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Full text of "History of Essex County, Massachusetts, with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men"

593977A 



THE J\I^ YOKf 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTCK, tENOX ANB 

T1LD2XN F0U::4OATION6 



593977A 

ANDOVER. 



1587 



J 



" WiiEHEAS, The citizens of Andover have read of the battle of 
Tlmreday night, in which Company II of the First Mossacliusetts 
Heavy Artillery waa conaiiicuonsty engaged, ami in which they suffered 
severely in killed and wounded; 

" Saolvcd, That we express to the soldiers of Company H our admi- 
ration of their bravery, and tender them our heartfelt congratulation, 

" llesolveit, That we deeply sympathize with the wounded, and hereby 
convey to them the expression of our wishes and prayers for their 
speedy recovery. 

"Resolmi, That we pledge ourselves to assist, to the extent of our 
ability, our soldiers who are periling their persons aud lives for the pur- 
pose of suppressing this wicked rebellion. 

" lieitohed, That we deeply sympathize with those who are called to 
mourn the death of dear friends who have fallen in buttle." 

At an adjourned meeting it was voted to send a 
commisaion to the army to minister to the wounded 
soldiers from Andover. Rev. J. W. Turner and Mr. 
Joseph Abbott were appointed for this purpose. The 
ne.xt day, at noon, these commissioners departed for 
tlieir duty, talking with them five hundred and forty- 
three dollars, which had been contributed for the 
purpose, the resolutions passed at the meeting on the 
24th inst. and the following letter which had b:;en 
adopted by the citizens : 

"Andover, May 26, 1864. 
" To the oncers and privates of Companrj Sand other soldiers connected with 
the First Regiment Massachusetts Heavy Artillery : 
"Dear Friends, — Last Saturday morning the exciting intelligence 
reached us that you had been in an engagement with the enemy, even 
before reaching the main army. And while your bravery and heroism 
in the deadly conflict were borne to us on every breeze, our admiration 
of your noble and perilous deeds waa mingled with serious apprehen- 
sions that casualties liad ensued which would bring sadness and mourn- 

" The selectmen immedi.ately issued a notice for a meeting of the peo- 
ple, to be I'eld on the same evening. A large number assembled at the 
appointed time, all anxious to do whatever could be done to exhibit 
their sympathy for those in painful suspense, and their friends who 
might be in great suffering. As the information was then meagre, the 
meeting was adjourned to Tuesday evening. 

"The adjourns. i i im- \mi^ ,i \.iy large one, and the interest mani- 
fested was nto^t i-.i; n I , I > M ihi lie. Facts gathered from your let- 
ters wereannuuin I ;)i I h-! n i i > with intense eagerness. Appropri- 
ate addresses were ii!.iJl b^ .-.n . i .U gKUtlemen, conveying expressions of 
condolence and tenderness to the afflicted and sorrowful. 

" The undersigned were appointed a committee to address to you a 
letter, and to prepare and report to the meeting resolutions for adoption 
The subjoined resolutions were reported by the committee, aud adopted 
by a unanimous vote. 

" While our attention is at this time more particularly directed to y('Ur 
company and regiment on account ot the many killed and wounded of 
your number, we would at the same time make appreciative reference 
to our other brave friends, scattered throughout the great loyal array, 
and, like youi-selves, periling all that is dear of earth for the salvation of 
our beloved country. 



■George Foster, 



The commissioners found, in the various hospitals in 
the vicinity of Washington, thirty wounded soldiers 
from Andover, and ministered to their wants as di- 
rected. It was afterward ascertained that the entire 
list of casualties in the company at the first battle 
at Spottsylvania and the succeeding fights till the 
20th of June amounted to eight killed and sixty-two 
wounded, four of the latter dying from their wounds. 



Company H was at firstcomposedof one hundred 
meu, officers and privates, besides two musicians — all 
Andover men. When the regiment was changed from 
infantry to heavy artillery, and the company en- 
larged by the addition of fifty men to correspond with 
the requirements of that branch of the service, An- 
dover furnished the additional number. The larger 
portion of these soldiers, who were not either killed 
or seriously wounded, or prostrated by sickness, con- 
tinued in the company till their terms of enlistment 
expired, and. a moiety of them to the end of the war, 
fighting their way to Richmond, and partaking in the 
honor of witnessing the final struggle and collapse 
of the Rebellion. 

Company H was present with the regiment, and 
performed its full share in the engagements from 
Spottsylvania to the surrender of Lee, viz. : North 
Anna River, May 24, 1864; Tolopotomy Creek, May 
31, 1864 ; Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864 ; Petersburg, 
June 16, IS and 22, 1864; Strawberry Plain, July 26 
and 27, 1864 ; Petersburg Mine, July 30, 1864 ; Deep 
Bottom, August 15 and 16,1864; Weldon Railroad, 
August 25, 1864 ; Poplar Grove Church, October 5, 
1864 ; Boydton Plank-Road, October 27, 1864 ; Raid 
on Weldon Railroad to Bellfield, December 6 to 11, 
1864 ; Hatcher's Run, February 5, 1865 ; Hatcher's 
Run, March 25, 1865; Attack on fort, March 31, 
1865 ; Assault of the line, April 2, 1865 ; Sailor's 
Creek, April 6, 1865 ; Lee's surrender, April 9, 1865. 

Some of those who were wounded at Spottsylvania, 
and others whose term of service had expired, were 
in due time sent on to Boston and mustered out of 
service. These men arrived in town on the 21st 
day of July 1864, after an absence of three years 
and a month nearly. They were received at the station 
by leading citizens of the town, and heartily wel- 
comed by their fellow-townsmen, neighbors, friends 
and the dear ones at home. 

According to the record, " the members of Phillips 
Academy, with their band of music, and attended by 
their teachers, led the escort from the depot to the 
Town Hall. Next followed the selectmen, ministers 
of the town and the committee of reception. The 
soldiers brought home their drummer, George B. 
Clark, who beat the accustomed march, and the 
citizens fell in in along line." 

" At the Town Hall a bountiful collation had been 
prepared by the ladies, to which the tired and hungry 
soldiers were most heartily welcomed amidst the 
greetings aud sympathies of their friends." Alter the 
collation the soldiers were addressed with words of 
welcome and commendation by Francis Cogswell, 
Esq., chairman of the committee on reception. 

Company H, as a company, continued in existence 
till the close of the war, and those Andover soldiers 
who continued in the field to the end were mustered 
out of the United States' service on the 25th of Au- 
gust, 1865, having been in constant service four years, 
one month and twenty-one days. The company went 



1588 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



into the war with one hundred and fifty stalwart men, 
all from Andover. When mustered out there were 
but forty-five men to answer the roll-call. Of the 
one hundred and fiveabsentees, some had been killed, 
some taken prisoners, some wounded and discharged, 
some discharged on account of sickness and others on 
the expiration of their time of enlistment. This small 
remainderof Company H, returning singly or in small 
squads, did not, of course, receive the same popular 
welcome that awaited their comrades of an earlier re- 
turn. 

But they all, the last as well as the first, almost 
without cxceptior, easily refilled their old places, 
taking up again, with cheerfulness and vigor, their 
accustomed duties and vocations before the war. 

Nothing of that idleness, prodigality and dissipation 
that were so bitterly lamented in the case of the dis- 
charged soldiers at the close of the Revolutionary War, 
was ever seen among the returned soldiers of this 
town who fought the liebellion to its death. As a rule, 
they settled back into the ordinary pureuits of peace, 
as if they had done nothing to gain special notoriety. 
Those who still survive, and reside in town, are 
among our most respected inhabitant-!, and many of 
them among our most prosperous citizens. 

The whole number of men furnished by the town 
for the service of the country during the War of the 
Kebellion, in both army and navy, including enlist- 
ments, re-enlistments, representative recruits, assign- 
ments and substitutes, amounted to five hundred and 
ninety-nine, or one hundred and sixty-three more 
than the town's proportion, as determined by the 
number of inhabitants subject to draft, or military 
service. These five hundred and ninety-nine soldiers 
and seamen were distributed among forty-six regi- 
ments, serving in different sections of the country, 
and in an unknown number of war vessels. 

The town expended for army purposes, including 
bounties, during the war, $35,623,85. 

There was also paid by citizens, in addition, $27,226, 
64, including money paid for bounties, substitutes, 
and gifts contributed by the ladies' charitable or- 
ganizations. 

No sketch of the War of the Rebellion is complete 
without an appreciative mention of the unflagging 
labors of the ladies, old and young, in preparing gar- 
ments, blankets and other comforts for the soldiers 
in the field, and cordials and delicacies for those in 
the hospitals. 

Memorial Hall. — After the dose of the war the 
matter of erecting some memorial, to keep in perpet- 
ual remembrance the names of those who gave their 
lives for the salvation of the nation, was freely talked 
over by the citizens. The question was, whether this 
memorial should be a monument or a library. At one 
time a monument was decided upon, and incipient 
measures taken towards procuring one, but without 
success. The town voted four thousand five hundred 
dollars for this purpose; still it failed to enlist the 



warm co-operation of some of the most influential 
people. The matter was held in abeyance, though 
not lost sight of, for a number of years. 

In July of 1870 a letter was received from Mr. 
John Smith, then in Dresden, written to his sou 
Joseph, addressed in part to the town, in which he 
expressed a desire "to commemorate and keep in 
remembrance the names of those who gave their 
lives in defending our National Flag, and saving my 
adopted country to God and liberty." Mr. Smith w..3 
born in Scotland. He further declares his willing- 
ness to give twenty-five thousand dollars for a library 
and reading-room, to be dedicated to this memorial 
purpose, on condition that a like sum be given by 
others, and that only thirty thousand dollars of the 
fifty be expended for land and building. A town- 
meeting was called for August 1st, to take into con- 
sideration the propositions of this letter. At this 
meeting it was announced that Mr. Peter Smith and 
Mr. John Dove, the business partners of Mr. John 
Smith, would each of them give five thousand dollars 
to assist in making up the twenty-five necessary to 
secure Mr. John Smith's ofl'er, but on the additional 
condition that the proposed building should be erect- 
ed on the lot at the corner of Essex and Main Streets, 
recently made vacant by fire, — the lot upon which 
Memorial Hall now stands. To this amount, Mr. 
Joseph W. Smith, Mr. Peter Smith and Mr. Dove 
each added one thousand dollars, making the whole 
sum in pledge thirty-eight thousand dollars. 

The proposition of Mr. Smith was received with 
many tokens and expressions of satisfaction by the 
meeting, and the thanks of the town were voted him. 
For the purpose of complying with the conditions of 
the proposed donations, a committee was raised to so- 
licit subscriptions, it being understood that Mr. 
Smith expected the requisite amount to be raised by 
individual contribution, and not by town taxation. 
At a subsequent meeting the committee thus ap. 
pointed, reported that, after a thorough canvass of 
the town, they had secured subscriptions for eight 
thousand five hundred dollars, in sums varying 
from three hundred and fifty dollars to ten cents! 
and as there appeared to be little likelihood of ob- 
taining the deficiency of three thousand five hun- 
dred dollars by subscription, the committee recom- 
mended that the ibur thousand five hundred dollars 
raised by the town to erect a monument, and still in 
the hands of the treasurer unapplied, be appropriated 
to a memorial building, and thus complete the sum 
necessary to secure the promised donations. This lat- 
ter proposition, being acceptable to the donors present, 
as no further taxation was called for, the town accept- 
ed the proposition of the committee. 

A building committee was chosen, consisting of 
William G. Means, Charles Smith, John L. Taylor, 
David Middleton and Samuel Raymond. 

In carrying out the plan of erecting the building 
on the designated spot, it was found that additional 



1589 



land would be required, and further, that an unlook- 
ed-for outlay of money would be absolutely necessary 
to render the foundations firm and safe. To meet 
this additional expense, and to provide for all other 
contingencies, Mr. John Smith added five thousand 
dollars to his original gift, and other liberal-minded 
gentlemen gave sixteen hundred and fifty dollars 
towards the increased cost. 

The corner-stone of the building was laid with ap- 
propriate services on the 19th day of September, 1871. 

The finished building was dedicated, formally 
opened and delivered into the hands of the town on 
Memorial Day, May 30, 1873. 

The dedicatory prayer was offered by Prof. Ed- 
wards A. Park, of the Theological Seminary, in front 
of the Memorial Hall, and the address was delivered 
in the South Church by Rev. Phillips Brooks, rector 
of Trinity Church, Boston, a lineal descendant of 
Samuel Phillips, the first pastor of the South Church. 

The building contains ample alcoves for library 
uses, a reading-room, committee-rooms and a spa- 
cious hall to be used as a receptacle for mementos of 
the war, portraits of donors, distinguished officers 
and others, pictures of battle scenes and curiosities in 
general. Its chief object of interest is a marble tablet 
let into the west wall, containing the names of the pa- 
triotic dead, who gave their lives for the salvation of 
the nation. 

The building occupies a conspicuous place in the 
centre of the village, and, architecturally, is an orna- 
ment to the town. With its well-selected library 
and inviting reading-room, with its silent tablet ever, 
through the eye, appealing to the heart of the be- 
holder, it is a perpetual incentive to patriotism, to 
a generous culture of the mind, and, through him 
who first conceived and most liberally contributed to 
its erection, to liberal giving for the public good. 

The library at the present time contains nearly a 
thousand books, and the reading-room is well sup- 
plied with newspapers and the magazines of the day, 
and is well patronized. 

Before the erection of the building Mr. John 
Byers, a merchant of New York, a former resident of 
the town, gave three thousand dollars for the benefit 
of the library as a memorial of his brother, Peter 
Smith Byers, first principal-elect of the Punchard 
Free School, who died before entering upon his 
duties. Since the opening of the library Mr. Byers 
has added five thousand dollars to his first donation, 
the money to be kept as a perpetual fund, the income 
of which is to be used for the increase of the library. 

Mr. John Smith, in addition to his other benefac- 
tions, gave three thousand dollars for the benefit of 
the library. The following is a copy of the tablet in 
the Memorial Hall : 

TO THE MEMOEY OF OUR PATRIOTIC DEAD. 

James H. Bailey, 
Died of Jispase at WaskiugtOD, D. C, Sept. 14, 1861. 



Enoch 0, Frye, 
Accidentally killed at Fort Albany, Va., Oct. 29, 18G1. 

Ohakles H. Callahan, 
Died of disease at Chelsea, Mass., May 29, 1862. 

Amos Whittakee, 
Killed at Gaines' Mills, Va., June 27, 1862. 

George M. Smart, 
Died of disease at Fort Albany, Va., July 26, 1862. 

William Greeley, 
Died of disease at Carrollton, La., Aug. 22, 1862. 



Died of c 



t Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 24, 1862. 



Died of disease at Carrollton, La., Aug. 27, 1862. 

William H. Luke, 
Died of wounds at Manassas, Va., Sept. 13, 1862. 

Jefferson N. Raymond, 
Died of disease at New Orleans, La., Sept. 13, 1862. 

James Russell, 
Died of disease at Fort Albany, Va., Oct. 19, 1862. 

James Jaquith, 
Died of disease at New Orleans, La., Dec. 1, 1S62. 

Henry G. Kimball, 
Died of disease at Newbern, N. C, Jan. 1, 1863. 

James W. BIerrill, 
Died of disease at Newbern, N. C, Jan. 20, 1863. 

Joseph Chandler, Jr., 
Died of disease at New Orleans, La., March 10, 1803. 

Newton G. Fhye, 
Died of disease at Andover, Mass., March 28, 1863. 

Died of disease at Andover, Mass., April 7, 1863. 

Died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., May 11, 1863. 

Died of disease at Vicksburg, Miss., July 0, 18G3. 

William H. Wardwell, 
Accidentally killed at Maryland Heights, Md., Aug. 1, 1863. 

Charles A. Clement, 
Died of wounds at Gettysburg, Pa., Sept. 30, 1863. 
WiLLARD a. BODWELL, 

Died of disease at Fori Strong, Va., March 24, 1864. 

Thomas F. Porter, 
Died of wounds at Hampton, Va,, April 15, 1864. 

James Ward, 
Killed at the Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864. 

Samuel Aiken, 
Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1864. 

Israel A. Berry, 
Died of wounds at City Point, Va., April 22, 1865. 

Granville K. Cutler, 
Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1864. 

James H. Eastes, 
Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1864. 

Edward Farmer, 
Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1864. 

Jonathan A. Holt, 
Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1864. 

James H. Rothwell, 
Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1864. 

Enoch M. Hatch. 
Killed near Petersburg, Va., June 16, 1864. 

Bernard HcGurk, 
Killed at Ci.Id Harbor, Va,, June 3, 1864. 
Orrin L. Farnham, 



ryant's Farm, Va., June 17, 1864. 
PKRUS K. Bryant, 
'asliington, D. C, July 3, 1864. 



Died of wo 

Died of wo 

William Bu.ssell, 
Died of wounds at Washington, D. C, July 11, 18B4. 

Thomas A. Bagley, 
Died a prisoner at AndersunviUe, Ga., Aug. 28, 1864. 

Died of disease at Fortress Monroe, Va., Aug. 30, 1884. 



1590 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



George A. Bailey, 
Killed at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864. 

Fkanklin Hardv, 
Killed at Poplar Grove Church, Va., Oct. 2, 18G4. 

Kdwakd 0-Hara, 
Killed at Hatcher's Kun, Va., Oct. 27, 1884. 

Charles P. Barnard, 
Died of diseoaoat Annapons, Md., Dec. 2, 1864. 

James McCusker, 
Died a prisoner at Salisbury, N. C, Doc. 2, 1864. 

Thomas Wardman, 
Died a prisoner at Danville, Va., Dec. 20, 1864. 

John MoCullouoh, 
Died of disease at Andover, Mass., Dec. 24, 1864. 

Walter L. Raimoxb, 
Died a prisoner at Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 25, 1864. 

Geoboe E. Hayward, 
Died of wounds at Andover, Mass., July 24, 1865. 

Leonard W. Rylev, 
Died of disease at Andover, Mass., Aug. 30, 1865. 

Lewis G. Hatch, 
Died of disease at Andover, Mass., January 4, 1866. 

Samuel P. Farnham, 
Died of disease at Andover, Miuis., Jan. 12, 1866. 

Andrew K. Patrick. 
Died of wounds at Fredericksburg, Va. 

The Andover veterans have an encampment of the 
G. A. R., called " General William F. Bartlett Post, 
No. 99," named from the gallant young Massachu- 
setts officer, who came out of the war with a splen- 
did record for heroism and a shattered body. He 
died in December, 1876, of physical exhaustion, 
while in the meridian of his years. The purpose of 
this organization is to care for its sick or destitute 
members, by extending sympathy or material aid, as 
circumstances demand. Its present fund is not far 
from four hundred and fifty dollars. It appears in 
public every year, " on Decoration Day," but with 
ever-decreasing numbers. 

Among the Andover-born men residing in other 
States or places at the time the Rebellion broke out, 
who enlisted and distinguished themselves in the 
war, we find the names of Lieutenant-Colonel Sum- 
ner Carruth, Lieutenant Frank W. Carruth, Lieu- 
tenant Samuel F. Tucker, Captain John C. Crownin- 
shield. 



CHAPTER CXXXV. 

ANDOVER— {Continued). 
TOl'OGEAI'IIY OF ANDOVER. 

When incorporated, Andover was among the largest 
towns in the colony in territorial extent. Since a por- 
tion of its original territory has been taken to form 
Middleton, a large section on its northern border to 
create the city of Lawrence, and the North Parish 
has been incorporated as a separate town, its limits 
have been essentially reduced. But still it is a town 
of fair dimensions, as compared with the average 
town of the State. It has a population of nearly 
sis thousand, with a ta?-list of five million three 



hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. It has 
the Merrimac River and the city of Lawrence on 
the north. North Andover on the east, North Reading, 
Wilmington and Tewksbury on the south, and 
Tewksbury on the west. Its superficial area covers 
not far from ten thousand acres. It is well diversi- 
fied with hill and valley, meadow and plain, wood 
and tillage land. It has a variety of soil from the 
light sandy to the heavy loam, from the thin covering 
of the plains to the deep muck of the marshy mead- 
ows. 

For agricultural purposes the township does not 
compare favorably with many other towns in the 
State, especially with those bordering upon the banks 
of the Connecticut River. Market gardening and 
the production of milk afford the average farmer his 
principal sources of income. By these products, the 
owner of a farm of reasonable dimensions can, with 
industry, thrift and economy, support himself and 
family in comfort, meet the pecuniary obligations of 
a citizen, educate his children, and yearly lay aside 
a small sum for his profit, extraordinaries excepted, 
for old age, or to give his children a start in life. 

That in the topography of the town which is its 
most significant feature, which has had more to do 
with its material prosperity than all other things 
combined, is the Shawshin River. This river takes 
its rise in the towns of Lexington and Bedford, and, 
running in a northeasterly direction, in a zigzag 
course, passes through nearly the centre of Andover, 
and enters the Merrimac River within the territory 
of North Andover. In this small stream, within the 
limits of the town, there are four falls, giving oppor- 
tunity, by the erection of dams, to use the water as 
power and for other purposes in the business of 
manufacturing. These have been utilized, and 
around them four manufacturing villages have grown 
up, — Ballard Vale, Abbot, Marland and Frye, named 
respectively from the men who first owned or made 
extensive use of the water-power. These villages 
contain between two and three thousand inhabit- 
ants. Before the erection of dams, the river must 
have been a most attractive feature of the landscape, 
meandering among the hills and through the meadows, 
sometimes rushing over the rapids, and again slowly 
creeping through the lowlands. 

But the river was destined to be a thing for the 
creation of wealth and beneficence rather than a 
thing of taste and beauty. It was the power furnished 
by this modest stream that supplied the Continental 
army with powder in its direst need. It ran the 
paper-mill of Judge Phillips after the close of the 
war, and was the indirect cause of bringing Mr. Phil- 
lips to the South Parish, increasing his property, and 
thus establishing Phillips Academy and the Theo- 
logical Seminary in this parish. It was the Shaw- 
shin River which induced Mr. .Abraham Marland 
and Mr. John Smith to come to this town and here 
build up their manufacturing establishments. The 



ANDOVER. 



1591 



existence of the four villages and their great indus- 
tries is directly traceable to the coming of these en- 
terprising men. 

We may go further and say that not only are we 
indebted to- the river for these villages and their 
profitable industries, but, no less, for a home-market 
for the products of the farm, employment for a large 
number of persons, profitable business for not a few 
mechanics and tradespeople, a large amount of tax- 
able property to aid in meeting the current expenses 
of the town, and, above all, for the money which has 
been so munificently given by the manufacturers for 
the support of churches and the building up of edu- 
cational institutions. It is well to notice in this con- 
nection, as a special advantage enjoyed by Andover, 
that most of the successful manufacturers on this 
stream have resided in the town. Their homes and 
their business have not been divorced. They have 
built beautiful residences, and otherwise have spent 
their money in the place of their gains. This gives 
them a stake in the welfare of the town, and makes 
them the more careful as to the class of help they 
employ. As a matter of fact, the employes of the 
Smith and Dove Company are among our most rep- 
utable citizens, many of them being Scotch people 
from Brechin and its neighborhood. 

There are at least four elevations, called hills, in 
the town, worthy of notice. Half a mile northeast of 
the centre is Carmel Hill, upon which Mr. Bradley has 
recently built a handsome residence, and from which 
a very delightful view is had of the valley of the 
Shawshin River, Abbot and Frye villages, and the 
hills that stretch up beyond them in the distant hori- 
zon. Pine Hill rises a short distance north of east of 
the seminary, upon which Landlord Carter has erect- 
ed a modern cottage, and from which can be had a 
very charming prospect of the centre of the town, 
extending also far over the western hills. The Sem- 
inary Hill, upon which stand the buildings used for 
both Phillips Academy and the Theological Semi- 
nary, and also the residences of the professors and 
teachers in these institutions, — of less height than 
some other hills, — furnishes also a fine view in a 
westerly and northwesterly direction. 

But the hill of chief interest and reputation is 
Prospect Hill, situated about a mile southeast of the 
seminary. It is four hundred and twenty-three feet 
above the level-of the sea, and is said to be the high- 
est land in Essex County. It commands an exten- 
sive panorama of three-fourths of the circuit of the 
horizon. From its summit, on a clear day, may be 
seen the ocean, the smoke of half a dozen cities, some 
thirty church spires, — the Danvers Insane Asylum, 
Tewksbury Almshouse, and innumerable hills and 
mountains in the far distance. Half-way up its 
grassy side, on a small plateau, is an old-fashioned 
farm-house, weather-worn and solitary, built more 
than one hundred and seventy years ago, still firm in 
its timbers, in which have lived and died eight gen- 



erations of the Holt family, the proprietors of the 
hill, some of whom have lived on this breezy height 
to be more than four-score and ten years of age. The 
place has passed into other hands. 

From all these hills the sunset views are unsurpassed 
and seldom equaled by those of any other locality 
known to the writer. The Italian sunsets from the 
Pincio, at Rome, do not surpass, in bewitching beauty 
and inimitable coloring, the sunsets of our New Eng- 
land, as seen from these Andover heights. It is true, 
however, that the view of Monte Rosa, in Italy, from 
Lake Lugano, when its snow-capped peak is bathed 
in the morning sunlight, excels in richness of color- 
ing and awe-inspiring grandeur anything ever seen 
here. 

There are three ponds in the town of sufficient ex- 
tent to attract attention. Foster's Pond, on the 
southern border of the town, named from a former 
proprietor of the surrounding land, contains fifty 
acres, the waters of which, when allowed by the mill- 
owners, find their way to the Shawshin River, a little 
above Ballard Vale. Pomp's Pond, named after a 
negro, who for many years lived in a hut built upon 
its banks, contains a little more than seven acres. It 
is situated about half a mile west of the seminary, 
near the Shawshin, into which it empties. Formerly, 
when partially surrounded by a heavily-timbered pine 
forest, this small pond was a favorite place of resort 
for the pupils of the schools and others, who enjoyed 
a stroll or a lounge ujjon ground carpeted by the 
needles of the pine, and shaded by its swaying, musi- 
cal branches, in sight of rippling, cooling water. But, 
since the hills have been denuded of their magnifi- 
cent trees, and the pond has been thus laid bare to 
the full gaze of the sun, its loneliness and charm have 
measurably departed. 

Hagget's is the third pond, and far the most im- 
portant of the three. Its name is derived from that 
of a family that formerly owned a farm skirting its 
banks. It is situated in the westerly part of the West 
Parish, a little less than three miles from the centre 
of the town. Its superficial dimensions are two hun- 
dren and twenty acres. Its outlet is into the Merri- 
mac River. This pond, or lake, as it would be called 
in any other country, is a charming sheet of water, crys- 
tal-clear and sparkling, with shores like ocean beaches 
for shimmering brightness and inviting cleanliness, 
with wooded islands dotted here and there upon its rip- 
plingbosom, almost surrounded and enfolded by forests, 
with pine-covered hills rising up from its shores. In 
England this lake would rank with Windermere and 
the Rydal Lakes. It much resembles Loch Katrine, 
in Scotland, made memorable by the genius of Walter 
Scott, in his delightful poem, "The Lady of the 
Lake." Here we have the counterpart of Ellen's 
Isle (only much more beautiful) of the Scotch lake, 
described by the poet, lying at about the same dis- 
tance from the pebbly shore, wooded and bewitching 
in its silvery setting. 



1592 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



An observer upon the neighboring hill — Wood's 
Hill, an unpoetic name — might recall those lines of 
the Scotch poet, — 



1., , , 1. : .. i.,i,.:ithliimroird- 

Witli pioTiumtui y, crei'k and bay. 
And islands that, empurpled bright. 
Floated amid the livelier light, 
And mountains that like giants stand 
To sentinel enchanted land." 

If viewed on a summer's morn, these lines might 
come to mind, — 

" The summer dawn's reflected hno 
To purple changed Loch Katrine blue ; 
Mildly and soft the western breeze 
Just kiss'd the lake, just stirr'd the trees. 
And the pleased lake, like maiden coy, 
Trembled but dimpled not for joy , 
The mountain shadows on her breast 
Were neither broken nor at rest ; 
In bright uncertainty they lie, 
Like future joys to Fancy's eye." 

To those who enjoy drives in the country there are 
few places more inviting than Andover. The roads 
are numerous and good. One can leave the central 
part of the town for six successive days in the week, 
returning to nearly his starting-point, without pass- 
ing over many rods of road twice. The winding and 
woody by-paths are especially attractive. Following 
them, you are led over sightly hills and through som- 
bre dells, coming unexpectedly upon some delightful 
view or inviting nook, continually meeting with sur- 
prises, thus stimulating a free play of the fancy. 

Those who have spent their youth, or have passed 
their academic days here, keep in memory the beau- 
ties of the place, and often recur to them with 
pleasure. 

Dr. William Adams, a native of the town, trained 
in her schools, on returning here after a long absence, 
to attend the jubilee exercises of the semi-centennial 
of the Theological Seminary, in au address to his fel- 
low-alumni of the institution, having referred to the 
changes that had taken place in men and things since 
the time of their leaving the seminary, uses these 
felicitous words: 



" But I 



■ thing. 



-the 



t sure, is here unchanged and un 
Betting of the summer and the autumn sun behiud yonder mountains. I 
have looked upon the far-famed sunsets of Italy, and my sober convic- 
tion is, that never was there a display of the beauties and glories of the 
firmament more magnificent than that which is often furnished, from 
this very spot, to those who are here in training for the Christian minis, 
try ; as if to them, like the Apostle, at Patmos, a door were opened into 
heaven. Even now, after years of absence, I cannot rid myself of the 
impression— deepened by so many hours of twilight musings— that the 
transition from this favored place to the mausions of the blessed is 
specially easy and natural, that the gates of pearl and the stones of 
sapphire lie just beyond those gorgeous clouds in the western sky, which 
forever and ever are taking and giving glory iu the light of the setting 



CHAPTER CXXXVI. 

A'SVOVER— (Continued). 
ECCLE.SIA.STICAL. 

South Parish.— Andover, as originally incorpor- 
ated, embraced the present town. North Andover and 
all of Lawrence lying south of the Merrimac River. 
The first settlement, as has been previously stated, was 
at what is now the old centre of North Andover. 
Here was the house of worship, the home of the 
minister, the place for the transaction of public busi- 
ness, the residence of the principal men of the town. 

But, in the course of half a century, a change took 
place. Thus, when, in 1707, it became necessary to 
provide a new meeting-house, it was found, on a 
test vote as to the location of this new house, that a 
majority of the voters, and hence of the inhabitants, 
resided in the southerly and westerly sections of the 
township. This majority insisted that the new meet- 
ing-house should be built much nearer their 
residences, and hence some distance from the old 
site. An irreconcilable division took place on this 
question. The matter was carried to the General 
Court, resulting finally in a division of the town into 
two precincts or parishes, by order and under the super- 
vision of the court. This was the beginning, ecclesi- 
astically, of Andover as it now is. Hence, in 
considering the ecclesiastical affairs of the town, no 
mention will here be made of the ministers, meeting- 
houses or other parish matters previous to 1707. This 
will be conceded to the able historian of North 
Andover. 

The South Parish, having been legally constituted, 
held its first legal meeting for business purposes on 
the 20th of June, 1709. The first business of the 
meeting was " to see whether we. can agree where 
to set our new Meeting- House." After some delay 
an agreement was finally made to set the meeting- 
house " at y" Rock on the west side of Roger 
Brook," near the present site of the Centre Primary 
School-house. The house was built and occupied for 
the first time in January, 1710 ; £108 was raised to 
meet its cost. " Young men and maids had liberty 
to build seats round in the galleries on their own 
charge." 

A minister for the new parish and meeting-house 
was at once sought. Mr. Samuel Phillips, a graduate 
of Harvard College, not yet twenty-one years of age, 
was invited to preach as a candidate for settlement. 
He commenced his novitiate on April 30, 1710. 
After a six months' trial, the parish, on November 
2d, voted "clearly in y' aftirmative" on the question 
of his "continuance" with them. Less than six 
weeks later, December 12th, the parish " unanimous- 
ly " requested him to become their "settled minister." 
Hesitating, on account of his extreme youth, to 
assume at once so grave a re.spousibility, he continued 



THE NEW YORKj 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ANDOVER. 



1593 



his ministerial services, without ordination, till Octo- 
ber 17th of the following year. On that day he was 
ordained and inducted by an ecclesiastical council 
into the office of pastor and teacher of the South 
Parish and Church in Andover. On the same day, 
and by the same council, the church was organized 
and recognized. 

The church was composed of thirty-five members, 
fourteen males and twenty-one females, viz. : 



Abbot, George. 

Abbot, Dorcas (w. Geo.). 

Abbot, John. 

Abbot, Sarah (w. John). 

Abbot, Sarah (w. Beuj). 

Abbot, Neheniiah. 

Abbot, Abigail (w. Dea. Neh). 

Ballard, Eebecca (w. Johu). 

Ballaid, Hannah (w. VVm). 

Bigsby, Hannah (w. Uan'l). 

Blanchard, Anne (w. Jona). 

Chandler, William. 

Chandler, Sarah (w. Wm). 

Chandler, Thomas. 

Chandler, Mary (w. Thos). 

Dane, Francis. 

Dane, Hannah (w. Francis). 

Farnum, Kalph. 



Ralph) 



Johnson, John. 
Johnson, Mary (w, John). 
Lovejoy, William. 
Lovejoy, Mary (w. Wm). 
Lovejoy, Mary (w. Eben). 
Osgood, Christopher. 
Phillips, Samuel. 
Preston, Sarah (w. John). 
Russ, John. 

RusB, Deborah (w. John). 
Russell, Mary (w. Eobt). 
Kussell, Phebe (w. Thos). 



The first deacons of the new church were John 
Abbot and William Lovejoy. The ministry, thus 
begun, continued for nearly sixty years after his ordi- 
nation, terminating only with the life of the pastor, 
in the eighty-second year of his age. 

As the number of worshippers increased, the meet- 
ing-house failed to furnish them suitable accommo- 
dation, and in 1733-34 a new house was erected, 
"after the same form and fashion as the old," only 
larger, being " thirty feet between plate and sill, and 
forty-four feet wide, and fifty-six feet in length." 
This was opened for public service on May 19, 1734. 
The " seating '' of this house, as in all similar cases 
in the churches of New England of that day, was a 
very difficult and delicate task. After many plans 
had been suggested and rejected, it was finally settled 
that a committee should be appointed to "dignify 
seats and pews," and another committee should allot 
the seats and pews according to "their judgment, 
having respect to money and age." This plan lasted 
for twenty-three years, and. was then abandoned for 
other and varied methods. In a letter from Hon. 
Josiah Quincy to Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, we 
have a description of this house as it appeared to 
him, then a pupil in Phillips Academy : 

" It was surrounded by horse-blocks innumerable with a dispropor- 
tionate number of sheds; for the pillion was the ladies' traveling 
delight, and alone or in p.iir8, with their husbands or fathers, they 
seldom failed to come trooping to their devotions. The church itself 
was a shingled mass, lofty, and, I should think, cont.iining twice the 

boyish fancy, but it had ttnc- |i4t\ ~i. i ^ \> ii!: Hi! . --lileries in the 
interior, always densely flll.-l xiUi ;,|.|.., :,ii. , ..,,1 and earnest 

tlemen, in the midst of whom aud in h„„t sat the tythiug-man, with 
his wliite pole three or four cubits in length, the emblem of his dignity 
and power, and .in his right hand 

100 J 



short hazel rod, which, 



anon, in the midst of the sermon, to the awakening and alarm of the 
whole congregation, be would, with the whole force of his arm, bring 
down with a ringing slap on the front of the gallery, shaking it, at the 
same time, with a terrific menace, at two or three frightened urchins 
who were whispering or playing in a corner. In a square box in front 
of the pulpit sat the Deacons, one of whom had pen, ink and paper, and 
was carefully taking the heads of the preacher's discourse, preparing 
documentary evidence, either that the sermon was old, or its doctrines 
new, or consonant with the orthodox platform, fn the front gallery 
sat Procenter Ames, or Eames, with a pitch-pipe, the token of his au. 
thority, with which, as soon a.s the first line of the Psalm was read, he 
gave the note to the choir of both sexes,— twenty or thirty of each,— fol- 
lowing the Deacon, reading line by line, in an ecstasy of harmony which 
none hut the lovers of music realize. And the mighty congregation 
seemed to realize their felicity, for they joined the choir with a will, 
realizing or exemplifying the happiness of which they sung. Upon the 
whole, it was an exciting scene, elevating and solemnizing the mind, by 
the multitude that took part in it. 

"The windows of the vast building were of diamond-shaped glass- 
panes, of rhomboid form, in length about three or four inches, in breadth 
perhaps two or three. Opening like doors outward, these windows were 
loose and shackling. In the winter, when the north wind shook the 
vast building with unmistakable power, their rattling was often a match, 
and sometimes an over match, for the voice of the clergyman, while the 
pious females in the pews, sitting, for the most part, on hard benches, 
with small mutfs, and their feet only comforted with small stoves, or 
stockings over shoes, or heated bricks, had much ado through their suf- 
ferings to keep their attention fixed, or the text in memory, and regis- 
heads into which it was divided." 



Rev. Mr. Phillips died June 5, 1771. In less than 
a year after, May 20, 1772, the church and parish 
united in giving Mr. Jonathan French a unanimous 
call to become their pastor. He accepted and was 
ordained September 23, 1772. Previous to the calling 
of Mr. French there had been considerable talk in 
the parish about building another meeting-house. 
There was now, as heretofore, great diversity of 
opinion as to the location of the new house. After 
much conflicting and dilatory action on the part of 
the parish, it was finally voted, in December, 1787, to 
go forward and build a new meeting-house according 
to a plan that had been submitted. This house was 
seventy feet in length and fifty-four feet in width, 
" with a porch at each end and one in front," and to 
stand within six or eight rods of the former house. 
The new building was completed and occupied De- 
cember 7, 1788. 

Mr. French continued in the pastorate of the 
church and parish till his death, which took place 
July 28, 1809, embracing a period of thirty-six years 
and ten months — covering the time of the American 
Revolution, with all its attending and succeeding 
anxieties, privations, distresses and forebodings. It 
was a ministry of help, sympathy, consolation and 
cheer. 

After the death of Rev. Mr. French the parish re- 
mained for more than three years without a settled 
pastor. This large parish had become somewhat fas- 
tidious and hard to please. The fiict that a theologi- 
cal seminary had been located within its limits, with 
a corps of able and eloquent professors, who, with the 
students, belonged to the congregation of worshippers, 
may have bad something to do with this difficulty in 
finding a man suitable for the place. After a number 
of ineffectual trials to unite upon a candidate, ''the 



1591 



UISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



attention of the people was turned towards Mr. Justin 
Edwards, then a member of the middle cliiss in the 
Theological Seminary." After some conference with 
Mr. Edwards on the part of the church committee, in 
which he expressed great hesitation as to assuming so 
grave a charge, the church and parish with a good 
degree of unanimity extended to him an invitation to 
settle with them in the gospel ministry. He was 
ordained and installed as pastor on the 2d day of 
December, 1812. The parish at this time included a 
large circuit of territory and a large number of i)eo- 
ple. Their meeting-house was the only place of 
juiblic worship in the precinct. The students and 
teachers of Phillips Academy and the students and 
professors of the Theological Seminary were stated 
attendants upon and active participants in its reli- 
gious services. The pulpit and pastoral labor of a 
minister of such a parish was necessarily exacting to 
both mind and body. 

After four years of such labor, in ISlfi, a portion 
of the congregation was withdrawn by the formation 
of a church in connection with the Theological Sem- 
inary. Since this date the students, teachers and 
professors of the two institutions have worshipped in 
their own chapel. 

The West Parish was also set off during the min- 
istry of Mr. Edwards, with the cheerful concurrence 
of those who remained in the old parish. 

After an acceptable pastorate of fourteen years and 
ten months. Rev. Mr. Edwards was dismissed October 
1, 1827. 

But a brief interval elapsed before the church and 
parish unanimously invited Mr. Milton Badger to 
become their pastor. 

He accepted and was ordained and installed Janu- 
ary 3, 1828. His ministry continued for seven 
years, and nine months, when he was dismissed to 
become secretary of the American Home Missionary 
Society. During his comparatively brief ministry 
there were unusually large accessions to the church. 
It was a time of extensive revivals in the New Eng- 
land churches, the era of evangelists, and the South 
Parish shared liberally in the iniluences and bless- 
ings of the awakened interest in religious matters. 

During his ministry radical changes were made in 
the arrangement of the meeting-house. The square 
pews of immemorial usage were taken out and long 
pews substituted ; the front porch was removed ; the 
pulpit transferred to the west end of the house, and 
the galleries changed to correspond with the other 
improvements. 

It was during this ministry also that the Method- 
ists and Baptists first held public worship in the 
town. The Methodists drew off a few church 
members, and a much larger number of tax-payers, 
from the parish. The Baptist Church, formed in 1832, 
while making no draft upon the church, took quite a 
number of people from the parish into its society. 
Mr. Lorenzo L. Longstroth, having received a 



unanimous call from both church and parish, was or- 
dained and installed May 11, 1836. Being in feeble 
health, he was dismissed after a ministry of two years 
and ten months. 

Mr. John L. Taylor succeeded Mr. Longstroth, 
being ordained and installed July 18, 1839. His min- 
istry extended over thirteen years, when he was dis- 
missed to become the treasurer of Phillips Academy. 
On his leaving, the church put on record their belief 
that he had " performed the duties of his high oSce 
with great ability, fidelity and discretion." During 
this ministry the anti-slavery agitation was at its 
height, and the church suffered no little in its peace, 
and somewhat in its membership, from the activity of 
that wing of the Abolitionists styled " Come-Outers." 

The day following the dismission of Rev. Mr. Taylor, 
the church and parish gave a call to Rev. Chas. Smith, 
which he accepted, and was installed as pastor October 
28, 1852. After a ministry of one year and one month, 
against the wishes of the people, but for reasons satis- 
factory to himself and the council called to act upon 
his request for a dismission, he was dismissed to ac- 
cept the call of the Shawmut Church, Boston. 

On the retirement of Mr. Mooar, who succeeded 
Mr. Smith, the latter was invited to resume the pas- 
torate of the South Church and Parish. This invita- 
tion he accepted, and was re-installed December 18, 
1861. He was dismissed May, 1876, after a pastorate 
of fourteen years and five months. His two pastorates 
together extended over fifteen years and six months, 
a longer period than that of any other pastor, with 
the exceptions of Mr. Phillips and Mr. French, the 
life-tenure pastors. The last ministry of Mr. Smith 
covered the years of the Civil War, — those years of 
anxiety, strife and anguish, when the people were 
called to give their beloved sons a sacrifice for the sin 
of the nation. 

After the first resignation of Mr. Smith the parish 
was without a settled pastor for nearly two years, 
when an invitation was unanimously given to Mr. 
George Mooar, a native of the town, and a recent 
graduate of the Theological Seminary, to become the 
pastor. This invitation was accepted, and Mr. Mooar 
was ordained and inst.illed October 10, 185o. After a 
pastorate of a little less than five years and six 
months, the health of his fiimily and his own being 
somewhat impaired, Mr. Mooar asked a release from 
his pastorate to accept a charge in Oakland, Cali- 
fornia. His request being granted, he was dismissed 
March 27, 1861. 

During the ministry of Rev. Mr. Mooar, and large- 
ly through his indefatigable exertions, the present 
house of worship was built. This house, while not 
the largest built on or near the spot it occupies, is- by 
far the most commodious in its appointments and 
pleasing in its architectural proportions. The stee- 
ple, in its front view, is one of the most satisfying to 
the eye it has been the fortune of the writer to look 
upon. It has a seating capacity for nine hundred 



ANDOVER. 



1595 



people, most ample for all the needs of the parish. 
As an auditorium, both for speaker aud hearer, it is 
excelled by few buildings of its size. 

The second pastorate of Mr. Smith was followed 
by that of Rev. James H. Laird, who was installed 
May 10, 1877. After faithfully serving the church 
and parish for six years, he was, at his own request, 
dismissed May 11, 1883. 

Mr. Laird was followed by Rev. John J. Blair, 
who was installed May 1, 188-t, and is the present 
efficient and acceptable pastor of the church. 

Pastors of the 8oulh Church. — Rev. Samuel Phil- 
lips, the tirst pastnr of the church, was born in Sa- 
lem, February 17, 1690. He was the son of Samuel 
Phillips, goldsmith, and Mary Emerson, daughter of 
Rev. John Emerson, minister of Glouce.ster; grand- 
son of Rev. Samuel Phillips, minister of Rowley; 
great-grandson of Rev. George Phillips, the first min- 
ister of Watertown. The last named was a graduate 
of Caius College, Cambridge, England, and for his 
first pastorate was settled over a Church of England 
parish. Coming to entertain conscientious scruples 
regarding certain ecclesiastical usages of the Estab- 
lished Church, he left its service and joined the Non- 
conformists. By this change of ecclesiastical con- 
nection, hi-j love for the work of the ministry, in- 
stead of diminishing, became more ardent. To 
gratify this holy passion, he joined a company of 
people entertaining like views with himself, for the 
purpose of emigrating to the New World. They 
soon embarked on the good ship " Arbella" for their 
chosen destination. In this gracious company were in- 
cluded John Winthrop, Rev. John Wilson, Simon 
Bradstreet, one of the first settlers of Andover, and 
others of like character and faith. Soon after land- 
ing, Mr. Philliiis, with a small company, pushed out 
into the wilderness and commenced a new settle- 
ment, now called Watertown. Here he established 
a church, and, after fourteen years of arduous aud 
successful labor, died, greatly lamented by all the peo- 
ple of his parish, and of the colony as well. He is 
said to have been, from the first, a leader in the coun- 
cils of both the church and the colony. By his self- 
denying, painstaking devotion to the interests of the 
people, by his simple-hearted fidelity to that which 
is true and good in faith and life, he so greatly en- 
deared himself to his people that, at his death, in the 
vigor of his manhood, they took upon themselves, in 
their poverty, the charges for the liberal education of 
his eldest son, Samuel, who in time became the hon- 
ored minister of Rowley. This son was the grand- 
father of the Rev. Samuel Phillips, minister of the 
South Parish, Andover. 

It was with the prestige of such an ancestry, dis- 
tinguished alike for their piety and their learning, 
their conscientiousness and self-sacrifice, their faith 
in God and their service to men, that he modestly as- 
sumed the duties of his high office. His coming was 
an era in the history of the town. In him was heldi 



potentially, its future distinction and celebrity. The 
family of the worshipful Simon Bradstreet, which 
had been socially so pre-eminent, and si potent in 
all public aftairs, had disappeared, leaving slight, if 
any, permanent traces of its dominant influence. A 
new name came to take its place, destined to impress 
its beneficent influence inettaceably upon the institu- 
tions and character of the town. From the first Mr. 
Phillips secured a firm hold upon the esteem and af- 
fections of his people, which he retained to the end 
of his life. Soon after his settlement they describe 
him, in a petition to the General Courf, as " a worthy, 
learned and pious minister." To this opinion they 
adhered, from father t) son, for three-score years. 

The Rev. Abiel Abbot, in his brief but valuable 
"History of Andover," published in 1829, gives us 
the following sketch of Mr. Phillips : 

" He was eDdued with good powers of miud, and was a diligent, faith- 
ful and useful minister. He early acquired the habit of order, industry 
and economy in the management of all bis affairs, by which ho was en- 
abled to accomplish much and obtain his object. Though he sacredly 
devoted a tenth of his income to pious and charitable purposes, and his 
salary was small, yet he educiiti^l his family liberally, and accumulated 
a large estate. In his opinion li w i i ' 1 1\ imsi of the old school. As 
a preacher, be was highly [>-, i 1 'iis, and endeavoi-ed not 

only to indoctrinate his pe.i|. I ■liich he deemed correct 

and important, but to lead tin hi i . ih |M,Mti fall Christian duties. 

Being strongly attached to his views of (.'bristianity, he exerted himself 
to defend and propagate them, both by preaching and writing, and to 
guard his people against opinions contrary to them. His anxiety on this 
subject may be easily seen in some of his last publications. His labom^ 
in the pulpit were protracted beyond what is usual at the present day. 
His hour-glass was turned at the commencement of bis sermon, and 
the last sands ran out before its conclusiou. It was his practi- e to 
call at every house in his parish at least once in a year, and he of 
ten carried Madam with bim in these parochial visits. Tliey usually 
rode together on the same horse, according to the fashion of the 
times. He bad much influence in persuading parents to attend to pa- 
rental duties and household worship. The people, during his minis- 
try, were remarkably united, and bis parish was free from sectaries. 
Thougli a man of considerable humour, yet there was an apparent 
sternness, which caused undue fear in many of his people, and espe- 
cially in the young. Mr. Phillips was highly respected by his 
brethren in the ministry, and was frequently invited to preach on 
public occasions." 

This statement of Mr. Abbot is doubtless a fair 
one, so far as it goes, but it fails to give us the im- 
pression of a person of such strength and gentleness, 
persistency and patience, clear insight into the heart 
of things, and judicious adaptation to the exigencies 
of the hour, as we look for in a man who held un- 
questioned for sixty years the reins of authority in a 
large and intelligent parish, and gave to the world, 
through blood and training, a family of children of 
such marked abilities and virtues. Without being 
an eloquent preacher or a profound philosopher, he 
must have been an able, well-proportioned man, fill- 
ing his place admirably, and, in his children, perpet- 
uating his virile influence down the generations. 

It seems hardly credible that a country pastor, on a 
salary of seventy pounds, or three hundred and fifty 
dollars, with the use of the ministerial house and 
lands, should have " accumulated a large estate.'' 
The wonder grows when we learn that one-tenth ot 



1596 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUiSTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



this was given to pious and cliaritable objects; that 
his was a hospitable house, with attending servants; 
that he brought up in comfort a family of five chil- 
dren, two of whom were educated at Harvard College ; 
and that the parish was slack in paying him his dues, 
being in debt to him at one time fifty-three hundred 
I>ounds. This heavy default in payment was not al- 
lowed to pass unnoticed. The parish was faithfully 
admonished of its wrong-doing, aud urged to make a 
settlement ; then offered an abatement of seven hun- 
dred pounds on certain conditions ; and, closing his 
lengthy and mathematically clear statement, the good 
pastor says, — "And finally, my dear brethren, if, after 
all y' has been said, you do rather incline to Defer 
y° s'' Settlement, and shall choose to go on Still in 
Love, as you have done of late, viz., to allow me sev- 
enty pounds lawfull money, and my fire-wood annu- 
ally, r Shall Submit to your Pleasure in that matter." 

The parish chose " to go on Still in Love." 

It is evident that the pastor and his wife 
(emphatically the latter) must have possessed rare 
gifts for the conduct of a household and the wise uses 
of money. There was, of course, rigid economy in the 
family, but, so far as we know, no pinching, no 
shabbiness, no pecuniary distress or embarrassment. 
We can understand how economy must have been 
reduced to a system in all domestic aflairs, and 
can credit the statement that the pastor who tithed 
his income, " was so economical as to blow out the 
candle when he began his evening prayer." But 
there was nothing sordid in this minutiK in saving. 
Free-giving, but no waste, must have been his 
motto. 

Near the close of his life the parish made such a 
settlement of his claims as to call out from him the 
warmest expressions of gratitude, attended by an 
offer of " one hundred pounds, lawful money, to be 
improved for such purposes as the parish shall direct." 
In his will he also left to the pa»ish one hundred 
pounds, the income of which was to be used for the 
benefit of the poor of the parish. From that day to 
the present the poor have yearly profited by this be- 
quest. He also bequeathed one hundred pounds for 
the propagation of Christian knowledge among the 
Indians. 

Mr. Phillips was a dignified man, and realized fislly 
the distinction belonging to his office. His manners 
were such as to inspire respect, veneration and, per- 
chance, "fear" on the part of some. The parish 
minister of that day was the distinguished man of 
the town, to whom deference was paid by all. Mr. 
Phillips received this deference as his due, and, while 
courteous to all, was reserved and mindful of his offi- 
cial position. 

We have from the pen of an eye-witness a graphic 
account of his appearance and manner as he came 
before the people on the Sabbath. As he deliber- 
ately passed from his house to the meeting-house, on 
the opposite side of the street, at the hour of worship, 



" he was flanked on the left by his black body- 
servant, and on his right by madam and her colored 
maid and the children. His movements were precise 
and stately, as was becoming in a mau occupying his 
exalted position. As hedrewnearthehouseof worship 
the people who were gathered about the doors hastened 
within to their seats, and when he entered the house 
of God, with head uncovered, the whole congregation, 
as was the hereditary custom, rose from their seats, 
and remained standing until he had ascended the 
long flight of steps to the pulpit, entered the sacred 
enclosure and seated himself. At the close of the 
service the same deference was paid the minister 
on retiring, the congregation rising and standing till 
he and his family had passed into the porch of the 
sanctuary. This was one of the ways in which both 
pastor and people deemed it fitting that the worship- 
pers of God should show their reverence for his con- 
secrated ambassador." 

The sermons of Mr. Phillips, many of which, in 
manuscript, have been preserved, are neatly written, 
methodical in construction and easy to be understood. 
They are earnest, often bold, in the rebuke of the pre- 
vailing vices and follies, — intemperance, licentious- 
ness, extravagence. His preaching was for the mo.st 
part practical rather than doctrinal, dealing with the 
condition of his hearers rather than with speculations 
concerning future possibilities. And, withal, his ser 
mons show a frequent iteration of the same truth, 
teaching, administration and rebuke. 

Mr. Phillips published a number of sermons andsmall 
treatises, — one of the most noticeable of the latter be- 
ing that entitled, " Seasonable Advice to aNeighbor." 
This treatise, published in 1761, is in the form of a 
dialogue, and is dedicated to the people of his parish, 
with the prayer that "they might always hold fast to 
the foim of sound words, and especially that they 
might not settle any succeeding minister of opposite 
faith." 

In this tract Mr. Phillips clearly manifests his con- 
fidence in the Calvinistic theology and the Westmin- 
ster Confession. He sets forth, with the earnestness 
born of conviction, the doctrines of "original sin," 
the " necessity of the new birth," "justification by 
faith without the works of the law," " divine decrees " 
and " the saints' perseverance." And, while the 
author " would not be understood" as intending "to 
confine real Christianity" strictly "to those who are 
fully in the scheme called Calvinistic," he is yet 
" fully persuaded that these truths are most conson- 
ant, not only to antiquity, but also to the true standard, 
the word of inspiration." 

Shortly after his settlement, when the ministerial 
house had been built, January 17, 1711-12, Mr. 
Phillips married Hannah White, daughter of John 
White, Esq., of Haverhill. She was a worthy, capa- 
ble, pious woman, who greatly assisted her husband 
in his parochial duties, aud, by her prudent, discreet 
conduct in the parish, her careful and judicious man- 



ANDOVEK. 



1597 



agement of their domestic affairs, and her wise over- 
sight and training of their children, contributed 
largely to the ministerial success of her husband, and 
to the developement of the noble and generous traits 
of her sons. She died at the home of her son Samuel, 
in North Andover, January 7, 1773, two years after 
tlie death of her husband, in the eighty-second year 
of her age. 

They had five children, — three sons and two daugh- 
ters. Mary, born November 30, 1712, married 
Samuel Appleton, of Haverhill ; died December 5, 
1737, aged twenty-five. 

Lydia, born June 10, 1717, married Dr. Parker 
Clark, of Andover; died November 4, 1749, aged 
thirty-two, leaving children. These children were 
tenderly referred to by Mr. Phillips in his will, made 
in the seventy-fourth year of his age. His sons had 
at this time secured for themselves social position and 
substantial possessions. To them he says: "My de- 
sire and prayer is y' my s'' three sons may continue to 
live in love, and y' they still behave respectfully and 
dutifully towards their aged, tender and good mother, 
even unto the end ; and y' they go on to shew kind- 
ness to y° motherless children of their beloved sister 
Lydia. And, in a word, that they make it their care 
to be found in Christ, and to serve their generation 
according to y' will of God, by doing good as they 
shall have opportunity unto all men, and especially 
to y" household of faith ; as knowing y' it is more 
blessed to give than to receive." 

Samuel, born February 13, 1715, died August 21, 
1790. 

John, born December 17, 1719, died August 21, 
1795. 

William, born June 25, 1722, died January 15, 1804. 

Of these three sons of Mr. Phillips there will be 
further mention in connection with Phillips Acad- 
emy. 

Rev. Jonathax Frexch, the second minister of 
the South Parish, was born in Braintree, January 30, 
1740. He was the youngest son of Dea. Moses 
French and Esther Thayer French. On his mother's 
side he was a descendant of John Alden. His early 
life was spent on the form with his father. When 
seventeen years of age he enlisted as a private soldier 
in the Continental army, and was stationed at Fort 
Edward. His health soon becoming impaired by 
small -pox and fever, he received a discharge, and re- 
turned to the paternal farm. On recovering his 
health, he re-enlisted in the army, and was stationed 
at Castle William, in Boston harbor. Here he was 
created sergeant and put in charge of the sutler's 
store, and not unfrequently, in the absence of the 
higher officers, of the garrison also. While in this 
position he made the acquaintance of some literary 
people from the neighboring city who were accus- 
tomed to visit the Castle. To them he revealed his 
passionate desire for more knowledge and a better 
education, and in return received encouragement 



and assistance from them to pursue his studies. The 
circumstances in which he was placed turned his at- 
tention strongly towards medicine and surgery, espec- 
ially the latter. In these branches of learning he 
made such rapid advances as to be soon entrusted by 
his superiors with the care of the sick in the garrison. 
While thus emploj'ed, his mind took a broader reach, 
and he resolved on a collegiate education, with the fur- 
ther intent of becoming a missionary, or minister. In 
this purpose he was further encouraged by his Bos- 
ton friends and the chaplains of the Castle, who 
furnished him with the needed preparatory books. 
So zealous was he in these classical studies that, in 
his daily trips between the Castle and city, in the 
boat of which he had command, he pursued his 
studies while the boatmen plied their oars. By such 
diligence he soon gained the requisite knowledge for 
a college matriculation, resigned his position at the 
Castle, and was admitted to Harvard College, to the 
class which graduated in 1771. He was thirty-one 
years old when he took his college diploma. Among 
his classmates and personal friends were Samuel 
Phillips, Jr., and David Osgood, natives of Andover. 
After his graduation he remained for a time in Cam- 
bridge, in the family of the lately deceased President 
Holyoke.for the purpose of taking a course of theolog- 
ical instruction. He still adhered to his original inten- 
tion of becoming a missionary to the Indians. But, 
through the persuasion of his Andover class-mates, he 
was induced to preach for a time in the pulpit of the 
South Par'sh, recently made vacant by the death of 
the venerable Mr. Phillips. His appearance, reputa- 
tion and services were so acceptable to the people 
that they soon, with great unanimity and cordiality, 
extended to him an invitation to become their min- 
ister. He accepted this invitation, and was ordained 
and installed pastor September 23, 1772, in the 
thirty-third year of his age. 

As a pastor, Mr. French was faithful, judicious 
and much beloved. His birth and early life among 
farmers gave him an experimental acquaintance with 
the trials, labors and aspirations of the large mass of 
his parishioners. And his short experience as a sol- 
dier prepared him to be a wise counselor to the young 
men of his parish who went into the Revolutionary 
War, and a considerate sympathizer with the friends 
at home. He did not possess the easy dignity of his 
predecessor, and did not so carry himself in his in- 
tercourse with the people as to inspire them with 
such profound reverence as to make their worship 
of God intermingle with their veneration for his ser- 
vant. Being below the medium height and inclined 
to corpulency, he was heavy of movement and averse 
to physical exertion. But, notwithstanding this 
bodily inertness, his pastoral duties were discharged 
with scrupulous fidelity and loving care. The people 
in their perplexities often sought his advice in other 
than religious matters, making him a confidant in their 
private and family troubles. We find this encomium 



1598 



HISTOlir OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of him on record: "Seldom was a minister more 
beloved, esteemed and venerated by his parish- 
ioners." 

Mr. French was valued for his practical wisdom. 
People and paiishes beyond the limits of the town 
sought his advice in difficult matters. It is stated 
that he " attended seventy-eight ecclesiastical coun- 
cils," a phenomenal number for those days of few 
churches and far between and life-long pastorates. 

He was fond of anecdote, and could tell a good 
story with such spirit as to aflbrd pleasure to old and 
young. The children were delighted to gather around 
his knee, repeat their catechism and listen to his 
amusing recitals. 

" As a preacher, he maintained a highly respectable 
rank. His preaching was rather practical than doc- 
trinal. For though he cordially received the Calvin- 
istic doctrines, he very rarely went into a particular 
exposition of them — much less attempted anything 
like a formal defence." His manner in the pulpit was 
impressive and at times uncomfortably deliberate. 
His style was plain, intelligible to the least cul- 
tivated and better adapted to instruct than to please 
the hearer. 

Mr. Mooar, in his admirable "Historical Manual of 
the South Church," in speaking of Mr. French as a 
theologian, says : " It seems evident that he not only 
did not make very sharp discriminations, but was 
rather averse to having them made. He was, beyond 
all dispute, no friend to the Hopkinsian theories of 
his day. Yet, as between such Arminians as Dr. 
Symmes, of the Xorth Parish, and Dr. Cummings, of 
Billerica, and the Calvinists as a class, he undoubtedly 
sided with the latter. He was nearly the only one of 
his Association whose sympathies were Calvinistic. 
He was reputed a Calvinist, though living in the 
atmosphere of Arminianism," and exchanged pulpits 
with ministers of each wing. " I have heard it said, 
that, after preaching sound and solemn doctrine, he 
was in the habit of adding a remark or two which 
mitigated very much the severity of his statements." 

As a man, Mr. French was noted for his cheerful 
disposition, charitableness towards all classes and for 
his hospitality, remarkable for even those days, when 
the ministerial house was expected to be and was the 
hostelry for all traveling preachers, their families 
and friends. One who profited by this hospitality 
has said : " To every brother in the ministry and to a 
large circle of acquaintances his doors were always 
open, and every one who came met with a cordial 
welcome." 

As a citizen, Mr. French deeply sympathized with 
the patriots who resisted the aggression of the mother 
country and thus precipitated the Revolution. And, 
when the hour for armed resistance came, he was 
found among the foremost to encourage such resist- 
ance. When the news of the fight at Lexington 
reached town, his presence and voice stimulated the 
young men of his parish to hasten to the bloody strife. 



And when these parishioners of his, in the fight at 
Bunker Hill, were slain or wounded, he headed the 
conijjany of citizens who hastened to the scene of con- 
flict with sympathy and aid. And, however waver- 
ing, uncertain, or both-sided may have been his posi- 
tion in the doctrinal controversies of the day, he was 
an unquestioned patriot, with unwavering consistency 
and constancy favoring the war and the independence 
of the colonies. The severe trials which came to his 
people in consequence of the war he cheerfully 
shared. In a long letter to the parish touching 
the payment of his salary, dated February 19, 1779, 
he says : " The true intent and design of the original 
contract between us, so far as it relates to the money 
part, was to afford me, with the other things s|)ecified 
in the contract, a comfortable and decent support; 
which was all I wanted. And, supposing the 
necessaries of life would continue nearly as they 
were then, upon an average, one year with another, 
I imagined this would render it unnecessary for me 
to encumber myself with the entanglements of the 
world, and enable me, according to the apostolic di- 
rection, to give myself wholly to the work of the 
ministry. A comfortable, decent support for myself 
and family was all I desired. Experience showed me 
that the provisions you made were adequate to this 
purjiose, and yet were not too much to enable me to 
afford that time and care for this flock which the 
great duties of mj' calling required. I was well-con- 
tented, and, had things remained in that channel, you 
never would have heard any complaints from me. 
But circumstances are greatly altered. In 1775, the 
first year of the war, the articles necessary for cloth- 
ing were raised in their prices twenty-five per cent., 
which diminished my salary, so far as these articles 
were necessary, one-quarter part. With the decrease 
of my salary my expenses increased. Soldiers almost 
daily fell in upon us, and such entertainment as we 
could we gave them and they were welcome." While 
many in the parish during these years did not take 
this change of prices into consideration, others did, 
and furnished " the necessaries of life at former 
prices," and " others considered me in their private 
kindness, so that, on the whole, I was so far from 
complaining that I gave you a generous and public 
credit for the same, though I then thought, and still 
do think, that I sustained my full proportion or more 
of the public burthen, which I was willing to do." 
In " the spring of 1778 the necessaries of life, upon 
an average, had arisen five or six-fold in their de- 
mands. My salary decreased in value in proportion. 
I found the burden then increasing upon me and 
tlu-eatening to become insupportable ; and with the 
best economy I could use, my salary fell far short of 
procuring the real necessaries of life for my family." 
This becoming known, he was assisted by private 
donations, public contribution and help on the farm, 
so that, while short of his nominal salary, "in pro- 
portion to about three for one," he says, " I was fully 



ANDOVER. 



1599 



satisfied and felt grateful to my people for their mnrks 
of justice and generosity towards me." 

Having made this review of the past, he comes to 
the then present price of the necessaries of life, — 
grain, meat, sugar, drink, " water excepted," " from 
fifteen to twenty-fold higher than when my contract 
was made." After going into minute detail and esti- 
mate he continues, "upon this calculation, — my salary, 
which is in the contract £80, is in its value to me now 
no more than £8." But, " as I desire nothing of you 
but what is perfectly right and just and perfectly 
reasonable, and should be unworthy the sacred char- 
acter I sustain among you if I were not willing to 
sympathize with you and participate of all your bur- 
thens and afflictions as well as rejoice in all your 
prosperity, I am willing in these public calamities 
and burthens to rise and fall with you ; nor could I 
be happy to be freed from them myself and see you 
burthenod and groaning under them. — I am therefore 
willing to have a consideration made me annually or 
semi-annually, according to the then present circum- 
stances, — I am willing to bind myself to let my salary 
every year, so long as it shall please God to continue 
me among you, be regulated in proportion to the 
prices of the necessaries of life and to your rates to 
the public, till the debt that has been, or may be, con- 
tracted by the present war, shall be discharged. If 
you will pay me my salary in due proportion, in the 
necessaries of life, for the past year, I will relinquish 
one-third part. That the poor may not be op- 
pressed when the rate shall be made, let it be shown 
me, and I will cross out of the rates of those whom 
the assessors shall think most needy, a sum equal to 
the six lowest rates in the bill ; and if the pari.sh 
think this not enough, I will do more." 

This proposed plan was in substance adopted by the 
parish. This letter brings vividly before us, not only 
the pecuniary embarrassments of the pastor, but the 
straitened condition of the people. The pastor is in 
a strait betwixt the pinching need of his family, and 
the heavy burdens of his people. 

The state of thinga at the parsonage is graphically 
set forth in a letter of Josiah Quincy, a member of the 
family at this time, published in Dr. Sprague's "An- 
nals of the American Pulpit ;" 

li'^ time and the law of his household- 



I privilege of wliite or flour bread' 



beef, with a plentiful allowaiir,- ni , ji-hau- ^m-l .,li i h.' ii,ii.il i . j- i;,l,ies 
farmers cultivate. In the winter frozen cod came along from lUe Bea- 
coast. Bohea, a tea to modern luxury almost unknown, was our table 
resort, with a qualiBcation of mills at supper time." 

The pastor, it seems, took boarders from the ]iupils 
at the academy. He also hud a family divinity si-hnol, 
from which went out men who afterwards tonk high 
rank among their brethren. He was from the first a 
trustee of Phillips Academy, and gave theological in- 



" Frugality w.i« 11 




The only bread v i 


.1. 


French, on the SaM. 


Ill, 1 


because, as lie said, 


lU 1 


took, on that day, u 


Otll 



struction to the pupils for some years. He was the 
especial confidant and adviser of Mr. Samuel Abbot, 
his parishioner, in his gifts for the establishment of a 
theological seminary. He published a number of or- 
dination sermons, and sermons and addresses on 
special occasions. 

Mr. French married, August 26, 1773, Miss Abi- 
gail Richards, daughter of Dr. Benjamin Richards, of 
Weymouth. She died August, 1821. 

Their children were, Sarah, born November 18, 1774, 
died in infancy ; Abigail, born May 29, 1776, married 
Rev. Samuel Stearns, Bedford ; Jonathan, born Au- 
gust 16, 1777, pastor at Northampton, N. H. ; Mary 
Holyoke, born August 6, 1781, married Ebenezer P. 
Sperry, Wenham; Sarah, born December 13, 17S4, 
died April 12, 1788. 

Justin Edwards, D.D. (third pastor), was born in 
Westhampton,Mass., April 25, 1787. He was the son of 
Justin and Elizabeth (Clark) Edwards. His father was 
a farmer, industrious, frugal, upright, " a man of few- 
words." His early years were spent in assisting his 
father upon the farm. Becoming a Christian when 
eighteen years of age, he began to cherish the idea of 
obtaining a collegiate education, that he might become 
a minister. He received his preparatory training at 
the hands of his pastor, Rev. Enoch Hall. In 1807 
he entered the sophomore class at Williams College 
and graduated three years later with the valedictory 
address. Soon after graduation he entered the Theo- 
logical Seminary in Andover. Here he secured the 
esteem and respect of his associates and teachers, for 
his scholarship, ability and piety. He became so 
prominent among his classmates, and so acceptable as 
a preacher, as to secure a unanimous invitation from 
both church and parish of the South Parish to become 
their pastor, before he had completed the second year 
of his theological course. In the seminary, as in the 
college, he was associated with Samuel J. Mills, Gor- 
don Hall and James Richards, and deeply sympa- 
thized with their missionary spirit and projects. After 
leaving Andover, he for a time was engaged as an 
agent for the American Temperance Society. After- 
wards, for more than a year and a half, he was pastor 
of the Salem Street Church, Boston. His health fail- 
ing there, he resumed his labors with the Temperance 
Society and engaged actively in this work, delivering 
addresses, writiug and distributing documents, and 
forming temperance societies in various parts of the 
country. In 1836 he was elected to the presidency of 
the Theological Seminary, which office he held till 
April 19, 1842. Again he returned for a year to the 
service of the Temperance Society. On the formation 
of the American and Foreign Sabbath Union, he 
became its secretary, and for seven years devoted 
much time and energy to the interest of Sabbath ob- 
servance. From 1849 to his death he was in the 
employment of the American Tract Society, for the 
most part engaged in preparing a popular commentary 
of the Scriptures. He had finished the New Testa- 



1600 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



inent and more than half of the Old, when he was laid 
aside by sickness, and, after lingering for some fifteen 
months, died suddenly at Bath Alum Springs, Va., 
July 24, 1853, aged sixty-six years. 

Dr. Edwards was much esteemed for his practical 
wisdom and executive ability. He was for thirty- 
three years trustee of the Theological Seminary. He 
was a member of the executive committee of the Nesv 
England Tract Society ; a promoter of the American 
Tract Society and member of its publishing commit- 
tee ; a director in the American Home Missionary 
Society and a corporate member of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. He 
was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by 
Yale College, 1827. 

In person Dr. Edwards was tall, erect, muscular, a 
line specimen of the physical man. In bearing he 
was stately, dignified, with a grave countenance, and 
somewhat stiff in manner and formal in address. His 
voice was a heavy sub-bass, well fitted to startle the 
Sabbath sleepers when given full scope. His pulpit 
delivery was in harmony " with the rugged simplicity 
of his thought and diction." The style of his ser- 
mons was simple, with little rhetorical embellishment, 
little play of the imagination or flash of the seer, or 
the sharp, terse strokes of the orator. But his sen- 
tences were solid, his Saxon words weighty with com- 
mon sense and Scripture truth, and, when sent home 
to the minds and hearts of his hearers by his sonor- 
ous vt)ice, they often left an abiding impression. He 
had the reputation, especially in the early part of his 
ministry, of being an exceptionally able preacher- 
During the last six of the fifteen years of his ministry 
in the South Parish, says Dr. Amos Blanchard, "with 
an undisputed ascendency among his own people, he 
was known far and near as a powerful preacher and 
a man of eminent, practical wisdom. . . . Y'et, 
even then, he had neither attractiveness nor popu- 
larity ; he had, however, what is so much better, — in- 
fluence : an influence growing out of his personal 
qualities, and accumulating with every year of his 
pastoral life." It is evident that the great power 
gained by Dr. Edwards over his fellow-men was owing 
largely not so much to his superior intellectual abili- 
ties or acquisitions, or to any felicity of speech, as to 
his downright earnestne.ss, the conviction of his pro- 
found sincerity, his simple straightforwardness, his 
tact in approaching men and his luminous piety. He 
had, withal, some rare gifts for organization, for 
bringing men into co-operative action. 

As a pastor he was indefatigable,— catechising the 
children, establishing and maintaining a Bible-class 
for adults, visiting frequently the large number of 
homes of his parishioners, scattered far and wide over 
miles of territory. In this field of labor he was un- 
surpassed. 

Dr. Edwards was the author of a large number of 
printed tracts, documents, sermons, letters, and the 
commentary of which mention has been made. 



He married Miss Lydia Bigelow, daughter of Asa 
Bigelow, of Colchester, Conn., September 17, 1817, a 
most worthy woman and eflicient helper in the pasto- 
ral work. 

Their children were six in number, — Justin Asa, 
born January 20, 1819; Jonathan, born July 17, 
1820 (ordained at Woburn, September 7, 1848, and 
since settled in Plymouth Church, Rochester, N. Y., 
Dedham and Welleslcy Hills, where he now resides); 
Newton, born March 11, 1822, died Jlay 7, 1855; 
Elizabeth, born November 9, 1824, resides in An- 
dover; Lydia, born March 6, 1826, resides in An- 
dover; Ann Eliza, born September 29, 1828 (married 
Rev. Thomas N. Haskell). 

Rev. Milton Badger was the fourth pastor of 
the South Church. He was born in Coventry, Conn., 
May 6, 1800, and was the twelfth child of his pa- 
rents, Enoch and Mary Badger. He was a graduate 
of Yale College, in the class of 1823; was for one 
year the principal of the Academy at New Canaan . 
After this he passed most of his time for three years 
at Andover with the class in the seminary which 
graduated in 1827, yet was tutor in Yale College 
1826-27. He was installed pastor of the South Church 
in 1828. He left this last position to become secre- 
tary of the American Home Missionary Society. In 
this last important position the great labor of his life 
was performed. As a pastor and preacher he was emi- 
nently successful. His ministry embraced a period 
of extensive and heart-stirring revivals. Protracted 
meetings and arousing sermons and appeals from 
such men a.s Dr. Wisner, Dr. Lyman Beecher, Rev. 
Charles S. Finney, and others who preached in the 
South Church, brought many to the exercise of peni- 
tence and faith in Christ. Seldom have the churches 
of New England been so signally enlarged. During 
Mr. Badger's ministry, some three hundred and thirty 
joined the church, mostly on profession. 

But the work to which Mr. Badger gave the best 
of his life, and for which he developed a peculiar fit- 
ness, was that of a Home Missionary secretary. 
Here his large heart and far-reaching mind and 
ever-expanding faith had free scope. His parish was 
the country, extending finally from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific. But he was a modest man and buried 
beneath his work. Little can be learned of Dr. Bad- 
ger, except what is to be found in the history and 
progress of the missionary enterprise in our broad 
Western territory. The importance and value of his 
services for the thirty-eight years during which he 
was secretary are beyond estimate. Thousands of 
feeble churches have been nurtured into vigorous life, 
and thousands of faithful ministers have been cheer- 
ed and sustained in their self-denying work by his 
agency. Revered for his piety, trusted for his wisdom 
and integrity, honored for his manliness and courage, 
esteemed for his sagacity and patience, loved for his 
warm, sympathetic heart, many and many a struggling 
church and toil-worn minister have risen up to call ' 



ANDOVER. 



1601 



him blessed. He died in Madison, Conn., March 1, 
1S73. aged seventy-three years, mourned by multi- 
tudes. 

Mr. Badger was married to Miss Clarissa Munger, 
of Madison, who is still living. They had five chil- 
dren, only two of whom lived to manhood. Both of 
these entered the medical profession, — Dr. George 
Badger, died at Panama; Dr. William Badger, lives 
at Flushing, Long Island. 

Rev. Lorenzo L. Langstroth, the fifth minister, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., December 25, 1810. 
He was a graduate of Yale College, and studied 
theology in New Haven. After his dismission from 
the South Church he was for a year principal of Ab- 
bot Academy ; after this, for four years, principal of 
the High School for Young Ladies in Greenfield, 
Mass., preaching for a portion of the time in the 
Congregational Church in that town. Receiving an 
invitation to settle there, he was installed and con- 
tinued its pastor for over four years. On leaving his 
pastorate he established a Young Ladies' School in 
his native city, which he was obliged to relinquish, 
owing to poor health. He was for a time stated sup- 
ply at Coleraine. He removed to Oxford, Ohio, 
where he now resides. Of late years he has given 
much attention to the culture of honey bees, and has 
published a valuable treatise on their nature and 
habits, and the methods of raising and treating them. 
His book is considered one of the most scientific, 
complete and trustworthy in the language on this 
subject. As a minister, he secured the favor, respect 
and love of his parishioners. But his physical 
strength was not equal to the care and labor of a large 
parish. 

Rev. John L. Taylor, sixth pastor of the church, 
was born in Warren, Conn., May 20, 1814. His par- 
ents were John Taylor and Anna (Beardsley) Taylor. 
He graduated at Yale College in 1835. After grad- 
uation he taught in Ellington, Conn., two years, was 
tutor in Yale three years, at the same time pursuing a 
course of theological study, and then became pastor 
of the South Church for thirteen years. 

On leaving this pastorate he took the responsible 
position of treasurer of Phillips Academy, which he 
held with marked ability and approval for sixteen 
years. When a new department, called the "Short 
Course," was created in the Theological Seminary for 
the benefit of worthy and suitable men to study for 
the ministry, who were unable to pursue a collegiate 
course, Mr. Taylor was appointed its professor in 1868. 
His title was, " Smith Professor of Theology and Hom- 
iletics,and Lecturer on Pastoral Theology." The endow- 
ment fund for this professorship had been given by 
JNIiss Sophia Smith, of Hatfield, who, at her decease, 
left the funds to found Smith College, Northampton. 
Though for a few years this ''Short Course" experiment 
was measurably successful, yet there were not forth- 
coming so many and so capable men to take advantage 
of it as had been anticipated by its friends. Prof. Tay- 
101 



lor continued to discharge the duties of his office, 
with great fidelity and much favor, for eleven years, 
when, owing to paralysis and increasing feebleness, 
he resigned. After this the department was given up. 
During his incumbency of the professorship he was 
also dean or president of the faculty. From the 
time he became treasurer to near the time of his death 
he was President of the Andover (National) Bank. 
In 1868 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Middlebury College. Occupying these diverse 
and responsible positions in the town for forty-five 
years, he became thoroughly identified with its best 
interests — material, educational and religious. The in- 
stitution, with which he had been intimately con- 
nected as financier and teacher for twenty-seven years, 
was especially dear to him. In his will he made pro- 
vision for perpetually associating himself in its work, 
by giving the bulk of his property to further endow 
the Taylor Professorship of Biblical Theology, which 
had been established by a liberal bequest of his 
deceased son, Frederick. He passed away calmly 
and quietly, as if falling asleep, in his chair, Septem- 
ber 23, 1884, aged seventy-three years. 

As a minister Dr. Taylor was an able sermonizer, 
an acceptable preacher and a faithful pastor. His 
preaching was instructing and impressive. Without 
shunning to declare the whole truth of God in the 
doctrines of Scripture as he received them, his main 
endeavor seems to have been to persuade men to 
search the Scriptures, believe in Jesus as the Christ of 
God, and to become followers of Him in faith and 
love. 

As a teacher he was in his element. In his duties 
as instructor in the Theological Seminary, he took 
special pleasure. In the class-room, to young men 
eager for the information that would fit them to become 
ministers, he could bring forth from his treasures of 
Biblical learning, religious experience and ministerial 
work, "things new and old," worthy of their closest 
attention. 

As a man he has been characterized, by one who 
knew him well, as " self-controlled, sagacious, san- 
guine, alert, humorous, disinterested, discreet, and as 
possessing a rare memory for names and faces," — the 
last a most happy faculty for a public man. It may 
be added, from observation of his years of inactivity, 
loneliness, feebleness and gradual decay, that he was 
endowed by nature and grace with rare patience, 
cheerfulness, steadiness of faith and serenity of 
spirit. 

Dr. Taylor united in himself the student and the 
man of affairs, the teacher and the financier. He 
could preside, with equal success, over a meeting of 
bank directors or a meeting of theological professors, 
in either case with words of wisdom profital)lt; for 
direction. He was deeply interested in educational 
matters, from the common school to the seminary. 
Poor students enlisted his sympathies and commanded 
his assistance. 



1602 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In addition to his other labors, Dr. Taylor prepared 
and published, mostly by request, Sunday sermons 
preached on special occasions, addresses and brief 
memoirs. He also prepared the " Memorial of the 
Scmi-Centennial Celebration of the Founding of the 
Theological Seminary," and a "Memoir of Judge 
Phillips," which, for completeness, finish and accu- 
racy, ranks with the best of biographies. 

He married Miss Caroline Lord Phelps, daughter 
of Epaphras Phelps, of East Windsor, Conn. They 
had five children, three of whom died in early child- 
hood. The remaining two were Frederick H. Taylor, 
who died when but twenty -one years of age, leaving 
his property, a liberal amount, to the Theological 
Seminary. Rev. John Phelps Taylor, after success- 
ful pastorates in three churches, — at Middletown, 
Conn. ; at Newport, R. I. ; and at New London, 
Conn,— now occupies the chair of Taylor Professor of 
Biblical Theology, in the Theological Seminary, en- 
dowed by his brother and father. 

Rev. Charles Smith' was born at Hatfield, 
Mass., August 10, 1818. His character was moulded 
in that typical New England town.^hip where Rev. 
William Williams preached from 1685 until 1741, and 
Rev. Joseph Lyman, D D., from 1772 until 1828. 
The influence of these eminent pastors was distinctly 
recognized in the town during Mr. Smith's early 
years. He was related to a family which has become 
conspicuous by its charitable donations. One mem- 
ber of the family was the founder of the noted " Smith 
Charities " at Northampton ; another was the founder 
of an academy in Hatfield, the Smith Professorship 
at Andover, and Smith College at Northampton. 
Mr. Smith was graduated at Amherst College in 
1841, and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1845. 
In each of these institutions he was held in high es- 
teem as a young man of studious habit aud unimpeach- 
able character. His sound mind and strong common 
sense warranted the expectation of his future useful- 
ness. He was ordained October 12, 1847, as pastor 
of the Congregational Church in Warren, Mass.; but 
after about five years of acceptable service there, he 
was called to the pastorate of the Old South Church 
in Andover. He labored faithfully and successfully 
in his second pastorate during the years 1852 and '53, 
when he was invited to the Shawmut Church in Bos- 
ton. He was urged by friends of the Andover parish 
to refuse this invitation, but was persuaded by his 
Boston friends to accept it. He remained pastor of 
the Shawmut Church from 1853 to 1858. He spent 
the years 1860-61 as acting-pastor of the Oak Place 
Church in Boston. He was then honored by an invi- 
tation to resume the pastorship of the Old South 
Church in Andover. He accepted this invitation, 
and was re-installed over his former charge. His 
second pastorate here continued from 1861 until 1876. 
He spent seventeen years in his ministry at Andover, 



1 Prepared by Prof. Edwards .\. Park. 



—a longer period than that spent by any other pastor 
of the Old South Church during the present century. 
The ecclesiastical council that sanctioned the closing 
of his lengthened pastorate declared in its result : 
" We give our hearty testimony to his eminent ability, 
his abundant labors, his well-accomplished work, and 
the deep mutual confidence and tender love between 
his people and himself, which have grown with the 
years of his labor among them. 

" We commend our dear brother to the churches 
and their pastors as one who, under large aud pecu- 
liar responsibility in successive pastorates, has proved 
himself equal to the demand for a high order of cul- 
ture, of character, and of natural endowments ; and 
is esteemed by us as a learned, eloquent, and edifying 
preacher, a devout and faithful pastor, and worthy of 
all confidence as a true and honest servant of our 
common Lord." 

When Mr. Smith resigned his pastorate he was 
requested by his church to recall his resignation. 
When he refused to recall it, he was requested by the 
church and parish to continue his residence in Andover. 
After having made the tour of Europe in 1876-77, visit- 
ingFrance, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Ire- 
land, England and Scotland, he complied with this 
request and made Andover his home. He often preach- 
ed in the neighboring parishes, and although not the 
pastor ofthe Old South Church,he continued to be a real 
minister of the town. He was often called to perform 
ministerial services in the homes of his former 
parishioners. Such was the confidence of his fellow- 
citizens in his discretion and incorruptible integrity, 
that he was elected for the years 1882, '83, '85, and 
'87 to represent the town in the Massachusetts House 
of Representatives. He manifested his well-known 
sagacity and faithfulness in the Legislature, particu- 
larly in saving the waters of the Shawshin River 
from being turned out of their natural course into a 
water-supply for the city of Boston. Being intimately 
acquainted with the interests of the central region, 
and also of the seaboard, of Massaciiusetts, he com- 
manded the confidence of varying parties in the 
Legislature. They found him to be a man of political 
intelligence and wisdom, a prudent and independent 
counselor, eflective in debate, and fitted to exert a 
steady and wholesome influence. When a citizen of 
Andover was needed to prepare the history of the 
town for the present volume, Mr. Smith was at once 
selected for the work. He understood the agricul- 
tural, mercantile, manufacturing, and educational 
interests of the town, and thus knew what to write 
and what to omit. He labored with his wonted vigor 
and fidelity in represeuting these various interests 
until the 27th day of October, 1887. He fully ex- 
pected to finish his manuscript and forward it to the 
editor of the " Essex County History" on the 31st of 
the month. He was attacked on the morning of the 
27th with a pain which did not alarm him, and at 
eleven o'clock in the forenoon of the 29th he died. 



ANDOVEK. 



1603 



Probably he was not aware that his death was near 
when he suddenly left the world. It did not seem to 
be death, but a translation to a higher life. The 
announcement of his departure was received with 
universal surprise and grief. 

He married Caroline L. Sprague, daughter of Hon. 
Joseph E. Sprague, of Salem. They have three 
children, — Edwin Bartlett Smith, in business in Min- 
neapolis ; Charles Sprague Smith, Professor of Mod- 
ern Languages and Foreign Literature in Columbia 
College, New York ; Caroline Keed Smith, resides in 
Andover. 

Dr. George Mooar, eighth pastor, was born in 
Andover, West Parish, May 27, 1830. He graduated 
at Williams College, 1851. After teaching a year in 
Falmouth and Brookline he entered the Theological 
Seminary at Andover, and graduated in 1855. After 
remaining pastor of the South Church from October 
10, 1855, to March 27, 1861, he was dismissed to take 
charge of the First Congregational Church in Oak- 
land, Cal. Here he was installed May 6, 1861, and 
continued, with eminent success, for eleven years. In 
1872 he was elected Professor of Systematic Theology 
and Church History in the Pacific Theological Semi- 
nary, which position he still retains. In 1874 he be- 
came pastor of the Plymouth Avenue Church in 
Oakland, which position he also retains. In 1863 he 
became an editor of the San Francisco Pacific, the 
organ of the Congregational Churches on the Pacific 
coast, where he still shares in the editorial work with 
his co-laborers. 

While in .Andover Dr. Mooar prepared a most ad- 
mirable " Historical Manual " of the South Church, 
from which much valuable information for this sketch 
has been derived. Dr. Mooar has been, and now is, 
engaged upon the family histories of Isaac Cum- 
mings, of Topsfield, who immigrated as early as 1644, 
and Abraham Mooar, of Andover, who immigrated 
in 1687. 

Dr. Mooar received the degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity from Williams College. 

Rev. James H. Laird, the tenth pastor of the South 
Church, was born in Milton, Pa., August 19, 1832. 
He graduated at Oberlin College in 1860, and at the 
Theological Seminary in 1864 ; was settled in North 
Fairfield, Ohio, December 21, 1864 ; dismissed 1868. 
He preached in the suburbs of Chicago, and after- 
wards settled for two years in Madison, Ohio; then 
became principal of the preparatory department in 
Oberlin College, from whence he came to the South 
Parish. He was installed in Hinsdale July 10, 1883, 
where he still remains. 

Rev. John J. Blair, the present efficient pastor 
of the South Church, has had but one previous settle- 
ment,— in Rockland, Me., 1876 to 1884. 

West Parish.— As early as 1771 complaints began 
to be heard from members of the South Church re- 
siding in the westerly section of the parish, on ac- 
count of their distance from the place of worship. 



With ever-increasing numbers, their complaints be- 
came more pronounced. Whenever the question of a 
new meeting-house was agitated in the parish, as was 
frequently the case, the matter of location necessarily 
came to the front. Those living on the west side of 
the Shawshiil insisted that the house should be on 
their side of the river. The trouble grew till in 
1788, Isaac Osgood and others, residents of the west 
side, petitioned the General Court to be set off into a 
separate parish. Their petition was refused. But the 
majoi-ity of the parish recognized the disadvantages 
under which their brethren in the west section la- 
bored, and, in the hope of retaining them, voted that 
they be relieved of all obligation to aid in building 
the new house of worship. But this did not satisfy 
the complainants. The parish, finally, taking into 
consideration the wishes of these discontented breth- 
ren, and further, the onerous labors of the pastor of 
a parish eight miles in length and four in breadth, 
concluded to form a new parish on the west side of 
Shawshin River, and voted, March 12, 1826, that, 
" should the people on the west side of the Shawshin 
River erect a Meeting-Hoase at their own expense, 
■they have the cordial approbation of the parish." 
The house was soon erected by private enterprise, 
but built of stone taken from the immediate neigh- 
borhood. It contained ninety-eight pews, with a 
seating capacity for six hundred people. This stone 
structure still stands, though, in its interior arrange- 
ments, it has been repeatedly remodeled, refitted and 
improved. It was dedicated December 26, 1826. The 
dedicatory sermon was by Mr. Edwards, the pastor 
of the South Church. 

On the 5th of December, 1826, the church was or- 
ganized, and called the " West Church of Andover." 
Fifty-six persons constituted its membership, mostly 
from the South Church. The parish made application 
to the next General Court to be set oft' with definite 
bounds, which application was granted, no one oppos- 
ing. As thus incorporated, the new parish embraced 
one hundred and fifty-eight families, or eight hundred 
and seventy people. On being thus set off, the South 
Parish granted to the West, for its use perpetually, 
three-eighths of the income of its ministerial funds. 

The Church and Parish have had five pastors : — 
Rev. Samuel C Jackson, who was settled June 6, 1827, 
dismissedSeptember25,lS50; Rev. Charles H. Peirce, 
ordained October 9, 1850, dismissed April 11, 1855; 
Rev. James H. Merrill, installed April 30, 1856, dis- 
missed December 1, 1879; Rev. Austin H. Burr, in- 
stalled April 29, 1880, dismissed January 21, 1885 ; 
Frederick W. Greene, installed September 3, 1885, 
still the pastor. 

Pastori of the West Church. — Rev. Samuel Cram 
Jacksox, D.D., was born in Dorset, Vt., March 13, 
1802. He was the son of Dr. William Jackson and 
Susanna Cram Jackson, a lineal descendant of John 
Rogers of Smithfield memory. He prepared for 
college under the tuition of his father, a thorough 



1604 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUxNTV, MASSACHUSETTS. 



classical scholar. When fifteen years of age he en- 
tered Middlebury College, and graduated in 1821. 
Having a natural bent for legal studies, and an in- 
herited fondness for public affairs, he spent one year 
in the law-office of Hon. Richard Skinner, Manchester' 
Vt., and one in the office of Judge Dand Daggett, of 
New Haven, preparatory to entering the legal pro- 
fession. While at the latter place, his attention was 
turned with special interest to the subject of personal 
faitli in Christ. His former skeptical notions gave 
way under a thoughtful examination of the claims 
of Christianity, and he consecrated himself to the 
service of Christ. With this new element of life, came 
a change in the purpose of life and its vocation. 
Cheerfully yielding to the wishes of his pareuts, who 
had consecrated him to the work of the ministry, and 
following the advice of Dr. Porter, a friend of his 
pareuts, he joined the Theological Seminary at 
Andover, graduating in 1826 with the valedictory 
addresses. Soon after this he entered upon his min- 
isterial work with the West Parish, where he remained 
for twenty-two years. His physical energies having 
become permanently so impaired as to render his 
continuance of the labors, cares and responsibilities of 
a minister inexpedient, if not impracticable, he sought 
and obtained the position of Assistant State Libra- 
rian. 

At first his duties were rather those of an assistant 
secretary of the Board of Education than of an 
assistant librarian. For all the duties which came to 
his hands at the State House, he was fully equipped 
and admirably adapted. First by his legal trainin/;-, 
then by his warm interest in all educational and 
scholarly pursuits and efforts, and finally, by his long 
and practical experience in founding, supervising and 
sustaining educational institutions, he had become a 
sort of expert in the science of education. When the 
State Library came under his systematic hand, it was 
redeemed from chaos and made available for use. The 
reports which came from the office of the secretary 
assumed new importance and interest. During his 
occupancy of the office, twenty-eight thousand volumes 
were added to the library, " making it, in some re- 
spects, tlie best law library in the Commonwealth." 
But the effective influence and activity of Dr. Jackson 
there was not merely that of an official. By his 
position he made the acquaintance of many of the 
leading educators, statesmen and lawyers of the Com- 
monwealth and of other states. The library became a 
council chamber for college presidents, promoters of 
beneficent enterprises and liberal-minded donors to 
charitable institutions. Such men would rarely fail 
to drop into the library for a word of cheer or counsel 
when they visited the city. "His sound judgment, 
strict integrity and interest in every thing pertaining 
to the public welfare, gave him, in a high degree, the 
confidence of wise and good men. Few meu in the 
State House were more consulted or more trusted than 
he." Such is the testimony of Dr. Sears, for a time 



associated with him as Secretary of the Board of Edu- 
cation. Hem. Joseph White, another associate for 
sixteen years as Secretary of Education, says of him: 
" He brought to his entire work a ripe scholarship, a 
cool, unclouded judgment, a strong common sense, a 
fine legal acumen and a habit of prompt, untiring in- 
dustry. After my sixteen years of observation, I am 
confident that no man within my knowledge has 
rendered the commonwealth a more useful and honor- 
able service than Dr. Jack.«on, a service which will 
bear rich fruit in future years." Under these two 
secretaries for twenty-two years he filled the position 
of assistant librarian at the State House, with much 
satisfaction to himself, and with great ^acceptance to 
those with whom he had to do. But as years went on 
his health and strength, always on a low base, steadily 
failed, so that he was constrained to abandon his 
position in 1876. From this time he rapidly declined. 
Paralysis, combined with chronic disease, by degrees 
consumed his powers, both of body and mind, till the 
glad hour of release came, July 26, 1878. 

It was the good fortune of Dr. Jackson to be the 
first pastor of a new church enterprise. He was by 
nature and taste an organizer. He possessed some- 
thing of the spirit of the great Apostle who boasted 
that his aim had been "not to build on another 
man's foundation." To him came the pleasing duty 
of organizing the Sabbath-School, benevolent societ- 
ies, the order and usages of worship, and the varied 
activities of a Christian Church. With such care and 
wisdom was this work done, as to require, like 
the stone meeting-house, only now and then a little 
interior renovation or remodeling. 

We are told that when he entered upon his minis- 
try " his style was classical, his manner in the pul- 
pit, graceful and sprightly." As a preacher, how- 
ever, he was distinguished "for his skill in adapting 
his sermons to the particular needs of his hearers." 
Says Professor Park, the best of judges, " His ser- 
mons were not marked by power, so much as by 
grace; not by brilliancy, so much as by dignity. 
They were argumentative, when argument was 
needed, but were generally didactic, often earnest, 
uniformly solemn. His manner was so natural ; 
his voice so well cultivated and so expressive: his 
words were so choice and his thoughts so good ; he 
was in such evident sympathy with hi.") theme and 
with his hearers, that he drew into the sanctuary 
some men who had previously absented themselves 
from public worship ; he attracted the uniform atten- 
tion of his hearers; he satisfied them so fully that 
they were reluctant to have him exchange pulpits 
with other ministers, even when those ministers were 
celebrated men." His discourses on fast days, and 
thanksgiving days, when the New England pastor 
feels at liberty to leave slightly the beaten track of 
Sabbath service, were especially attractive. In his 
discussions of secular, state, and political afl'aiis, 
he permitted free play to the varied powers of his 



mind in graphic descriptions, keen witticipms, and 
pungent criticisms, whicii never failed to give pleas- 
ure, instruction and profit. 

As a pastor, Dr. Jackson was ftithfiil, attentive, 
sympathetic and tender. He visited each family in 
his small parish frequently, and could call all the 
children by name. He took special interest in the 
youth of both sexes. And when he found a lad of un- 
usual promise, he took much pains to have him 
receive a liberal education. Thus, under his wise 
guidance, not a few West Andover boys have 
become useful and even eminent men, in the 
different professions in various parts of the country. 
He was also the trusted adviser of his people, 
acting at times as physician, lawyer and even in- 
structor in horticulture and agriculture. 

During his long pastorate, there were frequent revi- 
vals, in which a large number of persons were gath- 
ered into the church, some of whom as ministers, 
have done, and are still doing, good work for their 
Divine Master. 

Aside from his professional work. Dr. Jackson 
gave much attention to the cause of education. He 
was associated with Samuel Farrar, Mr. Badger and 
other influential citizens, in starting a school in town 
for the higher education of girls, and was one of the 
committee selected to devise measures and form a 
constitution for such a school, and, when a liberal 
donation from Mrs. Abbot for this purpose had been 
received, and Abbot Academy had accepted its act 
of incorporation, he was chosen one of its trustees, 
in which trust he continued to the day of his death, 
a period of nearly fifty years. At times of urgent 
need or perplexity in the affairs of the institution, 
he was the man uniformly looked to for advice 
or help. He was a warm friend of Phillips Academy 
and the Theological Seminary of which he was 
trustee for thirty years. 

While in the ministry, the reputation of Dr. Jack- 
son extended beyond the limits of his own town and 
Association. He was invited to become president 
of Middlebury College, and repeatedly to become the 
pastor of churches much larger and richer than that 
at Andovei". He received the degree of D.D. from 
Middlebury College. 

Dr. Jackson published but little. The annual 
election sermon, which he delivered before the Gov- 
ernor, Lieutenant-Governor, Council and General 
Court in 1843, was published and created quite a 
furor of excitement. No little animosity was arous- 
ed by it against its author in certain quarters, on 
account of its sharp arraignment of the sins of the 
day. 

Dr. Jackson married Miss Caroline True, daughter 
of William and Eebecca Mariner True. They 
had five children, — Samuel Charles, a young man 
of rare promise, who died at twenty-eight years 
of age ; Caroline R., resides in Andover; Susan E., 
resides in Andover; Mary A. married to Rev. Wil- 



•VER. 1605 

liam Warren, Springfield, Ohio; William, doing 
business in Boston. 

Rev. Charles H. Peirce. — The second pastor 
of the West Parish Church was born iu Peru, 
Mass., November 29, 1822. He graduated at Ober- 
lin College in 1845, taught two years, then stud- 
ied theology at Andover ; graduating in 1850. Soon 
after graduation, he was settled in the West Parish, 
where he remained for four years and six months. 
After his dismission he removed to the West, where 
he spent some seven years in labor with different 
churches in Illinois and Tennessee. On returning to 
this State he was settled in Millbury October 22, 
1862, and died in office October 5, 18(35, aged forty- 
three. 

Mr. Peirce was a warm-hearted, active, kindly 
disposed man, who made friends wherever he went. 
A man of good abilities, and the full average" of 
ministerial scholarship and pulpit talent, it was his 
misfortune to follow in his first pastorate a man of 
marked attainments and personal power. Neverthe- 
less, he was esteemed both as a pastor and preacher, 
and " greatly beloved " by a large circle of friends in 
the community and in the ministry. 

Rev. James H. Merrill. — The third pastor 
was born in Lyndehorough, N. H., October 16, 1814. 
He was the son of Nathaniel and Elizabeth (Carpen- 
ter) Merrill. He graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1834, taught two years in Fryeburg Academy, 
Maine, studied theology in Andover, graduating in 
1839. His first settlement was at Montague, Novem- 
ber 25, 1839, where he remained for more than six- 
teen years, and then became for twenty-three years 
the beloved pastor of the West Church. 

After his dismission, December 1, 1879, Mr. 
Merrill made a protracted visit to his children 
living at the West. On returning to town, he located 
his home on the " Hill," where he lived, and, by slow 
degrees faded away, till on the 28th day of October, 
1886, he fell on sleep. 

Mr. Merrill was of slight build, delicate In consti- 
tution and of limited strength, with hereditary ten- 
dencies to consumption. Hence he never felt him- 
self to be physically equal to the work of a large 
parish. He courted the quiet country, and was per- 
fectly satisfied to spend his days in ministering to a 
small church of intelligent and apprecia:tive people. 
Such a church and people he found and loved in the 
West Parish. He was exceptionally wise in this, 
that, quite early in his ministerial life, he took the 
measure of his strength, and, while expending this 
strength daily quite up to its maximum, he rarely 
much exceeded this, save under special stress. It was 
a matter of conscience with him to husband his 
vitality. By so doing, he was able to hold back his 
hereditary enemy, and spread his work over many 
years, accomplishing more for his people and the 
cause of Christ and the church, than many others 
with sound constitution and equal abilities. 



1606 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Mr. Merrill was an instructive, rather than a stimu- 
lating preacher. He was methodical in his pulpit 
preparation, as in hi.s parochial visits, and brought 
" beaten oil" into the sanctuary. True to his own 
convictions, and a critical student of the Scriptures, 
he always had something fresh and profitable for his 
people, who took truth from his lips as from the lips 
of a prophet. His opinions on controverted matters 
were cautiously formed, firmly held, and frankly 
stated. Controversy, engendering hard feeling, he 
religiously shunned. A man of sound judgment, 
genial temper, affable, courteous, unambitious, with- 
out craft, envy or hypocrisy. Recognising the fact 
that the young men of his parish, in large numbers, 
left the farm for a wider sphere of activity, he re- 
garded the work of training the youth to a reverence 
for truth, righteousness, honor and piety, as of pre- 
eminent importance. This work he never lost sight 
of, and never failed to emphasize. The result has 
been that a goodly number of West Andover boys 
are now to be found among the active and leading 
lawyers, ministers, railroad and business men all over 
the country, from Maine to California. 

Mr. Merrill was a scholar himself, and a warm friend 
of all educational institutions, from the common 
school upwards. As trustee for twenty-three years, 
of the Punchard Free School, and for a like period 
one of three composing its Visiting Committee, upon 
whom devolved the supervision of its instruction, he 
gave much time and thought to the education of the 
young. In these varied spheres of activity and use- 
fulness, Mr. Merrill so carried himself as to secure the 
fiivorof the people at large, and the esteem and affec- 
tion of his parishioners and others who were privileged 
to enjoy his friendship. 

Mr. Merrill married Miss Lucia Wadsworth Gris- 
wold, daughter of Dr. Oliver Griswold, of Fryeburg, 
Maine. They have had five children: James G., 
D.D., Pastor of the First Congregational Church, 
St. Louis, Missouri ; William F., {General Manager of 
theH. &St. J., C. B. & K. C. R. R.) ; George C, 
(deceased) Professor in Washburn College, Kansas, 
and teacher in Phillips' Academy ; Sarah E. mar- 
ried Rev. Joseph D. Wilson, Rector of St. John's 
Reformed Episcopal Church, Chicago ; Lucia S. re- 
sides in Andover. 

The Rev. Austin Burr, the fourth pastor, was 
born in Charlestown, Ohio, June 18, 1849; received 
his collegiate training at Oberlin College, and his 
theological instruction at Andover Seminary, gradu- 
ating in 1875. His first settlement was in Franklin, 
N. H., November 3, 1875, where he remained until 
1880, when he came to the West Parish. Since leav- 
ing this parish, he has been settled in Peterboro', 
N. H., where he still remains. He married Miss 
Fanny Hammond, of Andover. 

The present pastor, Rev. Frederick W. Greene, re- 
ceived his collegiate education at Amherst, and hiti 
theological instruction at Hartford Seminary, Conn. 



LATER CHURCHES OF VARIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

For a century and a quarter, the South Church, 
with it.s daughter, the West Church, embraced in its 
ecclesiastical fold the entire territory of the South 
Precinct. The people of this territory were all 
expected to attend public worship, first at the 
meeting-house in the South Church, and after- 
wards at that or the house of the West Church. 
They were by law compelled to pay taxes for 
the support of worship in one or the other of the 
parishes, whether they attended the service or not. 
This was the state of things till the year 1833; then 
the law was so changed as to give people the liberty 
to worship where they pleased, and to pay taxes when 
and as much as they pleased. This was followed by 
the incoming of other sects. 

Methodists. — As early as 1829, the Methodists 
began to hold occasional services in the bank hall, 
but not for four or five years did they acquire suffici- 
ent strength to establish regular worship and build a 
meeting-house. For a few years, this society flour- 
ished, some of the tax-payers leaving the South 
Church andjoining their number. But little by little 
they grew feeble, and in 1840 gave up regular service. 
The meeting-house was finally sold to the parties wlio 
formed the "Free Church," and is now, after under- 
going extensive alterations, their house of worship. 
Some of the Methodists followed it to its new site, 
and joined the " Free Church." 

While there has been no Methodist preaching in 
the center of the town since this sale of the meeting- 
house, there has been, and now is, a Methodist So- 
ciety at Ballard Vale. In 1851, a Methodist meet- 
ing-house was built in this village, and, since then, 
with more or less regularity, preaching has been sus- 
tained there. By the liberality of Capt. Bradlee. they 
have a neat place of worship, and a commodious par- 
sonage. 

Baptists.— A Baptist Church was formed and 
recognized October 3, 1832, the services of recogni- 
tion being held in the South Church meeting-house. 
The society erected and dedicated a house of their 
own August 28, 1834. For fifteen years the church 
sustained regular preaching, havijig during these 
years five different pastors, who remained from one 
to five years each. After the departure of the last of 
these pastors, October, 1849, the church was without 
stated preaching until its dissolution, which took 
place December 8, 1857, sixteen of its members unit- 
ing with a Baptist church in Lawrence. The pastor 
of this church. Rev. Frank Remington, after a time, 
opened the meeting-house of the denomination in 
town for services. His preaching drew a full con- 
gregation, and was attended |\vith such marked suc- 
cess in the conversion of the unrcgenerate and the 
quickening of the old members of the church, that 
a new church (with one hundred and fifty-six 
members) was formed and recognized July 28, 
1858, a little over seven months from the time the 



church had, in despair, disbanded. At this time 
they received as their pastor Rev. William S. McKen- 
zie, who remained with them for more than two years. 
Since his dismission, December, 1860, the church has 
sustained regular services, and had four stated 
preachers and various temporary supplies. Rev. H. 
R. Wilbur, who was the pastor from April, 1872, to 
October, 1876, has been their most reliable and abid- 
ing pastor. He is now a resident of the town, a pub- 
lic-spirited citizen, who, by his money and his per- 
sonal labors in the church and parish, contributes 
largely to the maintenance of the religious services. 
The feeble health of Mr. Wilbur forbids his assum- 
ing the active pastorate of the church, but his assist- 
ance is invaluable to its prosperity, if not to its 
existence. Dr. Bronson, who recently left the ser- 
vice of the church for a western field of labor, minis- 
tered to them for a number of years. 

Protestant Episcopal (Christ) Church. — Mr. 
Abraham Marland, an immigrant from England, a 
member of the English Church, a successful manu- 
facturer in Andover, and, withal, a man of sterling 
piety, liberality, and indomitable purpose, has been 
called, with much aptness, "the father of the Episco- 
pal Society in Andover." It had been his deter- 
mination for years, while rising from poverty to 
riches, to see an Episcopal Church established in his 
adopted home, " even if the whole cost of it were 
borne by himself." Through his agency, doubtless, 
a liturgical service was held at the South Church 
meeting-house, by Rev. Dr. Stone, rector of St. Paul's 
Church, Boston, as early as December 25, 1833. 
But, though the society was in embryo in the mind 
of Mr. Marland at this time, no serious effort was 
made to form an Episcopal Church till 1835. On 
July 2Gth of that year " an Episcopal service was 
held in the bank hall," conducted by Bishop Smith, 
of Kentucky. He was followed by other distin- 
guished clergymen of the denomination, including 
Bishop Griswold. On the 4th day of August follow- 
ing twenty-three men met together, and agreed to 
" form themselves into a religious society, to be called 
the Episcopal Society in Andover." They drew up 
a petition to N. W. Hazen, Esq., justice of the peace, 
for him "to issue a warrant for calling the first meet- 
ing" of the society. This meeting was held August 
6th, when an organization was formed, and the cus- 
tomary officers chosen. 

The formation of this society was, ecclesiastically, 
an entirely novel movement in the town, not in sym- 
pathy with its antecedents, or prevailing sentiment. 
It drew from the South Parish a goodly number of 
able and influential men and prominent families. 
But this new ecclesiastical departure, attended by a 
depletion of its membership, was not merely ac- 
quiesced in by the South Parish, but generously 
encouraged by friendly speech and acts. The Christ- 
mas service of the new church, with decorations and 
music, was held for the first time, by invitation, in 



VER. 1607 

the meeting-house of the South Parish. These ser- 
vices were conducted by Bishop Griswold, who, in 
administering the communion, extended an invita- 
tion to partake in the ordinance, so liberal as to 
bring many members of the South Church to receive 
the sacred emblems at his hands. The present rec- 
tor of the Episcopal Church, Rev. Leverett Bradley, 
in his admirable semicentennial sermon, from which 
the factg of this paper are mostly drawn, in recalling 
this passage in the history of his church, says, 
"Whatever may have been the spirit of the most 
populous churches towards the Episcopal Church 
during the first century of her life in America, it is 
well to know that in Andover the Episcopal Church 
has received nothing but the best wishes and kindly 
interest from all denominations." " The South 
Church by the loan of its building to our people on 
several occasions, that they might hold liturgical 
services and listen to preaching by one of their own 
clergymen, disclosed a spirit of Christian brother- 
hood, as the most carefully drawn resolutions could 
not have done," — giving " new proof of the large- 
minded. Christian spirit of the officers and members" 
of this church. 

Mr. Marland, as has been intimated, was the most 
liberal supporter of this enterpiise. He gave the 
cemetery lot, built and donated the " rectory," con- 
tributed freely towards building the church edifice, 
and sustaining public worship. His son-in-law and 
partner in business, Mr. Benjamin H. Punchard, 
gave seven thousand dollars, as a testamentary be- 
quest, to the society, the income of which is available 
for current expenses. 

The churcli has had six rectors and two ministers, 
all of whom have been worthy and capable clergy- 
men, and some of them notably able. Dr. Fuller, in 
his two pastorates, served the church sixteen years, 
and in this time did much towards forming its char- 
acter and shaping its destiny. He was a man, phy- 
sically and intellectually, fitted to command the 
respect of his fellow-men, and in heart and life such 
as to win their confidence and esteem. His influence 
was felt beyond his parish in the esthetic, educational 
and moral interests of the town, and in the councils 
of the diocese. 

In the summer of 1885, Mr. John Byers, a liberal 
merchant of New York, whose deceased parents were 
members of this church, wishing to erect some mem- 
orial to their memory, and, above all, to do something 
that would be of permanent service t© the church and 
thecauseof Christ, offered to build and furnish a new 
stone church edifice, and give it to the parish. On 
the evening of the Sabbath, February 28, 1886, while 
preparation was going forward for confirmation ser- 
vices, to be performed by the Bishop, the original 
church building took fire from a defective chimney 
and was entirely consumed. The present stone edifice, 
the gift of Mr. Byers, was erected in 1886, and conse- 
crated with appropriate services, Dr. Phillips Brooks 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of Boston preaching the sermon, and Bishop Paddock 
conducting the consecrating rites on January 4, 1887. 

The new edifice is a tasty and commodious structure, 
costing, with its furnishings, not far from forty-one 
tliousand dolhirs. It is credited by all as a choice 
specimen of church architecture, an instructive lesson 
in enduring stone, an ornament to the town and a 
priceless boon to the church. It is thought by some 
good judges to be, architecturally, the finest public 
building in town, while others give precedence to 
the stone Chapel on the Hill. 

" The building is of the Byzantine Romanesque 
style of architecture, built of reddish granite with 
trimmings of Kibbe stone. The church fronts to the 
east, contrary to the usual custom, owing to the 
position of the lot. The tower, situated on the south- 
east corner, is a large, plain and solid structure, and 
contains a semicircular staircase. It serves as the 
principal porch of the building, and is balanced by 
a smaller porch on the northeast corner. The chan- 
cel is semi-circular in form. The rectangular 
auditorium has a seating capacity of four hundred. 
The pews are open and of oak finish. The roof of 
the main body of the church is of hard pine con- 
struction, the panels between the rafters being of 
spruce, and the whole being shellaced in natural color. 
The ceiling of the semi-circular chancel or apsis is 
treated with honeycomb in gold, and is devoid of 
stars. The decoration throughout the church is 
exceedingly quiet and simple, particularly the stained 
glass windows in the apsis, which, although very 
rich in color, are framed by a ground of rather dark 
color. Five of them represent the life of John the 
Baptist, — as a child, in the wilderness, as a preacher, 
in prison, and received up." A sixth is inscribed to 
the memory of the donor's brother. 

The organ was the gift of Mr. Horace H. Tyer 
and Miss Catherine L. Tyer in memory of their 
father and mother, Henry George and Elizabeth 
Tyer, former worshippers at Christ Church. Miss 
Catherine Tyer died suddenly intestate. Her heirs 
discovered among her papers a memorandum of a 
purpose to give $10,000 to the parish. In recogni- 
tion of this wish, they have given the above sum as 
a permanent fund, one-fourth of the income to be 
expended for the care and improvement of the church 
grounds, the remainder for the church music. There 
is a chapel connected with the church at its north- 
west corner, of corresponding architecture, and built 
of the same material. 

Universalists. — "A Universalist Society was 
formed in town in the fall of 1838. A church was 
formed later. Public worship was irregularly sus- 
tained till 1846, when tor several years it was entirely 
suspended." The declared purpose of organizing 
this society, as set forth in its records, was " the 
promotion of truth and morality among its members, 
and also the world at large, and as the Gospel of the 
Lord Jesus Christ is calculated above all truth to 



inspire the heart with the emotions of benevolence 
and virtue, this Society shall deem it one of its main 
objects to support the preaching of the Gospel ac- 
cording to the Society's ability, and to aid in spread- 
ing a knowledge of it among men." The society 
sustained public worship for twenty-five years, with 
considerable intervals of suspension, when regular 
preaching was abandoned, and the meeting-house 
was finally sold and devoted to other uses. During its 
existence, this church had seven resident ministers 
or stated supplies, Rev. Varnum Lincoln being the 
one longest in service. Mr. Lincoln was pastor for 
five years, and, after an interval of several years, a 
regular supply for a time. He now resides in An- 
dover, where he has served for a term on the School 
Committee, and is an active member of the " Farmers' 
Club." 

The Free Christian Church.— This church 
was organized May 7, 1846, with a membership of 
forty-four persons, drawn from the South and West 
Parishes, and largely from the disbanded Methodist 
Society. A number of circumstances combined at 
this time to bring the church into existence. The 
partners of the Smith & Dove Manufacturing Com- 
pany w^ere natives of Scotland. Their operatives 
were almost exclusively from Scotland. They did 
not fully coalesce with the natives of Andover. The 
factory village was at some distance from existing 
places of worship. Above all, the anti-slavery agita- 
tion had begun to introduce dissension into the 
churches. The more determined opponents of slavery 
held that the church should not fellowship with those 
churches at the South which upheld slavery, or with 
those churches at the North that fellowshiped with 
the Southern churches, nor should they unite with 
either of them in any missionary work at home or 
abroad. Many of this class did not go to the extreme 
of denouncing the entire church as "the bulwark of 
slavery," or in demanding that all true friends of the 
State should " come out " of the churches. They 
wished to have a church connection, but in a church 
that should be free from all alliance, near or remote 
with slavery. Messrs. Smith and Dove belonged to 
the latter class of anti-slavery men. 

Under these converging circumstances the project of 
a new church had its birth. The church took its 
name — " The Free Christian Church " — partly, it 
may be, from the attachment of many of its members 
to the church of their home in the old country, but, 
more especially, as a declaration of severance from 
every religious organization which in any way tol- 
erated slavery. Its seats were not free. It did not 
fellowship with the neighboring churches by sitting in 
council with them, or by an exchange of pulpit ser- 
vices by its ministers with theirs for a number of 
years. At first the congregation worshipped in the 
vacant house of the Univcrsalists. In 1849 the meet- 
ing-house of the Methodists was purchased by Mr. 
John Smith, removed from Main Street to where it 



now stands, repaired and fitted up within and with- 
out, a spire and bell added, and, altogether, it made 
a neat and commodious place of worship. It was 
dedicated March 9, 1850. The expense was borne by 
Mr. John Smith, who conveyed the property by deed 
to the parish, and, in addition, gave the society a 
permanent fund of five thousand dollars. Some years 
subsequent to this a parsonage was built near by the 
house of worship, and given to the society by Messrs. 
Smith and Dove. 

At first the church, not recognizing the neighbor- 
ing churches, did not settle its ministers in the usual 
Congregational method, through the medium of a 
council composed of pastors and delegates from other 
Congregational Churches. They were employed by 
the year. In this way the church had, between Feb- 
ruary 1, 1846, and November 5, 1865, five ministers, 
who served it from one to six years each. This 
church, while not in fellowship, was always at peace 
with its neighbors, and its stated supplier were always 
in brotherly accord with the pastors of neighboring 
churches. At the close of the War of the Rebellion all 
distinctions were obliterated. The next minister 
called by the church — Rev. James P. Lane — was duly 
installed, after the Congregational custom, by a 
council composed of pastors and delegates from 
neighboring churches, and this practice has continued 
to the present time. 

Rev. James P. Lane was pastor from April 4, 1866, 
to March 27, 1870. 

Rev. Edwin S. Williams from November 29, 1870, 
to April 24, 1872. 

Rev. G. Frederick Wright from May 27, 1872, to 
September 4, 1881. 

The present pastor, Rev. F. Barrows Makepeace, 
was installed January 12, 1882. 

