 
superior talents, education and professional prospects, 
a charming home, cheered by the presence of a lovely 
wife and little ones, he sacrificed them, disregarded 
the popular sentiment of the North, and braved the 
vengeance of the South, to aid the lowly and down- 
trodden." He claimed to have assisted four hundred 
slaves to obtain their freedom. He frankly told Rev- 
erdy Johnson, by whom he was defended in the 
courts of Maryland, that he had helped one of his 
slaves to escape. He attempted, with others, to get 
out of the Baltimore prison. Being betrayed, he was 
heavily ironed and placed in a damp and low arched 
cell, and treated worse than if he had been a murder- 
er. " I was loaded with irons weighing, I judge, 
twenty-five pounds, so twisted that I could neither 
stand up, lie down, nor sleep." December 30, 1843, 

he was sentenced to six years' imprisonment in the 
penitentiary. After his death, even the officials of 
the Park Street Church, in Boston, refused their per- 
mission to have the funeral services over his dead 
body in that church. But an indignant multitude 
followed his remains to Mount Auburn with tokens 
of sorrow and sympathy. And Faneuil Hall, the 
evening after, echoed the mournful but honoring 
words of his eulogists. Whittier wrote : " There lies 
the young, the beautiful, the brave ! He is safe now 
from the malice of his enemies. Nothing can harm 
him more. His work for the poor and helpless was 
well and nobly done. In the wild woods of Canada, 
around many a happy fireside and holy family altar, 
his name is on the lips of God's poor. He put his 
soul in their soul's stead ; he gave his life for those 
who had no claim on his love save that of human 

Rev. Joel Mann, a native of Orford, N. H., and 
graduate of Dartmouth College 1810, was installed 
pastor of the Howard Street Church May 6, 1840, and 
resigned April 14, 1847. At the time of Mr. Mann's 
dismission the condition of the church seemed so 
hopeless of substantial revival from its divisions and 
losses, that the council called to dismiss him advised 
the church to " separate and unite with other 
churches till they can organize anew with a greater 
prospect of union and usefulness. The major part of 
the church complied, but the rest, claiming to be the 
Howard Street Church," still clung together, and 
maintained public worship, with small and steadily 
declining numbers, for about seventeen years longer. 
Rev. Messrs. M. H. Wilder, E. W. Allen and C. C. 
Beaman serving as ministers during that time. Rev. 
Mr. Beaman, the last of the number, came in 1857, 
and resigned October 2, 1864. The Howard Street 
meeting-house after being occupied a short time by a 
newly-formed " church of the New Jerusalem," was 
sold at auction, by authority of the Legislature June 
28, 1867, to the First Methodist Society in Beverly, 
and in 1868 was taken down, transported across the 
river, and set up again on Railroad Avenue, Beverly, 
with the exception of the tower, which was not found 
in good enough condition for re-erection. This year 
(1887) a lofty tower has been added to the front end 
of the church, and an extension hiis also been made 
in the rear. The building was well worth preserving, 
whether for itself or its history. It was designed un- 
der the advice and direction of Mr. Samuel Macintire, 
a Salem carpenter, famous also as a successful church 
builder, the South meeting-house on Chestnut Street, 
in Salem, having been designed by him. 

It will be seen by this brief sketch of the history of 
the Branch, or Howard Street Church,— not one of the 
older churches of Salem, beginning its existence with- 
in the present century, and but short-lived as the lives 
of churches are reckoned, having become extinct in 
about sixty years from its formation, — that it has had 
more of stirring incident, of eventful and disintegrat- 



ing controversy, of salient characteristics in its mem- 
bership and of striking biographical episodes in the 
career of its pastors than usually falls to the lot of 
churches of much longer life. 

When the use of the North meeting-house was re- 
fused to Mr. Crowninshield and his friends, for the 
funeral services of Captain Lawrence and Lieutenant 
Ludlow, who lost their lives in the engagement be- 
tween the frigates Shannon and Chesapeake, in 
1813, the doors of the Howard Street meeting-house 
were opened, and there Mr. Story's eulogy was deliv- 
ered. The inherent spirit of Puritanism, with its 
flavor of intense individuality, fearless assertion of 
freedom, its equally fearless application of condemna- 
tory truth, its stiff, " conscientious contentiousness; 
or contentious conscientiousness,"- — this spirit has 
had many a jjicturesque illustration in the brother- 
hood of "the Branch." 

First Baptist Church — It has been claimed that 
there were Baptists in Salem as early as the period of 
Roger Williams' residence and ministry here. They 
were here prior to 1639, at least. That year, says 
Felt, William Wickenden, a Baptist preacher, moved 
from Salem to Providence. That year the Salem 
Church notified the Dorchester Church that it has 
excommunicated Roger Williams and nine others 
named, all but two of them having been re-baptized. 
Anabaptists they were often called — that name signi- 
fying the " re-baptized." It was not till December 24, 
1804, that the First Baptist Church was embodied in 
Salem. Its first place of worship was a frame build- 
ing, one story high, thirty-six by fifty-five feet in 
dimensions, standing not far from the spot now 
occupied by the meeting-house of the Bociety. 
" This house faced the West, and stood on a high 
bank, forty or fifty feet East of North Street, with its 
Southern side nearly on the line of the present Odell 
court." It soon gave place to the present brick 
meeting-house, which was dedicated January 1, 1806. 
Since its opening, considerable land has been pur- 
chased to constitute the front on Federal Street, which, 
with various other improvements, have given the 
house and lot their present attractive aspect. In 1868 
the interior of the building was reconstructed and 
improved throughout. October 31, 1877, it was vis- 
ited by fire, and its interior so destroyed as to require 
rebuilding entirely. 

The first minister was Mr. Lucius Bolles, born 
in Ashford, Conn., September 25, 1779, graduated 
from Brown University 1801, and settled in Salem 
January 9, 1805. His connection with the church 
in Salem, as an active pastor, practically ceased 
in June, 1826, when his release from the pastoral 
office was requested and obtained of the church, 
by the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions, that he 
might become its corresponding secretary ; though 
for eight years after, till August 6, 1834, he con- 
tinued to be the senior pastor of the church, with- 
out discharging any of the duties of the office. He 

died in Boston January 5, 1844. When Mr. Bolles 
came to Salem, those who adhered to the theological 
views of the Baptists " were few in numbers and fee- 
ble in resources," says Dr. R. C. Mills, in his fiftieth 
anniversary sermon: "The state of piety in the 
American churches was low." In theological opinions 
the early Baptists of America were strictly Calvinistic. 
The disintegration of the Calvinistic creed had pro- 
gressed in Eastern Massachusetts at the time this 
church was formed, so far as to cause those who still 
held it in its integrity, deep solicitude for its mainte- 
nance. The Baptist denomination was cordially 
allied with its supporters of other names, and regarded 
itself as in some sort an especial bulwark against the 
spread of the opposite errors; as the case was set 
forth by one of its ablest advocates : " Infant baptism 
led to Arminianism, and that to Socinianism in 
churches which had been strictly Calvinistic." 

The Baptist Church increased from the first, and soon 
grew strong in Salem, under the devoted ministry of its 
earliest pastor. There was no considerable hostility 
at that time among the people at large, either to the 
tenets of this denomination respecting the mode and 
subjects of baptism, to which many persons inclined, 
or to their creed, the Unitarian controversy not having 
yet opened into public discussion. The use of the 
North meeting-house (corner of Lynde and North 
Streets) was asked for the ordination services at the 
settlement of Mr. Bolles, and was granted ; but, for 
some reason, they were held, not at the North, but 
at the Tabernacle Church; possibly because, though 
the vote granting the use at the North meeting-house 
passed, it became known that there were twelve dis- 
sentients among those voting. Dr. Bolles became 
eminent in his denomination. He laid his founda- 
tions well. A minister both capable and zealous, his 
period of service was long enough to educate a gener- 
ation, and so to fix habits, and to stamp his congre- 
gation with distinctive characteristics which have run 
on, doubtless, into the succeeding years. In twenty 
years, and before he left them, they were strong 
enough to colonize, and a second church was formed. 

