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Full text of "History of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland of the United Lutheran church in America, 1820-1920"

CENTENNIAL HISTORY 



OF THE 



EVANGELICAL 

LUTHERAN SYNOD 

OF MARYLAND 



1820 



1920 



WENTZ 



(y ^- 



. 
t * 



^HISTORY 



OF THE 



EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN 

SYNOD of MARYLAND 



OF THE 



UNITED LUTHERAN CHURCH 
IN AMERICA 

1820 1920 



BY 



REV. PROF. ABDEL ROSS WENTZ, Ph.D. 

Professor of Church History in the Gettysburg Theological Seminary, 

Curator of the Lutheran Historical Society, Author of ''''The 

German Element in York County, Pennsylvania. " 



TOGETHER WITH 



A Brief Sketch of Each Congregation of the Synod 

AND 

Biographies of the Living Sons of the Synod in the Ministry 
EDITED BY THE SAME AUTHOR 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE SYNOD 



PRINTED FOR THE SYNOD 

BY THE 

EVANGELICAL PRESS 

HARRISBURG 

1920 



"Remember the days of old: consider the 
years of many generations." Deut. 32: 7. 

"The Lord of Hosts is with us; the God of 
Jacob is our refuge." Psalm 46: 7. 



Foreword 

The Lutheran Church in America has a history of which her 
sons and daughters may well be proud. Her influence was very 
potent in the earliest settlements in Georgia, along the Delaware 
and on Manhattan Island. The Pilgrim Fathers largely came 
from Leyden where for thirty years they had lived in Holland 
which had become a republic chiefly through the influence of the 
Lutheran Reformation. 

From our earliest history the Lutheran Church has exerted a 
wide' influence in the moral and religious life of our people. The 
freedom of conscience for which it always stood, the sincere piety 
it fostered everywhere, had much to do in shaping the best po- 
litical, social and religious life of the nation. 

In some respects the Lutheran Church is an outstanding Ameri- 
can Church. In our Colonial history, the settlements of Lu- 
therans along the frontier largely bore the brunt of the depreda- 
tions of savages who at various times were incited to murder and 
rapine by emissaries from other lands. During the war for In- 
dependence, the Lutherans stood solidly w r ith Washington and 
shed their blood willingly in the struggle for freedom. In that 
momentous conflict one third of the population of the country 
was Tory. But the Lutherans were not Tories. So in the war of 
1812. In the war between the States, the Union had no more 
loyal supporters North of Mason and Dixon's line than the Lu- 
therans. And in the recent great war with the central powers 
of Europe the Lutheran Church was exceptional in the number 
of her sons who followed the flag and in her response to every 
call and need of the Government in its conduct of the war. 

The best blood of Europe that came to our shores flowed in the 
veins of those who came in quest of religious freedom. The 
Palatines who came very early to Baltimore and through Penn- 
sylvania into western Maryland were largely influenced to leave 
their mother countries beyond the seas by reason of persecution. 
Hence, when they entered into the making of a new country they 
cut away from the ecclesiasticism and from the Church Govern- 
ments which obtained under the monarchies of the old world. 
Congregations were organized and synods were formed in har- 
mony with the genius of what has become the greatest republic 

3 



4 FOR I:\VORD. 

of the ages. Xo ecclesiastical connections nor even formal fra- 
ternal relations were maintained with the Churches of the Fa- 
therlands. The Lutheran Churches were not only American in 
spirit hut thoroughly ami distinctly American in practice. 

The Maryland Synod was organized almost simultaneously 
with the (ieneral Synod. The h'rst, third, fifth, sixth and seventh 
presidents of the General Synod were members of the Maryland 
Synod. The h'rst, second, third, fourth, sixth, seventh and eighth 
sessions of the (Jeneral Synod were held in Maryland Synod 
Churches. A large number of the leading ministers and laymen 
not only in the Lutheran Church but in the country generally 
have been connected with the Maryland Synod. 

The Maryland Synod is distinguished by its prominence in the 
educational, eleemosynary and missionary work of the Lutheran 
Church. Tin* Colleges and Seminaries at (Jettysburg and Selins- 
grove were largely inspired and aided in their beginnings as well 
as through their entire history by the Maryland Synod. She fur- 
nished the h'rst Presidents for Gettysburg, Selinsgrove, Witten- 
berg and Midland Colleges. The Deaconess Home and Mother- 
House, and the Home for the Aged are located on her territory, 
while all the benevolent and eleemosynary institutions of the 
Church receive the Synod's unfailing support. The beginnings 
of Home Missionary work were largely under the direction of 
the Maryland Synod. The first missionaries beyond the Pan- 
Handle and later beyond the Mississippi were sent forth from her 
Churches. Both the Hoards of Home and Foreign Missions have 
had their headquarters on its territory. 

The writer has been a member of the Maryland Synod for more 
than twenty years. He recalls the meetings of synods and con- 
ferences with unfeigned pleasure. There is a spirit of fraternity 
and brotherly cooperation that is both admirable and character- 
istic. There is enthusiasm for everything that makes for the ad- 
vancement of the Kingdom of our Lord. Delightful fellowship, 
whole-hearted service, mutual confidence, are marked features 
of the Synod's life. 

The following pages tell only a part of the story. Many of the 
best things cannot be written in a book. The Committee consist- 
ing of Professor Abdel Ross AVentx, L. Russell Alden, Esq., and 
the writer, entrusted the entire literary work in the preparation 
of the history to Professor Went/. A son of the Synod, preacher, 
historian, scholar, and teacher of young men preparing for the 
Gospel ministry, he has performed his task well. 

EZRA K. BELL. 



Introduction 

As we stand on the bow of some great ocean-liner hustling it- 
self across the trackless deep, we feel only the rush of change, 
the toss of the waves, the buffeting of the winds, and the heaving 
of the mighty deep. As we look forward from the bow we have no 
certainty of progress or of definite direction. But when we go 
back and stand on the stern of the vessel we see the wake of the 
ship, boiling out even as we watch it and stretching off in a 
straight line behind us. Then we know that we are held to a 
course, that we are making progress and that we are moving in a 
straight line and therefore towards a goal. We cannot see our 
destination but we know that we are going somewhere because we 
can see that we have come from somewhere. 

So the past is the wake of history. It is an argument for a 
definite direction in the world 's events. Our review of a century 
of Maryland Synod history ought to help us in some measure to 
understand the divine goal of daily events and the will of God 
for the future of our Zion. 

This volume is a part of the Maryland Synod's observance of 
her centennial year. It is intended to make us mindful of our 
heritage and our responsibility. It is not history for history's 
sake, not a narrative of facts long since past and unrelated to the 
present. It is rather a means of helping us, as individual congre- 
gations and as a Synod, to understand our relation to the living 
present and our responsibility to the promising future. 

The story of these hundred years in the Synod is an inspiring 
one. No one can read the record without feeling that the hand 
of God directs the affairs of the Church. But while the growth 
and achievements of the century should swell our breasts with 
pride and fill us with gratitude to God for the past, the contem- 
plation of her progressive development in powers and resources 
should fill us with a sense of obligation and point the finger of 
duty to the coming age. 

This is not a history of Lutheranism in the State of Maryland, 
but only a history of the Man-land Synod and her churches. 
There are a number of Lutheran churches in the State that do 
not belong to the Synod. Such are the twenty-four congrega- 
tions of the Synodical Conference (thirteen in Baltimore, two in 

5 



() INTROIH'CTION. 

Washington, two in Accident, and one each at Colgate, Cumber- 
land. (Jlen Arm, Linthicum Heights, Mechanicsville, Overlea, 
and Preston), the fifteen congregations of the .Joint Synod of 
Ohio (nine in Baltimore and one each at Washington, Ellicott 
City, Fnllerton, (Jlen Arm. Laurel, and Ferryman), one of the 
Swedish Augustana Synod in Baltimore, one of the Iowa Synod 
at Woodlawn, ami several without synodieal relations. These do 
not eome within the seope of this volume. 

The plan of the book ineludes three main parts, the history of 
the Synod as a whole, the history of the ehurches constituting 
the Synod at present, and biographical sketches of the sons of the 
Synod now in the ministry. 

In portraying the life of the Synod as a whole we have first 
sketched the Lutheran movements and settlements within the 
State before the organization of the Synod. These materials 
have been gathered from sources too numerous to mention here. 
The original plan to sketch the early history of the Lutheran 
Church in America outside of Maryland had to be abandoned be- 
cause it would have led too far afield. That subject can easily be 
traced in other books. For the European origin of these early 
Lutherans in Maryland the reader is referred to Chapter Five 
of my "(ierman Element in York County," pages 9(5-174. 

The history of the Synod as such, from the organization to the 
present, has been gathered mainly from the Minutes of the body. 
The original protocol of the Synod, we regret to say, has not been 
available. For over two years we have conducted a search for 
the protocol and first constitution. But in vain. We believe they 
have been destroyed. 

The subject of the protocol often occupied the attention of the 
Synod. As early as 1840 the manuscript protocol was pro- 
nounced "irrecoverably lost," and a committee declared it im- 
possible even to secure a complete file of the printed minutes. 
Four years later, however, the protocol is reported found and 
measures are taken for its safe keeping. In 18~>8 it was consigned 
to the care of Dr. Morris, but ten years later he reported that a 
part of the archives had been lost again. In 1871 it is reported 
that the old protocol and other papers of the Synod have been 
sent to Dr. Diehl "to be placed with the archives of the Synod 
in the church in Frederick." This is the last trace of those valu- 
able papers that can be found. It would seem that they were re- 
moved from Frederick when Dr. Diehl left that church, but dili- 
gent search among his heirs and effects has failed to reveal them. 

But we have succeeded in gathering a complete file of the pub- 
lished minutes of the Synod from various sources, and from these 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

we have gathered practically all of our materials for the story of 
the Synod as such. 

For the materials in the congregational sketches we are in most 
cases indebted to the pastors of the churches. They were gath- 
ered largely from the church records and congregational archives 
of the individual congregations. Some of the materials are to be 
found also in published form. Such are Williams' "History of 
Frederick County," Williams' "History of Washington Coun- 
ty," P. H. Miller's "History of Grace Lutheran Church of West- 
minster and Sketches of Lutheran Congregations in Carroll 
County," M. L. Culler's "Early History of the Lutheran 
Churches in the Middletown Valley," Bell's "History of the 
Leitersburg District," L. B! Hafer's "Brief Sketch of Trinity 
Lutheran Church of Taneytown," Ferdinand Hesse's "History 
of the Smithsburg Charge,'" C. S. Jones' "History of St. Paul's 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Baltimore County." Sarah C. 
Trump's "One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of Immanuel 
Lutheran Church of Manchester," L. H. Waring 's "History of 
the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Georgetown," Diehl, 
Schmucker, and Kuhlman on the Frederick congregation, Culler 
and Trump in "The Martinsburg Lutheran" for December, 
1918, and F. R, Wagner's "Historical Sketch of St. Paul's Lu- 
theran Church of Frostburg. " Much credit is due also to Dr. 
Victor Miller for his persistent efforts from 1900 to 1913 in gath- 
ering from the pastors many materials for the history of their 
churches. 

About one-third of the congregational histories could be pub- 
lished in practically the same form in which they were prepared 
by the pastors. Another third we prepared from data submitted 
by the pastors. For the other third we had to secure the data as 
well as write the history. 

The selection of portraits to illustrate the congregational his- 
tories was a delicate matter, and in some cases the pastor simply 
could not bring himself to make a selection from among the many 
good subjects that might have been available, and in those cases 
no illustrations of laymen appear. With only two exceptions we 
have been able to present a picture of even' pastor in the Synod. 
We appreciate this splendid cooperation. 

As to the third part of the volume the editor wishes to assume 
responsibility for the form in which most of the biographical 
sketches appear. He had much difficulty in overcoming the 
modesty of many of the "sons of the Synod" and in securing a 
measure of uniformity in the sketches. Four or five subjects be- 
longing in this chapter refused to respond. 



S INTRODUCTION. 

Our main problem throughout the book was condensation. 
When we consider the si/.e of the Synod and her ijge, the even 
greater age of some of her congregations, the prominence of the 
Synod and her men in the work of the church, the many aspects 
of her life, and the varied lines of her activity, we readily under- 
stand that the full history of the Synod's hundred years would 
require many volumes of this sixe. The minutes alone for these 
hundred years cover nearly .">,()()() pages. Volumes have had to 
be condensed into sketches. Doubtless many omissions will be 
noted by the informed reader. Then be it remembered that we 
have made special effort to maintain proper proportions. We 
have been obliged to condense greatly and to omit many tilings 
we wanted to include. Hut we have not retrenched: we have 
faithfully carried out the main plan authorized by the Synod two 
years ago. 

If the plan of the work had included footnotes many interest- 
ing but isolated events, many extraordinary occurrences, and 
many piquant and original anecdotes might have been introduced 
to enliven the reading. Then, too, complete bibliographical and 
other source references could have been included. But these were 
not regarded as essential to the main record and had to be 
omitted. 

Our obligations are hereby acknowledged to Pastor Richard 
Schmidt for his article on the German Synod of Maryland, to 
Miss Mary Baylies for her account of the Woman's Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Maryland Synod, to the pas- 
tors who so kindly cooperated in securing their congregational 
histories and materials for illustration, to the sons of the Synod 
who furnished data from which to make their biographies, and to 
the many individuals who so willingly responded to our many in- 
quiries for information to be used in the volume. 

In typewriting the manuscript for the printer and in gathering 
the tables presented in the volume we have had much valuable 
assistance from Mr. Luther A. Gotwald of the Gettysburg Semi- 
nary. 

ABDKL Ross WI:NT/. 

(irttiisbitrfj. I'd., March :>'(), 1!>20. 



Table of Contents 

PAGE 

Chapter I. Early Lutheran Settlements in Maryland 11 
Chapter II. Early Lutheran Expansion and the Spe- 
cial Conferences of Pastors 33 

Chapter III. The Organization of the Synod 43 

Chapter IV. The Growth of the Synod 55 

Chapter V. Leading Personalities 57 

Chapter VI. The Pastors of the Synod, 1820-1920 83 

Chapter VII. Missions : Home, Foreign, and Inner . . . 103 
Chapter VIII. Educational Activity and Literary Prod- 
ucts 127 

Chapter IX. Doctrinal and Liturgical Development . . 147 

Chapter X. Synodical Relations 161 

Chapter XI. Conventions and Officers 175 

Chapter XII. Clerical Roll for the Centennial Year .... 179 

Chapter XIII. The Churches of Baltimore and Vicinity . 189 

Chapter XIV. The Churches of Washington and Vicinity 281 

Chapter XV. The Churches of the Middle Conference . 325 

Chapter XVI. The Churches of the Western Conference . 437 

Chapter XVII. The Churches of the Mountain Conference 503 

Chapter XVIII. Ordinations and Licensures 519 

Chapter XIX. The Sons of the Synod 527 

Indexes . . 633 



"We have heard with our ears, O God, our 
fathers have told us, what work Thou didst 
in their days, in the days of old: Thou didst 
drive out the heathen with Thy hand, but 
them didst Thou plant." Psalm 44: i, 2. 

"Hitherto hath the Lord helped us." 
i Samuel 7: 12. 



CHAPTER I. 
EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 

Maryland was originally founded as a refuge for Roman Cath- 
olics. People of that faith were at that time the objects of sore 
persecution in England. The first settlers of Maryland, who 
reached the colony in March, 1634, were oppressed Catholics from 
England, about three hundred in number. But from the begin- 
ning Protestants were admitted to the new colony. This was not 
because of am* advanced views of religious toleration but because 
the colony was British, and the Catholic proprietor, Lord Balti- 
more, did not dare to exclude Protestants from the colony of a 
Protestant nation. The spirit of the age was bitterly intolerant, 
but in this case prudence dictated liberality. And so it was that 
people of all Christian denominations began to pour into the 
promising colony, and sixty years after the colony had been 
founded primarily as an asylum for persecuted Roman Catholics, 
the children of that faith constituted but one-twelfth of the pop- 
ulation. 

The first Lutherans to settle in Maryland were Swedes. They 
came in 1645, only eleven years after the colony had been 
founded, and settled in what is now Cecil County. They consti- 
tuted the out-post of that large Swedish settlement that had be- 
gun on the Delaware River (then New Sweden) seven years be- 
fore. In 1649 these Swedish Lutherans built the first Lutheran 
church in what is now the state of Maryland. It is said that in 
1660 there were nearly three hundred Lutheran families in that 
locality. But the settlement w r as not permanent. With the pass- 
ing of New Sweden this solitary Lutheran settlement in Mary- 
land vanished also, and it made no contribution to the Lutheran 
element that later constituted the Maryland Synod, except per- 
haps by contributing some individuals to the settlements in west- 
ern Maryland. Nearly a century was to pass before the first 
permanent settlement of Lutherans was made in the colony of 
Maryland. Then nearly another century was to pass before the 
Maryland Synod was born. 

As the history of our American Republic covers less than half 
of the history of the white man in our country, so the life of the 

11 



12 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

organi/ed Maryland Synod covers only a little more than half 
of the history of Lutherans in the State. 

The Lutheran Synod of Maryland is now just a century old. 
Hut the history of Lutheranism in Maryland goes hack nearly a 
century before the organization of the Synod. There were in- 
dividual Lutherans and Lutheran settlements and Lutheran con- 
gregations in Maryland some ninety years before synodical or- 
gani/ation was effected. The beginnings of these pioneer Luther- 
an settlements go back beyond the establishment of the American 
Republic, beyond the Revolutionary War, back to the early dec- 
ades of th> Eighteenth Century. 

Three of these earliest Lutheran settlements in particular need 
to be considered as heralding the dawn of Lutheran history in 
Maryland. They are Baltimore, Conoeocheague, and Monocacy. 
The oldest of these is Monocacy. But all of them have long since 
ceased to be preeminent in the Lutheranism of the state. The 
settlement of Monocacy was soon overshadowed and absorbed by 
Frederick. That of Conoeocheague dwindled into insignificance 
beside Hagerstown. And the old Lutheran community in Balti- 
more belonged to the Maryland Synod only a short time and has 
long since lost its Lutheran confessional character. 

Let us review briefly the life of these three pioneer Lutheran 
communities. They mark one stage in the westward movement 
of the American frontier, the meeting point between civilization 
and savagery, and thus they help constitute the crucible in which 
the different European nationalities have been moulded into an 
entirely new product known as the American. At the same time 
their character and their history as church communities hold the 
germ and promise of much of the subsequent history of Luther- 
anism in the state of Maryland. 

On the Monocacy. 

The first Lutheran congregation in the state of Maryland was 
Monacacy. The Monocacy settlement was in Frederick County, 
ten miles north of the present city of Frederick, at the point 
where the route of travel from Pennsylvania crossed the Mono- 
cacy River. This settlement was one of the results of the gradual 
expansion of the population from the Atlantic seaboard west- 
ward. 

The pioneers of the Monocacy Valley came from Pennsylvania. 
In the year 1710 as a result of the great increase of German im- 
migrants to America the Lutheran population of Pennsylvania 
had begun to grow rapidly. Many of these Lutherans had settled 
in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, just east of the Susquehanna 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 13 

River. From that point there was a natural avenue leading 
southwestward into Virginia. This was the highway that from 
time immemorial had been used by the Indians in their wander- 
ings from north to south and vice versa. It included a series of 
fertile valleys now known as the Cumberland, Shenandoah, and 
Virginia Valleys. Crossing the Susquehanna where Wrightsville 
now stands it followed the limestone belt in a southwestern direc- 
tion across York County (York and Hanover) and the southeast- 
tern part of Adams County (Littlest own), across the state line 
into Carroll and Frederick Counties, Maryland, and so to the 
Potomac. This route of travel afterwards figured prominently 
in the history of our country. 

It was this great natural highway from eastern Pennsylvania 
to Virginia that brought the first Lutheran settlers to Maryland. 
As the population in eastern Pennsylvania increased and the 
good lands there were gradually taken up the hardy pioneers 
pushed westward across the Susquehanna. But out of regard for 
the rights of the Indians the Pennsylvania authorities did not 
permit settlement on the lands west of the river until 1729. So 
already several years before that date some of the immigrants 
into Penn's colony had moved across the forbidden Indian lands 
of York County and had pushed on to the hospitable soil of Mary- 
land and Virginia. It seems probable that in 1727 or the follow- 
ing year a small number of Germans from Pennsylvania had 
taken up their abode on Maryland soil in the Monocacy Valley. 
These were mostly Lutherans. 

A year or two later when the Pennsylvania government au- 
thorized settlements west of the Susquehanna the Indian trail to 
the south and southwest was converted into a wagon road and 
soon hundreds of Germans from Pennsylvania were coursing 
along this highway to the rich lands of western Maryland and 
northern Virginia. Then, too. Lord Fairfax of Virginia and Gov- 
ernor Ogle of Maryland were holding out special inducements to 
the Germans to settle within their respective domains. Early in 
1732 the Governor of Virginia ceded a tract of some 25,000 acres 
to Jost Hite, a German, and Jacob Van Meter, a Dutchman, on 
condition that they would settle two hundred German families 
on the tract. Hite and Van Meter traversed Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey and even went to Germany and Holland in search 
of settlers for their lands, and directed them all to Virginia by 
the way of the well-known "Monocacy Road." The consequence 
was that soon a large volume of immigration began to flow from 
Pennsylvania to Virginia. 

Then Charles Lord Baltimore tried to outdo the Governor of 



14 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Virjrinia in attracting colonists. He offered the lands between 
the Monocacy and the Pennsylvania line in tracts of two hundred 
acres each to families that would settle there and he asked only 
the rental of one cent an acre and no rent to pay for the first 
three years. It is not surprising that many of the Germans on 
their way from Pennsylvania to Virginia, with their keen sense 
for fertile soil and their fixed habit to hunt out good lands, see- 
ing the rich lands of Frederick County offered them on such 
liberal terms, dug their spades into the earth then and there, set 
up their hearthstones, and forgot all about their intentions of 
going farther. This was the beginning of the Monocacy settle- 
ment. 

These hardy industrious (iermans came as home-makers and 
tillers of the soil. They brought with them their Bibles, their 
hymn books, and generally a few devotional works, such as Lu- 
ther's catechism and John Arndt's "True Christianity/' As 
soon as a community of settlers had formed they began to take 
measures to satisfy their hunger for the word of life, for com- 
mon worship and the means of grace. From Pennsylvania they 
had come and to Pennsylvania they looked for spiritual ministry. 

In IT.'M John Casper Stoever, "the indefatigable missionary," 
on one of his tours from New Holland to York went as far south 
as the Monocacy settlement, baptized the Lutheran children there 
and organized the Lutheran members of the community into a 
congregation. The following summer, 1734, they built a neat sub- 
stantial log church. This was the first Lutheran church in west- 
ern Maryland and it was large enough and substantial enough to 
serve the purposes of the congregation for more than half a cen- 
tury. 

To this unpretentious log church in the scattering log village 
the pious settlers gathered from miles around to worship God. 
Here the aged pioneer gave thanks for religious freedom that 
had been denied him in the fatherland. Here parents came from 
near and far with their families to acknowledge their Lord and 
to hear the preaching of His Word. When an ordained minister 
visited the community the babes were carried to this sacred place 
for holy baptism and all the faithful partook of the Lord's Sup- 
per. Hither the young man and the maid came for catechetical 
instruction and preparation for confirmation, and sometimes they 
came to plight their troth as husband and wife. 

Many years passed before regular pastors could be obtained 
for the congregation. Meanwhile they had the village school- 
master to lead the singing, to read printed sermons on Sunday, 
and to impart religious as well as secular instruction to the 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 15 

young. Who this schoolmaster was or how well he performed his 
work we do not know, but he evidently acted under the instruc- 
tions and supervision of Pastor Stoever of New Holland and 
later of Lebanon, who from 1733 to 1743 made periodic visits 
west of the Susquehanna to York on the Codorus and to the 
congregation on the Monocacy. 

The church on the Monocacy was built by the Lutherans of that 
community and for a long time was a purely Lutheran church. 
One of the governing principles of the organization was that "No 
minister shall be admitted to preach or administer the holy ordi- 
nances in our church, without a lawful certificate of Lutheran 
ordination and without the consent of the Lutheran church war- 
dens. " But in 1747, after the community had been visited by 
Michael Schlatter, the great organizer of the Reformed, the Lu- 
theran church council granted "permission to regularly author- 
ized ministers of the Reformed Church to hold services in the 
church." Thereafter the church building was used jointly by 
the two congregations, but the numbers of the Lutherans greatly 
exceeded the numbers of the Reformed. 

The membership of the original congregation was scattered all 
the way from Taneytown and Emmitsburg on the north to the 
Glades and beyond Frederick on the south, and from Mount 
Pleasant and Liberty on the east to the Catoctin Mountains on 
the west. This large parish was only a comparatively small part 
of the charge that was committed to the oversight of Pastor 
Stoever and of course it did not generally have his direct or de- 
tailed supervision. He visited York about once a month. The 
Conewago settlement (near Hanover) he saw twice a year. But 
the congregation on the Monocacy never had his personal services 
more than once a year. 

After ten years of intermittent ministry west of the Susque- 
hanna, John Casper Stoever resigned in 1743 and his regular 
visits to York and his irregular visits to the Monocacy congrega- 
tion ceased. But he had prepared his successor. In April, 1743, 
he had ordained David Candler, a schoolmaster of Conewago, and 
had placed him over the York and Monocacy churches. That 
same year Candler for the convenience of his parishioners or- 
ganized the Conewago congregation (Hanover) and divided the 
Monocacy congregation by establishing a branch where Frederick 
now stands. 

This beginning of Lutheran worship on the future site of Fred- 
erick City on the Carroll Creek was the first step in a series of 
events that finally led to the transfer of the old Monocacy or- 
ganization to that thriving town ten miles south of Monocacy. 



1(5 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

For a long time after separate services were held in Frederick 
the Lutherans residing there regarded themselves as members of 
the mother congregation on the Monoeacy. But when Frederick 
was laid out as a town in 174.") and when it was made the county- 
seat of the new county in 1748, the number of Lutherans at Fred- 
erick naturally increased while the community to the north 
steadily declined in relative strength until at length the organi- 
xation was, at it were, transferred to the town. The oldest record 
book in possession of the congregation is stamped on the back 
"(Jemeinde Monakes, '' that is, the congregation of the Monoeacy, 
and the most precious historic relic in their possession is the Eng- 
lish Constitution contained in this same book, prepared by Muh- 
lenberg and preserved in his hand. 

Tims in 1743 Candler had charge of four congregations extend- 
ing all the way from the Susquehanna to the Potomac, a direct 
distance of more than seventy-five miles. He lived at Conewago, 
and when his great zeal in the exercise of his office and his in- 
tense exertions on behalf of his congregations undermined his 
health and caused his death in little more than a year after his 
ordination, he was buried at Conewago. 

A number of the people of the Monoeacy church attended the 
funeral of their pastor at Conewago. The sermon was preached 
by Rev. Lars Xyberg, a Swede, who was pastor at Lancaster and 
who was secretly a Moravian. The deputation from Monoeacy 
were so pleased with Nyberg 's sermon that they asked him to 
procure for them a pastor who could preach like himself. Ny- 
berg conferred with the Moravian authorities at Bethlehem with 
a view to procuring a man and the result was that he himself 
was appointed to serve Monoeacy and the other congregations 
west of the Susquehanna. This appointment he accepted as an 
opportunity to lead those Lutheran congregations into the Mo- 
ravian fold. When the perfidy of Nyberg became known to the 
Lutheran congregations the doors were closed against him at 
Lancaster, at York, and at Conewago. In the Monoeacy congre- 
gation a split took place. Many of the people in the old Luther- 
an congregation adhered to Xyberg and to Nicke, his successor, 
and to the Moravian faith, and when in 1746 the Lutheran ma- 
jority of the congregation locked the church doors on Nicke the 
Moravian element withdrew and for a number of years held serv- 
ices in a private house. In 1758 they organized a church of their 
own faith at Graceham, three and a half miles from the Monoeacy 
church. 

Years passed before the confusion caused by Nyberg in the 
Monoeacy congregation was composed. The defenseless people 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 17 

were set upon by vagrant preachers and imposters and the dis- 
traction did not cease until Muhlenberg himself appeared on tli3 
scene and prepared a constitution for the congregation. 

But it was not easy to secure a visit from Muhlenberg. When 
the congregation was divided over the Moravian Nicke, in the 
summer of 1746, they sent to the United Lutheran ministers of 
Pennsylvania and asked to be taken under their care. But 
Muhlenberg was unable to visit them at that time. However, at 
his request Rev. Gabriel Naesman, pastor of the Swedish Luther- 
an Church at Wicaco, near Philadelphia, who could preach in 
German, and who for some time regularly visited Lancaster after 
Nyberg was excluded, made a visit to Frederick in October, 1746. 
On Reformation Day itself Mr. Naesman preached in the church 
at Monocacy and baptized one young man nineteen years of age 
and six children. He caused a large and well-bound record-book 
to be purchased and in it he entered the fact of his preaching 
there and the record of his baptisms. He also gave instructions 
to have the records of Candler arid all other entries copied from 
private journals and family Bibles into the new church book. 
Fifty -four baptisms previous to October, 1746, were so entered. 

The earliest baptism in the record is dated August 22, 1737. 
The infant son of Frederick Unsult was baptized by a Rev. Mr. 
Wolf. It is not at all certain that this ordinance was adminis- 
tered either at Frederick or at Monocacy. The probability is 
that the baptism was performed at the place from which the par- 
ents removed before they came to the Monocacy settlement, pos- 
sibly the Lutheran settlement on the Raritan in New Jersey, 
where in 1737 Rev. John August Wolf was pastor. 

After Naesman 's refreshing visit the congregation was once 
more without a head and a pastor, as shepherdless sheep exposed 
to the ravages of the wolves that in those days wandered about in 
pastoral garb. Late in 1746 or early in 1747 Monocacy and 
Frederick were visited by the notorious vagabond Carl Rudolph, 
who claimed to be a Lutheran minister, and showed testimonials 
with great seals which were probably forged and certainly false. 
We learn of him first in Georgia where he barely escaped the gal- 
lows. Then he wandered northward through the Carolinas and 
Virginia until he arrived at Frederick. Wherever he found a 
congregation he tarried and offered his services. He is said by 
Muhlenberg to have served in Maryland congregations, German 
and Irish. He was accepted at Monocacy as pastor, but very soon 
showed himself to be a thief, a drunkard, licentious and utterly 
worthless, and was soon dismissed here as he had been every- 
where else. 



18 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Another vagabond who attempted to creep into the congrega- 
tion at Frederick in 1747 was a man whom Muhlenberg terms 
Empirieus Sehmid. He was a quack who pretended to be a phy- 
sician and dentist, resided in New Hanover, Pennsylvania, and 
as early at least as 17.'W attempted to perform ministerial acts. 
When Muhlenberg took charge there in 17412 there was not room 
enough for both; after vainly attempting to organize an opposi- 
tion congregation in 1743 Sehmid left. He was afterward in 
Virginia, and in .June, 1747, was at Frederick and Monocacy 
where he found but few supporters. 

Meanwhile events were shaping to bring about a visit from 
Muhlenberg himself to the Monocacy Lutherans. Many of Muh- 
lenberg 's parishioners in Pennsylvania had taken up their abode 
in the Monocacy settlement. He states that between 1742, when 
he arrived in America, and 1747, one-half of the Providence 
congregation, of which he had charge, removed to the extreme 
limits of Pennsylvania and to Maryland and Virginia. Thus his 
personal interest was enlisted in the Maryland Lutherans. The 
appeal of the Monocacy congregation in 174(5 had also made its 
impression on the great pastor. 

Then, too, Muhlenberg had long been distressed by the accounts 
he received of the confusion that Xyberg and the Moravians had 
caused among the congregations formerly served by Mr. Candler, 
and at last in 1747 when the Pentecostal communions and con- 
firmations in his own charge were completed he decided to visit 
those congregations and to try to restore order. In his reports 
to the authorities at Halle he gives a full and interesting account 
of his journey to Monocacy and its various incidents. 

Setting out from New Hanover, June 10, 1747, he took the 
schoolmaster Jacob Loeser with him and went to the Alsace 
Church, to Tulpehocken and through Lancaster to York and then 
to Conewago. Here two deputies from Monocacy met him and 
took him, June 23d, thirty-six miles to the Monocacy settlement. 
They started in a drenching rain and finding no house at which 
to stay they were compelled to ride all night through the wilder- 
ness with the rain pouring down and the horses sometimes up to 
their knees in water and mire. By morning, June 24th, they 
reached their destination. 

He says: <k l was now at Manaquesy, of which the Moravians 
boast so much in their reports. I found here a log church and 
two parties in the congregation. Some adhered to the Moravians, 
and had allowed themselves to be ministered to by Mr. Nicky, 
one of their teachers, who, when I came, had just returned to 
Bethlehem. The other party had accepted the deceiver Carl 



EARLY LUTHER AX SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 19 

Rudolph as their preacher, but some time before had dismissed 
him. They had the same experiences with Nyberg as the mem- 
bers at York and Conawaque and at last had locked him out of 
the church, because he had tried to introduce a Moravian brother 
as a Lutheran preacher. They had now for nearly a year ear- 
nestly entreated that one of our ministers should come and ad- 
minister the Lord's Supper to them. We could not refuse. My 
arrival was very acceptable to them and an occasion of joy. ' ' 

He then describes his efforts to restore peace. He assembled 
the congregation and before service he asked for their church 
record in which he wrote, in the English language, some articles 
headed as follows: "For the Government of the Lutheran 
Church at Monocacy. Written in their Church Book by Rev. 
H. M. Muhlenberg, June 24, 1747." 

The articles are as follows : 

''Whereas wo the subscribers enjoy the inestimable liberty of conscience 
under the protection of our Gracious Sovereign King George the II and his 
representatives our gracious superiors of this Province, "and have used this 
precious privilege since our first settling here at Monocacy, till this day in 
worshiping God Almighty according to the Protestant Lutheran persuasion, 
grounded in the Old and Xew Testament and in the Unaltered Augsburg 
Confession, and other Symbolical Books, we will pray for our most gracious 
Sovereign and all that are in authority, that we may lead a peaceable and 
quiet life in sincerity, Godliness and honesty. And whereas we are at times 
disturbed by pretended ministers that style themselves Lutherans, but can- 
not produce any lawful certificate or credential of their vocation or ordina- 
tion, by a lawful consistory or ministry, and cause strife, quarrels and dis- 
turbance among the congregation, we the subscribers, and church wardens, 
and members, of the Protestant Lutheran congregation, erect and agree and 
bind ourselves to the following articles, in primis: 

" 1. That our German Lutherans confess their adherence to the Holy Scrip- 
tures and also to the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, and the other Sym- 
bolical Hooks. 

' ' 2. That whenever possible in accordance with the same, they have the 
sacraments administered by regularly called and ordained ministers. 

' ' 3. That their rules do not allow that open and wilful offenders against 
the ten commandments of God and against the laws of a Christian govern- 
ment should be acknowledged by them as members, but be excluded. 

' ' 4. The church we have erected at Monocacy and used hitherto shall stand 
and remain for the worship of our protestant Lutheran religion according 
to our confession as long as the blessed acts of tolerance and liberty stand. 
Tlio Reformed shall have liberty for their lawful ministers. 

''5. Xo minister shall lie admitted to preach or administer the holy ordi- 
nance, without a lawful call and certificate, of his lawful Lutheran ordina- 
tion and examination by a Lutheran ministry, and without consent of the 
church wardens. 

" (?. Every year, shall be chosen four or more blameless members for 
chui, l x wardens and they shall be chosen by 'per plurima vota. ' 

' ' 7. These wardens shall hold and preserve the keys of the church, the ves- 
sels and vnaments, and deliver every piece in time of worship, or when 
necessity requires it. 

' ' 8. Two of the church wardens shall keep an exact account of the alms, 
and offerings, and be ready each year for reckoning with the church wardens 
and the congregation." 



20 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Those articles were dated June '24, 1747, and were signed by 
six wardens and twenty-six other members of the congregation 
residing at Monocacy and Frederick, as follows: John George 
Loy, John Kreitzman, John M. Roemer, Peter Axtel, Henry 
Sechs, Jacob Hoft, Martin Wet/el, (leorge Sweinhardt, John 
Smith. John Yerdries, Michel Reisner, Dr. Schney, John Stol- 
ineyer, John Sechs, Valentine Verdries, John G. Seldner, John 
Christopher Smith, John Vogel, John Davis, Frederic O. Ver- 
dries, Martin Wehel, Jr., Nicholas Weliel, Frederick Wilhide, 
George Honig, George Rolx, George M. Hoffman, Peter Apfel, 
Lndwig Weltner, Frederic Unsnlt, Jacob Hoen, Hans Fred 
Geyer. 

It is the book containing these articles and their signatures that 
rests in the archives of the Frederick Church to-day. Muhlen- 
berg read the articles publicly to the Monocacy congregation, 
explained them in German, and requested that those who wanted 
to be Lutherans should sign them. He tells us that he wrote 
them in English so that they might be of service if any legal diffi- 
culties arose. After this constitution was signed Muhlenberg 
proceeded to preach and administer the communion. Due to the 
heavy rains many of the members living at a distance were pre- 
vented from attending. 

Of his visit the next day to Frederick, Muhlenberg writes: 
"On the 25th of June we rode on ten miles farther to a newly 
laid out town, where a number of Lutherans lived, who also be- 
long to the congregation, but who were prevented by the heavy 
rains from being present on the previous day. Most of them sub- 
scribed the articles in the church record, and elected several of 
their own number as deacons (Vorsteher) and elders. Three or 
four persons had adhered to a man who formerly at New Han- 
over, had assumed the functions of the ministry, (in his diary 
Mr. M. mentions his name, "my predecessor at New Hanover, 
the Empiricus Schmid,") and had gone from there to Virginia 
and had now returned to Maryland. There was a large assem- 
blage of English and German people. At the desire of many 
members, after preparatory service and prayer had been held, I 
administered the Holy Supper to some Lutherans, baptized chil- 
dren and married two couples. Both the flocks, that in town and 
that in the country, begged that 1 would take to heart their dis- 
traction, poverty and need of a preacher, and lay them before 
our venerable Fathers. They would try to hold together as long 
as possible. In the evening we rode back to our former quar- 
ters." 

It is evident that Muhlenberg regarded the Lutherans of Fred- 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 21 

erick as a part of the Monocacy congregation even though they 
had built their own house of worship four years before his visit. 
But the town of Frederick was now growing rapidly and while 
Monocacy and Frederick continued to form one charge until 
1810, yet within five years after Muhlenberg 's visit in 1747 the 
congregation at Frederick had taken precedence over the con- 
gregation in the country and the parsonage of the charge was lo- 
cated there at the county-seat. 

An interesting side-light is thrown on the state of religion in 
that early Lutheran settlement by an incident that occurred as 
Muhlenberg and his companion, J. J. Loeser, were returning 
home from Monocacy on June 26th. After riding a few miles in 
the direction of Conewago they were met by an English gentle- 
man who invited them to his house, offered them refreshments, 
and desired to know Muhlenberg 's opinion of the condition of 
the Lutherans in Maryland. Muhlenberg said that all of them 
needed deeper experience in true repentance, living faith, and 
practical godliness. But he expressed his emphatic conviction 
that the Lutherans and Reformed contrasted very favorably with 
the Moravians and the Episcopalians of those days. 

After Muhlenberg 's visit to the Monocacy church the congre- 
gation received occasional visits from other Pennsylvania min- 
isters. Rev. J. H. Schaum, of York, rendered ministerial services 
from time to time, and toward the close of 1749 Rev. Valentine 
Kraft took up his abode in Frederick. Kraft was an aged pastor 
who had come into violent opposition to Muhlenberg in Philadel- 
phia. There is no evidence that he was accepted by the Monocacy 
charge as pastor but he probably officiated irregularly for a year 
or two and had some adherents. After he died in 1751 Rev. 
Schaum continued to visit the two congregations and gave them 
counsel. He did much to counteract the baneful influence of a 
vagabond named Streiter who though unordained was exceed- 
ingly zealous in his efforts to gain adherents and preside over the 
congregations. 

By the year 1750 the head of this oldest Lutheran settlement 
in western Maryland had been transferred from the banks of 
the Monocac\ r to the town of Frederick and the pastorate was 
known by the name of Frederick. Thus we read in the minutes 
of the fifth Convention of the Pennsylvania Ministeriurn in 1752 : 
"The Congregation in Frederickstown, Maryland, shall be visited 
by Rev. Mr. Schaum as often as possible until all are united and 
we can help them further. ' ' But in that same year the Frederick 
pastorate secured her first regular resident pastor. This was the 
highly gifted and thoroughly educated Rev. Bernhard Michael 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Hausilil. He came to Frederick County by way of the port of 
Annapolis. For the Lutheran forces of Maryland had now begun 
to gather reenforceiuents from sourees independent of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Between 1748 and 175:} as many as twenty-eight hundred Pala- 
tines came into Maryland by way of Baltimore and Annapolis. 
The vast majority of these settled in Frederick County. Among 
those who thus arrived in 17f>2 were Christopher B. Mayer and 
his son-in-law, Rev. Hausihl. Mr. Mayer brought a letter from 
Cecil Calvert, Proprietary of Maryland, to Benjamin Tasker, 
president of the provincial Council, requesting him to give the 
necessary assistance to Mr. Mayer and those accompanying him 
to forward them to Manockcsy, their destination. The result was 
that they settled in Frederick and Rev. Hausihl became the first 
regular pastor of the Frederick and Monocacy congregations. 
With that event the history of the charge passes beyond the 
pioneer stage and can be traced in the congregational sketches 
of these two congregations. 

Meanwhile the old village named Monocacy had begun to de- 
cline, its elements being absorbed by other communities. In 
1700 Creagerstown was founded about a mile distant from Mono- 
cacy and on ground that was more elevated and therefore more 
advantageously situated. Thereupon the older village declined 
rapidly and was soon abandoned, the Lutheran congregation of 
the Monocacy preserving its historical continuity in the Lutheran 
church of Creagerstown. To-day it is not easy to determine even 
the location of that first church that for almost a generation 
served as a, house of worship for those earliest Lutheran pioneers 
in Maryland. 

On the Conococheague. 

The second pioneer settlement of Lutherans in Maryland was 
that on the Conococheague, in Washington County. The Conoco- 
cheague like the Monocacy is a tributary of the Potomac. The 
settlement, that bore the name of the stream was located about 
thirty miles west of the settlement on the Monocacy, about eight 
miles southwest, of the present city of Hagerstown, and between 
the present towns of Williamsport and Clearspring. 

The Conococheague settlement began only a few years later 
than the settlement on the Monocacy. Tt drew on the same 
sources of immigration and consisted of the more venturesome 
spirits among those who started from Pennsylvania on the old 
Monoeaey trail to Virginia. The valley of the Conococheague 
did not lie on the beaten path of travel, but it had its attractions, 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 23 

and the more hard}' members of the vanguard of civilization ven- 
tured to pierce the wilderness and take up their abode on the 
western bank of the Conococheague and the northern bank of the 
Potomac, where the Potomac draws the line of division between 
the Cumberland Valley on the north and the Shenandoah Valley 
on the south. 

Most of these early settlers came from the neighborhood of 
Monocacy and Frederick, making their way westward across the 
South Mountain and following the trail which afterwards be- 
came the National Pike until they reached the attractive region 
just west of the stream which gave its Indian name to the settle- 
ment. Others aimed directly for this settlement before they left 
Pennsylvania and crossing the Susquehanna at Harris' Ferry 
(now Harrisburg) about thirty miles north of Wright's Ferry 
they soon reached the head waters of the Conococheague in the 
Cumberland Valley and then followed the general course of the 
stream down the valley to its mouth. 

This settlement on the Conococheague began about 1735 and 
until some years after the close of the French and Indian War 
was the westernmost settlement in Maryland. The upper Po- 
tomac had been explored at a much earlier period in the history 
of Maryland but almost a century had elapsed after the settle- 
ment of St. Mary's near the mouth of the river before the pres- 
ent territory of Washington County was formally opened to set- 
tlement. The sale of lands west of the South Mountain was first 
authorized in 1733. The Proprietary reserved the Manor of 
Conococheague, a tract of eleven thousand acres. Some of the 
earliest settlers came from the east and southeast. They were 
principally English in nationality and Episcopal in faith. But 
by far the largest contingent of settlers in the newly opened ter- 
ritory came from the German communities of southeastern Penn- 
sylvania. These were chiefly Lutherans and Reformed. They 
were mainly devoted to agricultural pursuits, and the Conoco- 
cheague settlement formed one of the links in the chain of flour- 
ishing farms between Pennsylvania and the Valley of Virginia. 

Just what year the Lutheran congregation on the Conoco- 
cheague began it is not possible to determine. The earliest refer- 
ence to any church organization among the Lutherans of this 
settlement occurs in the year 1747. Rev. Michael Schlatter, the 
missionary of the German Reformed Church, makes an entry in 
his journal, April 29, 1747, in which he records his visit to the 
Reformed congregation on the Monocacy and remarks "If this 
congregation were united with the one called Conococheague, 
lying thirty miles distant, the two would be able to sustain a min- 



1M HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

ister. " The reference is to the old union organization of St. 
Paul's known as "the Lutheran and Reformed Congregations on 
the West Side of the Conococheague Bridge." How niueh earlier 
than 1747 this organization was in existence it is impossible now 
to ascertain. 

Before the middle of the century these German pioneers, Lu- 
theran and Reformed, had built themselves a log church and a 
schoolhouse. The principal Lutheran families were the Brewers, 
Firys, Barkmans, and Stines. But many years elapsed before 
they could secure the services of a regular pastor, and we are not 
even informed that they had a schoolmaster who could read ser- 
mons to them on the Lord's Day and lead their singing of hymns. 
They seem to have been wholly dependent upon the very occa- 
sional visits of such itinerant missionaries as John Nicholas Kurtz 
and John Caspar Stoever and Charles Frederick Wildbahn. 

In 1770 Wildbahn resided at McAllisterstown (now Hanover) 
and served a large number of congregations south and west, c. y. 
Taneytown, Tom's Creek, Point Creek, St. John's near Littles- 
town, and Owen's ('reek. In this wide circuit he also occasion- 
ally included Conococheague. He had come from Saxony as a 
soldier in the employ of Great Britian, but as he was a man of 
splendid education, classical training, fine eloquence, and good 
character, his countrymen in America soon besought him to be- 
come their teacher and then their pastor. He began to teach at 
Winchester, Virginia. Already in 1762 four or five congrega- 
tions in southern Pennsylvania and Maryland had asked the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium to ordain Mr. Wildbahn so that he 
might minister to their spiritual wants. Among these petition- 
ing congregations was that of the Conococheague settlement. 
The petition was granted and Wildbahn was ordained. He took 
iij) his abode at McAllisterstown and traveled over a wide terri- 
tory hunting up scattered villages of his German brethren and 
ministering to them in holy things. 

But the Lutherans on the Conococheague found themselves 
so far removed from the parsonage at Hanover that they began 
to desire more frequent services and a more accessible pastor. 
So in 1770 they sent delegates to the meeting of the Ministerium 
in Reading with the request that their congregation be separated 
from McAllisterstown and that they be provided with a pastor of 
their own. The petition was granted and a Mr. Frederiei was 
proposed to the congregation. But the proposal did not result in 
a call. 

That same year John Nicholas Kurtz became pastor at York. 
He is said to have done much work in exploring and ministering 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 2> 

to the Lutherans in the sparsely settled country west of the Sus- 
quehanna. So after Wildbahn's ministrations to the Conoco- 
cheague settlement, had ceased Pastor Kurtz paid them occasional 
visits until 1772. In that year the congregation again appears 
before the Ministerium in Lancaster, Pastor Kurtz himself being 
the President, and Muhlenberg records in his journals : "A dele- 
gate appeared from vacant congregations in a region situated 
between the boundaries of Pennsylvania and Virginia in Mary- 
land, and called by the Indian name Cannegotschick. These 
congregations Senior Kurtz visited now and then, and adminis- 
tered to them the means of grace. This district is said to be very 
populous and to abound in various sorts of sectarian agitators. 
The delegate presented a petition for an able teacher and pastor, 
and said to me privately that they desired the elder Mr. Kurtz, 
but if this could not be, they would like to have Frederick Muh- 
lenberg or the younger Mr. Kurtz The President pro- 
posed his brother, Mr. Kurtz, Junior We all agreed to the 

proposition and Mr. Kurtz accepted it" on certain conditions. 
These conditions were evidently not fulfilled, for this Mr. Kurtz 
never became their pastor. 

Meanwhile in 1762 Jonathan Hager had laid out the town 
which bears his name. It had grown rapidly and a flourishing 
Lutheran congregation had been organized there sometime before ' 
1769. So in 1772 the Lutheran congregation west of the Conoco- 
cheague linked its fortune to that of St. John's Church in Hagers- 
town and from that date until 1823 the Hagerstown pastor was 
at the same time the pastor of old St. Paul's. During this period 
four distinguished names are recorded as pastors of the charge 
that included old St. Paul's, those of Rev. John George Young, 
Rev. John George Schmucker, Rev. Solomon Schaeft'er, and Rev. 
Benjamin Kurtz. And just as the Monocaey congregation had 
been overshadowed by the church in Frederick, so the St. Paul's 
congregation of the Conococheague settlement became an outpost 
of St. John's in Hagerstown. It thus passes beyond the pioneer 
stage. 

The original log church that was built by the Conococheague 
settlers long before they were able to secure the services of a 
regular pastor even from so remote a point as Hanover, was 
erected on the north side of the old trail now known as the Na- 
tional Pike. It stood on an eminence known as Cedar Ridge. In 
1795, during the pastorate of John George Schmucker, the log 
church was exchanged for one of stone. And this has since been 
superseded by one of brick. 

Among the early German settlers at Conococheague were the 



:>f> HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Prathers. Pohs (Poest.) Burkhardts. Start/mans, Snevelys, 
Stulls, Wolgamuths, Hausers, Elwieks, Kendricks, and Shryocks. 

That the Conococheague settlement grew so slowly and that the 
Lutheran Church there did not become independent and self- 
supporting until the second quarter of the Nineteenth Century, 
is to he explained from the exposed condition of the frontier set- 
tlement and the discouraging events attending its beginning. 
There were still many Indians in western Maryland when this 
settlement began. Schlatter, writing of the Conococheague re- 
gion in 1749, says: "In this neighborhood there are still many 
Indians, who are well disposed and very obliging and are not 
disinclined towards the Christians when they are not made drunk 
by strong drink." 

The early settlers on the Conococheague lived in peace with 
the Indians. But the settlers had prepared themselves against 
possible trouble by building block-houses, one where Governor 
Sliarpe afterwards erected Fort Frederick, and one on the west 
side of the Conococheague about a half mile south of the point 
where the National Pike crosses the creek. This house was used 
for public worship until a church was built. But when the 
French and Indian War broke out this frontier settlement was 
made to suffer. The formerly well disposed Indians, instigated 
by French money and influence, became infuriated savages and 
applied the tomahawk to the peaceful settlers and the torch to 
their homes and crops. When Braddock was defeated on the 
Monongahela, July 9, 175"), a general panic ensued among the 
white settlers of western Maryland. In the Conococheague set- 
tlement large numbers of people deserted their homes and re- 
tired for safety to the interior of the province. So great was the 
desertion on the frontier that George Washington wrote in Au- 
gust, 1756: "The whole settlement of Conococheague has fled 
and there remain now only two families from there to Frederick- 
town. ' ' 

As Fort Cumberland (near the present city of Cumberland) 
was too far to the westward to afford adequate protection Gov- 
ernor Sharpe built Fort Frederick, an extensive fortification with 
massive stone walls near the Potomac fourteen miles above the 
Conococheague. Here a strong garrison was stationed and to the 
end of the hostilities it afforded protection to our settlement of 
Lutherans. Parties of Indians still devastated the frontier, 
however, especially in 1763, when a second exodus similar to that 
in 1755 occurred. But in 1764 the allied tribes of Pontiac's con- 
federacy were finally defeated and the western frontier of 
Maryland at last enjoyed the benefits of undisturbed tranquillity 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 27 

and our settlement entered upon its first period of rapid growth 
and development. 

In Baltimore. 

The third center from which Lutheranism in Maryland radi- 
ated is Baltimore. This city which is to-day the largest city 
south of the Mason and Dixon, the fourth in size among the cities 
on the Atlantic seaboard, and the seventh among all the cities in 
the United States, is now a stronghold of Lutheranism and with 
the growth of the metropolis has far outstripped the other two 
settlements that constituted the pioneers of Lutheranism in 
Maryland. But in the colonial times it was not so. The Luther- 
an Church was well established in the western part of the prov- 
ince before she even made her appearance in Baltimore, and all 
through the Eighteenth Century her growth in Frederick and 
Washington Counties surpassed her slow progress in the seaport 
town. 

Baltimore was laid out as a town in 1730 but was not incor- 
porated as a city until 1796. Annapolis, on the other hand, had 
been incorporated one hundred years earlier and for many years 
the Port of Severn, as Annapolis was called, was of far greater 
importance as a seaport than Baltimore. The Lutherans who 
came to Maryland direct!}* from the Fatherland before 1760 ar- 
rived mostly at the port of Annapolis and finding no industries 
there to attract them and no fertile fields promising rewards for 
thrift, most of them pushed at once into the interior and took up 
their abode on the rich soil of western Maryland and thus helped 
to increase the population on the Monocacy and on the Conoco- 
cheague. Those who came to Maryland from southeastern Penn- 
sylvania as a rule crossed the Susquehanna from forty to sixty 
miles north of the state line and following the southwestward 
trend of the valle3'S also reached the western parts of colonial 
Maryland and helped to swell the Lutheran settlements there. 

It was not until towards the middle of the Nineteenth Century 
when the growing industries of Baltimore began to attract im- 
migration on a large scale and to multiply her population at a 
rapid rate that the Lutherans in the metropolis began to out- 
number those in the country charges farther west. It is signifi- 
cant also that while the pastor of the Lutheran congregation in 
Baltimore was active in the organization of the Maryland Synod 
in 1820 and was President of the body during its first four con- 
ventions, nevertheless the Synod did not meet in Baltimore until 
its thirteenth convention in 1832 and then not again until the 
thirty-fourth convention in 1853. 



28 HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

For full twenty years after John Caspar Stoever had organ- 
i/ed the Lutherans on tlie Monoeaey into a congregation and for 
nearly a decade after a union organization of Lutherans and 
Reformed is reported in the Conocoeheague settlement, no Lu- 
theran organization of any kind had been effected in Baltimore. 
The number of Lutherans there increased very slowly. Shortly 
after Baltimore was first laid out (1730) several German fami- 
lies, mostly of Lutheran confession, took up their abode there. 
The very first of these was Vitus Hareweg, a harness-maker. 
Andrew Steiger was the first butcher. 1). Barnitz and a Mr. 
Leonard from York, Pennsylvania, established the first brewery, 
(r. M. Meyer erected the first mill. And Valentine Larsch built 
an inn. Only very slowly did their number grow. Proof of this 
is contained in documents in the archives of Zion Church to-day 
which indicate that in the time shortly before 17f>8 the little flock 
did not consist of more than eleven persons. 

Small in number and poor in respect of temporal goods, most 
of them being artisans who had just begun the struggle for ex- 
istence in the new country, they could not for a long time form a 
regular congregation and secure the services of a regular pastor. 
Nevertheless, these few were eager to preserve the faith of their 
fathers and to be edified in it. They gladly welcomed, therefore, 
anyone who bore the name of Lutheran pastor and was willing to 
preach to them as he passed through the town. Both the Luther- 
ans and Reformed had to endure '"sermons of itinerant preachers, 
often of unsavory reputation and bad conduct, until at last the 
congregation had so far increased that a preacher, for little 
money, came six or eight times a year from Pennsylvania to this 
town and performed both preaching and administration of Holy 
Supper." 

Not until 17 oil did the congregation succeed in securing the 
regular services of a pastor. The name of this first pastor was 
John George Bager. Pastor Bager had come to this country in 
17.VJ. For six months he had served congregations in Lebanon 
County, Pennsylvania, and in 1753 he had become the pastor of 
the Lutheran Church at Hanover. His field of labors, however, 
included all the scattered Lutherans in York, Adams, Cumber- 
land, and Franklin Counties. So in 17f>5, when Pastor Bager was 
barely thirty years of age, the Lutherans in Baltimore persuaded 
him to include them also in his circuit. In the chronicles of the 
congregations it is recorded that Rev. Bager "for three consecu- 
tive years came down from Pennsylvania six times a year, admin- 
istering the spiritual functions in preaching and sacraments, and 
enjoying from this not more than five pounds per year. This was 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 29 

next to iiothing (blutwenig) indeed as a reward for the painstak- 
ing of a spiritual guide. The congregation, however, consisting 
only of eleven persons and the majority of them having no su- 
perfluous means, the good man was satisfied with it until the 
journey of over sixty miles became too arduous for him and he 
accepted another call." 

Bager was succeeded in this relationship with the Baltimore 
Lutherans by John Caspar Kirchner. Like his predecessor 
Kirchner had been ordained in Germany. He was stationed in 
York County where he bad charge of several smaller congrega- 
tions. He likewise agreed to come down from Pennsylvania 
every sixth week to preach and administer the sacraments in Bal- 
timore. For this service the congregation agreed to pay him at 
the rate of six pounds, Pennsylvania gold, for nine months. He 
continued thus to be their visiting preacher for five years, from 
1758 to 1763. 

In 1762 the first church building was erected. Up to that time 
the Lutheran services had been held in the English church, and 
when through " baleful envy" that privilege was withdrawn they 
were continued in private homes. As early as 1758 efforts had 
been made to buy a lot and build a church jointly with the Re- 
formed, who were more numerous than the Lutherans. But 
there were serious obstacles and disagreeable experiences. The 
harmony that up to this time had prevailed between the Luther- 
ans and Reformed in the town was sadly disrupted. The Re- 
formed bought the lot and built their church in 1758 and four 
years later after much waiting and despite discouraging circum- 
stances the Lutherans succeeded in buying a lot and at once 
erected a wooden building. The chronicler 'exults: "And to 
their glory be it known to posterity, our members although weak 
and few in number, still with much zeal endeavored to provide 
everything necessary* for the erection of the church, and with 
concerted efforts began to build and in a short time completed 
the work. Accordingly, we now had a church of our own." 

Shortly after the church building had been completed Rev. 
Kirchner accepted a call in Pennsylvania too distant to permit 
of serving the Baltimore congregation. This was in 1763. 
Again, therefore, Rev. Bager was requested to minister to them 
occasionally and for two years more he served them as visiting 
preacher. During this period the congregation enjoyed occa- 
sional visits also from other itinerant pastors. Chief among 
these was John Christopher Hartwick, who in the course of his 
wanderings spent the greater part of a winter in Baltimore. 

Then in 1765 Pastor Kirchner returned from remoter Penn- 



30 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

sylvania and bought himself a plantation in "the Barrens" not 
far from Baltimore. During his first period of service as visit- 
ing preacher he had so deeply endeared himself to the Baltimore 
Lutherans by his exemplary life and by his faithful administra- 
tion of his spiritual office, that they now prevailed on him to 
come among; them and accept their call as permanent pastor. 
Kirchner thus in 17()~) became the first resident pastor of Zion 
Church. The annalist records of him: "lie now preached every 
Sunday and received fifty pounds per year, a sum, to be sure, 
small enough for a spiritual guide. He could hardly eat his fill. 
Yea, we have found him at times eating? his bread with tears. 
lie was poor, which made him shy and despondent. But he was 
thoroughly honest and attended to his pastoral office with dignity 
and without hypocrisy, as befits a minister." 

The congregation now had its own church and its own pastor 
and so was in a position to establish a firmer legal organization. 
A parochial school was begun, a regular system of bookkeeping 
was introduced, and above all a formal constitution was adopted. 
The constitution was written by Pastor Kirchner in 17'iO and was 
signed by the entire membership consisting of forty persons. At 
the same time the language question began to appear and this 
was destined long afterwards to lead to the establishing of an- 
other Lutheran church in the city and thus to besrin that era of 
expansion in Baltimore Lutheranism that bas continued down to 
the present. 

Pastor Kirchner died in 1773, highly esteemed for his work's 
sake, and was succeeded as pastor of Zion Church by John Sieg- 
fried Gerock. Pastor Gerock had come to this country in 1753 
and had been pastor of Trinitv Church in Lancaster fourteen 
years and of Christ Church in New York six years. During his 
pastorate of thirteen years in Baltimore the church experienced 
rapid growth. He sought to give the congregation even firmer 
organization than it had under Pastor Kirchner. To that end in 
1773 he revised the constitution. The new instrument was sub- 
scribed by one hundred forty-seven persons, more than three 
times the number that had subscribed in 1760. So rapid was the 
growth of the congregation that a larger house of worship soon 
became necessary. The wooden house was torn down and a brick 
building was erected in its place. Twelve years later this build- 
ing also had become too small for the growing congregation. So 
in 178.") it was enlarged by an addition which was considerably 
larger than the church itself had been. 

At the dedication of this annex in 17Sf> a young man, John 
Daniel Kurt/:, delivered the sermon. That same vear he was 



EARLY LUTHERAN SETTLEMENTS IN MARYLAND. 31 

called to be the second pastor as Pastor Gerock was now well up 
in years. Two years later when Gerock died, Kurtz became the 
regular pastor and so continued for forty-six years. As such in 
1820 he was active in the organization of our Maryland Synod 
and became its first president. His career as pastor and as 
churchman will be considered in another connection. 

Zion Church was the only home and rallying point of Luther- 
anism in Baltimore in the Eighteenth and the first quarter of 
the Nineteenth Century. The First English Lutheran Church 
did not come into existence until 1826. As its name implies it 
was largely the outgrowth of the demand for services in the Eng- 
lish language. But Zion Church continued to be the only Lu- 
theran Church for the Germans of Baltimore. This was well, 
for it permitted all the other Lutheran churches of the city to 
grow apace unobstructed by any annoyances arising out of the 
language question. In 1848 when the new German immigration 
began, Zion Church welcomed the newcomers and provided for 
their spiritual wants. But meanwhile, about 1840, the synodical 
relation of Zion Church with the Lutheran Church had been dis- 
solved. Pastor Heinrich Scheib, who had come to this country 
in 1835 and who was pastor of Zion Church for more than sixty 
years, was a man of liberal theological views and this fact, to- 
gether with personal differences with some of the brethren in the 
ministry, led to the withdrawal of the pastor from the minis- 
terium and the withdrawal of the congregation from the synod. 
The Lutheran Cyclopedia, through Professor E. J. Wolf, says 
simply: "The mother church was alienated from the Lutheran 
Church and from synodical connection through a nationalist pas- 
tor." 

Such were the beginnings of the Lutheran Church in Mary- 
land, on the Monocacy, on the Conococheague, and in Baltimore. 
Primitive and unpromising they seem to us in the perspective of 
two centuries. But in one striking characteristic those pioneer 
Lutherans can still read a lesson to our day : they thirsted after 
the Word of God and they longed for sermon and sacrament ac- 
cording to the faith of their Lutheran fathers. The problem of 
the missionary in that day was not so much to keep the people in 
the faith and get them into the churches but rather to supply the 
ministry of the Word to those who truly loved the faith and of 
their own initiative had organized themselves into congregations 
with Lutheran consciousness and Lutheran aim. 



"There is that scattereth and yet increas- 
eth." Proverbs 11:24. 

"A little one shall become a thousand, and 
a small one a strong nation." Isaiah 60:22. 



CHAPTER IF. 

EARLY LUTHERAN EXPANSION AND THE SPECIAL 
CONFERENCES OF PASTORS. 

The frontiers of civilization and culture are never stationary. 
Likewise the vanguards of faith and piety are always moving. 
The axe that clears the forest for the tilling of the soil is the axe 
that fells the timbers for the building of the church. As the 
venturesome invader penetrates the wilderness in the search of a 
livelihood he carries his faith, his hope, and his love along with 
him and he soon turns and beckons for spiritual ministry to come 
to him. And so it was that the three pioneer Lutheran settle- 
ments whose beginnings we have studied did not long stand alone 
in colonial Maryland. From the blossoming fields of the Monoc- 
acy and the thriving county-seat of Frederick, from the fertile 
soil on the Conococheague and the flourishing town of Jonathan 
Hager, from the busy growing city bearing the name of the Pro- 
pietary Lord Baltimore, the population by natural increase and 
by steady additions from without grew and multiplied and spread 
into all the byways of the province. Accordingly, in the last 
quarter of the Eighteenth Century and the first quarter of the 
Nineteenth we find Lutherans here, there, and elsewhere in the 
state banding themselves together into congregations or loose 
communities of faith, sending out the call for help and inviting 
Lutheran preachers to minister to them in sermon and sacrament. 