Mr. Lane has since . been settled in Bristol, R. I., 
and in Norton, where he now resides. Mr. Williams 
has been engaged in ministerial work at the West, in 
various capacities, and has now the charge of city 
missionary work in Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mr. Wright, on leaving his pastorate here, became 
professor of New Testament Greek, in the Theologi- 
cal Department of Oberlin College, where he received 
his education. He is still there. Mr. Wright has 
been much interested in scientific studies, especially 
those pertaining to ■ geology and biology. He has 
published numerous papers on these and kindred 
subjects, which have attracted the attention of schol- 
ars. Since the publication of the Bibliotheca has 
been removed to Oberlin, he has been its principal 
editor. He has also published a small treatise enti- 
tled "The Logic of Christian Evidences," especially 
designed for the use of the higher schools of learn- 
ing. He has received the degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity. 

The church, from a membership in 1846 of forty- 
four, has increased to three hundred and sixty-nine, 
and now has the largest membership of any Protestant 
101* 



church in town, and also the largest Sabbath-school. 
Its house of worship has been refitted, improved, and 
made more attractive. With its large financial ability, 
its increasing and active membership, and lull con- 
gregation, it has the " promise and potency " of future 
growth and usefulness, surpassing those of the past. 

Union Church, Ballard Vale.— After some un- 
successful eflbrts to establish an Episcopal Church in 
the Vale, and to unite all denominations in one reli- 
gious enterprise, a church was organized in 1850, 
called the " Union Congregational Church.'' The 
Rev. Henry S. Greene was its minister from its or- 
ganization in 1850 to the day of his death, June 11, 
1880. Mr. Greene was born in 1807; graduated at 
Amherst College, 1834; at Andover Theological 
Seminary, 1837 ; was thirteen years settled in Lynn- 
field, before coming to Ballard Vale. He left no 
children — his only child, a son educated at Amherat 
College, having died before him. Through his efforts 
a comfortable place of worship has been erected for 
the society which he so long served. He also left to 
the church for a parsonage his residence at the Vale. 
The society has always been weak, depending upon 
the Home Missionary Society for aid. Rev. Samuel 
Bowker is the present pastor. 

St. Augustine (Catholic) Church. — This church 
was gathered by the Augustine Fathers of Lawrence 
in 1852. The first pastor was Rev. James O'Donnell. 
He was followed in 1862, by Rev. Edward Mullen, 
O.S.A., and in 1863 by Michael F. Gallagher, O.S.A., 
by Rev. Ambrose A. Mullen, O.S.A., in 1869, by Rev. 
Maurice J. Murphy, O.S.A., in the fall of 1876, and 
by Rev. J. J. Ryan in the fall of 1887. This society 
worshipped in a house built on Central Street, now 
unoccupied. With the increasing number of worship- 
pers it became necessary to provide a larger house for 
their accommodation, and the present edifice was 
erected, and consecrated September 2, 1883. The Sab- 
bath audience here averages not far from six hundred, 
with a Sabbath-school of one hundred and seventy. 
There is a branch society at Ballard Vale, served by 
Rev. J. J. Ryan, the pastor of the Augustine Church, 
which has a neat little chapel for its religious 
purposes. The members of this large society are al- 
most exclusively of Irish nativity or descent, showing 
what a marked change has taken place in the nativity 
and religion of the people during the last half-century. 
The charitable and beneficent organizations sus- 
tained by it are " the Young Ladies' Sodality," " the 
Married Ladies' Sodality," and " the Children of 
Mercy." It has furnished the church with two 
priests, — Rev. Daniel D. Regan, pastor of St. John's 
Church, Mechanicsville, N. Y., and Rev. Timothy H. 
Regan, assistant pastor at Johnsonville, N. Y. These 
priests are both sons of John Regan, of Andover, and 
were educated at the Punchard Free School and 
Villanova College, Pennsylvania. 

Ministers. — The following persons, who were 
either born in Andover South Parish, or resided here 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



with their parents when children, have become min- 
isters. The list is taken largely from that made by Dr. 
Mooar for the " South Church Manual." 

John Blunt, eon of William graduiitcd 1727 

James Cliandler, sou of Tliomns graduated 1728 

.Samuel Chandler, son of Josiah graduated 1735 

Abiel Abbot, son of Deacon John graduated 1737 

John Cliandler, son of Thomas. gmduated 1743 

Nathan Holt, son of Nicholas graduated 1757 

Abiel Foster,' son of Captain Asa graduated 1756 

David Osgood, D.D., son of Captain Isaac graduated 1771 

John Abbot,2 son of Captain John graduated 1784 

Kobert Gray, son of liobcrt graduated 1786 

Peter Holt, son of Deacon Joshua graduated 1790 

Abiel Abbot, D.D., son of Captain John graduated 1792 

Jonathan French, D.D, son of Kev. Jonathan graduated 17<J8 

Thoa. Abbot Merrill, D.D., son of Deacon Thomaa.graduated 1801 

John Lovejoy Abbot,3son of Jolin Lovejoy graduated 1805 

Joshua Chandler, son of Major Abiel graduated 1807 

Jacob Holt, son of Dane graduated 1813 

Samuel Phillips Newman, son of Deacon Mark ...graduated 1810 

John K. Adams, son of John* graduated 1821 

Amos Blanchard, D.D.,' son of Deacon Amos graduated 1826 

\Vm. Adams, D.D.,6 son of Principal J. Adams .. graduated 1827 

Leonard Woods,' son of Prof. Leonard Woods graduated 1827 

Joshua Emery, son of Joshua graduated 18:U 

Sereno Timothy Abbott, son of Asa graduated 1833 

Samuel Hopkins Emery, son of Joshua graduated 1834 

Wilson lugalls, sou of Ezra graduated 1836 

Daniel Bates Woods, son of Prof. Leonard graduated 1837 

Daniel Kmei^on, son of Prof. Emerson graduated 1839 

Jonathan Edwards, son ofDr. Justin graduated 1840 

Thomas E. Foster, son of Captain Thomas graduated 1840 

Joseph Emerson, 8 son of Prof. Emersou graduated 1841 

Charles A. Aiken, D.D.,0 son of Hon. John graduated 1846 

Sannu'I Emerson, son of Prof. Emerson graduated 1848 

Pi-ter Smith Byers, son of Jas. (not ordained) graduated 1851 

George Mooar,'" son of Benjamin (West Pari8h)..graduated 1851 

Osgood Johnson, son of Principal Osgood graduated 1862 

Simon S. Fuller, son of Dr. Fuller (Episcopal).... graduated 1858 

John F. Aiken, son of Hon. John graduated 1858 

William Edwards Park, son of Prof. E. A. Park...graduated 1861 

Allen C. Barrows, son of Prof. Barrows graduated 1801 

John Phelps Taylor," son of Prof. John L graduated 1862 

James S. Merrill, D.D., son of Rev. James H. 

(West Parish) graduated 1863 

John H. Manning,'2son of Thomas graduated 1864 

David S. Morgan, Andover Theological Seminary..graduated 1866 
E. Winchester Donald, D.D., son of William 

(Free Church) graduated 1869 

Daniel D. Regan, son of John (Catholic) graduated 1870 

Moses Stuart Phelp3,i3 6on of Prof. A.Phelps graduated 1869 



1 Representative in the General Court, New Hampshire, president of 
the State Senate, Chief Justice of Court Common Pleas, Rockingham 
County, Hepresentative in the Continental Congz-ess, and for ten years 
in the Congress under the present Constitution. 

2 Instructor in Phillips Academy, merchant in Portland, professor of 
the Greek and Latin languages in Bowdoiu College, treasurer of the 

3 Librarian of Harvard College, minister of the First Church, Boston. 
* Principal of Phillips Academy. 

' Pastor of First Church and Kirk Street Church, Lowell, from 1829 
to 1870, till death, forty-one years. 

'Pastor of Madison Square Presbyterian Church, N. Y., president of 
Union Theological Seminary, N. Y. 

' Professor in Bangor Theological Seminary, and president of Bowdoin 
College, Maine. 

8 Professor of ancient languages, Beloit College. 

» Professor in Dartmouth College, in New Jersey College, president 
of UnionCollegp, professor in Princeton Theological Seminary. 

10 Professor in Pacific Theological Seminary, California. 

11 Professor in Andover Theological Seminary. 

12 Andover Theological Seminary. 

18 ProfcMor in Smith College, Northampton. 



Charles H. Abbntt,n son of Henry graduated 1875 

George 11. Gutterson,!' Bon of George graduated 1878 

Lawrence Phelps, son of Prof. Austin Phelps. 
J. D. Stone, son of Nalium (Baptist). 



CHAPTER CXXXVII. 

ANDO VER— ( Continued). 
EDUCATIONAL. 

The first settlers of the town were for the most 
part poorly educated. The men could, as a rule, read, 
write and perform such mathematical calculations as 
were required in their ordinary business. There were 
only a few whose education took a much wider range. 
A large proportion of the women had even less learn- 
ing than the men. Many of them, in good social 
standing, could neither read nor write. When there 
was occasion for their signatures, they made their 
marks. But there was no lack of desire for a better 
education on the part of these thus deficient. There 
is evidence that, irom the first settlement, there was a 
purpose on the part of the settlers to create schools. 
They early provided for the education of their chil- 
dren, so far at least as to have them taught to " Read, 
Rite and Cypher." The ministers were, to a certain 
extent, teachers; they fitted lads for Harvard College. 

Dames' schools were also early established I'or the 
instruction of young children. These were taught 
by women who had more education and leisure than 
their female neighbors, and were u.^ually kept at the 
homes of the teachers. 

The residence of Gov. Bradstreet and his family in 
the town for a number of years, doubtless, gave an 
impulse to all these efforts for a better education. The 
sons of the Governor, fitted at the parsonage for col- 
lege, and graduated at Harvard, mingling with the 
people, helped them the better to realize the value of 
learning. The educated man was the oracle of the 
town. As men prospered and acquired the means, 
they sent their sons to college. As early as 1678 the 
town sent to Harvard a contribution of twelve bushels 
of corn as "a compliment for y' new building of y" 
College," showing that the college was an object of 
interest, and held out aspirations for their children. 

In the year 1647, by an act of the Colonial Legis- 
lature, every township of fifty families was required 
to support a school in which children should be 
taught to read and write ; and every town of a hun- 
dred families was required to maintain a grammar 
school, in which boys could be fitted for Harvard 
College. In 1683 the Legislature further enacted that 
a township of five hundred families should support 



ANDOVER. 



1611 



two such grammar 3chools. The instruction in these 
schools was required to be of such a grade that the 
pupils fitting for college could "read any classical 
author into English, and readily speak and make true 
Latin, and write it in verse as well as prose, and per- 
fectly decline the paradigms of nouns and verbs in 
the Greek tongue." 

These laws laid a heavy tax upon the people strug- 
gling to get a living and establish liomes, but they 
seem to have been for the most part cheerfully borne. 
It is impossible to say when Andover, by its growth, 
came under these laws. But it is a matter of record 
that not till 1701 did the town take measures to com- 
ply with tlie law requiring a grammar school. In 
February 3, 1700-1, it was " voted that a conveniant 
school-house be erected at j" parting of y" ways, by 
Joseph Wilson's, to be twenty foot long and sixteen 
foot wide." And further, the selectmen were ordered 
to employ for the school a suitable master from year 
to year. This latter order was more easily voted than 
executed. Suitable masters were scarce. The college 
graduates were in demand for the ministry. The 
compensation of teachers was small. But Andover 
at that time was more fortunate than her neighbors 
in having a son of her own, a recent graduate of Har- 
vard, who was fitted for the place and willing to take 
it. Mr. Dudley Bradstreet, son of Gov. Bradstreet, 
in 1704 became master of the first grammar school 
in town. He was followed in this office, in quick 
succession, by forty-one others, whose united services 
covered eighty-seven years. In this line of gram- 
mar school masters we find some notable names, 
among whom are Wm. Symmes, Jr., Samuel Phillips 
and Eliphalet Pearson. The amount of money appro- 
priated yearly for the support of the school varied 
from thirty-tive to forty -five pounds, not certainly 
affording a luxurious living to an ambitious graduate 
of Harvard. 

When the town was divided by act of the General 
Court, in 1708, into "two distinct precincts," the 
grammar school was not divided, but, under the 
same master, was held alternately in each precinct. 
In 1718 a school-house was erected in the South 
Precinct " upon the Hill, on the Southwest of the 
Meeting-House." This being done, an agreement 
was entered into, between the selectmen and Mr- 
James Bailey, January 12, 1719, according to which 
he was " to keep a gramer school for one year follow- 
ing, for forty-four pounds, and he is to teach children 
to Read and elder persons to wright and Sifer as far 
as they are capable for the Time being, according to 
the Regular methods of such a school, and to keep 
the School in each precinct for the s'' Term of Time, 
and to begin the schoole about three-quarters of an 
hour after seven a'clock, and to keep it according to 
the accustomed manner in the Sheer Towne." 

As the population increased in the " outskirts " of 
the town, there arose a demand for school accommo- 
dation nearer their places of residence. This led to 



sending the master, for a time, into different localities 
to attend upon his scholars. We have the following 
account of one Philemon Robbins, who was master in 
1729, as narrated by Miss Bailey : 

" Philemon Robbins came first to keep a school in 
Andover, and began his school in y' south end of y' 
Town, and continued there 3 months, and then went 
behind the pond in y" first day of December, and 
continued there until the 25th day of said December, 
and then Returned to the middle of the Town and 
was sent to the south end of the towne, and continued 
there until the Last of January, and then was sent 
and continued in the middle of the town into y" 
Last of February next, and then was sent behind the 
pond in y' 3d day of March, and to continue there 
fourteen nights, and then y' 16th March was returned 
to y° middle of y' towne, and continued there nine 
weeks." 

This wandering of the schoolmaster over the town 
to teach the children reminds us of the custom which 
once prevailed in the country towns of New Eng- 
land, for the cobblers and tailoresses to go around 
among the people, doing the work of their craft in 
tlie homes of their patrons. 

Regular schools were not established in the out- 
lying districts before 1755. The schools at first were 
of a lower grade than the grammar school, teaching 
little save reading, writing and arithmetic. They 
were taught in winter by men, in the summer by 
women. 

In 1795 the town was divided into twelve dis- 
tricts, in each of which a school waa sustained from 
six to eight months of the year. The money 
for the support of these twelve schools was raised 
by taxation, as at present. This money was appor- 
tioned to the schools according to the number of 
families residing in the district. When this arrange- 
ment was first made, there were four hundred and 
one families in the town, and six hundred dollars 
were raised for their support, or an average of fifty 
dollars for each school. Two years later the sum 
raised was eight hundred dollars. When the dis- 
trict system went into operation the grammar 
school was discontinued. The winter schools being 
taught by masters, two-thirds of the money raised 
for the support of scholars was devoted to the 
winter schools. This practice of having the winter 
schools taught by men, in which much the larger por- 
tion of the money appropriated was expended, pre- 
vailed for more than half a century. It was then 
universally thought that female teachers were un- 
suitable for winter schools, not so much from their 
lack of knowledge, as from their lack of muscle. The 
older boys of the district, who, in the summer, were 
employed on the farm or in the shop, were expected 
to attend the winter school for three or four months. 
These boys were supposed to need discipline no less 
than instruction. The long ferule and the birch were 
as necessary an outfit for the master as the Arithmetic 



1612 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



and the Reader. Hence the committee, in looking 
for a master, had regard to his physical, no less 
than his intellectual equipment. In these ivinter 
schools, in not a few districts in the State, there used 
to be continually recurring contests between the big 
boys and the master for supremacy. Not seldom 
was it that the boys came otf victors, though, as a 
rule, the birch rod and oaken ruler conquered. When 
the master was overcome and cast from the door of 
the school-room into a snow-drift, as was sometimes 
the case, he usually vacated his office. 

The writer has personally known of two such in- 
stances. As late as 1848, in a district school in a 
thriving village, which had from the first been under 
the charge of a master during the winter session, the 
master was turned out of the school-house and 
thrown into a snow-drift by the older boys. This was 
not generally looked upon by the parents as any- 
thing to be severely reproved. The struggle between 
master and boys, like hazing in college, being of 
ancient custom, was treated with sufterance. In the 
case referred to, however, a different state of feeling 
as to this practice having gained influence in the dis- 
trict, the following winter the district committee-man 
was persuaded to employ a young lady, who had 
taught the summer school with marked success, to 
continue in the same school through the winter ses- 
sion. When the news of this new departure spread 
over the district, it produced consternation in 
some parents and called forth open opposition and 
threats from others. The teacher was of small stature 
but full of pluck, richly endowed with good nature, 
tact and common sense, and withal, abundantly sup- 
plied with knowledge and mother wit. The protest- 
ing and indignant parents were told that the lady 
teacher would take her place in the school-room at 
the appointed time, that she was amply qualified to 
instruct their sons in any branch of learning they 
might wish to pursue, and that, if they sent their 
boys to school for the purpose of being flogged, the 
committee would hire an Irishman to discharge that 
part of the teacher's duty. The school was success- 
fully "kept," and from that day to this no master 
has been employed in the district. 

The district schools in this town were sometimes 
called "outskirt" schools, sometimes "squadron" 
schools, and were in session from six to eight 
months. They were much under the oversight of the 
minister of the two parishes, who visited them 
regularly and "catechised" the children. Dr. Ed- 
ward* distinguished himself for special fidelity in 
this service. As all the parents belonged to his par- 
ish, this practice of his, so far from being cause for 
comi)laint, was matter of universal approval and 
commendation. 

Within comparatively a short time, great changes 
have taken place in the public schools of the town. 
The district system has been abolished. The schools 
are graded into primary, intermediate, grammar and 



high schools, and in all the grades are further 
divided into classes. Those supported by the town 
are all taught by ladies. The Punchard Free 
School, which takes the place of a high school, 
has a male principal and two female assistants. 
The employment of teachers and the supervision 
of the schools have been placed in the hands of 
a committee chosen by the town. Eight thousand 
dollars a year are appropriated for the support of 
schools, besides the income from the Punchard 
fund. The school buildings are all owned and 
cared for by the town. They are neat, commodious 
and comfortable, which could not have been said of 
some of them under the district system. The gram- 
mar, and the high or Punchard school buildingsi, are of 
brick, large, airy, fitted with all modern appliances 
for health, convenience, comfort, and for aiding 
study. The aim is to secure the best teachers, and to 
continue them in office as long as they give satisfac- 
tion or desire to remain. There are at present 
twenty teachers employed in the town schools. 

The Proi'RIETOEs' Fund. — This fund, as its name 
implies, is a gift, or appropriation, made by the pro- 
prietors of the town, successors of the original pro- 
prietors who purchased the township from the Indian 
Sagamore, and were confirmed in their title by a 
grant from the General Court. This company re- 
tained itM legal existence till all the land included in 
their purchase and grant had been deeded to indi- 
viduals, or donated to public uses. In closing up 
their accounts, previous to dissolution, they found a 
surplus of money in their treasury amounting to 
$1749. As this property had come into their hands 
not for personal advantage, but to be used by them, 
as trustees, for the public benefit, they decided to de- 
vote the money to educational purposes in the town. 
We find on their book of records that at a meeting 
held September 23, 1801, it was '' voted that the money 
belonging to the proprietors of Andover be equally 
divided between the two parishes." After more ma- 
ture deliberation it was subsequently " voted that the 
said property be divided into two equal parts ; the 
income of the one-half to be applied to the instruction 
of youth of both sexes in reading, writing and arith- 
metic in free schools in the South Parish in said An- 
dover; the other half to be appropriated to the use of 
the Academy in the North Parish in Andover." At 
this meeting a committee was appointed to carry the 
vote into eft'ect. As the matter was finally arranged, a 
charter was obtained from the General Court creating 
a self-perpetuating board of trustees for each of the 
parishes, to hold and use the fund, " in perpetutim," 
in accordance with the vote of the proprietors. The | 
charter for the South Parish is a lengthy one, going ' 
much into details. It is carefully drawn, has six sec- 
tions, provides for the holding of additional funds by j 
the trustees, and evidently manifests an expectation i 
that their fund will become a nucleus for the gather- j' 
ing in of other considerable sums, to be devoted to ' 



ANDOVER. 



free schooling. They, however, limit the amount to 
be held by their trustees to a sum that will yield an 
income of one thousand dollars. The expectation of 
these early friends of free schooling has not been 
realized in the manner they anticipated. Not a dol- 
lar has been added to the original fund, either by 
gift or bequest. The trustees of the fund are still in 
existence, and, preserving the principal intact, they 
yearly pay over the income to the School Committee, 
who use it to lengthen out the schools beyond the 
time they are supported by the town appropriations. 

But this small sum has the honorable distinction of 
being the first money set apart in trust, the income of 
which is to be used for education. 

What the silent influence of this small trust fund 
may have been, no one can say. That it was prophetic 
is apparent. It was suggestive. It was a constant 
reminder of a judicious way of forever benefiting a 
community. The yearly use of the income of a per- 
manent fund for free schools in the town, being a 
familiar fact to Judge Phillips from his boyhood, may 
have implanted in his mind, early and unawares, the 
idea of a trust fund administered for educati'inal 
purposes. If not thus the seed-corn of an abundant 
harvest of like benefactions, it was certainly the fore- 
runner of such benefactions, munificent in amount 
and unspeakably fruitful in results. It is not unrea- 
sonable to suppose that the latent germ of a free high 
school should have been hidden in the proprietors 
perpetual ftind. However this may be, it was in An- 
dover that the first incorporated institution for the 
higher education of boys and divinity students, and 
for a like education for girls, had their birth. Phil- 
lips Academy, the Theological Seminary and Abbot 
Female Academy, each the first of its kind endowed 
and incorporated in the country, have sent the fame of 
this small country town over the civilized world, 
and further still, into the darkness of heathen lands. 
Other towns in the State far surpass Andover in other 
respects, some in commercial enterprise and import- 
ance, some in the fertility of their soil, some in their 
manufacturing interests and industries, some in their 
wealth and architectural adornments, some as places 
of heroic historic deeds ; but Andover is second to no 
other town in the State, Cambridge excepted, for its 
historic educational institutions, and the wide in- 
fluence, through these institutions, it has exerted in 
the fields of letters, science, statesmanship, morals 
and religion. Hence, of all the things pertaining to 
the history of the town, the inception, growth and 
character of these institutions of learning are of the 
foremost consequence. 

Master Foster's School.— Previous to our no- 
tice of these incorporated institutions of learning, it 
may be proper to mention a select school for lads 
opened in the South Parish by Mr. William Foster, 
not long after the removal of Judge Phillips to the 
South Parish. This private school was, for the most 
part, patronized from abroad. Mr. Foster took the 



lads into his family, and gave them such care and 
training as their age and circumstances required. 
" Master Foster's " school became quite celebrated, 
and proved to be, both to master and pupils, a source 
of profit. It was continued for a series of years, or 
till the teacher had become enfeebled by age. 

PUNCHAED Free School.— The Punchard Free 
School, as its name implies, was established by the 
munificent bequest of Mr. Benjamin Hanover Pun- 
chard. Mr. Punchard was born in Salem, Mass., De- 
cember 16, 1799. His ancestors were immigrants 
from the island of Jersey. His father dying when 
he was only ten years of age, he was compelled, from 
that date, to earn his own living. Up to this time he 
had enjoyed the advantages of good schools and com- 
petent teachers. But, at this early age, his educa- 
tional opportunities terminated. 

That he improved well the privileges he enjoyed is 
evident from the fact that, when a little above the age 
of eleven, he was employed as a copyist, afterwards as 
a clerk in a West India store in Boston, 

In this latter employment he developed so much 
ability, and displayed such industry and fidelity, as to 
secure the confidence of his employers, and, at twen- 
ty years of age, a partnership in the firm. But the 
labor and responsibility of his position wore upon 
his constitution, enfeebled by undue hardships in his 
youth. He was obliged to give up business and re- 
tire from the firm at twenty-eight years of age. He 
had, however, in this brief period, acquired a hand- 
some fortune for those days. He came to Andover as 
a desirable locality for recruiting his exhausted ener- 
gies. Here he became a stockholder in the Andover 
Bank, then recently started. He also soon, in part- 
nership with Mr. John Derby, opened a store in the 
town for trade in miscellaneous goods. Here also he 
married the daughter of Mr. Abraham Marland, and 
when, in 1834, the Marland Manufacturing Company 
was incorporated, he became one of the few incor- 
porators and owners. This business, proving emi- 
nently lucrative, added much to his fortune. He 
built a handsome residence in the centre of the vil- 
lage, the finest at that time in the town. He traveled 
much in this and foreign countries, partly for the ad- 
I vantage of his health, and partly to increase his 
knowledge and gratify his taste. He took a deep in- 
terest in the education of the young. His own de- 
privation of educational privileges in his youth, and 
his residence in Andover, where the atmosphere was 
impregnated with the school spirit, doubtless turned 
his thoughts towards a free school, as the most desir- 
able object upon which to bestow his wealth. He 
was childless, and had few near kindred. He was 
withal a public-spirited man, and desired earnestly 
the welfare of his fellow-citizens and countrymen. 
He had contributed liberally to the support of the 
EjHscopal Church in the town, and in his will left a 
handsome sum for its maintenance. He was a com- 
municant in this church, a consistent member andde- 



1614 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



vout worshipper. He died April 4, 1850, aged fifty 
years, three months and nineteen days. 

In his will he bequeathed fifty thousand dollars, 
with a reversion, at the decease of his wife, of twenty 
thousand dollars additional, for the establishment of 
a free school for the town. Ten thousand of the fifty 
thousand dollars were made available for a building, 
and forty thousand were to be kept in trust as a per- 
petual fund for the support of the school. The re- 
versionary bequest, when received, was to be added to 
the permanent fund. 

The following provisions for the management of 
the school are specified in the will : 

" Said school shall be under the direction of eight trustees, of whom 
the Hector of Christ Church is to be one ; also, the ministers of the South 
Parish and West Parish Congregational Societies to be members ; also, 
the remaining five to be chosen by the inhabitants of Andover in Town- 
Meeting, to serve for three years ; two of whom to be talveu from Christ 
Church Society, two from the South Parisli Society, and one from the 
West Parisli Society. Said school to be free to all youths resident in 
Andover, under the restrictions of the trustees as to age and qualifica- 
tions. No sectarian influence to be used in the school ; the Bible to be 
in daily use ; and the Lord's Prayer, in which the pupils shall join audi- 
bly with the teacher, in the morning, at the opening ; the said trustees 
to have the sole direction ; and power, also, to determine and decide 
whether the school shall be for males only, or for the benefit of both 
sexes. Said school to be located in the South Parish, of Andover, but 
free for all tlie Parishes equally." 

These provisions of the will have been strictly ad- 
hered to. Since the North Parish has been incorpo- 
rated as a separate town, it has established a high 
school of its own, and, though legally entitled to the 
benefits of the Punchard School, the people of North 
Andover have long since ceased to avail themselves 
of their right. 

An act of incorporation for the school was obtained 
from the Legislature February 26, 1851. Also by act 
of the Legislature March 28, 1856, the Punchard 
School was made the High School for the town, thus 
relieving the town from the statute obligation to sus- 
tain by taxation a high school. 

The amount of money designated in the will for a 
school building being quite inadequate for the pur- 
pose, and there being much diversity of opinion 
among the trustees as to the best location for the 
building, the edifice was not commenced till June, 
1855. It was completed in September, 1856. The 
interest on the money, added to the ten thousand dolr 
lars designated in the will, enabled the trustees to 
erect a building both commodious and attractive. It 
was dedicated September 2, 1856, the address on the 
occasion being delivered by Dr. Fuller, rector of 
Christ Church and trustee of the school. 

This building was destroyed by an incendiary fire 
on the morning of December 15, 1868, The insur- 
ance money, not being sufficient ti replace the buildr 
iug, and the town having been enjoined by the Su- 
preme Court from carrying out their vote to aid, with 
an appropriation, the trustees in rebuilding, the 
school was for a time suspended. The town pur- 
chased the site of the Punchard School building of 
the trustees, erected thereon an edifice similar in de- 



sign, appearance and structure to the former edifice, 
with minor changes, which experience had shown to 
be desirable, and then leased the same to the Pun- 
chard trustees for a nominal yearly rent. In this 
building the school was opened September, 1871. 

The course of study in the institution is similar to 
that of the high schools in the Commonwealth. 

The permanent fund, having been increased by the 
addition of the insurance money and the sale of land, 
now amounts to seventy-five thousand dollars. 

Mr. Peter Smith Byers, A.M., was the first princi- 
pal elected. He died March 19, 1856, never haviug 
filled the position of principal. He was a graduate 
of Harvard College, had been assistant teacher in 
Phillips Academy and principal of the High School 
in Providence, R. I. On account of his scholarship, 
general ability, success as a teacher and rich promise 
of future usefulness as the manager and instructor of 
youth, he was chosen principal of the Punchard School 
by the trustees in advance of the time for the open- 
ing of the school, and given leave to travel for his 
health, in the mean time drawing the salary of the 
principal. 

His death was gi-eatly lamented, and even to the 
present day is spoken of with tenderness and regret.- 
One of his classmates at Harvard, speaking of him, 
writes: " In his threefold character as a scholar, a 
gentleman and a Christian, he had the entire respect 
and confidence of all our class. If I were to single 
out any one who had a more uniform and high re- 
spect from all, and who had a higher influence than 
any other upon the class, I should certainly single 
him. Until the grave shall have closed over the last 
of his friends and classmates, the direct influence of 
his Christian example will live upon earth." 

The brother of Mr. Byers, Mr. John Byers, of New 
York, has given money for an alcove in Memorial 
Hall with books in his remembrance, also a memorial 
in Christ Church. 

The second principal of the school was Mr. Nathan 
M. Belden, A.M., a graduate of Trinity College, 
Hartford, Conn. He was elected January 1, 1856, 
and resigned February 27, 1857. Mr. Belden was 
succeeded by Rev. Charles H. Seymour, of Haverhill, 
who was elected February 27, 1857, and resigned Oc- 
tober, 1858. 

Mr. William Gleason Goldsmith, A.M., a native 
of Andover, and a graduate of Harvard College, a 
student of law, succeeded Mr, Seymour, being elected 
Novenjber 1, 1858. When the school building was 
destroyed, and the school was to be suspended, Mr. 
Goldsmith resigned and took the position of Peabody 
Instructor of the Natural Sciences in Phillips 
Academy. While he was in discharge of the duties 
of this position. Dr. Taylor, the principal, died sud- 
denly, and Mr. Goldsmith was appointed to act as 
principal till the close of the year. On the re-opening 
of the Punchard School in 1871, Mr. Goldsmith wa-i 
re-appointed principal, which position he held with 



marked success till his resignation, December 22, 
1885. He is now postmaster for the town. 

In 1885 Mr. Charles H. Clark, M.A., a graduate of 
Bowdoin College, Maine, was elected principal to suc- 
ceeded Mr. Goldsmith. He is still filling the office 
and conducting the school successfully, with the aid 
of two female assistants. 

Hon. Samuel Phillips. — As the potential exist- 
ence of Phillips Academy dates back to the birth of 
Samuel Phillips, Senator, Judge, Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor, conceiver and projector of this institution, and 
prime mover in every step of its development from a 
crude idea to an accomplished feet, whose personality 
was infused into every sentiment and principle upon 
which the institution is based, it is fitting that any 
historical sketch of this institution should open with 
the birthof Mr. Phillips, and synchronize with his life 
to its close. 

Hon. Samuel Phillips, sixth child of Samuel Phil- 
lips and Elizabeth Barnard Phillips, and the only 
one of seven that lived to manhood, was born in 
Andover, February 5, 1752. He was the fifth in de- 
scent from Rev. George Phillips of VVatertown, the 
bead of the family in this country, and the grandson 
of Rev. Samuel Phillips, the first pastor of the South 
Church. He was not a robust boy, and was much 
more disposed to books than hardy sports ; of a 
thoughtful and sedate temperament, inclining him to 
pursuits and companionships unusual to lads of his 
years. Though his father was a trader, he was a 
graduate of Harvard, and desired a collegiate educa- 
tion for his only child. With this in view, the boy 
was sent to Dummer Academy, Byfield, the only 
institution of the kind then in the country, for a pre- 
paratory training. He was thirteen years old, " a re- 
markably systematic, industrious, mature child, full of 
bright promise in kindred virtues for the future." At 
Dummer he met Eliphalet Pearson, then a poor boy, 
eager and struggling for a liberal education. This 
school acquaintance ripened into a friendship which 
grew in strength through the years of preparation, and 
so on through the collegiate course into their manhood, 
when it became the source of unspeakable benefit 
to both and to mankind. Young Phillips from his 
earliest years was serious-minded, the child of an- 
cestral faith and prayers, blameless in conduct, and 
of a devout disposition ; but not till eighteen years 
old did he publicly declare his faith in Christ, 
and, by uniting with the Church, devote himself to 
the service of God. This act was the result of long 
deliberation, and was done with such thoughtfulness 
and firmness of purpose, as to furnish an eflfectual 
barrier against the temptations of youth and college 
life. He was in his junior year at this time, having 
entered Harvard when but fifteen years old. He 
graduated in 1771, at the age of nineteen, in the 
largest class the College graduated till the year 1810. 
He was second in rank in this class, which contained 
many men who afterwards gained distinction in 



IVJIJR. 1615 

various pursuits and professions. He was not a bril- 
liant scholar, but studious; making amends for hia 
slowness in acquisition by his diligence, and by the 
tenacity with which his memory held what hard 
labor had gained. He was, withal, exceedingly con- 
scientious in the use of his time and in theimprovement 
of his opportunities. In his journal we find expres- 
sions of regret for time wasted in sleep, and for " pre- 
cious moments unimproved.'' " Time once gone," he 
says, " is gone forever. We take no notice of it but 
by its loss ; how short! and of what vast importance 
is a diligent improvement of it." In this conscien- 
tious use of opportunities and time we may find the 
secret of his manifold labors and marked successes. 
The proverb of the wise king is here verified : " Seest 
thou a man diligent in his business, he shall stand 
before kings." We see here a young man leaving 
college with a frail body, a mind well trained, but of 
slow movement, with no genius, unless it be for 
tireless work, who, by a diligent use of his powers, 
opportunities and time, achieves marked success in 
various lines of labor, and lays the nation under 
obligation by his benefactions and example. 

While in college, Mr. Phillips became intimately 
acquainted with Miss Phcebe Foxcroft, daughter of 
Hon. Francis Foxcroft. This lady was " highly cul- 
tivated in mind and manners, the very center of an 
attractive and courted circle, sprightly, ardent and 
sanguine." But she was his senior by more than 
eight years, having been born August 12, 1743. Not- 
withstanding this disparity in age, the intimate ac- 
quaintance and frequent association resulted in " a 
devoted and lasting mutual attachment." The youth 
of nineteen left college affianced to a lady approach- 
ing her twenty-eighth birthday. This disparity in 
years was regarded by the parents of Mr. Phillips as 
an insuperable obstacle to their union. They were 
greatly displeased at the arrangement. In conse- 
quence of this parental opposition, he deferred indefi- 
nitely the marriage which he had proposed should 
take place soon after his graduation. He submitted 
to the wishes of his parents in this as in other matters, 
but his heart could not yield obedience. Naturally 
frail, he grew more feeble under the severe trial, until 
there were but faint hopes of his life. On being tokl 
the condition of their only child, its cause and rem- 
edy, by the family physician, they yielded their 
opposition, and the marriage took place in 1773, after 
two years of painful waiting. This marriage proved 
to be not only a very happy one, but also one pecu- 
liarly fitting and helpful. 

The same year, and previous to his marriage, while 
but twenty-one years old, he had been chosen town 
clerk and treasurer, to succeed his father, who had 
held these responsible offices for fourteen years. From 
this time onward, Mr. Phillips was prominent in the 
public affairs of the town. The country was in a state 
of ferment on account of the aggressive acts of the 
British Parliament. While in college, he had been 



1G16 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



in the midst of the popular discussions and excitement 
on this matter. For two years previous to his grad- 
uation, the General Court had convened in the college 
chapel. The British troops had been quartered in 
Boston, and the massacre had taken place. His 
mind and heart had been fully instructed and quick- 
ened by what he had heard and seen. He had been 
educated in that nursery of patriots; he had felt the 
hurt of tyranny. With this training and experience, 
young Phillips, on returning to his native town, was 
prepared for leadership in the troublous times to fol- 
low. Hence, when a Provincial Congress was called 
in 1775, he was chosen to represent the town, and, 
though but twentj'-three years of age, took a prom- 
inent part in its proceedings. During the ten months 
of its existence, and the four long sessions through 
which it sat, he was indefatigable in his labors for the 
public good. Associated with Samuel Adams, John 
Hancock and other leading patriots, he gained inspi- 
ration from their speechandspirit, and by his youthful 
ardor and sound judgment added much to the strength 
of the patriot cause. In this, his first experience in a 
deliberative body, he gained no little reputation for 
persuasive speech. Without any claims to the spec- 
ial gifts or arts of the orator or the rhetorician, he spoke 
with such candor, sincerity, earnestness, clearness and 
good sense, as to gain the ear of the assembly and 
produce conviction in their minds. Young as he was, 
he was placed upon the important committees that 
held conferences with the Commander-in-Chief, and 
thus became acquainted with the condition of the 
army. 

In 1779 Mr. Phillips was chosen one of the four 
representatives from Andover to the convention held 
in Cambridge, Sept. 1, of that year, to form a consti- 
tution for the State. He was selected by the conven- 
tion as one of the three members from Essex county, 
to make up a committee of thirty-one, to whom was 
assigned the duty of preparing " a Frame of a Consti- 
tution and Declaration of Rights." The ablest and 
most experienced men of the State were members of 
this convention, whjch comprised three hundred dele- 
gates. With this body of distinguished men, Mr. 
Phillips labored faithfully, wisely and efficiently, con- 
tributing his part to the formation of a constitution 
that met the approval of the people, and, in opera- 
tion, has proved to be a most judicious fundamental 
law. 

At the first p )pular election under the new consti- 
tution, Mr. Phillips was chosen Senator, receiving a 
large majority of the votes cast for this office. This 
was in 17S0, when he was twenty-eight years of age. 
To this honorable position he was re-elected, with 
practical unanimity for twenty years in succession, 
with the exception of a single year, 1787, when, with 
General Lincoln and Samuel Allyne Otis, Speaker of 
the House, he was employed in the delicate duty of 
suppressing and quieting the Shays' Rebellion. In 
1785 he was chosen president of the Senate, which 



high position he held for fifteen years, till elected 
lieutenant governor. In 1781, when twenty-nine 
years of age, he was appointed by Governor Han- 
cock, one of four justices of the Court of Common 
Plea.s for Essex County. Though not a lawyer, and 
ignorant of legal usages and precedents, and associ- 
ated with such able jurists as Benjamin Greenleaf, 
Samuel Holton and John Pickering, he so conduct- 
ed himself as to secure the confidence of the bar no 
less than that of the people, whose cases came before 
him for trial. What he lacked at first in a technical 
knowledge of the law, he .soon more than made up 
by his diligence in study, his patience, common sense, 
sound judgment and unbending integrity. In the 
manifold cases, petty and important, which came be- 
fore his court, he gave to each such careful and con- 
scientious examination as to secure the reputation 
not only of an upright, but also that of a legally 
sound judge. In fact, such was his judicial stand- 
ing among the people, that he was popularly known 
and spoken of as the Judge. He held the position 
for sixteen years, till his multiplied cares and declin- 
ing vigor compelled him to demit its onerous duties. 
During the.se sixteen years of service. Judge Phil- 
lips, though at the same time weighted with the cares 
of State, and not a few business enterprises, was nev- 
er absent from his place on the bench at a session of 
the court but twice, and these two absences were ow- 
ing to his being at the time engaged upon other im- 
portant public affairs. His addresses to the grand 
jurors were especially noted for their direct, plain and 
forcible presentment of the duty of the grand juror 
with regard to all crimes, misdemeanors and neglects 
which should come to his knowledge, either by in- 
formation or observation. On one occasion he tells 
them " you may be considered as the eye and the ear 
of the public, which the law has provided, to notice 
those oflences that come within your knowledge, and 
which the public welfare requires should be corrected 
and suppressed. It ought to be remembered, that 
every law, unexecuted, is a standing monument of 
the imbecility of the government, and tends to bring 
its authority into disrepute and contempt." The la- 
bor connected with his position as judge and senator 
was enhanced by the distance of his home from the 
place of his work. He was obliged to go to Boston, 
Salem and Newburyport on horseback, often spend- 
ing much of the night on these solitary and weari- 
some journeys. In this way his never robust body, 
when exhausted by a hard day's work, would become 
much enfeebled, and it is thought that, by this con- 
tinuous overwork, his days on earth were shortened. 
He did not know how to shirk or to spare himself. 

In addition to his senatorial and judicial func- 
tions, he carried on an extensive correspondence with 
the leading men of the country, regarding its most im- 
portant interests, at a time of much perplexity, di- 
vision and discussion, when almost every thing per- 
taining to the government of the country was in a 



ANDOVER. 



161'i 



chaotic and formative state. He also carried on suc- 
cessfully different branches of business. He was the 
owner and cultivator of large and profitable farms — 
maintained stores for countr}' merchandise in three 
separate places, was a leading member of the Har- 
vard College corporation, and was a large manufacturer 
for those days, first of powder, and then of paper. 
Another great work which he early took in hand, and 
upon which he spent his best thought and most un- 
wearied efforts, was the establishment of a free acade- 
my for the education of boys. 

Phillips Academy. — This project for a free 
academy for the education of boys seems to have 
been latent in the mind of Mr. Phillips at an early 
date in his life, perchance before he left the walls of 
Harvard. It began to take shape, and find expres- 
sion, it is presumed, as early as 1776, when he was in- 
tensely interested in the manufacture of powder for 
the patriot army. There is a manuscript paper ex- 
tant, in the handwriting of Mr. Phillips, which bears 
internal evidence of having been written in the early 
part of 1776, which directly treats of this subject. It 
is addressed to his father and begins by deprecating 
the decay of virtue, public and private, the prevalence 
of public and private vice, "the amazing change in 
the tempers, dispositions and conduct of people in 
this country within these thirty years." This decay 
of virtue and prevalence of vice he attributes to the 
lack of suitable schools for the instruction of children. 
This state of things bodes incalculable evil in the fu- 
ture to families and the country. The remedy can 
not be found in any existing plan for the instruction 
of youth. The grammar schools are hopelessly un- 
equal to the task of correcting existing evils. Re- 
course must be had to " the method of the ancients." 
His imitation of the ancients was only partial, viz.: 
" That a public building be erected for the purpose, 
and the children sent, be supported and continued 
there for a certain term, say from the age of seven to 
fourteen." A teacher was at hand, ." one of the best 
of men," who, in addition to the intellectual training, 
should " make it his chief concern to see to the regu- 
lation of the morah of the pupils, and attentively and 
vigorously guard against the first dawning of de- 
praved nature. He is to instruct them in the several 
relations they sustain to God, their parents, the pub- 
lic and their neighbors, and make their whole course 
of education one cunlinued lecture on all that is great 
and good." A garden plot is also suggested, where 
the boys who are destined to become farmers may be 
taught the art of agriculture. From such an institu- 
tion as thus outlined Mr. Phillips anticipates a sur- 
prising change in the moral condition of the people. 
He looks for a success surpassing that " from the 
labors of priest and magistrate united." 

He then proceeds to notice and answer the object- 
ions which might be urged against the scheme, 
closing with a gentle hint to his wealthy father that 
he might aid this " glorious plan" by giving to it the 
102 



money which it would be a relief to him to part with. 
And then, looking to the blessing of thus giving, he 
says, "Who would not gain inconceivably by spar- 
ing some of that wealth for which he has no occasion, 
in order to establish such a design ? " 

It is to be borne in mind that the writer of this 
is the only child and heir of the man whom he im- 
portunes, by the highest motives, to devote his wealth 
to a charitable purpose. The school here outlined 
was not indeed the school finally established. There 
was no pattern .even among "the ancients" for the 
school that was struggling for birth in his brain. 
After many and prolonged conferences with his bos- 
om friend and co-worker, vvas the plan matured and 
given to the world. At first Mr. Phillips was oppos- 
ed to making his school a classical school, thinking 
that the study of the pagan writers did not tend to 
promote in the young morality and piety— the prime 
purpose of his project. Neither was he in favor of fos- 
tering charity students in his school, believing that 
the sons of the rich would be numerous enough to 
take up all the space and attention the institution 
could offer. He reasons that the opportunity of the 
rich child for doing good is greater than that of the 
poor child, while his happiness is of equal conse- 
quence. "His disinterestedness is a great argument in 
favor of his honest intentions in following the pro- 
fession of a minister, that he does it from principle 
and not from a lucrative view; but charity scholars 
must pursue this; they speak because they are hired 
to; it is their living, say the scoffers." His views 
underwent a radical change on these particulars be- 
fore the ideal academy became a reality. Poor boys 
were made welcome from the first, and funds were 
solicited and obtained by himself for their support, 
and the institution was opened as a distinctively class- 
ical school, and, as such, has been conspicuous the 
country over from that time to this. 

There was much consultation and conference with 
leading educators, especially with his life-long friend, 
Eliphalet Pearson, as to the scope and shape the 
Academy should take. A plan was fixed upon. His 
father and his uncle, John Phillips, of Exeter, N.*H., 
had been persuaded to endow the institution. In 
fact, through his influence and ardor in the mat- 
ter, they had come to take a deep personal interest 
in the project. He seems to have acquired a con- 
trolling influence over the hearts and pockets of these, 
his nearest kindred. He was prospectively heir to 
their estates, and, in persuading them to devote a por- 
tion of their property to this benevolent object, he 
won them to his wishes by his unselfishness, no less 
than by his argument. His father gave land, his 
uncle money. The South Parish was chosen for the 
location of the institution. Mr. Phillips moved into 
a house upon the land purchased, that he might be 
near to the academy, as well as to his powder-mill, 
then working to supply the army. A charter was 



carefully 



rn up by Mr. Phillips, and under it, 



1G18 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



as an act of the Legislature, the academy was incor- 
ported October 4. 1780. 
The act of incorporation is as follows: 

" 1780, Octotei- 4. 

" State ok 5I.\ssaciiisetts Bat— An act to incorporate an academy In 
the town of Audover, by the nnmo of Phillips Academy. 
" Peeamble. 

" Wliereasj the education of youth has ever been considered by the 
wise aud good as an object of the highest consequence to the safety and 
happiness of a people ; as at that period the mind easily receives and re- 
tains impressions, is formed with peculiar advantage to piety and vir- 
tue and directed to the pursuit of the most useful knowledge : and 
whereas, the Honorable Samuel Phillips, of Andover, in the County of 
Essex, Esq., and the Honorable John Phillips, of Exeter, in the County 
of Eockingham, and State of New Hampshire, Esq., on the first day of 
April, in the year of Our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and seven- 
ty. eight, by a legal instrument of that date, gave, granted and assigned 
to the Honorable William Phillips, Esquire, and others, therein named, 
and to their heirs, divers lots and parcels of land, in said Instrument de- 
scribed, as well as certain other estate, to the use and upon the trust fol- 
lowing, namely, that the rents, profits, and interest thereof be forever 
laidoutjand expended by the Trustees in the said Instrument named, for 
the support of a Public Free School or Academy, in the town of An- 
dover : and whereas the execution of the generous and important de- 
sign of the grantors aforesaid will be attended with very great embar- 
rassments, unless by an act of incorporation, the Trustees, mentioned in 
the said Instrument, and their successors, shall be authorized to com- 
mence and prosecute actions at law, and transact such other matters in 
their corporate capacity aa the interest of the said Academy shall re- 

" Academy Estabhshed. 

*' I. Be it therefore enacted by the Council and House of Representa- 
tives in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same; 
that there be and hereby is established in the Town of Audover, and 
County of Essex, an Academy, by the name of Phillips Academy, for the 
purpose of promoting true piety and virtue, and for the education of 
youth, in the English, Latin aud Greek languages, together with Writ- 
ing, Arithmetic, Music and the Art of Speaking; also practical Geome- 
try, Logic and Geography, and such other of the liberal .\rts and 
Sciences, or Languages, as opportunity may hereafter permit, and as the 
Trustees, hereinafter provided, shall direct. 

"Trustees Appointed ai^d Incorporated. 

" II. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the Hon. 
Samuel Philips of Andover aforesaid, Esq., the Hon. John Phillips of 
Exeter aforesaid, Esq., the Hon. William Phillips and Oliver Wendell, 
Esqs., and John Lowtll, Esq., of Boston, in the County of Suffolk, and 
State of Massachusetts Bpy, the Eev. Josiah Stearns of Epping, in the 
County of Rockingham aforesaid, the Reverend William Symmesof said 
Andover, the Reverend Elias Smith of Middleton, in the said County of 
Es.ses, the Reverend Jonathan French, Samuel Phillips, Jun'r., Esq., 
Mr. Eliphalet Pearson, gentlemen, and Mr. Nehemiah Abbot, yeoman, 
all of Andover aforesaid, be, and they hereby are nominated and ap- 
pointed Trustees of said Academy ; and they are hereby incorporated 
into a body politic, by the name of the Tnit^tees of Phillips Academtj ; 
aud that they, and their successors, shall be and continue a body politic 
and corporate, by the same name forever." 

Following these are seven other sections of this act 
— confirming the lands donated to the trustees ; author- 
izing a common seal, with power to sue and be sued ; 
empowering the trustees to make rules and elect 
ofBcers; limiting to thirteen the number of trustees; 
designating the principal of the school as, ex- officio, 
one of the trustees; authorizing the trustees to fill all 
vacancies in their body ; empowering them to re- 
ceive property by gift or bequest to the extent that 
the annual income of the property held shall not ex- 
ceed two thousand pounds, provided said gift or be- 
quest shall not be so conditioned as to require any 
act " in any respect counter to the design of the first 



grantore ; " and, further, empowering the trustees, by 
a two-thirds vote, to remove the seminary from An- 
dover if, in their judgment, the purpose of the found- 
ers can thereby be better carried out. 

*' In the House of Representatives, Octot)er4, 1780. 
" This Bill, having been read several times, passed to be enacted. 
"John Hancock, Speaker. 

" In Council, October 4, 1780. 
•• This Bill, having had two several readings, passed to be enacted. 
'• John Avkbv, D. SecreUry. 
"We consent to the enactingof this bill, — 

" S. Gushing. N. Gushing. 

J. Fisher. Wm. Whiting. 

Moses Gill. Samuel Niles. 

H. Gardner. A. Fuller. 

T. Danielt^on. Jno. Pitts. 

Benj. Austin. Stephen Choate." 

When this act of incorporation passed, the school 
had been in successful operation for more than two 
years, under the mastership of Eliphalet Pearson, gen- 
tleman. On the 21st of April, 1778, the founders 
signed a constitution for the academy, in which they 
grant certain parcels of land in Andover and other 
places to the trustees named in the act, for the pur- 
poses set forth in this instrument. In this constitu- 
tion they state with more particularity the reasons and 
motives which led them to establish the school. In sub- 
stance they say a reflection upon the purpose of the Cre- 
ator, in forming the mind capable of improvement in 
knowledge and virtue, as well as upon the prevalence 
of ignorance and vice, creates anxious solicitude to 
find the source and remedy for these existing evils. 
The susceptibility of young n;inds, and their tenacity 
in retaining impressions, lead to the conclusion that the 
correction must come from the proper training of 
the young, intellectually and religiously. Hence the 
endowment, with the earnest wish that the "institu- 
tion may grow and flourish," that " its advantages may 
be extensive and lasting," that " its usefulness may 
be so manifest as to lead to other establishmeutson 
the same principles,'' that " it may finally prove an 
eminent means of advancing the interests of the great 
Redeemer." While defining the duties of trustees, 
officers and teachers, and the objects and aims of the 
institution, much emphasis, with varied repetition, is 
given in this instrument to moral and religious in- 
struction as that of paramount importance. " Above 
all, it is expected that the master's attention to the 
disposition of the minds and morals of the youth un- 
der his charge will exceed every other care." The 
duty of the master is further defined to be "to 
instruct and establish the scholars, according to their 
capacities, in the truth of Christianity," aud "also 
early and diligently to inculcate upon them the great 
and important Scripture doctrines." 

In this paper, drawn up by Mr. Phillips, sis was also 
the act of incorporation, and signed by his father and 
his uncle, John Phillips, the fo.'mer , donates cer- 
tain parcels of land, and the latter sixteen hundred 
and fourteen pounds in money, in trust, for the bene- 
fit of the academy. The paper is instinct with the 



ANDOVER. 



1619 



spirit of its writer, the projector of the institution. 
The training of the boys so that they shall become 
intelligent, virtuous, religious men, useful citizens, 
disciples of Christ and benefactors of mankind, is the 
sole purpose in view. We can discover in this project, 
from its inception to its completioa,'no single trace of 
self-seeking, or purpose to secure posthumous fame. 

The number of scholars at first was limited to 
thirty, and to those who pursued classical studies. 
The first school building was correspondingly small, 
being an old joiner's shop, removed to the corner of 
the present Main and Phillips Streets (where the resi- 
dence of Professor Churchill now stands), and recon- 
structed for the purpose. The pupils were from six 
years of age upwards. Eliphalet Pearson was master. 
In the autumn of 1786 Mr. Pearson left to become Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew and the Oriental Languages in Har- 
vard College. The school had prospered and a new 
building became a necessity. This was erected jointly 
by the three brothers, Samuel, John and William Phil- 
lips, the only surviving children of the first pastor of 
the South Church. This building was much larger and 
more convenient than the thirty-foot carpenter's shop. 

Ebenezer Pemberton succeeded to the mastership. 
Under his management the school prospered greatly. 
Poor health led to his resignation in 1793. Mark 
Newman was his successor, a student of theology, but 
never a preacher. " His administration was uniform- 
ly prosperous, and during the fourteen years of his 
continuance in office the institution steadily in- 
creased in numbers and influence." The reputation 
of the academy had extended over the country, and 
pupils from Virginia, from the families of Washington 
and Lee, were found within its walls. It was during 
this administration that Lieutenant-Governor Phillips 
died, at the age of fifty, his feeble body worn out by 
the unflagging energy and activity of his indomitable 
spirit. At the preceding State election he had been 
chosen Lieutenant-Governor on the ticket with Caleb 
Strong as Governor. 

In 1810 Mr. Newman resigned and John Adams 
became master. With him fresh life came into the 
institution. Mr. Adams was a man thoroughly in 
sympathy with the spirit and purpose of the original 
projector. Earnest, deeply sympathetic, profoundly 
religious, filled with the spirit of his Master, " he im- 
parted an impulse which will never die to the insti- 
tution into which he came as a new moral force." 
In 1818 the school building was destroyed by fire, 
and a brick edifice was erected, largely through the 
liberality of Hon. William Phillips. This building 
is the one now used as a gymnasium. In 1830 a new 
department was added to the institution, called the 
Teachers' Seminary. This was the first Normal 
School in the country. Its aim was to furnish a 
thorough training in the English branches, in the 
natural sciences and mathematics, to those who pro- 
posed to engage in teaching. While under the 
control of the trustees of the academy it was distinct 



from the Classical School in its organization and in 
its corps of teachers. It had its own building, a stone 
edifice on Main Street, west of the Samaritan House. 
This stone academy was destroyed by fire in 1864. 
The English Commons were built for its use. Dur- 
ing its brief history it not only gave a thorough 
training to common-school teachers, but imparted in- 
struction in civil engineering and in practical and 
scientific agriculture. Owing to the expense of keep- 
ing up two separate organizations, in 1842 the 
Teachers' Seminary was merged into Phillips Acad- 
emy proper, and made a department of this institu- 
tion, which it still is. Dr. Adams continued in the 
school till 1833, when he resigned, and Osgood John- 
son took his place. Mr. Johnson was possessed of 
rare qualifications for the place. A thorough scholar 
and a devout Christian, he commanded the respect 
and won the love of his pupils. His strictness in dis- 
cipline was 80 tempered by kindness as to soften the 
heart while subduing the will of the offender. But 
hereditary consumption had marked him for an early 
grave, and he died after only four years' service in 
the institution. 

His successor was Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D.,' 
whose long and brilliant career as a teacher, joined 
to his remarkable faculty as a disciplinarian, and his 
charming character as a man, merit special notice 
aside from this mention. 

During Dr. Taylor's administration the institution 
gained largely in numbers and reputation. Its pu- 
pils came from all parts of the country and from other 
nations. As a classical scholar he excelled, and his 
enthusiasm for his favorite studies, while making 
him an exacting teacher, made him also a thorough 
one. On the destruction of the stone academy, a 
new building was erected at the junction of Main 
and School Streets. This is a large and imposing 
structure of brick, ninety feet long by fifty feet in 
width. It is three stories high, with an elevated, 
light and airy basement. The recitation rooms, oc- 
cupying the first and second stories, are large and 
commodious. The upper story, lighted chiefly by 
windows in the roof, is a hall of the full size of the 
building, adorned with portraits of the founders, 
teachers and benefactors of the institution, and 
is used for exhibitions and other public exercises 
connected with the school. Its seating capacity is 
twelve hundred. 

The successor of Dr. Taylor was Mr. Frederick W. 
Tilton. Lacking the robust health necessary for the 
oversight and conduct of so large a school, Mr. 
Tilton, after two years' service, resigned in 1873, to 
be succeeded by Mr. C. F. P. Bancroft, the present 
efiicient principal. The school has steadily increas- 
ed in numbers, endowments, facilities for education 
and reputation for completeness and thoroughness 
in its academical instruction. It has at present a 



1 For personal sketch of Dr. Taylor see page^lOSS. 



1(520 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



corps of department instructors unsurpassed by any 
school of like character in the country. From an 
attendance of thirty youthful pupils, with which the 
institution started, it now, in 1887, has an attendance 
of tliree hundred and twelve young men with minds 
sufficiently matured to ajipreciate the advantages en- 
joyed. 

The following are the amounts of money which 
have been given to the academy at sundry times by 
the persons mentioned, to be held in trust, and the 
income to be used for the benefit of the institu- 
tion : 

IT.RJU.NEXI FUXDS or PlIIU.IPS AciliEMV. 

177S. John Phillips 531,074 00 

1788. Samuel and .lobn Phillips 10,200 16 

1795. John Foxcroft .W2 60 

1797. General Court — lands in Maine 2,l.'j8 45 

1804. Hon. William PhilliiJs, Boston 4,C33 33 

1827. Hon. William Phillips, Boston l.'>,346 02 

1805. Samuel Fiirrar, treaaurer 22,000 00 

1866. George Peabody, London 25,000 00 

1877. Sundry Contributors, Dr. Samuel H. Taylor 

(Memorial Fund) 3,700 00 

1878. Centennial Contribution— sundry friends 23,288 81 

1879. John Smith, SlO.ono ; Peter Smith, SI 1,000 ; 

John Byers, SIO,000 ; for a Memorial En- 
dowment of a Peter Smith Byers chair of in- 
struction 40,000 00 

1879. John C. Phillips, of kin to thefounder 25,i'00 00 

1881. Dr. Ebenezer Alden— Alden Memorial 6,000 00 

1883. Mrs Valeria G. Stone— Stone Educational Fund 25,000 00 
Sundry Scholarships and Prize Funds, amount- 
ing in all to 13,920 00 

In addition to these trust funds, yielding an in- 
come for the support of the institution, the academic 
department owns several houses besides its school 
buildings, and two rows of unattractive, but still 
quite useful, wooden dormitories — and a neat, sub- 
stantial and commodious brick building for the use 
of the treasurer and principal. 

The school is fairly well furnished with charts, 
models and apparatus necessary for imparting the 
best instruction in the ancient languages and the 
modern sciences. An additional equipment in these 
directions would add no doubt to the eflecliveness of 
the institution. 

The students sustain a semi-weekly paper called The 
PhiUipian. The ground for athletic exercises has 
recently been graded at considerable cost, part of 
which was borne by past and present pupils, and thus 
rendered more suitable for the games now so popu- 
lar with collegiate and academic student'". 

Abbot Academy. — Abbot Academy in Andover 
was incorporated by act of the Legislature Febru- 
ary 26, 1829. 

A few friends of a higher education for girls, simi- 
lar to that provided for boys by Phillips Academy, 
had talked the matter over from time to time for a 
year or two before this. At length, taking courage 
from their convictions, they issued a notice for a gath- 
ering of persons interested in such a project, as fol- 
lows: 



" NOTICE. 

" Those persons who feel favorably disposed towards the establish- 
ment of a Female High School in the Soutli Parish of Andover are 
requested to meet at Mr. James Locke's, on Thursday evening next, the 
19th inst., at o'clock p.m. 

" Andover, February 15,1828." 

The meeting was held, the result of which was a 
unanimous vote that such an institution was needed, 
and a further vote to take measures at once to create 
it. A committee was appointed to select a site, raise 
funds and enter upon the work of building at the 
earliest practicable day. Soon after, a subscription 
paper was started, a board of trustees chosen, a con- 
stitution formed, a building planned of definite di- 
mensions and material. 

In the constitution it is stated that: 

"The primai-y objects to be aimed at in this school shall ever be 
to regulate the tempers, to improve the taste, to discipline and en- 
large the minds and form the morals of the youth who may be mem- 
bers of it. To form the inmiortal mind to habits suited to an immor- 
tal being, and to instil principles of conduct and form the character 
for an immortal destiny, shall bo subordinate to no other care. Solid 
acquirements shall always have precedence of those which are merely 
s^owy, and the useful of those which are merely ornamental." 

The trustees who affixed their names to this instru- 
ment were Mark Newman, Milton Badger, Samuel C. 
Jackson, Samuel Farrar, Amos Blanchard, Hobart 
Clark and Amos Abbot. 

At first the funds requisite for carrying out the res- 
olutions of the projectors were not forthcoming, and 
they halted in their work. The first site purchased, 
opposite the residence of the late Hon. Nathan 
Hazen, was abandoned. Deacon Newman came to 
the rescue of the halting enterprise by giving an acre 
of land as a site for the building, where it now stands. 
In addition, Mrs. Sarah Abbot, widow of Nehemiah 
Abbot, steward of Phillips Academy, pledged one' 
thousand dollars, to be paid at her decease. Upon 
this slim pecuniary foundation and a large faith, the 
trustees went forward to build. 

Mrs. Abbot had been a life-long friend of Madam 
Phillips, and had imbibed her spirit of benevolence 
and desire to promote the better education of the 
young. She was also by blood distantly related to 
Judge Phillips. Samuel Farrar was her trusted ad- 
viser. Being childless and advanced in life, she de- 
sired to make such disposition of her small property 
as should be most conducive to the good of men and 
the glory of God. In consultation with Mr. Farrar, 
she was led to believe that the building up of a 
school for girls was the most desirable use she could 
make of her money. Thus was founded an institu- 
tion of learning which will carry the name of its first 
benefactress with blessings upon it to the latest pos- 
terity. The building now standing, when erected, 
was thought to be a very elegant and commodious 
structure, and was doubtless the most attractive pub- 
lic building in town. Friends of the enterprise 
loaned money on mortgage of the property to com- 
plete it. 

While Madam .\bbot furnished the money which 



ANDOVER. 



laid the corner atone of the edifice, others put into 
the institution creating energy. Samuel Farrar, 
treasurer of Phillips Academy, a man who had 
identified himself with the interests of education in 
Andover, and Rev. Samuel C. Jackson, of the West 
Parish, recently settled, were among the most active, 
zealous and efficient promoters of the enterprise. 

Esquire Farrar, as for many years he was commonly 
called, came to Andover directly after graduation 
from Harvard College, as assistant teacher in Phillips 
Academy. He was at once received into the family 
of Judge Phillips, and treated as a son. He soon 
became an ardent admirer of the judge and still 
more so of his noble wife. In 1802 he was elected 
trustee of Phillips Academy, which position he held for 
forty-four years. In 1807 he was chosen treasurer and 
held this position for thirty-seven years. In 1808, on 
the establishment of the Theological Seminary, he was 
elected its librarian, and held that position for thirty- 
four years. In 1826 he was elected president of the 
Andover Bank, then just organized, and of which he 
was one of the foremost promoters. He held this 
office for thirty years. In 1829 he was chosen one of 
the trustees of the new female academy, and con- 
tinued so for twenty-one years. 

It will be seen, from this summary, that Esquire 
Farrar was closely identified with the educational and 
other important interests in the town for nearly half 
a century. He was one of the efficient agents in se- 
curing a union of the divergent parties who coalesced 
to establish the Theological Seminary. Honest, ac- 
curate, energetic, persevering, he was fitted to lead in 
any new and promising enterprise, which aimed to 
promote the intellectual, moral or religious well-being 
of his fellow-men. A high school for the education of 
women had for years been a dream of his, which his 
early association with the family of Judge Phillips 
may have inspired. Professor Park has graphically 
described the influence of Madam Phillips upon him : 
" She had been his model for womanhood. It seemed 
to be the desire of his heart that every young lady 
should become like Madam Phillips. For fifteen years 
after her decease he cherished an habitual interest in the 
higher education of her sex. Towards the end of these 
fifteen years, a lady,who had been the life-long friend 
of Madam Phillips, came to him and asked: 'What 
shall I do with my surplus funds?' He answered 
' Found an Academy in Andover for the education of 
women.' This one sentence did the work. Mr. Far- 
rar was a technical lawyer ; he was an incorrigible 
arithmetician ; he was absorbed in the keeping of ac- 
counts; he was devoted to rigid methods and exact 
order ; he was constitutionally free from romance, 
but he had been electrified by Madam Philips ; he 
was a conducting wire from her to the heart of her 
friend. Madam Abbot ; and the electric spark enkindled 
the Abbot Academy, which for well-nigh fifty (sixty) 
years has been a burning and shining light. The 
monetary foundations of the Bchool were laid in the 



humble estate of a woman ; one man raised his finger 
to lay them there, and that man had been inspired by 
the modest utterances of a woman; but that woman 
was a queen." 

From its opening, in 1829, to the advent of Miss 
Nancy J. Hasseltine, in 1853, twenty-four years, the 
school had seven principals, all young men, recently 
graduated from the Theological Seminary, or still pur- 
suing their theological studies. Their terms of service 
varied from one year to three years, with the exception 
ofKev. Asa Farwell, who was principal from 1842 to 
1852. The compensation at best, being only the income 
from tuition, was not a sufficient inducement for 
teachers to remain. 

In 1853 the trustees .changed their policy and chose 
a woman as principal. From that day to this the 
institution, to say the least, has lost nothing by the 
change on the score of management, discipline, popu- 
larity or thoroughness of instruction. The first three 
lady principals, however, Miss Nancy Hasseltine, 
Miss Maria J. B. Browne and Miss Emma L. Taylor,— 
together occupied the position but six years. The 
poverty of the institution doubtless influenced their 
stay, as it did that of their male predecessors. 

In 1859 Miss Philena McKeen was elected principal, 
and her sister, Miss Phebe F. McKeen, was appointed 
first assistant teacher. Miss McKeen still continues 
to occupy her position, which she has now filled with 
remarkable success for twenty-eight years. Miss Phebe 
McKeen died, after a lingering illness, in 1880, much 
lamented. It has been well said of her : 

"In the school-room ahe was distinguished for her clear thought and 
definite expression. She knew what she meant to say, and said it. Her 
taste was delicate and accurate. She had an eye for the beauties of 
nature and art. In her philosophical studies she was quick and keen, 
sometimes profound. She was an enthusiast in study, and thus imparted 
an enthusiasm to her pupils. She was original in her thinking, and her 
originality enkindled in others a love of thought. She united a sisterly 
affection for her scholars with a kind of maternal authority over them. 
She was mild and genial ; hut, if her duty required her to act as a dis- 
ciplinarian, she could be firm and intrepid. She was courageous. 
Tracing the history of Abbot Academy, we can detect her influence, as a 
stream winding through a landscape and adorning it." 

The institution started with no endowment, and 
has always been cramped for means. When Miss 
Mary Lyon, with the enthusiasm of Peter the Hermit, 
was going through the towns and villages of Western 
Massachusetts, preaching to the mechanics and farm- 
ers of the country the necessity of establishing a 
school for the education of capable young women in 
indigent or moderate circumstances, the trustees of 
Abbot Academy made a formal proposition to her, to 
the efl'ect that she should adopt their institution, with 
certain modifications, for the basis of her contem- 
plated school. But Miss Lyon preferred not to build 
upon another woman's foundation. 

As the school increased in numbers, the accommo- 
dations became the more straitened, especially as re- 
garded the pupils from abroad. A boarding-house 
became a necessity. Through the generosity of 
Messrs. Peter and John Smith, a building was erected 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUxVTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



in the rear of the academy, plain and spacious. It 
was furnished and fitted for occnpancy by the ladies 
of the town, under the lead of Mrs. Harriet Beecher 
Stowe and Mrs. Samuel C. Jackson. It was called 
Smith Hall, in honor of the principal donors. This 
building has recently been removed to some distance 
south of its original location, to give place to a pro- 
jected new edifice. 

The school still increasing beyond its capacity for 
accommodation, the house belonging to Mr. Farwell, 
adjoining the seminary grounds, was purchased by 
Hon. George L. Davis, of North Andover, a trustee, 
for four thousand five hundred dollars, and deeded to 
the seminary. It was called Davis Hall, in honor of 
the donor. Mr. Davis subsequently purchased and 
gave to the academy contiguous lands. 

The estate of Rev. Josiah Turner, on the side of the 
academy building opposite Davis Hall, was pur- 
chased by the trustees, and opened for a family of 
pupils, the purchase money being loaned by Mr. 
Davis. 

From the surplus earnings of the school a patch of 
grove and meadow-land was also purchased. Finally, 
to provide for all future e.^igencies, and give ample 
grounds for a large, flourishing institution, the trus- 
tees purchased of Mr. John Abbot fourteen acres of 
contiguous land, including some acres of charming 
grove. 

On the forty-second anniversary of the institution, 
in 1871, an Alumnte Association was formed, since 
which a deeper interest in the welfare of the seminary 
has been manifested by its graduates. Liberal con- 
tributions of money and certain useful and ornamen- 
tal articles have been received from them. They have 
also aided essentially the efforts which have been re- 
cently made and are at present being made, to raise 
one hundred thousand dollars to erect new buildings 
in keeping with the times aud the standing of the 
institution. 

In 1875 an observatory was built as a cupola on the 
academy, which received one of Mr. Clark's valuable 
instruments. The observatory and telescope cost 
some twenty-four hundred dollars. For this the sem- 
inary is largely indebted to Miss Mary J. Belcher, a 
teacher, and instructor in astronomy. By persevering 
effort, with the special co-operation of Colonel George 
Ripley, one of the trustees, in the course of three or 
four years she gathered the requisite funds. 

In the summer of 1879, after fifty years of useful 
life, the academy held its semi-centennial anniver- 
sary. This was a great success. Graduates with their 
families were in attendance from all parts of the 
country. The exercises were of a high order of e.x- 
cellence. Speeches were made by e.x-Principals 
Brown, Farwell and Bittinger, Lieutenant-Governor 
Long, Rev. N. G. Clark, D.D., Rev. Daniel Butler, 
Dr. Alexander McKenzie, Dr. A. P. Peabody, Dr. 
I'aul A. Chadbourne, president of Williams College, 
Dr. L. Clark Seelye, president of Smith College, and 



Professors Park, Smith and Churchill, of the Theo- 
logical Seminary. The brilliant address of the day, 
on " the Education of Women," was by Rev. Richard 
Salter Storrs, D.D., LL.D., of Brooklyn, who mar- 
ried one of the daughters of Abbot Academy. 

The course of study includes instruction in English 
literature and composition, history, physical geogra- 
phy, natural sciences, mathematics, metaphysics, 
logic, rhetoric, elocution, modern and ancient lan- 
guages, evidences of Christianity and study of the 
Bible, painting and drawing, vocal and instrumental 
music and physical culture. The kind of training 
proposed by the projectors of the institution is reli- 
giously adhered to, and a distinctive Christian influ- 
ence is diffused through the whole teaching and disci- 
pline of the school. From the effect of this influence 
many devoted and useful Christian women ascribe 
their consecration to a life " hid with Christ in God." 

The most liberal donors to the academy are the 
following : 

Sladam Siirah Abbot, gifts and bequest SlO,109.O4 

Hon. George L. Davis 6,041.00 

John Smith, Esq 3,.WO.0O 

Peter Smith, Esq 3,111.00 

The school has seven scholarships of a thousand 
dollars each, yielding fifty dollars each, for the benefit 
of worthy but poor students. 

The friends of the institution for the past few years 
have been putting forth strenuous efforts to place it 
in a condition to meet the demands of the times for 
a better accommodation of its boarding pupils, for 
school buildings in keeping with those of other insti- 
tutions of like character, and for a larger and better 
equipment for imparting instruction in the sciences. 

Through the persistent energy of Miss McKeen, 
these efforts have been so for successful that fifty-three 
thousand dollars have been raised, and a commence- 
ment made for the erection of a new building. A 
complete plan for the entire series of buildings con- 
templated has been made, and the trustees will push 
forward the work of erecting them as fast as the funds 
received will warrant. The exigencies of the school 
are quite imperious. Sitting accommodations cannot 
now be furnished for all who apply for admission. 

The school in its exceptional hi.story, extending 
over fifty-eight years, has acquired a reputation for 
high intellectual, sesthetic, moral and religious cul- 
ture, th.at places it among the first in the country, as 
it is the oldest chartered institution of the kind in 
the land. It has also become memorable for its 
healthfulness. Never has there been an epidemic 
disease within its walls, and but little serious illness. 
It has been observed that the health of the young 
ladies while here at school has been above the average 
health of young ladies at their homes at the same 
period of life. 

The future of this institution is even more promis- 
ing than its past has been— with an enviable history 
back of it, with a prestige to give it momentum, with 



a valuable experience by which to guide its manage- 
ment with a large circle of alumiiK scattered over 
the country, with the new friends which success al- 
ways secures, with wise and capable teachers and 
trustees, with extensive grounds capable of indefinite 
adornment, with new buildings and a larger equip- 
ment for scientific study anticipated in the near 
future, there seems to be a fair prospect that Abbot 
Female Academy will go forward for the next half-cen- 
tury, as in the past, steadily increasing in numbers 
and importance, ever coming nearer the pattern of a 
school furnishing the fitting physical, industrial, intel- 
lectual, social, moral and spiritual training requisite 
for the development of the perfect woman. 

Theological Seminary.— The Theological Sem- 
inary is not only by act of incorporation and official 
management a department of Phillips Academy, but 
also by growth from the original intention of its pro- 
jector. In the constitution of the academy drawn up 
by Mr. Phillips before the institution came into ex- 
istence, we find this paragraph : 

" And ti-hereas niauy of tbe etudeiits in this Seminary may be devoted 
to llie sacred work of tbe gospel ministry ; that tbe true and fundamental 
principles of the Christian Keligion may be cultivated, established and 
perpetuated in the Christian Church, so far as this Institution may have 
influence ; it shall be tbe duty of the Master, as the age and capacities 
of the Scholars will admit, not only to instruct and establish them in the 
truth of Christianity ; but also early and diligently to inculcate upon 
them the great and important Scripture doctrines of the existence of one 
true God, tbe Father, Son and Holy Ghost ; of tbe fall of man, the de- 
pravity of human nature ; the necessity of an atonement, and of our 
being renewed in the spirit of our minds; the doctrines of repentance 
toward God and of faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ; of sanctifica- 
tion by tbe Holy Spirit, and of justification by the free grace of God, 
through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ (in opposition to the er- 
roueouB and dangerous doctrine of justification by our own merit, or a 
dependence on self-righteousness), together with the other important 
doctrines and duties of our Holy Christian Religion." 

Here is work enough laid out for a master in theol- 
ogy. It holds the germ of a theological school as it 
reveals the animating purpose of Mr. Phillips in es- 
tablishing the academy. 

Not for some years, however, did this idea of im- 
parting systematic instruction in the doctrines of the 
Christian religion receive its full development. Cir- 
cumstances favored and stimulated this development 
in 1805. lu May of that year Dr. Henry Ware, a 
Unitarian, was inaugurated Hollis Professor of 
Divinity in Harvard College. Mr. Hollis had given 
the fund for this professorship to support an "ortho- 
dox " teacher of theology. This apparent disregard 
of the intention of the donor was the occasion of 
much criticism and dissatisfaction on the part of the 
ministers and churches in the State that still held to 
the Calvinistic theology. Eliphalet Pearson was at 
that time professor at Harvard, but, in the conflict 
growing out of the appointment of Dr. Ware, he, 
siding with the Evangelicals, resigned his profes-or- 
ship and removed to Andover, " Being thoroughly 
convinced that a new theological seminary ought to 
be instituted for the purpose of checking the influ- 
ence of Arminianism and Unitarianism," he engaged 



with all his native ardor in the effort to establish 
such an institution. Having been a personal friend 
of Judge Phillips, his co- worker in the establishment 
of the academy, and fully conversant with his pur- 
poses and aspirations concerning it, he appealed 
forcibly to the widow and son of the judge to perfect 
the original purpose of the academy, by endowing a 
theological department. His appeals were not in 
vain. Mr. Samuel Abbot, a wealthy merchant who 
resided in Andover, was also enlisted in favor of the 
project. Mr. Abbot, being childless, had purposed 
to give by will the bulk of his property to Harvard 
College, but, when Harvard lapsed to Unitarianism, 
this will was revoked. The money was pledged to 
found the new seminary. Mr. Pearson, with the effi- 
cient co-operation of Dr. Morse, of Charlestown, a 
moderate Calvinist, prepared a draft for a constitu- 
tion. 

But those who were directly interested in estab- 
lishing a theological school at Andover were by no 
means the only persons among the ministers and 
evangelical Christians who were grieved and alarmed 
at the departure of Harvard from the faith of its 
founders. The section of the Calvinistic divines that 
embraced the doctrinal views of Samuel Hopkins, 
D.D., not being fully in sympathy with Dr. Pearson 
and those he represented, and not aware of their in- 
tention with regard to a theological school, began, 
early after the election of Dr. Ware, to agitate the 
creation of a theological seminary. They were able 
and determined men, represented by such distin- 
guished divines as Dr. Emmons, of Franklin, and Dr. 
Spring, of Newburyport. They had for coadjutors 
men of wealth and generosity — Messrs. Bartlet and 
Brown, of Newburyport, and John Norris, Esq., of 
Salem. They purposed the establishment of a theo- 
logical college, based upon the Calvinistic interpre- 
tation of the Scriptures, as explained and understood 
by the Hopkinsian divines. They had gone so far as 
to have fixed upon West Newbury as the place for 
their institution, and Rev. Leonard Woods, the pas- 
tor at West Newbury, as its theological teacher. 

When the news of these proceedings came to the 
ears of the men promoting the Andover enterprise, 
they at once sought a conference with the men inter- 
ested in the Newbury institution. When these rep- 
resentatives of the two wings of the Calvinistic party 
met, compared views and proceedings, they could not 
fail to see that the creation of two rival seminaries, 
within twenty miles of each other, essentially similar 
in doctrine, purpose and character, would be unwise. 
Frequent conferences were held, much discussion 
was had, careful consideration was given to all the 
details of doctrine and faith, — and, after protracted 
negotiations, painstaking labor and much tribula- 
tion a basis of union was formed, and a creed agreed 
upon for the united seminaries. The school was to 
be located at Andover, as the Andover promoters had 
planned under the charter of Phillips Academy 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



The constitution which the Andover founders had 
provided for their seminary, and the trustees of Phil- 
lips Academy had accepted, was retained, and cer- 
tain additional statutes were appended, which to- 
gether were to form the doctrinal standard of the 
coalesced seminary. 

The two contracting parties were denominated re- 
spectively theOriginal Founders, who were Mrs. Phoebe 
Phillips, " relict of Samuel Phillips, Esq., late Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the Commonwealth," his son^ 
John Phillips, and Samuel Abbot, merchant of Ando- 
ver ; and the Associate Founders, who were " Moses 
Brown and William Bartlet, both of Newburyport 
merchants, and John Norris, of Salem, esquire.*' 
The original founders agreed to erect two buildings 
for the accommodation of students and the necessary 
uses of the institution, one to be two and the other 
three stories in height, and to furnish the sum of 
twenty thousand dollars, in trust, for the purpose of 
maintaining a professor in Christian theology. The 
associate founders agreed to contribute at first thirty 
(afterwards forty) thousand dollars, in trust, " for the 
maintenance of two professors in the Theological In- 
stitution or Seminary lately founded in the town of 
Andover.'' 

The fact that there was apprehension of serious 
difficulty in obtaining from the General Court a char- 
ter for a Calvinistic Theological Seminary may have 
been the balancing argument for establishing the in- 
stitution at Andover, sheltered by the charter of 
Phillips Academy. 

The original constitution, formed in 1807, is a mas- 
terly document, elaborate, comprehensive, providing, 
with much wisdom and foresight, for the minor de- 
tails which concern the regulation of a seminary in 
all possible circumstances and exigencies. 

The matters of primary interest in this constitu- 
tion are contained in Articles XI. and XII. 

Article XI. reads as follows : 

" Every Professor in this Seminary sbaU he a Master of Arts, of the 
Protfstant reformed religion, in communion with some Christian Church 
of the Congregational or Presbyterian denomination, and sustain the 
character of a sober, honest, learned and pious man ; he shall, more* 
over, be a man of sound and orthodox principles in divinity, according 
to that form of sound words or system of evangelical doctrines drawn 
from the Scriptures, and denominated the Westminster Assembly's 
Shorter Catechism, and more concisely delineated in the Constitution of 
Phillips Academy." 

Article XII. reads as follows : 

" Every person, therefore, appointed or elected a Professor in thig 
Seminary, shall, on the day of his inauguration into office, and in the 
presence of the said Trustees, publicly make and subscribe a solenm 
declaration of his faith in Divine Revelation, and in the fundamental 
and distinguishing doctrines of the Gospel of Christ, as summarily ex- 
pressed itt the Westminster Assembly's Shorter Catechism; and be 
eball furthermore solemnly promise that he wiH open and explain the 
Scriptures to his pupils with integrity and faithfulness ; that he will 
maintain and incu!cat« tb,e Christian faith, as above expressed, to- 
gether with all the other doctrines and duties of our holy religion, so far 
as may appertain to his Qftice, according to the bestjight God shall give 
him, and in opposition not only to Atheists and Infidels, but to Jews, 
Mahometans. Artana, Pelagians, Antiuomians^ Arminiuus, Socinians, 
ynitariuns and Uuiversalists and to all other heresies aud errors, an- 



cient or modern, which may be opposed to the Gospel of Christ, or 
hazardous Co the souls of men ; that by his instructions, counsels and 
example, he will endeavor to promote true Piety and Godliness ; that 
he will consult the good of this Institution and the peace of the 
churches of our Lord Jesus Christ on all occasions, and that he will 
religiously observe the Statutes of this Institution, relative to his offi- 
cial duties and deportment, and all such other Statutes and Laws as 
shall be constitutionally made by the Trustees of Phillips Academy, not 
repugnant thereto." 

The matters of most importance in the statutes of 
the hssouiate founders are designated in the II. and 
III. Articles of these statutes. 

Article II. reads as follows: 

" Every Professor on this foundation shall be a Master of Arts of the 
Protestant Reformed Religion, an ordained Minister of the Congrega- 
tional or Presbyterian denomination, and shall sustain the character of 
a discreet, honest, learned and devout Christian, an orthodox and con- 
sistent Calviuist ; aud after a careful examination by the Visitors with 
reference to his religious principles, he shall, on the day of his inaugn- 
ration, publicly make and subscribe a solemn declaration of bis faith in 
Divine Revelation, and in the fundamental and distinguishing doctrines 
of the Gospel as expressed in the following Creed, which is supported by 
the infallible Revelation which God constantly makes of Himself in his 
works of creation, providence and redemption, namely: — 

" ' I believe that there is one, and but one, living aud true God ; that 
the word of God, contained in the Scriptures of the Old aud New Testa- 
ment, is the only perfect rule of faith aud practice ; that agreeably to 
those Scriptures, God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal and unchangeable in 
his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth ; that in 
the Godhead are three Persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost ; 
and that these Three are One God, the same iu substance, equal in power 
and glory; that God created man after his own image, in knowledge, 
righteousness and holiness ; that the glory of God is man's chief end, 
the enjoyment of God his supreme happiness ; that this enjoyment is de- 
rived solely from conformity of heart to the moral character and will of 
God ; that Adam, the federal head and representative of the human race, 
was placed in a state of probation, and that in consequence of his dis- 
obedience all his descendants were constituted sinnci-s ; that by nature 
every man is personally depraved, destitute of holiness, unlike and op- 
posed to God ; and that previously to the renewing agency of the Divine 
Spirit all his moral actions are adverse to the character aud glory of God ; 
that being moi-ally incapable of recovering the image of his Creator 
which was lost in Adam, every man is justly exposed to eternal damna- 
tion ; so that, except a man be born a^in he cannot see the kingdom of 
God ; that God, of his mere good pleasure, from all eternity, elected 
some to everlasting life, and that he entered into a covenant of grace to 
deliver them out of this state of sin and misery by a Redeemer ; that the 
only Redeemer of the elect is the eternal Son of God, who for this pur- 
pose became man, and continues to be God and man in two distinct 
natures and one person forever; that Christ as our Redeemer executeth 
the office of a Prophet, Priest aud King ; that agreeably to the covenant 
of redemption the Son of God, and he atone, by his euCTering aud death, 
has made atonement for the sins of all men ; that repeutance, faith and 
holiness arc the personal requisites iu the Gospel scheme of salvation; 
that the righteousness of Christ is the only ground of a sinner's justifi- 
cation ; that this righteousness is received through faith, and that this 
faith jet the gift of God; so that our salvation is wholly of grace ; that no 

that regeneration and sanctification are effects of the creating aud re- 
luewiue agency of the Holy Spirit, and that supreme love to God consti- 
tutes the essential difference between saints and sinners; that, by con- 
vincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds, working faith 
in u», and reueiviug our wills, the Holy Spirit makes us partakers of the 
benefits of redemption, aud that the ordinary means by which thosf 
benefits ara communicated to us aro the Word, sacraments and prayer; 
that repeutance unto life, faith to feed upon Christ, love to God, and new 
obedience are the appropriate qualifications for the Lord's Supper, and 
that a Christian Church ought to admit no person to its holy commu- 
nion before he exhibit credible evidence of his godly sincerity ; that 
perseverance in holiness is the only method of making our catling and 
election sure, aud that the final pereevorance of sain s, though it is the 
effect of the special operation of God on their hearts, yet ueccbsarily im- 
plies their own watchful diligence ; that they who are effectually called 
do in this life partake of justification, adoption aud sanctification and 



the several b^nefits-wbich do either accompany or flow from them ; that' the 
Bouls of believers are at their death made perfect in holiness, and do im- 
mediately pass into glory ; that tlieir bodies, being still united to Christ, 
will at the resurrection be raised up to glory, and that the saints will be 
made perfectly blessed in the full enjoyment of God to all eternity, but 
that the wicked will awake to shame and everlasting contempt, and with 
devils be plunged into the lake that burneth witli fire and brimstone for 
ever and ever. I moreover believe that God, according to the counsel of 
his own will and for his own glory, hath foreordained whatsoever comes 
to piiss, and that all bein^, actions and events, both in the natural and 
moral world, are under his providential direction ; that God's decrees 
perfectly consist with human liberty, God's universal agency with the 
agency of man and man's dependence with his accountability; that man 
has understanding and corporeal strength to do all that God requires of 
him, so that nothing but the sinner's aversion to holiness prevents his 
salvation ; that it is the prerogative of God to bring good out of evil, and 
that he will cause the wrath and rage of wicked men and devils to praise 
him ; and that all the evil which has existed, and will forever exist, in 
the moral system, will eventually b'e made to promote a m st important 
purpose under the wise and perfect administration of that Almighty 
Being who will cause all things to work forhis own glory, and thus fulfil 
all his pleasure. And, furthermore, I do solemnly promise that I will open 
and explain the Scriptures to my Pupils with integrity and faithfulness ; 
that I will maintain and inculcate the Christian faith as expressed in the 
Creed by me now repeated, together with all the other doctrines and 
duties of our holy Religion, so far as may appertain to my office, accord- 
ing to the best light God shall give me, and in opposition not only to 
atheists and infidels, but to Jews, Papists, Mahometans, Arians, Pela- 
gians, Antinomians. Arminians, Socinians, Sabelliaus, Unitarians and 
Universalists, and to all other heresies and errors, ancient and modern, 
which may be opposed to the Gospel of Christ or hazardous to the souls 
of men ; that by my instruction, counsel and example I will endeavor to 
promote true Piety and Godliness ; that I will consult the good of this 
Institution and the p'-Mce of the Churches of our Lord Jesus Christ on 
all occasions ; aud that I will religiously conform to the Constitution and 
Laws of this Seminary, and to the Statutes of this Foundation.' " 

Article III. reads as follows : 

" The preceding Creed and Declaration shall bo repeated by every 
Professor on this Foundation at the expiration of every successive period 
of five years ; and no man shall be continued a Professor on said 
Foundation who shall not continue to approve himself a man of sound 
and orthodox principles in Divinity agreeably to the aforesaid Creed." 

The original founders, having reserved in their 
constitution the right to amend that instrument, 
provided such alteration " be not prejudicial to the 
true design of said Foundation," that they might 
bring this constitution into accord with the creed 
agreed upon with the associate founders, proceeded 
to establish certain additional statutes. 

Their language is,—" We do now, agreeably 'to the 
said reserved right, and in furtherance, as we trust, 
of our original design, therein expressed, make and 
ordain the following Articles, to be added to, and taken 
as a part of, our said Constitution, and to continue of 
full force, as a part of our said Constitution, so long 
as the said Associate Foundation shall continue at- 
tached to our said Institution, and no longer." 

Article I. of these " Additional Statutes " reads 
thus: 

" Having provided in the twelfth Article of our said Constitution that 
' every person, appointed or elected a Professor in the said Seminary, 
shall, on the day of his inauguration into office, publicly make and sub- 
scribe a Declaration of his faith in Divine Revelation and in the funda- 
mental and distinguishing doctrines of the Gospel of Christ, as summarily 
expressed in the Westminster Assembly's Shorter Catechism,' we now 
ordain the following addition, to be inserted in said article, in connec- 
tion with the said clause, viz. : 'and as more particularly expressed in 
the following Creed, to wit : . . . ' " 
102J 



VER. 1625 

Then follows verbatim the Associate Creed. 

The sentence preceding the creed, in Article I. of 
the additional statutes, viz., "and as more particu- 
larly expressed in the following Creed," has been the 
subject of diverse interpretation, and of much warm 
discussion. Some contend that it does not in the 
least infringe upon or modify the preceding require- 
ments of the founders that their professors shall 
make subscription to the Shorter Catechism. They 
claim that the associate creed, is in addition to, not ex- 
planatory of, the Westminster Assembly's Catechism. 

Others maintain that this clause introduced between 
the requirement of faith in the Catechism and the 
associate creed, is a qualifying clause, and was in- 
tended to indicate that the creed was to be regarded 
as an equivalent of the Catechism, or that the creed 
was to be taken as a more definite expression of what 
the founders meant to include by the language, " as 
summarily expressed in the Westminster Assembly's 
Shorter Catechism," or as embodying so much of, and 
all of, the Catechism which they desired their profes- 
sors to accept and subscribe. Wise and good men are 
to be found on both sides of this delicate question. 
But practically the question was settled in 1842 by 
the decision of the board of visitors, the final arbi- 
ters on all questions as to the interpretation of the 
statutes. 

The history of this matter is briefly this : From 
the first till the year 1826 the professors were not 
required to, and did not, give their assent to or 
subscribe the Catechism. In that year the Catechism 
was introduced by the trustees as part of the confes- 
sion of faith to which the professors must give their 
adhesion. They conformed to the requirement, and 
their example was followed till 1842, when one of 
the professors, deeming the requirement at variance 
with the demand of the statutes, refused compliance, 
and appealed to the board of visitors against the de- 
mand of the trustees. This board, then composed 
of Dr. Codman, Dr. Humphrey and Hon. Seth Terry, 
of Hartford, after an exhaustive hearing, ably con- 
ducted on both sides, decided in favor of the profes- 
sor, on the ground that the statutes did not require 
the professors and visitors to give their assent to and 
subscribe the Catechism in addition to the creed. 
Since this decision the professors have not been re- 
quired to profess adhesion to the Westminster Assem- 
bly's Shorter Catechism. 

In addition to this change in the creed, there was 
a further provision made, in agreement with that in 
the foundation of the associates, for a visitatorial 
board. Thus the two projects were assimilated, 
amalgamated, forming one homogeneous institution. 

This provision for a board of visitors is unique. 
The circumstances and conditions under which the 
seminary came into existence were also singular. 

The recent perversion, as these founders considered 
it, of the Hollis Fund at Harvard by the trustees of 
that institution, together with the fact that a majority 



1626 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of the trustees of Phillips Academy might be, and 
originally were, laymen, and the anomalous status 
of their school, the same being placed under the con- 
trol of persons selected to have charge of a classical 
institution, and without doctrinal tests or qualifica- 
tions, led these founders of a theological seminary, 
who proposed to teach for all time certain specified 
doctrines, to place their professors under the super- 
vision of a special board. Thus in Article II. of the 
additional statutes they say: 

*' That the trust aforesaid may be always executed agreeably to the 
true intent of our said Fouudation, and that we may effectually guard the 
same, in all future time, against all perversion, or the smallest avoidance 
of our ti-ue design, as therein expressed ; Wo do hereby coustitutea Board 
of Visitors to be, as in our place and stead, the Guardians, Overseers and 
Protectors of our said Foundation, in manner, as is expressed in the fol- 
lowing provisions: that is to say, we appoint and constitute the Honor- 
able Caleb Strong, Esq., late Governor of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, the Reverend Timothy Dwight, D.D , President of Yale College, 
and the Bevercnd Samuel Spring, D.D., of Newburyport, Visitors of the 
eaid Foundation ; who, with their Successors in otBce, to be chosen, as 
hereinafter directed, shall be a perpetual body forthis purpose, with all 
the powers and duties in them herein vested and on them eiyoined." 

The founders— Messrs. Brown, Bartlet, Norris and 
Abbot — were added to the three above mentioned, to 
hold office till resignation or death, when, from that 
d.ay onward, the board was to consist of only three 
per.-ons — " two clergymen and one layman — all of 
whom shall be men of distinguished talents and 
piety." The elected visitors are not to be "under 
the age of forty years," nor over " the age of seventy 
years." "A majority shall be a quorum," and, "in 
case of an equi-vote, the question shall determine on 
that side on which the presiding member shall have 
voted." The board shall fill its own vacancies. The 
members, on taking their seats, are required to " make 
and subscribe the following declaration : "."Approv- 
ing the Constitution of the Theological Institution, I 
solemnly declare, in the presence of God and of this 
Board, that I will faithfully exert my abilities to 
carry into execution the Regulations therein con- 
tained, and to promote the great object of the Insti- 
tution." They are further required " to subscribe the 
same theological Creed, which every professor-elect is 
required to subscribe," and to make a fresh declara- 
tion of faith in the same every five years. The power 
and duties of the board are to approve or negative the 
election of a professor by the trustees ; to visit the 
Foundation once a year, and oftener if necessary ; to 
inquire into the state of the fund and the manage- 
ment of the same with respect to the said Professor ; 
" to determine, interpret and explain the Statutesof the 
said Foundation in all cases brought before them in 
their judicial capacity ; to redress grievances with re- 
spect to the said Professor; to hear appeals from 
decisions of the Board of Trustees, and to remedy 
upon complaint duly exhibited in behalf of the said 
professor; to review and reverse any censure passed 
by said Trustees upon any professor on said Founda- 
tion ; to declare void all Rules and Regulations made 
by the said Trustees relative to said Foundation, 



which may be inconsistent with the original Statutes 
thereof; to take care that the duties of each Professor 
on said Foundation be intelligibly and faithfully dis- 
charged, and to admonish or remove him either for 
misbehaviour, heterodoxy, incapacity or neglect of 
the duties of his office, and in general to see 
that our true intentions, as expressed in our said 
Constitution, in relation to said Professor, be faith- 
fully executed ; always administering justice impar- 
tially, and exercising the functions of their office in 
the fear of God, according to these Regulations, the 
Provisions of the said Constitution and the Laws of 
the land." 

If the visitors, in the exercise of their power, "ex- 
ceed thelimitsof their jurisdiction and Constitutional 
power, the party aggrieved may have recourse by ap- 
peal to the Justices of the Supreme Judicial Court of 
this Commonwealth," who are "authorized to judge 
in such case," and by a majority vote " declare null 
and void any decree or sentence of the said Visitors " 
by them deemed " contrary to the said Statutes, or 
beyond the just limits of their power, therein pre- 
scribed." 

It is provided in the statutes that the professors, as 
well as the visitors, shall renew their declaration of 
faith in the creed and their subscription to the same 
every five years. 

The associate foundation provides further that 
if the board of visitors and the trustees "be well sat- 
isfied," after seven years' experiment, " with the 
safety and expediency of the Visitatorial system, and 
that a perpetual coalition is important and desirable, 
Union shall be established upon Visitatorial principles, 
to continue as the Sun and Moon forever." Agreeably 
to this provision, these boards at the time appointed 
expressed their approval of the system, and hence it 
has been established " to continue forever." 

In establishing this seminary, the design of the 
promoters and founders was evidently not only to 
furnish a school for the proper education of ministers 
of the Gospel, but also to create an institution that 
should* to the end of time antagonize all heresies, and 
teach those doctrines embodied in their creed which 
they esteemed Scriptural, fundamental and essential 
in the religion of Christ. They intended to guard 
their institution against "the smallest avoidance of 
our true design." The occasion of this intense cir- 
cumspection against any perversion of their trust was 
doubtless owing to the defection of Harvard from the 
faith of its founders. Their creed has been called 
" an iron-bound creed." It certainly is a thoroughly 
panoplied creed for either defensive or offensive ser- 
vice. Its authors heartily believed in the doctrines 
they so clearly and definitely stated, and purposed to 
have these doctrines, and none others at variance 
with them, taught in their school to the end of time. 

Whatever may be thought of the wisdom or unwis- 
dom of this creed, of "anchoring" a school of divinity, 
designed " to continue as the Sun and Moon," the 



purpose of its promoters and founders can hardly be 
open to mistake. 

Tlie seminary having been fully established by the 
acceptance of its constitution, statutes and trusts on 
the part of the trustees of Phillips Academy, the in- 
stitution was opened for students September 28, 1808. 
This was an entirely new departure in the method of 
miniiterial education. It was the first incorporated 
and endowed institution of the kind in this or in 
any country. It was designed to embrace Presby- 
terians as well as Congregationalists, both in the de- 
partment of instruction and in that of education. 
This may account, in part, for the introduction of the 
Catechism into the original constitution of the sem- 
inary. The first two professors were Dr. Leonard 
Woods, designated by one of the original founders, 
and Dr. Eliphalet Pearson, designated by the associ- 
ate founders. During the first year thirty-six stu- 
dents, from various sections of the country, were 
admitted to the privileges of the institution, a number 
far in excess of the fondest expectations of its 
founders. 

From that first opening year to the present day 
the institution has gone forward in its beneficent 
work of educating young men for the ministry of the 
Gospel of (Jhrist with marked success. Indirectly, 
also, it has been further instrumental of much good. 
Its establishment created a revolution in the method 
of ministerial education. Previous to this, what stu- 
dents for the ministry had by way of instruction and 
guidance was furnished by the pastors of churches, 
and that for a limited time. Since the foundation of 
the Andover Seminary multitudes of like institutions 
have sprung up, and are continually springing up 
all over the land, germinated by its example and suc- 
cess. Thousands of young ministers have gone from 
its halls to preach the glorious Gospel of the Son of 
God throughout the world. 

It is highly probable that it leads every other ed- 
ucational institution, in this or any other land, in the 
extent of territory over which, and in the number ot 
nations and peoples among which, its graduates have 
performed labors and exercised a salutary influence. 
It has carried the name of Andover to the ends of the 
earth, and that, too, with a benediction. This fact 
will justify, if it needs justification, the somewhat ex- 
tended notice here given of the establishment of this 
institution. 

At the close of the first year Dr. Pearson resigned 
his office of professor, and removed from Andover. 

In thespring of the year 1810, Rev. Moses Stuart, 
tlie popular pastor of the Centre Church, New Haven, 
Connecticut, was elected to the Professorship of Sacred 
Literature. He was in the thirty-third year of his 
age, " a young man of uncommon promise," who 
amply fulfilled the promise of his young manhood 
by his subsequent achievements. He resigned 
in 1848, after thirty-eight years of exceptionally val- 
uable service in a department of study little under- 



162'! 



stood or pursued in this country previous to his in- 
auguration. 

Mr. Bartlet, having founded a Professorship of 
Pulpit Eloquence, or Sacred Rhetoric, Rev. Edward 
Dorr Griflin, D.D., of Newark, N. J., was invited by 
him to accept the position of professor in this depart- 
ment. This invitation he at first declined, but after- 
wards accepted, on the condition that he might preach 
half the time at the newly-organized Park Street 
Church, in Boston, this church having extended to 
him an earnest invitation to become its pastor. He 
was inaugurated June 21, 1809. He came to the 
seminary with a flattering reputation for theological 
learning and soundness, and for pulpit eloquence. As 
he entered upon his duties with zeal and efficiency, 
it soon became apparent " that he possessed extraor- 
dinary qualifications for the work he had under- 
taken." But his time of service was brief. The 
duties of the two important positions he held proving 
too much for his health and strength, he resigned the 
professorship in 1811, and devoted himself exclu- 
sively to his ministerial work at Park Street. 

Rev. Ebenezer Porter, D.D., of Washington, Conn., 
was elected to succeed Dr. Griflin, and was inaugurated 
as professor April 1,1812. Athisrequestthe title of his 
office had been changed from Professorship of Pulpit 
Eloquence to that of Sacred Rhetoric. Dr. Porter 
entered upon his duties with some reluctance and ap- 
prehension, owing to his feeble health and his sense 
of the great importance of the service to be rendered. 

He had been a successful pastor, " was possessed of 
a clear, well-balanced and discriminating mind." 
With fine literary taste and a nice appreciation of the 
requirements of the pulpit, he was well fitted to teach 
young men the arts of sermonizing and the delivei'y 
of sermons. With a genial temper, tender sensibili- 
ties and great benevolence he combined much dignity 
and gentle courtesy, thus winning the afl'ection and 
commanding the reverence of his students. To his 
intellectual and moral excellencies he added diligence 
and perseverance, which enabled him to accomplish 
much, though always hindered by feeble health. On 
the creation of the office of president of the 
seminary, in 1828, he was chosen to fill that office. 
In 1832, owing to impaired health, he resigned his 
professorship, retaining the presidency till his death, 
which occurred in 1834. 

The number of students rapidly increased year by 
year, and the wants of the seminary in like ratio in- 
creased. The prosperity of the institution deepening 
the interest of its founders, led them to provide gen- 
erously for its needs. In 1821 Mr. Brown endowed a 
Professorship of Ecclesiastical History. The Rev. 
James Murdock, D.D., an eminent scholar, was 
elected the first professor on this foundation. Dr. 
Murdock came to the seminary expecting to find fit- 
ting employment for his extensive and erudite learn- 
ing, and felt aggrieved that he was required to devote 
so much of his time to rudimentary instruction. Dis- 



162S 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



satisfied with his work, he failed to satisfy liis asso- 
ciates. He was accused by them of a neglect of duty, 
and, on this charge, was arraigned before the trustees. 
They sustained tlie accusation. The professor ap- 
pealed to the board of visitors. After a long and 
ably conducted hearing, the visitors affirmed the sen- 
tence of the trustees and deposed the professor. He 
appealed his ease to the justices of the Supreme 
Court. They decided that the visitors had not ex- 
ceeded their powers under the statutes, and hence 
that their verdict was final. In a subsequent trial for 
salary, the court decided that the professor could 
draw his salary up to the time he was deposed by the 
visitors. By these two decisions the Supreme Court 
established the power of removal in the board of vis. 
itors, and that their judgments of the evidence and 
merits of a case could not come under the review of 
this court. 

The connection of Dr. Murdock with the seminary 
closed in 1828. 

The Eev. Ralph Emerson, D.D., pastor of the 
church in Norfolk, Conn., succeeded Dr. Murdock as 
Brown Profes.sor of Ecclesiastical History in 1829. 
Dr. Emerson belonged to a family noted for its in- 
tellectual force, for its extensive influence and for its 
efficient activity in promoting the interests of higher 
education. He was a graduate of Yale College, a tu- 
tor for a time there, from which he also received his 
degree of S.T.D. He was among the earliest gradu- 
ates of Audover Seminary. When invited to occupy 
the chair of professor he at first declined. Afterwards, 
on a renewal of the invitation, he accepted, on con- 
dition that Pastoral Theology be added to Ecclesias- 
tical History. This proposition being acceded to, he 
was inaugurated as Brown Professor in 1829. 

Dr. Emerson was especially noted for his rare mod- 
esty. Never intrusive, never self-asserting, never 
forward to express his opinion or to press his meas- 
ures, never eager for reputation or a foremost place, 
he had few disagreements, and no quarrels or personal 
coutroversies. He was esteemed a man of sound 
judgment and discretion, whose opinion in matters 
affecting conduct it were wise to follow. He brought 
to the discharge of his duties in the seminary patient 
industry, a conscientious purpose to do his best, and 
a deep, fatherly interest in the improvement and use- 
fulness of the young men who came under his in- 
struction. The personal advice he gave his students 
was often the most valuable instruction they received. 
He had, in large degree, the wisdom of common 
sense. Hence, while not possessing the learning of 
his predecessor, or the ability of one of his colleagues, 
or the enthusiasm of another, he filled a much-needed 
place in a body of teachers, and, in his unassuming 
way, was often of incalculable service to the students. 

in 1830 Rev. Edward Robinson, D.D., LL.D., was 
chosen Professor Extraordinary of Sacred Literature. 
He resigned in 1833, after but three years' service. 

In 1833, Rov. Thomas H. Skinner, D.D.,was chosen 



Bartlet Professor of Sacred Rhetoric, to succeed Dr. 
Porter. He resigned in 1835. 

In 1836 Rev. Justin Edwards, D.D., for a time pastor 
of the South Church, was elected president of the semi- 
nary. He resigned in 1842, and has had no successor. 

In 1836 Rev. Edwards Amasa Park, D.D., profes- 
sor in Amherst College, was elected Bartlet Professor 
of Sacred Rhetoric. In 1847 he was transferred from 
this professorship to that of Abbot Professor of Chris- 
tian Theology. He resigned this position in 1881, 
having been for forty-five years in the service of the 
seminary — eleven years as Professor of Sacred Rhet- 
oric, and thirty-four years as Professor of Christian 
Theology,— and in addition Lecturer on Christian 
Theology for one year previous to his apiwintment as 
professor. Since his resignation Dr. Park has em- 
ployed his leisure, as his health permitted, in prepar- 
ing his lectures for the press, and in other literary 
labors. It will be seen that Prof Park held the posi- 
tion of professor in the seminary for a longer period, 
by seven years, than any other professor. Dr. Woods 
and Prof. Stuart held office for thirty-eight years each. 
By this phenomenal and life-long service in the semi- 
nary, overlapping the precedingand succeeding gener- 
ations of teachers, having given the best energies of 
his mind and the unstinted devotion of his soul to the 
interests of the institution, it would not be surprising 
if Professor Park should come to feel a personal iden- 
tification with it, — to be so one with it as to feel that 
his individual honor was involved in its reputation, 
and his personal happiness interwoven with its welfare. 
The time has not come, and may the day be distant, 
for giving a sketch of his life, his work, his theology, 
his mental characteristics, his idiosyncrasies of char- 
acter, his personality, but the writer must be pardoned 
for here expressing his personal obligation to Professor 
Park, as a teacher, for the intellectual stimulus, quick- 
ening, he received under his instruction. 

In 1837 Rev. Bela Bates Edwards, D.D., was elected 
Professor of Hebrew, and in 1848, Associate Profes- 
sor of Sacred Literature. He died while in office in 
1851, much lamented. 

In 1852 Rev. Calvin Ellis Stowe, D.D., was elected 
Associate Professor of Sacred Literature, to succeed 
Dr. Edwards. A man of varied learning and experi- 
ence, he brought to the discharge of his duties unus- 
ual enthusiasm and energy. With a warm heart, 
quick impulses and ready speech, he could not fail to 
give interest to his class exercises. He resigned in 
1864. 

In 1853 Rev. Elijah Porter Barrows, D.D., was 
elected Professor of Hebrew, and in 1858, Hitchcock 
Professor, which position he resigned in 1862. He is 
still living at Oberlin, Ohio. 

In 1848, Rev. Austin Phelps, D.D., then pastor of 
Pine Street Church, Boston, was elected Bartlet Pro- 
fessor of Sacred Rhetoric, to fill the vacancy made by 
the transfer of Professor Park. He resigned in 1879, 
on account of continued ill health. Professor Phelps, 



1629 



during a considerable portion of the time in which he 
filled this office, was not able, from poor health, to de- 
vote as much time, thought and energy to his work 
as when he first entered upon his duties. His lectures 
and personal influence, however, were regarded by 
the trustees as of such value to the seminary as to 
make his retention expedient, when his resignation 
was at their disposal. 

In 1853, Rev. William (Jreenough Thayer Shedd, 
D.D., was elected Brown Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History and Lecturer on Pastoral Theology. After 
nine years of service in these departments, in which 
he did much to raise to importance the depart- 
ment of history, and to create for himself an enviable 
reputation as a scholar and theologian, he resigned 
in 1862. He is now connected with Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York. 

In 1863, Rev. Egbert Coffin Smyth, D.D., was 
elected to succeed Professor Shedd as Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History and Lecturer on Pastoral 
Theology. He retained the lectureship till 1868. 
He still holds the professorship, and is also president 
of the faculty. He is the oldest in office of the in- 
cumbent professors. Under his guidance the depart- 
ment has continued to grow in importance and 
attractiveness. 

In 1864, Rev. Joseph Henry Thayer, D.D., then pas- 
tor of Crombie Street Church, Salem, was elected As- 
sociate Professor of Sacred Literature. After filling 
with acceptance his office for eighteen years, he 
resigned in 1882. He is now Bussey Professor of New 
Testament Criticism and Interpretation at Harvard 
College. 

In 1866, Rev. Charles Marsh Mead, Ph.D., was 
chosen Hitchcock Professor of the Hebrew Lan- 
guage and Literature. Wishing to devote himself 
for a time to special studies, he resigned in 1882. 
Since then he has been living in Europe, mostly in 
Germany, pursuing his favorite studies. 

The professors now filling departments are the fol- 
lowing: Rev. Egbert Coffin Smyth, D.D., elected 1863, 
Brown Professor of Ecclesiastical History and presi- 
dent of the faculty ; Rev. John Wesley Churchill, 
M.A., elected 1868, Jones Professor of Elocution ; 
Rev. John Putnam Gulliver, D.D., LL.D., elected 
1878, Stone Professor of the Relations of Chris- 
tianity to the Secular Sciences ; Rev. William Jewett 
Tucker, D.D., elected 1879, Bartlet Professor of 
Sacred Rhetoric and Lecturer on Pastoral Theology ; 
Rev. John Phelps Taylor, M.A., elected 1882, Tay- 
lor Professor of Biblical Theology and History ; Rev. 
George Harris, D.D.,' elected 1882, Abbot Profes- 
sor of Christian Theology ; Rev. Edward Young 
Hincks, D.D., elected 1882, Smith Professor of 
Biblical Theology ; Rev. George Foot Moore, D.D., 
elected 1883, Hitchcock Professor of the Hebrew 
Language and Literature. 

Up to 1816 the professors and students of the Theo- 
logical Seminary, the teachers and students of 



Phillips Academy, and all other persons having 
official or other connection with these institutions, at- 
tended worship at the South Church, and had their 
religious connection with it. In fact, up to this date all 
the religious organizations in town were established 
upon a territorial basis. The General Court divided the 
town into territorial parishes, and the people were 
expected to belong to the one in which they resided, 
and to attend religious worship in the parish church 
and pay for its support. There were no divisive 
denominations in town at that day. 

On the 22d day of August, 1816, this terri- 
torial parish regulation was, for the first time, in- 
fringed upon by the formation of an independent 
Church at the Theological Seminary, within the terri- 
torial limits of the South Parish. The members of the 
academy and seminary had so increased as almost to 
necessitate for them a separate place of worship. At 
first they worshipped in one of the rooms of Phillips 
Hall; afterwards a chapel was erected for their accom- 
modation. The professors were, and ever have been, the 
pastors of the church. The church was reorganized 
Nov. 1, 1865. This church is, ecclesiastically speak- 
ing, an anomaly. It has no parish. It has nothing 
to do with calling, settling, dismissing or supporting 
its pastor. It is under the charge of a board of trus- 
tees, no one of w^hom necessarily belongs to its mem- 
bership. No one of the pastors is in the slightest de- 
gree amenable to the church over which he pre- 
sides, and to which he preaches. He may be hereti- 
cal, heterodox, or otherwise objectionable; the Church 
can do nothing about it. It cannot even discipline 
one of its own members without first obtaining the 
approval of the trustees. The organization of the 
church may be called Evangelical, but not Congrega- 
tional. 

After worshipping for many years in the building 
erected by the liberality of Mr. Bartlet for the triple 
purpose of furnishing recitation-rooms, a library-room 
and a place of worship, in 1876 a new and elegant 
Gothic stone chapel was erected on the seminary 
campus, a short distance northwest of Phillips Hall. 
This is an ornamental, no less than a much-needed 
and highly useful, building. Architecturally speaking, 
it is by far the choicest edifice on the Hill, and, many 
people think, in the town. Some connoisseurs give 
the preference to the new edifice of Christ Church. 
The chapel is used exclusively fur religious sendees, 
save that the anniversary exercises of the seminary 
are held there, which, previous to it.s erection, had 
been held in the meeting-house of the South Church. 

The old chapel has undergone extensive repairs, 
changes and improvements, and is now an exceed- 
ingly commodious structure for lectures and recitation 
purposes, and all other uses of sv similar character. 

It may be as well, perhaps, to refer here to the one 
other new building which has been, in the later years 
of its history, erected for the benefit of the seininary. 
Brechin Hall, the library building, standing on the 



1630 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



south side of the seminary grounds, near where stood 
the second huilding for Phillips Academy, is the gift 
of the Messrs. Smith and Dove. It is built of stone, 
and was designed to be fire-proof. It is a well-pro- 
portioned and attractive building, convenient for the 
purposes for which it was erected. It contains a lib- 
rary of nearly forty thousand volumes (some of them 
of priceless value), besides magazines, a large number 
of curiosities, sent by missionaries in foreign lands, as 
tokens of their love for the institution that gave them 
their theological training, and the portraits and busts 
of the patrons and professors who established and 
giive character to the seminary. The hall was named 
Brechin, by the donors, in honor of the city of that 
name in Scotland, in which they were born. In a like 
spirit, these same generous benefactors of learning 
named the hill in Brechin, upon which they erected 
their free school-house for the benefit of the poor in 
that city, " Andover Hill." Thus they united the 
place of their birth and the place of their prosperity 
by an interchange of names and a baptism of far- 
reaching beneficence. 

During the pa.st few years the seminary has been 
in grievous affliction, by what instrumentality it is 
no part of our business to inquire. Perchance it is 
one of those ordeals by which institutions, like in- 
dividuals, are made (under divine guidance) to pass 
through sore trials for their profit. The profit in this 
case, as in the case of the aflJicted believer, is not 
seen at present, but may be seen hereafter. As early 
as 1883 there began to be rumors that the faith and 
teaching of some of the professors were not strictly 
in accord with the prescribed creed of the seminary. 
These rumors, circulated by newspapers and other- 
wise, in a measure perhaps fostered, or at least made 
plausible, by the open avowal of some of the pro- 
fessors in the Andover Review, of which they are 
the editors, of their adherence to a " progressive 
theology " and a " new departure" in theological de- 
velopment, grew more numerous and pronounced. 
The publication by the accused parties of a volume 
of which they are also the editors, made up of articles 
taken from the Andover Review, entitled " Progressive 
Orthodoxy," led to decisive action on the part of 
those who felt aggrieved at the course of these pro- 
fessors. The matter came up for consideration before 
the trustees, who, with a single exception, approved 
the course of the professors. 

The dogma or hypothesis of a probation after 
death for the heathen and others who had never 
known or heard of the salvation of Christ, accepted 
and defended by these professors, was that for which 
they were especially called to account by the news- 
papers. 

In 1886, the dissentient trustee, in conjunction 
with two other influential graduates of the seminary, 
called the attention of the board of visitors to the 
fact of the alleged dereliction of certain professors 
from the creed of the institution. This was followed. 



at the instigation of the visitors, by the presentation 
of a set of charges, drawn up in form, with references 
to the evidence by which they were supported. Upon 
these charges, five of the professors were summoned 
before the board of visitors and put on trial for 
heterodoxy, or a departure from the prescribed statutes 
under which they held their professorships. The 
trial was a protracted one, occupying a number of 
day.«. The accused and the accusers were both rep- 
resented by eminent counsel. Both also presented 
elaborate and able arguments for the support of the 
position they respectively assumed. The trial was 
attended by many eminent theologians and jurists, 
as well as by the friends of the parties more immedi- 
ately interested. It was the newspaper sensation of 
the day. The board upon whom the duty devolved 
of deciding upon the merits of this controversy of 
such delicacy and far-reaching significance was 
composed of Rev. Julius Harriman Seelye, D.D., 
LL.D., president of Amherst College; Rev. William 
Tappan Eustis, D.D., pastor of the Memorial Church, 
Springfield ; and Hon. Joshua N. Marshall, of Lowell. 
After many months' deliberation the verdict of these 
visitors was announced on the evening of the closing 
day of the anniversary exercises in June, 1887, by 
private notes addressed to each one of the accused 
professors. By this verdict the charge against Pro- 
fessor Egbert C. Smyth was sustained, and he was re- 
moved from the professorship he held. With regard 
to the other four defendants, " Rev. Mr. Eustis de- 
clined to act thereon with his associates, upon the 
ground that he was not present on the day of the 
hearing," " when said respondents severally appear- 
ed." Thereupon the complaints were " considered 
and none of the charges" " were sustained." Pro- 
fessor Smyth has appealed his case to the justices of 
the Supreme Court. Awaiting their decision, he con- 
tinues to hold his oflice and discharge its duties. 

This sad episode in the history of this ancient and 
world-renowned institution of sacred learning is 
working serious injury to its prosperity and useful- 
ness at a time when, in its material strength, it was 
never before so well equipped to do a glorious work for 
Christ and the Church. 