Rev. Rufus Babcock was installed as colleague 
with Dr. Bolles August 23, 1826, and was practi- 
cally the sole pastor, his senior having relinquished 
to him all pastoral duties. Mr. Babcock remained 
till October 11, 1833, when he resigned to accept 
the presidency of Waterville College, in Maine, his 
resignation being accepted by his people with re- 
luctance. Mr. Babcock was born in Colbrook, Conn., 
September 18, 1798, and was graduated at Brown 
University, 1821. After leaving Waterville he was 
pastor of churches in Philadelphia, Poughkeepsie, 
New Bedford and other places. He died in Salem, 
Mass., May 4, 1874, while on a visit among old 

August 6, 1834, Rev. John Wayland, having been 
a professor in Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., and 
called from that position to succeed Mr. Babcock, 



was settled pastor of the church, and continued in 
office until near the close of 1841, his resignation be- 
ing accepted November 12th of that year. Mr. Way- 
land afterwards became an Episcopalian. He was 
held in high esteem by his parishioners in Salem. 
He was succeeded by Mr. Thomas D. Anderson, who 
was settled March 15, 1S42. In 1848, his health hav- 
ing failed, he resigned, and his resignation was ac- 
cepted, January 28th of that year, with every testi- 
mony of regret on the part of the church at their loss. 

Rev. Robert C.Mills was installed as the next pastor 
of the church June 14, 1848. Dr. Mills' ministry 
continued till April 21, 1876, when he resigned, and 
within a few years after removed to Newton, in 
which city he now resides. Dr. Mills was born, Feb- 
ruary 6, 1819, in New York City, and graduated at 
the University of New York 1837. His was the long- 
est sole and active pastorate this church has known, 
being but little short of twenty-eight years. 

Rev. George E. Merrill .succeeded Dr. Mills February 
2, 1877 ; his health failed after some years of active ser- 
vice, and he resigned June 1, 1885. He was born in 
Charlestown December 19, 1846, graduated at Har- 
vard College 1869, and had been settled in Spring- 
field, Mass., from October, 1872, to January, 1877. 
In the more equalile and milder climate at the foot of 
the Rocky Mountains he has so far regained health 
as to be able to take charge of a Baptist Church at 
Colorado Springs, Col. Rev. Galusha Anderson, 
D. D., followed Mr. Merrill in the pastorship of the 
church, being recognized as pastor November 18, 
1885. He resigned his ministry January, 1887, to 
take the presidency of Granville College, Ohio. He 
had come to Salem from another important educa- 
tional position — that of the presidency of the Univer- 
.sity of Chicago, 111. Mr. Anderson was born in Ber- 
gen, Genesee County, N. Y., March 7, 1832, gradu- 
ated at Rochester, N. Y., 1854, was two years pastor 
of a Baptist Church in Janesville, Wis., from 1858 to 
1866 pastor of the Second Baptist Church in St. 
Louis, Mo., from 1866 to 1873 professor in the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Newton, from 1873 to 1878 pas- 
tor of the Strong Place Church in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Free-Will Baptist — There were two or three 
kindred religious movements in the early years of 
the century, which were not very clearly distin- 
guished from one another in the popular appre- 
hension, but whose differences assumed no incon- 
siderable importance, for a time at least, to those 
who contended for their respective tenets and built 
upon them. They had this in common : that they 
marked in some cases a partial modification, in 
some a pronounced rejection of Calvinistic doc- 
trinal standards, as a ground of Christian commu- 
nion and church fellowship. They also indicated the 
ecclesiastical unrest of the time, and showed a long- 
ing tor greater spiritual freedom, a growing intel- 
lectual activity and courage, and, as a consequence, a 
perceptible widening of the scope of theological in- 

quiry and religious sympathy. We find a society 
formed in 1806, which built a meeting-house on Eng- 
lish Street in 1807, and which Messrs. Osgood and 
Batchelder mention as a society of " Free-Will Bap- 
tists, sometimes called Christians." These two are 
quite different denominations, divided on theological 
grounds and on the conditions of fellowship. The 
society that worshipped in English Street was formed, 
says Felt, as a Free-Will Baptist Society. Thirty 
years later, in June, 1840, a portion of the society, 
having imbibed the views of Alexander Campbell, 
withdrew and organized a separate meeting, taking 
the name of " Christians " (especially repudiating the 
name Christ-ians, by which they were more commonly 
called), and worshipped in several different places till 
they became extinct. A list of the ministers of the 
Free-Will Baptist vSociety in " Felt's Annals " contains 
the following names: John Rand (1806-07), Abner 
Jones (1807-12), Samuel Rand (1813-14), Moses How 
(1816-19), Abner Jones, 1821. George W. Kelton, 
William Andrews, William Coe and Christopher 
Martin are also said to have preached for this people 
prior to 1840. Among the ministers who preached 
for the Christians were William W. Eaton (1843-47), 
David 0. Gaskill (1847-50 or later). 

Universalist.— In 1804 a Universalist preacher, 
Samuel Smith by name, appointed a meeting at the 
Court House and preached, so far as is known, the 
first Universalist sermon ever heard in Salem. It was 
not altogether a satisfactory service to those who at- 
tended it, but served to bring together and make 
known to each other a considerable number of per- 
sons who were disposed to entertain with favor the 
views of that denomination. Between that time and 
1808 meetings were held, at first at irregular intervals, 
but soon weekly, as an established Sunday congrega- 
tion. Various ministers came and went, — the veteran 
John Murray, Hosea Ballou, Thomas Jones of Glou- 
cester, and others. The meetings were held in 
private houses at first, but a hall, or large room, in 
the new house of Nathaniel Frothingham, on Lynde 
Street, was found suitable, and there they stayed 
mostly, till their meeting-house was built. The soci- 
ety was organized in 1805, but its records for the first 
twenty-one years — from 18U5 to 1826 — are lost. In 
1808, Aug. 17th, it laid the corner-stone of its meet- 
ing-house, at six o'clock in the morning ! and on the 
22d of June, 1809, dedicated it, and installed a minis- 
ter the same day. A lot of land on St. Peter's Street 
(then known as Prison Lane), valued at a thou- 
sand dollars, had been given by Benjamin Ward for a 
meeting-house, covering, in part at least, the present 
site of the Central Baptist meeting-house, and now 
deemed more eligible than the spot in Rust Street on 
which the house was built, but not so regarded then ; 
it was accordingly sold, and the land bought on which 
the church now stands. The minister settled on the 
day the church was dedicated was Rev. Edward 
Turner, who came from Charlton, Mass., where he 



had been the minister of a Universalist society. He 
retained his connection with the Universalist society 
in Salem till June 1, 1814, when he accepted a call to 
the Universalist society in Charlestown, Mass. When, 
a few ye.ars later, the question whether all punishment 
for sin is limited to this life divided the Universalist 
denomination, Mr. Turner took the negative, and 
after severing his connection with the society in 
Charlestown he became identified with the Unitari- 
ans. He died in West Roxbury Jan. 24, 1853, at the 
age of seventy-six years. The line of ministers fol- 
lowing Mr. Turner may be conveniently given here, 
with their periods and in their order: Rev. Hosea 
Ballon, June 18, 1815, to Oct. 12, 1817 ; Rev. Joshua 
Plagg, Dec. 7, 1817, to March 1, 1820 ; Rev. Barzillai 
Streeter, Aug. 9, 1820, to Sept. 20, 1824 ; Rev. Seth 
Stetson, June 1, 1825, to March 23, 1828 ; Rev. Lem- 
uel Willis, March 25, 1829, to May 26, 1837 ; Rev_ 
Matthew Hale Smith, June 6, 1838, to April 5, 1840 ; 
Rev. Linus S. Everett, May 12, 1841, to April 12, 
1846 ; Rev. Ebenezer Fisher, May 4, 1847, to Oct. 7, 
1853 ; Rev. Sumner Ellis, Feb. 1, 1854, to Sept. 1, 
1858 ; Rev. Willard Spalding, March 4, 1860, to Nov. 
28, 1869; Rev. Edwin C. Bolles, D.D., June 18, 1871, 
to Sept. 1, 1887. 