The scene of the earliest Lutheran expansion was, quite natu- 
rally, the region lying between the two pioneer settlements in 
western Maryland. More than thirty miles of the National Pike 
stretch between Frederick and Clearspring and in the inviting 
valleys extending north and south of this old trail, the Middle- 
town and the Hagerstown Valleys, the second wave of settlers 
took up their claims and established the arts of civilization and 
religion. 

The earliest Lutheran organization in Maryland following 
those on the Monocacy and the Conococheague seems to have been 
in the Middletown Valley. Here the first church was erected 
about two miles southwest of where Middletown now stands. 
The site for the church was purchased in 1750 and the building 
was erected the next year or shortly thereafter, This congrega- 

33 
3 



.'54 HISTORY OF MAKYI-ANn SYNOD. 

lion was known as /ion Church and it was the mother of the Lu- 
therans in the Valley. It drew its membership from those who 
eame from Pennsylvania by way of the Monoeaey settlement. It 
was a joint congregation of the Lutherans and Reformed and 
about twenty years after the first organization had been formed, 
in 1771, the Lutheran part of the congregat ion removed into 
Middletown and built its own Zion Church there. The names of 
the pastors of this church before 177!) are matters of conjecture, 
hut it seems probable that the congregation was served first by 
the pastor of Frederick and then by the pastor of Hagerstown 
until Rev. Young left Hagerstown in 177!) when Middletown se- 
cured her first resident pastor in the person of Rev. Frederick 
(lerrisheim. 

Farther west along the same line of travel more Lutheran 
colonies began to make their appearance. Already in 1754 there 
was a Lutheran congregation and "meeting house" on the An- 
tictatn Creek about four miles from Hagerstown. At that time 
the congregation consisted of about thirteen families and was 
served by Pastor Hausihl who traveled all the way from the 
Monoeaey where he had settled in 1752 as pastor of the Monoeaey 
and Frederick charge. When Rev. Young came to Hagerstown 
in 1772 the congregation on the Antietam, numbering then about 
sixty families, was placed under his charge and in 1787 they 
erected a new church, two miles east of the old location, at the 
present site of Beard's, or St. Peter's of the Leitersburg charge. 

A few years after the beginning of Beard's Church, in 1757, 
Pastor Hager of Conewago organized a congregation of Luther- 
ans on Toms Creek in Frederick County, twenty-three miles 
from Frederick, thirty miles from Hagerstown, and two and a 
half miles west of the present town of Emmitsburg. A church 
was built in the year of the organization and the congregation 
grew slowly until thirty years later it numbered about thirty- 
five families. It was then a part of the Hagerstown charge. This 
congregation is to-day Elias Lutheran Church in Emmitsburg. 

Over in Carroll County, at Manchester in 1760, another con- 
gregation was organized and church built and for many years it 
was served by the pastor at Hanover, ten miles north. The next 
year an organization was formed eight miles southwest of Man- 
chester at Kriders (near Westminster), now St. Benjamin's of 
the Salem charge, and this congregation also was under the care 
of Pastor Bager of Hanover and his successors. The following 
year, 1762, St. Mary's Lutheran Church of Silver Run, was or- 
ganized by the same pastor. 

Then in 1767 a dozen Lutheran families jn Frederick County 



LUTHERAN EXPANSION AND SPECIAL CONFERENCES. 35 

united to form a second Lutheran Church in the Monocacy Val- 
ley. This was the Rocky Hill Church (now Grace of the Woods- 
boro charge) about six miles from the old Monocacy Church. 
The organization was probably effected by Charles Frederick 
Wildbahn, the faithful and talented school teacher from Win- 
chester, whom we have noted in connection with the Conoco- 
cheague settlement, whom Muhlenberg had licensed to perform 
ministerial acts, who from McAllisterstown ministered to a large 
number of congregations, as high as nineteen at one time, and 
who helped to consecrate the church building at Rock}' Hill in 
1768. 

Down near the mouth of the Potomac in the old settlement of 
Georgetown, Lutherans, coining probably from Virginia, had or- 
ganized themselves into a congregation already in 1769, had re- 
ceived a donation of a church lot and had built a log church on 
it. But their numbers were so small and their congregational 
existence so precarious that for a long time they were scarcely 
able to maintain public worship even with the occasional aid of 
the missionary pastors who came over from Virginia. For a con- 
siderable length of time services were intermitted and in 1829 
the Lutheran Church was obliged to resort to the courts of law 
in order to maintain her rights to the property granted the 
Georgetown congregation in 1769. 

West of the South Mountain, in the vicinity of Hagerstown, 
the process of organizing the scattered Lutherans into congrega- 
tions continued. In 1771 a congregation of sixteen families was 
gathered at Funkstown (then Jerusalem) and a union church 
was built. The first pastor was Charles Frederick Wildbahn who 
lived at McAllisterstown and ministered to such a wide circuit of 
congregations. Three years later Ringer's Lutheran Church was 
organized in the schoolhouse on Ringgold's Manor, near Foun- 
tain Rock, six miles from Hagerstown, under the pastoral care 
of Rev. Young of Hagerstown. In 1802 this congregation re- 
moved three miles into the town of Eoonsboro. 

Tow r ards the close of the century the number of churches began 
to increase even more rapidly. In 1783 Winter's Church (now 
St. Luke's of the Uniontown charge) was organized by Pastor 
Schroeter of Hanover. In 1788, if not earlier, Trinity Church 
of Taneytown became a distinct organization. In 1790 St. John's, 
near Mycrsville, was established as a part of the Middletown 
charge. The next year Jacob's Church (now of the Leitersburg 
charge) came into existence. Then in 1793 came Bachman's 
Church (now Jerusalem Church of the North Carroll charge). 
The next year, 1794, and perhaps even earlier, Allgeier 's Church 



36 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. . 

(now St. Paul's of Arcadia] was added to the long list of mis- 
sions established by the pastor at Hanover. In that same year 
liaitst's (now Emmanuel Church of the Uniontown charge) h'rst 
took form. At the same time away up the Potomac Friederich 
YVilhelm Lange, licentiate of theology and missionary in Bedford 
County, Pennsylvania, came down from Pennsylvania and or- 
ganized the Lutherans in the neighborhood of old Fort Cumber- 
land, and this was the beginning of St. Paul's of Cumberland. 

The pastors of these congregations were almost without excep- 
tion members of the Pennsylvania Ministerium which was or- 
ganized in 1748 and was the only synodical organization among 
Lutherans between New York and North Carolina until 1820 the 
year in which the Maryland Synod was organized. As members 
of the Ministerium these pastors generally met in conference an- 
nually. But the means of transportation were so limited and the 
meeting places of the Ministerium were generally so remote from 
the fields of these Maryland pastors that they were often obliged 
to forego the pleasure of meeting with their brethren in synodical 
convention. Towards the clos > of the Eighteenth Century there- 
fore these faithful laborers between the Mason and Dixon on the 
north and the Potomac on the south began to feel the need for 
conference and counsel among themselves concerning their own 
peculiar problems and needs. 

The impulse to these Special Conferences and the initiative in 
the movement came from the Lutheran pastors beyond the Po- 
tomac River in Virginia. As the Maryland Synod when it was 
organized consisted almost one-half of pastors and congregations 
in Virginia it will be necessary to consider briefly the beginnings 
of the Lutheran churches in the Shenandoah Valley. 

The earliest Lutheran settlement in Virginia seems to have 
been in Kpottsylvania County, now Madison County. This is the 
Hebron church of to-day. These pioneer Lutherans came partly 
from North Carolina and partly direct from Europe. In 1717 
they were served for a short time by Anthony Jacob Henkel 
from Pennsylvania. From 1728 to 1734 they had the ministra- 
tions of John Caspar Stoever, father of the man of the same 
name whom we have met in Maryland. Then for a long period, 
from 17.'5b' to 17(>4, (Jeorge Samuel King was their faithful min- 
ister. He was succeeded by Pastor John Schwarbach, 170.")-! 77"), 
and Pastor Frank, 177;")-! 778. Probably also Peter Muhlenberg 
preached in the old Hebron Church. Later on, Paul Henkel, 
while active as a missionary in Virginia, had the congregation 
under his supervision. All of these pastors extended their min- 
istrations also to the Lutherans in neighboring counties. 



LUTHERAN EXPANSION AND SPECIAL CONFERENCES. 37 

Meanwhile a number of other Lutheran congregations had 
sprung up on Virginia soil. In 1772 Peter Muhlenberg had been 
sent to Virginia to supply the spiritual needs of the scattered 
Lutherans in the Shenandoah Valley. He located at Woodstock 
(then Muellerstadt) and made it the center of his large field. 
From that point he traveled extensively through the Valley and 
the mountains in the west, preaching wherever Lutherans could 
be found. Among his friends while he was pastor at Woodstock 
were .George Washington and Patrick Henry. It is well known 
how, after preaching a sermon on the seriousness of the times 
and pronouncing the benediction, he cast off his clerical robe and 
appeared before his congregation in the glittering uniform of a 
colonel. His subsequent patriotic activities, during the Revo- 
lutionary War and afterwards, constitute an important chapter 
in American history. 

During the long vacancy that followed Muhlenberg 's resigna- 
tion the old church at Woodstock enjoyed the occasional services 
of Charles Frederick Wildbahn, Jacob Goering, and Daniel 
Kurtz. In 1805 Nicholas Schmucker took charge of the field, 
and he was the pastor at Woodstock when the Maryland and Vir- 
ginia Synod was organized in 1820. 

Another field in Virginia that was favored with a resident 
pastor was Winchester. Here a Lutheran organization had been 
formed as early as 1753, for on May 15th of that year Lord Fair- 
fax gave the Lutherans of Winchester "two lots of ground, em- 
bracing one acre, for sacred uses. ' ' The uncertain conditions of 
life and the stirring events incident to the French and Indian 
War prevented the erection of a church building for some years. 
The work was begun in 1764. Pastor Kirchner of Baltimore 
formally laid the corner stone. Owing to the distractions and ex- 
citements of the Revolutionary War the edifice was not finally 
completed until 1793. 

In the meantime the congregation had succeeded in securing 
a resident pastor. This was Christian Streit. He was only 
thirty-six years old when he came to Winchester but he had made 
full proof of his ministry in Pennsylvania, at Charleston, South 
Carolina, and as a chaplain in the army. He settled in Winche 1 
ter in 1785 and ministered there until 1812, a long period of de- 
voted service, in the course of which he instructed William Car- 
penter in theology and prepared him for the ministry. Streit 
was the pastor at Winchester when in 1793 the church there was 
the meeting-place of the first of those Special Conferences held 
before the organization of the Synod, and he was the president 
of that first Conference. After Pastor Streit 's death Rev. Abra- 



38 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

ham Keck, a young man of twenty-two, took up the work at Win- 
chester, and lie was the {Mtstor loci when the Synod was organized 
there in 1820. 

\nr Market in Shenandoah County had become the home of 
Kev. Paul Henkel and his family in 17M). and within two years 
a house of worship was erected there. This was known for half 
a century as Davidsburg Church. Paul Henkel was another of 
the original members of the Special Conferences. 

At Martinsburg the nucleus of a congregation had been gath- 
ered as early as 1775 or 1770 and the organization was completed 
in 177!). This congregation was served by the Lutheran ministers 
residing at other places in the Valley until 17!K) when Martins- 
burg s/cured her first resident pastor in the person of John 
David Young. 

Other Lutheran congregations organized in the Valley during 
the latter half of the Eighteenth Century, but for the most part 
served by the pastors of the congregations already enumerated, 
were: New Jerusalem Church, near Lovettsville in London Coun- 
ty (built 17(5")) ; Peaked Mountain Church in Kockingham Coun- 
ty near McGaheysville (built 17(>8) ; Rader's Church, near Tim- 
berville (17G8) ; St. Paul's, Strasburg, then called Stautferstadt 
( 17(5!) ) ; St. Peter's, six miles north of Elkton (1777) ; Koiner's 
Church. Augusta County (1780) of which Rev. Adolph Spindle 
was probably the first pastor ; Mount Tabor, Augusta County 
(178.3) ; Shepherd.stown, then called Mecklenburg (built 179,")) ; 
Staunton ; Xion Church, near Hamburg ; St. Jacob's, near Conic- 
ville; Solomon's, near Forest ville; and Frieden's, seven miles 
south of Harrisonburg. 

The Special Conferences. 

The care of all these congregations was committed to a few 
men. They were few in number but to a man they were faithful 
in their ministry and sincerely anxious to minister the "Word and 
the Sacraments to the growing numbers of Lutherans scattered 
over all that region in Virginia. As they were so remote from 
the meeting-places of the Pennsylvania Ministerium to which 
they belonged, their names were frequently recorded among the 
absentees of the Mother Synod, more frequently even than the 
names of their brethren just north of the Potomac River. In- 
stinctively therefore these men longed for companionship and 
conferences among themselves. 

Provision for such conferences had been made in the constitu- 
tion adopted by the Ministerium in 1781, in which it was pro- 



LUTHERAN EXPANSION AND SPECIAL CONFERENCES. 39 

vided that "ministers dwelling 1 close together in one county or 
district confer in regard to special meetings or Conferences to 
be appointed." Two years later it was recorded that "The pres- 
ent congregations are divided into districts and it is most ear- 
nestly recommended to all the brethren that they renew and 
maintain Special Conferences." 

The idea evidently grew in favor, for in the new constitution 
of the Ministerium adopted in 1792 a separate chapter is devoted 
to "Special or District Meetings." Here it is specified among 
other things that "Special meetings are to be held by pastors of 
the Ministerium living contiguous to each other, as often as cir- 
cumstances may require, and each congregation under the care of 
such minister may send a delegate to such meeting, having seat 
and vote. The objects of such meetings are to promote the wel- 
fare of the respective congregations and of the German schools 
within the District ; to examine, decide and determine the busi- 
ness and occurrences in their congregations that are brought be- 
fore them. A special meeting is not to be permitted under any 
pretence whatever to enter upon business belonging to the Min- 
isterium. The acts of the meeting are to be transmitted by the 
chairman to the President of the Ministerium, to be laid by him 
before the next Synodical or Ministerial Meeting. " It is recom- 
mended that such conferences busy themselves especially with 
such matters as "mutual edification," the exchange of experi- 
ences incurred in the discharge of official duties, and "the con- 
sideration of such Bible truths as the circumstances and wants 
of the church seem to require. ' ' 

Encouraged by this action of the Mother Synod the little group 
of faithful pastors in Virginia proceeded early in 1793 to or- 
ganize themselves into a Special Conference. This was the first 
conference to receive official notice in the minutes of the Min- 
isterium. The record in the minutes of May 27, 1793,. is this : 
"A letter from Kev. Mr. Christian Streit was read, in which he 
excused his absence with satisfactory reasons, and gave a pleas- 
ing report of a Special Conference held in Virginia, the Protocol 
of which was referred to the Ministerial Meeting." Before long 
the Virginia pastors were joined in their Conference by some of 
their brethren from Maryland. And these Special Conferences 
were but preliminary steps leading in course of time to the or- 
ganization of a separate synod known as the Synod of Maryland 
and Virginia. 

There were at least fourteen of these Special Conferences be- 
fore the Synod was organized. The first was at Winchester, 
January 6 and 7, 1793. The ministers present were Christian 



40 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Strcit of Winchester, John David Young of Martinsburg, Paul 
Ilenkel of New Market, and William Carpenter of Culpeper 
( Madison). These men were in the very vigor of their days. The 
eldest was Young, only forty-nine years of age, Streit was live 
years younger. Ilenkel was thirty-nine, and Carpenter was only 
thirty-one. The reeord of their meeting opens with this simple 
declaration: "We four ministers of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, living and serving congregations in the State of Vir- 
ginia, being present in Winchester on the (ith day of January, 
179.'5, commenced our Conference, on this Epiphany Sunday, by 
holding solemn religious services." Ilenkel preached in the 
morning and Carpenter in the afternoon. Lay delegates are re- 
ported prtsiMit from the church councils of Winchester, Martins- 
burg, Shepherdstown, Stone Church, New-town, Strasburg, and 
Woodstock. 

At the business session the following day Pastor Streit was 
( lected president and Pastor Young secretary. Streit had taken 
the lead in calling the Conference as he had been in the field 
longer than any of the other pastors and he was president of the 
Conference until his death in 1812. At this first session provi- 
sion was made for receiving one properly accredited lay delegate 
from each congregation in the State having a pastor, or desiring 
to procure one, regularly connected with the Synod. It was re- 
solved that the members of the Conference would not separate 
themselves from the Ministerium of Pennsylvania nor take any 
action that would come into conflict with its regulations, and 
that the Conference would make it a "prominent aim to devise 
ways and means for the improvement of our young people and 
children in knowledge and piety," and that the proceedings of 
the Conference would in each case be made known to the congre- 
gations and if approved by them would be laid before the Synod 
for examination and endorsement. By way of perpetuating the 
organization it was resolved that a Conference meeting should be 
held annually thereafter beginning on the first Sunday in Oc- 
tober. 

These resolutions were adhered to and for a quarter of a cen- 
tury thereafter, with some intermissions, the Conference met 
regularly each year on the first Sunday in October. The second 
meeting was held at Strasburg in October, 1793, the third at Mar- 
tinsburg in 1794, the fourth at Staunton in 179."), the fifth at Cul- 
peper (Madison) in 1796, the sixth at Woodstock in 1797, and 
the seventh at Shepherdstown in 1798. Then there seems to have 
been an intermission of seven years without any meeting of the 
Conference, for the next meeting that we can find an}' trace of 



LUTHERAN EXPANSION AND SPECIAL CONFERENCES. 41 

took place in 1805 at Woodstock. The next year a meeting was 
held at Rader's Church in Rockingham County, then at New 
Market in 1807, at Winchester again in 1808, at Solomon's 
Church in 1809, at Woodstock in 1815, and finally at Culpeper 
in 1817. 

These Conferences all followed the general plan outlined at 
the first Conference in Winchester which we have described. 
They were chiefly of a devotional and didactic character. Very 
little business was transacted. Missionary matters, the training 
of the young, and the supply of teachers for the schools seem to 
have mainly occupied the attention of the Conferences in their 
deliberative sessions. Several times the twenty-second Sunday 
after Trinity was set apart as a day of humiliation, fasting and 
prayer, in the churches. It was decided in 1805 on motion of 
Doctor Solomon Henkel that the twenty-one doctrinal articles 
of the Augsburg Confession should be appended to the published 
minutes of that year and that each year a short pastoral letter, 
adapted to the special needs of the congregations, should be ap- 
pended to the minutes. In 1807 there was added to the minutes 
a funeral service and formula for burial, furnished by Doctor 
Henkel, to be used by school-teachers or other consistent members 
of the church when no regular minister could be had. The next 
year it was resolved that the congregations without pastors 
should select lay-readers, and the pastors were urged to conduct 
private meetings in their congregations as often as possible in 
order to edify the members by prayer, song, and instruction. It 
is interesting to note that the pastoral letter of 1809 complains 
that the ministers were not able to do their mission work partly 
because they were rich and unable to undergo the hardships con- 
nected with traveling, partly because the congregations support- 
ing them refused to let them go. The statistical appendix of that 
year shows forty-nine organized congregations in Virginia, many 
of them in the central and southwestern parts of the Valley. It 
is rather remarkable that the minutes of 1817 contain no refer- 
ence whatever to the tercentenary of the Reformation. 

The meeting of 1817 is the last of which we have any record. 
Meanwhile the personnel of the Conference had been changing, 
and the pastors in the southern and southwestern parts of the 
State w r ere slowly gravitating toward the Synod of North Caro- 
lina which had been organized in 1803, while those nearer the 
northern end of the Valley were gradually cultivating relations 
with the pastors of Maryland. The Conference began with the 
four clerical members whose names w r e have noted. To them were 
added from time to time Samuel Mau, Victor G. C. Stock, Adolf 



42 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Spindle, John Foltz, William Forster, George D. Flohr, John 
George Butler, George II. Rieraenschneider, Abraham Reek, J. 
Xieholas Sehmueker, Peter Sehmueker, Frederick Haas, Martin 
Walter, Andrew Henkel, and Michael Meyerhoeffer. With the 
growth of the number of congregations on the territory the lay 
representation at the Conferences also increased. For it must be 
emphasized that these meetings were not merely conferences 
among the pastors but of congregational representatives also. In 
this they were truly Lutheran. 

Already in 17JI8 Pastor John, George Sehmueker of Ilagers- 
town, Maryland, was present at the Conference, but only as an 
advisory member. In 1807 however we find this Maryland pas- 
tor presenting resolutions and evidently taking an active part in 
the deliberations on the floor of the Conference. Evidently the 
members of the Conference were ready to welcome the fellowship 
of their brethren just north of the Potomac. 

But the time had arrived when a different sort of ecclesiastical 
organization was needed. The Special Conference had served a 
useful purpose but its day was passing. With the multiplying 
of the Lutheran population in the country and the increase in 
the number of ministers, with the passing of the frontier and de- 
velopment of congregational interests, the kind of organization 
provided by the Special Conference was proving to be inade- 
quate. Its powers were too limited and the Synod to which its 
members belonged was too distant to make possible the effectual 
promotion of the interests of its congregations. So the meeting 
in Madison Church in 1817 seems to have been the last of the 
Special Conferences. 

The thought probably suggested itself to the brethren of the 
Conference that although they were too few to organize a sepa- 
rate synod among themselves, nevertheless they might combine 
their numbers and strength with those of their nearest brethren 
outside of Virginia who were also beginning to feel the disad- 
vantage of their remoteness from the main body of the Synod of 
Pennsylvania, and thus they might bring their combined influ- 
ence and efforts to bear more directly on the particular interests 
of the Church lying within the territory committed to their care. 
Some such impulse as that, it seems, must have led the pastors of 
northern Virginia to stretch out their arms to the pastors of 
Maryland and join hands with them in organizing a new synod. 
So the Special Conference, having served its day and having pre- 
pared the way for its ecclesiastical successor, passes off the stage 
and makes room for a far more effective organization, the Synod 
of Maryland and Virginia. 



CHAPTER III. 
THE ORGANIZATION OF SYNOD. 

It is interesting to observe the progressive development of 
synodieal organizations in the Lutheran Church of America. 
New synods are generally the natural result of the normal growth 
and needs of the Church. As the territory occupied by the 
Church was constantly widening and the special needs of the 
Church in the several regions became more apparent, our min- 
isters wisely modified and multiplied their synodieal relations. 
Experience proved the wisdom of this policy. As one name after 
another was added to the clerical roll of the Pennsylvania Min- 
isterium after it was organized in 1748, as missionary after mis- 
sionary was sent out farther and farther from Philadelphia and 
eastern Pennsylvania to follow the westward advance of the 
American frontier and to preach the Word and administer the 
Sacraments to the Lutherans in "the West" and in "the South," 
it became with the passing of the years very burdensome and 
almost impossible for these missionaries and pastors to make the 
long journeys that would have been necessary to attend the meet- 
ings of the original Synod. Still, they longed to take counsel 
with their brethren and to have a part in the deliberations for 
the general good. 

Moreover, it was felt that organizations nearer at hand would 
tend to stimulate interest and diffuse the light among the con- 
gregations of the several regions, that such organizations would 
deepen the interest of the laymen in the general work of the 
Church, and thus bring about a more rapid development of the 
resources of the congregations. For these reasons, touching both 
pastors and congregations, new synods have been constituted 
from time to time, and the subdivision of territory has kept pace 
with the Church's geographical expansion and her increase in 
numbers and power. This division of sphere has gone on, for the 
most part in peace and amity, down to our own day, establishing 
one after another new centers of light and power, with the result 
that there has been a constant lengthening of the cords and a 
strengthening of the stakes of our Zion such as could not other- 
wise have been accomplished. 

43 



44 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOD. 

But until tlio organization of the General Synod in October, 
1820. this process of separation and the segregation it involved 
were painful, both to the Mother Synod and to the children who 
went forth from her side to labor for (Jod independently of her 
direction and control. I'ntil there was some general organization 
through which the ministers in particular might hope to con- 
tinue the bonds of fellowship and association the organization of 
new synods was attended with a certain decree of reluctance on 
both sides. 

The organization of the Xew York Ministerium in 1773 and 
that of the North Carolina Synod in 1803 were not felt much by 
the Pennsylvania Ministerium. They were composed of congre- 
gations that lay outside the bounds of the Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania and with two exceptions their pastors had not been con- 
nected with the old Synod. The New York organization was ef- 
fected by F. A. Muhlenberg, son of the patriarch who twenty- 
five years before had effected the organization of the Pennsyl- 
vania Ministerium, and the new organization does not seem to 
have severed young Muhlenbenr's connection with the older 
Synod. The organization in North Carolina was formed by four 
pastors, Arndt, Miller, Storch, and Paul Henkel, of whom only 
one, Paul llenkel, had been a member of the Pennsylvania Min- 
isterium, as the church in that state had long been accustomed to 
look for help and counsel from beyond the sea. But when in 
1817 the ministers belonging to a Special Conference in the State 
of Ohio petitioned the Mother Synod for permission to organize 
themselves into a separate Ministerium the request was not 
granted, and the next year when the Synod of Ohio came into 
being it was organized under protest. And when in 1820 the 
pastors of Maryland and Virginia asked permission to organize 
a new synod on their territory the matter was postponed until 
the project of organizing a General Synod should have been dis- 
cussed. The next day as soon as it had been decided to organize 
a General Synod the petition of the pastors of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia was granted. Later on, the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
withdrew from the General Synod and then in 1825 she protested 
against the organization of the West Pennsylvania Synod. The 
consistent purpose seems to have been to maintain the fellowship 
of all the brethren and the unity of influence either through a 
single synod or through a general organization of synods. When 
the general synodical bodies are securely established the growth 
of the district synods within them goes on naturally and grace- 
fully. 

The harmonious organization of the Maryland Synod, there- 



THE ORGANIZATION OF SYNOD. 45 

fore, is to be understood not as a movement in the direction of 
division which weakens but rather as a part of the general move- 
ment in the Church towards better organization, greater efficiency 
and more inclusive fraternity. The organization of our Synod 
was not divisive, disruptive, or schismatic. It was harmonious, 
unifying, conservative, progressive. 

The spirit of the times was such as called for active measures 
of conservation in the Church. It was a day of great spiritual 
torpor in the Christian Churches of America, a day of great 
laxity in faith and confession and of great inconsistency in prac- 
tice. Skillful efforts were made to Americanize the deadening 
rationalism of Germain'. In that sense synodical constitutions 
were changed and new catechisms devised. In large sections of 
American Christianity the ministry had become in great measure 
secularized. Where rationalism had not fastened itself upon the 
ministers and rendered them indifferent to the deepest spiritual 
needs of their people, they were orthodox not always from per- 
sonal conviction but all too often from intellectual indolence and 
motives of expediency. Their education was often sadly inade- 
quate and their parishes were far too large to admit of much 
close personal dealing with individual souls. Church discipline 
had almost vanished and the hearing of the Word and the receiv- 
ing of the Sacraments had at many places degenerated into 
purely mechanical services. 

Over all this period from 1787 to 1817 the historian of the Lu- 
theran Church writes the word "Deterioration." Many evi- 
dences of weakening denominational consciousness are to be 
found among Lutherans. In the revised constitution of the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium of 1792 all confessional tests were 
eliminated. There was no reference whatever to the symbols. 
The promises of the catechists included no mention whatever of 
the Augsburg Confession. Among the rank and file of the con- 
gregations and their pastors there were not a few inconsistencies 
with sound Lutheran practice. Repeatedly pastors had to be ad- 
monished to return to Lutheran ways. Even Paul Henkel was 
warned to beware of camp meetings on his missionary journeys. 
Dr. Helmuth's intimate relations with the Moravians was proba- 
bly responsible for the fact that he inculcated in his pupils an 
aversion to explicit theological definition. To suggest how far 
this indifferentism to distinctive Lutheranism had gone in the 
New York Ministerium we need only to mention the president, 
Dr. Quitman, and his rationalistic catechism. Corresponding to 
this was Dr. Velthusen's catechism published for the congrega- 
tions in North Carolina. In New York under Dr. Kunze 's leader- 



4(> HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

ship the tendency was towards unionism with the Episcopal 
Church. In North Carolina the Lutheran Synod fraternized 
closely with the Episcopal Church and both Episcopalians and 
Moravians officiated regularly for Lutheran congregations. In 
rural Pennsylvania the churches as a rule were union churches 
(Lutheran and Reformed) and the congregations were union 
congregations. Active efforts were afoot in 1818 to establish a 
joint theological seminary. 

Now the organization of the Maryland Synod and, a few days 
later, of the General Synod, were symptoms of reaction against 
the spiritual debilitation of the times as it had been felt in the 
Lutheran Church. They operated as a protest against the many 
schemes for union and served to check in a measure the move- 
ment toward blotting out denominational lines. It is generally 
conceded by the historians of our Church that "the General 
Synod saved the church/' and it will be seen that the Maryland 
Synod saved the General Synod. This was a victory for the evan- 
gelical faith and for Lutheran conservation. Both the General 
Synod and her youngest constituent district synod when she was 
organized stood for the independent life of the Lutheran Church 
in America and represented a clear and unambiguous confession 
of a positive faith. 

If we inquire for the factors that determined this positive 
character of the new district synod we shall find them partly in 
the influence of the tercentenary celebration of the Reformation 
in 1817, recalling as it did, the distinctive principles and confes- 
sions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, partly in the com- 
parative freedom of the Maryland and Virginia pastors from the 
rationalistic influences emanating from Germany and imported 
to America principally through the ports of Philadelphia and 
New York, but chiefly in the positive and conservative attitude 
of the most influential personalities in the Synod at the time of 
her organization and during her earliest life. 

Certainly the times were ripe for the organization of such a 
Synod as that of Maryland and Virginia. No Special Confer- 
ence could have performed the mission that the Synod was called 
on to perform. Whether we view it from the standpoint of the 
congregations and their special needs or from the standpoint of 
the Lutheran Church in America and her deteriorating de- 
nominational consciousness, or from the standpoint of American 
Christianity as a whole with its waning evangelical faith, the 
birth-moment of the new Synod was most opportune. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland, Virginia, and 
so forth, was formally organized on the morning of October 11, 



THE ORGANIZATION OF SYNOD. 



47 



1820. Concerning the preliminary correspondence we have no 
information. We only know that in the minutes of the Pennsyl- 
vania Ministerium of May 29, 1820, it is recorded that among the 
communications received was 

"Also a report of a Special Meeting which was held in Fried- 
richtown, Maryland. In it a special request is made for permis- 
sion to organize a new Synod on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna. 

"Resolved, That the matter be postponed until the matter of 
the General Synod will come up." 

The next morning, May 30th, immediately after the plan for a 
General Synod had been adopted, the record has it : 




CHRISTIAN STRF.IT. 



"As to the request of certain preachers to organize a Synod on 
the west side of the Susquehanna, it was now resolved that this 
Synod will make no objection whatever if a new Synod be or- 
ganized on the west side of the Susquehanna." (In the minutes 
of the next year the expression ' ' on the west side of the Susque- 



48 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

hamia" was ordered to be cancelled as incorrect, and the words 
"in Maryland and Virginia" were inserted.) 

This was the first time that the venerable Ministerinm had au- 
thorized the formation of a new synod and it is very clear that 
this favorable action was taken only because of the approaching 
organization of a General Synod. But the organization of the 
Maryland Synod preceded by eleven days the organization of the 
General Synod. For in less than four months after the Mother 
Synod had granted the petition for permission to organize a new 
Synod in Maryland and Virginia a call had been issued to the 
pastors and the charges lying both north and south of the Po- 
tomac to meet at Winchester, Virginia, on October 11, 1820, to 
organize the new body. 

The place selected for this initial meeting is significant. It 
was at Winchester that the first of the Special Conferences had 
been held in 17!).'?. It was the center of the largest charge that 
participated in the organization of the Synod. In 1821 this 
charge reported nine congregations and far more communicants 
than any other of the constituent charges. The congregation at 
Winchester was sixty-eight years old when it entertained this 
first meeting of the Synod. But it had enjoyed the ministry of 
only two resident pastors. For the first thirty-two years of the 
congregation's existence it was dependent for services upon such 
ministrations as occasional visiting ministers could give. Then 
beginning with 1785 and for twenty-seven years thereafter it had 
enjoyed the distinguished services of Rev. Christian Streit. This 
servant of the Lord receives from history the very highest testi- 
monials to his accomplishments, his consecration, and his wise 
zeal for souls. He it was who pushed to completion the building 
of the first house of worship, just in time to welcome the first 
Special Conference. Eight years before the Synod was organized 
at Winchester Pastor Streit had passed from his earthly labors 
and had been buried beneath the floor of the old church and in 
front of the pulpit from which he had so faithfully proclaimed 
the counsel of God. But the influence of his devout spirit and 
his diligence in the instruction of the young continued to be felt 
at Winchester long after his body had been laid to rest. His 
pious widow and five of his children were still living there in 
1820, and thirty-five years later his granddaughter became the 
wife of Charles Porterfield Krauth. 

For nearly eight years before October, 1820, the church at 
Winchester had been under the pastoral care of Rev. Abraham 
Reck, a native of Littlestown, Pennsylvania, an impressive 
preacher and an industrious self-sacrificing pastor. He it was 



THE ORGANIZATION OF SYNOD. 



49 



who prepared the church and the congregation at Winchester to 
receive the ministers and lay delegates to the organization meet- 
ing of our Synod. This congregation afterwards had as its min- 
isters such distinguished men as Theophilus Stork, Charles Por- 
terfield Krauth, Milton Valentine, William M. Baum, and David 
M. Gilbert. It was said of this congregation during Dr. Krauth 's 
pastorate there (1848-1855) that "The community at Winchester 
contained an unusually large proportion of persons of high in- 
tellectual and social culture and refinement." The same was 
doubtless true of the community a generation earlier in 1820. 

The Old Church on the Hill, in which the first meeting of the 
Synod was held, and of which we present a sketched portrait 




THE ORIGINAL CHURCH AT WINCHESTER. 

herewith, had been begun in 1762. It was thirty years in the 
process of building. It was built on large dimensions for that 
day, 52 feet by 42 feet. The foundation walls were three and a 
half feet thick and the upper walls two and a half feet. The 
building was of stone and it was not until 1772 that the walls 
were completed and the roof was put on. During the war of in- 
dependence the building was used as barracks. When Pastor 
Streit came on the scene in 1785 the church received doors and 
windows, in 1790 two sweet-toned bells were placed in the tower, 
and finalh- in 1793 it received its spire and was complete. The 
4 



r>o 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



organ was installed in 17?)."). The old landmark stood until 1854 
when it was destroyed by fire, but eleven years before that it had 
been abandoned as a plaee of worship. To-day only the ivy- 




inanteled east wall of the old shrine remains to mark the spot 
where the Maryland Synod was formally organized a hundred 
years ago. 



THE ORGANIZATION OF SYNOD. 51 

To such a community and congregation and church came eleven 
ministers and seven lay delegates on October 11, 1820, and at nine 
o'clock in the morning organized the Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod of Maryland, Virginia, and so forth. We reproduce here 
the English minutes of the proceedings of that memorable first 
convention of the Synod : 

WINCHESTER, (VA.), October 11, 1820. 

This being the day appointed for the meeting of the. clergy and lay- 
delegates of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregations in Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, to organize a new Synod, the following clergymen and lay-delegates 
assembled : 

Rev. Daniel Kurtz, D.D., Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. John Grob, Taneytown, Md. 

"Rev. David F. Schaeffer, A.M., Frederick, Md. 

Rev. Martin Sackman, London Cty, Va. 

Rev. Abraham Reck, Winchester, Va. 

Rev. Benj. Kurtz, Ilagerstown, Md. 

Rev. Michael Meyerheffer, Madison, Va. 

Rev. John Kehler, Middletown, Md. 

Rev. Michael Wachter Frederick City, Md. 

Rev. Charles P. Krauth, Shepperdstown, Va. 

Rev. Nicholas Schmucher, Woodstock (Sheiiandoah), Va. 

Lay -Dele gates. 

Frederick Loehr, Frederick. 

John Baker, Winchester. 

Abraham Reck, Taneytown. 

George Shryock Hagerstown. 

Frederick Kiefer, London Cty. 

Jacob Bishop, Shepperdstown. 

Jacob Ott, Woodstock. 

The Revd. Dr. Kurtz was appointed Chairman, and David F. Schaeffer 
Secretary. 

The Revd. Chairman introduced the business of this session with a prayer. 

On motion of Rev. B. Kurtz, 

Resolved, That a Committee, consisting of three Pastors and three Lay- 
delegates, be now appointed, to draught a constitution for this Synod, and 
that the constitutions of the Pennsylvania and New York Synods be con- 
sulted by the Committee. 

The Revd. Messrs. B. Kurtz, Grob and Krauth, and Messrs. Shryock, Loehr 
and Baker, Lay-delegates, were appointed accordingly. 

Adjourned to 3 o'clock, p. m. 

The session was closed with prayer by Mr. Sackman. 

Three o 'deck, p. m. Prayer by Revd. B. Kurtz. 

The Chairman of the Committee appointed to draught ;i Constitution for 
this Synod, reported in part; and in the name of the Committee requested 
further time to complete the 7-eport, which was readily granted. 

The Revd. Mr. Krauth, closed with a prayer. 

This evening, Divine service was performed by the Revd. Mr. Schaeffer. 

Adjourned to 9 o'clock, A.M., October 12th. 

October 12th, 9 o'clock. The Revd. Mr. Reck introduced the business with 
prayer. 

The Revd. B. Kurtz continued the report of a Constitution for this Synod. 

On motion, Resolved, ' ' That the Constitution, as reported by the Revd. B. 
Kurtz, with the amendments made by this body, be now adopted." 



52 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

On motion, Resolved, That this Constitution may ho altered ami amended 
at the next Sy nodical meeting, by a majority of the members who shall then 
be present. 

On motion, Resolved, That the Synod do now elect the officers for the en- 
suing year. 

The- Kevd. Meyorheffer and G. Shryock were appointed to receive the votes. 
The following brethren were then declared duly elected: 

DANIEL KTRT/., President; 
DAVID F. SCHAEFKER, Secretary; 
ABRAHAM KECK, Trcasvrcr. 

On motion, Resolved, That Dr. Kurt/ and Mr. Rock, or any two of the of- 
ficers elected, be directed to attend the next General Synod, as representa- 
tives of this Synod, in conjunction with Mr. (!. Sliryock. 

On motion, Resolved, That the Secretary bo authorized to purchase the 
stationery and other articles necessary for this Synod. 

On motion, Resolved, That a Committee of correspondence be appointed, 
and that it consist of Messrs. Schaeffer, Meyorhoffer, and Krauth. 

Oil motion, Resolved, That one of our brethren be appointed to attend the 
next Synod of Pennsylvania. The Revd. li. Kurtz was appointed accord- 
ingly. 

On motion, Resolved, That our representatives for the next General Synod 
bo instructed to obtain information with regard to the legacy left in Europe, 
for the benefit of our clergy in this country. 

M>. Martin Kibler, (through the Revd. Mr. Reck) expressed his desire to 
become a member of this Synod. 

Resolved, That the corresponding committee inform Mr. Kibler, that if 
he attends at our next synodical meeting, and is approved of upon examina- 
tion, he shall be admitted. 

On motion. Resolved, unanimously, That those of our brethren, who are 
members of this Synod, having been ordained as Deacons by the Synod of 
Pennsylvania, be, and they are hereby declared pastors in the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. 

Application was made by Samuel Hersche to become a member of this 
Synod. 

Resolved, That he continue his studies under the care of the Rev. Mr. 
Meyerheffer, and attend at our next annual meeting. 

A committee appointed to form a device for a se;il to be used by this 
Synod, reported that the subject had been attended to. The design was ap- 
proved of, and the Revd. President directed to have a seal prepared accord- 
ingly. 

Prayers were offered by Mr. Schmucker. 

On. motion, adjourned to 3 o'clock, P. M. 

Resolved, That it be the duty of every member of this Synod, to prepare 
materials for a discipline to be introduced into our congregations, and offer 
them at the next annual meeting. 

On motion, Resolved, That the President be appointed to prepare licenses 
and certificates of ordination, and that he have 125 copies of each printed, 
(one-half in the German, and the other in the English language,) on good 
and substantial paper, with the seal of the Synod attached to each, for the 
use of the Synod. 

On motion, Resolved, That the propriety of a religious! publication, de- 
voted to tho interests of our Church, be and the same is hereby recommended 
to the serious consideration of the next annual meeting of this Synod. 

Tlif business of the Synod was now accomplished; every member was de- 
lighted with the perfect harmony and brotherly love that prevailed through- 
out the session. Every one was convinced, that in the organization of this 
Synod, the hand of God was visible, and the aid of His spirit experienced. 

The President gave notice, that ere he could close the session, the time 
and place of the next annual meeting, must be determined. 



THE ORGANIZATION OF SYNOD. 53 

Accordingly an election took place, by which it was determined that the 
next annual meeting, be held in Frederick, Maryland, on the first Sunday in 
September. 

The brethren having united in singing a hymn, the President offered to the 
throne of grace, a fervent prayer, and declared the Synod adjourned. 
The evening divine service was performed by the Revd. B. Kurtz. 
(Attested) 

DANIEL KURTZ, President; 
DAVID F. SCHAEFKER, Secretary. 

P. S. Previous and subsequent the session, discourses were delivered, by 
the Revd. Messrs. Meyerheffer, Krauth, Kehler and Goodman. 

These minutes were printed in both English and Gorman. The 
official name in 1820 and the following year was "The Evangel- 
ical Lutheran Synod of Maryland, Virginia, and so forth." In 
1822 the name becomes "The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of 
Maryland and Virginia" and so continues until 1833 (except 
1830). The pastors of Virginia had formed the Virginia Synod 
in 1829. Beginning with 1833, therefore, the name has been 
"The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland." The Synod, 
however, has never pretended strictly to observe the State lines 
as its boundaries but has always included a few congregations 
across the borders in Pennsylvania, in Virginia, and in West Vir- 
ginia. 

We observe that of the eleven ministers who organized the 
Synod six were serving charges in Maryland and five in Virginia. 
Of the seven lay delegates present three were from congregations 
in Maryland and four from Virginia. It was a group of com- 
paratively young men. The oldest minister among them and the 
only one dignified with a doctorate of divinity was the pastor of 
Zion Church in Baltimore, J. Daniel Kurtz. He was three years 
less than three score. Nicholas Schmucker was forty -one, 
Schaeffer was thirty-five and probably the most influential man 
in the group, Reck was thirty, Meyerhoeffer was twenty-six, Ben- 
jamin Kurtz was twenty-five, Krauth was twenty-three, and Keh- 
ler was only twenty-two, having just completed his theological 
studies under Schaeft'er at Frederick. These men were full of the 
vigor and enthusiasm of youth, and they inspired into the new 
organization the spirit that undertakes and achieves. Most of 
them were natives of Pennsylvania, two of them, Meyerhoeffer 
and Kehler, had been born in Frederick, and at least one, 
Schmucker, had come from Germany. 

When we glance over the proceedings of that first meeting we 
observe that the most important items of business were: (1) 
The adoption of a Constitution; (2) The election of the first of- 
ficers of the body; (3) The request that each minister prepare 
materials for a Church Discipline, the beginning of a work which 
was completed two years later by Dr. S. S. Schmucker, and which 



54 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

became The ("Jeneral Synod's Formula of Government and Dis- 
cipline; and (4) A resolution to inquire into the expediency of 
establishing a Church journal, which resulted in The Lutheran 
Initlli<j< nc< r, edited and published by Rev. 1). F. Schaeil'er at 
Frederick from 182(5 to 18:51, and then superseded by The Lu- 
theran Observer published first in Baltimore and then in Phila- 
delphia. Surely this was a worthy berinnin<r for the new-born 
Synod. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE GROWTH OF THE SYNOD, EXHIBITED BY 
DECADES. 













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1840 


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1850 


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65 


28 


8,316 




$4,433 


$15,922 


I860* 


31 


41 


22 


6,484 




$2,129 


$17,644 


1870 


58 


75 


50 


13,700 




$19,718 


$82,439 


1880 


66 


92 


48 


12,614 




$15,0X2 


$83,347 


1890 


84 


105 


57 


17,925 


$1,145,886 


$31,987 


$137,190 


1900 


104 


133 


75 


23,769 


$1,565,618 


$34,160 


$194,893 


1910 


114 


155 


96 


25,309 


$2,402,850 


$50,985 


$366,191 


1919 


120 


134** 


94** 


27,658 


$3,230,050 


$116,670 


$469,465 



*The losses during this decade wer? due to the formation of the Melanchthon 

Synod in 1857. 

K *Tho decrease in number of churches and pastorates during the last decade 
is due to the formation of the West Virginia Synod in 1912. 

55 



"The Lord doth build up Jerusalem." 
Psalm 147: 2. 



CHAPTER V. 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 

The first President of the Synod was the 

Rev. J. Daniel Kurtz, D.D. 

Dr. Kurtz was for more than half a century pastor of "Old 
Zion'' in Baltimore. Not only was he the first president of our 
Synod but he occupied that high office for four consecutive terms. 
Then for thirty-two years more he 
continued to be a member of the 
Synod until 3856 he passed away 
in the ninety-third year of his age. 
For many years he had been 
known as "the aged patriarch of 
the Synod," but during the latter 
part of his life because of his in- 
creasing infirmities he took no ac- 
tive part in the business of the 
body. 

Not only was Dr. Kurtz the 
premier president of the Mary- 
land Synod but he was also the 
first president of the General 
Synod and twice thereafter he 
was reflected to that responsible 
position. 

Sprague summarizes the facts 
of this long and busy career thus : 

"Rev. J. Daniel Kurtz, D.D., was born in Germantown, Penn- 
sylvania, in the year 1763. His early advantages for education 
were only such as were supplied by the very indifferent schools 
in the neighborhood in which he lived. When he was a mere 
child, less than six years old, he began to feel an indefinite desire 
to become a minister of the Gospel ; and he found, at no distant 
period, that this early proclivity was quite in accordance with 
the wishes of his father. While the Revolutionary War was in 
progress, his father resided at York, and Bishop White, who was 
then Chaplain of Congress, had his apartments for some time in 

57 




EEV. J. DAXIEL KURTZ, D. D., 
at the age of ninety-two. 



58 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

his dwelling. The son had ceased going to school some time be- 
fore the war closed, but he still pursued his studies, more or less, 
under his father, always keeping the ministry in his eye as the 
profession to which he was destined. Mis father now sent him to 
Lancaster to prosecute his studies under the direction of Dr. 
Henry Ernst Muhlenberg. Here he commenced the study of 
Latin, and became more and more interested as he proceeded. 
Though his teacher, in consequence of his numerous engagements, 
devoted less attention to him than was desirable, yet he had a 
large and well selected library, to the use of which his pupil was 
made welcome; and this was a tolerable compensation for any 
deficiency in the matter of instruction. 

After prosecuting his studies at Lancaster, with great dili- 
gence, for several years, he was examined at a meeting of the 
Synod in Philadelphia, and received a license to perform all min- 
isterial duties. .Shortly after this he returned to his father's 
house in York, and, after preaching several times for his father, 
and performing various pastoral duties among his people, took 
charge of two congregations in the neighborhood, preaching in 
each on the alternate Sabbath. He was ordained during the 
meeting of the Synod in Philadelphia, in 1784 or 1785. 

Before he had been preaching long he received a request, 
through his father, from Dr. Helmuth, of Philadelphia, that he 
would come and be his assistant. But he felt constrained to de- 
cline the offer, on the ground of his unfitness for so prominent a 
station. The Doctor received his answer with decided disappro- 
bation, and did not hesitate to make it manifest on various occa- 
sions afterwards. He, however, finally forgave the offense, and 
an intimate friendship grew up between them, which was termi- 
nated only by Dr. Helmuth 's death. 

In the same year (1786) it was resolved by the Synod that the 
Rev. Jacob Goering, Mr. Kurtz's brother-in-law, who had be- 
come assistant to his father at York, should, with Mr. Kurtz him- 
self, make a missionary tour to the vacant congregations in Mary- 
land and Virginia. They fulfilled this appointment very satis- 
factorily, and the next year Mr. Kurtz made another tour, going 
over nearly the same ground. 

About this time Mr. Kurtz made a visit to Baltimore, where he 
spent the Sabbath and preached for his father's friend, the Rev. 
Mr. Goerock. His services proved highly acceptable, and the re- 
sult was that he was called to be his assistant, and finally became 
his successor. 

In the year 1792 he was married to Maria Messersmith, in 
whom he found a devoted wife, and with whom he lived most 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 59 

happily for more than half a century. They had nine children. 
Mrs. Kurtz died in 1841, aged seventy-six years. 

In 1816 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon 
him by the University of Pennsylvania. 

In 1823 the Rev. Mr. Uhlhorn was chosen his assistant. In 
1832 or 1833 Mr. Kurtz resigned his charge, and a pension was 
settled 011 him. In his eighty-eighth year he preached on two 
occasions, one of which was the dedication of the Rev. M. 
Schwartz's church. In 1853, being then in his ninetieth year, he 
attended, by particular request, the laying of the corner stone 
of the two German Lutheran churches, and, on each occasion, 
delivered an address. 

Dr. Kurtz died in Baltimore on the 30th of June, 1856, in the 
ninety-third year of his age, leaving one son and three daugh- 
ters. His death was occasioned by no particular malady, but was 
rather the result of the gradual exhaustion of the sources of ani- 
mal life. 

Dr. Kurtz was distinguished for simplicity, frankness, and un- 
compromising integrity. He was a man of much more than ordi- 
nary powers, and was a diligent student and great reader during 
his whole life. In his earlier years he bestowed considerable at- 
tention on Botany arid Entomology ; but, as he advanced in life, 
his studies took almost entirely a theological direction. He was 
an evangelical, impressive and earnest preacher, and an emi- 
nently faithful and affectionate pastor. He was admired and 
reverenced by the whole community amidst whom he lived. He 
never published anything beyond a few articles in the Evangel- 
ical Magazine (a Quarterly published by the Pennsylvania 
Synod), and the Evangelic Hymn Book, prepared by him and 
Dr. Baker, of the German Reformed Church in Baltimore. ' ' 

It ought to be added that the first president of the Maryland 
Synod was thoroughly evangelical in all his views. He was a 
man of experimental piety and of deep religious experience. He 
was always and everywhere insistent upon the cardinal doctrines 
of our holy religion. As a preacher he was forceful, instructive, 
and thoroughly scriptural. He presented the Gospel truths in a 
plain and practical way. In the course of his ministry he bap- 
tized 5,156 persons, buried 2,521, and performed 2,386 marriages. 
He was one of the founders of the Maryland Bible Society, a di- 
rector of our Gettysburg Theological Seminary, and closely iden- 
tified with all the benevolent institutions of the church. 

Among many other interesting incidents concerning this man, 
Dr. Morris relates of him: "Although I have seen him exposed 
to severe trials of patience, yet I never saw him excited to any 



(() HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

(1 give, excepting once. It was at a meeting of our Synod, when 
a number of us prevented the election of an objections] candidate 
for the Presidency by withholding a majority. Five or six elec- 
tions were held, and with the same result. The old gentleman 
arose and most severely rebuked us for our obstinacy, and for oc- 
casioning the loss of so much time. We yielded and bore the in- 
Hiction of an incompetent man in the presidential chair for one 
year.*' 

I 'pon his death in 185(5 the Synod recorded concerning him 
among other things this: "As a preacher he was ardent, impres- 
sive, and thoroughly scriptural. As a pastor he was faithful, 
self-denying, and diligent. As a parent he was affectionate, ten- 
der, and exemplary. As a Christian he was conscientious, hum- 
ble, and sincere. In every relation of life his example was worthy 
of imitation." 

The first secretary of the Synod was the 

Rev. David Frederick Schaeffer, D.D. 

For many years Dr. Schaeffer was the controlling influence in the 
Maryland Synod. From the organization of the body to the time 
of his death there were only two years when he was not an officer 
of the Synod. For three consecutive terms he was Secretary, 
then for two terms President, then for three more terms Secre- 
tary, then for one year Treasurer, then back to the Presidency 
for three more terms, then after one year of rest he was Treas- 
urer again for two years, and a year and a half later he died. 

The Special Meeting of pastors which in 1820 petitioned the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium for permission to organize the new 
Synod had been held at Frederick where Dr. Schaeffer had been 
pastor since 1808. This clearly indicates his moving agency and 
predominating influence in the preliminaries of the organization. 
Then, too, his continued line of offices in the Synod, frequent ap- 
pearance on important committees, his prominence in the delib- 
erations of the body as indicated by the minutes of the proceed- 
ings, his frequent delegation to the General Synod, his editing 
of the first English Lutheran journal in America, the Jnteili- 
yrncer, and his training of a constant stream of theological stu- 
dents in the parsonage at Frederick, all indicate his premier- 
ship among the brethren in those early formative days. 

Dr. Schaeffer was also prominent in the councils of the Gen- 
eral Synod. He was one of its founders, for many years its sec- 
retary, and afterwards its president. 

Sprague gives a review of his life as follows : 

"David Frederick Schaeffer, the eldest son of Rev. Dr. Fred- 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 



61 



erick David and Rosina (Rosinmiller) Schaeffer, was born in 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 22d of July, 1787. After being 
prepared for college at an academy in Philadelphia he entered 
the University of Pennsylvania, and having 1 passed through the 
regular course of study with diligence and success, graduated in 
the year 1807. Having studied 
theology under his father and 
under Doctors Helmuth and 
Schmidt, he took charge of the 
Evangelical Lutheran congrega- 
tion in PVederiek City, Maryland, 
in July, 1808. Though, at that 
time, but twenty-one years of age, 
he had developed a fine command- 
ing person ; had, for his years, a 
large measure of intellectual ac- 
quirement ; possessed the finest 
social qualities; and, for general 
personal attraction, was almost 
unrivalled. His ordination took 
place in Philadelphia, on Trinitv, 
1812. 

"Mr. Schaeffer soon became 
greatly endeared to his congrega- 
tion, and was untiring in his ef- 
forts for the advancement of their interests. He labored in seas- 
son and out of season ; in town and in the country ; on the Sab- 
bath and during the week ; in the pulpit and out of the pulpit ; 
beside the sick bed and in the catechetical class. In 1829 he was 
unanimously elected Principal of the Frederick Academy, and, 
by the urgent solicitation of the Trustees, was induced to accept 
the appointment ; though, after holding the office for some time, 
he was obliged to relinquish it on account of the pressure of his 
pastoral and ecclesiastical duties. In 1836 the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity was conferred upon him by St. John's College, 
Annapolis. 

"Dr. Schaeffer was intimately connected with all the leading 
movements in his own denomination, and with many important 
public enterprises out of it. The first English periodical estab- 
lished in the Lutheran Church, (which was the Lutheran Jntclli- 
(icnccr,} in 1826, was, by common consent, committed to his edi- 
torial charge. He had a very important, if not a primary, agency 
in establishing the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, which 
has now taken a commanding place among the Divinity Schools 




RKV. DAVID FREDERICK SCHAEFFER, 
D.D. 



62 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

of the country. Ho was one of the founders of the Frederick 
County Bible Society, and was President of the General Synod 
in 1831 and 18:52, and was, for several years, its Secretary. His 
earnestness and ability in a protracted controversy with the Ro- 
manists, who had a stronghold in Frederick, were eminently con- 
ducive to the interests of Protestantism in that region. He had 
rarely less than three or four students of theology under his care, 
and it was a common saying, in view of the great number of min- 
isters whom he brought into the Lutheran ranks, that he was a 
'Church Father.' 

" Dr. Schaeffer's indefatigable labors, in connection with severe 
domestic afflictions, so materially affected his health that, for the 
last year or two of his life, he was physically inadequate to the 
amount of service which he had been accustomed to perform. 
In addition to this, certain adverse circumstances brought him 
into painful relations with the Synod; and just at that period 
his earthly career closed. He died suddenly in Frederick, which 
had been his only field of labor, on the oth of May, 1837, in the 
fiftieth year of his age, and the thirtieth year of his ministry. 
His funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Harkey, who 
was at that time officiating in the Lutheran Church in Frederick, 
and another Commemorative Discourse was subsequently deliv- 
ered, at the special request of the congregation, by the Rev. Dr. 
Krauth, President of Pennsylvania College, who had pursued his 
theological studies under Dr. Schaeffer's direction. 

"Dr. Schaeffer's published works are to be found chiefly in the 
five volumes of the Lutheran JntcUi(jenccr, (from 1826 to 1831) 
of which he was the editor. He published, in addition, A Fast 
Sermon, delivered during the war of 1812-15; An Historic Ad- 
dress Commemorative of the Blessed Reformation, 1818; and a 
Charge to the Rev. S. S. Schmucker, on his Induction as Profes- 
sor in the Theological Seminary, 1826; and, it is believed, some 
other pamphlets. 

"On the 28th of June, 1810, he was married to Elizabeth, 
daughter of George and Catharine Krebs, of Philadelphia. They 
had six children/' 

Toward the close of his life Dr. Schaeff'er fell into a fault which 
in these days of national prohibition would scarcely be possible. 
This involved him in "painful difficulties" with the Synod, but 
these were happily adjusted before his death. Of his eminent 
services to our Synod and to the church in the days of his prime 
there is abundant evidence and the causes for gratitude to his 
memory are many. 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 



63 



The first Treasurer of the Synod was 

Rev. Abraham Reck. 

Rev. Reck was the pastor loci for this first meeting of the Synod. 
He was then only thirty years old and had been in the ministry 
only seven years, but a long and varied experience la}' before him. 

Pastor Reck was born at Littlestown, Pennsylvania, in 1790. 
He received strong religious im- 
pressions from the catechetical in- 
struction of Rev. John Grobb, 
whom he terms "a truly converted 
man. ' ' Having resolved to study 
for the ministry he was put under 
the care of Rev. F. V. Melsheimer 
of Hanover, Pennsylvania. In 
1812 he was licensed by the Penn- 
sylvania Synod and in 1813 en- 
tered upon his first pastorate at 
Winchester. Here he labored suc- 
cessfully for fifteen years. 

He was animated all his life 
with an earnest missionary spirit 
and during his ministry at Win- 
chester he frequently visited the 
destitute places in the western 
part of Virginia. He had one sta- 
tion thirty miles distant from his home where he preached regu- 
larly. In 1822 he was appointed the Synod's missionary to the 
destitute parts of Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, along 
the north and south sides of the Alleghenies. In his report the 
next year he sets forth that he travelled one thousand and six 
miles and preached eighty-five sermons. His narrative of his 
missionary journeys includes some truly thrilling experiences. 

Reck was personally intimate with Charles Philip Krauth and 
Benjamin Kurtz in the Maryland Synod and these three were 
the active aids of S. S.-Schmucker in the founding of Gettysburg 
Seminary. Pastor Reck was frequently invited to prominent 
places, such as Chambersburg, Gettysburg, Lancaster and 
Charleston, but he never saw fit to accept such calls. 

During the latter part of his ministry at Winchester certain 
irreconcilable differences, relating chiefly to questions of church 
usage, arose between himself and some of his people, and this 
finally led to his resignation. 

In 1828, therefore, he accepted the call from Middletown, 




BEV. ABRAHAM KECK. 



64 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Maryland, a call that had been extended to him annually for 
seven successive years. Here he remained nine years and so con- 
tinued to be a member of the Maryland Synod even after the 
withdrawal of his Virginia brethren. During his ministry at 
Middletown he was instrumental in sending into the Lutheran 
ministry such useful men as Ezra Keller, David F. Bittle, Wil- 
liam A. Wadsworth. and John Gaver. Reck was an ardent ad- 
vocate of popular evangelistic methods and an attempt was made 
by some of his opponents on this score to prosecute him before 
Synod but this failed ignominiously. 

In 18:>(J he was induced to remove to Indianapolis and his name 
disappears from our synodical roll. When he went to Indian- 
apolis the name of a Lutheran was hardly known there. Hut he 
purchased property with his personal funds and set to work or- 
ganizing Lutheran congregations. In less than six years he had 
organized nine congregations. Then misfortunes befell him. He 
lost his health and was cheated' out of his property and rendered 
a poor man. 

In 1841 he removed to Cincinnati with the express purpose of 
organizing an English Lutheran Church there. In this he suc- 
ceeded in spite of unparalleled difficulties. Hut his health and 
that of his family was such that his friends constrained him to 
remove to Germantown, Ohio, in 1845. We next find him at 
Tarleton for three years, 1847-1 851, and finally in retirement at 
Lancaster, Ohio, where he succumbed to a painful throat afflic- 
tion in 18o'9. During the last years of his life the Maryland 
Synod contributed modest sums to his support. The chapter of 
his sorrows is as wonderful as the chapter of his successes. 

The first Treasurer of the Synod was an eloquent harbinger of 
the future missionary career of the new body. 

Another of the founders of the Synod was the 

Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, D.D., LL.D. 

He was chairman of the committee that drafted the first Consti- 
tution of the Synod. Five times he was President of the Synod 
and he was always prominent in the work of the body. He was a 
nephew of Daniel Kurtz, the first President, and a grandson of 
the John Nicholas Kurtz who was ordained by the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium at its first meeting in 1748. Few men have exerted 
a greater influence in the Lutheran Church of America than 
Benjamin Kurtz. His public career extended over half a century 
and during that period ( 181 .VISH")) he was identified with all the 
more important events in the history of our Church. His life- 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 



65 



story has been related by Hutter and Stoever and Morris, and 
the influence of his career has been estimated by many others. 
Let the following brief summary of the facts suffice here: 

Benjamin Kurtz was born in Harrisburg, February 28, 1795. 
His youth was marked by seasons of deep religious convictions. 
He studied theology under George 
Lochman and was licensed by 
the Pennsylvania Ministerium at 
Frederick in 1815. For several 
months he was assistant to his 
uncle in Baltimore, but that same 
3'ear accepted a call to the Ha- 
gerstown charge. He was then 
the only pastor in Washington 
County and his charge embraced 
five congregations. Sixteen years 
later when he left that field the 
number of Lutherans there had 
been multiplied by four and six 
pastors were required for the 
field. 

For two years (1831-1833) he 
was pastor at Chambersburg, but 
the precarious condition of his 
health made it imperative for 
him to lay aside the active duties of pulpit and pastorate. Just 
then Dr. Morris invited him to take charge of the Lutheran Ob- 
server and as editor of that paper for twenty-eight years he 
wielded his chief influence. When Dr. Kurtz took charge of the 
paper it was a small bi-weekly with seven hundred subscribers; 
when he laid down the editorial pen in 1861 it was a large weekly 
with more than eight thousand subscribers. 

Dr. Kurtz was not only prominent in organizing the Maryland 
Synod but he also took a leading part in the formation of the 
General Synod. The General Synod was organized in his church 
at Hagerstown. He was present at almost every convention of 
that body until his death and was twice its President. For many 
years he was President of the Home Missionary Society and of 
the Parent Education Society. 

In 1826 Dr. Kurtz was appointed by the General Synod to 
visit Europe in the interest of the Gettysburg Seminary and after 
two years he returned with $10,000 and a great number of books. 
Late in life he was instrumental in establishing the Missionary 
Institute at Selinsgrove. 
5 




REV. BENJAMIN KURTZ, D.D., 
LL.D. 



66 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Dr. Kurtz stoutly maintained the "evangelical" standpoint 
and was an ardent advocate of the "new measures" and of 
"American Lutheranisra. " This hroujrht him into vigorous po- 
lemics. Hut to his dying day he /ealously advocated English 
preaching, Sunday school, protracted meetings, and temperance 
reform. He is characterized as "an eloquent preacher, a sym- 
pathetic pastor, a keen debater, and a voluminous writer." The 
decree of D.D. was conferred on him by Washington College in 
1838, and the degree of LL.D. by Wittenberg College in 18.")8. 
He died in Haltimore, December 29, 186.1. 

Among the younger men who helped to organ i/e the Synod was 
Rev. Charles Philip Kraut h, D.D. 