Permanent i^mrfs.— The following amounts have 
been given by the persons whose names are men- 
tioned, to the theological department of Phillips 
Academy, for the purposes designated at the time 
specified : 

1808. Samuel Abbot, Abbot Profesaorehip $20,000 

1S08. William Dartlet, Bartlct Professorahip 25,000 

1803. William Bartlet, 810,000 I 

1809. Mosos Browo 810,000 \ 

1809. John Norris, 810,000 | 

liVi. John Norris, Legacy 8:!0.000 J 

1819. Moses Brown, Brown Professorship 25,000 

1813-15. Samuel Abbot, Legacy, Abbot Fund 84,000 

18.5-48. Misses Rebecca and Sarah Waldo 15,000 

1841. William Bartlet, Legacy, Barllet Fund 50,000 

185G. Boston Fund, Sundry Contributors 28 420 

1857. Samuel A. Hitchcock, Hitchcock Professorship 15,000 



ANDOVER. 



1631 



18CG-77. Peter and John Smith, and John Dove, eup- 

port of Library 45,000 

1SC7. Mi*< Sophia Smith, Smith Professorship 38,905 

1871-76. Frederick Jones, Jones Professorship 15,000 

IKCS). Samuel A. Hitchcoclt. Contingent Fund 40.770 

1872. Samuel A. Hitchcock, Relief tund 60,000 

1875. John L. Taylor and family, Taylor Professorship. 38,405 

1878-80. Henry Winkly, General Fund 00,000 

1880-81. Park Testimonial ]4,l:« 

18811. Sirs. Valeria G. Stone, Stone Professorship .'iO.OOO 

1880. Mrs. Valeria G. Stone, General Fund.' 100,1X11 

1887. N. G. White, Legacy, General Fund 50,000 

Sundry gums at Sundry times for scholarships and to aid 

poor students 97,000 

Library Funds 28,000 

Lectureship Funds 10,000 

In addition to these permanent and income-bear- 
ing funds, the truHtees hold buildings and lands con- 
tributing to the support and carrying forward of the 
institution valued at two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. 

In the above donations, that given by Mr. Bartlet 
for building Bartlet Hall, Bartlet Chapel, and the 
president's house are not included ; neither is there 
included the amount, forty-one thousand dollars, given 
by the Smith & Dove Manufacturing Company to 
build Brechin Hall, nor the amount given by 
Madam Phillips and Mr. Samuel Phillips to erect the 
first seminary building. 

PEOFESSORS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SEMIXARY. 

Leonard Woods, the first Abbot Professor of 
Christian Theology in the Andover Seminary, was 
born in Princeton June 19, 1774, and baptized on the 
day of his birth. 

His father was a farmer in moderate circumstances, 
but above the average of his class in intellectual ac- 
tivity and attainments. He was always known as 
" Master Woods," having been appointed first school- 
master of the town. He was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress and one of Governor Gill's Council. 
His mother was an energetic woman, full of motherly 
love and ambition for her children, only too willing 
to sacrifice herself for their benefit. 

At a very early period of his life he showed a fond- 
ness for books and for studies in advance of his years. 
His father had designed that he should follow the farm ; 
but, owing to an accident which brought on an illness 
that lasted for two years, and which aflTected his bodily 
strength, the father was induced to comply with the 
wishes ofthe son and thedesireof hismother,'and per- 
mitted him to enter upon the study of Latin with the 
pastor of the parish. While the father could promise 
no assi-stance to him in pursuing a collegiate course, 
the mother promised to do what she could to aid him. 
Under these conditions young Woods applied himself 
assiduously, spending three months at Leicester 
Academy, but otherwise mainly conducting his own 
preparatory studies. He entered Harvard College in 
1792, and graduated in 1796, the first in the class, 
which contained some afterwards eminent scholars. 
His college course came at a time when infidelity and 
skepticism were popular with young men, and their 



pernicious influence pervaded all the higher institu- 
tions of learning in the land. At one time during his 
connection with Harvard there was but one profess- 
ing Christian among its students. Young Woods, 
though nurtured in a pious family, and taught the 
Catechism by a praying mother, could not altogether 
escape the influence ofthe atmospheric skepticism in 
which he drew his breath. He did not go to the ex- 
treme of disbelief, but his faith in some of the car- 
dinal doctrines of the Christian religion was seriously 
shaken. 

On leaving college he taught school for eight 
months in Medford. On being thus separated from 
his college associates, and brought face to face with 
the work of life, the training of his childhood began 
to reassert its influence. He entered upon a careful 
study of the Scriptures with the purpose of finding 
out for himself the evidence for their truth or falsity. 
With this spirit of earnest inquiry and candor of judg- 
ment, he pursued his investigation till he was led, in- 
tellectually and from the heart, to accept the Scrip- 
tures as the word of God, and Jesus Christ as the Son 
of God and the Saviour of men. Soon after this he 
made a public profession of his faith, and united with 
the church in Medford. This acceptance of Christ 
and consecration to his service at once gave direction 
to his future life. He entered upon a course of theo- 
logical study, with the ministry in view. It being the 
custom of those days for an aspirant for the ministry 
to spend a short time under the instruction of some 
eminent divine, he spent three months with Dr. Charles 
Backus, at Somers, Conn. The winter following he 
spent with his parents, pursuing his theological 
studies by himself, with some assistance from his 
pastor. 

In the spring of 1798 he was licensed to preach, and 
in November of the same year was settled as pastor 
of the Congregational Church at West Newbury. 
This church was an influential and important one, its 
retiring pastor being Dr. Tappan, who had been 
chosen to be a professor in Harvard College. Thus, at 
the age of twenty-four, after a Christian experience 
of less than two years and scarcely more than one 
year of theological study, he entered upon his minis- 
try with an extensive and numerous parish. His 
mind was mature beyond his years, his knowledge 
more distinct and available than is common to neo- 
phytes in religion and his belie.'s were more clear, well- 
considered and terse than is the case with those who 
have never wrought their way to an abiding faith 
through grave doubts and questionings. He at once 
took high rank among his ministerial brethren as a 
thinker, sermonizer, preacher and pastor. Being 
naturally of a genial, conciliatory temper, he was re- 
ceived on friendly terms by ministers of different 
shades of theological belief betw'een the high and the 
low, the loose and the consistent Calvinists. After a 
few years of successful service in West Newbury, he 
came to be on familiar terms with the distinguished 



1632 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



divines of the region. Dr. Morse, of Charlestown. so 
valued lii.s friendsliip and esteemed his ability, as to 
invite him to become an associate editor with himself 
of the Panoplist, the organ of the old Calvinists. Dr. 
Spring, of Newburyport, a near neighbor of his 
and a stanch Hopkinsian, requested his assistance as 
a contributor to his magazine of the consistent Cal- 
viuistic shade. 

After ten years of ministerial labor and intercourse 
with some of the ablest divines in the State, he had 
attained such consideration that, when the Hopkin- 
sians, under the lead of Dr. Emmons and Dr. vSpring, 
determined on establishing a theological college, they 
fixed upon him as their theological professor and his 
parish as the place for its location. And when the 
important questiou came up whether there should be 
one or two theological seminaries to represent the 
two shades of Calvinism in New England, he was 
found to be an important medium in bringing the di- 
vergent elements into agreement. In the narrative 
we have from the pen of Dr. Woods, written after he 
had retired from the professor's chair, describing the 
difficulties attending the project to unite the two con- 
templated institutions, we are constrained to believe 
that it was a fortunate Providence that had brought 
Dr. Spring and Dr. Woods into such intimate associa- 
tion. Dr. Pearson was doubtless the master mover in 
all the efforts put forth and all the methods devised 
to produce harmony between the parties ; but Dr. 
Woods, with less push and persistency and less ac- 
cumulated power, was able, from his relation to the 
Newbury men, to exert a most salutary influence in 
favor of union. He clearly saw the waste and folly 
of having two theological seminaries within twenty 
miles of each other, of essentially the same religious 
character and belief. If we understand his narrative, 
he was, first and kist, in favor of union. And when 
the difficulties in the way of this union increased, and 
the fears, jealousies and hitches in the way of har- 
mony threatened disaster to the plan when ap- 
parently near its consummation, he put forth strenu- 
ous and effective efforts for its accomplishment. On 
the apparent failure of the negotiations after months 
of anxious treating, and when the Hopkinsians had 
renewed their offer to him of a professorship in their 
college, he declined the honor and urged a renewal of 
the endeavor to effect a union. If, as seems likely by 
this narrative, it was largely by the persistent efforts 
of Dr. Woods towards the close of these protracted 
negotiations, that the hindrances were finally removed, 
the church is hardly less indebted to him for this feat 
of friendly diplomacy than for the able instruction 
he afterwards gave in the united seminary. 

The seminary was opened for the reception of stu- 
dents on September 28, 1808. On that day Dr. Pear- 
son and Dr. Woods were inaugurated as professors. 
The narrative of this important event will be given 
in the words of Dr. Woods, who was not only an eye- 
witness, but himself no small part of it: 



" It was nu auspicious day, a day of rejoicing and hope, a day in- 
volving in no sm.'ill nicisuru tlie most precious interests of tlio cliuich 
and the world. Tliis wa^ tho tii-st Divinity School fonndcii in Amer- 
ica, and tlie large assembly of Christian ministers from different and dis- 
tjint places, and of other friends of tho Seminary, indicated the interest 
and the profound sense of the Importance of tliisbccasion. 

*' The public services were conducted in the Pariah Church with con- 
summate order and propriety, while earnest attention, deep silence and 
solemn feeling prevailed in the Sanctuary. 

'* As Dr. Pearson waa a layman, the Statutes of the Founders required 
tliat he should receive ordination. The prayen on the occasion were 
appropriate and fervent. The sermon was preached by Dr. Dvviglit ; the 
Rev. .Jonathan French gave to Dr. Pearson tho customary charge, and 
Dr. Morae gave the right hand of fellowship. Dr. Pearson, President 
of the Board of Trustees, then gave an historical sketch of the events 
which contributed to the establishment of the Institution, and read such 
portions of the Constitution and Statutes as the occasion called for. 
After this he was inducted into office as Professor of Natural Theology, 
and the Rev. Leonard Woods as Professor of Christian Theology, and the 
Seminary was declared to be open for the admission of Theological Stu- 

*' After the close of the public solemnities, the Founders of the United 
Institution, and their principal advisors and agents, were all together, 
and how cordial were their mutual congratulations ! They felt it to be 
the happiest hour of their lives. What joy brightened their counte- 
nances, and how deep and unutterable their emotions of gratitude to 
God, as their excited minds glanced over the crowded transactions and 
events of the two preceding years I " 

Dr. Woods entered upon his duties with great 
eagerness and high expectations. 

Students came to his class-room in greater numbers 
than could be well accommodated. His popularity 
and usefulness increased from year to year, till, in 
1833, the seminary admitted to its privileges eighty 
new students. 

As a lecturer on theology, Dr. Woods was lucid, 
didactic, somewhat diffuse, scriptural rather than 
philosophical, resting his conclusions on the state- 
ments of the Bible rather than on the deductions of 
reason. Of a calm temperament, his words were 
carefully weighed before they were uttered. He 
never indulged in speculations that unloosed his foot- 
hold upon Scripture truth. There was in him, doubt- 
less, a lack of imagination, or vision to see, as is 
given to some, the germinating life that lies hidden 
in the letter of Scripture statements. But, whatever 
his limitations, he was an able and sound theologian, 
who, from his lecture-room, e xerted a wide and salu- 
tary influence upon the minds of a multitude of min- 
isters, and thus did an incalculable service to the in- 
terests of evangelical religion. 

As the seminary came into existence in part as a 
protest against what its promoters regarded as unsound 
doctrine, it was from the begiirtiing involved in con- 
troversy. As a controversialist. Dr. Woods was, to 
an unusual degree, dispassionate and courteous. He 
treated his adversary with fairness and his arguments 
with candor, while presenting his own position in a 
clear and commanding manner. Naturally concilia- 
tory, and having had personal experience in the 
region of doubt and unbelief, he was the more ready 
to treat with forbearance and charity the errors of 
others, though he never yielded a point he deemed 
scripturally true. 

As a man Dr. Woods secured the esteem and con- 



ANDOVER. 



1633 



fidence of his fellow-men to a marked degree. Tall in 
person, dignified in manner, approachable, with a 
winning smile and affable speech, kind and sympa- 
thetic, he won the hearts of young men, and led his 
associates to rely, not only upon his ability, but also 
upon his steadfastness and integrity. As a Christian, 
his heart was in full sympathy with his doctrinal 
belief. That which he taught in the lecture-room he 
accepted as the rule of life. From personal expe- 
rience he could speak of the depravity of human 
nature, the influence of the Holy Spirit, the new birth 
of the soul through repentance, and faith in the Lord 
Jesus as the Christ of God. His piety had in it a 
trace of the Puritan piety of the Commonwealth as 
described by Macaulay. At times, he was all peni- 
tence and self-abasement before God, while, before 
men, he was serene and self-sustained. His sense of 
personal guilt was profound, if not at times bitter. 
But his confidence in the atoning merits of the Lord 
Jesus and the enduring mercy of the Heavenly 
Father was equally strong and profound. He uses 
this language regarding himself: "The sight of a 
thousandth part of my sinfulness of heart and life 
has filled me with amazement and shame. But O, 
there is very plenteous rederaption^sufficient even 
for me ; and if for me, for any one on earth." 

In addition to his duties as professor in the semi- 
nary, Dr. Woods took a conspicuous part in the con- 
troversy with the Unitarians, and was forward in 
originating and promoting all those beneficent pro- 
jects which had in view the moral improvement of 
the people or their enlightenment, and the preaching 
of the gospel to those to whom it was unknown. 
Many of the charitable, reformatory and missionary 
organizations of the day had their origin on the Hill, 
or, if not their origin, their most potent assistance. 
Dr. Woods was one of those who originated the Edu- 
cation Society, the Tract Society, the Total Absti- 
nence Society, and was an early and efficient friend 
of the Foreign Missionary Board. 

In 1846 he resigned his office as professor, after 
having served in that capacity for thirty-eight years. 
At the request of the trustees he employed himself, 
after his resignation, in preparing a history of the 
seminary. While engaged in this work he was called 
hence in the eighty-first year of his age. His history, 
a most valuable volume, was published in 1885, 
under the editorial supervision of his grandson, Dr. 
George S. Baker. 

Eliphalet Pearson,' LL.D., was born in Byfield, 
a parish in Newbury, Massachusetts, June 11,1752, 
and died in Greenland, New Hampshire, September 
12, 1826, aged seventy-four years, three months, and one 
day. He entered Harvard College in 1769, and was 
graduated with high honors in 1773. His eminence 
was then predicted by his instructors. Soon after 
graduation he was called to teach a grammar school 



1 Prepared by Prof. Edwards A. Park. 



at Andover (now North Andover), the home of his 
friend, Samuel Phillips, afterwards Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts. 

In 1775 Governor Phillips was commissioned by the 
General Court to manufacture gunpowder for the 
Revolutionary army. In this enterprise he relied 
very much on the scientific attainments of Pearson. 
He relied on the same while he was laying the founda- 
tion of Phillips Academy at Andover. Pearson be- 
came the first principal of the academy, and re. 
mained in this otfice from 1778 to 1786. He was one 
of the twelve original trustees, and was the first presi- 
dent of the board who did not belong to the Phillips 
family. 

In 1786 he was called to the Professorship of the 
Hebrew and Oriental Languages at Harvard College, — 
an office for which he was then well qualified. He 
delivered to the students a valuable course of lectures 
on language. He was particularly successful as a 
teacher of rhetoric. Occiisionally he spent the entire 
night in correcting the compositions of the stu- 
dents, in order that he might spend the day in the 
multiplied estra-oflicial duties which were heaped 
upon him. He labored with rare zeal and tact for 
the financial as well as literary welfare of the college. 
He searched the documents which illustrated the 
claim of the university to certain disputed posses- 
sions; examined old deeds in the registry of probate, 
old notes pertaining to farms, ferries, bridges, in which 
the university had, or was thought to have, an interest. 
For twenty years he was an uncommonly laborious 
professor in the college ; for six years was a leading 
member of its Board of Fellows, and for a long time 
performed many of the duties belonging to the Presi- 
dent. Among his pupils were some of the most emi- 
nent men of the day, such as John Quincy Adams, 
Judge Story, Presidents Kirkland and Quincy, Drs. 
William E. Channing and Edward Payson, John 
Pickering, Alexander H. Everett. It has been often 
said by President Quincy that if Governor Phillips 
had lived, Pearson would have been elected President 
of Harvard College, as successor to Dr. Joseph Wil- 
lard. 

He resigned his oflSce at Cambridge in 1806. He 
immediately repaired to Andover, where he gave the 
first impulse to the formation of the Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary. He originated its remarkable con- 
stitution. He worked with wonderful energy in order 
to unite with each other the members of his own 
theological party. Afterward he was a conspicuous 
agent in effecting the union between his own party 
and a dissenting one, — that is, between the seminary 
planned at Andover and that which had been planned 
by Dr. Samuel Spring, of Newburyport. He rode 
from Andover to Newburyport thirty-six times for 
the purpose of consummating that union. He was 
elected the first Professor of Sacred Literature in the 
Seminary. He was the first president of the board of 
trustees after the theological institution came under 



1153 t 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



its care. lie retained tlie presidency of that board 
nineteen years, — a longer period than any other one, 
either before or since his time, has held it. He con- 
tinued a member of the board forty-eight years. 

Dr. Pearson was noted for the variety of his talents 
and interests. A large collection of his papers im- 
presses the readers of them that he was merely "a 
man of affairs.'' He was an adei^t in the fine arts ; 
he possessed remarkable skill and taste in music ; he 
had also an architect's eye and forecast. The oak 
tree is yet standing which he climbed in order to lay 
out the plan for the building and grounds of Andover 
Seminary. For many years he had been an indus- 
trious member, and also the secretary, of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences. He had associated 
mainly with men of letters, of science and of politi- 
cal renown. He had not addicted himself to the 
niceties of theological studies, but was an accurate 
critic of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. He once 
published a Hebrew grammar. With great care he 
revised and prepared for the press Thomas Wilson's 
" Sacra Privata," Leslie's " Short Method with the 
Deists," Baxter's " Saints' Rest," Baxter's '■ Call to 
the Unconverted," Doddridge's " Address to a Master 
of a Family ;" also several pamphlets and tracts. 
Occupied, as he was, with great schemes, theological 
and political, he yet interested himself in securing 
the publication and extending the circulation of Dr. 
Watts' " Divine Songs for Children." Watts and 
Doddridge were his favorite authors. He al.so held 
in high esteem the writings of Owen, Leighton, 
Flavel, Tillotson and Bishop Thomas Wilson. He 
originated the " Massachusetts Society for the Promo- 
tion of Christian Knowledge," and was the most con- 
spicuous man in forming the " American Education 
Society." His enterprising spirit made him a pioneer 
in many great and good works, which need not be 
particularized here. His person was noble and com- 
manding, his manners were dignified and courtly. 
As a teacher he was faithful ; as a disciplinarian, 
exact and severe. His severity excited some opposi- 
tion among his pupils, but many of the most eminent 
among them regarded him as their prominent bene- 
factor. 

The establishment of Andover Theological Semi- 
nary was opposed with great vigor by men of great 
influence in New England. Some of them had 
been the scholars of Pearson at Cambridge. The 
brunt of their opposition was boine by him; he was 
the target against which their deadliest missiles were 
aimed and thrown. President Josiah Quincy was 
familiar with the obstacles which Pearson was called 
to resist, and with the herculean efforts which the 
brave man made in resisting them. Mr. Quincy 
says : " What no other man would have dared to at- 
tempt with any hope of success he effected. What- 
ever good has resulted, or shall result, from the mere 
fact of this union [between the two parties who 
coalesced in forming the Seminary], the merit-of es- 



tablishing it belongs to Eliphalet Pearson. I speak 
without reserve. I had better opportunities of know- 
ing his principles, motives, and causes of success 
perhaps than any other man. [ was eiyht years, 
from 1778 to 1786, his pupil, /our years under his in- 
struction in college. Afterwards through life I had 
frequent intercourse with him. In 1808, as a trustee 
of the academy, I witnessed his zeal, his labors, and 
the untiring spirit with which he pursued, until he 
succeeded in efi'ecting, the cherished object of his 
heart. After his retirement from the government of 
the Seminary he made me the confidant of his 
opinions and feelings concerning it. I mean no dis- 
paragement to Dr. Spring and his associates. The 
institution is an ever-enduring monument of their 
zeal for religion and their munificence. But I owe 
it to truth and to the memory of Dr. Pearson to de- 
clare that his influence and power eft'ected the de- 
sired union and fixed the locality of this Theological 
Seminary." (See a Memorial of the Semi-Centennial 
Celebration of the founding of the Theological Semi- 
nary at Andover, pp. 119, 120.) 

Moses Stuart ' was born in Wilton, Conn., 
March 26, 1780, and died in Andover, January 4, 
1852, aged seventy-one years, nine months, and nine 
days. When a lad of but twelve years he became 
absorbed in the perusal of Edwards on the Will. In 
his fifteenth year, entering an academy in Norwalk, 
Conn., he learned the whole Latin grammar in three 
days, and then joined a class who had devoted several 
months to Latin studies. In May, 1797, having been 
under the careful tuition of Roger Minqt Sherman, 
he was admitted as a sophomore to Yale College. 
Here his tastes were pre-eminently for the mathe- 
matics. 

At his graduation, in 1799, he delivered the salu- 
tatory oration, at that time the highest appointment 
awarded to the class. One year after leaving Yale 
he taught an academy in North Fairfield, Conn., and 
in the following- year was principal of a high school 
at Danbury, Conn. Having pursued the study of the 
law, he was admitted to the bar in 1802 at Danbury 
His fertile and versatile mind, his enthusiasm and' 
prodigious memory, gave promise of eminent success 
in the legal profession. From his study in fitting 
himself for this profession he derived signal advan - 
tages through life. A few weeks before his admission 
to the bar he was called to a tutorship in Y'ale Col- 
lege. Here he distinguished himself as an inspirit- 
ing teacher. At this time he publicly devoted him- 
self to the service of God. 

Having pursued the study of theology with Presi- 
dent Dwight, he was ordained March 5, 1806, pastor 
of the First Congregational Church in New Haven, 
Conn. During his pastorate of three years and ten 
months two hundred persons were admitted, all but 
twenty-eight by profession, into his church. His 

1 Prepared by Edwaids A. Park. 



ANDOVER. 



1635 



deep, solemn, and sonorous voice, his commanding and 
imjjassioned manner, his translucent style, his vivacity 
oC thought, his energy of feeling, contributed to make 
him one of the most eloquent of preachers. Many 
supposed that he mistook his calling when he left his 
pulpit for the professor's chair. Doubtless in his 
early manhood "the pulpit was his throne." 

On the 28th of February, ISIO, he was inaugurated 
Professor of Sacred Literature in Andover Theological 
Seminary. In about two years he composed a He- 
brew grammar for the immediate use of his pupils. 
They copied it day by day from his written sheets. 
When he printed it he was compelled to set up the 
types for about half the paradigms of verbs with his 
own hands. 

The following letter is perhaps the earliest notice 
of all his published works : 

" Ta Rev. Dr. Pearson, Present, December 12, 1813 .■ 

*' Rev. and Dear Sir: Please to accept a copy of the Heb. Grammar I 
send you, and to read it with a view to note its errora and defects, for it 
has both. I have printed only about 120 copies, and have not ventured 
to put any into the Library, my object being to get the aid of all the 
Ileb. scholars in our land in bringing it to a state of more perfection' 
before I venture to offer it to the Trustees as a classical book. Robert- 
son's True and Ancient Method came too late, or I should have discussed 
his principles briefly in the Preface. T shall place much dependence on 
your Remarks. Pleiise to write them down. 

" Your obed't servant, Moses Stu.vrt." 

Eight years after writing this germinal letter he 
printed his larger " Hebrew Grammar." This he re- 
modeled with great painstaking, and published it in 
a second edition two years after the first. Not satis- 
fied with this, he re-examined all its principles anew, 
wrote some of it three, four, and a small part of it 
seven or eight times over, and published the third 
edition five years after the second. Professor Lee, of 
Cambridge University, England, speaking of this edi- 
tion, said : " The industry of its author is new matter 
for my admiration of him." The fourth edition of 
this grammar was republished at Oxford University, 
England, under the superintendence of the celebrat- 
ed Professor E. B. Pusey. In correcting the proof- 
sheets of the grammar Mr. Stuart read some of them 
over seven times, and a few of them eleven times. 

This is one example of the care which he took for 
securing theaccuracy of his publications. Anotherex- 
ample is found in his edition of "Newcome's Greek 
Harmony of the Gospels." He published it with- 
out the accents in a duodecimo and also a quarto 
form. He requested the students in the seminary to 
re-examine the proof-sheets of the " Harmony," and 
offered a small pecuniary recompense for the detec- 
tion of any, even the minutest, error in them. 

In the midst of his labors on his " epoch-mak- 
ing" grammar he published his "Letters to Rev. 
William Ellery Channing," a work which, on the 
whole, has been the most popular of all his writings. 
The first edition of these letters was sold within a 
week ; two other editions followed it very soon in 
America, and four in England. The last American 
edition was published in 1846. Perhaps Mr. 



Stuart's " Commentary on the Epistle to the He- 
brews" stands next to these Letters in general popu- 
larity among clergymen. It was published in 1827- 
28, in two octavo volumes. It has passed through 
four editions in America, and perhaps twice as many 
in England. The celebrated Dr. John Pye Smith 
characterized it as " the most important present to 
the cause of sound Biblical interpretation that has 
ever been made in the English language." His 
commentaries on the Epistle to the Romans and on 
the Apocalypse are even more elaborate than his 
work on the Hebrews. 

All his published writings cannot be here enumer- 
ated. Among them are more than twenty volumes ; 
fourteen pamphlets; thirty-four articles containing 
fifteen hundred pages in the American Biblical Re- 
pository ; fourteen articles containing four hundred 
and ninety pages in the Bihliotheca Sacra; thirty- 
three important articles in other periodicals. The 
pamphlets and periodical essays occupy more than 
two thousand octavo pages. 

The publications of Mr. Stuart fail to exhibit the 
large proportions of the man. He was greater than 
his books. His greatness was most conspicuous in 
his lecture-room. Hundreds of his pupils will in- 
dorse the words of Dr. Francis Wayland, a late 
President of Brown University, who said : " I have 
never known any man who had so great power of en- 
kindling enthusiasm for study in a class. It mat- 
tered not what was the subject of investigation, the 
moment he touched upon it it assumed an absorbing 
interest in the eyes of all of us. I do not think that 
there was one of us who would not have chosen to 
fast for a day rather than to lose one of his lectures." 

He was the inspiring teacher of more than seventy 
presidents or professors in our highest literary insti- 
tutions, of more than a hundred missionaries to the 
heathen, of about thirty translators of the Bible into 
foreign languages. Several of our most important 
volumes pertaining to Biblical literature were begun 
by his pupils " in the bosom of his family." 

From the fact that he was the pioneer in familiar- 
izing our clergymen with Hebrew and German learn- 
ing, and thus opening a new era in our theological 
history; from the fact that by the wonderful mag- 
netism of his character he quickened the literary 
zeal of men who afterward became leaders of popu- 
lar thought; from the fact that he prepared more 
than fifteen hundred of his pupils for appreciating 
the richness of the Bible in its original languages, 
and elucidated those languages in a fresh and attrac- 
tive way, he has been called " The Father of Biblical 
Literature in our Land." In no small degree he de- 
serves to be honored as a father of Biblical litera- 
ture in Great Britain also. His influence is the 
more noticeable as his life was a perpetual struggle 
with infirm health, and he was wont to remark that he 
never allowed himself to work as a real student more 
than three hours in the day. 



1636 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Bela Bates Edwards, D.D.,' was born in South- 
ampton, Mass., July 4, 1802, and died in Athens, 
Georgia, April 20, 1852, aged forty-nine years, nine 
months, sixteen days. His ancestors were among the 
first settlers of Springfield and Northampton, Mass. 
His grandparents were parishioners of Jonathan 
Edwards in Northampton ; his maternal grandmother 
was for some time an inmate in Jonathan Edwards' 
family, and transmitted to her descendants no small 
degree of the virtues derived from her pastor's in- 
struction and example. The paternal grandfather of 
Professor Edwards was a soldier in two colonial ar- 
mies, one of which captured Louisburg in 1745, and 
the other defeated Burgoyne in 1777. During his 
boyhood Prof. Edwards labored on his father's farm 
and enjoyed the truly intelligent society of his fathei-'s 
household. While thus laboring, he devoted every 
leisure hour to his books. He fitted for college partly 
under the guidance of bis pastor. Rev. Vinson Gould ; 
partly under that of his pastor's wife, a lady of re- 
markable learning, who prepared several young men 
for college; partly under the special care of Rev. 
Moses Hallock, of Plainfleld, Mass., a distinguished 
teacher in that day. He was graduated at Amherst 
College in 1S24 ; taught an academy in Asbfield, Mass., 
in 1825 ; spent the year 1825-26 as a member of An- 
dover Theological Seminary ; was then called to a 
tutorship in Amherst College; passed two years in 
that ofliice ; returned to the seminary in 1828 ; was 
graduated there in 1830, having held an exceptionally 
high position in a class of exceptional ability. Be- 
fore he returned to the seminary three oflices were 
pressed upon him, — he was invited to be a professor 
in Amherst College, the assistant secretary of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions, the assistant secretary of the American Educa- 
tion Society. The last of these ofiices appeared to 
him the least honorable, but with his characteristic 
modesty he accej>ted it. He continued to discharge 
its duties while he was a member of the seminary, and 
when ihe office of the society was removed from An- 
dover to Boston he removed his residence to the 
city. 

In Boston he spent five years and a half of his busy 
life, managing the details of his office, and at the 
same time taking the principal charge of the Ameri- 
can Quarterly RegMer, a periodical which he made 
to bristle with statistics. In 1833 he founded the 
American Quarterly Observer, which he afterwards 
united with the American Biblical Repository, which 
he subsequently merged into the Bibliotheca Sacra. 
For these periodicals he wrote uncounted essays and 
reviews, translated various articles from the German 
and other languages, and conducted an extensive cor- 
respondence in order to enlist youthful writers in 
literary work. 

He was thus a benefactor of the young. He can- 

' Prepared by Rev. William Edwards Park, Gloversville, N. Y. 



not be said to 1-ave founded all the periodicals 
which he edited, but he originated new plans for them 
all, and in process of time became the chief supporter 
of them all. His conscientiousness in editing them 
is illustrated by the fact that, in order to write two 
paragraphs in a review of a scientific work, he once 
read the whole of an elaborate treatise on geology. 
Throughout his life he superintended the publication 
of thirty-one octavo volumes of periodical literaiure, 
and in these volumes inserted many paragraphs, which 
he wrote with scrupulous care and iu exquisite taste. 

While Mr. Edwards was thus promoting the cause 
of literature in his periodicals, he was incessant in 
his efforts for the literary and moral improvement of 
society at large. His published writings were numer- 
ous. Among them were two admirable school- 
books — the "Eclectic Reader" and the "Introduc- 
tion to the Eclectic Reader" — the "Biography of 
Self-taught Men " (a volume republished in Eng- 
land as well as this country), the " Missionary 
Gazeteer," the " Memoir of Rev. Ellas Cornelius, 
D.D.," the " Introductory Essay" to the " Memoir of 
Henry Martyn," and valuable "Notes'' to the Memoir 
which he edited with rare fidelity. He united with 
Professor Park in translating and publishing a vol- 
ume of "Selections from German Literature;" with 
Dr. Samuel H. Taylor in translating and publishing 
the "Larger Greek Grammar" of Dr. Kiihner; with 
Dr. Sears, afterward President of Brown University, 
and Professor Felton, afterward president of Harvard 
College, in publishing a volume entitled "Classical 
Studies." During a large part of his life he was a 
trustee of Abbot Academy, and a leading trustee of .j 
Amherst College, — an institution of which he was ur- 
gently solicited to be president. The founders of 
the seminary at South Hadley and of Williston Acad- | 
emy acknowledged their obligation to him as their j 
trusted adviser. Perhaps no man was so familiarly ac- I 
quainted as he with the policy and the needs of our 
colleges and higher schools. He formed a plan, and 
expended much of his strength iu toiling, for the es- 
tablishment of a Puritan Library and Museum in i 
Boston, and the present library in the Congrega- 
tional house may be looked upon as in large degree a 
monument to him. i 

His philanthropic labors were not performed in a 
perfunctory way. He devoted his whole sensitive j 
nature to them. When the Choctaws and Cherokees | 
were driven fi'om the graves of their father.-i, when 
the British forced the opium trade upon China, his 
gentle spirit was roused to unwonted indignation, 
and it seemed to those who heard his utterances that 
he was the one oppressed. His deepest sympathies, 
however, were with the enslaved African. His en- 
thusiastic desire for the freedom of the bondmen was \ 
developed as early as 1825, and it never left him. A \ 
sense of the wrong done to the negroes burned like i 
fire in his bones. For several months he felt anxious 1 
to devote his entire life to the African cause. After • 



1637 



ho had decided that it was not his duty to do so, he 
found that he could not resume his interest in study 
until he forcibly abstained from thinking on the sub- 
ject. The first address which he ever delivered from 
the pulpit was on the evils of slavery ; his first 
"Fourth of July" oration was on the same theme; 
so was the first pamphlet which he ever published. 
For twenty-six years he was an unwavering friend of 
the Colonization Society. The secretary of the 
Massachusetts Branch of that institution declared 
that the Branch was kept alive, during its earliest 
years, mainly by Mr! Edwards' efforts. He was one 
of the founders of "The American Union for the Re- 
lief and Improvement of the Colored Race," and gave 
the greater part of two years' work to the establish- 
ment of that society, which, by its appeals and pub- 
lished statistics, roused general attention to the evils 
of slavery, and finds its work grandly continued by 
the "American Missionary Association " of the pres- 
ent day. This Association was in some degree a result 
of the antecedent " Union." As Mr. Edwards was 
anxious at one time to spend his life in the service of 
the enslaved, so he was anxious at another time, but 
finally was restrained from gratifying his desire, to 
spend his life as a missionary of the American Board. 
He was a close friend of Jeremiah Evarts, Samuel 
Hubbard, Kufus Anderson, and others who were most 
intimately connected with the board. 

As a preacher, Mr. Edwards was not popular with 
the masses, but was highly prized by the more intelli- 
gent men. His natural diflidenee sometimes em 
barrassed him, his voice was not strong, his gestures 
not graceful, he had ihe " student's nearsightedness," 
which compelled him to keep his eyes close to his 
manuscript. But there was an earnestness in his 
manner, a delicacy in adjusting the light and shade 
upon the idea which he was developing, a tender yet 
powerful sympathy with his liearers, making him yearn 
to have them see his theme as he saw it, and feel 
about it as he felt. Behind his utterances there was 
a pure and large personality which overcame all elo- 
cutionary defect, changed his diffident manner to one 
of persuasive eloquence, and enabled him to hold 
an intellectual audience spell-bound. The day of his 
preaching in the Andover Chapel was a " high day '' 
for the auditors. 

We have not yet approached the more important 
part of Mr. Edwards' life-work. In 1837 he was ap- 
pointed Professor ofthe Hebrew Language in Andover 
Theological Seminary. In 1848 he was elevated to the 
Profe-sorship of Sacred Literature in the Semi- 
nary, — the office previously occupied by Professor 
Moses Stuart. For this office he had eminent quali- 
fications. In fact, he began unconsciously to prepare 
himself for it in his early childhood. Before he was 
eleven years old he had read through the Bible seven 
times, and all of Dr. Scott's " Notes " twice. At the 
age of twenty-two he began the study of Hebrew, 
which he pursued almost daily as long as he lived. 



He made immense acquisitions in philology, solely in 
order to qualify himself for the task of Biblical inter- 
pretation. That he might understand Wicklifle's 
translation of the Bible, he studied the old Saxon of 
Chaucer. In order to familiarize himself with Greek 
words and particles used in the New Testament, he 
read the tragedies of ^Eschylus. He studied Arabic, 
Syriac and various dialects cognate with the Hebrew. 
He mastered the minutise of interpretation by cor- 
recting proof-sheets of Greek and Hebrew writings. 
Desiring to enlarge his acquaintance with the science 
of Biblical interpretation, he read German authors 
until their words became to him as his mother tongue. 

His manner in the lecture-room was singularly 
foscinating. He had a clear and exact sen.se of the 
meaning of a Scriptural passage, traced out in the 
original the finer modifications of its import, saw at 
once the emphatic expression to which the preceding 
paragraphs contributed, and enthusiastically led the 
minds of his pupils up to the full height of the poet's 
or prophet's meaning. Some of his scholars can even 
now remember his rebuke when a commonplace 
translation was presented, — "Such a meaning is 
jejune and frigid. It does not come up to the splen- 
dor of ihe words." The late Professor John N. Putnam, 
one of Dr. Edwards' pupils, wrote concerning his 
teacher : " Indeed it was by no means alone by what 
he said that he instructed us, but by what he loas in the 
lecture-room. He formed us by a calm and constant 
influence that dropped as the rain and distilled as the 
dew. By some it was not felt at first, but it grew upon 
us silently day by day, and we found at the year's 
end that we had gained more than our note-books 
could show, — a greater fineness and precision of view, 
a calmer and surer habit of mind. He taught us in 
himself how often the perception of the final truth 
may depend on the moral feeling more than on logical 
keenness." 

As soon as Mr. Edwards took the professorship at 
Andover he began to execute the broad plans which 
he had formed in earlier life. He began to prepare a 
Commentary on Habakkuk, Job, the Psalter, and the 
First Epistle to the Corinthians ; also an Introduc- 
tion to the Old and New Testaments. He began to 
collect the gems which he might insert into their fit- 
tiug caskets, and to gather into a uniform series of 
works the results of his multifarious reading. The 
hopes of literary men, however, were disappointed by 
the pulmonary disease which terminated his labors on 
earth. One of his friends has remarked : " The 
day of hia entrance on his professorship reminded me 
of the sun rising upon the seminary ; the day of his 
burial reminded me of an Andover sunset." 

If this man of restless energy and far-seeing pru- 
dence had devoted his life to the acquisition of 
wealth, he might have amassed such treasures as 
would have been conspicuous in even the rich valley 
of the Merrimack. His wealth was his character. 
Other men might possess his unconquerable industry, 



1638 



HISTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



but we have yet to find the man who can leave upon 
others tlie exact impression which Dr. Edwards left. 
It is impossible to portray him as he seemed to those 
about him, or transfer to other minds the impression 
which was stamped by his very presence. His apti- 
tude for Biblical interpretation gave unmistakable 
signs of genius, but it was not a merely intellectual 
attribute. Genius may get nearer to the throne when 
she rises higher than the intellect, and takes her seat 
in the moral powers. It awakens admiration, not so 
much for the mental faeullies, as for the man who 
directs them. A nature uncommonly disinterested, 
profoundly reverential ; an originality of feeling more 
than of thought, a rare combination of apparently 
opposite qualities ; great strength of purpose with an 
exquisite refinement of character and taste; a pro- 
found humility, with self-reliance in reserve, ready for 
the proper moment ; a union of strong practical 
sense with deep imaginative and poetic instincts ; a 
singularly active mind, joined to a richly contempla- 
tive one; good reasoning power, animated by the 
warmest emotions; and, withal, a tender-hearted 
humor that played like a sunbeam around his lofty 
meditations, — -all these elements gave a singular in- 
terest to Dr. Edwards' character. Beyond this, there 
was a fascination which no written description can 
explain, a mysterious something to which the heart 
responded, but which the mind could not analyze. 

A Memoir of Prof. Edwards, seven of his sermons, 
and sixteen of his addresses and lectures were pub- 
lished after his death, in two volumes. They contain 
instructive extracts from the papers which he wrote 
during his tour through England, Scotland, France, 
Germany, aud Italy in 1846 and 1847. He was mar- 
ried in 1831 to Miss Jerusha W. Billings, daughter of 
Col. Charles E. Billings, of Conway, Mass., and de- 
scended from clergymen, among whom are Richard 
Salter Storrs, of Longmeadow ; Solomon Stoddard, of 
Northampton; Timothy Edwards, of East Windsor; 
John Williams, of Deerfield ; Eleazer and Richard 
Mather. 

Samuel Haevey Taylor, LL.D.,' was born Octo- 
ber 3, 1807, and died January 29, 1871, aged sixty- 
three years, three months, and twenty-six days. He 
was descended from Scotch Covenanters, who estab- 
lished themselves in the old township of Londonder- 
ry, New Hampshire. Mr. Horace Greeley says that 
probably " more teachers now living trace their de- 
scent to the Scotch pioneers of Londonderry than to 
any equal number anywhere else." In the single 
State of New Hampshire six descendants of these 
pioneers " have been Governors of the State, nine 
have been members of .Congress, five, judges of the 
Supreme Court, two, members of the Provincial Con- 
gress, and one of these was a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence." 

Mr. Taylor is supposed to have derived his Chris- 



' Prepared by Prof. Edwardd A. Park. 



tian name from Samuel Harvey, a youthful hero who 
distinguished himself at the celebrated siege of Lon- 
donderry in Ireland. 

After an eventful childhood and boyhood, Mr. Tay- 
lor entered Dartmouth College, where he was con- 
spicuous for his iron diligence and mental grasp. 
After his graduation, in 1832, he entered the Theolog- 
ical Seminary at Andover. Professor Stuart and Dr. 
Edward Robinson often expressed their admiration 
of his zeal and accuracy in his Hebrew and Greek 
studies. Dr. Leonard Woods had confidence in his 
theological views, for Mr. Taylor was an early con- 
servative in theology. His pastor and father-in-law 
was an intimate friend of Dr. Daniel Dana, and 
through life Mr. Taylor retained the high esteem of 
Dr. Dana as well as Professor Stuart. His fellow- 
students, as much as his instructors, trusted him as an 
interpreter of the Bible and as a theologian. With 
such antecedents he was called from the seminary to 
a tutorship in Dartmouth College. This call appeared 
to be an omen that his future course would be a lit- 
erary one. He remained in his tutorship about two 
years, and returned to Andover so as to receive his 
regular diploma in the autumn of 1837. Before he 
acquired his high reputation as an instructor and dis- 
ciplinarian at Dartmouth College, he had won golden 
opinions as an assistant teacher in Phillips Academy, 
Andover. He was chosen principal of this academy 
and began to discharge the duties of his new office 
near the close of his theological studies. 

He might have received ampler emoluments in oth- 
er schools, but the trustees of the academy recognized 
his peculiar qualifications for this school. They saw 
that he united accuracy in the details of classical lit- 
erature with an enthusiasm in its life-giving spirit ; 
an uncommon quickness of perception with an un- 
common solidity of judgment ; a singular devotion 
to the Greek and Roman classics with a general in- 
terest in scholarly pursuits and the affairs of life. In 
a peculiar degree he united the factitious with the 
natural qualifications for a teacher. In several par- 
ticulars he resembled his great predecessor, Eliphalet 
Pearson. Like Pearson, he had a stalwart frame and 
sonorous voice. It may be said of him, as was said 
of another: "The commander was visible and vocal 
in him." His personal appearance gave him a right 
to his Christian name — " Samuel Harvey." When 
he was directing the movements of the "Phillips fire- 
engine," he spoke and looked like a military general. 
Indeed, he seemed to have a decided military taste. 
His dignified presence and expressive emphasis gave 
him one kind of power. Another kind was given him 
by his reputation for trustworthiness ; — this reputation 
was the fruit of his previous success, and this success 
was the means of his continuing to succeed. Before 
he became the principal of the academy it was not 
the prominent school which it became before he left 
it. Sometimes the senior class, to whom the principal 
mainly devoted himself, had consisted, on an average, 



w ^t4 




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THE NEW YORK 

'PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



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,W-u^i^ci2:^'^/1>t^l/^ I 



of about twenty members ; but after he came the 
chiss consisted of thirty-five, forty, forty-three, forty- 
eight, fifty-eight, sixty-lour or seveuty-three members. 
These were members of the Classical Department alone. 
The senior class was called his class, and it was the 
great magnet of the institution, attracting young men 
to it from the plantations of Georgia, the cotton-fields 
of Louisiana, the banks of the Ohio and Mississippi, 
and the Canadian provinces. It was common to re- 
mark that students went into "Aw class" as boys, 
and came out as men. 

He adopted no artificial means for swelling the 
number of his pupils, his heart was intent on magni- 
fying rather tlian multiplying them. He founded 
the new success of his school upon its intrinsic 
worth. His great aim was not to make an outward 
show, but to work on the inner spirit of his scholars. 

His perpetual inquiries were: " How can the acad- 
emy be made to exert the best influence in promot- 
ing regular habits of work among the young men 
who are soon to be members of the learned profes- 
sions, and whose usefulness will depend upon their 
regularity in study ? How can it be most effectual 
in promoting a respect for law and government, and 
thus guarding the future citizens of the republic 
against the spirit of anarchy, — against the American 
tendency toward irreverence for superiors? How 
can it be most successful^ in training our future 
statesmen for the dignified performance of their 
duties in the legislative hall ? " He has been criti- 
cised for paying too scrupulous attention to the 
minutise of scholarship, but his motto was: "Trifles 
make perfection, and perfection is no trifle." He 
believed himself to be discharging the duties of a 
true patriot, when he was preparing his pupils for 
holding intimate communion with the sages and 
poets of Greece and Rome ; when he was holding up 
a high standard of classical learning, and urging young 
men up to that standard, himself leading the way in 
the laborious ascent, and demanding that his pupils 
should follow him. Many a pupil is now living who 
can say, "I should have ruiued myself by in- 
dolence, if it had not been for Dr. Taylor;" "My 
life would have been broken into fragments, if it 
had not been for his persevering exactions of duty." 
Hundreds of his pupils have said : " I owe more to 
number nine, than to all other recitation rooms in 
which I was ever drilled." 

Such was Dr. Taylor's interest in Phillips Acad- 
emy and kindred institutions, that he prepared for 
them several text books. In 1843 he published a 
" Guide for Writing Latin " translated from the 
German of John Phillip Krebs ; in 1844 (in connec- 
tion with Prof. B. B. Edwards) a " Grammar of the 
Greek Language " translated from the German of 
Dr. Raphael Kiihner ; in 1846 an " Elementary 
Greek Grammar " compiled from a similar work 
of Dr. Kiihner. He published also in 1861 a volume 
entitled " Method of Classical Study, illustrated by 



IVER. 1639 

Questions on a few Selections from Latin and Greek 
Authors;" in 1870 a volume entitled "Classical 
Study; its Value illustrated by Extracts from the 
Writings of Eminent Scholars," with an introduc- 
tion by himself. Among his other writings is a 
Memoir of his father-in-law. Rev. Edward L. Parker, 
prefixed to Mr. Parker's " History of Londonderry " 
edited in part by Dr. Taylor, also a Memorial of 
Dr. Taylor's brother-in-law, Joseph P. Fairbanks, a 
liberal and most exemplary benefactor of various 
literary institutions. From the year 1852 to the time 
of his death Dr. Taylor was an editor of the 
Bibliotheca Sacra. He corrected the proof-sheets 
of eighteen volumes of this quarterly, and wrote 
several anonymous articles for it. 

One of the most remarkable of his literary exploits 
is found in his unpublished letters and journal, writ- 
ten during the foreign tour which he took in 1856. 
He wrote suggestive notices of Paris, Malta, Alexan- 
dria, Cairo, Palestine, Constantinople, the Plains of 
Troy, Athens, Marathon, Corinth, Herculaneum and 
Pompeii, Rome, Florence, Switzerland, the university 
towns of Germany, England, Scotland, and was ab- 
sent from his favorite academy only six months. 
His record of his travels is a monument of his lit- 
erary enterprise and patience, his inquisitive spirit 
and his success in gratifying it, his care and delibera- 
tion in forming his judgments, his extensive investi- 
gations preparing him to make the tour, and his 
more extensive learning derived from his having 
made it. 

On Saturday morning, January 28, 1871, Dr. Tay- 
lor exhibited his wonted vigor in the exercists of his 
school, visited Boston and Cambridge in the after- 
noon, returned to his home in the evening with more 
than usual buoyancy of spirit. He rose on Sabbath 
morning and prepared himself for his large Bible- 
class in the academy. He went forth like a hero, 
carrying his New Testament through the deep and 
rapidly falling snow, to the new academy edifice, 
which had been erected under his care and according 
to his plan. His pupils were assembling to receive 
his Christian instruction, the bell was yet tolling; he 
stopped in the vestibule of his academy ; his coun- 
tenance was changed ; he fell ; he said not a word ; 
he neither sighed nor groaned, but ascended from the 
circle of his astonished and loving and weeping pupils 
to become a glorified pupil in the school of his Re- 
deemer. 

Rev. Austin Phelps, D.D.,' Professor Emeritus of 
Sacred Rhetoric in the Andover Theological Seminary. 

The Phelps family in America trace their descent 
from an ancient Staffordshire house in England. The 
English families of the name believe themselves to 
be a branch of the Well's (ffe/fs) or Guelphs, whose 
eminence in European history is well-known. 

The good ship " Mary and John" brought, in 1630, 






1640 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



to Massachusetts Bay, William Phelps, his wife and 
four sons, and his brother George. Another brother, 
who remained behind, was the secretary of the Pro- 
tector in 1654. After the Restoration he was in this 
country, in hiding, at the same time with the regicide 
judges. 

William was one of the leaders of the colony from 
Dorchester, which settled the town of Windsor, Conn., 
in 1635, and one of the eight who, by authority of 
the Massachusetts Colony, instituted the first organ- 
ization of the infant settlements in Connecticut, in 
the following year. Dr. Stiles, in his " History of 
Connecticu;;," represents the Hon. Wm. Phelps as a 
man of mark in the alTairs of both church and state. 
His third son, Nathaniel, was the founder of a family 
of Phelps in Hampshire County, Mass., which be- 
came numerous and of local fame. It is in the line 
of this family that the name descended to the subject 
of this sketch. His grandfather was for many years 
the foremost citizen of Belchertown. He represent- 
ed that township in the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts for sixteen successive years. 

The father of Professor Phelps, the Rev. Eliakim 
Phelps, D.D., was born March,1790,and died December 
1880. He was an admirable specimen of the ministers 
of the Gospel, whose piety, courage and progressive 
spirit made the earlier half of this century a period so 
fruitful of Christian enterprise and of enterprising 
Christians. 

His wife, Sarah Adams, the daughter of a substan- 
tial farmer of Wilbraham, Mass., was born on the 
2.5th of June, 1791, and died November 13, 1845. 
On the maternal side she was connected with the 
Connecticut family of Skinner, honorably known in 
that Commonwealth, and also in Virginia and among 
the earliest settlers of Ohio. 

Austin Phelps was born in the parsonage at West 
Brookfield, Mass., January 7, 1820. A tradition sur- 
vives that he was so puny a child as to call from a 
friend of the father, on the day following, the re- 
mark : "You will hardly expect to raise that boy." 
The reply had in it the spirit which pervaded the 
atmosphere of his household; "Oh, yes! He shall be 
a member of Congress yet !" In 1826 the family 
removed to Pittsfield, Mass., and in 1830 to Geneva, 
N. Y., where the father was pastor of the First Pres- 
byterian Church. In 1886 he removed to Philadel- 
phia. 

These facts in the father's career are noteworthy 
for their relation to the education of the son. At the 
age of eight years the latter began his preparation 
for college, in the High School of Pittsfield, under 
the direction of Rev. Chester Dewey, D.D. The 
tutor who introduced him to Latin literature was the 
late Rev. Mark Hopkins, D.D. In 1829 he went to 
the Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, then under 
the charge of Dr. Wilbur Fisk, afterward president 
of the Wesleyan University at Middletown, Conn. 
In 1830 he entered the High School in Geneva, then 



conducted by Rev. Dr. Justus French, the most emi- 
nent educator in Western New York for many years. 
In 1833, i.e., at thirteen years of age, he entered 
what is now known iis Hobert College, in Geneva. 
There he came under the magnetic influence of 
Professor Horace Webster, subsequently president of 
the College of the City of New York. In 1835 he 
was transferred to Amherst College, in Massachusetts, 
and in 1836, after his father's removal to Philadel- 
phia, he entered the University of Peunsylvania, 
where he graduated in 1837, with the honor of the 
valedictory oration. 

The year succeeding his graduation he spent in 
post-graduate study, chiefly in history and English 
literature, under the direction of Prof. Henry Reed, 
the editor of the works of Wordsworth in this country. 
He then commenced the study of theology, his pre- 
ceptors being his father and the Rev. Dr. Albert 
Barnes. In December, 1839, he went to Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, in New York, where he studied 
Hebrew with Dr. Isaac Nordheimer, and attended the 
lectures of the Professor of Theology, Rev. Charles 
White, D.D. In the spring of 1840 he was licensed 
to preach by the Third Presbytery of Philadelphia. 
At about the same time he went to New Haven, and 
attended the lectures of Rev. N. W. Taylor, D.D., in 
systematic theology. Later he was enrolled as a 
resident licentiate in the Theological Seminary at 
Andover. Here he pursued his studies for a year and 
a half, attending chiefly the lectures of Prof. Moses 
Stuart, and of Prof E. A. Park, D.D., then Professor 
of Sacred Rhetoric. This period of study was con- 
cluded by his call to the Pine Street Congregation.al 
Church in Boston, where he was ordained pastor 
March 31, 1842. He was most fortunate in the suc- 
cession of eminent and stimulating educators in 
whose hands he was placed in that formative period 
of his mind. He has somewhere expressed his con- 
sciousness of being deeply indebted to the silent influ- 
ence of the large-minded and erudite men with whom 
he was brought into contact. 

Probably to none was he under greater obligation, 
for the development of his mind at that time, than to 
the lamented Prof. Henry Reed. The classic taste 
and wise counsels of the accomplished instructor could 
not but leave a lasting impress upon a pupil so fitted 
by a certain affinity of genius to encourage and reward 
his endeavors. Professor Reed led his docile pupil 
into an appreciative study of the poetry of Words- 
worth. Of Milton's verse and prose the young 
student was already a passionate admirer. A chance 
hearer of one of his early sermons said, in leaving the 
church, " That young fellow preaches as if he had lived 
on Paradise Lost ! " Other favorite authors balanced 
what was then an extravagant taste. Jeremy Taylor, 
Dr. South, Edmund Burke and John Foster were 
among the feeders of his early culture. 

Hardly le.ss fortunate was Mr. Pheljis in his associ- 
ates than in his instructors. He became more or less 



ANDOVEK. 



1641 



intimate, in his academic years, with many men who 
at a kter period achieved distinction. Among these 
may be mentioned the Right Reverend A. Cleaveland 
Coxe, D.D., of Western New York ; Rev. R. D. Hitch- 
cock, D.D., the late president of the Union Theologi- 
cal Seminary in New York City ; Rev. Edwin E. 
Bliss, D.D., of Constantinople; Rev. D. W. Poor, 
D.D., of Philadelphia ; and, among civilians, Hon. 
Ensign H. Kellogg, late Speaker of the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives; Hon. Henry Williams, 
of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania ; Judge 
Walter March, of Indiana ; the late Hon. Charles 
Folger, Secretary of the Treasury of the United 
States ; and Hon. Horace Maynard, late Postmaster- 
General of the United States. 

His own estimate of his six years' pastorate in Bos- 
ton is not extravagant. But tlie congregation and the 
community vvliich knew him best received a different 
impression, from another stand-point than his. A 
straw which shows the drift of opinion in the general 
public was his election to the chaplaincy of the House 
of Representatives in 1843-44, and, a year or two later, 
to that of the Senate, in which he alternated with 
Rev. James Freeman Clark, D.D. Something also 
in the man and in his pastoral career attracted the at- 
tention of wise men to him as a fit candidate for the 
vacant chair of Sacred Rhetoric in the Theological 
Seminary at Andover, from which Rev. E. A. Park, 
D.D., had been recently transferred to the depart- 
ment of Systematic Tlieology. Mr. Phelps became 
his successor in ]\Iarch, 1842, at the age of twenty- 
eight years. 

This change was an unlocked for and an undesired 
deflection from the strong current of his tastes and pre- 
possessions. He was devoted to the profession of his 
choice. He had chosen it by a sort of moral gravita- 
tion. The traditions of his family had indicated it to 
him. The atmosphere of his father's house had predis- 
posed him to it. In his memorial of his father's pas- 
toral career, he tells us that from the age of four 
years he had felt himself predestined to it. His own 
religious culture, in later years, had led him to it as 
the type of service to which he was inwardly called. 
He had concentrated upon it his chastened ambition 
as a man and his apirations as a Christian. He had 
come to it exceptionally well prepared for it as a life's 
work. He had been heard to speak of his retirement 
from it as the great trial of his professional career. 
One consideration only overcame his reluctance to 
leave it. His laborious ministry had overtasked his 
strength, and he felt the premonitions of disease in 
the near future. That he did not overestimate his 
peril was proved by the fact that on the morning of 
the day on which his pastoral relations were dissolved 
he was attacked by an amaurosis, from which he did 
not recover for four years. 

He was inaugurated at Andover September 6, 1848. 
From that date his life was given to the duties of his 
professorship, till declining health compelled his re- 
103J 



tirement in June, 1879, a period of thirty-one years. 
In the years which have since elapsed he has lived 
in comparative seclusion, but has performed some of 
the most valuable literary work of his life. His pen 
has been in almost constant use. He has been a wel- 
come contributor to the representative religious jour- 
nals. He has actively participated in current 
theological discussions. He has put to press several 
volumes, and, altogether, has evinced an intellectual 
vigor never surpassed in the years of his prime. 

Of course the part of his career which invites the 
more careful criticism is that spent in the labors of 
his professorship. The work of that period is central 
in his life. It was the work he was born to do. It 
was work most significant in its relation to the future 
of twelve hundred young preachers of the Gospel, 
many of whom have become educators of younger 
men in the same sphere of public influence. 

His methods of procedure in the conduct of his 
department are best given in his own words. He 
says: 

*' I set myself to work, de novo, as if the department had no history. 
I aimed to construct the science out of the materials of the art. I 
watched tlie worlting of the minds of my pupils. I encouraged an in- 
quisitive spirit. I kept a record of tlieir inquiries, and answered them 
as best I could by the spur of mother-wit. These answers to practical 
inquiries, in the lecture-room and out of it, constituted the backbone of 
my instructions. I was dealing with young minds, with live minds, 
with minds wide awake to the exigencies of a noble profession. The 
collision of my mind with their minds, under such conditions, struck 
out almost all that I know of the department which it was my province 
to create and to expand. They asked, and I answered ; that is the whole 
story. I was a daily student with them. My mind was growing, in 
company with theirs." 

Thisisundoubtedly a just statement in the maiu, 
What it needs to be absolutely correct is an enlarge- 
ment of the obvious meaning of the phrase " by the 
spur of mother-wit." It was "mother- wit" rein- 
forced by the results of wide critical reading and se- 
vere self-criticism by a mind of acutely appreciative 
instincts and a marvelous power of appropriation. 

A life-work entered upon by such a man with such 
a spirit and in such a method, and prosecuted for 
more than thirty years, it is needless to say, was a 
great and successful work. The usefulness of it could 
hardly be over-stated. Never did more felicitous re- 
lations of instructor and pupil exist than were illus- 
trated in that lecture-room. Never were instructions 
more quickening, more sympathetic, more genially 
adapted to find out and to fetch out the best of which 
a pupil was capable. The courses of lectures always 
seemed to glow with the heat of recent thinking. 
They were wise, conscientious, scholarly, exhaustive 
discussions. 

The whole atmosphere of the class-room was pure 
and bracing. Many a minister looks back to his ex- 
perience there, as to the most quickening period of 
his education, quickening not only to his intellect 
and executive powers, but to his spiritual culture as 
well. 

An important factor of Professor Phelps' influence 



1642 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUiNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



as an instructor was his own power in the pulpit. 
The limits of this sketch forbid a description of tliis 
at length. It may be summed up in the single fact 
that, to his pupils his i)rcaching illustrated and em- 
I)hasized his homiletieal instructions. The ecclesias- 
tical records of those days indicate that on nearly a 
hundred occasions in his first fifteen years at Andover 
he wa.s called to preach in services of dedication, or- 
dination or installation. 

His literary work since he resigned his professor- 
ship cannot receive here any adequate discussion. 
In amount it is very large. It is the matured fruitage 
of the industry of his whole previous life. It belongs 
to the best thinking of his time. Of the aggregate 
influence of his professional labors it is impossible as 
yet to take the measure. Of one of his lesser books, 
the circulation has reached 150,000 copies. His tem- 
I)erament, and the naturally disheartening eflTsct of ill- 
health, led him to deplore the relinquishment of his 
chair as " the premature closing of a life's work." 
Eeally, however, his pastorate, his professorship and 
his life in retirement present to a juster estimate 
three periods of cumulative usefulness. His latter 
days must be recognized as the most fruitful of all. 

With the name of Andover is associated the fame 
of many eminent men. It has been the home of not 
a few of the first rank of able preachers and success- 
ful teachers. Among these Professor Phelps has 
taken his abiding-place in the history of the Ameri- 
can churches. 

Dr. Phelps married, first (September, 1842), Eliza- 
beth, the eldest daughter of Professor Moses Stuart. 
She was the author often volumes for use in Sunday- 
schools, which have reached an aggregate sale of be- 
tween two and three hundred thousand copies. She 
died in Boston, November, 1852, at the outset of what 
promised to be a brilliant literary career. 

Of this marriage were born: 1st. Elizabeth Stuart 
(August 31, 1844), who has become widely known as 
the author of "Gates Ajar" and twenty-six other 
works of fiction. 

2d. Moses Stuart (March 16, 1849), who, after 
graduating at Yale College, 18G9, served as tutor in 
that institution three years, and as Professor of Men- 
tal Philosophy in Middlebury College one year, and as 
professor of the same department in Smith College, 
Northampton, five years, till his death, in 1883. 

3d. Lawrence (August 22, 1852), graduated at 
Middlebury College, 1876, and is now pastor of the 
Congregational Church at Gardner, Mass. 

Professor Phelps married again, April, 1855, Mary, 
the third daughter of Professor Stuaru She died 
September, 1856. 

He married again, June, 1858, Mary A., the young- 
est daughter of Samuel Johnson, Esq., of Boston. Of 
this marriage have been born, — 1st, Francis Johnson, 
December 7, 1860; and 2d, Edward, April 18, 1S63, 
both of whom have recently finished their studies at 
Yale College. 



Of Dr. Phelps' published discourses the following ' 
deserve special mention, viz. : A Sermon before the i 
Pastoral Association of Massachusetts, in 1851 ; 
A Sermon befoie the General Association of Massa- 
chusetts, in 1853 ; A Sermon before the Conven- 
tion of 'Congregational Ministers of Massachusetts, 
in 1859; An Election Sermon before the Govern- , 
inent of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in ! 
1861 ; and several addresses before Collegiate and 
Theological Societies, 1848 to 1868. ] 

His published volumes are the following, viz. : i 



Dutch and the Italian languages. 



2. " Tbo New Birth,' 






regeneration 



[jubliehcd i 



3. '•Studies of the Old Testament," a collection of sermo 
and characteia in the Old Testament. 

4. *' Sabbath Hours," a small volume of religious essays. 

5. "The Solitude of Christ," meditations suggested by the i 
of the Lord's Supper. 

6. "The Sabbath Hymn Book," "The Sabbath Hymn and Tunc 
Book," 'The Sabbath Tune Book," "The Sabbath School Hymn and 
Tune Book," u series designed for public worship, constructed jointly 
with Rev. E. A. Park, D.D,, and Dr. Lowell Mason. Baptist editions of 
the same revised by Kev. Frauds Wayland, D.D. Sale about 200,000 

7. " Hymns and Choirs," essays on Hymnology, constructed jointly 
with Eev. E. A. Park, D.D , and Rev. Daniel Furber, D.D., of Newton, 

8. "The Theory of Preaching," a series of lectures ou Homiletics, de- 
livered in Andover Theological Seminary. 

9. " Men and Books," a second series of lectures on homiletics. 

10. "English Style in Public Discourse, witti special reference to the 
dialect of the Pulpit," a third series of homiletic lectures. 

11. "My Portfolio,'' a memorial of his father and other essays on 
topics of current interest. 

12. " My Study," a memorial of the founders of Ando ver Theological 
Seminary and other essays on topics of current interest. 

13. He has now in preparation a volume entitled " My Note Book ; 
or, Fragmentary Studies in Theology." 

Edwards A. Park, D.D., LL.D.,' Professor Emeri- 
tus of Andover Theological Seminary. 

[The following sketch has been compiled from sev- 
eral bibliographical narratives — particularly from the 
new "American Cyclopaedia," "Allibone"s Dictionary 
of Authors " and the supplement to the "Schaff-Her- 
zog Encyclopsedia."] 

Edwards A. Park, D.D., LL.D., was born in 
Providence, R. I., December 29, 1808. He is de- 
scended on the paternal side from Richard Park, one 
of the original settlers of Newton, Mass. (see Jack- 
son's " History of Newton "), and on the maternal side 
from Robert Ware, one of the original settlers of 
Dedham, Mass. (see the " Genealogy " of the Ware 
family). His father was Rev. Calvin Park, D.D. 
formerly professor in Brown University, afterward 
Congregational pastor in Stoughton, Mass. His 
mother was Abigail Ware, daughter of Capt. Na- 
thaniel Ware, of Wreutham (which was formerly 
part of Dedham, Mass.). The subject of this sketch 
was graduated at Brown University, 1826; at Ando- 
ver Theological Seminary, in 1831 ; pastor at Brain- 



■ Rev. Daniel L. Furber, Newton Centre, Mass. 




Llc^<—c^c^^i^O> uC^ . /oc^-^^ 



IBRARY I 1 

j 



ANDOVER. 



1643 



tree, Mass., 1831-33; Professor of Mental and Moral 
Philosophy at Amherst College, 1835-36 ; Professor 
of Sacred Rhetoric at Andover Theological Seminary, 
1836-47 ; Professor of Christian Theology at Ando- 
ver, 1847-81. He held a professorship at Andover 
forty-five years, and has had some connection with 
the seminary nearly fifty-five years. In the years 
1852-62 he devoted much time and labor to the 
plan of enlarging the endowments of the seminary, 
of creating new professorships, erecting new build- 
ings, improving the accommodations of the library, 
etc., etc. 

During the years 1842-43 he spent sixteen months 
in Switzerland, and at the Universities of Berlin and 
Halle, in Germany ; during 1862-63 he spent the 
larger part of sixteen months at Hanover and at 
the Universities of Marburg, Berlin and Halle, in 
Germany ; during 1869-70 he spent about sixteen 
months in Great Britain, Italy, Egypt, Palestine and 
Greece. 

Hebegan to write for the secular newspapers in 1826, 
and for the religious periodicals in 1828. Since that 
time he has written for the American Quarterly Reg- 
ister, the Spirit of the Pilgrims, American Quarterly 
Observer, American Biblical Repository, the Congrega- 
tional Quarterly, the Christian Review, the Dibliolheca 
Sacra, and for various cyclopaedias, theological and 
ecclesiastical dictionaries or histories. 

He has published sixteen or seventeen separate 
pam|)hlets; one, a Sermon at the Funeral ofEev. 
Charles B. Storrs, President of Western Reserve Col- 
lege (Boston, 1833) ; one, a Sermon at the Funeral of 
Prof Moses Stuart; one, a Sermon commemorative of 
Prof. B. B. Edwards; one, an Essay commemorative 
of Rev. Joseph S. Clark, D.D. ; one, a Sermon at the 
Funeral of Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D.D., of Braintree ; 
one, a Sermon at the Funeral of Rev. Samuel C. Jack- 
son, D.D. of Andover; one a Discourse commemorative 
of Dr. Leonard Woods, president of Bovvdoin College. 
Besides these biographical essays he has published 
four lengthened biographies, — one of Rev. William 
Bradford Homer, pp. 136, 12mo., first edition 1842, 
second edition 1848, with an introductory essay of 
forty-nine pages; one, of Prof. B. B. Edwards, D.D., 
pp. 370, 12mo., 1853 ; one, of Rev. Samuel Hopkins, 
D.D., pp. 264, 8vo., 1854; one, of Rev. Nathanael 
Emmons, D.D., pp. 468, 8vo., 1861. 

Some of his pamphlets have been repeatedly 
republished — as his sermon preached before the 
Legislature of Massachusetts in 1851, on the "Indebt- 
edness of the State to the Clergy." Some have 
started some controversy. One of these was his 
'■ Dudleian Lecture," delivered at Harvard College in 
1845, on the " Intellectual and Moral Influence of 
Romanism," pp. 37, 8vo. This was controverted in 
an elaborate review by Dr. Orestes A. Brownson, who 
had then recently joined the Catholic communion. 
The sermon delivered in 1850 before the convention 
of Congregational ministers of Massachusetts, on the 



"Theology of the Intellect and that of the Feelings," 
pp. 36, 8vo., called forth various replies. One of them 
was an essay published by Rev. Dr. Charles Hodge, 
of Princeton, New Jersey, and was soon followed by 
two essays from the same writer on the .same theme. 
To these three essays Professor Park responded in 
three separate pamphlets, all of them originally pub- 
lished in the Bibliotheca Sacra, as Professor Hodge's 
criticisms were first published in the Princeton Bib- 
lical Re[>ository. 

A large part of his work has been editorial. In 
connection with Prof. B. B. Edwards, in 1839, he 
edited and translated an octavo volume of 472 pages, 
entitled "Selections from German Literature." In 
1842 he edited the writings, to which he prefixed his 
memoir, of Rev. William Bradford Homer. In 1846 
he edited the " Preacher and Pastor," a collection of 
treatises on homiletics and the pastoral care, to which 
he prefixed an introductory essay of thirty-six pages. 
In 1859 he edited a collection of " Discourses and 
Treatises on the Atonement," to which he prefixed an 
introductory essay of eighty pages. He has also 
written introductory essays for several other volumes 
not edited by him. The last two of these essays are 
one of twenty-seven pages, prefixed to the volume on 
the "Life and Education of Laura Bridgman," the 
deaf, dumb and blind pupil of Dr. S. G. Howe ; and 
one essay of about the same length, prefixed to the 
"Autobiography of Rev. W. G. Schaufller, D.D." In 
connection with Professor Austin Phelps, D.D., and 
Dr. Lowell Mason, he compiled and edited the " Sab- 
bath Hymn Book." Between the years 1859 and 
1866, with the appendages of tunes for congregational 
worship, it reached a circulation of about 120,000. In 
relation to this hymn-book, he, with Drs. Austin 
Phelps and Daniel L. Furber, published a volume 
entitled " Hymns and Choirs." Of this work an essay 
of sixty-one pages, on the "Text of Hymns," was 
written by Prof Park. In 1844 Prof. Edwards and 
Prof. Park established the Bibliotheca Sacra on its 
new ])lau. Prof Edwards was editor-in-chief from 
1844 till 1851. Prof Park was editor-in-chief from 
1851 till 1884. Having been engaged forty years in 
the editorship of the work, and in the preparation of 
its forty volumes for the press, he has continued to 
interest himself in the work since it was removed 
from Andover to Oberlin. In 1883 he published a 
pamphlet containing ninety-eight pages, on the "As- 
sociate Creed of Andover Theological Seminary." 
His last publication was " Discourses on some Theo- 
logical Doctrines as related to Religious Character," 
1883, pp. 398, 8vo. 

For more than thirty years he has been president 
of the board of trustees of Abbot Academy at Ando- 
ver; by the the will of the founder he was appointed 
one of the original trustees of Smith College at 
Northampton ; since 1863 he has been a member of 
the Board of Fellows of Brown University. He has 
been elected a member of the Victoria Institute ii; 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



England, and of several historical societies in the 
United States. 



CHAPTER CXXXVIII. 



ANDOVER— ( Continued). 
MAXCFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

At quite an early period of its history the town 
held out substantial encouragement for the establish- 
ment of manufacturing industries within its borders. 
In 1673, by vote of the town, there were "granted to 
Edward Whittington and Walter Wright, five acres 
of land for encouragement of erecting a fulling-mill, 
which they promise to set about the next spring." 
In 1675 " liberty was granted a tanner that he shall 
be allowed by the town to make use of what bark is 
needful (or his works in town, provided he fell no 
trees that are fit for building or mill-timber." In 
1682 " liberty was granted to any man that the town 
or committee shall choose, to set up a saw-mill, full- 
ing mill and grist-mill upon Shawshin River, near 
Rogers Brook, to take up twenty acres of land adjoin- 
ing said place and to enjoy the same forever, with the 
privilege of a townsman." 

In 1688 " it was voted that the twenty acres of land 
shall be improved by Joseph and John Ballard and 
their heirs, so long as they shall keep up a grist-mill, 
fulling-mill, &c. In the same year it was voted to 
encourage setting up iron-works." 

In 1768 the town raised an influential committee 
" to consider of some measures that may tend to en- 
courage prudence and manufactures, and to lessen the 
use of superfluities." This committee, in their report, 
among other valuable recommendations, to further 
which the inhabitants of the town should use their 
utmost endeavors, mention this, "to promote and 
encourage manufactures in the town." 

In 1770, when taking action concerning the distress 
in the province growing out of the operation of the 
late act of Parliament, imposing duties on tea, paper, 
etc., the town votes to " encourage frugality, industry 
and the manufactures of this country." And again, 
in 1775, the town votes "to discountenance and dis- 
courage every species of extravagance and dissipa- 
tion," and " to encourage frugality, economy and 
industry, and to promote agriculture, arts and manu- 
factures." We thus find, continually, manufactures 
associated with the economic and moral virtues, as 
things which are to be distinctly and specifically en- 
couraged and promoted. 

Joseph and John Ballard are mentioned as having 
received grants of land, on the condition of building 
and keeping up grist and fulling mills, where is now 
Ballard Vale. Frye Village takes its name from Sam'l 
Frye, who, in 1718, built a saw and grist-mill at that 



place on the Shawshin River. A fulling-mill was 
added by a son of Mr. Frye. 

Not far from the spot where the mills of Hon. Moses 
T. Stevens are now located in Marland Village, the 
Lovejoys had iron works. The businejs of these mills 
was necessarily on a small scale, and not always profit- 
able to the owner. While on the Shawshin River 
there were, first and last, quite a number of small 
mills established, employing a few operatives, not 
till 1775 was there any very extensive or important 
manufacturing enterprise established in the town. 

In the winter of 1775-76 Mr. Phillips built a 
powder-mill on the Shawshin River, in what is now 
Marland Village. This mill, as has been previously 
mentioned, was erected to meet a pressing necessity 
of the Continental army, not as a business venture- 
It proved to be, however, not only of immediate 
service to the army and of immense importance to 
the country, but of large pecuniary profit to its owner. 
When it ceased to be a necessity to the army and 
countiy it was continued for a number of years as a 
strictly business enterprise; and this was not aban- 
doned till the year 1796. In October of that year an 
explosion took place, which killed two men and made 
havoc of the mill. 

Some few years previous to this, the demand for 
powder having slackened, Mr. Phillips had introduc- 
ed the manufacture of paper, for this purpose using 
the powder-mill, when there were no orders for 
powder. In 1789 he erected a paper mill. The as- 
sociate of Mr. Phillips in this business was Mr. 
Thomas Houghton, an Englishman, a practical 
paper manufacturer, who, having met with reverses 
in his own country, came here to retrieve his for- 
tunes. He was a devout Quaker, persistent, hope- 
ful, energetic and well-trained to his business. By 
agreement, as Mr. Houghton states it, " Mr. Phillips 
builds the mill and I am to manage the work. My 
care and management is to stand against the Rent 
and we are to share profits equally." The " building 
occupied as a paper-mill," as described by Mr. 
Phillips, was " thirty-six by thirty-two feet, with two 
vats upon the ground floor, which have a Cast Iron pot 
in each of them.sunk into Brick chimneys, for heating 
the vats. The first floor has two engines for beating- 
stuff, a room for dressing rags, with a brick chimney 
and fire-place, also two other rooms for rags. The 
second floor is occupied for a Rag ware-house. 

"Another building connected to the mill by a cov- 
ered passage way of 20 feet long, used for drying and 
keeping paper before finished, 20 by 24 feet, at the 
end next the mill ; a part of the drying-house is 
taken oft' for a finishing room, 27 by 24 feet, in which 
is a cast-iron stove used in the winter season. At one 
side of the finishing-room is a sizing copper, set with 
bricks and brick chimney. Another building, oo 
feet from the mill, that is 24 feet by 20, for Rags and 
finished paper. Another building, 131 feet from the 
mill, 20 by 13 feet, for Rope and other lumber. Xo 



ANDOVER. 



1645 



other building near on the same side of the river. A 
Grist Mill upon the opposite side of the river, at 
about 140 feet distance." 

This may seem to us insignificant as compared with 
the more numerous and much more extensive build- 
ings and appurtenances of the mills owned by Mr. 
Stevens, now occupying the same site, but, in these 
days of beginnings in manufacturing, this was an ex- 
tensive plant and worthy of minute description. As 
a new enterprise, competing with others in the neigh- 
borhood of like character, with a scarcity of material 
and with untrained workmen, its success at first was 
not up to the expectations of its projectors. In 
time, however, when experience had brought skill to 
the workmen, and the rag-bag material to the mill, 
and the market had enlarged, the business became 
jirofitable. 

Mr. Houghton, after an experience that tested his 
faith and strength of character, emerged from his im- 
poverished cofidition to one of comparative ease. 
His son succeeded him. Colonel Samuel Phillips 
succeeded his father in the ownership. On the death 
of Colonel Phillips, in 1820, the property changed 
hands. Messrs. Amos and Abel Blanchard and 
Daniel Poor carried on the business. The financial 
results not proving satisfactory, the manufacture of 
paper was abandoned after a few years, and the 
property fell into the hands of Mr. Peter C. Brooks, 
and ultimately into the possession of the Marland 
Manufacturing Company. 

This company came into existence through the 
perseverance, energy and ability of one man — Mr. 
Abraham Marland. 

Me. Marland was born in Ashton Parish, Lan- 
cashire, England, February 22, 1772. His father, 
Jonathan Marland, was a millwright and afterwards 
a linen-weaver. Losing his mother at the early age of 
four years, he was taken into the family of a maternal 
uncle. For three years he enjoyed the privilege of 
attending a school where the younger children, of 
whom he was one, learned to read the New Testa- 
ment, and little else. At less than eight years of age 
he was put into the woolen-mill of his uncle, where, 
by practice for seven years, he learned the business 
of weaving. On the death of his uncle, preferring to 
rely upon his own eflbrts for a living, rather than re- 
turn to the house of his father, who had married 
again, he entered the service of another woolen man- 
ufecturer, earning here three shillings a week above 
his board, and thinking himself quite well oft' at that. 

It was while in this place that he sought and ob- 
tained confirmation in the Established Church of 
England, for which he ever after had a strong predi- 
lection and warm aflFection. He continued in the 
same employment for two years, acquiring a good 
knowledge of the business, and a reputation for fru- 
gality, ingenuity, persistency and application. 

In 1790 he was chosen to take charge of carding 
and spinning in a new mill in Shrewsbury, at a sal- 



ary of a guinea a week. His success was such that his 
compensation was soon raised. He continued here for 
two years, when, by some misfortune of the owners, the 
enterprise failed and was closed up. Not finding conge- 
nial employment in that vicinity, young Marland next 
went to London, seeking his fortune. Here for a 
time he found employment in a flannel-mill at low 
wages. Becoming restless, he was induced by certain 
allurements to enlist in the service of the East India 
Company. But while on shipboard, waiting the day 
of sailing, he became disgusted by his taste of subor- 
dination and the prospect before him. Unceremo- 
niously, without bidding good-bye to any one, on the 
night previous to the sailing of the ship, he slipped 
from her deck, boarded a small boat, landed on the 
wharf, and put a long distance between the vessel and 
himself before the morning dawned. After much 
waiting and destitution, he found employment in the 
ware-house of a firm of linen drapers and cotton man- 
ufiacturers. He soon after went to Leeds, where he 
engaged in the manufacturing business, first as an 
employe, and afterwards on his own account with a 
partner, and then again as a manager of a manufac- 
tory owned by Mr. John Wood. Here Mr. Marland 
married, his wife bringing a dowry of two hundred 
pounds. 

In 1801, investing his savings and the property of 
his wife in woolen cloths, he embarked for America 
with his family, landing in Boston September 17th. 

It ought not to be passed over, in this connection, 
that the cloth Mr. Marland brought with him to this 
country was placed in the hands of a merchant in Bos- 
ton for sale. Before any returns were made, the mer- 
chant failed, and Mr. Marland lost nearly the whole 
of his venture, which represented his own savings 
and the dowry of his wife. This heavy loss, instead 
of depressing the new immigrants, only gave steadi- 
ness to their courage and vigor to their efforts. He 
is reported to have said that, on starting in this coun- 
try, he had but one hundred dollars in his pocket. 
The success of Mr. Marland has been attributed, in 
part, to his admirable wife. She was distinguished 
for her courage, industry, frugality, helpfulness, good 
management of family affairs and religious character. 
She gave aid and comfort to her husband under all 
circumstances, and was especially help.*ul in times of 
disaster or discouragement. 

Soon after landing in Boston, Mr. Marland went to 
Beverly, and entered the employment of Colonel 
Burnham, a superintendent in cotton-spinning and 
in the manufacture and runniug of factory machinery. 
His compensation, esteemed by him, at the time, 
large, was seven shillings a day. After two years he 
removed to Lynnfield, where he engaged in the man- 
ufacture of wick-yarn on his own account ; to this was 
soon added custom carding of wool for the farmers. 
In all this business Mr. Marland succeeded beyond 
his expectations. As his business increased he was 
embarrassed for want of power, and, to remedy this 



164G 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



want, removed to Aiidover iu 1807. Here he at first 
established himself in Abbot Village, engaging in the 
manufacture of cotton, the yarn being spun in his 
factory and woven into cloth by hand, by women 
living in the neighborhood. This was a day of small 
things, demanding economy, industry and energy. 

The business of manufacturing cotton being injuri- 
ous to his health, on account of the dust arising from 
it, Mr. Marland turned his attention to woolen manu- 
facturing — the employment of his youth. 

In 1820 the mill privilege and property formerly 
belonging to Judge Phillips came into the possession 
of Mr. Peter C. Brooks, a wealthy merchant of Bos- 
ton. 

Mr. Marland, desirous of enlarging his business, 
entered into negotiations with Mr. Brooks, which re- 
sulted in his leasing the property for a term of twenty 
years. By the terms of this lease Mr. Brooks was 
to erect a new brick mill and a large tenement block, 
and to receive nine per cent, on the entire property. 

After eight years the business had been so profita- 
ble, and was so well established and extended, that 
Mr. Marland was prepared to purchase the entire plant 
— buildings, machinery, laud and power. This he did 
for $22,000. The year after, he built a new mill, 
larger than the one standing, and at that time es- 
teemed a very large structure. 

The business still increased in profitableness as it 
increased in extent, aud in 1834 Mr. Marland took 
his two eldest sous and Mr. Punchard, his son-in-law, 
into partnership, they forming a stock company 
and obtaining from the Legislature an act of 
incorporation as "The Marland Manufacturing 
Company." The elder of the two sons, John 
Marland, receiving a flattering offer, went to New 
Zealand the next year to purchase wool for a Boston 
company. On his return, the following year, he and 
his brother William withdrew their interest in the 
Marland Company, and started a manufacturing 
enterprise, in connection with others, at Ballard Vale. 
Mr. Abraham Marland and Mr. Benjamin H. Pun- 
chard remained, and, from this time till the death of 
Mr. Marland, February 20, 1849, were practically the 
owners of the property. Mr. Punchard followed his 
father-in-law a little more than a year later, dying 
April 4, 1850. Up to this time the business had been 
remarkably remunerative, paying a dividend of 
twenty-five per cent., year after year, for many succes- 
sive years. These manufacturers, as has been men- 
tioned in another place, made a liberal disposition of 
their large profits, by which disposition their renown 
and usefulness are perpetuated, and will continue to 
be perpetuated through all coming generations. 

After the decease of Messrs. Marland and Punchard 
the mills were operated by the heirs of these gentle- 
men and the other stock-holders, who had from time 
to time obtained an interest in the property. Mr. 
Nathan Frye was chosen president and manager of 
the company, and continued such for nearly thirty 



years. Mr. Frye was highly esteemed by his fellow- 
citizens and business associates for bis courtesy, integ- 
rity and public spirit. For a time under his manage- 
ment the mills prospered, but, in a season of finan- 
cial 'embarrassment, they suffered losses, were finan- 
cially crippled, and finally the company was obliged 
to sell out and wind up its affairs. 

Hon. Moses T. Stevens, of North Andover, became 
the purchaser of the property in 1879. JFr. Stevens, 
the son of one of the earliest manufacturers of the 
undivided town, himself an experienced, extensive 
and succe.ssful manufacturer of woolen goods, has re- 
paired and refurnished the old mills, built new ones 
and furnished them with the best styles of machinery, 
repaired the old tenement-houses and erected others, 
thus putting the whole property into first-elass condi- . 
tion. For the last eight years these mills have been 
in successful operation, the class of help employed 
has been improved, and the whole aspect of Marland 
Village has been greatly changed for tSe better. 

Mr. John Smith was born in Brechin, Forfarshire, 
Scotland, May 19, 1790, an ancient city, noted not so 
much on account of the number of its inhabitants, or 
the extent of its commercial or manufacturing enter- 
prises as for its antiquity , and that it has been a cathedral 
town since 1150, when it was created an Episcopal See 
by David I. then King of Scotland. John's father, whose 
name was Peter, was a carpenter by occupation. John 
was the second of five children. His father died in 
1809, when he was a little over thirteen years old, leav- 
ing to his mother the support of two children younger 
than himself. The circumstances of his father were 
such that, from the age of niue years, John had been 
placed at work on a farm in the neighborhood of his 
home during the summer to assist in the support of 
the family, while during the winter he was permitted 
to remain at home and attend school. On the death 
of his father he was apprenticed to learn the trade of 
a millwright, which at that time included work on 
both wood and iron. It embraced not only the con- 
struction of water-wheels, with their frame-work and 
appurtenances, but, in addition, the machines to be 
used in the various departments of manufacturing. 
This profitable apprenticeship he served faithfully, 
and thus qualified himself to become a master mill- 
wright. 

When thus fitted for active life he went to Glas- 
gow seeking employment. As he was moneyless, he 
performed the journey of a hundred miles on foot. 
He remained in the city for a year and a half, in 
which time he familiarized himself to a certain ex- 
tent with the construction aud operation of machinery 
as it was conducted in this great centre of the textile 
industries of Scotland. But desirable situations in 
his business were not easily obtained. The supply of 
competent young men was greater than the demand. 
The young mechanics of the city became infected 
with a desire to emigrate to America, where it was 
represented that wider fields and better opportunities 



ANDOVER. 



1647 



awaited capable and enterprising workmen. Mr. 
Smith, being of a sanguine temperament, and of a 
courageous spirit, shared in this adventurous desire. 

So it came to pass that he left Greenock, August 24, 
1816, for America, and landed in Halifax after a 
tedious voyage of sixty days, in which the vessel 
narrowly escaped being wrecked. He obtained work 
here for a short time as house carpenter. After a 
little observation, he became persuaded that in 
Halifax his dreams of prosperity in a new country 
could never be realized, and hence, after a stay of less 
than two months, he sailed for Boston, where he 
landed after a voyage of six days. There he learned 
that there was- a cotton factory in Watertown, to 
which he made his way, seeking employment. The 
mill he sought he found two miles beyond, in Wal- 
tham. Mr. Paul Moody, the master machinist of this 
mill, which was that of the Boston Manufacturing 
Company, was glad to seethe young Scotchman fresh 
from the works of Glasgow, those headquarters of 
manufacturing industries. 

It was a fortunate circumstance for Mr. Smith that 
Mr. Moody was at that time anxious to learn 
about the latest improvements in cotton machinery 
abroad, and the methods adopted for combining the 
spinning of the yarn and the weaving of the cloth. It 
so happened that Mr. Smith, in his short stop in Glas- 
gow, had been employed in a factory that united all 
the processes of the manufacture, from picking 
the cotton to linishing the cloth — a practice than 
unknown in this country. Mr. Moody, eager to obtain 
the information the young workman was able to im- 
part, took him through his factory, showing him all 
his machinery and its working, at the same time re- 
vealing his hindrances and desires. The result was 
that Mr. Smith entered at once into the service of the 
company, a very auspicious beginning for a stranger 
in a strange land, with no introduction but his 
honest face and the knowledge he carried in his 
brai n. 

Mr. Smith continued in the service of this company 
for a little over two years and six months, when he 
started on a trip to the South, partly to see the coun- 
try, but more especially to find a suitable place to 
locate himself in business. He was not satisfied 
to be an employe, however advantageous the situa- 
tion might be. He was ambitious to start up a business 
on his own account, and take the risks and profits. 
By easy stages, stopping here and there, for a longer 
or shorter time, he reached Augusta, Ga., where 
he found a friend and fellow-workman at Waltham 
established as a machinist. Here he remained till 
July of the next year. After a careful observation of 
the condition of things at the South, its climate, its 
peculiar institutions, its social relations, its business 
methods, he become more and more disinclined to 
make his home in that section of the country. 
Having satisfied himself, he returned to Waltham. 
Here he learned that four of his fellow- workmen in 



Waltham had established themselves in Medway as 
manufacturers of cotton machinery. He entered 
into employment with them, where he continued for 
some twenty months, continually on the lookout for 
some opening for starting up a business of his own. 

At length the time and opportunity came. In the 
spring of 1822 he and two of his fellow-workmen, 
Joseph Faulkner and Warren Richardson, entered 
into a partnership, under the name of "John Smith 
and Company," for the manufacture of machinery. 
After a careful examination of places for a location, 
extending as far asPaterson, N. J., and Philadelphia, 
Pa., they finally fixed upon Plymouth, Mass., induced 
thereto partly by the promise of a profitable contract 
for the building of the machinery of a cotton-mill 
situated about three miles from the village of 
Plymouth. Their stay here, however, was short, — 
some two and a half years. 

Messrs. Faulkner and Richardson were natives of 
Andover. This, together with the fact that Andover, 
Mass., was better located with regard to the factories 
from which they might look for work, and the further 
fact that they might obtain from the Shawshin River 
abundant power for all their need, decided them to 
remove their enterprise to Andover. They purchased 
the mill privilege in Frye Village, now occupied by 
the lower mills of the Smitli & Dove Manufacturing 
Company, and at once built a machine-shop, which 
is the building now standing on the east side of the 
Shawshin. The shop was seventy-two feet long by 
thirty-seven feet wide, and three stories above the 
basement. Business flowed in to the company from 
the start. Profitable contracts came from Newmar- 
ket, Lowell and other parts of New Hampshire and 
Eastern Massachusetts. The amount of business de- 
veloped during the first five years may be estimated 
from the fact that, at the end of that period, they em- 
ployed thirty men. They started in Andover in 
1824. Five years later Mr. Richardson died. Two 
years afterthe death of Mr. Richardson, Mr. Faulkner 
died, leaving Mr. Smith the sole survivor of the firm. 
He purchased the interests of his deceased partners, 
and assumed the responsibility of the entire business, 
placing his brother Peter, who had been in the em- 
ploy of the company for nine years, in charge as su- 
perintendent. 

Previous to this, in the summer of 1829, Mr. John 
Smith had commissioned his brother Peter to go to 
Scotland (his expenses being paid, and his family 
supported in the mean time) to bring over Miss 
Agnes Ferguson, of Glasgow, his betrothed. This 
young lady Mr. Smith had known and tenderly re- 
garded when, twelve years before, he lived in Glas- 
gow, but his circumstances then forbade any mention 
of marriage. In 1828, on a visit to Scotland, he had 
renewed the acquaintance, which, before many 
months, had resulted in a betrothal. Mr. Peter Smith 
successfully executed his important commission, and 
the young lady was safely landed in Boston on the 



1648 



HISTOllY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1st day of August, 1829, and soon after thu marriage 
took place. This lady died December 30, 1851. 

On March 5, ISGO, Mr. Smith married Miss Sarah 
Gleason, who survives him. 

In 1835 Mr. John Smith joined his brother Peter 
and Mr. Dove in the new undertaking of fla.x-spin- 
ning, and after that he gradually drew out of the 
machine-making business till it was wholly given up. 
It had been very lucrative, and Mr. Smith had ac- 
<iuired a handsome property, which was used to good 
advantage in carrying on the fla.\-spinning enter- 
prise. 

As to the personal characteristics of Mr. Smith, no 
better, more discriminating, more just delineation can 
be given than that we have from the pen of Rev. 
William B. Brown, D.D., of Orange, N. J., who for 
some years was Mr. Smith's pastor and for thirty 
years on terms of friendly intimacy with him. Mr. 
Brown writes: "Mr. Smith's friends have never 
claimed for him that he was, in the ordinary sense, 
an educated man ; yet, if education consists in thor- 
ough mental discipline, as it does largely, then he 
was highly educated. But few men have attained to 
his power of concentrating their thoughts upon a 
given subject. 

" Nor has John Smith been known as a public 
speaker ; yet in the many little addresses he has 
made, especially on social occasions, he has spoken 
with a directness, an earnestness and power that has 
thrilled many a heart. He always strikes the central 
thought in his first sentence. His remarks are brief, 
but pointed and to the purpose. I remember one of 
his speeches that was characterized as ' common sense 
on fire.' 

" Nor has Mr. Smith ever aspired to civil office, yet, 
by his life and deeds, he has done more to make 
public sentiment and to mould society than have 
most men who hold high political stations and live in 
the public gaze. 

" One of the leading characteristics of Mr. Smith 
was his unfaltering integrity. Rectitude was a part of 
his nature — duty to God and man his supreme law. 
He could not take a mean advantage or do a mean 
thing. He could never look upon injustice or any 
kind of evil-doing with toleration. His love of recti- 
tude made him, in early life and ever after, a 
reformer. He denounced slavery and took part with 
the fleeing fugitive when it cost something so to do. 
From the first he took strong and advanced ground 
on the temperance question, and made studied and 
effective speeches in favor of total abstinence that 
would be profitable reading at this day. But the 
point I make is, that Mr. Smith's position as a re- 
former followed as naturally from his integrity of 
character as does effect from cause. Being what he 
was, he could not do otherwise than as he did. 

" Considered as a business man, in which capacity 
Mr. Smith's success was most remarkable, I should 
say that unusual business sagacity and other qualities 



to match were at the foundation. He had a genius 
for business. He could see openings before others 
had dreamed of them. While young, his resources 
of brain were equal to any emergency. Whatever he 
touched turned to gold. This was not the result of 
chance or good fortune, but of quick business sagacity. 
He knew how to take the tide at its flood, while others 
waited till the tide began to ebb. The co-operating 
qualities of his character were courage, energy, perse- 
verance and common sense. With sagacity to per- 
ceive and common sense to plan, he had courage to 
enter the lists, and patience and perseverance, accom- 
panied by rich resources, to secure victory. 

"Mr. Smith was a conscientious and benevolent 
man, as his many and large contributions to educa- 
tional and other beneficent objects abundantly wit- 
ness. He gave on principle, not from impulse. Con- 
stituted as he was by nature and beginning life as he 
did, men are not likely to be generous, and Mr. Smith 
might not have been, save for his religious principles. 
He regarded himself as the Lord's steward, and that, 
having received much, of him would much be re- 
quired. Thus he brought religion into his business, 
and made business a part of his religion. His giving 
was under the lead of conscience, not of fancy, nor 
the result of importunity, not at all out of regard for 
popularity or posthumous fame. He was modest by 
nature and shrank from vulgar notoriety. His largest 
gifts were resolved upon in the quiet of his own 
chamber, alone with his God. 

" Socially, Mr. Smith was always open, free and 
genial. He was subject to dyspepsia, and at times to 
depression from the effects of over-work. But this 
was sickness and foreign from his nature. When 
well he was uniformly cheerful and companionable. 
When engrossed in business he was taciturn, hut 
when the hours of business had passed he was ready 
for a lively chat and a cordial greeting. 

" In religion, Mr. Smith was worthy the imitation of 
business Christians. He never let his business, how- 
ever pressing, stand in the way of his religious duties. 
In his attitude toward God he had the reverence, 
trust and affection of a little child. What God would 
have him do, he esteemed a privilege more than a 
dudy to do. His life was for the most part passed in 
the sunshine of the Heavenly Father's countenance- 
but when His face was for a time hidden by the dark 
clouds of bereavement or despondency, his fiiith did 
not fail him — he had songs in the night." 

The last ten years of his life were years of declin- 
ing strength, and withdrawal from the cares of the 
world and the society of his fellow-men. He greatly 
missed his old associates in business, but, for the most 
part, was cheerful and happy, calmly awaiting the 
summons that .should call him to his Father's house. 
That summons came February 25, 1886. He was 
aged eighty-nine years, nine months and six days. 

A most charming, </ie most charming, feature in the 
character of Mr. Smith, not referred to by Mr. Brown, 



THE NEW YORK] 

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THE Ni 



ANDOVER. 



1649 



which ought not to be overlooked, was seen in his 
filial, almost religious, devotion to his mother. As 
a lad, his slender earnings were sacredly hoarded, 
and placed in the hands of his mother for the family 
support. When grown to manhood and in a foreign 
land, his thoughts continually went back to the hum- 
ble home in Brechin, where the loving mother toiled 
at spinning, and loving epistles frequently followed 
these thoughts to cheer the lonely woman. And 
when the fruits of his industry began to come in, a 
liberal share of these fruits found their way, month 
by month, across the ocean to cheer that mother's 
heart in her desolate home. No sooner had he made 
for himself a home in the New World than he sent for 
the beloved mother, and from the day of her arrival 
to the day of her departure hence, gave to her the 
best the house afforded, thus making her last days as 
peaceful and comfortable as her early days had been 
troublesome and pinching. Perchance, however, he 
may have been, instinctively, but paying a debt of 
nature; since to her mainly, by heredity, he was doubt- 
less indebted for the energy, courage and faith which 
carried him on to wealth and eminence.' 

Mr. Petee Smith was born in Brechin, Forfar- 
shire, Scotland, September 21, 1802. He was the 
fourth of five children, and. bore the name of his 
father, who was a carpenter by trade. When eight 
years of age his father died, which left the mother in 
charge of the children, and in straitened circum- 
stances. The oldest son was her only assistance in 
providing for the support of the family. Her means 
of earning a livelihood was the spinning-wheel, which 
she plied with great diligence. The year after ihe 
death of his father the lad went to work for a farmer 
during the harvest season, and from this time onward 
till' his fifteenth year was engaged for brief periods 
in different employments as he could obtain them, 
courageously striving to support himself and assist 
his mother in her arduous task. He passed through 
not a few trying circumstances and scenes which tested 
his powers of endurance and perseverance. When 
fourteen years of age, he took it into his head to go to 
Glasgow, where his brotlier James worked, in pursuit 
of employment. This city was more than one hun- 
dred miles from Brechin. Over this distance, on foot 
and alone, drenched by rain and benumbed by snow, 
with money sufficient only for one night's entertain- 
ment at a public-house, he boldly plodded his way to his 
destination. Too proud to beg for food, and too desti- 
tute to purchase it, he depended upon the pity and 
kindness of the good people whose doors necessity 
compelled him to enter for shelter and nourishment. 
In reviewing this episode in his life, he writes : " It 
was only by perseverance and the kind providence of 
my Heavenly Father that I ever got there." 



1 The engraving of Mr. John Smith was made from a photograph 
takea when he was eighty-nine years and eight months old, and in com- 
paratively good health, and only about four months before he died. 

104 



He spent a year in work as a weaver in Glasgow, 
where he attended an evening school for a time, mide 
the acquaintance of a "good Christian man," who, 
possessing a fine library, encouraged him in reading 
profitable books. This "good Christian" took a very 
lively interest in the plucky boy, and suggested to his 
brother James that weaving was not the employment' 
for which he was best adapted. This suggestion was 
heeded and led to his attaining, through the influence 
of a maternal uncle, a situation as apprentice to a 
wheelwright in Kerrimuir. His return to Brechin 
was on foot, as had been his departure, but not with- 
out money sufficient for food and lodging. Having 
made a short visit to his mother, he proceeded to his 
destination, and served an apprenticeship of four 
years to the trade of a wheelwright. The first two of 
these years were uneventful. During the third his 
attention was specially called to the subject of per- 
sonal religion. As a boy, he had been trained by his 
mother in the Catechism, to forms of worship and to 
respect and value religion. But at this time, as never 
before, he was brought to see the importance of per- 
sonal piety, and to seek acceptance with God through 
repentance and faith in Jesus Christ. In this spiritual 
awakening his moral and intellectual faculties receiv- 
ed a marked development. The realities of the present 
life, its responsibilities and possibilities, and the 
realities of the life to come, as set forth in the Scrip- 
ures, took such hold upon his mind and heart as not 
only to create him anew in the purposes and desires 
he cherished, but also served to awaken and enlarge 
his mental powers. He says of himself at this time, 
" The Lord led me in a wonderful way to seek salva- 
tion and to make a personal application of the truth 
of His Word." The wheelwright's apprentice, with 
no schooling, sprang at once into the oflice of teacher. 
Overcoming his natural diffidence and the defects of 
his education, he took part in the social and prayer- 
meetings of the place, was a teacher in the Sabbath- 
school, and, on invitation, addressed large audiences 
in neighboring places with acceptance and effect. 

Having faithfully served his apprenticeship, on 
coming to the age of twenty years he began to look 
about for the place of his life's work. From early 
youth his cherished desire had been to make his 
home in America. His brother John had already 
established himself here. With him he communi- 
cated, making known his wishes. This resulted in 
his receiving an invitation from his brother to come 
to him. He embarked at Liverpool for this country 
August 1, 1822, without a penny in his pocket. He 
landed in Boston, where he was to meet his brother, 
on September 3d of the same year, with one cent in 
his pocket, which he had received as a gift from one 
of the passengers. His brother was not in the city 
to receive him. The solitary cent was spent for a 
drink of ginger beer, and then the penniless young 
man went out into the great city to await his fate. 
He was directed to a hotel kept by Scotch people, 



1650 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MAvSSACHUSETTS. 



where he received a cordial welcome. His own words 
best describe this reception. It was at the Burns 
Tavern, kept by a Mr. Nicholson and wife. " I sup- 
pose that all the Scotchmen that were then about 
Boston called to see me and get the news from Scot- 
land. I was feasted as if I were some great charac- 
ter. In the midst of it all I began to think there 
was too much whiskey used. I often look back with 
tliankfulness to God that I was preserved from the 
temptation of drink, which was freely offered to me. 
I was then in my twentieth year, and, with the ex- 
citement of landing on a foreign shore, I was in a 
condition to become an easy prey to the temptation 
of strong drink; but, thanks be to God, I was savedl" 
In a short time bis brother John came on, and a most 
hearty greeting was exchanged between the brothers. 

Mr. John Smith was established in business at 
Plymouth, and thither they proceeded. Peter en- 
tered the employment of the company of which his 
brother was the head at eight dollars a month, 
" board and washing included." He had not been 
here many months before he found himself in the 
midst of a religious awakening, similar to that in 
which he had received such marked benefit while an 
apprentice. His spiritual nature had become some- 
what sluggish and cold, but soon felt the old flame 
rekindled, and his whole being revived and replen- 
ished by the love of God. Again he resumed the 
duties of a Sabbath-school instructor and became a 
participant in social prayer-meetings. His labors in 
these regards were well received and productive of 
good. With such felicity, earnestness and success 
did he address assemblies of people, that he was 
urged by the good Christians of the place to study 
for the ministry and devote his life to preaching the 
Gospel. His brother John, though not at that time 
a professing Christian, offered to furnish him with 
the money necessary to obtain a collegiate and min- 
isterial education. This was a matter for the most 
serious consideration. An entire change in the plan 
and labor of life was proposed. After long, painful, 
prayerful deliberation he came to the conclusion that 
the ministry was not the calling for which he was 
best fitted. He never regretted his decision on this 
momentous question. 

August 24, 1824, at the age of twenty-two, he mar- 
ried Miss Rebecca Bartlett, of Plymouth, with whom 
he lived for nine years in the enjoyment of the truest 
conjugal trust and affection, when she was taken from 
him by death, leaving five children, the youngest of 
whom was but a day old. 

In 1825 the firm of " John Smith & Co., machin- 
ists," removed to Andover, where better facilities 
were offered for conducting their business. Mr. 
Peter Smith, being in the employment of this com- 
pany, came with them to Andover. Here he was 
noon recognized as an earnest Christian man, active 
and zealous in every good word and work. He uni- 
ted with the South Church, afterwards with the West 



Church. With regard to his Christian work at this 
time, he says, '" I was often called upon to take part 
in the prayer-meetings. I was very timid at first, 
but, as 1 became more acquainted with the brethren 
and sisters of the church, I gathered more courage, 
and felt that they would overlook any imperfections 
in my speech, if my daily life was 'such as becomsth 
the Gospel of Christ.' " He was also quite interested 
and active in reform measures — temperance and anti- 
slavery. His chief pleasure, aside from* that con- 
nected with his family, was derived from his religious 
privileges and activities, and throughout his life 
of constant engagement in business affairs the Sab- 
bath and the prayer-meeting were ever the source 
to him of the most serene and satisfying enjoyment. 

Two years after the death of his first wife he mar- 
ried Miss Esther H. Ward, June 5, 1835. She still 
survives him, in a good old age, having been the 
mother of seven children, four of whom are living. 
Dea. Peter Smith had twelve children, four of whom 
died before him. The death of these children was a 
severe affliction, but his faith in the loving-kindness 
of his Heavenly Father and the Christian faith and 
character of these departed dear ones served greatly 
to assuage his grief. 

Soon after the coming of Mr. Dove to Andover, in 
the employment of John Smith & Co., Mr. Peter 
Smith and Mr. Dove entered into partnership for the 
manufacture of chalk lines from cotton. This was to 
be done with a machine invented by Mr. Dove. Mr. 
Smith proposed to furnish five hundred dollars to pay 
for the material, and to support Mr. Dove's family 
while he should be engaged in constructing the ma- 
chine; Mr. Smith meanwhile retaining charge of his 
brother's shop until there should be a good prospect 
of success in this new enterprise. The profits of both 
the business and the patent for the machine were to 
be divided equally. However, before the enterprise 
had made much headway, Mr. John Smith, having 
satisfied himself that ihe business would be a success, 
made an offer to join the two younger men in his em- 
ploy, in this new venture. This offer was gladly ac- 
cepted, being regarded by the younger brother as 
most timely, as the elder had the means for starting a 
new enterprise. 

When thus constituted, the firm took the name of 
" Smith, Dove & Company." The name was after- 
wards changed to " The Smith and Dove Manufactur- 
ing Company," and it has continued doing business 
under this name to the present time, though all the 
original proprietors have passed away. 

At first this company manufactured machine twine 
from cotton yarn. In 1886 they commenced the 
manufacture of yarn from flax. It is in this flax 
manufacture that they have achieved such signal 
success. The patterns for the flax machinery were 
brought from the flax-spinning district of Scotland 
by Mr. Dove, who visited his native country for the 
purpose of obtaining them. The first invoice of shoe 



thread made by this company was carried to Boston 
by Mr. Peter Smith, in a bundle weighing thirteen 
pounds, on a stage-coach. The manufacturer fuund 
great difficulty in disposing of his goods, and not 
till he became much discouraged by several unsuc- 
cessful attempts was he able to effect a sale. 

Dea. Smith, or Dea. Peter, as he was familiarly 
called, to distinguish him from his brother John, was 
not confined in his active labors to the exacting bus- 
iness in which he was engaged. He was a director in 
several b.anking and railroad corporations; a corpo- 
rate member of the American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions ; trustee of Phillips Academy 
and the Theological Seminary ; trustee, and for some 
time president of the board of Abbot Academy; 
superintendent of the West Parish Sunday-school, and 
deacon of the church for a long series of years ; mem- 
ber of the State Legislature for two years, and deeply 
interested in all public matters affecting the welfare 
of the town. When the War of the Rebellion broke 
out, he was intensely interested on the side of the 
country, promoting enlistment by speech and liberal 
contributions, sending his sons into the army, and 
giving pecuniary assistance to the government by the 
purchase of its securities. He was a Christian patriot 
and philanthropist. The unity of the States and the 
freedom of the slave moved his soul to its depths. 
In this warm devotion to his adopted country he did 
not forget the place of his nativity and his fellow- 
countrymen. He gave liberally to establish free 
schools in Brechin, and was a most generous sup- 
porter and member of the Scots Charitable Society, of 
Boston. 

As a husband and father, son and brother, he was 
an example worthy of imitation. His especial delight 
was at his own hearth-stone, with his numerous fam- 
ily around him. His great anxiety for his children 
ever was that they might become the disciples of 
Christ, and so spend their lives as to glorify their 
Creator, that they might enjoy Him forever. In his 
business relations he was just, fair, honest, diligent 
and above suspicion. He was generous, kind-hearted, 
and on principle, a promoter of religious and philan- 
thropic enterprises. He was diligent in business, 
" fervent in spirit, serving the Lord."' He was econom- 
ical, careful in details and wise in the disbursement 
of charity. He was modest ; reticent as to himself, 
shunning rather than courting notoriety or conspic- 
uous position. 

But Deacon Smith had his limitations and defects. 
He was human. It may with justice be said, how- 
ever, that his many and wide-spreading excellencies 
of life and character would cover a multitude of blem- 
ishes, did they exist. " He was a man into the four cor- 
ners of whose house there had shined, through the years 
of his pilgrimage, the light of the glory of God.'' In the 
dawning light of July 6, 1880, at the age of nearly 
seventy-eight, with a mind unclouded, with a heart 
still warm with tenderest love, his ransomed spirit 



VER. 1651 

gently, peacefully, sweetly sank to rest on the bosom 
of his Lord. 

Mr. John Dove was born in Brechin, Forfiirshire, 
Scotland, May 5, 1805. In early life his opportuni- 
ties for education, while limited, were somewhat su- 
perior to those enjoyed by his townsmen with whom 
he was afterwards associated in business. He was a 
schoolmate and playmate of the celebrated astronomer. 
Professor Nichol, and the no less celebrated preacher. 
Dr. Guthrie. He was not, however, distinguished for 
his studiousness and proficiency in school studies 
at this early day. He preferred to spend his time in 
getting up some mechanical contrivance for his own 
amusement and that of his associates. The bent of his 
mind was decidedly towards mechanics. On leaving 
school he followed this natural bent and was appren- 
ticed to a machinist. There he was systematically 
and carefully trained, according to the custom of that 
day and country, in all the details of the craft. On 
leaving the shop of his master he was a thorough 
workman, qualified to engage in the business on his 
own account. 

But remunerative employment was difficult to ob- 
tain in Scotland. He married, and, when twenty- 
eight years of age, finding it far from an easy task to 
support a family from the proceeds of his labor, he 
began seriously to meditate trying his fortune in a 
foreign land. Australia and America were the two 
countries then presenting the greatest inducements 
for emigration. After much inquiry and thought he 
fixed upon the latter as his future home. Leaving 
his native country, he landed in New York in 1833. 
Here he found employment for a year. But this was 
unsatisfying. At this crisis in his history a slight . 
circumstance — providential, he was accustomed to 
regard it— intervened to determine his life-work. 

The brothers, Peter and John Smith, townsmen of 
his, had preceded him, and were located in An- 
dover. Peter had been in childhood for a short time 
a school-mate. He had also been for some months 
a fellow-workman in the same shop with him. Be- 
fore leaving his native city, 3Ir. Dove had received 
a letter from an aged citizen of the place, introduc- 
ing him to Mr. John Smith. This letter, written at 
the request of Mr. Dove's father, and by a friend of 
the Smith and Dove families, had been put at the 
bottom of his trunk by the young man, as a thing of 
little practical use, and was forgotten. There it lay 
for a year after his arrival in New York. One day, 
on an overhauling of the trunk, this forgotten letter 
came to light. The unsettled condition of Mr. Dove 
led him to use it as a possible means of obtaining 
suitable employment. The letter, being forwarded to 
Andover, reached its destination just at the time 
when Mr. John Smith was preparing to take a busi- 
ness trip to Washington. On his way J;hither he stop- 
ped over in New York to see his correspondent and 
countryman. In the friendly interview which took 
place between the natives of Brechin in a foreign 



1052 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



city, they were drawn towards each other, not only 
by their common nativity, but also by sympathy and 
mutual respect. It also appeared that Mr. Smith, 
engaged in the manufacture of machinery, needed a 
well-trained machinist to oversee his shop, and that, 
in this regard, Mr. Dove was just the right man for the 
place. It was soon arranged that he should go on to 
Andover, make a personal examination of the busi- 
ness, and see if some arrant:ement might be made be- 
tween him and the company, by which he could 
enter their service to their mutual advantage. Find- 
ing the condition of things satisfactory, he at once 
engaged with the JIachine Company, and went to 
work in their shop. 

But his fertile mind could not be confined to the 
routine of his daily labor. His busy thoughts were 
alert to discover some way by which certain products, 
made by hand, might more readily be made by ma- 
chinery. The problem was to devise machinery 
suitable for the purpose. The result was his inven- 
tion of a machine for the manufacture of chalk-twine 
from cotton thread, and also a partnership between 
himself and Mr. Peter Smith, in which the new ma- 
chine was to be utilized. But, before this enterprise 
had gone into operation, Mr. John Smith entered into 
the partnership, and the plan was changed. Instead 
of manufacturing cotton twine they resolved on the 
manufacture of flax thread by machinery. 

At that time there was no such thread made by 
machinery in the country. Mr. Dove was sent to 
Scotland to obtain drawings for ihe requisite ma- 
chinery, which he speedily secured. His labor in this 
direction was made the more easy from the fact that 
his father was at that time proprietor of flax-spin- 
ning mills on the South Esk Elver, about four miles 
south of Brechin. 

The position of Mr. Dove in this new company 
was that of superintendent of machinery. In this 
employment he found much pleasure. The constrnc- 
tion and management of machinery, and the overcom- 
ing of difficulties in its working, gave his mind its 
appropriate exercise and consequent satisfaction. It 
was a common remark of his : " I never enjoy myself 
better than when my mind is taxed to overcome some 
mechanical difficulty." 

Aside from his aptness for mechanics and his 
genius for mechanical invention, Mr. Dove had a de- 
cided taste for scientific studies in other directions. 
In his hours of recreation he turned to them with 
delight. Had his chief attention been given to the 
natural sciences instead of the Application of me- 
chanics, he would doubtless have distinguished him- 
self as a scientist in the special direction to which he 
would have given his energies and his life. 

He was something more than a skillful machinist 
and successful business man. He had a loving heart, 
full of symi)athy for the ignorant and poor. He gave 
freely to the needy and to objects of charity. He was 
especially interested in, and generous towards, institu- 



tions of learning. He found pleasure in assisting 
promising but poor young men to obtain a liberal educa- 
tion. In co-operation with his associates in busine.-is, 
he contributed liberally to found a free high school 
in his native city. In like manner, with his associ- 
ates, he contributed largely to the Theological Semi- 
nary. To the Memorial Hall building and Library 
he gave seven thousand dollars. He was a warm and 
liberal friend of temperance and the slave. While 
thus prosperous and benevolent, he was never assum- 
ing, self-conceited, or exacting in his treatment of the 
less successful. While firm in his convictions ami 
independent in his conduct, he was modest in his 
demeanor towards others not in agreement with him- 
self. In a word, he was a practical no less than a pro- 
fessed Christian. He united with the church at the 
West Parish July 4, 1841, and ever after honored his 
profession. His piety was of the reticent, unostenta- 
tious sort, not given to much talk, but operative in 
his daily life. It was influential in his treatment of 
his workmen, in his bearing towards the poor and 
ignorant, in his business transactions, in his daily in- 
tercourse with his fellow-citizens, in his strict and 
what some would call Puritanical observance of the 
Sabbath, (he reading upon that day scarcely any book 
but the Bible), in his regular and reverent attention to 
family worship, in a general interest in the promotion 
of religion at home and abroad, and in the cultivation 
of a meek and quiet spirit, that would be at peace 
with all men. His example as a business man of 
sound judgment, unimpeachable honesty, unques- 
tioned honor, always true and reliable, gentle, cordial, 
cheerful and devout, is still felt as a blessing by his 
fellow-citizens. He died at his home in Andover, 
Nov. 20, 1876. 

Smith & Dove Masxjfacturixg Company.— In 
the fall of 1834, Mr. John Dove and Mr. Peter Smith, 
both then in the employ of Mr. John Smith in his 
machine shop, the latter as superintendent, entered 
into an agreement to form a partnership for the manu- 
facture of chalk-twine from cotton, Mr. Dove having 
invented a machine for that purpose. The machine 
of Mr. Dove was to be patented. Before this was ac- 
complished, and while the new partners were hesitat- 
ing about the best way of procedure, in 1835, they 
were joined by Mr. John Smith bringing in capital to 
their aid. But before actually starting operations 
the plan was modified, and it was determined to set 
up the manufacture of flax thread. This led to the 
sending of Mr. Dove to Scotlaud to obtain drawings 
of flax-spinning machinery. These he, with some dif- 
ficulty, obtained, and returned after a few months' 
absence, when the proper machinery was made in the 
machine shop of Mr. John Smith. In the mean time 
Mr. Smith erected a building of brick, on the west 
side of the Shawshin River, in Frye Village, opposite 
his machine shop, for the purpose of carrying on the 
business, which went into operation in 1835. The 
goods manufactured were flax yarns for carpet weav- 




/^^^^^ ^2S2i?^c^ 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ANDOVER. 



1653 



ers, sail twines, shoe thread and other goods of a like 
character. At that time there was no flax-spinning 
machinery in operation in the country. Ail the goods 
of the class they made that were in the market were 
imported. 

There had been, as early as 1820, an enterprise of a 
similar character started in Patterson, N. Y., but after 
a short existence it failed. The Messrs. Smith & Dove 
may be said to have been the first successful manufac- 
turers of flax thread by machinery and power in the 
country. They had no competitors at the start, nor 
for some time after, in America. 

Their competitors were foreign manufacturers, chiefly 
the mills of Great Britain. At first they met with con- 
siderable difliculty in disposing of their product, there 
being a prejudice in favor of the foreign article on 
the part of both merchant and consumer. This had 
to be overcome by the manufacture of an equally 
good or better class of goods, at a cheaper rate if pos- 
sible. These enterprising manufacturers undertook 
this difiicult task. That they succeeded is evident from 
the fact that within a few years they secured a market 
for all the goods they could make, and a reputation 
for the quality of their goods that placed them on an 
equal footing in the market with the best foreign 
made of the same grade. In less than eight years 
from the start the demand for their threads exceeded 
their ability for manufacturing. This led to the pur- 
chase, on the 1st of December, 1843, of the mill 
privilege and buildings of the woolen-mills at Abbot 
Village. 