Several of these were preachers eminent within 
their denomination, and the fame of two or three 
went beyond it. Mr. Ballou was one of the earliest 
apostles of Universalism, possessing great native 
vigor of intellect, unfailing courage and a power 
of plain, simple and direct statement which made 
him one of the ablest and most effective among 
the advocates of his faith in the times of its earlier 
promulgation, when it was unpopular, and kept its 
earnest defenders in incessant controversy. He went 
from Salem to Boston, and for more than thirty-five 
years labored there. Rev. Matthew Hale Smith be- 
came widely known both as a champion and an 
assailant of Universalism. Versatile and having a 
facile command of pen and speech, a too easy mobil- 
ity carried him away from one to another denom- 
ination and back again, and from one to another 
profession in such rapid succession that his confessions 
and renunciations lost their power of impression from 
their number and their nearness to each other. Rev. 
Mr. Willis' ministry is regarded as having been emi- 
nently useful, and helpful to the prosperity of the 
church. The ministry of Mr. Fisher and that of 
others since have been characterized by a devotion to 
Christian scholarship and a careful instruction of the 
people in religious truth. Dr. E. C. Bolles, the last 
of the line, now about leaving Salem, and whose 
pastorate is the longest upon the list, is known as one 
of the most prominent preachers in his own denomi- 
nation, while his services as a popular lecturer and 
speaker at gatherings non-denominational are in 
large demand. The society is large and prosperous, 
and has more than once given promise of coloniza- 

A second Universalist society was indeed organ- 
ized in 1844, and held its first public meeting in 
Lyceum Hall on the 12th of May of that year. 
Afterwards its meetings were held in Mechanics' Hall, 
then in the Sewall Street meeting-house, and finally 
in Phflenix Hall. On the 6th of June, 1852, however, 
it voted to discontinue its meetings, and was dis- 
banded. Its first settled pastor was Rev. Day K. Lee, 
who was succeeded by Rev. Messrs. Benjamin F. 
Bowles, S. C. Hewett and E. W. Reynolds. Again, 
about twenty-five years ago, — perhaps in 1861, — the 
experiment of maintaining a second Universalist 
place of worship was carried on for some months at 
liyceum Hall, but no permanent organization came 
of it. 

The Sunday-school connected with the first society 
was organized during the ministry of Mr. Willis, and 
by him. May 3, 1829, and " was the first in this de- 
nomination this side of Boston, and the third known 
to exist among the Universalists." It is at this time 
one of the largest, if not the largest, of the Protestant 
Sunday-schools in Salem. 

The meeting-house has undergone several exten- 
sive and costly transformations since it was built, 
both within and without. In January, 1840, the 
changes necessary for the reception of an organ 
were made. In 1842 the pews of the gallery were 
taken out and replaced by new ones of more con- 
venient form, the walls and ceiling were painted 
in fresco, and other larger and lesser changes 
in different parts of the building were made, some 
of them to prepare for the placing of stoves. In 
1855 still greater changes were carried through, with 
an outlay of several thousand dollars. The floor was 
raised, the old pews were removed, and an increased 
number with different arrangement took their place ; 
a new pulpit was put in, costing five hundred dollars 
and paid for by the ladies of the society. The whole 
interior was renewed in form and color. In 1857 the 
space in front of the church was opened and enlarged 
by the removal of a neighboring dwelling-house, 
while new fences and new bricking and boarding of 
side-walks made the approaches to it more roomy and 
pleasant. Again, in 1877, the spirit of improvement 
took the venerable building in hand and changed its 
whole aspect, internally and externally, bringing it to 
its present appearance. Its original square, plain 
tower, stopping so abruptly and baldly as to suggest 
the likelihood of its not having been finished according 
to the builder's original intention, was carried up to 
its present graceful height and proportions, with some 
not excessive ornamentation. The new coloring with- 
out and within produced marked effects. The pulpit 
regarded with so much pride in 1855, gave way to the 
modern platform and simple reading desk. It is now 
one of the largest and most satisfactory of the 
church edifices in the city, — a city which has a fair 
number of attractive houses of worship. 

Roman Catholics. — The parent Catholic Church 



in Salem was that of St. Mary. The first Roman 
Catholic services in the town were held in 1806 by 
Rev. John Cheverua, of Boston, the first Roman 
Catholic bishop of Massachusetts, and subsequently 
services were held occasionally by the bishop and Dr. 
Matignon during the intervening years till 1811, 
when services were held in a school-house on Hardy 
Street, by Rev. John O'Brien, who afterwards became 
pastor of the church in Newburyport. The first set- 
tled pastor was the Rev. Paul McQuade, who was 
here from 1818 to 1822. It was in 1821, and during 
his pastorate, that St. Mary's Church was built cm 
the corner of Mall and Bridge Streets. This issupposed 
to have been the first Catholic Church built in Essex 
County, the church in Newburyport not being built 
until 1848. Before that year (1848) Catholics came 
even from Newburyport, and of course from the 
nearer and adjoining towns, to the church in Salem, 
Bishop Cheverus sometimes walking from Boston to 
Salem to preach and celebrate Mass. The land on 
which the church was situated was deeded to Bishop 
Cheverus by the president, directors and company of 
the Marblehcad Bank, " for the use and benefit of a 
certain number of persons in Salem, who have or are 
about forming a Roman Catholic Church and society 
in said Salem." This church was built by subscrip- 
tions of citizens of Salem, some of whom were not 
Catholics, but entertained a kindly feeling towards 
the principal Catholics of the place, among whom 
were the late John Simon, Francis Ashton and Mat- 
thew Newport, representing, respectively, the three 
Catholic nationalities, French, Italian and Irish. The 
largest contributor was probably John Forrester, father 
of Simon, the great merchant of those days, who was 
himself of Irish birth, but a Protestant in religion. 
The following is a partial list of the clergy of this 
church: John Mahoney, 1826 to 1830; William 
Wiley, 1830 to 1834 ; John D. Brady, 1834 to 1840 ; 
James Strain, 1841 to 1842; Thomas J. O'Flaherty, 
1842 to 1846 (died March 29, 1846) ; James Conway, 

1846 to ; T. H. Shahan. 

When the Church of the Immaculate Conception 
was built on Walnut Street in 1857, the Church 
of St. Mary ceased to be occupied, that parish be- 
ing merged in the new one, and in 1877 the old 
church was torn down, and the land on which it 
stood was sold by decree of the Supreme Judicial 
Court, on the 20th of December, 1882, the terms 
of the deed by which tlie bishop acquired his title 
preventing the conveyance of an unquestionable 
title to another purchaser without this authority 
from the court. The line of pastors in the Church 
of the Immaculate Conception includes the names 
of Rev. Thos. H. Shahan, Michael Hartney and 
William H. Hally, with those of Rev. Charles 
Renoni, James Quinlan, Wm. J. Delahunty, 
thew Harkins, Wm. A. Kennedy, James J. Foley, 
Martin O'Brien and Thomas Tobin as a.ssistants. The 
rapidly increasing needs of the Catholic pojiulation 

had already called so urgently for enlarged church 
accommodations, even before the church in Walnut 
Street was erected, that in 1850 the Church of St. 
James was opened on Federal Street, though not ded- 
icated until January 10, 1857. Its first pastor was 
Rev. Thomas Shahan, and he was succeeded by Rev. 
William Daley (who died in Rome), and Rev. 
John J. Gray, the present pastor. The Rev. J. 
Healy, Michael Master.son, William Shinnick, D. J. 
Collins and John Kelleherhave been assistant clergy- 
men in the parish since its organization. Two large 
schools, of five or six hundred pupils each, are carried 
on by sisterhoods of Notre Dame, connected with the 
two churches of the Immaculate Conception and St. 
James, respectively. An asylum for orphans and 
also, secondarily, for the aged and infirm, is main- 
tained on Lafayette Street, by a si.sterhood of the 
Gray Nuns of Montreal, and has at present about 
seventy children in its care. 

The French speaking Catholics of Salem, having 
become numerous, were gathered for worship in their 
own tongue in 1872, in the Church of the Immaculate 
Conception. There were about ninety families at 
that time. In 1873 they bought the old Seamen's 
Bethel on Herbert Street, and took the name of St. 
Joseph's Church. Rev. George Talbot was appointed 
the first pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. 01. 
Boucher, and on the appointment of the latter to the 
rectorship of the French Church in Lawrence, 
Father Talbot resumed the charge of St. Joseph's. 
Rev. J. Z. Dumontier succeeded him early in Janu- 
ary, 1878. In September, 1878, Rev. Octave LePine 
was appointed pastor, and on the 13th of July, 1879, 
the present pastor. Rev. F. X. L. Vezina was given 
charge of the congregation ; Rev. Joseph O. Gadoury 
is his assistant. On the 26th of August, 1881, as the 
congregation had much increased, the old building on 
Herbert Street was found inadequate, and the Lus- 
comb estate, on Lafayette Street, was bought, and 
steps were taken to build a new church, which was 
done in 1883, and services were held in it in March, 
1884. In April, 1886, the Elwell estate adjoining 
was bought for a parsonage. The French congrega- 
tion represents a population of about two thousand 
five huudred souls at present. 