Dr. Krauth in 1820 was pastor at Shepherdstown and Martins- 
burg, where he had taken charge the year before. He was then 
only twenty-three years old and both of his theological teachers, 
D. F. Schaeft'er and Abraham Keck, were members of that first 

convention of the Synod. Never- 
theless young Krauth rapidly rose 
to independent influence in the 
body. Already at the organiza- 
tion meeting he was a member of 
the committee that drew up the 
first constitution. He was or- 
dained by the Synod at her sec- 
ond convention in 1821, having 
been licensed by the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium two years before. At 
the fourth meeting of the Mary- 
land Synod he was made Treas- 
urer and so continued for three 
terms. Then lie became Presi- 
dent. This office he held only one 
term because in 1827 he removed 
from the bounds of the Synod. 
His subs e q u e n t career as a 
teacher is perhaps traceable his- 
torically to the action of the Synod in 1823 when he was made a 
member of the committee with Henjamin Kurtz "to report a plan 
for the education of pious and indigent young men for the fJos- 
pel ministry." His career as editor was also prefigured in the 
Maryland Synod when in 1826 and 1827 he was associated with 
Dr. Schaeffer in editing the Intrllifjcncrr. 

The intimate facts of his life are very beautiful, Professor 




REV. CHARLES Pini.ir KRATTH, 
D.I). 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 67 

Stoever opens his lengthy account of Dr. K ninth's life with these 
words: "A character so near perfection, a life so almost blame- 
less as was that of Charles P. Krauth is seldom found. He was 
one of the purest and best men that ever lived. One more faith- 
ful and affectionate, better in the entire combination of his gifts 
and graces, has never been given to the church." From that ac- 
count we gather the following : 

Dr. Krauth was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 
May 7, 1797. His father, Charles James Krauth, was a native 
of Germany, and came to this country as a young man, in the ca- 
pacity of a school teacher and a church organist. His mother \vas 
a Pennsylvania!!. They lived in New York, Pennsylvania, and in 
Baltimore, Maryland, also for many years in Virginia, highly re- 
spected and enjoying the confidence of their neighbors. Of his 
early life comparatively little is known in consequence of his 
singular and habitual reticence with regard to himself. He early 
evinced a ciecided taste for linguistic studies, and, in the prosecu- 
tion of the Latin, Greek, and French, won for himself high credit. 
Having selected medicine as his profession, he commenced its 
study when about eighteen years of age, under the direction of 
Dr. Selden, of Norfolk, Virginia, and subsequently attended a 
course of lectures in the University of Maryland. But his funds 
having become exhausted, he visited Frederick, Maryland, with a 
view of procuring pecuniary aid from an uncle, the organist of 
the Lutheran church. During a visit to Rev. D. F. Schaeffer, of 
Frederick, his mind was led to the conclusion that the ministry 
was the work to which God had called him. He very soon com- 
menced his theological studies under the instructions of Rev. Dr. 
Schaeffer, and at every step of his progress was the more strongly 
convinced that he was acting in accordance with the divine will. 

While he was engaged at Frederick in the prosecution of his 
studies, in the year 1818, Rev. Abraham Reck, of Winchester, 
Virginia, who was in feeble health, wrote to Dr. Schaeffer, in- 
quiring if he could not send him a theological student to aid him 
in the discharge of his laborious duties. In compliance with his 
request, Dr. Schaeffer sent young Mr. Krauth, who continued his 
studies under the direction of Pastor Reck, and assisted him in 
preaching the gospel and performing other pastoral labor. He 
studied under Mr. Reck one year, and the testimony of his pre- 
ceptor is that he showed great comprehension of mind and was 
a most successful student. 

Mr. Krauth was licensed to preach the gospel by the Synod of 
Pennsylvania, at its meeting in Baltimore in 1819. His first pas- 
toral charge embraced the united churches of Martinsburg and 
Shepherdstown, Virginia, where he labored for several years most 



68 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

efficiently and successfully. It was at a district conference, held 
in the church at Martinsburg, while Mr. Kranth was pastor, 
that the enterprise of a theological seminary, in connection with 
the General Synod, originated, and the first funds towards the 
ohjeet contributed. lie was, in 182(5, elected a member of the 
first Hoard of Directors. In 1827 he accepted a call to St. Mat- 
thew's congregation, recently organized in Philadelphia. 

The removal of Mr. Krauth to Philadelphia, in 1827, marks a 
new epoch, not only in the history of our English Lutheran in- 
terests in that city, but of his own life. Brought into new as- 
sociations, surrounded by active, earnest, living men, with large 
libraries at his command, the best books on all subjects accessible, 
new powers seemed to be awakened within him, new energies 
were developed. As a scholar, a theologian, and a preacher, he 
rapidly advanced, and made a deep impression upon the com- 
munity. At first he encountered some opposition from the Ger- 
man churches in the prejudices which existed, even at that day, 
against the introduction of the English language into the serv- 
ices of the sanctuary, but this all vanished when his character 
and object was better understood. Dr. Krauth remained in 
Philadelphia six years, and during the whole period enjoyed the 
highest reputation as a pastor and a preacher, gathering around 
him a large and devoted congregation and accomplishing an 
amount of good that can scarcely be estimated. 

In the year 18.'}:}, when Dr. Hazelius resigned his professorship 
in the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, the attention of the 
Board of Directors was at once turned to Mr. Krauth as the man 
best, qualified for the position. As a Hebraist he had not at the 
time, in the Church, his superior. He was unanimously chosen 
Professor of Biblical and Oriental Literature. Tt was agreed 
that part of his time should be devoted to instruction in Penn- 
sylvania College, with the understanding that so soon as the 
proper arrangements could be made his duties should be entirely 
confined to the Theological Seminary. 

Professor Krauth was unanimously elected President of Penn- 
sylvania College in the spring of 1834. The duties of this office 
he faithfully performed for nearly nineteen years, during most 
of the time also giving instruction in the Theological Seminary. 

Tn the autumn of 18f)0, yet in the vigor of manhood, he re- 
linquished with great satisfaction, the anxious, toilsome, and 
often ungrateful work of the College Presidency, for the more 
quiet, congenial and pleasant duties of theological instruction. 
For five years, during his connection with the seminary, he also 
served with great acceptance as pastor of the congregation with 
which the institutions are united. He continued his duties in the 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 69 

Theological Seminary until the close of his life, delivering his 
last lecture to the senior class within ten days of his death, the 
subject, by a singular and interesting co-incidence, being the 
Resurrection. He died May 30, 1867, in the seventy-first year of 
his age, and the forty-ninth of his ministry. The honorary de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1837. 

From 1850 to 1861 he was editor of the Evangelical Review. 
His published writings are: "Works of Melanchthon, " "The 
General Synod," "Early History of the Lutheran Church," 
"Schmidt's Dogmatic," "The Lutheran Church in the United 
States," "Present Position of the Lutheran Church," "Contri- 
butions to the History of Church, " " Luther and Melanchthon, ' ' 
' ' German Language, " " Henry Clay, " " Baptism. ' ' 

Three other ministers who helped to organize the Maryland 
Synod may receive mention : Schmucker, Meyerhoeffer, and 
Kehler. 

Rev. John Nicholas Schmucker was born in Michaelstadt in 
the Odenwald, Germany, on September 24, 1779. His father was 
John Christopher Schmucker, and when Nicholas was but two 
years old the family emigrated to America. For about one year 
they tarried in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, and then moved to 
Manheim in Lancaster County. A year later they removed to 
Shenandoah County in the Valley of Virginia and settled on a 
farm near Woodstock. Here the five sons grew to manhood. 
Three of them became ministers : John George, John Nicholas, 
and Peter. John George was the father of the distinguished 
Professor S. S. Schmucker. 

The early educational advantages of this generation of 
Schmuckers were rather meager. John Nicholas, however, was 
a man of decided natural abilities and appears to have faithfully 
availed himself of such opportunities as he enjoyed for the de- 
velopment of his mental powers and the acquisition of useful 
knowledge. When about thirty years of age, impelled by convic- 
tions of duty, he decided, although he was then married and had 
two children, to devote himself to the Gospel ministry. Accord- 
ingly, after a brief season of theological study under his elder 
brother, Dr. John George Schmucker, who was then pastor at 
York, Pennsylvania, he was licensed by the Pennsylvania Min- 
isterium in 1812, and took charge of several congregations in 
Shenandoah County where he had grown to manhood and where 
he spent the whole of his ministerial career. 

During a large portion of his ministry of forty years he served 
chieflv the churches in Woodstock and Strasburg together with 



70 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Frieden's and Zion in the same county. One of his relatives re- 
lates, according to Dr. I). M. (Jilhc'rt, that Nieholas Schmucker 
stated on a funeral oeeasion about five years before his death that 
the sermon on that occasion \vas the thousandth funeral sermon 
he had preached. This would indicate a very busy ministry. Dr. 
Morris says of him: " Exceedingly simple and even primitive 
in his habits, never going beyond the bounds of his parish, un- 
known to the outside world, yet his religious life, his ministerial 
fidelity and his blameless demeanor are to this day the theme of 
the people of that rep-ion." 

Xot only was Nicholas Sehmueker one of the organizers of the 
Maryland Synod in 1820 but in 1829 lie helped also to organize 
the Virginia Synod and became its first president. Late in the 
year 1820 he divided his large pastorate and shared it with his 
highly-educated nephew. S. S. Sehmueker. On September 19th 
of that year young Sehmueker made this entry in his diary: 
"Yesterday came here to Uncle Nicholas and was very kindly re- 
ceived. Spent the afternoon and this whole day conversing with 
him on different points. He is a man of good talents and respect- 
able information. He is very willing to give me two of his con- 
gregations, Woodstock and Huddle's sehoolhouse, if I see fit to 
settle here. He is very kind. We have talked over all the cir- 
cumstances of the town and of New Market. Henkel and sons 
persecute instinctively everything that bears the name of 
Sehmueker. Nicholas is a true Christian. His wife is a very 
sensible, good-natured, pious woman. Became pious, he told me, 
within the last two years." The uncle preached only in German ; 
the nephew introduced English. 

Some estimate of the robust character of his Lutheranism may 
be formed from the Synod Minutes of 1828 where we learn that 
"some disaffection had recently occurred between the Lutheran 
and Reformed churches worshipping alternately in Friedens 
church, in consequence of the Rev. N. Sehmueker refusing to give 
a general invitation to persons to partake of the Lord's Supper, 
and that this was alleged by a respectable member of the (>. Re- 
formed Church now present." Whereupon the Synod "Re- 
solved, That the Rev. N. Sehmueker, in not giving a general in- 
vitation to partake of the Lord's Supper, did not transgress the 
discretionary power vested in every individual Minister of our 
church." 

Tn June, 1854, having partially recovered from a serious sick- 
ness, Nicholas Sehmueker removed to the residence of his son, 
Rev. Cieorge Sehmueker. in Pendleton County, Virginia, in the 
hope that the change would improve his health. But this hope 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 71 

was not realized and early in 1855 he died, being in his seventy- 
sixth year. 

Rev. Michael Meyerhoeffer was born in Frederick. Maryland, 
October 28, 1794. His preliminary education was received in the 
schools of that place, after which he studied theology under the 
direction of his pastor, Rev. D. F. Schaeffer. He was licensed 
by the Synod of Pennsylvania, in Baltimore, in 1815, and began 
his ministry in the latter part of that year, in Madison County, 
preaching in both German and English. After serving the Madi- 
son congregation for a period of six years, he accepted a call to 
Rockingham County, where he ministered for about twelve years 
as pastor of the Union Church at Cross Keys, the ' ' Peaked Moun- 
tain" Church in East Rockingham, St. John's Church (in what 
was then called the Brush Country, now Singer's Glen), and 
Salem Church in Augusta County. Mr. Meyerhoeffer was also 
accustomed to preach, occasionally, in Mount Zion, St. Peter's 
and St. Michael's churches, and also in the counties of Rock- 
bridge and Pendleton. He is .represented by his cotemporaries 
as having been a popular preacher of very considerable ability. 

In 1821 and 1822 the Synod was several times busied with a 
difficulty that had arisen between Mr. Meyerhoeffer and Mr. 
Reirnenschneider concerning several congregations in Rocking- 
ham Count}', Virginia. The Synod decided that Mr. Meyer- 
hoeffer had acted perhaps imprudent ly but not without author- 
ity, and that Mr. Reimenschneider had acted "injudiciously and 
unclerically. " When Mr. Reimenschneider refused to abide by 
the decision of the Synod he was threatened with dismissal from 
the body. Then we read : ' ' The Rev. Mr. Reimenschneider, hav- 
ing been convinced of his error, made ample concessions and sat- 
isfactory promises. The same was affecting : he was embraced by 
all the brethren present and lie is hereby continued a member of 
this Synod. ' ' 

On April 15, 1816, the subject of our sketch was married to 
Miss Lucy, daughter of Major Lewis Crigler, of Madison County. 
Mr. Meyerhoeffer died April 18, 1833, and was buried at Union 
Church, near which he had lived. 

During- the last year or two of his life Mr. Meyerhoeffer be- 
came actively interested in the political affairs of the country, 
and was, at the time of his death, a candidate for Congress. 

Rev. John Kehler was born in Frederick, Maryland, near the 
end of the eighteenth century. Of his early educational training 
we have no information. His studies, preparatory to entering 
upon the work of the ministry, were pursued under the guidance 
of Rev. D. F. Schaeffer, upon the completion of which he was li- 



<2 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

censed by the Synod of Pennsylvania in 1819 and the next year 
he united in the organization of the Synod of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. 

Mr. Keliler's first charge was in Middletown, Maryland, July, 
1819, to October, 1821. from which place he moved to Madison 
County, Virginia, where he was serving as pastor at the time of 
the formation of the Virginia Synod in 1829. He was one of 
those who withdrew from the Synod of Virginia, at its second 
convention in 1830, and reunited with the Synod of Maryland, 
because of the resolution of the former body not to remain in 
connection with the General Synod. A year or two after this, 
probably in 1832, Mr. Keillor resigned the church in Madison 
County, and became pastor of the church in Cumberland, Mary- 
land. After serving the congregation in Cumberland for a time 
he went over to the Episcopal Church and was reordained. Of 
his later history, beyond the fact that in his new connection he 
was employed as a missionary in the western counties of Mary- 
land, we have no knowledge. 

Less than two months after the Synod of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia was organized there came upon her territory a young man 
who was destined to exert a very profound influence upon her 
early history. This was the twenty-one year old 

Rev. Samuel Simon Schmucker, D.D. 

From 1821, when he was ordained by the Maryland Synod and 
when his name first appears on the clerical roll, to 1826, when it 
appears for the last time because of his removal from the bounds 
of the Synod, he is clearly one of the loaders of the body. It was 
in that body that he started the movement for a Lutheran Theo- 
logical Seminary in America which resulted in the institutions at 
Gettysburg. It was as a member of our Synod that he wrote most 
of the organic documents of the General Synod and it was 
through the Maryland Synod that he saved the General Synod 
from dissolution in 1823. For many years after he withdrew 
from formal membership in the Maryland Synod he continued to 
attend her meetings as a delegate of the West Pennsylvania. In 
the professor's chair he trained more than five hundred men for 
the Lutheran ministry, nearly the entire output in that period. 
In brief, throughout the first half of the Nineteenth Century Dr. 
Schmucker exerted a wider influence in the Lutheran Church of 
this country than any other man, and filled a larger place in the 
public eye outside of the Lutheran Church than any other man 
in it. 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 



73 



His illustrious career has been set forth in detail by several 
hands (Anstadt, Morris, B. M. Schmucker) and the quantity and 
quality of his influence has been estimated by friend and foe. 
We submit a brief summary gathered from the account by his 
son : 

"Samuel Simon Schmucker, D.D., the son of John George 
Schmucker, was born at Hagerstown, Maryland, on February 28, 
1799. The eminent piety of his father was reproduced in the son, 
and early directed his thoughts to the gospel ministry. In his 
eleventh year he removed to York, 
Pennsylvania. Here he enjoyed 
superior advantages of education 
in the academy. From this time 
on he became a laborious student 
and it was his life-long habit. In 
his thirteenth year he received a 
kindly letter in Latin from Dr. 
Helmuth of Philadelphia, urging 
him to come to Philadelphia, to 
the university. Tn 1814 he re- 
paired thither and entered the 
freshman class. He continued 
there to the end of the sophomore 
y e a r, adding to his university 
studies some theological branches 
under Dr. Helmuth. He allowed 
himself no vacations. In 1816, 
young as he was, he took charge 
of the classical department of the 
York Academy. Dr. John G. Morris was one of his students. 
Meanwhile he was studying theology under his father's care. 
The non-existence of a theological seminary in the Lutheran 
Church compelled him to finish his studies in one of another 
faith. Accordingly, in 1818 he went to Princeton and continued 
there for two years. Among his fellow-students were Bishops 
Mcllvaine and Johns, and Dr. Robert Baird was his roommate. 
It may be conceded that the training and associations of this in- 
stitution measurably influenced his own theological views. On 
June 2, 1820, he was licensed by the Ministerium of Pennsyl- 
vania, at Lancaster. At that time he was undoubtedly the best 
educated young man, of American birth, in the Lutheran min- 
istry. 

"In December, 1820, he settled in New Market. Virginia, and 
spent six years in earnest and successful pastoral work But 




"REV. SAMUEL SIMOX SCHMUCKER, 
D.D. 



74 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

his zeal and intellectual activity sought expression in efforts be- 
yond a limited pastorate. He wrote: 'When 1 left Princeton, 
there were three pi a- dcsidcria. which were very near to my heart, 
for the welfare of our Church. A translation of some one emi- 
nent system of Lutheran Dogmatics, a theological seminary, and 
a college for the Lutheran Church.' He set himself to work to 
meet these wants and succeeded. Under the advice of Dr. Ivoethe, 
of Allstaedt, and others he translated and published tftorr and 
Flatt's Biblical Thcolo</ij. In 18'2.'} he began the work of pri- 
vately preparing students for the ministry. For him it was ex- 
cellent training for his life work. 

"These were formative years in the history of the Lutheran 
Church in this country. She was extending her borders, and 
the German language was ceasing to be the exclusive one in her 
worship. In 18:20 the General Synod was called into existence, 
primarily through the agency of the Ministerium of Pennsyl- 
vania, but in 1823 it withdrew. It is conceded that the energetic 
exertions of Dr. Schmucker saved the body from dissolution. 
Thenceforth he was a guiding spirit in its more definite organiza- 
tion and enterprises. He was the author of most of its organic 
documents, as its constitution, its formula of government and dis- 
cipline for its synods and churches, the constitution of the theo- 
logical seminary, and so forth. At the convention of the General 
Synod in 1825, it was resolved to establish a theological seminary, 
and at the same session he was elected its first professor. On 
September 5, 1826, he was formally installed at Gettysburg, and 
for nearly forty years he filled the chair of didactic theology. 
During this time about five hundred young men were prepared 
for the ministry. Many of them became highly successful in 
pastoral and professorial life. On August 9, 1864, he resigned 
his chair, but devoted himself to authorship almost to the end of 
his days. He died July 26, 187:}. 

* Reeling the need of classical attainments in ministerial candi- 
dates, Dr. Schmucker early devoted his energies to the establish- 
ment of Pennsylvania College, by appeals to the state legislature 
and to the church. He was prominently identified with the for- 
mation of the Evangelical Alliance. He attended its first meet- 
ing in London and was received with great distinction. 

"In 1855 the unhappy Definite Platform controversy arose. 
Dr. Schmucker avowed himself the author of the document. 
"Whilst no one doubted the sincerity of his convictions, it alienated 
from him many friends and clouded the evening of his days. 

"He was the most voluminous author of the Lutheran Church 
in this country in his generation. He published forty-four vol- 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 



umes and pamphlets, mostly theological, historical, and contro- 
versial. His Popular Theoloyy passed eight editions, his Psy- 
choloyi/ through three. Apart from partisanship, in the estima- 
tion of his friends and foes, Dr. Schmucker's services to the Lu- 
theran Church and the cause of Christ were eminent. He was 
greatly loved by his fellow-citizens in Gettysburg, and his fu- 
neral was a demonstration of warm attachment on their part, as 
well as of many of his students and friends from abroad. ' ' 

The connecting link between the founders of the Maryland 
Synod and the present generation of ministers is the 

Rev. John Gottlieb Morris, D.D., LL.D. 

Licensed by the Synod in 1826 and ordained in 1827 he con- 
tinued to be a member for the remarkable period of sixty-nine 
years. He easily holds first place among the influences that 
moulded the staunch Lutheran character of the Maryland Synod 
during the second half of 
the Nineteenth Century. 
He was particularly influ- 
ential in moulding the 
spirit of General S y n o d 
Lutheranism in Baltimore. 
He was the first permanent 
pastor of the First English 
Lutheran Church in that 
city, an office that he 
graced for thirty-three 
years. For nearly forty 
years thereafter he con- 
tinued to be the nestor of 
Baltimore Lutheranism 
and infused into it the 
blessed spirit of fraternity, 
conservatism, and aggres- 
siveness, that characterize KEV - JoHX G - MORRI . D - D -> LL - D - 
it to this day. For half a century his voice in the Maryland 
Synod had the weight of wisdom and age. Every important 
project in the Synod during that period either originated with 
him or waited on his approval. He was actively interested in all 
the general work of the Church, but was particularly zealous in 
the work of education and publication. His own writings bulk 
large in volume, and we are indebted to him for some of the ma- 
terials in this Synodical History. A very brief sketch of his long 
and varied career comes from the pen of Dr. Charles S. Albert : 




76 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

"John Gottlieb Morris was born at York, Pennsylvania, on 
November 14, 180:}. He died at Lutherville, Maryland, on Oc- 
tober 10, 1895. His father was a distinguished surgeon in the 
Revolutionary Army. A student of Prineeton and graduate of 
Dickinson, he pursued his theological course under Dr. S. S. 
Schmucker, also at Nazareth, Princeton, and Gettysburg. In 
1827 he became pastor of the first English Lutheran Church, Bal- 
timore, Maryland, serving there thirty-three years. lie was also 
supply and pastor of Third Lutheran Church, and librarian of 
Peabody Institute. Afterward he served at Lutherville, Mary- 
land, until a few years before his death. He retained his vigor of 
mind and body to the last, though nearly ninety-two at death. 
He was distinguished and influential in the Church, for which 
his fine natural endowments, varied culture, biblical and theo- 
logical learning, strong pulpit power, devoted loyalty to the 
Church fitted him. He was a vigorous, popular \vriter (for list 
of writings see Life Reminiscences of an Old Lutheran Minister, 
p. 355, ff.) . He was also a scientific student and member of many 
learned societies." 

Dr. Morris passed away just as the Maryland Synod was gath- 
ering to his own city to hear his address on "The Seventy-fifth 
Anniversary of the Synod." Instead of listening to his familiar 
voice the Synod as a body attended his funeral and from the con- 
templation of his long and useful career gathered new inspira- 
tion to devoted service. The president of the Synod in his official 
report expressed what all who knew Dr. Morris had felt, that he 
"was the nineteenth-century incarnation of Luther. His intel- 
lectual attainments, his fine literary style, his virile temper, his 
wit, his indomitable energy, his warm and tenacious affections, 
his conservation of our doctrinal beliefs, his masterful address, 
his large hope of our denominational prestige, and his child-like 
trust in God, have left an ineffaceable record upon our synodical 
and church life." 

Such were some of the leading personalities in the organization 
of our Synod and in her early history. It would be manifestly 
impossible within the scope of this volume to set forth even in 
outline the biographies and the synodical influence of all the 
other eminent men whose names have graced the roll of the Mary- 
land Synod from time to time. It would constitute a most bril- 
liant galaxy indeed. One after another for a full century the 
most distinguished men in that part of the Church now called 
Tinted Lutheran have passed in and out of the Maryland Synod, 
some tarrying for only a few years, others remaining for more 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 77 

than a score of years, all of them making their influence felt more 
or less potently in the actions of the body. 

There was Ezra Keller, a son of the Synod, ordained by her in 
1837, a member of the body for nine years (1836-1844) while he 
was pastor first at Taneytown and then at Hagerstown, her presi- 
dent in 1843, who only left the Synod to become the first presi- 
dent of Wittenberg College. And there was Henry Lewis 
Bangher, Sr., another college president, licensed by the Synod in 
1829, a member from 1829 to 1831 while pastor at Boonsboro 
and again from 1841 to 1864 while professor and president at 
Gettysburg. There was Carl Friederich Heyer, the beloved ' ' Fa- 
ther Heyer" of missionary fame, who for four years (1821-1824) 
was the clerical member of Synod from Cumberland, and later 
(1840-1841) was the Synod's' Missionary at Fell's Point, Balti- 
more. There was Charles Frederick Schaeffer, youngest brother 
of the first Secretary of the Synod, licensed by the Synod in 1829, 
a member for five years (1834-1839) while pastor at Hagerstown, 
afterwards a professor in three theological seminaries, Columbus, 
Gettysburg, and Philadelphia, and one of the founders of the 
General Council. 

Still another college president of that period was David Fred- 
erick Bittle, a son of the Maryland Synod having been born near 
Myersville, licensed by the Synod in 1837, pastor at Middletown 
from 1845 to 1852, one of the founders of the Hagerstown Female 
Seminary, becoming the first president of Roanoke College in 
1853 and continuing in that office for twenty-three years until 
his death in 1876. His younger brother, Daniel Howard Bittle, 
was also a college president, born also in the Middletown Valley, 
pastor at Smithsburg from 1841 to 1843, becoming the first presi- 
dent of North Carolina College in 1858, afterwards the president 
of Colorado College at Columbus, Texas, and still later financial 
agent for Roanoke College. 

Mention should also be made, in that first half of the last cen- 
tury, of Samuel Fiiickel (1834-1836; 1844-1873) at Taneytown 
and Washington ; of Daniel Jacob Hauer, merited organizer and 
overseer of rural congregations; and of Simeon W. Harkey, li- 
censed by the Synod in 1834 and ordained in 1836, serving first 
at Williamsport and then at Woodsboro and then for fourteen 
years (1836-1850) at Frederick, there training quite a number 
of men for the Lutheran ministry, and only leaving the Synod to 
accept the Theological Professorship of Illinois State University. 

Tn 1842 three illustrious names make their appearance on the 
roll of the Synod. One of them had been born and raised on her 
territory, Samuel Sprecher, who was however a member of the 



SOME OF THE SYNOD'S GIFTS TO EDUCATION". 




MM/TON VALENTINE. H \, BUTHFR SR 

., SvMI'Fl SF'RFPUKR DAUUntK, .^S. 

J'7Di Iv vi i t-o ' i\r-\ jiri\. .. _ IT 

I>/.KA IxKI.I.r.K. ,-, .. (. .[ VVnr.Ii 1 

w sj **!( H \t i 't~- if vi fv/iir 

CHARLES A. STORK. ' ' ; ' f " ^^' CHARLES PORTERFIELD KRAUTH. 

CHARLES F. SCHAEFFER. CHARLES A. HAY. 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 79 

Synod for only one year (1842-1843) as pastor at Martinsburg, 
and who after six years at Chambersburg was for twenty-five 
years the president of Wittenberg College and for ten years more 
a professor of theology there. The second of this remarkable 
group, Charles Porterfield Krauth, began his ministry in Balti- 
more (1842-1847), was licensed by the Synod in 1841 and or- 
dained in 1842, and later as professor in the University of Penn- 
sylvania and as President of the Philadelphia Seminary was one 
of the most distinguished and scholarly men in the country. The 
third name that appeared in 1842 was that of William Alfred 
Passavant, who was pastor in Baltimore for two years (1842- 
1844), was both licensed and ordained by the Maryland Synod, 
and later became highly distinguished as an editor and as the 
founder of so many eleemosynary institutions under the control 
of the Lutheran Church. 

As belonging to the Maryland Synod before 1850 we must also 
mention Frederick W. Conrad, pastor at Hagerstown from 1844 
to 1850 when he became professor in Wittenberg College and 
Theological -Department (1850-1855), prominent as preacher, 
teacher, and lecturer, for thirty-two years in the editorial service 
of the Church, and merited in the establishment and endowment 
of literary and theological institutions. We record likewise the 
honored name of another teacher in the Church, Rev. Charles 
Augustus Hay, who was licensed by the Maryland Synod in 1843 
and ordained in 1844 while pastor at Middletown, who became 
professor at the Gettysburg Seminary in 1844 but continued in 
the fellowship of our Synod until 1848, who filled two periods 
of service in the professor's chair totaling thirty-two years, and 
who became highty esteemed as teacher, pastor, and translator. 
Here also belongs the name of Joseph Augustus Seiss, a native 
of Frederick County, a member of the Synod for twelve years 
while pastor at Cumberland (1847-1852) and at Baltimore (1852- 
1858) and highly honored as famous preacher and voluminous 
author. 

During the latter half of the century we meet with such well- 
known and highly honored names as James Allen Brown 
(preacher and president), Charles Augustus Stork (preacher 
and president), Milton Valentine (preacher and president), Ed- 
mund J. Wolf (preacher and professor), Theophilus Stork 
(preacher and president), Benjamin Sadtler (principal and 
president), T. T. Titus (preacher and principal), John George 
Butler (editor and churchman), Charles Stanley Albert 
(preacher and editor), George Diehl (preacher and churchman), 
Mahlon Carleton Horine (preacher and writer), Samuel Domer 



OTHER LEADING PERSONALITIES. 




\V \ P \ssv\vr 






BHXJAMIX SADTI.ER. 



.T. O. BUTLER. 
M C 



FREDERICK W. CONRAD. 
S. W. OWES. 



LEADING PERSONALITIES IN THE EARLY HISTORY. 81 

(teacher and preacher), Stephen W. Owen (preacher and pas- 
tor), and William E. Parson (preacher and churchman). All 
these rest from their labors. A number of others, equally hon- 
ored, continue among us to this day. 

True servants, these, of the most high God, and true children 
of the Lutheran faith. Most of them continued to be members 
of the Maryland Synod through long periods of time. Of a 
surety the glory of the Maryland Synod is in her men. It is these 
that have made her history worth recording. 



"Other men labored and ye are entered into 
their labors." John 4: 38. 

"I have laid the foundation, and another 
buildeth thereon; but let every man take heed 
how he buildeth thereon." / Corinthians 3: 
10. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE PASTORS OF THE SYNOD, 1820-1920, TOGETHER 
WITH THEIR PASTORATES. 

The following list embraces the names of 655 ministers. It includes every 
name that ever appeared on the clerical roll of the Synod. It also gives the 
location or locations of each member of the Synod. The years indicated are 
the synodical years. They do not in all cases coincide with the calendar 
years. In consulting this list it may be well to remember that from 1857 to 
1869 a number of the pastors (from eight to twelve) on the territory of the 
Maryland Synod were not members of the Maryland Synod but of the 
Melanchthon Synod, and that this list includes only their terms of service in 
the Maryland Synod. 

A 

Name Location Tear 

Ahl, A. W., Parkville, 19121916 

Ainsworth, .1. E., Licensed, 1914 1916 

Albert, C. S., Baltimore, St. Mark's, '. 1882^-1893 

Philadelphia, Pa., 18931912 

Albert, J., Manchester 18281837 

Albrecht, G. W. G., Guntur, India, 18921904 

Rentachirtala, India, 19051919 

Aldrich, X., 18851886 

Alleman, B. P., Woodsboro, 18731874 

Alleman. M. J., Middletown 18681869 

Amick, G. W. W., Oakland, 18871889 

Anderson, G. W., Creagerstown, 1853 1856 

Leitersburg, 1856 1857 

Hagerstown (No Charge), 1868 1872 

Uniontown, 1873 1876 

Anspach, F. R., Hagerstown, 1850 1857 

Shepherdstown (No Charge), 1857 1858 

Baltimore (No Charge), 1858 1864 

Owensville (No Charge), 1864 1867 

Anstadt, Henry, Washington, D. C., Memorial, 1912 1918 

Anstatt, J. P., Baltimore, Luther Chapel, 18481852 

Appleby, B., Baltimore, Luther Chapel, 18441846 

Baltimore (No Charge), 1846 1855 

Jefferson, 1855 1 857 

Baltimore (No Charge), 1857 1861 

Washington. D. C. (No Charge), 18611864 

Arnold, C. E., Baltimore, Corcordia, 1910 1912 

Asper, J. IT., Westminster. Salem, 1887 1891 

T ewistown, Utiea 1891 1905 

Aughey, A. H., Frostburg, 1S61 1866 

Augustine, L, Wellersburg, Pa., 1863 

Aurand, C. M., Williamsport, 18861890 

B 

Bair, D. U., Williamsport, 19101919 

Barb, J. H., Mechanicstown, 18881896 

83 



84 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOI>. 

\<IIHI-> Location Year 

Han-lay. .T. If Williamsport 18.171860 

Baltimore, First 1 880 1882 

Rare. Will F Sparrow's Point 1917 

Harry, F. W Cumberland. St. John 's 19141918 

Baltimore, St. Luke's 1918 

Hastian, C. P., Keyser, W. Va 19071912 

Hateman, S. K., Hagerstown, 1890189:? 

Baugher, II. I Boonsboro, 18291831 

Gettysburg, Pa., 1841186") 

Baughman, C. C Jefferson, 18411842 

Hagerstown (No Charge), 18.13 1817 

Baughman, 0. W rniontown 1894 1914 

Woodbine 19141920 

Baughman, IF. F Licensed 19121913 

Bauman, (' Cumberland, 1812 181.1 

Heard. M. L., Mt. Joy and Keysville 1S77 1881 

Hurkitfsville. . .' 18S 1 188.1 

Hoonsboro, 18861893 

Middletown, 18941900 

Thnrinont, 19061911 

Bechtell, M. M., Cumberland (No Charge), 18.1918(54 

Becker, I). R., Freedom, 1912191.1 

Beckley, 0. K., Woodsboro, 1817 

Boonsboro, 1,8091882 

Reisteistown, 1881190.1 

Beer, R. C .* Baltimore, German, St. Jacobi 18711881 

Beidleman. II. II Frost burg 1911 

Beiswanger, George, .... Baltimore, Calvary 18941902 

Bell, Albert Rei.-terstoxvn, . . . 1x80 188.1 

Bell, A. I)., Sparrow's Point 19131916 

Retired, 19161918 

T. S. Army Chaplain Died 1918 

Bell. C. K., Licensed, ' 18971898 

Bell, K. K., Baltimore, First 1899 

Bell, L. J., Smithsburg (No Charge) 1870 1907 

Belmer, II. B Washington, D. C., St. Paul 's, 18731874 

Benedict, F. B Licensed 18481849 

Frostburg, 1 8191860 

Bedford, Pa. (No Charge), 1860186.1 

Bergner. C. F Washington, Zion 19041912 

Cumberland, St. Luke's 1912 

Bergstresser, F Licensed 18931894 

Bergstresser, P., Taneytown 1868 1874 

Waynesboro, 1 876 1887 

Middletown 18871894 

Berkey, II. K., Baltimore, St. John 's, 19091910 

Berlin, S. J Williamsport, 18661807 

Berry, W. IL, Licensed, 18901892 

Carmel, W. Va., (Later Aurora), 190.11912 

Beunnlnger, L. G (Jrantsville 1870 1872 

Missionary, Afriea, 1873 1876 

(Jrantsville 18761879 

Bikle. C. G Licensed 18941891 

Biklo, P. M Lutherville, 1 8701872 

Gettysburg, Pa 1873 

Billheimer. S Georgetown 18941904 

Bishop, IL, Williamsport, 18.101851 

Emmitsburg, 18.111862 

Baltimore, Third, 18621866 



THE PASTORS OP THE SYNOD. 85 

Name Location Tear 

Frostburg, 1866 1871 

Bittle, D. F., Licensed, 1837 

Middletown, 18451852 

Hagerstown, 18521854 

Bittle, D. H., Smithsburg, 18511853 

Bittle, E Licensed, 18921893 

Black, L. S., Licensed 18901891 

Bloonihardt, P. F., Lutherville, 19151918 

U. S. Navy Chaplain 19181919 

Bobst, I. W., Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 18791880 

Clearspring, " 1884 1890 

Borchers, H Washington, D. C., German, 18401843 

Botsford, C. R., Licensed, 18971898 

Cumberland, St. John's, 1918 

Bowers, Geo. S., Burkittsville (No Charge), 18821884 

Grafton, W. Va., 18841886 

Hagerstown, St. Mark's, 18941903 

Baltimore, Incarnation, 1919 

Bowers, H. G., Clearspring, 18561857 

Jefferson, 1869 1878 

Smithsburg (No Charge), 18781879 

Myersville, 18791881 

Burkittsville, (Professor), 1882 1887 

Bowers, J. C., Washington, D. C., St. Mark's, 18961902 

Baltimore, Calvary, 19021910 

Catonsville, ." 1910 

Bowers, W. W., Licensed, 18541855 

Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, 1855 1872 

Concord, N. C., 18731874 

Bowersox, G. E., Licensed 1912 1913 

Bowersox, H. T., Licensed, 19 1 01911 

Boyer, E. B., Licensed, 19091910 

Boyer, H. D., Licensed, 19111914 

Washington, D. C. (No Charge), 1915 

Bradley, J. H., Baltimore (No Charge), 18671869 

Brandau, G. H., Baltimore, 1847 1871 

Baltimore (No Charge), 18751878 

Hagerstown, St. Matthew's, 1878 1886 

Baltimore (No Charge), 18861893 

Braren, J. S., Cumberland, German, 1901 1911 

Braun, Hugo, Baltimore, Church of Peace, 18991901 

Brauns, W. F., Licensed, 18501851 

Bredenbek, A., Thurmont, 1897 1 898 

18981901 

Bregenzer, Otto Union Bridge, 19031912 

Bridgeman, A. L., Licensed, 18441845 

Britt, C. A., Frostburg, 18911899 

Taneytown, 18991904 

Brockman, C., Catonsville, 1848 1855 

Brodthage, G., Washington, St. John's, 18971910 

Brown, J. A., Baltimore, 18451848 

Brown, G. G. M., Licensed, 18871888 

Union Bridge, 18911894 

Brown, T. Shannon, Licensed, 1 8811882 

Brown, Wm. E., Middletown 19071910 

Baltimore, Reformation, 1910 1917 

Brubaker, John, Westernport, 19101911 

Bruning, H. H., Baltimore, 18601865 

Lancaster, Pa., 1865 1867 



86 H'STORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

\an;< Location Year 

Hucher, Win. .1 Licensed, 18921893 

Hulirinan. A Waynesboro 18(591871 

Lovettsville 18731876 

Burgdorf. P. ('., Gardenville, Baltimore, 1912 

Burgess. Kills, Licensed, 18921893 

Hurk A. I! Baltimore County, St. Peter's, 1879 188:1 

Hamptstead, . 188" 1886 

Manor, 18861887 

Sylvan, 18871889 

Fowblesburg ( No Charge) 18891892 

Doubs-Manor 18921897 

Woodensburg, Arcadia, 18971902 

Freedom, 19041907 

Retired, 19071914 

Burke I. C Baltimore, Third, 1877 1916 

Bush, L. A Tefferson, 19011902 

Boonsboro, 1904 191(5 

Bushnell, .T. K Hagerstown 18921894 

Butler, Chas. M Washington (No Charge) 18871892 

Washington, Keller Memorial, 18921907 

Washington, Memorial 1M07 1909 

Washington, Columbia Heights, 1910 

Butler .T G Washington, St. Paul 's 18481873 

Washington, Memorial 18731909 

Butler .T. W Oakland 1895 1898 

Byers, .T. K., Licensed, 18971898 

Baltimore, Grace, 1917 

C 

Campbell, J. F., Cumberland 1 8521857 

Cannaday, Isaac Sattenapalli, India, 1912 

Christ, F. V Licensed, 19101917 

Clare, R. D Baltimore, St. Mark 's, 1918 

Clarke, G. I)., Georgetown 1918 

Cline, J. P., New Market. Va 18281834 

Smithsburg, 18341817 

Clutz, J. A., Licensed, 18711872 

Baltimore, St. Paul 's 18741883 

Home Mission Board 18831889 

Coffelt, Harry, Licensed 1908 

Collins, G. S.', Jefferson 18531854 

Conrad, F. W., Waynesboro, Pa., 18411844 

Hagerstown, 18441852 

Conradi, F. A., Licensed, 18701871 

Baltimore (No Charge), 18821892 

Conradi, J. P., Cumberland, German, 18(57 1875 

Baltimore (No Charge), 18791899 

Conradi, R. W., Frostburg 18901894 

Cook, II. S Waynesboro, Pa 18881900 

Crebs, W. E Weilersburg 18731875 

Crigler, J. F., Lutherville 18951915 

Crissman, F. II., Frostburg 19101915 

Crist, G. W., Harpers Ferry, W. Va 18771879 

Walkersville, ' 19001914 

Cross, J. M Licensed, 1896-1897 

Culler, C. C., Funkstown 18431848 

Boonsboro, 18481852 

Hagerstown (No Charge), 18521854 



THE PASTORS OF THE SYNOD. 87 

Name' Location Year 

Culler, M. L., Williamsport, 18671869 

Martinsburg, W. Va., 18691881 

Culler, S. H., Reisterstown, 19041918 

Cunz, B. F., Hagerstown, 19051908 

Cupp, A., Wellersburg, 18601862 

D 

Dean, O. C., Accident, 1910 1911 

Deitrich, J. J., Hagerstown, 1872 1873 

Suspension Bridge, N". Y., 1873 1879 

Delk, E. H., Jr., Hagerstown, Trinity, 18851902 

Delp, W. S., Uniontown, 18821891 

Derr, R. V., Licensed, 19121913 

Derr, S. J., Hampstead, 18851903 

Arcadia, 19041911 

Hampstead (No Charge), 1917 

Deyoe, L. E., Emmitsburg, 18891891 

Diehl, C. F., Washington, St. John's, 18711875 

Diehl, G., Boonsboro, 1840 1844 

Frederick, 18511891 

Diehl, J. H., Brunswick, 1899 1901 

Diehl, S. A., Woodsboro, 18851892 

Westminster, Salem, 18921902 

Diehl, W. K., . . . ' Clearspring, 1908 

Dietz, A. E., Licensed, 1891 1892 

Diffenderfer, G. M., .... Washington, Memorial 1919 

Domer, S., Washington, St. Paul's, 1875 1901 

Dornblaser, S. G., Hagerstown, St. Mark's, 19031906 

Dorsey, E., Jefferson, 18571858 

Waynesboro, Pa., 1863 1864 

Dosh, T. W. L., . Burkittsville, 1886 1889 

Doty, R. W., Westminster, Salem, 1901 1912 

Douglas, L. C., Washington, Memorial, 1909 1911 

Dunbar, W. H., Baltimore, St. Mark's, 18941917 

Retired, 1917 

Dunlap, J. A., Oakland, 18891891 

Huntington, W. Va., 19111912 

During, M., Frost burg, 18681871 

North Amherst, O., 18711875 

E 

Earnest, J. A., Westminster, 1870 1878 

Easterday, G. H., Licensed, 19031905 

Ebeling, "A., Washington, 1863 1865 

Ebeling, H. E., Licensed, 18871888 

Catonsville, 18891890 

Ebeling, G. W., Baltimore, 18551860 

Catonsville, 18601875 

Catonsville, 18891901 

Eggers, H., Hagerstown, 1855 1857 

Ehrhart, W. H., Silver Run, 18971903 

Eichelberger, G. W., Baltimore, 19021904 

Eichelberger, J. N., Licensed 18521853 

Eichelberger, L., Winchester, Va., 1828 1838 

Emerick, . ., Licensed, 1845 1846 

Enders, G. W., Jr., Union Bridge, 1900 1905 

Enders, M. L., Catonsville, 19011910 



88 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Xante Location Year 

Cumberland, St. Paul 's, 1910 

Englar, G. W Licensed, 1900 

English, J. S \Villiamsport, 1919 

Krdman. H. C Hurkittsville, 1915 

Kvans, J., llagerstown, 186218(56 

Kvans. W. P Baltimore, St. Paul's 1SSS 1892 

Ewing, C. 11 Baltimore 18481852 

Kyler, < '. A Licensed 18821883 

Eyster, C. M Manchester 188.1191)0 

Baltimore, Independent, 1900 

Eyster, I) Middleway, Va 18281829 

Eyster, W. F., Jefferson,' 18411844 

Smithsburg, 1862 1865 

Hagerstown, 18(591872 

Nebraska, 18721875 

Rock Island, 111., 18751882 



Fahs, J. F Hancock 18521856 

Fair, M. W., Funkstown, 18691870 

Woodsboro, 18701872 

Retired, 18721876 

Fasold, P. H Hurkittsville 19021909 

Felton, E., Baltimore, St. Paul 's, 18841887 

Baltimore, Messiah 18891915 

Fisher, J. H. C Mr. Pleasant, X. C. (No Charge), 18891892 

Fichthorn, A., Lutherville, 18901892 

Fiuckel S. G., Licensed, 18701871 

Taneytown, 18781883 

Finckle, S. 1)., Taneytown 18341837 

Cumberland, 18441847 

Washington, German 18471873 

Fink, R. A Licensed, 18491850 

Finkbiner. J. W., Cumberland, 18841894 

Firey, S. M., Clearspring 18771883 

Roanoke, Va., 18831905 

Fisher, C. L. T., Union Rridge, 1884 1885 

Fleck, .T. G Baltimore, St. John 's, 1915 

Flick, II. II Accident, 18981900 

Manchester, 19001910 

Flickinger, J. A., Licensed, 1895 

Flohr, G., Wythe County, Va., 1823 1829 

Floyd, I). R., rniont'iwn, '. 18751882 

Boonsboro, 18821885 

Funkstown 1900 1904 

Georgetown, ' 1905 

Selinsgrove, Pa., 1905 

Focht. J. R., Frost burg, 1853 1855 

Folk. E. L Doubs 1918 

Forsvthe, J. W Myersville, 18761878 

Forthman, J Licensed, 1854 1855 

Oakland 18561857 

Fouk. G. S Licensed 18441847 

Francis. J. M., Waynesboro. Pa., 1916 

Frank, M. II Baltimore, Zion. Lauraville, 1916 1917 

Frantz, J. L., Piedmont, \V. Va., 1894 

Haltimore, St. Luke's 1895 1900 

Washington, St. Mark's, 19021912 



THE PASTORS OF THE SYNOD. 89 

Name Location Year 

Frazier, J. L., Gerrardstown. W. Va., 18641865 

Freas, Wrn., Jr Licensed, 1903 1904 

Freas, W. S., . Baltimore, Grace, 18981905 

Baltimore, Motherhouse, 19051911 

Frey, Win., Washington, 18(541866 

Friday, J. M., Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 1873 1877 

Fultz, H. C., Silver Eun, 18881895 

Bridgeton, N. J. (No Charge), 18951899 

Washington, St. John "s 19101912 

Ellicott City, 19131917 

Furst, M. L., Brandonville, W. Va., 19041906 

G 

Garland, D. F., Baltimore, Reformation, 18911896 

Taneytown, 18961899 

Gaver, M. D., Licensed, 18811882 

Williamsport, 18901910 

Gearhart, R. H., Licensed, 19121913 

Geaver, W. F., Williairsport, 1 8561857 

Geiser, D. H Licensed, 18911892 

Gentzler, J. W., Middletown, 19111914 

Gertsmyer, H. L., Licensed, 19031904 

Getty, G. A., Licensed, 18931894 

Baltimore, St. John 's 19101915 

Giese, E. F., Cumberland, German, 1885 1890 

Gift, F. U., Baltimore, Calvary, 1910 

Gilbert, Frank, Alesia, Calvary, 1915 1917 

Giustiniani, L., Baltimore, 1840 1841 

Gladhill, J. T Licensed 18721873 

Goedeke, Harry, Guntur, India, 1919 

Goertner, X. W., Winchester, Va., 1834 1837 

Gotwald, W. H., Washington, St. Mark's, 18891896 

Washington, (No Charge) 1896 

Graybill, J. M., Clearspring, Sylvan, 18681870 

Clearspring, Sylvan 18781897 

Clearspring, Retired, 18991912 

Graeber, H., Uniontown, 1821 1828 

Graef, Philip, Washington, Reformation, 18721877 

Graefe, J. E., Guntur, India, 1914 

Graeff, J. E., Washington, 18471850 

Graichen, George, Licensed, 1882 1883 

Graves, Uriel, Baltimore, Third, 18741877 

Griffith. S. B., Washington, 18631865 

Grob, John, Taneytown, 18201828 

Gross, G. D Carmel, W. Va., Aurora, 19021904 

Gross, L. W., Hampstead 1904 1906 

Grubb, J. E Baltimore, Second, 1917 

II 

Haas, Frederick, Wooclsboro 1821 1826 

Preston County, Va ,...-....... .1826 1834 

Hafer, L. B., Taneytown 1911 

Haithcox. H. C., Freeport, 111. (No Charrp) v , 19131914 

Hamma, M. W., Baltimore, First, 18821891 

Hankey, Upton, Licensed 1881 1884 

Harkey, J. M., Licensed, 1 8461848 

Harkey, S. L., Thurmont, 18481849 



90 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

\nnit:- Locution Year 

Harkey, S. \V., Williamsport, 1S34 1836 

Woodsboro, 1836 1837 

Frederick, 1837 1852 

Harms, J. Edward, Hagerstown, St. John's, 1917 

Harpel, J Jefferson, 183:11836 

Greencastle 183(51837 

Manchester, 18381841 

Harpster, J. TI., Guntur, India 1871 1879 

(iiintur, India 1894-1905 

Rajahmundry, India, 19051906 

Karris, J. G., Licensed, . ." 18411842 

Harrison, P. L., Frederick, 18591866 

Frostburg, 18781883 

Lewistown, 111. (No Charge), 18831885 

Keeter, Texas (Xo Charge), 18851898 

Hartman, II. H., Licensed, 19031904 

Baltimore, Augsburg, 1910 

Hartman, W. A., Middletown, 19151918 

Hazeltine, R., Licensed 18961898 

Hasskarl, G. C. H., Frederick 18921 897 

Hauer I). J., Lovettsville, Va., 18341844 

Jefferson, 18451853 

Manchester, 18531857 

Haverstick, H., Cumberland, 18291831 

In Kurope 18321835 

Hawkins, Jacob, Middletown, 1875 1876 

Hay, C. A., Middletown, 18431844 

Gettysburg, Pa., 18441848 

Hay, E. G Clarksburg, W. Va., 19101912 

Hay, Lewis, Washington, Reformation, 1877 1879 

Hayes, C. E., Licensed, 1909 1910 

Heck, J. A., Licensed, 1841 

Waynesboro, 18451857 

Smithsburg, 1857 1861 

Hedges, S. A., Utica, 18771883 

Jefferson, 1886 1900 

Utica, 19001912 

Pleasant Hill, 1912 

Hefelbower, S. G., Frostburg 18991901 

Gettysburg, Pa., " 1902 1914 

Heilig, P., Preston County, Ya., 18371847 

Heilig, J. S., Martinaburg, W. Va., 18661869 

Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 18841885 

Heilig. Win Lutherville, 18571889 

Heilman, P. A., Baltimore, St. Paul 's, 1897 

Heisler, C. W., Licensed, 18821883 

Heisler, M. L., Burkittsville, 18801882 

Held, C. E Brunswick, 18961899 

Hennicke, F. T., Frostburg, 18861889 

Hagerstown, German, 1896 1904 

Hennighausen, F. P., ... Washington, St. John 's, 18611864 

Baltimore, St. Stephen 's, 1864 

Henry, S., Westminster, 1853 1858 

Littlestown, 18581863 

Hensel, W. E., Arcadia, 1912 1918 

Herbst, John, Manchester, 1821 1829 

Hering, Max, Accident, 18971899 

Hersh, C. H., Baltimore 1859 

Hersh, W. F., Westminster, Salem, 19121916 



THE PASTORS OF THE SYNOD. 91 

Name Location Year 

Herter, Geo., Licensed, 18341835 

Hess, 0. W., Brunswick, 1900 

Hesse, F., Smithsburg, 1907 

Hesse, Win Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 18881889 

Heydenreich, L. W., Hagerstown, 18691870 

Brooklyn, X. V., 18701874 

Heyer, C. F., Cumberland, 18211824 

Baltimore, 18471848 

Hetrick, W. H., Westminster, 1911 1920 

Heuser, Win. L., Baltimore, 18941896 

Doub3, 18971902 

Hightman, F. A., Licensed, 19041905 

Baltimore, Park Heights, 19081909 

Baltimore, Powellnaron, 1909 

Hines, C. .!., Huntington, W. Ya., 19081910 

Burkittsville, 19101914 

Baltimore, Emmanuel, 1914 

Hipsley, G. E., Baltimore, St. Luke's, 19001908 

Hoffman, J. L., Silver Run, 19121917 

Baltimore, Reformation, 1917 

Hoffman, John M., Cumberland, 18571859 

Accident, 18591863 

Frostburg, 18631866 

Hoffman, J. N., Taneytown, 18261833 

Hoffman, Win., Licensed, 19041905 

Holland, R. C., Martinsburg, W. Va., 18821888 

Holloway, H. C., Westminster, 18631868 

Cumberland, 1868 1879 

Homrighaus, A., Frostburg, 1880 1883 

Washington, Zion, 18831903 

Hoover, C. D., Smithsburg, 18861887 

Hoover, D. S., Lutherville, 18921895 

Hopkins, E. J., Washington, 18981899 

Grafton, W. Ya., 19001906 

Hoppe, W., Baltimore, 1855 1857 

Horine, M. C., Wheeling, W. Va., 18631865 

Smithsburg, 1865 1869 

Hoshour, S. K., New Market, Ya 18261828 

Smithsburg, 18281830 

Hagerstown, 18311834 

Howe, J. A., Hampstead, 1919 

Hoy, C. A., Funkstown, 18941899 

Huddle, J. T., Licensed, 18951896 

Washington, St. Paul's, 1904 

Hunt, Wm., Boonsboro, 18431850 

Woodsboro, 1850 1856 

Creagerstown, 1856 1857 



Tbach, W. O., Union Bridge, 1916 

Tde, Ernest, Laurel, 1873 1876 

Ide, E. C., Ellicott City, 19011904 

Woodstock,* 19041917 

Tde, E. E., Edgemont, 18911892 

Baltimore, Trinity, 1893 



92 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Xante Location Yi'ar 

Jaekel, Carl Washington 1S9I5 1S97 

Jenkins, Win Lovettsville, IS;').'? 1857 

Jennings, J. M., Baltimore 1X441815 

Jessup, H. (' Frostbnrg, 1SSS 18,89 

.Johnston, K. S Kinniitsbiirg 1*67 1888 

Tones, ('lias. S., Spai row's Point 1S97 1S9!> 

Arcadia, 1900 1902 

Jones, K. H., 1S83 

Sharpsbnrg 1SSS 1889 

Clearspring, 18901901 

Jordy, W. IF., Frostburg, 18S9 

K 

Kaempfer, J Manchester 1848 1853 

Kaessmann, ('. F. A., . . . Baltimore, St. Peter's 18821890 

Retired, 18901892 

Kayhoe, J. F. F., 'Uren.se> 1 1.S84 1885 

Keedy, O. L., Wavnesboro, Pa 18711875 

Hagerstown (Seminary), 1875190] 

Ifagerstown ( No Charge) 19031907 

Hagerstown (No Charge), 1908 1911 

Keeily, K. M., Boonsboro 1 863 1864 

Kehler, John, Mi.Mletown 18201821 

Ma.lison, Va., 1821 1832 

Ciimberlniid 18321841 

Keil, W., Strasluirg, Va 18221828 

Keller, C. E., Baltimore, St. Luke's, 18921894 

Thurmont, 1905190(5 

Keller, Emanuel, Manchester 18201827 

Keller, Ezra, Taneytown 18371840 

Ilagerstown 18401844 

Keller, J. B., Williamsport, 18741886 

Smithsburg 18881898 

Halfway (Retire<l), 19001918 

Keller, J. If., Hampstead 19101912 

Keller, L., Funkstown 18711881 

Kelly, A. A., Wavnesboro. Pa 19121916 

Kelly, Win Baltimore, St. Luke's, 18851891 

Kem'p, T. W Frederick, 18551861 

Kerlin, A. A., Sharpsburg 189f 

Kerr, J. J Myersville 18721876 

Ketner, G. J. M Davis, W. Va., 18991901 

Ketterman, P. If Donbs 19101912 

Killian, J. M., Smithsbnrg 18971901 

Kitzmeyer, J. F. W., . . . Davis, W. Va., 18921896 

Kitzmiller, J. H. A., . . . Wellersbnrg, 18641869 

Kline, M. J., Licensed 18951896 

Klink, C. M Middletown 1857 

Knipi.Ie, J. O. C., Licensed. ' 19141917 

Knodle, 1L, Myersville 18691871 

Olearspring 18711873 

Merrersburtf, Pa., 1873 1878 

Middletown 18921893 

Boonsbont 18941895 

Koser, J. G., K</lon. W. Va 10051908 

Leitersburg 1914 



THE PASTORS OP THE SYNOD. 93 

Name Location Year 

Krauth, C. P., Martinsburg, W. Ya., 18201828 

Krauth, ('. P., Jr., Baltimore, Canton, 18411842 

Baltimore, Second, 18421847 

Shepherdstown, W. Va., 18-471848 

Winchester, Va., 18481849 

Kroh, H. F., Licensed, 18861887 

Baltimore (No Charge), 18921894 

Kubler, M., Preston County, Ya., 18241826 

Kuhliran, L Baltimore, Second, 1 8841888 

Frederick, 18881903 

Gettysburg, Pa., 19031916 

York, Pa. (For. Miss. Sec-.), 1916 

Kuhns, II. W., Westminster , 18781888 

Kuhns, L. M., Licensed, 18851886 

Washington, 18981903 

Kurtz, Benj., Hagerstown, 18201831 

Baltimore (No Charge), 18331857 

Kurtz, D. S., Smithsburg, 19021906 

Kurtz, .T. D., Baltimore, 18201856 

Kurz, A., Washington, St. John's, 18741880 



Lake, J. W., Grafton, W. Ya., 18771880 

Lamotto, D. M Woodsboro, 18751885 

Lane, P. P., Grantsville, 18661867 

Littlestown, 1868 1869 

Hampstead, 18701874 

Manchester (No Charge), 18751879 

Lantz, B. R., Licensed, 1897 1898 

Lau, J. B., Manchester 19101916 

Baltimore, Atonement, 19161920 

Lazarus, R., Grantsville, 18641866 

Grantsville, 1 8741875 

Leatherman, C. G., Licensed, 19021903 

Manchester, 1916 

Leddin, P. 1) Washington, St. John 's, . . : 1914 1917 

Castletnn, K Y. (Retired), 1917 

Leisher, W. L., Oakland, 18911894 

Lentz, A. W Woodsboro 18741875 

Lentz, n. S., Funkstown, 1881 1887 

Lentz, K. M., Licensed, 18801881 

Lepley, C., Frostburg 18431858 

Williamsport, 18591864 

Smithsburg, 18701873 

Beckleysville, 18731875 

Reisterstown, 18761887 

Baltimore, 18911 895 

Springfield, O., 18961905 

Letterman, II. A., Berrett, 18911895 

Lilly, A. W., Baltimore, Third, 18511855 

Lingle, J. W., Sharpsburg, 18911896 

Linsz, Aug., Licensed, 18691870 

Little, K B Cumberland, 18241832 

Longanecker, A. R., Alonzaville, Ya., 18971899 

Lowe, J. E., Licensed, 19101911 

Litbkert, E., Baltimore, 18561857 

Luckenbach, W. II., .... Hagerstown, Trinity, 1872 1875 

Taneytown, 18751878 

Lunger, J. C., Sharpsburg, 1857 



94 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

M 

\anii) Local ion Year 

Magee, I Baltimore, Second 18651868 

Maier, IX, Cumberland 18;") 1857 

Baltimore, St. Matthew's 1858 1874 

Main, .T. II Hagerstown, 18901892 

Main, W. H Licensed, 18881889 

Makcnzie, IX L Frostburg, 18711878 

Manges, E., Manchester, 18811885 

Oakland, 19031912 

Manken, II Licensed, 19021903 

Baltimore, St. Luke 's 19081918 

Washington, Incarnation, 1918 

Mann, L. A., Burkittsville, 18691875 

Middletown, 18761888 

Cumberland, St. John "s, 19031908 

Mann, W. (' Licensed, 190(51907 

Martin, (' Martinsburg, W. Va 1S37--1841 

Lutherville, 1856 1858 

Baltimore, 18641866 

Hagerstown (Seminary) 1866 1869 

Martin, J Westminster, ! 18601863 

Reisterstown 18681871 

Mart/, 0. .T India 18481852 

Sharpsburg 18531855 

Piedmont. W. Va., 18881891 

Maurer, J. E Roonsboro 18951903 

Lovettsville, Va 19141918 

McAfee, J. W. B., Fort Leavemvorth, Kansas 18551867 

Mo.Atee, J. Q Cumberland, Christ 's, 18791883 

McCauley, E. R., Oakland 18941895 

McCauley, J. W., Cumberland, St. Paul 's, 19021910 

Baltimore, Incarnation, 1910 1916 

McCauley, V., Guntur, India, 1898 

McChesney, W. R Licensed, 18421843 

McCron, J., Middletown, 18541855 

Baltimore, Third 18551859 

Baltimore, First 18601872 

Tlagerstown (Seminary) , 1872 1875 

McDaniel, C. T Licensed, ! 18851886 

Baltimore (No Charge), 18901892 

McDowell. S. J Baltimore, Third 1915 

McGiftin, K Davis, W. Va., 19051908 

Me Henry, S Smithsburg, 18701872 

McLinn, M. E., Union Bridge, 1886 1890 

Lovettsville, Va 1891--1896 

Woodbine, 1919 

McSherry, G. W., Taneytown, . 18901898 

Medtart, J., Baltimore, First 1 8241825 

Martinsburg, W. Va 1827- -1833 

Mengert, J. H Baltimore 18531855 

Metzger, .T. L Licensed, 18841885 

Metzger, W. S. T., Licensed, 18761878 

Funkstown, 18881891 

Thurmont, 18991903 

Jefferson, 1904 1909 

Meyer, F. W., Licensed 18961898 

Baltimore, Emmanuel 1908 1914 

Inner Mission Society, 1914 1917 

Lovettsville, Va., 1919 



THE PASTORS OF THE SYNOD. 95 

Name Location Tear 

Meyerheffer, M., Madison, Va., 18201821 

Harrisonburg, Ya., 18211829 

Millar, G. W., Jefferson, 19021903 

Doubs, 19041907 

Miller, D., Williamsport, 18361837 

Miller, G. W., Baltimore, Second, 18911916 

Miller, H. X., Brunswick, 18931895 

Miller, L. F., Piedmont, W. Va., 18971904 

Baltimore, Bethany, 1904 

Miller, O. C., Oakland, *. 18741880 

Miller, P. H., Lovettsville, Va., 18761887 

Westminster 1 8871911 

Baltimore, Concordia, 1912 

Miller, S. ,J., Sparrow's Point, 18991901 

Baltimore, West Arlington, 1901 

Miller, Victor, Clearspring, 18611862 

Clearspring, 1877 

Leitersburg, 18811914 

Hagerstown (Retired), 1914 

Minnick, W. G., Licensed, 18921894 

Baltimore, Concordia, 19081909 

Cumberland, St. John 's, 19101914 

Baltimore 1914 

Moot, F. W., Washington, St. Paul 's, 19001903 

Morris, J. G., Baltimore, First 18261860 

Baltimore, Third, 18671873 

Lutherville, 18791889 

Baltimore (Xo Charge), 18891895 

Moser, J. C., Washington (Xo Charge) , 1914 

Mueller, G. J., Baltimore, 18691876 

Philadelphia, Pa., 18771881 

Mullen, A. O., Licensed, 18931894 

Baltimore, 19051907 

Baltimore, Christ 's, 19131914 

Mullen, P. H. R., Licensed, 19031904 

Muller, A. A., Washington, St. Paul 's, 18421846 

Mumford, E. C., Licensed, 19051906 

Baltimore, Messiah, 1916 

Myers, L. F. M., Frederick, 18951900 

X 

Xeudewitz, E. E., Licensed, 1895 1896 

Xewcomer, H. D., Silver Run, 19041905 

Baltimore, Grace, 1905 1916 

Baltimore, Inner Mission, 1919 

Xey, W. C., Keyser, W. Va., 19051906 

Elkins, W. Va., 19061910 

Xicholas, J. L., Berrett, 1896 1901 

Xicholas, S. T., Washington, Keller, 1913 

Xichols, J., Guntur, India, 1884 1887 

Nicoll, W. D., Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 18891892 

Eglon, W. Va., 19021903 

Hampstead, 19081910 

Myersville, 19101912 

Baltimore (Xo Charge), 1919 

Xixdorff, G. A., Frederick, 18461847 

18491850 

Georgetown 1871 1894 

Frederick (Retired), 18951907 



9(> HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

\(inii Location Yciir 

Nolte, W Licensed 191-1 1915 

Xull, A. C Licensed 19041905 

Fairmont, AY. Va 19071908 

Jefferson 19091914 

Kllicott City, 1917 

O 

Oney, K. K Licensed 1914 1915 

Oney, W. B Doubs 190S 1909 

Oswald, Solomon Boonsboro 18361839 

Ott, J. W., Licensed 1 899 1900 

iragerstown, St. M:irk's 1907 

Ottman. K. If Licensed 18911892 

Ov.en, S. W., Woodsboro 18691870 

IFanerstown, St. John 's 18701916 

P 

Parson, Win. E Washington, I). C., Reformation, 18701871 

Tokio, Japan 18721878 

Washington, I). ('., Reformation 1S79 190(5 

Passavant, Win Baltimore, 18421845 

Patterson, R. L Tnion Bridge 1894 1898 

Chicago. III. (No Charge), 18981901 

Patterson, K. S Woodsboro 1S91 1899 

Woodsboro 191 7 

Petrea, IT. M I^rnn.lonville, W. Va., 19021903 

Petrea, R. K., rniontown, 1919 

Phifer, W. P Licensed, 18881889 

Philliny. N". (!., (iovans, . 19131917 

F'ieper,' C 1 Paltimore, St. Stenhen 's, 1917 

Pierce, W. E., Cnirberland, St. John 's 1908191 1 

Poffenberyer, M. L., . . . Licersed, 18821883 

Poffenbar-rer, K. S., Woodsboro, 19041917 

Frederick (No Charge), 191 7 

Pohlman, A Licensed 18931896 

Monrovia, Africa 18971902 

Probst, J. P., Myersville, 18511853 

Smithsburg 18531856 

Probst, L. K., Fainront, W. Va., 19091912 

Q 

Quay, P. W., Keisterstown 1918 

R 

Radamacher, G Westminster 18t)7 1869 

Happolt, O Cumberland, German, 18921895 

Raymond, C. E., Cumberland, Herman 1895 1901 

Baltimore, Church of Peace, 19011905 

Reck, A Winchester, Va., 18201828 

Middletown 18281836 

Reck, J Licensed (Missionary in West) 18251836 

Reighard, I. C., Licensed ." 18901891 



THE PASTORS OF THE SYNOD. 97 

Name Location Year 

Reimensnyder, C., Westminster, 1846 1848 

Smithsburg 18481851 

Reinewald, Chas., Emmitsburg, 1893 

Reitz, J. G., Hagerstown, St. Matthew 's, 18731880 

Reitz, L., Frostburg, 1 867 

Remsberg, W. L., Licensed, 1 876 1877 

Myersville, 18961902 

Funkstown 1908 

Rice, C. E., . . . Licensed, 19131914 

Rice, Elmer F., Licensed, 19121913 

Richard, M. G., Licensed, 18971898 

Richard. Asa, Lovettsville, Va., 1900 1913 

Richards, J., Creagersto\vn, 1 850 1833 

Richardson, A. F., Aurora, W. Va 1887 1889 

Grafton, W. Va., 18931899 

Grafton, W. Va., 19061912 

Richardson. X. J Lovettsville, Va., 18691872 

Smithsburg, 18721889 

Riemenschneider, G. H., . Rockingham County, Va., 1822 1823 

Riemensnider, J. J., .... Woodsboro, 1841 1847 

Smithsburg, 1 847 1851 

Ries, L Cordova, 1907 1912 

Rietz, G. L., Washington, 18681879 

Rippe, H. H., Gardenville, 19111912 

Ritter, C. L., Licensed, 18931894 

Burkittsville 18961903 

Rizer, L Licensed, 1847 1848 

Rizer, P., Sharpsburg, 1 832 1833 

Missionary 18331836 

Somerset, Pa., 18381839 

Middletown, 18551858 

Rockey, C. H., Waynesboro, Pa., 19001911 

Rosenberg, J 18541855 

Roth, O. C., Taneytown, 18831889 

Baltimore, Grace 18891898 

Rothrauf , F., Williamsport, 1 8221827 

Rover, G. A., Accident, 18911895 

Carmel, "W. Va., 18961900 

Clearspring, 1901 1907 

Union Bridge, 19131916 

Rude, A. R., Jefferson 1842 

Rudisill, M. L Gerrardstown, W. Va., 1918 

Rupley, J. B., Boonsboro, 1916 1918 

Washington, St. Mark's, 1918 

Rupp, U. S. G., Baltimore, Reformation, 18971910 

Frederick, 1910 

S 

Saekman, M., Lovettsville, Va., 1820 1828 

Sadtler, B., Licensed 1 8441845 

Lutherville, Seminary, 1867 1877 

Salem, TL C., Friendsville, .' 1905 1907 

Salinger. ,T Washington, 18801882 

Saltzgiver, W. E., Friontown 1915 1918 

Fullerton, 1918 

Schaeffer, C. F Frederick 1829 

Hagerstown, 1834 1840 

Schaeffer, D. F., Frederick. 18201836 



J)8 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

\dnif Location Year 

SchaefTer, 0. F., Cumberland, 18(5:51864 

Schaoffer, W. C., (Jrafton, W. Va 18701875 

Sehiedt, F Baltimore 1850 1851 

Schindler, I)., Lovetts\ ille, Va., 18881890 

Schloegel, C. A., Accident 1854 1857 

Frost burg 1858 

Washington, 18591861 

Haltimoro, 18(521874 

Schmidt, H., . llagerstown, St. Matthew's. 18891892 

Baltimore. Church of Peace, 18921898 

Washington, Xion, 1912 

Schmitt, K. \V Baltimore, Salem*, 191(5 

Schmogrow, W Licensed, 18511852 

Schnuicker, X Woodstock, Va 1820 1829 

Schmucker, S. S., New Market, Va., 1821 1826 

Schnee, J Middle-town 18221827 

Schneider, L. H., Washington 188:51886 

Scholl, C. H., Bittinger, 19111912 

Scholl, G., Baltimore, Second, 18741884 

Schroeder, II. B., Accident, 19021904 

Schnlz, M. F., llagerstown, St. Matthew 's 18951896 

Schwartz, E., Manchester, 18451848 

Schwartz, .T Baltimore, Second, I860 1865 

Scott, W. D. E., Licensed 18821883 

Seahrook, W. L., Deer Park Road 1908 

Sechrist, C. \V., Piedmont, W. Va., 18851886 

Doubs, 18871892 

Seebach, J., Licensed 1 8961 898 

Seiss, J. A., Cumberland 18471852 

Baltimore, Second, 18521859 

Sentman, S., Taneytown, 1840 1858 

Settlemeyer, W. II., Jefferson, 1S78 1886 

Middletown (Xo Charge), 1902 

Sharp, M. S., Funkstown 19051908 

Sheedcr, P., Silver Run, 1884 1887 

Shenk, E. A., Baltimore, Reformation, 19161918 

Sherer, J. J., Fairmont, W. Va., T 904 1906 

Sherer, L. P., Licensed, 1884 1885 

Harpers Ferry, W. Va 18861888 

llagerstown, 18891890 

Sherer, M. G. G., (5 raft on. W. Va 1886 1891 

Sherer, W. J. D., Licensed, 18881889 

Burkittsville, 1910 

Shilke, C. A Walkersville, 1914 

Shipman, W. A., Grafton, W. Va 18801883 

Frostburg 1883 1887 

Shoup, J. D., Accident 18831886 

Bittinger, 1905 1910 

Shriver, P. J Beriett 19011904 

Sickel, B. F. W., Frostburg 1872 1873 

Baltimore, St. John's 18731877 

Sieber, L. L., Baltimore, Luther Memorial, 1918 

Sifferd, L. W., < 'larksburg, W. Va 19061908 

Sill, G., Manchester, 18701881 

Simon, J. S., llagerstown, Trinity 1903 

Simons, J Licensed, 1840 1842 

Slater, S. E Burkittsville 18911896 

Slaybaugh, G. IT Washington (Xo Charge), 1895 

Slifer, W. G Licensed 18931895 

Davis, W. Va., 18961898 



THE PASTORS OF THE SYXOD. 