These mills had been established in 1814 by the 
brothers Abel and Paschal Abbot. They at first built 
a wooden mill on the west side of the Shawshin, after- 
wards, as their business increased, adding other build- 
ings. In these mills were manufactured flannel and 
cassimeres, and cotton and woolen yarns were spun 
for sale, and for the accommodation of farmers, 
who came from a considerable distance with their 
wool to have it spun for domestic uses. This enter- 
prise was pecuniarily unsuccessful, and, in the finan- 
cial crisis of 1837, the Abbots were obliged to suc- 
cumb. 

Besides the business of the brothers Abbot in this 
village there was, on the east side of the river, a stone 
mill, in which the manufacture of flannels was com- 
menced in 1824 and continued for some years by 
James Howarth's sons, under the firm-name of "John 
Howarth & Company." This company also failed in 
the financial crisis of 1837. The property of this 
company fell into the hands of Mr. Henry H. Stevens, 
of North Andover, and others, who carried on the 
woolea manufacture till 1843, when they also sold out 
their interest to Smith, Dove & Company. 

The mills on both -ides of the river were repaired 
and furnished with flax-spinning machinery, thus 
very essentially enlarging the producing capacity of 
the company. Still the demand for their goods kept 
pace with the production, and a lucrative business 



was carried on for a series of years — John Smith hav- 
ing the general management of the mercantile and 
financial department, Peter Smith the superintendence 
of the mills and of the operatives, and Mr. Dove hav- 
ing charge of the machinery, looking not only to its 
running, but also to any improvement that would in- 
crease its efficiency. 

In 1864 the firm underwent some modifications. A 
joint stock company was organized. The sons of the 
original proprietors — ^Joseph W., son of John Smith, 
James B., son of Peter Smith, Ge.rge W. W., son of 
John Dove— and George H. Torr were taken into the 
company. From that time to this the business has 
been successfully prosecuted, necessitating the erec- 
tion of new buildings, and in all directions an en- 
largement of their capacity for the production of 
goods. 

Other mills producing the same class of goods have 
sprung up in the country, so that, of late years, the 
competition has been more sharp, thus demanding 
more close attention to all the minor details of the 
business and reducing to a degree its profits. It is 
still a profitable business as at present managed. 

The original promoters and proprietors have all 
passed away, Mr. Dove dying first in 1876, Mr. Peter 
Smith in 1880 and Mr. John Smith in 1886. 

The property is now owned and operated by the 
heirs of the above-named original proprietors. Joseph 
W. Smith is president of the company ; James B. 
Smith, George W. W. Dove and George H. Torr are 
directors, and the latter is secretary, treasurer and 
general manager. Mr. Torr came into the employ- 
ment of the firm in 1858, taking charge of its books, 
leaving for this position a situation he held with the 
Cocheco Manufacturing Company, at Dover, N. H- 
On the resignation by Mr. Peter Smith of his position 
as treasurer and agent in 1876, Mr. Torr was chosen 
to fill his place, having, by eighteen years' service in 
the employment of the company, merited and secured 
their confidence in him as a man of the strictest in- 
tegrity, of sagacity, of untiring industry and of good 
business ability. The business of the company under 
its present management is apparently prosperous. 
The help employed is of the best character. A strike 
or lock-out has never been known in its history. A 
large number of the employes are from Scotland, and 
make permanent and valuable citizens, 

The original firm was rarely constituted. They 
were, in the first place, all of them, men who had 
been trained in the school of poverty — who knew 
what it was to struggle for their daily bread — men who 
had the daring to breast difficulties, dangers and fear- 
ful hardships— men whom no obstacles or failures 
could cast down or greatly discourage. Secondly, 
they were all men of great energy and native ca- 
pacity for business. Though possessing bijt a meagre 
education from the schools, they had been taught in 
the weaver's room, in the wheelwright's shop, in their 
contacts with men, lessons in endurance, persistent 



1654 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



effort and sagacious conduct, which gave them a men- 
tal training and practical knowledge well calculated 
to fit them for their after-career. They were also 
men of tried and unimpeachable integrity, altogether 
trustworthy, and trusting implicitly each other. They 
were not only natives of the same city, but their 
general views of life, its moralities and duties, were 
much the same. They were alike religious, and ac- 
knowledged their obligation to serve God with their 
substance as with their speech. So harmonious were 
they in their opinions, judgments and sentiments as 
to business affairs, moral duties and religious obliga- 
tions, that there never was any serious disagreement 
between them on any matter, and never an angry or 
harsh word passed from one to another during their 
long connection. 

Their diversities of judgment but served to in- 
crease the sum total of their combined practical 
wisdom. While diverse in temper, they were 
united in conduct. So in agreement were they as to 
contribute jointly in their large donations to benefi- 
cent objects— such as Brechin Hall, the free schools 
in the city of Brechin and the Memorial Hall. 

And further, each was especially adapted to fill 
that department of the work in which he engaged. 
Mr. John Smith was by nature a skillful financier, 
a far-seeing and sagacious manager of monetary affairs. 
Mr. Peter Smith had a talent for the management of 
men and the minute regulation of the internal af- 
fairs of a large industrial establishment. Mr. Dove 
had a genius for mechanics. To work amongst ma- 
chinery, search out its defects, make improvements, 
invent new methods and combinations, and thus get 
the most possible out of a given plant, was his great 
delight. They were a cord of triple strands which, 
thus bound together, made a cable of rare strength. 
Such a combination is seldom seen, and, when seen, 
commands our admiration, and is sure of success. 

Ballard Vale MANrFACTURixo Company. — 
When the Ballard Vale Manufacturing Company was 
incorporated, in 1836, the village contained but a few 
scattered and cheap houses. Mr. John Marland was 
the enterprising manager and treasurer of the com- 
pany. Some Boston gentlemen of wealth and a few- 
citizens of Andover were associated with the Marland 
Brothers in this enterprise. The lir.st business en- 
gaged in was the manufacture of flannels. This was 
profitable. But Mr. John Marland was not satisfied 
with this measure of prosperity. His ambition craved 
a larger business and a variety of production. He 
experimented a little in the manufacture of silk, and 
set the farmers to work in planting mulberry trees. 
He aimed not only to take the lead in the country in 
the manufacture of the finest flannels, but also in that 
of the choicest woolen fabrics of all kinds. 

In 1843 he started the manufacture of delaines and 
stuff-goods, and, for this purpose, imported from Eng- 
land the latest style of machinery adapted to it. His 
activity extended beyond the Vale. In other parts of 



the country he superintended the erection of delaine 
mills, taking an interest in them. His ambition and 
enterprise went beyond the manufacture of textile 
fabrics to that of machinery. For this latter pur- 
pose he erected a large stone building at the Vale, in 
which he purposed to carry on the manufticture, not 
only of factory machinery, but that of locomotives 
and all other products of a like nature. 

These extended and varied operations were beyond 
the financial ability of the company, and beyond the 
business ability'of Mr. Marland as well. The com- 
pany failed, the stockholders lost heavily and Mr. 
Marland's career as a manufacturer closed. 

Mr. Marland was a man of boundless ambition, of 
large projects, of a sanguine temperament, of su- 
preme confidence in himself, daring, but indiscreet. 
His attempts largely exceeded his means. He had 
the genius of an inventor. Could his ability as a 
manufacturer, his knowledge of the special business 
in which he at first engaged and his indomitable en- 
ergy have been under the control of a cool head, 
steadied by practical wisdom, his success must have 
been phenomenal. Soon after his failure he went to 
England seeking to retrieve his fortunes, returning, 
however, the next year. Again, in 1858, he went to 
England, returning in 1861. But he was unable to 
secure the confidence of moneyed men so as to start 
up another business. He settled down in a modest, 
quiet but comfortable home in Andover for some 
years. But his restless mind sought occupation. He 
obtained an island on the coast of Maine upon which 
he engaged in farming. Here he lived two years in- 
dustriously cultivating the soil. This labor was too 
arduous for him. He contracted a disease of the 
heart, and died April 16, 1865, aged sixty-two years 
and four months. 

The flannel-mill, after the failure of the company, 
came into the hands of its treasurer, Mr. J. Putnam 
Bradlee, of Boston, who was a creditor of the com- 
pany to a considerable amount. When he purchased 
the property he knew nothing about the manufacture 
of flannel, but at once applied himself to acquire the 
requisite knowledge. Concentrating his indomitable 
energy and masterly business tact upon the work, he 
was soon able to pay up the stockholders, whose stock 
he had purchased, from the profits of the mills. The 
flannels here manufactured have acquired a reputa- 
tion for beauty and quality, in this and in foreign 
countries, second to that of no other establishment of 
the kind in the world. The business in the hands of 
Mr. Bradlee became very profitable, so that, at his 
death, he left an estate valued at over a million of 
dollars, most of which, at the decease of his surviv- 
ing sister, is to be devoted to charitable purposes. 

Mr. Bradlee not only profited himself by the run- 
ning of these mills; he wjis also of great service to the 
village and to a large number of employes and their 
families. When other enterprises in the place failed, 
and loss and discouragement came to the people of the 



ANDOVER. 



1655 



village, when financial stress closed other similar estab- 
lishments and their operatives were set adrift, his mills 
were kept in full operation and his employes paid 
their cuatomarj- wages. By his death, which occurred 
in January, 1887, Ballard Vale met with a severe loss. 
There was sincere mourning among his work-people 
when the news of his decease was spread through the 
room.s of the factory. 

Mr. Bradlee e^er had the interests of his employes 
at heart, and did everything in his power to better 
their condition. The result is that Ballard Vale is 
considered one of the finest manufacturing villages 
in the State. Evening schools were established, a 
selected library of some two thousand volumes pro- 
vided and a public hall and reading-room erected. A 
course of lectures and concerts was given every win- 
ter. All this was free to his employes. The churches 
in the village — three in number, Methodist, Congrega- 
tional and Roman Catholic— have all been furnished 
and repaired at his expense. 

Since his death the mills have been operated by 
his executors and trustees in accordance with the 
methods he had established. 

Craighkad and Kintz MANrFAC'TURixG Com 
PANY. — The stone building erected for a machine 
shop by Mr. Marland was, for a time, used by a Bostoi 
corporation, called the Whipple File and Steel Com 
pany. This company, in the spirit of the original 
designer of its work-shop, laid out a large sum of 
money in buildings, machinery and improvements, 
and, for a time, can led on an extensive business in 
the manufacture of steel and files. After a few years, 
either from misfortune, mismanagement or the lack 
of business sagacity in its inception and conduct, the 
losses of the company were so great that they were 
forced to close up their shops. The extensive build- 
ings remained for a number of years unoccupied — 
going to decay. 

A new company, called the Craighead and Kintz 
Manufacturing Company, now occupies a portion of 
the file-shops. This company was started in 188;i for 
the manufacture of brass and bronze goods of a mis- 
cellaneous character. It is now in successful opera- 
tion, employing some two hundred and eighty hands, 
much the larger portion of whom are 'men. Their 
products amount to about one hundred thousand 
dollars yearly. 

A number of other manufacturing enterprises have 
been started at Ballard Vale, first and last, within the 
past thirty years, which have flourished for a brief 
period and then disappeared. The only business that 
has been carried on there successfully for a series of 
years has been that of the fine flannel-mill of Captain 
Bradlee. This has prospered and held on steadily in 
times of financial stringency, as well as in times of 
financial plethora. The whole outcome has been a 
large fortune, which Captain Bradlee has left mostly 
for charitable purposes, after the decease of his 
maiden sister. 



The Tykr Rubber Company. — The Tyer Rubber 
Company was incorporated February, 1876. It manu- 
factures rubber goods in what was formerly a shop of 
the Boston and Maine Railroad Company. Among the 
various articles manufactured by this corporation are 
to be found the diagonal rubber cloth used in the 
Congress Arctic over-shoe, and a line of goods in use 
for medical and surgical purposes. The company 
employs about fifty hands, mostly females. 

The founder of this company, as the name indicates, 
was Mr. Henry George Tyer. Mr. Tyer was born in 
England in 1812. He came to this country in 1840. 
His first settlement here was in New Jersey, where he 
was connected with the rubber business. After re- 
maining there for a time he removed to Andover, first 
establishing himself at Ballard Vale, but afterwards, 
in 1856, he took up his residence in the centre of the 
town, to which locality he removed his business. 
Since this removal the business has gradually in- 
creased till it has reached it present respectable 
amount. 

Mr. Tyer was an inventor in the line of rubber and 
rubber goods. He discovered the method of produc- 
ing white rubber, from which all the white rubber 
articles now manufactured are made. The full value 
of this discovery he did not at first appreciate, and 
consequently did not take the necessary steps to de- 
rive from it the remuneration to which he was reason- 
ably entitled. The " Compo shoe " is an invention of 
his, — also the Arctic over- shoe and the diagonal rub- 
ber cloth. For these and other inventions he re- 
ceived letters patent, and from some of them derived 
a fair remuneration. 

Mr. Tyer was a business man, confining himself 
largely to his calling, and, in his business relations 
and transactions, was strictly upright, straight-for- 
ward and reliable. By nature he was reticent, self- 
contained, and was seldom seen in the public gather- 
ings of the people. He was courteous in manner, 
and had the bearing of a well-to-do Englishman, in- 
tent upon his own affairs. He was a warm adherent 
of the Episcopal Church, and, as an oflScer and com- 
municant in Christ Church, did much to advance its 
interest and maintain its worship. He was a man of 
great energy and persistency of purpose, who saw 
things clearly and pursued the right, according to his 
judgment, with vigor. He was a firm believer in the 
Christian religion, and a devout worshipper of his 
God, after the customs of his fathers, and the mother 
church he so heartily revered and tenderly loved. 
He died at his residence in Andover on July 10, 1882, 
and was buried in the cemetery of Christ Church, in 
"consecrated ground," for which he had a reverential 
regard too seldom seen among our native inhabitants. 

banks and insurance. 

The Andover National Bank. — This hank was 

originally chartered by the State Legislature, in 1826, 

under the name of the President, Directors and Com- 



1656 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



pany of the Andover Bank. The corporators were 
Samuel Farrar, Joseph Kittredge, Amos Abbot, 
Nathaniel Swift, Amos Spaulding, Henry Skinner, 
Francis Kidder, Hobart Clark and Mark Newman. 
April 3, 1826, Amos Blanehard was chosen cashier. 
October 3, 1826, Samuel Farrar was chosen president. 
The first semi-annual dividend of three and one-half 
per cent, was declared March 2, 1827. The same rate 
was continued till April, 1837, with the exception of 
one in April, 1832, of three per cent. After passing 
four dividends, they were resumed at the same rate 
and so continued till 1842. For the five succeeding 
years the average rate was two and seventy-two hun- 
dredths dollars. From this date till 1865 the rate of 
dividends varied from three and one-fourth dollars to 
three and eighty-three hundredths dollars. 

In 1865 the bank was reorganized under the laws 
of the United States, and took the name of "The 
Andover National Bank." Since that it has paid four 
per cent, semi-annual dividends for five years, five per 
cent, for eight years, three and one-half per cent, for 
four years, and a trifle more than three for the re- 
mainder of the time till 1887. 

The bank, like other national banks in the State, 
has paid the taxes assessed upon the shares of its 
stockholders, amounting in 1886 to over $3080. 

In 1848 Deacon Blanehard resigned his office of 
cashier, and was succeeded by Mr. Edward Taylor. 

Deacon Taylor resigned in May, 1845, and was suc- 
ceeded by Francis Cogswell, Esq. 

Esquire Cogswell resigned in October, 1856, to take 
the ofiice of president of the Boston and Maine Rail- 
road, and was succeeded by Moses Foster, Esq., who 
has held the ofl[ice continuously to the present time, 
twenty-one years. 

Esquire Farrar held the office of president till Octo- 
ber. 1856, thirty years, when he resigned, and John 
Flint, Esq., was chosen to fill the place. 

Esquire Flint held the oflice till his decease, in 
June, 1873. Professor John L. Taylor was chosen to 
succeed Mr. Flint, and held the office till Jan., 1880. 

Professor Taylor was succeeded by Deacon Edward 
Taylor, treasurer of Phillips Academy, who still holds 
the office. 

All the presidents of the bank have been treasurers 
of Phillips Academy with the exception of Mr. Flint. 

The present directors are Edward Taylor, George 
W. W. Dove, Moses T. Stevens, Joseph A. Smart, 
Joseph W. Smith, John H. Flint and John F. Kim- 
ball. 

The bank has always been conservative in its man- 
agement, running few risks, and hence incurring few 
losses. 

Andover Savings Bank.— The Andover Savings 
Bank was incorporated in 18.34. The first president 
of the bank was Deacon Amos Abbot, who was 
choson February 9, 18,35, and resigned January 1, 1845. 
His successor was Nathan \V. Hazen, Esq., chosen 
January 1, 1845, and resigned January 1, 1852. Mr. 



Samuel Gray was chosen January 1, 1812, and re- 
signed January 1, 1861. His successor was Mr. Na- 
thaniel Swift, who was chosen January 7, 1861, and 
resigned in 1878. Mr. John E. Abbot was chosen in 
1879, and continued till his death, in 1881. Moses 
Foster, Esq., was chosen May 16, 1881, and is still in 
office. 

The treasurers of the bank have been Mr. John 
Flint, chosen February 23, 1835, and resigned Octo- 
ber 1, 1870; Mr. John F. Kimball, chosen September 
15, 1870, and still continues in office. 

The amount of deposits in 1886 was $1,696,587. 
Profits on hand at that time, §50,123. The guaran- 
teed fund is $55,000. 

The bank, as will be seen, is in good financial 
standing, has uniformly been honestly and judiciously 
managed, and has paid fair dividends semi-annually 
to its depositors. By its regulations no one person 
can place on deposit to his own account more than 
five thousand dollars. 

Mekrimac Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 
— This company was incorporated by the General 
Court, February, 1828, for the limited term of twenty- 
eight years, the act of incorporation to take effect 
when subscribers for iusurance should be obtained to 
the amount of $100,000. This amount was speedily 
obtainlsd, and in the month of April of the same year 
the company was organized, choosing for its first 
president Hobart Clark, Esq. Mr. Clark served till 
April, 1839, and was succeeded by Samuel Merrill 
Esq., who served till the time of his death, in Decem- 
ber, 1869, and was succeeded by Nathan W. Hazen 
Esq., who served till January, 1875, and was sue 
ceeded by Mr. Samuel Gray, who served till Novem 
ber, 1880, and was succeeded by Mr. William S. Jen 
kins, the present president. 

Samuel Phillips, Esq., was the first secretary. He 
served one year, and was succeeded by Samuel Mer- 
rill, Esq., who served till December 19, 1835, and was 
succeeded by Mr. Samuel Gray, who served till 1885, 
his successor being Mr. Joseph A. Smart, the present 
secretary. 

This company has had its office in Andover from 
the first, though doing a large portion of its business 
in other towns and cities. Its executive officers have 
always been citizens of this town. Its business has 
been conducted in a careful and conservative manner, 
so as to secure the best results for its policy-holders. 
It avoids specially hazardous risks, and risks on prop- 
erty with an inflated valuation. The result of this pol- 
icy has been that it has given eminent satisfaction to its 
membership, has steadily grown in strength and in 
favor in the community, and to-day stands among the 
most reliable and prosperous companies of its class in 
the commonwealth. In the year 1886 it divided six- 
ty per cent, on its five year policies. It now has sur- 
plus assets for the payment of losses amounting to 
nearly $300,000, with outstanding policies amounting 
to nearly $20,000, — a steady but substantial growth. 



NORTH AN DOVER. 



1657 



Acknowledgment. — As the author of the pre- 
ceding history was called so suddenly from his 
almost finished work, the duty of acknowledging 
assistance in its preparation devolves upon another. 
Thanks are here given to Professor Edwards A. 
Park, D.D., for his notices of Professors Pear- 
son and Stuart, of Dr. Samuel Taylor and of the 
author; to Rev. William E. Park for his notice 
of Professor Edwards ; also to various persons 
who have furnished material either by manuscript or 
funeral sermons tj facilitate the writing of memorials 
of their deceased friends ^ and to others vi-ho have 
given verbal information as it was needed. Thanks 
are given also to the authors of the following works, 
to which recourse has been had : Abbot's " History of 
Andover," Miss Bailey's " Historical Sketches of An- 
dover," Raymond's " Record of Andover in the Rebel- 
lion," Mooar's "Manual oftheSouth Church," Taylor's 
" Memoir of Judge Phillips "and Wood's " History of 
the Andover Theological Seminary." 

If there is an omission to render thanks where 
thanks are due, it is hoped that the peculiar circum- 
stances of the case will furnish a sufficient apology. 

C. L. S. 



CHAPTER CXXXIX. 

NORTH ANDOVER. 

BY GEORGE B. LORING. 

Eccksiastical — Civil and Milit'irii — Education — Industries — X]'itchcraft- 



The town of North Andover occupies that portion 
of the original town of Andover which lies northerly 
and easterly of a line running from the Shawshin 
River, at a point not far from where the Salem turn- 
pike crosses it, in a southerly direction to the town- 
line of North Reading. By this line the town was 
divided in 1855, and the name of Andover was be- 
stowed by the Legislature upon that portion of the 
territory lying southerly and westerly of this line, 
and formerly known as the South Parish. The North 
Parish, as it was called from 1709 to the date of the act 
dividing the town, became North Andover, and it is 
bounded on the northwest by the Shawshin and Merri- 
mac Rivers, on the northeast by Bradford and Boxford, 
on the southwest by Andover and on the southeast by 
Middleton and North Reading. It contains about 
fifteen thousand four hundred acres, and constitutes 
a territory full of int^rest to the geologist and the 
agriculturist. Its rocky foundation belongs to the 
oldest periods of the world, " antedating by a vast 
period the strata of the White Mountains in New 
Hampshire," and it furnishes a field for most inter- 
esting speculation, wide, diverse and comprehensive, 
reaching to the more manifest geological arrangements 
of the glacial epoch, whose marks are visible every- 
J04J 



where throughout the town. The result of these 
earlier and later geological operations is a most fertile 
and beautiful tract of country, abounding in imposing 
lens-shaped hills, originally wooded to the summit, 
deep valleys of fine extent and sweep, all interspersed 
with lakelets and streams. It is seldom that a more 
interesting geological formation than this can be 
found ; and nowhere, as the result of nature's handi- 
work, does a more lovely landscape appear — the view 
stretching from each one of these rounded elevations 
miles away to the Wachusett and Monadnock on the 
northwe.st, while, to the immediate gaze, the mysteri- 
ous group stands around as fascinating monuments of 
an ancient age. The explanation which is given of 
these unusual hills is most interesting, and carries 
the mind back to the time when the great seas of ice 
covered this hemisphere, and left the record of their 
slow and steady march as a guide to man in his en- 
deavors to unravel the mystery of the earth's forma- 
tion and his own creation. However formed, they 
are really hills "in verdure clad," being immense 
mounds of fertile soil, composed of clay and sand, 
well watered from the far-off spring-heads which, at 
their origin, overtop them, and constituting, with the 
fertile valleys which lie between them, a most attrac- 
tive and admirable tract of farming land, adapted to 
grass, and grain, and fruits, and gardens and pas- 
turage. Standing upon the top of one of these 
" commanding hills," the observer may view a far-off 
western horizon whose sunsets vie with those for 
which Italy is famous, — a wide-spread landscape dotted 
with villages aud towns, and interspersed with field 
and woodland, the long line of the Merrimac a flash- 
ing silver stream, the " Great Pond " a crowning gem 
and the sauntering Cochichewick, which finds its way 
slowly through reedy meadows before it steps down 
and at last plunges into the river, which bears its 
waters to the sea. 

It was this territory of which, in 1G34, by action of 
the court, " It is ordered that the land about Cochich- 
ewick shall be reserved for an inland plantation, and 
whosoever will go to inhabit there shall have three 
years' immunity from all taxes, levies, public charges 
and services whatever, military discipline only ex- 
cepted." " John Winthrop, Richard Bellingham 
and William Coddington, Esquire, are chosen a com- 
mittee to license any that may think meet to inhabit 
there, and that it shall be lawful for no person to go 
thither without their consent or the major part of 
them." 

The land referred to in this order was purchased by 
Rev. John Woodbridge, of Newbury in 1641, after a 
long correspondence with Gov. Winthrop, and vari- 
ous demonstrations by the people of Ipswich, 
Newbury and Rowley, which seem to have resulted 
in a mere temporary occupation. There were acts of 
the General Court, but exactly to what they applied 
is not known. In 1646, however, the purchase 
and grants were confirmed by the court, and the 



1658 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



town was named Andover, " with reference to some 
of the phmters who came from Andover in Hamp- 
shire, England." Upon this order the town began to 
take shape. The temporary settlers, who were few, 
gathered themselves together ou the banks of the 
Cochichewick and in the region lying westerly and 
northwesterly from Wire Hill, a spot which for many 
years was occupied by the meeting-house and such 
other buildings as would constitute it the centre of 
the town. The oldest list of settlers, probably made 
before 1644, while the affairs of the settlement were 
somewhat unadjusted, gives the following names 
as original residents of the plantation of a perma- 
nent character : 



John Osgood. 


Henry .laqucs. 


Joseph Parker. 


John Aslolt. 


Richard Barker. 


Richard lilake. 


John Stevens. 


William Ballard. 


Nicholas Holt. 


.Tohn Lovcjoy. 


Benjamin Woodbridge.; 


Thomas Poor. 


John Frye. 


George Abbott. 


Edmond Faulkner. 


John Russ. 


Robert Barnard. 


Andrew Allen. 


Daniel Poor. 


Andrew Foster. 


Nathan Parker. 


Thomiis Chandler. 



These men received the titles of the lands they oc- 
cupied from the town, the conveyance being made by 
a vote of the town, and all freeholders being considered 
proprietors and voters. The lands were divided into 
small lots, — ten acres for house lots ; remote from 
these, tillage lots ; wood-lots elsewhere ; swamp and 
meadow-lands wherever they could be found. A 
large contiguous farm was unknown, and scattered 
lots are even now the order of the day. 

Meanwhile records of private business transactions 
have been brought to light by the faithful chroniclers 
of the town. In 1643 William Hughes, of Ipswich, 
sells heifers, bulls, kine, calves, a house and a house- 
lot to Bichard Barker, of Cochichewicke. "In 1650 a 
house and land and three cows in Andover are mort- 
gaged by Job Tyler to John Godfrey, of Newbury." 
Mr. Simon Bradstreet sells a house lot and dwelling- 
house and fifty acres of land to Eichard Sutton, many 
of whose descendants have had large interests in An- 
dover, some of whom in this generation are engaged 
in most important transactions. 

The following description of Andover is given by 
Captain Edward Johnson, of Woburn, in 1654: 

"About this time there was a town founded about one or two miles dis- 
tant from tho place where the goodly river of Merrimack receives her 
brunches into her own body, hard upon the river Shawehiu, which is 
ono of her chief heads; the honored Sir. Simon Bradstreet taking up his 
last sitting there, hath been a great means to further the work, it being 
a place well fitted for the husbandman's hand, were it not that remote- 
ness of the place from towns of trade hringcth forth some inconveni- 
ences upon tho planters, who are enforced to carry their corn far to mar- 
ket. This town is called Andover, and hath good store of land improved 
for the bigness of it." 

In discussing the foundation of a New England 
town, the peculiar and extraordinary nature of a civil 
organization of this kind should not be forgotten, es- 
pecially by those who enjoy the high privileges which 



belong to it. To many nationalities and peoples a 
town means nothing more than a cluster of houses 
surrounded by a wall and fortified, or the realm of a 
constable, or the seat of a church ; but to New Eng- 
land the town was in the beginning, as it is now, the 
primary organization, sovereign in itself. "The col- 
onists had no sooner formed a settlement and erected 
their cabins in proximity to each other than they or- 
ganized themselves into a town — an independent na- 
tionality — in which every citizen had a voice and a 
vote." The first duty of these organizations in the 
minds of the fathers was the establishment of a 
church, and the erection of a meeting-house and a 
school-house received their earliest care and atten- 
tion. It is remarkable and interesting to see how, in 
the little municipalities of New England, all the 
rights of citizenship were cherished, and how silently 
and uno.stentatiously all the elements of a free state 
were fixed and developed. Starting away from the 
original colonies, they planted themselves in the wil- 
derness, and assumed at once the duty of independ- 
ent organizations. Their citizens, in town-meeting 
assembled, had control of all matters relating to their 
civil and criminal jurisdiction. "In the New Eng- 
land colonies the towns were combined in counties 
long after their establishment and representation as 
towns ; so that the county here was a collection of 
towns, rather than the town a sub-division of the 
county." 

This system of town organization is maintained 
throughout New England to the present day, consti- 
tuting one of the most interesting features of the civil 
polity of this section of our country. Says Palfrey in 
his " History of New England: " With something of 
the same propriety with which the nation may be 
said to be a confederacy of republics called States, 
each New England State may be described as a con- 
federacy of minor republics called towns." Neither 
in New York with its great landed properties, at first 
held and occupied by a kind of feudal tenure, and 
afterwards with its counties; nor in the Western 
States, where the town survey carries with it no local 
political authority ; nor in the South where the county 
organization is the one which governs local matters, 
can be found that form of self-government which 
gives to the New England towns their individuality 
and which has enabled them to enroll their names on 
the brightest pages of American history. How in 
the olden time they cherished the church and built 
the meeting-house; how they fostered education and 
erected the school-house; how they selected their 
wisest and bravest men for the public councils ; how 
they resolved for freedom in open town-meeting; how 
they hurled defiance at the oppressor and sprang up, 
an army of defiant communities, each one feeling its 
responsibility and ready and anxious to assume it! 
To study the valor of the early days and learn where 
the leaders and statesmen were taught their lesson of 
independence and nationality, it is only necessary to 



NORTH AN DOVER. 



1659 



turn to the recorded resolves of the New England 
towns. 

The motives and manners and customs of those 
who founded North Andover and its associate towns 
are interesting and important. They formed a part 
of that large body of dissenters who, under various 
names, came to New England and settled the colonies 
of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. They came, it 
is true, to enjoy religious freedom, but they also 
sought a civil organization, founded on the right of 
every man to a voice in the government under which 
he lives. In the charters granted to all the towns by 
the General Court, it was provided that the grantees 
were " to procure and maintain an able and orthodox 
minister amongst them," and to build a meeting- 
house within three years. This was their first motive. 
In all their customs they were obliged to exercise the 
utmost simplicity, and they voluntarily regulated 
their conduct by those formal rules which in their 
day constituted the Puritans' guide through the world. 
As an illustration of their character and manners, in 
1G.51 dancing was forbidden at weddings by the laws 
of the colony. 

In 1(560 William Walker was imprisoned a month 
" for courting a maid without the leave of her pa- 
rents." In 1675, because " there is manifest pride 
appearing in our streets," the wearing of "long hair 
or periwigs," and also "superstitious ribands," used 
to tie up and decorate the hair, were forbidden under 
severe penalties. Men, too, were forbidden to " keep 
Christmas," because it was a " Popish custom." In 
1677 an act was passed to prevent "the profaneness" 
of " turning the back upon the public worship before 
it is finished and the blessing pronounced." Towns 
were directed to erect a cage near the meeting-house, 
and in this all ofi'enders against the sanctity of the 
Sabbath were confined. 

At the same time children were placed in a partic- 
ular part of the meeting-house by themselves, and 
tithingmen were chosen, whose duty it was to take 
care of them. So strict were they in the observance 
of the Sabbath that John Atherton, a soldier in Col- 
onel Tyng's regiment, was fined by him forty shil- 
lings for " wetting a piece of an old hat to put into 
his shoes," which chafed his feet upon the march; 
and those who neglected to attend meeting for three 
months were publicly whipped. Even in Harvard 
College students were whipped for grave offenses in 
the chapel in the presence of students and professors, 
and prayers were had before and after the infliction 
of the punishment. 

The domestic economy of the early colonists was 
simple and, in many cases, rude; their dwellings 
were small, coarsely constructed and deficient in all 
those appointments which are now considered neces- 
sary to the health and comfort of the family ; their 
diet was coarse and common. Palfrey tells us that 
" in the early days of New England wheaten bread 
was not so uncommon as it afterwards became," but 



its place was largely supplied by preparations of In- 
dian corn. A mixture of two parts of the meal of 
this grain with one part of rye has continued until 
far into the present century to furnish the bread of 
the great body of the people. In the beginning there 
was but a sparing consumption of butcher's meat. 
The multiplication of flocks for their wool and of 
herds for draught and for milk was an important 
care, and they generally bore a high money value. 
Game and fish, to a considerable extent, supplied the 
want of animal food. Next to these, swine and poul- 
try, fowls— ducks, geese and turkeys — were in common 
use earlier than other kinds of flesh meat. The New 
Englauderof the present time, who, in whatever rank 
of life, would be at a loss without his tea and coffee 
twice, at least, in every day, pities the hardships of 
his ancestors, who, almost universally, for a century 
and a half, made their morning and evening repast 
on boiled Indian meal and milk, or a porridge, or a 
broth made of peas and beans and flavored by being 
boiled with salted beef or pork. Beer, however, 
which was brewed in families, was accounted a neces- 
sary of life, and the orchards soon yielded a bounti- 
ful supply of cider. Wine and rum found a ready 
market as soon as they were brought from abroad ; 
and tobacco and legislation had a long conflict, in 
which the latter at last gave way. 

The people who lived in this fashion were generally 
very poor ; the amount of money circulating among 
them was very small. They built with their own 
hands, and their trade was mainly barter. The com- 
modities in which they dealt were fish, which was sent 
into France, Spain and the Straits ; pipe-staves, 
masts, fir-boards, some pitch and tar, pork, beef and 
horses, which they sent to Virginia, Barbadoes, etc., 
and took tobacco and sugar for payment, which they 
often sent to England. 

It was on the territory now inclosed in the bound- 
ary of North Andover that the farms were cultivated, 
and the dwellings erected, and the church built, and 
civil government organized, which constituted the 
ancient town of Andover ; was named the North Par- 
ish by act of the Legislature in 1709, and was left in 
1855 by the South Parish, which assumed the original 
name of the town. The locality of the settlement, 
and early history, remains, however, with its land- 
marks ; and its events, which constitute the annals 
of Old Andover, are now in the keeping of North 
Andover. 

The first practical business of the settlers of North 
Andover, as of all other New England towns, was the 
division of the lands around a central point into 
house-lots. These lots consisted of about eight acres, 
and were grouped together, probably for common 
defense. The isolation of the wilderness had few 
charms when the life therein was exposed to sudden 
surprises from Indian and wild beast. Each house- 
lot carried with it, however, larger tracts called farm 
lands, for ploughing, grazing, tillage and mowing. 



1660 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



lot ■l^v...;ail,..' M 
tl.o l,uu».-.lut Ml .Nl 


■hula= Uult 


Ulan.' This was pr 


obablj as la 


mcetiiig-liuusc, Kit 


-. ThoOsp 


Cocbii:lic»kU HIKl 


north of it. 




n Frje live 


Pooi-s near the Sim 


vshin. Th 


estates are now in the South a 



The meeting-house formed, as it were, the centre of 
the group, near which was located the bury ing-Rround, 
which often remains with all its significance, long 
after the hou.se of God and the abodes of the living 
have disappeared. The locality of this primeval civ- 
ilization of the town of North Andover is now marked 
by the old burying-grouiid, whose gravestones bear a 
date as early as 1672. On this point the accurate and 
accomplished auihor of " Historical Sketches of An- 
dover" says: 

•' It is difflcult to ascertain with cerlainty anything definite about the 
first house-lolB and their occupant-, who seem to have removed from 
place to place in the town. In 1658 Richard Sutton bought a house 
which liad belonged to Mr. Bradstreet. The deed gives a clew to the 
residence of some of the other settlers. George Abbot, senior, had a 
house-lot on the north, and George Abbott, junior, (not the son, but a 
jouiiyt-r man, Ceuryc Abbi'tl, ' tailor,' or 'of Uowley,' a.s the Genealiigi- 
cal r..m-i. I .! -.^mi - liiiii ill. I til.- lot south. Kobcrt Barnard's lot 
mlimi I M I: i ii I Mil- lived near; John Stevens seems to 

, 1 ti, the east. Joseph Parkerhad his 
I a>t of the meeting-house, bounded by 
lid by Mr. Francis Faulkner on ye com- 
' as Hi70. Henry Ingais lived near the 
3d and Johnson lots were towards the 
[lichard Barker's was contiguous. It is 
south of the Bradstreet House and the 
i we learn that the first settlers, whose 
West Parishes of Andover, lived in the 
beginning in the north part of the town." 

For many years there was a strong and per.>istent 
determination to retain the early system of land- 
holding, for the convenience and security it aflbrded. 
As late as 1060 the town forbade all citizens " to go 
out of the village to live," by the following order: 

"Att a generall town meeting March, ICOO, the Towte taking into 
consideration the great damage that may come to the Tovvne by persons 
living remote from the Towne upon such lands as were given them for 
ploughing or planting and soe, by their hoggs & c-attle, destroy the mea- 
dows adjoyning thereunto, have therefore ordered and doe hereby order 
that whosoever, inhabitant or other shall, build any dwelling-house in 
any part of the towne but upou such house-Iote or other place granted 
for that end without express leave from the town shall forfeit twenty 
shillings a month for the time ha shall soe live in any such phibited 
place, p'vided it is not intended to restrain any p'son from building any 
sbcde for himself or cattle that shall be necessary for the ploughing of 
his ground or hoeing of his come, hut to restraine only from their con- 
stant abode there, the towne having given honse-lotts to build ou to all 
such as tlioy regard as inhabitants of the towne." 

The houses erected in the village were not distin- 
guished for architectural beauty or for fine and costly 
furnishing. There was but little attractive furni- 
ture, and, with one or two e-xceplions, no plate or 
porcelain, no drapery, no fine linen. The domestic 
outfit was as simple as the dwelling itself. Pewter 
plates and wooden platters constituted a large part 
of the table furniture. Around the wide fire-place, 
capable of taking an eight-foot stick for a back-log, 
with a chimney corner into which the younger mem- 
bers of the family could gather and survey the stars 
above the chimney-top, sat the solemn fathers and 
mothers, warmed by the roaring blaze in front and 
protected from the cold of the open room by the 
high-backed settle, strengthened no doubt in mind 
and body by the frigid dignity of the scene. In the 
cold night air perhaps the ear was startled by the 



wild cries of the tenants of the forest and by the 
creaking of the great branches tossed by the wintry 
blast ; but the home was warmed by contrast ; the 
diraly-lighted room was solemn with its shadows, and 
the faculties of the self-reliant family were strength- 
ened by every circumstance around them. In winter's 
cold and summer's heat they had wild and untamed 
nature about them with all its ennobling influences ; 
and these sons of a primitive civilization were filled 
with great courage and endurance by their life in the 
wilderne.'is. 

Of all the houses erected in that early day per- 
haps only one or two remain. The mansion built 
in or about 1667. by the Hon. Simon Bradstreet 
stands near the site of the first meeting-house, ia 
hard by the old burying-grouud, and undoubtedly 
formed a part of the cluster of houses which consti- 
tuted the village which is now North Andover. Its 
history is most interesting. Here Anne Bradstreet 
found her home after the original house on this spot 
had been destroyed by fire ; here she wrote her verse 
which has given her an immortal name in American 
literature; here lived Simon Bradstreet, the wise and 
good Governor during the most active years of his life; 
here lived Dudley Bradstreet, the honest magistrate, 
who resisted the witchcraft delusion and was obliged 
to flee before the wrath of a deluded people; here the 
murderous savage made his attack, to be disarmed by 
the itiemory of Christian acts of kindness bestowed 
upon the tribe by the same humane ruler ; here re- 
sided for half a century the Kev. Wm. Symmes, the 
faithful and devoted pastor of the first church in An- 
dover; here lived for a short season his pious and 
devoted young successor, the Rev. Bailey Loring. 
And entering upon the scene as the prince of class- 
ical teachers, and the autocrat of discipline, then 
appeared Mr. Simeon Putnam, to cast over the ancient 
dwelling an air of culture and careful scholarship 
which can never be forgotten by those who were sub- 
jected to its stimulating influences. And in more 
recent days it has been occupied by Mr. Otis Bailey, 
whose daughter, Sarah L. Bailey, has given to the 
public a mo.'rt delightful and graphic history of the 
town— a model local sketch. This house still stands 
and is likely to stand a century longer, unless its huge 
and solid oaken timbers are violently destroyed, while 
everything about it decays and changes. Its contem- 
poraries are all gone. But there have sprung up in 
the region about it many more modern companions, 
around which gather some of the noble incidents in 
the town's history. The Phillips mansion stands op- 
posite, built in 1752 iu the most approved style of 
that day, of which the Collins house, the Pickman 
house and the Cabot house in Salem are well-known 
and historic examples. It was built by the Hon. 
Samuel Phillips, distinguished in the Revolutionary 
period. Representative and Senator; was afterwards 
the residence of his son, the Hon. Samuel Phillips, 
Jr., who influenced his father to aid in founding 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1661 



Phillips Academy; and at his death was inherited by 
his bon, Col. John Phillips, who died at the age of 
forty-four and left a widow with thirteen children, 
who maintained the honor and dignity of the family 
and passed the venerable name on to the distinguish- 
ed members of the present generation. Near by 
stands the Kittredge mansion, erected in 1784 by Dr. 
Thomas Kittredge, one of the ablest surgeons of the 
Revolutionary army, a public-spirited citizen, a capa- 
ble and useful public officer — the ancestor of a line of 
surgeons and physicians who have done most import- 
ant service in the community. In a secluded and 
shaded spot on the land north of CocUichewick Brook 
stands the old Osgood house, similar in structure to 
the Bradstreet house, and contemporaneous with it. 
The house of Col. John Osgood, the ancestor of many 
illustrious persons of that name, nearer the brook 
and on the border of the meadow, is the birth-place 
of Hon. Samuel Osgood, of Revolutionary and Consti- 
tutional fame, — a fine specimen of the architecture 
of that period. On an elevation to the northward of this 
house is the stately mansion built by Isaac Osgood, Esq., 
about 1798, foryears the abode of great refinement and 
hospitality. On the same road, and on the old John- 
son lot, "north of Cochichawick," may be seen the 
house built by Captain Timothy Johnson in 1771, 
near the spot where Penelope Johnson was murdered 
by the Indians, 1798, recently the residence of the 
Rev. Samuel Johnson, the Oriental scholar and liberal 
divine. On an elevated site, southerly from the village 
stands the house of Colonel James Frye, once shaded 
by the elm which Chaplain Frye planted when he 
left to join Lovewell's band on their way to Pequa- 
ket, in which engagement the chaplain lost his life. 
The house is now occupied by Mr. Nathaniel Peters. 
From these houses went out a brave and patriotic 
band of men, who, on all occasions, served their 
country well. The duty which their ancestor-f im- 
posed upon them,when the goodly town was founded in 
the wilderness was well performed. It would be diffi- 
cult to find in any one neighborhood so large a num- 
ber of controlling and guiding minds. Quincy had 
her Adams in Revolutionary days ; Shrewsbury her 
Ward ; Boston, the capital city of Massachusetts, her 
Samuel Adams, her Otis and Warren, and Quincy and 
Revere and Hancock; Salem her Timothy Pickering. 
North Andoversent from her Ihrms and homes Osgood 
to thearmy and councils of the nation, Phillips to the 
halls of the State, Frye to the front of the fighting regi- 
ments, and scores of sons to the ranks. In field and 
in council the town appeared with strong influence, 
and with leaders who came from a community ready 
to support them in all deeds and words which re- 
dounded to the honor of the country. 

The settlement at North Andover was fortunate in 
the direction it received from many of the early plant- 
ers. Among them Simon Bradstreet undoubtedly 
stands foremost. Abbot says of him, he " was son 
of a non-conforming minister, and was born March, 



1603, at Horblin, Lincolnshire. His father died when 
he was fourteen years old, and he was committed to 
the care of the Hon. Thomas Dudley for eight years 
following. He spent one year at Emanuel College, 
Cambridge, pursuing his studies amidst various inter- 
ruptions. Leaving Cambridge, he resided in the 
family of the Earl of Lincoln, as his steward ; and 
afterwards lived in the same capacity with the Coun- 
tess of Warwick. Having married a daughter of Mr. 
Dudley, he, with Mr. Winthrop, Mr. Dudley and 
others, agreed to emigrate and form a settlement in 
Massachusetts; and being appointed as assistant, he, 
with his family and others, went aboard the " Arbella " 
on the 29th of March, 1630 ; anchored June 12th, near 
Naumkeag, now Salem ; went on shore, but returned 
to the vessel at night ; came on the 14th into the 
inner harbor and went on shore ; on the 17th went to 
Massachusetts and returned the 19th. He attended 
the first court, the 23d of August, at Charlestown. 

The adventurers had but little lime to prepare for 
themselves temporary shelters tor the winter, which 
set in about the 1st of December, and from Christmas 
to about the middle of February was very severe. It 
was with great difficulty that they could render them- 
selves comfortable. Provisions were very scarce and 
extremely dear. Wheat meal was fourteen shillings 
sterling a bushel ; peas, ten shillings; and Indian corn 
from Virginia, ten shillings. Many were exposed to 
cold, lying in tents and wretched cabins, and suffering 
much, being obliged to feed on clams and other shell 
fish; and, instead of bread, to eat acorns and ground- 
nuts. They had appointed a fast, the 22d of Febru- 
ary ; but on the 5th the ship " Lyon " arrived with 
provisions, which were distributed, and they turned 
the fast into a thanksgiving. Many died during the 
winter and spring. 

In the spring of 1631, Mr. Bradstreet, with other 
gentlemen, commenced building at Newtown (now 
Cambridge) and his name is among those constituting 
the first company that settled in that town in 1632. 
He resided there several years. In 1639 the court 
granted him five hundred acres of land in Salem, in 
the next convenient place, near Mr. Endicott's farm. 
It appears that he resided a short time at Ipswich. 

Mr. Bradstreet was among the first settlers of North 
Andover, and was highly useful in promoting the 
settlement, in bearing the burdens incident to a new 
plantation and in giving a right direction to affairs. 
About the year 1644 he built the first mill on the 
Cochichewick. He was a selectman from the first 
record of town oflicers to 1672, soon after which he 
probably spent most his time in Boston and Salem. 

He was the first secretary of the colony, and dis- 
charged the duties of the office many years. He was 
one of the first commissioners of the United Coloniea 
in 1643, and served many years with fidelity and 
usefulness, in this office. In 1653 he, with his 
colleague, vigorously opposed making war on the 
Dutch in New York, and on the Indians ; and it was 



166-2 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUiNfTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



prevented by his steady and conscientious opposition 
and tlie decision of the General Court of Massa- 
cluisetts, though earnestly and strenuously urged 
by all the commissioners of the other three colonies. 

In 1662, in a time of great alarm and distress, he 
was sent agent with Mr. Norton to England to con- 
gratulate Charles II. on his restoration, and, if 
l)ossible, to secure the privileges granted in the old 
charter. The mission was attended with more suc- 
cess than could have been expected, considering that 
the colonists were republicans in opinions, and strict 
Puritans, and had no respect for nobles and bishops. 
But many of the magistrates and people were dis- 
satisfied, as they conceived the charter privileges 
were invaded. The agents fell under no small degree 
of resentment and public obloquy. Mr. Bradstreet, 
conscious of rectitude and feeling a cold indiffer- 
ence to the opinions and clamours of the multitude, 
continued to discharge the duties of his station. 

He was Deputy-Governor from 1672 to 1679, when 
he was elected Governor, and continued in office till 
Mr. Joseph Dudley, his nephew, was appointed, in 
1686, head of the administration, and the govern- 
ment was changed and the charter annulled. He was 
appointed counselor under Dudley, but declined. 

Mr. Bradstreet was considered at the head of the 
moderate party, and, when the charter was demanded 
by King Charles, thought it better it should be sur- 
rendered than that it should be taken away by judg- 
ment, as in that case it might be more easily resumed. 
The King promised lenity on compliauce, and threat- 
ened severity if the colony forced him to a judgment 
against the charter. He judged it wise and provident 
to save jiart of the privileges of the colony rather 
than lose the whole. It was, moreover, subnutting to 
the necessity of the times, and to a power they were 
unable to resist. He was reproached for his pusil- 
lanimity, but his views were probably best for the 
country. The censure of the opposite party ought not 
to transmit reproach to posterity, or in the least to 
tarnish his character. 

He strenuously opposed the arbitrary proceedings 
of Andross ; and when, in 1689, the people put down 
his authority, they made their old Governor their 
President. He continued at the head of the adminis- 
tration till May, 1692, at the advanced age of eighty- 
nine years, when Sir William Phips arrived from 
England with the new charter, in which Sir William 
was appointed Governor and Mr. Bradstreet first as- 
sistant. He had been in service in the government 
sixty-two years, excepting the short administration of 
Dudley and Andross. No man in the country has 
continued in so high offices so many years and to so 
advanced an age. He was a popular magistrate, was 
opposed to the witchcraft delusion in 1692, which 
caused great alarm and distress at the commencement 
of (tovernor Phips' administration. He lived to be 
the Nestor of New England ; all who came over from 
England with him died before him. 



Mr. Bradstreet was not distinguished for splendid 
and powerful talents, but for those abilitieH and quali- 
fications which rendered him eminently useful. He 
was upright in his principles, of sound judgment, 
strict integrity, persevering in business, and sought 
usefulness rather than popularity. He was not the 
most highly esteemed by any party, but was despised 
by none. He was one of the fiithers of the Massachu- 
setts colony, and contributed much to its establish- 
ment and prosperity. He was a man of fortitude and 
suffered, with the other early settlers, many priva- 
tions and hardships, discouragements and disappoint- 
ments. The first two or three years were very trying 
and afflicting. They were exposed to the severity of 
the climate, with poor accommodations, to scarcity of 
provisions and the necessaries of life, and to sickness, 
which proved mortal to many of them. 

The following inscription is on his monument 
erected in Salem : 

"Simon Bbabsteeet. 

" Anuiger, exordine in Colonia Massachusettensi ab anno lfi30, usque 
ad annum 1073. Delude ad annum 1679, Vice-Gubernator. Deuic^ue 
ad annutu IGSO, ejusdem colonic, communi et constant! popuH suffragio, 

GCBERNATOE. 

Vir, judicio Lynceario preditns; quera nee numma, nee honos allexit. 
Kegis autboritatem, et populi libertatem roqua lance libravit. Eeligione 
cerilatue, vila innocuus, mundum et vicit el deseruit 27 die Martii, A. D. 
1697, annoque Guliel: 3t, IX et Aet. 04." 

Mr. Bradstreet was married in England to Miss 
Ann Dudley, daughter of Mr. Thomas Dudley, when 
she was sixteen years old. She bore eight children, 
— four sons and four daughters, — and died in North 
Andover, September 16, 1672. She is the most dis- 
tinguished of the early matrons of our country by 
her literary powers, of which proof is given in a vol» 
ume of poems, the second edition of which was 
printed at Boston, 1678, by John Foster, in a respect- 
able 12mo of 255 pp. It does honor to her educa- 
tion, by her frequent allusions to ancient literature 
and historical facts and to her character as a daugh- 
ter, a wife, a parent and a Christian. This volume is 
a real curiosity, though no reader, free from partiality 
of friendship, might coincide in the commendation of 
the funeral eulogy of John Norton : 



Her breast was a brave palace, a broad street 
Wiiero all heroic, ample thoughts did moot, 

Tliat other souls to lior's, dwelt in a lane.'* 

Dr. Mather, in his "Magnalia," gives high commen- 
dation of her, "whose poems, divers times printed, 
have afforded a grateful entertainment unto the in- 
genious, and a monument for her memory beyond the 
stateliest marbles." 

Her poems were also highly praised by President 
Rogers, of Harvard College, who said that " twice 
drinking of the nectar of her lines," left him " welter- 
ing in delight." " Edward Phillips, the nephew of 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1663 



Milton, speaks of her as the tenth inuse sprung up 
iu America." 

" None of the descendants of Simon Bradstreet are 
now living in North Andover. He married for his 
second wife a sister of Sir George Downing, who was 
in the first class graduated at Harvard, and who 
was ambassador of Cromwell and Charles II. to Hol- 
land." 

Some of the other prominent citizens of the town 
were John Osgood, of whose descendants, Isaac F. 
Osgood, (town-clerk and postmaster), T. Osgood Ward- 
well, Mrs. Charlotte (Osgood) Stevens, with her chil- 
dren and George B. Loring (2d) and John 0, Loring, a 
son of I. Osgood Loring, are now residents ; John 
Stevens whose descendants have been numerous and 
efficient ; John Frye, ancestor of distinguished soldiers 
iu the French and Revolutionary Wars ; Daniel Poor, 
whose descendants have occupied important positions; 
William Johnson, Andrew Peters, and Ephraim Fos- 
ter, all of whom have left an honorable record, which 
has been maintained by their descendants; Nicholas 
Holt, the ancestor of many influential and learned 
men ; John Lovejoy, the great grandfather of Gen. 
Nathaniel Lovejoy, who was graduated at Harvard in 
1766, and was a merchant in North Andover ; Andrew 
Foster, the ancestor of Hon. Ephraim Foster, statesman 
and patriot in the Revolutionary period, and of the 
Hon. Dwight Foster, United States Senator ; Joseph 
Parker, ii miller on the Cochichewick, ancestor of 
many worthy citizens of the town. 

Ecclesiastical. — Of all the obligations imposed 
by the General Court on the founders of the towns in 
New England, no one was considered more impera- 
tive and binding than that which required them " to 
provide and maintain an able and orthodox minister 
among them," and to build a meeting-house within 
three years. In obedience to this order, and in ac- 
cordance with the pious impulses of a people im- 
pressed with the importance of freedom of conscience 
in matters of religion, the settlers around Cochich- 
ewick selected, soon after their arrival, a spot on 
which to erect their sacred edifice. The precise date 
of the erection is not known ; but in 1669 a new 
meeting-house was constructed ; and a house was de- 
stroyed, on which the following order has been 
issued : 

" At a lawful town-meeting, the 3d of Feb'y, 1601, Itt is ordered 'that 
all liiBt comers of inhabitunls tliat havs I..hmi at the Lliaigus ..r pur- 
chasing the plantation and building llir ^l. r h-.n-, , iln null and 

and abalfc toevery acre house lotc- "I I . i- ■ : .i : i i.i.iy 
other inliabitant that have been ,il ihi iI-hl,. - -I IniMi-,^- the 
meoting-houae and mill is to be allowed une acre t" e; cry liouse lutt, and 
this land to be apportioned to the lota.' " 

It is evident, therefore, that soon after 1646 the 
first house was built, and there is every reason to be- 
lieve that it stood near the " Old North Burying- 
ground," and on the high land opposite the house of 
Governor Bradstreet. Its successor stood probably 
on the same spot and was evidently a commodious 



building, furnished with a bell which was used until 
1755 ; was protected by legislation against " doggs '' ; 
was provided with a sexton to sweep it and ring the 
bell, and was "seated" by a committee appointed to 
select the pews for the worshippers according to their 
position in society and the church. The selectmen 
undertook to keep the boys quiet in the galleries dur- 
ing divine service, and to stop their " prophanenes 
of y" Sabbath" in front of the church at noon-time. 

Sabbath-breakers were punished severely under 
special laws, by being confined in a cage ; they were 
reproved publicly by the minister, and heavily fined. 

This second meeting-house stood until 1711. A new 
one was then erected, which stood until 1753, when in 
June of that year a meeting-house was raised ; 300 
pounds sterling were voted for its construction, and 
January 1, 1754, pews were sold for £667 \5s. Sd. ; the 
highest pew at £17 Os. 8rf. ; the lowest at £6 13s. 4rf. 

The first of the ministers engaged in conducting 
public worship in these meeting-houses, whose exist- 
ence covered the first century of the town, was John 
Woodbridge. He came early to the town and took 
part in a conference of messengers of churches, which 
met in September, 1644, and appointed two churches 
to be gathered, one at Haverhill, the other at Ando- 
ver, both on the Merrimac River. At this meeting, 
which was held in Rowley on account of the inability 
of the two towns mentioned to entertain the assem- 
bly, " most of those who were to join together in 
church-fellowship at that time refused to make con- 
fession of their faith and repentance, because, as was 
said, they declared it openly before in other churches 
upon their admission into them." This assembly 
broke up, but was called together again in 1645, when 
the difficulty was settled, and Mr. John Ward was 
ordained pastor of the church at Haverhill, on the 
north side of the Merrimac, and Mr. John Wood- 
bridge was ordained pastor of the church of Andover, 
on the south side of the same. These two churches 
were the twenty-third and twenty-fourth organized in 
Massachusetts. 

Ten male members, including the pastor, composed 
the church gathered at that time, viz. : Mr. Johu 
Woodbridge, teacher; John Osgood, Robert Barnard, 
John Frye, Nicholas Holt, Richard Barker, Joseph 
Parker, Nathan Parker, Richard Blake, Edmond 
Faulkner. 

The Rev. John Woodbridge was a most extraor- 
dinary character. He was instrumental in purchasing 
the Andover plantation from Cutshamache. He came 
to this country in 1634, took up lands in New- 
bury and soon became one of the most active and 
useful members of the colony. He was master of the 
Boston Latin School at the time he came to North An- 
dover, having turned his attention to the ministry as a 
means of advancement. He was, alternately, deputy 
to the General Court, justice of the peace, religious 
teacher, schoolmaster, Indiaij trader and, in England, 
chaplain of the commissioners who treated with the 



1664 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



banished monarch, Charles I. Having lost his living 
lor non-conformity in England, he returned to New 
England, took up his abode again in Newbury, where 
he became assistant in the ministry of his uncle, 
magistrate and justice of the peace. He inclined 
somewhat to the English Church, so far as the powers 
and prerogatives of the minister were concerned. 
He died in 1695, at the age of eighty-two, leaving 
" three sons with two sons-in-law improved in the 
ministry of the Gospel, and four grandsons happily 
advanced thereto." 

Cotton Mather, in his biographical sketches of the 
"young scholars, whose education for their designed 
ministry not being finished, yet came over from Eng- 
land with their friends, and had their education per- 
fected in the country, before the college was come 
into maturity enough to bestow its laurels," says of 
Mr. Woodbridge : 

"But he that brinKS up the Hear is Mr. John Woodbiidge, of whom 
we are able to speak a little more particularly. He was born at Stan- 
ton, in Higliworth, in Wiltshire, about the year 1613, of which Parish 
his father was minister, and a minister so able and Faithful as to obtain 
an high esteem among those that knew at all the iuvaluable worth of 
such a minister. . llis mother was daughter of Sir. Eobert Parker, and 
a daughter who did so virtuously that her own personal character would 
have made her highly esteemed if a Relation to such a Father had not 
further added to the lustre of her character. 

" Our John was, by his worthy parents, trained up in the way that he 
should go and sent unto Oxford^ where his education and Proficiency at 
school had ripened him for the University, and kept at 0.\ford until the 
Oath of Conformity came to be required of him, which neither his 
father nor his conscience approving, he removed from tlience unto a 
course of more Private Stiidiea. The vigorous enforcing of the unhappy 
ceremonies there causing many that understood and regarded the Sec- 
ond Commandment ,iu the Laws of Heaven, to seek a peaceful recess 
for the pure worship of the Lord Jesus Christ in an ^luericfui Desert, 
our young Woodbridge, with the consent of his parents, undertook a 
voyage to Now England about the year 1G34, and the company and as- 
sistance of his worthy uucle, Mr. Thomwi Parker^ was not the least en- 
couragement of the voyage. He had not been long in the country be* 
fore Newberry began to be planted, when he accordingly took up lands 
and so seated himself that he Comfortably and Industriously Studied on, 
until the advice of his father's death obliged him to return to England, 
wliere, having settled iiis affairs, he returned again iuto New Kngland, 
bringing with him his two brothere, whereof one died on tho way. He 
had married the dangliter of the Honble Thomas Dudley, Esq., and tlio 
town of .'Vndovcr then firat peeping into the world, he wsu., by the hands 
of Mr. Wilson and Mr. Worcester, , September 10, 1G44, ordained tlio 
teacher of a Congregation there. There he continued witli good Repu- 
tation, discharging the duties of the ministry until, upon the invitation 
of friends, he returned once more to England." 

The Rev. Francis Dane succeeded Mr. Woodbridge. 
The time of his ordination is unknown, but it was 
about the year 1648. He was a resident of Ipswich 
in 1G41, and according to Felt "he removed to Ando- 
vcr in 1648." He was not graduated at either of the 
universities in England, but finished his studies in 
this country at "the college," before degrees were 
conferred. He left no autobiograpliy, nor was any 
sketch of his life or of his pastorate written and pub- 
lished, although he was pastor of an important parish 
forty-eight years, and was intimately connected with 
some interesting proceedings of the colony. A record 
of his creed, which he left written out in a note-book, 
shows him to have been inclined to liberal views. 



although accepting the doctrines which prevailed 
generally among the Puritans. His mind and heart 
were evidently in sympathy with all Christians of 
whatsoever denomination and with the universal 
church of Christ. It is not known that he had any 
part in the severity of the theological hierarchy 
which ruled New England, especially during the 
years of his ministry ; and there is no reason to sup- 
pose that he had any controversy with them. lie was 
evidently inclined to peace in his parish, and was not 
ambitious to be conspicuous in the controversies of 
his time or active in the organization of the colony. 
A difficulty which arose between himself and his 
church regarding the continuance of his salary when 
the infirmities of years rendered it necessary to furnish 
him assistance in the pulpit, either by colleague or 
associate, was amicably settled by the General Court, 
on terms salisfectory to all parties ; and the peace of 
the parish remained unbroken. By this step the 
church was saved from the painful consciousness of 
having neglected a faithful pastor, who had shared 
their joys and sorrows during the life of more than a 
generation — and the pastor was supported in his in- 
firmities by the assurance that the tender relations 
which had been established between himself and his 
people were not ungratefully forgotten. 

Mr. Dane and his colleague labored together 
sixteen years for the edification of a united people 
and for their mutual benefit and happiness. He was 
a man of good judgment, practical wisdom and cour- 
age. In his old age he defied the madness of the 
witchcraft delusion, even when his own life was in 
danger and many members of his own family were 
under arrest, bore all his trials with Christian forti- 
tude and resignation, and died, patiently submissive 
to the Lord's will, February 17, 1697, aged eighty-one 
years, " having been an officer in the church at North 
Andover forty-eight years."' 

The Rev. Thomas Barnard was the colleague of 
Mr. Dane and his successor in the pulpit at North 
Andover. He was a son of Francis Barnard, of Had- 
ley; was graduated at Harvard 1679, and was the 
founder of an illustrious line of clergymen, — his son, 
John Barnard, who succeeded him as pastor of the 
First Church in North Andover ; his grandsons. Rev. 
Thomas Barnard, of the First Church in Salem, and 
the Rev. Edward Barnard, of Haverhill ; and his 
great-grandson, the Rev. Thomas Barnard, Jr., who 
in 1772 was ordained first pastor of the North Church 
in Salem. On the death of Mr. Dane, he became 
sole pastor of the church, and seems to have infused 
new life into his parish. The parsonage-house was 
improved ; a new meeting-hnuse was built ; the terri- 
tory was set oflf by the General Court, into the North 
Parish, and 3Ir. Barnard was allowed to make choice 
of the parish over which he was to act as minister. 
He had his trials also. The division of the town gave 
rise to diUicullies not easily removed. The South 
Parish had built their meeting-house, and still Mr. 



NOKTH ANDOVER. 



1665 



Barnard was undecided which precinct to choose, and 
did not decide until the General Court compelled 
him, and the South Parish decided that "Mr. Samuel 
Phillips shall be our pastor." Mr. Barnard by this 
act lost many valuable parishioners and members of 
the church, and he complained to the General Court 
that " the north part of the town, that was the first 
settlement, are dissatisfied that they are made the 
lesser part" — a complaint which was renewed a cen- 
tury and a half later, when the town was divided. 
The erection of the new meeting-house followed the 
division, and it was a commodious building, suited to 
a devoted and growing parish. " During the long 
and warm altercation, Mr. Barnard conducted with 
such prudence and affectionate fidelity as to retain 
the esteem and confidence of all his people." He was 
always on terms of warm friendship with Mr. Phillips, 
of the South Parish, who said of him in public : 

'■I have always ystceineil it a favor of Providence that my lot was cast 
iu tilt; .^,1111 i,i,\ [I w nil iliiit holy man of God, who was pleased to express 
the km I , ; I I , i - ins, and where I had for some years the ad- 

vantii-. .111(1 example. He was really one of the best of 

minisir 1- ii I I iir I ,;i_:i.. .,f the learned, was a sound <fe eminent divine, 
delivered ex-ellent seniiung, and had the Bpirit as well as the gift of 
prayer ; was gentle as a father, yet maintaining government & disci- 
pline in the church, very objiging toward all men, and always studied 
the things that make for peace." 

At his death the parish set apart a day of " fasting 
and prayer to all-mytie God that the Lat & awfull 
Strok in taking away the Reverend Pastuer by so 
sudden a death be sanctified to His Flock left desti- 
tute of a Preacher." The funeral expenses were lib- 
erally paid by the parish, and a simple upright grave- 
stone marks the spot where he was buried. 

Mr. Barnard married, December, 1686, Elizabeth 
Price, who died October, 1092 ; for a second wife. 
May, 1696, Abigail Bull, who died August, 1702. He 
was married to his third wife, Lydia Goffe, August, 
170-1. Thomas, his oldest son, born October, 1688, 
died before his father, without issue. John, born 
March, 1690, was graduated at Harvard, 1709, or- 
dained minister of Andover North Parish April, 
1719, died June 14, 1757. Theodore, bis youngest 
son, bom February, 1692, died February, 1725, aged 
thirty-two years, leaving three children — Elizabeth, 
Theodore and Hannah. Elizabeth was the wife of 
the Hon. S. Phillips, and mother of the late Lieuten- 
ant-Governor S. Phillips. 

Rev. John Barnard, son of the Rev. Thomas Bar- 
nard, was graduated at Harvard 1709, and was invited 
as successor to his father December 16, 1718, only 
two months after the death of the latter. He began to 
preach as settled minister in January, 1719, and was 
ordained the 8th of April following. Prior to his 
ministry he had taught school in Andover and in the 
North Grammar School, Boston. 

The history of Mr. Barnard's ministry has been 
carefully written by both of the able and e-xcellent 
annalists of Andover. He is represented by them as 
a man of piety, gentleness and pleasantry, of faith- 
fulness in the discharge of his ministerial duties, 
105 



highly respected as a preacher, and posessed of a 
sound understanding, benevolence and urbanity. 
"His ministry," says Miss Bailey, 



■ring ( 



the religious world and in the 
provincial history, and yet this would not appear from the church and 
parii^h records. Then, notwithstanding the prominent pirt of members 
of the parish in the Indian and French Wars, and the connection of the 
pastor with the controversy in regard to the Rev. George Whifefield and 
the Great awakening, nothing more exciting appears uii the record than 
building and seating the meeting-house, buying si h.i l r t!i . , n inHiinu 
service aud clock and bell for the meeting-house. I |;. ;, i v - [, ,t 
in sympathy with Mr. Whitefleld. He did nut ii . ,iu 

was no enthusiast, but had a supreme regard f.-i ].i., !i.i. II was 
himself regarded by some of the clergy as bel.uij;in; to the party of 
doubtful orthodoxy. But, whatever his theology, ho disapproved "the 
fanaticism, as he thought it, and abhorred what he regarded as the ir- 
reverence and impiety of the great evangelist, who denounced the dig- 
nitati'.-: -'f iy ' -■ i"i-i nwealth, and hurled anathemtis at the ancient 
and vri ! ,11.. : II niiig. Harvard College and her younger, but 
alsoleiii I,: I , liege. Nor could Mr. Barnard, like some of 

his 111. Ill, ; nil, i.iluoktha evil and find the good in the move- 
ment, III. 11.111 , ih.iijl..'re, heads the list of one of the two neigh- 
boring associations of iiiiuisters in the county who addressed a letter 
to the .Associated Ministers of Boston and Charlestown remonstrating on 
the admission of Mr. Whitefleld into their pulpits. 

" The North Church prospered under Mr. Barnard's hands. Five 
hundred new members were added and there were twelve hundred bap- 
tisms during his ministry. 

" In 1753 the North Parish built another new meeting-housa. Pews 
sold, Jan. 1, 1754, for £667 los. Sd. Silver was procured for the com- 
munion service, and the pewter ' plate formerly used was given to the 
church in Methuen. . . .' 



"The sil 
tankards wi' 
by Mrs. -<.r 

Ebe.i,.,. I . I 



and cleg int. It consists of eleven 
ons. The oldest tankard was given 
T>l. The others were the gifts ra- 
,-1,1723; Mrs. Mary .\slBb.!, 17.iU; 
■ 1. IT.U, in fuinilment of the desire 
I : widow Elizabeth Ahli.it, 17.56 ; 
.. are three inscribed 'For the use 
iidover, A. D., 1728, one 1729.' The 



of his _■, I . , ,. , I II., ■ .. I , 

Capt. T,iii,,.liy,|.,l,i,.,i,, ITnl, Ml.,,.. 

of the Kirst L'huivli of Christ in Am 

two flagons weie given, one by Benjamin B.irker, 17i;5 ; the other in 

1801, by Capt. Peter Osgood." 

The discipline of the church members, during Mr. 
Barnard's ministry, was such as is usually found in 
the records of the New England parishes, and indi- 
cated a determination to expose and punish those 
demoralizing habits wbicb were loo common in our 
colonial period. 

Mr. Barnard was married, 1725, to Miss Sarah 
Osgood, a daughter of Deacon John Osgood, who 
died 1765, aged eighty-three. His son, the Rev. 
Thomas Barnard, was settled in Newbury, 1740, and 
in 1755 over the First Church iu Salem. His son 
Edmund was settled in Haverhill. Mr. Barnard died 
suddenly, June 14, 1757, aged sixty-seven years, and 
after a ministry of thirty-eight years. He was sin- 
cerely mourned by his people, and the best minds of the 
community hastened to pay tribute to his memory. 

The printed discourses of Mr. Barnard were, one 
on the death of Mr. Abiel Abbot ; one at the ordina- 
tion of the Rev. Timothy Walder, of Concord, N. H., 
and an election sermon, 1746. 

The faith which had prevailed thus far in the First 
Church of Andover was that brought over by the 
Puritans and preserved by them with great care. 
They believed that all men are, by nature, destitute 
of true piety ; that they naturally grow up in the 
practice of sin ; and that no one becomes religious 
except by a change in his habits of thought, feeling 
and conduct, which they ascribed to the special oper- 
ation of the Holy Spirit as a supernatural cause. 



1666 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTiT, MASSACHUSETTS. 



They believed that the truly pious are ordinarily 
conscious of this change in the action of their owu 
minds when it takes place, and are able to describe 
it, though they may not then know that the change 
of which they are conscious is regeneration. 

The creed adopted by the Theological Institution 
organized in 180S, in the South Parish of Andover, is 
perhaps the most perfect embodiment of the Puritan 
religious belief; viz., — 

••Wfbeliovein the existence of i.iu> true i:>i.l. KuiIkt, .Sun iiiid Holy 
Ghost; that the Scriptures of the 111. i .ul _\. « I -lin iii«.i. );ivon 
l>y diviue iuspirjition aud contain III' ■ i i nl pnic- 
tice ; iu the fall uf man imd in liia . I: , - ' i'.-Mty 

the doctrines of repentnnco toward <i<iil and t't I';iiUi t«)\\ard unr Lord 
Jesns Christ; sanctiflcalion by the Holy Spirit, of jusliticatlon by the 
free grace of God through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ; in 
the doctrine of a general resurrection and future judgment; in the 
everlasting blessedness of the righteous and ihc endless punishment of 
the finally impenitent, and generally in the principles of religion con- 
tained in the Assembly's Shorter Catechism." 

In all the revivals which took place in the colony, 
especially in that of 1740, in which Whitefield took an 
active and powerful part, it was held that every man 
is born in sin, and, unless some evidence appears to 
the contrary, is to be esteemed an heir to perdition, 
and that regeneration is a change accompanied with 
evidence by which it may be proved. 

A growing uneasiness under these doctrines became 
manifest about the middle of the last century, and 
throughout New England there was an inclination to 
adopt the views of Arminius, that God had resolved 
from eternity on the salvation and damnation of men 
dependent on man's belief or unbelief, by which he 
would be saved or damned ; that Christ died for all 
men, but nobody could partake of his salvation ex- 
cept he believe, and that man must be born again of 
God in Christ through the Holy Ghost to be saved, 
that nobody can without the grace of God think, will 
or do anything good, because all our good works have 
their origin in God's grace; that the faithful can 
struggle against Satan successfully by the assistance 
of the Holy Gho»t. 

It will be remembered that the Rev. Francis Dane, 
in a creed of his own composition, manifested con- 
siderable moderation in doctrine, and that his ortho- 
doxy was somewhat tiuestioned. Through the minds 
of his successors this liberality evidently ran, and 
although the fraternity of the churches was main- 
tained, there was evidently a dividing sentiment 
growing up between them. On the death of the Rev. 
John Barnard the tendency of the First Church 
in Andover to liberal views was shown by the 
settlement of the Rev. William Syniines over the 
bereaved parish. Dr. Symmes, as he is usually called 
(having received the degree of D.D. from Harvard), 
was born in Charlestown, was graduated at Harvard 
in 1650, began to preach in North Andover soon after 
the decease of Mr. Barnard, and was on the 5th of 
December, 1757, invited lo settle over the parish. 
On account of sickness his ordination was postponed 
until November 1, 1758. 



Dr. Symmes held a high rank among the clergy of 
his day. He came to North Andover with a good 
reputation as a scholar and a learned divine. He 
had enjoyed the social opportunities of Boston and 
Charlestown in his youth, and had been a tutor at Har- 
vard I'or three years, from 1755 to 1758. He possessed 
great intellectual delicacy and a nature responsive to 
all good thoughts and noble emotions. As a writer 
he was one of the purest of his day. His sermons 
were carefully prepared, methodical in their arrange- 
ment and conclusive in their reasoning. He delivered 
them in a calm and dignified manner, without the 
grace or fervor of oratory, but in a way calculated to 
arrest the attention of the thoughtful and to carry 
conviction to the cultivated mind. He may have 
been deficient in worldly wisdom and exposed at 
limes to the designs of the selfish and unprincipled ; 
but his i)iety, sincerity and devotion to his call- 
ing were never questioned, and in tirats of great civil, 
social and financial trial he bore himself with great 
calmness and submission, and retained his command- 
ing influence among his people. His views of domes- 
tic discipline were somewhat severe; but he was a 
kind and indulgent parent, ready at all times to sacri- 
fice himself for the good of his children. He was 
quick and at times irritable ; but he usually held him- 
self in perfect control. His church was harmonious, 
and sectarian disputes were unknown in his parish. 
He was prudent and economical in his affairs, and was 
so careful in his expenditures that when the parish 
voted to raise £1940 to pay the deficiency in his salary 
since the depreciation of paper money during the 
Revolutionary War, he relinquished one thousand 
dollars of the sum so generously and thoughtfully 
bestowed. During his ministry the French War was 
raging; the Revolutionary War, with all its prelimi- 
nary troubles, was carried on to its glorious, but ex- 
hausted conclusion; the disturbances of the F''rench 
Revolution reached our infant State and society, and 
disorder reigned throughout the civilized world. But 
through all Dr.Symmes accommodated himself to cir- 
cumstances, took a wise and judicious survey of pass- 
ing events, and preserved the good order and unani- 
mity of his parish. 

Dr. Symmes, in his views of the Calvinistic school, 
went beyond his predecessors. Dr. Abbot says of him : 
" In opinions he accorded rather with Arminius than 
with Calvin ; and with Arius rather than Athanasius." 
True, he exchanged pulpits with the Rev. Mr. French, 
of the South Parish, but they differed widely in their 
views, and that divergence began which early in the 
ministry of his successor resulted in a complete sepa- 
ration and non-intercourse. At his death his church 
was already classed with the Unitarian organizations 
of New England, and from that time has been united 
with that denomination. 

The manuscripts of Dr. Symmes were destroyed at 
his death, in accordance with his own instructions, 
and a valuable mass of information on local afl'airs 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1611'; 



was lost. His printed publications were a Lecture on 
Psalmody; a Thanksgiving Sermon, 17G8; Sermon at 
the General Election, 1785. 

Dr. Symmes married, in 1759, Anna, daughter of 
the Rev. Joshua Gee, of Boston ; she died in 1772. 
They had five sons and four daughters, all of whom, 
except Daniel and Mrs. Cazeneau, died before him. 
William, a counselor-at-law, died in Portland, Janu- 
ary, 1807, in the forty-sixth year of his age, not hav- 
ing been married ; Daniel, born October, 1764, went to 
the southward ; Joshua Gee, a physician, died at sea; 
Elizabeth, died August, 1784, aged nineteen years ; 
Theodore, a physician, settled in Falmouth, died at 
New Gloucester. 

Anna married Mr. Isaac Cazeneau, lived in the 
homestead for many years, removed to Bo.ston about 
1836, where she died in 1849. Converse died young. 
Lydia and Charlotte were twins, and died in infancy, 
December 30, 1771. 

His second wife was Miss Susannah Powell, who died 
July, 1807, aged seventy-nine. 

Dr. Symmes died May 3, 1807. 

The parish, after having a number of candidates 
for the ministry, united July 10, 1810, in calling the 
Rev. Bailey Loring, of Duxbury, to settle in the Gos- 
pel ministry. The ordination was on the 19th of 
September, 1810. 

It is a curious and interesting fact that the church 
covenant that had been in use previously to this time 
could not be found when Mr. Loring entered upon 
his ministry. The church, however, soon adopted the 
following: 

" Yon profess to lielleve in One God tlie Father— malier of all tilings— 
and in .\i-^u< t'\iri<f his s.ni, the Messiah and Savi..iir nf iiihti, r}..- ..nly 

Medi^ti.-t i„iu., I ..II. I man, and in the H.ilv »....! Mi,, I, i..-,trs 

testini....\ , . il .I..1 confirms the Faith ..] . . : , . ^ .1 i..- 

ceivi- tii. 1: . ■ ; :.^..f the Old and Ne« I - . ,. ,1 ...... 

profitiil.I.' [ .. .:.. iii.,. i'[ir..of, correction and iii-ii.. '1 1; .1. i,.'',i ...is- 

Satvation. You profess repentance of all past vices and a full purx>ose 
of heart to fjrsake every evil and false way and to cleave to that 
which is good. Y..u d.. "now publicly covenant with God that you will 
search after an. I .' . ri. T. ;.'i .- it is in .Jt-sus-that fleeing sinful 
lusts, you will l'..ll [. _' . 11 — ■ li.irity and peace— that you 

will not forsak... i; '. ...-It v, itli the people of God for 

public worship, 1... ,,..,. ,. ..1 .u.-nnl »iudy to walk in all the 
commandments ainl ^,i.jui.uiLL.i ..1 tii*-* LuiJ bianielessly— and that walk- 
ing in communion uilh tUis church, you will submit to its watchful 
care and discipline, praying for its ediiicatiou and the prosperity of 

In 1817 the parish purchased land of Jonathan 
Stevens for a burying-ground, on the high land north 
of and near the church. In 1822 stoves were intro- 
duced into the meeting-house. In 1825 the training- 
field north of Dr. Kittredge's house, and near the spot 
where the first meeting-house stood, was exchanged 
for four acres in front of the meeting-house, to be 
opened for a common. 

"In 1834 a few members of the First Church withdrew, and uniting 
with fourteen members from the South Church, formed ' the Evangelical 
Church in North .\ndover,' and established religious worship in a meet- 
ing-house which had been built by subscriptions of the Evaugelical 
Cliurchea of Essex County.'* 

In the same year the First Church and Parish de- 
cided to build a new meeting-house in place of the 
structure erected in 1758, and voted to appropriate 



seven thousand dollars to build. The house was dedi- 
cated June 1,1835. The cost of the building was 
eleven thousand five hundred dollars ; and it stands 
near the site of the old one. The old clock and bell 
were preserved. Into this meeting-house an organ 
was introduced in 1844 — and the clarionet and bassoon 
and violin and bass-viol of the old orchestra were 
heard no more. Dr. Rufus Wyman was thanked by 
the society for the "gift of a very elegant Bible for 
the pulpit of the new meeting-house." 

An extended biographical sketch of Mr. Loring will 
be found toward the close of this history of the town. 

The seventh minister was the Rev. Francis 
Williams. He was ordained February 27, 1850, and 
continued in office to May 27, 1856. He resigned to 
accept a call to Brattleborough, Vt. He left many 
warm friends in the parish. 

The eighth minister was the Rev. Charles C.Vinal, 
ordained May 6, 1857. He continued in office thir- 
teen years, to March, 1870. During his pastorate a 
parsonage was built, the parish having received for that 
purpose a testamentary bequest of six thousand dol- 
lars, from the late Hon. William Johnson. Mr. Vinal, 
in 1870, accepted a call to the Unitarian Church in 
Kennebunk, Maine, where he is now the pastor. His 
resignation was received with regret and he is kindly 
remembered in the jiarish. 

The par.sonage was destroyed by fire while it was 
unoccupied in 1870, and the parish library, the gift of 
the Rev. Mr. Loring, and the later church records 
were burned. The new parsonage was built in 1871. 

The ninth and present pastor, the Rev. John H. 
Clifford, was ordained August 29, 1871. He and the 
two preceding pastors were graduates of the Cam- 
bridge Divinity school. 
I The deacons of the First Church during the one 
hundred and eighty -nine years in which it was the 
only church in North Andover, and who sat in a 
special seat in front of the pulpit, were the following : 
John Frye, John Barker, 1693 ; Joseph Stevens, 
1694; John Osgood, 1719; John Farnum, 1727; 
Samuel Barker, 1736 ; Samuel Phillipi, 1748 ; Joseph 
Osgood, 1763; Joseph Barker. 1766; Benjamin 
Farnum, 1790; John Adams, 1797 ; George Osgood, 
1797; Joshua Wilson, 1813; Jedediah Farnum, 
1824; William Frost, 1824. 

The Evangelical Church of North Andover, 1834, 
was the next religious organization made in the old 
town. The establishment of the Theological Semi- 
nary had tended to bring questions of creed more 
prominently before the churches, and to emphasize 
the importance of doctrinal distinctions. The churches 
and individuals came more and more to consider it a 
duty to define their position and to range themselves 
conspicuously on one side or the other of the denomi- 
national lines, which, about the beginning of the 
present century, began to be closely drawn. The 
questions which finally ended in the division of the 
Congregational body into Unitarian and Trinitarian 



lt)6S 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



were discussed with more earnestness and acrimony. 
The North Church, from the beginning, had been 
more Arminian than Calvini.st, in tendency, althoup;h 
its pastors had associated in cordial fellowship with 
their brother clergy of the Calvinistic creed, and even 
in later times the names of Dr. Symmes and Mr. 
Loring were on the " Andover Association " (now of 
Calvinistic and Trinitarian Congregational order). 
But a strong feeling had grown up in the town that 
the First Church was not of the true faith, or sup- 
porting an Evangelical ministry, and that another 
church ought to be organized in the North Parish for 
the accommodation of individuals of the First Church 
who were not in sympathy with its prevailing tone, 
and for persons of Calvinistic faith, who had become 
residents of the parish, but had not removed their 
connection from the churches in the respective towns 
of their former residence. 

The South and West Churches and the Church 
of the Theological Seminary favored this movement, 
and aid was pledged by the Home Missionary Society. 
Subscriptions were obtained among the churches of 
the county and a meeting-house was erected in North 
Andover, a little east of the North meeting-house. 
The house of worship was dedicated September 4, 
1834, and on the same day the Evangelical Church 
was organized. It consisted of thirty-one members: 
seven of whom were from the First Church, fourteen 
from the South Parish. The others were from churches 
in various towns, but probably nearly all residents of 
North Andover. 

The church was supplied with preachers for some 
mouths by the neighboring churches. In 1835, Sep- 
tember 9th, the first minister was settled — the Rev. 
Jesse Page. 

In 1865 the original house of worship at the centre 
of the town was abandoned, and a new and commo- 
dious church edifice was built in the Machine-shop 
Village. 

The names of the ministers are as follows: Rev. 
Jesse Page, graduate of Dartmouth College 1831, of 
Andover Theological Seminary 1835; Rev. William 
T. Briggs, graduate of Oberlin Institute 1844, or- 
dained in North Andover November 4, 1846 ; Rev, 
Levi H. Cobb, graduate of Dartmouth College 1854, 
Andover Theological Seminary 1857, ordained at 
North Andover October 28, 1857 ; Rev. Benjamin F. 
Hamilton, graduate of Amherst College 1861, An- 
dover Theological Seminary 1864, ordained at North 
Andover June 28, 1865 ; Rev. Rufus C. Flagg, gradu- 
ate of Middlebury College, Vt., installed at North 
Andover September 26, 1872; Rev. George Pierce, 
graduate of Dartmouth College 1863, installed at 
North Andover October 16, 1878. 

The following churches have been organized iu 
North Andover in addition to those already men- 
tioned: Methodist Episcopal Church, 1845; Roman 
Catholic Church, 1868 ; Protestant Episcopal Church, 



Civil and Military. — The civil and military 
movements of North Andover are for a long series of 
years so intimately connected with the entire town, as 
originally founded, that it is difficult to deal with 
either precinct or parish separately. The events, 
however, which occurred on the territory of North 
Andover, and the persons who took an active part iu 
them may with propriety be referred to in this 
sketch. 

The first town-meeting, according to the records, 
was held in 1656 at the house of John Osgood. The 
freeholders were expected to attend these meetings 
and were fined for absence. Perfect order was pre- 
served in these assemblies; and it was ordered that if 
any man speak in town-meeting after silence com- 
manded twice by the moderator, he shall forfeit 
twelve pence. Care was taken that the metes and 
bounds of the various estates should be preserved ac- 
curately by inspection every three years. The disci- 
pline with regard to seats in the meeting-house was 
severe. Young persons were not allowed abroad on 
Saturday or Sunday nights, and no entertainments 
could be given after nine o'clock. The settlement of 
mechanics and tradesmen was especially encouraged ; 
and the building of mills was favored greatly. Iu 
1686 Henry Ingalls was allowed to set up a saw-mill 
on Musketoe River; and in 1695 Samuel Osgood, 
John Abbot, Sr., Joseph and Henry Chandler, had 
liberty granted them to erect a saw-mill on Cochiche- 
wick Brook two or three rods above the lower ford 
way, probably near the site of the North Andover 
Woolen Mills. 

An act was passed June, 1801, by the General 
Court requiring the treasurer of the proprietors of 
Andover to pay over one-half of all the moneys and 
estate which was or may hereafter be in his hands as 
treasurer unto the trustees of the Free School in the 
North Parish in Andover for instruction in the 
school. 

In 1765 it was voted that : 

"Whereas, sundry of tiie inlinbitfintsof the town are threatened with 
injunt-s uml ;iIiii,^<'S ficni riotous assemblies said town unjiiiiniMjisly \oted 

tli.ir II!' I , ill: II. f all such \ioIcnt and extrauni i 

ill--, I ill I . mien, the militia officers and iiiii- 

tow n I I h.-ir titmost endeavors apreeaMi' 

jiri" 111' -iiiM . II '! iliiii llie freeholders and other iiiliiili: 
ovorylliiiif^ HI Dirir power to assist them thoreiu." 

In 1765 a committee, consisting of Colonel James 
Frye, Moody Bridges, Peter Osgood, Colonel John 
Osgood and others, residents of North Andover, ad- 
dressed the following instructions: 

*' To Samuel PhiUips, Esq,^ Representativa for the town of Andover in hi» 

Miijesli/t Province of tlie MatsachitseUs Bay : 

"Sir, We, the freeholders and other inhabitants of said town, legally 

assembled in town-moetinfr nn said day, to considerwhat may bo proper 

on our part to lit' <)'■)■'■ :tt fl'i-^ 'Tili.-nl itiMctm-''. hi-iii-_' atime weappre- 

hend that wr iiiiil II i -i ■! 1'- ^l i . -m - ~iii i- I Ihis province, as 

well as those oi : :i : ; . ; i:, I: i,i>h America, are 

by sundry :ii I ' 1: ii: i . ,, . i .Mnily by an act 

commonly cnllio ilLrMinj. \it, m i.i _.i .: i,;h- ri't onlj' reduced to 
such indigont circtimf-Ianci'S as will render iif> uimMe to manifest our 
loyalty to the Crown of Great Britain, as upon all occasions we have 
bcrotoforo done, by cheerfully exhibiting our substance for the defence 
of the British domiufons iu this part of the world ; but of being deprived 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1669 



ityi 



: most valuable privileges, which by charter and loyalty 
s tli.iuLlit iind still think ourselves justly entitled to ; 

• t f'i l.ieaduty jnstly due to f i?r<rl, r.: :,r'! r"«ter- 

' n do not give your afM r' ' ' ' \--ini- 

illingnessinyourcciii.-iii I .my 

iuteiii.i . itr any colour import. (1 ' i: > tlie 

GeiiuuiL ;; ; :..-- i .^ Muce, agreeable to the ri n-: iii.i. u ! ili- ^mv- 

ernmeiit; Thul yuu juiii iu such dutiful remonstrances tu ijn- Kiiiguud 
Parliament and other becoming measures as shall carry the greatest 
probability to obtain a repeal of the Stamp Act, and an alleviation of the 
embarrassments, the commercial affairs of this province labour under by 
the vigorous execution of the acts of Parliament respecting tho same ; 
and we also desire you to use your utmost endeavors that all extraordi- 
nary grants and expensive measures may upon all occasious as much as 
possibi.. In- avuide.l ; ;ind we would recommend particularly the strictest 
care ;iTi 1 <1 - :,i:i -i fi iiiiits-sto prevent all unconstitutional draughts 
upuii tl ' ' ■ ; that you would use your best endeavor*', in 

conjinr (. r members of the General Court, to suppress 

all riui-M- :i.i ,1 M uiblies, and to prevent all unlawful acts of 



In 1756 the following expression of sympathy with 
the sufferers during the commotion respecting the 
Stamp Act is honorable to the town : " Being put to 
vote whether the town will instruct their Representa- 
tive to use his influence in the Great and General 
Court of this province that the suflerera in the late 
troublesome times in Boston may have a consideration 
paid them out of the Province Treasury, orsuch 
other way as said Court shall judge to be most lit and 
equittible : " it passed in the afiirmative. 

In 1768 it was voted that Samuel Phillips, Capt. 
Peter Osgood, Col. James Frye and others be a com- 
mittee to consider some measures that may tend to 
encourage prudence and manufactures and to lessen 
the use of superfluities in the town, and report at the 
annual meetiug of the town in May next. The com- 
mittee appointed reported : " That in order to securing 
to ourselves and transmitting to posterity these 
invaluable rights and privileges, both civil and relig- 
ious, which have been dearly purchased by our 
predecessors, the first settlers of this country, the loss 
of which is greatly threatened by the great and grow- 
ing imprudences and immoralities among us, — The 
committee are humbly of the opinion that it is abso- 
lutely necessary that the inhabitants of this town use 
their utmost endeavors, and that they enforce their 
endeavors by their example, for the suppressing of ex- 
travagance, idleness and vice, and for the promoting 
of industry, economy and good morals ; and by all 
prudent means endeavor to discountenance the im- 
portation and use of foreign superfluities, and to 
promote and encourage manufactures in the town." 
The above report was unanimously accepted by the 
town. 

In 1770, "The town, taking into consideration the 
distresses this province is laboring under by the 
operation of a late act of Parliment imposing duties 
on tea, paper, glass, etc., made and passed for the 
express purpose of raising a revenue in the American 
Colonies without their consent, which we apprehend 
is oppressive, repugnant to the natural and constitu- 
tional rights of the people, contrary both to the spirit 
and letter of the royal Charter granted by their 
majesties William and Queen Mary to the inhabitants 



of this province, whereby are ordained and establish- 
ed the having and enjoying all liberties and immuni- 
ties of free and natural born subjects ; and subversive 
of the great and good designs of our most worthy 
ancestors, who crossed the ocean, willingly exposed 
themselves to every danger, parted with their blood 
and treasure, suffered hunger, cold and nakedness, 
and every other hardship human nature is capable 
of, to purchase and defend a quiet habitation for 
themselves and posterity; Therefore voted, nemine 
contradicente. 

" 1. That it is the duty of every friend of liberty and to the British con- 
stitution to use all legal measures to prevent, if possible, the execution of 
said act, and would embrace this opportunity to express our warmest 
gratitude to the merchants and other gentlemen of Boston and other 
trading towns in this province for the regular, constitutioual and spirited 
measures pursued by them, from principles truly generous, for repelling 
tyranny and oppression and establishing those rights for themselves and 
countrj which they are entitled to as men and as Englishmen. 

"2. That we will, by all legal and constitutional measures in our 
power, support and encourage the non importation agreement of the 
merchants ; and that we will have no commercial or social connexions, 
directly or indirectly, with those persons who, aseuemies to the country, 
divesied of every public virtue, and even of humanity itself, regardless 
of and deaf to the miseries and calamities which threaten this people, 
preferring their own private interest to the liberty and freedom of the 
connnunity, are sordidly endeavoring to counteract such benevolent and 
salutary agreement. 

":t. That we will encourage frngality, industry and the manufactures 
of this country ; and that we will not make use of any foreign tea, or 
suffer it to be used in our families (case of sickness alone excepted), until 
the act imposing a duty on that article be repealed and a general impor- 
tation take place." 

In 1774 it was, — 

"Resolved, That no person in this town who has heretofore been 
concerned in vending tea, or any other person, may, on any pretence 
whatever, either sell himself, or be accessory to selling, any tea of foreign 
importation, while it remains burthened with a duty, under penalty 
of incurring the to 



In December, 1774, it was,- 



" Itesolved. That it is the indispensable duty of this town to conform 
and firmly ailbere to the A.ssociation of the Grand American Continental 
Cons;n'-, Hi 1 t fli- r. = Ive of the Provincial Congress of the 5th of De- 
ceinlMi. ■' ■ ■ ■ : ■ ■ _ and in" order that this may l-e thoroughly ef- 
fect, il, I : ' 1.1- of the town of the age of twenty-one years 
and III. v. ( . , : the following agreement, viz. : 

" \V.j, tl.'j ;.ib.~.r-'.. I:, having attentively considered the Association 
oftheGraud American Continental Congress, respecting the nou-inipor- 
tation, non-exportation and non-consumption ol goods, etc.. signed by 
the Delegates of this and other colonies on the Continent, and the re- 
solve of the Provincial Congress of the .5th of December thereto relating, 
do heartily approve the same and every part of them; and in order to 
m;ike s;ud Association resolve our own personal act. Do, by these pres- 
ents, under the sacred ties of virtue, honor and love of our country. 



January 2, 1775, a committee was appointed, of 
which Colonel James Frye, Colonel Samuel Johnson, 
Captain John Farnum and Moody Bridges were 
members, to observe that the resolves of the Grand 
American and Provincial Congresses be strictly ad- 
hered to. The instructions to the committee require 
them to — 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



"Use their utmost endftavoura that the non-consumption agi-eement be 
strictly adliercd to ; to encourage tlio people to impiovo the breed of 
sheep and to increase their number; to encourage frugality, economy 
and industry, anil promote agriculture, arts and manufactures, and dis- 
countenance and discourage every species of extravagance and dissipa- 
tion ; and that they recommonc: to the people of the town that they, on 
the death of any near relations, go into no further mourning dress than 
a black crape or ribbon on the arm or liat for men, and a black ribbon 






traders in this town, and i:i\. iii i;i,i;i n i.> the public of all persons as 
shall violate the Ninth :iri i i 
of their goods; that thev I ! : 
immediately after the t.-nlli : n l " '■ ' i nrxt. and take a full Inven- 
tory of all the goods, warrs und riicr. Iiiuulizi- which shall then be in their 
hands, and shall require tliein to offer no more of those goods for sale ; 
and if any merchant, trailer or others shall refuse to have on inventory 
taken, or Khali offer for sale after the tenth of October aforesaid any such 
goods, wares or nierchanili'/e, the Committee is directed to take the goods 
into their possi/Mfion, at the risque of the proper owners, until the repeal 
of Iho Acts referred to, and publish the names of such refractory mer- 
chants or traders, that they may meet with the merits of enemies to their 
country ; and the town doth hereby engage to assist and support said 
committee in the discbarge of their trust ; that the Committee inspect 
the conduct of every person in the town touching the aforesnd Associa- 
tion ; that if any person or persons shall wilfully violate said Associa- 
tion, that the majority of said Committee cause the name of such person 
or persons forthwith to be published in tlie Gazette, to the end that all 
such foes to the rights of British America may be publicly known ; and 
it is further recommended to said Committee that they act in every re- 
spect as it shall appear to them to be their duty as a Committee of inspec- 
tion, whose duty is more fully pointed out in the Continental Associa- 
tion and Provincial Resolves." 

.Tunc 12, 177(5, the questinn being put, "Whether, 
should the Honorable Congress, for the safety of the 
colonies, declare them independent of the Kingdom 
of Great Britain, you will solemnly engage with your 
lives and fortunes to .'■upport them in the measure," 
it pa.ssed in the affirmative unanimously. 

Oct. 3d, 1776, it was voted to support the House of 
Representatives, should they conclude to submit a 
constitution and form of government for the State to 
the people thereof. 

In 1777 the town voted to supply the families of 
non-commissioned officers and private soldiers belong- 
ing to this town, that are engaged in the Continental 
array, with the necessaries of life, that their circum- 
stances may require, agreeable to a resolve of the 
General Court. 

July 2. 1779, Mr. Sam'l Osgood, Mr. Sam'l Phillips, 
Jr., Mr. John Farnuin and Mr. Zebediah Abbot, were 
elected delegates " to attend at the convention to be 
holden at Cambridge, on September next, for the pur- 
pose of forming a Constitution of Government." 

The conduct of the town during the Revolutionary 
War was most exemplary. There was great unan- 
imity of feeling and a resolute determination to stand 
by the patriot cause. In raising men and taking care 
of their families, the town was patriotic, charitable 
and liberal. And the persons to whom the work was 
entrusted had the entire confidence of the people. 
The sentiments of the town were expressed in the 
resolves which have been already quoted. 

In the French and Indian Wars which preceded, 
and in the Revolutionary War, which followed tiie 
adoption of these resolves, North Andover took an 
important and conspicuous part. Her soldiers iu the 



French War were in almost every engagement; her 
officers were able, efficient and distinguished. Col. 
James Frye, who seems to have been a leading man in 
the town, commenced at Crown Point that career as 
a commander which culminated in the Revolutionary 
War. 

Col. Joseph Frye, who was conspicuous in the de- 
struction of Acadia, commenced in this war his long 
and brilliant career of service. His house in North 
Andover stood near the famous elm-tree planted by 
Chaplain Frye when he departed with Lovewell's 
expedition. He had command of a small body of 
troops outside Fort William Henry, when the disas- 
trous attack was made on it by Monrcalm with his 
savages. He fought the enemy in front, opposed 
capitulation in the rear, and slew the savage who led 
him forth a prisoner to torture and death. 



which followed the surrender he was dnigged into 
oods, stripped of his clothes, except his shirt, and was about to be 

the sudden strength of denieratlon, he sprang upon 
his foe, all unarmed and naked as he was, beat down and dispatched the 
warrior who was already exulting ,in his anticipated scalping. Three 
days he wandered through the forests in a state bordering on distraction, 
Buffering in body and mind from the long protracted horrors of the 
fight, the terrible scenes of the massacre and bis perils and exposure. 
At last he found his way back to Fort Kdward in a most pitablo condi- 
tion, half starved and nearly crazed, and in the same naked condition 
in wliich he had escaped from the savage. But with tender nursing he 
regained strength of body and mind, and lived to render more valiant 
service in the war, and in the Revolution he received the commission of 
brigadier-general.' ' 

A petition was granted him to purchase land in the 
region of the Saco and Ossipee Rivers, and about 1770 
he settled there with some associates from Andover. 

On May 23, 1759, John Farnum, of Andover, solic- 
ited aid from the government on account of his ser- 
vices in the Canada expedition. John Beverly and 
others made a similar application, and their applica- 
tions were successful. 

The prominent officers in the French and Indian 
War from North Andover were Captain Joseph Frye, 
Lieutenant-Colonel James Frye, Colonel Moody 
Bridges, SurgBon Ward Noyes, Captain John Farnura, 
Captain Thomas Farrington and Captain Abiel 
Frye. 

The military experience of the French and Indian 
War soon proved to be most valuable to the colonies, 
in the great conflict out of which the independence 
of this country was secured. As it became necessary 
to defend the principles avowed by the citizens of 
North Andover in the resolves and instructions they 
adopted, the soldiers and officers of the English and 
American forces in the French War came to the front 
with their skill and courage, and the declarations of 
the town were renewed with greater force. New 
names appeared, it is true, but many a familiar form 
presented itself ready for the new conflict. Into 
the councils of the town entered Samuel Phillips and 
Samuel Osgood, and in martial array stood Gen. James 
Frye with his military training and his soldierly 
genius; Col. Moody Bridges with his fervid popular 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1671 



oratory and his courage and resolution ; Capt. Peter 
0-goofl, Capt. John Farnum, Capt. Henry Ingalls with 
their old comrades-in.arms. Samuel Phillips had 
spoken the voice of the young men of the town when 
he declared, " We must watch against every encroach- 
ment and with the fortitude of calm, intrepid resolu- 
tion oppose them. Unborn generations will either 
bless us for our activity and magnanimity, or curse us 
for our pusillanimity." His successor in the House of 
Bepresentalives, Col. Bridges was instructed as to his 
duty in language somewhat familiar to himself, in 
which it was declared, " May all that is dear in nature 
defend us, and not only us, but our domesticities that 
are possessed of the least degree of feeling, from such 
an inquisition." Col. Bridges was sent to the First 
Provincial Congress which met in Salem, September, 
1774. A Committee of Inspection for the town was 
chof en January 2, 1775, to see that the resolves of the 
Continental and Provincial Congresses were adhered 
to, and " to inspect the conduct of every person in the 
town touching the aforesaid association." On this 
committee were Col. James Frye, Col. Samuel John- 
son, Ensign Joshua Holt, Capt. J')hn Farnum, Col. 
Moody Bridges, Ensign Stephen Holt, Samuel Frye 
and Lieut. John Ingalls. A Committee of Safety was 
also appointed, on which the names of those who have 
appeared so olten are repeated. 

At this time there were four companies in the town, 
numbering in all four hundrtd men. Two companies 
appear on the muster-rolls of the " Lexington Alarm," 
in the regiment of Col. James Frye. 

Col. Johnson labored incessantly to fill up the 
ranks of the patriotic forces, and appealed to the peo- 
ple with great earnestness and force. His regiment 
was rapidly filled, and his address to his soldiers was 
eloquent and inspiring. The first resistance to Brit- 
ish attempts to seize the arms and ammunition of the 
colonists had been made by Leslie and his forces in 
Salem, in February, 1775, and had been successful 
under the leadership of the firm and fearless Timothy 
Pickering; and when a few weeks after, the country was 
roused and alarmed by the struggle at Concord and 
Lexington, the soldiers of North Andover, already 
organized, marched to the conflict. Four companies 
are recorded as having marched from Andover to 
Cambridge, April 19, 1775. A " number of aged men 
and some unable to bear arms, rode to Cambridge on 
the day of the alarm and the following day to carry 
provisions to those who stood in need." At this time 
Samuel Osgood appeared on the field and commenced 
his long career as soldier and statesman. 

The journals of the soldiers and the records all 
give evidence of the zeal and devotion of the town in 
the opening skirmish of the war, and in the memo- 
rable engagements which followed and taught the 
British government and all men in the colonies that 
there were Americans who were ready to fight for 
their rights, and the independence, if need be, of their 
countrv. 



The town promptly responded to the communica- 
tion from the Provincial Congress, signed by Joseph 
Warren, president, that "General Gage had utterly dis- 
qualified himself to serve the colony as Governor," by 
choosing Mr. Samuel Phillips, Jr., to represent them 
in the Provincial Congress to be held at the meeting- 
house in Watertown on Wednesday, the 31st of 
May inst. (1775). Mr. Phillips' services in this Con- 
gress are thus recorded by his biographer: 

" During this period BIr. Phillips was twice on a committee to confer 
with Geueml Washington upon points connected with tlie war ; he was 
also in rapid succession upon committees to countersign the colony notes 
emitted by the Continental Congress, and the notes of the Receiver- 
General ; to direct the mustering and paying of ono militia company, to 
muster and pay another, etc., etc. In all this he distinguished him- 
selt and did honor to the town he represented." 

Thedifiiculties under which the soldiers labored at 
this time are strongly set forth in the following com- 
munication, dated " Camp in Cambridge, August 2, 
1775," addres^ed ''To the Honorable, the Council and 
House of Representatives of the Colonies of Massa- 
chusetts Bay in General Court assembled," by Benja- 
min Ames, a captain in Colonel James Frye's regi- 

•* Your petitioner, a captain in Col. James Frye's regiment, begs 
leave to relate that the company which he has the honor to command, 
consisting of fifty-seven non-commissioned ofRcera & soldiers, came into 
camp at Cambridge on the 19th of April last ; that since that time said 
company has regularly done duty ; but, though they have been in the 
service of this colony above three months, not one man has received one 
part of the forty shillings which a late Congress promised should be ad- 
vanced to them. That these soldiers, with many of their families, have 
suffered difficulties that are not small by reason of this delay. Their 
necessities have been growing daily more urgent, till, at length, I am 
able to withstand their importunity no longer. I am, therefore, con- 
strained most earnestly to entreat of this Honorable Court that relief to 
which your humble petitioner presumes he has some claim in justice, & 
your Petitioner, as in duty bound, shall ever pray." 

The prayer of the petitioner was granted, and Mr. 
Samuel Phillips was empowered to carry out the 
necessary arrangements. 

It is difficult to realize the efl'ect the battle of 
Bunker Hill had upon the people of the colonies 
generally, of the colony in which it was fought espe- 
cially, and of the towns which, at great sacrifice, had 
sent their fathers and sons into the conflict. The re- 
turn of the dead and wounded to a peaceful and quiet 
rural community sent a thrill of horror through all 
ranks and orders of men. The heat of preliminary 
debate had roused the passions of men to a point of 
resistance, but the result of the blows struck being 
brought to their very firesides, changed the indigna- 
tion of conflicting opinion to the exasperation of grief 
and the desperation of the mourner. The mild and 
feeble emotions were roused at once to defiant im- 
pulses, and the community dwelt ujjon every personal 
detail of the struggle with keen and intense interest. 
The story of Colonel Frye, who hastened in the 
midst of the battle to the bloody scene, was rehearsed 
with pride at his home. The account given by John 
Barker, of his rescue of Benjamin Farnum from the 
jaws of death in the midst of the battle, has been 
passed with pride from generation to generation. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Salem Poor, a slave, became a hero ia the town. The 
painful doubt which surrounded the fate of Captain 
Furbush and Samuel Bailey, Jr., hung like a pall 
over the community. The generation which saw Cap- 
tain Farnura brouglit home on a litter improvised by 
his neighbors has entirely passed away, it is true, but 
there are those who remember the old Christian hero 
as he hobbled to his seat as deacon of the First Church, 
a model of faith and heroic patriotism. And con- 
spicous among all was the surgeon of Colonel James 
Frye's regiment — Dr. Thomas Kittredge— the beloved 
physician, the influential citizen, the wise public ser- 
vant, the patriotic soldier, during more than half a 
century of useful service in war and peace. 

While the sous of North Andover were busy on the 
field of battle, many of the citizens of beleaguered 
Boston sought refuge in her safe and quiet homes. A 
large portion of the library of Harvard College was 
sent to Samuel Osgood for safe keeping. The town 
seems to have been a favorite place of refuge during 
the dangers of wars and sieges. Not only in the 
Revolution, but in the War of 1812, the merchants 
of Salem and Boston took up their abode among its 
charming hills and valleys and in the families of its 
thrifty and cultivated citizens. 

The sufi'eriug in the town at this period became 
great. The absence of a great number of the able- 
bodied men during the summer season of 1775 pre- 
vented the pursuit of a large part of the farming in- 
dustry and the provision usually made for winter in 
that sparsely-settled region. As the war went on this 
difficulty was not removed. When the siege of Bos- 
ton was brought to a successful termination, the sol- 
diers of the American army were transferred to re- 
moter fields, and their absence from home was 
necessarily of longer continuance. They were found 
in many engagements and in every section of the 
country. They were in service in New York. The 
men of North Andover were enrolled in the 
Continental army. Their brave old colonel, 
James Frye, had fought his fight and was 
reposing in the grave-yard, not having reached the 
infirmities of old age, nor having reached the con- 
summation of his life-long effort for the independence 
of his country. Homo fait, truly says his epitaph. 
But Johnson and Farnum remained, and the soldiers 
followed them wherever their services were needed. 
They were at Bennington and Stillwater. They 
shared the sufferings of the winter camp at Valley 
Forge. Captain Samuel Johnson and his men were 
engaged in Rhode Island. And of the services of 
Colonel Johnson at Stillwater and during the entire 
campaign, which resulted in the defeat of Burgoyne, 
it has been said : 

" lu 1777 ho coniniandcd a regiment detached from the county of 
Essex und led tliein to victory iind glory in the memorAblo action on tho 
7th of Octotior, wlien his firmness and courago was particularly distiu- 
guibbed. His regiment was a jiart of that respectable yeomanry whom 
General Burgoyne honored as tho ownci-s of the soil, men deterniiued to 
conqusr or die. This was the Fourth Massachusutts Regiment, which 



Colonel Johnson commanded through the war, and with promptness and 
punctuality answered the requisitions of Government in a manner highly 
satisfactory to tho several corps which composed tho regiment." 

As the war went on the sufferings of soldiers and 
citizens increased. Business was neglected. There was 
a scanty supply of food and clothing; the lands became 
exhausted ; the flocks and herds decreased. But the 
people of North Andover did all in their power to rise 
above the general disaster, encouraged the soldiers and 
provided for their families. The manufacturing in- 
dustries of the town were not neglected. The work 
of furnishing homespun clothes for citizens and sol- 
diers was diligently carried on in the houses. The 
town was liberal in bestowing bounties on the soldiers. 

No family was more intimately connected with the 
welfare of the country before and during and after the 
Revolutionary War than the family of Phillips. De- 
scended from one of the most influential ministers of 
the colony, the Rev. Samuel Phillips settled in the 
South Parish of Andover in 1710, and through his own 
agency and that ofhis remarkable sons and grandsons 
he shaped the destiny of that portion of the original 
town. Of his sons, Samuel, bjrn February 24, 1715, 
graduate of Harvard 1734; John, born January 7, 1720, 
graduate of Harvard 1735; and William, born July 6, 
1725, Samuel settted in North Andover, and in 1752 
built the house which has already been described, and 
is an heir-loom of the family. He established him- 
self there in trade. He married Elizabeth Barn- 
ard, a cousin of the minister and " his household 
was a model of a Christian family, his wife being a 
lady of rare virtues and himself deacon of the North 
Church, a man of inflexible principles and integrity." 
He was among the most distinguished men of the 
Revolutionary period, being Representative, Senator 
and the friend of the most eminent statesmen of the 
times. He died in 1790, leaving one son, Samuel 
Phillips, Jr., who married Miss Phebe Foxcroft, of 
Cambridge, and who was known as "Judge " Phillips. 
He resided after his marriage in the South Parish, and 
induced his father and his uncle to found Phillips 
Academy. The original design was to locate the 
academy in the North Parish, near the family home- 
stead, but it was found difficult to purchase the land, 
and the South Parish was made the important and in- 
fluential centre of academic and theological education. 
The constitution and deeds of trust were signed April 
21,1778. Shortly after this "Judge" Phillips re- 
moved to the South Parish, where he died February 
10, 1802. 

His son, John Phillips, a graduate of Harvard in 
1795, entered into trade in Charlestown and married 
Miss Lydia Gorham, daughter of the Hon. Nathaniel 
Gorham, shortly after which he moved to North 
Andover. It was on the event of his marriage that 
partisan papers of the day announced that the peace 
of the Commonwealth was secured, as the rival fami- 
lies of Phillips and Gorham were at last united. 
John Phillips died at the age of forty-four years, 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



leaving a widow with thirteeu children, three sons. 
A more dignified and exemplary family never lived 
iu North Andover. 

Mrs. Phillips was a cultured, self-contained Christian 
woman, and her daughters possessed the relinementof 
the mother combined with that calm judgment and 
discretion for which the family of Phillips had long 
been noted. The presence of herself and her family 
gave tone to the town. 

The description of the Phillips Manse given by 
Misj Bailey ought not to be omitted here : 

*' The Phillips manse is probably the richest of any in the town in 
ancient relics of ancestral grandeur. The fine old family portraits, tUo 
portrait of Washington" [now remoTedJ *' presented by his nephews, 
the antique silver tankard and porringers, the mas^ire sideboard, the 
carved cabinet in which used to be kept mysterious packets of ancient 
letters, too private and sacred to be read by any outside the family, the 
tapestries wrought by hands long ago mouldered to dust, the samplers 
in frames over the mantel, and the proGtes of the first master and 
mistress of the manse ; in the hall the libi'ary of quaint old books 
owned by generations of ministers dating back to the settlement of the 
colony, — all these appeal powerfully to the imagination and stir the feel- 
ings deeply, as one goes from room to room iu this ancient house." 

One of the most important political movements 
during the war was the adoption of a State Constitu- 
tion by Massachusetts. Until 1776 the Provincial 
Congress had constituted the civil power of the 
Commonwealth, and it was found necessary to com- 
plete the executive, legislative and judicial depart- 
ments of government, for the sake of harmony and 
efliciency in the organization. This question, like 
all others involving a radical change, created a very 
considerable commotion and gave rise to sharp dis- 
cussion and hot debate. Andover voted to leave the 
matter with the House of Representatives and the 
Council, and finally assumed direct opposition to the 
measure. To the House of Representatives, who were 
engaged in discussing the question of organizing the 
government, the North Parish furnished the mem- 
ber for the town, — Col. Samuel Johnson, who ac- 
cepted willingly the instructions of the town in which 
it declared, "We therefore conclude that to. set 
about the forming a New Constitution of Govern- 
ment at this time is unnecessary, impolitic and dan- 
gerous ; and it is accordingly our direction that you 
oppose it with those solid arguments of which you 
are so fruitful, and that you do it vigorously and 
perseveringly." 

The House having failed to accept the report of a 
committee appointed to draft a Constitution, a con- 
vention was called to meet in Cambridge iu 1779, 
and the town was represented by Samuel Osgood, 
Samuel Phillips, Jr., Zebediah Abbot and John 
Farnum, Jr. 

It was at this juncture that a most important step 
was taken by the towns of Essex County, — a step 
which ,had a controlling influence on the organiza- 
tion of the State under a Constitution. The diflBcul- 
ties surrounding this question were immense. The 
spirit of the Revolution was still on the people. In 
their efforts to throw off' a foreign yoke they had 
105i 



become jealous of all authority, and were hardly 
willing to clothe any government with power suffi- 
cient to give it even a practical operation. Liberty 
was in danger of degenerating into license. 

It was in this state of public affairs that The- 
ophilus Parsons, a young lawyer in Newbury port, 
stepped forth and commenced that career which placed 
him in the position of chief justice of Massachu- 
setts — perhaps the greatest of all her jurists. At his 
instigation a meeting of the freeholders and other in- 
habitants of the town of Newburyport, the place 
of his residence, by law qualified to vote in town 
affairs, was held on the 27th of March, 1778. Res- 
olutions were adopted setting forth the defects in 
the Constititution already proposed, desiring the 
selectmen to issue circular letters to the several towns in 
Essex County, to meet by delegates in convention, 
and choosing, as representatives of Newburyport in the 
convention, Theophilus Parsons, Tristram Dalton, 
Jonathan Greenleaf, Jonathan Jackson and Stephen 
Cross. This convention met in Ipswich in April of 
that year, and among the names recorded appear 
those of Ward, Goodhue, Andrews, Goodale, Springer^ 
of Salem ; Putnam and Shillaber, of Danvers ; Farley 
and Noyes, of Ipswich; Coffin and Porter, of 
Gloucester; Gouldand Clarke, of Topsfield; Dodge, of 
Wenham; Perley, of Boxford; and the " Honorable 
Caleb Cushing, Esq., of Salisbury." 

Under a vote of the convention Messrs. Parsons, 
Goodale and Putnam were appointed a committee 
" to attempt to ascertain the true principles of govern- 
ment; to state the non-conformity of the Constitu- 
tion prepared by the convention of this state to those 
principles ; and to delineate the outlines of a consti- 
tution conformable thereto, and to report the same to 
this body." 

Can we at this day estimate the difficulty of this 
task? The spirit which had thus far animated 
Massachusetts, and had kept her up to the standard 
adopted by her at the North Bridge and Lexington 
and Concord, at Bunker Hill and in the streets of 
Boston, rendered her peculiarly sensitive with regard 
to every form of popular right. She had impoverished 
herself for the war. Her sons were at that very hour 
suffering from the horrors of that winter at Valley 
Forge. The western counties, governed by "that 
public virtue and the unbounded love of freedom and 
their country with which the militia of the state had 
always been inspired," had sent their hardiest men to 
win the glories of Bennington and Saratoga. The 
eastern counties were already moving for the expedi- 
tion against the British in Rhode Island. The people 
were on fire for freedom — for a common cause — for a 
common country. The appeals were spirited and 
ardent. Said the Boston Gazette : " He who wishes for 
permanent happiness, let him now put forth all his 
strength for the immediate salvation of his country, 
and he shall reap immortal pleasure and renown. It 
is good for us to anticipate the joy that will fill our 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, JIASSACHUSETTS. 



minds when we shall receive the reward of our 
labors; when we shall see our country flourish in 
peace; when grateful millions shall hail us as the 
protectors of our country, and an approving con- 
science shall light up eternal sunshine in our souls." 
To deliberate calmly in an hour of mingled desper- 
ation and hope, when our armies were sinking through 
weariness even on victorious battle-fields, and were 
freezing in their winter-quarters, when the only re- 
maining power through all was an indomitable love 
of freedom, was by no means easy. The lessons of 
free government, moreover, were few, and not by any 
means successful. Ancient states had gone down into 
the darkness of anarchy or despotism ; modern states 
had been organized chiefly as colonial dependencies. 
There was much confusion ; there were many jeal- 
ousies; there was but little light when that committee 
met to lay the foundations of a Constitution for Mas- 
sachusetts. The work they performed is called the 
"Essex result." It was an earnest endeavor to de- 
clare how progress and conservatism, " liberty and 
order, might be adjusted in human institutions, that 
freedom should be secure and happiness might be 
the children of freedom." 