Methodist Episcopal. — Organized Methodism in 
Salem dates back to 1821, when a church formed. 
In 1822 Rev. Jesse Filraore became its first pastor. 
The next year, 1823, a church was built in Sewall 
Street, the same that is now occupied by the Wesley 
Chapel congregation, and which is about to be re- 
placed by a more substantial structure immediately in 
its rear, fronting upon North Street. This church 
did not unite with the General Conference till Feb- 
ruary, 1835. Mr. Filmore had resigned his pastorate 
in 1832, but became pastor of the church again in 
1835, and yet again in 1840, remaining till 1844. 

The following names are to be found upon its roll 
of pastors previous to the formation of a second 



Methodist Church, in 1841 : Joseph B. Brown, 1832- 
33 ; Jefferson Hamilton, 1833 ; T. C. Macreading, 
1834; Aaron Waitt, 1834-35; J. W. Downing, 1835- 
38 ;T. G. Hilar, 1838-39. 

Trouble seems to have grown out of the ownership 
of the church building by the pastor, who had erect- 
ed it, and, as its owner, had a more potential voice 
and vote in its atfairs than ordinarily falls to the pas- 
tors of churches, and involved relations between pas- 
tor and people not found to be conducive to har- 

This modest and not very ancient house of wor- 
ship has sheltered, at different times, and for longer 
or shorter periods, a great variety of worshippers, 
passing under uncongenial denominational names, 
resting here in turn temporarily on the road to 
larger and more permanent holdings elsewhere, or — 
on the road to further ecclesiastical transformation, 
or — on the way to extinction. 

Second Methodist. — In March, 1841, a second 
Methodist congregation was formed by members 
withdrawing from the first, who built a meeting- 
house in Union Street (afterwards occupied by one 
branch of the Second Advent Church). Rev. N. T. 
Spaulding was the first pastor, and among the earlier 
of his successors were Joseph A. Merrill, David K. 
Merrill, Horace Moulton, Phinehas Crandall, David 
L. Winslow, John W. Perkins; some of them, how- 
ever, for very short periods — from less than a year to 
two years. The difficulties in the Sewall Street 
Church continuing, the church in Union Street gradu- 
allv absorbed into itself the members of the former, 
and it became extinct. Meantime, its own pros- 
perity and increasing wants made a removal neces- 
sary, and the church on La Fayette Street, corner of 
Harbor Street, the present home of the society, was 
built in 1851, and dedicated January 5, 1853. Its 
roll of pastors since it has occupied its present place 
of worship is as follows : Luman Boydcn, 1851-53 ; 
A. D. Merrill, 1853-54; Daniel Richards, 1854-56; 
John A. Adams, 1856-57; Austin F. Herrick, 1857- 
59; John H. Mansfield, 1859-61 ; Edward A. Man- 
ning, 1801-62; Gershom F. Cox, 1862-64; Loranus 
Crowell, 1864-67 ; S. F. Chase, 1867-69; D. Dorches- 
ter, 1869-72 ; J. S. Whedon, 1872-74 ; George Collyer, 
1874-77;. Daniel Steel, 1877-79; George W. Mans- 
field, 1879-82; William P. Ray, 1882-85 ; T. L. Gra- 
cey, 1885-87. 

During the winter of 1871-72 the advisability of 
organizing another Methodist Church was consid- 
ered by the La Fayette Street Church, the result of 
which was that the old Methodist meeting-house in 
Sewall Street was purchased and re'dedicated. May 
24, 1872, and a new society was formed, taking the 
name of Wesley Chapel, and Rev, Joshua Gill, ap- 
pointed by the New England Conference its pastor, 
first held Sunday services therein May 26, 1872. 
Thirty-five persons bringing certificates from the par- 
ent church were constituted the new church. The 

following pastors have been successively in charge : 
Rev. Joshua Gill, 1872-74; William J. Hambleton, 
1874-77 ; William H. Meredith, 1877-80 ; Charles F. 
Rice, 1880-83; Willis P. Odell, 1883-86; Thomas W. 

Bishop, 1886 . Mr. Bishop is the present pastor. 

The church has enjoyed the services of devoted and 
capable pastors, and has had a large and substantial 
growth. Under the ministry of Rev. Mr. Odell the 
need of more room and better accommodations be- 
came so pressing that the enterprise of building an- 
other church to meet the wants of the society was 
taken up with spirit and harmony, and an encourag- 
ing subscription list was started with an assurance 
of final success. The work has gone forward in the 
hands of his successor, and the plans are perfected 
for a new church on North Street, which is to be of 
brick, with terra-cotta trimmings and a handsome 
tower, and which will have sittings for a thousand 
persons, its appointments in all other respects being 
designed to answer all the needs of a large and in- 
creasing congregation. By legislative enactment the 
church was authorized in 1886 to change its name to 
Wesley Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The Independent Congregational Society 
in Barton Square. — In the autumn of 1819 the 
North Church pulpit becoming vacant by the death 
of Mr. Abbot, that society invited Rev. Henry Col- 
man, pastor of a church in Hingham, to become its 
minister. The invitation was not unanimous, and 
was declined. Later, a portion of the First Parish de- 
sired that Mr. Colman should be invited to become a 
colleague with their minister, Rev. Dr. Prince, but 
failed to persuade the society to take the action they 
advocated. In 1824 these friends of Mr. Colman in 
the North and First Parishes withdrew from their re- 
spective churches, and organized the Independent 
Congregational Society in Barton Square. A church 
of brick was built and dedicated in Decembei', 1824. 
Rev. Henry Colman was installed February 16, 1825, 
and resigned December 7, 1831, on account of ill 
health. Mr. Colman had been pastor of the Third 
Church in Hingham thirteen years, and had taught 
a school there ; from 1820 to 1825 he taught a school 
in Boston. After leaving Salem he engaged in ag- 
riculture at Deerfield, Mass., and was employed by 
the State from 1836 to 1842 to investigate its agri- 
cultural condition and resources. In 1842 he was 
sent to Europe in pursuit of the same purpose, and 
the results of his observation were embodied in 
two octavo volumes. He also published reports 
ujion agriculture and silk culture, and two volumes 
upon European lile and manners. Visiting Europe 
a second time, for the benefit of his health, he died 
at Islington, England, August 14, 1849. He was 
born in Boston September 12, 1785, and graduated 
from Dartmouth College, 1805. Mr. Colman was an 
independent thinker, and did not always follow the 
conventional roads as a theologian and preacher, a 
fact in which lay, doubtless, one of the causes • 



though not the sole cause — of the want of unanimity 
in the North and First Churches in desiring liim for 
a minister. 

Mr. Colman was succeeded by Rev. James W. 
Tliompson, who was installed March 7, 1832, and 
remained in this ministry twenty-seven years, till 
March 7, 1859. Mr. Thompson had been settled 
in Isatick before his settlement in Salem, and 
left his church here to take charge of the Second 
Church in West Roxbury (Jamaica Plain), of which 
he continued the sole or senior pastor till his death, 
September 22, 1881. He was born in Barre, Mass., 
December 13, 1805, and graduated from Brown Uni- 
versity, 1827. The society increased and prospered 
during his pastorate. The church building was en- 
tirely reconstructed in its interior, galleries were 
added and a commodious vestry of brick was erected 
in connection with it, at the rear, to meet its increas- 
ing wants. 

L)r. Thompson was succeeded by Mr. Augustus M. 
Haskell, who was ordained January 1, 1802, and re- 
signed May 2, 1866. Mr. Haskell was chaplain of 
the Fortieth Massachusetts Regiment in the Civil 
War, from September 11, 1863, to November 5, 1864, 
and after his Salem ministry became the pastor of 
Unitarian Churches in Manchester, N. H., and West 
Roxbury (Boston), Mass., successively. He is still 
pastor of the latter society, He was born January 
24, 1832, in Poland, Me., and graduated at Harvard 
College, 1856. Mr. George Batchelor followed Mr. 
Haskell, being ordained October 3, 1866. He re- 
signed after sixteen years of service, November 1, 

1882, to take the pastoral charge of the Church of the 
Unity, in Chicago, 111., which he was obliged by ill 
health to relinquish after two or three years. Mr. 
Batchelor was born in Southbury, Conn., July 3, 
1836, graduated at Harvard College 1866, having 
completed a theological course at the Meadville 
School previous to his course in college. Rev. Ben- 
jamin F. McDaniel was installed jiastor January 7, 

1883, and resigned at the end of four years of service, 
January 1, 1887. He had been, before his Salem 
ministry, pastor of churches in Hubbardston, Mass., 
and Exeter, N. H., and left Salem to take pastoral 
charge of a church in San Diego, Cal. He, like 
a predecessor named above, did good service in one 
of the Union armies during the Civil War. 