99 



Xante Location Year 

Sloop, H. E. H., Kappa, X. C., .18931897 

Smeltzer, J. P Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 18481857 

Smith, A. M., Myersville, . 188.31896 

Smith, D Myersville, 18501851 

Smith, J. W., Graf ton, W. Va., 1891 1893 

Smith, S. E Licensed, 18781879 

Smith, W. H., Licensed, 18381839 

Snyder, H. W., Licensed, 19081909 

Snyder, J. M., Lowistown, 1 8841889 

Fimkstown, 18911894 

Snyder, L. T Licensed, 1 892 1S93 

Snyder, S Licensed, 19111912 

Spangler, W. M., Accident, 18881892 

Ilampstead, 19141919 

Sprecher, L, Waynesboro, Pa., 19021907 

Sprecher, S Martinsburg, W. Va., 18421843 

Sprecher, S. P., Baltimore, Third, 18621864 

Springer, F., Clearspring, 18361839 

Stall, S., Baltimore, Second, 18881891 

Philadelphia, Pa., 18911901 

Startzman, C., Williamsport, 18381848 

Lovettsville, 18491 852 

Clearspring, 1853 

Myersville, 18541857 

Clearspring, 1869 1874 

Hagerstown, 18751880 

Steck, C. F., Frederick, 19041909 

Washington, Epiphany, 1909 

Steck, D., Middletown, 18701875 

Steinhauer, C., Hagerstown, 1873 1874 

Washington, 1 874 1 877 

Sternat, F. C. .T Licensed, 19061907 

Stockslager, P. T. E., . . Licensed, 18991900 

Stork, T., Licensed, 18371838 

Baltimore, St. Mark 's, 18601865 

Stork, C. A., Baltimore, St. Mark's, 1862. 1881 

Gettysburg, Pa., Seminary, 1881 1884 

Stoudenmire, W Oakland, . .18811884 

Baltimore, Emmanuel, 1897 1908 

Stouffer, S. S., Piedmont, W. Va., 18801882 

Hampstead, 1906 1908 

Accident, 1909 1910 

Somerset, Pa. (No Charge), 1911 

Strauss, A. M., Wellersburg, Pa., 18701872 

Streamer, C. S., Licensed, . 1 898 1 899 

Strieb, G. \V Hagerstown, St. Matthew's, 18921895 

Strobel, P. A., Westminster, 1868 1869 

Stroup, G. W., Bittinger, 19031904 

Myersville, St. John 's, 19041910 

Studebaker, A. II., Baltimore, First, 18861899 

Baltimore, Incarnation, 1904 1909 

Stumpf, .T Frostburg, 1,873 1874 

Ship, A. C., Licensed, 18931894 

Stup, G. Z Licensed, 1898 1899 

Sues-serot, B. C., Licensed, 1855 1856 

Suman, J. J., Brucetown, Va., 1843 1844 

Frederick, 18581861 

Baltimore, 1862 1803 



100 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

\tinit. Location Year 

Frederick, 1864 

Washington 18651868 

Georgetown, 1869 1875 

Washington 1S76 1884 

Summers. .T., Tluirmont, 1S71 1879 

Sutherland, K Cumberland, St. .lolin 's 1S96 1903 

Hahway, X. .T. (No Charge), 19021904 

Swope, IX, Clearspring 1876 1877 



Teufel, C. M Middletown 1918 

Tholan, S. F., llampstead, 19011904 

Thomas, C., Washington 1873187;! 

Frederick (No Charge), 18951906 

Washington, I). C. (No Charge), 19071910 

Thompson, A Licensed 18631864 

Titus, T. T Hagerstown, St. John's, 18671869 

Hagerstown, Trinity 18691871 

Traver, S Westminster, Salem, 1917 1920 

Treibley, 1). H Elkins, W. Va., 19051906 

Trostle, Freedom, 19071910 

Trowbridge, C. R Licensed, 1884 1885 

Baltimore, St. Paul 's 18931896 

Easton, Pa., 1896 1898 

Troxoll, M. F, Licensed, 18821883 

Trump, C. S., Harpers Ferry, W. Va 18791882 

Martinsburg, "W. Va., 18881919 

Turner, .T. H Burkittsville 18761880 

Lutherville, Seminary 1880 1908 

Lutherville (No Charge) 1908 

Twele. .T. C Washington, St. John 's, 1917 

IT 

Uhler, G. L, Oakland 18981902 

Sparrow's Point 19021912 

Jefferson, 191 5 

ririch. S. J Brandonville, W. Va 19061907 

Fmberger, J. B., Myersville, St. John 's 1915 

T'nruh, J Sharpsburg 1851 1852 

Boonsboro, 1852 1857 

Tluirmont, 18691870 

V 

Valentine, M"., Licensed, 1853 1854 

Gettysburg, Pa., 18691906 

Valentine, M. H., Licensed 1886 1888 

Veith, H Baltimore, St. Mark 's, German 1870 1873 

Cleveland, Ohio 1873 1876 

Vogelbach, J Philadelphia. Pa 1841 1842 

Von Hahmann, E., Baltimore, Brooklyn, 1909 1915 

Von Hoxar, H., Baltimore, .' 1S55 

W 

Wacliter, M., Woodsboro 1821 1836 

Middletown, Jefferson, . ..1836 1843 



THE PASTORS OF THE SYNOD. 101 

Name Location Year 

Frederick, 18441847 

Woodsboro, 1 847 1850 

Wade, J. P Kglon, W. Va., 19081912 

Doubs, 19121917 

Frederick (Xo Charge), 1917 

Wade, W. A., Piedmont, W. Va 19051909 

Washington, St. Mark's, 19121918 

Baltimore, Holy Comforter, 1918 

Wadswor.th, W. A., Licensed, 1S11 1843 

Wagner, F. R., Frostburg, 19011910 

Martinsburg, W. V a ., 1920 

Waltemyer, W. C Licensed, 19101911 

Thurmont, 1916 

Waring, L. H., Lovettsville, Va., 18961899 

Georgetown, 19061916 

Washington (Xo Charge), 1916 

Weaver, F. H., Graf ton, W. Va 1876 1877 

U". S. Army Chaplain, 1880 1897 

Xewry, Pa. (Xo Charge), 1907 

Weber, H. H., Baltimore, Grace, 18851889 

Home Mission Secretary, 1889 

Weddle, A. J Canton, ' 18431844 

Cumberland, 1857 1868 

Weidley. J., Washington, Reformation, 1906 

Weiser^ R Martinsburg, W. Va., 18351836 

Woodsboro, 18371840 

Afanchester, 1869 

Welfley, J Emmitsburg, 18521855 

Wentz", A. R Licensed, 19061909 

Gettysburg, Pa., 1909 

Weyl, C. G Baltimore, 1 8421856 

Wheeler, W. E., Woodsboro, 18991904 

Taneytown, 1904 1910 

Wicker. X. J. G., Georgetown, 1916 191 7 

Harvard University, 1917 

Wiles, C. P Licensed, 18951896 

Washington, Keller, 19081913 

Philadelphia, Pa., 1913 

Will, F. T. Boonsboro, 1918 

Willard, P., Manchester, 1842 1843 

Westminster, 18431 846 

Lovettsville, Va 1S46 1850 

Willian-s, J. R., Hagerstown, Trinity, 18751883 

Uniontown, 18911894 

Williams, L. T Taneytown, 18591867 

Willis, J., Myersville, 1906 

Winecoff, J., Cumberland, 18401844 

Frostburg, 18561860 

18631864 

Winder, L., Washington County, 18311832 

Winter, J., Creagerstown, 18221824 

Gerrardstown. Va., 1S24 18?6 

Middleway, Va., 18261828 

Williamsport, 18281834 

Clearspring, 18341846 

Martinsburg, W. Va., 18461847 

Westminster, 1848 1853 

Clearspring 18531854 

Wire, W. C., Burkittsville, 18691876 



102 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

X 11 nit- Location Year 

Thiirmont, 187(51887 

Brniis\\i<-k 1893 

\Viscnian, P. E., Washington, Redeemer, 1884 

Wisswaesser, C. 1 Vork, Pa 190H1904 

Witmer, (' Cumberland, 18:10 1857 

Wolf, A. <;., Silver HUM 1917 

Wolf, K. J., Haltimore. Second, 1868 1873 

Gettysburg, Pa., 18741880 

Wolf, M Licensed 18(5018(51 

Wornian, I. D Davis, W. Va., 19091912 

Y 

Yeaklcy, T. R Davis, W. Va., 19011904 

Conferereo Missionary 1904- -1907 

Voder, J. O Silver Knn, .' 19051912 

Yonee, G. V., License-1, 18801882 

Yost, T. J <'iiml>erlan<l, St. Paul 's, 18911902 

Young, J. J., (Jrantsville, 18761880 

Accident, 18811882 

Young, M. L M iddletovvn, 18771880 

Gettysburg. Pa., 18811884 

Yugel, A., Bittinger 19081910 

Vutzy, J Licensed, 1878 1879 

Z 

Zerger, J. E Lewistown, 18891892 

Zimmerman, F., Baltimore, 1863 

Zimmerman, H. E., Myersville 18911893 

Zimmerman, L. M., Baltimore, C'hri^t, 1886 



CHAPTER VII. 

MISSIONS: HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER, 
The Home Mission. 

The eleven pastors who in 1820 organized themselves into the 
Synod of Maryland and Virginia expected the organization to 
grow in numbers and to expand in territory. They did not have 
a very definite idea as to the bounds the Synod might some day 
reach. So they called themselves the "Synod of Mar3 r land, Vir- 
ginia, and so forth." They were apparently conscious of the fact 
that all about them, particularly in the frontier regions on the 
South and West, were growing numbers of Lutherans who needed 
to be conserved in the faith and brought into the fold of the 
Church. The founders of the Synod were missionary in spirit 
from the beginning, and their purpose was not merely mutual 
edification and strengthening but also aggressive expansion of 
the Kingdom. 

The very first year after the organization of the Synod the 
number of clerical members was increased by five. One of these 
new members was "Father" Heyer, who was then laboring at 
Cumberland, but who for several years had been a travelling 
missionary in western Pennsylvania, Maryland, southern Ohio, 
Indiana and Kentucky. The next year, in 1822, the Synod en- 
tered actively upon its work of home missions. ' ' It having been 
stated, that in several districts, a considerable number of Lu- 
therans resided who could not supply themselves with a minister 
of the Gospel, it was Resolved, That the President appoint one of 
our brethren a missionary for three months, to such districts of 
our country, and with such instructions as he may deem ex- 
pedient." And forthwith $159.43 was placed in the hands of 
the Treasurer "for missionary purposes, and to aid indigent stu- 
dents and widows." 

The treasurer himself, Abraham Reck, was appointed the 
synodical missionary. A month after the Synod adjourned he 
began his work and at the next meeting of Synod, 1823, presented 
a detailed journal of his travels and transactions. From this 
journal we learn that "Reck left his home about the 9th of Oc- 
tober, 1822, and entered on the mission to which he was ap- 

103 



104 HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

pointed, in some of the most destitute parts of Virginia, and 
Pennsylvania, and Maryland. The field in which he laboured, em- 
hraeed the eounties of Hampshire, Hardy, Pendleton, Randolph, 
Harrison, Preston and Monongalia, in Virginia; the counties of 
Greene and Fayette, in Pennsylvania: and that section of- Mary- 
land west of Cumberland. Missionating to and fro throughout 
this extensive territory, he spent about ninety days, preaching 
repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
all who would hear him, but directing his chief attention to the 
lost sheep of the Lutheran fold: keeping back nothing that was 
profitable to them, but teaching then publicly and from house to 
house. He found numerous Lutherans throughout the whole of 
this district, and also some regularly organized Lutheran 
churches, but destitute of stated ministrations. Great desire was 
manifested by some, to have the Gospel regularly preached to 
them. lie baptized 1^ children, preached 8"> sermons, rode about 
1,()0() miles, visited all the chief towns in this whole district, as 
well as also a vast multitude of families and individuals. Gen- 
erally his audience was as large as the population and short no- 
tice could justify him in expecting. Generally also they were 
very attentive, and on several occasions peculiarly impressed." 

That year the Synod appointed its licentiate, Rev. Jacob Med- 
tart, to missionate among the scattered children of the faith, and 
because he generously declined receiving any money from the 
treasury to defray his expenses, Rev. X. B. Little, another li- 
centiate, was also appointed synodical missionary for that year. 
From their reports at the convention of Synod in 1824 we learn 
that Medtart "left home in the beginning of December, to preach 
the everlasting gospel in the destitute districts of those southern 
countries, from which the voice of distress, and of spiritual pri- 
vation had been poured into our ears. Appointed to labor for 
three months, he extended both the time and the missionary 
ground considerably, and returned not until eight months had 
been consumed, and several of the southern and western states 
had been passed through." His journal shows that he spent 
most of his time in the Carolinas under the direction of Pastor 
Shober, but that a few months were spent also in Ohio (Cincin- 
nati, Lancaster) and the western parts of Pennsylvania. Little 
also received his specific instructions from Pastor Shober and la- 
bored chiefly in Rowan County, North Carolina. 

The success of these home missionary efforts was so pronounced 
and the need they disclosed seemed so great that the Synod de- 
termined to undertake the work in a systematic way. A commit- 
tee was appointed in 1824 "to collect information relative to the 



MISSIONS: HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 105 

missionary wants of our country, and report at our next session 
such measures relative to our missionary operations as they may 
deem best calculated to promote the cause of Christ." This re- 
sulted four years later in a synodical Missionary Society. Mean- 
while the Synod continued the practice of appointing one of her 
number each year as synodical missionary. 

In 182fi Rev. W. G. Keil missionated for the Synod in Guernsey 
County, Ohio. His work was regarded as a great success and he 
received an urgent call to come to Ohio and take permanent 
charge of some of the congregations he had organized. This was 
evidently regarded as proper territory to be included in the 
Synod of Maryland and Virginia, for at the same meeting it was 
resolved "that hereafter the missionaries of this synod shall con- 
fine their labors to the territories of this synod, until otherwise 
ordered.*' Keil, however, did not accept the call to Ohio until 
several years later and when he did remove to Ohio he withdrew 
from the Maryland and Virginia Synod and became a member of 
the Ohio Synod. 

A decided step forward in the missionary work of the Synod 
was taken in 1828. A committee consisting of Morris, Reck, 
Medtart, and two laymen, presented a constitution for the "Par- 
ent Domestic Missionary and Education Society of the Evangel- 
ical Lutheran Synod of Maryland and Virginia." The objects 
of the Society were "to assist pious indigent students for the 
ministry, in completing their studies at the Theological Semi- 
nary, to supply our destitute brethren with the means of grace, 
and to promote the general interests of the Gospel in the Luther- 
an Church." Membership in the Society involved the annual 
payment of one dollar, life membership ten dollars, and life di- 
rectorship twenty dollars. Provision was made for auxiliary so- 
cieties in individual congregations. The officers and directors 
of the Parent Society were mostly laymen. Already the first year 
the treasurer reported receipts of over $270. Seven auxiliary 
societies and a large number of individuals were cooperating. 
The Society reported annually to the Synod until 1835 when the 
missionary interest was separated from the educational and each 
became auxiliary to an organization transcending synodical 
bounds. 

The next two years, 1829 and 18.30, Rev. H. L. Baugher was 
the synodical missionary and labored "in the neighborhood of 
Beaver Creek." In 1831 Rev. N. B. Little was again appointed 
to travel for three months among the destitute brethren and was 
requested to direct his attention particularly to Cincinnati, Ohio. 
He organized several new churches and the following year writes 



106 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

from Circleville, Ohio, to say that he intends to settle there among 
his newly organized congregations. That same year, 1831, Rev. 
F. .). Ruth, a licentiate of the Synod, received permission to mis- 
sionate in Ohio and to settle there, and in 1832 Rev. E. Green- 
wald, another licentiate, took up his work in Ohio. All three of 
these brethren, Ruth, Greenwald, and Little, were afterwards dis- 
missed from the Maryland Synod to unite with the Ohio Synod. 
These young men at once assumed positions of leadership in Ohio, 
and in 1840 we find W. G. Keil the President, and F. J. Ruth the 
Treasurer of the Ohio Synod. Ruth also rendered yeoman mis- 
sionary service on the wide stretches of the present state of Ohio. 

Peter Riser was sent by the Synod to South Carolina in 1834 
and under the appointment of the South Carolina Synod labored 
in the states of Georgia and Alabama. Then the next year Rev. 
John Reck, brother of Abraham Reck, was appointed synodical 
' ' missionary to the west ' ' for one year. He did not return from 
his mission field and the president of Synod reported that he had 
located in Shanesville, Ohio. Another contribution to the home 
mission field of "the west" was made in the person of Abraham 
Reck, the first treasurer of the Synod, who left Middletowii in 
1836 and went to Indiana, thence to Cincinnati in 1841, to Ger- 
mantown, Ohio, in 184.3, and to Tartleton in 1847. 

Repeatedly, while these men were travelling to Ohio and In- 
diana and the Carolinas and the South, the demand arose for "a 
missionary in our own bounds." Accordingly, in 1837, Rev. 
Francis Springer, of Clearspring, was appointed the Synod's 
missionary for .seven months and under explicit instructions la- 
bored during the summer of 1838 chiefly in Washington and Al- 
legheny Counties. The next spring Mr. Springer removed from 
Clearspring and located in Springfield, Illinois. In 1839 Rev. 
Reuben "\Veiser travelled three months in the western states as 
the Synod's representative. 

The journals of all these missionaries abound in interesting 
narratives and thrilling experiences. In the modes of travel the}' 
employed, in the conditions of living they encountered, in the 
spiritual destitution that alternated with a genuine thirst for the 
preaching of the Word, these hardy messengers of the Synod in 
the accounts of their travels present striking commentaries on 
the primitive conditions of pioneer life in that day. Like Henry 
Melchior Muhlenberg in his travels over Pennsylvania and else- 
where from New York to Georgia, like Herkenmeyer in his min- 
istrations along the Hudson, like Stoever and Kurtz in Pennsyl- 
vania, like Bager and Wildbahn in Pennsylvania and Maryland, 
like Henkel and Stoever in Virginia, during the Eighteenth Cen- 



MISSIONS t HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 107 

tury, like Paul Henkel in his travels in Virginia and the South 
and his striking ox-cart tours over Ohio before the days of the 
Maryland Synod, so these synodical missionaries whose names 
we have barely recounted suffered hardship, encountered danger, 
and actualh' risked their lives, in order to furnish spiritual re- 
enforcement to the scattered army of bold pioneers who had ac- 
tively begun the process of "winning the west" for civilization. 
Over wide stretches of wilderness they travelled, hunting up par- 
ticularly the Lutherans who were destitute of spiritual ministry, 
preaching to them, administering the sacraments, organizing 
them into congregations, or encouraging them in any way possi- 
ble and wherever they could be found. Not a few of the Synod's 
travelling missionaries were so deeply impressed with the spirit- 
ual need of those regions and the opportunities for genuine serv- 
ice they afforded, that they relinquished their established con- 
gregations in the East and took up their abode in those frontier 
communities. 

But the day of larger undertakings was approaching. The 
General Synod had been organized in 1820 and from the begin- 
ning she turned her attention to the harvest field of home mis- 
sions. Indeed, this was one of the purposes of the organization 
of the general body. Slowly, very slowly, the home missionary 
machinery was manufactured, for there was a strong prejudice 
against centralization. The Maryland Synod stood ready from 
the beginning to cooperate with the general body in any kind of 
mission work, and even before Springer and Weiser had acted 
as synodical missionaries the Synod had begun to merge her home 
missionary operations with those of the other synods in the or- 
ganized work of the larger body. 

After several preliminary efforts at effecting an organization 
in the General Synod to prosecute the work of home missions, 
Dr. Morris of the Maryland Synod presented a resolution to the 
General Synod in 1835 recormmending the holding of a Mission- 
ary Convention of Lutheran Ministers. This resulted, October, 
1835, in the organizing of what was called the "Central Mission- 
ary Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United 
States." This society was home missionary in its purpose. It 
undertook to establish "a system of societies throughout the 
church." Its membership, however, was not representative of 
the General Synod but was altogether personal and composed of 
contributors to its funds. So it failed of wide support and after 
a brief and uneventful career passed away. 

Then the Maryland Synod continued her missionary activity 
on her own account. In 1842 three of her licentiates were sent to 



108 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

the West. Rev. J. G. Harris went to Ohio and began a very suc- 
eessfnl work in and about Mansfield. Rev. William A. Wads- 
worth settled in the same state and labored with great success at 
( 1 anton. Rev. William R. MeChesney started to build up an Eng- 
lish congregation at Louisville, Kentucky. Harris and Wads- 
worth were dismissed to the English Synod of Ohio, McChesney 
to the Synod of the West. The Synod also undertook the partial 
support of McChesney in his mission at Louisville. At the same 
time the Synod revived her own missionary society and began to 
agitate the subject among other synods. 

The attention of the General Synod was again directed to the 
subject of home missions in 184:} when Dr. 11. L. Baugher, a dele- 
gate from the Maryland Synod, in his report on the State of the 
Church, called emphatic attention to the urgent need and general 
apathy prevailing throughout the Church on the subject. At the 
same time the General Synod adopted the suggestion of the Mary- 
land Synod to recommend to all the ministers the use of what 
was called "The Cent a Week Plan/' a device that yielded con- 
siderable sums of money for missionary purposes. 

This started a sentiment in favor of a definite home missionary 
organization within the General Synod. That sentiment grew 
and at the next meeting of the General Synod in 1845 it crystal- 
lized in the formation of the "Home Missionary Society of the 
General Synod." Here again the initiative came from the dele- 
gates of the Maryland Synod. Dr. Benjamin Kurtz was chair- 
man of the General Synod's committee to prepare a constitution 
for the Home Missionary Society and a plan for its operation, 
and when the organization was formed its president, first vice- 
president, recording secretary, corresponding secretary, and 
treasurer, were all from the Maryland Synod. Its constitution 
is a strong reminder of that of the Maryland Synod's missionary 
and education society formed in 1828. This Synod was the first 
to approve the formation of the new Parent Society, to recom- 
mend an annual offering for home missions in every congregation, 
and to transmit all home mission funds to the treasurer of the 
Parent Society. 

For more than twenty years this organization of 184") carried 
on the general home missionary operations of the General Synod, 
receiving and disbursing several thousands of dollars each year 
and furnishing substantial aid to hundreds of missionaries in 
many different states. But two difficulties attended its work: 
First, a want of suitable men, and second, a want of cooperation 
and the insistence on separate synodical action. 

Efforts were made to sustain the Societv and enlist wider co- 



MISSIONS: HOME, FOREIGN, AXD INNER. 109 

operation. Through the influence of the Synod of Maryland a 
convention was called to meet in Baltimore to discuss all the mis- 
sionary operations of the General Synod. It met in Dr. Morris' 
Church, April 21, 1852. There were representatives from the 
Hartwick Synod, New York Ministerium, Pennsylvania, East 
Pennsylvania, West Pennsylvania, Allegheny, Maryland, Olive 
Branch, and Virginia Synods. Five committees were appointed 
to report on Church Extension, Education, Home Missions, For- 
eign Missions, and Endowment of Church Institutions. But 
apart from promoting good fellowship the convention does not 
seem to have produced any practical results. 

In 1853 it was reported that only two synods were supporting 
the Home Missionary Society of the General Synod, namely, 
Maryland and West Pennsylvania, and the executive committee 
was thinking of abandoning the work entirely. But just then, 
perhaps as a result of Dr. Morris' convention in 1852, a healthy 
reaction set in and several other synods joined in the work. 
Nevertheless, the feeling continued that the Society should be 
organically bound up with the life and prestige of the General 
Synod itself. As to the best way of accomplishing this delicate 
change the organization of benevolence in some of the district 
synods themselves furnished a fine analogy. 

Already in 1848 the Maryland Synod, on motion of Dr. 
Harkey, had expressed the conviction that the entire business of 
missions is the proper work of the Synod itself, had resolved it- 
self as a body into a Missionary Society, had appointed the of- 
ficers of Synod themselves an executive committee to supervise 
these benevolences, and had provided for annual reports and ad- 
dresses and regular and systematic contributions to these objects. 
Soon this example was followed by other synods : East Pennsyl- 
vania, West Pennsylvania, Alleghany, Pittsburgh, and others 
farther west. All these synodical organizations declared them- 
selves auxiliary to the Society of the General Synod and trans- 
mitted their funds without limiting their application. This iden- 
tification of the mission work with the district synods' own 
proper life and business suggested the remedy for the weaknesses 
of the "Home Missionary Society of the General Synod." 

Accordingly, in 1866 the constitution of the Society was 
amended so as to make the Society more representative of the 
General Synod as a body and to invest it with more authority to 
command the cooperation of the synods. These changes were 
made at the suggestion of Dr. Morris who was then chairman of 
the executive committee of the Society, and they looked towards 



110 HISTORY 0V MARYLAND SYNOD. 

making the Home Missionary Society identical with the General 
Synod itself. 

This last step was taken in 18(50. The General Synod conven- 
tion of 18(i9 was a memorable one, in several respects the most 
eventful one in the history of the General Synod. A new epoch 
was inaugurated, not only in regard to liturgy and polity but 
also in regard to the benevolence of the Church. Tt closed the 
era of individualism and synodical independence in prosecuting 
the benevolent enterprises of the Church, and it inaugurated an 
era of concentrated resources and cooperative administration. 
The Home Missionary Society transferred all its funds and all 
its interests to the General Synod and went into dissolution. 
The General Synod decided to assume control of its home mission 
affairs and adopted the plan by which it committed the entire ad- 
ministration of the work to a Board as its representative. This 
method continued in use throughout the remaining half century 
of the General Synod's life and it is the method in use to-day in 
the United Lutheran Church. The Board is the agent of the en- 
tire Church not a part of it, it directs the work of Home Missions 
for the entire Church, it administers funds received from all 
parts of the Church and applies them to the entire field as the 
need and opportunity may demand, and without regard to 
synodical bounds or the measure of synodical contributions. 

Tt will be seen, therefore, to what a large extent, the Maryland 
Synod was instrumental in evolving the method of administer- 
ing benevolences that has so thoroughly approved itself to the 
Church and that has operated with such great success through 
more than half a century. Just before the final step was taken in 
the direction of complete centralization, from 18GO to 1868. the 
Maryland Synod had contributed more than six hundred dollars 
annually for three years towards the support of Dr. Harkey in 
St. Louis and in 1867 had sent four thousand dollars to buy a 
lot and erect a building for his mission there. But as soon as 
the new policy went into effect the Synod gave her fullest co- 
operation, transferred all her missions and mission funds to the 
Board, and appointed an advisory committee, as requested, to act 
in concert with the General Board. Throughout the half century 
of its existence the Board of Home Missions has always had the 
undivided loyalty and the ardent support of the Maryland Synod. 
More than half of its life the Board was located in Baltimore and 
a large proportion of its members have been men of the Maryland 
Synod. 

Two other home missionary items call for mention here. One 
is the "Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the 



MISSIONS: HOME, FOREIGN', AND INNER. Ill 

Maryland Synod." On the initiative of the Synod itself this or- 
ganization was formed in 1883, and for sixteen years its minutes 
were published by the Synod in connection with her own minutes. 
One of the leaders in the splendid work of the women throughout 
the Church, the Maryland Synodical Society has always had the 
warmest support and practical cooperation of the Maryland 
Synod. A brief account of the history and work of the Society 
will be found later in this chapter. 

The other fact demanding notice in this connection is the de- 
velopment of the home mission field in West Virginia. It was in 
1903 that the Allegheny Conference of the Maryland Synod 
called vigorous attention to the urgent need of that field and 
asked for aggressive action. The Synod at once presented the 
matter to the general Board of Home Missions but at the same 
time pledged the funds for the support of a district missionary 
in that field. Rev. T. B. Yeakley was chosen missionary. He 
began his work in January, 1904, and that year organized a 
church at Fairmont and one at Elkins and canvassed a number of 
other towns and cities. The Synod then committed the promis- 
ing enterprise to the General Synod's Board of Home Missions 
but for two years more continued the direct support of the dis- 
trict missionary by pledges taken on the floor of Synod. These 
direct contributions, which were in addition to the Synod's ap- 
portionment for home missions, amounted to more than a thou- 
sand dollars annually. The district missionary reported to the 
Synod each year the details of his work in West Virginia, and the 
astounding development of the field and the startling rapidity 
with which he organized congregations, secured pastors for old 
fields long vacant, led mission churches to self-support, founded 
new missions and established out stations, makes his narratives 
read like a romance. In 1910 the Home Mission Board was sup- 
plying aid to fifteen missions within the bounds of the Maryland 
Synod, among them such promising fields as Keyser, Davis, Fair- 
mont, Elkins, Clarksburg, and Huntington. Suffice it to say that 
in 1912 these flourishing mission churches united with several 
congregations formerly in the Allegheny Conference of the Mary- 
land Synod and with the churches at Wheeling to organize a new 
Synod, the West Virginia Synod. And this newest accession to 
the ranks of the district synods of the General Synod is the direct 
outgrowth of the home missionary zeal of the Maryland Synod. 

The Foreign Mission. 

The foreign mission activities of the Maryland Synod can be 
related in fewer words than the home missionary. Not that the 



112 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

interest of the Synod in that department of benevolence was less 
keen nor that her cooperation in the work was less cordial, hut 
because from the nature of the case the individual district synod 
has less opportunity to be conspicuous in the sphere of foreign 
missions than in that of home missions. 

For some years before the General Synod undertook the work 
of Foreign Missions the Maryland Synod had become alive to 
the expansive element in our religion, the propulsive power of 
the Gospel, and the world-wide mission of the Church. This 
spirit of aggressive evangelization of the unsaved was fostered 
in the Synod by the operations and reports of the home mission- 
aries, by the annual sermons on missions, which began as early as 
1821), and by the annual reports and circulars, both informational 
and inspirational, of the Synod's standing committee on missions. 
When, therefore, the General Synod was ready to distinguish be- 
tween home missions and foreign missions and to undertake for- 
eign missions as a distinct department of benevolence, the Mary- 
land Synod was thoroughly prepared for the move. 

The Central Missionary Society formed in 18.'55, to which we 
have already referred, had as one of its objects "ultimately to co- 
operate in sending it (the Gospel) to the heathen world." But 
no definite steps in the direction of prosecuting the foreign mis- 
sion project were taken until the Church heard the strong ap- 
peals which came from the celebrated Gut/Ian" of China and the 
indefatigable Rhenius of India. These appeals called the Church 
to immediate action on the foreign field. Then the General Synod 
referred the matter to the district synods and on motion of Dr. 
Morris called on the synods to give "an expression of their senti- 
ments and feelings respecting the establishment of a Foreign 
Mission by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United 
States." 

On this subject the Maryland Synod gave no uncertain sound. 
She took action in 18M declaring that "the Synod of Maryland 
considers it the imperative and immediate duty of the Evangel- 
ical Lutheran Church in the United States to establish a For- 
eign Missionary Society that our delegates to the General 

Synod be instructed to sustain any efforts which the General 
Synod may make for the extension of the Redeemer's kingdom in 
heathen countries." 

At the next meeting of the General Synod, which was at 
Hagerstown in 18){7, a committee of which Dr. Benjamin Kurtz 
was chairman outlined a policy for the work and planned a con- 
vention to organi/e a Foreign Missionary Society. At this con- 
vention, which was held at Hagerstown immediately after the 



MISSIONS : HOME, FOREIGN', AND INNER. 113 

adjournment of the General Synod, nearly half of the delegates 
were from the Maryland Synod and Dr. Kurtz was president of 
the convention and chairman of the committee that drafted the 
constitution for the Society. It was this Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety that appointed "Father" Heyer to go to India in 1840 as 
the first foreign missionary of the American Lutheran Church. 
When difficulties arose because the Society proposed to operate 
through the interdenominational American Board, Heyer was 
sent out by the Pennsylvania Synod in 1841. The first mission- 
ary actually sent out by the Foreign Missionary Society of the 
General Synod was Walter Gunn, who went to India in 1843. It 
was under this organization also that Morris Officer began our 
work in Africa in I860. 

With this Society for fostering the foreign missionary enter- 
prise among the Lutherans of our country the Maryland Synod 
cooperated by contribution, by agitation, and in every way pos- 
sible. In 1848 the Synod, at a special meeting of the ministerium 
called for that purpose, ordained Rev. G. J. Martz and solemnly 
set him apart for the Lutheran mission in India. This was the 
beginning of a long line of honored names on the ministerial roll 
of the Synod of men whom she has sent directly to the foreign 
field. 

When the benevolences of the Church entered upon their new 
era in 3869, precisely the same influences and personalities that 
we have noted as having led to the formation of a Board of Home 
Missions were the influences and personalities that led to the 
formation of a Board of Foreign Missions. 

One other distinctive contribution our Synod made to the pres- 
ent efficient organization of the Board of Foreign Missions, and 
that is the salaried General Secretary. In 1874, on motion of 
Professor E. J. Wolf, the Synod declared : "WHEREAS, The work 
of Foreign Missions, under the auspices of the General Synod, 
is beginning to assume such proportions as indicate the manifest 
favor of God and a deep and liberal interest on the part of the 
Church, calling for a careful supervision of the work ; therefore, 
Resolved, That our delegates to the General Synod are directed 
to ask of that body the appointment of a General Superintendent 
of Foregin Missions with a liberal salary." The following year 
on motion of Dr. Charles A. Stork this action was reaffirmed. 
Armed with this resolution the delegates of the Maryland Synod 
secured from the General Synod in 1877 the resolution that "it is 
the sense of this body that there should be a paid Secretary of 
Foreign Missions who shall devote his whole time to the interests 
of the work. " Accordingly as soon as the funds could be secured, 



114 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

which was not until 1886, the first General Secretary was em- 
ployed in the person of Rev. Dr. George Seholl. 

In 1877, eight years after the Board of Foreign Missions was 
constituted, its headquarters were transferred from New York 
to Baltimore where they have remained to the present. For some 
years after this transfer of the Board's location every member of 
the Board except one was a member of the Maryland Synod. 
The presidents of the Board from that day to this have all been 
from our Synod: Dr. Charles A. Stork, 'l 877-1 884: Dr. J. G. 
Butler, 1884-1895; Dr. F. Ph. Hennighausen, 1895-1897; Dr. 
Luther Kuhlman, 1897-1916; Dr. Ezra K. Bell, 1916 to the pres- 
ent. Mr. Oliver F. Lantz, of the First Lutheran ( 1 hurch in Bal- 
timore, was for thirty years, 1877-1907, the efficient treasurer of 
the Board. 

Of her sons and daughters the Maryland Synod has also given 
liberally to the work of Foreign Missions. On Christmas Day, 
1871, at a special meeting of the Ministerium in St. Mark's, Bal- 
timore, Rev. J. II. Harpster, a licentiate of the Synod, was or- 
dained and solemnly consecrated to the work of Foreign Mis- 
sions. Shortly thereafter Dr. Harpster sailed for India where 
he took his place alongside of Dr. Vnangst who for some time had 
been the only missionary on the Guntur field. His long period of 
splendid service on that field is well known. In 1885 Rev. J. 
Nichols, another licentiate of the Synod, was ordained at a spe- 
cial meeting and at once commissioned to India. Dr. George 
Albrecht, who had received ad interim license from the Mary- 
land Synod in 1891, was ordained at a special meeting in June, 
1892, and sailed at once for India. Rev. A. Pohlman was licensed 
in 189.3 and ordained in 1894 and after a medical course took up 
his work at Monrovia, Africa. In 1900 the Maryland Synod, on 
request of Dr. Harpster, empowered the India Conference to or- 
dain Rev. Peravalli Abraham. On the clerical roll of the Synod 
to-day are found the names of the following missionaries: Victor 
Macauley, ordained in 1898 and assigned to Guntur, India ; Isaac 
Cannaday, foreign pastor of St. Mark's, Baltimore; E. A. Avers, 
of Monrovia, Africa ; John E. Graef, licensed by the Maryland 
Synod in 1914 and ordained by the Guntur Synod in 1916; and 
Harry Goedeke, ordained 1919 at a special meeting and commis- 
sioned to India. Most of the representatives of the Synod on the 
foreign field were accompanied also by faithful daughters of the 
Synod. 

As in the home missionary work of the Church so in the foreign 
missionary work the Maryland Synod has indirectly rendered 
noteworthv service through her svnodical Woman's Home and 



MISSIONS : HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 115 

Foreign Missionary Society. We introduce here a modest narra- 
tive of the life and work of that Society as written by Miss Mary 
Ba3 r lies. 

The Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society. 

Beginnings: The history of the Woman's Home and Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Maryland Synod began in 1880, when 
the Synod appointed a committee consisting of Mrs. M. L. Trow- 
bridge, Baltimore; Miss Olevia McKee, Hagerstown, and Mrs. 
Mary Strobel Levy, Frederick, to take general oversight of the 
Woman's Missionary work in Maryland Synod for the purpose 
of organizing a Synodical Society. The committee undertook the 
work with fear and trembling. Tt was so entirely new and the 
difficulties to be overcome so many, they felt at times they inust 
give it up ; but encouraged by the success the movement was 
making in other sections of the Church, and looking to God for 
guidance and wisdom, they persevered and at the next meeting 
of Synod were able to report they had organized seven societies, 
one each in the following churches: First, Second, St. Mark's, 
St. Paul's, Baltimore; Trinity, Taneytown ; Trinity, Hagers- 
toM'n ; and Water's Store, Howard County. 

As the members of this first committee lived in localities too 
widely separated for frequent consultations, it was found im- 
possible to work together with advantage, and consequently Mrs. 
Trowbridge, the chairman, suggested to the Synod the appoint- 
ment of a committee whose members should all live in the same 
place. This was done and the following committee appointed : 
Mrs. Emma B. Scholl, Chairman ; Miss Josephine Brauns, Sec- 
retary, and Mrs. W. H. James, Treasurer, all of whom lived in 
Ballimore. This committee met once a month seeking counsel of 
God and of each other, and to that policy, which has been con- 
tinued to the present day by the synodical committee, Maryland 
attributes much of her success. 

Tn its first report to the Synod this second committee say "it 
is with great reluctance and with feeling akin to despair that they 
undertook the task laid upon them." Their principal difficulty 
was the indifference of the women themselves, owing to an in- 
adequate conception of missionary work. Then, too, while a large 
number of the pastors willingly cooperated with the committee 
and did ail in their power to organize societies in their congre- 
gations, there were some who seemed to think the chief object of 
the Woman's Society was raising money, and as these funds could 
not be counted on the apportionment, no encouragement was 
given for the organization of a society. The committee very 



116 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

properly felt that its first work was to educate, ami with this ob- 
ject set about the work with zeal and earnestness. 

To Mrs. Emma B. Seholl, the Chairman, much credit and 
praise should be given for untiring and intelligent effort, supple- 
mented by the ready willingness of the consecrated Secretary, 
Miss Josephine L. Brauns. The women were urged to organize 
themselves into societies for the purpose of studying missions 
and praying for the success of the cause, for it was believed that 
the increased knowledge and broader outlook would bear fruit in 
larger offerings for the Master's work. Letters were written to 
the pastors asking cooperation and from most of them came 
cheering words and promises of support. 

Thus encouraged the work grew rapidly and at the first Con- 
vention of the Society held in the First Church, Baltimore, Octo- 
ber 5, 1883, the Secretary reported the enrollment of twenty-two 
societies, with (>!)2 members and offerings amounting to $740.89. 
At this convention two Vice-Presidents were added to the Synod- 
ical Committee, namely, Miss Amy L. Sadtler and Mrs. Ellen 1). 
Hynson. It was at this first Convention that the constitution of 
the General Synod was adopted and Maryland at once took a 
prominent place among her sister societies, a place which she has 
continued to hold with honor and leadership through all the 
years. The foundations were laid broad and strong, the super- 
structure has risen year by year, each adding new grace and 
beauty of development until in amazement we cry "what has God 
wrought." 

Literature Committee : Early in the history of the Society, 
during Mrs. Hamma's term of office as president, a Bureau of 
Information was formed. The purpose of this Bureau was to col- 
lect sources of information such as tracts, books, newspaper clip- 
pings, and so forth, and to send them out to the different societies. 
The Bureau, or Committee as it was afterward called, was com- 
posed of one member from each society in the city of Baltimore. 
Miss Mary Rice of the Second Church was for many years the 
efficient Chairlady. Its first publication was a small book called 
a "Manual of Gospel Services," containing responsive readings, 
hymns and instructions for conducting meetings. This was pri- 
marily intended for our own women, but it was later endorsed by 
the General Executive Committee and soon found its way 
throughout the General Society, and also through the societies 
of the South, who were just newly awakened to an interest in 
woman's work in missions. 

At this time a Mite Box was also prepared by the committee. 
It was made of blue card board, having appropriate texts and to 



MISSIONS: HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 117 

make it distinctively Lutheran, the head of Martin Luther was 
printed on the top. This Mite Box was the fore-runner of the 
Thank-offering Box, so familiar and so much loved by all Luther- 
an Missionary Women. 

Conferences: Early in her history in an effort to reach the 
largest proportion of her members, Conferences were organized 
to meet annually in the Spring of the year. These Conferences 
cover the same territory as the Conferences of the Maryland 
Synod. The Eastern and Middle Conferences were organized in 
1891, the Western in 1892, and the Allegheny, afterward called 
the Mountain, in 1903. 

Traveling Secretary : Still feeling the work was not as care- 
fully looked after as might be, and with the hope of organizing 
a society in every congregation, a Traveling Secretary was ap- 
pointed for this special work. Miss Laura Wade Rice was se- 
lected as the first incumbent and retained the office until 1905. 

Box Work : One of the most helpful features of our mission- 
ary effort has been the Box Work. The packing of boxes with 
necessary articles for the home missionary and his family began 
in the early days of our society and has been faithfully continued. 
Thousands of dollars have gone into this work, carrying aid and 
happiness to many a home missionary. Later a department for 
Foreign Box Work was added and every demand for that work 
was cheerfully met. 

Foreign Work: Since 1889 the Maryland Synodical Society 
has had her special representative in India. The first one to go 
was Miss Amy L. Sadtler, and for the honor of having one of 
her own members a Foreign Missionary, she immediately asked 
permission of the General Executive Committee to undertake 
Miss Sadtler 's support. Consent to this was secured and $500 
was given annually as a Free Will offering. In 1894 Miss Sadtler 
decided to give her services without salary, and at our request 
the Executive Committee allowed us to substitute Dr. Mary Baer, 
who w r as then ready to sail. The amount of salary was increased 
to $600 annually. 

Home Work : Mrs. James, when she was president, suggested 
that as we had our special Foreign Missionary, we should under- 
take, with the approval of the Executive Committee, one of our 
Home Missions, contributing to the salary of the pastor the 
amount given by the General Society, thus having for our special 
work a missionary in India and a missionary in the Home Field. 
The new mission at Ann Arbor, Michigan, was assigned to us, and 
the first year's salary was paid out of a legacy of $1,000 left us 
by Miss Annie H. Morris. After that our annual Thank-offering 



118 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

was "riven to this object, until 185)7 when the Executive Commit- 
tee decided that all Thank-offering money should he paid into the 
General Fund. This decision did not deter Maryland from con- 
tinuing her special home work and she contributed annually to 
the pastor's salary at Ann Arbor until that Mission became self- 
supporting. After that the new Home Mission at Clarksburg, 
West Virginia, was substituted and this continues to be our spe- 
cial Home Mission work. 

Thank-offering: At her Tenth Anniversary, Maryland gave a 
Thank-offering of .t8!K).f>!) in grateful acknowledgment of her 
many blessings, and adopted at this time an annual Thank-offer- 
ing as a part of her regular work. The Maryland Synodical So- 
ciety has the honor of being the first in the General Society to 
adopt the plan of an annual Thank-offering, which has proved so 
large a factor in the general work. 

Maryland has always been most loyal to every call and plan of 
the Executive Committee and nowhere has this been shown more 
forcefully than in her contributions to all special work, both at 
home and abroad, undertaken by the General Society. These 
claims were her first consideration and she has always calculated 
that her share of the full amount is one-fifth of the whole. There- 
fore she has given to all the Home Mission churches built, the 
schools and hospital in India and the Emma V. Day school in 
Africa. 

Finances: The total contributions amount to $193, 672. (53. In- 
cluded in this are legacies amounting to $6, 600. 05 from the fol- 
lowing: 

Miss Annio H. Morris, $1,000.00 

Miss Elizabeth Ober, 85 . 2(5 

The Misses Fugleman and Mrs. Fliza J. Frownfelter, (Hi:?. IS 

Mr*. Maria L. Trowbridge, 1,000. no 

Miss Sarah ('. Trump 100.00 

Miss Anna Woo<hv>rth, 868.:?! 

Miss M. F. Werilebaugh, 200. 00 

Miss Mary F. Sauerwein, 1,243.30 

Miss Mary Hay Morris, 1,500.00 

Also the following Annuitants of the General Society are credited 

to Maryland : 

Miss Clara V. Sadtlor, $.100.00 

Miss Maggie Mehring 5,500.00 

Mrs. Martha Frinjjer, 500. 00 

Mrs. Laura J. Poub, 400.00 

Miss Elizabeth Sheeleigh, 100.00 

Miss (trace Sheeleiifh, ]00. 00 

Mrs. Susan Hafer 200.00 

Miss Flizabeth Tfartmaii, 100.00 

Miss Flora V. Hayes, 100.00 



Total, $7,500. 00 



MISSIONS: HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 119 

Specials : Among the special objects to which Maryland has 
given, in addition to her regular work are the following: $500 
for the furnishing of a room in the Woman's Hospital, India, in 
memory of Miss Annie H. Morris; $1,000 for the endowment of 
a bed in the India Hospital in memory of Miss Josephine L. 
Brauns; $9.000 for a Nurses' Home and Training School in con- 
nection with the hospital in India ; $4,000 for a Dispensary at 
Chirala, India, in memory of Mrs. Jane Bennett Heilman, $200 
for a Window to the memory of Miss M. E. Werdebaugh, in the 
Church at Clarksburg, West Virginia; $500 toi Dr. Kugler's 
Work in Guntur ; $500 to Dr. Baer 's Work in Chirala, and $500 
to Rentachintala. 

Officers : From the very beginning Maryland has been singu- 
larly blessed in her Presidents. Mrs. Emma B. Scholl, Mrs. M. 
V. Hamma, Mrs. Luther Kuhlman, Mrs. W. H. James, Mrs. P. 
A. Heilman, Mrs. G. W. Miller, Mrs. C. P. Wiles, and Mrs. G. W. 
Baughman ; all of them women of vision and faith, who planned 
wisely and had the courage to attempt great things. For Vice- 
Presidents she has had such women as Miss Mar}- Hay Morris, 
Mrs. J. D. Main, Mrs. S. A. Diehl, Mrs. Luther Kuhlman, Miss 
Maggie Bingham, Mrs. E. L. Forrest, Mrs. D. S. Lentz, Mrs. C. 
V. Spielman, Mrs. H. H. Bixler, Mrs. G. W. Baughman, Miss Liz- 
zie T. Birely, Mrs. G. W. Roessner, Mrs. G. V. Ruhl, Miss M. E. 
Kephart, Mrs. C. D. Bell, and Miss Martha Hoener. Miss Emilia 
Brauns was the first Corresponding Secretary, followed by Miss 
Mary Baylies, who served for twenty-five years, Mrs. C. B. Rob- 
erts, and Mrs. James G. Pugh. The first Recording Secretary 
was Miss Josephine L. Brauns of blessed memory, followed by 
Miss Kate Sadtler, Miss Sallie M. Protzmau, Miss Clara Genso 
and for the past nineteen years Mrs. James P. Reese. In all her 
history Maryland has had but three Treasurers: Mrs. N. H. 
James, Mrs. E. D. Miller, and Mrs. S. F. Ziegler, who has been 
in office since 1894. Our faithful Historian was Miss Sarah 
Trump who served until her death in 1914, when she was suc- 
ceeded by her sister Miss Elizabeth Trump. With such women 
as these in office the work has been well organized and wisely ad- 
ministered. 

Missionaries: From her fold have gone to India: Miss Amy 
Sadtler, now Mrs. George Albrecht; Miss Kate Sadtler, Dr. 
Eleanor B. Wolf, Miss Rebekah Hoffman, Miss Tillia Nelson and 
Mrs. Harry Goedeke; also, one under appointment, Miss Alice 
Nickel. 

General Officers: She has also given a number of her daugh- 
ters to fill prominent positions in the General Society. The mem- 



120 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

bers of the General Literature Committee from the time that 
Committee was enlarged in 1897 until the Merger, have always 
been elected from the Maryland Synodical Society. Mrs. P. A. 
Heilman, while President of Maryland, was elected President of 
the General Society; Mrs. E. 1). Miller was for many years the 
General Treasurer; Miss Mary Hay Morris was General Corre- 
sponding Secretary; and Mrs. Emma B. Scholl, General His- 
torian. Another of our members is Miss Sallie M. Protzman, the 
efficient Secretary of Literature and for a number of years the 
associate editor of Lutheran Woman's Work. Miss Laura Wade 
Rice, one of the editors of The Children's Missionary and later 
of Lutheran Hoys and Girls, is one of our own. We are glad to 
claim also Mrs. F. A. Handsche, the Secretary of Foreign Box 
Work, and Miss Sarah C. Sadtler, whose labor of love in prepar- 
ing the Bible lessons for our monthly meetings has borne such 
rich fruitage. And what shall we say of the hundreds of mem- 
bers, unknown perhaps beyond their local societies, and yet with- 
out whose loyalty and faithful service Maryland's history would 
not be what it is? Surely the Master's "well done" will sound 
just as sweetly to them as to those called to labor in larger fields. 
So we see it is a long journey we have come from our First 
Convention in 1883, when we reported twenty auxiliaries with 
692 members and an offering of $740.58 to our last one when the 
reports showed 133 auxiliaries, f),4o'3 members and $12,422.32 
offering for the year. But figures cannot tell all our story. How 
can we tell of the prayer, of the sacrifice, of the devotion and 
years of services that have been given to the work ? How can we 
tell of the blessings that have come to our members in a broader 
vision, a more unselfish purpose, a deeper consecration of life be- 
cause of membership in our societies? When at the Merger meet- 
ing in New York in November, 1918, Maryland gave up her proud 
old name of ''Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society 
of the Maryland Synod" and was given the new name of "The 
Women's Missionary Society of the Maryland Synod," she took 
it with the determination to make it just as honorable, just as 
glorious as the old one; and with firm reliance upon God, to 
whom she owes all her success, she presses forward to greater 
achievements in His name. 

The Inner Mission. 

Another line of mission work directly supported by the Synod 
is that of the Inner Mission, faith working through love. This is 
a very recent development. From the nature of the case it is 
limited largely to the metropolitan City of Baltimore. It began 



MISSIONS : HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 121 

just in time to render a notable service during the World War of 
1914. 

This work was initiated and has been prosecuted by the Lu- 
theran Ministers' Association of Baltimore. At a preliminary 
meeting in October, 1913, attended by about sixty pastors and a 
number of deaconesses and active lay -workers, a committee was 
appointed to draft a constitution and take steps for organization. 
The organization was effected in the First Lutheran Church on 
November 11, 1913, and the new body took the name "The Inner 
Mission Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Balti- 
more Cit\' and Vicinity." Its purpose was to apply Christianity 
to those special needs that grow from life in a large city, to ex- 
tend the hand of love and mercy to those whose particular spirit- 
ual wants are not provided for either by the individual congre- 
gations of the city or by the other Boards and agencies of the 
Church. 

The need revealed by a canvass of the situation proved so great 
and the avenues of usefulness opened so rapidly that the new So- 
ciety soon saw that the full time of a Superintendent would be 
required to carry on the work in adequate measure. Rev. Fred- 
erick \V. Meyer \vas chosen and installed in the office October 12, 
1914. At the same time the Synod officially endorsed the work 
in cordial terms and promised cooperation in every way possible. 

Now the work was broadened. In addition to the work as an 
information bureau and clearing house for Lutherans moving 
into the city, and in addition to the regular visitation of hos- 
pitals, houses of correction, and homes for the unfortunate, the 
Board of Directors began to plan a hospice for young ladies. 
This resulted in the purchase of the large house at 509 Park 
Avenue, a property valued at $42,000 which was converted into 
a comfortable Christian home for non-resident girls. 

Then America was drawn into the World War. Camp Meade 
was established only twenty miles from Baltimore. The call for 
a Lutheran Service House in Baltimore became imperative. In 
1918 the beautiful home at 601 Cathedral Street, a central loca- 
tion, was purchased for $20,000, and the National Lutheran Com- 
mission paid one-third. This house became the headquarters of 
the Maryland Committee that conducted the two very successful 
drives among Lutherans of the state for welfare and reconstruc- 
tion funds. Throughout the period of the war and the time of 
demobilization the Inner Mission Society rendered splendid serv- 
ice to the men in uniform. When demobilization was completed 
the Service House was converted into a "Lutheran Home for 



122 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Men," and as such it stands to-day, a credit to the Church whose 
name it hears. 

The purrhase, equipment, and maintenance of these two large 
and hea ut i fill homes has meant mueh sacrifice and much personal 
service on the part of the Lutherans of Baltimore and vicinity. 
The days of the Superintendent, have been filled with deeds of 
compassion and love alone: many different lines. The laymen, 
the women of the churches, and the pastors have freely given of 
their time and their means. And the annual reports of the Su- 
perintendent show splendid results of the efforts. In fact, the 
rapid growth of the Inner Mission work in Baltimore, the large 
volume of service rendered, and the high degree of usefulness 
attained in these brief years of its history, constitute one of the 
most remarkable pages in the history of the Lutheran Church in 
that. city. 

From the beginning the Maryland Synod lias recognized the 
importance of this work and has supported it morally and finan- 
cially. Beginning with 1915 the Synod appropriated $.")00 an- 
nually from its treasury to the Inner Mission Society. In 1918 
this appropriation was increased to $2,000. The Superintendent 
of the Society in turn has rendered to the Synod full accounts of 
the work of the Society and they appear on the minutes of the 
Synod. 

The first Superintendent, Rev. Frederick W. Meyer, resigned 
his office in 1918 in order to become a "Camp Pastor" in the war 
service. He was succeeded, March 1, 1919, by Rev. Harry D. 
Xewcomer. Sister Zora Heckert is the House Mother. Mr. Carl 
M. Distler is president of the Society, Mr. Charles G. Reipe, sec- 
retary, and Mr. Frederick W. Kakel, treasurer. 

Special Lines of Benevolence. 

Ministerial Relief. As early as 1831 Dr. B. Kurtz and Dr. S. 
S. Schmucker persuaded the General Synod to begin a system of 
ministerial relief. Dr. Kurtz drafted the constitution for the 
management of the fund. The revenue was to be derived from 
the sale of hymn-books and catechisms. But this plan seems 
to have proved unsatisfactory, for in 1839 it was repealed and an 
entirely new organization known as the "Lutheran Pastors' 
Fund" was formed. This contemplated raising funds by volun- 
tary donations. The fund grew very slowly and in ten years 
amounted to little more than $1,300, nearly half of which had 
been donated by the "Book Company" in Baltimore. The plan 
was too complicated, hard to understand and harder to carry out, 
and it embodied some of the features of a mutual insurance so- 



MISSIONS : HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 123 

ciety. This plan also failed, and it was only within a generation 
past that the General Synod was able to evolve a satisfactory sys- 
tem of ministerial relief. 

Meanwhile the Maryland Synod on her own responsibility had 
for many years pursued a successful plan of ministerial relief. 
Its benefits were extended not only to members of the Synod her- 
self but to all Lutheran ministers and their dependents irrespec- 
tive of synodical territory. This organization also was known as 
the "Lutheran Pastors' Fund." It was chartered by the legisla- 
ture of Maryland, and began with an endowment of over $2,800. 
It began in 1856. Dr. Joseph A. Seiss was chairman of the com- 
mittee that prepared the plan and chief of the incorporators. 
The working capital at first consisted of the $2,000 received by 
the Synod from the sale of the Lutheran Observer and the $804 
donated by the stockholders of "the Book Company" when that 
institution was dissolved. By donations of individuals and offer- 
ings of congregations the invested capital was increased to more 
than $5,000. 

For thirty-three years, from 1859 to 1891, the business of the 
Fund was included in the Synod's order of business. The appro- 
priations were made annually by the Synod and the benefactions 
extended to disabled or superannuated Lutheran ministers, and 
to the needy widows and dependent children of deceased Lu- 
theran ministers. More of the beneficiaries of the Fund were 
outside the bounds of the Maryland Synod than within. 