Ah an essay on free government it has hardly been 
equaled. Avoiding the misanthropy of Rousseau 
and the consolidation of the ancient republics, it 
assumed that the moving springs of a free government 
are political virtue, patriotism and a just regard to 
the natural rights of mankind, and that in its opera- 
tions a just distribution of power is supremely essen- 
tial. Upon its suggestions was based the first Consti- 
tution of Massachusetts, carried as they were by the 
young lawyer of Ncwburyport into the subsequent 
State Convention, and submitted to the Bowdoins and 
Adamses and Lowells and Pickerings and Strongs of 
that distinguished body. 

The town of North Andover finally gave its ad- 
hesion to the Constitution, after expressing an opin- 
ion that all citizens should be taxed to support pub- 
lic worship, and that religious tests should be applied 
to candidates for otfice. 

It was the organization of the Slate government 
which saved the Commonwealth from anarchy and 
ruin during the Shay's Rebellion, which broke out 
with armed insurrection in 1786 ; and to aid in the 
suppression of which, by reason, as well as by force, 
Andover chose a Committee of Consideration, of 
whose members North Andover furnished Peter Os- 
good, Moody Bridges, John Ingalls, Col. Samuel 
Johnson, and on which were four of the family of 
Abbot, from the South Parish. 

The popular jealousy extended at this time not 
only against all civil authority, but also against all 
lawyers and all persons connected with the courts. 
There is a letter in existence, not before this time 
published, written by William Symmes, who became 
distinguished ten years later in the convention which 
adopted the Federal Con.stitution, to Isaac Osgood, ' 



Esq., who was at that time clerk of the courts of Es- 
sex County, under date of October 25, 1786, an ex- 
tract from which will indicate the estimate in which 
lawyers were held at that time. He says : 

" Tho profession by wliich I dm to get my broad, nay the very court in 
which 1 can at present exercise it, is denied. The Supremo Judicature 
itself ispunuislicd with impunity. Tlio legislutuio is irresolute, and 
tliereforu private credit is a mere ciplier in all calculations, money out 
■aven knows what else) iinpend- 



f circulation and a tender act (a 

ig. When? When I am but just admitted to the 

> pay, am without reputatiou, or clients, and can i 



) no money either 



"You have here, my dear Sir, a sketch of my present condition. If 
the General Court should finally act with the spirit and effect so much to 
be desired, I shall hesitate no longer. But if the strength of the gov- 
ernment be found inadeijuate to the suppression of tumult and the sup- 
port of law, if the coustituliou be too feeble to conquer the present sick- 
ness of the state, I had rather be here than in Salem. But I had rath- 
er be iu Turkey than here." 

FEDKRAL COXSTITCTIOX. 

The War of Independence had been fought, and 
North Andover had performed well her part in the 
great struggle. The confederation had proved to be 
a "rope of sand," and led on by Virginia, the States 
had assembled to form our present Federal Constitu- 
tion. It had been adopted by the convention which 
framed it and accepted by Delaware, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Georgia and Connecticut. All eyes were 
turned on Massachusetts ; for on her action depended 
very much that of New York, Maryland and Virginia. 
The mass of the peojjle here were opposed to its 
adoption — some from interest, some from principle as 
they supposed, and some from jealousy. It met with 
violent opposition from the insurgents of Shay's 
army, many of whom represented the Western coun- 
ties in the convention assembled to consider the 
question. 

General Knox wrote to General Washington : — 

" The opposition has arisen not from a considera- 
tion of the merits or demerits of the thing itself; but 
from a deadly princij)le leveled at the existence of 
all government whatsoever, — the principle of insurg- 
ency, deriving fresh strength and life from the im- 
punity with which the rebellion of last year was suf- 
fered to escape. It is a singular circumstance that in 
Massachusetts the property, the ability and the virtue, 
of the state are almost solely for the constitution ; 
opposed to it are the late insurgents, and all those 
who abetted their designs, constituting four-fifths of 
the opposition. A few, very few indeed, well mean- 
ing people are joined to them." 

The debate in the Convention of 17SS silting in 
Boston grew warmer and warmer as each day went on. 
There were men who, guided by personal ambition, 
sat with their fingers on the popular pulse, and 
governed their course by the unreasonable and nar- 
row demands of an excited and just now rebellious 
community. The temptations of local elevation 
were more than they could resist. There were their 
obligations to Massachusetts, the opportunities which 
she presented, the favors which she had to bestow on 



I 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1G75 



her sons who obeyed the behests of her people. There 
were then none of the achievements of a powerful re- 
jiublic, none of the prosperity attending a constitu- 
tional confederation, no commanding presence before 
the nations of the earth, no flag crowded with a 
galaxy of increasing States, no projects in which all 
had a common interest. The history of the Revolu- 
tion, with its privations and its brilliant close, seemed 
to be the only bond which held together rival Slates, 
each one of which was drilling farther aad farther 
from its companions and partners in the great work 
which they had commenced shoulder to shoulder. 

To the convention three citizens of North Andover 
were sent as delegates on account of their entire sym- 
pathy vvith the often-expressed opinion of the town 
that the Constitution ought not to be adopted. These 
delegates were Dr. Tliomas Kittredge, Capt. Peter 
Osgood and William Symmes, the last the youngest, 
most impultiive, and most unreserved of the three. 
Soon after the adoption of the Constitution by the 
convention which framed it he addressed a letter to 
Peter Osgood, afterwards one of his colleagues, 
dated November 15, 1787, in which he discussed the 
Constitution at length, asked for it a candid and fair 
consideration and for the first time gave definite ex- 
pression to the points of the opposition. This letter 
undoubtedly gave him his election. On the 22d of 
.January he made a most powerlul argument against 
the Constitution, one of the few fully reported in the 
doings of the convention, his strongest point being 
the danger of empowering Congress to levy taxes in 
the States. His speech closed with a candid declara- 
tion of his readiness to be convinced of the wisdom 
of the instrument, at the same time fearing, as his 
constituents did, " the operation of this which is now 
proposed." His argument seems to have produced 
one effect which he probably did not anticipate, — a 
reply from Theophilus Parsons, who had hesitated to 
indorse the Constitution. 

It was at this time that Washington fearlessly and 
strenuously exerted his influence in favor of the Con- 
stitution which, as president of the Convention, he 
had submitted to the States. It was unquestionably 
the weight of his influence which carried the Consti- 
tution through the State of Virginia, against the 
persistent [Opposition of Richard Henry Lee and 
Grayson, Harrison and Patrick Henry and the in- 
difference of George Mason. But not in Virginia 
alone was the hand of Washington felt. In Penn- 
sylvania, where the opposition was a factious and 
violent minority, the arguments which Lee had dis- 
seminated were counteracted by James Wilson, whom 
Washington approved as being " as able, candid and 
honest a member as was in the convention," and 
whose speech in reply to Lee he published for wide 
circulation in Virginia. 

In Massachusetts the struggle was long and bitter 
in the convention containing such names as King, 
Gorham, Strong, Bowdoin and Hancock, Heath and 



Lincoln of the army, John Brooks and Christopher 
Gore, Theophilus Pjirsons, Theodore Sedgwick, John 
Davis, Fisher Ames and Samuel Adams. Elbridge 
Gerry, who, although a member of the convention at 
Philadelphia, had been defeated for the convention 
in Boston, had, under the influence of Richard Henry 
Lee, written a letter to the two Houses of Massachu- 
setts, intimating that the Constitution needed amend- 
ments and should not be adopted until they were 
made. At this point he was met by Washington. 
'• If another federal convention is attempted," wrote 
he, " its members will be more discordant, will agree 
on no general plan. The Constitution is the best that 
can be obtained at this time; it is free from many of 
the imperfections with which it is charged. The Con- 
stitution or disunion is before us to choose from. If 
the Constitution is our election, a constitutional door 
is open for amendments, and may be adopted in a 
peaceable manner, without tumult or disorder." 
Guided by this suggestion. Parsons, Bowdoin, Han- 
cock and Adams determined to combine with its rati- 
fication a recommendation of amendments, and 
with Parsons' " conciliatory re-olution," as it has 
been called, the Constitution was adopted. This reso- 
lution, which embodied the famous States' rights doc- 
trines of the Constitution, was one of the early amend- 
ments, and was as follows : 

'• That it is explicitly declared that all powers not expressly delejiated 
to Congress are reserved to the several States to be by them exercised." 

That much is due to Mr. Symmes for the adoption 
of this resolution, which has played so important a 
part in the history of the republic, there can be no 
doubt. He was young, ardent and eloquent. His 
mind was entirely occupied with public aflairs, and 
he contemplated the political events of the times with 
the deepest interest. His letter to his colleague, 
Peter Osgood, and his speech in the convention em- 
bodied the views of a very considerable portion of the 
people of the Commonwealth. He spoke the opinions 
of a large body of the delegates composing the con- 
vention, and when he made up his mind to vote for 
the adoption he had a most brilliant and able body of 
associates in the change. It is much less difiicult to 
see why a larger number of delegates did not come to 
the conclusion to be converted to the support of the 
Constitution, than it is to see why he did. And yet, 
with the fate not unusual to converts, he fell under 
the bitter condemnation of his constituents, and alone 
of all those who followed Bowdoin, and Hancock, and 
Christopher Gore, and Fisher Ames, and Samuel 
Adams, and Theophilus Parsons in accepting the 
wise and patriotic advice of Washington, he was com- 
pelled to submit to ostracism and exile, was obliged 
to seek his fortune elsewhere than in his native town, 
and died in middle life a disappointed man. Of the 
honesty of his convictions there is no doubt. He ex- 
pected the approval and support of the distinguished 
men with whom he was associated, and in obeying 
the dictates of his conscience anticipated the fair and 



1676 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



candid consideration of his townsmen. But his ser- 
vices were not appreciated, his feelings were wounded, 
his ambition was broken. He was freely charged 
with bad motives, and with an overweening desire to 
be found with the majority. His fate was a hard one, 
and stands, not as a warning, but as an intimidation 
to those who, with honest convictions, rise above 
their party, and support conscientiously the cause 
they have adopted. If any native of North Andover 
should have a memorial tablet, it is William Symmes, 
who defied popular indignation in obedience to the 
dictates of his conscience, and gave his support to 
the great charter of our freedom, the most remarka- 
ble governmental document ever designed by man. 
On October 17, 1785, it was voted,— 



'ThatJoshi 



. Holt, 



: and he is hereby i 
motion ehnll be made in the General Court for introducing a paper 
medium, vigorously and perseveringly to oppose the same as being a 
measure calculated, in oui opinion, to promote idleuess, dissipation Jind 
dishonesty, and by destroying the morals of the people, to bring on the 
ruin of the Commonwealth." 

In 1786 a committee, of which Peter Osgood, 
Moody Bridges, John Ingalls and Samuel Johnson 
were conspicuous members, was appointed to consult 
and agree upon some measures which may promote 
the general welfare. The committee made the fol- 
lowing report, which was unanimously accepted: 

*' It is the duty of the free and virtuous people of the Commonwealth 
at all times to keep u watchful eye against all encroachments upon 
their dear-bought rights and privileges; that they carefully guard 
against all grievous acts of the Legislature on the one hand ; and against 
all contentions and unconstitutional opposition to Government on th« 

" We esteem it our duty at the present day to bear our explicit testi- 
mony against all riotous and illegal proceedings ; and against all hostile 
attempts and menaces against law, justice and good government, and 
to declare our readiness to exert ourselves in support of Government, 
and the excellent Constitution of this Commonwealth. But at the same 
time we suppose there are many things complained of which ought to 
be remedied; and it is our desire that every grievance may be in a 
constitutional way redressed. We would take particular notice of these 
following, viz. : 

"I. We conceive that the method commonly practiced in our Courts 
of Common Pleas for receiving debts is attended with great and need- 
less expense. . . . 

" 'J. The delinquencies of many towns in the payments of their public 
taxes, more especially in the western part of the State, as appears by the 
Treasurer's accounts, we conceive is one great cause ol the disturbances 
which have arisen in these parts. . . . 

"3. Wo apprehend the method of paying the Representatives out of the 
public Treasury lays an unecjual hm-den on many parts of the Stato 
which might bo alleviated by each town paying their own Sepresenta- 
tives for their services out of their own Treasuries. 

" 4. As prudence and economy ever become a virtuous people, so are 
they peculiarly necessary in these infant states. We are of opinion, 
therefore, that the public officers and their respective salaries ought 
to bo thoroughly looked into ; their pay and services duly compared and 
properly estimated ; that all suiwrfiuous offices be abolished, and the sala- 
ries of those whoso services are inadequate to their pay be lowered, and 
that every unnecessary expense of government and burden on the people 
be removed." 

They also suggested that the removal of the General 
Court from Boston would lessen the expense of the 
government. 

On January 7,1787, the town accepted the report of 
a committee instructed "to consider what measures 
are proper to be adopted for promoting industry and 



economy and those other virtues which are repre- 
sented by the Legislature in their address to the peo- 
ple as necessary to form the basis of national happi- 
ness, as follows: 

"That in their opinion, a deviation from the principles and practice 
of industry and economy has been the great cause of the scarcity of 
Bpecis, the delinquency in the payment of taxes, and in the discharge of 
private debts, which delinquency naturally tends to mar the reputation 
and destroy the energy of government, and to produce impatience in 
creditors as well as uneasiness and complaint in debtors ; and that hence 
arises the concern and disquietude of many in the community. Your 
committee therefore consider this deviation as a fruitful parent of the 
evils we now suffer, and threatening us with speedy and complete ruin 
unless prevented by a thorough reform. We, therefore, consider it of the 
highest importance to recur to those principles from which we have de- 
clined, and to exert ourselves for the encouragement of the manufac- 
turers of our own country in every proper way which will consist with 
the business which ought to engage our first attention, viz. : The culti- 
vation of the land, and for this purpose the following resolve is pro- 
posed to be adopted by the town : 

"Whereas, the Legislature have warned this people of being in the 
precise channel in which the liberties of States have been generally 
swallowed up, and the warning, solemn as it is, appears to be founded in 
the highest reason ; and as it is a part of sound wisdom to convert mis- 
fortunes and calamities into the means of advantage, in cheerful imita- 
tation of the patriotic example set us by the first magistrate of the Com- 
monwealth, his council and the Legislature of the State : W'e hereby 
resolve to refrain from, and as far as in our power to prevent, the exces- 
sive use and consumption of articles of foreign nmnufaciure, especially 
articlesof luxnij and extravagance, and that we will exert our best en- 
deavors for the promotion of industry and our own manufactures. 

*' And in particular that we will exert ourselves to increase our wool 
and flax as far as it is practicable. That we will, as far as may be, 
avoid killing oursheep or selling them for slaughter aftershearingtima, 
till the wool be serviceable for clothing ; and that we will exert ourselves 
to promote and encourage the manufactures of wool and flax and other 
raw materials into such articles as shall be useful in the community. 

"And the inhabitants of the town of every description, but heads of 
families in particular, are hereby solicited, as they would falsify the 
predictions and disappoint the hopes of those who are inimical to our 
Independence and happiness ; as they would gratify the anxious wishes 
of our best' friends and the friends of freedom in general; as they 
regard the political well-being of themselves and iKJsterity ; as they 
hold precious the memory of the heroes and patriots, and of our kindred 
who have sacrificed their lives that we may enjoy the fruits of virtuous 
freedom— to unite in this resolution, and to exert their utmost influence 
in every proper way to promote the important design of it. 

"And upon this occasion we apply ourselves to the good sense and 
virtuous dispositions of the female sex, to the younger as well as 
the elder, that they would by their engaging examples as well as in 
other proper ways, devote that power of influence, with which nature 
hath endowed them, to the purpose of encouraging every species of 
economy in living, and particularly that neat simplicity and neatuess io 
dress, which are among the best tokens of a good mind and which sel- 
dom fail to command tUo esteem and love of the virtuous and wise ; 
giving preference to that clothing which is produced from our own 
flocks and from our own fields. 

*• Your committee, upon considering the principal obstacles that lie in 
the way of the desired reform, are clearly of opinion that an*undue use 
of spirituous liquors has a powerful influence to enervate the body, to 
enfeeble the mind, and to promote dissipation, idleness and extrava- 
gance, which are the never-failing causes of jwverty and ruin. They 
therefore consider it of the highest importance to refrain from ourselves, 
and to discountenance in others, the undue use of spirituous liquors of 
all kinds. 

"Your committee further reccommend to the town to take it under 
consideration whether some other measures than those which have 
heretoforo been practised may not be adopted for the support and em- 
ployment of the poor, which may be productive of advantage to them, 
and diminish the charge to which the town is subjected for that pur- 

This report— taken with a statement made not a long 
time previous by the town, that the practice in the 
Court of Common Pleas was a needlessly expensive 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1677 



method of collecting debts ; that the delinquencies 
of the towns in paying their taxes were dangerous ; 
that the towns should pay their own representatives; 
that the salaries of public officers should be thorough- 
ly looked into; that the accounts of the United States 
with the Commonwealth should be adjusted ; and 
that the General Court ought to be moved from the 
town of Boston — indicates the tone and temper of the 
town in that early day, and shows what a severe sense 
of propriety and civil independence and economy the 
delegates of the town and the representatives were 
obliged to deal with. The question of the adoption 
of the Federal Constitution was not only fatal to 
Mr. Symraes, but it served to divide the town into 
two political parties — Federalists and Republicans — a 
division which has generally continued to this time. 
The North Parish, from which Kittredge, Osgood and 
Symmes went to the convention, became strongly de- 
voted to the Republican party, led by Mr. Jelferson, 
and it has adhered to his doctrines through the 
various changes of name which in the last century 
have attended the political organization which 
claimed to be the especial custodian of his policy, 
while in the South Parish the Federalists prevailed in 
the beginning, to be succeeded by Whigs and Repub- 
licans as their legitimate heirs. As it was in the 
North Parish, so is it in North Andover to-day. 

From 1771 to 1792 the North Parish furnished a 
representative to the General Court — fifteen years — 
during which Capt. Peter Osgood, who opposed the 
adoption of the Constitution to the end and truly 
represented his section of the town, served during 



The most distinguished citizen of North Andover 
in this Revolutionary and Constitutional period was 
Samuel Osgood, son of Peter, who was in the fifth 
generation from John Osgood, one of the founders of 
the church in 1645, and the first representative of the 
town in the General Court in 1657. He was a brother 
of Isaac Osgood, who was for many years clerk of the 
courts of Essex County, and a resident of Salem until 
he returned to North Andover, in 1804, and led a life 
of great dignity and repose until his death, in 1846. 
Samuel Osgood was born in 1748 and died in 1813. He 
was graduated at Harvard in 1770. His mind turned 
naturally to theological studies, and he commenced 
preparation for the ministry immediately on leaving 
college. He was a quiet, sedate, devout young man. 
He was modest and unassuming in his deportment, 
avoided all violent disputations, was confident of his 
own judgment, careful in his investigations, firm in 
his convictions. Soon after entering upon his the- 
ological studies he impaired his health and injured 
his eyes by close application, and went into mercan- 
tile business with his brother Peter. He took a deep 
interest in the great questions which occupied the 
public mind during the events which preceded and 
led to the Revolution, and was considered a leader in 
the town during all that stormy period. The finan- 



cial disturbances of the war destroyed the bu 
which he and his brother were engaged as partners, 
and threw all the obligation of liquidating the debts 
of the concern on him. This duty he discharged com- 
pletely and honorably. For some time before the 
breaking out of the war he was chosen a member of 
the Provincial Congress, where he exerted great in- 
fluence as a wise, fiir-seeing and judicious legislator. 
In preparation of the great event, he had organized 
a company of minute-men, probably a body of his 
patriotic friends, with whom he marched to Lexing- 
ton on hearing of the conflict, and thence to Cam- 
bridge to join the Continental army stationed there. 
He was appointed an aid by General Ward and 
remained in that official station until 1776, "when," 
as he says, " he quitted the army, not having much 
taste for military affairs." 

On his return to civil life he commenced anew his 
career as a legislator and passed from the Provincial 
to the Continental Congress, and was appointed one 
of the Board of War. His services in that capacity 
secured the confidence and esteem of Washington, 
who relied on his judgment and patriotism in all his 
appeals to Congress for support in the great crises of 
the conflict. He took part in the Convention for 
framing the State Constitution of Massachusetts in 
1779; and on the organization of the confederacy, he 
was selected as first commissioner of the treasury, and 
signed, on behalf of the government, the papers trans- 
ferring a portion of the Northwest Territory to the 
Ohio Company, who, led by Manasseh Cutler, laid 
the foundation of western civilization at Marietta and 
secured the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787. Upon 
the organization of the Federal Government and the 
entry of Washington upon his administration, Mr. 
Osgood was selected as the Postmaster-General. Of 
this event he says in his unpublished autobiography : 
" It was not expected that he should have had any 
oflice offered him, he having been opposed for a time 
to an unqualified adoption of the new Constitution. 
Parties being highly exasperated, those who had ex- 
erted themselves in procuring the adoption of the 
new Constitution were to be rewarded with all the 
offices. But General Washington had been well ac- 
quainted with him from the commencement of the 
war, and offered him the Postmaster-General's depart- 
ment, which he accepted and held for about two 
years, with a salary of $1500 a year. He had been 
encouraged to believe that this would be increased, 
but seeing no prospect of it, he resigned and continued 
in private life till the year 1800." 

In all the duties of public and private life he con- 
ducted himself with a strict regard to honesty and 
fidelity. His own town, his own State believed in 
him implicitly. On his appointment as commissioner 
of the treasury, he expressed an unwillingness to call 
on his friends for the heavy bonds of $100,000 required 
by the Federal Government, and " the government of 
Massachusetts became voluntarily responsible in his 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



behalf." When Congress left the city of New York, 
he resigned his oflice on account of the inadequacy of 
Ills salary and declined to follow the government to 
Philadelphia. He was soon after appointed surveyor 
of the port of New York, which office he held until 
his death. 

In early life ho had married Martha Brandon, a 
niece of Mrs. I'liiebe Foxcroft Phillips, a woman of 
rare aeccjiiiplishiiicnts, of a brilliant intellect, an ami- 
able (lis]i()sition and great personal beauty. Devoted 
to her friends, she left her own home to minister to the 
sufferings of her uncle in Cambridge during a long 
and severe illness, and died there after three years of 
married life, childless. Mr. Osgood's tribute to her 
memory in his autobiography is tender and touch- 

During his official life in New York he secured for 
Washington a residence in Franklin Place, adjoining 
the dwelling of Mrs. Martha Franklin, who was the 
owner of the block. Mrs. Franklin won his heart 
and became his devoted wife to the end of his life. 
By her he had a son, Walter Franklin Osgood, and 
daughters^Julia, who married her cousin, Samuel 
Osgood, of North Andover ; Martha, who married 
Mr. Genet, the French minister; and Susan, who 
married Mr. Field, of New York. 

He now became identified with life in New York. 
He was surrounded by a charming circle of friends 
and by an affectionate and devoted family. He took 
an active part in polities and was placed on the 
ticket by which Aaron Burr overthrew the power of 
Hamilton in the Legislature of New York and elec- 
ted as delegates to the Assembly George Clinton, Gen- 
eral Horatio Gates, Samuel Osgood, Brockholst Liv- 
ingston, John Swartwout and seven others, all influ- 
ential citizens, supporters of Jefferson and Burr, 
among whom Osgood was most conspicuous and influ- 
ential. He devoted himself to literature, was an 
original member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences and found great delight in investigating 
those questions of theology and metaphysics to which 
he had turned his attention in early life as a student 
of divinity. His treatment of Locke's chapter on the 
will attracted the attention of the best students of 
the time. North Andover has always been proud 
of his memory. 

The records of the town, copies of which are depos- 
ited with the town clerk of North Andover, Mr. Jona. 
F. Osgood, contain but little from 1800 to the divis- 
ion of Andover, in 1855, besides the ordinary routine 
of town business, relating to schools, roads and 
bridges and the fisheries of the streams. 

In 1802 Thomas Kittredge was chosen Representa- 
tive to the General Court over John Phillips, and he 
continued to represent the town every year, except 
1803, until 1809. In 1811 he was also elected in con- 
nection with Joshua Chandler and John Cornish. 

July G, 1812, the town voted to make up to the sol- 
diers detached from the militia of the town pur- 



suant to a law passed the lOtb day of April last, such 
compensation, which, together with that allowed by 
government, shall amount to twelve dollars per month 
for each soldier while in actual service. 

In 1813, Timothy Osgood, Dr. George Osgood and 
Benjamin Jenkins were elected Representatives over 
Thomas Kittredge, John Kneeland and Stephen 
Barker. 

The same year notice was issued to all male inhabit- 
ants twenty-one years of age and upward, possessed 
of freehold estate with an annual income of $10, or 
any estate to the value of $200, that they had the 
right to vote. 

September 19, 1814, during the War of 1812, the town 
voted: "That the town treasurer be authorized to 
hire a sum of money, not to exceed six hundred dol- 
lars, for the purpose of purchasing arms and equip- 
ments for the militia of the town that are unable to 
equip themselves." 

Also voted : " To make up to the soldiers of Captain 
Henry Poor's Company, who have been called into 
actual service, such compensation which, together 
with that allowed by government, shall amount to 
twelve dollars per month for each soldier while in 
actual service." 

In 1815 Thomas Kittredge was elected member of 
the Legislature, and in 1816 he ran for Congress. In 
1817 he, in connection with John Kneeland and 
Stephen Barker, represented the town in the General 
Court. 

And here the useful and honorable career of Dr. 
Kittredge as a citizen and a public servant ended. 
He died suddenly, October, 1818, in the midst of his 
activity, — the last acts of his life being devoted to the 
welfare of his neighbors and friends. A touching 
tale is told by a conspicuous citizen of the town, who 
was a child when the occurence took place, and whose 
father was the object of Dr. Kittredge's kindness, of 
his solicitude for the jaded horse of this townsman, 
whom he met returning from an excursion, and whom 
he urged to place the animal in his own stable for 
rest while one of his own horses was used to complete 
the journey. When, on the following morning, his 
horse was returned, the kind-hearted and generous 
physician had gone to his long homo. 

Dr. Thomas Kittredge was the third son of Dr. John 
Kittredge, who was born in Tewksbury and settled in 
North Andover, near the mouth of the Cochichewick 
Brook about 1741. He was born in 1745, pursued his 
academical studies at Dummer Academy, and studied 
medicine with Dr. Sawyer, of Newburyport. He com- 
menced practice in North Andover in 1776. He was 
not only a skillful physician and surgeon, of whom 
Dr. John Warren, surgeon general of the Revolu- 
tionary army, said " He had more natural skill than 
any man in the country," but he was a most patriotic 
citizen also and a most valuable public servant. He 
was appointed surgeon of the army while it was at 
Cambridge ; was present at the battle of Bunker Hill, 



NORTH ANDOVEE. 



1679 



aud served in his professional capacity during the 
war. He was a dignified and commanding gentleniani 
a man of honor and honesty, and possessed great 
courage aud sound judgment. He had a true com- 
prehension of the object of the war, entire faith in its 
result and a large understanding of the character and 
destiny of the republic. Jealous of the rights of the 
States and citizens under the central government, he 
adopted the views and principles of Jefferson, and 
during a long public service as legislator and delegate 
lie represented his ancient town as a Republican of the 
strictest sort. In the halls of legislation and as a 
member of the leading societies of his profession he 
had great influence. His capacity for business enabled 
him to accumulate a handsome fortune, and the stately 
mansion he erected a hundred years ago still stands a 
monument of his substantial taste and his understand- 
ing of an appropriate home for a prosperous citizen. 
His household was organized in accordance with the 
social customs of his times and was ample in its outfit, 
liberal in its hospitality and dignified in its conduct. 

Dr. Kittredge married Susanna 0-good, a sister of 
Samuel Osgood, a most sensible and large-hearted 
woman. They had two sons ; Joseph and John, and 
three daughters,— Martha, who married Dr. Lemuel 
Le Baron, and Catherine and Maria who married 
Judge David Cummins. 

It has been deemed proper to give this conspicuous 
and influential citizen a place in the civil history of 
the town he loved and adorned. 

The two sons of Dr. Thomas Kittredge were dis- 
tinguished physicians also. Joseph, who was born in 
1753, was graduated at Dartmouth in 1806, com- 
menced practice with his father in 1809, and was the 
leading physician of the town and the surrounding 
country until his death, in 1847. He inherited the 
medical skill of the family and adopted modes of 
practice by intuition, which was proclaimed aud 
adopted by scientific investigators long after they 
had become familiar to him. When the European 
schools advised the use of wine and opium in typhoid 
fever as a new discovery, they entered on a treatment 
which he had pursued for years with great success. 
He was not only a good physician, but he was a 
public-spirited and influential citizen. He was a 
sound adviser in town-meetings ; he represented the 
town in General Court, and was a candidate for Con- 
gress in many hotly-contested elections. He invest- 
ed largely in the manufactures of the place, and 
managed a large farm in an economical and exemplary 
manner. He was a sincere friend, a courteous gentle- 
man, a warm-hearted husband and father and an 
honest man. 

Dr. Kittredge married Miss Hannah Hodges, of 
Salem, daughter of Capt. George Hodges, in 1819 
(December 19th). Mrs. Kittredge was distinguished 
for those sterling qualities which characterize the 
town in which she was born. She had a strong and 
well-balanced mind, a kind and charitable disposi- 



tion and great personal dignity. Her influence 
was felt throughout the town, and she contributed 
largely to the worth and culture of the society in 
which she moved. She died in 1877, thirty years 
after her husband, leaving three sons — George 
Hodges, Joseph, and John — and four daughters. 

Of the sons, Joseph, a graduate of Dartmouth Col- 
lege and the Harvard Medical School, succeeded to his 
father's practice in North Andover, and secured by 
his skill and judgment the entire confidence of the 
town. He died in 1878, leaving two sons, — Thomas, 
a successful physician and a valuable citizen in Salem, 
and Joseph, a prosperous and skillful physician in 
Marblehead. 

John, the other of the sons, has long been attach- 
ed to the Lunatic Asylum at Taunion, an etticient 
and useful oUicer. 

The daughters of Joseph and Hannah (Hodges), 
Kittredge are Mary Hodges, Susan, Sarah and 
Hannah Armstrong. Susan married Dr. George C. 
S. Choate. The others occupy the fine old estate in 
North Andover. 

After the death of Dr. Thomas Kittredge the town 
was represented for many years by Stephen Barker 
William Johnson, Samuel Merrill and others of Fed- 
eral faith, until about 1830, when the fortunes of po- 
litical contests varied. The best known of the repre- 
sentatives from that time to 1850 were George Hodges, 
Joseph Kittredge, Nathaniel Stevens and William 
Stevens. 

Commencing in 1831, and ending June 10, 1833, 
one of the most interesting and memorable political 
contests which have taken place in Massachusetts oc- 
curred in what at that time was known as the Essex 
North Congressional District. In this contest North 
Andover had a peculiar interest, one of her foremost 
citizens, Gayton P. Osgood, being the candidate of 
the Democratic or Jackson party during the twelve 
successive trials which resulted in his election and 
the defeat of Caleb Gushing, the candidate of the 
Whig party of that day. The contest was long and 
bitter, and was characterized by unusual animosity 
and personal detraction. The opponents of Mr. 
Gushing were unsparing in their attacks and criti- 
cisms ; and the opponents of Mr. Osgood were un- 
wearied in their efibrts to defeat him by adopting 
candidates who they hoped would demoralize and 
divide his party. North Andover, though divided at 
times in her allegiance between Mr. Osgood and Dr. 
Kittredge, who was substituted for Mr. Gushing dur- 
ing the trials, at last declared herself by an emphatic 
vote for Mr. Osgood as against Mr. Gushing, who was 
again a candidate ; and so went the district. 

The two representatives of the old town in 1854, 
the last year before the division, were W^illiam Jen- 
kins and Daniel Carlton. 

At this time, on the petition of Amos Abbott and 
others, the South Parish of Andover was set off into 
an independent municipality, and was authorized to 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



adopt the name of Andover, not on account of its pri- 
ority of settlement, but as a matter of convenience to 
the seminary and schools which had received their 
charters as within the territory of that name. The 
commiitee chosen to carry out the sentiment of the 
town in relation to division were Samuel C. Jack.son, 
William Chickering, Marcus Norton, Jr., Solomon 
Holt and John Aiken, all residents of the South 
Parish, to whom, at an adjourned meeting, were added 
Benjamin F. Jenkins and Daniel Carleton. A fair divi- 
sion of property was made, a copy of the town record 
was lodged with the town clerk of North Andover 
and the new town was organized by mutual consent. 

The first town-meeting held in North Andover after 
the division was held April 23, 1855. 

George N. White was chosen moderator ; Hiram 
Berry, clerk ; Daniel Carleton, James C. Carleton, 
and Farnham Spofford, selectmen; Hiram Berry, 
treasurer ; Farnham Spofford, Daniel Weed, Jr., 
and Hiram Berry, school committee ; James Stevens, 
Jedediah H. Barker and Isaac Wilson, auditors. 

The representatives of the town since the division 
have been : For Senators, Moses P. Stevens, 1867-68 ; 
George L. Davis, 1874-75 ; John A. Wiley, 1880-81 ; 
Newton P. Frye, 1885. For the House of Represent- 
atives, Moses T. Stevens, 1861 ; John A. .Wiley, 1867 ; 
B. P. Saunders, 1870 ; Hiram Berry, 1872 ; Andrew 
Smith, 1875; Newton P. Frye, 1878; Thomas K. 
Oilman, 1880 ; Frank W. Frisbie, 1883 ; Newton P. 
Frye, 1884; Calvin Read, 1885. In most cases the 
representatives served a second term. 

Among the distinguished citizens of North Andover 
during the period which ended with the division of 
the town of Andover was the Hon. Gayton Pickman 
Csgood. He was a son of Isaac Osgood and Rebecca 
T. (Pickman) Osgood, and was born in Salem, July 4_ 
1797. He was fitted for college in North Andover, and 
was graduated at Harvard in 1815, with high honors, 
in a class of which John Gorham Palfrey and Jared 
Sparks were members. He studied law in Salem, and 
practiced there a short time, when, his health failing^ 
he took up his residence with his father in North 
Andover, where he resided the remainder of his life. 
He abandoned his profession and, being engaged in 
no business, he led a life of scholarly and elegant 
leisure and ease. He became, however, deeply inter- 
ested in politics, and was one of the most active 
leaders in the movement in ftivor of General Jackson 
for the Presidency, and one of the ablest advocates of 
the principles of that great Democratic organization 
which placed Jackson in power. In 1831 he was 
nominated for Congress by the Democracy of the 
Essex North Congressional District, and was elected 
after a long and vigorous campaign and many elec- 
tions. Having been defeated for the succession, he 
retired to private life, and declined all further public 
position. 

The influence of Mr. Osgood on the town is still 
well remembered. To a certain extent he was a re- 



cluse: he was not active in society or in the affairs of 
the town. Beyond his aged father and mother and 
their family he had few companions. His time was 
spent in his large and carefully selected library. His 
courteous and dignified presence, always in repose, 
was one of the features of the town. And yet, recluse 
as he was, his influence was felt throughout the com- 
munity. His character gave force to his opinions, 
and without advocacy from him they were adopted. 
His advice was sought in all public enterprises, and 
freely though cautiously given. His impressive bear- 
ing was so without condescension that all classes 
respected it. He was recognized as a scholar, and his 
scholarship was acknowledged by the most practical 
of his townsmen as an ornament to their vocation. 
He was recognized as an accomplished critic, and he 
was a centre around which the cultivated men of the 
region gathered for advice and sympathy. The Latin 
and Greek classics constituted a part of his daily 
reading. Without imagination or creative faculty of 
his own, he comprehended the genius of the great 
English poets. From his solitude he watched with 
keen scrutiny the eloquent; utterances of Everett, the 
masterly statesmanship of Webster, the fervid work 
of Bancroft, the productions of American authors in 
every literary walk, as they came upon the stage; and 
his judgment of them was wise and discriminating — 
his judgment of their strength and weakness. 

The productions of his pen were few and, notwith- 
standing the severity of his criticism, somewhat 
florid, but pure. As a public speaker he was strong 
and convincing, attractive and eloquent. Governed 
by his convictions, he knew no fear, and never con- 
sidered the effect of his declarations on his own per- 
sonal fortunes. When, as a member of Congress, he 
spoke, it was for his country, and he was always 
proud of the compliment paid him by Mr. Van 
Buren, who introduced him to a group of statesmen 
as " the fearless representative who spoke for the 
good of his constituents as he understood it, and not 
for his own success." 

Mr. Osgood secured the confidence and esteem of 
his friends by his sagacity and integrity, and by the 
manifest sincerity of his opinions. Those of his im- 
mediate companions and connections who differed 
from him, and they were many, had no controversy 
with him, recognizing as they did the broad and firm 
foundations of his belief, and the dignified intelli- 
gence with which he maintained them. He was a 
product of the social stateliness of the Revolutionary 
and early constitutional period of our country, and re- 
presented that class which gave great strength to the 
rural districts, irom whence in those days our guides 
and leaders came. He died June 26, 1861. 

CIVIT, WAR. 

The social and civil current of North Andover ran 
on as usual until the breaking out of the Civil War. 
The obligations which rested upon it in this startling 



NORTH ANDOVEK. 



1681 



event were promptly and liberally fulfilled. At a 
town -meeting, held May 6, 1861, it was voted to appro- 
priate five thousand dollars to uniform and equip a 
company of volunteers, and to provide for their fam- 
ilies. The men were to receive fifty cents per day 
while drilling, and ten dollars per month from the 
date of their muster in to the date of discharge. I. 
Osgood Loring, George L. Davis and Moses T. 
Stevens were appointed a committee to assist the se- 
lectmen in disbursing the funds. A company was 
immediately formed. 

July 28, 1862, voted to pay a bounty of two hun- 
dred dollars to each volunteer who should enlist for 
three years within ttn days, and should be credited to 
the town. August 25th the bounty was increased to 
two hundred and fifty dollars. 

March 8, 1864, voted to raise one hundred and 
twenty-five dollars for each recruit who shall enlist 
on or before the 15th of June next to fill out the 
quota. 

July 5, 1864, voted to pay the same bounty to 
each volunteer who shall enlist as part of the quota 
of the town prior to March 5, 1865, under any calls 
of the President. 

The town furnished two hundred and fifty men for 
the war, fifteen more than were called for, of whom 
thirty-three died, viz. : 



Geo. H. Farnham, Ajiril 3, 1802. 

Ansell Buniliam, Nov. 24, 1802. 
Juhn Berkeley, Feb. 13, 18(i:!. 
Otis S. Merrill, Mar. 2, 1863. 
Clias. \V. Cole, Mar. 3, 18113. 
Andrew J. Fish, Apr. 18, 1803. 
Nicholas Tiiltle, Aj.r. ■.:., 1S03. 

Michii.l II.:-' ., Mr ■, IS03. 



John F. Sijofl.jril, July .s, 1,SI3. 
Chas. Lee Foster, Aug. 8, 1863. 
Ansel Peabody, Aug. 19, 1863. 
Benj. W. Pingree,Dec. 14, 1803. 
Henry W. Stevens, Mar. 11, 1864. 
Thos. S. Porter, Apr. 16, 1864. 



L. G. Phelps, July 22, 1804. 
G. VV. Ray, Sept. 23, 1864. 
C. W. Bridges, Sept. 24, 1864. 
Wallace \V. Ray, Sept. 25, 1864. 



lIuni.Mu ].n„'\ry. May 12,1867. 
lUMiry L. Lovejoy, Sept. 1, 18fi7. 
Elbridge G. Manning, May 31, 

1S69. 
J. B. Fuller, Mar. 2T, 1871. 
Jos. H. Farnham, Jan. 14, 1873. 
Danl.L. Plunimer, Feb. 4, 1874. 
Wni. Johnson Damon, July 3, 



187.5 
IS. K. UeJley, Apr. 30, 1877. 



The whole amount of the money raised and spent 
by the town on account of the war, exclusive of State 
aid, wa-i $40,795.10. The amount of money raised 
and spent in aid of payment of State aid to families 
of volunteers during the four years of war, and re- 
paid by the Commonwealth, $12,936.94. 

Among the sons of North Andover who have made 
themselves distinguished by civil and military ser- 
vice, and by great qualities in the Civil War, General 
Isaac I. Stevens ranks with the foremost. He 
was a son of Isaac Stevens ; was born in 1817 ; 
educated at Franklin and Phillips Academies; was 
appointed a cadet in West Point in 1834 by the 
Hon. Gayton P. Osgood, at that time member of 
Congress; was graduated in 1838, and entered the 
engineer corps of the array. He was stationed 
for many years at Newport, R. I., in charge of 
106 



Fort Adams ; and while there he married Miss 
Hazard, a lady of talents and accomplishments. In 
1853 he was appointed Governor of Washington Ter- 
ritory by President Pierce, and, in connection with 
General Frederick W. Lander, surveyed the route 
now occupied by the Northern Pacific Railroad. In 
1855 he was returned as a delegate in Congress from 
that Territory, and distinguished himself by his activ- 
ity and industry for his constituency in that impor- 
tant section of the country. He was a Democrat in 
politics, and took an active part in the campaign of 
1860. When the war broke out, in 1861, he entered 
at once in active military service, and his skill and 
courage were at once recognized. He was killed at 
Chautilly, Va., September 1, 1862, while rallying his 
men. 

General Stevens po.ssessed great intellectual pow- 
ers, which manifested themselves from early boyhood. 
He was in many respects the first scholar of his day 
at Franklin Academy, and was a favorite of Mr. 
Simeon Putnam, the most critical of teachers. On 
his entry at West Point he rose to high rank at once, 
and was graduated with the first honors of his class. 
In addition to his mathematical genius, which was 
great, he possessed strong reasoning powers, keenness 
of peroeption and the courage of his convictions. 
His death was sincerely and deeply mourned. 

Education. — In North Andover the attention of 
the people was turned early to the work of education. 
Not only were they directed by the order of the court, 
providing for this " inland plantation," but their own 
judgment led them to consider how schools should be 
established and the children taught. The leading 
men in the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies 
were well educated, many of them being graduates of 
English universities, and they set high value on edu- 
cation as the foundation of a civil organization. 

" The Legislature, in 1647, considering the great importance of a gen- 
eral diffusion of knowledge, made provision for free schools by ordering 
that every township of fifty families shall provide a school, in which 
children may be taught to read and write; and that every town of a 
hundred families shall maintain a grammar school, in which youth may 
be prepared for college, to which another was added in 1683, providing 
that every township of more than five hundred families should maintain 
two grammar schools and two writing-schools, a burthen which, consid- 
ering the feeble means of the colony, and the dark period when it was 
assvime.l, « us MO Joiiljt \astly greater than any similar burthen that has 
been Imi ir -in. - ,i mI, >.\ 1- n i -ihim i-l ■> ii h i1m- present wealth of the 
State, m ... , ,i,. ... It is a singular fact, 

come ii]i I . ' I I . I i ' iiu poor and suffering 






L>u8e be erected at the 
cnty feet' long and 
to employ a 
division of the t 



Mr. Dudley Bradstreet was in 1703 selected by the 
selectmen of the town, teacher of the school provided 
for by the building near Joseph Wilson's, and he was 
undoubtedly the first officially appointed teacher in 



1G82 



UISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the town — at least he is the first on record. In the 
business of teaching he was succeeded by John Bar- 
nard 1709, Joseph Dorr, William Cooke, Thomas 
Paine, and in 1718 by iMr. Withura. In the middle 
of the eighteenth century provision was made for 
schools in the outlying districts. From that time 
the district school system was carefully supported and 
diligently |unsnt'd. In them the great mass of the 
chihlrcii were educated. The children and youths of 
each district, ranging in age from ten to twenty-one 
years, filled the modest school-houses, often to the 
number of fifty, and most of them closely connected 
by family ties. The discipline of these schools was 
usually enforced by great physical energy; the teach- 
ers were often the poor and energetic undergraduates 
of New England colleges, and the pupils were grad- 
uated with all their natural faculties unimpaired for 
the active service of life. Out of this primitive 
system has grown the grading of schools now in 
vogue in the country, of which the town of North 
Andoverhas "six district schools — two of which are 
graded — making in all thirteen schools, including the 
grammar scho(ds." 

Teaching during the existence of the district school 
system was a profession adopted by well-educated 
men as an honorable and useful and somewhat»profit- 
able occupation. Dr. Berry and Mr. Stevens, natives 
of North Andover, teachers in Nashville, Tenn., and 
Mr. Henry Osgood in Danvers, were distinguished in 
their day for their efficiency as teachers of schools of 
a high order. Mr. Farnham Spofibrd, a teacher in 
the district schools of his native town, North Ando- 
ver for many years, removed in 1827 to Nantucket, 
where for fourteen years, till 1841, he had charge of 
the principal grammar school of the island. Without 
the training of normal schools and without any 
special education for their task, these men, and many 
others similarly situated, conducted useful and influ- 
ential schools, advancing many of them, from the 
grammar school to the academy ; and from the same 
sphere in life came a faithful and capable class of 
lemale teachers, mindful of their domestic duties and 
family ties — motherly teachers, to whose hearts chil- 
dren appealed, and whose minds were strong enough 
for school purposes, and who gave additional reputa- 
tion to the Fosters and Peterses, whose names they 
bore. Over all these schools the minister of the par- 
ish kept a watchful eye and exerted a most usefu] 
influence. In 1800 Thomas Kittridge, Deacon Ben- 
jamin Farnum, Samuel Johnson, Michael Parker, 
Nathan Barker and Jonathan Ingalls were appointed 
a committee, in addition to the ministers of the gos. 
pel and the selectmen of the town, to visit the schools 
and to inquire into the regulations thereof, and to 
see to the proficiency, conduct and regularity of the 
scholars, and to advise, assist and direct respecting 
the same, as they shall judge will best promote a vir- 
tuous, religious and useful education. 

From the humble beginning of the fathers. North 



Andover has advanced to an annual appropriation of 
§13,300, and to six hundred and eighty-four pupils 
iu all the cla.sses other schools. 

As the demand for higher education increased, the 
endowment of the academy became quite general in 
the colonies. The branches taught in these institu- 
tions constituted the foundation of classical culture in 
the colleges, gave the youthful minds who pursued 
them great strength, and established a corps of 
scholars from whom the distinguished students 
sprung. The course of study was not extensive, but 
it had nothing in it which was superfluous or confus- 
ing. A graduate from an academy found himself 
prepared to enter at once on the curriculum of the 
college, and adapted to the companionship of the 
learned men iu those days, who made scholarship a 
profession. For the practical purposes of life the 
district school furnished all the necessary accomplish- 
ments ; but those who occupied the pulpit, and inter- 
preted and applied the laws, and devoted themselves 
to the health of the community, pursued a higher 
course of study, and to a certain degree formed a class 
by themselves. Their minds seemed to be strength- 
ened by classical culture, and the educational meth- 
ods adopted by scholars in the academy and students 
in the college reco'gnized no royal road to learning. 
The strongest mental powers were called into action, 
and when the foundation of academic culture was 
laid, it was laid for a life-time, and formed a part of 
the character of him who had laid it. Minds thus 
cultivated were fitted for any walk in life to which 
vigorous thought could be applied ; and the strength 
they acquired by concentrated scholarly discipline 
enabled them to grasp with ease those minor subjects 
which belong to daily life. 

To these institutions, therefore, the leaders of state 
and society turned for the mental discipline their duty 
required. The public high school was unknown. 
The privately-endowed academy grew up out of the 
social and civil requirements of the earlier days, 
as the State-endowed high and normal schools 
are the natural growth of these later days. 
Phillips Academy at Exeter, Phillips Academy at 
Andover, Dummer Academy at Byfield, Franklin 
Academy at North Andover all belong to those in- 
stitutions of learning which are classed with Rugby 
and Eton, and can boa.st of sons to whom Christian 
civilization owes an incalculable debt, — clergymen, 
jurists, physicians, statesmen, authors, scientists, 
ethical teachers. The scholar in those days was 
counted of value to society. 

As early as 1787 the establishment of an academy 
in North Andover began to be discussed, and after 
the lapse of more than ten years, in 1799, land liber- 
ally offered by Jonathan Stevens was accepted for 
the location, and subscriptions were made for the 
erection of a building. The school was organized 
for the education of both sexes, and was called the 
North Parish Free School until 1803, when, by an 



JS[OIIT[I AN DOVER. 



11583 



act of the court, it was named Franklin Academy. 
Tlie liistory of the school is almost entirely a matter 
of tradition. It seems to be well known that Mr. 
Stowe, of Beading, was the first preceptor, and that 
he was succeeded in 1800-1 by the Rev. James 
Flint, D.D., afterward a distinguished divine and 
author of many favorite and beautiful hymns. About 
1801-4 Nathaniel Peabody managed the male de- 
partment aud Elizabeth Palmer the female, who were 
afterwards married, and were the parents of Elizabeth 
P. Peabody, the well-known writer and philanthro- 
pist, and Sophia Peabody, the wife of Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, and Mary Peabody, the wife of Horace 
Mann. The school, under their tuition, was success- 
ful, and they were long remembered with great affec- 
tion by the people of the town. Samuel L. Knapp, 
a graduate of Harvard in 1804, a bright writer, an ec- 
centric thinker, an enthusiastic author of lives of 
distinguished lawyers and editor of the Boston Ga- 
zette, had charge of the school in 1805 and 1806. He 
was followed by Samuel L. Burnside, afterward a 
prominent lawyer in Worcester, and James C. Mer- 
rill, who rose to the distinction of judge. 

Following these were David Damon, in 1812, 
who became an able, eloquent and powerful Uni- 
tarian preacher, and whose capacity and attainments 
were the admiration of all who knew him; the Rev. 
Robert Page ; John Cleaveland, brother of the dis- 
tinguished teacher, Nehemiah Cleaveland, of Tops- 
field, and afterward a successful lawyer in New York 
in 1825 ; and Stephen Coburn in 1826, a graduate of 
Andover Theological Seminary, a teacher and post- 
master for many years in Ipswich. 

The reputation of the school, however, was made 
by Simeon Putnam, who took charge about 1817 and 
continued as teacher until shortly before his death. 
May 19, 1883, with the exception of a little over a 
year, 1825-27, during which, on account of a dis- 
agreement with the trustees, he occupied a building 
his own. During nearly sixteen years, from 1817 to 
1833, Mr. Putnam was the great teacher of youth in 
the town. He was born in Rutland, Mass., was grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1811, a contestant with Edward 
Everett for the first scholarship of the class, and 
having taken his second degree in 1817, commenced 
his work as a teacher, for which he was thoroughly 
accomplished. He believed in discipline and en- 
deavored to enforce it by means not now recognized 
as a necessary part of school arrangement. He did 
not quite under-stand the limitations of a dull mind, 
and felt that application alone was necessary to solve 
the hardest problem and to learn the most diificult 
lesson. The value of time he believed in, and often 
advised his scholars to " make time " when they com- 
plained that the hours were too short for their 
purposes. For a brilliant scholar, however, he had 
the warmest aftection. He was in immediate sympathy 
with a fine recitation, and the boy who made it was 
at once close to his heart. The relations he estab- 



lished between himself and the talented youth who 
were placed under his care were not those which exist 
between a teacher and his pupils, but those which 
bring scholars into a cultivated fraternity. His 
knowledge of the classics was most accurate, and his 
faculty for imparting his knowledge was extraordinary. 
It was his delight to analyze the structure of a 
sentence, and to solve an idiom, and his rendering of 
Greek and Latin into English was exact and at the 
same time graceful and expressive. It has been said 
that he was harsh — but while he met disobedience 
with severity and knew no remedy for disorderly con- 
duct but condign punishment, the encouragement he 
ottered the bright and the obedient was as kindly as 
the influence of spring upon the face of nature. The 
tributes paid him by his^patrons and pupils were full 
of kind regard and respect, and were a recognition of 
the power of great and good qualities to obliterate 
the memory of petty annoyances and irritations. 
Over all his life was shed the influence of a stern re- 
ligious faith to whose requirements he was always 
obedient. In morals, religion and action, he accus- 
tomed himself to hew to the line, and he expected those 
connected with him to follow his example. Hisbooks 
were selected with great care ; his horses were swift 
and spirited ; he rode with precision ; he marshaled 
boys like a martinet. "If you had been in Bonaparte's 
army you would have been shot," he said to a clumsy 
and unfortunate youth, who dropped his books by 
the way, as he was marching in line from one school 
building to another. 

Among his neighbors and friends, Mr. Putnam met 
all his obligations with exactness, and discharged his 
duties liberally and conscientiously. In the social 
circle his conversation was most attractive — the out- 
poring of a well-stored aud discriminating mind. In 
his sphere he was an autocrat, and the community in 
which he lived recognized his power. As a teacher 
he strengthened many a weak mind and inspired and 
developed many a strong one. Timothy and Brewster 
Walker and Cornelius Conway Felton were scholars 
of whom he was proud ; there were hundreds in whom 
he took a personal interest through life. He had a 
keen understanding of the duty of an educator. 

In 1827 Mr. Putnam took as an associate teacher 
the Rev. Cyrus Pierce, who had been a faithful and 
useful Unitarian clergyman, settled for a long time in 
North Reading, and subsequently the " father of the 
normal-school system " of Massachusetts. The sturdy 
qualities of Mr. Pierce made the association complete. 

Mr. Putnam married Abigail S. Fay, of Concord, a 
sister of Judge S. P. P. Fay, a most amiable and in- 
telligent woman, whose kindly influence was felt 
wherever she was known. Their children were Rev. 
Charles S., rector in the Church of the Redeemer, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., who died in 1860, aged forty-two ; 
Professor John N., of Dartmouth College, a most 
accomplished Greek scholar and a man of the sweet- 
est character, who died in 1863, aged forty-one; and 



l(J84 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY. MASSACHUSETTS. 



Samuel P. P. F., a beaiUilul boy, who died at the age 
of lour from an accident. 

The other preceptors of the academy were Benjamin 
Eddy Cotting. 1833; John A. Hicliardson, 1833-36; 
.Tolin White Brown and Charles Allen, 1839-40; Johti 
Jfaynard, 1841-45 ; Geo. B. Loring, 1841 ; Hiram 
Berry, 1845-47. The succeeding teachers were Isaac 
T. Case and Spencer Wills, of Bowdoin College. The 
school was given up about 1853, and the old academy 
building has since been used as a stable to the Brad- 
street house, the former residence of Mr. Putnam. 

Franklin Academy was one of the first schools of 
this description, in which female scholars were taught 
and female teachers employed. During its early 
years a preceptor and a preceptress were engaged, and 
tbe academy building was divided into two rooms for 
their accommodation. The female teachers weresome- 
what distinguished. They were Elizabeth Palmer, to 
whom allusion has already been made ; Abby Dowse, 
who was the mother of the Rev. Chandler Robbing 
and the Rev. Samuel D. Robbius ; Susan Bulfinch, 
Charlotte Verstille, Hannah Bancroft, Joanna Prince, 
Nancy Denney, Adeline and Susan Abbott, daughters 
of the Rev. Abiel Abbot, of Beverly ; Hannah O.-good, 
Jlartha Lincoln, Mary Kendall, Lucy Jane Hamlen. 

Indcstries. — North Andover has always been a 
prosperous town. Possessed of a good soil, it attracted 
an industrious and thrifty body of settlers, and it 
took a foremost rank in agricultural enterprise, when 
the cultivation of the soil constituted almost the en- 
tire occupation of the people. The farms have varied 
in size from ten to three hundred acres, and still re- 
tain about these proportions. The early occupants 
of the land possessed great skill in the selection of 
good soil, and for many years they were able to raise 
large crops without e.xpensive fertilizing, or an ex- 
travagant amount of labor: and the farmers contrib- 
uted their share of the remarkable crops recorded for 
Essex County by Colonel Timothy Pickering. The 
l>asturage also was remarkably good. Scattered over 
the entire territory, from the fertile and well-tilled 
lands lying east of the Cxreat Pond to the boundary 
now drawn between the two towns, was a body of 
yeomanry who secured an ample subsistence from 
well-managed farms. Their homesteads were in good 
order and constructed with ample proportions; and 
they constituted a rural population which, in intelli- 
gence and resolution, in good order and business suc- 
cess, could not be surpassed. The history of their 
farms and homes is a tale of industry and econom)', 
of commanding influence and energy which have 
entered into every great enterprise in our country. 
While the fathers have pursued their quiet avocations 
at home, the sons have gone forth to broader fields 
and more conspicuous service, having learned the 
lesson that the same qualities which secure success in 
a narrow sphere will avail in a large one. In the 
economy of these farms has been reared many a suc- 
cessfnl merchant ; in the domestic intelligence of 



these homes have been taught the rudiments of an 
education which has often broadened into the 
capacity and culture required by influential public 
service. 

Formerly the agriculture of the town consisted 
in the raising of the ordinary products required for 
subsistence and the local markets. The orchard, the 
cornfield, the meadow all contributed their propor- 
tion, and dairying was esteemed a profitable pursuit. 
Recently all this enterprise has been diversified, and 
largely increased by the great local markets which 
have gathered in the neighborhood, and the growing 
wealth of the people has converted many of the 
farms into estates. The North Andover of to-day is 
not only a good farming town, but presents a most 
beautiful and attractive landscape, charming enough 
by nature, but most charming from cultivation. 

In the mean time manufactures have increased to a 
great extent. From the primitive mills of Joseph 
Parker and Stephen Johnson, who dammed the 
Cochicliewick in 1671 or thereabouts, the growth of 
mill property has been enormous. It is unnecessary 
to recall the long list of mill-sites, of which nothing 
now remains but a decayed timber or the grassy 
mounds which once restrained the water. Grist-mills 
were always encouraged by the colonies, and they 
multiplied on every stream. Fulling-mills were a 
necessity also. But the spinning and weaving were 
performed by members of the family, the flax and 
wool being raised on the farm — and here and there a 
weaving-room and spinning-wheel, long gone into 
disuse, may be found in the ancient houses. The 
later attempts at the manufacture of paper and pow- 
der were not entirely successful, and gradually the 
water power of the town was devoted to turning the 
wheels of woolen-mills and machine-shops. The 
early founders of the woolen industry seem to have 
been attracted by the Cochichewick, and some of the 
most skillful of those who came from England to 
pursue this business established themselves here. 
Arthur, John and James Scholfield wore the pioneers, 
and it was they who gave the first real impetus to 
that industry which has at last grown to such huge 
proportions. They bought land in Andover, on the 
Cochichewick and Shawshin, set up their carding- 
machines, but ultimately joined Nathaniel Stevens in 
his more capacious and better organized building on 
the same stream. On the site of the jjrimitive card- 
ing-mill has grown up a large manufacturing estab- 
lishment, and the Stevens Mill has grown into an 
imposing structure, well-equipped and successfully 
manajed. 

The pioneer in all this enterprise was undoubtedly 
Nathaniel Stevens. He was born in North Andover, 
October 18, 1786, a son of Jonathan Stevens ; was edu- 
cated at Franklin Academy with his brothers Wil- 
liam, who was graduated at Harvard in 1819, and was 
for a long time judge of the Municipal Court at Law- 
rence, and Isaac, who was distinguished as a philanthro- 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



1685 



pist and reformer. He commenced life as a seaman, 
making a voyage to Leghorn in 1804, and afterwards 
a trader in his native town from 1810 to 1812. In 
1815 he married Miss Harriet Hale, daughter of Moses 
Hale, of Chelmsford, having, in 1813, through the ad- 
vice of his father-in-law, embarked in the manufac- 
turing of flannels. Having engaged James Scholfield 
to manage his mill, he united with Dr. Joseph Kit- 
tredge and Josiah Monroe in conducting the business. 
Captain Stevens (a title which he acquired from com- 
manding a company of militia in 1815) was the first 
to introduce American-made flannels into the market. 
In spite of the discouragements of small capital, nar- 
row quarters, a market flooded with foreign goods 
and the adverse counsels of his friends, he persevered 
and lived long enough to witness a handsome fortune 
of his own, and a national woolen industry employing 
profitably millions of dollars of capital and thousands 
of operatives enjoying the comforts which attend 
labor in the United States under the fostering care of 
a protective tariff. As his business increased, his 
bounty .was bestowed on all the worthy objects of the 
town. He encouraged internal improvements, cared 
for the poor, cultivated with great success his ances- 
tral acres, was a model of industry and energy. He 
never felt fatigue, he said, " until he was fifty years 
old." He believed in the value of sound learning, 
and he gave hia numerous family the best education 
to be found. In pobtics he was an ardent Democrat, 
a supporter of Jackson, and a most formidable an- 
tagonist in debate whenever called on to defend the 
policy of his administration, and when in his old age 
he found his country in danger of disruption, his loy- 
alty was fervid, his hand was ever open to support the 
flag, and his voice was raised in defense of the princi- 
ples for which the war was fought. He died in 1865. 

Capt. Stevens left five sons, all of whom engaged in 
the business of manufacturing. — Charles A. Stevens, 
an enterprising manufacturer at Ware, Mass., for 
some ye.ars a member of the Governor's Council ; 
Henry H. Stevens, the founder of an extensive linen- 
mill in Douglas, Miiss. ; Moses T. Stevens, the owner 
of the largest private woolen establishment in the 
country, formerly a Senator from Essex County and 
Representative from North Andover ; George Stevens 
and Horace N. Stevens, both of whom were connected 
with the business in North Andover and who died in 
middle life. He also left three daughters, Julia 
Maria, who married the Rev. Sylvan S. Hiintiug; 
Catharine, who married the Hon. Oliver Stevens ; 
Ann Eliza, who married John H. D. Smith. 

A contemporary of Capt. Stevens was Abraham 
Marland, who at one time carried on a mill in North 
Andover. 

Next in order on the Cochichewick comes the ma- 
chine shop established in 1836 on the privilege owned 
by Isaac Osgood and occupied by his grist-mill. The 
founders of the machine shop were Charles Barnes, 
George H. Gilbert and Parker Richardson. The 



property underwent several changes until, in 1851, 
George L. Davis and Charles Furber bought the en- 
tire interest. Mr. Furber died in 1857 and bis place 
in the firm was filled by Daniel T. Gage and John A. 
Wiley, the former of whom withdrew in 1860. In 
January, 1861, Joseph M. Stone, of Manchester, N. H., 
became a partner; and in 1867 George G. Davis, 
Joseph H. Stone and James H. Davis became mem- 
bers of the firm. Since that time George G. Davis 
has withdrawn to business in Boston, and in 1886 
James H. Davis died 

This concern has been remarkably prosperous and 
has organized a manufacturing village of large pro- 
portions and great industry. The partners in the 
business have all been most exemplary men, — accur- 
ate and trustworthy in business, useful members of 
society, and several of them having rendered valu- 
able service to the State in the Senate and House of 
Representatives. The founder, the Hon. George L. 
Davis, still lives to enjoy the ample returns of his 
business, and the respect and esteem of a community 
in which he has for a long time been a generous 
benefactor and a faithful 'supporter of Christian in- 
stitutions. 

Below this " Machine-Shop Village" stands the North 
Andover Mill, erected near the site of the old stone 
mill, which was occupied in 1828 by George Hodges 
and Edward Franker. In 1839 the new mill, a large 
brick structure, was put in operation, and was owned 
by a company consisting of Eben Sutton, Dr. Joseph 
Kittredge and George Hodges. This property fell 
mainly into the hands of Eben Sutton, and together 
with the Sutton Mill, lower down the stream, consti- 
tuted a part of the large estate left by Eben Sutton 
at his death, in November, 1864. The management 
of this property is now in the hands of General Eben 
Sutton, a son of General William Sutton, and a 
nephew of the final founder of the mills. 

The three woolen-mills on the Cochichewick em- 
ploy about three hundred and twenty operatives and 
manufacture about 1,050,000 pounds of wool. 

WiTCHCBAFr. — A belief in a personal devil and 
his agents on earth was a prevailing idea among the 
Puritans, — an idea which they did not leave behind 
them when they came to A?nerica. Demonology had 
played a prominent part in every form of faith in the 
East, from theearliest days. It was workedinto Greek 
philosophy and poetry, and when Christianity dawn- 
ed, the doctrine of demons was accepted as a nec- 
cessary element of religious life. The supernatural 
possessed an indescribable charm, and conjurers and 
sorcerers and exorcists were considered as important 
in society as lawyers and the whole order of priest- 
craft. An epidemic witchcraft broke out in 1374, in 
France, in which great groups of festive men and 
women became entranced. For more than two cen- 
turies all Europe was apparently overrun with sor- 
cerers and witches, thousands of witches suffering 
death by fire annually. In the reign of Francis I. 



1686 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



more than one hundred thousand witches are said to 
have been put to death. Demoniacal traditions were 
brought to this country by the early settlers, and the 
frightful judicial discipline applied in Essex County 
in 1692, although of comparatively small extent, 
constitutes a painful chapter in our colonial history, 
miiigated only by the fact that here alone in the 
world the delusion was suppressed by the p(>i)uhir 
voice — and suppressed completely — while it still 
lingered in many parts of Europe. 

The Tragedy of 1692, usually attributed to Salem, 
was enacted also in North Andover. More than fifty 
persons were complained of there, and Dudley Brad- 
street, the magistrate who refused to grant more war- 
rants, was obliged to flee for his life. A recital of the 
experiences of persons belonging to North Andover 
will give a clear and definite idea of the widespread 
outrage in which this town was involved. 

Nahemiah Abbot was taken to Salem for trial, April 
22, 1692, and the following is his examination : 

" What say you, are you guilty of witchcraft, of wliich you are sus- 
l>fct«l or not ? No, sir. I say before God, before whom I stand, that I 
ku.iw notliiuK of witclicnift. Who fs this man ? Ann Putnam named 
hiiu. JIary Wolcott s.iidi she had seen bis shape. What do you say 
totliis? I nover did liurt them. Who hurt you, Ann Putnam? That 
man. I neverhurt her. Ann Putnam said he is upon the beam, just 
BUL-h a discovery of tlio persons carried out she confessed ; and if you 
would find mercy of God you must confess. If I should confess this I 
must confess what is false. Tell how far you have gone ; who hurts 
you? I do not know. I ara absolutely free. As you say, God knows. 
If you will confess the truth, we desire nothing else, that you may not 
hide your guilt, if you are guilty, and therefore confess, if so. I speak 
before God, that I am clear from this accusation. What, in all respects ? 
Yes, in all respects. Doth this man hurt you ? Their mouths were 
stopped. You hear several accuse, though one cannot open her mouth. 
I am altogether free. Charge him not, iinless it be he. This is the man 
say some, and some say he is very like him. How did you know his 
name? Ho did not tell me himself, but other witches told me I Ann 
Putnam said it is the same man, and then she was taken in a fit. 
JIary Wolcott, is this the man ? lie is like him, I cannot say it is 
lif. Mercy Lewis said, it is not the man. They all agreed the man 
had a bunch on his eyes. Ann Putnam in a fit, said. Be you the 
man ? Ay, do you say you be the man ? Did you put mist before 
my eyes? Then ho was sent forth till several others were examined. 
When he was brought in again, by reason of much people and many 
in the windows so that the accusers could not have a clear view of 
him, ho was ordered to he abroad, and the accusers to go forth to 
linu and view him in the liglit, which they did, and in the presence 
of the magistrate and many others, discoursed quietly with him, one 
and all acquitting him ; but yet said he was like tliat man, but he 
had not tlio wen lliey saw ill his apparition. 

"Note. He u;n :i Inllv I.,, i .] ni;ni, and Stood shaded by reason of 
his own liaii, .- ii! u i i ' ini ' Ii'- seemed to some hy.8tanders and 
observers to hr . . i h i ii !\ hi.i flie person the afflicted did describe. 

"Mr. Saiiin<l r.iii , i.ni, .1-^ i lotake in writing the examination 

of Nohemiah Alibot, Iiatii ilelivered it as aforesaid, and upon hearing the 
same did see cause to dismiss him. 

** JouN Haw 



• JONA. COU 



\ Assistants.^* 



choly state and condition, she used to walk abroad in her orchard ; and 
upon a certain time she saw the appearance of a cat, at the end of the 
house, which yet she thought was a real cat. However, at that time, it 
diverted her from praying to God, and instead thereof she prayed to the 
devil ; about which time she made a covenant with the devil, who as a 
black man came to her and presented her a hook, upon which she laid 
her finger, and that left a red spot ; and that upon her signing the devil 
told her he was her god, and that she should servo and worship him ; 
and sh« believes she consented to it. She says further that about two 
years agone, she was carried through the air in company with Deacon 
Frye's wife, Ebenezer Barker's wife, and Goody Tyler, to flve-railo 
pond, whore she was baptized by the devil, who dipt her face in the water 
and made her renounco her former baptism, and told her she must be 
his, soul and body, forever, and that she must serve him, which sho 
promised to do. She says the renouncing lier first baptism was after her 
dipping, and that she was tmnspotted back again through the air, in 
company with the foronamed pel-sons in the same manner as she went, 
and believes they were carried upon a pole. Q: How many persons 
wero'upon the pole ? .4. As I have said before, viz., four 'persons and 
no more, but whom she had named above. She confesses she has 
afflicted three persons, John Sawdy, Martha Sprague and Rose Foster, 
aud that she did it by pinching her bod-clothes and giving consent the 
devil should do it in her shape, and that tho devil could not do it with- 
out her consent. She confesses tho afllicting persons in the court by the 
glance of her eye. She says as she was coming down to Salem to be ex- 
amined she and the rest of the company with her stopped at Mr. Phil- 
lips', to refresh themselves, and tho afflicted persons being behind them 
up.n the road, came up just as she was mounting again, and were then 
afflicted, and cried out upon her. so that she was forced to stay hntil they 
were all past, aud said she only looked that way towards them. Q. Do 
you know the devil can take the shape of an innocent personand afflict ? 
^1. I believe he cannot. Q. Who taught you this way of witchcraft? 
A. Satan ; aud that he promised her abundance ot satisfaction and quiet- 
ness iu her future state, but never performed anything; and that she 
has-lived more uiiserahly and more discontented since than ever before. 
She confesses further that she herself, in company with Goody Parker, 
Goody Tyler and Goody Dean, had a meetiug at Moses Tyler's house last 
Monday night, to afflict, and that she and Goody Dean carried tho shape 
of Mr. Dean, the jniiiisler, bi-tweeii llitiii, to make persons believe that 



Mr. Dean aftlii 



nplishing what 




Mistrei^ 



As a fitting sequel to this jargon comes another 
examination on September 2, 1692, before the same 
John Hawthorne and his associatt-s — this time of a 
most exemplary woman, Mary 0-gO'id, wife of a 
worthy man. Captain Osgood, and bearing a name 
which has been known at this day as a synonym of 
all female loveliness and Christian virtues. 

** She confesses that about eleven years ago, when she was in a melan- 



in the 

stood before her, and told I 
notwithstanding, she said t 
there to put her hand. H 
judged his wife to be in an 
ing lived with her so lonj:, 
posed, hut has to believi- i 
Osgood was first called, she alliKua .M... n . -■ : ■ n.. ;n..] H.«.- K.ist.T l.v 
the glance of iler eyes, and recovert.i li ! ,-i:,,.. ti;. i \ ih i. n. h 

ofhorhand. Mary Lacey and Bctt\ i ^ i < ; lli',:,ili I. i-;i\\ 
Mistress Osgood afflicting Sprague all. i 1. ii 11. ,.i.i .M;u> i.;i..\ 
and Hannah Post and Betty .Johnson, jun., and l;,.se Koster and .Mary 
Kichardson were afflicted by Mistress Osgood, iu tho time of their ex- 
amination, aud recovered by her touching of their hands. 

'' I, underwritten, being appointed by auth rity to take this examina- 
tion, do testify upouoath, takeu in court, that this is a true copy of tho 
substance of it, to the besf of my knowledge, January .% 1692-93. The 



the I 



Mary Osgood was examined before their Majesty's justices of 



The following recantation made by these unhappy 
women ]iresents a most humiliating spectacle of the 
arrogance of one side and the pitiable demoralization 
of the other, and fills us with indignation and shame 
alike : 

" We, whoso names are underwritten, inhabitants of Andover ; when 
as that horrible and tremendous judgment, beginning at Salom Village 
in the year 1692, by some called wit.-Ii.-i.irt, lirt 1 r. iln'iin fm-lh it 'Mr. 

Paris' house, seveml young persons, 1 ... . '. .:l!i i .! .li I .. . .i>.. 

several persons for afflicting them, an. I - I. . i I; i. ii i l... ... 

wo being informed that if a person w;.. -i. 1 , il iih. t...i i..i^uii ...iil.l 




•^;Si-z>«si^' <=><:S-^'^;>-^^^»^#'' 



.NOllTH ANDOVER. 



1687 



tell what or who was the cause of that sickness ; Joseph Ballard, of 
AiidovBi-.'his wife being sick at the same time, he either from himself or 
by the advice of others, fetched two of the persons called the atHicted 
persons from Salem Village to Andover, which was the beginning of 
tliat dreadful calamity that befel us in Andover, believing the said accu- 
sations to be true, sent for the said persons to come over to the meet- 
ing-house in Andover, the afflicted persons being there. After Mr. 
Barnard had been at prayer, we were blindfolded, aud our hands were 
laid on the afflicted persons, they being in their fits and falling in 
thi;ir iits at our coming into their presence, as they said ; and some 
led us aud laid our hands upon them, and then they said they were 
well, and that we were guilty of afflicting them ^Vhereupon we were 
all seized as prisoners, by a warrant from the justice of the peace and 
forthwith carried to Salem. And, by reason of that sudden surprisal, 
we knowing ourselves altogether innocent of that crime, we were all 
exceedinjily astonished and amazed, and consternated and affrighted out 
of our reason ; and our nearest and dearest relations, seeing us in that 
dreadful condition, and knowing our great danger, apprehended there 
was no other way of saving our lives, as the case was then circnm- 
stam-fd, but by our coufessing ourselves to be such and such persons 
as the afflicted represented us' to be, they, out of tenderness and pity, 
persuaded us to confess what we did confess. And, indeed, that confes- 
sion that it is said we made was no other than what was suggested to 
us by some gentlemen, they telling us that we were witches, and they 
knew it, which made us think that it was so ; and our understandings, 
our reason, our faculties almost gone, we were not capable of judging 
of our condition ; as also the hard measures they used with us rendered 
US incapable of making our defense, but said anything and evei^thing 
which they desired, aud most of what we said, was in effect a consent- 
ing to what they said. Some time after, when we were better composed, 
they telling us what we had confessed, we did profess tl-.at we were 
innocent and ignorant of such things ; and we hearing that Samuel 
Wardwell had renounced his confession, and quickly after condemned 
and execiilfd, some of us were told we were going after Wardwell. 
Maiy iisguud. Deliverance Dane, Sarah Wilson, Mary Tyler, Abigail 
Bai ker, Hannah Tyler." 

To the good character of all these women Dudley 
Bradstreet, Francis Dane, Sr., Thomas Barnard and 
filty olhers bore witness in an elaborate statement. 

The credulity and superstition and cruelty of this 
delusion are all manifested in these papers, and the 
suns of Korth Andover may well rejoice that the 
wave which swept inland from Salem had spent its 
force when it reached their community, and that with 
them the first protest against the madness was pro- 
claimed. 

A.ssociATloss. — The citizens of North Andover 
have always been ready to associate themselves to- 
gether for mutual improvement. As early as 1825 a 
temperance society was formed under the presidency 
j^ of the Rev. Bailey Loring, who was an ardent and ex- 
I emplary advocate of the cause, and through whose 
influence such speakers as Lucius Manlius Sargent, 
E. H. Chapin, Hosea Hildreth were induced to deliver 
their powerful arguments. 

A lyceum was established in 1829, and courses of 
lectures were delivered in the church by Wilber, the 
astronomer, and in the ball of the brick-store by Hon. 
Gayton P. Osgood, Rev. Bailey Loring, Hon. Win. 
Stevens, Dr. George Ohoate, of Salem, and others of 
distinction in the county. These courses of lectures 
were continued from time to time for many years. 

A debating club was formed in 18H, of which 
James Stevens was president and George B. Loring 
secretary. This club met in Franklin Academy and 
discussed the prominent questions of the day. 

A lodge of Free and Accepted Masons was organ- 



ized some time prior to 1820, and had a large member- 
ship. Its records seem to have disappeared, and in the 
anti-Masonic excitement following 1830 the existence 
of the lodge was suspended. The order was revived, 
however, and June 24, 1875, the officers of Co- 
chichewick Lodge were installed by the M.W. Pcrci val 
J. Everett, Grand Master, and officers of the M. W. 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. The order of exer- 
cises consisted of a reception of Grand Officers, 
prayer by the Grand Chaplain, opening hymn, cere- 
monies of consecration, constitution by the M. W. 
Grand Master, hymn, procession to the church, in- 
stallation of Worshipful Master, installation of the 
Senior Warden, installation of the Junior Warden, 
installation of the other officers, proclamation, prayer, 
hymn and an address by Brother Geo. B. Loring. 

The officers of the lodge consisted of Louis Weil, 
W.M. ; Joseph F. Allen, S.W. ; John Parkhurst, J.W., 
Horace N. Stevens, Treasurer ; Chas. F. Johnson, Sec- 
retary ; Robert Brookhouse, Jr., S.D. ; S. William Ing- 
alls, J.D. ; Joseph N. Taylor, Marshal ; C. P. Merrill, 
Chaplain; Isaac N. Dixon, S.S. ; Henry Newhall,J. 
S. ; Fred. P. Hanaford, Tyler. 

Ths following are the Past Masters who have pre- 
sided over the lodge since the installation in 1875 : 
John Parkhurst, 1876-77 ; Charles P. Merrill, 1878- 
79 ; Thomas K. Oilman, 1880-81 ; William W. 
Chickering, 1882-83 ; Loring B. Rea, 1884 ; Clinton 
0. Barber, 1885-86 ; Calvin Rea, 1887. 

The lodge has continued in a flourishing condition 
and its work is well performed. The officers for the 
year 1887-88 are Calvin Rea, W.M. ; George L. Smith, 
S.W. ; John Barker, J.W. ; John H. Sutton, Treasurer ; 
Charles F. Johnson, Secretary ; John S. Sanborn, 
Chaplain ; Eben B. Downing, Marshal ; Frank Tis- 
dale, S.D. ; George S. Weil, J.D. ; George H. Perkins, 
S.S. ; Artemas V. Chalk, J.S. ; Edmund S. Colby, 
Organist ; Frederick P. Hanaford, Tyler. 

The object of this sketch is not so much to give the 
details or incidents of the town in full, as to record 
the part taken in the important events of local and 
national history in that portion of the ancient town 
first settled, and now called North Andover. The in- 
fluence of the pioneers here was great ; the theatre of 
their actions for generations was conspicuous in the 
colony and State ; the political position was singularly 
important ; the military service most honorable. The 
characteristics of the town have been remarkably pre- 
served to this day; its prosperity and importance 
have been continued. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



KEV. BAILEY LORIXG. 



The Rev. Bailey Loring was born in Duxbury, 
Mass., December 10, 1786. He was the youngest 
child of William and Alithea (Alden) Loring, and 



1688 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



was descended from Caleb Loring, the founder of the 
family in the town of Hull. His father was a farmer 
and inn-keeper on the road from Plymouth to Bos- 
ton, near the line of the town of Pembroke, and was 
an industrious, prudent citizen, well known to the 
numerous enterprising young men who traveled on 
foot from Cape Cod and the Old Colony to Boston in 
search of that fortune and distinction which many of 
them secured. The mother of Mr. Loring was a de- 
scendant in direct line i'rom John Alden, who came 
over in the "Mayflower," and who was a prominent 
magistrate of the Plymouth Colony. Chosen by 
Miles Standish to solicit for him the hand of Pris- 
cilla Mullins, he was met with the well-known in- 
quiry : " Prithee, John, why do you not speak for 
yourself?" And the romantic matrimonial adven- 
ture which followed has become a subject of song 
and story, and forms a bright and radiant spot in the 
hard and gloomy annals of the colony. Mrs. Loring 
inherited the beauty of her paternal ancestor and the 
quiet wit of her maternal. Of their large family, five 
sons and two daughters, Bailey seems to have been 
the favorite. He was a handsome lad of an amiable 
disposition, which endeared him to the domestic -eir-i 
cle, and his apt scholarship led to his selection as 
the son to be educated for the ministry— ii calling to 
which every Puritan father felt he must dedicate at 
least one son at whatever cost aiid degree of self- 
.sacrifice. Bailey Loring was graduated at BrowH- 
University in 1807, and entered at once on the study 
of divinity. He was the first scholar in his class, 
and had for his competitor and room-mate the Rev. 
Adoniram Judson, whose career as a missionary 
among the heathen was so distinguished and impor- 
_tant. Mr. Loring commenced his theological studies 
with the Rev. John Allyn, of Duxbury, a graduate 
of Harvard in 1785, a rare scholar, a powerful 
thinker, an impressive preacher and a leader in the 
Arminian movement of that day, which advanced 
rapidly to Unitarianism and modified largely the 
theological thought of New England. The advan- 
tages offered by the Theological School at Andover, 
which was opened September 28, 1808, attracted the 
attention of all young men preparing for the minis- 
try, and Mr. Loring presented himself at the dedica- 
tion of that institution for the purpose of entering its 
classes. To an active and studious and devoted 
young man, with his mind bent on the sacred calling 
opening before him, and nn.xiously searching for the 
truth, the obligations which would be imposed on a 
graduate of the school were of deep importance. To 
professor and student alike, the Andover Creed was 
laid down as a rule of faith, and belief in it was natu- 
rally made the test of fitness for connection with the 
institution. In an interview with the Rev. Eliphalet 
Pearson, Mr. Loring was informed that he could not 
enter upon the ministry with the sanction and license 
of the school as then founded if he entertained theo- 
logical views different from those laid down in the 



creed and taught by those who believed in it. He 
therefore returned to Dr. Allyn, and completed his 
studies under his guidance. 

On May 3, 1807, the Rev. William Symmes, who 
had been pastor of the First Church in Andover for 
nearly half a century, died, and the parish made dil- 
igent search for a successor during the three follow- 
ing years. The Rev. Samuel Gay, on the verge of 
ordination, proved to be too Calvinistic; the Rev. 
Samuel Osgood preferred Springfield ; the Rev. Tim- 
othy Alden and others, who preached as candidates, 
either did not suit or were not suited, and the choice 
fell at last on the Rev. Bailey Loring, a young man 
of twenty-three, who had been recommended as " an 
Arminian in theology and a Republican in politics" 
by the Rev. Joseph Richardson, the strong and inde- 
pendent leader, political and theological, in that day 
in Hingham, whose long service as a pastor covered 
many generations, and whose civil service extended 
to the halls of Congress. 

He was ordained September 19, 1810. There seems 
to be no record of the council under which he was 
ordained or of the clergymen who took part in the 
sei-vices. But he took up the work where the Rev. 
Dr.' Symmes had laid it down, and placed himself in 
intimate relations with the liberal clergy of that 
time, between whom and their Calvinistic brethren 
the . lines were soon distinctly drawn. The Rev. 
Abi'el Abbot, whose ministry in Coventry, Conn., 
was brought to a close by the Consociation of Tol- 
land County "on the ground of his holding heretical 
doctrines," was his friend and adviser. The Rev. 
Abiel Abbot, D.D., of Beverly, who until 1810 was 
in the habit of exchanging with ministers denomi- 
nated " Orthodox," but who, as the Unitarian con- 
troversy advanced, confined himself to an association 
with tho-e whose " opinions were supposed to be in 
substantial Hccordance with his own," was a frequent 
occupant of Mr. Jjoring's pulpit. The Rev. Charles 
Lowell, D.D., sympathized with him and preached 
often for him. John Bartlett, David Damon, Hosea 
Hildreth, Cyrus Peirce, Nathaniel Whitman, Samuel 
Barrett, Ezra Stiles Gannett, Alexander Young, 
Charles W. Upham, James Flint, John Brazer, Peter 
Eaton, all frequented his house and bis pulpit, and 
the Essex County Unitarian Association gathered 
annually around his fireside for friendly intercourse 
and an encouraging interchange of views. His rela- 
tions with his Christian brethren of all denomina- 
tions were fiiendly and liberal, and he was extremely 
reluctant to recognize that dividing line between the 
two branches of the Congreg;itional Church, even 
while avowing and defending his liberal theological 
views. The divisions which arose were not created 
by himself; and when, in response to an invitation, 
he took part in an ecclesiastical council for the ordi- 
nation of an Orthodox brother, his questions and sug- 
gestions were not considered quite pertinent, he 
quietly remarked: "It is evident I am but a carnal 



NORTH ANDOVER. 



16S9 



spoke in your spiritual wheel," and withdrew. With 
the pastor of a church erected by subscriptions of 
the evangelical churches of Essex County, for the 
accommodation of a few worshippers in his own par- 
ish inclined to orthodoxy, he maintained most 
friendly intercourse. At the same time he placed 
the First Church of Andover in the front rank of the 
Unitarian Congregational Churches of the country and 
for forty years discharged the duties of a faiihful and 
affectionate pastor and a sound and effective preacher. 
In the business affairs of his people aijd his parish, 
his advice was constantly sought and followed. 

In hours of trial and sorrow his consolation came 
from the heart of a patient, devoted, trusting, pious 
Christian, and reached with solemn effect and sup- 
port the wounded spirit. His sympathy with his 
parisliioners was intense, — as intense as that of a 
father with his children. His manner in the pul- 
]iit was most impressive. His sermons were filled 
with sound advice, broad Christian doctrine, confi- 
dence in the Creator and love of his Son Jesus 
Christ. His prayers, for the fervor and power of which 
he was distinguished, were uttered in most devotional 
tones and expressed in language of great Scriptural 
beauty and devout effect. He was watchful for the 
general welfare of the community in which he lived ; 
established a lyceum and contributed to its course 
of lectures ; was a warm and early friend of temper- 
ance, and organized a total-abslinence socitty ; en- 
couraged the public schools, and visited them ojten ; 
patronized the Franklin Academy, and always stood 
by the teachers ; joined the young men in a debating 
club; and encouraged improvements in agriculture, 
of which he was extravagantly fond. He planted 
trees along the highway before village improvement 
societies were known. He represented his town in 
the Legislature. 

Mr. Loring had no love of public display. He 
did his duty faithfully and conscientiously. In ex- 
teniiioraneous speech he was eminently successful, 
but he never made a point for the sake of applause, 
and he never allowed his zeal to outrun his judgment. 
Ill settling private disputes and public controver- 
sies, he gave each side the weight to which it was en- 
titled, and impressed both with his desire for equal and 
exact justice. He published but little either in news- 
paper or magazine, two sermons preached in 1829, —one 
on " Gratitude " and one on 'Profanity," and bound 
together— constituting all the work of this description 
he laid before the public. His power with his 
hearers consisted of his manifest suavity, his clear- 
ness of statement, his honest conviction and the 
sweetness of his voice and the serenity of his man- 
ner. He was a favorite and acceptable preacher in 
the pulpits of his denomination. 

Mr. Loring resigned his pastorate February 17, 
l.sr)0; and he died May 5, 1860. On his death the 
following resolutions were adopted in honor of his 
memory : 



" Resolved, 1st. That the members of this Religious 
Society are deeply sensible of the loss they have sus- 
tained by the death of the Rev. Bailey Loring, who for 
nearly forty years was their Spiritual Instructor and 
Guide, and for nearly half a century an esteemed and 
respected citizen of the town. 

"2d. That during the long period in which he 
officiated as our minister he displayed, in an eminent 
degree, all the virtues and graces that belong to and 
adorn the character of a Christian Divine. That 
as a preacher he was always found faithful to the 
cause of his Master in expounding the doctrine and 
enforcing the precepts of his holy word, reproving 
and rebuking sin wherever it was to be found, and 
inciting his hearers by the most alluring and weighty 
considerations to the love and practice of the Chris- 
tian virtues. That as a pastor, he was instant in 
season and out of season in visiting the sick and re- 
lieving the distressed, so that every member of his 
society was sure of finding, at all times and under all 
circumstances of life, a friend, adviser and comforter 
in his minister; and that by his death the cause of 
education, morals and religion in this society and 
community has lost one of its strongest advocates 
and most sincere supporters. 

" 3d. That the interest he manifested in the welfare 
of his church and .society, after his official connec- 
tion with it was dissolved, and especially his regard 
for the intellectual improvement of his successors in 
the ministerial office, by the donation of his theolog- 
ical library for their use and benefit, will always 
be remembered by us with the most lively emotions 
of gratitude." 

Mr. Loring married, February 20, 1816, Miss Sally 
Pickman Osgood, eldest child of Isaac and Rebecca 
T. (Pickman) Osgood, born in Salem, April 12, 1796. 
At the time of her marriage she was residing with 
her father in the North Parish, Andover. She was 
a person of rare beauty, a strong mind, a warm 
heart, and of fine social and domestic accomplish- 
ments. Educated to a life of luxury and ease, she 
entered upon her duties as a minister's wife with de- 
votion and self-sacrifice, and endeared herself to the 
people of his charge by her constant sympathy and 
kindness, and by her zeal in the cause of the church 
which she had joined. She died July 18, 1835, and 
neither the pastor nor the people recovered from her 
loss. She left four sons, — George Bailey Loring, 
Isaac Osgood Loring, Gayton Pickman Loring and 
John Alden Loring. 

GEOEGE B. LORING. 

Hon. Geo. B. Loring was born in the North Parish, 
Andover, November 8, 1817. He is the oldest son of 
the Rev. Bailey and Sally Pickman (Osgood) Loring, 
daughter of Isaac Osgood and Rebecca T. (Pickman) 
Osgood, born in Salem April 12, 1796.' She was a 

1 See life of Rev. Bailey Loring in this volume. 



1690 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



niece of Samuel Osgood, colonel in the Revolutionary 
army, member of the Continental Congress, first com- 
missioner of the treasury, first Postmaster-General un- 
der Washington, and surveyor of the port of New 
York. Dr. Loring was fitted for college in Franklin 
Academy under the tuition of Simeon Putnam and 
Cyrus Pierce and John Richardson. He entered 
Plarvard University in 1834 and was graduated in 
1838. For a year after his graduation he taught 
school in Boston and in Andover, an occupation which 
he had taken up before he entered college, in the town 
of North Reading. In 1839 he began the study of 
medicine with Dr. Joseph Kittredge, of North And- 
over, pursued it for a time with Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, and after attending medical lectures at Har- 
vard and Dartmouth, he received the degree of M.D. 
at Harvard in 1842. For a short period he practiced 
in North Andover, and in 1843 he was appointed sur- 
geon of the Marine Hospital, Chelsea, by John C. 
Spencer, Secretary of the Treasury, and entered upon 
the duties of his ofiice September 1st of that year. 
He remaiued in this position until September 1, 18-50, 
during which time he had made a journey to Europe 
(in 1848) to witness the revolutionary proceedings of 
that year, in which he was a correspondent of the 
Boston Post, from London, Paris and Naples ; and he 
had also made an elaborate examination of and 
report upon the Marine Hospital System of the 
United States to Hon. Robert J. Walker, Secretary 
of the Treasury. In 1851 Dr. Loring removed to 
Salem, where he married and became interested in 
agriculture and the political questions of the day, 
and commenced a series of addresses, lectures and 
essays, which have been delivered iu great numbers 
in many parts of the country. He was appointed 
postmaster of Salem in 1853 and remained in office 
until 1857. He then entered upon the business of 
agriculture with great a-ssiduity and was active in the 
introduction of new methods and new machinery in 
that business. He was among the first to introduce 
the thorough drainage of clay lands into Massachu- 
setts; encouraged the growing of root-crops largely, 
and imported and bred Ayrshire cattle as the breed 
best fitted to the New England farm. He became a 
careful student of farming in all its relations to 
American society and iudustry and discussed care- 
fully, in writing and debate, its most important 
problems. He was for many years a member of the 
State Board of Agriculture in Massachusetts; was a 
Trustee of the Massachusetts Society for Pmmoting 
Agriculture from 1851) to 18G3 ; was for a long time a 
Trustee and is now Vice-President of the Essex 
Agricultural Society, and has published a large col- 
lection of books and reports and addresses on the 
subject of agriculture. In 1864 he founded the New 
England Agricultural Society and has been its Presi- 
dent from that time. 

In politics, Dr. Loring was educated as a Democrat, 
in the school of Jackson, and under the immediate 



influence of his uncle, the Hon. Gayton P. Osgood, 
formerly member of Congress from the Essex North 
District. He was an earnest advocate of all those 
measures which were supposed to be conducive to the 
peace and prosperity of the country. The position of 
his party deprived him of all voice in tlu' |nil)lic 
affairs of Massachusetts, and he found himself at the 
beginning of the Civil War, which he had long pre- 
dicted, in opposition to the party in power in the 
country. On the outbreak of hostilities, however, he 
commenced at once to encourage the support of the 
government, discussed in public address the import- 
ance of an active prosecution of the war and its 
inevitable results, and although differing in theory 
from the administration and believing for a time that 
the policy which induced the conservative men of 
Massachusetts to place Gen. D evens in the field as 
candidate for Governor against Gov. Andrew in 1862, 
was the way to success and honor, he took part in that 
struggle. His work as a political writer and speaker 
now became active and constant. He had taken a 
leading part in many conventions. State and national 
and could not well avoid that kind of service which 
finds expression in such assemblies. In 1864 he 
declined to act with the Democratic party longer, 
refused to attend its national convention and declared 
himself in favor of an earnest support of President 
Lincoln's administration. In a letter addressed at 
that time in reply to Caleb Foote, John Bertram, 
Stei:Jien B. Ives, Augustus Storey and others of 
Salem, he said : 

" I am confident that our country will come lionorabl.v out of this 
contest, purified as gold that is tried by the fire. However niudi I may 
have deplored the strife, however much I may have regretted any policy 
which seemed to prolong and embitter it, I can see nothing before us at 
this hour but a determined march in the course pointed out to us. God 
knows the suft'oringa of the war are enough to appal the stoutest heart, 
and the sorrows which follow in its train are innumerable and sickening. 
But never before has such a service been placed in the hands of armies 
as is now submitted to ours. Never Iiefore have the statesmen of any 
ago been charged with a duty so momenlousas that which rests so sol- 
emnly on oui-s. I wonld have this people strengthen the hands of all its 
public servants, confident that when the day of peace does dawn it will 
bestow ilsli^hl upon a ii;iti.)ii unitc.l Iiy .onnnon sufferiii;.', and en gaged 



And in the same letter he made the following pre- 
diction, now so wonderfully fulfilled : 

"But when the power of our country shall be established by the 
sword, and labor shall return to its accustomed channels, the fabulous 
wealth of India can hardly compare with that which may be drawn 
from onr mines and our soil, and which will be created by the ceaseless 
ingenuity of our people on the land and on the sea." 

Shortly after the re-election of Mr. Lincoln, Dr. 
Loring was called on to serve as a Republican in 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He 
entered that body iu January, 1866, at a time when 
the contest had arisen between President Johnson 
and the party which placed him in power. In the 
adjustment of matters involved in the domestic econ- 



XOIlTli A^JJUVER. 



1691 



omy of the Commonwealth, Dr. Loring took an active 
part ; but as chairman of the Committee on Federal 
Relations, he felt especially called on to secure the 
approval of the Legislature for the stand taken by 
Charles Sumner in the matter of reconstruction, for 
which he had been bitterly denounced by the Pres- 
ident. In his speech before the House on the state 
of the Union, he supported his resolutions with such 
convincing arguments that they were adopted almost 
unanimously by the House, and the course of Mr. 
Sumner, which became the policy of the country, was 
sustained. In 1867 he was returned again to the 
Legislature by a strong majority. 

In 1868 Dr. Loring was selected as a State delegate 
to the Republican National Convention and took an 
active part in the nomination and election of Gen. 
Grant. He entered the field at this time as a lecturer 
and was constantly employed in this service, much 
of which was voluntarily contributed to the associa- 
tions which called on him. In 1872 he was again 
elected a delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention held in Philadelphia, in which he joined 
warmly in the renomination of Gen. Grant, and, as 
chairman of the Massachusetts delegation, brought 
forward the nomination of Henry Wilson to the Vice- 
Presidency. Again, in 1876, he was sent from the 
Sixth Congressional District as a delegate to the Re- 
publican National Convention at Cincinnati, and he 
used every endeavor to secure the nomination of Hon. 
James G. Blaine as Republican candidate for the 
Presidency. When the choice of the Convention fell 
upon Gov. Hayes, he entered warmly into the cam- 
paign, and in his canvass for Congress in the same 
jji year, carried the Republican ticket safely through 
his district. 

During the campaign of 1872, Dr. Loring was 
elected Senator from the Second Essex District, com- 
posed of Marblehead, Salem, Peabody, Danvers, 
Wenham and Lynnfield. He was chosen president 
of the Senate in JanuHry, 1873, with but one dissent- 
ing vote, and during the four terms, 1873, '74, '75 and 
'76 he was re-elected to this position. While in the 
Senate he took active part in the debates on the 
important questions of the day. He advocated the 
grant of $50,000 to the Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology, and secured the passage of the last act in this 
direction requested by Agassiz for the prosecution 
and completion of his immortal work. He opposed 
the union of the Hoosac Tunnel into a line of rail- 
road owned and managed by the Commonwealth, and 
laid down the policy on which the tunnel was for 
years conducted. He led off in the debate which 
ended in the rescinding of the resolutions of the Leg- 
islature of 1872, condemning Charles Sumner for his 
proposition with regard to regimental colors. He 
presented a carefully-prepared argument on the right 
of suffrage under a republic in connection with the 
application for woman suffrage, and he pronounced 
eulogies on Dr. S. G. Howe, Charles Sumner and 



others who died during these years. These speeches 
were elaborately prepared, and were denominated in 
certain quarters " Legislative Orations." 

Dr. Loring's Senatorial service ended in 1876, and 
he entered at once on a campaign for Congress in the 
Sixth Massachusetts District. The district was in the 
hands of the Democratic party, which was ably rep- 
resented by the Hon. Charles P. Thompson, of Glou- 
cester. The contest was conducted with great vigor 
by Dr. Loring, who presented his argument in favor 
of the Republican candidate tor the Pre.sidency and 
the platform of the party so forcibly that he was 
elected by a majority of twelve hundred votes. He 
took his seat in the Forty-fifth Congress and was 
re-elected to the Forty-sixth. During his Congression- 
al service his speeches commanded the attention of 
the House. His argument on the currency question 
in favor of resumption, in November, 1877, was pro- 
nounced at the time to be one of the most compre- 
hensive and powerful arguments made on that sub- 
ject. There is space only for a single excerpt, touching 
our commercial relations with other countries : 

"But we are warned, Mr. Spealser, that ttie time has now arrived 
wlien tbe United States can estabtisti an independent financial basis, and 
suliduing all commercial nations to her own system, can sit in triumph 
over a imiversal monetary empire of their own creating. Kow, sir, if 
this were necessary even, it is impossible. "When our bonds were first 
placed upon the European markets during the war, they wero obliged to 
meet the great discrepancy which then existed between our paper currency 
and coin. The existence of war was an impediment, it is true, to favor- 
able negotiation. The disturbed condition of the country had injured 
our credit. But the fact that we were using as legal-tender a currency 
vastly depreciated at home, which might at any moment be forced upon 
the holders of our securities, was the foremost obstacle to our finaucial 
success, W'e were then mnning a system ofourown, and were obliged 
to pay ttie price for that luxury. Can we expect to change tliis natural 
law of financial intercourse by legislative enactments and bend all poli- 
cies to our own ? No, gentlemen, tbe attempt to set aside the commercial 
laws of the world is a reflection upon the commercial wisdom of those 
nations with whom we are compelled to deal, and is sut*e to cast discredit 
upon ourselves. Tbe best commercial relations are established by a 
monetary system as nearly uniform as possible tjetween those nations 
wbicti are engaged in commercial transactions. Our trade is becoming 
more and more intimately connected with the great martlets of the 
world. Can any man suppose that this trade can be advantageously 
conducted by placing ourselves in discredit, while we are ottering bills of 
excliange drawn on us in the conduct of our internal affairs? I think 
not. My anticipations with regard to the future of this country will not 
allow me to entertain a thought of such folly, even through a mistaken 
policy. The time, I doubt not, is rapidly approaching when the im- 
mense rt^unts ufuiir :aiia will so far enter into the commerce of the 
worl'i ^^ : _ :^!i;tucial forces will be turned into our hands- 

It is I. I ' 1=" that our supply to foreign markets wilt 

fortii' l-uiand upon them. The growth of our great 



equal' I i make this 

coutiij' It , _ , t. not only 

set from east to west, and only now requires mercantile enterprise and 
mercantile solvency to be turned in the opposite direction. When- 
ever we linncstly .tnd firmly place ourselves in accord w-ith the great 
commercinl ii:ition^ of tiie earth, and unite with them in supporting a 
standard of value en whith they can alt rely, the time will have ar- 
rived which will uliiiimt^iy give na thecontroltingflnancialpow*er of the 

His speech in favor of an appropriation to rebuild 
William and Mary College was most enthusiastically 



1692 



IILSTOUV OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



received by the entire House, and won for its author 
a high reputation as a scholar, and tlie warm respect 
of educated men in every State in the Union, as well 
as the deep gratitude of the sons of Virginia every- 
where. His eulogy on Judge Collamer, on the pres- 
entation of his statue by the State of Vermont, was a 
just and eloquent tribute to that distinguished states- 
man. Plis defense of Massachusetts made a great 
impression on the House, and refuted completely the 
charges of disfranchisement and disloyalty which had 
been made against her. And his support of all 
measures conducive to the development of agriculture 
always met with a warm and favorable response on 
the part of the House. 

In his defense of Massachusetts, January 20, 1881, 
he said : 

*' Now, sir, how could a State, animated by this force, fail to make 
itself felt in all the great criiies which have attended the formation and 
growth of that free republic of which it forms a part ? As a colony, 
Massachusetts was always heaixl when the great occasion called for 
utterunce, and always responded to the high and honoiuble appeal of 
others. Tt)i-n and riven by internal contentions, tossed on a sea of eccle* 
siastical controversy, this colony of school-houses and meeting-houses 
presented always a solid front for popular right and privilege. The peo- 
ple of Plymouth and MassacIuisettsBay were a valiant as well as a god- 
ly people. They carried the 'sword of the Lord and of Gideon,' as 
theircunmides and brothers did at Mai^ton Moor and Naseby, and they 
bdieved as much in the cour«ge of Miles Standish as they did in the 
holiness of Elder Brewster. During the two centuries and a half of 
their existence on this continent they have been ready at any time to 
gird on the sword. In the early Indian wars they traversed the for- 
ests with the fatal persistency of the slow hound, from the waters of 
tlia bay to the Green Slountains, and from the blazing towns of Bris- 
tol and Kjiscx to tlu« ciust.-ni lakes, upon whose bosoms fall the shad- 
ows of At;jiMM t. ^ Hhi "M iiiii Washington. In the hist great strug- 
gle of Fran. ■ i I :.iji r:ii>Ui on this continent Massachusetts sol- 
diprs stornir.i \: i ,i, ,:,, II ..lii^ »ith Wolfe, and cherished his memory 
for generJltiull^ m lUi-it iiuuM-UuKis ; the merchants of Massachusetts 
supplied the onttitfor the siege of Louisbourg, and left behind them, as 
a proud memento for their sons, the tokens of regard for their devo- 
tion bestowed upon them by the ('olonial Ijegislature ; and to-day Ihu 
Stmate of Massachusetts, as it assembles in its chamber, passes bm- ,h h 
the Puritan drum which beat the tattoo, and the Puritan muskvt y-\ 
blazed in the line when the power of the mother country wa« ■ - . 
lished along the waters of the St. Lawrence and far on towai.l tin' 
frozen seas. . . . The history of mankind is radiant with its rt.'c.>ril 
of great deeds and inspiring endeavor, but not one can outshine that 
wonderful picture of devotion and valor where a little baud of Puritan 
rustics detied the military authority of Great Britain and fired that 
first gun who.se t-cboes roused tlie colonies and brought Kt-w England 
and N<MV York, Nfiw Jersey and Delaware. Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
Maryland and tbo Caroltnas and Georgia into n sacred association, 
wb<)se memories am still fondly chovrslied H^nd wliosy bund is nut yet 

As pertinent to the vital issues of to day, it may be 
well in this connection to give one or two illustrations 
of Dr. Loring's thoughts on the subject of *' American 
Irnlustry," the first of which was delivered in the 

II .11- oi K ■pirseutatives, May 23, 1878: 

.. io you ask how this unparalleled growth of a 
M . .. tult-armed creation, assuming in less time than was 

i:..nia.a lito *t,i.uu> of the ancient States a port and mien worthy of a 
man, wiut brought into existence ? Undoubtedly much is to be set down 
U> the spirit of liberty, which, making her home hero, has breathed Into 
the souls of men elsewhere, that deep desire which defies all dangers and 
trials. Of the five and a half millions of the sons of men wlio have 
sought a home upon our soil, what a multitude had dreamed of the 
charms of a free country ! But tliey had been told, too, of the broad 
lands wailing for the civilizing touch; and they had heard, 



declared by the founders of ou 
mills of England and Scotland, 
thrifty, skillful and ingenious ra 
mauufactures all along the wa 
same policy has made the ocea 
Europe as they paes from the r 

free gov 



jvernmeut, brought over from the 
the early days of the Ilei-ublic, a 
f men, who planted the seeds of our 
courses of Kew England. And the 
highway for the laboring classes of 
)w lanes of the Old World into the 
social and civil elevation, which citizenship under a 
offers. Wo have reason to be grateful to our fathers for 



the high virtues which they exercised, for their wisdom and for their 
gi-eat accomplishments. But they performed no higher service than 
when they declared it to be the duty of government to protect its own 
people in all their industries, and tlius to preserve those charaeteristics 
wliich constitute, in every variety, the nations of the earth. . . . 
It was with them a question of how best to establish and invigorate an 
American nationality as distinct from every other nationality; and as 
they surveyed with proud gaze the great social and civil system which 
they had founded, they resolved to surround it with every necessary sup- 
port, to the end that its grand design might be accomplished; and so far 
as Frauce preserves her very life-blood by protecting her own artisans 
and manufactures against foreign competition, aud England protects 
her cheap labor and great masses of capital against the skilled pro- 
ducts of more favorable latitudes, so they resolved that the toiling citi- 
zen, the dearer capital aud the better paid laborer of America should at 
least try the great experiment unmolested." 

And this from his speech at the Cooper Institute, 
New York, November 29, 1881 : 



drawinghi 



uUurt 
t it is, and will gradually make 
le. The benefit, moi-eover, which 
free and intimate relations with 
t be overlooked. On the one hand, 
the immense and various resources 
of our country— i on, cutloii, w oul, hides, etc.; and on the other hand, 
finding a home market in the great agricultural regions, the American 
manufacturer possesses opportunities and advantages hardly known to 
any other country on earth, and illustrating most forcibly the self-sup- 
porting power of our people. So closely are these interests united that 
what benefits one naturally benefits both. What injures one injures 
both. The same policy which 1ms beeu extended over our mills has been 
extended also over our fields, and the result in both cases will demon- 
strate its true value. While the American manufacturer has furnished 
the American farmer with almost all his necessary articles, such as cot- 



free aud equal, and it is between parties enjoying <<|n il i i;mI. -r> 
aud opportunities; rates of interest, wages of labor, ta\. -, - > i.il .ml 
civil e.\pense8, all being regulated by one system and var\ in^ "[il\ w hli 
different localities." 

In 1881 Dr. Lorin.L^ was appointed United States 
Commissioner of Agriculture by President Garfield, 
who gave him his commission and instructions the 
day before he was mortally wounded. The instruc- 
tions of the President were strong aud earnest for the 
enlargement and development of the department, 
and to this work Dr. Loring applied him-elf with 
great diligence until the close of his official career as 
commissioner, April, 1885. Under his guidance the 
department secured the respect and confidence of the 
American people, and was referred to abroad as a 
model organization of ihe kind. In the collection 
and arrange neut of statistics it advanced to the front 
rank, and was considered authority on industrial 
mattei-s that came before it. In the investigation of 
the annual industry of the country, and into the 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY. 




^^^^^^L^^^ty-^ 



c .^ Ji . "^ a^-i^-^ 



NORTH ANDOVEK. 



1693 



nature and danger of animal diseases, it secured con- 
fidence and collected a large fund of valuable infor- 
niiition. In the examination of the sugar- producing 
qualities of various plants it secured the reputation of 
carrying on fair, dispassionate and useful experiments. 
Iti all entomological and botanical work it obtained 
the best scientific aid, and Congress manifested a 
growing confidence in the department by increasing 
its appropriations from year to year, often beyond the 
estimates of the commissioner. 

Meanwhile the amount of work which Dr. Loring 
did outside of the department was very large. In 
many of the States he delivered addresses on ques- 
tions relating to agriculture, and joined the boards 
ami associations in their deliberations for the benefit 
111' that industry. He discussed the industries of the 
South at the exhibition at Atlanta in 1881 ; he ad- 
dressed the Mississippi Valley Sorghum-growers in 
1862 ; the Cattle Association at Chicago in 1862 ; the 
Dairy Association of Iowa in 1863; the American 
Forestry Association at Cincinnati in 1862; at St. 
Paul in 1863, at Montreal in 18C4, besides speaking at 
many State fairs from Wisconsin to South Carolina. 

In 1872 Dr. Loring was appointed Centennial Com- 
mis.sioner for the State of Massachusetts, and was 
placed on the executive committee of the commission; 
where he served until the close of the exhibition in 
Philadelphia in 1876. 

Dr. Loring was first married in November, 1861, to 
Mary Toppan Pickman, daughter of Dr. Thomas 
and Sophia (Palmer) Pickman, a most brilliant and 
accomplished woman, who died December 1, 1878, 
leaving one daughter, Sallie Pickman Loring. In 
1880 he married Mrs. Anna Smith Hildreth, of New 
York, whose rare social gifts and hospitality have 
made his home a centre of great enjoyment and hap- 
piness. 

Dr. Loring still takes an active part in the public 
discussions of the day, and a portion of his contribu- 
tions to the literature of the times may be found in 
the "History of Literature in Salem," in this volume. 



. HON. GEORGE L. DAVIS. 

The subject of this sketch was a farmer's son, born 
in Oxford, Mass., in 1816. He descended in a direct 
line from William Davis, who came from Wales to 
this country about 1635, and settled in Roxbury 
Mass. 

His boyhood days were spent upon his father's 
farm, and to the discipline which farm-labor brought, 
together with the guidance and moral training given 
by noble Christian parents, is largely due his physi- 
cal strength, sterling integrity and large business 
capacity. 

He was educated in the common schools of his 
native town principally, only enjoying for a short 
time the privilege of a select school. When eighteen 
years old he taught the village school in the neigh- 



boring town of Sutton, Mass.; but deciding that a 
business career was preferable to that of teaching, 
and that a trade might be " a stepping stone " to busi- 
ness, he left home, with his parents' consent, in the 
spring of 183.5, for Andover, where he went to work 
for the then well-known firm of Barnes, Gilbert & 
Richardson, machinery builders, to learn the machi- 
nist's trade. In the spring of 1836 his employers re- 
moved their business to North Andover, to their new 
shop. In 1841, when the old firm dissolved, Mr. 
Davis became the junior member of the succeeding 
firm of Gilbert, Gleason & Davis. In 1851 this firm 
dissolved, and a new co-partnership was formed with 
Mr. Davis as senior partner, and one associate, Mr. 
Charles Furber, under the firm-name of Davis & 
Furber, continuing the business of building wool 
machinery, at the same place. The firm of Davis & 
Furber was successful and continued without interrup- 
tion until the death of Mr. Furber, in 1857. 

This was a sad loss to Mr. Davis, as in the death 
of his partner he parted with a true friend, an honest, 
upright man, a most genial and kind business part- 
ner, and a good business adviser. After the death of 
Mr. Furber. .still keeping the old firm-name of Davis 
& Furber, he associated with himself John A. Wiley 
and D. T. Gage, and continued the business of manu- 
facturing wool machinery. In 1860 Mr. Gage with- 
drew, and in 1861 Joseph M. Stone entered the firm, 
and this last co-partnership continued until 1882, 
when the corporation of the Davis & Furber Machine 
Company was formed, with Mr, Wiley as president 
and Mr. Davis as treasurer. The business of this cor- 
poration is the manufacture of wool machinery, shaft- 
ing, pulleys and all kinds of card clothing. Com- 
mencing business with limited means and a small 
water privilege, the firm, in its successful growth, has 
seen the thriving village of Norih Andover grow up 
around it, the city of Lawrence spring into existence 
and develop into a large manufacturing centre, and 
the entire manufacturing business of the country 
reach its now extensive proportions, to all of which 
this firm has very largely contributed. They began 
with a very few men, but have gr.adually increased 
and enlarged, until now in their shops and foundries 
they employ a large number of men. But Mr. Davis 
is not only well known in business circles, but has 
been widely an influential man in other respects. 
He has always resided in North Andover, and early 
in life became actively identified in all religious, edu- 
cational and charitable matters. He has been an 
active member of the Congregational Church in 
North Andover for many years, and was deacon of 
that church from 1857 to 1885. The firm were large 
contributors when the new church building was 
erected, in 1865. 

Mr. Davis is a large stockholder in the Bay State 
National Bank, of Lawrence, and for some twenty 
years has been its president. In politics he has 
always been a Republican, and his party, honoring 



1694 



HiSTOKY OF ESSEX COUNTi;, MASSACHUSETTS 



liim and his ability, Iiave sent him four times to the 
State Senate ; he was elected and served in the sessions 
of 1 85!) and 1860, and also 1875 and 1870. During all 
four terms he ranked well as a Senator and htld im- 
]iortant committeeships. 



GROVKLAND. 



\M T. DAVl 



On the 4th of September, 1039, the town of Rowle.v, 
which had been .settled by Kev. Ezekiel Rogers with 
about sixty families, and which was called for a time 
Rogers' Plantation, was incorporated. It included the 
territory now occupied by the towns of Rowley, 
Georgetown, Groveland, Boxford and Bradford. The 
name of Rowley was adopted in honor of Mr. Rogers, 
who had come from Rowley, a parish of East Riding, 
Yorkshire, England. Among the companions of Mr. 
Rogers were John and Robert Hazeltineand William 
Wilde, and in 1649 these three men, desirous of more 
land, sought the rich meadows and fields along the 
Merrimac, in the Indian territory of Pentucket, for 
a permanent settlement. They received grants from 
the town of Rowley, each of forty acres of upland, the 
use of the commons for twenty head of cattle for each, 
and also for each twenty acres of meadows, one thou- 
sand pijiestaves annually, for seven years, from 1649, 
timber for building a house and for fencing and fire- 
wood. 

As the number ofsettlers in Rowley village, on the 
Merrimac, increased, the name of the settlement was 
changed to Merrimac and finally to Bradford. The 
first mention of the name " Bradford " in the Massa- 
chusetts records is under date of October 13, 1675, in 
the list of rates for expenses of King Philip's War, 
but the name is mentioned in the town records as 
early as 1665. It took its name from Bradford in 
England, the native town of some of the early set- 
tlers. The incorporation of the town is expressed in 
the following order passed by the General Court May 
27. 1668: 

" In anawer to the petition of the inhabitants of Rowley, living over 
against Haverhill, tlie Conrt, having consicioroil the petition, pevnsoil 
tli8 town of Rowley's .grant to the petitioners, heard Rowley'.? Deputy 
ond also considering a. writing sent from Rowley with what els bath 
been presented in the case, doe find that there is liberty granted to the 
petitioners by the town of Rowley to provide themselves of a minister 
and also an intent to release them from the township when they are 
accordingly provided, and therefore see notibut this Court may grant the 
petitioners to bo a township provided they doe gett and setle nn able 
and orthodox minister and continue to niayntoigno him or els to re- 
main to Rowley as formerly." 

A meeting of the town is recorded as having been 
held February 20, 1668-69, at which Thomas Kimball 
was chosen constable ; John Gage, Robert liaseltine. 



Joseph Pike, John Griffing and John Tenney, select- 
men ; Joseph Pike, clerk of writs ; Samuel Worcester, 
Benjamin Gage, Benjamin Kimball and David Hasel- 
tine, overseers. 

In 1667 or 1668, Rev. Zachariah Symmes was en- 
gaged as pastor, with a salary of £40, one-half of 
which was to be paid in wheat, pork, butter and 
cheese and the other halfin corn and cattle. During the 
first two years religious services were held in a pri- 
vate house, perhaps in the parsonage which was 
built at once after the arrival of Mr. Symmes and 
under his direction. Another parsonage was built 
opposite the old cemetery in 1708, which is described 
as being forty-six feet by twenty, with fifteen feet 
stud and four " chimbleys." 

On the 18th of April, 1670, it was voted by the 
townsmen that " Sargent Gage, Robert Haseltine, 
Benjamin Kimball, Thomas Kimball, John Simmonds, 
Nicholas Walington, and John Griffing be chosen for 
the ordering, setting up and furnishing of a Meighting 
House according to their best discretion for the good 
of the town." 

The erection of a meeting-house had been in con- 
templation several years, as is shown by a vote passed 
January o, 1665, the preamble of which is : "Where- 
as, John Haseltine, sen., of Haverhill, having given 
ye inhabitants of ye town of Bradford one acre of 
land to set their meeting-house on, and for a burying 
place," etc. 

Notwithstanding the church had been practically 
in existence since 1668, and had since that time lis- 
tened to the preaching of their pastor, Mr. Symmes, 
it was not until the 27th of December, 1682, that it I 
was formally organized. On the same day Mr. ] 
Symmes was ordained. Those subscribing the creed « 
were Zachariah Symmes, Samuel Stickuey, John J 
Tennie, John Simmons, Wm. Huchence, Joseph Pal- 
mer, Thomas West, David Haseltine, Richard Hall, : 
John Watson, Samuel Haseltine, Robert Haseltine, ! 
Joseph Bailey, Abraham Haseltine, Benjamin Kim- \ 
ball, Robert Savory, John Hardy and John Boynton. i 
In 1705, Mr. Hale was engaged as a colleague to Mr. ' 
Symmes, who hadbecomesomewhat infirm, andonthe 
22d of March, 1707, Mr. Symmes died. During his , 
pastorate a new meeting-house was built on the hill a j 
few rods cast of the old one, which is described as i 
forty-eight feet long, forty wide and twenty feet stud. 1 

Mr. Symmes was the son of Rev. Zechariah 
Symmes, of Charlestowu, who came from England in 
1634. The latter was born in Canterbury, England, 
in 1599, and was the grandson of William Symmes, , 
ordained to the ministry in 1588, and great-grandson < 
of another William, who was a distinguished Protest- i 
ant in the reign of Queen Mary. Mr. Symmes was 1 
born in Charlestowu, January 9, 1637, and graduated t 
at Harvard in 1657, the first scholar in a class of I 
seven, one of whom was John Cotton, son of Rev. I 
John Cotton, of Boston, and for many years the pas- I 
tor of the i'lrst Church in Plymouth. Another 1 



GROVELAND. 



member of the class was Rev. John Hale, who was 
probably the Mr. Hale selected as the colleague of 
Mr. Symmes, and whose full name is not given in the 
records. Mr. Symmes preached in Eehoboth from 
lfi61 to 1666, and married, in the latter year, Susan- 
nah Graves, of Charlestown. A second wife was Mrs. 
Mehitabel (Palmer) Dalton, widow of S. Dalton, of 
Hampton, New Hampshire. 