Centr.^^l Baptist Church. — As mentioned before, 
in the sketch of the First Baptist Church, a colony 
from that church was dismissed and commissioned by 
it, in 1825, to establish a second church of ita order in 
the lower part of the city. It was duly organized 
January 19, 1826, under the name of the "Second 
Baptist Church," having its house of worship and 
chapel, on St. Peter's Street, ready for occupancy 
prior to its organization, though the dedication was 
delayed till June 8, 1826. In 1855 its name was 
changed, by a legislative act, to the " Central Baptist 
Church in Salem." 

August 23, 1826, Mr. George Leonard was or- 
dained its first pastor. He was compelled, by fail- 
ing health, to resign his ministry, which had opened 
with much promise, January 19, 1829. Mr. Robert 
F. Pattison was ordained September 9, 1829, but 
within six mouths asked and received a dismission, 
February 12, 1830. In October, 1830, Rev. Cyrus 
P. Grosveuor was installed pastor, and remained 
with the church till November 1,1834. Mr. Grosvenor 
became warmly engaged in the anti-slavery agitation, 
just opening, and which disturbed the peace of many 
churches, and broke the pastoral tie in not a few 
cases. It may be presumed to have had its share of 
influence in interrupting the harmony of the relation 
between Mr. Grosveuor and his people. 

Mr. Joseph Banvard was ordained pastor of the 
church August 26, 1835, and continued with it till 
March, 1846; and this period was manifestly one 
of increased activity, harmony and growth. Rev. 
Benjamin Brierly was installed Mr. Banvard's suc- 
cessor in September, 1846. His brief pastorate ended 
August 25, 1848. Mr. William H. Eaton followed 
him, and was ordained August 16, 1849. His 
society reluctantly consented to his dismission, in 
November, 1854. The next pastor was Rev, Daniel 
D. Winn, who came in October, 1855, and was dis- 
missed by his own desire, December 23, 1866. Dur- 
ing Mr. Winn's ministry the meeting-house was 
remodeled at a large cost. Early in 1867 Rev. S. 
Hartwell Pratt succeeded Mr. Winn, and resigned his 
charge October 21, 1870, to become pastor of the 
newly-formed Calvary Baptist Church, organized 
largely by his influence and under his direction. In 
January, 1872, Rev. David Weston, D.D., was settled 
in charge of the church, but being the same year 
elected professor of ecclesiastical history in Hamilton 
Theological Seminary, N. Y., he resigned, to the sin- 
cere regret of his church, September 27, 1872. April 
8, 1873, Rev. W. H. H. Marsh succeeded him, and 
remained seven years, to 18S0. Rev. Charles A. 
Towue, the present pastor, took charge of the church 
in 1881. 

The Crombie Street Church. — On the 16th of 
P'ebruary, 1832, one hundred and thirty-nine members 
of the Howard Street Church — the minister of that 
church, the Rev. William Williams, one of them — 
withdrew from it, with the purpose of organizing a 
separate church. They held their first meeting for 
public worship in Lyceum Hall February 19, 1832. 
The same day the Sunday-school, composed of their 
children, met at the same place. On the 6th of 
the next April they organized themselves into a re- 
ligious society, and took the name of the " Lyceum 
Society." The purchase of a brick building on 
Crombie Street, now their house of worship, then 
known as the Salem Theatre — which had been occu- 
pied as a theatre — having been eflected, at a meeting 
held in the office of Hon. Rufus (/hoate, on the 29tli 
of August, 1832, a committee wius chosen to make 



the required changes in the building to adapt it to its 
new uses. These changes accomplished, the pulpit 
was in the centre of the western end, the choir-gal- 
lery was opposite the pulpit. Over the pulpit was ihe 
inscription, " Love the truth and peace," with the date 
of the church'.s institution — May 3, 1832 — and that of 
the dedication of its house of worship— November 22, 
1832 ; below were the names of the pastor and the 
architect. Between the lines, right under that in- 
scription, " Love the truth and peace," we may pre- 
sume that the recent emigrants from Howard Street 
read another inscription, invisible to the eye of flesh : 
" The end of our prayers, the desire of our hearts ; 
for which we have left home — a house in contention, 
divided against itself" The church took the name, 
" The New Congregational Church" on the 8th of 
May, 1832, and on the 17th of September of the same 
year, adopted the title, which has been permanent 
since, of the " Crombie Street Church." In 1851 the 
pulpit was carried to the opposite (the eastern) end 
the floor, which had sloped upward from the front, 
was brought to a level, the pews were reversed, the 
brick vestry was built in the rear and the walls and 
ceiling were painted in fresco; nine years later, in 
1860, the organ was carried to the rear of the pulpit, 
to stand as it now does, the congregation claiming to 
have been the first in Salem to dispense with choir- 
singing, which it did in 1850, and for which the pres- 
ent position of the organ was deemed better adapted. 
The first in the line of pastors has been already 
named — Rev. William Williams. He was born in 
Wethersfield, Conn., October 2, 1797 ; graduated at 
Yale College 1816 ; ordained pastor of Howard Street 
Church July 5, 1821. His ministry continued from 
November 22, 1832, to March 1, 1888. The new 
meeting-house was dedicated the same day that Mr. 
Williams was installed. After resigning his charge 
in Salem Mr. Williams was settled in Exeter, N. H., 
for a few years, after which, in 1812, he returned to 
Salem, and having studied medicine with Dr. Abel 
L. Peirson, of this city, established himself in the 
practice of medicine, in which he became successful. 
He died in 1860. Rev. Alexander J. Sessions, born 
in Warren, Mass., August 13, 1809, and graduated at 
Yale College in 1831, was the next pastor, settled 
June 6, 1838, and continued till August 22, 1849, 
when he resigned, and has since been the pastor of 
churches in Melrose, Scituate and North Beverly. He 
is still living in Beverly. The third paster was Rev. 
James M. Hoppin, born in Providence, R. I., Janu- 
ary 17, 1820 ; graduated at Yale College 1840 and 
settled as pastor of Crombie Street Cnurch March 27, 
1850. Mr. Hoppin remained till May 16, 1859. He 
has since been a professor in Yale College — first, of 
homiletics and pastoral theology and later of the 
history of art. December 29, 1859, Rev. Joseph 
Henry Thayer was settled as the fourth pastor of the 
church. He resigned this charge February 19, 1864, 
to accept the position of associate professor of sacred 

literature in the Theological Seminary at Andover, 
which oflice he continued to fill until 1882, when he 
resigned. He was appointed the next year lecturer 
on Biblical theology in the Divinity School of Har- 
vard University, and on the death of the eminent 
scholar, Ezra Abbot, professor of New Testament 
criticism and interpretation in the Divinity School, 
Professor Thayer was appointed to the same place, 
which he still holds. 

During the Civil War Mr. Thayer asked leave of ab- 
sence from his parish to become chaplain of the For- 
tieth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers tor nine 
months. His term of service was from September 17, 
1862, to May 15, 1863. He was one of the American 
members of the company of New Testament revisers 
and translators in England and America, who brought 
out the Revised New Testament in 1880, and with 
their co-laborers who had given similar revision to 
the Old Testament, a revised translation at a later day 
of the whole Bible. Mr. Thayer born in Boston 
November 7, 1828, and graduated at Harvard College 

The fifth paster was Rev. Clarendon Waite, whose 
short term of service fell between the dates of April 
10, 1866, and December 3d of the same year (less than 
nine months). Being advised by his physicians that 
he could not expect the health requisite for the min- 
istry, he withdrew from his profession, and in just 
about a year afterwards died on a journey to a new 
field of labor to which he had been called (that of 
professor in Beloit College, Wisconsin). Mr. Waite 
was born in Hubbardston, Massachusetts, December 
12, 1830, graduated at Brown University, Providence, 
and had been seven years pastor of a church in Rut- 
land, Mass., before coming to Salem. Rev. Hugh 
Elder, the sixth pastor, was born in Dunfermline, Scot- 
land, March 26, 1838, and graduated at the University 
of Edinburgh 1863. He preached to the society and 
was invited to become its minister before the settle- 
ment of Mr. Waite, which invitation he declined. Af- 
ter the death of Mr. Waite he came again to preach ; 
was called again to the pastorate, accepted and was 
ordained January 28, 1868. He resigned at the end 
of August, 1884, to accept the position of pastor of the 
college church connected with Airdale College, in Brad- 
ford, England. The present pastor of the church, 
Rev. Louis B. Voorhees, was installed April 15, 1885. 
He was born June 10, 1847, in Rocky Hill, N. J., and 
graduated at Princeton College 1868. He had been 
pastor of churches in North Weymouth, in Worcester 
and in Grafton previous to his settlement in Salem. 