Beginning with 1886 the Synod annually supplemented the 
work of the Pastors' Fund by laying an apportionment of ten 
cents per communicant member for "Ministerial Susteiitation. " 
But five years later it was reported that the entire assets of the 
Pastors' Fund had been lost by the defalcation of the treasurer, 
and at the same time it was resolved that the Sustentation Fund 
and all moneys in the synodical treasury for similar purposes 
should be forwarded to the treasurer of the Pastor's Fund So- 
ciety of the General Synod. Thus after many thousands of dol- 
lars had been administered through the Lutheran Pastors ' Fund 
of the Synod, ministering to the dire necessities of many an am- 
bassador of Christ, relieving the wants of many a widow and fur- 
nishing sustenance to many an orphan, that benevolent institu- 
tion passed out of existence and the Maryland Synod devoted all 
of her relief funds to the work of the general body. 

Lutheran Ministers' Insurance League. Related to the work 
of ministerial relief was the work of the Insurance League or- 
ganized in 1870 at the behest of Dr. John G. Morris. This was 
not a synodical organization but was fostered chiefly by the min- 



124 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

isters of tin 1 Synod. It was incorporated in the courts of Balti- 
more and the charter members were Drs. Morris, McCron, 
Strobel. Stork, and Hennighausen. 

The object of the organization was "the exercise of mutual be- 
nevolence and the mutual insurance of relief to the families of 
its deceased members.'' The rules were few and the plan was 
very simple: when any member of the League died his widow or 
family received two dollars from every remaining member of the 
League. There were no salaried officers, no invested funds, and 
almost no possibility of defalcation. 

The meetings of the League were always held in connection 
with the convention of the Maryland Synod. The first and only 
president of the League was Dr. Morris. The first secretary was 
Dr. Sadtler and then after two years Dr. Hennighausen. The 
Church papers gave hearty support to the movement and the 
number of members increased until it nearly reached five hun- 
dred. In 1879 the secretary reported that the average aid given 
to the families of departed members was $843. Small though this 
amount may seem, it nevertheless came to many of them as a 
great help, rescuing them from dependent poverty, enabling 
some of them to open small stores, purchase a small house in the 
country, pay debts and funeral expenses, clothe their children, 
or lay in a stock of winter fuel and provisions. 

But this benevolent institution, from some unaccountable rea- 
son, encountered severe opposition. The criticism was carried 
into the Church papers. This persecution of the League, together 
with the advancing age of its members and the frequency of 
deaths and consequent frequency of dues, tended to weaken the 
League in its membership and in its appeal. After 1885 the 
membership began to decrease. Much credit is due to Dr. Hen- 
nighausen for sustaining the League through its perils. But in 
185).") when the president, Dr. Morris, passed away and when the 
membership had dwindled to twenty-four, with no hope of re- 
juvenation, the League also passed away and by common consent 
the organization quietly dissolved. 

During its brief life of only a quarter of a century the Luther- 
an Ministers' Insurance League had distributed among needy 
widows and orphans more than $80,000. 

Work Among Freedmen. Another special line of benevolence, 
prosecuted by the Synod and worth of mention, is the work 
among the colored people in our own country. 

Already in 1824, when the Synod was but four years old, she 
began to sense the negro problem in our country. Dr. D. F. 
Schaeffer was then president of the Synod. He was also first 



MISSIONS : HOME, FOREIGN, AND INNER. 125 

vice-president of the Frederick County Auxiliary Colonization 
Society. Dr. Schaeffer called the formal attention of the Synod 
to the subject of colonizing our colored people on the coast of 
Africa. Then the Synod adopted a lengthy preamble and two 
resolutions. The preamble affirms that the Synod ''conceive it a 
duty to express their opinion upon any subject of importance to 
their brethren in the faith, when such expression may promise to 
be useful" and then argues the case for colonization, to the effect 
that it "affords the only prospect of saving our country from the 
horrors of future internal wars and bloodshed." The first reso- 
lution reads, "That this synod highly approve of the plan for 
colonizing our free people of color on the coast of Africa, and 
that the American Colonization Society merits the most cordial 
support of the patriot, of the philanthropist, and the Christian." 

Only once after that did the Synod as such touch on the ques- 
tion. It was in 1834 when it was resolved "That we highly ap- 
prove of the views and operations of the Maryland Colonization 
Society, and cordially recommend its claims to all our ministers 
and churches. ' ' 

During the Civil War the question of slavery seems to have 
been scrupulously avoided by this Synod of the border state. 
But on the question of preserving the Union the Synod gave no 
uncertain sound. At Baltimore in 1864 she adopted unanimously 
a ringing resolution of loyalty, asserting among other things that 
"whilst we do not think it permitted to the ambassadors of 
Christ, \vhose kingdom is not of this world, to introduce into the 
exercises of the Sanctuary matters purely political, involving no 
moral issues, yet we do regard it, not only as right but the 
bounden duty of our Ministers to pray for the preservation of the 
national existence against a rebellion destructive in its aims at 
once of the life, the freedom and the honor of our great and good 
Government, and by both word and deed, as far as is consistent 
with their spiritual calling, to uphold and defend it. ' ' 

But after the reconstruction period was over and when the 
necessity for educating and training the emancipated negro be- 
came clear, the Synod began to busy herself with the problem. 
For several years the Education Committee, of which Dr. John 
G. Butler, of Washington, was chairman, aided a few Lutheran 
students at Howard University in Washington. In 1883 a stand- 
ing committee was appointed on "Education and Mission Work 
Among Freedmen." Dr. Butler was made chairman of the com- 
mittee as he was then teaching in the theological department of 
Howard University. At the next meeting of the Synod the com- 
mittee reported that they had issued a circular in the interest 



12(5 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOH. 

of tlic work and th.it they had aided at Howard University five 
candidates for the Lutheran ministry. One of these was Daniel 
E. Wiseman, a native of "West India and a member of St. Mat- 
thew's Church of Brooklyn, New York. Mr. "Wiseman had just 
graduated from the theological department of the University and 
had presented himself for license at that session of the Synod. 
Licensed in 1884 he bepran that mission work among; his own peo- 
ple in Washington which has flourished so splendidly under his 
hand. 

In 188.") another student was added to the list of beneficiaries 
preparing; for work among; freedmen, and the next year another. 
Most of these men Ivgan their mission in North Carolina. But 
the Maryland Synod continued the work for five years, during; 
which time the committee spent more than $1,'WO and aided seven 
men in preparing; for the Lutheran ministry. 

Meanwhile the North Carolina Synod had become impressed 
with the importance of this kind of work and had begun to train 
colored ministers and educate candidates for the Lutheran min- 
istry among; freedmen. And as North Carolina clearly ofl'ered 
a better field for that kind of work than the territory of the 
Maryland Synod, it was decided gradually to withdraw from this 
line of benevolence and leave it entirely to the Southern synods. 
The last reference to the matter occurs in 1889 when the Mary- 
land Synod promises the North Carolina Synod "to second their 
efforts from time to time." 

Deaconfsscs and Afjfd. Much might be said also about the 
part the Maryland Synod has played, as a body and through in- 
dividual members, in erecting the Deaconess Mother-House at 
Baltimore and the National Lutheran Home for the Aged at 
Washington. These edifices are veritable ornaments to the Lu- 
theran Church of our country, and both the erection of the build- 
ings and the direction of the work done in them, owe much to the 
liberality, enterprise, and energy of Maryland Synod laymen and 
clergymen. 

But after specifying these outstanding characteristics of the 
benevolence of the Maryland Synod we leaf over the pages of her 
life-story and we realize thr-t after all, her greatest work has been 
done through her consistent and loyal support, moral and finan- 
cial, of all the benevolent agencies of the Church at large consti- 
tuted by the general body and designed to promote the glory of 
God. 



CHAPTER vnr. 

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS 

Education. 

More than in any other line of activity the Maryland Synod 
has promoted the educational interests of the Church. Several 
of her founders, as we have seen, were men of broad training, 
nearly all of them were young and active and highly hopeful for 
the future of the Lutheran Church, and from the earliest period 
of her history the Synod has had among her membership an un- 
usual number of men who were zealous in advancing the cause of 
higher education among Lutherans. This exceptional interest of 
the Synod in promoting higher education was frequently noted 
by the General Synod and bv other district synods. Not only 
did she foster the cause among her own people and establish in- 
stitutions on her own territory but she also took the initiative in 
founding more general institutions, colleges and seminaries, and 
in inaugurating the general educational movement in the Church. 
And she has furnished an extraordinary number of founders and 
principals, of presidents and professors for the colleges and semi- 
naries of the Church. 

The first move of the Synod along educational lines was made 
at the instance of Dr. S. S. Schmucker. It came at the third 
meeting of the body in 1822. Dr. Schmucker had been ordained 
by the Synod in 1821. Already at that meeting the Synod placed 
a catechist and theological student, Mr. Kibler, under his tuition. 
Young Schmucker 's talents and learning pointed him out as a 
teacher. He had been a student at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, had studied theology under Dr. Helmuth, and as there 
was no Lutheran Seminary in America had finished his studies 
at Princeton. Before going to Princeton he had taught in the 
York County Academy, and when he took up his pastorate at 
New Market he established in the parsonage there a pro-seminary 
for ministerial candidates. He was therefore well equipped for 
the work of teaching and favorably disposed towards it, and he 
was seriously concerned for the training of the Lutheran min- 
isters of our land. Accordingly, as early as 1822 he proposed 
that the Synod consider "the expediency of providing funds for 
the purchase of books to aid indigent students in acquiring 

127 



128 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

knowledge." And to prove the project practicable he exhibited 
forty-two dollars that he had already received for that purpose. 
The Synod approved the idea and appointed the President and 
Mr. Schnmcker a committee to receive and apply the funds. 

This was only a beginning. A much la rarer project was under 
contemplation by several members of the Synod. This was noth- 
ing less than the establishment of a Theological Seminary to 
serve the entire Lutheran Church of America. Tn that day there 
was no Lutheran Theological Seminary in this country except 
llartwick, which was far off and poorly organized. Candidates 
for the Lutheran ministry were under the necessity of attending 
the theological seminaries of other denominations or else content- 
ing themselves with such private instructions as eminent pastors 
could find time to give them. For many years Dr. D. F. Schaeffer 
had instructed theological candidates in Frederick in connection 
with his work as preacher and pastor. 

The Gct1i/sbiir(/ ticnihinrij. The need for a general theological 
seminary was keenly felt and the first General Synod, meeting in 
Hagerstown in 1820, had appointed a committee to draft a plan 
for founding such a school. But the committee had reported in 
1821 that they could not formulate a feasible plan, and the enter- 
prise was virtually abandoned. It was by the Synod of Mary- 
land and Virginia that the subject was revived. In 182-'} the min- 
isters of that young synod held monthly conferences, and at these 
meetings the expediency of establishing a seminary was fre- 
quently discussed. Much correspondence on the subject was car- 
ried on. Several plans were suggested but none was adopted. 
The next year the subject was carried beyond the bounds of 
private conference and brought into public notice. This impor- 
tant, step was taken by Dr. S. S. Schnmcker. 

Tn a sermon preached before the Synod at Middletown in 1824 
Dr. Schmucker described the work of the private theological 
seminary he had opened at New Market and recommended the 
enlargement of that school into a general institution of the 
Church. This called forth a number of suggestions on the sub- 
ject but no definite action was taken until the next meeting of 
the Synod at Hagerstown in 182.") when S. S. Schmucker, C. P. 
Krauth, and B. Kurtz were appointed a committee "to report a 
plan for the immediate organization of a theological seminary." 
The plan, drawn up by Schmucker, was presented and adopted 
the same day the committee was appointed. It outlined the 
method of founding and maintaining the seminary but provided 
that the school must "be patronized by the General Synod and 
be officially put into operation by that body." 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS. 129 

The General Synod at its next meeting adopted the plan pro- 
posed by the Synod of Maryland and Virginia, appointed the 
time for the opening of the seminary, eleeted Dr. Sehmucker the 
professor, chose a Board of Directors, opened a book of subscrip- 
tions for the cause, selected agents to canvass the Church in this 
country, and appointed Dr. Kurtz to go to Europe to secure books 
for the library and funds for the endowment. Four months 
later, March 2, 1826, the Directors met at Hagerstown to deter- 
mine the location of the seminary. They considered two towns 
in Maryland (Hagerstown and Frederick) and three in Pennsyl- 
vania (Carlisle, Chambersburg, and Gettysburg). Chiefly be- 
cause Gettysburg was regarded as more centrally located for the 
Lutheran Church as a whole than any of the other places, the 
seminary was located there, just six miles north of the territory 
of the Maryland Synod. In 1892 when the subject of removing 
the seminary from Gettysburg to some large city was being seri- 
ously considered the Maryland Synod declared herself emphat- 
ically in favor of removing to Washington. Thus the child of 
the Synod would have come back home. But the seminary was 
too deeply planted at Gettysburg to be uprooted and trans- 
planted. 

The seminary was located within the bounds of the West Penn- 
sylvania Synod but was identified with the whole Church. It 
opened its classes with ten students, one-half of whom were from 
Maryland. It began its work on September 5, 1826, and the rec- 
ord of its service to the Church and its long line of distinguished 
graduates, belongs to the history of the Lutheran Church rather 
than the history of the Maryland Synod. Suffice it to say here 
that the seminary has at all times had the whole-hearted support 
of the Synod within whose bounds it was conceived. Right loy- 
ally the Maryland Synod has contributed of her best to the semi- 
nary, to its faculty, to its student body, to its treasury, to its li- 
brary, and to its Board of Directors. Of the five presidents of 
the seminary three (Sehmucker, Valentine, and Stork) came to 
Gettysburg directly from the Maryland Synod, and a fourth 
(Brown) had been licensed and ordained by the Maryland Synod 
and for three years had been pastor of one of her churches in 
Baltimore. Of the eighteen professors who have served the semi- 
nary seven (Sehmucker, Hay, Valentine, Wolf, Stork, Kuhlman, 
and Went/), aggregating one hundred and forty-three years of 
service, came to Gettysburg directly from the Maryland Synod, 
and four others (Krauth, Brown, Schaeffer, and Clutz), with an 
aggregate of fifty-four years of service, had been prominently 
identified with the life of the Synod as pastors of her churches. 
The other seven professors have rendered eighty-nine years of 
9 



l.">0 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

service. Moreover, the cordial and energetic support of the semi- 
nary through nearly seventy years by J. G. Morris, as a student, 
as a member of the Hoard of Directors, and as a lecturer to the 
student body, must, be noted as a distinct contribution of the 
Synod to the life of the institution. 

From the time that Dr. Kurtz returned from Europe with 
$10,000 for the endowment of the seminary and six thousand 
volumes for the library, the Synod has always been ready to con- 
tribute to funds to the support of the institution, through indi- 
viduals, through congregations and through the synodical treas- 
ury. But the most notable undertaking along this line is the 
Synod's project of raising a Centennial Jubilee Fund of $50,000 
to endow a "Maryland Synod Professorship'' for the seminary. 

Pennsylvania Colhyc. The college at Gettysburg grew out of 
the necessity of preparing men for the seminary. Its chief 
founder was Dr. Schmucker. Shortly after taking charge of the 
seminary in 182() Dr. Schmucker established a classical school at, 
Gettysburg. In 1829 a scientific department was added and it 
was called the Gettysburg Gymnasium. This was in charge of the 
.Jacobs brothers, who had been brought up in Jacobs Church of 
the Maryland Synod. In 1831, after David Jacobs had died, Rev. 
II. L. Baugher was called from the Maryland Synod to take 
charge of the classical department of the gymnasium. The next 
year Schmucker with the assistance of Baugher and Michael 
Jacobs changed the gymnasium into a college, obtained a charter 
from the Pennsylvania legislature and organized the new institu- 
tion under the title of Pennsylvania College of Gettysburg. 

For two years, until better arrangements could be made, Dr. 
Schmucker presided over both the college and the seminary. Dr. 
J. G. Morris was secretary of the first Board of Trustees, and 
of the twenty-five men constituting the incorporators in 1832, a 
majority were members of the Maryland Synod either at that 
time or before that time. Charles Philip Krauth, who had been 
one of the founders of the Maryland Synod in 1820 and her 
president in 182(i, became the first regular president of the col- 
lege in 1834 and for one-third of a century was identified with 
the life of the institutions at Gettysburg. Of the seven men who 
have presided over the college in the course of her history five 
1 Schmucker, Baugher, Valentine, McKnight, and Hefelbower,) 
came to Gettysburg directly from the Maryland Synod and one 
( Krauth) indirectly after a six years' pastorate in Philadelphia. 

The Synod has always acknowledged the claims of the college, 
has annually appointed a .committee to report on its catalogue, 
has heard its representatives in her conventions, and has gener- 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS. 131 

ously welcomed its agents to her pulpits and to her congregations. 
But it is interesting to note the several efforts that have been 
made by the Synod as a whole to help in the financial maintenance 
of the college. In 1854 the Board of Trustees proposed to the 
Maryland Synod that they would educate all her beneficiaries 
gratuitously and forever in the college, provided the Synod would 
collect and pay into the treasury of the college the sum of $10,- 
000. The Synod considered the proposal for a year, then de- 
cided to accept it and appointed a committee to carry out its 
provisions. But just then the Synod became so absorbed in other 
matters that the committee never reported arid the remarkable 
offer was forfeited. Ten years later when a special effort was 
launched to complete the endowment of the college a formidable 
syiiodical committee of ten clergymen and seven laymen was ap- 
pointed to go to Harrisburg to participate in a convention for the 
purpose, and the committee was instructed to withstand any ef- 
fort to remove the college froin Gettysburg. After another ten 
years the Synod heartily endorsed the project of securing one 
hundred thousand dollars additional endowment for the college 
and undertook to raise through the endowment committee of the 
college at least one-fourth of that amount. 

Beneficiary Education. For a round score of years the Mary- 
land Synod fostered the cause of education through a sy nodical 
education society. This was organized in 1828. At first this 
organization was combined with the home missionary society. 
The work of ministering to the spiritual wants of the unchurched 
was identical with the work of securing and training more men 
for the ministry. The name of the combined organization formed 
in 1828 was "The Parent Domestic Missionary and Education 
Society. ' ' It was the first synodical organization of that kind in 
this country. One of the expressed objects of the society was 
"to assist pious indigent students for the ministry.'' 

The society received substantial cooperation from individuals 
and congregations throughout the Synod. Several auxiliary so- 
cieties were formed in the larger congregations. Scholarships 
were established. The ladies of the churches, particularly those 
at Hagerstown, Baltimore, and Taneytown, manifested great zeal 
in preparing articles of needle-work to be sold for the benefit of 
the organization. The result was that already in 1829 the so- 
ciety was able to assume the support of four "pious and promis- 
ing young men" at Gettysburg. These were Samuel Rothrock 
and Jesse Vogler of North Carolina, and Francis Springer and 
Abraham Shuman from the Synod's own territory. In 1832 the 
society was aiding five students for the ministry and thereafter 



1ML' HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

two each year until 18:5.~>. The funds wore secured by individual 
subscriptions and through auxiliary societies, but several times 
the synodical treasury was drawn on, as in 1884 for $7f> and in 
188.") for $">(). The minutes of the society were regularly printed 
with those of the Synod. In 18:54 the missionary cause was sepa- 
rated from that of education and we have "The Missionary So- 
ciety of the Maryland Synod" and "The Education Society of 
the Maryland Synod." 

When the General Synod took up the cause of education in 
188") it was at the suggestion and instigation of the delegates from 
the Maryland Synod. "The Parent Education Society of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church" was organized at York, Pennsyl- 
vania, immediately after the adjournment of the General Synod 
in 188."). Dr. Benjamin Kurtz of Baltimore was chairman of the 
meeting that organized the society. He was appointed chairman 
of the committee that drafted the constitution for the organiza- 
tion, and he was elected the first president of the body. Dr. H. 
L. Baugher was elected secretary. In these offices Dr. Kurtz and 
Dr. Baugher, both of them members of the Maryland Synod, di- 
rected the splendid work of the Parent Education Society for 
more than twenty-seven years. In fact the Maryland Synod 
seems to have been regarded by the other synods as the special 
sponsor for the Parent Education Society, for in 1842 when the 
Synod of South Carolina had some complaints to register and 
some questions to ask concerning the practice of the society they 
addressed themselves to the Maryland Synod on the subject and 
from that source received information and satisfaction. 

Immediately upon the organization of the Parent Society of 
the General Synod the Maryland Synod's Education Society de- 
clared itself auxiliary to the Parent Society and transferred its 
funds and beneficiaries to the general organization. For several 
years after that the synodical society had a mere nominal exist- 
ence. But in 1888 a new constitution was adopted and this re- 
vived the arrangement by which the synodical society supported 
beneficiaries on its own account. Thus in 1844 we find the Edu- 
cation Society of the Maryland Synod aiding thirteen benefici- 
aries with one hundred dollars each and pledging $1,46.) to the 
cause for the following year besides helping the Parent Society 
to support forty-four beneficiaries in that biennium. 

However, under the increased independent activity of synod- 
ical societies the work of the Parent Society languished and in 
1848 Dr. Baugher as secretary of the Parent Society addressed 
a communication to the Maryland Synod setting forth "the pro- 
priety of dissolving the synodical Educational Society and again 



EDUCATION AT, ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS. 166 

uniting with the Parent Education Society" in supporting bene- 
ficiaries. This appeal met a favorable response, the synodical 
society was dissolved, and forthwith the Maryland Synod herself 
made beneficiary education a part of her regular order of busi- 
ness at each annual session. So it continues to the present. Be- 
ginning with 1849 the Synod has had a special committee on edu- 
cation, and this through its annual reports has always kept the 
subject before the eyes of that body. For many years the com- 
mittee was known as the Beneficiary Education Committee ; to- 
day it is called the Committee on Ministerial Education. 

After the committee had been organized about six years it 
began to undertake the support of designated students assigned 
to it by the Parent Education Society. This led directly to the 
practice of having the Synod support the ministerial students 
from her own territory and transmitting any surplus education 
funds to the general society. As the number of beneficiaries 
from the Synod's own territory increased the demands on the 
treasury became so great that the synodical support of the Par- 
ent Society was withdrawn. The beneficiary work of other dis- 
trict synods took a similar course and the Parent Education So- 
ciety has long since been left with nothing but twelve scholar- 
ships yielding thirty dollars each, while the committee of the 
Maryland Synod alone disburses several thousand dollars an- 
nually. 

The Synod has several times been called on to aid in educating 
ministerial candidates from beyond her own bounds. Thus for 
several years beginning in 1880 substantial aid was sent to the 
Synods of Virginia and South-West Virginia. For about eight 
years, 1880-1888, hundreds of dollars were appropriated annually 
for the aid of Lutheran colored students at Howard University, 
nearly all of whom belonged to the North Carolina Synod. From 
1906 to 1915 one hundred dollars was sent annually to Breklum 
Seminary in Germany. Until the West Virginia Synod was able 
to organize its work of beneficiary education the Maryland Synod 
supported her students for the ministry. And in 1917, at the 
urgent request of the West Pennsylvania Synod, the Maryland 
Synod undertook the support for three years of four of her men 
in the seminary at Gettysburg, and this has involved the expendi- 
ture of more than two thousand dollars. Altogether the Synod 
has been supporting needy ministerial students for sixty-four 
years and in that time has spent for the immediate purpose of 
beneficiary education the astounding sum of $115,087.99. 

In the early days the annual conventions of the synodical Edu- 
cation Society and more recently the annual reports of the Min- 



I.'U HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

isterial Education Committee have furnished the occasion for 
eloquent pleas for men TO enter the ministry, and it would be im- 
possible to estimate how many men have been influenced either 
directly or indirectly through this means to dedicate their lives 
to the ministry of the Word. 

Education of Women. The Maryland Synod gave much en- 
couragement also to institutions of higher education for women. 
At one time she boasted three "Female Seminaries" on her ter- 
ritory, each presided over by a clerical member of the Synod and 
each claiming to serve the Lutheran Church. But all of these 
were in reality private undertakings. With none of them was 
the Synod as such officially connected. She encouraged their be- 
ginnings, she endorsed their work, and she annually appointed 
visitors who reported the progress of the institutions and the 
facilities they offered to the daughters of the Lutheran Church. 
But the Synod had no direct voice in the management of these 
schools and did not support them from her treasury. 

As early as 1845 the Synod through Charles Porterfield Kraut h 
passed a resolution of encouragement to Professor Haupt in the 
work of his Gettysburg Female Seminary, and in that connection 
observed that "female education can hardly have too high an esti- 
mate put upon it.'' 

In that period the whole Christian Church was beginning to 
see the importance of higher education for women and the Mary- 
land Synod took official notice of the matter. In 1848, probably 
on motion of Dr. Morris, the Synod expressed herself as highly 
favorable to the establishment of a Female Seminary under the 
auspices of the Church, and adopted the resolutions of the East 
Pennsylvania Synod relating to this subject. But as nothing 
came of this project to establish an institution under the auspices 
of the Church at large, the Synod began the next year to contem- 
plate a seminary under sy nodical auspices. She adopted the fol- 
lowing preamble and resolution presented by Rev. D. F. Bittle, 
afterwards president of Roanoke College : 

"WnKRKAs, The great importance of Female Education is be- 
ginning to awaken the especial attention of the church, and we 
believe the superior intelligence of the daughters of Christian 
families is identified with the prosperity of Christ's kingdom, in 
consequence of the part which females are capable of taking in 
the movements and benevolent enterprises of the church; and 
WIIKRKAS, The Synod of Maryland has in its connection a large 
part of the Christian population of this State, and has no insti- 
tution in which its daughters can receive a superior education 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY ASM) LITERARY PRODUCTS. 135 

under the immediate care of their own church ; and WHKRKAS, 
We think the time has now arrived when immediate action is 
called for upon this subject ; therefore, 

"1. Resolved, That this Synod now take the matter in consid- 
eration, and that a committee of nine gentlemen, four ministers 
and five laymen, be appointed to devise a plan by which the sum 
of $20,000 can be raised forthwith to be invested in the establish- 
ment of a Female Seminary within the bounds of this Synod, in 
any location that the stockholders may deem the most advanta- 
geous, to be conducted under the supervision of the Synod of 
Maryland. ' ' 

A committee was accordingly appointed but the question of a 
suitable location for the school seems to have delayed the project. 
In 1850 a new committee was appointed to '"'select a site at a 
suitable place and adopt measures for the speedy erection of a 
seminary" and report at the next meeting of the Synod. But 
this new committee never reported. The enterprise was under- 
taken by private parties or stock companies, and the next year 
the Synod expressed her pleasure at learning "that efforts are 
making to erect Lutheran Female Seminaries at Hagerstown and 
Baltimore'' and recommended both of the contemplated institu- 
tions to the confidence and encouragement of all the churches. 

The Hagerstown Female Seminary opened its first scholastic 
year on September 21, 1853, with Eev. C. C. Baughman of the 
Maryland Synod as principal. Every year thereafter the Synod 
appointed a visitor to the institution and adopted his glowing 
reports of its flourishing condition. Rev. C. C. Baughman was 
succeeded as principal in 1863 by Rev. W. F. Eyster. After 
three years Rev. Eyster was succeeded by Rev. Charles Martin 
who was principal from 1866 to 1869. Then Mr. Eyster served 
another term of three years and was succeeded by Rev. John Mc- 
Cron, D.D., of Baltimore. In 1875 Rev. C. L. Keedy, M. D., took 
charge of the institution and three years later became the sole 
owner and proprietor. All these men were members of the Mary- 
land Synod. In 1865 a committee of the Synod was authorized 
to form a company of Lutherans to purchase the seminary in 
order to prevent it from falling into non-Lutheran hands. But 
the next year it was reported that the school had been purchased 
by "two good Lutherans" and that it was continuing to run to 
the satisfaction of the Lutherans who were patronizing it. Thus 
the Synod never officially shared the responsibility of its owner- 
ship or control. The two Lutherans who had purchased the 
school were Mr. C. W. Humrickhouse and Mr. J. C. Bridges. Mr. 
Humrickhouse soon became sole owner and it was he who sold it 



l.'U) HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

to Dr. Keedy in 1878. Sonic idea of the rapid growth of the in- 
stitution may he gathered from the fact that in 18()8 it was re- 
ported to have a corps of ten teachers and one hundred and 
thirty-two students. 

The Lutherville Female Seminary was begun at ahout the same 
time as that in Hagerstown and received the same kind of en- 
dorsement and encouragement from the Synod. Chief among its 
founders was Dr. J. (J. Morris. The Synod's official visitor to the 
school for a numher of years was Dr. J. G. Butler. As principal 
of the school Dr. Benjamin Sadtler, a native of Baltimore, was 
called from Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1802. He then became a 
member of the Maryland Synod and so continued until he be- 
came the president of Muhlenberg College in 1875. Then Dr. J. 
R. Dimm was the principal until 1880, when Dr. J. H. Turner 
took charge of the institution. Lutherville Seminary, before it 
passed out of the hands of Lutherans, was a faithful servant of 
the Church and received from time to time very high commenda- 
tion from the Synod within whose bounds it was located. 

Meanwhile a third school for the higher education of the 
daughters of the Lutheran Church sprang up on the territory of 
the Maryland Synod. This was the Burkittsville Female Semi- 
nary. It was begun in 18(H) and in three years its catalogue 
showed a list of eight teachers and fifty-four students. The 
fourth year it paid $1,200 to its trustees. Rev. W. C. Wire of the 
Maryland Synod was the founder and the first principal, and 
the school was recommended to the confidence and support of the 
Church. Mr. Wire presided over the institution for twelve years 
and was succeeded by Rev. J. II. Turner. In 1880 Rev. M. L. 
Heisler became principal. Shortly thereafter the school ceased 
to be visited by an official representative of the Synod. 

Missionary Institute at Selinsgrove. The institutions that now 
constitute Susquehanna Tniversity were founded by a commit- 
tee of the Maryland Synod. The project was fathered by Dr. 
Benjamin Kurt/. In the columns of the Observer he had advo- 
cated the establishment of a "Missionary Institute," and on the 
floor of the Synod in 18.">(> he presented the copious report of a 
committee on the subject. The plan grew out of a burning /eal 
for the souls of men. In order to increase the supply of minis- 
ters and thus in some measure to answer the crying need for 
home missionaries it was proposed to found a school in which the 
Chun-h could "instruct for six months, or twelve, or eighteen, 
or two years, or longer if necessary," "young men, middle-aged 
men, and even elderly men, who can speak of Christ from their 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS. 



137 



own experience." Practical and elementary education was all 
that was contemplated, and competition with institutions of 
higher education was specifically disclaimed. 

The proposal was adopted by the Synod with a divided vote of 
twenty-one to nine, and five clergymen and five laymen were ap- 
pointed to constitute the first Board of Trustees of the proposed 
institute. The board determined first upon a location in Balti- 
more County, Maryland, then upon Loysville, Pennsylvania, but 
finally upon Selinsgrove. Accordingly in 1857, because it was 
evident that the institute would be located outside of Maryland 
and would thus fall under the special auspices and fostering 
care of another Synod, the Board of Trustees requested the Mary- 
land Synod to constitute them a self-perpetuating body. This 
was done and it was resolved "That this Synod hereby abolish 
its existing relations to said institute, and dissolve its present 
special connection with it:" At the same time Dr. Kurtz, who 
had been chosen superintendent of the institute, was given a let- 
ter of honorable dismissal from the Synod. 

After the return of the Melancthon Synod in 1869 the Mary- 
land Synod in taking charge of the educational interests of the 
Melancthon Sj'nod officially recognized the importance and use- 
fulness of the Missionary Institute, with its eight students in the 
theological department and its one hundred and twenty-six in 
the collegiate department, and resolved "That so long as said 
institute shall continue to carry out in good faith the original 
idea which professedly led to its establishment, we will be willing 
to render it our patronage. ' ' In recent years the Synod has been 
receiving annual reports on the catalogue of Susquehanna Uni- 
versity. Dr. David Bittle Floyd was called from the pulpit at 
Georgetown to become professor in the theological department of 
the institution in 1905. 

Founders, Presidents, and Professors. In addition to the in- 
stitutions at Gettysburg and Selinsgrove a number of other 
worthy colleges and seminaries owe their beginnings to men who 
came from the bosom of the Maryland Synod. Limited space for- 
bids us to set forth any details and we can barely enumerate the 
personalities. 

Wittenberg College, founded in 1845 on the initiative of the 
English Synod of Ohio, had as its founder and first president 
Dr. Ezra Keller. Dr. Keller was a native of the Middletown 
A r alley and had served but two pastorates, one at Taneytown and 
one at Hagerstown, when he was called to establish the college in 
Ohio. The second president of the college was also a son of the 



13S HISTOkY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Maryland Synod, Dr. Samuel Sprecher, who was a native of 
Washington County and who had been pastor at Martinsburg. 
For twenty-five years he was president of the college and for ten 
years more the professor of theology there. In this connection 
also it should he noted that the present Dean of Ilanuna Divinity 
School, Dr. 1). II. Hauslin, is a son of the Maryland Synod. For 
five years also ( 18.10-1855) this school had the services of Dr. 
Frederick W. Conrad, who had been at St. .John's in Hagerstown. 

Roanoke College grew out of "Virginia College Institute" 
established in 1842 by Rev. David F. Bittle, D.D. Dr. Bittle was 
horn near Middletown, was ])astor of the Middletown Churcli 
from 184") to 18.VJ, founded the Ilagerstown Female Seminary in 
18.">3, and that same year organized Roanoke College at Salem, 
Virginia, and became its first president. This institution also 
had the services of Dr. Daniel II. Bittle, brother of the first presi- 
dent, after he had presided over North Carolina College from 
]8f>8 to 18(>1 and over Colorado College at Columbus, Texas. 

Midland College was founded by the Board of Education in 
1887 but was without a regular president until 1889 when Dr. 
.Jacob A. Clutz took charge of the struggling institution. Dr. 
Clutx was a son of the Maryland Synod and for sixteen years he 
had been pastor of St. Paul's Church in Baltimore, when he went 
to the Middle West to start our Lutheran College there on its 
career of prosperity. It was under his presidency that the West- 
ern Theological Seminary was established in connection witJi 
Midland in 1894. Rev. Robert L. Patterson, D.D., now on the 
faculty of that seminary, was ordained by the Maryland Synod 
in 1894. 

Illinois State University, which was tlie forerunner both of 
Carthage Collejre and of the Practical Seminary of the Synodical 
Conference, was founded by Rev. Francis Springer, D.D., and 
Rev. Simeon W. Harkey, D.D. Dr. Springer was licensed and 
ordained by the Maryland Synod in 1836 and 1837 respectively, 
and his attention had been directed to the Lutheran field in Illi- 
nois by his work as home missionary for the Synod. Dr. Harkey 
was also a son of the Synod, licensed in 1834 and ordained in 
183<i, and having served short pastorates at Williamsport and 
Woodsboro and fourteen years at Frederick, from which place he 
was called to the new institution in Illinois. 

Xorth Carolina Collejre was founded in 18;")8 and its first presi- 
dent was Rev. Daniel II. Bittle, I). I)., of the Maryland Synod. 
The college was closed during the Civil War but after the war it 
was revived by Dr. L. A. Bikle, another son of the Maryland 
Synod, who continued to lie president of the institution for many 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AN f D LITERARY PRODUCTS. 139 

years. His brother, Dr. Philip M..Bikle, was for a time a pro- 
fessor in the institution. 

A number of other institutions at various times called men 
from the Maryland Synod to beeome their presidents or profes- 
sors on their faculties. Thus the Theological Seminary at Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, called Dr. Schaeffer from Hagerstown in 1839 and 
thus started him upon his career as a teacher of theology. Muh- 
lenberg College called Dr. Benjamin Sadtler from the ranks of 
the Maryland Synod to become its president in 1875. Hartwick 
Seminary in 1871 called Dr. T. T. Titus from his pastorate with 
Trinity Church, Hagerstown. to beeome its principal. 

Literature. 

Closely related to theological and religious education is theo- 
logical and religious literature. In the production of English 
theological literature for the Lutheran, Church the Maryland 
Synod was the pioneer. She took the initiative both in calling 
forth periodical literature and in establishing a publishing house. 
By her official action and support was produced the first English 
Lutheran periodical ever published, and at her instigation and by 
her support was formed the first association of men for the pub- 
lication of English Lutheran books. 

The Lutheran Intelligencer. We have observed that at the 
very first meeting of the Synod in 1820 it was resolved that the 
propriety of a religious publication devoted to the interests of 
our Church should be seriously considered at the next meeting 
of the Synod. But no further mention was made of the matter 
until 1824 when the attention of the Synod was again directed 
to the expediency of publishing a periodical magazine for the 
promotion of piety and religious knowledge in the Church, and 
a committee was appointed with power to act provided a ma- 
jority of the brethren individually approved the plan. The com- 
mittee consisted of the president, D. F. Schaeffer, and the sec- 
retary, S. S. Schmucker, together with Benjamin Kurtz and 
Charles Philip Krauth. 

Ten years had passed since the last number of Das Evan- 
yelische Mayazin had appeared. This was a German Lutheran 
magazine edited by Drs. Helmuth, Schmidt, and others, begun 
in Philadelphia in 1811, appearing in octavo form at irregular 
intervals, and discontinued in 1814. There was a genuine need 
for a Lutheran periodical in the English language. 

But another year and a half passed before the committee of the 
Synod launched its enterprise. In March, 1826, the first number 
of the Lutheran InteUiyencer was issued in Frederick, Man'land, 



140 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

under the editorship of Drs, Schaeffer and Krauth. It was a 
monthly publication, octavo size, and each ninuher contained 
about twenty-six pages. The nature and general content of the 
paper may be gathered from the title which reads: "The Eran- 
t/clical Lutheran Intelligencer, containing historical, biograph- 
ical, and religious memoirs: with essays on the doctrines of Lu- 
ther: and practical remarks and anecdotes for the edification of 
pious persons of all denominations. Edited by a Committee of 
Clergymen, appointed by the Synod of Maryland and Virginia." 
The introductory address sketches the plan of the periodical 
and says among other things: 

"Though it will never be our ambition to appear in the con- 
troversial attitude, yet we shall feel ourselves sacredly pledged, 
whenever circumstances may require it, "to contend for the 
faith once delivered to the saints." The necessity of assuming 
such a character, a character not congenial with our feelings, will 
be followed by a vindication of those articles that are contained 

in the creeds, confessions of the Lutheran Church We 

shall be disposed to direct our polemic artillery, mainly, against 
the enemies of the Cross, those disguised advocates of revelation 
who would despoil it of its glory. For Socinianism in every form, 

we have but one feeling, and it is of abhorence Our 

Church, numbering at present in her ministerial rank upwards 
of two hundred, and reduced into one thousand organized com- 
munities, recently bound together in a general synod and at this 
moment putting forth her strength for the establishment of a 
Theological Seminary in which her pious youth are to be trained 
for the office that "preaches the atonement'' will furnish every 
day occurrences with which our pages will be enriched, and our 
friends edified." 

These principles were adhered to and through the five years of 
its existence the Intelligencer was a most interesting repository 
of the incidents and documents of contemporaneous history. Tn 
1827 Dr. Krauth removed from the Synod and the full burden 
of the editorship devolved upon Dr. Schaeffer. Though the ac- 
tive pastor of a large parish and the instructor of theological 
candidates, Dr. Schaeffer gave much time to the work of his 
periodical. He received no compensation except the repeated 
thanks of the Synod and the warm commendation of his journal. 
The Intelligencer was not highly valued during the last few 
years of its life, ft failed of general support and so in February, 
1831, the last number was issued and the paper was "discon- 
tinued for want of support, notwithstanding the pledges that 
had been given to the editor." At the close of its career the mag- 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS. 141 

azine had less than five hundred subscribers and more than $800 
of debt. The debt was assumed by the Synod. The Intelligencer 
was a sturdy pioneer and had performed good service. Its chief 
merit lies in the fact that it pointed the way for more popular 
periodicals in the English tongue. 

The Lutheran Observer. The next undertaking in English 
periodical literature for the Lutheran Church was the Observer. 
This began just six months after the Intelligencer was discon- 
tinued, and it was regarded by the Synod as the agent that would 
"carry on the operations commenced by the Intelligencer." But 
the Observer in the beginning was not so strictly a sy nodical un- 
dertaking as the Intelligencer had been. 

It was originally intended that the Observer should be pub- 
lished at Gettysburg and edited by Drs. Schmucker and Hazelius. 
The prospectus was issued at C4ettysburg over the names of the 
two professors, but before the first number appeared the enter- 
prise was transferred to Baltimore. The reason for this transfer 
is given by Dr. Morris thus: "In those days of extreme unde- 
nominational liberality it was feared that a paper issued at Get- 
tysburg, with the name Lutheran as significant of its character, 
would give offence to the Presbyterians in that place, and hence 
it was brought to Baltimore, where no such apprehension ex- 
isted." But in the first number of the paper it is explained that 
the precarious state of Dr. Schmucker 's health and the conse- 
quent increase in the duties devolving on Dr. Hazelius made it 
necessary to seek another editor and therefore a different place 
of publication. At any rate, the paper came to be issued from 
the territory of the Maryland Synod, a Maryland Synod man be- 
came the first editor, and for more than thirty-five years the edi- 
torial berth was occupied by pastors of the Maryland Synod. 

Dr. J. G. Morris was the first editor of the Observer and under 
his wise direction for two years it made its way into large use- 
fulness and wide popularity. When the editorial work became 
too burdensome for Dr. Morris in connection with his duties as 
pastor of the First Lutheran Church of Baltimore he persuaded 
Dr. Benjamin Kurtz to come to Baltimore and take charge of 
the paper. And Dr. Kurtz, one of the founders of the Maryland 
Synod and prominently identified with all her work for more 
than a generation, continued to be the editor of the Observer for 
nearly thirty years. 

Under Dr. Kurtz's management the paper grew. From a 
struggling semi-monthly with a subscription list of seven or eight 
hundred it became a large and handsome weekly rejoicing in a 



142 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

subscription list of over seven thousand. Several times during 
this period the Synod offieially encouraged the paper and urged 
her members "to use their utmost exertions to extend its circu- 
lation." 

Hut Dr. Kurtz did not conduct the paper in the spirit in which 
Dr. Morris had begun it. He made it a medium for the flaming 
advocacy of the "new measures" movement and "American Lu- 
theranism." Consequently in course of time other periodicals 
were established to present the more conservative Lutheran po- 
sitions. The first of these was the Missionary, begun by Dr. Pas- 
savant in Pittsburgh in 1848. Hut for seventeen years the Lu- 
theran Observer in Baltimore was alone in the field of English 
Lutheran weeklies. 

For a short while the Maryland Synod legally owned the Ob- 
server. In 1840 the Lutheran Hook Company had been organ- 
ized in Baltimore) with Dr. Kurtz as superintendent. To this 
company Dr. Kurtz donated the Observer with all its assets. In 
18")2 the book company proposed to transfer the Observer to the 
Synod, because it was thought better for the Church at large 
that a Synod should have charge of the paper and receive the 
revenues arising from its publication, and the Maryland Synod 
was the only one that was incorporated at that time. The Synod 
accepted the offer and at a special session of the body in March, 
1853, legally received the paper together with net assets esti- 
mated at about five thousand dollars. The only conditions at- 
tached to the transfer were that the Synod should continue Dr. 
Kurtz as editor of the paper and that the proceeds of the publi- 
cation should be devoted to "benevolent, religious and literary 
purposes." 

Thus the Synod came to own the Observer. An elaborate set 
of principles was adopted for the management of the paper. The 
main import of these principles was that the paper should con- 
tinue to be sacredly devoted "to the general interests and wants 
of the Church at large." Hut the Synod at once abandoned the 
idea of making the paper a source of financial gain and the sub- 
scription price was greatly reduced. Accordingly it soon became 
evident that the main purposs of purchasing the paper would not 
be realized and that there would be no profits for distribution to 
benevolent purposes, and in 18.14 it was decided to offer the paper 
for sale. Two bids were received, one from Dr. Kurtz and one 
from Dr. Passavant. The bid of Dr. Kurtz, though somewhat 
lower than that of Dr. Passavant, the Synod accepted rather than 
see the paper removed from her territory. 

The two thousand dollars which the Synod realized from the 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS. 143 

sale of the Observer was used to. establish a "Pastors' Fund" as 
we have seen. In January, 18.~)6, less than a month after Dr. 
Kurtz had bought the paper from the Synod, he sold it on the 
same terms to F. R. Anspach, George Diehl, and T. Newton 
Kurtz. Six years later Dr. Kurtz ceased to be connected with 
the paper and Dr. F. W. Conrad became joint owner and editor. 
At the meeting of the General Synod in 1866 Diehl and Conrad 
presented the question of the General Synod's ownership of the 
paper, and on recommendation of the General Synod the "Lu- 
theran Observer Association" w r as formed of Lutheran clergy- 
men and laymen. This was a stock company with capital stock 
valued at $10,000 held by more than fifty persons. Thereupon 
the Observer ceased to be the special interest of the Maryland 
Synod and became the advocate of the General Synod, and in 
1867 the paper was moved from Baltimore to Philadelphia. 

Lutheran Church Work. The first official periodical publica- 
tion of the General Synod was the monthly called Lutheran 
Church Work. This began in January, 1908. All three members 
of the Editorial Committee were members of the Maryland 
Synod, Drs. Dunbar, Studebaker and Albert. This paper was 
mainly an official presentation of the work of the various boards 
and committees of the General Synod. It continued to be pub- 
lished for four years, when it was merged in the new-born weekly 
published by the General Synod. 

It was at the meeting of the General Sj'nod in Washington in 
1911 that the action was taken to establish an official weekly. A 
standing committee of four clergymen and three laymen was ap- 
pointed to launch the paper and supervise its publication. Three 
of the four clergymen, were members of the Maryland Synod. 
Dr. W. H. Dunbar of Baltimore was chairman of the entire com- 
mittee. Dr. J. C. Bowers, at that time president of the Maryland 
Synod, and Dr. J. S. Simon of Hagerstown, were also members 
of the committee. Under the supervision and editorial manage- 
ment of this committee the new paper started its career in March, 
1912. It was known as the Lutheran Church Work, absorbing 
the monthly magazine by that name and the Lutheran World, 
and it soon commended itself to its constituency. Two years 
later, after the paper had been thoroughly established, the com- 
mittee of the General Synod selected Dr. F. G. Gotwald to be the 
editor and manager, and the editorial headquarters were removed 
from Baltimore to York. 

Besides these periodicals in whose history the Maryland Synod 
or her pastors figured so largely, the Synod frequently called at- 



144 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

tention to other publications and commended them to her mem- 
bership. Such was The Evanyelical Lutheran I'reacher and /Vs- 
torul .Woc.sr/j//<r, a publication presenting: a series of Lutheran 
sermons, issued by Rev. Lewis Eichelberger at Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, and receiving the public notice of the Synod first in 1833. 
Such also were Weyl's Hirtenstimme, Reynold's Evangelical Re- 
view, and the Lutheran Quarterly. In 1871 the Synod donated 
one hundred dollars to help pay the debt on the General Synod's 
(Jerman paper, the Kirchenfrennd. 

Lutheran Tract tiocifti/. As early as 1832 the Synod formed a 
Lutheran Tract Society whose object was "the publication of 
doctrinal and practical tracts for distribution in the Lutheran 
Church." This was regarded as essential in "preserving genuine 
evangelical Lutheranism." The officers of the society were Drs. 
Kurtz and Morris. But the laudable purpose did not meet w r ith 
general favor and in a few years the society was dissolved. 

Lutheran Rook Company. Until the Lutheran Publication So- 
ciety was organized to serve the interests of the Church at large, 
the Maryland Synod interested herself in the production of books 
that would be useful in her churches. In 1830 she recommended 
to the General Synod the translation of Arndt's "True Chris- 
tianity'' from the German. This translation was produced by 
Rev. J. X. Hoffman, one of the Synod's own members, and was 
completed in 1833. For several years beginning in 1836 the 
Synod had a committee charged with the duty of producing a 
book on baptism. The work finally appeared in 1840. It came 
from the pen of Dr. B. Kurtz and received very high approba- 
tion. In 183f) the Synod issued a call for a work of not more 
than two hundred pages that would comprise the following parts : 
(1) A historical sketch of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
Europe and America; (2) the first five parts and the seventh 
and eighth parts of Luther's smaller catechism, published by the 
General Synod; (3) the Augsburg Confession; (4) the Formula 
for the government and discipline of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church: f ">) a collection of hymns suitable for catechetical lec- 
tures. These specifications are interesting as showing what needs 
the Synod felt, but the work was never produced. 

As men came to see more clearly the need for specific books in 
English that would minister to the Lutheran pastor and his con- 
gregation, the suggestion was made that a Lutheran "Book 
Establishment" be organized to produce such books. The sug- 
gestion was laid before the Synod in 1836 by Dr. Kurtz, editor of 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND LITERARY PRODUCTS. 145 

the Observer. The Synod endorsed the project very enthusiastic- 
ally arid pledged most cheerful cooperation. Accordingly the Lu- 
theran Book Company, as it was called, was organized in Balti- 
more in 1840 with a capital of $8,000. It was a stock company 
and the Synod at once purchased ten shares of the stock. Dr. 
Kurtz was chosen the superintendent of the company, with a 
yearly salary of $1,200. 

The book company continued thirteen years and proved itself 
very useful. Books, pamphlets, and periodicals were printed, 
from which a revenue of $9,000 was derived. This was con- 
tributed to the religious and benevolent operations of the Church. 
To this organization Dr. Kurtz donated the Observer establish- 
ment and when in 1853 the Maryland Synod purchased the Ob- 
server the book company redeemed all its stock and went into 
dissolution. 

It is worthy of mention that for nearly a third of a century 
the Maryland Synod has furnished the editors of the Augsburg- 
Sunday school literature in the persons of Dr. Charles S. Albert 
and Dr. Charles P. Wiles. 

In these many and varied forms has the Maryland Synod con- 
tributed to the educational and literan- work of the Lutheran 
Church. Through the Synod as a whole, through individuals 
among her membership, through groups and organizations and 
institutions within her bounds, through suggestion to the General 
Synod, in college and in seminary, in popular religious period- 
ical and in stately theological volume, at home and abroad, for 
men and for women, she has distinguished herself by her constant 
fidelity to the didactic mission of the Church. 



.10 



"Built upon the foundation of the apostles 
and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the 
chief corner stone." Ephesians 2:20. 

"The Lord is good; his mercy is everlast- 
ing; and his truth endureth to all genera- 
tions." Psalm 100:5. 



CHAPTER IX. 
DOCTRINAL AND LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENT. 

Doctrinal. 

The confessional history of the Maryland Synod is a faithful 
reflection of the confessional history of the General Synod. A 
recent historian has referred to the Maryland Synod as "always 
prominent and liberal." This summary characterization, in its 
reflection on the orthodox}- of the Synod, shows a lack of histor- 
ical perspective. It is true that for a number of years the Mary- 
land Synod contained ardent advocates of the "new measures," 
but it must not be overlooked that at the same time she contained 
eminent "symbolists" and ardent advocates of "conservative" 
measures. And in this the Synod was only a miniature of the 
General Synod and of the Lutheran Church at large. It was 
just because the Maryland Synod was "always prominent" and 
embraced such a large number of representative men, that she 
pictured so accurately the doctrinal status of the Church in gen- 
eral. 

Moreover, it must be remembered that throughout the period 
of confessional agitation in the Church and in the Synod the 
conservative element in the Synod was stronger than the radical 
element and made it impossible for them to carry any extreme 
measure. Repeatedly liberal and un-Lutheran measures were 
proposed in the Synod but always firmly rejected. For these pro- 
posals the Synod as such cannot fairly be held accountable. 
Herein also the history of the Synod parallels that of the Gen- 
eral Synod. The story of the doctrinal development both of the 
district Synod of Maryland and of the General Synod, as indi- 
cated by their authoritative deliverances rather than the views 
of certain individuals or groups within them, is one of steady 
progress to the firm positions of the present day. At many points 
along the line of development the Maryland Synod was farther 
along the road .of conservation than some other synods later dis- 
tinguished for their conservative positions. The comparative 
isolation of the Maryland Synod from other general bodies an- 
tagonizing the General Synod and her comparative freedom from 
friction with other synods on the same territory, permitted unin- 
termittent growth and development along doctrinal lines. 

147 



148 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

It is not claimed that the Maryland Synod was from the be- 
ginning doetrinally complete or eonfessionally sound when 
judged by the confessional standards of the United Lutheran 
Church of to-day. Under such standards no synod was sound in 
181*0. The religious life of the country and the status of confes- 
sional thought at the time made such a thing virtually impossi- 
ble. It is only claimed that the Maryland Synod reflects with a 
high decree of faithfulness the general movement of the Luther- 
an Church along confessional lines. This was a forward move- 
ment, attended it is true by agitation and sometimes disturb- 
ances, but marked by successive stages of progress. In this pro- 
gressive movement of conservation within the General Synod the 
Maryland Synod was always one of the leaders. 

When the General Synod was formed in 1820 its constitution 
made no mention of the Confessions of the Lutheran Church. 
But neither did any of the constituent synods recognize the Lu- 
theran symbols. The Church had receded from the confessional 
position of Muhlenberg. In 1792 the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
had adopted a new constitution, omitting all reference even to 
the Augsburg Confession. The other synods as they were organ- 
ized had followed this pattern. It was a time of great confes- 
sional laxity and, except in the little Synod of Tennessee with 
three Henkels and three other ministers, there was the greatest 
neglect of the Lutheran Confession. This expressed itself either 
in rationalism or unionism. But in spite of the adverse spirit of 
the times the General Synod soon found its way to the saving 
recognition of the Confessions. In this process the Maryland 
Synod had a leading part. 

When the Maryland Synod was organized in 1820, her consti- 
tution, like those of other synods at that time, contained no men- 
tion of the Augsburg Confession. But with the advent of S. S. 
Schmucker to the ranks of her ministers in 1821 a confessional 
element was injected into the body. It was young Schmucker 's 
conviction, clearly expressed in a letter to his father while he was 
yet a student at Princeton, "that the Augsburg Confession should 
again be brought up out of the dust, and everyone must subscribe 
to the twenty-one articles, and declare before God, by his sub- 
scription, that it corresponds with the Bible, not quantum, but 
quid." 

On this conviction Dr. Schmucker acted more than once in the 
Maryland Synod. Already in 1824 when the Tennessee Synod 
addressed a memorial to the Maryland Synod asking for certain 
information concerning the General Synod, Schmucker and 
Abraham Reck were appointed to draft a reply. The reply was 



DOCTRINAL AND LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENT. 149 

framed by Schmucker and says among other things: "The un- 
altered Augsburg Confession is the only Confession which this 
Synod receive, or which has been received by our Church in this 
country; and the General Synod has no power to make any al- 
terations in the doctrines hitherto received in our Church. As 
to the excommunication of such brethren as might abandon some 
of the views of the Augsburg Confession, all the General Synod 
can do is, if they should observe any such deviation, to give their 
advice to the individual synod, and the nature of the advice 
which they would give is best expressed in their own words 'that 
a man that is an heretic, who denies a fundamental doctrine, a 
doctrine essential to the Christian scheme, we are bound after 
the first and second admonition to reject. ' : 

This statement was adopted by the Synod and it is significant 
as indicating not only the growing confessional consciousness of 
the Maryland Synod but also that Synod's conviction that the 
General Synod's constitution implied the acceptance of the Augs- 
burg Confession. It may be of significance also that at this same 
meeting of the Synod (1824) a committee was appointed to re- 
vise the synodical constitution, though the nature of the changes 
made cannot now be ascertained. 

The next year the movement was started in the Man-land 
Synod for the establishment of a Theological Seminary by the 
General Synod. This, as we have seen, was instigated by Dr. 
Schmucker. A few w r eeks later, when the General Synod adopted 
the proposal of the Maryland Synod and appointed a committee 
to prepare a plan for establishing the seminary, Schmucker was 
a member of the committee and the very first resolution of the 
committee specified "that in this seminary shall be taught the 
fundamental doctrines of the Sacred Scriptures as contained in 
the Augsburg Confession." This indicated a favorable attitude 
of the General Synod towards the Augsburg Confession and 
opened the way for its direct recognition. The professors of the 
seminary were required from the first to subscribe to the Augs- 
burg Confession and the Catechisms of Luther "as a summary 
and just exhibition of the fundamental doctrines of the Word of 
God." 

Not until four years later, 1829, was the revision of the Mary- 
land Synod's constitution completed. It is highly probable that 
this new instrument made explicit mention, of the Confession. 
For in that same year the General Synod adopted a form of con- 
stitution for the government of district synods, in which candi- 
dates for ordination were pledged to the conviction "that the 
fundamental doctrines of the Word of God are taught in a man- 



] .~)0 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

ner substantially correct in tbo doctrinal articles of the Augsburg 
Confession." This form of constitution was framed by Dr. 
Schmucker and the qualified assent it gives to the Augsburg 
Confession marks the beginning of the revival of the confessional 
consciousness of the Church. 

For thirty-five years thereafter no change was made in the 
General Synod's statement of doctrinal basis. During this 
period various factors served to strengthen the denominational 
consciousness of the Lutherans in America. The Church rapidly 
arrived at clearer views of its doctrinal and other distinctive 
features. But a strong and influential minority stoutly resisted 
this tendency. Party spirit ran high, in Church as in State. On 
the one hand, many sought to place the General Synod uncom- 
promisingly upon the confessional basis of all the Symbolical 
Books. On the other hand, some took great liberty with the words 
"substantially correct" adopted in 1829, and tried to gain recog- 
nition for an American recension of the Augsburg Confession. 
Prescriptive intolerance was the spirit of the age. Echoes of the 
great confessional controversy were distinctively heard in the 
Maryland Synod and some of the battles were fought in her ses- 
sions. For her clerical roll included eminent representatives of 
both sides of the conflict. Dr. Schmucker had not been able to 
follow the very rapid confessional development of his Church. 
He was one of the leading protagonists of "American Lutheran- 
ism," and while he was no longer a member of the Maryland 
Synod his spirit was ably reflected there by men like Benjamin 
Kurtz and Simeon \V. H-arkey. On the other hand, the party in 
favor of a stricter adherence to the Confessions was represented 
in the Maryland Synod by men like H. L. Baugher, John G. Mor- 
ris, F. \V. Conrad, and J. A. Siess. 

During this period between 182!) when the General Synod gave 
indirect and qualified recognition to the Augsburg Confession 
and 18(54 when that recognition became direct and unqualified, 
several unsuccessful efforts were made in the Maryland Synod to 
stem the tide of denominational consciousness and to commit the 
Synod to a modified Lutheranism. 

At the meeting of 184^ Dr. Harkey proposed that the Synod 
publish a monthly periodical to be styled "The Revivalist" and 
to be devoted to the history and defence of genuine revivals, and 
the best means of promoting and conducting revivals. But on 
motion of Professor Baugher this proposition was declared "in- 
expedient." 

At the same meeting Dr. Benjamin Kurtz, editor of the Ob- 
server, proposed that a committee be appointed to draft a min- 



DOCTRINAL AND LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENT. 151 

ute expressive of the views of the Synod in regard to "New 
Measures." Dr. Ezra Keller was then president of the body 
and he appointed on the committee Drs. Kurtz, Morris, and Har- 
key. Their report was debated for two days and then on motion 
of Dr. Conrad was referred back to the committee. At the next 
meeting of the Synod the committee asked to be excused from 
further consideration of the subject. This was granted, the com- 
mittee was discharged, and the Synod as a body was never com- 
mitted to the "New Measures/' 

Then in 1844, on motion of Professor Baugher, a committee 
was appointed to prepare a "summary of the doctrines and 
usages of the Church within the limits of the Synod." The 
avowed purpose of this w r as to correct "various and repeated 
misrepresentations concerning the doctrines and practices of the 
Lutheran Church in the United States." Its aim really was to 
give definiteness to the pledge of the General Synod by enumerat- 
ing the doctrines and aspects of doctrine which must be regarded 
as ' ' fundamental. ' ' Dr. Harkey was then president and the com- 
mittee he appointed consisted of Drs. Baugher, Kurtz, and Har- 
key. The report of the committee presented the following year 
is known as the "Abstract of Doctrines and Practice of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland." This document con- 
sisted of fourteen doctrinal articles which represent a modified 
or "American" Lutheranism rather than the symbolism that was 
rapidly growing in favor with the Church at large. 

But the Maryland Synod did not adopt this "Abstract." The 
discussion that attended the report of the committee in 1845 re- 
vealed that the committee was sharply divided on the subject. 
After prolonged and ' ' very animated discussion ' ' the report was 
referred back to the committee with instructions to embody sug- 
gestions from the various members of the Synod and report at 
the next meeting. Thereupon Dr. Harkey withdrew from the 
committee and Dr. Conrad was elected to supply his place. The 
result was that at the next meeting of the Synod the entire re- 
port was laid on the table and indefinitely postponed. Dr. Kurtz 
stoutly advocated the "Abstract" in his Lutheran Observer, but 
the Synod steadfastly refused to adopt a doctrinal statement that 
avoided the distinctive features of the Lutheran Confession. 

Meanwhile the Church in general continued to move in the di- 
rection of a stricter confessional basis. In 1853 the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium applied for readmission to the General Synod after 
an absence of thirty years, and was admitted. Evidently the 
General Synod and the Pennsylvania Ministorium were each sat- 
isfied with the confessional position of the other. But the Penn- 



1.V2 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

sylvania Ministerium had 'made very rapid progress along doc- 
trinal lines since 1823 and had adopted a resolution " acknowl- 
edging the collective body of Symbolical Books, as the historical 
and confessional writings of the Evangelical Lutheran Church," 
and ascribing "to the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and Lu- 
ther's Small Catechism an especial importance among our Sym- 
bolical Hooks generally/' In asking for readmission into the 
General Synod the Pennsylvania Ministerium placed on record 
the opinion that the General Synod was "entertaining the same 
views of the fundamental doctrine of the gospel as those set forth 
in the Confessional writings of the Evangelical Church, and 
especially in the Unaltered Augsburg Confession." Now the 
General Synod as such had made no official declaration going be- 
yond that of 1825). Her cordial welcome of the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium in 18f>:} therefore indicates that her constituency as 
a whole was making considerable progress towards more ad- 
vanced confessional ground. 

It was probably this general awakening of Lutheran conscious- 
ness that precipitated the publication of the ''Definite Platform" 
in 18")."). The "Definite Platform" was essentially an attempted 
revision of the Augsburg Confession correcting the alleged errors 
of that symbol. It was an effort to stem the tide of symbolism. 
The authors of the document were S. S. Schmucker, B. Kurtz, 
and S. Sprecher. Copies of the platform were sent anonymously 
to the district synods with the suggestion that it be endorsed by 
them with the resolution "that we will not receive into our Synod 
any minister who will not adopt this platform." The district 
synods of the General Synod emphatically rejected the platform. 
Only three small synods adopted it temporarily. The East Penn- 
sylvania Synod expressed "unqualified disapprobation of the 
dangerous attempt" to change the doctrinal basis of the General 
Synod and sent solemn warning to sister synods against "this 
dangerous proposition." 

In this way the "Definite Platform" came before the Mary- 
land Synod. A committee of seven clergymen was appointed 
October, l<Sf).">, on the "communication from the East Pennsyl- 
vania Synod." Of this committee Dr. Morris was chairman and 
both Dr. Baugher and Dr. Kurtz were members. The committee 
first reported "that as said platform is riot officially before us, no 
action is required." But two days later the committee presented 
the following report which was adopted by the Synod: "Re- 
solved, That we protest against any attempt by Synod or indi- 
viduals, of old or new school sentiments, to introduce among us 
any new confessions of faith, or tests of synodical membership, 



DOCTRINAL AND LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENT. .153 

but hereby renew our declaration of adherence to that contained 
in our ordination service, which embraces the fundamental doc- 
trines of the Word of God, as correctly taught in the doctrinal 
articles of the Augsburg Confession." Thus the "Definite Plat- 
form" was definitely rejected by the Synod. 

When Dr. Kurtz found himself unable to resist the conserva- 
tive doctrinal tendency of the Synod he had helped to organize 
in 1820, he withdrew from that body in 1857 and together with 
several kindred spirits formed the Melanchthon Synod. The 
same motive is said to have been active in his founding of the 
Missionary Institute at Selinsgrove in 1858. Dr. Harkey had 
left the Synod in 1850. 