The successor of Mr. Symmes was his son Thomas, 
who was born February 1, 1667, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1698. He was settled at Boxford, Decem- 
ber 30, 1702, and installed at Bradford in December, 
1708. He died October 6, 1725, and was succeeded 
by Joseph Parsons, who was ordained June 8, 1726. 
At his ordination Rev. Joseph Parsons, of Salisbury, 
preached the sermon, Rev. John Rogers, of Boxford, 
gave the charge, and Rev. Moses Hale, of Newbury, 
the right hand of fellowship. 

It is unnecessary to follow the history of this 
church farther, for in the first year of the pastorate 
of Mr. Parsons, the church in the Kast Parish of 
Bradlord (now Groveland) was organized, and became 
the nucleus of that community which, more than a 
hundred years later, obtained the privileges and bene- 
fits of a separate municipal government. 

The church in the East Parish of Bradford was in- 
corporated June 17, 1726, and formally organized on 
the 7th of June, 1727. Immediately after the incor- 
poration a meeting-house was erected near the site of 
the present one, and the first parish meeting was held 
July 4, 1726. At first forty-eight males were dis- 
missed from the parent church and admitted as mem- 
bers of the new organization. These Were : 



William Biilch. 


Caleb Hopkinson. 


Samuel Tenney. 


Abraham Parker, J 


Ekl.aid Builey, 


Samuel Jewett. 


William Savory. 


Willian. Hardy. 


Samuel Hale. 


Francis Walker. 


John Hutchins. 


Ebcn Kimball. 


Daniel Hardy. 


Moses Worster. 


Ez,a Rolf. 


Thomas Stickney. 


Thomas Savory. 


Benjamin Hardy. 


James Bailey, 


Thomas Hardy. 


Isaac Hardy, 


Edward Wood. 


Jacob Hardy, Jr. 


Kobert Savor}'. 


Thomas Hardy, Jr. 


Joseph Hardy, Jr. 


Sauiuel Hale, Jr. 


James Hardy. 


Francis Jeivett. 


David Tenney. 


Jr,sei.l, Worster. 


Edward Hardy. 


William Hardy. 


Timothy Hardy. 


John Pemberton. 


Jonathan Hale. 


Jaool. Hardy. - 


Jonathan Tenney. 


Joseph Hardy. 


Joseph Bailey. 


Ri.liard Hardy. 


Joshua Richardson. 


Thomas Bailey. 


Thomas Hardy (3d). 


Eben Burhank. 


Samuel Hardy. 


Samuel Palmer, 


Jonas Platts. 



On the 28th of July, 1727, fifty-three females were 
admitted, and these were, — 



Widow Bailey. 


Jane Harriman. 


Widow Hopkinson. 


Hannah Tenney. 


Widow Hardy. 


Hannah Bailey. 


Wife of Thomas Hardy, Sr. 


Hannah Savory. 


Wife of Joseph Hardy. 


Hannah Hardy. 



Martha Pemberton. 
IVlartha Leason, 
.Surah Worster. 



Elizabeth Hutchens. 
Elizabeth Worster. 
Elizabeth Parker. 
Elizabeth Palmer. 



Hannah RichardsoD. 
Hannah Smith. 
Eunice Bailey. 
Eunice Foster. 
Dorothy Tenney. 
.\bi^ail Bailey. 
Abigail Worster. 
Mary Wood. 
Mary Stickney. 
Mary Hardy. 
Mary Uailey. 
Bethiah Hutchens. 
Rebecca Savory. 
Rebecca Hardy. 
Mercie Worster. 
Deborah Hardy. 
Deborah Walliugford. 
Esther Hardy. 
Mehitahel Hardy. 



On the 7th of June, 1727, the day of the organiza- 
tion of the church. Rev. William Balch was ordained, 
having preached for the church since the preceding 
November. The council at the ordination consisted 
of the churches of Newbury, Byfield, Beverly and 
Haverhill. Samuel Tenney was the elder of the 
church, and Richard Bailey deacon. Mr. Balch was 
to receive one hundred pounds settlement and one 
hundred pounds salary and the use of the parsonage. 
At the end of the first year the church membership had 
increased from 101 to 179, and William Hardy, Jr., 
was chosen assistant deacon. Mr. Balch was an 
educated man, a graduate of Harvard, in the class of 
1724, fifteen of whose forty members became minis- 
ters. Through a long pastorate of sixty -five years he 
retained the attectioii and esteem of his people, and 
closed his pastorate with his life in 1792. During the 
last year of his Hie, in 1791, a new meeting-house 
was built. On the 17th of November, 1779, Rev. 
Ebenezer Dutch, of Ipswich, was ordained as col- 
league, and on the death of Mr. Balch became full 
pastor, dying in the service of the church, August 4, 
1814. 

On the 28th of September, 1814, Rev. Gardner Bra- 
man Perry was installed and coutinued his pastorate 
until, his dea'h, December 16, 1859. Mr. Perry was 
a man who early won, and retained until his death, 
a wide reputation among the clergy of the Orthodox 
Congregational faith. He was born in Norton, Mass., 
and graduated at Union College in 1804. Before his 
settlement at East Bradford he had been a tutor in 
Union College, ^nd received honorary degrees from 
his alma mater and Harvard in 1814. On the 4th of 
September; 1851, Rev. David A. Wassou was settled 
as his colleague, but only remained one year. Mr. 
Wasson was a graduate of the Bangor Seminary, and, 
though his confession of faith was believed to be suf- 
ficiently evangelical, he soon manifested in his 
preaching a strong disinclination to advocate the 
tenets of the church in which he had been ordained. 
He was, in fact, more Unitarian than Orthodox, and, 



169(; 



illSTUKV UK JiSriKX CUUM'i, xMASSAlJliU8ETT8. 



of course, his ministry was unsatisfactory to his peo- 
ple. The result was the resignation of Mr. Wasson 
at the end of a year, and the secession of some who 
had been leading members of the church, but who 
were more inclined to follow the teachings of their 
colleague pastor than those of the older faith. Those 
who adhered to Mr. Wasson hired the meetiug-house 
of the Methodist Society, then in a languishing con- 
dition, and formed an Independent Congregational 
Society with him as their pastor. He was folloA-ed 
by Rev. James Richardson, whose service continued 
one year, after which time the society gradually dis- 
integrated, finally restoring the meeting-house to the 
Methodists for their permanent use. 

After the resignation of Mr. Wasson, Rev. Daniel 
Pickard was ordained as colleague, and remained 
about four years. Thomas Daggett was ordained as 
colleague March 4, 1857, and in the same year the 
name of the church was changed by a legislative act 
from the Second Congregational Church of Bradford 
to the Congregational Church of Groveland. Mr. 
Daggett was dismissed April 20, 1864, and Rev. Mar- 
tin S. Howard was ordained December 29th in the 
same year. Mr. Howard was dismissed October 5, 
1868, and was succeeded by Rev. John C. Paine, who 
was installed April 20, 1870, and dismissed October 
30, 1877. Rev. James McLean supplied the pulpit 
for a lime after the dismissal of Mr. Paine, and was 
followed by Rev. Augustus C. Swain July 6, 1881, 
and by the present pastor, Rev. Bernard Copping, in 
October, 1887. 

Besides the Congregational Church, a Methodist 
Church was organized in East Bradford before its 
incorporation as Groveland, and must be referred to 
as one of the preliminary steps leading to a distinct 
municipality. This church was formed on the 15th 
of October, 1831, under the direction of Rev. Thomas 
W. Gile, a Methodist Episcopal local preacher, and 
Aaron Wait, who was employed by the Christian 
Union Association. Rev. Charles S. McRcading was 
the first preacher sent by the Conference, and began 
his pastorate in the spring of 1832. In 1833 the 
meeting-house now used by the society was built, and 
March 3, 1838, the " Trustees of the First Methodist 
Episcopal Meeting-House in Bradford " were incor- 
porated. Mr. McReading died April 11, 18t:6. In 
1833 Rev. Robert D. Eaaterbrook took charge, and 
was succeeded in 1834 and 1835 by Rev. David Cul- 
ver. Mr. Ensterbrook died in November, 1852. Rev. 
Merely Dwight followed Mr. Culver in 1836, and was 
succeeded by Rev. ApoUos Hale in 1837-38. Mr. 
Dwight died in 1883. Rev. William Ramsdell followed 
in 1839, and Rev. Increase B. Bigelow in 1840. 
From 1841 to 1843. inclusive. Rev. Bryan Morse, a 
local preacher, supplied, and from about 1853 to 
1859 the church was dropped from the Conference, 
the meeting-house being used a part of the time by 
the adherents of Rev. Mr. Wasson, who had formed 
themselves into an Independent Congregational So- 



ciety. On the 11th of May, 1853, an act of the Leg- 
islature was passed changing the name of " The 
Trustees of the I'^ir^t Methodist Episcopal Meeting- 
House in Bradford " to " Trustees of the First Inde- 
pendent Church in Groveland.'' 

In 1859 the Methodists reoccupied their house and 
their pulpit was supplied by Rev. Horace Moulton. 
Mr. Moulton died April 11, 1873. Rev. B. W. Chase 
had charge in 1860, Rev. Newell S. Spaulding in 
1861, and during the next three years the pulpit was 
supplied by Rev. E. Peaslee. Rev. John Capen had 
charge in 1866-67 and Rev. S. H. Noon 1868, '69, '70. 
In 1871-72 Rev. H. S. Booth had charge of the 
Methodist pulpits in both Georgetown and Grove- 
land, and in 1873 Rev. Henry Mathews was assigned to 
Groveland. In 1874-75 Rev. A. H. Dwight had 
charge; in 1876 Rev. Lewis Fish, who died March 26, 
1877 ; in 1877 Rev. R. W. Allen ; and in 1878 the pul- 
pit was supplied by Rev. H. S. Booth. From 1879 to 
1881, inclusive. Rev. A. W. Baird had charge ; in 1882 
Rev. J. Alphonso Day; in 1883-84 Rev. Walter 
Wilkie ; and in 1885, to June, 1886, Rev. F. C. Thomp- 
son. Since that time the pulpit has been supplied by 
Rev. David Roberts. The Methodist Church is now 
in a prosperous condition. In January, 1871, the 
debt of the society was two thousand three hundred 
dollars, of which one thousand two hundred dollars 
was paid by Abner Chase, Eliza D. M. Merrill, W. 
W. Ray and Allen Hardy, by the surrender of notes 
held by them for money advanced. In 1873 Miss 
Merrill surrendered a note for one thousand dollars, 
which, with interest, amounted to one thousand five 
hundred dollars. In that year the meeting-house was 
altered and improved at a cost of two thousand six 
hundred dollars and reopened on the 23d of Decem- 
ber. Towards defraying the cost of the work on the 
house. Miss Merrill contributed one thousand six 
hundred dollars, and in 1881, the semi-centennial 
year of the society, the last remnant of the debt, 
amounting to nine hundred and fifty dollars, was 
canceled. 

There are other matters in the history of the town 
of Bradford which should be treated in a sketch of 
Groveland, besides those connected with the churches 
of the East Parish. The educational as well as the 
religious career of the town deserves a place in this 
narrative. The first allusion in the records to a school 
is in the year 1701, when it was voted " thatthe select- 
men should provide a school according to their discre- 
tion and that they should assess the town for the expense 
of the same." We are, in our day, so accustomed to 
public schools, and are so apt to look upon them as 
essential to popular education, that we are inclined 
to look on tlie absence or scarcity of these schools in the 
days of our fathej-s as indications of their disregard 
of the cause of education. We must remember that 
popular free education has grown with the growth of 
our institutions, and that not until after the Revolution 
was it established on a solid and permanent founda- 



GROVELAND. 



1697 



tion. Parental education and private schools largely 
prevailed, and the fact that Harvard College was so 
early established, for admission to which competent 
teachers must have been employed, is sufficient evi- 
dence of the interest felt in early days in the best 
instruction of youth. 

In 1780 the town voted " one month's schooling at 
the school-house near John Burbank's," in the East 
Parish. 

In 1795 the first School Committee was chosen in 
Bradford, consisting of Nathaniel Thurston, James 
Kimball, Nathan Burbank and Seth Jewett. But 
the old fondness for private schools lingered long 
after the enlargement and improvement of the public 
school system. It manifested itself all over New 
England in the formation of academies, some of which 
still flourish, but many of which have languished and 
finally disappeared. In the establishment of these 
academies the town of Bradford took a leading and 
prominent part. At a meeting of a number of its inhab- 
itants held in the First Parish on the 7th of March, 

1803, " it was mutually agreed upon that a building 
should be erected for an academy, and subscriptions 
were raised to defray the charges of building said 
house." 

In three months the building was completed and the 
academy opened for pupils. Samuel Walker, of 
Haverhill, was the first principal and Hannah Swan 
the preceptress. It was incorporated February 10, 

1804, and the preamble of the act of incorporation 
states that Eev. Jonathan Allen, Benjamin Carlton, 
Daniel Carlton, Joseph Chadwick, Jonathan Chad- 
wick, Asa Gage, Uriah Gage, Jeremiah Gage, Peter 
Gage, John Griffin, John Haseltine, Moses Kimball, 
James Kimball, Edmund Kimball, Edward Kimball, 
John Smiley, Nathaniel Thurston, Ezra Trask, Ben- 
jamin Walker and Samuel Webster had built a good 
and convenient house for the purpose of an academy, 
for the education of youth of both sexes in the West 
Parish of Bradford, and had given the sum of fifteen 
hundred dollars, the interest of which was to be 
ajiplied to the support of the academy. Among the 
successors of Samuel Walker, the first principal, there 
were many distinguished men. Samuel Greeley, a 
native of Wilton, N. H., took charge of the academy 
in 1804 ; Rev. Dr. James Flint, in 1805 ; Rev. Abra- 
ham Durnham, D.D., of Dunbarton, N. H., in 1806; 
Isaac Morrell, of Needham, Mass., in 1807 ; Samuel 
Peabody, of Bo.xford, in 1808 ; Rev. Daniel Hardy, of 
Bradford, in 1809-10 ; Rev. Luther Bailey, of Canton, 
Mass., in 1811 ; Hon. Samuel Adams, of Rowley, 
Richard Kimball, of Bradford, and Rev. Eben Peck 
Sperry, of New Haven, Conn., in 1812 ; Hon. Na- 
thaniel Dike, of Beverly, in 1813; Daniel Noyes, in 
1814; and Benjamin Greenleaf, from 1814 to 1836, 
who was the last male principal. Since 1836 the 
academy has been devoted exclusively to the educa- 
tion of girls, and has been under the principal charge 
of Miss Abigail C. Haseltine (who had been 

107 



tress from 1815 to 1836), Miss Abby Haseltine John- 
son, Miss Annie E. Johnson and others with short 
terms of service. 

Rev. James Flint, one of the principals, was bora 
in Reading, Mass., Dec. 10, 1779, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1802. He was the pastor ot the East 
Church in Salem from September 19, 1825, to 
December 17, 1851, and died March 4, 1855. 
Isaac Morrell graduated at Harvard in 1805. 
Benjamin Greenleaf was born in Haverhill, Septem- 
ber 25, 1786, and graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1813. His name is well known by teachers and 
pupils of the two last generations as that of the 
author of a series of mathematical text-books used in 
the schools. He died in Bradford, October 29, 
1864. 

But the East Parish was not far behind the West in 
the cause of academic education. It was far enough 
behind, however, to see the public schools established 
on a solid foundation, and affording adequate in- 
struction before its movement was made towards the 
establishment of an academy. The eighteen years 
which had elapsed since the organization of the Brad- 
ford Academy, during which the public school system 
had not thoroughly won popular favor and support, 
enabled that institution to gain a reputation so wide- 
spread and so great that the impetus it received has 
not even now perceptibly diminished. The academy 
in the East Parish, coming at so late a day, found it 
difficult to compete with the privileges of the 
schools, and finally succumbed under the burden it 
was attempting to carry. It was organized in 1821, 
and incorporated February 7, 1822. The first sec- 
tion of the act of incorporation provides that "Rev. 
Gardner B. Perry, Benjamin Parker, M.D., Moses 
Parker, William Greenough, Jeremiah Spofford, M. 
M. S. Ebenezer Rollins, Capt. George Savery, Capt. 
Samuel Tenney and Phineas Parker are nominated 
and appointed trustees of the said Academy, and 
they are hereby incorporated into a body politic by 
the name of the Trustees of Merrimac Academy in 
the County of Essex." The act provided that it was 
established " for the education of youth of both sexes 
in such languages, and such of the liberal arts and 
sciences as the trustees may direct." The academy 
building was raised July 4, 1821, and cost about 
nine hundred dollars. In its most flourishing days 
its pupils numbered from fifty to seventy-five. More 
than one thousand of the inhabitants of Groveland 
and vicinity received the greater part of their edu- 
cation within its walls, there seeking a higher educa- 
tion in Greek and Latin and mathematics than the 
common schools afforded, and eagerly taking advant- 
age of its privileges. The academy was sustained 
partly by tuition fees, and partly by contributions from 
its friends. Its early preceptors were Stephen Morse, 
David L. Nichols, John Tenney, Alonzo Chapin, 
Sylvanus Morse, Rufus C. Hardy and A. J. Saun- 
ders. In later years its teachers have been females, 



1698 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



among whom have been Miss Hattie Paine and Miss 
Martha and Miss Jenny Tlionipson. 

The academy was burned September 1, 1870, and 
rebuilt in 1871 at the cost of two thousand dollars, 
with increased accommodations. In 1878 the trustees 
leiised the academy to the town lor the term of 
ninety-nine years, the consideration being an agree- 
ment to occupy it for educational and public pur- 
poses, and to assume the debts of the academy, 
which amounted to S122D.92. Since the town has 
occupied it, the building has been enlarged, at a 
cost of eighteen hundred dollars, and now furnishes 
accommodations for two schools in the lower story, 
and for a Town Hall in the upper. 

The school system of the town at the present time 
is well supported and well managed. According to the 
last report of the School Committee, covering the year 
1886, there were at that time ten schools, — the High 
School, with an average membership of Iwenty-eight, 
under the charge of R. A. Hutchinson ; the Central 
Grammar School, with an average membership of 
twenty-eight, under the charge of Miss Mattie P. 
Parker; the South Grammar School, with an average 
membership of twenty-flve, under Miss Hattie E. 
Boyntou ; the Central Intermediate, with a member- 
ship of forty-one, under Miss Abbie C. Hopkinson ; 
the South Intermediate, at various times under Mrs. 
Sarah E. Peabody, Miss Ada R. Mason and Miss M. 
Newhall ; the East Mixed School, at different times 
under Miss Clara M. Organ and Miss Amy C. White ; 
the North Primary, with membership of twenty-one, 
under Miss Sadie Stickney ; the Central Primary, 
with a membership of thirty-nine, under Miss Mattie 
I. Morse; the First South Primary, with a member- 
ship of fifty-one, under Miss Eleanor A. Foster; and 
the Second South Primary, with a membership of fifty- 
four, under Miss Nellie G. Hill. For the support of 
these ten schools the town appropriated in 1886 
S4200 for teachers' .salaries and text-books and school 
maintenance, $300 for repairs and incidentals, $125 
for apparatus for the High School, and received 
8227.33 from the Mjissachu setts School Fund,— mak- 
ing a total of 84852.33. The expenses were $3501 for 
salaries, $416.27 for text-books and supplies, $256.43 
for fuel, $156.58 for repairs and incidentals, $382.79 
for philosophical apparatus $118.26, — making a total 
of .84831.33. 

Nor must the Revolutionary career of the town of 
Bradford, in which the East Parish was prominent, 
be omitted in this narrative. Its patriotism, its bur- 
dens and its honors were shared by the people of each 
parish, and to the history of each they legitimately 
belong. In 1773 Capt. Daniel Thurston was Repre- 
sentative of Bradford in the General Court. At that 
time the special grievances of taxation and the salaries 
of the judges had created an excitement which was 
spreading like a fire through the province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. The people of Boston had taken a 
determined stand, and those of various other towns 



were extending to them encouragement and support. 
On the 17th of January, 1773, a town-meeting was 
called to t'ee what instructions should be given to 
their Representative in view of the perils which sur- 
rounded them. A committee was appointed, consist- 
ing of Dudley Carleton, William Greenough, Benja- 
min Gage, Jr., Thomas Webster and Amos Mullekin, 
to draw up instructions, who subsequently reported 
the following address to Ca])tain Thurston, which was 
adopted by the meeting : 

" Sir,— Wp, his majesty's most dutiful and lojal subjects, freeholders 
and other inhabitants, of the town of Bradford, legally assembled this 
7th day of January, 177;*, take tllis opportunity to express onr very 
great uneasiness at tlie infringements on our natural and coustitutional 
rights by many of tlie late measures of the British administration, par- 
ticularly of the taxation of the Colonies and the granting of salaries to 
the Judges of the Superior Court,— measures adapted, as we apprehend, to 
lay a foundation in tinje to render property precarious, and to introduce 
a system of despotism which we cannot but view with the utnn^t aver- 
sion and to which we cannot submit wliile possible to be avoided. Wo 
recommend it to you, as our Representative in Geneml Assembly, to 
use your influence to obUiin redress of all our grievances, and in par- 
ticular to inquire whether the support of the Judges of the Superior 
Court has been adequate to their sei-vices, offices and station, and if not, 
to use your intlueuce in obtaining suitable grants and establishments as 
may be thought sufliciont to remove all pretense that government is 
not supplied among ourselves. 

" Wo also vote the thanks of this town to the town of Boston for the 
care and vigilance they have discovered for the rights and privileges of 
this province as men, as Christians and as patriots." 

Capt. Daniel Thurston was also a member of the 
Provincial Congress which convened in Salem, of 
which John Hancock was president, and also of the 
Second Congress, over which Dr. Joseph Warren pre- 
sided. The town laid in a store of ammunition before 
hostilities began, and appropriated the sum of £30 for 
its purchase. Minute-men were equipped and drilled, 
and after the battle of Lexington Capt. Nathaniel 
Gage ma'-< hed to Cambridge with forty men, and was 
engaged in the battle of Bunker Hill. At a meeting 
of the town, held on the 20th of June, 1776, an address 
to Dudley Carleton, the Representativeof Bradford in 
the General Assembly, was reported by a committee 
consisting of Thomas Webster, John Burbank, Nath- 
aniel Gage, Benjamin Muzzy and Capt. John Savory, 
and adopted by the town. The address was as follows : 

" To Dudley Carleton, Esq., representative from the town of Bradford 
in the General Assembly, sir, — When we consider the despotic plan of 
government a<lopted by the King's Ministers and Parliament of Great 
Britain to enslave these American colonics, we consider that instead of 
redressing our grievances tl»ey have turned a deaf ear to the n-irriited 
petitions and remonstrances of all the united colonies, and have also 
been and still are endeavoring to enforce their arbitrary plans upon \is 
by spilling our hlootl, by burning our towns, by seizing onr property 
and by instigating the savages of the wilderness and negroes to take 
up the cause against us ; when we consider these things it rouses 
our indignation, that we, wlio have always been loyal subjects to the 
King of Great Britain, should he so unconsiitutionally and inhumanely 
treated. Such tyrannical impositions and altnses of power we cannot, as 
men, submit to. Therefore, utterly despairing of a happy reconciliation 
ever taking place between Great Britain and their colonies, you are 
hereby desired as our representative to use your utmost endeavor, that 
onr delegates in Congress bo instructed to shake off the tyrannical yoke 
of Great Britain and declare these united colonies independent of that 
venal, corrupt and avaricious court forever, provided no prospects for 
a happy reconciliation bo offered whicli the honorable Congress think 
proper to accept ; and we hereby engage that we will, at the risk of our 
lives and fortunes, endeavor to support and defend their plans." 



CxROVELAND. 



1699 



In 1776 also a committee was appointed, consisting 
of Colonel Daniel Thurston, Deacon Thomas Kim- 
ball, Benjamin Muzzj', Major Benjamin Gage, Jr., 
and John Burbank, who reported a vote, which was 
ailopted by the meeting, opposing the adoption of a 
State Constitut ion by the Legislature and Council, to be 
ratified by the people, and proposing the draft of a 
constitution by the Legislature and its submission to 
the towns concerned, before its adoption in the As- 
sembly. 

On the 28d of September, 1776, the town voted to 
appropriate £41 los. 2d. for gunlocks, lead and flints ; 
and also voted to pay £14 to each soldier drafted 
from the militia. On the 11th of October, 1779, it 
was voted to appropriate £1995 to hire ten men to 
join the army of Washington in New York. On the 
12th of June, 1780, it was voted to raise sixteen men 
for si.x months, and on the 28th of June four men for 
six months and nineteen for three months, and the 
sum of £12,527 was raised to meet town charges. On 
the 12th of October, 1780, the sum of £43,844 10s. 6rf. 
was raised for town charges, including the cost of 
10,750 pounds of beef, which the town had been called 
upon to furnish. On the 4th of December, 1780, a 
call was made on the town for 20,642 pound.s of beef, 
and on the 3d of January, 1781, the sum of £61,926 
was raised to defray its co.st. 

In 1779 the delegate from Bradford in the Conven- 
tion to form a Constitution was Peter Russell, and the 
Constitution was promptly adopted by the town. The 
most prominent men of the town in military affairs, 
most of whom were at some period of the war in 
active service, were Capt. Nathaniel Gage, Lieut. 
Daniel Kimball, Lieut. Thomas Stickney, Lieut. 
Eliphalet Hardy, Lieut. Moses Harriman, Lieut. 
Phineas Col-, Adjt. Daniel Hardy, Lieut. Abel Kim- 
ball, Lieut. Nathaniel Parker, Lieut. Nathaniel Plu- 
mer, Capt. John Savory, Col. Daniel Thurston, Benja- 
min Muzzy, Maj. Benjamin Gage, John Burbank, 
Thomas Webster, Dudley Carleton, William Green- 
ough and Amos Mulliken. 

The population growing up round the churches in 
the East Parish, to whose spiritual wants they minis- 
tered, amounted in 1850 to about thirteen hundred, 
which was only a little less than half of that of the 
whole town of Bradford. At that time, owing to 
various causes of dissatisfaction, the people of the East 
Parish sought and obtained an act of incorporation. 
One of these causes, which may seen a trivial one to 
those unfamiliar with the jealousies which often arise 
in small communities, related to the post-office. The 
only office in Bradford, up to the year 1843, was 
established in 1811 and was located in the East 
Parish, under the name of the Bradford post-office. 
In 1843 the people in the West Parish secured a new 
office in their neighborhood, and used sufficient influ- 
ence with the Post-office Department to have their 
office called the Bradford office and that in the East 
Parish the East Bradford office. At that time George 



Savory was the postmaster at Bradford and Jeremiah 
Spoflbrd at East Bradford. 

The act of incorporation was passed March 7, 
1850, and describes the new township as 

"all that part of the town of Bradford wliich lies east of a line be- 
ginning at the Menimac River at the west side of Johnson's Creek 
at low water mark ; thence running southerly np the westerly side of 
said creek about 70 rods to a smalt white oak tree ; then south 15 degrees 
west 89 rods to a bound on the southerly side of the highway near Jona- 
than Kimbairs house ; thence south 54 degrees west 86 rods 17 links to 
a walnut tree on the easterly side of a road near the house of William 
Brown ; thence south 38J^ degrees west lot rods to a bound at the north- 
erly angle of the highway ; thence south 45 degrees west 149 rods 9 links 
to a bound at the northwesterly angle of said highway, near Johnson's 
Pond ; thence south 27 degrees west to a bound at the westerly side of 
said highway at Boxford line." 

The parent town included a territory about seven 
miles long, on the average, and two and a half miles 
wide, containing about ten thousand acres, of which 
about one-half was set ofi" to the new town. The 
bounds of Groveland were the Merriinac River, West 
Newbury, Newbury, Georgetown, Boxford and Brad- 
ford. On the 21st of March, 1856, an act was passed 
by the General Court providing that all that part of 
the town of Boxford should be annexed to Groveland, 
" beginning at a stone monument at the northwesterly 
corner of the town of Georgetown and northeasterly 
corner of said town of Boxford; thence running south 
10 degrees 30' west 311 rods 5 links on a line between 
said town of Georgetown and Boxford to a stone 
monument at an angle between said towns; thence 
running on an angle with the first-mentioned line, 
containing 46 degrees 30' 558 rods 20 links north- 
vvesterly, and between the houses of William Ross 
and John C. Foot, and across Johnson's Pond to a 
stone monument between the towns of Bradford, Box- 
ford and Groveland ; thence running easterly on a 
line between said towns of Boxford and Groveland 
(which is the present dividing line between said 
towns) to the point first begun at." 

The larger part of the territory of Groveland was 
originally laid out in lots running south from the 
river, which were granted in the following order, be- 
ginning down the river at the easterly end, to Jo- 
seph Richardson, Jonas Platts, John Hopkinson, 
Joseph Bailey, Edward Wood, Benjamin Savory, 
William Hutchens, Ezra Rolf, Samuel Teuney, Fran- 
cis Jewett, Samuel Worster, Samuel Stickney, John 
Hardy, William Hardy, Abraham Parker and Daniel 
Parker, and adjoining these was the Carleton Patent. 
The location of the town is exceedingly picturesque, 
lying along the southerly bank of the Merrimac, and 
not only beautiful in itself, but looking out on the 
undulating slopes with the alternating pasture and 
wood of the outskirts of Haverhill on the opposite 
shore. A large part of Johnson's Pond, a fine sheet 
of water on the Boxford line, is within the limits of 
the town, and from this flows Johnson's Creek, with a 
fall of seventy-five feet to the river. 

The name "Groveland" had no historic origin, 
but is believed to have been suggested by the exis- 



593977A 



1700 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



tence of attractive groves within its limits, one or 
more of wliich had been for many years resorted to 
for amusement and pleasure. Under authority of the 
act of incorporation, Jeremiah SpofTord, a justice of 
the peace and a citizen of the new town, issued a 
warrant to Nathaniel Ladd, of Groveland, directing 
him to warn its inhabitants to meet at the vestry of 
the Congregational Church on the 18th of March, 
1850, to choose town officers and take such measures 
as might be necessary to eftect a settlement between 
the old and new towns. Jacob W. Reed was chosen 
moderator and Moses Foster, Jr., town clerk. The 
selectmen chosen were Stephen Parker, Paul Hop- 
kiiison and Nathaniel Ladd. The overseers of the 
poor were Phineas Hardy, Jacob W. Reed and Elijah 
Clark, Jr. ; the town treasurer, Otis B. Merrill ; 
school committee, Gardner B. Perry, Bryan Morse 
and Rufus C. Hardy ; and the committee to settle 
with the town of Bradford, Jeremiah ISpofFord, George 
Hudson and Charles Harriman. 

At an adjourned meeting, held April 1st, George 
Eaton, Moses Foot, Moses Morse, Eben P. Jewett^ 
Eldred S. Parker, John Tappan, Reuben Sawyer, 
Paul Hopkinson, Thomas Burbank, Enoch S. Noyes, 
Richard Lunt and Manly Hardy were chosen high- 
way surveyors, and Burton E. Merrill, Ira Hopkin- 
son, Jonathan Balch, Moses Foot, Allen H. Goss, 
Eben E. Morse and Rufus P. Hovey, tithingmen. On 
the same day the sum of eighteen hundred dollars 
was appropriated to defray the expenses of the town 
for the year, and the sum of five hundred dollars for 
highways. 

On the 20th of Jainiary, 1851, it was voted that the 
overseers be authorized to receive proposals for the 
purchase of a house or farm for the poor of the town^ 
and to report to the town. At the annual meeting 
held on the 3d of March, 1851, it was voted that the 
old and new boards of overseers be authorized to pur- 
chase or hire a farm. Before the meeting held on the 
7th of April, it seems that the overseers bought a 
farm, for on that date they were instructed by the 
town " to purchase the Conniff farm and to sell the 
other." 

The selectmen chosen each year since 1850 have 
been as follows : 

18ol. Cbarlos Peabody. 

El^ah Chirk, Jr. 

George HiidBou. 
1852. I'nul Hopkinson. 

Charles Harriman. 

Edwin T. Curtis. 
18M. Natlianiel H. Grifflt 

Thomas M. Hopkins 

Euocl) Harriman. 
1854. Thomas M. Hopkic 



Jolin (aporge. 
1855. Natlianii'l H. Griffith. 

Jolin Tonncy. 

Warr.ii !.. Parker. 
1850. Nathaniel H. Gritlith. 

H. A. SpofTord. 

0. A. Shaw. 



1867. Nathaniel H. Griffith. 
H. A. Spofford. 
George S. Walker. 

1858. George S. Walker. 
J. C. Foot. 
Thomas Burbank. 

1859. Thomiui M. Hopkinson. 
George Hudson. 
George S. Walker. 

1860. Nathaniel I,.idd. 
Thomas H- Hopkinson. 
Nathaniel Parker. 

ISCl. Nathaniel LailJ. 
Solomon SputToril. 



Ch. 



i W. llopk 



180>, Same. 
18C3. Nathaniel Ladd. 
Charles W. Hoj)! 



Samuel Balch. 
1SG4. Nathaniel Ladd. 

Z. C. Wardwcll. 

Charles W. Hopkinson. 
1805. Same. 
18G6. Nathaniel Ladd. 

Z. C. Wardwell. 

James L. Wales. 
18C7. Nathaniel Ladd. 

Charles A. Shaw. 

Paul Hopkinson. 
18C8. Nathaniel Ladd. 

Charles W. Hopkinson. 

E. T, Curtis. 

1869. Nathaniel Ladd. 
Edwin Hopkinson. 
Charles F. Stiles. 

1870. Nathaniel Ladd. 
Edwin Hopkinson. 
Edwin T. Curtis. 

1871. Moses Foster. 
Nathaniel H. Griffith. 
Charles A. Shaw. 

1872. Edwin T. Curtis. 
D. H. Stickney. 
Charles H. Hopkinson. 
Enoch Harriman. 
Mark Griffin. 

1873. Charles H. Hopkinson. 
Edward C. Peabody. 



The moderators, clerks and treasurers have been as 
follows : 

1850. Jacob W. Eeed, moderator ; Moses Foster, Jr., clerk ; Otis B. 
Merrill, treasurer. 

1851. Albion M. Merrill, moderator; Ira Hopkinson, clerk ; Charles 

1852 Albion M. Merrill, moderator ; Joseph Savory, clerk ; George 
Hudson, treasurer. 

1S.53. Albion M. Merrill, moderator ; George S. Walker, clerk ; Edwin 
T. Curtis, treasurer. 

1854. Albion M. Merrill, moderator ; Edwin Hopkinson, clerk; John 
S. Ladd, treasurer. 

1S55. Eben P. Jewett, moderator ; George S. Walker, clerk ; Moses 
Foster, Jr., treasurer. 

moderator ; George Hudson, clerk ; Moses 



1874. Charles H. Hopkinson. 

Edward C. Peabody. 

Norman Nichols. 
1S75. aiarles H. Hopkinson. 

Nomian Nichols. 

John W. Libbey. 
187C. Charles H. Hopkinson. 

John W. Libbey. 

Edward Harriman. 

1877. Same. 

1878. Charles H. Hopkinson. 
Edwarfl Harrington. 
Charles F. Stiles. 

1879. Charles H. Hopkinson. 
John W. Libbey. 
Thomas P. Harriman. 



1882. Charles N. Hardy. 
Samuel Gage. 
Gardner P. Ladd. 

1883. Gardner P. Ladd. 
W. S. Peabody. 
Abel S. Harriman. 

1884. Same. 

1885. Same. 

1886. Gardner P. Ladd. 
Ellsworth P. Nichols. 
Benjamin Home. 



1, moderator; William Hopkinson, clerk ; 
.moderator; J. M. Spofford, clerk ; Wni. 
, moderator ; J. M. Spoffiird, clerk ; J. M. 
1, moderator ; J. M. Spofford, clerk ; J. M. 



1856. George W. Hopkin 
Foster, Jr., treasurer. 

1857. George W. Hopkit 
William Hopkin 

I85S, George W. Hopkin 
Hol>kinson, treasurer. 

1809. George W. Hopkin 
Spofford, treasurer. 

ISCO. George W. Hopkin 
Spoffuid, treasurer. 

1S6I. George W. Hopkinson, moderator; Morris Spofford, clerk; 
Morris Sjiofford, treasurer. 

I,sti2. Hl.cn S. Jewett, moderator; Morris Spofford, clerk ; Morris 
Spofford, treasurer. 

18u:l. Charles D. Page, moderator ; Morris Spofford, clerk ; Morris 
Spofl'ord, treasurer. 

18C4. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Morris Spofford, clerk ; Morris Spof- 
foni, treasurer. 

18(i6. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Chas. 
H. Hopkinson, treasurer. 

18C6. Thomas M. Hopkinson, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, 
clerk : Charles H. Hopkinson, treasurer. 

1807. Uriah G. Spofford, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; 
Charles H. Hopkinson. trea-urer. 

1868. Thonuis M. Hopkinson, moderator; Charles H. Hopkinson, 
clerk ; Charles H. Hopkinson, treasurer. 

1869. Otis B. Menill, moderator; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Chas. 
H. Hopkinson, treasurer. 

1870.0118 B. Merrill, moderator; Charles 11. Hopkinson, clerk ; 
Charles H. Hopkii 



GROVELAND. 



1871. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Chas. 
n. Hoiikinson, treasurer. 

1872. Thoniaa M. noijkingon, moderator ; Charles H. HopkiDson, 
clerk ; Gardner P, Ladd, treasurer. 

Ik 73. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk; 
Gardner P. Ladd, treasurer. 
1874. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 

1S75. Otis B. Merrill, moderator; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Qard- 

1876. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
ner P. Ladd, treasurer. 

1877. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
ner P. Ladd, treasurer. 

1878. Otis B. Merrill, moderator; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
ner P. Ladd, treasurer. 

1879. OtisB. Merrill, moderator; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
ner P. Ladd, treasurer. 

188(1. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 

1881. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
ner P. Ladd. treasurer. 

1882. Otis B. Slerrill, moderator ; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
ner P. Ladd, treasurer. 

1883. Otis B. Merrill, moderator; Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
ner P. Ladd, treasurer. 

188-1. Otis B. Merrill, moderator ; Chalres H. Hopkinson, clerk; Gard- 



1885. E. P. Jewett, moderate 
ler P. Ladd, treasurer. 

1886. Edwin T. Curtis, moderator ; J. B. P. Ladd, clci 



Charles H. Hopkinson, clerk ; Gard- 
GardnerP. 



The Eepresentatives to the General Court have 
been chosen as follows : 



185.5. John Tenney. 
1850. John Tenney. 

1857. From the Fourth Kepresentativs District of Essex County c 
posed of Georgetown and Groveland, Mark F. Edmunds, of Georgeto 

1858. Edwin B. George, of Groveland. 

1859. From District No. 6, composed of the ea 
of Georgetown. 

186(1. George W. Hoftkilison, of Groveland. 
lSi;l. .i<.-r|.|i ,1 ^ii. l.n.y, of Georgetown. 
18i'''i I I ■■- >i 11 : iii^iiu, of Groveland. 



) towns, Samuel I 



1865. 0. B. T. I ■ ; , . ij. l ."ii. 

18C6. From Hi-': i \ ; "-d of the towns of Georgetown, 

Groveland and 11 ,: : i, ; : ' -ncy, of Grovelaud. 

1SG7. Koscoe \V. t.,.^. , ,.1 l;u.\l..r.l. 

1868. John G. Barnes, of Georgetown. 

1869. Zenaa C. Wardwell, of Groveland. 

1870. Stephen Osgood, of Georgetown. 

1871. Leverett IIopkiuBon, of Groveland. 

1872. Charles Perlcy, of Boxford. 

1873. Joseph E. Bailey, of Georgetown. 
1,S74. Daniel P. Hopkinson, of Groveland. 

1875. Sherman Nelson, of Georgetown. 

1876. From District No. 17, composed of the towns of Georgetown, 
Groveland and Bradford, Charles Stickney, of Groveland. 

1877. Chauncey 0. Noyes, of Georgetown. 

1878. Albert Kimball, of Bradford. 



187! 



1880. George H. Carletou, of Georgetowr 

1881. Albert E. Towne, of Bradford. 

1882. W. Scott Peabody, of Bradford. 

1883. Simeon T. Peakes, of Georgetown. 

1884. John B. Farrar, of Bradford. 



1885. Mosely D. Chase, of Georgetown. 

1886. Nathaniel E. Ladd, of Groveland. 

1887. William A. Butler, of Georgetown. 

In 1853 Gardner P. Ladd, of Grovelaud, was a delegate to the Consti- 
tutional Convention, 

When the War of the Rebellion broke out the citizens 
of Groveland at once took active steps towards the per- 
formance of their share of patriotic duties. At a town- 
meeting held on the 30th of April, 1861, it was voted 
"to choose a committee consisting of E. B. George, 
Elijah Clark, John C. Foot, Nathaniel H. Griffith 
and D. H. Slickuey, who shall furnish all persons 
who are called into active service for this town with 
all necessary articles, and to provide for their families 
during their- absence at the expense of the town." It 
was also voted " that all volunteers from this town in 
regularly organized companies, holding themselves 
liable to instant call to the service of their country, 
and in constant drill to prepare themselves for ser- 
vice, to be paid the sum of ten dollars per month by 
the town while so employed." 

The latter vote continued in operation until the 22d 
of the following June, when it was annulled, and at 
the .same date the duties of the committee chosen on 
the 30th of April were transferred to the Board of Se- 
lectmen. 

On the 19th of July, 1862, the town voted to pay a 
bounty of one hundred dollars to each soldier enlist- 
ing before August 5th for three years to fill the quota 
of twenty-one then required of the town. On the 
26th of July the bounty was increased to one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. On the 13th of August, 1862, 
a bounty of one hundred and fifty dollars was offered 
for enlislments for nine months to the extent of the 
required quota. On the 12tb of December, 1862, it was 
voted to pay no more bounties to nine months' men, 
and to authorize the selectmen to fill the quota of 
the town with three years' men on the best possible 
terms. On the 8th of April, 1864, the selectmen were 
authorized to pay one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars for each enlistment to fill the quota then re- 
quired of the town. On the 1st of August, 1864, it 
was voted to procure subscriptions for additions to 
the bounty of one hundred and twenty-five dollars 
ofiered by the town, and it was ?lso voted to guaran- 
tee to each soldier the sum of two hundred and fifty 
dollars. On the 15th of August the committee having 
the subscriptions in charge reported that they had re- 
ceived the sum of one thousand three hundred and 
sixty-four dollars from one hundred and twenty sub- 
scribers. On the 10th of February, 1865, the select- 
men were authorized to furnish the soldiers required 
of the town on the most favorable terms, and draw on 
the town treasurer for the necessary funds. These 
are some, if not all, of the votes passed by the town 
during the war, and they show no signs of hesitation 
to meet fully and promptly every call upon its patri- 
otism and resources. 

The following is as complete a list of soldiers en- 
listed at various times as can be made up from the 



1702 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



records. It contains the names of only one hundred 
and fifty-eight, while one hundred and eighty-five were 
credited to the town It is probable that the re- 
maining twenty-six were soldiers credited to the town 
by the State, unknown to the town authorities. 

R<!gt. 

Sumner 6. Harlty, 3 yrs., 3d H. A. 
Lowell U. Hopkinsou,:! yi-»...lltU 
Molvin IIopkinsoM, 3 jra., 2(1 H. A. 

Aaron W. Hardy, 9mos 48th 

Lyman Hopkinson, 1 yr., 4tli H. A. 



Itegt. 

JohnG. B. AdaraB, 3yr9 luth 

Isaac N Adams, 3 yrs TJth 

Goorgo H. Adams Navy 

Enoch T. Adams, lOOdys., IVtli Un. 

Wm. Auforlh, 3 yre 3d Cuv. 

James J. Anderson, 3 yrs., 1st H. 

Iliram T. Balch, 9 mos 48th 

E. Groveland Bradford, 1 yr., 4th 

H. Art. 

Joseph A. Banks, 3 yrs 3d 

Wm. A. Balch, 100 days, 1 yr., 17th 

Un. 

C. T. Balch, 100 dys 17th Un. 

Eugene C. Brown, lOU dy8.,17th Un 

Edwin F. Berdge, 3 yrs 11th 

Cliarles H. Brown, 1 yr., 4th H. A. 
John E. Brown, 1 yr...4th IT. Art. 

Moses Brown, 3 yiB 33d 

Laurentiu Bailey, 3 yrs 17th 

John A. Bacon, 9 mlhs 50th 

Charles Boynton, 3 yre 19th 

Joseph Banks, 3 yrs 33d 

Marcus M. Chase. 

William Carr, 3 yrs 12th 

Wallace N. Chase, 3 yrs 33d 

Willard K. Chase. 
Leonard J. Chase. 



iyrs.. 



..33d 



Charles H. Cammott, 3 yrs ITth 

John N. Crombie, 100 dys., 17th Un. 

George C. Curtis, 3 yrs 33d 

Thomas W. Crombie, 9 mos...48th 

George E. Danforth, 9 mos 48th 

John Bonaldson, 3 yrs 11th 

Adolphus Danforth, 3 yrs 11th 

Michael Dow, 3 yre 16th 

Wm. G. Eaton, 3 yts 23d 

Leverett Fegan, 3 yrs. ...3d H. Art. 
John Fesau. 



..19th 



Iliram S. Foye, 9 mos... 
Ge„rpc. II. Foster, 3 yrs 
Charles C. French, 3 yn 

Charles A. Foster, 3 yrs 33d 

Frank M. Foster, 9 mos 48th 

William P. Foster, 3 yrs., 1st H. A. 
Calvin A. Farrington, 3 yrs., 1st H. 

Art. 

Thomas E. Oilman, 3 yrs 17th 

Frank GrifBth, luO days, 1 year, 

17th Un. 

George W. Gove, 3 yrs 33d 

Michael Glispie 4th Cav. 

Thomas George, 100 days, 17th Un. 

Mansel C. Hardy, 9 mos 48th 

BylTHUus W. Hai-dy, 3 yrs 19th 

ErastusG. Hatn, 3 yrs 19th 

Warren B. Hardy, 3 yrs 33d 

Charles F. Hardy, 3 yrs S-ld 

Wm. Holmes, 3 yrs 19th 

Albert L. Hardy, 3 yr8..3d H. Art. 

Allen Hardy, 3 yrs 3d H. Art. 

John Uarriman, 9 mos 48th 

Benj. L. Hardy, 9 nios 48th 

John Hci-shel, 9 nio« 48th 

Charles S. Hershol, 1 yr.,4th H. A- 

Granville Ilershel, 3 yrs 17th 

Frank A. Hall, 100 days, 1 year, 

17th Un. 



..48th 



Rufus Hopkinson, 3 yrs., 3d H 
Leverett Hopkinson, 1 year. 
Paul Hopkinson, 1 year. 
Wm. H. Hopkinson, 1 year. 
Wendell Hopkinson, lOUdays, ] 

Un. 

John H. Hardy, 1st, 9 mos '. 

James W. Hollister, 3 years. 
John H. Hardy (3d), 9 m 
David S. Hardy, 3 years. 

Asa F. Hardy, 9 mos 48th 

John F. Hoyt. 

John H. Hardy, 9 mos 48th 

James P. Ivory, 3 yrs llth 

George H. Johnson, 3 yrs llth 

Samuel E. Jones, 3 yrs 19th 

Horace Jaques, 3 yrs 59th 

Charles H. Kimball, 3yr8.,4th Cav. 
Asa Kimball, 3 years. 

Marcus Kimball, 3 yrs 19th 

James M. Kimball, 3 years. 
Jeremiah B. P. Ladd, 3 years. 

Hubert Lover, 3 yrs 2d Cav. 

Nathaniel E. Ladd, 3 yrs 33d 

Nathaniel Loveland, 3 yrs 19th 

Wm. D. Mitchell, 3 yre 17th 

Charles H. Jlitchell, 9 mos 48th 

John Macon, 3 yrs IGth 

George H. Mitchell, 9 mos 48th 

John Malone, 3 yrs 2d Cav. 

Augustus F. Noyee, 3 yrs llth 

Darius H. Nelson, 9 mos 48th 

Edwin C. Noyes. 

George A. Ordway, 3 years. 

Henry N. Page, 1 yr., 4th H. Art. 

Charles Parker, 9 raos 4Sth 

Rufus E. Parker, 9 mos 60th 

Charles E. Peabody, 3 yrs 12th 

Samnel T. Perry, 3 yrs 17th 

Wm. S. Perry, 3 yrs 3:id 

Eustace G. Parker, 3 yrs 19th 

Aaron B. Parker, I yr 4th H. A. 

Eugene Parker, 3 years. 

Gilman N. Parker, 3 yrs 19th 

Orlando S. Pari.i, 3 yrs Navy 

Morrison Proctor, 3 yrs 17th 

Benj. F. Pike, 3 years. 

Daniel S. Pike.3yr8 33d 

Oliver S. Rundlett, 3 yrs 19th 

Elbridge A. Richardson, 1 year, 

17th Un. 

John P. Rundlett. 3 yrs 33d 

Edward Richardson, 100 days, 17th 

Un. 

Henry G. Rollins, 9 mos 48th 

Henry C. Rice, 3 yrs 12th 

Enoch H. Ricker, 100 d»y«, 17th 

Un. 

Edward C. Ricker, 3 yrs 33d 

Wm. H. Ricker, 100 days, 17th Un- 

Thomas W. Spiller, 3 yrs llth 

George Sides. 

Thomas A. Sides, 9 nioa 50th 

Wm. 0. Sides, 9 mos 60th 





Regt. 


Timothy A. Staccy, 3 yre 


3.id 


Joseph C. .Stacey, 3 yrs. 


33d 


John M Stacey 3 yrs 


.. 19th 


Albert 0. Stacey, 3 yrs... 


33d 


Moses H. Stickney, 3 yrs 


33d 


Chas. H. Smith, 100 days, 17th Uu. 


Edward Savory, 1 yr., 4t 


I H. Art. 


Charles B. Somes, 1 yr., 4th H. A. 


Nathan Sargent, 1 yr., 4 


h H Art. 


Warren Sargent, 1 yr., 4th H. Art. 


Oscar F.Stevens, 9 mos. 


6th 


Edwin T.Stevens, 3 yrs.. 


3d fl. A. 


Peter Stillman, 3 yrs 


lath 


Peter Stillman rc-enl.. 


3 years, 


19th. 




Oscar M. Stickney. 9 mos 


48th 


I. B. Sanborn, 9 mos 


4Sth 



Charles H. Tandy, 100 days, 17th 



Charles W. Watkins, 3 mos. 5th 

James S. Walsh, lOUdays, 17th Un. 

Henry B. Webber, 3 yre X7th 

Wellington B. Webber, 3 mos..6lh 

George H. Wiggin, 9 mos 48th 

Justin R. Wood, 1 yr., 4th H. Art. 

George Willey Navy 

Cyrus R. Wiggin, 9 mos 50th 

Luther P. Withum, 1 yr., 4th H. A- 
Joseph A. Walsh, 100 days, 17th 

Un. 
Wm. Young, 3 yrs., ICth Light Bat. 



Of these, Isaac N. Adams was wounded at Antie- 
tam, and died September 22, 1862, Charles Boynton 
was killed on the Peninsula in 1862, William Carr 
died of wounds received at Gettysburg, John Fe- 
gan and David S. Hardy died in Andersonville Pri- 
son, Frank M. Foster and John Harriman died in 
Louisiana, Granville Hershel died of wounds in North 
Carolina, Asa Kimball died in Libby Prison, Nathan- 
iel Loveland was killed on the Peninsula, Darius H. 
Nelson was killed at Port Hudson, William S. Perry 
died in Washington, John M. Stacy died in Wash- 
ington, Moses W. Stickney died in Philadelphia, Ed- 
ward C. Ricker died at Falmouth, and Charles W. 
Watkins was killed at Cold Harbor. Edwin F. Berdge, 
Marcus M. Chase, Willard K. Chase, Leonard J. 
Chase, Michael Glister, William D. Mitchell, Charles 
H. Mitchell and William O. Sides are stated in the 
town records to have died but whether of wounds or 
disease there is no record to show. 

The whole number of men furnished during the 
war was one hundred and eighty-five, of whom seven 
were officers. The total sum of money appropriated 
for war purposes was §27,812.57. A marble shaft was 
erected ou the common in memory of the dead soldiers 
of the war and dedicated in 1866. In 1867 the 
Charles Sumner Post, No. 107, of the Grand Army of 
the Republic was known as the L. B. Schwabe Post, 
and its name was subsequently changed to the one it 
now bears in honor of the late distinguished Senator. 

On the 8th of May, 1868, Francis Sargent, William 
Gunnison and John S. Poyen, all residents of what is 
now Merrimac, were, with their associates, incorpo- 
rated as the West Amesbury Branch Railroad Com- 
pany, with a capital of one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. They were authorized to locate within two 
years a road from " West Amesbury near the Four 
Corners, thence westerly near the house of Joseph R. 
Thomas, thence more northerly to the State line near 
a corner of Newton, there to connect with any rail- 
road which may be authorized by the laws of New 
Hampshire from said State line to a point on the 
Boston and Maine Railroad, or from said State line to 
a point on the State line separating Haverhill from 
Plaistow, near the house of James Brickett, and from 
said last-named point may locate, construct and main- 



GROVELAND. 



tain and operate a railroad in aaid town of Haver- 
bill to a point on the Boston and Maine Railroad not 
less than one mile northerly from the depot in 
Haverhill." 

On the 12th of June, 1809, they were authorized to 
so change the location as to commence " at some con- 
venient point in West Amesbury and run through 
said town to the east part of the town of Haverhill, 
thence through said easterly part of Haverhill to the 
Merrimac liiver, at or near the Rock's Bridge and cross 
the river by a new bridge or by building suitable struc- 
tures on the present bridge, on such terms as may be 
agreed upon by the County Commissioners of Essex 
County, Haverhill, West Newbury and Amesbury, 
thence through West Newbury and Groveland to the 
railroad in Groveland." The town of Groveland was 
also authorized to subscribe for stock not exceeding 
live per cent, of its assessed valuation. The result of 
the whole matter was that Groveland did not sub- 
scribe and the road was built on one of the routes 
mentioned in the original act of incorporation. 

For many years prior to 1826 there was no estab. 
lished ferry across the river at Bradford. Muliken's 
ferry, at West Bradford, was established in 1745, and 
continued in operation until the Haverhill bridge was 
built, in 1794. After that time the scattering travel 
at points below, as far as East Bradford, was accom- 
modated by individual enterprise, which was far from 
satisfactory. Under the lead of Dr. Jeremiah Spofford, 
subscriptions for the establishment of a chain ferry 
were raised, and a stock company formed which carried 
on its busine^s with profit, until the construction of the 
iron bridge in 1871. The increase of travel from Grove- 
land and West Newbury and other points to Haver- 
hill rendered at this time better accommodations nec- 
essary, and in response to a petition to the General 
Court, an act was passed March 6, 1870, requiring 
the county commissioners within two years, to con- 
struct a suitable bridge, and assess its cost in such pro- 
portions as they thought just on the county of E-aex, 
the city of Haverhill and the towns of West Newbury 
and Groveland. On the 20th of July, 1870, the com- 
missioners laid out the bridge and at once set about 
its cnnstruction. Its cost was §84,962.70, of which 
the sum of $38,233.22 was assesed on the county, §26,- 
904.85 on the city of Haverhill, §11,328.36 on the 
town of Groveland and $8496.27 on the town of West 
Newbury. The bridge was opened April 10, 1872. In 
the spring of 1881 the bndge fell, and by an act of 
theLegislalure, passed on the 20th of March, the com- 
missioners were authorized to rebuild it and assess the 
cost as before. In April the comnii.-sioners decided 
to build a new bridge, and its cost of §73,105,40 was 
assessed, §36,552.70 on the county, §28,197.78 on 
thecity of Haverhill, §5744 on the town of Groveland 
and §2610.92 on the town of West Newbury. In 1877 
the Haverhill and Groveland Street Railway was built, 
which crosses the bridge. It has since been extended 
to West Newbury, thus adding a new tributary to the 



enterprising city of Haverhill, which should have 
been secured to Newburyport. While on this point it 
may not be impertinent to suggest that the people of 
Newburyport might find it for their interest, not only 
to build a horse railway to West Newbury, their neigh- 
boring town, but also to extend their Amesbury road 
to Merrimac. 

Besides the Congregational and Methodist Church- 
es, of which mention has been made as organizations in 
existence at the time of the incorporation of the town, 
there are others which have sprung up since that 
time, all of which are in that part of the town known 
as South Groveland. In 1855, through the enterprise 
mainly of Jacob W. Reed, a church was built in 
that section, which, for a time, was occupied by va- 
rious denominations. That, however, has disappeared. 
Since that time the St. James Episcopal Church has 
been built, in which a flourishing society holds its 
Sabbath service. The church, complete and ready for 
occupation, was the gift of E. J. M. Hale, of Haver- 
hill, the owner of a large manufacturing establish- 
ment in its neighborhood. The last oflicialing cler- 
gyman was Rev. Albert E. George, but at present it 
is without a pastor. The St. Patrick's Catholic 
Church has been also built, Mr. Hale contributing 
the land on which it stands and a liberal sum also 
towards defraying the cost of its construction. Rev. 
Edward Murphy, of Georgetown, has the present 
charge of this church. 

On the 8th of March, 1828, Moses Parker, Jeremi- 
ah Spofford and Benjamin Parker, and their associ- 
ates, were incorporated as the Bradford Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company. After the incorporation of the 
town, on the 29th of April, 185U, the name of the 
company was changed to the Groveland Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, and on the 14th of April, 1855, 
its charter was renevved for twenty-eight years, from 
March 8, 1856. Its preseut officers are Moses Foster 
president and Nathaniel H. Griffith secretary. The 
company pays its expenses and losses by assessments 
on deposit notes, which, on the 31st of December, 
1886, amounted to §104,852.69, while the amount at 
risk at that date was §1,015,799. 

On the 1st of May, 1869, Nathaniel H. GriflSth, 
Nathaniel Ladd and Edwin T. Curtis, and their asso- 
ciates, were incorporated as the Groveland Savings 
Bank, and the officers of the company were Moses 
Foster president and Nathaniel H. Griffith treasurer. 
After being in operation sixteen years its afiiiirs 
were gradually wound up. 

The industries of Groveland, though now except 
in South Groveland well-nigh extinct, have in the 
past been varied and extensive. At a very early date 
the advantages of Johnson's Creek were discovered, 
and in 1670 a grist-mill was built on that stream. In 
1684 the town of Bradford received proposals from 
Richard Thomas, of Rowley, and John Perle, of 
Marblehead, to set up a corn-mill on the creek. 
Mills were also built there by Edward Carleton, 



1704 



HISTORY OP ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Phiiieaa Carleton and Aaron Parker. In 1740 Joseph 
Kimball and Eliphalet Hardy built mills. In 1760 
Thomas Carleton establisheii a fulling-mill on the 
creek, and in 1790 Retier Parker built a tanyard. In 
the same year William Tenney, Jr., established a 
chaise-factory, which flourished for thirty years. In 
1784 Francis Kimball used the waters of the stream 
for a saw-mill, and Benjamin Morris for a fulling-mill. 

Rev. Gardner B. Perry, of East Bradford (now 
Oroveland), stated, in an historical address delivered 
in 1820, that up to that time there had been on the 
creek four saw-mills, five grist-mills, three fulling- 
mills and two bark -mills. 

In 1820 there were in the East Parish five tan- 
yards in active operation, the first of which, in 
point of time, was established by Shubael Walker, 
who removed his business from the West Parish. 
In connection with the preparation of leather the 
manufacture of shoes sprang up, chiefly devoted to 
the production of a coarse article which found its 
market in the Southern States and the West Indies. 
Jesse Atwood carried on a chocolate-factory, Stephen 
Foster the manufacture of brass and pewter buckles, 
Jotham Hunt the coopering business, Moses Parker 
the manufacture of tobacco, and others were engaged 
in making bricks and straw bonnets. Nor was ship- 
building neglected. In this industry Bradford 
shared to a limited extent a business which was car- 
ried on so extensively in the towns on the Merrimac 
nearer the sea. 

Until about the time of the incorporation of Grove- 
land the waters of Johnson's Creek had only been 
utilized by the smaller mills, to which reference has 
been made. These, however, gradually disappeared. 
In 1837, William Perry removed to the East Parish, 
from Bridgewater, and built a brass foundry, which 
in 1843 was converted into a shoe-thread factory, 
carried on by Perry & Swett. In 1854 it became 
the property of E. A. Straw of Manchester, N. H., 
and Nathaniel Webster, of Amesbury, who converted 
it into a factory, for the manufacture of seamless 
bags. In 1869 it was purchased by E. J. M. Hale, 
of Haverhill, who changed it into a woolen-factory. 
Mr. Hale soon doubled the size of the old mill, and 
supplied it with a forty horse-power engine. In 
1861 he built a new mill, one hundred and thirty- 
seven feet by fifty-two, four stories high, and at- 
tached to it an eighty horse-power engine. In 1875 
an addition was made, eighty feet by fifty-four, three 
stories high. In 1869 Mr. Hale built still another 
mill below the others, three hundred and sixteen feet 
by fifty-two, four stories high in the main building, 
and supplied it with an engine of one hundred and 
fifty horse-power. All the mills contained thirty- 
six sets of machinery, including one hundred and 
eight carding-raachines, forty-two spinners, and two 
hundred and thirty-eight looms engaged in the 
manufacture of flannel. There are also connected 
with the mills a repair-shop, four picker-houses, a 



dye-house, a forging-shop, three store-houses and a 
large number of tenements for operatives. About four 
hundred hands are employed in and about the mills, 
and as the mills were gradually enlarged, the popula- 
tion of the south section of the town increased until 
it had become about one half of that of the whole 
town. 

It is unnecessary to make special mention of tho^e 
citizens who have been prominent in the town since 
its incorporation, as, with but few exceptions, their 
names are included iu thelistsof town oflicers or Rep- 
resentatives in the early part of this sketch. There 
will be found the names of Capt. George Savory, 
Rev. Gardner B. Perry, Dr. Jeremiah Spofibrd, Nath- 
aniel Ladd, and of the recently deceased Daniel B. 
Hopkinson, all of whom have passed away, leaving 
honorable records and a fragrant memory. 

A few statistics, some of which are given to show 
the relative growth in population and valuation of 
Grovelaud and its parent town, must close this sketch. 
The population of Bradford in 1850, after the incor- 
poration of Grovelaud, was 1328 and that of Grove- 
land 1286. The valuation of each town at that time 
was about $400,000. In 1885 the population of Brad- 
ford was 3106 and that of Grovelaud 2272. In the 
same year the valuation of Bradford was $1,423,243 
and that of Groveland $874,444. The affairs of the 
town are managed with intelligence, prudence and 
economy. The current expenses of the town for the 
year 1886 amounted to $34,515.48, and the town debt 
March 1, 1887, to $17,517.73, while the property of the 
town, including the town farm, school-houses, etc., 
amounted to $25,098.61. The financial soundness and 
strength of the town is apparent ; and while its 
growth has been checked by causes which have ceased 
to operate, it seems certain that, with its good soil, 
its admirable location, the prosperity ofthe Hale mills 
and its proximity to the flourishing city of Haverhill, 
its future increase and prosperitj' are assured. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



OAKDXER B. PERRY, D.D. 

Gardner Braman Perry was the fifth child and 
second son of Nathan and Phrebe (Braman) Perry, 
of Norton, Mass. He was born August 9, 1783. 
He was a lineal descendant of Anthony Perry, one 
of the tint settlers and most influential citizens of 
Rehoboth. His father was a farmer, a man of quiet, 
methodical and industrious h.abits, yet energetic and 
public-spirited when the occasion demanded it. A 
good evidence of this was aftbrded by his enlistment 
after the battle of Bunker Hill and service in the 
siege of Boston. His readiness thus to leave his 
young wife and infant child at a period when the 
colonists had not yet fully testified their ability to 




6 fcrCCpu-y ^1. /e 



?.l<yy 



THE NEW YO: 

PUBU 



CtROVELAND. 



1705 



resist regular troops showed both patriotism and 
pluclr. 

If he inherited good principles and quiet decision 
from his father, he was indebted to his mother for 
that energy, noble ambition and geniality by which 
he was so enimently characterized. It was the testi- 
mony of more than one of Mrs. Perry's children that 
their success in life was mainly attributable to her 
instructions and example. She was a woman of rare 
sweetness, sprightliness and tact. She was a sister 
of the late Isaac Braman, D.D., who, called to be 
pastor of the church in Georgetown, after more than 
fifty candidates had been heard, retained the position 
until his death, sixty-one years later, and ruled his 
flock in peace. Soon after his death the old quarrel 
broke out under new pretexts, but between the 
grandchildren of the former combatants, who were 
ranged pretty much as their ancestors had been. 
The disease was probably inveterate, but Dr. Bra- 
man's rare good sense proved a thorough palliative 
through two generations. 

We can discover many common traits in Gardner 
Perry aud his uncle. Yet there were differences : 
while both were emphatically peace-makers, Dr. 
Braman often avoided difficulties by strictly confin- 
ing himself to his parish duties. Dr. Perry, on the 
contrary, was a zealous reformer, yet free from the 
asperity and one-sidedness unhappily too common 
among the champions of new measures. He thus 
retained the esteem and good will even of those who 
strongly dissented from his methods and objects. 

Nathan Perry's family was a large one, and Bristol 
County farms are not over-productive; but he, and 
especially his wife, were determined that their chil- 
dren should be well educated. Gardner was therefore 
fitted for college in the academy in his native town, 
and in 1800 entered Brown University. The presi 
dent of the institution, Dr. Maxey, w:is a man of 
unusual magnetism, and accordingly, when, in 1802, 
he resigned his ottice to accept the presidency of 
Union College, at Schenectady, he was followed thither 
by several of his pupils, young Perry and the late 
Bishop Brownell, of Connecticut, among the members. 

Mr. Perry held high rank as a scholar. He was 
graduated in 1804, and immediately after took charge 
of the academy at Ballston, N. Y. A year later he 
returned to Schenectady and became tutor and in- 
structor in French. In 1807 he was invited to 
become principal of the Kingston (N. Y.) Academy, 
where he remained five years. He was very success- 
ful and popular as an educator. Indeed, it was the 
opinion of his younger brother and pupil, the late Dr. 
William Perry, of Exeter, N. H., that |he was espe- 
cially designed for a teacher, and that the class-room 
rather than the pulpit was his appropriate field. 
However well founded, or the reverse, this belief 
may have been, his literary and executive abilities 
were highly esteemed by his alma mater. When Dr. 
Xott's resignation of its presidency was expected, 
107 J 



about forty-five years ago, Dr. Perry was prominently 
mentioned as his successor. Dr. Nott concluded, 
however, to remain and so Dr. Perry's services were 
not required. 

He had entered the ministry from thoroughly con- 
scientious motives. He was earning a comfortable 
livelihood and could not hope for a.s large an income 
from his pastoral labors. No one was better aware 
than himself that he lacked those showy qualities 
which attract crowds and bring apparent, though 
superficial success. Nevertheles.s, he felt that he was 
called to preach the gospel, and in 1812 was licensed 
by the Presbytery of Albany. Though pastor of a 
Congregational Church in New England, we believe 
that he always retained his connection with the body 
which admitted him to the ministry. 

In 1814 he accepted a call from the East Parish in 
Bradford Mass. (now Groveland), and was formally 
installed September 2Sth. The engagement |)roved 
a life one. He was sole pastor until 1851, when a 
colleague was called. He entered upon his duties 
with a zeal which was unintermitted until the infirmi- 
ties of age compelled him to leave to others the more 
arduous responsibilities of his position. If the field 
was not a large one, the fact was not allowed to give 
an excuse for luxurious ease. It was thoroughly, 
intelligently and prayerfully cultivated. 

Mr. Perry — he received the Doctorate of Divinity 
from Union College in 1843 — was the father, brother 
and fellow-worker of all his people. In the pulpit, 
and out of it, he had their wants and their highest 
good constantly in mind. He pointed them to the 
world above, but he ever kept in their minds the 
necessity of making the best use of the world that 
now is. Hence he instructed them to be frugal, to 
till their lands, so as to return the largest profits, to 
provide thorough instruction for their children and 
to be temperate in all things. No one could be long 
in his company without receiving some practical 
suggestion. 

His interests were not limited to his parish. 
Throughout Essex County, and beyond, he was fore- 
most as an advocate of eduction. The common 
schools of Eastern Massachusetts owe him much, for 
he was the predecessor of Horace Mann and furnished 
that noted educator with many of the facts and 
statistics which be used so much to his own, as well 
as the public's advantage. Dr. Perry was an earnest 
supporter of the temperance cause. He had grown 
up in an age when excess was far too prevalent among 
all classes, and he labored for a better state of things 
with signal success. 

He was very influential among hia ministerial breth- 
ren. When heated discussions occurred, all sides were 
anxious to hear Dr. Perry's opinion, for he never 
yielded to excitement and his decisions were as im- 
pressive in form as judicious in their substance. He 
had a rare grace in saying even unpleasant things. His 
courtliness was that of the "old school," minus its 



1706 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



pomposity. He was always the true gentleman, but 
without mannerism or eflbrt. He was gracious in 
e.xpression and action, because he obeyed the impulses 
ol' a thoroughly kindly heart. This quality impressed 
itself upon strangers who never heard him preach and 
who exchanged few, if any, words with him. His 
mere look was full of benignity. 

As a preacher he was instructive, but not magnelic. 
The thoughtful hearer would always find food for 
reflection in his sermons and would gain new appre- 
ciation from them by reading after hearing them. 
He was best enjoyed by those who were regular 
attendants on his ministry, and had accustomed them- 
selves to look for what was said rather than toward 
the manner of saying it. A centennial sermon, 
preached in 1823, contains a real history of the church 
and parish. As such it is much prized by antiquaries. 
As copies of the first edition grew scarce, the price 
increiised until the pamphlet was worth almost its 
weight in gold. A new edition was printed — an honor 
conferred on very few pulpit discourses. 

Dr. Perry's long and useful life closed on the Kith 
of December, 1859, when he had reached the age of 
seventy-six years. Until shortly before his death he 
had been able to enjoy the attentions which all his 
relations and friends were anxious to bestow upon 
him. If his strength declined, his appreciation of 
the universal esteem — reverence would be the better 
word — in which every one held him must have in- 
creased. Yet his genuine modesty ever forbade him 
to take much credit to himself. He had tried to do 
his duty ; that was all. Time is, however, a great 
tost of character. Nearly thirty years have passed 
since Gardner B. Perry was borne to the grave, and his 
name and virtues are still warmly cherished in Grove- 
laud and throughout Essex County. He is remem- 
bered by all his contemporaries as a truly good and 
useful man, clear-headed and sound-hearted, and they 
have imparted their estimate to their children and 
grandchildren. 

Dr. Perry was thrice married, — lirst to JIaria P. 
Chamberlain, of Exeter, N. H.; second to Eunice 
Tuttle, of Acton, Mass.; and third to Sarah Brown, 
of Grafton. His surviving children are Mrs. 
Charles Robinson and Mrs. Peter Parker, of Grove- 
land; Mr. Gardner B. Perry, of Buenos Ayres; and 
Mr. Charles F. Perry, of Boston. 



CHA PTEK CXLI. 

NEWBURY. 

HV wn.i.iAJi r. D.wis. 

Thk river Kennet rises in tiic county of Berks, 
England, and flows into the Thames at Reading. On 
its northern bank a settlement was made by the Ro- 



man.s, remnants of which continued until the time of 
the Norman Conquest, when a new settlement was 
madeonthesoulh side of the river, which was called the 
"New Bourg" or "New Town." The termination 
Bourg, from the Latin Burgtis, had originally signi- 
fied a fortress, but became gradually changed to the 
meaning now attached to it. The spelling of the 
word has experienced various transformations, none 
of which, however, have changed its application to a 
town, or district, or borough. These changes are 
illustrated in the names of towns familiar to us, such 
as Newbury, Newburg, Newberg, Attleboro', Middle- 
borough and Newberry. 

In the English town of "New-Bourg," or "New- 
l)urg" as it has been long called, on tht; south side of 
the Kennet, there lived in the early half of the 
.seventeenth century a man to whom a reference 
would be appropriate at this |>oiut in our narrative. 
This man was the Rev. Thomas Parker, who, for some 
time previous to 1()34, taught the free school of the 
town. He was the only son of Rev. Robert Parker, 
who wjis said by Cotton Mather to have been "one of 
the greatest scholars in the English nation." He was 
admitted to Magdalen College, Oxford, but his father 
having been exiled for non-conformity, he removed 
to Dublin, where he studied under Dr. Usher, and 
afterwards to Holland, where he continued his studies 
with Dr. Ames. About the year 11317, when he was 
twenty-two years of age, he published a treatise on 
repentance, entitled " I)e traduclione peccafores ad 
vitam," which won for him a high reputation, and 
afterwards a treatise on the book of Daniel. It was 
after his return from Holland that he became the 
teacher of the free school in Newburg. 

lu May, 1634, Mr. Parker arrived in New England, 
one of a company of about one hundred, who went 
first to Ipswich, then called Agawam, to settle. After 
passing the winter at Ipswich it was found, as Hub- 
bard says, in his " Hi.story of New England," "so filled 
with inhabitants that some of them presently swarmed 
out into another place a little farther ea,stward. Mr. 
Parker was at first called to Ipswich to join with Mr. 
Ward, but he choosing rather to accompany some of 
his countrymen (who came out of Wiltshire in Eng- 
land) to that new place, than to be engaged with such 
as he had not been acquainted withal before, removed 
with them and settled at Newbury, which recess of 
theirs made room for others that soon alter supplied 
their places." 

There has been a division of opinion as to the pre- 
cise time of the settlement of Newbury by Mr. 
Parker and his companions. But upon examination 
this division will be found to have originated in the 
confused expressions of writers concerning dates 
under the old and new style. It may be stated now 
with a considerable degree of jjositiveness that the 
settlement took place at some time during the early 
part of 1635, if we reckon the year aa beginning on 
the 1st day of January, or during the latter part of 



1707 



lli.'U, if we reckon it as begin niiig according to the 
old style on the 25th of March. That it could 
not have occurred before the 29th of December, 1G34, 
is demonstrated by the following extract from the 
records of Ipswich : 

" December 29, 1034. It is consented nnto that John Perkins, junior, 
shall l>uild a wure upon the rivjr of Quaaycnng (Parker River) and enjoy 
tljB prontts of it, but in case a plantation shall there settle, then he 
is tu suluiiit himself unto such conditions as shall by them bo imposed." 

That it could not have been later than the Gth of 
May, 1635, is demonstrated by the following extract 
fniin the records of Massachusetts Colony, which 
irn;lude3 the only act of incorporation ever passed con- 
cerning the town of Newbury : 



"May O'h 


1035. QuHScacunqnen is allowed by tlio curt to bo a 


plnnlali„n , 


lul it iH r„foned to IHr. Humphrey, Mr. Enjicott, Captain 


Turii.r:,.,! 


M 1 i." li ' 1. ..ranythreaof them to set out the bounds of 


IpS«,.h u,l 


11, or so much thereof as they can and the 




n,i i„,i,i ,.H.iL shall be changed and shall hereafter be 


ralh-.l .\r,,l 




" Fiirtlier 


11 is ordered that it shall be in the power of the court to 


take order.s t 


.at the said plantation shall receive a sufficient company 


to make a cy 


mpetent towue." 



The Indian name Qu iscacunquen is applied in the 
records to the whole territory between Agawam 
( Ipswich) and the Merrimac River. Its Indian appli- 
cation, however — its meaning being a " waterfall" — 
was merely to the " falls " on the river Parker, and per- 
haps also to the immediate vicinity. More properly 
the whole territory from Naumkeag River to the 
Merrimac may be considered as having been a part 
of Agawam, us these two rivers bounded the jurisdic- 
tion of MascoiKiuio, the .Sagamore of Auawam. 

At some time, then, ii; the spring of 1G35, reckon- 
ing according to the new style, Rev. Thomas Parker, 
with his little band of immigrants, removed from 
Ipswich to Newbury. They went by water through 
Plum Island Sound and thence up the river, to which 
they gave the name of their honored leader. Their 
landing-place was on the north side of the river, not 
far below the bridge which now connects Newbury old 
town with Rowley. They were about forty in number, 
and the following are those whose n.ames are known : 
Thomas Parker, James Noyes and wilr, .lnlm Wood- 
bridge, Henry Sewall and servanl-, .laiiii'> Browne and 
wife, Francis Plumer and wife, Xichulas Kaston and 
wife, John Easton, Wm. Moody and wife and fo3r 
sons, Anthony Short, Henry Short and wife, John 
Spencer, Richard Kent, Sr., and wife, Richard Kent, 
Jr., Stephen Kent and wife, James Kent, Nicholas 
Noyes, Thomas Browne, Richard Browne, George 
Brown, Thomas Coleman, Joseph Plumer and Samuel 
Plumer. 

It is not unlikely that some of these were old resi- 
dents of the English Newbury. Kent, at least, was a 
Newbury name, and may be found in the records of 
that town at about the period of the settlement of its 
namesake on this side of the ocean. During the sum- 
mer of 1635 other settlers came in, and the population 
gradually extended farther and farther from the river. 



Among these new comers were Richard Dummer and 
John and Richard Pike, and John Emery, and after 
their arrival, probably in June or July, the first church 
was formed. Mr. Parker preached his first sermon 
in the open air, beneath the branches of a primeval 
oak which stood on the north bank of the river about 
one hundred yards below the Rowley bridge and near 
the original landing-place. The precise location of 
the first meeting-house, while it has been fixed by 
tradition as the lower Green, is rendered somewhat 
doubtful by evidence, which will be referred to here- 
after, tending to fix it at Fisherman's Green, adjoining 
the old burial-ground. The first houses clustered 
about the meeting-house, in conformity with the ordei 
of the General Court, "that no dwelling-house shall ' 
be built above a half a mile from the meeting-house 
on any new plantation without leave from the Court, 
except mills and farm-houses of such as have their 
dwellings in town." 

The only record extant concerning the formation of 
the church is contained in the testimony of John 
Pike, John Emery and Thomas Browne, given at the 
court in Ipswich during the church controversies 
which occurred in 1669, 70, 71, to which reference 
will be made hereafter. The testimony of Mr. Pike 
was as follows : 

"I, John Pike do teatifie that I was present at the gathering of the 
church at Newbury, and I did hear our reverend pastor preach a ser- 
mon on the eighteenth of Matthew, seventeenth verse ; 'And if he shall 
neglect to hear them, tell it unto tlie church ; but if he neglect to hear 
the church, let him be unto thee as an heatheu man and a publican,' 
wherein he did hould forth that the power of discipline belonged to 
the whole church, yt the matter of the church ought to be visible saints 
joyned or gathered together, that the manner of their joyning together 
ought to be by covenant, yt the end of it is for the exercisinge and 
enjoyinge of the ordinances of Christ togeather. He strongly proved 
his doctrine by many places of the Scripture, both in the old and new 
testament. The wliich sermon, together with the Scripture, did much 
instruct and contirme us in that waye of church discipline which as 
I undei-stood he then preached for, namely, the Congregational waye, 
some noates of the said sermon which I then took from his mouth I 
have here ready to show if you please. The sermon beiug ended the 
brethren joyned together by express covenant, and being joyned tbey 
chose their pastor, Mr. Parker, who accepted the call and joyned with 
them according to the covenant aforesaid ; and those that afterward 
joyned to the church consented to the said covenant explicit. Tiie 
brethren of the church acted in these admissions of ye members express- 
inge their voats therein by lifting up the hande, and soe continued 
together lovingly a considerable number of yeares until other doctrine 
began to be preached amongst us. ^ 

" Per me, John Pike. -' 

"Sworne in Court, 30 March, 1669. 

" Kobert Pike also testifies tliat the meeting was on the Sabbath and 
in the open air under a tree. 

"At the same time that Mr. Parker was chosen pastor, Mr. James 
Noyes was chosen teacher." 

In 1636 Edward Woodman, John Woodbridge, 
Henry Short, Christopher Hussey, Richard Kent, 
Richard Brown and Richard Knight were chosen to 
manage the afl'airs of the town. The election of these 
men was had by authority of the following order, 
passed by the General Court on the 3d of March, 
1635-36 : 



" Whereas pticular townes bave many things w^h concerne onely then: 
selves & the ordering of their owne affaires and dispoaeing ( 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 






in their owns towne, it ib therefore uriiered, that tlio lYreeiiieu of evy 
towne, or the major pte of tlieiii, shall oncly have power to dispose of 
their owue lauds & woods, with all the previlidges & appurtenances of 
the said townes, to graunt lotts, & make such orders at 
the well ordering of their owne townes, not repugnant 
orders hero t-stahlished by the Gcnal Court ; as also to lay inulks & 
pennltyes for the l.ri'aih of their orders, & to levy & distreme the same 
not exceedeiuf; the some of xxs.; also to chuse their owne pticnl^ officers, 
as constables, surveyors for the high wages & the like; & because much 
business is like to ensue to the constables of sevall townes, by reason 
they are to make distresses & gather ffynes, therefore that evy towne 
shall have two constables, where tliere is neede, that st)e their office may 
not be a burlheu unto them, & they may attend more carefully upon 
the discharge of their offlce, for w''' they shalbe lyeable to give their 
acconipts to this Court when they shalbe called thereunto." 

These officers were the grerm from which sprang, at 
a later day, the Board of Selectmen. 

In ](i87 eight men were furnished l)y Newhnry for 
the Pequod War, and in the same year Richard 
Dummer, John Spencer and Nicholas Easton were 
disarmed by the General Court for holding erroneous 
opinions on theological matters. John Spencer re- 
turned to England, Nicholas Easton removed to 
Rhode Island, but Richard Dummer remained in 
Newbury. In the year before a grant of land was 
made to Mr. Dummer and Mr. Spencer at the falls of 
River Parker for the erection of a grist-mill. 

After the departure of Mr. Spencer the mill was 
carried on by Mr. Dummer alone, and in 1G.'?8 the 
following agreement was entered into concerning 
it: 

" August Gth, 1638. Whei-ea« it is agreed with Mr. Uiiharil Diiiiimor, 
of Newbury, by the l)orsan8 whose names are underwritten, lieieutitn 
subscribed, that ill case Mr. Duiumer doe make his mill fitt to 
grynil cuiiie and doe uuiintaine the same us also doe keep a man 
to alleml giynding of corne, then they, for their part, will send 
all the i-orne that they shall have ground, and doe likewise i>rom- 
ise^hat all the rest of the towne (if it lye in their power to promise the 
same) shall also bring their corne, from tyme to ty me, to be ground at 
the same mill. And it is further agreed that (the aforementioneil eiui. 

" EnwAitn Kawson. 



Three, at least, of these subscribers were members 
of the committee of seven chosen to manage the af- 
fairs of the town, and on the 6th of October, 1()38, 
their promise was agreed to by the town. Additions 
were constantly making to the population of the 
town, and among those arriving in 1(137 were Edward 
Rawson, Richard Singleterry, William Palmer, John 
Moulton, Thomas Moulton, Nicholas Busbee and 
Abraham Toppan, all of whom were formally ad- 
mitted as inhabitants. 

On the 13th of March, 1C39, it was ordered by the 
General Court that " Plum Island is to remain in the 
Court's power only for the present. Ipswich, New- 
bury and the new plantation (Rowley) between them 
may make use of it till the Court shall see cause to 
dispose of it." 

It so continued iiiilil ]i'<\'.K On the I'llli nl' May in 
that year the town cif Newbury petitioned the Gen- 



eral Court for a grant of the whole island. The town 
stated in their petition that : 

" The substance of our desires is that, if, after you have heard and 
perused what we say, that in right Plum Island belongs not to us, yet 
out of your just favorit may be granted to us to relieve our piuchiug 
necessities, without which we see no way to continue or subsist. Our 
fears were occasioned by a petition which was preferred to the last 
General Court for it. Our apprehensions of our right to it are, First, 
because for three or four miles together there is no channel betwixt us 



and it. Second, 



r to i 



t with < 



ind horses, which we usually do, being necos- 
iitated so to do since our gift to Rowley on the Court's request and proni- 
so that we should have anything in the Court's power to grant. Third- 
y, because the Court's order gives all lands to dead low water mark, not 
exceeding one hundred rods, to towns or persons, where any lands do so 
lorilcr. T!i iTi:iny pliu-ri rinin T^l:uid i^ x\nt ten rods, at no place one 

lo witlioui iiiiirli <l.itii;i^i' I <> Mtiii i>i't 1 1 n >ii<' I -', if lint to the mining of 



and 



the 



Island to our town 
pray and so forth. 
James Noyes. 



duty we are boll 
" Thomas Parker. 
Percival Lowle. William Gerrish. 
John Spencer. Edward Woodma 

John Saundei-!^. Ilein-y Short. 



The result of the petition was that on the 17th of 
October, 1049, the court granted two-fifths of the 
island to Newbury, two-fifths to Ipswich and one-fifth 
to Rowley. 

In lG39aa important change was made in the terri- 
torial limits of Newbury by the settlement of llowley. 
Rev. Ezekiel Rogers arrived in New England in 
December, 1638, and with about sixty families settled 
on land which was afterwards incorporated as the 
town of Rowley. On the 1 3th of March, 1 038-39, Mr. 
Rogers and Mr. John Philips and their company had 
granted to them by the General Court "eight miles 
every way into the country where it may not trench 
upon other plantations already settled." This grant 
was called Rogers Plantation until the 4th of the 
following September, when it was ordered by the 
court " that Mr. Ezechi Rogers plantation should be 
called Rowley." 

Previously to the grant lo Mr. Rogers, Newbury 
and Ipswich were adjoining towns. The Rogers 
grant took a slice from each of these towns and ex- 
tended to the Merrimac River, including what are 
now the towns of Bradford, Groveland, Georgetown 
and part of Boxford. Its boundaries were fixed by 
the court on the 13th of May, 1040, when, as the re- 
cord says, " it is declared that Rowley bounds is to bee 
eight miles from their meeting-house, in a straight 
line, and then a crose line diameter from Ipswich 
Ry ver to Merrimack Ry ver, where it doth not pjudice 
any former grant." These boundaries in a somewhat 
indefinite manner fixed also the boundaries of New- 
bury, which may be described as having been in 1039 
the line of Rowley, the Merrimac River and the 
ocean. Within these boundaries it was about thir- 
teen miles long and .about six miles broad, and con- 
tained not far from thirty thousand uteres, of which 



;ibi)ut two thousand acres were covered with water. 
Prior to the grant of the Rogers plantation New- 
bury, in the exercise of its ownership of a part of the 
newly-granted territory, had made grants of farming- 
lands within its limits, and after the grant to Mr. 
Phillips and his company by the court, it expended 
the sum of eight hundred pounds in buying back the 
farms it had granted, and then surrendered them to 
the court's grantees. The records of Newbury say con- 
cerning this matter that 

" The towne being assembled together and l>ping desiroi]» to manifest 
theyr eurnesl desires and willingness to give due incouredgnient unto 

as to p;u ( >>Mii M K I I'lii I iiixi I- . MHint anyway bo expected 

from II I M' ■ .1.1, I I I hrir present nacessityes 






tlie said gentilmei 
us and Ipswicb 



ward of Mr. Kastou'e 
the falls to rnu a du< 



I from the head of the great creek between 
Mr. Dummer's, running due west as we 

; the bounds of John Osgood's farm, which 
and above that creek all the laud soutli- 

a from that river from the path leading to 

le into the country a mile and afterwards 



prietyesandinheritancesof the towufr of Newberry in as ample a manner 
as before the grant hereof in all respects." 

In this year 1639, Mr. Coffin, the historian of New- 
bury, says: "The people having built a ministry 
house, a meeting-house which was soon used its a 
school-hou.se, had a ferry established at Carr's Island 
and became an orderly community, and began not 
only to lay out new roads, but as they were rapidly 
extending their settlement farther North, to take 
special care of the town's timber by prescribing a 
penalty of five shillings for every tree cut down on 
the town's land without permission. Nearly the 
wliole of what is now called West Newbury, or that 
part above Artichoke River, was called the ' upper 
woods.' In this year, also, Anthony Somerby, Henry 
Somerby, John Lowle, Richard Lowle, Percival 
Lowle^ Will. Gerrish and Richard Dole, all ancestors 
of long lines of Newbury descendants, were admitted 
inhabitants of the town. Anthony Somerby was the 
first schoolmaster in the town, and in the year of 
his arrival, 1639, the town granted to 'him for his 
encouragement to keepe schoole for one yeare, foure 
akers of upland over the great river in the nocke, 
also six akers of salt marsh next to Abraham Top- 
pan's twenty akers.' " 

In 1640 the town of Salisbury was incerporated 
and shortly after that town granted to George Carr the 
island which still bears his name. Jlr. Uarr was ap- 
pointed ferryman by the court held at Ipswich, and 
thus Newbury, which had been the border town on 
the east, became connected with a new town, which 



JURY. 1709 

now enjoyed that distinction. The natural tendency 
of this new state of things was to draw the Newbury 
people away from their first settlement on the banks 
of the river Parker, and attract them farther to- 
wards the Merrimac. The result was the laying out 
of what was called the new town fiirther to the 
north, and the removal of the nieeting-honse to a 
new site. The lots of land in the new town were 
laid out, and the town records under date of .lanu- 
ary 11, 1644, say : 

" It is hereby ordered and determined by the orderers of the town 
affairs that the plau of the new town is and shall be laid out by the lot 
layers, as the house lots were determined by Ihfir rhoire, beginning 
from the farthermost house lot in tin- .^'.nfli Sh.. i, i1i..ih.j running 
through the pine swamp, thence up llu. Ili li -([.l inMiilp.irini^ the 
lots in the East Street to John Bartletl- l..i, it. j.iL ih. n 1 1, rough the 
west side of the High Street to Mr. Luw.ll -, ih.. :,il,, ;,ii.i .,, tu the end 
of that street, then Field Street to Mr. iWuudmau'.i, the lorty-lirat, 
thence to the end of that street John Cheney's, the 50th, then turning to 
the first cross street to John Emery's, the 5l8t, thence coming up from 
the river side on the east side of the same street to .the other street, the 
west side to Daniel Pierce's, the 57th, and so to the river side on the 
side the street to Mr. Clarke and others, to Francis Plummer the tiCth, as 
bereinunder by names aud lignres appear ; 



" Tho 



Kdward Woodman.. 

John Knight 

Richard Knignt 

John Pike, Jr 

Arcbilaus Woodmai 

John Pemberton 

• Richard Littleale..., 

Richard Fitts 

Henry Travers 

.lohn Kmery 

Henry Palmer 

Wm. Palmer 

Thonuui Cromwell . 
Samuel .ScuUai-d 



Anthony Somerby 44 

Richard Bartlett '. 25 

John Bartlett 27 

Wm. Titcoinbe 24 

Ni.:hola8 B«tt 47 

Robert Coker 59 

Thomas Dowe 23 

Richard Badger 4 

John Cheney 50 

Edward Greenleaf 7 



1 Oliv. 



17 



Thomas Silver 

Walter Allen 

Francis Plummer 66 

Abraham Toppan 20 

John Musselwhite 

Thomas Hale...-. 

Thomas Coleman 12 

Widow Browne IS 

.(ohn Pike, Sr 2 

Daniel Pearse 57 

Thomas Blumfield 

Nathaniel Badger 58 

John Bond 

John Swett 20 



Robert I,i« i, 
Cyles Badge: 



Lt. John Lowle 28 

Anthony Short 8 

John Hutching 34 

John Clark 60 

Edward Rawson 31 

Widow Goffe 

Thomas Browne 56 

Wra.Ilsley 

Nicholas Noyes 6 

Henry Lunt 43 

Wm. Browne 18 

.lohn Cutting 30 

Mr. Lowle, Sr 29 

Samuel Plummer 65 

Anthony Moi-se 54 

Wm. Morse ;. 

Henry Rolfe 11 

Daniel Thurston 38 

Abbe Hues .39 

John Poore 35 

James Merrill 40 

Abraham Merrill 36 

John Fry 

The Ferry Lot 

John Indian 61 



At an earlier date, on the 17th of March, 1642, it 



that the followiu.L; |. i- 

and rivers undisl'..- 1 

their heirs, have I -I.i 

them theii' right aud title 
ffreeholder shall bring 
town's coumions, above 
the freemen shall permit 



.. I tiiider them, or any of 

.[.nil 1 ,11.1 |.ni.li i from them or any of 

liereunti.. and non..- else, provided, also, that no 
any cattle of other men's or towns on the 



beyond their proportio 



tha 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Klcl.ard Dunier. 


Thomas Hale. 


Uenry Sawall. 


Joseph I'easly. 


Edward Rawson. 


William Mors. 


Jolin Lowle. 


John GoJf. 


Henry Short. 


John Stevens. 


Thoi.ias Cromwell. 


Antho: Short. 


Richard Holt. 


John I'emberton. 


Heiirj Boir. 


John Pike. Sr. 


Johu Merrill. 


John Mussellwhite. 


John Emery. 


Thomas Browne. 


Anthony Somerby. 


John llutchins. 


Richard Bartlett. 


Daniel Thnrston. 


■William Moody. 


John Poer. 


William ffranckling. 


John Pike, Jr. 


Ahraham Toppan. 


Henry Palmer. 


H»nry Somerby. 


William Titcomb. 


Thoma.1 Silror. 


Nicholas Batt. 


Henry Travei-s. 


Thomas Smith. 


Richard Litleala. 


William White. 


Giles Badger. 


Thomas Davis. 


Thomaa Parker. 


William Ilsley. 


James Noyes. 


Samnel Guile. 


Percivall Lowle. 


Thomas Dow. 


Slepheu Dumer. 


Archelaus Woodman 


Richard Kent, Jr. 


John Sweet. 


Samnel ScuUard. 


Christopher Bartlett. 


Edward Greealeaf. 


Mrs. Miller. 


John Osgood. 


John Russ. 


Abel Huse. 


Johu Spencer. 


Joseph Carter. 


John Clark. 


John Knight. 


Jolin Wooilbridge. 


Uenry Lunt. 


Johu Cutting. 


Richard Knight. 


James Browne. 


Richard Browne. 


Fi-aucis I'hnnn.er. 


Mrs. Oliver. 


William Palmer. 


Stephen Kent. 


John Bartlett. 


John Cheney. 


Robert Coker. 


Richard Badger. 


Richard mis. 


Antliony Morse. 


Thomas Blninfiel.l. 


William Thomas. 


Thomas Colman. 


Nicholas Noyes, 


George Browne. 


Widow Stevens. 


Nathaniel Badger. 


Nathaniel Wyer. 


John Bond. 


John Kelley. 


William Berry. 


Mr. Woodman. 


Walter AMen. 



Counting the above ninety-one freeholders and the 
probable average number in their families, together 
with such as may not have been freeholders, the pop- 
ulation of Newbury may be estimated to have been 
in 1642, seven years after its settlement, at between 
three and four hundred. Among the.se freeholders 
are found the names of Bond, Browne, Pearse, Mors, 
Ffranklin, Morrell, Smith, White, Knight, Allen, 
Hutchins, Clark, Kent and Poor, all of which may be 
found in various lists of residents of English New- 
bury at the same period. It is not improbable that 
many immigrants from that town to New England 
who followed Rev. Thomas Parker, were attracted by 
the name to make the American Newbury their per- 
manent home. Descendants of the early .settlers of 
Newbury seeking the home of their ancestors on the 
other side of the ocean, and their family connections 
in the old country, would probably find a genealogical 
mine in the old English town which has not yet been 
to any great extent explored. 

In 1645 a second grist-mill was built, but whether 
in addition to or in place of the old Dummer and 
Spencer mill the records do not state. A committee 



was appointed on the 18th of December in that year 
"to procure a water mill for to be built and set up in 
said towne," and it was agreed to give John Emery 
and Samuel SeuUard twenty pounds and ten acres of 
upland and si.x acres of meadow, said mill to be free 
from all rates for seven years, and to be a freehold to 
them and their heirs, they on their part agreeing to 
set up the mill V)ctween Holt's Point ami Woodman's 
Bridge. 

Early in the year 1G47 the removal of the meeting- 
house farther north, into or near what was called the 
new town, became necessary in consequence of the 
desertion of the old settlement by a majority of the 
members of the church. On the 2d of January, 
1640-47, the following order was issued by James 
Noyes, Edward Woodman, John Cutting, John Lowle, 
Richard Knight and Henry Short, six of the seven 
men having charge of the afl'airs of the town : 

'■ Wee, whose names are in the margent expressed for the setlleing the 
disturban<-e8 that yett remayne abotit the planting and setling the meet- 
ing house that all men may cheerfully goe on to improve their lands at 
the new towne, doe determine that the meeting house shall be placed 
and sett np at on or before the twentieth of Octol)er next in, or uptni 
a Knowle of upland by Abraham Toppan's barue within a sixe or six- 
teen rodd of the side of the gate posts, that are sett up in the high way 
by the said Abraham Toppan's barne." 

This knowle of land is understood to have been on 
the northwest corner of the present burial-ground. 
Edward Rawson, one of the town committee or 
selectmen, as they may as well be called, dissented 
from the decision of his associates, and a petition was 
sent to the General Court signed by those opposed to 
the removal, asking for such interference and aid as 
the court might feel itself able to interpose and 
render. The following extract will show the motive 
and reasons actuating the petitioners : 

"To conte to the last passages which stir and set t)n the great of 
our aon-ows. Discourse at last was had of tjiking ilown ye meeting- 
house. Those (as well as we can guesse) that paid two parts of 
■ to the building of it, consented not, many strongly opposed it, 
I V es of J tl at e tl serv I n v | 1 ] e j 



kc 



r el}) le 

■selves, b 

of tl e I e t. 



made. Att the beginning of these motions we promised the elders, 
both of you, their maintenance (which must needs be to our great 
charge) if they would engage themselves to abide with us. We were 
rejected in this. Since, we have nnid^ ^.-v.-ral propositions. The towne 
being continued and stretched Miit i.. h. li\. mil.., ir ii..l ii|n\ mN, 
besides the inconveniences of a ;: I ■ i; i i t ^' /i..- \>ii i l\ 

it cannot be imagined that we, muI : ' II' i, i , k\ n itnl ' IhI h. n 

of all sorts can possibly goe abov ilii.<. mil,. (.. um -tin:; , l. -i,l. ^ itm 



require will divei-s to be nearer, most men haviugsmall help, but by them- 
selves, and ye two ends of ye towne being most populous, wee have there- 
fore desired either fint that one of the elders might be resident with 



NEWBURY. 



1711 



us. Though the other be there, the church and maintenance still con- 
tiniiiug one and the same, or secondly, that there might be two churches, 
au'i one elder might be ours, or thirdly, if neither of the former might 
bi- obtained, then to let us be a church of ourselves." 

This extract not only exhibits the feeling which 
the removal of the meeting-house occasioned, but 
throws also side-lights on the extent and character 
and condition of the settlement. The allusion in the 
extract to the sale of a part of the highway and the 
burial-place is woven by an intelligent writer in the 
Xewburyport Herald into an argument tending to 
show that Fishermen's Green, and not the lower 
green, was the location of the first meeting-house. 
He says: 



belief that this building first stood 



is considerabl'' 



vhat was then 



grouii'l V , I , ih.'salenf (lie gri-t-ii (m ,l. In, I i\ n, M:iy, 

1647,1^1 I'll. I I ■ Mm- bouse had been reiiiiiM ' I ii 'i...-- 

sible tliiii 1 ii I. I ii I II would have been nia.I i.:! I. ml 

were Hill .111; 1 1 mill In ids strongly to ostabh>li ih.. I n i ili.if rln^ \\;i- 

the fir&t iiiid I'idy I'lii.e iy( burials of the early scltlL-is up tn this time. 
A3 our ancestors came from a land where it was a common custom to 
iiicludo the grounds for the meeting-house and burials in one lot, a cus- 
tom continued by them when they relocated at the New-Town, it is but 
reasonable to believe that when at Old-Town they had set apart grounds 
for the same uses, they had connected them in the same manner." 

His argument is, in a few words, that the old burial- 
place was at Fishermen's Green, and that it is proba 
ble that, in accordance with the English custom, the 
burial-place was the churchyard. So far as the 
Plymouth colony was concerned, the English custom 
was invariably followed ; but the writer of this sketch 
has heard it stated by a learned antiquary of Essex 
County, that in that county, except in Ipswich, it did 
not prevail. It certainly was not followed in Halem, 
but the settlers of Newbury, having remained long 
enough in Ipswich to observe its ways, may have 
adopted them in their future home. 

There is no record of any vessel up to this time 
having crossed the bar at the mouth of the Merrimac. 
It is probable that at the time of the settlement of 
Newbury the bar was considered practically impas- 
sable, while the river Parker was easily accessible 
and to a certain point navigable for the class of ves- 
sels at that time used. Hubbard says in his history: 
" Merrimack is another gallant river, the entrance 
into which, though a mile over in breadth, is barred 
with shoals of sand, having two passages that lead 
thereunto at either end of a sandy island that lieth 
over against the mouth of sayde river. Near the 
mouth of that are two other lesser ones, about which 
are seated two considerable townes, the one called 
Newberry, the other Ipswich, either of which have 
fayre channels wherein vessels of fifty or sixty tons 
may pass up safely to the doores of the inhabitants 
whose habitations are pitched near the banks on 
either side." And there is no doubt that the first 
vessels built in Newbury were built on the river 



Parker. But there is some reason to suspect that 
the movement of the settlement towards the Mer- 
rimac River was owing to the discovery that the 
bar was not such a hindrance to navigation as had 
been supposed. 

The settlement of Salisbury, in 1(540, must have 
been not only the result of this discovery, but the 
cau.se of a further dissipation of previously enter- 
tained fears concerning the river obstructions ; and 
it is not unlikely that the Newbury people began at 
this early day to take advantage of the deeper water, 
the more advantageous shore and the better connec- 
tion with the sea which the Merrimac afforded. It 
is a matter of record that as early as 1655 the town 
granted to Captain Paul White a half of an acre of 
land on the Merrimac " for the purpose and on condi- 
tion that be build a dock and warehouse there." Pre- 
viously to that time, however, trade on the river had 
been carried on, which demanded the convenience of 
a wharf to supplant the prevailing method of loading 
and unloading vessels by means of small boats. 

In 1649 the business of tanning was begun in New- 
bury by Nicholas Easton, in a yard north of the 
Parker River Bridge, on the east side of the road, and 
in the same year John Bartlett appears to have been 
engaged in the same business. In 1658 a movement 
was made towards the erection of a new meeting- 
house, as is indicated by the appointment of a com- 
mittee of the town to sell to Edward Woodman twelve 
acres of marsh, and take pay in boards or nails for the 
meeting-house. It was probably finished some time 
in 1661, as under the date of January 28th, in that 
year, it is recorded that the selectmen agreed with 
Henry Jaques " to build a gallery in the new meet- 
ing-house ^t both ends and all along on the west side 
with three substantial seats all along both sides and 
ends; the .said Henry Jaques shall fell the timber and 
provide all the stuff", both planks, boards, rayles, and 
Joyces and nayles, and to bring the stuff all in place 
and make it for three payre of stayres and what- 
ever else is requisite to compleate the said gallery, for 
which he is to have thirty pounds in good current 
pay or provisions. Also that Henry Jaques shall 
have all the old stufle of the old gallery in the old 
meeting-house. The said Henry Jaques is also to 
lay a floure all over the meeting-house from beame 
to beame, and the towne doth engage to provide 
Joyces, boards and nayles and so forth and so forth." 
The new house stood south of the old one, and the 
old one appears to have remained in use until the new 
one was completed. The first house was probably not 
only unsubstantial in its character, but too small for the 
increasing number of its congregation. Under date of 
1651 Johnson, in his " Wonder-working Providence," 
said that the town consisted of about seventy families, 
and that " the soules in church fellowship were about 
one hundred." Before 1660 the number had doubt- 
'efs increased to such a number as would render such 
a building as they would have been likely to erect at 



1712 



HISTORY OF ES8EX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the time of the first seUlemeiit iiltogcther too small for 
convenient use. 

In KltiS the Newbury meeling-liousc was the scene 
of that extraordinary c.xhiliilion by Lydia Wardwell 
of lier naked per.wn during divine service. For this 
offense she was carried before the court at Salem and 
sentenced to be whipped and to pay the costs of court, 
amounting to twelve shillings and sixpence. Her 
maiden name was Perkins, and she was the wife ol' 
Kliakim Wardwell, of Hampton. This fanatical act 
was justified by (teorge Bishop in his " New Kngland 
•ludged " as follows: 



« or yo„ 


l,>i™l. 


nil. 


niloi- 


to hor hiisliand, wiw ii 


t at 


itii Ihn 




lit a 


H your 


wickwlnoss aboiiudod, so s\k 


K«|.KI»I,. 


tV.iin 


mil 


cliiirc 


at Newbury, of wliicl 


sill' 




, >,.|l 


■«<h 


given 


up to tlio loading of the I 


Old, 



Kiv 



tliu 



with ignorani'O and 
ei-Heciitioii, to go to thciii, and an a Rign to thiMii Hhi> went in (ttiough it 
,'HS oxcecdiiig hard to her modcMt and sliamo-faccd disposition) naked 



Rev. James Noyes, the assistant of Rev. Thoma-s 
Parker, having died October 22, Ifir;*;, Rev. .lohn 
Woodbridge was engaged in his place, the town 
agreeing to pay him thirty i)ounds for the half-year 
beginning on the 2.5th of September, KMiS. Mr. 
Noyes was born in Chouldcrton, England, in 1608, 
and was a cousin of Rev. Thomas Parker, his mother 
having been a sister of Rev. Robert Parker, the father 
of Thomas. He studied at Oxford, and after preach- 
ing a short time came to New England in the same 
ship with his cousin, and was settled in Newbury as 
his assistant in 1635. Mr. Parker said of him, — 



"My worthy eoUeiiguo in the ministry of tiio Gospel 
singilhir qualiftCAtions, in piety e.\co]Ullg, 
heresie and si^liiBm, and a most able 
of .1 ri-nohing 



1 implacable enemy to all 

„. „ against the same. lie was 

ready apprehension, a large invention, a most pro- 

11. iiul t.-iiniMousaiid compreliensive nieiiiory, fixed 

I iiiil-.l I omreptioiiH, sure in words and speech 

I i mild in all his expressions, wiUioilt all 



I bumble 



B resolute f 



■ truth. 



sons. lie was a most exeollent counsnllor in doubts, and could strike at 
a hair's breadth like the Bcnjauiites, and oxpodite the entangled out of 
the briara. Ho wa« eoiiriigeouB in dangers, and still was apt to believe 
the beat, and make fair weather in a storm. He was much honored and 
estcomed in the eouiitry, and his deatli was nnich bewailed. I think he 
may be reckoned among the greatest worthies of the age." 

Not long after the death of Mr. Noyes serious diffi- 
culties aro.se in the church, owing to differences of 
opinion concerning church government. Mr. Parker 



was strongly inclined towards the I'resViyterian form 
and hia opinions were approved by many of the lead- 
ing men among his people. On the other hand, 
quite as many of the church opposed his views, and 
the result was a controversy which threw a cloud over 
the later years of Mr. Parker's ministry. It is not 
neces-ary in this narrative to give a full history of 
the controversy, which did not come to a termination 
until 1672. Both Mr. Parker and Mr. Noyes had en- 
tertained the same views for many years, and it is 
not a violent iircsumption that only the sweet 
and loving spirit of Mr. Noyes prevented the out- 
break during his life. It was not until after Mr. 
Woodbridge had become the assistant of Mr. Parker 
that the real trouble began. Mr. Woodbridge enter- 
tained the same views as Mr. Parker, and, having 
been engaged from year to year, it was voted by the 
town. May 21, 1670, that "the order in the town- 
book that gives Mr. Woodbridge sixty pounds a year 
lor his preaching is made void." 

Mr. Woodbridge was the son of Riv. .luhii Wood- 
bridge, of Stanton, in England, and was born in 
1613. His mother was a sister of Rev. Thomas 
Parker, and he came with his uncle and his younger 
brother, Benjamin, to New England in 1634, and mar- 
ried, in 1631), Mercy, daughter of (Jovernor Thomas 
Oudley, and was ordained September 16, 1644, the first 
minister of Andover. He was the first town clerk 
of Newbury, and served until 1638. In 1647 he re- 
turned to England. He had eleven children, who 
grew to manhood and womanhood, three of whom — 
John, Timothy and Benjamin — became clergymen, 
the two former being graduates of Harvard. In 1663 
he returned to New England, and preached, as 
already stated, in Newbury seven years. He contin- 
ued to live in Newbury, acting as magistrate of the 
Mas.sachusctts colony and justice of the peace, and 
there died, March 17, 169o. Woodbridge's Island 
takes its name from him, and in 1665 a town in New 
Jersey, settled by emigrants from Newbury, was 
called Woodbridge in his honor. 

Mr. Woodbridge had eleven children — Sarah, born 
in Newbury, June 7, 1640, and died in 1690, prob- 
ably unmarried ; Lucy, born in Newbury, March 13, 
1642, and married first Simon, son of tiovernor Brad- 
street, and afterwards Oapt. Daniel Epps, of Ipswich, 
and died June IS, 1710, at the house ol her son, John 
r.rail^licit, in Medford ; John, born in Newbury in 
1 1. 1 I. L'iii.juatedat Harvard in 1664, settled intheniin- 
isiiv .11 Killingworth, Conn., 1()()6, ordained in 166i), 
installed at Weathersfield in 1679, married Abigail, 
daughter of ( iov. Wm. Leete, of Connecticut, and died 
Nov. 13, 1691 ; Benjamin, born probably in Andover, 
in 1645, married firat, June 3, 1672, Mary, daughter 
of Rev. John Ward, of Haverhill, and second, in 
August, 1686, Deborah, widow of Henry Tarleton, 
and daughter of Daniel Gushing, of Hingham, settled 
in the ministry at New Castle, N, H., Bristol, R. 1., 
Windsor, Coun., and Medford Mass., at which last 



NEWBURY. 



1713 



place he died January 15, 1709-10 ; Thomixs, born in 
England in 1648, who married a daughter of Paul 
White, and died March 30, 1691 ; Mary, born in Eng- 
land, married Samuel Appleton, of Ipswich, and 
died June 9, 1712 ; Timothy, born in England Janu- 
ary 13, 1656, a graduate of Harvard in 1675 ; Dor- 
othy, born in England in 1650, and died in New Eng- 
land, in 1723 ; Anne, born in England in 1653, and 
died in Massachusetts, February 28, 1701 ; Joseph, 
born in England in 1657, married Miss Martha 
Rogers, May 20, 1686, and died Sept. 17, 1726 ; 
Martha, born in England 1660, married, probably, 
Thomas Ruggles, and died in 1788. 

On the 20th of October, 1675, Rev. John Richard- 
son was ordained as assistant to Mr. Parker, in the 
place of Mr. Woodbridge. His salary was to be " one 
hundred pounds a year, and each person was to pay 
one-half of his share in merchantable barley, and the 
rest in merchantable pork, wheat, butter or Indian 
corn, or such pay paid unto Mr. Richardson to his 
satisfaction, as every person may understand upon in- 
quiry of Tristram Coffin, who was chosen in April the 
town's attorney to gather Mr. Richardson's rates, and 
in case the said Tristram Coffin shall neglect his trust 
herein, he shall pay forty shillings fine to the select- 
men." 

But Mr. Richardson was not long associated with 
Mr. Parker, for the latter died on the 24th of April, 
1677, in his eighty-second year. Mr. Parker, was as 
has been stated in an earlier part of this narrative, 
the son of Robert Parker, and born in Wiltshire, Eng- 
land in 1595. Rev. Robert Parker was one of the 
chief dissenting clergymen in the time of Bishop Ban- 
croft, whose writings were especially feared. In the 
year 159.8 Bishop Bilson published a work entitled, 
" A survey of Christ's suffering and descent into Hell," 
in which he maintained that Christ at His death 
actually visited the regions of the damned. Mr. 
Parker in 1601, in answer to the Bishop, published a 
learned work, entitled "De Descensu Christi ad In- 
fernos." In 1607 he published another learned work 
against symbolizing with Antichrist in the ceremonies, 
but especially against the sign of the cross. In con- 
sequence of this publication he was driven into exile 
to avoid arrest, and went to Holland, carrying with 
him his son Thomas, who had been obliged to 
leave Oxford in consequence of his father's 
troubles. Mr. Parker went first to Amsterdam and 
then to Dyesburg, a fortified town of the Netherlands, 
where he died in 1614, leaving his fon nineteen years 
of age. In looking over the career of this man, it is 
not difficult to discover the source of those views of 
church government entertained by his son. Nor is 
it easy to believe that the son experienced any change 
in those views, or that they were not entertained from 
the first day of his settlement. It is quite likely that 
if Mr. Noyes had lived until the close of Mr. Parker's 
pastorate, the unfortunate controversy which for a 
time alienated pastor and people would not have 



occurred. Mr. Parker was an old man at the time, 
suffering from a loss of eyesight and from an impair- 
ment of all those qualities of mind and heart which 
had made him a skillful manager of church affairs, 
and more than all from the loss of the guiding hand 
of Mr. Noyes, so long his wise and moderate coun- 
selor. With the advent of Mr. Woodbridge, who, 
though he was declared by Cotton Mather " a great 
reader, a great scholar, a Christian and a pattern of 
goodness," was more pronounced and emphatic in the 
statement of his convictions, the difficulty which had 
long been kept slumbering came to an inevitable 
head. 

In 1678 trade on the Merrimac River was enlarging, 
and Richard Dole, of Newbury, was granted lands for 
a wharf. In 1679 a third grist-mill was provided for, 
and the town granted to John Emery, Jr., " twelve 
acres of land on the west side of Artichoke River, pro- 
vided he build and maintain a corn-mill to grind the 
town's corn from time to time, and to build it within 
one year and a half after the date hereof." In the 
same year the selectmen chose fourteen tithingmen, 
who for certain purposes were to have charge of a 
certain number'of families. These purposes are desig- 
nated in the following copy of instructions to Abraham 
Merrill, a tithingman, taken from Coffin's " History 
of Newbury " : 

" Ta Deacon Abraham Merrill: 

" At a meetingof the Selectmen, March Slat, 1879, you are hereby re- 
quired to take notice that you are chosen accoriling to court order by the 
Selectmen to be a tithing man, to have inspection into and loolc over 
these families, that they attend the publiclc worship of God, and do not 
break the Sabbath ; and, further, you are to attend as the court order 
declares. The names of the families are Edward Woodmin, Junior, Sam- 
uel Bartlet, Richard Bartlet, Abel Pihbury, John Stevens, Christopher 
Bai tlct, Thomas Chase, Goodman Bailey, John Chase . 
" By order of the Selectmen. 

ERBY, Becordery 



The law under which these appointments were 
made was passed at the session of the General Court 
held on the 23d of May, 1677, and is as follows: 

"This court, being desirous to prevent all occasions of Complaint re- 
ferring to the Prophanation of the Sabbath, and as an Addition to former 

" Do Order and Enact that all the Lawes for Sanctification of the Sab- 
bath, and preventing the propbauing tliereof, he twice in the year, viz., 
in March and September, publickly Read by the Jlinistcr or Ministera on 
tlie Lord's daye in their several respective Assemblies within this juris- 
diction, and all people by him cautioned to take heed to the observance 
thereof. A nd the Selectmen are hereby Ordered to see to it there be one man 
appointed t.i iij8|ic'Lt thu t.-n Families of their Neighbours, which Tithing 

ble, tu ;i| : : -,' I, tli-breakers, disorderly Tipi)lers, or such as 

keep Lii ' ' ' " rhirs that shall sulTer any disorder in their 

Houses 'Ml ;h. -ill' nil lny <>v evening after, or at any other time, and to 
carry them liefure a Jla^'istrato or other Authority, or commit to Prison, 
asany Constable may do, to be proceeded with according to Law. 

"And for the better putting a restraint and securing Offoudere that 
shall in any way transgress against the Laws on the Sabbath, either in 
the Meeting-House, by any abusive carriage or misbehaviour, by making 
any noise, nr otherwise, or during the day time, being laid bold on by 
any of the Inhabitants, shall, by the said person appointed to inspect the 
Law, be forthwith carried forth and put into a Cage in Boston, which in 
appointed to be forthwith by tlie Select Men set up in the Market-plaoe, 
and in such other Towns as ihe County Courts shall appoint, there to 
remain till Authority shall examine the person offending, and glveorder 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



This law and the appointment under it are quoted 
at length for the purpose of correcting a popular mis- 
conception concerning the word " tithingman," and 
explaining its true meaning. The word took its 
name rather from the manner in which the tithing- 
man was selected than from the nature of his office. 
Indeed, the precise functions of the office, as exer- 
cised in this country, have never been satisfactorily 
defined. In the Plymouth Colony the office was first 
mentioned in the laws of 1682 "with refei-ence to the 
Indians for their better regulating and that they may 
bebrought to live orderly, soberly and diligently." One 
of the provisions of these laws was that, in addition to a 
general overseer, "each towne where Indians doe reside 
every tenth Indian shall be chosen by the Court of 
Assistants, or said overseer yeerly, whoe shall take the 
inspection, care and oversight of his nine men and 
present theire faults, etc." A tithingman was simply 
a tenth man. A Saxon tithing consisted of ten 
families, and ten tithings made up the "hundred." 
In the Plymouth Colony in the management of the 
Indians, and in the Massachusetts Colony in enforcing 
an observance of the Sabbath, it was found convenient 
to give every tenth man the oversight of the other 
nine, and consequently he was called a tithingman. 
After the union of the Plymouth and Massachusetts 
Colonies, laws were passed requiring the election of 
tithingmen and making them practically constables 
to inspect and regulate licensed houses as well as to 
preserve the peace and good order on the Sabbath. 
After a lapse of years the office gradually lapsed into 
that of a sort of ecclesiastical constable with jurisdic- 
tion and powers limited to Saturday evening and the 
Sabbath. Thus the name was retained after the 
method of election was changed and the popular 
mind became confused as to its real significance. 