It needs but a reference to the fact that four of the 
seven pastors of this church have received ap- 
pointments to positions in educational institutions of 
the higher class to show that it has been favored with 
a line of scholarly men for its ministers. Better than 
that, they have been, as a whole, men devoted to the 
service of the people outside the church as well as in- 
side, thus helping the church to which they minister- 



ed to make an honorable history among the churches 
of the town. 

Second Advent. — A religious movement of con- 
siderable extent grew out of the preaching of Wil- 
liam Miller, the prophet of the millenium, who, for 
about ten years (from 1833 to 1843), stirred many com- 
munities to a high pitch of excitement with predic- 
tions of an early return of Christ to the earth ; the 
time was definitely set ; when it had passed unevent- 
fully another was set. After several such predictions 
had successively failed, though many lost faith and 
abandoned the body identified with the great expec- 
tation, others, still sanguine that it was no more than 
an error of time, and that a small one, settled into a 
belief that the Lord would appear soon to set up his 
kingdom ; and the latter have become a permanent 
sect. Mr. Miller never preached in Salem, as we can 
learn ; but a large gathering of his disciples, and of the 
curious to hear the exposition of his belief, was held 
in North Salem, in camp, in 1842. Preachers con. 
linued to set forth the millenial doctrine according to 
Mr. Miller from time to time, and on July 23, 1848, a 
church was formed, which, with intervals of suspend- 
ed services, has continued to the present time. In- 
deed, it has at times divided into two sects over con- 
troverted poiuts turning chiefly on the state of the 
" dead " between the body's dissolution and resurrec- 
tion. Sunday services have been maintained in two 
places of worship at the same time for a while. At 
present the society worships in its own church in 
Herbert Street. It has changed its place of a.ssembling 
several times; has been in Sewell Street (old Meth- 
odist meeting-house), in Union Street (Second Meth- 
odist), Holyoke Hall, 199 Essex Street, Hardy Hall, 
Washington Street. One of its sections, when there 
were two passing under the same name, met in a chap- 
el in Endicott Street. The pastorates of this church 
in both branches have been mostly short. Several, 
however, have continued for a period of a few years 
each. Rev. Lemuel Osier, Francis H. Berick, Rufus 
Wendell, Charles E. Barnes, George W. Sederqui-st, 
Frederick Gunner (Endicott Street) have at different 
times ministered to the society. The present pastor 
is Rev. George F. Haines. 

Episcopal : Grace. — A second Episcopal Church 
was organized in the year 18.58, under a movement 
arising in St. Peter's Church, the rector of St. 
Peter's, Rev. Dr. Leeds, remarking in the Jour- 
nal of the Diocese of 1859 : " The completion of 
the fifth quarter-century in the history of St. Peter's 
was celebrated Isy laying the corner-stone of another 
church edifice, to be known by the name of Grace 
Church." The new church, a Gothic frame structure, 
was consecrated June 2, 1859. The Rev. George D. 
Wildes was the first rector, his pastorate covering eight 
years, 1859-67. Rev. Joseph Kidder succeeded Mr. 
Wildes in 1868, and remained until July 1, 1870, 
when the present rector, Rev. James P. Franks, suc- 
ceeded him. Thesixtv communicants with which this 

church began had increased, at the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of its consecration, to one hundred and fifty. 
The architecture of the church remains as it was at 
the beginning. 

New Church Society (oftener designated in 
popular speech as the Church of the JS\'w Jerusalem, or 
Swedaiboryian Church). — As early as 1840 those in- 
terested in the doctrines of the New Jerusalem met 
at the homes of difi'erent individuals and read the 
writings of the church. In 1845 Miss Mary Eveleth 
having joined the little baud, became their reader for 
most of the two or three following years ; after that 
Mr. Joseph Ropes was for a few years their leader. 
It was in 1861 that meetings began to be hold in the 
hall of the building which had been General H. K. 
Oliver's school-house, and which was erected by him, 
on Federal Street. At that time Rev. Warren Burton 
was their leader. Here a Sunday-school was first 
gathered. From this place a removal took place to 
Creamer Hall, on Essex Street, and on the 25th of 
January, 1863, the society was instituted by Rev. 
T. B. Hayward, who preached for the congregation 
two years, or more. Services were afterwards held in 
the Howard Street Church and in Hamilton Hall. 
Rev. Abiel Silver was minister from 1867 to 1869. 
The society was incorporated July 13, 1869. That 
year a lot of land was purchased for a church. On 
this laud the present church was built, and dedicated 
April 18, 1872. Rev. L. G. Jordan was the minister 
from June 6, 1869, to November 1, 1870. Rev. A. F. 
Frost began to preach for the society in 1872, but was 
not installed as pastor till January 25, 1875. He re- 
signed June 30, 1879. Rev. Mr. Hayden followed 
Mr. Frost, being engaged to preach for a year. After 
he left, dilTerent ministers preached from one Sunday 
to several months each, until April 1, 1884, when Rev- 
Duane V. Bowen was invited to become the minister 
of the society. The invitation w;is accepted, and he 
remains to the present time the minister. Rev. Mr. 
Bowen was ordained in the Unitarian ministry in 
1873, and had served parishes of that denomination 
before embracing the faith of the New Church and 
identifying himself with that body. In making the 
change he did not sever the bonds of frien<lship and 
syuij)athy by which he had been held in earlier 
fellowship with the communion of which he had been 
a member. Of the fifty-nine original members of the 
New Church Society, twenty have removed from the 
city, and fourteen have been " removed to the spiritual 
world," the speech of this church not recognizing 
such translation as death. 

Calvary Baptist Church. — On the 21st of Oc- 
tober, 1871, ninety members of the Central Baptist 
Church received letters of dismission from thatcluirch, 
for the purpose of constituting a new church, upon a 
somewhat different basis from that on which the par- 
ent church existed, believing " that the house of God 
should be free to all, without the sale or letting of pews, 
or the granting to a worldly pnipricturship a vole on 



any interest pertaining to the church." They met in 
the old Howard Street Chapel October 24, 1871, and 
organized under the name of " The Calvary Baptist 
Church of Salem." Rev. S. H. Pratt, who had come 
in their company from the Central Church, was chosen 
their pastor. The congregation transferred itself to 
Mechanic Hall for a time. Coming to feel the need 
of a church home of their own, Mrs. John Dwyer 
gave them land on which to build, and they proceeded 
to set up their meeting-house on the corner of Essex 
and Herbert Streets, meantime worshipping at the old 
"Bethel "on the latter street, till the new church 
should be ready. With much effort, their means not 
being abundant, they carried the enterprise through 
and dedicated their house on the 17th of November, 
1873. On the 17th day of March, 1874, the chuijch 
organized as a corporation under the general statutes 
of Massachusetts ; there was no society distinct from 
the church, the church itself being incorporated. 
" The seats are utterly free, no price or rent being 
charged for any seat, and no seat being assigned to or 
claimable by any person, and all seats being open to 
the first comer ; . . . the expenses are met by 
voluntary weekly offerings." Rev. Mr. Pratt resigned 
his charge May 4, 1873. For nearly a year they had 
the services of Mr. E. B. Andrews, a student of New- 
ton Seminary, and since professor both in Newton 
and in Brown University — services which were of great 
value beyond his religious ministry, as he worked 
strenuously to raise the money for the building of the 
church. Twice they invited him to become their pas- 
tor and twice their earnest call was declined. Rev. 
D. H. Taylor was ordained their second pastor Sep- 
tember 9, 1874. He continued tn the pastorate till 
January 12, 1877. On the 27th of the following March 
(1877) Rev. William A. Keese, then settled in Ells- 
worth, Me., was invited to take pastoral charge of the 
church, and accepting, began his labors May 6th, and 
resigned May 26, 1883, at the end of a ministry of six 
years. Rev. Samuel H. Emery, the present pastor, was 
settled January 2, 1884. He was ordained December 
5, 1877, and had been pastor of a church in Bellows 
Falls, Vt., previous to his settlement in Salem. 