On two other occasions during this critical period in the doc- 
trinal development of our Church, the Maryland Synod placed 
herself on record as unequivocally endorsing the confessional 
position of the General Synod. Once in 1856 at Frederick the 
Synod in order to allay agitation and secure harmony adopted 
this paragraph : 

"We reaffirm our adherence to the doctrinal basis of the Gen- 
eral Synod, receiving the Old and New Testaments as the Word 
of God, and the only infallible rule of faith and practice, and at 
the same time endorse the sentiment that the fundamental doc- 
trines of the Word of God are taught in a manner substantially 
correct in the doctrinal articles of the Augsburg Confession." 

And again at the same meeting, in order to avoid differences 
among the brethren of the Synod it was unanimously resolved 
"to allow to each other full liberty of judgment upon these dis- 
puted points provided, however, that this covenant shall 

not be interpreted so as to reject the divine institution of the 
Sabbath or to conflict with the doctrinal basis of the General 
Synod." These actions show that the Maryland Synod as a body 
was keeping peace with the doctrinal development of the General 
Synod. 

When the forces of the General Synod were split at York in 
1864 over the question of admitting the Franckean Synod, two of 
the delegates from the Maryland Synod voted with the solid dele- 
gation of the Pennsylvania Ministerium and others against ad- 
mitting the new synod, and later joined in the formal protest 
against that action. But the formation of the General Council 
two years later caused no rupture in the ranks of the Maryland 
Synod and made no appreciable impress on that body. The 
Maryland Synod remained thoroughly loyal to the general body 
to whose origin and development she had made such large con- 
tributions. 



l.">4 HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

At the memorable meeting of tbe General Synod in 1806 at 
Fort Wayne, whore the rupture in the ranks of the body was 
made permanent, the delegation of the Maryland Synod, in com- 
pany with a large majority of the other delegates present, voted 
to sustain the ruling of the president in excluding the Pennsyl- 
vania Ministerial!! delegation until the convention should be or- 
ganized. The Maryland Synod delegation then reported to their 
body : "None could regret more than the Delegates of the Synod 
of Maryland, should the action of the large majority of the con- 
vention produce the threatened schism in the Church of the Re- 
deemer. Hut as guardians of the truth, loving the Church, seek- 
ing the things that make for peace, and responsible to the Divine 
Head, after the most solemn, earnest and prayerful deliberation, 
we could not do otherwise." 

Forthwith and without a dissenting vote the Synod adopted 
the following: 

" WHERKAS : Several Synods have withdrawn from the General 
Synod, and invited all other Synods to combine with them ; 
therefore, 

''Resolved, That as a Synod we re-affirm our unabated confi- 
dence in the General Synod, as the great bond of union and con- 
servator of the spiritual life of the Church. 

"Resolved, That we deprecate the movement of those Synods 
that have withdrawn from the General Synod. 

''Resolved, That we cordially approve of her doctrinal basis, 
and that we will pledge our continued support of her publica- 
tions and institutions." 

The doctrinal amendments to the constitution of the General 
Synod that were submitted to the district synods in 1864 were 
promptly ratified by the Maryland Synod. When these amend- 
ments were incorporated in the constitution of the General Synod 
they made that instrument express the doctrinal advance that 
had been made by the Church in general since 3829. No longer 
is it held merely that "the fundamental doctrines of the Word 
of God are taught in a manner substantially correct in the doc- 
trinal articles of the Augsburg Confession," but it is now clearly 
specified that the district synods of the General Synod receive 
and hold "with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of our fathers 
the Word of God as contained in the canonical scriptures of the 
Old and Xew Testaments as the only infallible rule of faith and 
practice, and the Augsburg Confession as a correct exhibition of 
the fundamental doctrines of the Divine Word, and of the faith 
of our Church founded on that W r ord." From this unequivocal 
subscription to the Angsburg Confession the General Synod has 



DOCTRINAL AND LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENT. 155 

never made any material changes. Verbal changes and explana- 
tions were made from time to time in order to avoid misunder- 
standing and to correct misrepresentation. These were codified 
and incorporated in the constitution in 1913. But essentially the 
doctrinal position remained constant after 1866. 

Now this doctrinal position of the General Synod describes 
very accurately the position of the Maryland Synod during the 
second half-century of her life. She takes firm stand upon the 
Bible as the Word of God and the only infallible rule of faith 
and practice. She subscribes to the Augustana unequivocally. 
She holds the unaltered Augsburg Confession to be a true exhibi- 
tion of Bible doctrine and a correct setting forth of the inner 
faith and the objective doctrine of our Church, which is founded 
on the Word. 

The principles of the Lutheran Reformation, both formal and 
material, received frequent emphasis in the conventions and 
among the congregations of the Maryland Synod. Dr. J. G. Mor- 
ris was a thorough-going student of Luther and the Reformation, 
and he lost no opportunity to bring the subject to the attention 
of the Synod. Already in 1832, when the denominational con- 
sciousness of our Church was still at a low ebb and when union- 
ism was still rampant, a synodical committee of which Dr. Mor- 
ris w r as chairman presented a resolution pledging the members 
of the Synod to the observance of the Reformation festival on 
October 31st each year or on the Sunday nearest the date. This 
action was renewed from time to time, notably in 1848 when the 
example of the Missouri Synod impelled the Maryland Synod to 
a more intensive celebration of the Reformation. 

For a number of years it was a rule of the Synod to hear a 
Reformation Sermon at one of the sessions of her annual conven- 
tion. This began in 1837 and Dr. C. F. Schaeffer was the first 
man to fill the appointment. Doubtless these regular observances 
of the Reformation, both in the congregations and in the synod- 
ical conventions, had much to do with the growing sense of ap- 
preciation for our Lutheran heritage and the steady doctrinal 
development of the Synod. 

Moreover, beyond her own bounds the Maryland Synod did 
much to stimulate positive Lutheran convictions. One instance 
of this is found in the general celebration of the centenary of 
Lutheranism in this country. The celebration took place in 1842, 
one hundred years after Muhlenberg's arrival in America. It 
was an important factor in helping the Lutheran Church in 
America to return to the confessional position of Muhlenberg 
and his associates. The observance of the centenary was sug- 



1">6 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

rested to the General Synod by the Maryland Synod delegation 
acting under instructions from their body. The suggestion was 
cordially received by the Church and the result was a wide- 
spread effort for the support of the benevolent operations and 
institutions of the Church and a concerted study of the life and 
labors of Muhlenberg. 

Again in 18(i7, the seventh semi-centeiurial anniversary of the 
Reformation was ordered to be observed among the congregations 
of the Synod by Reformation sermons, special services, jubilee 
meetings, and special efforts for benevolences. The plans for the 
General Svnod's celebration of this jubilee were not laid until 
1868. 

Of special importance was the celebration in 188.'} of the four 
hundredth anniversary of Luther's birth. This celebration also 
was observed by the General Synod on the initiative of the Mary- 
land Synod. In 1882 Dr. Morris presented a series of resolutions 
to the Maryland Synod setting forth the possibilities of the anni- 
versary and embodying plans for its observance. The next year 
Dr. Morris was elected president of the General Synod and, ap- 
parently on his own initiative, appointed a "committee on Lu- 
ther Commemoration." Dr. Diehl of the Maryland Synod was 
chairman of this committee and its report was practically iden- 
tical with the resolutions that had been adopted by the Maryland 
Synod the previous year. 

The celebration itself followed the lines laid down by Dr. Mor- 
ris. It produced his translation of Koestlin's Luther and led to 
a general review of Luther's life and doctrine. In this way it 
effected a higher appreciation of the distinctive features of Lu- 
ther's work. Many Lutherans were surprised to learn how much 
respect Luther commanded among the best men of other com- 
munions. Vast assemblages gathered to celebrate. The Luther 
Monument was erected in Washington. A permanent stimulus 
was given to the production of Luther literature. In short, the 
celebration of 188.'J marked an epoch in the history of the Lu- 
theran Church in America because it taught Lutherans the pos- 
sibilities of working together, showed them the wisdom of em- 
phasizing the things they have in common, and deepened their 
appreciation for their common doctrine and faith. In this way 
it helped to pave the way for the memorable events of 1017 and 
1918. 

In the Quadricentennial Celebration of the Reformation in 
1917 the Maryland Synod cooperated most cordially. Through 
the labors of her members in the work of the Joint Committee of 
the general bodies, through her own synodical committee, through 



DOCTRINAL AND LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENT. 157 

the special efforts of her Conferences, through the series of cele- 
brations at the synodical convention in Washington, and par- 
ticularly through the preaching of Reformation sermons in her 
pulpits and the holding of special services in her congregations 
during the Jubilee year, she received her full share of the in- 
spiration growing out of the special observance of that memora- 
ble year and it was with peculiar satisfaction that she witnessed 
the consummation of the Merger and participated in the forma- 
tion of the United Lutheran Church. 

Several unrelated incidents in the life of the Synod are worthy 
of record here because they throw interesting side-lights on the 
doctrinal history of the body. 

From the beginning the Synod embraced a number of union 
churches in, which Lutherans and Reformed worshipped. But 
this was not unionism of organization or teaching, and the Mary- 
land Synod never countenanced the unionistic tendencies that 
for a long time were so prevalent in other parts of the Lutheran 
Church. Thus when Nicholas Schmucker, one of the founders of 
the Synod, was charged in 1828 with having caused disaffection 
between the Lutheran and Reformed congregations worshipping 
in one of his churches by refusing to give a general invitation to 
the Lord's Supper, the Synod resolved "That the Rev. X. 
Schmucker, in not giving a general invitation to partake of the 
Lord's Supper did not transgress the discretionary power vested 
in every individual Minister of our Church." 

In approving the design of the Evangelical Alliance in 184G 
the Synod expressly guarded against any kind of unionism by 
declaring that she "does not in any sense regard it as an alliance 
of denominations or branches of the Church, but of individual 
Christians, each acting on his own responsibility," and that "it 
is distinctly understood by the Synod that no compromise of the 
views of any member of the Alliance on the points wherein he 
may differ from others, is either required or expected. ' ' 

A number of times the Synod made deliverances on subjects 
pertaining to church polity. For example, the parity of the 
ministry is clearly and firmly maintained in a resolution adopted 
unanimously in 1838, '"Resolved, That as in the view of the EA'an- 
gelical Lutheran Church the incumbents of the ministerial office 
are by divine appointment of equal rank, we regard all ordained 
ministers of the gospel as Bishops, in the primary and Scriptural 
sense of the term, and therefore fully entitled to that appella- 
tion." 



158 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

''The Maryland Synod Question" is the name that has been 
riven to a discussion on a question of church polity that took 
place in the Maryland Synod but excited general interest. The 
whole question was one concerning synodical authority. It arose 
in 18">.S when Dr. J. A. Seiss, then president of the Synod, gave a 
certificate of honorable dismissal to Rev. John "Winter at his own 
request when he had no intention of uniting with another synod 
or of becoming pastor of a congregation. The Synod refused to 
confirm the act of the president, and so the debate began. 

The question was whether one ceased to be a minister by ceas- 
ing to be a member of a synod or a pastor of a congregation. The 
chief disputants for the affirmative were Drs. Baugher and Diehl, 
for the negative Drs. Seiss and Kurtz. The debate extended over 
three conventions of Synod, into the columns of the Observer, 
and on the pages of the Evangelical Review. The discussion was 
lively and interesting but not acrimonious. The arguments were 
far too lengthy to be reproduced here. Suffice it to say that the 
debate made progress and finally led to a conclusion that was 
mutually satisfactory. 

The conclusion of the whole matter was embodied in a number 
of resolutions prepared by both Dr. Baugher and Dr. Seiss and 
adopted by the Synod in 1855, as follows : 

"1. That we view Synodical organizations not as of absolute 
divine institution, but as early and wisely introduced into the 
Christian Church for the more satisfactory and efficient admin- 
istration of its general affairs, but possessing no specific divine 
powers beyond or above those resident in the ministers and 
churches of which they are composed. 

"2. That as fraternal association for mutual consultation and 
advice, and for the joint exercise of God's gifts to His individual 
ministers and churches, Synods are vital to the operations of the 
church as it exists in this country ; and that the wisdom of our 
Lutheran fathers in adopting and incorporating them into the 
government and discipline of our Church claims our highest com- 
mendation. 

")5. That it is rightfully expected of all who claim to be ac- 
credited ministers of our Church, as constituted in this country, 
that they seek connection with some one of our District Synods. 

"4. That a minister in good standing in the Synod may with- 
draw from his connection with it, and may receive testimonials 
of his good standing up to the moment of his withdrawal ; but 
that after he has thus withdrawn he will no longer be regarded 
by us as an accredited minister of the Lutheran Church until he 
has again secured membership in some one of our regular Synods. 



DOCTRINAL AND LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENT. 159 

"5. That the power of giving the testimonials above alluded to 
shall not lie with the President ad interim, but the Synod itself 
in regular session assembled." 

Thus the action of the Synod has always been in harmony 
with the two fundamental principles of Lutheran Church polity, 
namely, that the primary exercise of all Church authority belongs 
to the congregations (including their ministers), and that per se 
all ministers are of equal rank. All resolutions and proposals 
contrary to these principles she has consistently rejected. 

Liturgical. 

In the liturgical history of the Church the Maryland Synod has 
been less conspicuous than in the doctrinal history and the de- 
velopment of benevolences. Nevertheless, she has made contribu- 
tions in that sphere that are at least worthy of brief mention. 

The General S3niod was formed in ]820 for several purposes, 
one of them being "to introduce new books for general use in the 
public Church Service as well as to make improvements in the 
Liturgy." But this particular purpose was overlooked until 
1825. Then it was brought to the attention of the general body 
by the Maryland Synod through her request for a hymn-book 
in English. The General Synod answered this request by ap- 
pointing a committee "to prepare a Hymn-Book, Liturgy, and a 
Collection of Prayers in the English language, for the use of our 
Church." Of the five members on this initial committee two, Dr. 
S. S. Schinucker and Dr. C. P. Krauth, were from the Maryland 
Synod. This was the beginning of Dr. Schmucker's long period 
of conspicuous service in the liturgical development of the Gen- 
eral Synod. 

The first liturgy published by order of the General Synod ap- 
peared in 1832. It was prepared by the Rev. Mr. Lintner of 
New York. It proved as unsatisfactory to the Maryland Synod 
as to any of the others. For in that year it was resolved "that 
this Synod earnestly recommend to the General Synod to make 
such improvements in the new liturgy as will make it satisfac- 
tory, or suppress it entirely. ' ' The General Synod therefore ap- 
pointed a standing committee to revise and amend the liturgy of 
1832. Of this committee David F. Schaeffer was the first chair- 
man, then J. G. Morris, and then E/ra Keller. All of these were 
members of the Maryland Synod, but none of them accomplished 
a satisfactory revision of the liturgy. 

Not until 1847 was another liturgy adopted by the General 
Synod. This was prepared by a committee of which C. P. Krauth 
was chairman, and it was largely the work of Professor H. I. 



160 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Schmidt. It was a decided improvement on the liturgy of 1832, 
but it did not entirely satisfy the growing liturgical sense of the 
Church. Accordingly in 1850 the Maryland Synod started a 
movement that long afterwards resulted in an Order of Service 
more nearly Lutheran than anything that had yet been attained. 
Through her delegation as a special committee, consisting of Mor- 
ris, Sentman, Seiss, and Conrad, the Maryland Synod presented 
to the General Synod a carefully prepared report embodying ten 
definite suggestions for the improvement of the liturgy. These 
included the observance of the Church Year and pointed in the 
direction of the historical Lutheran liturgies. The suggestions 
came from the growing conviction, as Professor Reynolds ex- 
pressed it, "that our Church is liturgical, that such forms ought 
to constitute a part of our public worship, and that there should 
be uniformity in their use." 

This report of the Maryland Synod delegation was referred to 
the Standing Committee on Liturgy, and so failed to produce 
immediate fruit. The liturgy adopted in 18f>6 differed only in 
minor points from that of 1847. Efforts at improvement con- 
tinued. The influence of Beale M. Schmucker and J. G. Morris 
began to be felt. Dr. S. S. Schmucker 's "provisional liturgy" 
of 1864 was a decided improvement on all former ones but it was 
not adopted by the General Synod. The liturgical appetite was 
rapidly growing keener just as the denominational consciousness 
was growing deeper, and liturgical matters were more chaotic 
than confessional affairs. 

But a large step forward was taken in 1809 when the General 
Synod met at Washington. A committee of three, L. E. Albert, 
T. Stork, and J. G. Butler, had been appointed the previous year 
to revise the liturgy. Their report was adopted at Washington 
and is commonly known as the "Washington Service." This 
service was the first definite approach to any historical Lutheran 
Order of Service since the General Synod had been organized. 
The largest contribution to the work of the committee was made 
by Dr. Butler, who was a member of the Maryland Synod. His 
advocacy of such a service appears repeatedly in the issues of 
the Observer preceeding the meeting of 1869. 

The new service was subjected to severe criticism. It was 
amended and revised and adopted again in 1881. But mean- 
while the movement for a Common Service had begun. In the 
preparation of the "Common Service" and most recently of the 
"Common Service Book" the Maryland Synod has not been par- 
ticularly prominent but has cooperated through her representa- 
tives on the Committees preparing them and by loyally urging 
their introduction into her congregations. 



CHAPTER X. 
SYNODICAL RELATIONS. 

The relations of the Maryland Synod with other Synods con- 
tiguous to her territory and with other members of the General 
Synod have always been friendly and cordial. 

The separation from the Ministerium of Pennsylvania was ac- 
complished, as we have seen, with unusual grace and peace. 
Early in her history the Synod passed resolutions looking to- 
wards the maintenance of inter-synodical comity in receiving and 
dismissing ministers and congregations, in establishing the 
bounds of Synod, in exchanging fraternal delegates, in occupy- 
ing the home mission field, and in adjusting the relations among 
the congregations. The result has been that through her century 
of history she has never had a single serious quarrel with any of 
her neighbors. There have been mild protests from time to time, 
both from the Synod and to the Synod. But they have been few 
in number and trivial in nature. The geographical isolation and 
the relative homogeneity of the Maryland Synod have permitted 
her to carry on her work in comparative peace. Not strife and 
contention but harmony and a willingness to cooperate have char- 
acterized her relations both internally and externally. Even the 
short-lived efforts at schism within her own ranks were treated 
with such a spirit of forbearance that they did not deeply disturb 
her synodical equanimity. 

We need only consider here the relations of our Synod to the 
General Synod, the Virginia Synod, the Melanchthon Synod, and 
the German Synod of Maryland. 

The General Synod. The Maryland Synod enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the only District Synod that was in continuous 
union w r ith the General Synod from its formation in 1820 until 
its merging into the United Lutheran Church in 1918. What the 
Maryland Synod contributed to the life of the General Synod 
may best be gathered from the three chapters in this volume im- 
mediately preceding this chapter. But one more incident in the 
life of the General Synod calls for record in this connection. It 
shows how the Maryland Synod saved the very life of the Gen- 
eral Synod. 

161 
11 



lb'2 HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

11 was in 1S2M. The first regular business convention of the 
General Synod had been held in 1821. The mother Synod of 
Pennsylvania determined in 1823 to withdraw from the general 
body and not to attend the meeting announced for that fall. 
By nearly every one this was considered the death-blow of the 
General Synod. So general was this impression that the pastors 
west of the Susquehanna appointed their conference on the very 
day that had been fixed for the meeting of the General Synod. 
The eause of the General Synod seemed indeed hopeless. Only 
two small Synods, that of Maryland and Virginia and that of 
North Carolina, remained after Pennsylvania withdrew. 

Hut several of the brethren in the Maryland Synod sensed the 
crisis and saved the eause. Chief among these was young S. S. 
Schmucker, then secretary of the Synod. All through the sum- 
mer of 1823 he put forth herculean efforts to inspire resolution 
in the hearts of the brethren in other parts of the Church to save 
the infant organization from destruction. In these efforts he 
was ably seconded by I). F. Schaeffer of Frederick. Letters were 
written. Journeys were made. Appeals were sent. Arguments 
and reasonings were piled one on the other. The result was that 
the life of the General Synod was sustained. The meeting in Oc- 
tober, 1823, was held according to schedule, but without the large 
and influential Pennsylvania Ministerium. The West Pennsyl- 
vania Conference sent a delegation to attend. The Synod of 
North Carolina sent four delegates. Of course the Synod of 
Maryland and Virginia had a full delegation in attendance. And 
even the Synod of Ohio sent two commissioners to attend. 

The crisis was passed. The prompt and vigorous action of 
Maryland Synod men had saved the General Synod from dissolu- 
tion. This carried tremendous consequences for the future pros- 
perity of the Lutheran Church in this country. For from that 
hour she became more pronounced in her Lutheranism and was 
saved from her former lifeless and distracted condition. 

Under such circumstances it was to be expected that the Mary- 
land Synod would for many years play a leading part in the ac- 
tivities of the General Synod. Such proved to be the case, as we 
have seen. Of the first thirteen conventions of that body ten 
were held on the territory of the Maryland Synod. Of the first 
eight presidents of that body six were members of the Maryland 
Synod. And throughout the hundred years of the history of the 
General Synod more than one-third of her presiding officers were 
elected from among the delegates of the Maryland Synod. There 
was every reason why the relations between the Maryland Synod 



SYNODIC AL RELATIONS. 163 

and the General Synod should have been so uniformly happy and 
cordial as they always were. 

When the question of a larger union among Lutheran bodies 
arose in 1917 the men of the Maryland Synod were among those 
who hailed the proposal with joy and who helped to consummate 
the movement. And as the oldest constituent Synod of the Gen- 
eral Synod her delegation at the merger convention in New York 
in 1918 was proud to be the very first to answer the call of the 
roll and signify her cordial assent to the new age with a mag- 
nificent "All present!" 

The Virginia Synod. The Lutheran pastors of northern Vir- 
ginia had organized and conducted the Special Conferences that 
preceded the organization of the Synod. In 1820 some of them 
united with the Maryland pastors in organizing the Synod itself 
under the name of the "Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Mary- 
land, Virginia, and so forth." The organization took place on 
Virginia soil and for thirteen years, except one, the Synod car- 
ried the name of Virginia in her title. 

But in 1829 the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Virginia was 
formed. The same motives and considerations that in 1820 had 
led to the separation of the Maryland and Virginia pastors from 
the Pennsylvania Ministerium. nine years later led to the sepa- 
ration of the Virginia pastors from the Maryland Synod. They 
had found that the churches of the Shenandoah Valley were not 
so naturally and intimately connected with the churches in Mary- 
land as with the other churches in Virginia. They were becom- 
ing mere appendages to the Maryland congregations. Thus there 
had come to be a compelling conviction that the Virginia pastors 
and congregations could do much more towards establishing the 
Kingdom of God and advancing the interests of the Lutheran 
Church by concentrating their means and efforts on the territory 
they were occupying. Accordingly, eight pastors six from the 
Synod of Maryland and Virginia and two from the Synod of 
North Carolina organized the Virginia Synod at Woodstock in 
1829. 

The separation was accomplished in a most friendly spirit. 
The new Synod of Virginia at once adopted a resolution express- 
ing the highest regard for their brethren of the neighboring 
Synods coupled with the assurance that nothing had induced the 
separation from them except a desire to promote the interests of 
the Church. Both the Maryland Synod and the North Carolina 
Synod approved the organization of the Virginia Synod and for 
many years exchanged minutes and synodical delegates annually 
with the new body. 



1()4 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

The mime of Virginia was therefore omitted from the title of 
the Maryland Synod in 1830. Hut that same year, at the second 
convention of the Virginia Synod, a bare majority of the mem- 
bers decided that the new Synod should not unite with the Gen- 
eral Synod. Thereupon four of the pastors, together with their 
congregations, withdrew from the Virginia Synod and reunited 
with the organization in Maryland. Consequently for two years 
more we find the Synod calling herself the "Synod of Maryland 
and Virginia." I 183.'} the name was changed to the "Synod of 
Maryland" although two of the Virginia pastors still continued 
to be members of the body. 

This raised the question of synodical bounds, a question which 
engaged the attention of Synod at various times for a period of 
fifteen years. It first arose in connection with the status of con- 
gregations just south of the Potomac, but it was also discussed 
in connection with a few congregations just north of the Mason 
and Dixon. The action of the Synod on this subject was always 
courteous to her neighbors, always self-consistent, and always in 
accordance with Lutheran principles of church polity. Already 
in 1834 she took action clearly implying that in general the 
boundaries of the State should be the bounds of the Synod but 
allowing for exceptions in order to accommodate the convenience 
of the brethren and their congregations. This action was re- 
iterated on various occasions and in various forms until 1848, 
when the resolution still in force on this subject was adopted as 
follows: "Resolved, That recognizing the State boundaries as 
the boundaries of the Synod of Maryland, the churches on the 
borders shall be permitted to retain what they regard as their 
ecclesiastical relations, and if in future they wish to change them, 
they be permitted to connect themselves with the Synod which 
is most convenient to them, with the understanding that the in- 
tention to do so be first communicated to the Synod in whose 
bounds thc-y are." 

It is worthy of note in this connection that when the Synod 
was about to meet in Martinsburg, Virginia, in 1847, the presi- 
dent, Dr. F. AV. Conrad, received from the secretary of the Vir- 
ginia Synod a courteous resolution adopted by that body and de- 
siring the Maryland Synod to change its purpose to hold its next 
session within the bounds of the Virginia Synod. But Dr. Con- 
rad, after diligent inquiry as to the actual synodical relationship 
of Martinsburg, felt convinced that the resolution of the Virginia 
Synod was based on a misapprehension of the facts in the case, 
and so he did not change the place of meeting. At that meeting 
Dr. J. A. Seiss was the fraternal delegate from the Virginia 



SYNODIC AL RELATIONS. 1G.~) 

Synod. The subject of the boundary between the two Synods re- 
ceived frank and friendly discussion and the result was the ac- 
tion noted above. Thus the friendly relations between the two 
bodies continued unbroken. 

Under this principle of congregational self-determination the 
church at Martinsburg associated herself with the Virginia 
Synod for nearly twenty years. But during the Civil War it 
found itself within the Union lines and afterwards in the State 
of West Virginia, and so it asked to be received with its pastor 
into the Maryland Synod. The Virginia Synod protested, but 
under the action mutually agreed upon the Maryland Synod ac- 
cepted the congregation, and in this relationship it has continued 
to the present. 

In 1860 and 1861 committees were appointed and negotiations 
were begun looking towards the reunion of the Synod of Virginia 
with the Synod of Maryland. But these negotiations were sev- 
ered by the war. Then after the war had closed, in 1870, the 
Maryland Synod, regarding herself as best fitted to open the sub- 
ject because of her location and because of her moderate attitude 
during the w r ar, again appointed a committee of conference with 
the Synods of Virginia and took other steps to bring about a re- 
union of the southern Synods with the General Synod. But be- 
yond the interchange of fraternal delegates with the Virginia 
Synod nothing was accomplished. 

The Melanchthon Synod. This was a schism in the ranks of 
the Maryland Synod. It was not a deep schism nor one of long 
duration. Neither did it seriously disturb the peace of the Mary- 
land Synod. It was chiefly an effort on the part of Dr. Benjamin 
Kurtz and a few others to resist the swelling confessional tide in 
the Lutheran Church in general and in the Maryland Synod in 
particular. As such it was a conspicuous failure. 

The Maryland Synod had flatly refused to publish Dr. Har- 
key's proposed "Revivalist.'' She had definitely declined Dr. 
Kurtz's avowal of the "New Measures." She had tabled and 
indefinitely postponed the "Abstract of Doctrines" that avoided 
the distinctive features of the Lutheran Confession. And she 
had squarely rejected the "Definite Platform." All hope of 
moving the Synod from her conservative doctrinal trend was 
gone. It was therefore resolved to try the expedient of organiz- 
ing a new Synod. 

We are not concerned here about the detailed history of the 
Melanchthon Synod but only about the relations of the Maryland 
Synod with that body. It was in 1857 that eight pastors (Kurtz, 
Unruh, Campbell, Baughman, Hunt, Startzman, Klink, and 



16() HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Beekley) petitioned the Maryland Synod for dismissal from that 
body in order to organize themselves into "a new Lutheran 
Synod in Western Maryland." The congregations involved were 
Myersville, Middletown, Creagerstown, Boonshoro, Waynesboro, 
and Lcitersburg. After lengthy discussion the ]>etition was 
irranted. A few weeks later the Lutheran Obaerrer issued the 
"Call to the Convention" and the Melanchthon Synod was or- 
ganized. It had no h'xed boundaries but placed itself upon the 
basis of "Elective Affinity" and evidently aimed to spread over 
the entire territory of the Maryland Synod. Its "Declaration 
of Faith" embodied the articles of the Evangelical Alliance with 
a few changes and represented an advanced "American Luther- 
anism." 

The very next year the Maryland Synod repented of her ac- 
tion in allowing the eight brethren and the six congregations to 
withdraw. When Rev. Christian Start/man applied for admis- 
sion as a fraternal delegate from the Melanchthon Synod, it was 
refused, and the Synod's attitude towards the new body was 
clearly defined. The Synod deplored "the error committed at 
the last meeting, in permitting these brethren to withdraw and 
establish a Synod, when no adequate motives existed to justify a 
new organization." To organize a new synod purely on the 
basis of "elective affinity" was declared to be "subservive oil all 
synodical order and harmony." The conviction was recorded 
that "under no circumstances are two synods either necessary or 
desirable in the State of Maryland, even if divided by a fixed 
geographical boundary." And the brethren of the Melanchthon 
Synod were "affectionately invited to a prayerful conference 
with the brethren of this Synod" in the hope of restoring the 
unity of the ancient body and thus serving the cause of Christ 
and the Lutheran Church in the State of Maryland. 

When the General Synod met at Pittsburgh in 1859 the Mel- 
anchthon Synod applied for admission. There were serious 
doubts both as to the regularity of its formation and as to its ac- 
ceptance of the faith of the Church. The discussion concerning 
its admission extended over four sessions. Finally, on a resolu- 
tion of Charles Porterfield Krauth, warning the new synod 
against "schism" and mildly requesting it to withdraw its im- 
plied charges against the Augsburg Confession, it was admitted 
to the general body. The vote admitting it stood ninety-eight to 
twenty-six. The Maryland Synod delegation was divided on the 
question, five of the delegates voting in favor of admission, Dr. 
Haugher alone voting in the negative. This admission of the 
Melanchthon Svnod to the General Svnod was one of the fruitful 



RELATIONS. 16? 

causes of the rupture in the ranks of the General Synod a few 
years later. 

For four successive years, beginning in 1858, the Maryland 
Synod made overtures to the Melanchthon Synod for reunion. 
But all in vain. Not until the twelfth convention of the Mel- 
anchthon Synod in 1868, three years after Dr. Kurtz's death, did 
that body accept the long-standing invitation to a friendly con- 
ference with the Maryland Synod with a view to reunion. The 
preamble of the action accepting the invitation states: "The 
causes which legitimately led to the organization of the Melanch- 
thon Synod have in our judgment expired, and with them the 
necessity of continuing a separate organization, the Melanchthon 
Synod having accomplished its special business." 

Accordingly a joint convention of the two bodies was held in 
Frederick, November 9, 1868, and a basis of reunion was adopted. 
Several of the articles of this basis of reunion are interesting. 
Articles One and Two show how completely the Melanchthon 
Synod had failed of its purpose : ' ' The Maryland Synod retains 
its name and all its chartered rights, and its Constitution re- 
mains unimpaired and unaltered as the fundamental law of the 
United Body. The Melanchthon Synod relinquishes its name and 
organization, and its ministers and churches become integral 
parts of the Maryland Synod. ' ' Article Six suggests a possible 
motive that may have operated in conjunction with the doctrinal 
motive in perpetuating the life of the young Synod: "The In- 
stitutions at Gettysburg shall continue to be, as heretofore, the 
principal Educational agency of the United Synod, and receive 
its support and encouragement. The Missionary Institute at 
Selinsgrove, in its original design is also recognized as a Subor- 
dinate Educational Agency, and in that capacity we will give it 
our support. ' ' 

At the next regular convention of the Maryland Synod, there- 
fore, after due preliminaries the two bodies were merged. This 
was done without any action on the part of the congregations. 
For Rev. Reuben Weiser, in his report as the last president of 
the Melanchthon Synod, had said: "All seem to favor such a 
union. The congregations were not consulted when the separa- 
tion took place, so we think they need not be consulted when they 
are about to be brought together again after a separation of 
twelve years. The separation threw; our churches into an ab- 
normal condition, our union will make us a natural body again." 
The act of union consisted simply in adding to the roll of the 
Maryland Synod the names of the twelve pastors (Weiser, Startz- 
man, Bowers, Richardson, Unruh, Buhrman, Knodle, Wire, 



lb'8 HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Owen, Grabill, Fair, and Beckley) and the eleven congregations 
( Manchester, Clearspring, .Jefferson, Lovettsville, Tliurinont, 
Wayneshoro, Myersville, Burkittsville, Woodshoro, Funkstown, 
and Boonsboro) whieh eonstituted the last roll of the Melanch- 
thon Synod. The president of the Melanehthon Synod gave of- 
ficial notice of the dissolution of that body, and the schism of 
"elective affinity" had ceased. That the breach was completely 
healed is evidenced by the fact that the Melanehthon Synod men 
were admitted before the Synod's convention was organized by 
the election of officers, although this was acknowledged at the 
time to be "somewhat irregular. " and by the further fact that 
one of their number, Rev. X. J. Richardson, was immediately 
elected president of the Maryland Synod. 

The (rcrnuin Synod of Maryland and the South. This was an- 
other schismatic venture within the ranks of the Maryland 
Synod. Its career was even shorter and more inglorious than 
that of the Melanehthon Synod. It was a sincere but ill-advised 
effort on the part of a small group to conserve the spiritual inter- 
ests of the German brethren and to develop the piety and power 
of the German churches. In no case was it charged that the 
German pastors or congregations received unfair or discourteous 
treatment from the Maryland Synod. 

In general it should be said that the Maryland Synod's con- 
gregations made the transition from German to English with 
much greater ease and far less disturbance than was the case 
among the Synods in Pennsylvania and those farther west. The 
movement to form a German Synod proceeded not from the origi- 
nal element, in the Church but from the German element that 
came to this country, chiefly from North Germany, with those 
strong waves of German immigration about the middle of the 
Nineteenth Century. 

On the whole subject of the German element in the Maryland 
Synod, Rev. Richard Schmidt has prepared the following for 
these pages : 

The whole early history of the Maryland Synod might well be 
written in the German language. German was the language of 
the leading pastors and churches, at Hagerstown, Frederick, 
Middletown, Baltimore, Washington, and other places. Pastors 
and churches using the English language, if they were not to rely 
wholly on Presbyterian and other non-Lutheran literature, had 
to use or even produce translations and compilations, from the 
rich treasure of German catechetical, devotional, hymnological, 
and theological literature. The Synod was not in a position to 
undertake these publications, so that was left to the private en- 



SYNODICAL RELATIONS. 169 

terprise of individual pastors, the Henckels of Virginia, Pastor 
S. K. Brobst of Allentown, and Rev. Peter Anstadt of York, be- 
ing notable examples. 

The Germans on the territory of the Maryland Synod were 
never so numerous as in the North or in the West, but they were 
numerous enough to have exerted a much greater influence upon 
events and developments of both the Man-land and the General 
Synods. However, they were seldom of one mind as to policy and 
action, as they differed greatly in their classical and theological 
training and in their understanding of the mission of the Lu- 
theran Church in America. The ultra-conservative from Saxony 
and Hanover found himself in company with the Pietist from 
Halle, the Unionist from Prussia, the Reformed from Hessia and 
the Palatinate, and even the Rationalist from Heidelberg or Jena. 
Then, too, they furnished no exception to the rule concerning the 
proverbial differences of opinion among Germans. 

But the chief difference among the German brethren of the 
Maryland Synod, and of other sections as well, was concerning 
the best method by which they might exercise their influence and 
perpetuate their German traditions and practices over against 
those of the English brethren. Some contended that these ends 
were best served by remaining in close association with the Eng- 
lish brethren and thus trying to be a saving salt against the ele- 
ments which thwarted developments along genuine Lutheran 
lines. The other faction, fearing that by close contact with Eng- 
lish and American ideals and ideas they would lose their German 
individuality and be completely swallowed up by the prevailing 
un-Lutheran and lax tendencies, saw their only safety in a sepa- 
rate German Conference or Synod. This is analogous to the two 
currents in the political life of the Germans of the United States. 
While one faction sought to be a Germanizing leaven in Ameri- 
can life by throwing itself, even to the extent of being absorbed, 
into the general national life, the other sought to prevent its 
own Americanization by what might be called German coloniza- 
tion here and there, often using church and pastor as means to 
that end. The history of the country and of the Maryland Synod 
have conclusively shown the wisdom of the first party and the un- 
tenableness of the latter position. 

A regular German Conference, which the Maryland Synod 
itself had organized in the early seventies, did not long satisfy 
some of the German pastors. They wanted greater freedom of 
action with regard to the disposition of Home Mission funds, but 
especially in the examination and ordination of young German 
candidates of whom there appeared quite a number and some of 



170 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

whom the English brethren were not ready to induct into the Lu- 
theran ministry. 

So at a meeting of the Maryland Synod at Martinsburg, West 
Virginia, in 1874 Pastors G. W. Ebcling, Ph.D., Catonsville; 
John II. Mengert, Jerusalem Church, Gardenville; L. I). Maier, 
St. Matthew's, Baltimore; C. A. S. Schloegel, St. Peter's, Balti- 
more; J. P. Conradi, Cumberland; Jacob Stumpf, Frost burg; 
and J. G. Reitx, Hagerstown, petitioned the Synod for an hon- 
orable dismissal for the purpose of forming the German Synod 
of Maryland and the South. The petition was granted. The 
new synod was launched and had as members, besides those just 
named, Pastors Sickel, St. John's (Biddle Street), Baltimore; 
Rev. Beer, St. Jacobus, Baltimore; Dr. A. Schwartz, Canton, 
Baltimore; and A. Eisenhauer, Zion, Washington. 

The program was to gather into the new organization all Ger- 
man pastors south of Philadelphia, who were not Missourians or 
of the Joint Synod of Ohio, and yet were not satisfied with the 
confessional indifference of the Evangelical Synod of North 
America, which was then invading the East with its systematic 
efforts to capture German Lutheran congregations. The new lit- 
tle German Synod was officially admitted into the General Synod 
at its twenty-seventh meeting in Baltimore, May, 1875. How- 
ever, at the next meeting of the General Synod two years later, it 
had already disbanded. 

If we inquire into the causes for its failure, we might name 
three. The first of these was the refusal of the most influential 
German pastors in the Maryland Synod to join the new body. 
Pastors F. Ph. Henninghausen and George Grandau, Baltimore; 
Gustave Rietz and Dr. S. Finckel, Washington; Ernst Ch. Ide. 
Annapolis, Maryland, and J. J. Young, Accident, Maryland, pre- 
ferred to remain with the English brethren. Rev. F. Ph. Hen- 
ninghausen was then the editor of the Kirchenfreund, the organ 
of all the Germans in the General Synod, which paper the leaders 
of the new Synod seized by force, but soon relinquished when the 
arm of the law threatened. The second cause of failure is best 
expressed by the old saying : ' ' United we stand, divided we fall. ' ' 
But the chief cause was the aggression of the Evangelical Synod 
of the West, which seemed to put forth its best men as candidates 
for the German Lutheran Churches in Maryland and thus cap- 
tured one after another of the congregations of the little German 
body. These invaders did not hesitate to employ questionable 
methods. If a congregation was bound by its constitution to ad- 
mit only Lutheran pastors as candidates, ways were found to cir- 
cumvent the clause. Instead of a trial sermon at the regular 



SYNODICAL RELATIONS. 171 

hour of worship, an address or lecture on a Sunday afternoon 
brought the Evangelical candidate before the people with his 
best effort; and the protests of the oflicers of the Lutheran 
synods did not prevent the election. 

One instance is related where a congregation of the Maryland 
Synod after the retirement of the old pastor, assembled and voted 
to disband donating the little church building to one man. Then 
they proceeded to the front of the church and tarried awhile, and 
then ree'ntered the church and organized as an Evangelical con- 
gregation, and the one member donated the church building to 
the new congregation, and a pastor of the Evangelical Synod 
was on the field. It must be admitted that some of these congre- 
gations had never officially united with either the English or the 
German Maryland Synod. Some are to this day opposed to any 
synodical connection, leaving their pastor free to join any synod 
he prefers. 

But these churches were Lutheran by constitution and convic- 
tion, and should never have been anything else, and pastors of 
the Evangelical Synod, with Lutheran training and conviction 
should have felt in honor bound, if called to these churches, to 
transfer their membership from the Evangelical Synod of North 
America to one of the two Synods of Maryland. St. Matthew's 
Church, and the two St. John's (Biddle Street and Frederick 
Road), Baltimore, Christus at Locust Point, Concordia at Wash- 
ington and the German churches of Annapolis and Frostburg 
and some others ought to be this day in the Maryland Sj'nod. 

However, the blame for the defection of these churches cannot 
entirely be placed upon the German brethren. The leading Eng- 
lish pastors of the Maryland Synod at times exhibited a lamenta- 
ble lack of understanding and appreciation of the position and 
problems of their German colleagues and their congregations, 
and failed to detect the un-Lutheran character of the Evangelical 
Synod of North America. For years the Maryland Synod wel- 
comed at each meeting a delegate from the Atlantic district of 
said synod, and sent one of its German pastors to that body as 
fraternal delegate. The Evangelical delegate was always the 
same person, the Rev. Edward Huber of St. Matthew's, Balti- 
more, individually one of the most talented and congenial men, 
though by birth and training more Reformed than Lutheran. 
His representation of his synod's confessional position would so 
captivate the English brethren, that they saw no great difference 
between the two general bodies and seriously suggested that va- 
cant German congregations of the Maryland Synod should seek 
pastors from the Evangelical Synod, a thing that both factions 



172 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

of the (ierimm brethren, the loyalists as well as the seceders, con- 
sistently and strenuously opposed as disloyalty to the Lutheran 
Church. 

This attitude of the English brethren might in a measure ex- 
plain the sad fact that the members of the short-lived German 
Maryland Synod, after the collapse of their organization, with 
one or two exceptions, did not find their way back to the mother 
Synod but scattered in different directions. They either re- 
mained independent, being marked "N. S." in the Lutheran 
Almanac, or went to the Evangelical Synod which they had 
formerly fought so bitterly, and some sought Episcopal connec- 
tion and even aspired to have one of their number ordained a 
bishop. Dr. J. G. Morris names Pastors A. Eisenhauer and 
We issuer her as the leaders in this latter move. 

The German pastors and congregations who never left the 
Maryland Synod continued to do the Master's work faithfully, 
introducing English services to hold their young people, and 
bringing their people gradually into a better understanding of 
the privileges as well as the responsibilties of membership with 
Synod. Most of them regularly brought lay delegates to the 
meetings of Conferences and Synod. The English brethren 
began to appreciate the Germans more and more and showed keen 
interest in their process of Americanization and their develop- 
ment in all lines of blessed church activity. 

In the great church questions that were agitated a generation 
or more ago the German pastors and their delegates evinced a 
lively iiiterest, some took leading parts as Dr. E. F. Giese, then 
at Cumberland ; Dr. Homrighaus, Zion, Washington ; Rev. 
George Brandau, St. Matthew's, Hagerstown; and Dr. Hen- 
ninghausen at St. Stephen's, Baltimore. The latter enjoys the 
great distinction of having been elected president of the Mary- 
land Synod at Martinsburg, West Virginia, in 1889 as an after- 
math to the glorious celebration of his Silver Jubilee in the pas- 
torate of St. Stephen's, Baltimore; and never was the Maryland 
Synod presided over more ably and gracefully and courteously, 
and the good doctor not only doubled the twenty -five years in the 
same pastorate, but brought his active service to fifty-three years 
and is still the pastor emeritus of that large and influential con- 
gregation now served by Rev. Christian Pieper. 

Other long pastorates of German brethren were Rev. Dr. 
Finckel, Concordia, Washington, twenty-five years; Homrighaus, 
Zion, Washington, twenty; Brandau, twenty years at St. John's, 
Baltimore, and ten at St. Matthew's, Hagerstown. This last 
named' congregation showed its loyalty to the Synod when, owing 



SYNODICAL RELATIONS. 173 

to death and departure of most of its members, it decided to dis- 
band, and divided the proceeds of the sale of its property (over 
$3,000) among various synodical benevolences. 

In conclusion we give the present 1919 roster of German pas- 
tors of the Maryland Synod: Rev. C. F. Bergner, St. Luke's, 
Cumberland ; Dr. P. C. Burgdorf , Jerusalem, Baltimore ; Rev. 
C. M. E}'ster, United Evangelical, Baltimore; Rev. C. Freuden- 
reich, Cordova; Dr. F. Ph. Henninghausen, pastor emeritus, and 
Rev. Christian Pieper, active pastor, of St. Stephen's, Baltimore; 
Rev. K. W. Schmitt, Salem, Baltimore; Rev. J. C. Twele, St. 
John's, and Rev. Richard Schmidt, Zion, Washington. These 
might, if they wanted to, make quite a respectable German Con- 
ference or Synod of Maryland, but they know better. They are 
thoroughly at home w r ith the English brethren, doing their work 
increasingly in the English tongue, some of them assuming an 
extra sermon for Sunday morning to satisfy both their old and 
their young members, accepting the condition of decline of their 
specific German activity with the philosophy of John the Bap- 
tist : "He must increase, but I must decrease." 

As the}' become more efficient in the use of the English lan- 
guage and 'modern methods in Church and Sunday school work, 
while they remain true to their traditional conservatism and 
sound Lutheranism, and withal having proved themselves loyal 
and sincere Americans during the late war, they are striving to 
merit the encomium with which English brethren used to flatter 
the German delegates at General Synod : ' ' The Germans are the 
salt of the General Svnod. ' ' 



"Behold, how good and how pleasant it is 
for brethren to dwell together in unity." 
Psalm 133: i. 



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12 



"The Lord gave the word; great was the 
company of those that published it." Psalm 
68: ii. 



CHAPTER XII. 



CLERICAL ROLL FOR THE CENTENNIAL YEAR TO- 
GETHER WITH ALL THE PASTORATES 
OF EACH MEMBER. 

The present clerical roll of the Synod numbers 121. The list of former 
pastorates of each member of the Synod is intended to serve as a sort of 
index to his past ministerial career. 



Name 

Ayers, E. A., 

Bare, W. F 



Entered 

Ministry Puxiorate Y 

, ..1912. .. Muhlenberg, Africa, 1912 



Barry, F. W., 



Baughman, G. W 1885. . 



Beidleman, H. H., . 
Bell, K. K., n.I)., . . 



Berber, ('. F 1891 



Bikle, P. M., Ph.D., 
D.D., 



Bloomhardt, P. F., 
Ph.D., 



car 
1917 

Steelton, Pa., 1895 1897 

Dallastown, Pa 18981902 

Conshohocken, Pa 19021912 

Laymen's Missionary Moveireijt, 1912 1917 

Sparrow's Point, Md., 1917 

1907. . . Bellefonte, Pa., 19071912 

Penn's Valley. Pa 19121914 

Cumberland, "St. John 's, 19U 1918 

Baltimore, St. Luke's 1918 

. Kverett, Pa., 1886 1893 

T'niontown, Md., 1893 1914 

Woodbine, Md., 19151919 

. Frostburg, Md., 1915 

. Bueyrus, O., 18791882 

Findlay, O., 18821884 

Cincinnati, O 1884 1899 

Baltimore, First 1899 

. Upper Sandnsky, O., 18911895 

Xashville, Tenn'., 1895190 1 

Was-hington, Zion 19041912 

Cumberland, St. Luke's, 19121920 



.1914 

.1878 



.1869. . . X. C. College, 18fi9 1870 

Lutherville Seminary, 1870 1S73 

Pa. College, Gettysburg, 1871 



Botsford, C 1 . R., 

Bowers, G. S., D.D., . 

Bowers, J. ('., D.D.. . .1895. . 



.1912. .. Lutherville, St. Paul's, HH5 1918 

Chaplain, II. S. X 19181920 

1898. . . Xortlnmiberland, Pa., 1S9X 19CO 

Berwick, Pa., 190(i 1915 

Secretary Susquehanna Univ., ..1915 1918 
Cumberland, St. John 's, 1918 

1882. . . Graf ton. W. Va., 18841885 

Bloserville, Pa 18851888 

York, Pa., St. Luke's 18881893 

Winchester, Va 1902 1919 

Baltimore, Incarnation 1919 

Washington. St. Mark's, 189(i 1902 

Baltimore, Calvary, 1902 1910 

Catonsville, ' 1910 

179 



180 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Entered 
Xamt' Ministry Pastorate Tear 

Rover, H. D., 1911. . . Ambler, Pa 1914 

Retired, Washington, 1914 

Burgdorf, P. C., Ph.D., 1905. . . Pittsburg, Kansas 19051907 

Little Falls, X. Y., 19081912 

Gardenville, Md 1912 

Baltimore, Brooklyn, 1917 

Butler. C. IT., 1887. . . Frostburg, Md., '. 1887. 

Washington, Luther Memorial, .18891891 
Washington, Keller Memorial, ..1891 1907 
Washington, Luther Memorial, .19071909 
Washington, Columbia Heights, .1910 

Byers. J. E 1898. . . Penbrook, Pa 18981903 

Bloomsburg, Pa., 19031916 

Baltimore, Grace, 191(5 

Cannaday, 1 1901 . . . Guntur, India, 1902 

Clare. R.' I)., D.I) 1902. . . York, Pa., St. Matthew's, 1903 1911 

Johnstown, Pa., First, 19111917 

Baltimore, St. Mark's 1917 

Clarke. G. D., 1908. . . McClure, Pa., 19081909 

Lititz, Pa., 19091917 

Georgetown, IX C., 1918 

Derr, S. J., 1885. . . Hampstead, Md., 1886190? 

Arcadia, Md., 19031911 

Berrysburg, Pa., 19131916 

Diehl. W. -K 1888. . . Center Co., Pa., 18891901 

Middleburg, Pa 19011907 

Clearspring, Md., 1908 

Diffenderfer, G. M., 

D.D., 1895. . . Xewport, Pa 18951900 

Carlisle, Pa., First, 19001914 

Secretary Pastors' Fund, 19141918 

Camp Chaplain 19181919 

Washington, Luther Memorial, .1919 

Dunbar, W. IT., D.D., . .1873. . . Easton, St. Peter's, 18741880 

Lebanon, Pa., Zion 18801894 

Baltimore, St. Mark 's 1894 

Enders, M. L., 1902. . . Catonsville, Md 19021910 

Cumberland, St. Paul's 1910 

English, J. S., 1898. . . Saxton, Pa., 18981904 

Watsontown, Pa 19041905 

Stoyestown, Pa., 1905 1919 

Williamsport, Md., 1919 

Erdman, If. C 1902. . . Freeport, Pa., 19021904 

Pittsburgh, Pa., Temple, 1904 1906 

Swissvale, Pa., 19061915 

Burkittsville, Md., 1915 

Eyster. C. M., 1883 ... Seven Valley, Pa 18841885 

Manchester/ Md., 18851900 

Baltimore, German Evan., 1900 

Fleck. J. G 1914. . . Baltimore, St. John 's 1915 

Floyd, D. B., D.D 1875. . . T T niontown, Md 18761882 

Boonsboro. Md., 18821885 

Xewville. Pa 18851899 

Funkstown, Md.. 19001904 

Georgetown, T). C 1905. 

SiisquehaniH Fniversitv, 1905 

Folk, E. L 1884. . . Botetourt Co., Va * 18841885 

Addison, Pa., 18851889 



CLERICAL ROLL FOR THE CENTENNIAL YEAR. 181 

Entered 

Name Ministry Pastorale Tear 

Folk, E. L., 1884'. . . Mt. Jackson, Va., 18901900 

Winston Salem, N. C,, 19011902 

Mt. Jackson, Va., 19021906 

Middlebrook, Va., 19061911 

Harrisonburg, Va., 1911 1915 

Greensboro, N. C., 19161917 

Manor Doubs, Md., 1918 

Francis, J. M., D.D., . .1*91. . . Louisville, Ky., 18911893 

Columbia City, Ind., 18931900 

Springfield, 111., 19001908 

Sunbury, Pa., 1908 1916 

Waynesboro, Pa., 1 916 

Frank, IT. M., Ph.D., . . 1895. . . Brooklyn, N. Y 18951908 

New York, N. Y., 19081910 

Lauraville, Md., 19161918 

Cleveland, O., 1918 

Freudenreic-h, C., 1887. . . Chicago, 111., 1887. 

Detroit, Mich., 1887 1892 

Grunock, Pa., 18921896 

Erie, Pa., 1 8961900 

Batesville, Ind., 1900 1905 

Howells, Neb., 19051907 

Smyrna, Ind., 19071913 

Cordova, Md., 1913 

Gift, F. U., D.D., 1895. . . Scranton, Pa., 18951899 

Williamsport, Pa., 18991904 

Philadelphia, Pa., Calvary, 19041910 

Baltimore, Calvary, 1910 

Goedeke, Harry, 1919 . . . Guntur, India, 1919 

Gotwald, W. H., D.D., 

LL.D., 1867 . . . Loeansville, Pa., 18681873 

Milton, Pa., 18731889 

Washington, D. C., St. Mark's, .18891896 

Graef, J. E 1915. . . Guntur. India, 1915 

Grubb, J. E., 1908. .. New Kingston, Pa., 19081912 

Gloversville, N. Y., 19121916 

Baltimore, Second, 1916 

Hafer, L. B., 1896. . . Fort Washington, Pa., 18971899 

Friesburg, N. J., 18991902 

Philadelphia, Pa., Bethel, 19021911 

Taneytown, Md., 1911 

Harms, J. E., D.D., . . .1908. . . Mercersburg, Pa., 1908 1911 

York, Pa., St. Matthew's, 19111914 

Dayton, O., 19141917 

Ha^erstown, Md., St. John's, . . .1917 

Hartman, H. H., 1903. . . Bridgeport. Conn., 1904 1908 

Newville, Pa 19081910 

Baltimore, Augsburg, 1910 

Hedges, S. A., 1867. .. New Bloomfield. Pa., 18691872 

York Springs, Pa., 18721877 

Utica, Md ' 18771883 

Newville, Pa., 18831886 

Jefferson, Md., 1886 1900 

IJtica, Md 19001912 

Pleasant Hill, Md., 1912 

Heilman, P. A., D.D., ..1877. . . Lock Haven, Pa., 18801884 

Denver, Colo., 18841889 



HISTORY OF M AKYI.A.M) SYNOD. 



Kntered 

X it mi' Minitttni 

Ileilman, I'. A., D.I).,. .1877. 

llemiighausen, F. Ph., 

D.D., 1861.. 



Bloomsburg, Pa 

Baltimore, St. Paul 's, 



Year 

1SS9 1S96 

..1897 



Hess, ('. W 1900. 

Hesse, F 1894. 



Washington, St. John's 1S61 1861 

Baltimore, St. Stephens', 1864 

Brunswick, Md., 1902 

Xew Oxford, Pa 18941903 

Philadelphia, Grace, 19031907 

Smithsburg, Md., 1907 

Hetrick. W. H., 1903. . . Brooklyn, X. V., 19041907 

Philadelphia, Immanuel 1907 1911 

Westminster, Grace, 911 1920 

Hiyhtman. F. A 1904. . . Avonmore, Pa., 9051908 

Baltimore, Park Heights 9081909 

Baltimore, Powellnaron 909 

lUnes, C. .1., 1906. . . Huiitington, W. Va 90S 1910 

Burkittsville, Md., 1910 19U 

Baltimore, Emmanuel, 1914 

Hoffman, J. L., 1901. . . Tremont, Pa., 19021903 

Scrauton, Pa., 19031912 

Silver Run, Md., 19121917 

Baltimore, Reformation, 1917 

Howe, J. A 1912. . . Strongstown, I'a 19121914 

Sligo, Pa., 19141919 

Hampstead, Md., 1919 

H.uddle,.l. T., !).!)., . . 189.3. .. Germantown, Trinity, 18961904 

Washington, St. Paid 's, 1904 

Tbach, W. 1896. . . Lemoyne, Pa 18981900 

Chicora, Pa 19001901 

Philadelphia, Pa., 19011903 

Glasgow, Pa 1903 

West Sunbury, Pa., 19031913 

Pittsburgh, Pa., St. .lames', 19131916 

Union Bridge, Md 1916 

Ide. K. K., D.D., 1890... Kdgemont, Md 18911892 

Baltimore, Trinity 1S93 

Kerlin, A. A 1874. . . Stone Valley, Pa!, 18741881 

Water Street, Pa 1S81 1894 

Glasgow, Pa., 18941896 

Sharpsburg, Md., 1896 

Koser, J. G., 1904. . . Kglon, W. Va., 190") 1907 

Freeport, Pa., 1907 1911 

West Carnegie, Pa 19121914 

Leitersburg, Md., 1914 

Kuldman, Luther, D.D., 1881 . . . .Tennerstown, Pa 1882 1884 

Baltimore, Second, 18841888 

Frederick, Md 1888 1903 

Gettysburg Seminary 19031916 

Foreign Mission Board, 1916 1919 

La u, J. B 1894. . . Blain, I'a., 18941902 

Dallastown, Pa., 1902 1904 

Philadelphia, Reformation 19041910 

Manchester, Md., 1910 191/5 

Xew York City, Good Shepherd, 1916. 
Baltimore, Atonement, 1917 1920 

Leatherman, C 1 . G 1902. . . Lemoyne, Pa 1903 1906 

Xew Castle, Pa., ioo<;_]9 ] ] 



CLERICAL ROLL FOR THK CKXTKXXIAL VKAR. 

Filtered 
Name Mini.stni Pastorate Year 

I.eatherman, ('.(!., 1902'. . . Vandergrift, Pa., 19111916 

.Manchester, Md., 191(i 

I.eildin, P. D., 1900. . . Kllenville, X. V., 

Xew River, Va., 

Herkimer, X. V., 

Washington, St. John's, 

Manken, H., Jr., 1902. . . Oneonta, X. Y., 1903 190S 

Baltimore, St. Luke's 190S 1918 

Washington, Incarnation, 1918 

McCauley, V 1898. . . Guntur, India, 1898 

McDowell, S. J., 1891 . . . Friesburg, X. J., 18921898 

Sbarpsburg, Pa., 18981900 

Miss. Supt., Pitt. Synod 19001902 

Home Mission Secretary, 1902 1915 

Baltimore, Third ' 1915 

McLinn, M. E., 1886. .. Union Bridge, Md., 188(51890 

Lovettsville, Va., 1890189(1 

Bloomsburg, Pa., 1896 1903 

Apollo, Pa. 19031910 

Crafton, Pa 19101919 

Woodbine, Md 1919 

Meyer, F. W., 1897. .. Ravenswood, Chicago, 111 18971903 

Xo. 111. Syn. Missionary, 19031904 

Williamsport, Pa., . . .' 19041908 

Baltimore, Emmanuel, 1908 

Inner Mission Society, 19081918 

Lovettsville, Va., . .' 1919 

Miller, L. F., 1897. . . Piedmont, W. Va., 18981904 

Baltimore, Bethany 1906 

Miller, P. H., D. D., . .1874. . . Aurora, W. Va., . .' 18741875 

Graf ton, W. Va., 18751876 

Lovettsville, Va 18761887 

Westminster, Md., 18X7 1911 

Lilly, Pa., 19111912 

Baltimore, Concordia, 1912 - 

Miller, S. J., 1899.. . Sparrow's Point, 19001902 

Baltimore, Our Saviour, 1902 

Miller, V., D.D 1861. . . Fayettsville, Pa 18621871 

Clearspring, Md., 1877 

Leitersburg, Md., 18811914 

Minnick, W. G., 1892. . . Mount Joy, Pa., 18931907 

Baltimore,' Concordia, 1907 1909 

Cumberland, St. John's, 19101914 

Lauraville, Md., 1918 

Moser, J. S., 1878. . . Mount Jackson, Va., 1878 1883 

Selwood, S. C., 1884 

Madison County, Va., 18851888 

Richmond, Ya., 18881891 

San Francisco, Cal., 18921893 

Riverside, Cal., 18931896 

Mum ford, Carl, 1905. . . Trenton, X. J., 1906 1907 

Littlestown, Pa., 1907191 

Mount Union, Pa 19101916 

Baltimore, Messiah, 1916 

Xewcomer, H. D., 1897. .. Allentown, Pa., 18981904 

Silver Run, 19041905 

Baltimore, Grace 1905 1916 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Entered 

Xanii Minixtrit I'aslnrate Year 

Newcomer, H. D., 1897. . . Van Wert, Ohio 19 10 1919 

Inner Mission Society, 1919 

Nicholas, S. T., D.I)., . 1892. . . Pittsburgh, Pa., 1893 1905 

Middletown, Pa., 19051913 

Washington, I). ('., Keller 1913 

Null, A. C., 1904. . . Pikeland, Pa 19051907 

Fairmont, W. Va 1907 190S 

Jefferson, Md., 19081914 

Petersburg, Pa 19141917 

Ellicott City, Md., 1917 

Ott, J. W., D.D., 1900. . . (iraml Rapids, Mich., 19001907 

Hagerstown, St. Mark's, 1907 

Patterson, R. S., D.I)., . 1S91 . . . Woodsboro, Md 1892 1900 

Berlin, Pa 19001907 

Philadelphia, Pa., 19071908 

Coatesville, Pa., 1908191:? 

Charlotte, X. ('., 19131917 

Woodsboro, Md., 1917 

Petrea, R. E 1913. . . Wvtheville, Va., 191:51919 

Tniontown, Md., 1919 

Pieper, C 1910. .. Aurora, Jnd., 19101912 

Cullman, Ala., 19121917 

Baltimore, St. Stephens' 1917 

Poffenberger, R. S., . . . 1904 . . . Woodsboro, Md., 190.1 1917 

Quay, P. W 1916. .. Reisterstown, Md 191 7 

Reinewald, C., D.D., . .1887. . . Braddock, Pa., 18881892 

Emmitsburg, Md., 1892 

Remsberg, W. L., 1877. .. Princeton, 111., 18771882 

Oregon, TIL, 18821886 

South Dixon, 111., 18861888 

Beatrice, Neb 18891894 

Omaha, Neb., 1894 1896 

Myersville, Md., 18961902 

Shanksville, Pa., 1902 1903 

Santa Barbara, Cal., 19031908 

Funkstown, Md., 1908 

Rudisill, M. L., 1904. .. New Paris, Pa 19061908 

Sabillasville, Md 19081910 

(Jerrardstown, W. Va 1917 

Rupley, J. B., 191.1. . . Boonsboro, Mil., 19161918 

Washington, I). C., St. Mark's, .1918 

Rupp, V. S. (i., D.D., . .1892. . . Fort Washington, Pa., 18931896 

Baltimore, Reformation, 1896 1910 

Frederick, Md 1910 

Salt/giver, W. E., 1914. . . Uniontown, Md., 19151918 

Fnllerton, Md., 1918 

Seabrook, W. L 1889. .. Wichita, Kan., 18891890 

Abilene, Kan 1890 1895 

Winchester, Va., 18951902 

Newberry, S. C 1 ., 19021907 

Deer Park Road, Md., 1907 

Schmidt, R., 1889. . . Hagerstown, St. Matthew's 18891892 

Baltimore, Friedens, 1892 1898 

Beardstown, TIL, 18981904 

Syracuse, N. Y., 19041912 

Washington, D. f 1 ., Zion, 1912 

Schmitt. K. W 1906. .. Home Missionary, 1907 1916 

Baltimore, Salems, . . 1916 



CLERICAL ROLL FOR THE CENTENNIAL YEAR. 