The few next years, up to the close of the year 
1686, were characterized by important and stirring 
events. The trials of Caleb Powell and Elizabeth 
Morse for witchcraft cover the only instances in 
which the people of Newbury are recorded as having 
been drawn into the prevailing extraordinary delusion. 
William Morse, the husband of Elizabeth, was the 
supposed victim, but Powell was acquitted, and Mrs. 
Morse, after condemnation to death, was reprieved. 
The Rev. John Hale, of Beverly, states that: 

" She being reprieveJ, was carried to her own home, and her husband 
(who was esteemed a sincere and understanding Cliristian by those that 
know him) desired some neighbour ministers of whom I was one to dis- 
course his wife, which we did, and her discourse waa very Christian and 
still pleaded her innocence as to that which was laid to her charge. 
We did not esteem it prudence for us to pass any definitive sentence 
upon one under her circumstances, yet we inclined to the more charita- 
ble side. In her last sickness she waa in much trouble and darkness of 
spirit, which occasioned a judicious friend to examine her strictly, 
whether she had been guilty of witchcraft, but she said no, but the 
^ound of her trouble was some impatient and passionate speeches and 
actions of her while in prison, upon account of her suffering wrong- 
fully, whereby she had provoked the Lord by putting contempt upon 



his word. And in fine she sought htr pardon and comfort from God in 
Christ and dyed, so fur as 1 understand, praying to and resting upon God 
in Christ for s 



In reviewing the terrible delusion of witchcraft, of 
which so many innocent persons were the victims, 
the only consoling reflection is that the persons con- 
demned so thoroughly shared the universal belief 
that they may themselves have come to the convic- 
tion at last that they were the unconscious instru- 
ments of the devil, and, in accordance with the 
command of the Scriptures, "thou shalt not suffer a 
witch to live," deserved the punishment they were 
about to suffer. 

In 1G82, a Baptist Church was formed in Newbury, 
of which George Little, Philip Squire, Nathaniel 
Cheney, William Saycr, Benjamin Morse, Edward 
Woodman, John Sayer and Abel Merrill were mem- 
bers, but how long it lived and when it died does not 
appear. In this and succeeding years additional 
grants of lands for the construction of wharves on 
the Merrimac were made, and the business interests 
along the banks of that river steadily increased. 
In 1686 a division of common lands was made. The 
order of the town passed in 1642, which has been 
quoted, declared*the ownership of the commons to be 
possessed by the ninety-one freeholders of the town 
at that time and their heirs and assigns. All other 
inhabitants of the town were excluded, and in the 
proposed division those who were not included with- 
in the scope of the order now claimed a right. After 
a prolonged agitation on the subject, on the 5th of 
May, 1G8G, a committee of seventeen was chosen to 
consider and report a proper method of division, and 
on the 20th of October the committee made a re- 
port, which was adopted by the town : 



"That the upper commons bo divided in manner following : namely, the 
six thousand acres, one-lmlf of them in quantity and quality, he divided 
among the freeholders ; to every freeholder a like share, and the other 
half of said commons be divided among all such inhabitants of this 
towne and freeholders as have paid rates two years last past, proportion- 
able to what each man paid by rate to the minister's rate in the year 
1085. 

"And that about eleven hundred acres of the lower commons be di- 
vided according to the above method and laid out into five general pas- 
tures and so forth, and the rest of the commons to be divided and laid 
into wood lots according to the above divisiou and same rule." 

A committee, consisting of Daniel Pierce, Stephen 
Greenleaf, John Emery, Joseph Pike, Tristram 
Coffin, Nathaniel Clark and Henry Short, was chosen 
to divide the lots. Before the division was made it 
was agreed that Indian River should be free as far as 
the tide flows for the passage of boats, and that every 
freeholder shall draw his lot as his name was entered 
in the town-book. It was further agreed : 



"That the persons concerned in the rate division of the u 
shall be drawne into four comimnys, then one man of each company 
shall draw in the name and for the said company, and be that dtuweth 
figure one that company shall have th*yr proportions first. Then every 
man's name of evoi-y company and the unnies of the fourcompanys shall 
l>e putt into four several Iwggs, and the committee chosen to lay out the 
said rate proportion shall take a paper out of the bagg belonging to the 
and that man's name that firet comes to hand shall have 



1715 



The division began next to the farm of John Ger- 
risli, at the line of the town of Bradford, and the 
land was laid out by Tristram Coffin and Henry Short. 
Afterwards a committee was chosen to divide the 
eleven hundred acres of the lower commons into five 
general pastures, and " to measure the old towne 
common and proportion it to the old towne men, and 
proportion the rest of the land adjacent to the rest 
of the inhabitants in the same proportion." 

In 1687 a committee was appointed " to treat 
with Peter Cheney about setting up a corne-mill and 
a fuiling-mill upon the Falls Eiver." Both in the 
Massachuetts and Plymouth Colonies this seems to 
have been about the date of the introduction of the 
domestic manufacture of cloth and consequently the 
erection of fulling-mills. It is believed that before 
that time English cloth was chiefly used, a belief 
somewhatconfirmed by the absenceof spinning-wheels 
in the early inventories, and by the mention of large 
supplies of English materials for clothing and other 
domestic uses. 

In all these years the town had been gradually ex- 
tending to the westward until in 1685 a very consider- 
able part of its population occupied that section. 
Its interests had become so distinct from those of the 
older part of the town, and the distance from the 
church was so great, that on the 10th of March, 1684, 
its inhabitants sent the following petition to the town: 

"To the town '•! N. w l^ul \ l li- IimimMi' i r.pr-t ■>! -."i !' lip- jnli.iliil- 



be Ijrought up iin.l> i !' 
which is absolutfly ull-^.j 
crave your loveiug complin 



.^tiaDsouglit 



ill bunibly 



No definite action appears to have been taken by 
the town on this petition, but the motives which in- 
spired it became. only the stronger with the lapse of 
time, as will be seen hereafter in this narrative. In 
1690 a second request was made of the town, and a 
committee of eight persons was chosen to consider 
the subject, who reported : 

"That conBiiK-ni,; lin i - ,,. ,,..„:.].■- „„ ., ,in,l ,1,, ,,.„,,,. l„.,„„ so 

much beliimlwith Mi l:; ■,.■ ,',, , ■ . . k- 

menbeingiind.-i -I : i . , , , ,; ; . , - , ,„,i 

expect, if such a il,i]i_ \i ., .. [i(. .1. i h i! [l,.-, -ii..i,;.! li,i\, il,, s.iuie 

peace, therefore desire the new towne to rest satislled for the present." 

In 1692 another petition was presented to the town 
requesting aid in the support of the ministry in a 
meeting-house which had been built at Belleville. 
It is not proposed to enter into a history of the for- 
mation of the new parish in this narrative, as it may be 
found in detail in the history of West Newbury. It 
is suflScient to say that on the 3d of January, 1695, 
Tristram Coffin, Henry Short and Abraham Merrill 
divided the town into two parishes, and that on the 



26th of October, 1698, a church was gathered in the 
West Precinct and the Rev. Samuel Belcher was 
ordained their minister. Nor is it necessary to follow 
the career of this church, as the history of West 
Newbury, to which it more properly belongs, contains 
it in full. 

On the 27th of April, 1696, Rev. John Richardson 
terminated his pastorate by death. Little is known 
of the career of Mr. Richardson before he entered on 
his ministry in Newbury. He graduated at Harvard 
in 1666, and married Mary Pierson, of Cambridge, 
October 28, 1673. It was at a critical period of the 
Newbury Church that he received a call to settle as 
its pastor. He accepted it on condition : 

"13», so long as the people of God licro do continue in the true faitli 
and peace of the Gospel as in Acta 11, 42. 

"2^\ 80 long as I have the liberty of my ministry. 

** 3-*, Discharge my duty to my family ; thus I say I do express myselt 
willing to settle among you with a true intention and a true affection." 

During his pastorate he exerted a conciliatory in- 
fluence and did much to heal the differences which, 
for many years, had divided the church. His monu- 
ment bears the following inscription : 



" Resurrection to immortality -is here expected from what wai^ mor 
tal of the Reverend Mr. John Richardson (once Fellow of Harvarf 
College, afterwards Teacher to the Church in Newbury), putt off Apr 
27, 1690, in the fiftieth year of his age. 

" When Preachers dy, the Rules the pulpit gave, 
To live well, are still preached from the grave. 
The Faith 4 Life, which your dead Pastor taught, 
In one grave with him, Syrs, bury not. 



On the 9th of September, 1696, Rev. Christopher 
Toppan was ordained as the successor of Mr. Rich- 
ardson, and two years later, on the 5th of July, 1698, 
the "town voted that they would build a new meeting- 
house and for that purpose chose the worshipful 
Colonel Daniel Pierce, Captain Thomas Noyes and 
Sergeant Stephen Jaques a committee." On the 
21st of December the town voted "that Sergeant 
Stephen Jaques should build a meeting-house sixty 
feet in length, fifty feet in breadth, and twenty feet 
in the stud, for five hundred and thirty pounds," and 
in the next February voted " to have the meeting- 
house twenty-four feet post instead of twenty, and 
to pay Sergeant Jaques twenty pounds more." The 
meeting-house w.ts finished in 1699, and on the 18th 
of December in that year Colonel Daniel Pierce and 
Colonel Thomas Noyes were deputed to employ "ye 
honorable Captain Samuel Sewall to procure a good 
and sutficient meeting-house bell." The new meet- 
ing-house was erected near the old one, and on the 
17th of March, 1703, the town voted " that the old 
meeting-house be repaired and fitted for a court- 
house, school-house, and town-house." 

Having brought this narrative up to the beginning 
of a new century, it will not be out of place to close 
this first chapter with a reference to some of the 



1716 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



representative men of Newbury in the first period of 
its history. 

Edwin" Kuwson was one of the early settlers of 
Newbury, liavin;; made liis appearance there in 1636. 
He was born in Gillingham, Dorsetshire, England, 
April 16, 161;'), and was connected by marriage with 
the two distinguished New England clergymen 
Hooker and Wilson. It is stated in the town records 
that on the 19th of November, 1638, " it was ordered 
that Edward Kawson shall supply the place of Mr. 
Woodbridge and be the publick notary and register 
for the towneof Newbury, and whilst he so remains to 
be allowed bv the towne after the rate of five pounds 
per annum for his paynes." In the same year he 
was appointed, with John Woodbridge and Edward 
Newman, commissioners to try inferior fcauses. His 
farm, which extended up towards Turkey Hill, was 
sold in 1647, when he removed to Boston to occupy 
the position of secretary of the Massachusetts Colony, 
to which he was ai)pointed and which he held until 
1686. One of his sons, William, settled in Braintree, 
and another, Grindall, graduated at Harvard in 1678, 
and was pastor of the church in Mendon from 1680 
to 171-5. A daughter Rebecca married an Englishman 
named Thomas Ramsey, who claimed to be Sir Thomas 
Hale, nephew of the Lord Chief Justice of England, 
and who carried her to England and there deserted 
her after securing all her rich dresses for the benefit 
of his real wife at Canterbury. Rebecca supported 
herself in England for a time by painting on glass, 
and was finally killed by an earthquake at Port Royal, 
S. C , where the ship in which she sailed for home had 
touched. Mr. Rawson was the author of several 
works, among which were "The Revolution in New 
England Justified," published in 1691, which was 
issued by him in conjunction with another author, who 
signed himself S. S. ; and "The General Laws and 
Liberties Concerning the Inhabitants of the Ms." 
published in 1660. He died in Boston August 27, 
1693. 

John Spencer was one of the company who landed 
at Newbury with Rev. Thomiis Parker in 1635. 
With Richard Dummer he built the first corn-mill in 
the town, represented Newbury in the General Court 
and in 1636 was chosen a magistrate. In 1637 he 
was discharged from the office of captain in the 
Pequod War, owing to his religious opinions, he be- 
ing an adherent of Mrs. Hutchinson, and in the same 
year was disarmed by the General Court for the same 
cause. If he went to England he must have returned, 
as he died in Newbury in 1637, the year of the date 
of his will, and his name does not appear in the 
records after his disarmament. The Pettingell place 
now or recently owned by Edward H. Little, was hi», 
and tradition states that the old stone house on the 
place was built by him. In his will he gave the place 
to his nephew, John Spencer, who in 1651 sold it to 
Daniel Pierce, and gave him possession by the old 
common law ceremony of turf and twig. The files 



oi the court for 1679 contain the following deposition 
of Anthony Somerby, aged seventy : 

"This deponent saith about ye ycare 1651 or '52 I was at the farni yt 
Mr. John Spencer sold to Mr. Daniel Pierce, in Kcnbury, and Mr. 
Spencer anil Mr. Pierce, with myself and another, I suppose it was Mr. 
William Thomas, and as we were going through ye land of y« said farm, 
Mr. Pierce said to Mr. Spencer you promised to give me possession of 
turfo and twigge. Mr. Spencer said and so I will if you please to cut a 
tuife and twigge ; and Mr. Pierce cut a twigge off a tree and cut up a 
turfo, and Mr Spencer took the twigge and stuck it into the turfo and 
bill us bear witness that ho gave Mr. Pierce possession thereby of the 
house and land and farm that he had tought of him and gare ye turfe 
and twigge to Mr. Pierce, and further saith nut." 



Tracy, Boardman, Pettingell and Little 
have owned the place since. 

There were four persons by the name of Kent 
among the early settlers in 1635— Richard and Stephen, 
brothers, who had wives, and Richard, Jr., and Jame.s, 
sons of Richard, Sr. It is possible that they emigrated 
from Newbury in England, as the name appears about 
that time on the records of that town. Richard, Sr., 
was one of the seven men chosen in the first year to 
manage the aifairs of the town. He was a prominent 
man, often mentioned in the records, and lived during 
the latter part of his life on or ilear the street that 
afterwards received his name. 

Kent's Island was granted on the 7th of Februan,-, 
1647, to Richard Kent, Jr. At the time of the laying 
out of the new town the record speaks' of his being 
in possession of ten acres of upland and sixty-four 
acres of marsh, and afterwards he received by grant 
and purchase the whole island, which comprised 
about six hundred and forty acres. The estate was 
kept in the family for many years by the will of Rich- 
ard Kent, Jr., who bequeathed it to his oldest male de- 
scendant. In process of time a Mrs. Kent had twins, 
and through the carelessness of the nurse it was impos- 
sible to prove the precedence of either, and consequently 
a John and a Stephen each claimed, as the oldest son, 
the whole estate. There was another brother, Moses, 
who took no part in the quarrel, but finally the Gener- 
al Court annulled the proceedings and the property 
was divided among the three. The island remained 
divided until the time of the lather of the late Paul 
Kent, who became possessed of the whole, and from 
him it finally passed into the hands of Joshua N. Kent. 
Anthony Somerby appeared in Newbury in 1639, 
and was the first schoolmaster in the town. In 
April, 1647, on the death of John Lowle, he was ap- 
pointed "clerk of the writs at Newbury and to record 
births, deaths and marriages, in the place of John 
Lowle deceased." He was from Little Bytham, Lin- 
colnshire, England, and was a man of education and 
learning. He continued in office as town clerk until 
his death in 1685. 

John Lowle was a native of Bristol, England, and 
appeared in Newbury in 1639. After the appointment 
of Edward Rawson as secretary of the Massachusetts 
colony, he was chosen his successor as town clerk 
in April, 1647, and died on the 29th of the following 
June. He was the ancestor of the Lowell family, 



of which, during the last three generations, there 
have been so many distinguished members, in law, 
literature and divinity. 

Henry Luut, one of the early though not the earli- 
est settlers, was a substantial farmer, and came from 
England in the " Mary and John.'' He acquired a con- 
siderable amount of real estate, and left a family from 
which have come a large number of descendants. 
Indeed, there were so many bearing the name in the 
southerly part of Newbury, at one time, that it was 
called by many Lunt's Town. After the death of 
Mr. Lunt his widow, Ann, married Captain Joseph 
Hills, Speaker of the first House of Representatives, 
whose first wife was Rose Dunsten, sister of Rev. 
Henry Dunsten, the first president of Harvard 
College, whe died in Scituate in 1659. The late 
Rev. Wm. Parsons Lunt, D.D., of Quincy, and the 
late Hon. George Lunt were descendants of Henry 
Lunt. 

Richard Dummer appeared in Newbury in 1635, 
and in May of that year the General Court ordered 
Mr. John Humphrey, Mr. John Endicott, Captain 
Nathaniel Turner and Captain Wm. Trask to set out 
a farm for him about the falls of Newbury. He 
seems to have been thought to have some erroneous 
views on theological matters, and on account of them 
was disarmed by order of the court. He was a prom- 
inent man in the town, and with Edward Woodman 
took a leading part in the controversy with Rev. Mr. 
Parker. Mr. Dummer's farm extended from Oyster 
Point, the junction of Rowley Mill River with the 
River Parker, to the old county road, and fell to his 
son Jeremiah, who was a silversmith in Boston and 
who occupied the farm as a summer residence. Gov- 
ernor Dummer will be referred to more fully in 
connection with the Dummer Academy, in the next 
chapter. 

Benjamin Woodbridge was the younger brother of 
John Woodbridge, already referred to. He was prob- 
ably born at Stanton, England, about 1620, and was 
entered at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he remained 
under the instruction of William Eyre until he came 
to New England with his brother John and uncle 
Thomas Parker, in 1634. After his arrival here he 
entered Harvard, and his name stands at the head of 
the list of members of the first graduating class in 1642. 
He was an ambitious man and sought a broader field 
of action than New England at that time afforded. 
Consequently he returned to England and re-entered 
Magdalen Hall, receiving the degree of Master of 
Arts in 1648. He soon became a preacher at Salis- 
bury in England, and before 1653 was appointed to 
the rectory of St. Nicholas, at the English Newbury, 
an old and large parish which is still flourishing in 
that ancient town. On the 23d of April, 1655, the 
High Court of Chancery issued an order for a survey 
of church livings, and the following report, as stated 
by Mr. Thomas W. Silloway, was returned concerning 
this parish : 



" Nubery ie a Parsonage worth £77 I6». 6d., formerly in the gift of ye 
late King. Mr. Benjuniin Wootibricige is ye present Incumbent, being a 
godly, able and painefuti minister. The parish is at present large, being 
a greate Market Towne. And we conceive it may be fitt for another 
church to be built in some parte of ye Towne, and that a parte of ye 
parish of Speene, called Speenham, Land atyoyueing Nubery, together 
with the chappulcy of Sandleford, with a hamlet called Greenham in the 
parish of Thatcham, be annexed thereto." 

Mr. Woodbridge was the friend of Rev. John Cot- 
ton, the vicar of St. Botolph's, in Boston, and wrote 
the epitaph inscribed on his gravestone, in Boston, 
in New England, as follows: 

" A living Breathing Bible ; Tables where 
Both Covenants at Large engraven were ; 
Gospel and Law, in's Heart, had each its column ; 
His Head an Index to the sacred volume ; 
His very name a Title Page ; and next. 
His life a Commentary on the Text, 
0, what a Monument of glorious worth, 
When in a New Edition he comes forth 
Without Erratas may we think he'll be 
In Leaves and Covers of Eternity." 

After the restoration of Charles II., Mr. Silloway 
says that he became popular with the King, who made 
him one of his " Chaplains in ordinary," and offered 
him the position of Canon of Windsor. Though a 
minister in the English Church, fond of its ceremonies 
and attracted by its fascinatingforms, he nevertheless 
had more or less Presbyterian blood in his veins and 
was forced to decline the canonry. He finally left St. 
Nicholas' Church, and after for a time following his 
non-conforming instincts, was again attracted into the 
church, and in 1665 took holy orders from the Bishop 
of Salisbury in the church of " St. Peter in the East," 
in Oxford. But again he was disappointed and once 
more fell back into the ranks of the dissenting 
brethren, where he remained until the breaking out 
of the Presbyterian plot in 1683, when he returned to 
Inglefield and died unmarried in November, 1684. 

It is impossible in the space allowed for this narra- 
tive to do justice, even by a casual reference, to all 
the men who made their mark in Newbury during the 
first century of its life. In the words of Hon. George 
Lunt : 

" Familiar names they bore, n t lost, 
Kent, Parker, Moody, Pope, 
Franklin and Tracy, Noyes and Lunt, 
Sons of immortal hope. 

But why recall the crumbled roll, 

Short, Woodbridge, Spencer, West, 
Bartlett and Osgood, all their throng. 

Beneath their daisied rest." 



CHAPTER CXLII. 



NEWBURY— (Con<i 



The new century opened with an increasing and 
still more scattered population. The people living 
on the borders of Newbury and Rowley built a 
meeting-house in 1702, and combining the names of 
the two towns at first called the parish " Rowlbury." 



1718 



niSTOllY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In 1704 the parish was incorporated as "By field 
Parish." As the story goes, the name owes its origin 
to a rivalry between the Sewall and Dummer i'amilies. 
Henry Sewall, the settler, selected his farm along the 
north side of the river Parker, while Richard Dum- 
mer selected his along the south side. Though the 
families had for generations lived harmoniously, 
when that section of the town became a parish there 
wiis quite a sharp contention between them about 
the name. Both families claimed the honor of the 
name, and when the contest was carried into the 
General Assembly it was finally settled by Judge By- 
field, a member, who rose and offered to make the 
parish a present if they would name it for him. His 
proposal was at once agreed to and he presented to 
the church the plate for the communion service and 
also a bell. The silver tankards were afterwards 
burned with the church, but other pieces of the 
service are still in use. Judge Nathaniel Byfield 
was born in Long Ditten, Sussex, England, in 1653, 
and was the son of Richard Byfield, one of the West- 
minster Assembly divines. He came to New Eng- 
land in 1674, and after a short residence in Boston 
as a merchant he removed to Bristol, then theshire- 
towu of Bristol County in Massachusetts, where he 
occupied for thirty-eight years the' position of judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas. In 1724 he returned 
to Boston, where he also served as judge in the same 
court. He was also at various times Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, member of the Council 
and judge of the Admiralty Court. 

The first minister of the Byfield Parish was Rev. 
Moses Hale, who was ordained November 17, 1706. 
He was the grandson of Thomas and Thomasini Hale, 
who came from Hertfordshire in England and settled 
in Newbury in 1635. He was born in Newbury, July 
10, 1678, and graduated at Harvard in 1699. His 
ministry closed with his dealh, in January, 1743. 

In 1705 the town voted to grant the old meeting- 
house of the First Parish to Richard Brown, with 
liberty to remove it. Thus the plan to convert it 
into a court-house and school house was abandoned. 
In 1706 Henry Short, one of the first settlers, died 
while holding the office of town cltrk, as its fifth 
incumbent. Up to the present time that ofiice has 
been held by the following persons: 

John Woodliridge, appointed iu lG:i5. 
• Edward Ktiwson, appointed Novomber 19, 1B3S. 
John Lowle, appointed .\pi-il 1, 1647. 
Anthony Sonierby, appointed Jnno :J0, 1647. 
Henry Short, appointed March 20, 1G85. 
Kiclnud Browne, Jr., a|.p"ii.i.'l ii,-t,>l„.r Ml, 1706. 
Nathaniel Coffin, app.'ini.i II. I 1.1 < 1711. 
Joseph CotBn. appoiiiiiil 'i - ■ ■■' M '.i- i '■ 
Dudley Colman, api«.ii.i. i - i- i"i t . :, ITTS. 
Edmund Sawyer, appumu-il .\juil ;♦, 177*.. 
John Atkinson, appointed Atarch 14, IVtsO. 
Ezra Hale, appointed April C, 1607. 
Stuart Chase, appointed Blarch 1 i, 1S44. 
Joshua Coffln, appointed March 1:J, 1850. 
William Little, appointed March 2, isri7. 

The present clerk, Frank Ferguson, of Byfield, 



the successor of Mr. Little, was first chosen in 1884. 
In 1725, the Third Parish in Newbury, now the 
First in Newburyport, was organized, and on ihe 
25th of June their meeting-bouse was dedicated. On 
the 19th of ihe following January, Rev. John Lowell 
was ordained as the pastor. It is not the purpose of 
the writer to trace the history of this church, as it will 
be found where it more properly belongs, in the 
sketch of Newburyport. 

In 1731 the town voted to build a town-house, in 
Chandler's Lane, now Federal Street, and in the same 
year the Second Parish was divided, and the Fourth 
formed, an account of which may be found in the 
sketch of West Newbury. The town-liouse was 
finished in 1735, and deeded to the county on the 
19th of February in that year, on the condition that 
it should revert to the town and parish if no court 
should be held in it for nine months. Instead of 
Chandler's Lane, its first proposed location, it was 
erected at a cost of £.5.30 lOsh. on land given by Benja- 
min Morse, opposite the head of Marlborough Street, 
where it remained until March 5th, 1780, when it was 
sold by auction to John Mycall. While in the posses- 
sion of the town and county it was occupied as a 
town-house, court-house and school-house. 

In 1744 the Society of Friends in Newbury built a 
meeting-house in what was afterwards called Belle- 
ville, but it was finally occupied by the Congrega- 
tional Church in the West Parish as a vestry, and the 
Friends built another house near Turkey Hill. 

In 1743 a controversy arose between Rev. Christo- 
pher Toppan and some of the members of his church, 
which for a time disturbed and excited the town. In 
the course of the controversy Mr. Toppan wrote to 
his disaffected church members the following letter: 

"To Chari.es Pierce, Esquire, in Newbury : 

Sir: I have been informed that some yt are called Bchemers, by 
others new-light men (for Satan being now especially transformed into 
an angel of light, they pretend unto), have drawn up some articles 
against me, sonie respecting my doctrine taught in publick, some 
respecting my botiof in several articles of religion, and some respecting 
my practices, and I have been told you have the original by you. I 
have long desired to see it, but could never yet obtain it. This is 
therefore, a desire of you to send mo the original, or a copy of it, 
attested, for I am obliged to go to York Superior Court ye next week, 
and would carry it with me to show to tho superior judges for their 
judgment upon the whole as to my doctrines, whether they bo right or 
no, fitr which I propose to carry my sermons reflected upon, as to my 
l,rinci])les, whether they bo right or no (though in tho paper before 
nieiilioncii 1 believe there are many things false, for I liever yet knew 
a Bchenio that would not lie). As to my practices, whether right or no, 
I shall leave them to judge and determine. I purpose to carry with 
nio a copy of what I now send to you, to shew it to them, if you an- 
swer not my request in sending me tho original or an attested copy. 
'• Sir I am yours to serve in what I may, 

" Christopher Topp.in." 

In the next year the aggrieved brethren called an 
ex parte council of eight churches, which met at 
Newbury on the 24th of July, and examined nine 
charges made against their pastor. The council jus- 
tified the brethren and condemned Mr. Toppan, ad- 
vising them, however, "to hearken to any reasonable 
method whereby their final separation from the 



church and parish might be prevented," and con- 
cluding by saying that "however, we utterly disap- 
prove of unnecessary separation as partaliing of great 
guilt and accompanied with great scandal, yet look- 
ing upon your circumstances as extraordinary and 
deplorable, we cannot think you blameworthy, if, 
with good advice, you seek more wholesome food for 
your souls and put yourselves under the watch of a 
shepherd in whom you can confide." 

On the 31st of August an ex parte council, called 
by the friends of Mr. Toppan, met at Newbury, and 
after an examination of the charges, acquitted Mr. 
Toppan of nearly all the charges and censured his 
opponents for their " disorderly walking," advising 
them to return '' to the bosom of the church and to 
the pastoral care of him who had been so faithful 
and useful a pastor for near fifty years." 

The result of the difficulty was that the aggrieved 
brethren joined with some disaffected members of the 
Rev. Mr. Lowell's church and formed, in 1746, what is 
now the First Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, 
and settled in March, Rev. Jonathan Parsons as their 
pastor. A further reference to this church also will 
be found in the sketch of Newburyport. The fol- 
lowing is the covenant which was signed by nineteen 
seceding members of the First Church : 



"We, the subscribiD); brethren, who v 
Church in Newbury, and have thought it our duty to withdraw thi-re- 
from, do also look upon it our duty to enter into a church estate ; 
specially iia we apprehend this may be for tlie glory of God, aud the 
interest of the Redeemer's kingdom, as well as for our own mutual 
edification and comfort. 

" We do therefore, as we triist, in the fear of God, mutually covenant 
and agree to walk togetlier as a church of Christ, according to the rules 
and order uf the Gospel. 

" In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this 



n4f;. 



• Charles Pearce. 
Moses Bradstreet. 
Edward Presbury. 



Thomas Pike. 
Daniel Wells. 
Joseph Hidden. 
Nathaniel Atkinsor 
Jonathan Plummer. 
Daniel Goodwin. 
Silvanus Plumer. 
Samuel Hall. 
Cutting Pettingell. 



Richard Hall. 
Benjamin Knight. 
William Brown. 
Benjamin Pierce. 
Daniel Noyes. 
Major Goodwin. 

On the 14th of January, 1746, the parish of By- 
field voted to build a new meeting-house, fifty-six 
feet long and forty-five feet wide, which was com- 
pleted during the following summer. In 1748 the 
town granted to John Crocker liberty to build a 
rope-walk " along by the windmill" and to improve 
the place for ten years for the manufacture of rope 
and no other purpose. The windmill stood near the 
frog pond and was erected in 1703. On the 10th of 
November, 1745, Rev. John Tucker was settled as a 
colleague with Rev. Mr. Toppan. In January, 1743, 
Rev. Moses Hale, pastor of the Byfield Church, died 
and Rev. Moses Parsons, of Gloucester, was settled 
June 21, 1744, in his place. 

After the death of Rev. Mr. Toppan, on the 23d of 
July, 1747, Mr. Tucker entered into the full charge 



of the pastorate. Mr. Toppan was a native of New- 
bury and a graduate of Harvard in 1691. His monu- 
ment bears the following inscription : 

" Here lyes the Body of the Rev. Mr. Christopher Toppan, Master of 
Arts, fourth Pastor of the First Church in Newbury ; a Gentleman of - 
good Learning, conspicuous Piety and Virtue, shining both by his Doc- 
trine and Lile, skilled and grejitly improved in the Practice of Physick 
and Surgery, who deceased July 23, 1747, in the 70th year of bis age and 
the 51st of his Pastoral office." 

In 1761 the Fifth Parish in Newbury was incor- 
porated, and settled Rev. Oliver Noble as their pastor. 
Mr. Noble was born in Coventry, Conn., in 1736 and 
graduated at Yale College in 1757. He was settled 
in Newbury September 1, 1762, and resigned April 7, 
1784, being afterwards settled in New Castle, N. H., 
where he died December 16, 1792. This church is 
now within the limits of Newburyport, and has been 
known in later years as the Belleville Congregational 
Church, to which further reference may be found in 
the sketch of Newburyport. 

The year 1763 was made memorable by the open- 
ing of Dummer Academy, on Monday, February 27th 
in that year. William Dummer, the founder of the 
academy, was the grandson of Richard Dummer, who 
came from the small parish of Bishopstoke, near South- 
ampton, in 1632, and after a four years' residence in 
Boston and Roxbury, settled in Newbury. His 
brother, Stephen, came to New England in 1638, but 
returned with his family ten years after, one of his 
daughters, Jane, marrying Henry Sewall, one of the 
early settlers of Newbury and progenitor of the fam- 
ily of which Judge Samuel was a distinguished mem- 
ber. Richard Dummer became a large landholder 
and probably ihe richest man in the province. Hav- 
ing been a magi^trate, after Winthrop had completed 
his victory over Harry Vane, with whom Dummer 
took sides, he was dropped from the magistracy and 
lo.st his gun and sword under the disarming act. He 
lived on his farm, imported cattle and fruit-trees from 
England, built a mill at the river, and steadily in- 
creased his estate. Of his five sons, Jeremiah, the 
silversmith of Boston, has already been referred to. 

Jeremiah was the father of two sons, Jeremy 
and William the founder of the academy. Wil- 
liam was born in Boston in 1677, and the first we 
know of him was his living in Plymouth, England, and 
acting as commissioner for the Massachusetts Colony. 
While thus employed he received from government 
the appointment of Lieutenant-Governcu-of his native 
province. He returned home in 1716, on the retire- 
ment of Governor Joseph Dudley, whose daughter 
Katherine was his wife. Samuel Shute came from 
England at the same time as the successor of Gover- 
nor Dudley. Governor Shute, by carrying out the in- 
structions of the King to insist upon a fixed annual 
salary, made himself unpopular with the colonists, and 
after a contest of six years he gave up the battle and 
suddenly embarked for England. Though nominally 
Governor, he never returned, and William Dummer 
during that time acted in his place. After a service 



1720 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of six years, in 1728, William Burnet was transferred 
from tlie chief magistracy of New Yorlc and New Jer- 
sey to tliat of Ma-sachusetts, and served one year 
until his death, in September, 1729, when Mr. Dum- 
mer was re-instated, to be supplanted by Wni. Taller 
as Lieutenant-Governor in the following year, who 
acted as Governor until the accession of Jonathan 
Belcher, August 8, 1730. During the thirty-nine 
remaining years of his life he lived in Newbury, for 
the most part in retirement, but always dispensing a 
generous hospitality, and indulging his generous in- 
stincts by benefacti'ins, of which the foundation of the 
Byfield Academy was the most important and lasting. 
His wife was born in England in 1690, and brought 
up with all the social advantages which the position 
of her father as member of Parliament and Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of the Isle of Wight necessarily 
alTorded. She died in Boston, in 1702, where he also 
died October 10, 1761. By his will, made seven 
years before, he gave to Rev. Messrs. Foxcroft and 
Chauncey, of Boston, and Nathaniel Dummer, of New- 
bury, trustees, his dwelling-house and a farm in New- 
bury, the rents and profits to be employed in erect- 
ing a school-house and in support of a master. The 
appointment of master was placed in the hands of a 
committee of five Byfield freeholders to be chosen an- 
nually at the regular parish meeting, and to act with 
the minister of the parish for the time being. 

The master was to he chosen for life, unless, on the 
ground of incompetency or immorality, the overseers 
of Harvard College should see fit to remove him. The 
ability to read English was the only qualification for 
admission. 

The trustees erected a small building in 1762, 
which is represented to have been a common one- 
story building, about twenty feet square, which stood 
nearly on the site of the present academy. The first 
master chosen by a committee, whose names have 
been lost, was Samuel Moody, a descendant of Wil- 
liam Moody, one of the first settlers of Newbury. 
William had three sons, — Samuel, Joshua and Caleb. 
Caleb was the father of another Samuel, minister of 
the parish in York, who had a son Joseph, a graduate 
of Harvard in 1718, town clerk of York, register of 
deeds, county judge and finally a preacher in Upper 
York. Joseph was the fiither of Samuel, the first 
master of Dummer Academy. 

Samuel, the master, graduated at Harvard in 1746, 
and afterwards took charge of the York Grammar 
School, which he taught about sixteen years, until his 
election to the preceptorship of the academy. 

Under Alaster Moody the institution met with 
unexpected success. It was established at a time 
when the people of New England were beginning to 
feel ambitious for the attainment of a higher education 
than the common schools were able to furnish, and 
Dummer Academy precisely met their wants. In 
the tweuty-seven years closing with the year 1790, 
there were five hundred and twenty-five students in 



the academy; from 1790 to 1809, two hundred and 
ninety-four; from 1809 to 1819, one hundred and 
four; from 1819 to 1821, sixty -one; and from 1821 to 
1843, inclusive, five hundred and thirty-three; or 
for the seventy years of its life, the records of which 
are accessible to the writer, an average of twenty-one 
per year. Among these may be found the names of 
Hon. Theophilus Bradbury, of Portland ; Hon. Rich- 
ard Cutts, of Kittery ; Hon. Moses Davenport, of 
Newburyport; Hon. Elias Hasket Derby, of Salem ; 
Hon. Edward Dowse, of Charlestown ; Hon. Jonathan 
Freeman, of Boston; Hon. Nathaniel Gorham, of 
Charlestown; Hon. Rufus King, of Scarborough; 
Hon. Jeremiah Nelson, of Rowley; Hon. Samuel 
0-good, Hon. Theophilus Parsons, of Byfield; Hon. 
Oliver Peabody, of Andover; Hon. Benjamin Pick- 
man, of Salem ; Hon. Samuel Phillips, of Andover ; 
Commodore Edward Preble, of Portland ; Hon. Wil- 
liam Prescott, of Pepperell ; Hon. Samuel Sewall, of 
Boston ; Rcv. Samuel Webber, of Cambridge ; Hon. 
John Wentworth, of Somersworth, N. H., and Hon. 
Phillips White, of Newburyport. The above were all 
before 1790. There may be found on the lists since 
then the names of Parker and Nehemiah Cleaveland, 
of Byfield and Topsfield ; Nathaniel Cogswell, of 
Rowley ; Patrick T. Jackson, of Newburyport ; Alfred 
Johnson, of Freeport, Maine; Edward S. Hand, of 
Newburyport ; Joseph Hale Abbott, of Wilton, N. H. ; 
Benjamin Apthorp Gould, of Newburyport ; Rev. 
Ephraim Peabody, of Wilton, N. H. ; Nathaniel J. 
Lord, of Ipswich ; Rev. Chandler Robbins, of Rox- 
bury ; Otis P. Lord, of Ipswich ; Ebenezer Bradbury, 
of Newburyport; William D. Northend, of Byfield, 
and Rev. George D. Wildes, of Newburyport, 

In 1782 the academy was incorporated and the 
entire charge of the institution, including the selec- 
tion of teachers, was placed in the hands of fifteen 
trustees. Mr. Moody resigned March 2o, 1790, and 
died at Exeter on the 17th of December, 1790. 

His gravestone in an old graveyard in York, Maine, 
where he was buried, bears the following inscription : 

".Integer vitie Bietevisque punis." 

'■ Hero lies the reiuaiiis of Suumel Moody, Esq., Preceptor of Dun»- 

niiT AiMiiniiiy, fho first ittstitutioD of the kind in Massachusetts, lie 

Iff) III! h' II I. II iiiliis sudden death, for he died a bachelor, yet 

his III I : I i III th.. United States will ever retain a lively sense 
of th. II II \, integrity and piety be possessed in an un- 

usiiii! II _i ■ I vv [ :i< tlie dlsioterested, zealous, faithful and useful 
numrier ti*- ilisrhaigiMl the duties of the Academy for 30 years. He 
died at Exeter, N. H., December 17"', 1790, aged 70 years.'* 

Dummer Academy, called in its earlier years Dum- 
mer School, is still a flourishing and useful institution, 
The trustees under the act of incorporation were 
Hon. Jeremiah Powell, Hon. Benjamin Greenleaf, 
Hon. Jonathan Greenleaf, Rev. Joseph Willard, Rev. 
Charles Chauncey, Rev. Moses Parsons, Rev. John 
Tucker, Rev. Thomas Carey, Samuel Moody, William 
Powell, Micajah Sawyer, Dummer Jewett, Samuel 
Osgood, Nathaniel Tracey and Richard Dummer, and 
among their successors have been Theophilus Par- 



1721 



sons, Daniel Appleton White, John Pickering, Tirao- 
tliy Pickering, Samuel S. Wilde, Rev. Thomas B. Fox 
and Leverett Saltonstall. 

Rev. Isaac Smith, of Boston, and a graduate of 
Harvard in 1767, succeeded Mr. Moody and served 
until 1809, when he returned to Boston, where he died 
in 1827. In 1797, during the administration of Mr. 
Smith, the academy received from the State a grant 
of half a township of land. Mr. Smith was followed 
by Benjamin Allen, a graduate of Brown University 
in 1797, who held the office only two years, being ap- 
pointed, in 1811, Professor of Ancient Languages in 
the Pennsylvania University. After leaving the pro- 
fessorship he taught an academy in Hyde Park, 
New York, where he died. Rev. Abiel Abbott, a 
native of Wilton, N. H., succeeded Mr. Allen in 1811, 
and served until 1819. He graduated at Harvard in 
1787 and before going to Byfield was a tutor at Har- 
vard and pastor of a church in Coventry, Conn. 
After leaving the academy he lived for a lime on his 
farm in Andover, after which he wa.s settled over a 
church in Feterboro', N. H., and died in 1859. 

The successor of Mr. Abbott, in 1819, was Samuel 
Adams, a native of Georgetown and a graduate at 
Harvard in 1806. He taught school in Salem and 
was a member of the State Senate before going to By- 
field. He resigned in 1821 and died in the same year. 
Mr. Adams was followed in 1821 by Nehemiah 
Cleaveland, a native of TopsSeld, who had been a stu- 
dent in the academy, and who graduated at Bowdoin 
College in 1813. Before going to Byfield he was a 
tutor at Bowdoin, and after a service as principal of 
nineteen years he resigned in 1840, and was appointed 
principal of the High School of Lowell- He subse- 
quently received the appointment of principal of a 
female seminary in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The successor of Mr. Cleaveland was Rev. Frederick 
A. Adams, a native of New Ipswich, New Hampshire, 
and a graduate at Dartmouth College in 1834. When 
appointed principal, in 1840, he was a settled minister 
in Amherst, New Hampshire. The recent history of 
the Academy is too well known to be traced in this 
narrative. 

In 1763 two hundred and si.x of the " water-side 
people," as they were called, petitioned the General 
Court to be set off from Newbury and incorporated 
as a town. In 1764 the prayer of the petitioners was 
granted and Newburyport was incorporated. The cir- 
cumstances attending the incorporation will be found 
more fully referred to in their appropriate place in the 
sketch of Newburyport. 

Until the breaking out of the Revolution little oc- 
curred specially deserving mention in a narrative nec- 
essarily confined to the more prominent features in 
the town's history. Nor is it proposed to allude to 
the causes which led to that event in our national 
career. It will be sufficient to state in a few words 
the part which Newbury took and record the names 
of the men it furnished in that memorable struggle. 
108J 



In the various wars which had affected the colony 
and province of Massachusetts, Newbury had been 
always inspired with patriotic sentiments, and had 
borne its full share of the burdens. 

The settlement on the river Parker had been 
scarcely made before the Pequod War confronted the 
colonies, and Newbury was called on to furnish eight 
of the one hundred and sixty men included in the 
Massachusetts quota. In King Philip's Wars, be- 
tween August 5, 1675, and January 28, 1676, New- 
bury furnished forty-eight men and forty six horses^ 
and had thirty-seven men impressed, making eighty- 
five men out of one hundred and fifty-nine ratable 
polls. I 

In the French and Indian War, which not long 
after followed, Newbury was at the front, and Captain 
Stephen Greenleaf, Lieutenant James Smith, Ensign 
Wm. Longfellow, Sergeant Increase Pillsbury, Wm. 
Mitchell and Jabez Musgrave were castaway and lost 
on an expedition against Cape Breton. 

In the expedition against Louisbourg in 1745 many 
Newbury s )ldiers were engaged, among whom was 
Major Moses Titcomb, a descendant of William Tit- 
comb, one of the early settlers. In the expedition 
against Crown Point, in 1754, Major Titcomb was 
prominent, and was killed in the battle of Lake 
George, September 8, 1755. On the plains of Quebec, 
with General Wolfe, Newbury had its representa- 
tives, among whom was William Davenport, who 
established the tavern which bore the name of his 
fallen commander. 

William Davenport was born in Boston in 1717, 
and went to Newbury, where he married, in 1740, 
Sarah, the daughter of Moses Gerrish. In 1759 he 
was living in a house on the corner of Liberty Street 
and Market Square, and before the expedition against 
Quebec, under General Wolfe, he received a captain's 
commission, and, recruiting a compact y, marched ti join 
the army, and was present with his men at the surren- 
der of the French stronghold. When Capt. Davenport 
left home and wife and five children he gave his wife 
a guinea, all the money he had, and told her she 
must make that answer while he was gone. After an 
absence of seven months, he asked her, on his return, 
how "she had got along," and she answered by pro- 
ducing the guinea and presenting it to him. He 
shortly after established the " Wolfe Hotel," on the 
corner of Threadneedle Avenue and State Street, 
which was burned in the fire of 1811. A sign bear- 
ing a portrait of Gen. Wolfe, painted by Moses Cole, 
a French refugee, hung over the door, and is now in 
the museum of relics and curiosities at the home of 
the late Major Ben: Perley Poore, at Indian Hill. 

The following is a roll of Capt. Davenport's com- 
pany, most of whom were probably residents in New- 
burv : 



Wm. Davenport, Capt. 
Thomas Sweet, Lieut. 
Gersbom Burbank, Lieut. 



Jonathan Merrill, En 
Closes George, Sergt. 
John Moody, Sergt. 



lIISTOliY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACUUSETTS. 



Daniel Pike, Sergt. 


Zebediah Ilunl. 


Mattliew PettiDgell, Sorgt. 


Michael Short. 


Joshua Colby, Corp. 


John Currier. 


Tbeodoio Fold, Corp. 


Joseph Woodman. 


Stcphon Morso, Corp. 


Ezra Cluir. 


Dauiol Poor, Con>. 


Daniel Pillsbury. 


Wm. Slovens, Drum. 


Joshua Morse. 


Privakt. 


Ebcu liurhiink. 


Luke Swell. 


Knoch Hailey. 


Stephen Colby. 


Ziichariah lieal. 


Theodore Biiruard. 


Wm. Grifliu. 


John Brock. 


Jeremiah Pearson. 


Wm. Matthews. 


Enoch Chaae. 


James Ward. 


Edmund liailey, J 


John Caswell. 


John SU-vens. 


Daniel Jvnight. 


Samuol W.vull. 


Kuthaniel Roby. 


Wm Clu^n.^y. 


Richard Pierce. 


Natliiuncl liiown. 


Theodore Moody. 


UicliaidS;u.hon.. 


Andrew Hilton. 


Sherborn Tillon. 


Paul Pearson. 


J a, ol. Hon ill. 


Nathan Peabody. 


Samuel llus,-. 


Wm. Clarke. 





After the passage (if the Stamp Act, in 1 705, :i town- 
meeting was held in Newbury, on the 21st of October 
in that year, at which instructions were given to 
Joseph Gerrish, the Representative of Newbury, con- 
cerning his proper action in the premises. In the 
spring of 1770, by a vote of the town, a committee of 
si.xteen was appointed to circulate a written agree- 
ment to be signed by persons agreeing not to purchase 
any goods of certain importers, and not to purchase 
or use any tea. The following is the agreement cir- 
culated by the committee: 



1 provont yo Transporta 



I of Goods from Groat 



Britain, and Encourage Industry, Oeconomy and Manufactures amongst 
ourselves; 

"We, therefore, ye Subscribers being Willing to Contrihute our mite 
for the Publick Good, do hereby promise and Engage to and with 
each other, That wo will, as much as in us lies, promote and Encourage 
yo use and Consumption of all useful Articles Manufactured in this 
Province, and that we will not (knowingly), on any pretence what- 
ever, purchase any goods of, or have any Concerns, by way of Trade, 
with', Jolin Bernard, Jiunes McMasters, Patrick McMastors, .John Moen, 
Nathaniel Itogeia, William Jackson, Theophilus Lillio, John Taylor 
and Amo and Elizab.tli Cummin, all of Boston, or Israel Williams, 
Esquire, ami ►..n, of Hatfield, or Henry Barns, of Marlborough, or any 
Person acting by or under them, or any of them, or any other pereon or 
persons whomsoever that shall or may import Goods from Great 
Britiau contrary to yo Agreement of y« United Body ol Merchants, or 
of any Persons thai purchase of or Trades with them, or any of thorn 
ye Bd Importers before a General Importation takes place (Debts before 
Contracted only excepted). 

"And if it doth or may hereafter appear that there is any Ship 
Builder in Newbury Port, or any other Town wheresoever in Now 
England, that has so little regard for ye Publick welfare as to under- 
take to Build any Ship, Schooner or Seafaring Vessel for auy Foreign 
or any other Person, And tako yo pay for ye same, or any part thoreof, 
in Goods Imporleil Contrary to yo Agreement of sd Merchants, Wo 
promise and Engage not to have any Connection by way of Trade and 
Commorco (Debts before Contracted only excepted) with any such Ship 
Builder, nor sell them any materials for Building any Such Vessels 
But wo will look up all Sucli Ship Builders (as well as Importers and 
Traders with Imported) as iiersons Destitute of ye principles of Common 
Humanity (Swayed only by their own Private Interest), Enemies to their 
Country and worthy of Contempt. And whereas a great part of yo 
Kovenue arising by virtue of ye Acta of Parliament is produc'd from 
the duty paid on Tea, Wo do, therefore, Solemnly Promise not to pur- 
chase any Foreign Tea or Suffer it to be us'd in our Families ujion any 
Account until yo sd Rovouue Acts are RopoaPd or a General Importa- 



tion takes place, and wo will each one of ns, as wo have proper oppor- 
tnnitys, Recommend to all persons to do ye same. And wo do hereby 
of Onr own free will and Accord Solemnly promise to and with Each 
other, That we will, withont Evasion or Equivocation, Faithfully and 
truly keep and observe all that is above written. And whosoever shall 
or may sign these Articles, And afterwards (knowingly) break ye same 
shall by us bo esleom'd as a Covenant Breaker and Enemy to his 
Country, a Friend to slavery, Deserving Contempt. All and Singular 
of these Articles to Continue and Remain in Foree unlill ye sd Acta bo 
Repeal'd or a General Importation lakes place. As witness our Uands." 

On the 29th of December, 1772, a committee of six- 
teen was appointed by the town "' to take under con- 
sideration our publick greavances " and " the in- 
fringment of our rights and liberties and report forth- 
with." The committee reported on the 4th of Janu- 
ary, 1772, and it was voted " to accept the report of 
their committee and that it be entered among the 
reports of the town, there to stand as a lasting 
memorial of the sense they have of their invaluable 
rights and of their steady determination to defend 
them in every lawful way as occasion may require." 

On the 22d of December, 1773, it was voted by the 
town unanimously : 



" Not t( 



by the East India Company to America 

) now sent upon, and that this 

use their utmost endeavours to hinder the importation of tea 

a, BO long as the duty shall remain thereon, either by the East 

my other way whatever." 

On the 4th of January, 1774, a report and resolu- 
tions were adopted by the town, which closed with the 
following admonition : 

" Beloved brethren, let us stand fast in the liberty, wherewith God 
and the British Constitution, in conjunction with our own, liavo made 
us free, that neither we nor our posterity after us (through auy faults 
of ours) be entangled with the yoke of bondage." 

The time having now arrived for actual hostilities 
to begin, Newbury entered into the patriot cause with 
ardent zeal, and at once set about furnishing men and 
means to make it succeiisful. On the uight after the 
battle of Lexington, soldiers were forwarded to Cam- 
bridge, and these were followed by a steady stream of 
recruits running through the seven years of the war. 
The following is a list of soldiers furnished by New- 
bury, as correct as it can be made up from the State 
archives. 

Soldiers from Newbury who marched April 19, 
1775, and formed a part of a company in the Second 
Regiment, commanded by Col. Samuel Gerriah, serv- 
ing six days, — 



Jonathan Poor, Capt. 
Moses Ilsloy, 1st Lieut. 
Simeon Hale, 2d Lieut. 
Benj. Todd. Sergt. 
Paul Plunier, Sergt. 

PrimU*. 
Stephen Dole. 
Henry Dole. 
David Dole. 
Samuel Gerrish. 



1 Hale, Jr. 
■ly Ilsloy. 



Stephen 
Benj, Til 



Soldiers in the company of Wi 
marched to Cambridge, April 19, 17 
davs, — 



Rogers, who 
serving nine 



NEWBURY. 



1723 



\Vm. Rogers, Capt. 
Sumuel Carr, Lieut. 
Wadigti \oyes, Sorgt. 
,I.)se|ib Xewell.Sergt. 
Nathaniel Hills, Sergt. 
Joshua Drown, Sergt. 
Samuel PiUsbury, Corp. 
Ezekiel Merrill, Corp. 
Nathan Emery, Corp. 
Moses Moody, Corp. 
Daniel PiUsbury, Drummer. 
Ephraim Emery, Fifer. 

Priviita. 
Joseph Noyes. 
Joshua Chase. 
John Chase. 
John Eliot. 
Thomas Follansbee. 
Kehetniah Follansbee. 
Aaron Noyes. 
John Flanders. 



Joseph Goodridge. 
Ohediah Hills. 
Samuel Hills. 
Thomas Hills. 
Samuel Jaquish. 
Jacob Merrick. 
Parker Noyes. 
Benj. Pcttengal. 
Moodj Smith. 
Jonathan Thurston. 
Wm. White. 
Francis Dean. 
Moses Chase. 
Mark Woodman. 
Samuel Sawyer. 
John Merrill. 
Parker Smith. 
Asa Bayley. 
John Smith. 
Zebulon Engersol. 






Soldiers in the compauy of GideoQ Woodwell 
which marched to Cambridge, April 19, 1775, serving 
si.x days, — 

Gideon Woodwell, Capt. David Stickney. 

Henry Somerby, Sergt. John Ely. 

Patt. Ganiisli, Sergt. James SaCford. 

John Dole, Corp. Parker Knight, 

p...-,..,/™ Peter Stanwood. 



John 



Soldiers in the company of Thomas Noyes, who 
marched to Cambridge, April 20, 1775, serving four 

days, — 



Thomas Noyes, Capt. 
Enoch Long, Lieut. 
Abner Bayley, Ens. 
Moses Brickett, Ens. 

Privatee. 
Joseph .\mes. 
Joseph Brown, Jr. 
Thomas Chase. 
Abel Chase. 
Joseph Chase, Jr. 

Parker Chase. 
Daniel Cheney. 
Winthrop Colby. 
Nathan Chaso. 
Enoch Davis. 
Itobert Davis. 



Nathl. Emery. 
Wm. Foster. 
Joseph Goodridge. 
Wm. Hills. 
Benj. Hills, Jr. 
Thomas Huse. 
Enoch Long, Jr. 
John March. 
Moody Morse. 
Peter Rogers. 
Thomas Rogers. 
Silas Rogers. 
John Rowling, Jr. 
Barnes Short. 
Joshua Sawyer. 
Daniel Thurston. 



Soldiers in the companj- of Stephen Kent in the 
service of Massachusetts, stationed at Newbury in 
1775,— 



Stephen Kent, Capt. 


Enoch Hale. 


Dudley Cushmau, Lieut. 


Andrew Stickney. 


Richard Pettiogell, Lieut. 


James Safford. 


Daniel Knight, Sergt. 


Moses Akers. 


John Pearson, Sergt. 


Isaac Tilton. 


Josiah Goodrich, Sergt. 


Eben Moody. 


Hezekiah Goodhue, Sergt. 


Joseph Poor. 


Parker Jacques, Corp. 


John Sweat. 


John Hidden, (!orp. 
Eben Brown, Corp. 


David Boynton. 


Samuel Pettingell. 


Edward Swazey, Corp. 


Isaac Adams. 


Samnel Pearson, Drum. 


Josiah Pettingell. 


George Blunt, Fifer. 


Joseph Allen. 


Privula. 


Wm. Bayley. 


Joseph Lunt. 


Richard Flanders. 



Stephen Mitchell. Benj. Woodwell. 

Daniel Knight, Jr. Elias Cook. 

John Dole. Amos Stickney. 

Caleb James. Benj. Jackman, Jr. 
Jolin CheeTOr. . Benj. Maine. 

Daniel Stickney. Cutting Pettingell, Jr. 

John BIy. Amos Morse. 

Soldiers in the company of Captain Gideon Parker, 
and Colonel Moses Little's regiment, who enlisted in 
1775, for eight months, — 

' John Halliday. .fohu Silloway. 

Chase Rogers. . Jonathan Buswell. 

Soldiers in the company of Jacob Gerrish, in 
the same regiment, and enlisted in 1775, for eight 
months, — 



Jacob Gerrish, Capt. 
Silas Adams, Lieut. 
Amos Atkinson, Lieut. 
Nathl. Pearson, Sergt. 
Stephen Lunt, Sergt. 
Wm. Searl, Sergt. 
Nathl. Adams, Sergt. 
Jacob Hale, Corp. 
Wm. Morgeridge, Corp. 
Eliphalot Kilburu, Corp. 
Joseph Carr, Corp. 
Benj. Newman. Drum. & Fifer. 
John Kenney, Drum. & Fifer. 

PrivaUa. 
Enoch Adams. 
Mark Anthony. 
Edward Deverish Burke. 
John Burbatik. 

Belli, lieedle. 



John Cheat. 
Eben Cheat. 
John Cheney. 
Enoch Flood. 
Wm. Flood. 
Daniel Goodridge. 
Oliver Goodridge. 
John Lunt. 
Aniiis Merrill. 
Christopher Merrill. 
Richard Martin. 
Peter Ordway. 
Moses Pettingell. 
Samuel Place. 
Benj. Poor. 

Eliphalet Poor. 
Joseph Rogers. 
Richard Rolfe. 
Moses Rollins. 
Stephen Smith. 
John Sawyer. 
Absalom Thorla. 
Joshua Tappau. 



Soldiers in Captait Barnard's company, same regi- 
ment, same date of enlistment, and same service, — 



Thomas Brown, Lieut. 

Nicholas Titcomb, Sergt. 

Edmund Colba, Sergt. 

Willoughby Hoit, Corp. 

John Cook, Corp. 

John Brown, Corp. 

Isaac Howard Drum. & Fifer. 

There were scattering ( 



Privuta. 
John Brazier. 
Benj. Cotton. 
Jacob Cooper. 
Makepeace Colby. 
Aaron Davis. 
Nathl. Godfrey. 

ilistments in various com- 



panies and regiments in 1775 for eight months, as 
follows : 

In the company of Captain Jonathan Evans, Col- 
onel James Frye's regiment, private Peer Hall ; in 
the company of Captain Gleason, Colonel Nixon's 
regiment, private Samuel Leacoren ; in the company 
of Captain Daniel Gallusher, Colonel Ruggles Wood- 
bridge's regiment. Lieutenant Daniel Pillsbury; in 
the company of Captain William Scott, Colonel Paul 
Dudley Sargent's regiment, private John Tucker; 
in the company of Captain Nailer Hatch, Lieutenant- 
Colonel William Bond's regiment, private Moses 
Woodward ; and in the compauy of Captain John 
Papkin, Colonel Richard Gridley's regiment, private 
Abraham Waldron. 

Soldiers in the company of Captain Joshua 
Prence, in Colonel Edward Wigglesworth's regiment, 
enlisted in 1776,— 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



XathI, Adams, Lieut. 
£lipbalet Kimball, Scrgt. 
John Flandere, Scrgt. 
Joseph Ryers, Sergt. 
John Brown, Corp. 
Nalhl. Chaso, Drum. 

Nehemiah Follansbee. 
Benjamin Woodbury. 
Jacob Pettengell. 
Daniel Bradley. 
Samuel Lankistcr. 
Abel Greenleaf. 



Jonathan Thurston. 
Timothy Saunder*. 
Moody .Morse. 
Abner Kimlmll. 
Samuel Jaquish. 
James IJarUer. 
Ilaviil Hale. 
John Copp. 
Tnistrim Thurley. 
Stephen Thurston. 
Thomas Bolton. 
Silas liogers. 



Soldiers drafted in 1776 for the company of Cap- 
tain Robert Dodge in the regiment of Colonel Fran- 



I-ient. Ilsley. 
Ensign Pilsbnry. 
Oliver Clark, Lient. 

Privates. 
Jonathan Plummor. 
Joshua Moody. 
Thomas Follansbee. 
Richard Martin. 
Jonathan Carleton. 
Moses Lull. 
Nathan Jaquisb. 
Da-vid Emery. 
David Dustin. 
George Thompson. 
Pero Hall. 
Enoch BoyntoD. 
Oliver Martin. 
Amos CarletoD. 



Wm Murray. 
Parker Knight. 
Samuel Rankin. 
Wm. Nichols. 
James Scott. 
James FoUansbee. 
Isaac Plummer. 



John Bennett. 



Amos Merli. 
Hosea Ilsly. 
Parker Chase. 
John Bayley. 
Charles Walker. 
Eliphalct Rollins. 

Soldiers enlisted 1777 in the Contineutal 
three years, — 



John Catton. 
Jedediah Adams. 
Prena Brown. 
Charles Cassady. 
Benjamin Chase. 
Eliphalet Chase. 
Joshua Chase. 
Joshua Chase, Jr. 
Joseph Dowry. 
Amos Dwiunels. 
Edward Deacon. 
Wm. Duggins. 
Thomas Emerson. 
John Eliot. 



Benjamin Elandcrs. 
Benjamin Fellows. 
Wm. Goodrich. 
Daniel Goodridge. 
John Graham. 
Richard Goodwin. 
John Nichols. 
Eliphalet Noyce. 
Joseph Noyce. 
Obedeah Nut. 
Cutting Pettingell, Jr. 
Chase Pillsbnry. 
James Page. 
Samuel Wright. 
William White. 
William Williams. 



Samuel Eliot. 
Ephraim Emery. 
Stephen England. 

Moses Woodman enlisted in 1777 in the company 
of Captain Samuel Page, Colonel Eben Frances' regi- 
ment, for the expedition to Bennington, and Abijah 
Kenney enlisted in the same year in the company of 
Captain David Reed, on service unknown. 

Soldiers enlisted in 1778, for si.x months, in the 
company of Captain Richard Rogers, regiment of 
Colonel Gerrish, — 



Stephen Whitney. 
Wm. Gould. 
Aaron Rollins. 
Jonathan Stickney. 
Joseph Welch. 
John Huff. 



Jonathan Stone. 
George Moody. 
John Nason. 
Samuel Smith. 
Thomas Browu. 



Jonathan Hot^am. 


Theodore Barker. 


Ephraim Tibbetts. 


Daniel Briant. 


Samuel Fills. 


JIo-iHS Row, 


Nathaniel Ramsdell. 


I.andras Grant. 


Soldiers drafted in 


1778, for eight and nine 


service, — 




Caleb Parsons. 


Samuel Beavcrly. 


Wm. Reed. 


Jacob Freese. 


David Marston. 


Jon.ithan Goodwi 


Eliphalet Cauley. 


Wm. Parker. 


Jacob Smith. 


Wm. Chambers. 


Jeremiah Smith. 


Josiah Maloone. 


Daniel Gale. 


Enoch Adams. 


Nathaniel Wadlcigh. 


Wm. Alld. 


Enoch Adams. 


Phillip Barker. 


Isaac Plummer. 


James Sulivan. 



William Duggins also enlisted in 1778 in the com- 
pany of Captain Nicholas Blaisdel, Colonel Edward 
Wigglesworth's regiment. 

Soldiers enlisted in 1779, for nine months, — 

James FoUansbee. Eliphalet Rollins. 

Beiy. Chase. James Scott. 

John Bayley. Wm. Nicholas. 
Charles Walker. 

Soldiers on the county rolls in 1779, — 



Kzul 



Eiisl 



Jeremiah Lord. 



Thomas Eliot. 
John Welch. 
Andrew Labcnta. 
John MuUins. 
Thomas Wood. 
James Kavan. 
Thomas Wood, Jr. 

Soldiers enlisted in 
for three years, — 

Wm. Contee. 
Richard Little. 
Joseph Hancock. 
Daniel Cockran. 
Boston Pickering. 
Wm. Conly. 
John Kimeak. 
Sambo Carlton. 
James Cavondre. 
Pero Hall. 
Jube Merrill. 
John Diman. 
Stephen England. 
Joseph Noyes. 
Silas Noyes. 
Wm. Perry. 
Tliomaa Churchell. 
Levi Hall. 
Theodore Atkinson. 
Joseph Conneen. 
Jo.seph Holmes. 

Joseph Lambert. 
Joseph Lerocho. 
Robert Runnells. 



Wm. FoUansbee. 
Nathan Haskell. 
Wm. Noyes. 
Benj. Dresser. 
John Newman. 



rSO, in the Continental army 



Patrick Rowland. 
Joshua Rodwell. 
John aiay. 
Elisha Lake. 
Wm. Goulin. 
Nathaniel Davis. 
Ichabod Twilight. 
Samuel Currier. 
Oliver Martin. 
Henry Bickford. 
Daniel Rimham. 
Peter Bab. 
Fortune Freeman. 
Cato Seward. 
John Richards. 
Jonathan Cadwell. 
Samuel Chase, Jr. 
John Stone. 
James Varuum. 
John Lewis. 
Joseph Winter. 
Elij.ah Kelley. 
Jack Warner. 
C.Tsar Hodgdon. 
Moses Fessenden. 



Soldi 



who enlisted 



Benoui Eatou Knapp. 
Richard Shay. 
Johu Harris. 

Eliphalet Poor. 
Enoch Dole. 

John Burhank. 



for six months, — 



Seth PluDmier. 
John Thomson. 
Aaron Rogers. 
Moaes Rogers. 



Read. 



172o 



Micajah Lunt. 
Jonathan Martin. 
James Martin. 
Jacob Ilurrel. 
Jonathan Blorse. 
John CuiTiiT. 
Moses Sonierhy. 
John Lull. 
Moses Read. 
John Thurston. 
Prince Brown. 
Jonathan Bartlctt. 
Stephen Davis. 
Cuff Douney. 

Soldiers who enlisted 
the Continental army, — • 

Aaron McUen. 
Stephen Jlitchell. 
James Pendon. 
Daniel Goodrich. 
Joiin Stocliman. 
Eliphalet Noyes, Sergt. 
Samuel Stock, Drum. 
Oliver Lunt. 



John Harvey. 
Jonathan LyQord. 
John Bean. 
London Rogers. 
Samuel Randall. 
Joseph Pillsbury. 
Paul McPherson. 
John Archer. 
Josiah Conner. 
Lancaster Brecke. 
James Scott. 
James Huntress. 
John Randall. 



1780 for three years, for 



Benj. Murray. 
Wm. White. 
Roger Lord, Sergt. 
Thomas Emerson. 
Wm. Poor, Corp. 
Pomp Jackson. 
Robert Creaton. 
John Tuclcer, Sergt. 



New levies for six months in 1782,- 



Michatl Lunt. 
John Burbank. 
Samuel Randall. 



David iSIaluon. 
Paul ^IcPherson. 
Nathl. Hunt. 
Ebeu Haynes. 

Oliver Richards. 
Benj. Woodbury. 
Enoch Tool. 
Moses Gage. 
Benj. Cotton. 

Miscellaneous en' 



Ezekiel Sterns. 
Jonathan Calley. 
Elepites QvUey. 
Jeremiah Smith. 
Stephen Smith. 
Benj. Smith. 
Caleb Todd. 
Geo.Sandeia. 
Daniel Gale. 
Samuel Dudley. 
Jonathan Steward. 
John Woodbury. 
John Harris. 
David Dowman. 
Benoni Knapp. 
Richard Shay, 
Moses Titcomb. 
Samuel Colby. 
Moses Gage, Jr. 
James Thomas. 

istments at unknown dates, 



:'lark. 



Thus it will be seen that, including field officers, 
Newbury furnished at various times five hundred and 
forty-three men during the war. Few towns can show 
a better record. From the time of the first exhibition 
of a spirit of resistance among the men of Massachu- 
setts to the exactions and tyranny of England, when 
not a single voice was raised in Newbury in support 
of the crown, until the surrender of Yorktown, the 
men of Newbury responded to every call and kept 
well the promise made to the merchants of Boston, to 
sacrifice their lives and fortunes in defense of the 
public cause. In 1790 the population of Newbury 
was three thousand nine hundred and seventy-two, 
probably not much larger than during the Revolution, 
about one-seventh of which (with no allowance for 
re-enlistments) braved the perils of war. 

On the 11th of December, 1783, Rev. Moses Par- 
sons, the second pastor of the Byfleld Church, closed 



his pastorate and his life. He was born in Gloucester 
in 1715 and graduated at Harvard in 1736. He was 
one of the trustees named in the act of incorporation 
of the Dummer Academy in 1682, and Hon. Theoph- 
lus Parsons, of distinguished memory, was his third 
son. 

Rev. John Tucker, the sixth pastor of the First 
Parish, died March 22, 1792. He was born in Ames- 
bury in 1720 and graduated at Harvard in 1741. His 
epitaph furnishes the best description of his charac- 
ter and life : 

" Beneath are the remains of the Rev. John Tucker, D.D., Pastor ot 
the first church and Congregation in this town, who died March 22d, 1792. 
Aetat. 73. Blessed with strong mental powers, a liberal education and an 
uncommon mildness of Temper, all directed and improved by that faith 
which purifies the heart, rendered him dearly beloved in every Relation 
in which he was placed, and more especially made him conspicuously 
useful as a minister of the Gospel. When meeting with peculiar Diffi- 
culties, he eminently complied with that direction of his Master to the 
first Preachers of the Gospel,—' Be ye wise as serpents and harmless as 
doves." As he lived a life of piety, he met death with serenity. By his 
doctrine and example he taught the humility, and at his death he ex- 
hibited the dignity and triumph of the real Christian. To perpetuate 
the memory of so excellent a character, and as a testimony of their af- 
fectionats regard, the bereaved flock have erected this Sepulchral 



On the 19th of December, 1787, Rev. Elijah Parish 
was settled over the Byfield Parish as the successor of 
Rev. Moses Parsons, and on the 23d of March, 1796, 
Rev. Abraham Moore was settled over the First 
Parish as the successor of Rev. Mr. Tucker, Mr. 
Moore died June 24, 1801. He was born in London- 
derry, N. H., in 1769 and graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1789. Rev. John S. Popkin was settled as 
his successor, September 19, 1804, and resigned in 
1815. Mr. Popkin was born in Boston in 1771 and 
graduated at Harvard in 1792 with the highest 
honors. He was ordained in Boston in July, 1799, 
having preached for a time at Wenham, Mass., and 
Londonderry, N. H. In 1815 he accepted the position 
of Greek Professor at Harvard, which he held until 
1826, when he was appointed to the Professorship of 
Greek Literature as the successor of Edward Everett. 
In 1833 he resigned, but continued to reside in 
Cambridge until his death, in 1852. 

On the 4th of May, 1806, Rev. Mr. Popkin preached 
for the last time in the meeting-house of the First 
Parish, which was built in the year 1700, and ou the 
6th of May the house was taken down. A new meet- 
ing-house was raised near the same site on the 17lh 
of June, and dedicated on the 17th of September. 
This meeting-house was burned on the 25th of June, 
1868, and the present one was built immediately after, 
and dedicated March 4, 1869. 

After the resignation of Mr. Popkin the Rev. 
Leonard Withingtbn was settled October 31, 1816 
and continued to perform the duties of his office until 
October 31, 1859, when his resignation was reluctantly 
accepted. He was bom in Dorchester August 9, 
1789, and graduated at Yale in 1814. 

He was followed by the Rev. John R. Thurston, 



1726 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



who was ordained January 20, 1860, and the Rev. 
Francis W. Sanborn. 

Rev. Elijah Parish, the third minister in theByfield 
Church, closed his pastorate with his life October 15. 
1825. He was born in Lebanon, Conn., November 7, 
17G2, and graduated at Dartmouth College in 1785. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Isaac R. Barbour, a native 
of Bridgeport, Vermont, and a graduate of Middle- 
bury College in 1819, who was installed December 
20, 1827, and resigned in April, 1833. Rev. Henry 
Durant succeeded Mr. Barbour and was ordained 
December 25, 1833. His pastorate continued until 
his resignation, in 1848. He was born in Acton, 
Mass., June 18, 1802, and graduated at Yale in 1827, 
serving as tutor in the college after his graduation 
and previous to his settlement in Newbury. Rev. 
Francis V. Tenney followed Mr. Durant and was set- 
tled in 1850, serving until 1857, when he resigned to 
take charge of a parish in Manchester. Mr. 
Tenney was followed by Rev. Charles Brooks in 1858, 
who resigned in 1868, and was afterwards settled in 
Unionville, Conn., where he died in 1866. Rev. 
.Tames H. Ohilds was ordained October 7, 1875. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, at Byfield was or- 
ganized or rather received its first inspiration in 1827. 
In the spring of that year Rev. William French, of 
Sandown, N. H., while traveling on busines-", visited 
West Newbury, and by his conversation on matters of 
religion so far interested some of the people living near 
the " Great Rock '' as to induce them to form a class 
in April, 1828. This class consisted of David Clifford 
(leader), Simeon Pillsbury, James Burrill, Jerusha 
Burrill,AlicePillsbury, Eleanor Perry, Amos Pillsbury, 
Sally Clifford, Hannah England, Wm. W. Perry, 
Abner Rogers and Betsey Poor. Mr. French con- 
tinued to visit his flock until 1830, at which lime the 
class had been enlarged by the addition of John 
Bailey, (a local preacher,) Myra Bailey, Abigail Rogers, 
Samuel Stickney, Judith Gould, Betsey Rogers, 
Eunice Stickney, Mary Rogers and Lydia Rogers. In 
that year a small chapel was built near the Great 
Rock. It was very small and not furnished with 
seats, the women during service sitting on stones 
brought in from the outside, and the men standing 
outside and looking in through the open windows. 

For a time the Sabbath services were carried on by 
local preachers among whom were Messrs. Beebe, 
Mai-sh, Flanders, Peaslee, Gile and Barrett. In 
April, 1831, the church asked for a Conference 
preacher and received from the New England Con- 
ference Rev. Philo Bronson. During this year the 
chapel was finished and furnished, and further addi- 
tions were made to the class. In 1832 an attempt 
was made by the society, for the first time, to support 
a preacher, but the scant sum of $92.15 was all that 
could be raised. In that year Rev. Joseph Brown 
was sent to the society by the Conference, but re- 
mained only one quarter and was succeeded by Rev. 
Thomas W. Gile, who supplied the pulpit during the 



remainder of the year. In the same year a church 
proper was formed, and also a parish, under the name 
of "The First Parish of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church for the towns of West Newbury and New- 
bury." Micajah Poor was chosen clerk of the parish 
and served many years. 

In 1833 Rev. Samuel W. Coggshall was appointed 
preacher in charge of the station, and the classes 
were newly organized. In April, 1834, Mr. Coggshall 
left and was succee led by Rev. Hezekiah Thatcher. 
During the pastorate of Mr. Thatcher a movement 
was made to remove the chapel to the Mills village of 
Byfield, which caused much bitterness of feeling and 
resulted in a change of the cla-sscs, the resignation of 
two of the trustees and the continuance of the chapel 
in its original location. Mr. Thatcher continued 
his service until 1838, and after that time, until 1846. 
the church was supplied by local preachers, among 
whom were E. K. Colby and Wm. Giddings. In 1846 
the station was connected with the Newburyport 
charge, and until 1852 was without a pastor. Among 
the preachers supplying the church during this time 
were Messrs. Heath, Chase, Eastman, Witham, Dal- 
ton, Fay, Hutchings, Pillsbury and McKinley. 

In 1852, through the influence of Elder D. P. Pike, 
of Newburyport, Rev. Mr. Bartlett, of the Christian 
denomination, took charge of the pulpit for a short 
time, and was succeeded by Rev. John L. Trefren, a 
local preacher from Newburyport, who remained with 
the church two years. During his pastorate, in 1853, 
the chapel was removed to its present location in 
Byfield, at the Mills village, and repaired and en- 
lai-ged. 

During the years 1865-56 the church was supplied 
by Mr. Higgins, a local preacher from Chelsea, who 
was followed by Messrs. Mudge and Peaslee in 1856- 
57, and in April, 1858, by Rev. O. S. Butler, during 
whose pastorate the chapel was again enlarged. Mr. 
Butler remained three years and was followed by Rev. 
Daniel Wait in 1861, who remained two years, and by 
Rev. George Washington Greeu in 1863, who with- 
drew shortly after his settlement. Rev. Mr. Butler 
again came to the church and remained until 1866, 
when Rev. Wm. D. Bridge took charge and remained 
one year. In 1867 Rev. Wm. Sullivan came to the 
church, but was obliged by ill health to withdraw. 
He was followed by Rev. A. Moore, who preached a 
year and was succeeded by Rev. Garret Beekman, 
during whose service the chapel was moved to its 
present site and much enlarged. In 1873-74 Rev. 
C. T. Johnson had charge of the church, and was 
succeeded by Rev. Henry Mathers in 1874, and by 
Rev. W. A. Nottage in 1877. Since the withdrawal 
of Mr. Nottage the succession of ministers up to the 
present time has been : Rev. Wm. Pentecost in 1881, 
Rev. C. M. Melvin in 1882-83, Rev. Ivens A. Mesler 
in 1884, Rev. F. B. Graves in 1885-86, and the present 
pastor. Rev. H. G. Buckingham. 
In 1877 a society bearing the name of "The Plym- 



NEWBURY. 



1727 



outh Brethren " was formed by seceders from the 
Methodist society and others, and continues to hold 
services on the Sabbath in a hall over the present 
post-office in the Mills village of Byfleld. This is a 
sect of Christians which, chiefly under the leadership 
of John Darby, an Anglican clergyman, was organ- 
ized in London in 1838. Its members were at first 
called Darbyites, but its doctrines attracted so large 
a number of adherents in Plymouth, England, where 
a society of fifteen hundred members was formed, that 
the name of Plymouth Brethren was adopted. In 
England there are at present more than one hundred 
and fifty places of worship belonging to the sect. 

As in Newburyport, the enforcement of the embargo 
act in 1807 met with great opposition, and a large 
majority of the people in the town were opposed to 
the policy of the government. On the 2d of August, 
1808, a town-meeting was held to take into conside- 
ration the distressing situation of the country occa- 
sioned by the cessation of trade, and on the 2.'5d of 
January, 1809, resolutions were passed and a memo- 
rial to the General Court adopted protesting against 
the unnecessary and severe embargo measuies. 

The War of 1812 was as unpopular as the em- 
bargo, and resolutions were adopted in town-meeting 
condemnatory of its declaration. Peace was hailed 
with joy and the memory of its suffering and dis- 
asters was only sweetened by the intense relief which 
peace and its cessation of pain furnished. 

In 1819 the town of West Newbury was incorpo- 
rated. The circumstances attending and causing 
this second division of the town will be found sufli- 
ciently narrated in the sketch of that town contained 
in these volumes. The loss of the territory and 
population contained within the limits of the new 
town was natural, and in the order of things to be 
expected. An ample territory and a sufficient popu- 
lation remained, the old town still had its foothold 
on the Merrimac, its ship-building industry was in- 
tact and the town was content. But a sad disap- 
pointment was in store for the ancient settlement, 
which had once extended from river to river, and 
from Kowley village on the Merrimac to the sea. In 
1851 a third division of the town was made, and the 
town of Newburyport, ambitious to become a city, 
sought and obtained from the mother town the 
necessary population and territory and wealth which 
it lacked within its own borders. For an account of 
the annexation of 1851 and its extent, the reader is 
referred to the sketch of Newburyport. 

For the performance of its duties in the War of the 
EebellioH, Newbury was not unprepared. On the 22d 
of April, 1861, the Board of Selectmen, consisting of 
Paul Titcomb, Edward H. Little and Eben P. Fer- 
guson issued a warrant for a town-meeting to be held 
on the 30th. At that meeting resolutions were 
passed pledging the faith of the town to the com- 
fortable maintenance of the families of those who 
should enlist. The sum ol $300 was appropriated to 



place the company of riflemen then in existence in 
the town in better condition for service, and the 
treasurer was authorized to borrow the sum of $3000 
for contingent war expenses. In July, 1862, a 
bounty of $150 was offered to soldiers enlisting to fill 
the quota at that time required of the town, and the 
requisite number of men was at once obtained. In 
August 1862, a bounty of $250 was offered to those 
enlisting for nine months under the President's call 
fcr 300,000 men. At a later period of the war men 
were obtained on the payment of various bounties, 
which were raised as occasion required by the addi- 
tion of private subscriptions to the amounts appro- 
priated by the town. The following roll contains the 
names and rank of the soldierj of Newbury during 
the war: 



Wm. H. roster, capt , 3 yr8...40th 

Nathan Longfellow, 3 yrs 2d 

Nathan W. Withington, sergt., 



yi-8 17th 

Paul A. Perkins, 3 yrs 17th 

Joseph Perkins, Jr., 3 yrs 17th 

Benjamin P. Rogers, 3yr8 17th 

John H. Willis, 3 yrs 17th 

Wra. C. Haynes, 3 yrs I7th 

George E. Carleton, 3 yrs 19th 

John Carr, 3 yra I9th 

Leander S. Falls, 3 yrs 19th 

Samuel T. JoUison, 3 yrs 19th 

JamesFee, 3 yrs 19th 

Benjamin W. Jellison, lieut., 3 yrs. 



Varn 



Daniel E. Rogers, 3 yrs 19th 

Albert Rogers, 3 yrs 19th 

Benjamin F. Stephens, 3yr8...19th 

Joseph H. Pearson, 3 yrs 19th 

Edward W. Barllett, 3 yrs. 19th 

Elijah T. Rogers, lieut., 3 yrs. 

19th. 

John H. Brown, 3 yrs 19th 

Joseph Floyd, 3 yrs 19th 

Lawrence M, Massury, 3 yra.. .19th 

Ezekiel Giborne, 3 yrs 19th 

Tliumas B. Bobbins, 3 yrs 19tli 

Wm. H. O. Rogers, 3 yra 19th 

George W. Gibson, 3 yrs 19th 

Mighill A. Rogers, 3 yrs 19th 

John Davis, :i yrs 19th 

Augustus Ku,ss. 3 yrs 19th 

George M. Kimball, :! yrs 19th 

Abraham A. Dow, Corp., 3 yrs. 

19th. 

Sidney M. Smith, 3 yrs 19th 

Joseph Gould, 3 yrs 33d 

Isaiah Rogers, 3 yrs 33d 

Eben Rogers, 3 yrs 33d 

Woodbridge A. Rogers, sergt., 3 

yrs., 33d. 
GeorgeP. Goodwin, :'. yi, ... ,il 
Nathl. M. IlBley, :; ,m ^ 
Walter G.Peckhaii.,;^ 
Charles C. Day, 3 vr- . t! 

Charles L. Cole, 3 yrs S.-itli 

IraH. Allen, 3 yrs 35th 

Kichard W. Swan, 3 yrs 35th 



..35 th 



Henry P. Griffith, 3 yrs.. 

Joseph W. Liuit, 3 yrs 35th 

Jacob G. Clarkson, 3 yrs 35th 

Amos M. Little, 3 yrs 38th 

George Burrell, Corp., 3 yrs. 40th 

N. Y. 

Charles H. Bray, 3 yrs Ist Cav. 

Seth Young, corp, 3 yrs.. ..Ist Cav. 

Charles Caldwell, 3 mos. 

Ezra Hale, Jr., Corp., 9 mos. ..48th 

Lewis H. Hale, 9 mos 48th 

George E. Young, raus., 9 mos. 

48th. 
Moses Young, sergt., 9 mo3...48th 
Harrison W. Dearborn, 9 mos. 

48th. 

Eben H. Dearborn, 9 mos 48th 

Eben Bray, Jr., 9 mos 48th 

Francis M. Pillsbury, sergt., 9 mos. 



..48th 



Charles Little, corp, 

James N. Frost., Corp., 9 mos. 

4gth. 

Edward L. Rogers, 9 mos 48th 

Gorham P. Rogers, 9 mos 48th 

Lewis B. Rogers, sergt., 9 mos. 

48th. 

Philip Rogers, 9 mos 48th 

Melvin B. Rogei3, 9 mos 48lh 

Enoch S. Rogers, sergt. 9 mos.48th 

Christopher Rogers, 9 mos 48th 

Philip L. Rogers, mus., 9 mos..48th 
Wm. T. Sanborn, wag., 9 mos. 

48th. 

Andrew F. Smith, 9 mos 48th 

Charles H. Prince 9 mos 48th 

Horace R. Pillsbury, 9 mos....4Sth 

Leonard Pillsbury, 9 mos 48th 

Lorenzo B. Blaisdell, 9 mos.. 48th 

Benjamin S. Bailey, 9 mos 48th 

Henry Bailey, 9 mos 48th 

Phineas B. Gould, 9 mos 48th 

Walter Noyes, 9 mos 48th 

Nathl. Noyes, sergt., 9 mos.. ..48th 
Benjamin F. Noyes, capt., 9 mos. 



Isaac F. Tenton, 



..48th 
..4Sth 
..481h 



1728 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 



Iloiiii, y Uobbins, 3 yrs 20th 

Will. Kdw:iv(ls, 3 yrs 20th 

Tliomiis liiudy, 3 yts 20tb 

George II. Shaw, 3 }■« 20th 

Juhn C. Foss, Corp., 3 yre a-ld 

Siineoa P. Rogora, 3 yrs 3ii 



•i yr 



111103 II. I'l 



50th 



Kr.iiKis A. Wili-y, '.I 11103 50th 

Cliiirli-s \V, Kundlelt, 9 nios...50th 

John ral-iions, 9 mo8 50th 

Jolin H. J'iii^oos, 9mo8 50th 

Lyniiin Floyd, 9 mos 50th 

Chiirles E. Tenney, 9 mos 50th 

John G. Tonney, 9 moB 50th 

Wm. P. Builey, corp., 9 mos...50th 
James P. Greeley , sergt. 100 days, 

GOth. 

Justin N. Adaras, 100 days 60th 

John A. Bean, 100 days 60th 

Thomas Noyes, 100 days GOth 

Charles E. Rogers, 100 days, 17th 

Un. 
George W. Pearson, 100 days, 17th 

Uu. 
Elijah Pearson, 100 days, I"th Un. 
Orin T. Pearson, 100 days, 17thUn. 
Leonard Pillsbury, 100 days, 17th 

Un. 
Asa Rogers, Jr., 100 days, 17th Un. 
Charles H. Woodman, 100 days, 

nth Un. 

Win. Woodman, 103 days Un. 

Daniel D. Bailey, 1 yr 17th Un. 

Wm. P. Bailey, Corp. 

Albert M. Cnrrier. 1 yr... 17th Un. 

Lorenzo B. Blaisdell, 1 yr., I7th 

Un. 
John B. Edmunds, 1 yr., 17th Un. 

Hiram K. I'oore, 1 yr 17th Un. 

Wm. H. Gould, 1 yr 17th Un. 

Thomas B. Larkin, 1 yr..l7th Un. 
Phineas B. Gould, 1 yr....l7th Un. 

Wm. F. LarUin, 1 yr 17th Un- 

Charles A. Newton, 1 yr..l7th Un. 
Moses T. Pearson, 1 yr....l7th Un. 

Wm. P. Pearson, 1 yr 17th Un. 

James Howe, 1 yr 17th Un. 

James H. Johnson, 90 days, 3d Un. 

Joseph Knight, 90 days 3d Un. 

John Douglas, 3 yra 13lh Bat. 

George E. Noyes, 3 yr8...14th Bat. 



Stephen W. Goodrich, 3 yrs., 1st 



Jewett Rogers, Jr., 3 yrs., 2d 1 
Charles W. Sargent, 3 yrs., 3d 



Ebon P. Davis, sergt., I yr., 4th 



Samuel R. 



,4th H. 



Joseph P. Bassett, 1 yr., 4th H. A. 

Silas F. Bean.l yr 4th H. A. 

John N. Bray, I yr 4th U. A. 

Ehen Bray, Jr., 1 yr 4th H. A. 

John D. Floyd, 1 yr 4th H. A. 

John M. Horsch, 1 yr...4th H. A. 
Charles B. Rogers, 1 yr...4th H. A. 
George Cammett, 3 yrs., 1st Bat. 

Daniel Rogers, 3 yrs., 1st Bat. H. 

Ira Bogere, 3 yrs., 1st Bat. H. Art. 
David Kent, 3 yrs., 1st Bat. H. A. 
Jacob Kent, 3 yrs., Ist Bat. H. A. 
Wm. H. Kent, 3 yrs., 1st Bat. 11. 

Charles Roberts, 3 yrs 2d Cav. 

Dudley Ward, 3 yi-s M Cav. 

Wm. A. Dudley, 3 yrs 2d Cav. 

Gilbert Tye, 3 yre 2d Cav. 

Robert R. Minchin, 3 yre..2d Cav. 

Calvin S. Warner, 3 yrs 3d Cav. 

George n. Minchin, 3 yrs.lst Cav. 

Jonathan Linfleld, 3 yrs 2d 

Joseph Steele.S yrs 2d 

Patrick Kclley, 3 yrs 9th 

Reuben Record, 3 yrs 11th 

Reuben Record, re-en., 3 yr8..16th 

Richard Rowe,3 yrs 18th 

George W. Carleton, 3 yrs 22d 

Isaac Walker, 3 yrs 28th 

Thomas Lane, 3yra 2Sth 

James Dnnlap, lieut., 3 yrs. ..59th 

John D. Butler, 3 yrs 59th 

Horace S. Woodman, 3 yrs....5!lth 

Mighill W. Rogei-3, 3 yrs 69th 

Timothy W. Rogers, 3 yrs 69th 

Hugh M. Osborne, vet. res. 
Joseph Gould, vet. reserves. 
Andrew F. Smith, vet. res. 
Nathan K. Withington, vet. res. 

Elisha Beane, Jr , 3 yrs I4th 

Stephen Ilsley, 1 year. 
George D. Knight, 1 year. 



The above list contains 195 enlistments— ten more 
than are entered on the war record of the town, those 
ten being found on the rolls of the State. Of these, 
Joseph H. Pearjon was killed at the battle of Antie- 
tam, Samuel T. Jellison at Turkey Bend, Benjamin 
F. Stevens at Glendale, Thomas P. Lunt at Chancel- 
lorsville, John H. Brown May 24, 1864, and James 
Dunlap July 30, 1864, Sidney M Smith died August 
26, 1864, Robert R. Menehin at date unknown, Henry 
P. Griffith November 3, 1862, Joseph W. Lunt at 
New York March 30, 1865, Jacob G. Clarkson at Fal- 
mouth, Virginia, January 19, 1863, Harrison W. Dear- 
bom at Baton Rouge at date unknown, Walter Noyes 
January 4, 1863, and Nathaniel Noyes at Baton Rouge. 

The town came out of the war with a heavy debt, 



which, by prudent and skillful management on the 
part of the officers of the town, has been so far reduced 
as to promise its entire liquidation within the next 
two or three years. 

The settlers of Newbury began at a very early date 
to give their attention to the education of their youth. 
In Newbury, as elsewhere in the Massachusetts and 
Plymouth Colonies, the main reliance of the people 
was for a timeon private instruction, that of the family 
and of the pastor of the parish. In the Plymouth Col- 
ony, where the number of adventurers was large and of 
mechanics and hired men was small, the demand for 
public schools was not urgent until a comparatively 
late day. The number of children, as compared with 
intelligent heads of families capable of educating 
them, was small, and little necessity existed for public 
instruction until the wave of population crossed its 
borders from the sister colony. But in Massachusetts 
private instruction soon failed to suffice. Winthrop 
came with fifteen hundred men, a large portion of 
whom were uneducated, and had children with them 
whom they were unable themselves to educate, and so 
numerous, that in self-defense the General Court was 
obliged at an early date to make some provision for 
the establishment of public schools. 

In Newbury, the Rev. Mr. Parker and his colleague, 
Rev. Mr. Noyes, were both educated men, and with 
their knowledge of Latin and Greek undoubtedly 
rendered valuable service in the cause of education, 
but probably in the direction chiefly of fitting young 
men for the new college at Cambridge. It is probable 
that Rev. James Bailey, a Harvard graduate of 1669, 
Rev. Shubael Dummer, a graduate of 1656, Rev. Jos- 
eph Gerrish, a graduate of 1669, Rev. James Noyes, Jr., 
agraduateof 1659, Judge Samuel Sewall, a graduate of 
1671, Rev. Timothy Woodbridge, a graduate of 1674, 
and Rev. John Woodbridge, a graduate of 1664, were 
qualified for admission to college by one or the other 
of the first two pastors of Newbury. 

In 1639, however, Anthony Somerby appeared in 
Newbury and was appointed schoolmaster by the 
town, with a grant of " four acres of land near the 
river Parker and some meadow land,'' as an induce- 
ment to keep school for a year. Mr. O. B. Merrill 
thinks it possible that he kept a part of the time near 
Frog Pond, as in the laying out of the lots in the uew 
town " ffrog meadow " was assigned to Master Somerby. 
In 1652 it was voted to build a school-house, and £20 
a year was appropriated for the support of the school. 
This school, like all others in Newbury before 1719, 
was supported partly by tuition charged to all the 
scholars, and not until the above date were the schools 
of Newbury made absolutely free. In 1658 Newbury 
was admonished for not maintaining a " lattin scule," 
and fined £5, to be paid to the Ipswich Latin School, 
" if bye the next courte they do not provyde a lattin 
scule master according to law." In 1675 Henry Short 
was employed as a teacher and was promised £5 for 
his first half-year, and sixpence a week from each 



scholar. The next year he was hired also, and if 
there were twenty boys the school was to be kept in 
the watch-house. The number of scholars was only 
seventeen, and Mr. Short taught them at his own 
house. 

Alter Newbury became divided into three villages — 
the old town, the new town and the West District— it 
was for a long time a contested question where the 
school of the town should be kept. Up to 1691 the 
school was kept in the neighborhood of the old town 
settlement, but in that year a vote was passed requir- 
ing it to be kept one-third of the year in each village. 
Mr. Seth Shove, a graduate of Harvard in 1687, was 
hired as a teacher, and it was stipulated that he should 
teach "readers" free, Latin scholars at sixpence a 
week and " cipherers " fourpence a week. In 1695 
Rev. Christopher Toppan, a graduate of Harvard in 
1691, and afterwards the pastor of the First Piuish, was 
employed, with the promise of " £20 in money and 
£300 in good country pay so long as he shall carry on 
half the ministry, and £30 in good country pay as 
long as he shall keep the writing and grammar school." 
The next year his salary was raised to £300 in coun- 
try pay and £50 in money. Nicholas Webster, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1695, was the next teacher, 
with a salary of £30 in country pay, fourpence a week 
for Latin scholars and nothing from "readers, writers 
and cipherers." In 1700 Eichard Brown, a graduate 
of Harvard in 1697, was employed and taught until 
1711, when he was ordained as minister at Reading. 
Mr. Brown was also town clerk from October 30, 
1706, to October 9, 1711, and at his resignation said : 

" I have served Newbury as 6chool-master eleven years, and as Town 
Clerk five and a half years, and have been repaid with abuse, ingrati- 
tude and contempt. I have sent nigh as many to college as all the 
masters before since the Reverend and learned Parker. Those I 
bred think themselves better than their master (God make them better 
still), and yet they may renienibt'r the foundation of all their growing 
greatness was laid in the sweat of my brow. I pray that from un- 
ackuowledging Newbury may get them that may serve them better 
and find thanks when they have done. If to tind a bouse for the school 
two years when the tow n had none ; if to take the scholars to my own 
fire when there was no wood at school as frequently ; if to give records 
to the poor and record their births and deaths gratis deserves acknowl- 
edgement then it is my due, but hard to come by." 

In 1713 John Woodbridge, a graduate of Harvard 
in 169-1, was employed at twenty-five pounds per year 
and kept the school eighteen years, with a salary at 
no time exceeding forty pounds. In 1728 the town 
voted thirty pounds for each of the three parishes and 
the Third Parish, which included substantially the ter- 
ritory which was incorporated as Newburyport in 1764, 
added thirty pounds to its share and establi-shed a 
school near the head of Market Street. In 1731 this 
parish voted 'sixty pounds for the support of a school 
and also voted that no children should attend unless 
they could read in a psalter. In 1732 Stephen Sewall, 
a graduate of Harvard in 1731, succeeded Mr. Wood- 
bridge and taught for nearly fifty years. The town 
appropriated one hundred and sixty pounds, and what 
remained after supporting the Grammar School was 



BURY. 1729 

to be divided pro rata between the parishes for the 
education of their youth. In 1733 the Third Parish 
voted to support a school at its own expense, and in 
the same year the town voted forty-pounds for the 
support of a grammar school on the west side of the 
Artichoke River. In 1736 the General Court author- 
ized the Third Parish to raise money for its own 
school, and exempted it from paying for the support 
of any other school, and in 1740 this parish raised 
one hundred and twenty pounds for a grammar school, 
to be taught by Samuel Moody, and a writing school, 
under the instruction of Leonard Cotton. 

In 1753 the town voted that a writing school be 
kept one year in each parish " until it has served the 
whole town." In 1763 the town voted to build a 
grammar school house near the head of Fish Street, 
and in 1774, fifteen years after the incorporation of 
Newburyport, Samuel Moody made a donation of one 
hundred pounds to the town in addition to a previous 
gift of twenty pounds for the purpose of creating a 
fund for a grammar school. 
, But it is useless to go further into details concern- 
ing the schools. It is sufficient to say that the school 
system after the Revolution grew rapidly in favor 
with the people and steadily advanced in usefulness. 
In 1821 the town was divided into nine school districts, 
each of which had its school, though the territory, popu- 
lation and wealth of the town had been only two years 
before largely diminished by the incorporation of West 
Newbury. At present there are the following schools 
in the town : the Lower Green, the Ridge, the Upper 
Green, the Farm, the South Byfield, the Byfield Prim- 
ary and the Byfield Grammar Schools, with a total at- 
tendance of about two hundred and forty scholars. 

The early industries of Newbury were chiefly 
those connected with saw-mills and grist-mills and 
fulling-mills. Some of the earliest of these have been 
referred to. At a later day tan-yards were established 
and rope-walks were built ; but in recent years, since 
the incorporation of Newburyport and West New- 
bury and the further annexation of territory to New- 
buryport, its old industries have either, witli few ex- 
ceptions, died out or, as in the case of the chief indus- 
try of ship-building, been transferred by legislative 
acts to the newly-formed municipalities. Those still 
remaining are at the Mill village in the Byfield 
Parish. In 1794 the first incorporated woolen com- 
pany in the State built a factory at Dummer's Falls, 
the machinery for which was made by Guppy & 
Armstrong, of Newburyport. 

The early history of this mill is not without its in- 
terest. In 1793, John and Arthur Sehofield, sons of 
Arthur Sehofield, who lived at Standish-foot, in Sad- 
dleworth, Yorkshire, came to New England and set- 
tled first in Charlestown. There they began to make 
patterns for the machinery of a woolen-mill, and Rev. 
Jedediah Morse, of Charlestown, became interested 
in their work. Mr. Morse was then engaged with 
Rev. Elijah Parish, of Byfield, in writing a "History of 



1730 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



New England," and through the two clergymen the 
Schofields became acquainted with capitalists in 
Newburyport. The result was that William Bartlett 
and Benjamin Greenleaf and others became suffi- 
ciently interested in the enterprise proposed by them, 
to procure an act of incorporation as the " Proprietors 
of the Newburyport Woolen Company." The per- 
sons named in the act were Benjamin Greenleaf, 
Philip Auben, Wm. Banlett, Offin Boardman, Jr., 
Moses Brown, David Coffin, Wm. Coombs, John 
Coombs, Mark Fitz, Abel Greenleaf, John Greenleaf, 
Andrew Frothingham, Jonathan Gage, Michael 
Hodge, AVm. Pierce Johnson. Nicholas Johnson, 
James Kittell, Nathaniel Knapp, James Knight, 
Peter Le Briton, Joseph Moulton, Wm. Noyes, John 
P. Bryan, Theophilus Parsons, James Prince, Wm. 
Welstead Prout, Edward Rand, Joseph Stanwood, 
Ebenezer Wheelwright and Edward Wigglesworth. 

In the same year Paul Moody, of Newbury, sold to 
the corporation six acres of land, partly covered with 
water, for four hundred and fifty pounds, and also his 
grist-mill, " together with the stream of water com- 
monly called the Falls River, with the right of flow- 
age," etc. This land was a part of that granted by 
the town to John Spencer and Richard Dnmmer to 
build a mill upon in 1636, and was sold by Nathaniel 
Duramer, in 1710, to William Moody, the grandfather 
of the grantor to the woolen company, in 1794. In 
the mean time the Schofields had removed, in Decem- 
ber, 1793, to Newburyport, and at once began to con- 
struct a carding-raachine, which was put together in 
a room of the stable of Timothy Dexter. This was 
the first carding-machine made in this country. This 
and other experiments proving satisfactory, the By- 
field factory was built and finished in 1795, when the 
Schofields, who had been for a few months engaged 
in Newburyport in the manufacture of woolen cloth 
by hand, sold their machines to the corporation and 
removed to Byfield to superintend the mill. They re- 
mained in Byfield about five years, when John re- 
moved to Montville, Connecticut, and Arthur to Pitts- 
field. Massachusetts. 

In 1804: William Bartlett, who had obtained posses- 
sion of the mill, sold it to John Lees for eight thou- 
sand five hundred dollars, who converted it into 
a cotton factory, and for a time was successful. Re- 
verses, however, came to him, and in 1824 the mill 
was sold by Deputy-Sheriff Philip Bayley to Gorham 
Parsons. Mr. Parsons repaired and- rearranged the 
mill, and about the year 1S30 leased it to Wm. 
Cleaveland, who for several years was engaged in the 
manufacture of cotton cloth. Mr. Gorham Parsons 
subsequently sold it to Theophilus Parsons,who again 
sold it to M. E. Hale, of Newburyport. By Mr. Hale 
it was sold to Dr. Francis V. Noyes, who leased it as a 
bedstead and cabinet-shop. It was afterwards owned 
by Alfred Durant, with his brother, Rev. Henry Du- 
rant, and finally by Charles Hold, during whose own- 
ership it was burned. After the fire the land and 



privilege were bought by Leonard Morrison, who re- 
built it for a fancy yarn mill, and at the present time, 
under the ownership of H. U. Ewing and others of 
Boston, it is employed in the manufacture of 
blankets. 

Besides the woolen-mill there are on the river two 
snuff-mills, and near the railroad station at Byfield a 
shoe-factory, carried on by Mr. J. O. Rogers, with a 
product of about one thousand cases a year. 

The business of ship-building in Newbury was first 
carried on on the river Parker. The vessels built 
there were probably small sloops of light draught, and 
no positive record exists concerning them. Hon. 
John J. Currier, in his valuable pamphlet on ship- 
building on the Merrimac, adduces evidence to show 
that on that river vessels were built as early as 1652. 
In the year 1652 mention is made of " an old build- 
ing yard '' on Carr's Island, and Mr. Currier furnishes 
a list of vessels built in Newbury for English owners 
between 1698 and 1713. From those early times 
down to 1851, when Newbury was cut off from the 
upper shore of the river by the annexation of a por- 
tion of its territory to Newburyport, ship-building 
continued to be its leading industry. The following 
vessels were built in Newbury and registered by the 
authority of the government of the province of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay : 



1698. Sloop Unity 

1698. Bark Tryal 

1698. Brigatine NoDtune 

1698. Sloop DoIl)hin 

1698. Brigantine Endeavor.. 



1698. Bark Elizabeth SO 

1698. Sloop Elizabeth 30 

1698. Ketch Belford .15 

1698. Sloop Dolphin 25 

1699. " Sea Flower 29 

1699. " Unity 30 

1699. Bark Hopewell 30 

1699. Ketch Endeavor 30 

1699. Sloop Sterling.... 25 

1700. " Edward and Efea- 



1700. Brigantine William 40 

1701. Ketch Merrimack 30 

1702. Sloop Adventure 30 

1702. Bark Abigail and Mar- 
garet 40 

1703. Ship Samuel and David.. 100 

1703. Ketch Adventure 2R 

1703. Sloop Lamb 26 

1703. Brigantine Elizabeth 50 

1703. Sloop Dolphin 25 

1703. Ketch Hopewell 20 

1704. Sloep Neptune 30 

1704. " Swallow 75 

IVA. Ketch Endeavor 25 

1704. Sloop Endeavor 40 

1704. " Hopewell 40 

1705. Ketch Merrimac 60 

1705. Brigantine Welcome CO 

1705. " Dove 35 

1705. Sloop John and fllary.... — 

1705. " Kone Such 30 

1706. " Friend's Adven- 



Tons. 

1706. Ship Mary Fortune 66 

1706. Brigantine Expectation.. 100 

1706. " Sarah 60 

1706. " Kichard 60 

1706. Ketch Hopewell 20 

1707. Sloop Dove 30 

1707. " Tryal 30 

1708. " Speedwell 40 

1708. " Union 35 

1708. " Susanna 25 

1708. Ship John 120 

1709. '• Bond 310 

1709. " Leopard Galley 70 

1709. Sioop Friendship 40 

1709. Ship Prince Eugene ItO 

17U9. Sloop Sarah and Mary... 20 

1709. Brigantine Bradford 45 

1710. Sloop Review 25 

1716. " Hetty and Mary... 25 

1710. " Adventure 60 

1710. " Eebecca 30 

1710. Ship Abigail and Be- 



200 



1710. Brigantine Katharine... 30 

1710. " Newbury 60 

1710. Sloop Anne 25 

1710. " Greyhound 40 

1711. Bark Sea Flower 2(1 

1711. Ship Strawberry 70 

17U. Sloop Mary and Abigail.. 30 
1711. " Hannah and Eliza- 
beth 60 

1711. Bark Samuel 40 

1711. Sloop Hannah and Mary 30 

1712. " Fisher 25 

1712. " Ann and Mary 70 

1712. " Thistle 40 

1712. Ship Nathaniel 60 

1712. " Rowlundson 160 

1712. " Content 90 



NEWBURY. 



1712. Brigiintine Swan 45 

1712. Sloop Sea Flower 30 

171.1. Briguntine Success 45 

1713. Sloop Grfjhound 40 

l~\3. •• Pellegan 26 

1713. " Galatea 25 

1713. Bark Pannope 50 

1713. Sloop Elizabeth 30 

1713. " Mary and Sarah ... 20 
1713. Brigantine John and 

Mary 40 

171.3. Ship Samuel 36 

1713. Brigantine Lamb_ 40 

1713. Sloop Daniel 40 

1713. " Content 25 

1713. " Peter and Mary.... 40 



1713. Brigantine Elizabeth 



1713. Brigantine Sarah 70 

1713. 50 

1713. Sloop William and 



1714. Ship Sea Flower 50 

1714. Sloop Adventure 30 

1714. Ship Marlborough Gal- 
ley 130 

1714. Sloop Flowerde Luce... 40 

1714. " Burlington 35 

1711. Brigantine Adventure... 40 

1714. " George 30 



The following record contains the names of vessels 
built in Newbury, and enrolled at the Custom-House 
in Newburyport from 1789 to J851 : 

1817. Schooner Wasp 4J 

1817. " Lively 43 

1817. •' Three Friends 43 

1818. " Java 49 

1818. " Enterprise 39 

1818. " Washington.. 39 

1818. " Essex 43 

1818. '■ Volant 52 

1819. " Decatur 42 

1819. Schooner Sylph 54 



Port Packet.. 



Hope 66 

Hope 59 

Blossom 22 

Betsey 22 

Sally 22 

William 65 

Peggy & Polly 79 

Sentinel 24 

Lydia 27 

Lydia 32 

Industry 39 

Polly 63 

William 62 

Lucy 77 



Friendship.. 



1794. 






1796. Brig Sally 

180U. " Fame 

1800. Schooner Mary Ann. 
1800. " Amazon 

1800. Sloop Branch 

1801. Scnooner Samuel 

18)1. " Lewis 

l^'l. Brig Fame 

1 -' 1 1. Schooner Begulus 

1 -4. " Two Sous... 



1S09. Schooner Phebe 49 

1810. Brig Leo ]25 

1811. " Emily 127 

1811. " Abby 136 

1812. Schooner Rolla 98 

1813. " Green 81 

1S13. " Scorpion 28 

1813. " Harriet 32 

1814. " Juno 41 

1814. " Malvina 33 

1814. " Comet 24 

1814. " Platolf. 43 

1814. " Atlas 40 

1814. " Swift 30 

1814. " Emily 26 

1815. " Phenix 72 

1815. " Mary 106 



1820. 



Blossom 41 

Constellation.. 45 

Albert 60 

Citizen 130 

Mercy & Hope 66 

Mary Buutin.. 76 

Brilliant 76 

Wasp 61 

Belleville 84 



Temple "1 

Warren 55 

Baltic 86 

Caspian 60 

Statesman 47 

Joppa 86 

Eunice 74 

Pacific 37 

Luther. 54 

Cyrus 58 

York 74 

Fulcrum. 74 



Meriam 

Nautilus .... 

Pembroke.. 

Charles 

Phebe 

Palm 

Pilot 

Emerald .... 
Maty Ann. 
Go Ahead.. 

Patriot 

Ivy 



Stoic 60 

Gem 44 

Magnet 44 

Ruby 44 



" Atlantic 61 

Mary Clark.... 97 
Mary C. Ames 108 

" Oregon 122 

" Harvest Home 67 
Steamboat Ohio 225 



Schooner Harp 

*' Fremont 

Far West... 
'* Harbinger., 
" Ada 



Thistle 63 

Empire 93 

Alice Parker. 61 

Edm'd Burke 59 



The following record contains the names of vessels 
built in Newbury and registered at the Custom- 
House at Newburyport from 1793 to 1851 : 



1784. Brig Pomona 

1785. Schooner Nancy 

1786. " Hope 

1786. " Hawk 

1786. " Hope 

1787. Brig Mary 

1788. Schooner John 

1789. Brig William 

1789. Ship William 

1791. Schooner Dolphin 

1792. Brig Hannah 

1793. Brig Mary 

1793. Schooner Lucy 

1793. " Beteey 

1793. " Polly 

1793. " William 



1794. Brig William and Eliza. 123 
1794. Ship Columbia 206 

1794. " Charles..... 225 

1795. Ship Hibernia 186 

1795. Brig Swan 130 

1795. •' Diana 125 

1795. " Union 120 



1796. Schooner Hannah and 

Eliza 262 

1796. Brig Sally 102 

1797. •' Eliza 154 

1797. Ship Packet 288 

1797. Brig Joseph 146 

1797. " Banger 137 

1797. Ship Herald 280 

1798. " Bufus 162 

1798. Brig William 123 

1798. " William 140 



1799. " Joanna 

1799. Ship Alligator 

1790. Brij Humming Bird,. 

1800, Hii_ 1: iMii 



1800, liii^ .\iiii 172 

1801. Suhooner Joseph 72 

1801. Brig Star 1.56 

1801. Scow America 158 

1801. Brig Tiger 148 

1801. Sliip Grand Sachem 2,50 

1801. Ship Essex 256 

1801. Brig Marj- 204 

1802. Schoncr Regulator 94 

1802. Sloop Eliza 31 

1802. Brig John 168 

1802. Ship Nancy 235 

1802. Brig Jlar.v 160 

1802. " Nancy 1:^.4 

1802. Phili IIunt.T L^O 

1802. Brig Eliza 159 

1803. Sloop Susan 72 

1803. Ship Mary 235 

1803. ShipSaUy 220 



1808 



Ship Rest! totion 

Brig Elizabeth 

" Elizabeth 

Ship Edwin 

" Washington 

Bark Packet 

Brig Mary and Ellen... 
Ship Wm. P. Johnson.. 

" Elizabeth 

*• Hercules 

BrigCommerce 



" Ruby Ill 

Ship Moses Brown 337 

Ship Romulus 337 

Brig Commerce 138 

Brig George 104 

Schooner Hannah 85 

Brig George 100 

Ship.\rrow 276 

Ship Edward 246 

Ship Mayland 395 

Brig Topaz 213 

BrigSophila 181 

Ship George Planter 345 

Brig Adze 114 

•' otter 239 

" Pomona 138 

" Pilgrim 269 

" Ellen Maria 168 

808. Schooner Betsey 85 

808. BrigLatona 178 

Ship Ceres 279 

Schooner Abigail 87 

Brig Mariner 113 

Brig Camelia 310 



189 






Brig Lloyd 220 

Ship Harriot 275 

Ship Ocean 279 

" Neptune 354 

" Fingal 382 

" Volant 457 

Brig Leader 216 

Ship Oscar. 336 

" Hercules 309 

Brig Leo 156 

" Abigail 255 

Ship Packet 281 

Brig Gorsamer 224 

ShipSalus 29i 

" Virginia 399 

Brig America 341 

Schooner Go On 15 

Sliip-\gawam 328 

" Milo 395 

Brig Start 174 

" Pickering 256 

Ship Wallace 344 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Tons, 
in. Brig Dolpliin IDS 

111. " Gen. Stalk 230 

>12. Sloop Angouoria G2 

112. Brig Essex 294 

12. Schooner Yaukee 77 

112. Brig Ives 1% 

113. Schooner Mary 108 

114. " Sally 2G4 

14. " Happy Jack 17 

;14. Boat Maria 20 

14. Brig Hope 105 

14. " Indue 202 

14. Schooner Eisoic 100 

15. Ship Arislides 278 

15. Schooner Peaco 110 

15. Brig Alert 2G2 

1.5. Schooner John... 87 

15. Brig Copernican 119 

15. Schooner Success 75 

15. Brig Olive 167 

16. " Now Leader 271 

15. " Syren 182 

15. " Brahmen 242 

15. Ship Caroline 322 

15. Brig Ann 134 

IG. Schooner Paragon 83 

IG. " Strong 82 

16. Sloop Harvard 93 

16. Ship Draper 291 

10. Brig Caspian 194 

17. Schooner Constitution... 86 

17. " Alexander 103 

17. Brig Packet 128 

17. " Dove 145 

17. Ship Atlantic 323 

17. Schooner Wasp 40 

17. *' Democrat 47 

IS. Brig Eajah. 250 

18. Schooner Gen. Putnam. 113 
18. Ship Herald 302 

18. Brig Formax 110 

19. Ship Meteor. 325 

19. Ship Glide 282 

10. Schooner Planet 123 

19. " Tom 60 

19. Ship Henry 259 

19. Schooner Essex 43 

19. " Constellation.. 46 

2). " Hannah and 4 

Susan 67 

21. " Borneo 82 

21. " Maid of the 

Mill 7G 

21. Ship Delta 314 

21. Sctiooner Ann 61 

21. " Haytian 38 

21. Ship Florida 300 

21. Schooner Dennis 39 

22. lirig Argus 156 

22. Ship Pioneer 319 

22. ■• Cliirord Wayne 305 

1823. Schooner Mechanic 60 

Ship brands 328 

Brig Mars 270 

Schooner Falcon GO 

Brig Hampton 224 

Ship Tally Ho 420 

•• Bowditch 399 

" Shylock 278 

" Plutarch 357 

, Schooner Lady Howard. 64 

Brig Henry 161 

1825. Schooner La Fayette 76 

" Fairy 82 

1825. Ship Golconda 369 





Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 










182U. Ship Meridian 


.. 308 


1840. Ship Kosallnd 398 


1840. " Annie 572 


1826. Schooner Minerva.... 


.. 67 


1840. •' Delia Walker. 427 


1846. Bark Gypaey 296 


1826. " Kufus 


... 128 


1840. " Virginia 40O 


1846. " Laura 219 


182C. ■' Duck 


.. 62 


1841. Brig Athen 300 


1846. " Wenham 624 


1827. ShipFredonia 


.. 4i:c 


1841. Bark Apollo 319 


1846. Ship John Currier 697 


1827. " Science 


.. 388 


1841. " Chusan 240 


1847. Schooner Maria Theresa 149 


1827. " Parachute 


.. 331 


1841. Brig Massachusetts 300 


1847. Ship Naomi 647 


1827. Schooner Mans 


... 106 


1841. Bark Wessucumcon 321 


1847. " Capital 687 


1827. Brig Elizaheth 


.. 218 


1841. " Mary Broughton.. 323 


1847. " Fanchon 969 


1827. Ship London 


.. 3.67 


1841. BrigChenamus 202 


1847. Bark Chilton 278 


1827. " Vesper. 


.. 321 


1841. Ship Hannah Sprague... 410 


1847. " Kate Hastings 448 


1827. Schooner Caroline 


.. 84 


1842. " James D. Farwell.. 699 


1847 Ship Richard Cobden.... 6l5 


1828. BrigWayland 


... 217 


1842. Bark John Caskie 349 


1847. " Lebanon 697 


1828. Schooner Convoy 

1829. Brig Czarina 


.. 81 
.. 218 


1842. Brig James Gray 3U0 

1812. Ship Ashburton 449 


1847 Bark Francis . 460 


1847. Ship Ocean Queen 824 


1829. " Powhattan 


... 2G? 


1842. " Courier 380 


1847. " Amaranth 666 


1S30. Schooner Nile 


.. 86 


1842. " Euphrasia 487 


1848. " Nestorian G98 


1830. Brig Pocahontas 


.. 262 


1843. " Augustine Heard... 401 


1848. " Raduga 587 


18.10. " Alice 


.. 281 


1813. Schooner Wm. C.Ellison 43 


1848. " Buena Vista 647 






1843. Ship St. George 845 




1831. Brig Aquila 


.. 288 


1843. " Pacific 531 


1848. Brig Elizabeth Ann 128 


1831. Ship Levant 


.. 382 


1843. Schooner Nassau 107 


1818. Ship Masconoma 824 


183L Brig Angola 


... 137 


1843. Bark Talisman 347 


1848. " Franchise 700 


1.S31. Bark Tasso 


.. 286 


1843. Ship Amity 499 


1848. Bark Henry Rangs ■ 197 


1S32. ShipBrenda 


.. 343 


1844. " Amazon 741 


1848. " Tyringham 009 


1832. " Concord 


.. 391 


1844. " Radius 617 


1848. Schooner Margaret Ann 100 


1832. Brig Palos 


.. 277 


1844. " Bambler 399 


1810. Bark Crusoe 342 


1832. Ship Franklin 


.. 302 


1844. " Java 538 


1849. " Helen Augusta 242 


1832. Schooner Leo 


.. 68 


1844. " John R. Skiddy 980 


1849. " Lyman 369 


1832. " Wave 


.. 58 


1844. Brig Salisbury 296 


1840. " Domingo 230 


18(2. ShipMedora 


.. 314 


1844. Ship St. Patrick 890 


1849. Ship Charles Hill 700 


1832. Brig James Caskie 


.. 283 


1844. " Brutus 650 


1849. " Icargo 678 










1832. " Republic 


.. 399 


• 1845. Bark Edward Koppisch. 250 


1849. Bark Hollander 499 


1833. Bark Thalia 


.. 291 


1S45. Ship Nebraska 610 


1850. Ship Castilian 1000 


18:i.3. Brig Carthage 


.. 296 


1845. Schooner Wave 40 


1850. Bark Annie Blackman.. 530 


1833. Ship Merrimac 


. 414 


1845. Ship Huguenot 9.)5 


1S50. " Dragon 290 


1833. " Emerald 


.. 435 


1845. " Howard 493 


1850. Schooner Peari 31 


1833. Bark Oberiiu 




1845. Brig Keying 300 


1850. Bark Said Ben Sultan... 302 


1833. Ship Jacob Perkins.... 


.. 379 


1845. " Monseratte 170 


1851. Ship Edward 675 


1833. " Saladin 


.. 266 


1846. Bark Fredonia 800 


1851. " Clarissa Currier. ...1000 


1833. " Sural 


.. 340 


1846. Brig Almira 176 


1851. " Racer 1669 


1833. Brig Ark 


.. 298 


184G. Ship Gen. Taylor. 597 


1S51. " Astran 749 


1834. Ship Newburyport.... 


.. 341 


1846. " Roman 649 




1831. " Spartan 

18.34. BrigCirinth 


.. 475 


After the year 1851, when the territory on the river 


" 414 


between Newburyport and West Newburv was an- 


1835. " I'.i.sia 


.. 332 


ne.xed to Newburyport, the Newburv ship- yards were 


1835. " Jlury Kimball... 