Seamen's Society : Seaman's Bethel. — When Salem's 
prosperity rested largely upon commerce, and the 
town was not without a considerable population of 
seafarers and their families, some transient, some res- 
ident, they were regarded by the Salem churches as 
a class entitled to special missionary effort. In Aug- 
ust, 1824, a " Bftthel " was opened in a store at the 
head of Derby Wharf as a place of worship, and Rev. 
Eleazer Barnard became the minister. The next 
year Rev. Benjamin H. Pitman succeeded Mr. Bar- 
nard, remaining two years ; and in 1832 Rev. Michael 
Carlton was appointed, and continued in this work 
nearly thirty years, adding, in the latter years of his 
ministry, many of the offices of a minister at large 
and of a dispenser of the charities of the rich among 
the poor to his pastoral and missionary duti&s among 

sailors. A chapel was built on Herbert Street, and 
from its top the '' Bethel " flag long waved an invita- 
tion to all who would come, seamen and others, to 
worship. As the number of seamen has diminished 
in Salem, the special mission work in behalf of sailors 
has become desultory and intermittent at times. Rev. 
Benjamin Knight, a Baptist clergyman living in Salem, 
rather past middle life, took up and carried on the 
same miscellaneous work which Mr. Carlton had pur- 
sued, that of colporteur, preacher and pastor to 
seamen, agent of the charitable in seeking out and 
relieving cases of want, and advocate of temperance— 
in short, the work of a minister at large. Since Mr. 
Knight's death two organizations, not altogether 
friendly to each other, have grown out of his mission, 
both assuming the name of " Bethel " societies, and 
seeking to perpetuate a ministry to the neglected and 
the unchurched like that in which he labored so many 
years. Neither has a settled pastor. One worships 
in the same building in which Mr. Knight preached, 
at the head of Phillips Wharf, the other (lately incor- 
porated) on Derby Street, opposite the Bertram Home 
for Aged Men. 

Church of the Colored People. — Another 
mission enterprise was started by the Salem churches 
about sixty years ago, in 1828, to provide a separ- 
ate place of worship for the colored people of the 
town, it being their own desire to have a church 
home by themselves, in which they would be 
free from unpleasant and intrusive observation, 
and have a more perfect enjoyment of ministra- 
tions of their own selection, and more congenial 
to their feelings and religious habits. A chapel was 
built, in 1828, on South Street, afterwards known 
as Mill Street, and still later as (new) Washington 
Street, the chapel being removed when Washington 
Street was extended up the hill. This litile congre- 
gation called itself at tirst the " Union Bethel Church." 
It had James P. Lewis as a missionary in 1831. It 
several times changed its name. In 1839 it wa.s " Wes- 
leyan Methodist," in 1842 " Zion's Methodist," or 
" Equal Rights Zion's Methodist Church " (unless 
this was a branch of the former), in 1845 again the 
" Wesleyan Methodist Connection in America," in 
1854 " First Free-Will Baptist Society." In 1889 John 
N. Mars was its pastor; in 1845, Samuel Palmer; in 
1855, Rev. James H. Marston. It had many reorgan- 
izations. Its light sometimes flickered, sometimes 
seemed to have gone out. Messrs. Osgood & Batchel- 
der date its extinction within the year 1861. The Af- 
rican Methodist Episcopal Church has several timis 
within the last eight years sent preachers from its 
Conference to undertake a revival of public worship 
among the colored people, and the establishment of a 
church. Rev. Jacob Stroyer and Joseph Taylor have 
each continued efforts to this end for two or three 
years at a time, but unsuccessfully. The po|>ulation 
in whose interest the experiment has been tried is es- 
timated at about three hundred souls in all. Many 



of these are already respected members of other 
churches, satisfied with their church relations. The 
desire of many colored persons, sensitive to surround- 
ing opinion, and constrained by a self-respecting re- 
serve to have their worship apart and by themselves, 
has been well understood and sympathized with, and 
they have been liberally aided in their attempts to 
maintain their own separate meetings on Sunday. 
But it would appear to be wiser, hereafter, to seek 
their absorption in the other churches, where, it may 
be hoped, time and a growing appreciation of the 
spirit of true Christianity will make real the abolish- 
ment of all distinctions of class and race. 

MouMON. — For a few years a church of the " Latter- 
Day Saints," better known as Mormons, existed in 
Salem. It was organized January 1, 1842. Ten years 
before, Joseph Smith, the " prophet " of that sect, 
came to Salem, with associates, and propagated its 
tenets, not unsuccessfully ; in 1843 it had one hundred 
members. Erastus Snow remained here as its elder 
for a year or two. But in 1844, when all the pilgrims 
of this order were ^:etting their faces towards Nauvoo, 
in Illinois, their sacred city, the church in Salem 
obeyed the general impulse and made a clean exodus 
from among the aliens. 

Deaf Mute.s. — A small congregation of deaf mutes 
organized themselves into a religious society in 187G, 
and have had Kev. Philo W. Packard, one of their 
number, as their only pastor. They number about 
twenty persons. Mr. Packard was born in Boston 
February 25, 1838. 

LuTHER.iN Swedish Church. — -One finds the sim- 
ple record in the list of Salem churches for 1884-85 that 
" a Lutheran Swedish Church was organized June 15, 
1884 — no pastor — John Lonn its president. Its place 
of meeting. Central, corner of Charter Street." 

For many years a body of believers, classed as 
"Spiritualists," numerically undeKned and undefin- 
able, at times sufficiently organized for regular meet- 
ings, have had sessions from Sunday to Sunday for 
such communion, utterances and conferences as usu- 
ally characterize their congregations. Those who at- 
tend such gatherings are few compared with the num- 
ber of those who entertain opinions more or less con- 
current with theirs, but to whom they are private 
speculations, or a private faith, calling for no public 
and conventional proclamation, or separate and per- 
manent organization. 

The principal authorities consulted : 

Rev. (;. W. I'phitm's " Sermon at the Dedicntion of the First ChuiTh," 
November IG, lS2b ; " Second Century Lecture," 1829 ; "Address at the 
Rededication of the First Church," December 8, 1SG7. 

Rev. WiHiani Bentley's " Description of Salem" (''Ma«3. Hist. Col.," 
vol. vj., year 1799). 

Rev. .1. H, Felt's " .\nnal8 of Salem," two vols. ; Felt's " Ecclesiastical 
History of New England," vol. i. 

Hon. Daniel \. White's ''N. E. Congregationalism," 1861. 

Lectures by Judge White respecting the " Foundenj of Salem and the 
First Church " 

" Papen* Relating to Rev. Samuel Skelton," by William P. L'pham, 
Est). ("Hist. Col. of Essex Inst.," vol. xiii.). 

" Genealogy of the Slarsh Family," Skelton. 

"Sketch of Salem," by Charles Osgood and Ileiirj' M. Batchelder, 


*• .\ddress before the Essex Bar .\ssociation," by lion. VVm. I>. North- 
end, president of the association. 1S.S5. 

"Discourse on the First Centennial .Anniversary of the Tabernacle 
Church, April 2r., 1835," by Rev. Samuel M. Worcester 

"Narrative of the Controversy between the Rev. Mr. Samuel FisU, 
the Pastor, and a number of the Brethren ol the First Church of Christ 
in Salem," 17.35 ; " Narrative of the Proceedings of the Ecclesiastical 
Council, convened in Salem in 17:H," 1735 ; other published pamphlets 
relating to the above controversy, bound together in a volume in the 
library of the Salem Athenaeum. 

" Brief History of Settlement of Third Church in Salem, ITr.o and of 
the Ecclesiastical Council of 1784," by Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Whitaker. 

" Correspondence in Relation to the Third Church of 1735." 

" First Centenary of the North Church," 1872. 

"Semi-Centennial Sermon " by Rev. Robert C. Mills, D.D., First Bap- 
tist Church. 

" Semi-Centennial .\ddress on the Fiftieth .Anniversary of Dedication Of 
the Universalist Meeting-house and Installutionof Rev. Edward Turner,'' 

" Manual of Cronibie Street Church " 

" Manual of Central Baptist Church." 

" Historical Sketch of Calvary liiplist Church," by Rev. William A. 
Keese, in Report to the Salem Baptist .\ssociation, 1883. 

[In Library of Boston .\thena*um " B. 76, Sermons No. 7^-"] -^ 
tract of six pages ; its title page, iu part, " .\ Direction for a Publick 
Prof-ssion in the Church .\ssembly after the Private Examination of ihe 
Elders " [much referred to in the discussion between Dr. S. M. Worcester 
and Judge D. A. White respecting the covenant and confession of the 
Salem Church, adopted in lt;29]. 