185 



Entered 

Name Ministry Pustornte Year 

Settlemeyer, W. H., . . .1869'. . . North Liberty, Iowa, 18701873 

Wilmore, Iowa, 18741878 

Jefferson, Md., J 878 1886 

Staunton, Va., 18861888 

Rockwood, Pa., 38881893 

Friend's Cove, Pa., 18931896 

Idaville, Pa., 18961899 

Shilke, C. A., 1914. . . Walkersville, Md., 1915 

Siebe'-. L. L.. D.D., . . . 1S76. . . Lavansville, Pa., 18761882 

Polo, 111., 18821885 

Connellsville, Pa., 18851890 

Lewisburg, Pa., 18901895 

Gettysburg, Pa., 18951918 

Baltimore, Luther Memorial, ...1918 

Simon, J. S., D.D., 1889. . . Urbana, Ohio, 18891891 

New Philadelphia, Ohio, 18911893 

San Francisco, Cal., 18931895 

Cleveland, Ohio, 18951896 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 18961902 

Hagerstown, Trinity, 1902 

Slaybaugh, G. W., 1874. . . Mount Zion, Ohio, ." 1874 1877 

New Kingston, Pa., 18771881 

Spangler, W. M., 1876. . . Jennerstown, Pa., 1876 1882 

Pleasant Valley, 18821888 

Accident, Md., 18881891 

Glasgow, Pa., 18911896 

Salona, Pa., 18961900 

Williamsburg, Pa 19001903 

Beaver Springs, Pa., 1903 1907 

Seven Valleys, Pa., 19071911 

New Florence, Pa., 19111913 

Kimberton, Pa., 19131914 

Hampstead, Md., 19141919 

Stouffer, S. S., 1869. . . Luthersburg, Pa 18711872 

Clarion County, Pa., 18721873 

Centerville, Pa., 18731876 

Bedford County, Pa., 18761880 

Piedmont, W. Va., 18801882 

.Tenners, Pa., 1883 1887 

Donegal, Pa., 18871893 

Fayette Countv, Pa., 18931902 

ITnionville. Ontario, 19021906 

Hampstead, Md., 1906 1908 

Accident, Md., 19091910 

Steck, C. F., D.D., 1889 . . . Muncie. Ind., 18891891 

Louisville, Ky., 1892 1898 

Springfield, Ohio, 18991903 

Frederick, Md., 19031910 

Washington, D. C., Epiphany, ..1910 

Teufel, C. M., 1905. .. East Pittsburgh, Pa 19071909 

Pittsburgh, Pa 19091918 

Middletown, Md 1918 

Traver, R., 1892. . . Westminster, Salem, 19171920 

Turner, ,T. H., D.D., . .1869. . . Blacksburg, Va 18721876 

Burkittsville. Md 18761880 

Lutherville Seminary, 1880 1908 

Twele, J. C., 1897 ... Harford Co., Md., 

Baltimore, Frieden's, 



180 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Entered 
\iuni' Minixtri/ Putiloriiti' Yt-ar 

Twele, .1. C., 1*97 . . . Frostburg. Kvangelical 

I5ra/.il, ln<l 

IMytroutli, Pa 

Jonesboro, 111., 

New Memphis, Iowa, 1910 1917 

Washington, I). ('., St. John's, . .1917 

filler, G. I., 1S97... Oakland, M.I 1X9X 1902 

Sparrow's Point, Md 1901' 1912 

Wilmington. Del 19121915 

Jefferson, Md 1915 

f mberger, .T. R 1MS9. . . Oberlin, Kansas 1XX9 1891 

New Cambria, Kansas 1X91 1S9.'5 

Kfiingham, Kansas, 1X931X95 

Ottawa, Kansas 1S95 1X93 

Harshman, ()., 1X991900 

Leetonia, () 19001902 

Osnaburg, 1902 190-") 

Williamsburg, Pa 1905 1911 

Walhalla, S. C 19111915 

Myersville, St. John 's 1915 

Wade, J. P 1X91 ... Capon, Va., 1X901X95 

Floyd, Va., 1X95 1X9X 

Davidson, N. ('., 1X9X 1905 

Capon, Va 1905 190X 

Kglon. W. Va 190X 1912 

Doubs, Md 19121917 

Wade, W. A 1904. . . Piedmont, W. Va 19051909 

Lionville, Pa 19091912 

Washington. St. Mark's, 19121918 

Baltimore, Holy Comforter, ....191X 

Wagner, F. R., 1900. . . Frost burg, MYI., 19011910 

Huntingdon, Pa., 19101920 

Martinsburg, W. Va 1920 

Waltemyer, W. C 1910. . .Landisville, Pa., 1911 1913 

Butler, Pa., 19 13 191(5 

Thurmont, Md 1916 

Waring, L. H., Ph.D., .1895. . . Lovettsville, Va., 1X961899 

Scranton, Pa 1X99 1902 

Georgetown, I). C., 1906 1916 

Weaver, F. II., 1875. . . Grafton, W. Va 18761877 

r. S. A. Chaplain, 18801X97 

Welier, H. II., D.D., . .1884. . . Baltimore. Grace, 1X85 1XX9 

Home Mission Secretary, 1XX9 

Weidley, J.. I). IX, 1890. .. Pittsburgh. Pa., 1891 1906 

Washington, Reformation, 1906 

Weiitz, A. R., Ph.D., . .1906. . . Gettysburg, Pa., College, 19091916 

Gettysburg, Pa., Seminary, 1916 

Wirkey, N. J. G 1914. . . Georgetown, 1). C ' 19161917 

Wiles,' C. P., D.I)., . . . .1X95. . . Rossville, Pa 18901901 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1901 1908 

Washington, Keller, 1908 1913 

Kditor S. S. Lit 1913 

Will, F. I, 1912.. . Wilmerding, Pa., 19131916 

Cleveland, Ohio, 19101917 

Derry, Pa., 1917 1918 

Hoonsboro, Md., ..1918 



CLERICAL ROLL FOR THE CENTENNIAL YEAR. 187 

JSntcTtA 

Xante Ministry Pastorate Year 

\Villi*, J., 1876. . . Mtrasburg, \'a., 18771882 

Staunton Seminary, \'a., 1882 1895 

Myersville, Md., '. 1906 

Wiseman, D. E., D.D., .1884. . . Washington, Redeemer, 1884 

Wolf, A. G., 188!) . . . Aaronsburg, Pa., 18901 899 

McConnellsburg, Pa., 19001906 

West Fairview, Pa., 190(51917 

Silver Run, Md., 1917 

Zimmerman, L. M., 

D.D., 1886 ... Baltimore, Christ, 1 887 



The next five chapters (XIII-XVII ) present historical sketches 
of the congregations of the Synod. These sketches are grouped 
according to Conferences, beginning with the Eastern Confer- 
ence, continuing with the Middle and Western Conferences, and 
concluding with the Mountain Conference. 

The Eastern Conference, because of its size, is spread over 
two chapters, one embracing the churches of Baltimore and vicin- 
ity, including all of Baltimore County except Arcadia, the other 
embracing the churches of Washington and vicinity. The chapter 
on the Middle Conference embraces the churches of Carroll and 
Frederick Counties, and includes Lovettsville, Virginia. The 
chapter of the Western Conference sets forth the churches in 
Washington County and also includes Waynesboro, Martinsburg, 
and Garrardstown. The chapter on the Mountain Conference 
embraces the churches of Cumberland and Frostburg. 

Within the separate Conferences the congregations and charges 
are arranged in alphabetical order. Where more than one church 
is located in the same city, as in Baltimore, Washington, Hagers- 
town, and Cumberland, the churches appear in the order of their 
age. 

A means of ready reference to individual congregations is 
found in the indexes at the end of the volume. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



THE FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH OF 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. Ezra K. Bell, D.D., Pastor 

The early Lutheran Churches in Baltimore City were German, 
and all services for a period of nearly 100 years were conducted 
exclusively in the German language. That an English Church 
should be founded to meet the changing conditions was most 
likely the opinion of Dr. J. D. Kurtz, pastor of Zion German, 
then a Lutheran Church whose members were instrumental in 
organizing the First English Church. Dr. Kurtz was pastor of 
Zion Church for fifty years took part in the organization of the 
Maryland Synod, assisted in the organization of the General 
Synod, presided at the preliminary meeting, and was the second 
president of that body. While he could not openly advocate in 
that day the use of the English language, yet he undoubtedly 
gave much private encouragement to the new enterprise. When 
he retired from the pastorate of Zion, he became a communicant 
member of .the First Church. 

On October 27, 1823, a meeting was held in the house of David 
Bixler, on Howard Street, when the matter of organizing an 
English Lutheran Church was considered. The men present at 
that meeting were David Bixler, John Reese, Thomas Henning, 
Michael Klinefelter, George Stonebraker, Joshua Medtaft, Jacob 
Deems and Frederick Seyler. Subscriptions were taken and the 
Synod was informed of their action. A letter was sent to the 
German Lutheran Church soliciting aid in the erection of a house 
of worship. It does not appear that any public preaching serv- 
ices were held until in August, 1824, when the Rev. Charles 
Philip Krauth, of Martinsburg, at their urgent request, spent 

several (^ays.with them. A committee was appointed, to rent a 

189 




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# ^W P 






5- 

o ;. 



11 

M W S 

c &. w 



a: X 

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PS 5 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



191 



room in which to hold religious services and secure a lot on which 
to erect a permanent house of worship. Following this, during 
a period of about seven months the little flock enjoyed the pas- 
toral services of the Rev. Jacob Medtart. 

During the erection of a church building which was dedicated 
on May 28, 1826, the congregation had no settled pastor. On 
December 17, 1826, the Rev. John G. Morris, then a student at 
Gettysburg, preached his first sermon and became pastor. A 
Sunday school was organized and within a few years the church 
was enlarged to accommodate the growing congregation. The 
following were present at the first communion on June 3, 1827: 
Andrew Walter, David Bixler, John Reese, Anthony Groverman, 
Erasmus Euler, Frederick Seller, John Brown, Joseph Clark, 
David Martin, William Ross, John Schrimer, Abel D. Chase, T. 
Sederberg, Jesse Reifsnyder, John S. Bridges, Augustus Hack, 
William Hack, Garrett Altvater, Magdalena Bixler, Elizabeth 
Wehrley, Catharine Uhler, Ellen Brown, Catharine Martin, 
Rochena Utz, Ann Wampler, Margaret Bauer, Rachel Walte- 
myer, Elizabeth Bruner, Mrs. Moal, Mrs. Deems, Elizabeth Brien, 
Mary Deems, Mary Bixler, Ann Simpson, and Isabella Altvater. 

For more than 33 years Dr. Morris ministered to the congrega- 
tion. He was one of the most widely known and influential min- 
isters in the city. Under his ministry and with his cooperation, 
a mission was very early started at Canton, a colony established 
the Second Church on Lombard Street, and a Sunday school was 
organized on Monument Street, out of which the Third Church 
grew. The former was projected in January, 1841, the latter 
during the same year. The General Synod was entertained by 
the First Church twice during the pastorate of Dr. Morris, in 
May, 1841, and June, 1843. 

Upon the retirement of Dr. Morris in 1860, two candidates 
were considered for his successor. One was the amiable and 
scholarly Dr. Theophilus Stork, and the other the "silver- 
tongued orator," Dr. John McCron, then pastor of the Third 
Church. Many meetings were held, and votes were cast for these 
two candidates. More than seventy ballots were cast without an 
election. The advocates of Dr. McCron were much in the major- 
ity, but were not quite able to muster the two-thirds vote re- 
quired. Finally it was moved that Dr. McCron be engaged to 
.supply the pulpit indefinitely, which was carried by a majority 
vote. 



1!>2 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Dr. McCron accepted, and became in this irregular way the 
pastor of the church. The friends of Dr. Stork to the number of 
96, withdrew and organized St. Mark's Church and Dr. The- 
ophilus Stork became pastor. All of the Sunday school officers 
and teachers with one exception withdrew under the Leadership 
of the superintendent. Dr. \V. AV. Kemp. But the congregation 
soon rallied and then began that generous rivalry and mutual 
emulation that made for the development and strength of two of 
the largest and most influential congregations in the Lutheran 
Church in this country, the First and St. Mark's. 

Located in the heart of the city, the First Church, under Drs. 
Morris and McCron, attained a position of prominence. The 
classic Colonial Building on Lexington Street was one of the no- 
table structures of the city. Under the eloquent preaching of 
Dr. McCron, large congregations were attracted to the services. 
The personnel of the membership included many of the best 
families in the city. 

After a pastorate of nearly twelve years, Dr. McCron was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Joseph H. Barclay, D.D., who was installed 
by Dr. Morris, July 29, 1872. During his first year, the Book of 
Worship and full service were introduced. Extensive improve- 
ments were undertaken but before these improvements were com- 
pleted the entire church building and adjoining parsonage were 
completely destroyed by fire. The church records contain the 
following brief minute of the calamity which befell the congrega- 
tion : 

"Baltimore, July 25, ]873 A disastrous fire broke out this 
day at about 10 o'clock a. m., in an establishment in the rear of 
the First Church, Baltimore, which spread with great rapidity, 
consuming the church and parsonage, together with the greater 
part of the adjoining property. 

"Our holy and our beautiful house where our fathers praised 
Thee is burned up with fire and all our pleasant things are laid 
waste. ' ' 0. F. Lantz. 

The pastor's sermon at the first service held after the fire was 
preached from this very suggestive and appropriate text. 

A committee was immediately appointed to select a lot in a 
more residential section of the city. This committee consisted of 
L. 'A. Coll, E. I). Miller, Samuel Appold, Jacob Ehrman, Charles 
R. Colladay and Oliver F. Lantz. Six weeks later the present 



Till: CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 193 

site was selected, the purchase price being $112,000, under a 
ground rent. The old lot was sold for $20,500. 

It is regretted by many that the old site in the center of the 
city was nQt retained. A central church, within easy reach of the 
hotels and for use on general occasions would now be a distinct 
gain in many ways. Perhaps a new site would not have been 
chosen had it not been that St. Mark's was then located on Eutaw 
Street, only a few squares away. 

The corner stone was laid on Easter Monday, 1874, Dr. Charles 
A. Stork, pastor of St. Mark's, delivering the address. On Janu- 
ary 3, 1875, the first service was held in the lecture room of the 
new church, and 011 September 10, the edifice was dedicated, the 
sermon being preached by the Rev. Dr. A. C. Wedekind, of New 
York. The money expended was more than $100,000. The 
church building is of beautiful white marble and the audience 
and Sunday school rooms are exceptional in their proportions 
and arrangement. The church auditorium in its graceful Gothic 
architecture with its well-nigh perfect acoustics and its distinctly 
Lutheran appointments has been pronounced one of the most at- 
tractive to be found anywhere. During Dr. Barclay 's pastorate, 
on October 4, 1875, the first young people's society was organ- 
ized, and in May, 1880, the Woman's Home and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society was organized. 

Dr. Barclay resigned December 10, 1881, and the Rev. Dr. 
M. W. Hamma, of Brooklyn, New York, was elected pastor. He 
was installed on November 10, 1882, Drs. Morris, Scholl, and 
Clutz officiating. During Dr. Hamma 's pastorate a number of 
excellent families were received into the membership. The con- 
stitution was revised and up-to-date financial methods were in- 
troduced, those for benevolence being especially effective. Mis- 
sionary interest was quickened, while a Home and Foreign Mis- 
sion Band was organized. 

Failing health of both Dr. Hamma and his wife led to his res- 
ignation after a pastorate of four years. On October 11, 1886, 
the Rev. A. H. Studebaker, of Harrisburg, was elected pastor, 
and he was installed on December 12. Dr. Studebaker 's min- 
istry was characterized from the first by exceptional publicity 
methods, which drew unusually large congregations. He was 
undoubtedly, in that day, one of the most resourceful church ad- 
vertisers in the country. Large numbers of members of other 
churches and strangers attended his services. Under his direc- 
13 




FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 



THE CHURCHKS OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 1'JO 

tion the chancel of the church was remodeled in Lutheran form, 
the altar put in place and the lectern, a bronze heroic figure of 
the Angel holding the everlasting Gospel, costing $2,500, added 
to the chancel furnishings. 

Dr. Studebaker's resignation took effect June 15, 1899. July 
3, the Rev. Ezra K. Bell, D.D., supplied the pulpit, and on July 
19 was elected pastor. He was installed November 5, by Drs. 
Albert and Freas. 

On November 25, 1900, the seventh-fifth anniversary of the 
church was celebrated, the pastor preaching in the morning and 
Dr. M. W. Hamma in the evening. Nearly nine thousand dollars 
were contributed toward the cancellation of an indebtedness of 
$12,000. Electric lights were installed in October, 1901, and the 
lecture and Sunday school rooms were frescoed and refurnished. 
In June, 1903, the congregation with the cooperation of the other 
Lutheran Churches entertained the General Synod. Clerical 
vestments were introduced the same year and the support of a 
foreign pastor, the first in the General Synod, was undertaken. 

During the autumn of 1907 new art glass figure windows, rep- 
resenting events in the life of Christ, were placed in the vesti- 
bules and auditorium, a mural painting placed over the reredos, 
new massive hymn tablets erected and a beautiful facsimile in 
marble, made in Italy, of Thorwaldsen 's angel baptismal font, 
presented by Dr. Hamma, was placed at the entrance to the chan- 
cel. All of these memorials were presented by members of the 
congregation and cost in the aggregate about $15,000. The 
church was greatly beautified, the audience room being without 
question, and so pronounced by people who have travelled widely, 
one of the most beautiful in the world. 

The First Church has taken a leading part in the planting of 
new congregations in the city and vicinity. It has aided almost 
every new congregation financially and given many new mem- 
bers. A large number of new members were added during the 
past synodical year and the contributions of the congregation 
amounted to nearly $20,000. 



I'M; 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



THE SECOND LUTHERAN CHURCH OF 
BALTIMORE, MI). 

Ifcv. Joel E. Gnibb. Pastor 

"Horn in a revival"' fitly describes the beginning of the 
Second English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Baltimore 
During the wave of religious feeling and thought that swept 
over the City of Baltimore during the winter of 1839- '40, there 
\\as sown the seed that quickly sprang up and bore fruit in the 

establishment of the Second 
Church. 

The First English Lutheran 
Church, then fourteen years old, 
stood on Lexington Street, east of 
Howard. At a meeting held there 
on April 6, 1840. it was deter- 
mined to establish a second Lu- 
theran enterprise, to be located in 
a southwesterly direction from the 
mother church. On December 18, 
1840, the following church council 
was elected to serve th.9 new 
church for one year: Elders. 
Thomas Stow, Joel Wright, John 
Mahaney and William Bridges; 
Deacons, James Getty and Charles 
I). Ilinks; Trustees. George 
Stonebraker, Benjamin Deford 
and Peter Mason. 

On January 14. 1841. a constitution was adopted, and on 
the twenty-eighth of the same month. Mr. William Bridges was 
elected the first treasurer of the church, which position he held 
continuously until 1875. 

No definite location for the church had yet been decided upon, 
but on February 18. 1841. the present site was leased. Ground 
was soon broken, and in May following, during a meeting of the 
General Synod, the corner stone was laid, the Rev. Dr. Baugher 
delivering the address. It was not until September, 1842. how- 
ever, that the main audience room w r as ready for occupancy, and 
h've months later before the lecture room could be used. 

During the month of October, 1842. the Sunday school was 
organized and Mr. James Getty elected superintendent. 

As is usually the case with new churches, the problem of 
finances was a troublesome one. Every dollar that could be 




KKV. JOEL E. GRUBB. 



TI1K CHUHCllKS OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



197 



raised was absorbed in the cost of the building, and but little 
could be spared to pay a pastor. A temporary arrangement was 
made in August, 1842, with the Rev. Charles I*. Krauth then 
fresh from the Seminary at Gettysburg to serve the church at a 
salary of $350 per annum. This continued for nearly a year, 
until June, 1843, at which time, according to the records, "pros- 
pects having brightened somewhat, the Rev. C. P. Krauth was 
elected permanent pastor, at a salary of $450 per annum." 





SECOND LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 



From this time forward the newly-established church seems 
to have prospered. Although it was a struggle for a while, all 
obstacles were overcome by the faithful perseverance of the little 
band who were then starting out on the road which we of to-day 
are still pursuing. While they have all passed on to the Better 
Land, we are continually in the presence of that nobler part of 



19S HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

them which can never die, but which lives on because it has be- 
come an integral part of the work to which they gave the labor 
of their lives. 

Second Church has in its list of pastors some of the greatest 
names of the Lutheran Church in America. Following is the list: 
Rev. C. P. Krauth. D.I)., LL.D.. 1842-47; Rev. Charles II. Ewing. 
1848-52; Rev. Joseph A. Seiss, D.D.. LL.D.. 1852-58; Rev. 
Charles II. Hersh. 1859-60; Rev. Joel Schwartz. D.I)., 1860-65; 
Rev. Irving Magee. D.D., 1866-68; Rev. Edmund J. Wolf, D.D.. 
1868-70; Rev. George Scholl, D.I)., 1874-84; Rev. Luther Kuhl- 
man. D.D.. 1885-88; Rev. Sylvanus Stall, D.D.. 1888-91; Rev. 
(Jcorge W. Miller. D.D.. 1891-1916, and Rev. Joel E. Grubb 
from 1916 to the present time. 

The church edih'ce cost originally about $11.000. Over $25,000 
was spent, however, during the first fifty years in improvements 
and repairs. On January 12. 1907, fire of unknown origin com- 
pletely destroyed the building, leaving only the four walls stand- 
ing. The council at once addressed itself to the task of rebuild- 
ing. Over $10,000 was subscribed in a short while by the con- 
gregation, which, together with the insurance and several special 
contributions, brought the amount available up to nearly $30,000. 
With this the whole building was remodeled and beautified, and 
needed additions, such as the ladies' parlor and the gymnasium, 
were made. 

Through the generosity of Mr. George W. Watts, of Durham, 
North Carolina, a former member of the church, still interested 
in its welfare, we were enabled in May, 1917, to purchase a 
parsonage, located at 818 Hollins Street. This was presented 
to the church by Mr. Watts as a memorial to his mother and 
father, both of whom were lifelong members of the church. 

In round figures, over two hundred thousand dollars have been 
spent in running expenses of the church, while probably seventy- 
five thousand dollars have been contributed to benevolence by the 
church and its various organizations during the seventy-five years 
of her existence. Seven sons have been sent into the ministry, 
and through them the influence of the Second Church has been 
carried to the four points of the compass. These are: Rev. 
William L. Ileuser, Newark, Ohio; Rev. W. Morgan Cross, 
Greencastle, Pa.; Rev. Augtist Pohlman. M.D.. D.D., Philadel- 
phia. Pa. ; Rev. Frederick W. Meyer, Baltimore. Md. ; Rev. Otto 
Bregen/er, Bridgeton. X. J. ; Rev. Frederick C. Sternat, Abbotts- 
town. Pa., and Rev. William E. Wheeler, St. Louis, Mo. 

The membership at organization was seventeen. To-day it 
numbers about five hundred. It has been said that a force, once 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AX1) VICINITY. 19!> 

brought into being, never ceases to exist. Certainly this is true 
of the work of this church. Through so many channels has her 
influence been diffused, that should we raze the building and dis- 
band the congregation, the force brought into being seventy-five 
years ago would go on unceasingly in ever-widening circles from 
new centers of influence. To follow the many threads of use- 
fulness that have started with Lombard Street as their center, 
we should be led not only to the ends of the continent, but beyond 
even across the trackless ocean. There, like sparks that have 
broken from a central fire, which, carried in every direction, have 
been fanned into living flames themselves, we should find count- 
less activities, all of which owe their existence in part, if not 
entirely, to the influence of our beloved church. Truly, this work, 
started amid difficulties and trials three-quarters of a century 
ago, can never die ; it will go on and on, until its full measure is 
seen and known in the boundless realms of eternity. 



THE THIRD LUTHERAX CHURCH OF 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. S. J. McDowell, D.D., Pastor 

The Third Evangelical Lutheran Church of Baltimore grew 
out of a Sunday school started by the pastor of the First Church 
and some of his most interested parishioners. Rev. John G. 
Morris, D.D., LL.D., then pastor, shared with some of his best 
members the feeling that the section of the city east of Jones' 
Falls known as "Old Town" should have a Lutheran church. 
' ' I was ambitious, ' ' said the Doctor, in an address to the congre- 
gation upon the occasion of its fiftieth anniversary, "to have the 
name and influence of the Lutheran Church extended, and cheer- 
fully parted with some very good members to accomplish this. ' ' 

The school was started some time during the year 1841 and 
with thirty-six persons present out of the thirty-eight who 
had been found in the house-to-house canvass, and who 
had been promised for the school should one be opened. "Al- 
most all of Old Town was monopolized by the Methodists," 
says the Doctor, "and some faint-hearted people predicted 
our failure." The school was started in a private house on 
Hillen Street near Monument and grew very encouragingly from 
the very beginning. No records seem to have been kept of the 
place of meeting, the month of the year when organized, or any 
other matters of interest connected with the opening of the 
school. Not even Dr. Morris himself could recall either the exact 



TIIK CHURCHES OF BAl/miOKK AM) VICINITY. 



201 



liouse in which the school first met, or the date of organ izing. 
when these were sought fifty years later. 

The first superintendent of the school was the aged Charles 
Hinks. a member of First Church. Pastor Morris speaks of him 
as "an active and intelligent member of my church who con- 
sented to take charge of the infant enterprise until some other 
competent leader could be found." A few months later Super- 
intendent Hinks, because of infirmities of age, retired and a 
young man by the name of William A. Wisong succeeded him. 
Superintendent Wisong was a man of unusual religious zeal and 
very resourceful in the handling of children. Under his man- 
agement the school eventually grew to be the largest Sunday 
school in the entire State of Maryland. It is said to have had 
an enrollment of twelve hun- 
dred when at the height of its 
prosperity. Mr. Wisong was 
succeeded by Mr. John H. 
Leonhardt ; he in turn by Mr. 
Henry C. Hines, who is still 
treasurer of the school, and 
he by Mr. J. Fred Bregel, the 
present incumbent. 

The private-home quarters 
was soon outgrown and the 
congregation moved into a 
"school house on or near Gay 
Street below Monument'' in 
1842. "The school," wrote 
the Rev. William A. Passa- 
vant, D.D., its first pastor, 
"was a perpetual inspira- 
tion." It was in the summer 
of 1842 that the lot upon 
which the present church building stands was leased, and the 
contract was let for "the erection of a neat one-story chapel." 
This chapel, with a seating capacity of a little less than three 
hundred, was dedicated on a Sunday afternoon late in August 
or early in September, 1843; and the school was immediately 
transferred from the public school building to its newly-provided 
chapel home. 

The actual organizing of the congregation seems to have taken 
place at a meeting "about the close of January;" but the first 
record of members received is : February 2, 1843. Eleven char- 
ter members, three men and eight women, composed the list. 




THIRD LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BAI/TIMCRE, Mu. 



202 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

The new church home was known as Luther Chapel, a name it 
retained until replaeed by the present briek structure during the 
pastorate of Rev. A. \V. Lilly, D.I)., when the name was changed 
to that whieh the congregation still bears. 

In the seventy-six years of its history the congregation lias had 
the services of twelve pastors. The following table shows the 
order in whieh these served, as well as the length of time. Much 
of real and special interest could be said about some of these 
earlier pastorates, or about the unusually long one so recently 
closed, but allotted space will not permit. It is in the self-sacri- 
ficing xeal. the wise forbearance, the painstaking devotion of some 
of these fathers in our Xion that the explanation of the growth 
and influence of the congregation is to be found. 

PASTORS. 

Rev. William A. Passavant, D.D. ..Was pastor from Oct., 1842, Until May. 1844 

Rev. Bignal Appleby Was pastor from .June, 1844, Until June, 1845 

Rev. James A. Brown, I). I) Was pastor from Jan., 184(1, Until July, 1847 

Rev. Peter Anstadt. D.I) ....Was pastor from June, 1848, Until July, 1851 

Rev. A. W. Lilly, D.D Was pastor from Oct., 1851, Until May, 1855 

Rev. John MeCron. D.I) Was pastor from 1855 Until 1859 

Rev. Samuel Spreeher, Jr., D.D., ..Was pastor from Oct.. 1860, Until Oct., 1862 

Rev. Henry Hishop Was pastor from Nov., 1863, Until July. 1866 

Rev. John G. Morris, D.I)., LL.P.. .Was pastor from Sept., 1867, Until Nov., 1873 

Rev. Uriel Graves Was pastor from Mar., 1874, Until July, 1876 

Rev. I. Calvert Burke, D.D Was pastor from Feb., 1877, Until July, 1915 

Rev. S. .1. McDowell, D.D Was installed Nov. 21, 1915. 

The present church building was erected during the pastorate 
of the Rev. A. W. Lilly, D.I)., and was dedicated in 1852. It was 
enlarged fifteen or more years later during the pastorate of Rev. 
Dr. Morris. During the pastorate of Rev. I. Calvert Burke, 
D.D., it was thoroughly remodeled and changes made to the main 
entrance and in the school room at a cost of nearly $10,000. Dur- 
ing the present pastorate it was again remodeled at a cost of 
$5.000. 

hi the summer of 1885 the congregation emulated the example 
of the old mother congregation and sent out a number of its good 
members to help organize a mission in southeast Baltimore. This 
mission school soon grew into the present Grace Church, located 
at Gough Street and Broadway. Five years later the east Balti- 
more territory, largely cared for by the Third Church, was still 
further divided by the formation of another mission to be known 
as the Church of the Reformation, which eventually located at 
Lanvale and Caroline Streets. 

Five of the sons of the congregation have entered the Lutheran 
ministry: Rev. Albert O. Mullen, now pastor of the large congre- 
gation at Spring Grove, Pennsylvania; Rev. Philip II. R. Mullen, 
his brother, pastor of the vigorous young congregation at Swiss- 
vale. Pennsylvania; Rev. Charles J. Ilines. the present pastor of 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 203 

the fortunately-located Emmanuel Church of this city ; Rev. AV. 
Claude Waltemyer. pastor of the old congregation at Thurmont. 
Maryland, and Rev. Harry Goedeke, who graduated from the 
Theological Seminary at Gettysburg in May. 1919. was ordained 
in the following September, and sailed in November under ap- 
pointment as a missionary to our Guntur field in India. 

This splendid field for a Lutheran church began to undergo 
some very marked changes about the year 1910, and it became 
evident that the Third Church was destined soon to be known as 
"one of our down-town churches." Many of its oldest and most 
faithful families began to seek homes in the ever-growing 
suburbs, and the newcomers in the immediate community were 
almost invariably families of foreign birth, largely Jews and 
Italians. Then the colored people began to encroach more and 
more upon the district until now it is recognized as a typical 
"down-town" district. However, moving out of the immediate 
neighborhood of the church did not, as a rule, mean leaving the 
old Third Church, and her communicant membership is still a 
little beyond the six hundred mark, and the life of the congrega- 
tion is still unabated and decidedly encouraging. Thus far the 
idea of abandoning its present church home has not even been 
thought of, much less discussed by council or congregation. The 
older members are faithful in their attendance at church services, 
and new families within walking distance of the church are con- 
stantly being found, so that the annual accessions are still in ex- 
cess of the losses, and the usefulness of the Third Church, even 
in her present location, seems to stretch on into the future for a 
few more decades at least. 



ST. STEPHEN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. F. Ph. Hennighausen, D.D., Pastor Emeritus 
Rev. Christian Pieper, Pastor 

It was Rev. Charles A. Meister, who in the fall of 1849, without 
any aid on the part of man. gathered a number of German resi- 
dents of South Baltimore and organized them into an Evan- 
gelical Lutheran congregation. In 1850 their first house of wor- 
ship was built at the northwest corner of Hanover and Hamburg 
Streets. In 1851 the congregation, under the pastorship of Rev. 
A. O. Brickman, was incorporated as the "German Evangelical 
Lutheran St. Stephen 's Congregation. ' ' The congregation formed 
then already a part of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Mary- 



204 



HISTOHY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



land; it numbered at this time twenty-two voting members. In 
18.~>2 both a Sunday school and a parochial school were opened 
and a school house erected in the rear of the church. 

Rev. J. II. Mengert followed as pastor in 1852. Rev. Brickmann 
having resigned to the general regret of the people. The school 
house had to be enlarged during 1854, but Rev. Mengert felt 
compelled to resign during the same year, the congregation not 
being able to give him sufficient support. 

Rev. \V. Hoppe, who had recently graduated from the Theo 
logical Seminary at Gettysburg, became his successor and re- 
mained until October. 1861. In 1854 the first organ was bought 
at a cost of $380; a second new organ was bought in 1868, cost- 





Ki;v. K. I'ir. HEXXIGHAUSEX, D.D. 



KKV. CHRISTIAN PIEPER. 



ing $1.700. and a third organ in 1894. costing $3,500. The pa- 
rochial school flourished until 1877, when German being intro- 
duced into a number of the public schools, most all parochial 
schools in the city were forced to close for want of scholars. 

Rev. L. F. Zimmerman became pastor of St. Stephen's Church 
in 1861. Congregation and school flourished for a while to such 
an extent that enlargement of both became necessary. Unfortu- 
nately, differences soon arose between pastor and people which 
terminated in the separation and the organization of a new con- 
gregation in the neighborhood. Both are flourishing at the pres- 
ent day and are on the best of terms. 

In October, 18(i4, Rev. F. Ph. Hennighausen, D.D., took charge. 
The debt then resting on the old church amounted to $2,660, but 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AM> VICINITY. 



was soon paid, especially by the aid of the Ladies' Aid and 
Young People's Societies. A few years later the church was 
renovated at an expense of $2,300. In 1884-85 the present 
church was erected at a cost of about $40,000. In October, 1899. 
it was renovated at a cost of about $1.200, and was renovated 
again in 1911 at a cost of about $4.000. The dedication of the 
present church took place October 4. 1885. On October 13. 1889. 
the congregation celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of their 
pastor in a truly grand style. 

The congregation has furnished two young men for the holy 
ministry, viz: Rev. Herman Kroh. recently deceased, and Rev. 
George Beiswanger. of North Manchester. Indiana ; and a third, 
Mr. Charles H. Corbett, 
is about to complete his 
course in the Seminary 
at Gettysburg. 

In 1893, the pastor, 
realizing the need of the 
younger members and 
considering the future 
welfare of the church, 
encouraged the intro- 
duction of the English 
language in some of the 
regular services. This 
move met with strong 
opposition on the part of 
many of the elders, and 
even some of their chil- 
dren. Quite a number 
of families, very much 
to the regret of pastor 
and people, withdrew in 
consequence. For a time 
the English service was 
held everv other Sundav 




ST. STEPHEN 's LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 



evening, but since 1899 

every evening service 

has been held in the English language and now perfect harmony 

prevails. 

From October 29 to November 1, 1899, the congregation cele- 
brated its Golden Jubilee, and from October 2 to 4, 1914. the 
congregation celebrated the Golden Jubilee of Dr. Hennighausen. 

On December 31, 1916, after having served St. Stephen's for 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

mure than fifty-two years. Dr. Henuighausen resigned. He was 
elected pastor emeritus and awarded a pension for faithful serv- 
ice. 

A call was extended to Rev. Christian Pieper, B.D., on March 
6. 1917. Kev. Pieper assumed charge on May 17 and was in- 
stalled on October 3, 1!)17. Dr. Ilennighausen participated in the 
installation service of his successor. 

Kev. Christian Pieper came from Breklum Seminary in 1908 
and graduated from Hamma Divinitv School in 1910. 



ST. MARK'S LUTHERAN CLLURCH, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

Ifci\ Robert I). Clare, D.D., Pastor 

On the evening; of October 2-'}, 1860, a portion of the members 
of the First English Lutheran Church of Baltimore met in the 
lecture room of the Second English Lutheran Church and or- 
gani/ed themselves into a new English Lutheran congregation 
which bore the name St. Mark's. The chairman of this meeting 
was Mr. George Slothower, and the secretary, Mr. Win. II. James. 
The Kev. J. G. Butler, of Washington, D. C., conducted the re- 
ligious exercises. 

A formal written agreement, constituting the basis of organi- 
x.ation, was signed by ninety-four persons; and after the ad- 
journment of the meeting, nineteen others added their names, 
thus bringing the total number up to one hundred and thirteen. 
Of this number one hundred were communing members of the 
First Church. 

Immediately after the organi/ation. the following provisional 
council was selected: George Slothower. Dr. William M. Kemp, 
A. J. Miller, J. T. II. Bringman. J. A. H. Becker and George W. 
Leisenring. This council was instructed to invite the Rev. Dr. 
Theophilus Stork to become pastor of the new congregation. 

During the last week in October the Third Presbyterian 
Church building on Eutaw Street, above Saratoga, was rented 
at $'JO per month ; and an arrangement was made with the Pres- 
byterian congregation that the Sunday morning and Wednesday 
evening services be held jointly by the Lutherans and Presby- 
terians, the ministers of the two congregations officiating alter- 
nately, the Sunday evening service to be exclusively Lutheran, 
and the lecture room to be used on Sunday afternoon by the 
Lutheran Sunday school. Under this arrangement, the first 
religious service of St. Mark's was held Sunday evening, No- 




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-08 1USTOKV OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

vember 4. the Rev. Dr. J. G. Morris preaching an appropriate 
sermon. The h'rst Sunday school session was held November 11, 
with Dr. William M. Kemp as superintendent. November 26 a 
constitution was adopted and December 1 the Rev. Dr. Theophi- 
lus Stork took charge as pastor. 

In securing the pastoral services of Dr. Stork, the new con- 
gregation was particularly fortunate, for it meant the assurance 
of intelligent spiritual leadership from the very outstart. Dr. 
Stork was generally recognized as one of the most scholarly 
preachers and theologians in the Lutheran Church. He had 
previously served the Lutheran Church in Winchester, Va. ; St. 
Matthew's, and also St. Mark's, in Philadelphia. Pa., and at the 
time of his election to St. Mark's, of Baltimore, he was the ef- 
ficient president of Newberry College, at Newberry, S. C. 

Immediately after the arrival of Dr. Stork, steps were taken 
to secure a permanent church building, and in February, 1861. 
the Third Presbyterian Church, on Eutaw Street, was purchased 
at a cost of $10,500. Repairs, involving an expenditure of $1,241 
were at once made, and on the 10th of March the congregation 
resumed services in the renovated edifice. 

Harmony of spirit, consecrated zeal and an intelligent organi- 
xation of congregational agencies characterized this church from 
its very beginning, and determined to a large extent the course 
of its entire future history. The first additions to the original 
membership were made at the Easter communion, March 31. 
1861. five months from the inception, and numbered forty-five. 

Early in 1862 it was found desirable to secure an assistant 
for Dr. Stork, whose health was failing, and the congregation 
unanimously chose for this position the pastor's son, the Rev. 
Dr. Charles A. Stork, of Philadelphia, Pa. The latter preached 
his first sermon on the third Sunday of March, 1862, and was 
ordained in St. Mark's on November 17 of the same year. 

The Rev. Dr. Charles A. Stork had received his scholastic train- 
ing in the Preparatory Department of Pennsylvania College. 
Hartwick Seminary, William's College and the Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary. Upon graduating from Andover he became 
professor of Greek in Newberry College, S .C., and at the time of 
his election as assistant pastor in St. Mark's he was in charge of 
the St. James Lutheran Mission. Philadelphia, Pa. He was a 
man of rare and splendid gifts, and during his years with St. 
Mark's he attained to a position of marked distinction among the 
Lutheran preachers of America. 

On May 25. 1865. Dr. Theophilus Stork felt obliged, on account 
of ill health, to resign. The congregation reluctantly accepted his 



THE CHURCHES OP BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 209 

resignation, and on June 14 his worthy son was unanimously 
chosen pastor. The latter took charge July 1. 

Dr. Charles A. Stork, like his predecessor and successors in the 
pastoral office in St. Mark's, was an ardent supporter of the 
larger benevolent operations of the Church. In 1867-68, when 
the Jubilee of the Reformation was celebrated, the congregation 
made a special benevolent contribution of $2,431, of which 
amount $1.200 was given to establish the new St. Mark's Church 
in St. Louis, Mo. The Young People's Society, organized the 




ST. MARK'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 

same year, later assumed the permanent support of a native 
worker in India. 

On August 21, 1868, a parsonage at 76 N. Paca Street, was pur- 
chased at a cost of $7,000. 

In 1873 the church edifice on Eutaw Street was thoroughly 
remodeled. During the autumn months the congregation wor- 
shipped in the Masonic Temple. In January, 1874, the lecture 
room of the new building was opened for service, and on March 
8 the renovated church was rededicated. The entire cost of the 
work, with a new organ and furnishings, was $21,000. 

In the summer of 1881, Dr. Charles A. Stork was elected pro- 
fessor of didactic theology and chairman of the faculty of the 
Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. After due deliberation, he 
14 



210 HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

accepted this position and resigned the pastorship of St. Mark's, 
preaching his last sermon in September, 1881. 

On September 14, 1881, the congregation elected the Rev. Dr. 
Charles S. Albert, of Carlisle, Pa., who entered upon the duties 
of his office November 5, 1881. 

Dr. Albert was a graduate of Pennsylvania College at Gettys- 
burg, and the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Philadelphia. 
He entered upon his ministry as assistant pastor of Trinity Lu- 
theran Church, Lancaster. Pa., and at the time of his call to St. 
Mark's he was pastor of the First Lutheran Church, Carlisle, Pa. 
The new pastor was, in every sense of the word, a fitting suc- 
cessor to Dr. Stork. His charming personality, consecrated spirit 
and scholarly ability are still held in fond remembrance by all 
who knew him. 

In April. 1883, the old parsonage, 76 X. Paca Street, was sold 
for $4,750, and on January 7, 1884, a new parsonage at 667 
Franklin Street, was purchased for the sum of $6,500. 

On December 17, 1883. the congregation was saddened by the 
report of the death of Dr. Charles A. Stork, in Philadelphia. 
Memorial services were held on Sunday, December 30. 

In September, 1887. the first number of St. Mark's Quarterly 
was issued. This publication, which has continued up to the 
present time, has been a valued and important factor in the 
church's life. 

In October, 1888, the Common Service was introduced in the 
regular congregational worship. On November 26, 1888, the St. 
John's Circle of the King's Daughters was organized, and in 
April of the following year the Whatsoever Mission Band came 
into being. In January, 1893. the congregation adopted the 
weekly envelope system of church support. 

In October, 1893, Dr. Albert, having accepted an urgent call to 
become literary editor of the Lutheran Publication Society, pre- 
sented his resignation, and on November 26 he preached his last 
sermon as pastor. During Dr. Albert's pastorate the congrega- 
tion had made marked advance along all lines, as is indicated in 
part by the following summary: Infant baptisms, 309; acces- 
sions, by adult baptism. 16; by confirmation. 428; by certificate, 
134; by restoration. 39; total. 617. Contributions: for local 
support. $64,403; for benevolence, $95,611 ; total. $160.014. 

On February 28. 1894. the congregation chose the Rev. Dr. 
William II. Dunbar, at that time pastor of the Zion Lutheran 
Church. Lebanon. Pa. Dr. Dunbar accepted March 6. preached 
his first sermon May 6, and was installed June 7. 

Dr. Dunbar received his scholastic training in Pennsylvania Col- 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 211 

lege and the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. His 
first charge was St. Peter's Lutheran Church, Easton, Pa. Early 
in his ministry his exceptional ability both as preacher and execu- 
tive was generally recognized by the Church at large, and when 
he came to this new field of labor, he brought with him a breadth 
of vision and a wealth of experience which were clearly reflected 
in all the subsequent years of his long and fruitful pastorate. 

In September, 1894, the interests of the young people were 
further promoted by the organization of the Luther League, 
which has continued up to the present time. 

The growth of the congregation and changing conditions now 
rendered it desirable to secure a better site and a more modern 
and commodious church building. Accordingly, at the congrega- 
tional meeting, held on November 20, 1895, the congregation 
voted to select a new location. The present site on the corner of 
St. Paul and Twentieth Streets was purchased for $18,000. May 
26, 1896, ground was broken ; August 1, the corner stone was laid 
and on November 6, 1898, the large and beautiful church edifice 
was dedicated. 

The total cost of the new building, which combined the most 
modern and commodious congregational, Sunday school and 
parsonage quarters, was approximately $110,000. At the end 
of 1898 there remained a debt of $65,000, which was gradually 
reduced, year after year, until, in November 6-13, 1910, when 
the church celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its organization, 
the last dollar of indebtedness was paid. 

Despite the peculiar difficulties which usually attend a change 
of location on the part of a city church, St. Mark's continued 
to develop both intensively and extensively, and under the wise 
leadership of Dr. Dunbar and the consecrated men and women 
associated with him the work was one of ever-increasing fruitful- 
ness. 

On January 28, 1912, the former pastor. Dr. Charles S. Albert, 
was called to his heavenly reward, and on Sunday, February 11, 
the congregation held an impressive memorial service in his 
honor. 

In 1912 the congregation enthusiastically assumed the support 
of a foreign missionary in the person of the Rev. Isaac Cannaday, 
of the India field. 

On September 7, 1917, Dr. Dunbar, on account of failing 
health, felt constrained to resign. With sad reluctance, the con- 
gregation accepted the resignation, but as an evidence of its loyal 
regard and grateful esteem, it elected him as Pastor Emeritus, 
which position he holds at the present time. 



212 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

The following summary of statistics for Dr. Dunbar's twenty- 
throe years' pastorate speaks for itself: Infant baptisms, 285; 
accessions, by adult baptism. 27; by confirmation, 598; by cer- 
tificate. 333 ; by restoration, 34; total, 992. Contributions: for 
local support, $245,730; for benevolence, $144,547. 

December 5, 1917, the congregation elected the Rev. Dr. Robert 
I). Clare, at that time pastor of the First Lutheran Church, of 
Johnstown. Pa. The new pastor assumed charge January 15, 
1918, and was formally installed by the President of the Mary- 
land Synod, the Rev. Dr. U. S. G. Rupp. on February 3. 

Dr. Clare graduated from Pennsylvania College in 1900, and 
from (he Seminary at Gettysburg in 1903. During the first eight 
years of his ministry he served as pastor of the St. Matthew's 
Lutheran Church, York. Pa., and the following seven years were 
spent in the pastorate of the First Lutheran Church, of Johns- 
town, Pa., from which position he was called to St. Mark's. 

During the years 1917 and 1918 the great World War imposed 
many exceptional obligations upon the Church, and St. Mark's 
responded nobly and generously to every call. Sixty-six of her 
young men and women entered the service of the country, one 
of her soldiers sacrificing his life on the field of battle. In Red 
Cross work and other lines of humanitarian endeavor the con- 
gregation was most active. Special benevolent contributions, ag- 
gregating more than $6.000 were made to national, denomina- 
tional and other agencies. 

In the summer of 1918 two richly beautiful memorial windows 
were placed in the north side of the church auditorium: one by 
Mrs. Elizabeth Kiel, in memory of her mother and her daughter, 
and one by Mrs. AV. W. Davis, in memory of her husband. 

On Sunday, May 11, 1919, a bronze tablet of choicest design, 
which had been placed on the west wall of the auditorium, was 
dedicated to the memory of the Rev. Dr. Charles S. Albert, the 
address of the occasion being delivered by the Rev. Dr. Edwin 
Ileyl Delk, of Philadelphia. 

Following is the summary of statistics for the two years of the 
present pastorate: Infant baptisms, 25; accessions: adult bap- 
tisms, 4; confirmations. 38; certificate, 46; restoration, 12; 
total. 100. Contributions for local expense. $29,533; for benevo- 
lence. $19,583. 

In this brief sketch it has manifestly been impossible to make 
personal mention of many consecrated and efficient workers who 
have constituted the very bulwark of St. Mark's strength. The 
congregation has never been without men and women of spiritual 
wisdom and divinely-directed energy; and to-day it comprises 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



213 



many members who face the Church's task with the courage born 
of faith and the full assurance that the future is just as bright 
as the promises of God. 



ST. PAUL'S ENGLISH LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BALTIMORE, MI). 

Rev. P. A. Heilman, D.D., Paslor 

It is just fifty years since the first steps were taken to organize 
a church in Northwest Baltimore. At that time both the First 
Church and St. Mark's were down town. Many of our sub- 
stantial people were moving to- 
ward Druid Hill Park and it was 
thought wise to establish a church 
iu that section. An available 
site was selected, corner of Druid 
Hill Avenue and McMechen 
Street, and bought for $12,500, all 
of which was borrowed money, 
and an irredeemable ground rent 
was created. 

A Sunday school had been or- 
ganized. May 22, 1871, which met 
in Russel's Hall on Pennsylvania 
Avenue, but no church organiza- 
tion was effected until two years 
later. This church had a unique 
beginning. A lot was purchased, 
contract for building let, corner 
stone laid, and building erected 
before a pastor was called, St. Mark's and the First Church be- 
coming responsible for the new enterprise. 

April 27, 1872, the contract was let for the building of the 
church for $36,000, not including the windows or the church 
furnishings. Mr. George Sheets was the contractor and builder. 

July 1, 1872, the corner stone was laid and the name decided 
upon. The lecture room was finished and the first service was 
held in it on April 13. 1873. The same month the congregation 
was organized with thirty-four members. Rev. Jacob A. Clutz, 
of Newville, Pa., was chosen pastor and began his work Novem- 
ber 1, 1873. 

In December of that year the church building w r as completed, 




EEV. P. A. HEILMAN, D.D. 



-14 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

the total cost belli? $45,000. It was dedicated on December 14, 
Rev. Dr. Conrad officiating. The new pastor was installed the 
same day. 

To recount the trials and struggles of that first pastorate 
would h'll a volume, as there was an immense debt with a 
little tiwk. almost on the verge of despair more than once. But 
a kind Providence, a plucky people, a brave pastor, and a host of 
good friends, helped them to triumph over their great difficulties. 
Prominent among these must be mentioned Mr. Samuel T. Ap- 
pold. of the First Church, who loaned the new church $10.000. 
which put new courage into their hearts. This loan was repaid 
in April. 1892. Meanwhile a pipe organ was installed and the 
church building frescoed at a cost of $2,500. 

In October, 1888, Rev. Clutz resigned, having been appointed 
Secretary of the Home Mission Hoard of the General Synod, very 
much to the regret of the young congregation. But it was the 
call of the Church and it was theirs to submit. Much credit must 
be given to this first pastorate of nearly ten years. The great 
debt had been largely reduced, and the congregation strength- 
ened in numbers and courage. 

Rev. Ephraim Felton was chosen as Dr. Clutz 's successor. He 
became pastor November 1. 1888. and served the congregation 
faithfully for three years and ten months. During this pas- 
torate 191 new members were added and 93 children baptized. 
But as the burden became too heavy he resigned September 1, 
1887, and was called to take up a new mission in Canton, one of 
the promising suburbs of the city. 

The church was without a regular pastor for four and a half 
months, when Rev. \V. 1*. Evans was elected. January 15, 1888. 
lie was a very acceptable preacher and diligent in his work. 
During his pastorate 143 members were added to the church and 
111 infants baptized. One of the most important events in the 
history of the church occurred during this pastorate. The ir- 
redeemable ground rent of $12.500 became available, and by the 
energy of the pastor and the council the ground rent was trans- 
formed into a mortgage. This made it possible to redeem it when 
the congregation should see fit. March 13, 1892. Rev. Evans 
preached his last sermon, after a successful pastorate of four 
years and two months. 

Rev. Charles R. Trowbridge became pastor November 20. 1892. 
The church made rapid progress under the ministry of Rev. 
Trowbridge. Eighty -two names were added to the church roll 
and forty-six children were baptized. But failing health obliged 
him to resign after three years and ten months of service. 



THE CHURCHES OP BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



21.") 



There was a vacancy of seven months before the next pastor 
Cook charge. During most of this time the pulpit was supplied 
by Rev. P. A. Ileilman, of Philadelphia, who was called to be- 
come regular pastor May 1, 1897, continuing until the present. 
Dr. Ileilman came as a seasoned pastor, having been in the 
ministry twenty years, graduating from Wittenberg College and 
Seminary in 1877. His first pastorate was in Lock Haven, Pa., 
from 1880 to 1884, when he was appointed missionary at Denver. 
Colo. There he organized St. Paul's congregation, the Woman's 




ST. PAUL'S LUTHKRAX CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Second Mission, and built the church and parsonage. Failing 
health caused him to give up the work here after five years' serv- 
ice. A few months ' rest on the Pacific Coast brought back health 
again and returning east he was called to the pastorate at Blooms- 
burg, Pa. There he served for six and a half years, when he 
moved to Philadelphia. It was while residing there that he sup- 
plied St. Paul's pulpit for four months. 



21 (J HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

During tliis pastorate 719 members have been added and 420 
children bapti/ed. The mortgage of $12.500 has been paid, the 
entire church repaired twice and a parsonage bought, costing in 
all $15,000. The full apportionment of benevolence has been 
raised each year and often exceeded. In addition, the church 
is supporting a missionary in the interior of Africa. Rev. J. I) 
Curran. 

In November, 1919. the property on the corner of Druid Hill 
Avenue and MeMechen Street was sold to the Trinity Baptist 
Church (colored) and St. Paul's congregation joined with the 
Lutheran Church of the Atonement to build up a new St. Paul's 
Lutheran Church in the Poplar Grove section of the city. Dr. 
Heilman continues to be the pastor of the new St. Paul's. 

From this church have gone one foreign missionary. Miss Amy 
Sadtler. now Mrs. Hev. George Albrecht, for a number of years 
doing a noble work in Rentachintala, India, four ministers, Rev. 
II. II. Weber. D.D.. Secretary of the Board of Home Missions 
and Church Extension; Rev. II. II. Hartman, the successful 
pastor of Augsburg Church, Baltimore; W. II. Nicoll f nd Rut- 
lege Ila/eltine. 

Some of the most prominent men of the city and state have 
been members of St. Paul's. lion. John Ilubner, former state 
senator, and his wife, were charter members and active for many 
years. lion. S. I). Schmucker. chief judge of the Court of 
Appeals, and his wife, were also charter members and active till 
the time of their death. Mr. George C. Irelan, a veteran of the 
Civil War. together with his wife, were active in the church until 
his translation in 1904. Mr. W. L. Stork of blessed memory was 
superintendent of St. Paul's Sunday school for twenty-five years 
until his removal to Philadelphia. 

Rev. B. F. Sadtler and family were members of St. Paul's for 
several years, also Miss Kate Sadtler, missionary to Rentachin- 
tala. Dr. Charles Sadtler, one of the leading physicians of the 
city, has been a member of St. Paul's almost from the beginning 
and is still active. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICIXITY. 



217 



GRACE LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, Ml). 

Rev. John Edward Rijers, D.D., Pastor. 

Grace Church was the direct outcome of a splendid work that 
was nobly conceived and carried forward by the saintly Richard 
Armiger. Associated with him were a large number of men 
who composed his Bible class in the Third English Lutheran 
Church. Convinced that there ought to be an English Lutheran 
Church in Southeast Baltimore, 
they conferred with the Home 
Mission Board and made a can- 
vass of the section in the midst of 
which the church now stands. 
The field proved a fertile one and 
immediate steps were taken to 
form an organization and go for- 
ward with the work. 

The Rev. H. H. Weber, D.D., 
then a student in our Theological 
Seminary at Gettysburg, was 
called as the first and only mis- 
sionary. The ' ' only ' ' one because 
the growth under his earnest ef- 
fort was so rapid that it was but 
a short while until the congrega- 
tion assumed all responsibility 
and became self-supporting. He 
began his work on July 1, 1885. About sixty persons attended 
the first service on July 12, and two months later, on September 
13, 1885, Grace English Lutheran Church was organized with 
forty-one charter members. On November 1, at the first com- 
munion service, thirty persons more joined them. Rev. Weber, 
with his geniality and tact, proved just the best possible pastor 
and leader. Within a year he gathered and organized a thriving 
and enthusiastic congregation. 

The first services of the congregation were held in Powhatan 
Hall, at best not a very suitable place, and soon too small to ac- 
commodate the growing needs of the mission. At the first annual 
meeting a strong cry was raised for a suitable church edifice. A 
few months later the Broadway Presbyterian congregation put 
on the market its splendid church building. Negotiations re- 
sulted in a purchase by Grace Church, with possession given on 




REV. JOHN EDWARD BYERS, D.D. 



218 



HISTORY OF MARYLAN'O SYNOD. 



March 1, 1SS7. The first services in the newly acquired church 
were held on March (i, 1887. It was a day of gladness and re- 
joicing. On Easter Sunday of this same spring ninety-two more 
persons were added to the membership. A year later, May 13, 
1888, the church became self-supporting. 

The next outstanding fact in (irace Church's history is the 
resignation of its first pastor, who was called to become the Gen- 
eral Secretary of the Board of Church Extension. This call came 
as a great shock to the congregation. They were not ready to 
let him go. Upon his urgent request, however, they reluctantly 
agreed to do it. This first pastorate ended on August 26, 1889. 

A most worthy successor was found in the Rev. O. C. Roth, who 
accepted a unanimous call and became the pastor on November 1, 

1889. He soon won not 
only the esteem but the 
affection of a devoted 
people, and for ten 
years worked happily 
with them, largely in- 
creasing the member- 
ship and advancing the 
work greatly along all 
lines. A few items of 
interest that marked 
his pastorate are : The 
purchase and installa- 
tion of a pipe organ ; 
the payment of a three- 
thousand-dollar mort- 
gage; repainting and 
refrescoing the church ; 
the death of Richard 
Armiger; the purchase 
of additional property 
and the building of 
suitable Sunday school 
rooms; the convening of the Maryland Synod in the church; the 
purchase of a parsonage at 2114 E. Baltimore Street. On the 
whole, this pastorate was very successful, pastor and people work- 
ing together harmoniously and accomplishing large things. Dr. 
Roth resigned on April 12, 1899, to accept a call to the First 
English Lutheran Church of Altoona, Pa. 

Again a most worthy successor was found and at the same 
meeting when Pastor Roth's resignation was accepted, a unani- 




MR. RICHARD ARMICJER. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



219 



mous call was extended to the Rev. W. S. Freas, D.I)., of York, 
Pa., who began his work on July 1, 189!). The service of a parish 
deaconess, Sister Christina Gleichert, for about four years great- 
ly helped the pastor in the heavy work that he found to do. 
Again additional property was bought and remodelled for Sun- 
day school use, costing in all about $5,000. Dr. Freas was a 
splendid organizer, churchly in tastes and a preacher of noted 
ability. His touch and influence upon the church and his edu- 
cation of the people for a period of six years were highly bene- 
ficial and helpful in the development of this now prominent and 
strong congregation. His res- 
ignation was regretfully ac- 
cepted and his work ended on 
May 1, 1905. 

On the same day that Dr. 
Freas' pastorate ended that of 
his successor, the Rev. H. D. 
Newcomer, began. For eleven 
years he was an aggressive 
leader and a faithful pastor of 
the congregation. Noted im- 
provements to the church 
building characterized these 
years. A steam heating plant 
and electric lighting were in- 
stalled. Then after a rather 
destructive fire came a general 
renovation and beautifying of 
the whole church interior. The 
choir gallery, the chancel and 
its furnishing were changed and renewed along churchly lines, 
cathedral glass windows were placed. All this was followed by 
extended outside improvements and the paying off of all indebt- 
edness. 

The benevolent spirit of Grace Church is well known. That 
spirit was finely cultivated by Pastor Newcomer with the help 
of a number of active, large-hearted, liberal laymen, particular 
mention in this regard to be made of Mr. F. W. Kakel, who is so 
widely known as one of the leading laymen of our Lutheran 
Church in Baltimore, and as being prominently identified with a 
number of the General Boards of the Church. As a result of 
proper directing right from the beginning and of careful train- 
ing throughout, Grace Church has made for herself a most en- 
viable reputation. She has always paid all synodical dues and 




MR. FREDERICK \V. KAKEL, 
Baltimore, Md. 



220 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

her full apportionment. In recent years she has almost forgot- 
ten apportionment, paying two and three times over the amount 
apportioned by Synod. 

Having received a call to Van \Vert, Ohio, Rev. Newcomer re- 
signed as pastor of Grace Church and accepted the call to Van 
\Yert in the fall of 191b', his pastorate ending October 1. 

It seems as though some kindly providence has been working in 
Grace Church history. The present relation of pastor and peo- 
ple is perfectly pleasant and the work continues to prosper beau- 
tifully. The pastor since December 1, !!)!(>, is the writer, Rev. 
.John Edward Byers. He accepted a unanimous call extended 
by the congregation in October of that year. His pastorate to 
date is comparatively short, but it has been richly blessed and 
has promise of continued success. By reason of changing city 
conditions the work of Grace Church has become exceedingly 
difficult. Most of her members live a considerable distance from 
the church. They rejoice in their loyalty and devotion, however, 
and are proud of their good works. Their liberality during the 
past three years has been almost ama/ing. All appeals were 
heard and responded to in a large and generous way, and the 
work in all departments is marked by earnestness and vigor. 

Because of the undesirable location of the parsonage, due to 
changed conditions, the congregation purchased in February, 
1919, the present house on the corner of Twenty-ninth Street and 
G nil ford Avenue, for the use of the pastor. The old parsonage 
was sold. The new one is a fine and splendidly equipped as well 
as a commodious building. 

Grace Church, in her life of thirty years, boasts of six worthy 
sons who have entered the ministry. This splendid record of one 
for every five years can hardly be excelled. These men are: 
Rev. George Beiswanger, Rev. George E. Hipsley, Rev. William 
Freas, Rev. Henry Manken, Rev. H. L. Gerstmyer, and Rev. Wil- 
liam C. Day. In addition to these is Mr. Harman Miller, now a 
student in the Seminary at Gettysburg. And there might be 
added Mrs. Harry Goedeke (Martha Hoener Goedeke), an active 
Sunday school and missionary worker in her own church and in 
the State, who sailed in November, 1919, to be a missionary in 
India, and Mr. Carl Distler, one of the most able and useful 
young laymen in Baltimore, who is constantly being sought as a 
teacher and lecturer in Y. M. C. A. and other young people's 
work, as well as a pulpit supply in the various Lutheran 
Churches of the citv. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 221 

CHRIST LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. L. M. Zimmerman, D.D., Pastor 

Christ English Lutheran Church, Baltimore, Maryland, was 
organized in Triumph Hall on Sunday, February 5, 1888, by the 
Rev. L. M. Zimmerman, D.D. The first service was held in the 
same hall on Sunday, December 18, 1887. On July 1, 1888, at a 
congregational meeting, it was decided to purchase the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church on Hill Street near Charles Street. On 
August 12, 1888, the first service was held in the church. On 
November 29, at a congregational meeting, it was unanimously 
agreed to declare themselves self-sustaining on December 1, 1888, 
or in one year from the day the missionary, the Rev. L. M. Zim- 
merman, D.D., came to Baltimore. On December 2 the pastor 
was installed. During the first year the pastor made 3,400 pas- 
toral visits. On January 31, 1892, the church declared its free- 
dom from all indebtedness. During the summer of 1894 the 
church was entirely renovated at a cost of eleven thousand dol- 
lars. Three thousand dollars of this was secured by the pastor 
independent of the regular subscriptions, one-third of which was 
a gift of his own to the church. The new church was dedicated 
October 14, 1895, by Rev. E. J. Wolf, D.D. In December, 1899, 
before the twelfth anniversary, all indebtedness was paid. 

Since that time the congregation has gained steadily in mem- 
bers and influence. It has had few organizations, the pastor 
feeling that the church and Sunday school are of such importance 
that the entire membership should cooperate fully and steadily 
in the work of training the young, the development of Christian 
graces in the church members, and in bringing into the church 
those who are without the fold. 

As a result of this method and purpose, the Sunday school is 
one of the largest in the city, and the congregation at the reg- 
ular services are unusually large, and have been so for years. 
During the past year, at many of the services, people have been 
compelled to stand for lack of room. A Parish Deaconess Society 
of seven women has rendered valuable assistance in the ministry 
of service among the needy and distressed. A men's meeting is 
held in January, May and October, which most of the men at- 
tend. The ladies of the congregation are banded together in an 
aid society in which they all unite for the interest of worthy 
causes through the channel of the church proper. There are no 
other organizations. 

The finances of the church are conducted simply but efficiently. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 223 

The principle is followed that there shall be but one financial 
head to the church, through whose hands the revenue of the 
church should pass, and that every member of the church should 
give to all the various objects of benevolence as well as to the 
support of the church. The pastor says: "The one deep w r ell 
idea has been our plan. We all work together for the filling up 
of the one deep well from which we draw for all the various ob- 
jects of the church, local and in general." Special appeals there- 
fore are rarely made. 

During all the years the congregation has not only met in full 
but has usually exceeded the apportionment, and has provided a 
$20,000 sinking fund for the future. 

Christ Church furnished a missionary for Africa, and has one 
self-supporting student for the ministry at Gettysburg. 

After thirty-one years the last was the best in the history of 
the church, both in attendance and benevolence. The contribu- 
tion for benevolence was more than $9,000. The only pastor the 
church has had is the present one, Dr. L. M. Zimmerman, and 
this large and flourishing congregation is the finest of tributes to 
his untiring zeal and devotion as a servant of Jesus Christ. 