183,5. " Leonone 

1835. Schooner Columbia.... 


.. 373 
.. 370 


within the city limits and ship-building in Newbury 
ceased. 


1836. " Hammet 


.. 94 


In connection with the industries of Newburv may 


1836. Bark Allioth 


.. 330 


be mentioned the inventive sljill of its people. At 




.. 417 


the factory at the Falls .Jacob Perkins first set up the 


1837. Brig Pallas 


.. 102 


machine for cutting nails, which, though adding little 


1837. " Nathaniel Hoopo 


r. 427 


to the prosperity of the town, made its inventor one 




.. 69 


of the benefactors of the industrial world. In New- 


1837. B.igShawmut 




bury, too, Paul Pillsbury lived at the old Pillsbury 


1838 " Geneva 






1838. Bark Byron 


.. 34G 


18.39. " Forrester. 


.. 428 


business of making shoes. Mr. Pillsbury was born 


1839. " Flavio 


.. 698 


in what is now West Newbury in 1780 and died in 


1839. " Navigator 


.. 417 


1868. He was one of seven brothers, of whom Enoch 


1839. Schooner Burtington.. 


.. 411 


and Phineas were clergymen, Parker a blacksmith, 


1839. " Brighton.... 


.. 90 


Oliver a mechanic, and Samuel and John farmers. 


1839. Ship Huntress 


.. 6.47 


Oliver was the father of the late Abolitionist, Parker 


1839. Bark Strabo 

1840 " Essex 


.. 420 


Pillsbury. Paul, the subject of this sketch, went, 


1810. Schooner Petrel 


.. 83 


when a boy, to live with Paul Lunt, of Newbury. As 


1840. Ship Gen. Harrison... 


.. 410 


he grew to manhood he est 


abiished himself at Ames- 



THE NEW YORK 

?U&J.'C ■ ■"■ ARY 




En^rmdl/y Sartain after a Bajumefitu/u from life 



(y'^u^i^ Tri^.J-j 






bury as a shuttle-maker, but after a short time he 
returned to Byflelcj, taking possession of the home- 
stead bequeathed to him by his uncle, and made 
shuttles and machines for the cotton factory there. 

His first invention was a corn-sheller, for which he 
received a patent in 1803, and which was the first ad- 
vance made on the old style of hand-work. In 1808 
he received a patent on the bark-mill which was the 
prototype of all the bark, cob, coffee and spice-mills 
now in use. The old method of preparing bark for 
the vats, which his mill superseded, was by rolling it 
with a grind-stone fitted to an axle and drawn by a 
horse. 

His next and chief invention was that of shoe pegs, 
and the machinery for their manufacture. The man- 
ufacture of pegged boots and shoes at once began and 
Mr. Pillsbury had the monopoly of the peg trade. 
He ran his mill with closed doors, and carried on 
for a time a profitable business. His profits, how- 
ever, were soon reduced by competition, which he 
had no patent to prevent, and only a portion of the 
trade at reduced prices was retained by him. 

Among other inventions of his were a rotary fire- 
engine, a seed-sower, churn, a gold-washer and sifter, 
coffee-burner, coffee-mill, window-fastener, bee-hive, 
and others too numerous to mention. 

But this imperfect sketch of the old town of New- 
bury must be brought to a close. The story, though 
half told, must yield to the necessary limitations of 
space. The semi-centennial celebration of 1885 has 
not been alluded to, nor the mineral regions, nor the 
historical society; and the various rich and historic 
farms, occupied generation after generation by de- 
scendants of the first settlers, have been passed by 
unnoticed. Nor have the historic families of the 
town received the attention they deserve. The 
Parsons, Longfellow, Sewall, Moody, Noycs, Cofiin, 
Plunimer, Gerrish, Tenney and Pierce families, with 
others equally distinguished, must find their historian 
and eulogist in one who has ampler space at his com- 
mand, and who is better equipped for the performance 
of his task. Of individual lives which have distin- 
guished Newbury, including those of Chief Justices 
Sewall and Parsons, and some of lesser fame, sketches 
may be found in the chapter on the "Bench and Bar," 
and in the " History of Newburyport," in another 
place in these volumes. 

Note. — The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to the vaUial 
tiles of the Newburyport Hernld, to the scrap boolts of the late Be 
Perley Poore, to the " History of Ship-Building on the Merrimac 
by Hon. John J. Currier, to Coffin's " Historyof Newbury," and to S 
Ferguson, the town clerk of Newbury, for materials which have re 
dered even this imperfect sketch posaible at his bands. VV. T. D, 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 

LEONARD WITHINGTON.' 

Leonard Withinglon was born in Dorchester (now 
1 By Nalhan N. Wltblngton. 



lURY. 1733 

a part of Boston), August 9, 1789. His parents were 
Joseph Weeks and Elizabeth (White) Withington, 
the family having been of the original settlers of the 
town, respectable and respected, holding offices in 
the town and in the church, his great-grandfather, 
Ebenezer Withington, having had a commission from 
the King as a captain in the French War. His 
mother was a woman of genius and force of charac- 
ter, though of little book-learning, except what she 
had read after her marriage, which occurred while 
she was very young, and she had much influence 
over her eldest son, who was so uear her own age 
that they were frequently taken by strangers to be 
brother and sister. The father was considerably 
older, had served as a soldier in the War for Inde- 
pendence, and was a man of solid sense, but not of 
brilliant talents. 

The schools of those days were not very good, and 
in after-years Mr. Withington told the story of how 
he inquired of the mistress of the Dame school as to 
the meaning of a punctuation mark, and was told by 
her that if he looked at all the fly-dirts in the book, 
he would never learn to read. He did, however, 
learn with extraordinary facility, and from a very 
early age displayed a great avidity for books. One 
of the first which fell into his hands, as was to be 
expected in a Puritan family, was Bunyan's wonder- 
ful allegory of "The Pilgrim's Progress," which took 
such a powerful hold upon his imagination that he 
set out on a pilgrimage when a very small boy, and 
contriving a burden for his back, like that of Chris- 
tian, took the gate of a pasture for the wicket gate at 
which Bunyan's hero sought admission. It was a 
characteristic of his life, the vividness of imagination 
which transformed the homely realities into poetic 
dreams, and made him see more in sensible objects 
than appeared on the retina of the eye. 

Though the schools were poor, and the springs of 
learning ran low in them at that lime, he was aided 
in his struggle to gain instruction by an uncle, who 
was rather a bookish man for that community, and 
he had read a good deal for a boy in his circum- 
stances, when, at the age of fifteen, he was appren- 
ticed to the late Joseph T. Buckingham, of Boston, 
to learn the printer's trade. This part of his life he 
thoroughly enjoyed. It opened to him a new world. 
He had greatly larger opportunities for reading, the 
association with men of culture and education, the 
company of aspiring young men, the advantage of a 
debating society, in which there were several youths 
of talent, and the theatres of Boston, which opened 
to him a new world, and where he witnessed the per- 
formances of the great lights of the stage at that time. 
He was a favorite with Mr. Buckingham, who gave 
him the best opportunities and printed some of his 
writings in the later years of his apprenticeship, and 
a regard grew up which ripened into a friendship 
which continued as long as the master lived. 

The young man became ambitious of a literary 



1734 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



career, and especiiilly of becoming editor of a maga- 
zine or review, and to this end was desirous of a 
liberal education. Mr. Buckingham gave him most 
of the last year of his apprenticeship, and Mr. With- 
inglon attended Phillips Academy at Andover for 
one year, fitting for college in that time. The ne.xt 
year he studied at home, and he then was admitted 
to the sophomore class at Yale, having been induced 
by Rev. John Ci)dman, D.D., of Dorchester, to enter 
at the orthodox college, rather than at Harvard, 
which was nearer home. The family had attended 
the church of which Rev. Dr. Harris was pastor; but 
it was at a time when the division was taking place 
in the churches, and Dr. Harris' church wai liberal, 
and they left it for Dr. Codman's, the orthodox 
church, with which Mr. Withington united in 1810. 

From the beginning he took a high stand in his 
class at Yale, and was expected to take the highest 
honors; but a serious illness interrupted his studies, 
and for a while his life was despaired of, so that he 
took the second place at graduation, and as a writer 
he was considered the first in college of his time. 
During the college course, through the influence of 
Dr. Codman and President Dwight, of Y'ale, Mr. 
Withington changed his plan of a literary career, 
and decided to study theology. Accordingly, after 
graduation in the class of 1814, he studied first with 
President Dwight, and afterwards with Dr. Codman, 
and was approbated to preach in 1816 by the Union 
Association of Boston and vicinity, at the house of 
Rev. Dr. Morse, in Charlestown, and before his death 
he was the oldest surviving graduate of Yale and the 
oldest Congregational minister in the United States. 

Soon after he was licensed to preach he received 
two simultaneous invitations from churches to be- 
come their pastor. One was from the First Church 
in Newbury, and although the salary was but one- 
third of that offered by the other, the larger salary 
being from the income of a fund, he felt that there 
would be little interest on the part of the parish 
which did not pay for its own preaching. Accord- 
ingly, he accepted the call from the church in New- 
bury, and was ordained its pastor on the 31st of Oc- 
tober, 1816, and remained with it until his death, on 
Wednesday, April 22, 1885, a pastorate of over sixty- 
eight years, the longest of any in the record of a 
church remarkable for the long life of its ministers, 
and the long continuance of their service with the 
same church. 

Mr. Withington, as a pupil of President Dwight 
and of Dr. Codman, was a Calvinist, and the parish to 
which he was called was ranked among the liberal, 
or Arminians, and his first sermons were not such as 
to disturb the people who had been accustomed to the 
preaching of Rev. Dr. Tucker and Dr. Popkin, who 
resigned to accept the Professorship of Greek in Har- 
vard University. But many of the Calvinists were 
drawn into the society, and the association with 
liberal churches was gradually dropped, and under 



the pastorate of Mr. Withington the church became 
thoroughly identified with the orthodox Congrega- 
tionalists, the covenant was changed into a creed, and 
while at the ordination Rev. Dr. Andrews, pastor of 
the Unitarian Church in Newburyport took part, fel- 
lowship with that church was discontinued. 

From the first of his pastorate Mr. Withington 
made himself felt as an active force in the vicinity. 
He was a scholar, and he inspired the Essex North ■ 
Association of Congregational Ministers with the con- 
tagion of scholarship. They read the Scriptures 
in the original Hebrew and Greek, so that throughout 
New England this body became noted among the 
clergymen of the denomination as a scholarly body 
of men. He interested himself in the first libraries, in 
the first lyceum, in schools and academies, and was 
made a trustee and officer of several of these institu- 
tions. 

Very soon after his ordination, January 17,1817, 
he was married to Sophia, youngest daughter of 
William Sherburne, Esq., of Boston, and he estab- 
lished his family in the home where all his children 
were born, in the house built by a predecessor in the 
pastorate. Rev. Abraham Moore, and which still 
stands on High Street, opposite the head of Marl- 
borough Street. His first wife died April 1, 1826, 
leaving three sons, one of whom died in infancy soon 
after his mother, and the other two dying before their 
father, in young manhood, the second, bearing his 
father's name, leaving issue of daughters. On May 
28, 1827, he was married to his second wife, Caroline, 
daughter of Hon. Nathan Noyes, M.D., of Newbury- 
port, by whom he had five sons and four daughters, 
of whom the daughters and two sons survive. The 
second wife died in August, I860, and from that time 
he remained a widower till the close of his life. 

Mr. Withington had a dislike for college titles of 
honor, which was understood at Yale, so that such 
were not oflered him from that college, but in 1850 
he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Bowdoin, an honor which he deserved by his scholar- 
ship and his writings, which were numerous. Among 
his published addresses were the election sermon, 
preached before the Massachusetts Legislature in 
1831 ; a poem before the Phi Beta Kappa at Yale, 
September 11, 1821 ; an address to the alumni at 
Yale in 1846 ; an address to a society in Dartmouth 
College in 1837, besides numerous lectures before 
lyceums, and addresses to various bodies. He con- 
tributed to newspapers and magazines until nearly 
the close of his life, and published many sermons 
and pamphlets upon public topics, and to the Biblio- 
fheca Sacra he contributed after he was consider- 
ably past eighty years old. He published two books. 
One of these was " The Puritan," a collection of 
essays and sketches with a slight thread of narrative 
running through the whole. This book was pub- 
lished in 1836. The other book was "Solomon's 
Song,'' translated and explained in three parts, and 



1735 



published in 1861, of which one of the theological 
reviews said it was "the ablest exposition ever pub- 
lished of the wrong theory of explanation of Solo- 
mon's Soug." Dr. Withington's own estimate of his 
■work after it was published was always extremely 
modest, and he did not like to hear his books men- 
tioned. The publishers wished to issue a second 
edition of the "Puritan," but, though there was a 
good demand for it, he positively refused to con- 
sent. 

Dr. Withington was a preacher, a scholar, a wit, a 
brilliant conversationalist and a vigorous though 
unequal writer. He had a critical knowledge of 
English literature, and was thoroughly familiar with 
the best writers. Literature was his delight, and it 
was that he might devote himself to it that he pre- 
ferred to remain in a country parish on a small sal- 
ary, where he had leisure for study, and for such 
writing as he liked, though he had many calls to 
more lucrative positions. As a preacher he was strik- 
ing and impressive, though not elegant nor eloquent. 
He was original in thought and in speech, and his 
sermons and addresses were characterized by force of 
expression and aptness of illustration. This was 
especially to be noticed in his extemporary Tuesday 
evening lectures to his people, which were illustrated 
by the freshest readings and observations of the 
speaker, who would often be carried away from his 
subject and carry his people with him. At these lec- 
tures the chapel was always filled, and they were an 
intellectual stimulus which was felt by all who heard 
them. They were not formal discourses, and often 
the speaker did not know when he began where the 
inspiration would lead him, but they were delightful 
talks of a pious scholar, wit and humorist, which at- 
tracted many besides the members of the parish. In 
his faith he described himself as " a modified Cal- 
vinist." 

In conversation Dr. Withington excelled, and in 
his family he delighted in relating stories to his chil- 
dren of pathos or terror which he wove out of his 
fertile imagination, and in composing for them little 
poems on events in the family. He was an indulgent 
father, who desired that his children should read and 
think for themselves, and he had a habit of asking 
them questions in order to set them to studying to 
find the answers, which he did not give. His learn- 
ing and brilliant conversation attracted many distin- 
guished men and women to the house, so that there 
was always intellectual entertainment for the house- 
hold. 

Dr. Withington's life was a complete whole, and it 
can hardly be said that he died, but his life was fin- 
ished after nearly ninety-six years' continuance, and 
its close was a gradual failure of the vital forces, 
bodily and mental, like a fire which had burnt out 
the material upon which it fed. Although not of a 
robust frame, and in early life of rather feeble health, 
he grew to be more healthy as life advanced, and his 



old age was one of calm happiness. Indeed, his life 
was a happy one. He had become convinced that it 
was his duty to become a minister, and the duties, 
not disagreeable to him in the beginning, became his 
pleasure. He was contented in the country parish in 
which he had settled, and he had there the leisure 
for the literary labors which were his delight. He 
retired from the pastorate while his mental powers 
were in full \igor, leaving no impression upon his 
people of their decline, so that they would gladly 
have retained his active services, and his serene old 
age was passed in the companionship of children, 
grandchildren and great-grandchildren, who admired 
his genius and were devoted to his comfort. At the 
last his only desire was to be at rest, and his only 
complaint that he remained, while others, younger 
than he, had laid down the burden of life, and he 
laid it down as one falls asleep, peacefully and un- 
consciously. 

MOSES COLMAN.' 

Moses Colman has sprung from one of the oldest 
families of the town of Newbury, or the county of 
Essex, and a family that has lost nothing of the vig- 
or of heart and mind in the lapse of years. 

He is now seventy years old, showing no more 
marks of age than he did at fifty. The first of the 
family in America was Thomas Colman, a native of 
Marlboro', England. He arrived in Boston in 1635, 
and at once joined the first settlers of the town, 
whose piety did not prevent their appreciating the 
beauties of the location, the fertility of its uplands 
and the ability of its widespread meadows and 
marshes to furnish support to horses, cattle and 
sheep. 

Religious liberty and civil rights they desired, but 
the Dummers, Sewalls, Saltonstalls and other wealthy 
men did not lose sight of this grand emigration to 
and colonization of this section of the New World. 
Thomas Colman was a very valuable man, for at 
home he had gained a reputation for knowledge in 
the breeding of horses and cattle, which was as much 
their object as to-day it is of the settlers in Montana, 
Colorado and Texas, or the men locating on the wide 
prairies and vast plains of the West. 

He had come over the seas on their invitation, — 
they needed his skill, and he at once entered upon 
the duties for which he had been engaged. He be- 
came one of the proprietors of the town, of which the 
whole number was one hundred and thirteen, and 
had lands assigned him in Byfield, which, in part, 
are in the possession of Mr. Moses Colman to-day, 
for there upon the ancient homestead dwelt Thomas 
Colman for seven years. Then he removed to 
Hampton, N. H., and finally, in 1680, with a part of 
his children, he made a new home on Nantucket, 
more desirable on account of the milder climate; and 



I By George J. L. Colby. 



1736 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUiNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



hence we hear of the Nantucket as well as of the 
Newbury branch of the family. Five years later 
Thomas died at the ripe age of eighty-three years, 
and four-score years or more, barring accidents, may 
be counted upon as the Cnlman inheritance. 

Thomas Colman married three wives, who bore him 
five sons and one daughter. 

Benjamin was the oldest, and possibly it was he 
whom tradition says " owned a parcel of land ex- 
tending from near the Meeting-House to where the 
Glen Mills now are,'' some two miles or so. 

It was, however, his last child, Tobias, the son of 
his old age, by his third wife, Margery, who was 
the great ancestor of the By field Col mans. Later 
on Benjamin, born in 1724, who married Anne 
Brown, living at Brown's Springs, in West New- 
bury, was the most distinguished member of the fam- 
ily in its early days, by his long controversy with his 
pastor. Rev. Moses Paraons, on the slavery question. 
He has become historical,— one of the way-marks 
along the line of human progress, showing how fast 
the world moves. 

He seems to have been a logical, well-educated, 
strong-minded man; if not the William Lloyd Garri- 
son of that day, certainly the fore-runner of him who 
was to come and "the voice crying in the wilderness, 
' Prepare ye the way.' " He was deacon of the church, 
and thought it his duty to arraign the pastor as a 
" man-stealer " for keeping a person in slavery. 

And this reminds us that the Lexington and Bun- 
ker Hill of the anti-slavery revolution were not at or 
near Boston, but in Byfield. Thence came the tribes 
that overran the land, and there was the preliminary 
contest between Deacon Benjamin Colman and Rev. 
Moses Parsons. 

Looking along the line of the Colman family we 
find that Moses (born in 1755) inherited the paternal 
acres, which descended to his son, Colonel Jeremiah, 
and from him became the property of the subject of 
this sketch, who has greatly improved the estate and 
made it one of the finest rural summer residences of 
this county. 

In process of time the area has been reduced to 
one hundred acres. Moses, of 1755, married two 
wives ; the first became the mother of Jeremiah, and 
the second, the Widow Emery, was the mother of 
David Emery, and afterwards of Daniel Colman, so 
that the three boys who became prominent citizen', 
lived under the same roof-tree as brothers, though no 
two of them had the same mother and father. 

Colonel Jeremiah, like the first Thomas, had 
knowledge of and love for a horse. He was the best 
rider ever seen on our streets, and when young he 
paid no attention to roads, but would leap every fence 
or stone wall in a five-mile ride. He was for many 
years a colonel of a cavalry regiment, in one com- 
pany of which every man could dismount and regain 
his saddle with his horse at a canter. 

In 1810 he became general agent of the Eastern 



Stage Company, with his headquarters in Newbury- 
port, and he retained that position twenty-nine years, 
to 1839, wheti the corporation retired, dissolved be- 
fore the Eastern Railroad Company. 

Seldom has a man lived having the confidence of 
the public to so great a degree, or his popularity so 
deep and well-grounded, as Colonel Colman. 

He was one of the founders of the Essex Agricul- 
tural Society and an officer as long as he lived. For 
twenty-five years he was marshal at the annual fairs. 
He was one of the founders of the Ocean Bank, a 
director from its incorporation till his death, thirty- 
three years, and was the last of the original board. 
So he was an officer of the Institution for Savings, a 
trustee of Dumraer Academy, thirty-two years deacon 
of the First Church in Newbury, for many years 
chairman of the Board of Selectmen of Newbury- i 
port, and for fifteen years a Representative to the Leg- j 
islature. This unprecedented record was no accident, 
but was founded on the merits of the man as a Chris- I 
tian gentleman, guileless and unspotted. - 

Moses Colman, whose portrait we give, indicating 
in his face and appearance the manner of the man, is j 
the eldest son of Colonel Jeremiah. He was born in ] 
Newburyport and educated by her best teachers — ^ 
Alfred W. Pike, David P. Page, Roger S. Howard 
and Preceptor Cleveland, of Dummer Academy, all I 
of high rank in their profession. 1 

At seventeen he became the clerk, accountant and j 
paymaster of the Eastern Stage Company, one of the 
greatest institutions of Newburyport in the last gen- 
eration of men, which furnished quick and cheap 
travel from Boston to Bangor, and by its branches • 
reached to the centre of New Hampshire and the j 
back towns of Maine. ^ 

Oh ! what a rush of people in any exciting time to 
the Wolfe Tavern as the coach, drawn by four or six 
horses, dashed down the street with Forbes, Akerman, I 
Shaw or Annable on the bos, blowing the horn when 
High Street was reached. Then came the scramble 
for newspapers, " only five hours from Boston ! '' 
We believe that all but three or four of the drivers 
have passed away ; the oldest now living is. we think, 
Esek Saunders, of Worcester. One of the most 
famous was Stephen B. Marshall, who always had 
" room for one more inside." 

About 1859 Moses Colman removed to Boston, 
where, keeping up with the times and the demands 
of the people for improved modes of travel, he began 
a brilliant career on street railroads. First he became 
superintendent of the Metropolitan road, the first 
horse railroad in Massachusetts. His previous ex- \ 
perience with stages, which were run by time-tables 
as the railroads now are, and were as true to their \ 
time of starting, amply fitted him for his ne»v posi- J 
tion, and at once he became a popular and energetic J 
manager, and no small part of the prosperity of the 
Metropolitan at that date and since was due to his 
skill and the impetus which he gave to it. ■ 



NEWBURYPORT. 



He remained there three years, then for five years 
he owned and operated with much success the South 
Boston Horse Railroad, and sold it only when it 
seemed more profitable to sell at his own price than 
to keep it. We believe this is the only ca«e in any 
large city of this Commonwealth where one individ- 
ual has been sole proprietor and manager of a road of 
much magnitude, but there was not a man in the 
State better qualified for the duties. He was at home 
in every department of the work, active, industrious, 
vigilant. 

In 186G, in connection with his son E. C, he es- 
tablished the auction and commission house where it 
now is, on Portland and Friend Streets, in Boston, for 
the sale of horses and their furnishings of every de- 
scription. In this business, not before established at 
the North End, he has remained for twenty-four 
years, during which time it has constantly increased. 
There is not a man in this county, if there is in any 
other, that knows a horse better than he, can quicker 
see his good points or detect his "outs." 

The number of horses and carriages that have pass- 
ed through his hands is beyond our calculation. At 
the opening of the late war, Andrew, the Governor of 
this Commonwealth, availed himself of Mr. Colman's 
knowledge and experience in this business, and gave 
him large orders for cavalry supplies. 

The simple name of the firm conveys no idea to the 
average mind of the extent or importance of the 
business, but when we say that it reaches more than 
one hundred thousand dollars per annum, something 
may be learned. 

Being a man of orderly habits, the business is as 
well arranged and systematized as that of any other 
house dealing in dry-goods, groceries, leather or shoes. 
Moses Colman is a man of much personal intelligence ; 
by constant reading since he left school hehas formed 
scholarly habits and kept up with the times in liter- 
ature, but has had little leisure for political life. He 
has held a seat iu the City Council of Boston, and 
while there took a prominent part in its actions, but 
he could not neglect the demands of his enormous 
business, and the adherence to the rule of fully attend- 
ing to the one iron in the fire has given him success. 

He has the leading traits of the family, is free, gen- 
erous, hospitable, is firm in his opinions, but urbane 
in his manners ; follows in the footsteps of his fath- 
ers in the religious principles that lie at the bottom 
of New Engtand society. 

For many years he has been a worthy member of 
the Congregational Church. He has his winter home 
in Boston, but spends his summers in Newbury, of 
which town he is still a citizen, warmly interested in 
its prosperity. 

Mr. Colman has been twice married, — first, to Eliza- 
beth L., daughter of Edmund Coffin, of Newbury, by 
whom he had nine children, six of them now living, 
— three sons and three daughters ; no children by the 
second marriage. 



CHAPTER CXLIII. 

NEWBURYPORT.' 

BY WILLIAM T. DAVIS. 

FIRST PERIOD. 

From the Incorporation of the Town to the Close of the Itevohition. 

In 1642 the inhabitants of Newbury granted au- 
thority to Thomas Parker, James Noyes, John Wood- 
bridge, Edward Rawson, John Cutting, Edward 
Woodman, John Lowle and John Clark to lay out a 
new town. This town, or rather district of the old 
town, included what afterwards became the " Port " 
of Newbury, and in later times, Newburyport. This 
new section or district of the old town, lying as it did 
on the banks of the Merrimac River and not far from 
the ocean, eventually gained more rapidly in popula- 
iion, and became more thickly settled than the dis- 
tricts remote from the river, which were cut up into 
farms, and whose people retained the characteristics 
of an agricultural population. As early as 1725 a 
part of the First Parish in Newbury, living near the 
" water side," as the district lying on the river was 
sometimes called, was incorporated as a separate re- 
ligious society, and in 1738 a Protestant Episcopal 
Church was built on the site of the present St. Paul's 
Church, by the " water side " members of the old 
Queen Anne's Chapel, the church on Newbury 
Plains, which had been built at the time of the or- 
ganization of its society, in 1711. In 1725 the First 
Church in Newburyport was organized, and on the 
3d of January, 1746, another society was formed at 
the water side by seceders from the old First Parish 
at Newbury, which is now known as the First Presby- 
terian Society of Newburyport. The formation of 
these societies at the " Port " could not fail to draw, 
still more distinctly than it had before existed, the 
line between the two sections of Newbury. As long 
as on the Sabbath those whose worldly interests were 
separate, met together in worship at the same altar, 
there was a tie binding them as one community, 
which, after the establishment of diflferent societies 
and the erection of new places of worship, was irre- 
trievably broken. By the enterprise of the " water 
side " people a new feature was added to their settle- 
ment by the erection, at their own charge, of a new 
town-house, and in 1752 the old one on High Street, 
built in 1735, was abandoned. The location of the 
new town-house, sought as it was by each section, was 
a contested problem which the liberality and public 
spirit of the " new town " people speedily solved. 
But with the possession of these elements of a dis- 
tinct community, the municipal tie which bound the 
two sections together was gradually becoming a 



1 Owing to the death of Major Ben : Perley Poore, with whom ar, 
rangementa had been made to write the history of Newburyport, the 
material gathered by him was placed at the disposal of the writer and 
has been freely used in the preparation of the following history. — 



1738 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, xMASSAOUUSETTS. 



serious inconvenience to the inhabitants of the new 
town and an obstacle in the way of their welfare and 
progress. Not the least of the annoyances which 
they keenly felt related to the education of their 
children. 

The public-school system had been planted with 
a firm root in the minds of New England people, but 
while thickly-settled communities, with the culture 
and refinement and growing wealth which were more 
and more characterizing them, greedily sought its 
advantages and liberally supported it, the more 
thinly-populated farming districts had not been 
aroused to its importance, and were reluctant to 
aflbrd it adequate pecuniary aid. Thus the people of 
the " Port" were obliged to establish private schools, 
in order that their children might receive such in- 
structions as a well-organized public-school system 
ought to furnish, but from which, by the votes of 
those outside of their immediate boundaries, they 
were precluded. And aside from all other considera- 
tions, seeds of jealousies had been sown and were 
rapidly growing, and the fruits of these were feelings 
of hostility and dissension, which could not fail to be 
fatal to a continuance of municipal sympathies and 
ties. 

Such was the condition of things in 1763, when two 
hundred and six of the " water side " people pre- 
sented a petition to the General Court, headed by 
William Atkins, Daniel Farnham, Michael Dalton, 
Thomas Woodbridge and Patrick Tracy, to " be set 
off from Newbury and incorporated a town by them- 
selves." In the following year the General Court 
passed the following act : 

'* Anno Regni Regis Georgii TertU Quarto." 

"Ad Act For Erecting Part of The Town of Newbury into A New 
Town By The Name of Newburyport." 

" Whereas, The town of Newbury is very large, and the inhabitants 
of that part of it who dwell by the water side there, as it is commonly 
called, are mostly nierchants, traders and artificers, and the inhabi- 
tants of the other part of the town are chiefly hnsbandmen, by means 
whereof many difficulties and disputes have arisen in managing their 
public affairs : 

*' Be it enacted by the Governor, Council and House of Representa- 
tives, That that part of the said town of Newbury and the inhabitants 
thereof, included within the following lines, viz. : 

" Beginning at the Merrimac river, against the northeasterly end of 
the town-way, commonly called CottIe*s Lane, and running as the said 
Lane doth, on the eafitwardly side of it, to the highway commonly 
called the High Street and so westwardly, as the said highway runs, on 
the northwardly side thereof, till it comes to a highway known by the 
name of Fish Street, and thence southwestwardly as the way goes, and 
on the eastwardly side thereof, leading by Benjamin Moody's to a place 
called tlie West Indies, until it intersects a straight line drawn from the 
southwestwardly sicie of the highway, against Cottle's Lane, as aforesaid, 
to a rock in the great pasture, near the dividing line between the third 
and tiftli parisht-s there, and so as the straight lines goes, until it comes 
to the dividing line aforsaid, from thence as the said dividing line runs 
by the said fifth parish down to Merrimac river, and thence along said 
river to the place first mentioned, be, and hereby are constituted and 
made a separate and distinct town by the name of Newburyport, vested 
and endowed with all the powers, privileges and immunities that the 
inhabitants of any of the towns within this province do, or ought by 
law to eiyoy. 

** Francis Beunard, Governor. 

"The twenty-eighth day of January, one thousand seven hundred 



At the date of its incorporation Newburyport con- 
tained a population of twenty-two hundred and 
eighty-two, and the territory set off by act from New- 
bury included six hundred and forty-seven acres. 
The town of Newbury had previously included about 
thirty thousand acres, and was one of the largest 
towns in Massachusetts, being about thirteen miles 
long and about six miles broad in the widest place. 
But though Newbury was so large, the new incorpor- 
ated town was the smallest iu the Slate. Of course, 
as is the case in the division of all towns, there were 
equitable settlements of privileges and expenses to 
be made ; but these, with the exception of those re- 
lating to common lands, which were not affected for 
many- years, were all satisfactorily and speedily ad- 
justed. It is needless in this narrative to enter into 
the details of the vexed questions concerning these 
lingering settlements, as they are sufficiently ex- 
plained in the various published histories, to which 
the reader has access. 

Immediately after the passage of the act of incor- 
poration a warrant was issued, dated Ipswich, Jan- 
uary 31, 1764, by John Choat, one of His Majesty's 
justices of the peace, directed to Daniel Farnam, one 
of the principal inhabitants, requiring him to call a 
meeting at the Court-House, on Wednerday, the .8th 
of February next ensuing at ten o'clock, for the 
choice of a moderator, town clerk, selectman, treas- 
urer, assessors, overseers of the poor and all other 
officers. The notification of the meeting was given 
February 1st, and at the meeting held in pursuance 
thereof the following officers were chosen : 

Moderator, Michael Dalton. 

Selectmen, Stephen Cross, Enoch Titcouib, Jr., Timothy Pike, Daniel 

Treasurer, Nathaniel Carter. 

Clerk, Stephen Sowell. 
; Assessors, Jonathan Greenleaf, Dudley Atkins, Samuel Greenleaf. 

Overeeers of the Poor, Captain Patrick Tracy, Joseph Cottle, Ebene- 
zer Little, Captain Henry Titcomb. 

Constables, John Wyat, Edmund Morse, Jr., Stephen Wyat. 

Fire wards, Edmund Bartlett, Richard Greenleaf, Cutting Bartlett, 
Jonathan Titcomb, Samuel Gerrish. 

Cullers of Staves aud Hoops, Captain Cutting Moody, John Stone, 
Joseph Stickney. 

Surveyors of Lumber, Isaac Johnson, Prancis Hollider, Samuel Ger- 
rish, Ichabod Woodman, Samuel Roif, Samuel Grpenleaf, William Har- 
vey, Moses Rogers. 

Cullera of Fish, .Jacob Giddins, Caleb HasktI. 

Wardens, Ralph Cross, Cutting Moody, Cutting Bartlett. 

Clerks of Market, Samuel Tuft, Ebenezer Greenleaf, Jeremiiih Pears.m, 
Cutting Moody, Captain Wm. Davenport. 

Sealers of Leather, Edmund Bartlett, John Kent. 

Hay-ward, John Harris. 

Surveyors of Highways, Samuel Titcomb, William JlcHarJ, Dcacou 
Thomas Moody. 

Hog-reeves, Thomas Bartlett, Enoch Pilsbury, Samuel Toppan, Samuel 
Rolf. 

Fence-viewers, Deacon .John Kent, William Price. 

.■i,.,! I 1 W.iJii- Mil Measures, Captaiu Jeremiah Pearaon. 

h : ; 1 ' liii Hidden. 

Im - , 111. I School-houses and Report in March, Nathan- 

i,-l I ,111. ,, ( i|.i.(iii l;. u.jrt Roberts, Captain Cutting Moody, Benjamin 

It may not be without interest to present at this 
point in the narrative lists of those who were chosen 



NEWBURYPORT. 



1739 



at annual meetin 


gs to the 


various offices of modera- 


John Lowell. 


1789. Thomas Thompson. 


tor, town clerk, 


treasurer 


and selectmen from the 


JohnStickucy. 


Benjamin Balch. 


date of the above election 


until the organization of 


David Moody. 


Edward Rand. 


the city governmeat, in 1S51. Such lists are oftea 


1772. Benjamin Greenleaf. 


Joseph Noyes. 




Tristram Dalton. 


1790. Joseph Noyes. 












insertion. 






Stephen Cross. 


Wm. Pierce Johnson. 




Moderators. 


Abel Greenleaf. 


John O'Brien. 








1773. John Stickney. 


Nicholas Johnson. 


Daniel Farnam 


.Mar. 1764 


Jonathan Gage 1808 


Richard Smith. 


1791. Joseph Noyes. 




176.'i-60 


William Bartlett 1809 


Jonathan Titcomb. 


J. O'Brien. 






Nichloas Pike 1810 


1774. Tristram Dalton. 

Benjamin Greenleaf. 


Nicholas Johnson. 


.J 




Jonathan Gage 1811 

William Bartlett 1812 




Jonathan Greenleaf... 




Henry Hudson. 








Jonathan Titcomb. 


1792. Moses Hoyt. 


Daniel Faruam 


1774 


Ebenezer Moaely 1817-18-19 


Stephen Cross. 


Anthony Davenport. 




1775 


William B. Bannister 1820 

Ebenezer Mosely .......Hil 


John Lowell. 
1775. Richard Smith. 


Henry Hudson. 


Juhn Lowell 


1770 


J. OBrien. 




1777 


Asa W. Wildes 1822 


Benjamin Greenleaf. 
Stephen Cross. 
Jonathan Titcomb. 


Nathaniel Carter. 




Ebenezer Mosely 1823 

William Bartlett 1824 


1793. JohnMycall. 


Stephen Vrus, 


1780 


Moses Hoyt. 








John Lowell. 


Bishop Norton. 


Enoch Titromb 


1782 

1783 


John Merrill . 1820 


1770. John Lowell. 

Tristram Dalton. 


Thomas Thompson. 


Nicholas Pike 


Ebenezer Bradbury 1827 


Joshua Carter. 


Enoch Titcomb 


1784 


Caleb Cushing 1828-29 


Abel Greenleaf. 


1794. Nathan Hoyt. 


John Tracy 


1785 


Ebenezer Bradbury 1830 




John Pettingel. l 




1780-87 


Eleazer Johnson 18.-il 




John Mycall. 


John Tracy 




Caleb Cushing 1832 


1777. Jonathan Titcomb. 


Bishop Norton. 


Jonathan Greenleaf... 


17911-91-92 


Ebenezer Bradbuiy 1833-84 




Joshua Carter. 




1793-94 

1795 




Samuel Tufts. 




Jonathan Greenleaf... 


.lohn Merrill 1830 


Joshua Carter. 


Johrj Tracy 

Stephen Cross 


1796 


Caleb Cushing 1837 


Jacob Boardman. 


Wm. Noyes. 


1797 


John Merrill 1838-39 


1778. Jonathan Titcomb. 


John Pettingel. 


Nicholas Pike 


1798-99 


Ebenezer Bradbury....l810-41-42- 




Theophilus Bradbury, Jr. 


John Tracv 


1800-01-02 


43-44-45-46 




1796. John Pettingel. 


Enoch Titcomb 




Henry W, Kinsman 1847^8-49-,50 
Philip K. Hills 1851 


Samuel Tufts. 


Theophilus Bradbury. 


Nicholas Pike 




Moses Frazier. 


William Bartlett 




1779. Same. 

1780. Jonathan Titcomb. 


Ebenezer Stocker 






Oilman White. 




Town 


Clerks. 


Abel Greenleaf. 


1797. Theophilus Bradbury. 


Stephen Sewall 


1764-75 




Nathaniel Tracy. 
Samuel Tufts. 
Moses Frazier. 


John Pettingel. 


Nicholas Pike 




Abraham Wheelright. 


Michael Hodge 


1780-89 




Oilman White. 






Eleazer Johnson 1831-51 






Eobert Long 


..1797-1805 


1782. Enoch Titcomb. 


1798. Abraham Wheelright. 








Nathaniel Tracy. 






Treas 


urers. 


Moses Brown. 


Samuel A. Otis. 


Nathaniel Carter. .. 




Samuel Tenney 1811 

Benjamin Whitmore 1812-16 


Jonathan Mullikin. 


John Peai-son Jr 


Daniel Dole 


1766-67-68 


Charles C. Rabotaan. 


Cutting Moody 


1768-75 


Solomon H. Currier 1817 22 




1799. Charles C. Raboteau. 


David Moody .. .. 




John Potter 1823-31 


Edward Wigglesworth. 


Jonathan Gage. 
Wm. Wyer, Jr. 


Moses Frazier 


1782 


David Coats. 
Stichael Hodge. 


David Moody 


1783 


Moses Merrill 1835-43 


Thomas M.Clark. 


Enoch Titcomb 


..1784-1810 




Wm. Coombs. 


James Prince. 




Seiec 




17S4. Edward Wigglesworth. 


180O. Nehemiah Haskell. 


1764. Stephen Cross. 


1767. Dudley Atkins. 


David Coats. 
Wm. Coombs. 


John B. Titcomb, 
John Fitz 


Enoch Titcomb, Jr. 


Moses Bradstreet. 


Michael Hodge. 


Alexander Caldwell 






Benjamin Greenleaf. 


Wm. Bartlett. 


Moses Hoyt 


Daniel Farnam. 




Samuel Greenleaf. 


1785. Same. 




Stephen Cross. 




Robert Roberts. 


1786. Jonathan Titcomb. 




Enoch Titcomb, Jr. 


1708. Ralph Cross. 


Moses Frazier. 








Benjamin Greenleaf. 


David Moody. 








John Berry. 


John Fletcher. 








Daniel Farnam. 


Joseph Huso. 




Benjamin Greenleaf. 


Robert Roberts. 


1787. Joseph Huse. 


Israel Tonng. 






1709. Daniel Farnam. 




Jonathan Gage. 






Ralph Cross. 


Benjamin Bi^lch. 








Henry Hudson. 








William Atkins. 










Edmund Bartlett. 


1788. Jonathan Titcomb. 


1804. Samuel French 


Kobert Roberts. 




1770. Ebenezer Greenleaf. 


Stephen Cross. 


Joshus Toppan. 
Benjamin Wyatt 


Beujamin Greenleat 


Dauiel Dole. 


John Tracy. 






Cutting Bartlett. 


Moses Brown. 


Gilman White 


John Berry. 




1771. Tristram Dalton. 


Josiah Smith. 


Edward Little. 



1740 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1805. Same. 

18uG. Zebcdco Cook. 

Jolm Pealjody. 

David Collin, Jr. 

SHmiiel Foster, Jr. 

Robert Foster. 

1807. Abniliani Perltins. 
Samuel W. Foster. 
Zebedee Cook. 
Jolin Peabody. 
Robert Foster. 

1808. Zebedee Cook. 
Abraham Perkins. 
Daniel A. White. 
Stephen Holland. 
Amos Toppan. 

1809. Jeremiah Nelson. 
Amos Toppan. 
Sewall Tappan. 
Daniel A. White. 
Stephen Holland. 

1810. Jeremiah Nelson. 
Sewall Tappan. 
Stephen Holland. 
Wm. Woart. 
Jacob Stone. 

1811. Jeremiah Nelson. 
Jacob Stone. 
Isaac Adams. 
Eleazcr Johnson. 
Nicholas Johnson, Jr. 

1812. Isaac Adams. 
Nicholas Johnson. 
Eleazer Johnson. 
Kbenezer Mosely. 
George Jenkins. 

3813. Ebenezer Blosely. 
George Jenkins. 
Isaac Stone. 
Edwards. Band. 
Joshua Greenleaf. 

1814. Joshua Greenleaf. 
Isaac Stone. 
Edward S. Rand. 
Wm. li. Bannister. 

1815. Joshua Greenleaf. 
John Wood. 
Edward S. Rand. 
Wm. B. Bannister. 
Allen Dodge. 

1816. Wm. B. Bannister. 
Richard Bartlett. 
Phillip Coombs. 
Edward Bartlett. 
Obadiah Horton. 

1817. Ebenezer Mosely. 
Abraham Williams. 
Robert Clark. 
Thomas M.Clark. 
Jacob Stone. 

1818. Richard Bartlett. 
Stephen Uoward. 
Arlliur Oilman. 
Samuel Emerson. 
John Scott. 

1819. Samuel Emerson. 
Arthur Gilman. 
Prescott Spalding. 
Stephen W. Marston. 
Daniel Swett. 

1820. Stephen W. MalstoD. 
Daniel Swett. 

Wm. Cross. 
Joseph O'Brien. 



Stephen W. Blarston. 
Phillip Coombs. 
Ebenezer Wheelright. 
John Wood. 
Anthony Smith. 
Phillip Coombs. 
Ebenezer Wheelright. 
Anthony Smith. 
Ebenezer Mosely. 
Wm. Davis. 
Ebenezer Mosely. 
Ebenezer Wheelright. 
Phillip Coombs. 
Anthony Smith. 
Wm. Davis. 
John Wells, Jr. 
Samuel S. Plummer. 
Asa W. Wildes. 
Whittingham Oilman. 



John Cook, Jr. 
Asa W. Wildes. 
John Cook, Jr. 
Thomas Buntin. 

Moses Merrill. 

John Cook, Jr. 

Thomas Buntin. 

Moses Merrill. 

Charles H. Batch. 

Caleb Cusbing. 

Charles H. Balch. 

Eben Stone. 

Samuel T. DeFoord. 

Henry Frothingham. 

Henry Merrill. 

Charles H. Balch. 

Eben Stone. 

Samuel T. DeFoord. 

Henry Frothingham. 

Henry Merrill. 

Charles H. Balch. 

Eben StoBe. 

Henry Johnson. 

Nathaniel Horton. 

Tristram Coffin (3d). 

Chae. H. Balch. 

Stephen Tilton. 

Henry Johnson. 

Nathaniel Horton. 

Tristram Coffin (3d). 

Cbas. H. Balch. 

Stephen Tilton. 

Richard Stone. 

Jos. George. 

Ebenezer Bradbury. 
. Jos. George. 

Moses Merrill. 

Coffin Boardman. 

Stephen Frothingham. 

Nathaniel Jackson. 
, Eben Stone. 

John N. Gushing. 

Chas. H. Balch. 

Henry Merrill. 

Jeremiah Colburn. 
. Same. 



Nathaniel Horton. 



Henry Slenill. 
Jeremiah Colburn. 

1838. Nathaniel Foster. 
John Burrill, Jr. 

Wm. D. Lankester. 
John M. Cooper. 

1839. John Merrill. 
Stephen Caldwell. 

Anthony Knap. 
Jacob Horton. 

1840. Thos. Buntin. 
Moses Merrill. 



Wm. Nichols. 
Edward Toppan, Jr. 
Jubu Pear.ou. 

Edward Toppan. 

Wm. Nichols, 

Moses Davenport. 

John Burrill, Jr. 
1846. Wm. Nichols. 

John Peai-son. 

Edward Toppan, Jr. 

John Burrill. 

John Huse. 
1846. Chas. French. 



1848. Thos. Davis. 
Albert Currier. 
Henry Johnson. 
Robert Bayley, Jr. 
Nathaniel Horton. 

1849. Same. 

1850. Same. 

1851. Nathaniel Horton. 
Henry Johnson. 
John M. Cooper. 
Samuel Phillips. 
Samuel T. Payson. 



Wm. Moody, 

Moses Davenport, Jr. 

1841. Thos. Buntin. 
Moses Merrill. 
Isaac H. Boardman. 
Ezra Lunt. 

Moses Davenport, Jr. 

1842. Moses MerriU. 
Geo. Emery. 
Samuel Currier. 
Edward Toppan, Jr. 
John Pearson. 

1843. Moses Merrill. 
Geo. Emory. 



The following is a list of Newbuiyport members of 
the General Court and of the Provincial Congress, 
chosen in the years set against their names. From 
1858 to 1867 Newburyport formed parts of three Rep- 
resentative Districts, — Amesbury, Salisbury and 
Ward 6 formed the First Essex District, Wards 1 and 
2 the Eighteenth Essex District and Wards 3, 4 and 
5 the Nineteenth Essex District. From 1867 to 1877 
Newburyport and Newbury formed the Sixth Essex 
District, and since 1877 they have formed the Six- 
teenth Essex District : 



764. Dai 



Farnham. 
Dudley Atkine. 
Benj. Greenleaf. 
Benj. Greenleaf. 
Benj. Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Benj. Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Stephen Cross. 
Beiy. Greenleaf, excused. 
Jonathan Jackson. 
Tristram Daltou. 
John Lowell. 
Moses Little. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Jackson. 
Stephen Cross. 
Moses Frazier. 
Jacob Boardman. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Stephen Cross. 
Jonathan Titcomb. 
Moses Frasier. 
Wm. Coombs. 



1779. 



Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Jouathau Titcomb. 
Stephen Cross. 
Theophilus Parsons. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Jonathan Titcomb. 
Jonathan Titcomb. 
Nathaniel Tracy. 
Moses Frazier. 
Nathaniel Tracy. 
Jonathan Titcomb. 
Tristram Dalton. 
Jonathan Titcomb. 
Stephen Cross. 
Tristram Dalton. 
Bufus King. 
Edward Wigglesworth. 
Rufus King. 
Tristram Dalton. 
Jonathan Titcomb. 
Stephen Cross. 
Daniel Kilham. 
Jonathan Greenleaf. 
Theophilus Parsons. 
Wm. Coombs. 
Jonathan Marsh. 
Wm. Coombs. 
Theophilus Parsons. 



NEWBURYPORT. 



JoiiatlKin Mai-bh. 

1791. 8alne. 

1792. Enoch Titconib. 
Stei.lieu Cross. 
Josiali Smith. 

1793. Enoch Titconib. 

1794. SauM. 

1795. Same. 

1796. Same. 

1797. Same. 

1798. Same. 

1799. Enoch Titconib. 
"Will. Coombs. 
Jonatlian Marsh. 
Joslina Carter. 

1800. Same. 

1801. Enoch Titconib. 
Wm. Coombs. 
Jonatliau Marsh. 
Wni. Bartlett. 

1802. William Coombs. 
Jonathan Marsh. 
William Bartlet. 
George Bradbury. 

1803. Jonathan Marsh. 
Jeremiah Nelson. 
Kicholaa Johnson. 
ThomasCarter. 
Thos. 51. Claris. 
Mark Fritz. 

1804. Same. 

1805. Jonathan Marsh. 
Nicholas Pike. 
Andrew Frothingham. 
Bisliop Norton. 
Ed. St. Loe Livermore. 
Edward Little. 
Jonathan Gage. 

1806. Jonathan Gage. 
Edward Little. 

Ed. St. Loe Livermore. 
Mark Fitz. 

.\ndrew Frothingham. 
Stephen Howard. 
John Pearson. 

1807. Same, without Mr. Liver- 

1808. Mark Fitz. 
Jonathan Gage. 
Andrew Frothingham. 
John Pearson. 
Stephen Howard. 
Thos. M. Clark. 
AbnerWood. 

John Peabody. 

1809. Same, with Joseph Dana in 

place of Mr. Clark. 

1810. Mark Fitz. 

Andrew Frothingham. 
Jonathan Gage. 
Stephen Howard. 
John Peabody. 
Joseph Dana. 
Ebenezer Gunnison. 
Samuel H. Foster. 
Wra. B. Bannister. 

1811. Same, with Isaac Stone and 

Isaac Adams in place of 
Mr. Dana and Mr. Pea- 
body. 

1812. Jonathan Gage. 
Stephen Howard. 
Ebenezer Gunnison. 



Wm. Chase. 
Samuel L. Knapp. 

1813. Same, without Mr. Gunni- 

1814. Same, without Mr. Bannis- 

ter. 

1815. Jonathan Gage. 
Stephen Howard. 
Isaac Adams. 
Samuel L. Knapp. 
V/ni. Chase, Jr. 



Eben 



ely. 



Ed*ard S. Hand. 

1816. Same, with Wm. Chase 

place of Wm. Chase, Jr 

1817. Ebenezer Mosely. 
Stephen Howard. 

1818. Same. 

1819. AbnerWood. 
Ebenezer Mosely. 
George Jenkins. 
Stephen Howard. 
Stephen W. Marston. 
Edward S. Band. 

1820. Stephen Howard. 
Stephen W. Marston. 

1821. Stephen W. Marston. 
Abner Wood. 



Eben 

John Coffin. 
Caleb Gushing. 
John ColHn. 
Robert Cross. 
Wm. Farris. 
Stephen W. Marston. 
Wm. Farria. 
Caleb Gushing. 
Ebenezer Bradbury. 
Stephen W. Marston. 
Wbittingham Oilman. 
Wm. Farris. 
Charles H. Bakh. 
Stephen W. Marston. 

Henry Frolhingham. 

Wm. S. Allen. 

Same, with George Lunt 
and Ebenezer Bradbury in 
place of Wm. S. Allen and 
Abner Wood. 
. Charles U. Batch. 

Wm. Farris 

Thos. M. Clark. 



Charles H. Balcb. 

Wm. S. Allen. 

Wm. Davis. 

Moses P. Parish. 

Wm. Farris. 

Same, with Ebenezer Mosely 

in place of Mr. Parish. 
Ebenezer Mosely. 
Charles H. Balch. 
Win. S. Allen. 
Wm. Davis. 
Tristram Coffin. 



Solomon H. Currier. 

1835. 

1836. Isaac Stone. 
Charles H. Balch. 
George Lunt 

1837. Joseph B. Morse. 

1838. Joseph B. Morse. 

Thomas M. Clark. 
Samuel L. Plummer. 

1839. Joseph B. Jlorse. 
James Blood. 
Joseph Couch. 

1840. Ebenezer Bradbiirj*. 
Frederick I. Coffin. 
George Lunt. 

1811. Wm. Davis. 

Isaac H. Boardman. 
Henry C. Perkins. 

1842. John M. Cooper. 
Edward Toppan, Jr. 
Nathaniel Foster. 

1843. Isaac H. Boardman. 
Ebenezer Bradbury. 
Charles H. Balch. 

1844. Frederick I. Coffin. 
John Coombs. 
Benjamin E. Knapp. 

1845. None. 

1846. Ebenezer Bradbury. 
Caleb Gushing. 

1847. Ebenezer Bradbury. 

1848. Ebenezer Bradbury. 
Henry W. Kinsman. 
Ealph C. Huse. 

1849. Jeremiah Colman. 
Kalph C. Huse. 
MarkSynions. 

1850. Jeremiah Colman. 
Edward Toppan, Jr. 



1851. 



Isaac H. Boardman. 
Moses Davenport. 
Amos Wood. 
Wm. E. Currier. 
Moses Davenport. 



Daniel M. Keed. 



Wn 



. Thomas Atwood. 

Harvey Kimball. 

David Wood. 
. Caleb Cushing. 

U. S. Spofford, Jr. 
. Caleb Cushing. 

Winthrop O. Evan 

R. S. Spofford, Jr. 
. Enoch S. Williams 

John Woodwell. 



1860. Frederick J. Coffin. 

George Goodwin. 

Joshua Hale. 
18C1. Albert CuiTier. 

Caleb Cushing. 

1862. John D. Pike. 
Caleb Cushing. 

George J.^George. 

1863. George Goodwin. 
Albert W. Stevens. 

1864. Henry W. Moulton. 
Thomas C. Goodwin. 
Albert W. Stevens. 

18G5. Thomas C. Goodwin. 
Kichaid S. Spofford, Jr. 

1866. Eben F. Stone. 
Bufus Adams. 
George W. Woodwell. 

1867. George W. Jackman, Ji 
George W. Woodwell. 
Bufus Adams. 

1868. David T. Woodwell. 
Horace Choate. 
Joseph N. Rolfe. 

1869. David T. Woodwell. 
Horace Choate. 
George J. L. Colby. 

1870. George J. L. Colby. 
Nathaniel Pierce, 
aioses H. Fowler. 

1871. Robert Couch. 
George W. Clark. 
Wm. Gushing. 

1872. Kobert Couch. 
George W. Claik. 
Benjamin C. Currier. 

1873. Benjamin C. Currier. 
Joseph B. Morse. 
Elbridge G. Kelley. 

1874. Benjamin C. Currier. 
Michael Atkisson. 

1875. Caleb B. Huse. 
Michael Atkisson. 

1876. Eben F. Stone. 
Caleb B. Huse. 

1877. Eben. F. Stone. 
John W. Kicker. 

1878. Benjamin F. Atkisson. 
Samson Levy. 

1879. Eben F. Stone. 
Amos Coffin. 

1880. Amos Coffin. 
Edward P. Shaw. 

1881. John P. Coombs. 
Edward P. Shaw. 

1882. John P. Coombs. 
Thomas C. Simpson. 

1883. Henry M. Cross. 
George P. Bishop. 

1884. Henry M. Cross. 
Willard J. Hale. 

1885. Edward A. Mosely. 
Daniel M. Felcb. 

1886. Daniel M. Felch. 
Edward A. Mosely. 



Newburyport entered its municipal life at a critical 
period. The committee chosen at the meeting iu 
February, 1764, to consider the question of public 
schools, reported recommendations to the town in 
March, and these were no sooner adopted and the 
machinery of town government put in motion, than 
the popular mind became absorbed by anxiety con- 



1742 



HISTORY OP ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



cerning the condition of public affairs. The spark of 
liberty, which was kindled by the unfriendly attitude 
and acts of Parliament and the crown, was destined 
to burst into a consuming flame. No small part of 
the capital of the merchants was invested in trade 
with the French and Spanish West Indies, and 
large importations of sugar and molasses were con- 
stantly received, giving occupation to many mechan- 
ics and laborers and adding wealth and prosperity to 
the town. During the first year after the incorpor- 
ation of Newburyport, heavy duties were imposed on 
these articles, and British naval oflBcers were made 
officers of revenue to enforce with vigor the revenue 
laws. Thus a serious check was given to a trade be- 
fore large and prosperous, and the first of a series of 
misfortunes was experienced, which only the cli se of 
a long and disheartening war partially terminated. 
In the next year the Stamp Act was passed. Under 
the provisions of this act no writing was valid which 
did not bear a stamp on its face. Every deed, ship's 
clearance, will, contract and other papers entering 
into the business of every-day life required a stamp 
varying in price from a half-penny to six pounds. 
The indignation of the colonies at this infringement 
on their rights was so strong, that before any stamps 
were paid for or used in Newburyport, the obnoxious 
act was repealed. The bitter opposition of the citizens 
of the young town to this act was displayed to a 
marked degree. By the more excited it manifested 
itself in noisy demonstrations and in hanging and 
burning the effigy of the stamp distributor. By the 
wiser and more calm, etTorts were made, through legiti- 
mate channels, to convince the government of the 
inexpediency and injustice of the act and the neces- 
sity of its immediate abrogation. A town-meeting was 
held on the 21sc of October, 1765, and an address to 
Dudley Atkins, the representative of Newburyport to 
the General Court, was adopted, with instructions as 
to his course of action in the premises, of which the 
following are extracts : 



"We have the most loyal sentiments i)f our gracious King and liis 
ilhiBtrioua family ; we have the highest reverence and esteem for that 
most august body, the Parliament of Great Britain ; and we have an 
ardent affection for our brethren at home ; we have always regarded 
their interests as our own, and esteemed our own prosperity as necessarily 
united with theirs. Hence it is that we have the greatest concern at 
some measures adopted by the late ministry and some late acts of Parlia- 
ment, which we apprehend in their tendency will deprive ua of some of 
our essential and high-prized liberties. The Stamp Act, in a peculiar 
manner, we esteem a grievance, as by it we are subjected to a heavy 
tax, to which are annexed very severe penalties, and the recovery of 
forfeitures, incurred by the breach of it, is in a manner which the 
English constitution abhors, tliat is, without a trial by jury, and in a 
court of adniirally. That a people should he taxed at the will of 
another, whether of one man or many, without their consent in pereon 
or by representative, is rank slavery. . . The embarrassments on our 
trade are great, and the scarcity of cash arising therefrom is such that 
by the execution of the Stamp Act we should be drained in a very little 
time of that medium, the consequence of which is, that our commerce 
must sUignate and our laborers starve. 

"Tlies-, sir, are our sentiments on this occaaion ; nor can we think 
that tlie distresses we have painted are the creatures of our imagina- 
tion. . . . We, therefore, the freeholders and other inhabittLnts of this 
town, being legally assembled, take this opportunity to declare our just 



expectations from you, which are — That you will, to the utmost of your 
ability, use your influence in the General Assembly that the rights and 
privileges of this Province may be preserved inviolate ; and that the 
sacred deposit wo have receiveil from our ancestors may be handed 
down, without infringement, to our posterity of the latest generations ; 
That you endeavor that all me:ujures, consistent with our loyalty to the 
best of Kings, may be taken to prevent the executiou of the above 
grievous innovations, and that the repeal of the Stamp Act may be 
obtained by a most dutiful and, at the same time, most spirited remon- 
strance against it ; That you do not consent to any new or unprecedented 
grants, hut endeavor that the greatest frugality and economy may take 
place on the distribution of the public monies, remembering the great 
expense this war has involved us in, and the debt incurred thereby 
which remains undischarged ; That you will consult and promote such 
measures as may be necessar}', in this difhcult time, to prevent the 
course of justice from being stayed aud the commerce of the Province 
standing still; That, if occasion shall offer, you bear testimony in 
behalf of this town against all seditious and mobbish insurrections, and 
express our abhorrence of all breaches of the peace, and that you will 
readily concur in any constitutional measures that may be necessary to 
secure the public trantiuillity." 

But confidence and peace of mind did not long 
continue after the repeal of the Stamp Act. The 
government at home had learned nothing from the 
lesson which the history of that act should have 
taught. In 1767 a tax was laid by Parliament on 
paper, glass, painter^' colors, tea and other merchan- 
dise, and the old spirit of opposition to injustice and 
oppression was again aroused in the province. The 
tax on tea was especially obnoxious, as that was an 
article of every day household use, and was felt by 
every man and woman in every town alike. It is a 
story of tradition, though not of definite history, that 
the first destruction of tea took place in Newbury- 
port, and that a considerable quantity was seized and 
burned in Market Square under the direction of 
Eleazer Johnson, a prominent ship-builder of the 
time. 

But neither did the cupidity for the importation 
of tea cease nor its continued destruction, as the 
following protest from the Committee of Safety, pre- 
sented to the town in 1775, will show : 



" To the Inhabitants of Newburyport in Toicn-mei 

" Gentlemen, — Your Committee of Safety, who are also appointed a 
Committee of Inspection to see that the Resolves of the Continental 
Congress are carried into execution, have, with constancy and cheerful- 
ness, attended on the duties of their appointment, being sensible of the 
importance of the Trust reposed in them, and they hope the Town in 
general have approved of their conduct. They have met with only one 
obstruction in their proceedings, which they think needful to lay before 
you, as their future influence and determination depend on the senti- 
ments of the Town thereon. Some time ago a small quantity of tea was 
brought in here in violation of the Continental Association, which the 
Committee took into their custody and had deposited in the Powder 
House in order that it might be kept secure until the Town or the Com- 
mittee should determine something further respecting it, but before 
there was an opportunity therefor, some of our inhabitants, in a very 
sudden and ha«ty manner, laid hands on it and destroyed it. Now, your 
Committee apprehend that it will bo very unsafe for them to take into 
their care any kind of goods that may in future be introduced in the 
like disorderly manner, provided they must be exposed to the same fate. 
\\Tierefore they desire the opinion of the Town upon the matter. 

'•By order of the Committee. 

"Edw. Harbis, Clerk" 

In response to the imposition of these new taxes 
the Boston merchants proposed, in a circular sent to 
the various seaport towns, a non-importation agree- 
ment. An answer to this circular, written by 



NEWBURYPORT. 



1743 



John Lowell, was adopted at a town-meeting held 
March 10, 176S, of which the following is a copy: 

" The Committee beg leave to report, that they are of opinion that 
the subjects therein contained deserve tlie most serious attention of the 
town in particular, as well as of the public in geuel^l. This town has 
been in a great measure supported for many years past by the building 
of ships, which have been purchased mostly by the inhabitants, and for 
the use of Great Britain. The manner in which we have been paid for 
our ships has been mainly by British manufactures. So that the 
importation and purchase of these, and our staple business, if we may so 
express it, have been almost inseparably united. It is with the greatest 
difficulty that a number of people, who have for the most part of their 
lives been used to a particular employment, can suddenly strike into a 
new channel, and carry on a business to which they have always been 
strangere. 

" Hence, though we highly respect the town of Boston for its zealous 
attachment to the liberties of the country, and are ready to assist them 
in all measures to which prudence may direct, we cannot think it can 
consist with the prudence and policy of this town to join in their par- 
ticular resolutions respecting the importation and purchase of he 
enumerated articles of British manufacture. And not only from this 
principle, but from one less selfish, w© cannot wish that the frequent 
and mutual intercourse which has hitherto subsisted between Great 
Sritaiu and us should abate. 'Tis but of late that we regarded Great 
Britain with all the respectful afTection of a child to its parent ; and 
though by some late measures, which we conceive to be highly mis- 
judged, there seems to have arisen a cloud, which obscures the true 
interests of the nation from the eyes of those at the helm, we c<innot but 
expect, as well as impatiently desire, that it will be soon removed, and 
a mutual confidence be established on the firmest foundation. 

" In the meantime, as jealousy, in a constitution like the British, is 
the gre.t preserving principle, we think it necessary to be watchful 
against any encroachments on our rights as Englishmen and freemen, 
and to be uniformly and resolutely determined that these shall not be 
infringed, while our fortunes, or even our lives continue." 

The tone of both the instructions to Dudley Atkins 
concerning the Stamp Act and the above answer to 
the circular of the Boston merchants concerning non- 
importation displays the cautious, conservative spirit 
prevailing in Newburyport. This spirit no doubt 
had its root in the large material interests whose 
welfare or ruin depended on the solution of the 
great question of the time. But the vital impor- 
tance of those interests to the prosperity of the town 
and the comfort of its people emphasizes the unsel- 
fish patriotism which finally settled the question, by 
the sacrifice of business and wealth to the great 
principle of popular freedom. 

As in every great crisis, there was a tide which 
seemed to have a power and will of its own, and the 
tide which was now at the flood was setting with re- 
sistless force and breaking down all barriers which 
prudence or conservatism might impose. The Home 
Government, performing unconsciously its part in the 
great movement which Providence was directing, 
towards the establishment of a free popular govern- 
ment, persisted in its policy, and in the autumn of 1768 
non-importation was agreed on by. the merchants of 
the province. At a meeting held on the 4th of Sep- 
tember, 1769, the town approved of ihe agreement, and 
voted to further and maintain the same and to consid- 
er any person who should evade it an enemy to his 
country. In March, 1770, it was voted by the town 
not to buy or use any foreign tea ; in January, 1773, 
Jonathan Greenleaf, the representative to the Gener- 
al Court, was instructed " to us'e his utmost endeavors 



to procure a full and complete redress of all our public 
grievances ; " in December, 1775,a letter to the Boston 
Committee of Correspondence was adopted in town 
meeting, assuring them of assistance and support, and 
finally in May, 1776, the town voted " That if the hon- 
orable Congress should, for the safety of the United 
Colonies, declare them independent of the Kingdom of 
Great Britain, this town will with their lives and for- 
tunes support them in the measure." 

Thus Newbury port and its piople floated with the 
tide. Along the seaboard of Massachusetts, notwith- 
standing the great interests which needed to be sacrific- 
ed, there was no town so free from Loyalistsor Tories, as 
they were called. Indeed, Newburyport wasastriking 
exception to the rule, so far as seaports were concerned. 
Boston and Salem and Ipswich had their numferous 
Loyalists, and it is said that in Plymouth, where the 
business of its merchants was very similar to that of 
those in Newburyport, James Warren was almost the 
only man of social standing who was an outspoken 
and active supporter of the Revolutionary movement. 
In Marshfield the loyal feeling was sufliciently strong 
at first to control the actions and votes of its town- 
meetings, and on the 20th of February, 177-5, it was 
voted " not to adhere to or be bound by the resolves 
and recommendations of the Concord Provincial Con- 
gress or any illegal assemblies whatever." 

But in Newburyport it has never been claimed that 
more than four persons were tainted with loyally, and 
neither of these was a merchant. These were Daniel 
Farnam, Bishop Edward Bass, Dr. Jones and a man 
by the name of Frye. Frye left the country and went 
to Scotland ; the bishop and Dr. Jones took the oath 
of allegiance, or gave satisfaction to the C immittee of 
Correspondence, and Col. Farnam remained the only 
prominent and confessed Loyalist in the town. The 
charge of loyalty against Bishop Edward Bass has 
never been proved. Hon. Eben F. Stone has discov- 
ered in a collection of old papers, which he has had an 
opportunity to examine, evidence both for and against 
the charge. In an old letter written by Henry Atkins, 
an ofiicer of the Newburyport Custom-House, in the 
service of the crown, his loyalty is strongly claimed ; 
on the other hand, a letter dated May 24, 1783, from 
Col. Peter Frye, a graduate of Harvard, and for many 
years a resident of Ipswich, then living as a refugee 
Loyalist at the Middlesex Hospital, Suffolk County, 
England, states that it was said by thepeople of New- 
buryport, after the death of Col. Farnam, that the 
town was purified and had not a Loyalist in it. A let- 
ter from Samuel Peters, dated June 19, 1783, says that 
Messerve, collector of Portsmouth, and Samuel Porter, 
a lawyer of Salem, " agree that there never was known 
to be in Newburyport more than four loyal subjects, 
one of whom went off" to Scotland, Col. Farnam was 
killed by the rebels, Mr. Bass and Dr. Jones gave sat- 
isfaction to the rebels and remained there.'' 

At any rate, Edward Bass, the bishop was, suspect- 
ed. He was at that time, however, not a bishop, but 



1744 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



rector of St. Paul's Church. He was born in Dor- 
chester, November 23, 172G, and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1744. He taught school after his graduation 
until 1747, and then pursued the study of theology 
until 1751. In 1752 he became the associate of Rev. 
Matthias Plant at St. Paul's, and went to London, 
where he was ordained by Dr. Sherlock, then bishop 
of London, and returned at once to begin his pastoral 
work. In 1789 the University of Pennsylvania con- 
ferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and 
in 1796 he was unanimously chosen at a convention 
of the Protestant Episcopal Churches of Massachusetts 
to be their bishop. He was consecrated May 7, 1797, 
by the bishops of Pennsylvania, New York and Mary- 
land, and at a later date was chosen also bishop of 
the Episcopal Churches of Rhode Island and New 
Hampshire. He died in Newburyport September 10, 
1803, having served as rector of St. Paul's fifty-one 
years. 

Daniel Farnam or Farnham, the only unqualified 
Loyalist in the town, was born in Y^ork, Maine, in 
1719. He was a son of Daniel Farnham, a native of 
Andover, Massachusetts, and was fitted for college by 
Rev. Samuel Moody, of Y'^ork, who was a lineal de- 
scendant of Caleb Moody, of Newburyport. Mr. 
Farnham graduated at Harvard in 1739 and studied 
law with Edmund Trowbridge, who was considered 
the best lawyer of his time, and who held a seat on the 
bench of the Superior Court of Judicature from 1767 
until his resignation, in 1775. In July, 1740, soon 
after his graduation, he married Sybil, daughter of 
Rev. Samuel Angler, of Watertown, and granddaugh- 
ter of Rev. Urian Oakes, president of Harvard College 
from April 5, 1675, to July 2, 1681. After his admis- 
sion to practice he removed to Newburyport, or, as it 
then was, the " Port " of Newbury, and began his 
professional life. It is believed that at that time 
there was no lawyer east of Salem. He was a man of 
great industry and boundless activity, both control- 
ling a large professional business and taking a leading 
part in the direction and management of public affairs. 
About 1750 he bought a lot of land of Abiel Sonierby, 
where the Kelley school-house now stands, and there 
erected a large square dwelling-house in the style of 
the colonial period. It stood a little back from the 
street, with three fine elm-trees in front, and the gar- 
den was inclosed by a solid brick wall, which gave a 
substantial appearance to the whole estate. 

Col. Farnham was a public-spirited man, and was 
at the head of every important improvement in and 
about his adopted town. He was one of the leading 
signers to the petition for the incorporation of New- 
buryport, the person to whom the warrant for its 
first town-meeting was directed, the moderator of its 
first annual meeting, and the chairman of its first 
Board of Selectmen. Hon. Eben F. Stone, from 
whose manuscript sketch of Col. Farnham the 
writer has already freely drawn, says that, 

" lu the ourly special meetiu^u of the town relating to tlie stamp act 



and other measures of England to extort a revenue from the colonies, 
before all hope of a peace:ible atUustment of the controvoray was aban- 
doned, he took an active and important part. But when the opposition 
of the Province to the policy of the Crown had passed the point consis- 
tent with loyalty, and every citizen was compelled to choose between 
two courses, neither of which was free from doubt and peril. Col. 
Farnham, like the great majority of those who were well situated under 
the subsisting relations between the Colonies and the Government of 
England, and who could find in the alleged grievances no sufficient ex- 
cuse for disloyalty or rebellion, remained true to his principles and 
stood by the King. Ardent, high-spirited and impetuous, he disdained 
to yield to the suggestions of prudence, which controlled the conduct of 
some of his friends, and boldly denounced the leading whigs and liberty 
men as law-breakers and rebels." 



He died at his home in Miy, 1776. The 
tion that he was killed by the rebels is sufiiciently 
silenced by the following letter written by his son-in- 
law, Dr. Micajah Sawyer, to another son-in-law, Rev. 
Mr. Weld, of Braintree : 

" Newburyport, 18 May, 1777. 

'• Dear Sir, — By this I am to inform you of the dreadful news of the 
death of your late honored father, Col. Farnham, after a short sickness, 
in which the symptoms were violent and the progress irresistibly rapid ; 
lint I must refer you to Dr. Smith. 



" M. SiWTEE." 

Before the exigencies of the Revolutionary period 
had actually arisen, the town had gone on perfecting 
the operations of its municipal machinery and was in 
a good condition to meet the storm. A little dissatis- 
faction, however, with the new state of things, had 
occasionally existed and several feeble attempts were 
made to bring about a re-union with Newbury. On 
one of the trials of the question in town-meeting, fifty- 
two were found to vote in the affirmativeout of a total 
of three hundred and fourteen. It is a singular fact 
that, at a town-meeting held in January, 1773, it was 
voted to change the name of the town to " Portland," 
what is now " Portland " being then " Falmouth," and 
that the vote has never been either taken any notice of 
nor repealed. In 1774 the first stage-coach in the coun- 
try, drawn by four horses, was established by Ezra 
Lunt, connecting with Boston by the way of Salem 
and making three trips per week. 

On the 23d of September, 1774, a Committee of 
Safety and Correspondence was appointed by the 
town, consisting of the following gentlemen : 



Hon. Benjamin Greenleaf. 
Patrick Tracy, Esquire. 
Dr. John Sprague. 
William Atkins, Esquire. 
Capt. James Hudson. 
Mr. Edmund Bartlett. 
Mr. Rjilph Cross, Jr. 
Tristram Dalton, Esq. 
Mr. Edward Harris. 
Mr. Enoch Tilcomb, Jr. 
Capt. Jacob Boardman. 
Mr. William Teel. 
Mr. Suniucl Tufts. 
Capt. Moses Rogers. 
Mr. Jonathan Man>h. 



Capt. Jonathan Greeuleaf. 
Dr. Micajah Sawyer. 
Mr. David Moody. 
Mr. John Bromfleld. 
Mr. John Stone. 
Major William Coffin. 
Capt. Thomas Thomas. 
Capt. Joseph Buse. 
Capt. Samuel Batchelor. 
Mr. Moses Nowell. 
Mr. Jonathan Jackson. 
Mr. Richard Titcomb. 
Mr. John Herbert. 
Mr. Moses Frazier. 
Capt. Nicholas Tracy. 



The seizure of the public stores at Concord by the 
British troops and the battle of Lexington were 
finally the sigoal for action. On the receipt of the 



NEWBURYPORT. 



news at Ncwburyport 


Capt. Moses Nowell at 


once 


to the adjoining towns, as it 


hardly seems probable 


mustered his company 


of militia and started at e 


leven 


that Newburyport could have sent in one company 


o'clock at night to reader assistance. Their service 


fifteen officers and one hui 


dred and fifteen men. 


was probably only for 


a few days. The members of 


They are called, however, on the rolls at the State- 


this company were as 


follows : 




House, Newburvport men. 




Moses NoiTell, capt. 


Moses Pike, Corp. 




On the 9th of May, 1775, a 


volunteer company was 


Benjainin Perkins, lieut. 


Nathaniel Tilton, corp. 




provided with accoutrements by the town and raarohed 


Elias Davis, lieut. 


Nathaniel Montgomery, 


corp. 


to join Colonel Moses Little 


s regiment in the Con- 




Samuel Foster, corp. 




tinental army, the members of which were as follow* : 


Paul Lunt, 8ergt. 


Benjamin Pearson, drum . and 






Timutby Ford, sergt. 


fife. 




Ezra Lunt, capt. 


Nathan Smith. 


W.llia.n .Vunr, sergt. 


Richard Hale, drum, and 


fife. 


Paul Lunt, lieut. 


John Perry. 


Samuel Clark, se.gt. 


Caleb Haskell, drum, and 


lif,-. 


Nathl. Montgomery, Ueut. 


Robert Haskell. 




rrivaUa. 




Robert Fowler, sergt. 


John Smith. 


Joseph Cross. 


John Kettle. 




Nathl. Mitchell, sergt. 


Thomas Bolton. 


John Sonierhy. 


Joseph Toole. 




John McLary, sergt. 


Samuel Stickney. 


John Wyatt. 


Stephen Giddins. 




Edmund Morse, sergt. 


Joseph Woods. 


Wm. .Shackford. 


John Stickney. 




Timothy Palmer, corp. 


Moses Rogers. 


Eilraimd Pettengel. 


Joshua Mitchell. 




Wm. Holladay, Corp. 


Josiah Carr. 


Tiinutliy Palnior. 


John Hammond. 




Moses Kimball, corp. 


John Goodhue. 


Micha.-I Tappan. 


Nathaniel Warner. 




Eliphalet Pilsbury, corp. 


Abraham Knowton. 


MOSI.-S Kimball. 


Isaac Frothingham. 




Benj. Pearson, drummer. 


Jacob True. 


Thomas Haynes. 


Zebulon Titcomb. 




Benj. Newman, drummer. 


Timothy Condrew. 


Jloses Pidgeon. 






Bishop Norton, 6fer. 


Mayo Greenleaf. 


John Brett. 


John Ward Brown. 




Caleb Haskell, fifer. 


David Pearson. 


John Chase. 


Jonathan Plumer. 






John C. Roberts. 


John Beckford. 


Michael Titcomb. 






David Rogers. 


Will. McCliutock. 


Isaac Marble. 




Wm. Coker. 


Nathan Warren. 


Josiah Teel. 


Samuel Huse. 




Wm. Shackford. 


Samuel Lankester. 


Thomas Gould. 


Paul Noyes. 
John Brown. 




Daniel Ela. 


Enoch Fort. 


Joseph Somerby. 




Thomas Gould. 


Jesse Emery. 


Samuel Harris. 


John Cheever. 




Enoch Pierce. 


Thomas Hammond. 


Thom^ui .Morrill. 


Nicholas Moody. 
Thomas Weskom. 




Parker Chase. 


Bart. L. Spooner. 


David Rogers. 




Michael Cogsivell. 


John Matchett. 


Moses Newman. 


Joseph McHard. 




Enoch Richardson. 


Richard Shay. 


Edwai>l Tappan. 


Wm. Conner. 




Moses Cross. 


Benj. Davis. 


Benjamin Backley, Jr. 
John Adams. 


Joseph Herbert. 
Jacob True. 




John Brown. 

Nathaniel Stevens Batson. 


Scipper Lunt. 
Moses Nowell. 


Edmund Morse. 


Joseph Smith. 




John Stickney. 


John Shackford. 


Richard Titcomh. 


Mayo Greenleaf. 




John Sleeper. 


James Pinder. 


Samuel Wyatt. 


David Pearson. 




Moses George. 


Richard Goodwin. 


■Wm. Holliday. 


Samuel Swaay. 




Moses Moores. 


John Chase. 


Hezekiah Goodhue. 
Moses Greenleaf. 


Asa Dickson. 
Joseph Stickney. 
Philip Johnson. 




Another volunteer company marched for Cam- 


John Little. 




bridge in the latter part of May to join the Continen- 


Nathaniel Mitchell. 


John Goodhue. 




tal army, and, with the company of Captain Lunt, 


William Ilazeltine. 
Thomas Boardman. 


Amos Follansbee. 
Nathaniel Smith. 




was at the battle of Bunker Hill. The members of 


JohnC. Roberts. 


Lemuel Coffin. 




the company were as follows : 




Joseph Soinerby, Jr. 


Tristram Plumer. 




Benj. Perkins, Capt. 


Joseph Davis. 


Enoch Moody. 


Isaac Currier. 




Jos. Whittemore, Lieut. 


Thomas Merrill. 


Benjamin Eaton. 


Richard Stockman. 




Stephen Jenkins, Lieut. 


Beiy. Eaton. 


Silas Parker. 


Samuel Hall. 




Wm. Stickney, Ens. 


Joseph Stickney. 


John Cook. 


Wm. Farnham. 




Samuel Foster, Sergt. 


Wm. Conor. 


Amos Pearson. 


Lewis Gay. 




Amos Pearson, Sergt. 


Solomon Aubiu. 


Wra. Stickney. 
Stephen Jlorse. 


John Holliday. 




Thom.-ui Frothingham, Sergt. 


Joseph Somerby (2d). 


Moses Cross. 




Thomas Wescomb, Sergt. 


■ Nicholas Titcomb. 


John Sleeper. 


Joseph Davis. 




John Brazier, Drummer. 


Silas Parker. 


Thomas Hammond. 


Moses Moers. 




Richard Hale, Drummer. 


Moses Carr. 


Thomas Merrill. 


Francis Rogers. 




Isaac Howard, Fifer. 


Amos Hale. 


Jonathan Dole. 


Daniel Somerby. 




John VV. Folsom, Fifer. 


John Brett. 


Wm. Damm. 


James Brown. 






Jonathan Norton. 


Jesse Amory. 


Caleb James. 




PrivaUs. 




John Perry. 


James Forth . 




Jonathan Carter. 


Thomas Haynes. 


Henry W. Tines. 


Amos French. 




Edward Swain. 


Aaron Davis. 


Thomas Frothingham. 


Roger Lord. 




Jeremiah Smith. 


Ben,j. E. Knapp. 


Samuel Nowell. 


Enoch Plumer. 




Moses Wickea. 


Benj. Perkins. 


John Pettingel. 


John Little. 




Isaac Frothingham. 


Moses Pidgeon. 


Thomas Leigh. 


Nehemiah Haskell. 




John Dilaway. 


Daniel Pike. 


Jacob Knap. 


Joseph Pearson. 




Charles Jarvis. 


Edmund Rogers. 


Benjamin Greenleaf. 


Moses Fesseuden. 




Stephen Wyatt. 


Nathl. Godfrey. 


Thomas Gardner. 


Luke Webster. 




John Kettle. 
Josiah Teel. 


Thos. Boardman. 
Samuel Coffin. 


It is possible that some of the above men belonged 




Zebulon Titcomb. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Joeepli Soinerby. 
Samuel Harris. 
Jacob Kimpp 
Johu Cook. 
Tlios. Wyiilt. 
Abmbnm Tnppan. 
Philip Johut'tuu. 
Abie] Kent. 
Joseph Mitchell. 
Patrick llarringtuu. 
Joseph Noyes. 
Charles Blltlcr. 
Johu Cotnii. 
J(»ph Kuigbt. 
Johu Slurray. 



Joseph Pettingel. 
Makepeace Colby. 
Jacob KoBS. 
Jacob Wilhir.i. 
Sinieou Nt)ye8. 
Patrick Tracy. 
Win. Page, 
lienj. Cotton. 
Daniel Lane. 
Sbadiick Ireland. 
Daniel Sonierby. 
DelU. U. Tol)pan. 
Henj. JlcClenning, 
Michael Titcomb. 
\Vm. Elliot. 
tJaniuel Nelson. 



Of this company at the battle of Bunker Hill, 
Jonathan Norton, Amos Pearson and Joseph Whitte- 
more were wounded, and Samuel Nelson was killed. 

Another company was raised and marched to Cam- 
bridge in 1775, of which the following were the New- 
buryi)ort members : ' 



Samuel Gerrish, Capt 


Enoch Boynton 


Silas Adams, Lieut. 


Nathaniel Pear 


Benj. Stickney, Lieut. 


Wm. Searl. 


Paul Moody, Sergt. 


Jiicob Low, Jr. 




Eicliar.l JIartin 


JVivates. 


IScnj. Pour. 


Joseph Danforth. 


An.osPoor. 


Jedeiliah Stickney. 


Eliplialct Poor. 


John Koyes. 


Steiilifu Smith. 


Kathaniel Adams. 


John Sawyer. 


John Currier. 


Abram.Thorla. 


Jedediah Currier. 


Nathan Adan.s 


John Cheney. 


Jacob Hale. 


Joseph Choat. 


Jacob Low. 


■ft'm. Flood. 


Enoch Adams. 


Oliver eoodridge. 


J„l,n Turner. 


John Lunt. 


Thomas Siiiitli. 


DaTid Chute. 


EnocI, Adams, 


James Clinte. 


Amos Stickney 


Timothy Dorman. 


Stephen Lunt. 


Daniel Hale. 


Stephen Gerris 


Abner Woodman. 





Members of the Newburyport company com- 
manded by Captain Moses Nowell, stationed at New- 
buryport from November, 1775, to January, 1776,— 



Moses Nowell, Capt. 
Elias Davis, Lieut. 
Moses Greenleaf, Lieut. 
George Gibbon, Sergt. 



ergt. 



John Adam> 



igt. 



lyivatcs. 
Nathaniel Tilton. 
Samuel Brown. 
Tristram Turner. 
Moses Davenport. 
Itoland Stockman. 
John Butman. 
Enoch Greenleaf. 
Samuel Swazey. 
Jacob Brown. 
Jautes Morrell. 
John Butten. 
Joseph Davis. 



tirlalulo r.rowD. 
Moses Davis. 
John Bickford. 
Moses Wills. 
Enoch Dole. 
Nathaniel Dura.,: 
Joltn StJinwood. 
Wm. Stickney. 
Lewis Gray. 
Somerby Cliase. 
David I'ettingel. 

John Powell. 



Jonathan Titcomb. 
Richardson Norton. 
Moody Stickney. 
Enoch Moody. 



Other enlistments in 1775 were for the company 
of Captain Jacob Gerrish, in Colonel Moses Little's 
regiment, — • 



John Choat. 




John Stockman. 


Eben Choat. 




Benj. Newman. Druron 


Siimuel Place. 




John Spinney, Fifer. 


Blichael Stockman. 






The following were 


miscelL 


neous enlistments 


Benj. Marrinem. 




Samuel Phipps. 


John Foster. 




Richard Swan, 


Patrick Harrington. 




John Smith. 


Shedrick Ireland. 




John Stone. 


John Murray. 




Patrick Tracy. 


Solomon Offin. 




John York. 


Wra. Pottle. 




Benj. Clannen. 


Daniel Pike. 




Charles Butler. 


Joseph Harbott. 




William Faruam. 


William Eay. 






Enlistments in 1771" 


for three years, — 


Wm. Noyes. 




Wm. Du--ins. 


Obadiah Robertson. 




.John Lunt. 


Stephen Kent, drummer. 




John Stockman, Jr. 


John riing. 




John niH.wn. 


Cato Shaded, fifer. 




Cbas. Jarvis. 



Detachment of Captain Moses Nowell's company j 
stationed at Plum Island from November -10, 177G, to ' 
January, 1777, — • I 



Moses Nowell, capt. 


Mavo Grceuleuf. 


Jos. Whittemore, lieut. 


Benj. Toppan. 


Nicholas Titcomb, lieut. 


Mo.ses Cleary. 


Moses Pike, sergt. 


Richard Jackmau. 


Enoch Moody, sergt. 


Tristram Pilsbury 


Daniel Knight, sergt. 


Isaac Adams. 


Moses Cross, sergt. 


Christopher Mcrri 


Isaac Knapp, corp. 


Wm. Kamsdell. 


Benj. Newman, corp. 


David Lull. 


Stephen Bartlott, Corp. 


John Low. 


Wm. Shackford, corp. 


Petereon Roby. 


Theodore Pearson, corp. 


Joseph Pike. 


Samuel Newman, drummer. 


Enoch Rogers. 


Jonathan Kettel, fifer. 


Joseiih Poor. 


Privates. 


Stephen Stickney. 


A nnis Merrill. 


Daniel Somerby. 


Richardson Norton. 


Samuel Long. 


Joshua Davis. 


Moses Davis. 


J as. McDonald. 


Simeon Pearson. 


Enoch Sweat. 


Jonathan Lowell. 



Enlistments of Newburyport men in the company 
of Captain Timothy Barnard, of Ipswich, in Colonel 
Moses Little's regiment in 1776 for two months, — 



Makepiece Colby. Wm. Young. 

Aaron Davis, Johu York. 

Jeremiah Farnham. Benj. Clannen, 

Thos. Giles. Chas liutler. 
Nathan Godfrey. 

Enlistments of Newburyport men in the company 
of Captain Moses Greenleaf in battalion of Colonel 
Eben Francis for the expedition to Bennington in 
1776,— 



NEWBURY PORT. 



Morrill Whittier, eergt. 
Thos, Holliday, drummer. 

Privates. 
John FIj-n. 
John Stickney. 
John Knight. 
EliiihaletGrifflu. 
Jolin Connolly. 



Ghas. Jarvis. 
Samuel Lowell. 
Diuiiel Price. 



James Donnoly. 
James Lindsey. 
Jttmes Ward. 
John Dexter. 
John Askin. 
Oliver Cromwell. 
Wm. Williamson. 
Jonathan Buswell. 
Kichard Lowell. 
Makepeace Colby. 
Leonard Cotton. 
Robert Pembroke. 
David Roberts. 
Wm. Lewis, 



Newburyport members of the company of Captain 
ulin Peabody, of Andover, in the regiment of Colo- 



nel Eben Francis, drafted in 1776,- 



J.as. Jewet. 
Christopher Merrill. 
Wm. Pidgeon. 
John Ham. 
Richard Smith. 
Jos. Topping. 
Joiin Willard. 
Moses Woodman. 



Enlistments of Newburyport men in 1777 for two 
months in Rhode Island in the company of Captain 
Moses Nowell in Titcomb's regiment, — 



Moses Nowell, capt. 
Daniel Pike, drummer. 
Samuel Stickney, fifer. 
Amos Poor, Corp. 
William Elliott, Corp. 
Josepli Pike, sergt. 
Thomas Gieen, sergt. 

Privates. 
Hugh Thompson. 
Hugh Thompson, Jr. 
Benjamin Pike, Jr. 
lsa<ic Frothingham. 
Caleb Foot. 
Joseph Ilolings. 
Eliphalet Rolings. 
Israel Hardey. 



Thomas Cheaney. 
Jonathan Emerson. 
Joseph Wright. 
Humphrey H. Richards, 
^^ehemiah Choat. 
Nathaniel Bradstreet. 
Nathaniel Johnson. 
Moses Hobson. 
Jeremiah Hobson. 
Benjamin Whipple. 
Joseph Dodge. 
Joseph Brown. 
Beiyamin Pike. 
Joseph Annable. 
Nathaniel Dummer. 
Joseph Wright, Jr. 



Newburyport men enlisted in 1777 for three years 
and members of various regiments, — 



John DoUey. 
John Atkins. 
Makepeace Colby. 
Daniel Collins. 
Leonard Cotton. 

John Colaney. 



James Delaney. 
David Duning. 
Jonathan Day. 



Solomon .\ubiu. 
Jonatlian Buswell. 
Thomas Goss. 



Wm. Ray. 
Wm. Poor. 
Daniel Pierce. 
Robert Pembroke. 
James Pinder. 
Oxford Tash. 
Peter Thomas. 
Benjamin H. Toppan. 
Morrell Whicken. 
Wm. Williamson. 
Moses Whicken. 
John White. 
Nathaniel WiUet. 
James Ward. 
Moses Woodman. 
Nutliau Whitney. 
.Stephen Wyatt. 
Joseph Willes. 
Benjamin Willet. 



Enlistments of Newburyport men in the Continen- 
tal army in 1778 for various regiments, — 
Samuel Davis. Charity Kittout. 

Joseph Little. Timothy Farrar. 

Anthony Boston. 

Enlistments in 1778 for nine months, — 



Benjamin Webster. 
Samuel Davis. 
Jonathan Huntoon. 



I Baffoi 



John Rowe. 
Joseph Little. 

Nine months' men enlisted for the Continental 
army in 1779,— 

Thomas Eliot. Benjamin Drap.r. 

Benjamin Baglcy. Samuel Newman. 

.John Welch. Hugh Kelton. 

Cicero Haskell. 



John Mu 



John 



Thomas Beck. 
Samuel Ober. 
Abram Dodge. 
Joshua Pettingai. 



Thomas Wood. 

Thomas Wood, Jr. 

James Kavan. 

Wm. FoUansbeo. 

Nathan Haskell. 

Wm. Noyes, Jr. John Butman. 

Six months' men enlisted for the Continental army 
1780,— 



Jonathan Beck. 
Thomas Beck. 
Moses George, 
Stephen Smith. 



James Smith. 
John Mann. 
Mosea George, Jr. 
David Donning. 
Wm. Stonemaa. 
Levi Davis. 
Nath'l Howard. 
Jeremy Smith. 
Benoni Knapp. 
Enoch Trott. 
Eben Sterns. 
Lancaster Beck. 
Moody Stickney. 
John Parker Wilson, 
Nathan Chapman. 
Cicero Haskell. 
Oxford Task. 
Leonard Cottoa. 



David Mel von. 
Benjamin Smith. 
Jeremiah Smith. 
Diiuiel Gale. 
Ezekiel Sterns. 
Eliphalet CuUey. 
Caleb Fogg. 
George Saundera. 
Samuel Dudley. 
Btoses Titcomb. 
Wm. Murray. 
David Cullier. 
John Stone. 
Jeremiah Speucer. 
Jonathan Prescott. 
Samuel Cram. 
Jonathan Sayward. 
Julin Wuudbury. 
Blichael Pike. 
Eben Haines. 
Enoch Foot. 
Benjamin Woodbury. 
James Woodbury. 
Samuel Webber. 
Oliver Richards, 
NathM Hunt. 

Enlistments in the company of Capt. John Robin- 
son, of Boxford, and regiment of Col. William Tur- 
ner forfive months' service in Rhode Island, in 1781, — 

Lieut. Daniel Cotton. Joseph Mitchell. 

Corp. Sanmel Barker. Jonathan Greeuough. 

^ohn Riley, Edward Millikin. 

Levies for the Continental army in 1782 in the 
company of Capt, Joshua French, of Salisbury, and 
regiment of Lieut.-Col. Enoch Putnam, — 



James Norris, 
Jonathan Galley. 

Benjamin Cotton. 
James Thomas. 
Richard Shay. 
James Condy. 
Paul McPherson. 
John Archer. 
James Neal. 
John Mullins. 



Lieut. Joshua Davis. 
Sergt. Timothy Rolf. 
Sergt. Samuel Noyes. 
Corp. Annis Merrill. 
Corp. James Jackson. 



Fifer Jesse SpoEFord. 

Simeon Chase. 
Wm. Perry. 
Stephen Carlton. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



John Fcrgi.son. 




Wm. McFarland. 


Jacob Marsh. 




James McFarland 


John Butler. 




Wm. Malloon 


John Murray. 




Bcnjamiu Davis. 


George Poor. 




John Ca-itello. 


Benjamin Bishop. 




Wm. Tai.ley. 


Isaac Frothinghaiu. 




Benjau.in Mulliki 


James Ferguson. 




Jiihn Dow. 


David Hale. 




.\mos ivemp. 


Kdward Tenney. 




Daniel Cole. 


Josiah Coburn. 




Jesse Colo. 


Paul SIcPherson. 




Samuel Parker. 


Three years' men 


enlisted 


in 17,S2, — 



trh Tarr. 



John Ellis. Koger Uwiik-l. 

Thus Newburyport furnished during the seven 
years of the Revolutionary War seven hundred and 
seventeen enlistments. It is true that some of the 
soldiers enlisted more than once, for different terms of 
service ; but, after all due allowance is made for 
these, the fact remains that few towns drew more 
heavily on their resources to carry the war to a suc- 
cessful termination. It is manifest that such a con- 
tribution of men to the army could not have been made 
without the imposition of a serious pecuniary burden 
on the treasury of the town and the purses of its 
people. At one time it was voted to pay a bounty of 
twenty pounds to every soldier enlisting for three 
years or the war ; at another, to give each man seven 
pounds ten shillings per month, in addition to the 
State and Continental wages. Still later it was voted 
to give nine pounds per month, including State and 
Continental wages, and six pounds per month advance 
to soldiers enlisting as a guard to the troops of 
General Burgoyne. It was again voted to give one 
hundred shillings per month to each man enlisting 
within twenty-four hours; and, again, to give 
four hundred and fifty pounds advance to each 
soldier enlisting for three months' service. In 1780 
the town voted to raise seventy-five thousand pounds 
by tax, to be paid before the 1st of September, to 
procure and equip the town's proportion of the mili- 
tia required by the resolve of the General Court, 
dated June 8th in that year. These are a few only 
of the votes of the town assuming onerous pecuniary 
burdens, and in addition to the expenditures of 
money which they involved, others were incurred in 
preparing and sinking piers in the channel of the 
river, in building forts at Salisbury and on Plum 
Island, and in constructing floating batteries and 
other defenses against possible attacks from British 
fleets. For the eight years which elapsed from the 
battle of Lexington to the proclamation of peace 
Newburyport appropriated the sum of five hundred 
and four thousand five hundred pounds, of which it 
was estimated that four hundred and ninety-eight 
thousand five bundled pounds was expended for pur- 
poses connected with the war. 

Nor was this all. Men of Newburyport were found 
on the ocean wherever the new flag flew in the face of 



the cross of St. George, and wherever a gun was fired 
in defense of liberty. The first privateer fitted out in 
the colonies sailed from Newburyport in August, 
1775, and was owned by Nathaniel Tracy, a promi- 
nent merchant. She was the pionver of a fleet 
equipped by Newburyport merchants, among whom, 
besides Mr. Tracy, Mr. Joseph Marquand was specially 
conspicuous. Nor should the names of the commanders 
be omitted. Capt. James Tracy of the " Yankee 
Hero," Cutting Lunt of the "America," Captain 
William Russell of the " General Ward,'" Captain 
William Springer of the " Hornet," Capt. Jack Lee of 
the " Hawk," Capt. John O'Brien of the " Hibernia," 
Capt. Moses Brown of the "General Arnold," Capt. 
Wingate Newman of the " Vengeance," Capt Wil- 
liam Knapp of the " Pallas," and others too numer- 
ous to mention, for a time struck terror into the 
hearts of British seamen, and reaped rich harvests 
for their owners. It is stated that the cruisers in 
which Mr. Tracy was interested captured one hun- 
dred and twenty English vessels, amounting to 
twenty-three thousand three hundred and sixty tons, 
and carrying twenty-two hundred and twenty-four 
men. The cargoes of these vessels were sold for three 
million nine hundred and fifty thousand dollars in 
specie, of which sum Mr. Tracy contributed or ad- 
vanced one hundred and sixty-seven thousand two 
hundred and nineteen dollars to the public service. 
Privateering, however, did not jirove a permanent 
success. As convoys were more carefully furnished 
to English ships, prizes became less frequent, and the 
usual hazards of the sea, together with energetic 
efforts on the part of British men-of-war to check 
the career of these " birds of prey," brought dis- 
aster and ruin to many of those that had at first 
dreamed of wealth and luxury as the fruit of their 
enterprise. No less than twenty-two vessels fitted out 
at Newburyport, manned by a thousand men, were 
either wrecked or destroyed, leaving no record of 
their fate. 

Nathaniel Tracy, the leader in privateering enter- 
prises, was born in 1749, in that part of Newbury 
which was in 1764 incorporated as Newburyport. He 
was the son of Patrick Tracy, a prominent merchant 
of that town, and graduated at Harvard in 1769. 
After leaving college he very soon entered into busi- 
ness with Jonathan Jackson, and at the beginning of 
the Revolution was conducting a large and profitable 
foreign trade. His rapidly-acquired wealth enabled 
him to live surrounded by all the comforts and lux- 
uries harmonizing with his refined tastes, and in his 
town house in Newburyport, and at his country house 
in Salisbury, he dispensed boundless hospitality. At 
one time he was the owner of the Cragie mansion in 
C.imbridge, in which Washingtonhad his headquarters, 
and which received its final consecration from the 
life and death of Longfellow within it walls. By the 
final misfortunes of the war, among which was the 
failure of the government to reimburse him for 



NEWBURYPOET. 



1749 



expenditures in the public service, be was reduced to 
a bankruptcy from which he found it impossible 
to recuperate. The briclc mansion-house on State 
Street built and occupied by him has been somewhat 
remodeled for the use of the Public Library, which 
now occupies it. The alterations, however, which it 
was necessary to make, have not obliterated or con- 
cealed the elegance which once characterized it. In 
1789, on the occasion of the visit of Washington to 
Newburyport, the house of Mr. Tracy was his home, 
and there he spent the night of Friday, November 
1st, previous to his departure for New Hampshire the 
next day. There he was welcomed by an address 
written by John Quincy Adams, then a student in 
the office of Theophilus Parsons, to which Washing- 
ton replied that in visiting Newburyport he had 
obeyed a favorite inclination, and was gratified by 
its indulgence, that in expressing a sincere wish for 
its prosperity and the happiness of its inhabitants 
he did but justice to his own sentiments and their 
merits. 

The house afterwards came into the possession of 
James Prince, and while occupied by him was the 
home of Lafayette during his vi>^it to Newburyport 
in August, 1824. The bed and furniture of the 
chamber in which Washington had slept had been 
retained, notwithstanding the change in their owner- 
ship, and w^ere now, thirty-five years later, at the ser- 
vice of Washington's distinguished friend. 

Jonathan Jackson, Mr. Tracy's partner in business, 
was born in Boston and was a graduate of Harvard in 
1761. He was a member of the Continental Congress 
in 1780, marshal of the district of Massachusetts 
under Washington, treasurer of Harvard College) 
and also treasurer of the Commonwealth. His wife 
was a Miss Barnard, of Salem, and the distinction 
which he won by a life of activity, integrity and use- 
fulness was fully maintained by his sons, — Charles, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1793, and a lawyer, who be- 
came in 1813 Judge of the Supreme Judicial Court ; 
James, a Harvard graduate of 1796, and for many 
years the honored head of the medical profession in 
Boston ; Henry, an eminent shipmaster; and Patrick 
Tracy Jackson, the distinguished merchant, who, by 
his consummate skill and business enterprise, con- 
joined to the inventive genius and mathematical 
powers of his partner and friend, Francis C. Lowell 
laid the foundations of the cotton manufacture of 
New England, and finally conceived and created the 
city of Lowell. 

There were other citizens of Newburyport to whom 
some reference should be made before this narrative 
leaves the Revolutionary period of its history. The 
members of the bar of that period, as well as of all 
other periods covered by this history, — Theophilus 
Parsons, Rufus King, Tristram Dalton, Daniel Farn- 
ham, Charles Jackson, John Lowell, Benjamin Green- 
leaf, Stephen Sewall, Theophilus Bradbury and many 
others, — are sketched in the chapter on the Bench and 



Bar in this work, and require no further mention here. 
There were others in various walks of life, who per- 
formed their full share in giving character to the 
generation in which they lived. Without any attempt 
to classify these, they will be mentioned in the order 
in which they suggest themselves. 

Newburyport has been able to boast of few men 
more distinguished than Jacob Perkins. Though he 
won his chief distinction after the close of the war, 
his business life began while it was in progress, and 
gives the Revolutionary period aright to claim him as 
its own. He was born in Newburyport, July 9, 1766, 
two years after its incorporation. His father, Mat- 
thew Perkins, removed in early life from Ipswich to 
Newburyport, and was descended from Abraham 
Perkins, who appeared in Hampton as early as 1639. 
The family seems to have inherited from its ances- 
tors a fondness for Biblical names, to which the Mat- 
thews and Marks and Lukes and Johns and Isaacs 
and Jacobs in various generations have abundantly 
testified. The only education which Jacob Perkins 
received was that of the common schools of his na- 
tive city, the welfare and perfection of which the 
separation from Newbury was sought to promote, and 
it is possible therefore that to that separation may 
have been due the display of the mechanical powers 
which he afterwards so remarkably exhibited. At 
the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a goldsmith 
of Newburyport by the name of Davis, who died 
three years afterwards, and left him in the manage- 
ment of his business. He won his earliest reputa- 
tion in the manufacture of gold beads, then in fash- 
ion, from the Portuguese joes, in circulation at that 
time, and shoe-buckles, a new method of plating 
which, discovered by him, enabled him to undersell 
all competitors. He next turned his attention to 
machinery. Under the old confederation, the State 
of Massachusetts established a mint for striking cop- 
per coins. Perkins, then at the age of twenty-one, 
was employed by the government to make a .suitable 
die, and the old Massachusetts cents stamped with 
the eagle and the Indian were the work of his skill. 
At the age of twenty-four he invented a machine for 
cutting and heading nails by one operation, — a ma- 
chine which, with later improvements, has carried 
the daily product of one man's labor from one thou- 
sand nails to ten kegs of one hundred pounds each. 
He next invented the stereotype check-plate for the 
prevention of counterfeit bank-bills, and thus im- 
posed an important obstacle in the way of frauds, 
from which the community were daily suffering. 
During the War of 1812 he was employed in con- 
structing machinery for boring out old honey-comb- 
ed cannon, and in perfecting the science of gunnery. 
He discovered the method of softening and harden- 
ing steel, by which the process of engraving on that 
metal was made more easy. He demonstrated the 
compressibility of water, and, in connection with this 
discovery, invented the bathometer to measure the 



1750 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



depth of the sea by the pressure of water, and the 
pleometer to measure a ship's speed. 

After leaving Xewburyport in 1816 he lived for a 
time in Philadelphia, and there devoted himself to 
e.xperiments on the power of steam, by which he 
invented a new method of generating it by suddenly 
letting a small quantity of water into a heated vessel 
and it '.s said that he succeeded in employing steam at a 
pressure of sixty-five atmospheres, or 975 pounds to the 
square inch. After a short residence in Philadelphia 
he removed to London, where the steam gun, which 
be had patented iu the United States in 1819, at- 
tracted the notice of the government, and which 
he exhibited with trials of its operation before the 
Duke of Wellington, in 182.3. At a distance of thirty- 
five yards the gun sent its balls through eleven planks, 
each an inch thick and placed an inch apart, and was 
capable of discharging one thousand balls per minute. 
Nothwithstanding his unremitting and useful labors 
in the cause of science, he never acquired a fortune, 
and died in London, July 13, 1849, leaving behind him 
in the country of his adoption a well-earned fame 
and the title of the " American Inventor." 

Michael Hodge was a man who filled a large space 
in Revolutionary days. Previous to the Kevolu- 
tion he was a captain in the merchant marine, and in 
177G was appointed naval ofBcer of the port of New- 
buryport. It is probable that previous to that time, 
since about the year 1750, the revenues had been 
collecled by a collector appointed by the King. But 
iu 1776 an act was passed by the General Assembly of 
the State of Massachusetts entitled an "Act for estab- 
lishing a naval ofiice and for ascertaining the fees," 
which provided that in the " several seaports of Boston, 
Salem, Marblehead, Gloucester, Newburyport, York 
Pepperelborough, Falmouth on Casco Bay,Townsend 
(Boothbay ), Penobscot,Goldsboro', Machias, Plymouth, 
Barnstable, Dartmouth and Nantucket, within this 
State, there be an oflice kept, to be called and known by 
the name of the Naval Ofiice, for the purpose of en- 
tering and clearing of all ships and other vessels 
trading to or from this State, to take bonds in ade- 
quate penalty for observing the regulations made, or 
which shall be made by the General Congress or the 
General Assembly of this State concerning trade, take 
manifests upon oath of all cargoes exported or im- 
ported and keep fair accounts and entries thereof, 
give bills of health when desired, and sign certificates 
that the requisites for qualifying vessels to trade have 
been complied with, and the fees to be demanded and 
received in said office shall be these following and no 
greater, that is to say : 

I. ii. 

For enteriug any ship and vessel from any part of the state 2 

For clearing any ship and vessel to any part of the state 2 

For entering any ship and vessel from any other of the United 

States 6 

For clearing any ship and vessel to any other of the United 

States 

For entering any ship and vessel from a foreign voyage 6 

For clearing any ship and vessel for a foreign voyage 6 



For a Register 

For Indorsing a Register 

For Recording Indorsement 

For any Bond 

For a certificate to cancel Bond 

For a bill of health 

For permit to unload 

For a cockct 

For a let p;i!«. 



Under this act, on the 22d of November, 1776, Capfc. 
Michael Hodge was appointed naval officer, and it 
is believed continued in the ofiice until 1789. In 
that year Newburyport was made by Congress a port 
of entry, and the district included Salisbury, Ames- 
bury and Haverhill. The first appointments under 
the act of Congress were made shortly after the 
visit of Washington to Newburyport, in 1789, and 
Stephen Cross was made collector, Jonathan Tit- 
comb naval officer and Michael Hodge surveyor. In 
1792 Mr. Cross was superseded by Edward Wiggles- 
worth, who was succeeded in 1795 by Dudley A. 
Tyng. In 1803 Ralph Cross, succeeded Mr. Tyng, 
and remained in office until his death, in 1811, when 
he was succeeded by Joseph Marquand, who also held 
the office until his death, in 1820. James Prince held 
the office from 1821 until his death, in February, 
1829, when Solomon H. Currier, the deputy collector, 
held a temporary appointment until the following 
July, giving way to Samuel Philips, who was 
appointed by President Jackson, and remain- 
ed in office until the accession to power 
of the Whig administration in 1841. Henry W. 
Kinsman followed in 1841, William Nichols in 1845, 
Henry Kinsman again in 1849, James Blood in 1853, 
Enoch G. Currier in 1861, Wm. H. Huse in 1870, 
and George W. Jackman August 1, 1886. 

In the naval office Jonathan Titcomb, the first 
incumbent, remained only three years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Daniel Swett, who again in 1825 was 
superseded by Thomas Carter, who died in office in 
1828. Daniel Foster was appointed in 1825, and at 
his death, in 1833, he was succeeded by Benjamin 
Stickney. Thomas M. Clark followed in 1841, Enoch 
Fowler in 1845, Thomas L. Clark iu 1849, Nicholas 
Brown in 1853, George J. L. Colby in 1861, under 
whose administration the office was abolished in 
1864. 

Michael Little, the first deputy-collector, appoint- 
ed in 1789, held office until 1821, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Solomon H. Currier. Charles Titcomb 
followed in 1829, Thomas W. Burnham in 1841, 
Daniel P. Pike in 1861, and Charles W. Davenport, 
September 1, 1886. 

Captain Hodge, who was appointed surveyor in 
1789, as has been before stated, continued in office 
until his death, June 24, 1816. He was succeeded by 
William Cross, who was the father of Robert Cross, 
attorney-at-law, and his brother, George Cross. It is 
said the name of Cross was so well known in Wash- 
ington and so identified with Newburyport, on 



NEWBURYPORT. 



1751 



account of the war service and later civil service of 
many members of the family bearing it, that when 
the President received the application for an appoint- 
ment to office of one of the Crosses, he asked if there 
were no persons of some other name in the town 
capable of filling a public station. Nathaniel Jack- 
son succeeded William Cross in 1832, and was fol- 
lowed by William Pritchard in December, 18<i0, who 
■was appointtid to fill the vacancy occasioned by Mr. 
Jackson's death. In May, 18G1, Henry Stover was 
appointed and held the office until it was abolished 
in 1874. 

From 1780 to 1789 Captain Hodge was the town 
clerk, chosen by the town at its annual meetings, and 
in 1783-84-85 one of the Board of Selectmen. 

In 1772 an association was formed in Newburyport 
called the Marine Society. It had its origin in the 
voluntary association of six individuals who met on 
the 5th of November, 1772, and agreed to form a 
society to promote the interests of shipmasters and to 
create a fund for the assistance of needy masters and 
their families. These six persons were Thomas Jones, 
William Wyer, Benjamin Rogers, Samuel Newhall, 
Edward Wigglesworth and Michael Hodge. The 
society was incorporated in 1777 and is now in the 
possession of a building and a fund of about §52,000, 
the income of which, enlarged by annual increments, 
enables the corporation to carry out with fidelity the 
purposes for which it was created. The following 
persons were members of the society at the time of its 
incorporation : 



James Hudson. 


Thomas Jones. 


J,)mitli;iri Parsons. 


Wm. Friend. 


Samuel Newhall. 


Michael Hodge. 


David Coates. 


Wm. Stickney. 


^\'illiam Riigere. 


Moses Hale. 


Joseph Stanwood. 


Joseph Noyes. 


Wm. P. Johnson. 


Nathl. Nowell. 


Henry Friend. 


Joseph Newman. 


Nicholas Johnson. 


Moses Brown. 


James Johnson. 


Wm. Wyer. 


Wni. Nichols. 


Wm. Coombs. 


Joseph Rowe. 


Thoma.s Thomas. 


Benjamin Rogers. 


Anthony Knap. 


Edward Wigglesworth. 


Eleazer Johnson. 


Jeremiah Pearson. 


Joseph Choate. 


John Barnard. 


James Nichols. 


Kohert Jenkins. 


Peter fioberts. 


Joshua Hill. 


Andrew Geddings. 


John Fletcher. 


Amos Tappan. 



The society has been legatee under the wills of 
Captain Joseph P. Russell to the amount of $2000 ; 
Micajah Lunt, $2000 ; Lucy M. Follansbee, $2000 ; 
and John Mussey, $500. The first board of oflicers 
consisted of Jonathan Parsons, Jr., president; Henry 
Friend, vice-president; Samuel Newhall, secretary; 
and William Coombs, treasurer. The present officers 
are Robert Couch, president ; Albert Cheever, vice- 
president; VV'illiam H. Bayley, secretary ; and William 
H. Lunt, treasurer. Mr. Parsons held office from 
November 13, 1772, to November 20, 1772, and was 
succeeded by James Hudson November 20, 1772 ; 



Samuel Newhall, November 29, 1781 ; William 
Coombs, November 28, 1782; Michael Hodge, No- 
vember 29, 1804; Nicholas Johnson, November 25, 
1814; Abraham Wheelwright, November 25, 1824; 
Eleazer Johnson, November 26, 1829 ; Micajah Lunt, 
November 24, 1842 ; Gyles P. Stone, November 27, 
1862 ; William Graves, November 29, 1876 ; Nathaniel 
S. Osgood, November 29, 1877; Stephen P. Bray, 
November 27, 1879 ; Henry Cook, November 27, 1883, 
and Robert Couch, the present incumbent, November 
27, 1884. 

During the Revolution the Marine Society per- 
formed effective service in the national cause. It 
was through the influence of its members, if not of 
the organized body itself, that measures were con- 
ceived and executed to put the town in a state of 
defence. They were active and conspicuous in eftbrts 
to organize and equip a military force by dividing the 
town into districts. Coatcs, Newhall, Hodge, Coombs, 
Thomas and Wigglesworth, all members of the society, 
were among the most active in sinking piers in the 
river and planting fortifications about its mouth. 

When the military forces of the town were organ- 
ized in 1775, six captains of guns were appointed, — 
Thomas Thomas, William Coombs, Joshua Titcorab, 
David Coates, William Friend and Michael Hodge, 
— with squads of six or eight men attached to each 
gun. It is not improbable that the Newburyport Artil- 
lery Company. was a company which crystallized 
round these squads as the nucleus of its organization. 
There was formed in the first years of the life of the 
Marine Society an independent marine company, of 
which James Hudson, the president of that society, 
was captain, and it has been thought by some that 
this company grew into the Artillery Company. It 
is more probable, however, that while the artillery 
company was so far related to the Independent 
Marine Company as to owe its origin to the same 
source, the old company disappeared and the new 
one was organized in 1778. The first officers of this 
company were Thomas Thomas, captain ; David 
Coates, captain-lieutenant ; Michael Hodge, first lieu- 
tenant ; Samuel Newhall, second lieutenant. The 
immediate cause of the enlistment of this company 
seems to have been a circular sent by the President 
of the Council to the various independent companies 
of the State,— 

" CorNClI. Chamber, Boston, July 26, 1778. 
" G£.\TLEMEN:~General Sullivan has signified to this Board his design 
of making a sudden attack on Rhode Island by General Wii^hington's 
express command, and has called upon this state to aid his design, with 
three thousand of her militia, and to communicate his requests to the 
several Independeut Companies and Gentlemen volunteers in this state 
to co-operate with the French fleet in the reduction of tliat Islaud. In 
compliance with such earnest requests of the Gcner.il, and from the idea 
of the glory of such a conquest, we invite you and the worthy gentle, 
men under your command to march inmiediately to Providence to 
share largely in the honor of banishing forever, from the New England 
States and from .\merica, the remnant of a British army, too long suf- 
fered to deal in blood and rapine in these sovereign Independent States. 
The gloom dissipates and we have reason to expect, from every appear- 
ance, that our exertion once more will close the scene of blood, and fix 



HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



you and your offspring foreve 



cii, you will signify to us as soon as may be your t: 
i important enterprise, that General Sullivan may be imme- 
:■ acquaiuteii with the force designed him from this state, 
are your most obedient, very humble servant. 
"Jkre; Powei,!,, President. 
•' Commanding officer of the Independent Company Sewburyport." 

The following was sent in reply : 

" Nr.wBinvponT, :n .Inly, 1778. 

"Your much esteemed favor of the 2Gtb and 27th of July this mo- 
ment came to hand ; am happy to have it in my power to iuform the 
Houorable Board that the Independent company under my command 
do, with the utmost cheerfulness accept of their invitation, and will be 
ready to march by Tuesday morning nest, at farthest, and flatter them- 
selves that they will be joined by numbers of the good people of this 
town, as we are now beating around for volunteers. 

" Am, Sir, with due regards, your most obedient, humble servant, 
" Thomas Thomas. 

" To the Honorable Jeremiah Powell, President of the Council." 

This company, the rolls of which seem to be 
wanting in the State archives, is to be added to the 
list already given of soldiers furnished by Newbury- 
jiort. In the expedition for which it was enlisted the 
town was well represented. General Jonathan Tit- 
comb, of Newburyport, was in command of the troops 
from the four counties of Essex, Plymouth, Worces- 
ter and Bri-stol, and in the order of battle had com- 
mand of the brigade on the left wing of the second 
line. John Tracy, son of Patrick Tracy and a grad- 
uate of Harvard in 1771 ; Stephen Sewall, a graduate 
of Harvard in 17G1 andtown clerk from 1764 to 1775; 
Michael Hodge, and Rufus King, a graduate of Har- 
vard in the previous year, and afterwards the distin- 
guished United States Senator from the State of New 
York, then a resident of Newburyport, were on the 
staff of General Jonathan Glover, of Marblehead, who 
commanded the brigade on the left of the first line. 
Enoch Titcomb acted on the staff of General Titcomb, 
while the ranks of the Artillery Company contained 
many men prominent in various walks of life. The 
expedition, as is well known, was a failure, and after 
a short absence the company returned as a distinct 
organization from the only service in the field which 
it was called on to perform during the war. 

Hon. Eben F. Stone, in an address delivered May 
16, 1877, before the veteran Artillery Company, already 
freely used in this narrative, says that in " the first 
year of the existence of the Artillery Company Mich- 
ael Hodge was its life and soul." He was the son of 
Charles and Elizabeth (Titcomb) Hodge, and married 
Sarah, daughter of Stephen Sewall, one of his prede- 
cessors in the oflice of town cle