" Reports of the Salem Society of Deaf Mutes, 1876, 1881, 1886." 

■'Roger Williams," article by Porter C. Bliss in "Johnson's Encyclo- 

Sewell's " History of the Quakers." 

Sprague's ".\nnals of the American Pulpit." 

Jlorton'a " New England's Memorial," editions ol 1826 (Davis'), and 
of 18.15 (Cong. Pub. Soc). 

Drake's " History of American Biography." 

Savage's " Genealogical Dictionary." 

Barry's "History of Massachusetts." 

Arnold's " History of Rhode Island." 

Palfrey's " History of New England." 

"Salem Directories." 




Salem may justly be proud of her commercial his- 
tory. No other seaport in America has such a won- 
derful record. Flying from the mast of a Salem ship 
the American flag was first carried into the jiorts be- 
yond the Cape of Good Hope. Her vessels led the 
way from New England to the Isle of France and In- 
dia and China, and were the first from this country to 
display the American flag and open trade at St. Pe- 
tersburg and Zanzibar and Sumatra, at Calcutta and 
Bombay, at Batavia and Arabia, at Madagascar and 
Australia, and at many another distant port. Well 
may she ])roudly inscribe on her city seal Dicilk 
India' uxque ad ultlmum siiiiim. 

The colonists, in the War of the Revolution, were 
almost destitute of ships of war. They were engaged 



in a struggle with one of the most powerful maritime 
nations, without the meiins to cope with their enemy 
on the liigh seas. Their own commerce was ruined, 
and it was essential to their success that provision 
be made for forcing the commerce of Great Britaiu to 
suffer in common with them, the fortunes and viciscii- 
tudes of war. Boston, New York, and the larger sea- 
ports, were occupied and nearly ruined by the enemy, 
and the main reliance of the country was on the ship- 
ping of Salem and the neighboring towns of Beverly 
and Marblehead. 

The merchants of Salem at this crisis showed that 
the resolution passed in town meeting June 12, 1776, 
that " if the Honorable Congress shall for the Safety 
of the United American Colonies declare them inde- 
pendent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, we will 
solemnly engage, with our lives and fortunes, to sup- 
port them in the measure," was no meaningless phrase- 
ology or idle boast. 

They turned their vessels into men of war, and 
built new ones for the service, equipped them with 
cannon, manned them with gallant seamen and sent 
them out to meet Great Britain on the deep. During 
this contest there were sent out from this port at least 
one hundred and fifty-eight vessels, manned by sev- 
eral thousand brave sailors from Salem. They mounted 
more than two thousand guns, carrying on an average 
twelve or fourteen each, and captured during the war 
as many as four hundred and forty-five prizes. 

The war ended, the merchants of Salem found them- 
selves in possession of man}' large and swift-sailing 
vessels which had been built for use as privateers. 
These being too large to be profitably employed in the 
coasting trade, or on the short voyages to other ports 
heretofore visited by Salem ships, their owners de- 
termined to open to distant countries new avenues of 
trade and bring to Salem the products of lands lying 
in the remotest quarters of the globe. 

There was no lack of seamen to man the vessels. 
The young men of the town, fresh from service on the 
armed ships of Salem, were eager to embark in just 
such ventures as a voyage to unknown countries ottered. 
They had served with Haraden in his daring exploits 
oft' the coast of Spain, and had been with West when, 
in the darkness of the night, he cut his prize out of a 
British harbor under the guns of the enemy. What 
wonder that after wielding the cutlass and the board- 
ing pike, they were not contented to put their hands 
to the plough or return to the daily drudgery of the 
work-shop. The spirit of adventure was awakened, 
and the more dangerous and perilous the undertaking 
the better it suited the temper of these wild and cour- 
ageous graduates from the deck of the privateersman. 

From the close of the War of the Revolution until 
the embargo in 1808, Salem was at the height of her 
commercial prosperity. The white sails of Salem's 
ships were unfurled in every port of the known world 
and carried the fame and name of Salem to the utter- 
most parts of the earth. 

The history of this period makes a tale which even 
the imaginings of romance could hardly parallel. It 
is crowded full of the accounts of daring adventures 
by brave seamen in unknown seas, of their encounters 
with pirates and savage tribes, of their contests with 
the armed ships of France and England and of their 
imprisonment among the Algerines and in the prisons 
of France and Spain. 

It was the young men of Salem that officered her 
ships, sailing as captains at an age when the boys of 
the present time are scarcely over their school-days. 
At the beginning of one of the East India voyages of 
nineteen months, neither the captain (Nathaniel Sils- 
bee), nor his first mate (Charles Derby), nor his sec- 
ond mate (Richard J. Cleveland), was twenty years of 
age, and yet these boys carried ship and cargo safely 
to their destination, with imperfect mathematical in- 
struments and with no charts but of their own mak- 
ing, and returned with a cargo which realized four or 
five times the amount of the original capital. With 
no power to communicate with home, the success of 
the undertaking was largely in the hands of these 
youthful captains. Their duty was not ended when 
the ship arrived safely in port, for upon their judg- 
ment and sagacity in buying and selling depended the 
profits of the voyage. 

In those early days, when a vessel left Salem har- 
bor, there was often nothing heard from her until af- 
ter the lapse of a year or more she would come sailing 
back again. To-day the earth is girdled with the tele- 
graph, and the arrival of a ship in the foreign harbor 
can be known at home almost within an hour of her 
reaching port. Then, foreign prices were unknown 
and the result of a voyage might be splendid success 
or ruinous disaster; now, a voyage is merely a passage 
from port to port with the market ascertained before- 
hand at either end. 

When Captain Jonathan Carnes set sail for Suma- 
tra, in 1795, on his secret voyage for pepper, nothing 
was heard from him until eighteen months later, he 
entered with a cargo of pepper in bulk, the first to be 
so imported into this country, and which sold at the 
extraordinaiy profit of seven hundred per cent. This 
uncertainty which hung over the fate of ship and 
cargo lent a romantic interest to these early voyages 
which this age, with its telegraph and steamship, has 

The lower part of the town, in the days of Salem's 
commerce, was full of bustling activity. The wharves 
were crowded with vessels discharging their cargoes, 
gathered from all nations, or loading for another ven- 
ture across the seas. Sailors fresh from the distant 
Indies were chatting on the street corners with com- 
panions about to depart thither, or were lounging 
about the doors of the sailor boarding-houses with 
that indescribable air of disdain for all landsmen 
which seems always to attach to the true rover of the 
seas. They were looked upon by the younger por- 
tion of the community with that curiosity which is so 



near akin to awe, with which we regard those about to 
start upon, or who have just returned from some un- 
commonly perilous undertaking. 

The shops were full of strange and unique articles 
brought from distant lands. The parrot screamed at 
the open door and in the back shop the monkey and 
other small denizens of foreign forests gamboled at 
will, sometimes escaping to the neighboring house- 
tops, much to the delight of the small children who 
gathered to watch their capture with upturned faces 
and expressions of intense interest in the result of the 
chase. Derby Street in those days was well worth a 
visit, if only for the suggestions of foreign lands that 
met the eye on every hand. 

Salem at that time was one of the principal points 
for the distribution of foreign merchandise, over 
eight million pounds of sugar being among the im- 
ports of the year 1800. The streets about the wharves 
were alive with teams loaded with goods for all parts 
of the country. It was a scene with the coming 
and going of vehicle-', some from long distances, for 
railroads were then unknown and all transportation 
must be carried on in wagons and drays. In the 
taverns could be seen teamsters from all quarters sit- 
ting around the open fire in the chilly evenings, dis- 
cussing the news of the day or making merry over 
potations of New England rum, which Salem in the 
good old times manufactured in abundance. 

All this has changed. The sail-lofts where on the 
smooth floor sat the sail-makers, with their curious 
thimbles fastened to the palms of their hands, busily 
stitching the great white sheets of canvas that were 
to carry many a gallant ship safely through storm 
and tempest to her destination in far-distant harbors, 
and that were to be reflected in seas before unvexed 
by the keel of an American vessel, are deserted or 
given over to more prosaic uses, the ship-chandlers' 
shops are closed and the old mathem.atical instrument 
maker has taken in his swinging sign of a quadrant, 
shut up his shop and, as if there was no further use 
for him here, has started on the long voyage from 
which there is no return. 

The merchandise warehouses on the wharves no 
longer contain silks from India, tea fro