ST. LUKE'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. Frederick W. Barry, Pastor 

At the Maryland Synod Con- 
vention, held at Emmitsburg, Oc- 
tober 4, 1882, Rev. John G. Mor- 
ris, D.D., presented the following 
resolution in honor of Martin Lu- 
ther's 400th birthday: 

"The 10th of November, 1883, 
will be the 400th anniversary of 
the birth of Martin Luther, and 
as this event will be commem- 
orated in every Protestant coun- 
try of continental Europe and by 
hundreds of thousands of Lu- 
therans in our own land, it is emi- 
nently proper that we, as the 

Svnod of Maryland, should also 

, , i ' ,, , i . KEY. FREDERICK W. BARRY. 

properly celebrate this great his- 
toric event. The name of the great Reformer is at the present 
time more frequently mentioned by all Protestant Churches than 




224 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

ever before, his transcendent services are more highly valued, 
and his character more thoroughly studied and understood than 
during any period since his death." 

On Friday evening, September 14, 1883, in Benson's Hall, 
which used to be on Carroll Street near Cross, St. Luke's was 
organized as a "Luther Memorial.'' Mr. H. II. Weber, who or- 
ganized the church, was present. Rev. J. A. Clutz, Secretary of 
the Board of Home Missions, presided. Mr. Henry (Vainer was 
appointed chairman of the meeting, and Mr. C. A. Beyer, secre- 
tary. On the following Sunday morning the first regular church 
council was chosen and consisted of, Elders: C. A. Miller, Presi- 
dent; Henry Cramer, Treasurer; Daniel Y eagle. Deacons: C. 
A. Beyer, Secretary; Luther Cramer, Jacob R. Schamer. 

The Maryland Synod met on October 3, 1883, in the P^irst Lu- 
theran Church, Baltimore, and the president, Rev. Henry \V. 
Kuhns, D.I)., wrote in his report: "September 28, Rev. J. A. 
Clutz wrote the pleasing news that St. Luke's English Evangel- 
ical Lutheran Church, of Woodberry, was organized on Friday 
evening, September 24, with 52 charter members. On Sunday, 
September 16, the Lord's Supper was administered to the con- 
gregation by Dr. Hamma and Revs. Albert, Scholl and Clutz, at 
which time 25 additional members were received by confirma- 
tion and two by baptism, making a total membership of 79 to 
begin with." 

On September 23, 1883, at Mr. C. A. Miller's house, L. Cramer 
and J. R. Schamer were appointed by the council as a committee 
on church property. The question of pastor's support was also 
discussed. After several preliminary discussions it was decided 
to call a pastor, and, after the morning service on December 2, 
Rev. William Kelly, of Stewartsville, N. J., was unanimously 
elected to be the first regular pastor of St. Luke's. Rev. Kelly 
assumed charge on February 28, 1884, and moved into a house on 
Elm Avenue. 

The advent of the first regularly called pastor upon the field 
of a mission church marks a red letter day in the history of that 
congregation. 

Rev. William Kelly was born on December 17, 1852, at Liver- 
pool, England. He received his earliest training in a Roman 
Catholic school in Baltimore, and at the age of eighteen united 
with the First Lutheran Church of Baltimore, Rev. J. II. Bark- 
ley, pastor. He entered the Gettysburg Theological Seminary in 
1873. After serving charges in Espy, Pa., and in Stewartsville, 
X. J., he received his call from St. Luke's on November 10, 1883, 
assuming charge February 28, 1884. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 225 

The first large enterprise that immediately engaged the atten- 
tion of the pastor and people was the erection of a house of God. 
To the already strenuous work of a busy mission pastor, is now 
added the arduous task of financing 1 and overseeing the erection 
of a church building. After the morning service of April 6, 
1884, in Benson's Hall, a unanimous vote was cast for the lot 
"on the corner of Third and Chestnut Avenues, Hampden, Bal- 
timore County, Md." Some of the lay members' names repre- 
sented in the council at this time were, Miller, Cramer, Beyer, 
Hosch, Yeagle, Shaffer, Ruby, Childress, Rice, and Kitzmeyer. 




ST. LUKE'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

In the Maryland Synod Minutes for 1884, the Rev. M. Valen- 
tine, President, reported: "On September 21, 1884, the corner 
stone of a new Lutheran church edifice was laid at Hampden, 
Baltimore County, Md. The addresses on the occasion were made 
by Revs. I. C. Burke, and C. S. Albert, of Baltimore. The pas- 
tor, Rev. William Kelly, laid the corner stone with appropriate 
services. The cost of the church, it is estimated, will be $6,000.00 
exclusive of ths lot. " 

"Dedication week services" were held from May 1.7 to 24, 
1885. The dedication service proper occurred at 3 : 30 p. m. 
on Sunday, May 17. Rev. Albert delivered the sermon. On the 
evening of the same day at 7 : 30 the pastor was regularly in- 
stalled. Sermons by Revs. Hamma and L. Kuhlman. On Wednes- 
15 



'J2(i HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

day evening at 8 o 'clock a German service was held, with sermon 
by Hev. F. Ph. Hennighausen. 

It is fitting that at this place in our sketch mention be made 
of the substantial financial aid rendered by Brother Becker, 
and the local Board of Church Extension. "Many of the churches 
in Baltimore were interested in the new church and liberally 
aided the congregation in advancing the cause of Christ and of 
Lutherans in this vicinity." 

The reading of these bare historical facts is easy and pleasant 
for us to-day. But success was won only after many discour- 
agements, and much hard work by both pastor and people. An 
abiding faith in Jesus, and a real joy in the service of His church, 
coupled with the Father's blessing, crowned the end with glorious 
victory. 

Other pastors serving this congregation have been : Rev. C. E. 
Keller, 1892-94; Rev. J. L. Frantz, 189f>-l !)()(); Rev. C. E. Heps- 
ley, 1900-8; Rev. Henry Manken, Jr., 1908-18; and the present 
pastor, Rev. Frederick W. Barry, beginning his service July 1, 
1918. 

The congregation has given two of her young people to the 
ministry of the church, viz : Rev. J. F. W. Kitxmeyer, now serv- 
ing a pastorate at Coney Island, X. V., and Sister Florence Pohl- 
man, who was dedicated in the spring of 1919, and now serving 
as deaconess in St. Mark's Church, York, Pa. 

MESSIAH LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. Carl Mum ford, Pastor. 

Late in the summer of 1889 the Rev. E. Felton began a survey 
of the southeastern, or, as popularly known, the Canton section 
of Baltimore City. 

At that time there were only nine General Synod Lutheran 
Churches in Baltimore, the nearest to this section being Grace 
Church on Broadway, so there was a large field ready for devel- 
opment. Means of travel were not so easy and rapid as in these 
later days. Therefore the founding of their own church in their 
very midst meant much to the good Lutherans who not only were 
themselves often denied the joys of the sanctuary but also saw 
their children being lost to the church of the fathers. 

When, after a short preliminary canvass, announcement was 
made that a "Lutheran Church Service 7 ' would be held in 
''King's Hall," Sunday, September 8, thirty persons came to 
worship, and so inspired and enthused were they that they 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



227 




brought ten others with them the next Sunday and organized a 
Sunday school. 

So blessed were the efforts of the young pastor now commis- 
sioned by the Board of Home Missions, and so fruitful his labors, 
that within four months the Sunday school had an enrollment of 
three hundred souls. Meanwhile 
a Lutheran congregation had been 
formally organized on Luther's 
birthday, November 10, 1889, with 
a charter membership of seventy- 
five, of whom fewer than a half 
score are living to-day. Articles 
of incorporation were applied for 
and on January 9, 1890, a charter 
was granted Messiah English Lu- 
theran Church of Baltimore City. 

After worshiping for five 
months in a public hall, Pastor 
Felton had the great joy of mov- 
ing his growing congregation into 
their own new brick chapel built 
at a cost of $4,000, at the corner 
of Potomac and O'Donnell 
Streets, on land leased from the 
Canton Company for $140 per year. The Sunday school con- 
tinued to grow so that in November, 1890, it became necessary to 
build an annex to the chapel at a cost of $1,000. 

In three years the church had prospered and grown so strong 
that on November 1, 1892, she became self-supporting. Steady 
growth and continued prosperity in time made larger quarters 
necessary. Therefore on April 9, 1900, ground was broken, and 
on May 6, 1900, the corner stone of the present beautiful granite 
church was laid. On November 18, 1900, eleven years and one 
week after the date of organizing the congregation, the new 
church was dedicated, having cost $30,000. 

Fifteen years longer Pastor Felton continued to "shepherd his 
sheep" until on the morning of December 20, 1915, the Great 
Over-Shepherd called him home, after twenty-six years in the 
pastorate of Messiah Church. 

On June 3, 1916, Rev. Carl Mum ford took up this pastorate. 
Conditions now are different from those of 1889. Many more 
people live here and a half-dozen more Lutheran churches are 
also here. Then, too, a large percentage of the incoming people 
are "foreigners" Poles, Italians, Jews. Consequently Messiah 



KEV. CARL MUMFORD. 



L>1>8 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Church sees her children scattering before those whom it is next 
to impossible to lead within her gates. 

Through the great world war she tried to do her duty. Sixty- 
h've of her sons were in the military and naval service of our 
country. Three of them were killed in battle in France, another 
lost his life in a railroad wreck, and six others were wounded in 
battle. She did what she could in answer to all appeals. 

And now, in these days of reconstruction, she offers herself in 
whatever wa she can serve God among; men. 



THI-: LrTiiKRANciirRcn OFTIIK REFORMATION, 

15ALTIMORK, MI). 

It< r. -/. Luther Hoffman, Pastor. 

The Church of the Reformation was organized September 28, 
1890, with twenty-five charter members. The actual beginning;, 
however, dates from April 14, 1800, when the local Church Ex- 
tension Society decided upon Northeast Baltimore as its next 
mission enterprise, and in May the Board of Home Missions com- 
missioned Rev. C. T. McDaniel as 
pastor. 

The canvass of the district was 
directed by Rev. McDaniel, as- 
sisted by workers from Third Lu- 
theran Church. On .June 9 a 
dwelling at 1742 East North Ave- 
nue was rented as a temporary 
place of worship. Here a Sunday 
school was organized on .June 22, 
and by July 12 the attendance 
had increased from thirty-two to 
one hundred, with fifty to sixty 
persons attending preaching serv- 
ices. 

The need of a permanent place 
of worship was met on December 
"), 1890, when the Church Council 
authorized the leasing of a lot on 
the corner of Caroline and Lanvale Streets, where a temporary 
chapel was erected. This building, with its furnishings, cost 
about $f)00. Rev. McDaniel resigned on June 1, 1891. 

On July 1, 1891, Rev. D. Frank Garland became pastor. The 




KEY. .7. LlTHK.K II'tKKMAN. 



THE CHURCHES OF HAI/riMORK AM) VICINITY. 



229 



need of an adequate church home soon became imperative, and on 
May 2, 1893, a commodious stone chapel, costing $16,000 was 
dedicated. 

A donation of $1,000 from the local Church Extension Society, 
and a contribution from the Second Lutheran Church of $100 
annually for five years toward the erection of the building, gave 
valuable aid and encouragement in this early period of the con- 
gregation's life. 

During Rev. Garland's pastorate the debt was reduced to 
$6,000 and the congregation acquired a substantial membership, 



"< i - 

v"" - : ^ 
, i, 




THE LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE REFORMATION, BALTIMORE, MD. 

equipped with active organizations. Rev. Garland resigned Oc- 
tober 1, 1896. 

On November 5, 1896, Rev. I.". S. G. Rupp became the third 
pastor of Reformation. Though still a mission, owning only the 
stone chapel, and encumbered with an indebtedness of $6,000, 
Rev. Rupp's pastorate of fourteen years was marked by signal 
success. 

Untiring labor was rewarded by a greatly increased member- 
ship. The change from a mission to a self-sustaining church oc- 
curred on November 1, 1900. The lot was purchased on July 10, 
1901, by the payment of $4,666.67. The parsonage, at 1716 North 
Caroline Street, was purchased on July 1, 1902, at a cost of 
$3,625. The larger part of the indebtedness was liquidated, only 



1>:W HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

$*J.OOO remaining at the time of Rev. Rupp's resignation on Juno 
:{(), 1910. 

Rev. William E. Brown became pastor of Reformation on Oc- 
tober 1, 1!)10, when the congregation had just passed its twen- 
tieth anniversary, and the problem of adequate accommodations 
had again to be faced. The construction of a new church, how- 
ever, was not deemed wise until the sum of $10,000 was in hand. 
Subscriptions secured May 4, 19KS, on the anniversary of the 
dedication of the stone chapel, completed the initial fund of 
$10.000, and assured the beginning of the new church in the 
spring of 1914. 

On the night of .March '2. 1914. during a violent snow storm, 
the chapel, with its furnishings, was totally destroyed by fire. 
From this crushing disaster the loyal congregation rallied nobly, 
and after many discouragements and much unforeseen expense, 
the present beautiful and complete edifice was dedicated on May 
l(i, 1!)!."). It is a building thoroughly equipped for modern 
church work. 

On January 1, 1917, Rev. Brown closed a successful pastorate, 
which was marked with great advancement in every phase of 
Reformation's work. 

Rev. .1. Luther Hoffman, the present pastor, took charge April 
ir>, 1917. During the present pastorate of a little more than two 
years, the congregation has been increasing with an annual net 
gain of over one hundred members; the church debt has been re- 
duced from $Mo. 200 to $29,000, while the progress along all lines 
has been most gratifying. 

The Sunday school, which began twenty-nine years ago with 
thirty-two members, is now splendidly equipped and graded, 
from the Cradle Roll to the Home Department, having five adult 
classes, each a live organization in itself. There are now seven 
hundred and forty members enrolled. 

The Senior, Intermediate and Junior Christian Endeavor So- 
cieties reach and interest many young people, and train them for 
Christian service, with the missionary note strongly emphasized. 

The Women's Missionary Society has earnestly promoted mis- 
sionary interest, liberally responded to every call of the General 
Society, and has been active in local missionary work. 

The Ladies' Aid Society began its larger work with the pur- 
chase of the parsonage, July 1, 1902. It has since kept the same 
in repair, installed electric lights, paid several thousand dollars 
on the church debt, and at present lias a strong and active mem- 
bership of consecrated women. 

Reformation has given one son to the ministry, Rev. Henry W. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



231 



Snycler, of Johnstown, Pa. Another, August H. Hinternish, died 
while attending the Seminary at Gettysburg. The college course 
of another was interrupted by the war. 

The growth from twenty-five to one thousand members in the 
brief span of twenty-nine years has proven the far-seeing wisdom 
of the Church Extension Society. Reformation stands to-day as 
a vital part of the religious life of Northeast Baltimore, and, 
though young, takes her place among the strong churches of the 
faith in this city. Her future holds the promise of ever-increas- 
ing usefulness. 



TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. Edwin E. Ide, D.D., Pastor. 

The initial steps in planting this church were taken by the 
Home Mission Board and the General Board of Church Exten- 
sion and the Lutheran Ministers ' Association of Baltimore, Mary- 
land. The Rev. Edwin E. Ide, 
having been commissioned to can- 
vass the middle-western section 
of the city, organized the mis- 
sion on October 1, 1893, in Rad- 
cliffe's Hall, northwest corner 
Fulton Avenue and Pratt Street, 
with forty members. 

The first council consisted of 
Rev. E. E. Ide (chairman ex- 
officio), J. G. Vogt, W. Harris, C. 
Sponsler, W. Ealey, H. Vogt, F. 
Brinkman, H. Kornman and G. 
Romoser. 

The Ladies ' Aid Society, a very 
efficient organization, was organ- 
ized March 24, 1894. Mrs. A. M. 
Kriete, the president, and Mrs. 
E. E. Ide, the secretary, have very 
capably filled their respective offices for a continuous period of 
twenty-three years. 

On October 3, 1893, the church was admitted to the Maryland 
Synod. 

The former hall having become too small, the congregation 
leased a chapel, corner Hollins Street and Calverton Road, oc- 
cup3*ing it December 6, 1894. The congregation then numbered 




REV. EDAVIX E. IDE, D.D. 



HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

eighty, and the Sunday school, organi/ed too on October 1, 18!K{, 
numbered one hundred. 

On December 1, 18!)."), a permanent site was purchased, seventy- 
six feet by one hundred feet, for $.'5,8.">(), on the northwest corner 
of Baltimore and 1'ulaski Streets. 




TUJXJTV LUTHERAN CHTKCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

On July 26, 18%, a frame chapel, forty-five by seventy feet, 
was dedicated, costing, including all appointments, $4, 500. It 
was the pioneer building in the square. 

July .'51, 18!W, the mission declared itself self-sustaining. 

July :J1, 1904, the corner stone of the present stone edifice was 
laid, witli the intention of completing only the first story or 
Sunday school rooms. Same was dedicated on Xoveinb:T 1:5, 
1!M)4, and cost, including furnishings, $2."), 000. 

March 21. 191"). the completed church was dedicated. The 
building is seventy-three by one hundred feet, the entire cost 



THE CHURCHES OP KAI/TIMORE AND VICINITY. 233 

being $70,000. Externally and internally it has been admired 
for its impressive simplicity and churchliness. 

Since organization, 2,100 persons have united with the church, 
1.900 children baptized. 950 young people confirmed, 920 parties 
married and 1,100 persons buried. 

The Sunday school has grown from twenty scholars, three of- 
ficers and six teachers to five hundred scholars, two hundred and 
fifty enrolled infants, twenty-seven officers and thirty-three 
teachers. Nine hundred and twenty-seven scholars have been ad- 
mitted to the church by the rite of confirmation. 

The church has ever had a limited number of organizations, 
but such as it has had, have been efficient. 

It gave seventy-three young men and two young women to 
their country's service in the late war, none having been seriously 
wounded and none killed. 



CALVARY LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MI). 

Rev. Foster U. Gift, D.D., Pastor. 

Believing that an English Lutheran church should be organ- 
ized in the northwestern section of Baltimore, a group of deeply 
interested Lutheran people, as- 
sembled on January 20, 1895, in a 
private house at 1914 North Pay- 
son Street, to consider the advisa- 
bility of organizing a Sunday 
school. As a result of this meet- 
ing a few months later, on April 
7, a temporary organization was 
effected. On the first day of June 
of the same year, Rev. George 
Beiswanger, who had just com- 
pleted his training at Gettysburg 
Seminary, was formally called to 
take charge of the work. 

On September 22, 1895, a per- 
manent organization was effected 
with forty-six charter members, 

and with the selection of the fol- 

REV. FOSTER U. GIFT, D.D. 
lowing persons to compose the 

first church council : William Essig, Sr., W. S. Leister, William 
P. Smith, Sr., George W. Mansdorfer, Jacob F. Radner, and J. 




234 HISTOHVOK MARYLAND SY\Ol>. 

II. Wagner. The Sunday school was t'ornially organized one 
week later. September 29, 18!)."). 

Realizing the need of securing a suitable church home without 
delay, the lot at the northeast corner of North Avenue and Pay- 
son Street, with a frontajre on North Avenue of ninety-four feet, 
and a depth of ninety feet on Payson Street, was purchased for 
the sum of $4.900. The wisdom of the selection of this location 
has since been fully demonstrated and the price paid for it was 
even at that time very moderate for so excellent a location. A 
temporary frame chapel was erected at once and was dedicated 
on March 22, 1896. On September 13, 181)7, ground was broken 
for a stone chapel, and on May 18, 1898, it was dedicated. The 
cost of the chapel, including furnishings, was about $13,000. 

Thus properly housed the congregation grew rapidly in num- 
bers and strength. After a pastorate of nearly seven years, Rev. 
Beiswanger preached his farewell sermon on May 2.1, 1902. 
The following is a summary of Rev. Beiswanger 's pastorate: 

New members received 290 

Infant baptisms 208 

Marriages 63 

Funerals 119 

After a vacancy of five months, Rev. John C. Bowers, D.D., 
pastor of St. Mark's Church, Washington, was called to succeed 
Rev. Beiswanger.. He began his ministry on November 1, 1902, 
and under his wise leadership plans were at once inaugurated 
for the enlargement of the work. In 190") a fine parsonage was 
erected at a cost of about $6,000, and on November 1, 1907, the 
congregation became self-supporting. In April, 1909, the final 
payment was made on the debt of $9,000, which rested on the 
church at the beginning of Dr. Bowers' pastorate. The can- 
celling of this indebtedness involved much hard work and many 
sacrifices on the part of the pastor and his devoted congregation. 
This important event prepared the way for the consideration of 
plans for the erection of the main church building. After a 
very successful pastorate of nearly eight years, Dr. Bowers 
preached his farewell sermon on July 10, 1910. 
Summary of Dr. Bowers' pastorate: 

New members received 305 

Infant baptisms 211 

Marriages 134 

Funerals 161 

On October 1, 1910, Rev. Foster I*, (iift, D.I)., who had been 
pastor of Calvary Church, Philadelphia, for nearly seven years, 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 2o-> 

preached his introductory sermon. Soon after the beginning of 
the present pastorate steps were taken looking towards the erec- 
tion of the main church building, and on March 20, 1912, ground 
was broken. On May 18, 1912, the corner stone was laid, the 
following: local pastors taking part : Rev. H. D. Newcomer, Rev. 
\V. H. Dunbar, D.D., Rev. E. K. Bell, D.D., Rev. L. M. Zimmer- 
man, D.D., and Rev. J. C. Bowers, D.D. The completed struc- 
ture was dedicated amid great rejoicing on November 24, 3912. 




CALVABV LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Among those who participated were local pastors and Prof. J. A. 
Shipmaster, D.D., and Rev. H. H. Weber, D.D. It was a great 
event in the history of Calvary Church because it marked the 
realization of long cherished hopes and ambitions and at the same 
time represented the results of much hard work and many sac- 
rifices. The total cost of the new building, including furnish- 
ings, was $28,000. The total cost of the entire property repre- 
sents an outlay of about $51,000. 

The following is a summary of the present pastorate from 
October 1, 1910, to August 1, 1919: 

New members received 479 

Infant baptisms 300 

Marriages 193 

Funerals . 174 



HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 



The present confirmed membership of the church is ()2.">, and 
the enrollment of the Sunday school is 42"). The following char- 
ter members are still connected with the church : 

Mr. and Mrs. \V. S. Leister. Mr. and Mrs. George \V. Mans- 
dorfer, Mr. and Mrs. "Win. F. Smith, Sr., Mrs. Clarence Myers, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. J. "Wernx, Mrs. Wm. Essig, Sr.. "Win. Essig, Jr., 
Charles Essig, Mr. and Mrs. Chas. II. (Jerbig, Mrs. Lucinda K. 
C. Tingling. Jacob F. Rader. Miss Mary E. Eiseman. 



THK LUTHKRAX CHURCH OF OUR SAVIOUR, 
UALTIMORK, MI). 

7iYr. 8. J. Miller, Pastor. 

This growing community, then known as West Arlington, but 
now a part of the city, first claimed the attention of the Home 
Mission Board in 1902. Rev. H. H. Hartman, a theological stu- 
dent at Gettysburg, was commissioned by the Board and began 
the work of canvassing about June 1, 1902. On September 7, 

1902, the Church of Our Saviour 
was organized with thirty-seven 
charter members. The constitu- 
tion was adopted and the follow- 
ing officers were elected: Elders, 
Charles S. Wachter and Theodore 
F. Lips; Deacons, J. M. Eyler, 
E. E. Hargest, Henry Lent/, and 
L. J. Staup. On September 10, 
the council was organized and the 
church incorporated. The same 
week of the organization the coun- 
cil gave their personal note for 
four months for nine hundred dol- 
lars for the purchase of a lot. 

On Sunday, September 14, at a 
congregational meeting a new 
pastor was unanimously elected. 
Rev. S. J. Miller, of Sparrow's 
Point, Maryland, to take charge after October 1. The first com- 
munion service was held on September 21, at which time four 
new members were received and charter member list closed. 

The present pastor, Rev. S. J. Miller, took charge October 1. 
1902. Steps were at once taken for the erection of a church 




S. .1. MM. I.K.I:. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AM) VICINITY. 237 

building, the services in the meantime being held in a tent, and 
afterwards in the Junior Mechanics' Hall. The building com- 
mittee, consisting of Theodore Lips, Charles S. Wachter, J. M. 
Eyler, William H. Flagle, Henry Lentz, E. E. Hargest, A. C. 
Eyler, and the pastor, secured three lots on the corner of Grove- 
land and Garrison Avenues, and in November, 1902, ground was 
broken for the erection of a church building. The corner stone 
was laid on December 17, and on the following Easter the Sun- 
day school rendered its first Easter service in the Sunday school 
rooms. The church w r as dedicated on May 10, 1!K)-' J >. 

The building is a one-story frame structure forty-eight by 
sixty-four feet. This includes the Sunday school room, but so 
arranged by sliding windows that all can be thrown into one 
room, with a seating capacity of three hundred. The windows 
are of cathedral glass, and w T ere donated by the different Lu- 
theran Sunday schools of the city of Baltimore and by indivi- 
duals. The pulpit fiirniture was the gift of the Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety. 

The church has had a steady but substantial growth. From 
the forty-one members at organization the church has grown to an 
enrolled membership of one hundred and eighty-two. Besides 
reducing the indebtedness from $4,700 at dedication to the low 
figure of $1,800, and also paying for all improvements made 
since, contributions have been made each year to the various 
beneficent objects of the Church at large. 

The Sunday school numbered sixteen the first Sunday the pas- 
tor was present. Under the superintendency of Messrs. L. J. 
Staup, Harry C. Fox, P. E. Wertz, and Lenny Reamy and their 
co-laborers the enrollment has been increased to one hundred and 
twenty-eight. 

The Sunday school, together with the Ladies' Aid Society, 
whose present officers are : Mrs. Wilbert Taylor, president ; 
Mrs. John Young, vice-president ; Mrs. Ira Ramsburg, secretary, 
and Mrs. Mary Lentz, treasurer, and of more recent date, the 
Men's Club, w r hose officers are W. C. Reamy, president; George 
Heinaman, vice-president ; P. E. Wertz, secretary, and August 
Gohre, treasurer, have been most potent factors in the develop- 
ment and progress of the work of the Church of Our Saviour. 



238 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Till: U'TIIKKAX CI1UKCH OF THE INCARNATION, 
IJALTIMOKK. Ml). 

Kcr. (icoryc 8. Mowers, I). I)., P<tstor. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Incarnation, located 
on Madison Avenue, near North Avenue. Baltimore. Maryland, 
may he said to have had its inception in several informal meetings 
held hy a few men during the month of November, 1903. These 
men were influenced hy the conviction that a church of the Lu- 
theran faith, located in the section 
of the city lying: about North Av- 
enue, and bounded by Jones' Falls 
on the east and Pennsylvania Av- 
enue on the west, would contrib- 
ute largely to the upbuilding of 
Christ's kingdom. This convic- 
tion grew from week to week, 
finding definite expression in a 
meeting held December 13, 1903, 
when it was decided to proceed 
with the organization. 

The meeting convened Decem- 
ber 21, 1903, the following per- 
sons were present : Rev. Albert 
II. Studebaker, D.I). ; Messrs. 
Frederick T. Dorton, William P. 
Krauss, Pear re E. Crowl, J. Ed- 
gar Wylie, Lewis J. Lederer, 
Harry C. Harranger, Robert L. Yearsley, and Joseph C. H. Ben- 
jamin. A series of resolutions was passed emphasizing two con- 
clusions reached by those present : First, that the opportunity 
for the establishment of a Lutheran Church in the section of the 
city referred to above was very auspicious; second, that the 
Rev. Albert II. Studebaker. D.I)., of Brooklyn. N. Y.. possessed 
the qualifications requisite for leadership in the achievement of 
the ends contemplated, and that his services should be sought. 
Before adjournment all present gave pledges of their intention 
to enter the new body as charter members. 

With the passing months the purpose of those interested in- 
tensified to such a degree, that on March 21, 1904, a constitution 
for the government of the proposed church was presented and 
approved by the committee of the whole, known as the Organiza- 




HKV. 



S. I-UHVKR.-S, D.I). 



THE CHURCHES OP BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 239 

tion Committee. This step naturally prepared the way for an- 
other which was taken on April 6, 3904, when the church was 
organized by the adoption of the constitution jnst mentioned, 
and the election of officers under the same. The congregation 
then proceeded to extend a formal call to Rev. Albert H. Stude- 
baker, D.D., which call was immediately accepted. 

The next thing sought in the forward movement of the expand- 
ing church was its incorporation. This was accomplished April 
18, 1904. 

When the Maryland Synod met in Martinsburg, West Vir- 
ginia, in October, 1904, the Church of the Incarnation became an 




THE LUTHERAN' CHURCH OF THE INCARNATION, BALTIMORE, MD. 

applicant for membership in the body. All conditions thereto 
being complied with, after due procedure, on October 29, the 
church's name was placed on the Synod's roll. 

About a year later possible sites for a church home were viewed 
and considered, with the outcome that the lot on which the church 
now stands was purchased. Here in due time the present edifice 
was built. Its erection and dedication occurred during the year 
1907. This sanctuary is in perfect harmony with Lutheran con- 
ceptions of ecclesiastical architecture, and stands as a monument 
to the faith and devotion of those who projected it. As a house 
of worship it is much admired by all who enter its portals. 

After a ministry of more than five years Rev. Studebaker ten- 



240 HISTORY OK .MARYLAND SYNOD. 

dered his resignation, the same to become effective on June MO, 



The young church was without pastoral leadership for about 
six months, when Rev. .1. William McCanley, of Cumberland, 
.Maryland, was called to the office in January, 1910. This call 
was accepted and Rev. MeCanley assumed pastoral oversight 
about the middle of February. Through the coming of the new 
pastor the church was stimulated anew to perform the work to 
which it had dedicated itself. The membership grew and the 
congregation became an efficient force in the community. After 
more than five years service the pastor, by resigning, terminated 
in October, 1915, his relationship with the church. 

The third pastor was Rev. E. A. Shenk, of Winston-Salem, X. 
( 1 . His connection with the church began in December, 11)15. 
Just prior to his coming the congregation purchased a house ad- 
joining the church lot for a parsonage. For almost three years 
Rev. Shenk gave the work his faithful endeavors, relinquishing 
it October Ml, 1!)18. Like many other young churches, the 
Church of the Incarnation has suffered from short pastorates. 

Before the present pastorate began on April 1, 1919, with the 
Rev. Dr. George S. Rowers as the minister, the congregation, 
through its council, took steps to cancel some of its indebtedness 
and to renovate the church building. The effort w r as successful. 

Early in its history helpful organizations were formed in the 
church, such as a Sunday school, a Parish Aid Society, a 
Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society, a Junior Mis- 
sionary Society, and a Circle of the King's Daughters. All have 
made their contribution to the church's growth. 

The present council is: Elders, William P. Krauss, Lewis J. 
Lederer, Charles AV. Struven, Charles E. Lenx, Edwin "W. Herr- 
mann, George L. Keister. Deacons, Milton H. Myers, G. G. 
Wirth, AV. L. Wise, Jr., R. Millar Arnold, Glenroy L. Rlack, W. 
Smith Chambers. 



EMMANUEL LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
KALTIMORE, MI). 

Krr. Charles J. Hincs, Pastor. 

Late in the year 1904 the attention of the local Roard of 
Church Extension was called to this field by the Rev. W. C. 
Staudenmire. In the spring of 1905 he was authorized to con- 
duct a canvass. About this time Messrs. H. L. C 1 , Engel and L. H. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



241 




EEV. CHARLES J. HIXES. 



Miller got in touch with him and he was asked to preach, if a 
suitable place could be secured. On April 9, 1905, services were 
held in Smith's Hall, Third Street near Gough, with the follow- 
ing present : Mr. and Mrs. II. 
C. Stahm, Mr. H. L. C. Engel. 
Mrs. Samuel Lenberger, Mr. and 
Mrs. L. H. Miller, Misses Eliza- 
beth, Amelia and Margaret Bauer. 
Catherine and Sophia R:>ver, 
Catherine Pfeffer, Emma Engel; 
Messrs. Charles Miller, H. Engel, 
Jr., George and William Rever. 
After this service the following 
officers were elected : George 
Rever, secretary and organist, and 
L. H. Miller, superintendent of 
the Sunday school. The first Sun- 
day school service was held on 
April 30, 1905. 

On May 4, 1905, a regularly 
called congregational meeting was 
held and Rev. W. C. Stauden- 
mire was called as pastor. The following officers were elected: 
William F. Bohenberg, Henry Rapp, Harry Weaver, Prof. 
Charles Koch (now superintendent of public schools), H. L. C. 
Engel, and L. H. Miller. The last named was made secretary and 
r . , superintendent of the Sunday 

school. 

August 13, 1905, the constitu- 
tion was adopted, and the congre- 
gation was admitted to the Mary- 
land Synod in October of that 
year. 

The Home Mission Board gave 
assistance in the matter of the 
pastor's salary, and the local and 
general Boards of Church exten- 
sion also contributed. 

Th? corner stone of a new 
building was laid February 4, 
1906. Drs. Dunbar. Freas and Ilartman taking part in the cere- 
monies. 

On March 14, 1908, Rev. Staudenmire died after a brief illness. 

On August 1, 1908, the Rev. F. W. Meyer became the pastor. 
16 




r s^m.- 

EMMANUEL LUTHERAN CHURCH 



1242 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



During his pastorate the church edifice was completed, but one 
story havinjr been built at first, and the work grew and developed 
in all departments. The completed structure was dedicated 
March 21, 1909, local pastors taking part in the services. In 
April, li)ll, Emmanuel became self-supporting. 

On October 1, 11)14, Rev. Mr. Meyer resigned to become super- 
intendent of the Lutheran Inner Mission Society of Baltimore. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. Charles J. Hines, who took charge 
in December, 1914. 

In August, 1916, the house adjoining the church property on 
Baltimore Street, was purchased and was refitted to be used as 
an annex for the overcrowded Sunday school. Easter, 1915). 
about $.'{,")()() in cash was raised to wipe out all indebtedness upon 
the property. 



UETIIAXY LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MI). 

Ii<v. Luther F. Miller, Pastor. 

The history of Bethany English Lutheran congregation lias 
been varied. The congregation has seen much trouble and has 
had a struggle for existence. 

On Bond Street near Eastern Avenue, many years before the 

Civil War, a German congrega- 
tion, known as St. Peter's German 
Lutheran Church, worshipped. It 
was probably founded by a Rev. 
Ilertxberg. lie was probably suc- 
ceeded by Revs. Brown and 
Schwartx. In 1861 Rev. C. A. 
Schloegel became pastor and re- 
mained until his death in 1892. 
In 1862 the congregation was re- 
ceived into membership of the 
Maryland Synod. The congrega- 
tion had become financially in- 
volved and at the death of Pastor 
Schloegel disbanded. 

The Rev. George Albrecht was 
sent to the field and from a nu- 
cleus of about thirty members of 
St. Peter's on February 5, 1892, a 
German congregation was organized and named the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church of Peace. Rev. Albrecht served the little con- 




Lt'THER F. MlI.LER. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 243 

gregation about six months and was succeeded by Rev. Richard 
Schmidt in June, 1892. In January of the following year the 
congregation began to worship in Shaeffer's Chapel, on Gough 
Street near Washington Street. In April they bought the chapel 
for $2,150, and repaired it, and on May 28, 1893, opening exer- 
cises were held. Rev. S. Ilomrighaus preaching the dedicatory 
sermon. On June 26, Rev. Schmidt was installed by Rev. Dr. 
Hennighausen and Rev. G. H. Brandau. 

In November, 1894, a parsonage adjoining the church building 
was purchased for $1.875. Rev. Schmidt severed his connection 




BETHANY LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

with the congregation December 1. 1898. and was succeeded by 
Rev. Hugo Braun on December 8. who served the congregation 
until May 5. 1901. His installation was held February 12, 1899, 
by Revs. F. Ph. Hennighausen. D.D.. and U. S. G. Rupp. Dur- 
ing all these years the congregation was slowly acquiring strength. 

On June 1, 1901, Rev. C. E. Raymond. D.D., became pastor and 
was installed by Revs. E. C. Ide and W. C. Staudemire on Sep- 
tember 22. 

In 1903 a movement took place looking towards changing th;* 
services from German to English. For a while half the services 
were English and half were in German, but soon they were 
changed to all English services. There was some ill feeling and 
misunderstanding and in October, 1904, the name was changed 
to "Bethany English Lutheran Church of Baltimore City." and 



1244 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

the congregation withdrew from the .Maryland Synod, becoming 
an independent congregation. When the congregation was waited 
upon by a committee from the Synod it rescinded its action and 
in October. 190.'). returned into the Maryland Synod. 

On October 1. 190;"), Rev. Raymond severed his connection with 
the congregation and on January 1. 1906. Rev. Luther F. Miller 
took up the work. II is installation took place March 18. 1906. 
the Revs. Victor Miller. D.I)., and G. AV. Miller, D.D.. having 
charge of the services. In the spring of 1907 the church was 
newly painted, repapered. and re roofed. Simple reopening serv- 
ices were held June IS. 

Hut the congregation was not long to enjoy the us- of their 
beautified edifice, for in August. 1909. the building was con- 
demned by the city authorities. 

As conditions were not favorable for growth in that part of 
the city, the congregation sold their property at a sacrifice and 
after considerable delay and difficulty purchased a lot on the 
corner of Lakewood Avenue and Madison Street. For the period 
of a year while negotiating for lot and building, they worshipped 
in a house on North Lakewood Avenue. As many as a hundred 
and twenty-five children were accommodated there at Bible 
school. On the lot a modest yet homelike chapel was erected. It 
was dedicated on May 21, 1911. 

In February. 1917. the twenty-fifth anniversary was observed 
with sermon by Rev. Richard Schmidt, a former pastor. In the 
same year the interior of the church was tastefully frescoed. 

Through a career of varying fortunes God has been with us and 
brought us to greater things. The congregation has a promising 
Bible school and is steadily gaining strength. Its property is 
free from debt. 

Howard T. Fastie is superintendent of the Bible school; 
Charles Stapf. secretary of the church; John IFarman. financial 
secretary; Miss Anna Vogel. president of the Christian En- 
deavor, and Mrs. Amelia Limpert, president of the Ladies' Aid 
Society. 

Some former superintendents of the Bible school are: John 
Beck. C. S. Quandt. George Weifenbach, Charles Lamm. Lambert 
J. Eichner, and Frederick AVeide. 




THE CHURCHES OP BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 245 

CONCORDIA LUTHERAN mrRCII, 
BALTIMORE, MI). 

Rev. P. II. Miller, D.D., Pastor. 

Light and shade have alternated in the history of Concordia 
Church, which had its origin in a Sunday school organized April 
1. 1876. by St. Peter's Church, Joint Synod of Ohio, in Johnson's 
Hall, Baltimore and Poppleton Streets. 

Rev. A. Pflueger, the assistant at St. Peter's, served the mis- 
sion, 1876-78. In November, 1879, during the 
pastorate of Rev. G. T. Cooperrider. a frame 
chapel was built at the present location. 
Franklin Street and Arlington Avenue, at a 
cost of $885, and was dedicated the Sunday 
after Christmas, 1879. 

Because of the objection to the use of the 
English language by the mission, and also 
because of doctrinal differences on the part of 

a neighbor church of the Missouri Svnod, the REV - p - H. MILLER, 

D D 
mission had a struggle for existence for a 

number of years and the growth was slow. The teacher of the 
parochial school of the Missouri congregation mentioned above, 
would, on Monday mornings, flog every scholar who had attended 
the Sunday school at Concordia, the English mission, on the 
previous day. We have this information from Mr. Frank Biel, 
at present a member of Concordia, who speaks from experience. 
Thirty members were reported to St. Peter's Church in 1881, 
five years after the work was begun. For a time services were 
held only on Sunday afternoons, by Rev. E. L. S. Tressel, the 
pastor of St. Peter's, who, because of his other work, found it 
necessary also to limit his ministrations at Coneordia to a serv- 
ice every two weeks. 

Rev. J. E. A. Doerman, who served as city missionary of the 
Joint Synod, was the next pastor. He gave the mission two 
services every second Sunday. Rev. R. C. IT. Lenski succeeded 
Rev. Doerman, and it was during his pastorate that the mission 
became an independent organization, taking the name of Con- 
cordia. The congregation was organized April 16, 1888. 

The present church building, a substantial stone structure, 
taking the place of the chapel, was erected during the pastorate 
of Rev. R. E. Golladay, at a cost of $8.977, and was dedicated 
November 10, 1901. The mission, until Januarv 1. 1897, was 



1240 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



supported by St. Peter's Church and the Board of Home Missions 
of the Joint Synod of Ohio, t'nder Rev. Golladay's ministry the 
congregation grew in numbers and strength and was enabled to 
take the important step of self-support ; and it was with much 
regret that the membership parted with him. who had. with the 
Lord's blessing, done so much for them. 

The ground on which the church stands had been leased until 
1901. when it was purchased for $2.000. Mr. Louis Berger. who 
was an active spirit in bringing the congregation into the Mary- 
land Synod, was the leader in the purchase of the ground. 

Rev. Fred Schuh. who succeeded Rev. Golladay. made secret 
societies an issue in the congregation, which resulted in his being 

deposed and in the division of the 
congregation ; a part organized a 
new congregation. Christ Church 
of the Joint Synod of Ohio, and 
the majority, who held the church 
property, connected with the Mary- 
land Synod. The congregation 
was incorporated in June, 1896. 

Rev. George Scholl, D.D.. acted 
as supply pastor until the calling 
of Rev. \V. G. Minnick, the first 
General Synod pastor to serve the 
congregation. Dr. Scholl again be- 
came the supply during the interim 
of pastorates until Rev. C. E. Ar- 




>. Ll'THKRAX flU'ROII, 

BAI.TIMORK, Mn. 



nold was called, and from the retiring of Rev. Arnold until Rev. 
P. II. Miller, D.I)., assumed charge. During Rev. Minnick 's pas- 
torate the parsonage was purchased at a cost of $2.800 in fee. 

As the result of the division on the question of secret orders 
and the consequent weakening of the congregation in members 
and financial ability, it became necessary to apply to the Board 
of Home Missions for aid. This was granted during the pastorate 
of Rev. C. E. Arnold and continued until the end of the fourth 
year of Rev. Dr. Miller's ministry, when the congregation again 
became self-supporting. 

During Dr. Miller's pastorate the church was improved and 
beautified and modern improvements made at the parsonage. 
The growth of the congregation in recent years has been steady ; 
the full apportionment laid by the Synod for benevolence has 
been more than met and the devotion of the members has given 
the congregation a place in the church life of the city. 

Mr. John C. Louis, who heartily seconded Dr. Miller's pro- 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 247 

posal to improve and beautify the church and gave it lio.Tal 
financial support and who has always favored every progressive 
movement, has been a potent factor in the work of the church in 
recent years. 

The mission was served by the following pastors: Rev. A. 
Pflueger, 1876-1878; Rev. G. T. Cooperricler, 1879- July, 1882; 
Rev. J. E. Doerman, May 1, 1885-December, 1887; Rev. R. C. 
Lenski, January, 1886-1888. 

After its organization as a congregation Rev. Lenski served as 
pastor for a few months. lie was succeeded by Rev. E. T. Rogne, 
September, 1889-March, 1892; Rev. Robert E. Golladay, June, 
1892-1905; Rev. Fred Schuh, July 1- August 6, 1907, all of the 
Joint Synod of Ohio. Rev. W. G. Minnick, January 16, 1908- 
January 1. 1910; Rev. C. E. Arnold, August 1, 1910- April 18, 
1912; Rev. P. II. Miller, D.D., June, 1912, to the present, of the 
General Synod. 

EPIPHANY LUTHERAN CHURCH OF POWELL- 
XAROX, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. F. A. Hightman, Pastor. 

The Home Mission Board made a canvass of the Belair Av- 
enue, south of Overlea, in January, 1908, at the suggestion of Mr. 
F. C. Oyeman to his pastor, the 
Rev. Harry D. Newcomer, and a 
further canvass by the Rev. 
Charles J. Hines discovered 
"many Lutheran families who 
were desirous of a church of their 
own, and one of whom would in 
all probability donate a lot." 
This lot and another a year later, 
were generously donated by Mr. 
and Mrs. Frederick X. Powell. 
The present site was selected by 
the Rev. A. Stewart Hartman. 
D.D., in the presence of our pas- 
tor, who assumed charge of the 
work in March, 1909. but was not 
released from the work of the mis- 
sion on Park Heights until Sep- 

REV. F. A. HIGHTMAN. 
tember, 1909. 

Our congregation was organized on May 10, 1908, in the Pow- 
ell Hay Barn, with thirty-one members present, but the charter 




248 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOO. 

was held open a month longer, when fifty members were en- 
rolled. Here they worshipped for eight months, and after three 
more months in the Alert Volunteer Fire Company's Hall, we 
moved to the present chapel on February 21, 1909. The first 
service was a Foreign Mission service. The building, having 
cost about $4.500, was not furnished with other than the neces- 
sary chairs and the crude pulpit used already in the Hay Barn. 
A beautiful altar and pulpit, etc.. valued at about $500, were 
soon added, and in April Mr. and Mrs. Powell gave us a pleasant 
surprise in donating as a most welcome gift, a one-manuel Moller 
Pipe Organ, which has greatly inspired our worship. In 1912-14 
the Ladies' Aid Society refrescoed the walls and the Brotherhood 





MR. <;. F. C. OTEMAN, MR. MAX MARTIN-, 

Baltimore, Md. Baltimore, Md. 

laid a floor on the cement basement and covered the ceiling; also 
cutting a doorway on the east side through the stone wall. 

Two more lots adjoining the church property were purchased 
iu July. 1915. and our present property, valued at $10,000, was 
cleared of all indebtedness May 1. 1919, with an excess in bank 
of about $500. This achievement, as a result of the liberality of 
all our people and the faithful efforts of our Ladies' Aid Society, 
Brotherhood, Sunday school, ete., has now again been crowned 
with a most generous offer. 

Mr. and Mrs. Powell have again given us great encouragement 
by authorizing the pastor to announce on May 4, 1919 (the Sun- 
day preceding our eleventh anniversary), that they would pro- 
vide in their will to donate $15.000 toward the erection of a new 
and larger church building, which has been so much needed, 
especially for our Sunday school. Thereupon about $1.600 was 
voluntarily subscribed at once by a few. and plans laid for an 
effort to secure $10.000. if possible, in two years, which, with the 
kindly help of the General Board of Church Extension, and the 
hearty approval by resolution of the local Church Extension So- 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 249 

piety, who gave us $500 in 1909, we trust that with God's help 
and blessing we shall he enabled to carry out the proposed plan 
to erect a church costing "not to exceed $40,000." Mr. and 
Mrs. Powell have also given their approval to such a building, 
and so the vision of a new church to dedicate to the glory of God 
may become a reality within a year or two. 

Three other important events need only to be referred to: 
(1) The burning of our second mortgage, December 11, 1912, 
which had been given to the Board of Church Extension to se- 
cure a loan of $1,000 without interest; (2) the changing of our 
name by substituting "Epiphany" for "Grace Evangelical," as 
voted unanimously by a congregational meeting on December 22, 
1918, as the State Legislature had decided to extend the city far 
enough to include our church within the city limits after Janu- 
ary 1, 1919, and thus there would have been three Lutheran 
churches in Baltimore bearing the name "Grace," and (3) the 
burning of our first mortgage, June 16, 1919. 

The present active membership is two hundred and fifty. 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MIX 

Rev. John G. Fleck, Pastor. 

On September 25, 1905, the 
Missionary Committee of the local 
Board of Church Extension of 
Baltimore City and vicinity, was 
instructed to look into the field on 
Park Heights Avenue, between 
Druid Hill Park and Belvidere 
Avenue. In November the report 
of the committee stated that the 
field was inviting for the location 
of a Sunday school and a church. 
A lot was suggested upon which 
the Property Committee was to 
take action, recommending or ap- 
proving. 

Unfortunately for the develop- 
ment of the mission, difficulties 

i , -, , T ,, , T REV. JOHN G. FLECK. 

arose which delayed the work. In 

September, 1907, the local Board recommended the project to the 
Board of Home Missions and Church Extension. 

On March 1, 1908, Rev. F. A. Hightman was placed in charge. 




250 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOD. 

After a preliminary canvass the first meeting \vas held at the 
home of Mr. August Snyder on March I"). 1908. Two weeks 
later. March 29. in Flautt's Hall. Park Heights Avenue and 
Shirley Avenue, the Sunday school was organized. The follow- 
ing officers were elected: Superintendent, Henry Hitter; as- 
sistant superintendent. Mrs. Arthur Droescher; secretary. J. 
Ferd Rossiter; treasurer, Arthur J. Droescher; organist. Miss 
Isabelle Snyder; superintendent of Primary Department. Mrs. 
Henry Ritter. The following teachers were elected: Misses 
Sophie Otto. Lillie Ileinlein. Anna Hellwig, Mabel Ilightman. 
Isahelle Snyder. Mrs. Henry Ritter. and Rev. Ilightman. The 
enrollment on this first Sunday was forty-two. Two scholars at- 
tended every Sunday during the first year, Leroy Droescher and 
Margaret Moore. 

On May 10. 1908. St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church, of 
Baltimore City, was formally organi/ed with thirty-eight char- 
ter members. The following composed the first Church Council : 
Messrs. August Snyder. August Ohlmeyer, J. Ferd Rossiter. 
Christian Ileinlein, Louis J. Roth, and Henry Ritter. 

The Ladies' Aid Society, whose assistance has been of ines- 
timable value, was organi/ed on June 29, 190S. with the follow- 
ing officers: President. Mrs. Louisa Vogt ; vice-president. Mrs. 
Louis T. Weis; secretary. Mrs. Arthur J. Droescher; treasurer. 
Miss Isa belle Snyder. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Ilightman. two lots were pur- 
chased on the east side of Pimlico Road facing Kate Avenue, for 
the future site of the church. 

Rev. Ilightman resigned in June. 1909. but continued to sup- 
ply until September. On September 3. 1909. Rev. II. E. Berkey 
was elected pastor, and served until March 1, 1910. 

Rev. G. Albert Getty, D.I)., having supplied the pulpit from 
April. 1910, until June, was elected pastor, and assumed charge 
about June 1. Brother Getty entered the work with energy and 
planned wisely. On July 3. 1910. the following building com- 
mittee was appointed: J. Ferd Rossiter. Arthur J. Droescher. 
A. F. Homer. Albert Weis. Rev. Getty, member ex-officio. The 
corner stone of the new church was laid on December 18. 1910. 
and the church was dedicated on June 18, 1911. The cost was 
$16.250. Rev. Getty resigned February 1. 1915. 

Rev. John G. Fleck, the present pastor, assumed charge on 
June 1. 1915. In June. 191<>. the Woman's Home and Foreign 
Missionary Society was organi/ed with the following officers: 
President. Mrs. X. C. Weller: vice-president. Miss Ida Soder- 
green : recording secretary. Miss Clarinda Ackler; correspond- 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



251 



ing secretary. Miss Carrie llaase; treasurer, Miss Blanche Son- 
nenburg; magaxine secretary, Miss Anna Helhvig. 

In March, 1917, the Mission Band was organized. The follow- 
ing officers were elected : President, Mrs. E. 8. Fritz ; vice- 
president, Miss Esther Messersmith; secretary. Miss Elizabeth 
Deichman ; treasurer. Miss Charlotte Ritter. 

The present communicant membership of the church is two 
hundred and twelve. The present enrollment of the Sunday 
school is two hundred and fifty, with a staff of teachers and offi- 
cers of thirty. Plans are now being worked out for the enlarge- 
ment of the church and the erection of a Sunday school building. 
The total cost of the improvements will be about $30,000. 



AUGSBURG LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BALTIMORE, MI). 

Itev. II. H. Hartman, Pastor. 

The local Board of Church Extension, of Baltimore City, on 
November 22, 1909, called the attention of the Board of Home 
Missions to a field in Walbrook, Baltimore, which was rich in 
Lutheran material, where .a Lu- 
theran church ought to be organ- 
ized. 

On December 13 the local board 
decided to concentrate its efforts 
for the year on one point as a 
means of stimulating the interest 
in the work of the local board and 
fixed the minimum sum of $3,500 
to be raised and applied to the 
Walbrook work. 

The Missionary Committee of 
the local board and the Board of 
Home Missions requested Rev. II. 
H. Hartman, of Newville, Pa., 
who had organized the Church of 
Our Saviour, West Arlington, and 
was familiar with the field, to 
make the preliminary canvass. 

The result of the brief canvass was sixty-six Lutheran families, 
which was reported at the meeting of the local board on May 
23, 1910. At this meeting Mr. George A. Klinefelter, a member 




REV. II. H. HARTMAN. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, and a member of the local board, 
offered to donate $1.000 if the churches of the city raised $2,500. 
and the whole of $.'$.500 be donated to the Walbrook Mission. 

The Board of Home Missions was informed of this action and 
on May 26, 1919, called Rev. Ilartman to take up the work of 
organ ixing the congregation. 

Rev. Ilartman began work on the field on August 1, holding the 
first service on September 4. 1910, at :UHS Mondawmin Avenue, 
the home of the missionary, the rent of which was partly paid by 




AUGSBURG LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, Mi>. 

the Board of Church Extension. The services were continued 
here until the congregation moved to the lecture room of the 
church. 

The congregation was organized as the Augsburg Evangelical 
Lutheran Church on October In', 1910. with fifty -two confirmed 
members and thirty-four baptixed children. Rev. H. IT. Hart- 
man was elected the first pastor of the congregation, and the fol- 
lowing church council was elected: Elders: AVm. II. Hoffman. 
John J. Buffington. Deacons: E. C. Stock, G. A. Mong, G. J. 
Lindauer, Benj. II. Keister. A resolution recommending the loca- 
tion at the corner of Garrison Boulevard and Bateman Avenue 
as the future site of the church was unanimously carried. 

The church was completed and dedicated on January 21, 1912. 
It has two floors, is built throughout of Woodstock granite, has a 



THE CHURCHES OP BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



253 



seating capacity of four hundred in the main auditorium, and 
when completed and furnished cost $40.000. 

In 1916 a parsonage was built on the lot adjoining the church. 
The church was organized as a mission of the Home Mission 
Board and was aided by the board. In 1913-14 the mission was 
receiving $750 aid. On February 1, 1919, the church became 
self-sustaining. The Board of Church Extension assisted the 
church with the building with a loan of $2.500 on a second mort- 
gage, without interest, and carried the interest on $7,500. On 
November 15, 1915, the second mortgage was taken up by the 
church and the board was relieved of all further interest. The 
church has met all of its obligations to the boards of the church. 

The Augsburg Church now has a membership of three hundred 
and a property that is valued at $70,000. There is a nourishing 
Sunday school with an enrollment of two hundred, a Ladies' Aid 
Society with sixty members, a Luther League, a Men's Bible 
Class, and a Boys' Scout Troop. 

ZION LUTHERAN CHURCH, LAURAVILLE, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. William G. 31 in nick. Pastor. 

Late in the fall of 1912 Rev. A. W. Ahl, pastor of St. John's 
Lutheran Church, at Parkville, Md., made a canvass to ascertain 
the number of Lutherans not hav- 
ing church connections, at Laura- 
ville, Md. He found a consider- 
able number who deemed it ad- 
visable to establish a Lutheran 
church in this suburb of Balti- 
more. On the first Sunday in Ad- 
vent, 1912, a Sunday school was 
organized in a store room at Cul- 
ver Avenue and Grindon Lane. 
Twelve teachers and scholars were 
present. The Sunday school met 
Sunday after Sunday and its ses- 
sions were followed by services 
conducted by Rev. Ahl, alternate- 
ly in the German and English lan- 
guage. The first helpers in the 
Sunday school were Mrs. George 
Koehler, .Mrs. (Jross. Miss Albrecht 
wald. and Mr. Ilenrv List. 




REV. WILLIAM G. MINNJCK. 
Mrs. Gvr. Mrs. Paul Buck- 



254 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

On January 7. 1918, a general meeting was liekl at the home of 
Mr. George K ohler. when it was unanimously decided to organ- 
i/.e a Lutheran congregation to be known as /ion Evangelical 
Lutheran Church of Lauraville. Md. A constitution was adopted 
and the tirst council was elected as follows: President. Rev. Ahl; 
vice-president. Charles Sutfner; treasurer. George Kohler; s?c- 
retary. Otto Ilildehrand; Christian Diet/el, Traugott Lensch- 
ner, Oscar Preuss. Oscar Heller, and Herman Xeaman. Besides 
these, the following were charter members: Mrs. Ganter. Mrs. 
George Kohler. Mrs. Otto Ilildebrand. Mrs. Lenschner, Mrs. 
Preuss. Mrs. Lenbccker. Mrs. Huckwald, Mrs. Gross, Mrs. Heller. 
Mr. and Mrs. John Munder. Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Diet/, Mr. 
Christian AVittmer. Miss Wittmer. Mrs. Kreitler, Mrs. Myer. Mrs. 
Linthicum, Mrs. Xeaman, Mrs. Koch, and Albert Leubecker. On 
January 18. 1918. the congregation was incorporated. Services 
were held regularly and the Holy Communion was administered 
for the first time, in the German language, on Good Friday, and 
in the English language, on Easter Sunday. 1918. 

On June 12. a lot on Grindon Lane was purchased at a cost of 
$625. Steps were taken to erect a chapel and the contract was 
given to James Rufenacht at his bid of $2.112. The corner stone 
was laid on October 12. 1913. The church was dedicated on De- 
cember 12. 1918. Rev. II. II. Weber. D.I)., General Secretary of 
the Board of Church Extension, delivered the sermon and had 
charge of the finances. Seventeen hundred dollars were pledged 
and the building was set apart to the service of God. In Febru- 
ary. 1915, the adjoining lot. corner of Grindon Lane and Maine 
Avenue, was purchased at the low price of $550. Rev. Ahl sev- 
ered his connection with the congregation on July 1. 1916, and 
Rev. M. L. Frank. Ph.D.. became his successor on the same date. 

Rev. Frank made a canvass of the community and while he 
discovered many Lutherans, he found that they were not willing 
to sever their relation with the churches in the city. Therefore 
he began a campaign among the young people and organized a 
Luther League Society and also a choir. On January 1. 1917, it 
was decided to hold two services each Sunday, one in the German 
and the other in the English language. During the pastorate of 
Rev. Frank, the number of scholars in the Sunday school was in- 
creased and the indebtedness somewhat reduced. He severed his 
connections with the congregation on November 1. 1917. 

It was then decided that the services should be conducted alto- 
gether in English. A call was extended to Rev. William G. Min- 
nick. and he assumed charge of the congregation on January 1. 
. and is the pastor at the present time. Since he became pas- 



THE CHURCHES OP BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 2oO 

tor a number have been added to the congregation, the Sunday- 
school very much enlarged and the indebtedness both on the 
church and adjoining lots has been cancelled. A furnace has been 
installed and an individual communion service, a piano, an altar 
railing, and a bell, have been presented by friends of the pastor 
and congregation. The council is now considering the advisabil- 
ity of erecting a new church or of enlarging the old one. 

THE LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE ATONEMENT, 
BALTIMORE, Ml). 

Rev. J. B. Lau, Pastor. 

The Lutheran Church of the Atonement was organixed on Sun- 
day. September 30. 1916, Rev. E. K. Bell. D.D.. President of the 
Maryland Synod, having charge of the services and officiating. 

A preliminary canvass had been made in July by some mem- 
bers of the Sunday school of First English Lutheran Church, and 
very gratifying results were ob- 
tained. The Church Extension 
Society of the city procured the 
services of Mr. Paul Wagner, then 
a student in the Seminary at Get- 
tysburg, to canvass the commu- 
nity, and a house to house canvass 
was made, resulting in the organ- 
ization of the church with most 
splendid prospects. 

A call was extended to Rev. .T. 
B. Lau, of New York City, to be- 
come pastor. This call was ac- 
cepted and Rev. Lau began his 
work on December 15. 1916. 

The property committee of the 
Church Extension Society of Bal- 
timore Citv purchased a lot on 

IIT , a, i> i KKV. J. B. LAU. 

Winchester Street near Poplar 
Grove Street, the congregation agreeing to pay $1,500. 

In June, 1918, a new lot was purchased on the corner of Presst- 
man and Poplar Grove Streets, for which the sum of $3.000 was 
paid, the payment of which was completed about January 1, 1919. 

In December, 1918, the council purchased the property at 1501 
Poplar Grove Street, to be used as a parsonage, for $3,000, sub- 
ject to a ground rent. About $1.200 of this amount has been 
paid. 




!'.)() HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Encountering some difficulties in securing money to erect a new 
church building, the council made overtures to the council of St. 
Paul's Lutheran congregation for a merg'r of these two congre- 
gations. This resulted in the submission of terms of merger 
which were ratified on July 28. 1919. Rev. Lau resigned as pas- 
tor of the Church of the Atonement in October, 1919. 

At the time of the ratification of the merger the congregation 
had a confirmed membership of two hundred and forty-three 
and an enrollment in the Sunday school of about two hundred 
and fifty. 

The following were the first church council: Klders C. II. 
Gundersdorf, Oscar M. Gibson, George C. Cooper. John Lindner. 
Deacons I. Forrest Otto. W. G. X. Rukert. Stephen \V. Price. 
Conrad Sweener. 



SALKM'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MI). 

h'n'. K. Walter Srhmitt, I'astor. 

This congregation is one of the latest additions in the Mary- 
land Synod. Although young in years it is quite old in experi- 
ence. The storms of life have 
passed over its head for many 
years. They have sometimes bent 
its branches but could not destroy 
the tree. 

Salem 's congregation dates back 
to the year 1SS5. The first pastor 
was the Rev. W. 1). Kirschmann. 
During his ministry the present 
church was built. lie was in 
charge of this congregation for 
over twelve years until March. 
1897. when his resignation on ac- 
count of ill health was accepted. 

The next pastor in charge was 
the Rev. John C. Rudolf, from 
Kansas. This pastor remained 
from March. 1897. until June. 
1900. Il t . was succeeded by the 
Rev. William Rooper. from Cincinnati. Ohio. The latter re- 
mained until June. 1905. 

In September. 190."). the Rev. Krnst von Hahmann was elected 
as the new pastor. During his ministry the congregation severed 




KK\. K. \V.\I.TKK SCH MITT. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 257 

all former synodical connection, believing that a life of inde- 
pendence would further a better development. Many improve- 
ments were made on the interior church building and parsonage. 
Pastor and congregation worked hard and faithfully to solidify 
the congregation. His ministry in Salem 's lasted until August, 
1915, a ministry of ten long years under many trying circum- 
stances owing to local conditions, chief of which was the language 
problem. 

The successor to Dr. von Hahmann was the Rev. K. Walter 
Schmitt. He came here from San Francisco, California, where 
he had been working in the interest of the Home Mission Board. 
The new pastor, firmly believing in the Synod, persuaded the 
congregation to rectify the former attitude and come into the 
General Synod. Salem 's Church is thus the third independent 
German congregation the pastor persuaded to enter the General 
Synod. 

During Rev. Schmitt's brief ministry here the old mortgage 
of two thousand five hundred dollars was paid An old obliga- 
tion of five hundred dollars to the former synod was settled to 
give to the congregation a legal release. The English language 
was permanently introduced into all services in order to restrain 
the younger generation from worshipping elsewhere in their na- 
tive language. Next a new church building organization was 
created with the assistance of Rev. H. H. Weber, D.D., General 
Secretary of the Board of Home Missions and Church Extension 
of the United Lutheran Church, for the purpose of erecting a 
new church or remodelling the old one with modern accommoda- 
tions. And with God's blessing and the support of a loyal con- 
gregation Salem 's Church looks forward to better days. For it 
is no doubt true that the lack of these accommodations has pre- 
vented a better growth during the past. 

The present church stands on historic ground, as the very 
names of the surrounding streets indicate. Opposite the River- 
side Park, overlooking Chesapeake Bay and the Patapsco River, 
the congregation has an exceptional location, of which the mem- 
bers are exceedingly proud. With better church facilities this 
congregation firmly believes that it still has a mission in South 
Baltimore. 



17 



258 iHSTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

HOLY roMFOKTKK U'THKKAX CHURCH, 
B A I/TIMOR 1 0, Ml). 

AYr. ^YiUia^n A. Wade. Pastor. 

The Lutheran Church of the Holy Comforter is located in the 
extreme northern section of Baltimore, corner Ilarwood Avenue 
and York Road, formerly known as Govans. For years there had 
been a recogni/.ed need of a Lutheran church in this section, and 
so in the spring and summer of 1911. Rev. J. F. Crigler, then 
pastor of the Lutheran church at Lutherville, made a canvass. 
The first meeting was called for October 29. 1911. at Parr's Hall, 
and forty persons responded. One week later, on November 5, 
sixty persons signed the charter roll, and the congregation was 
organ i/ed and incorporated with the election of officers, December 
31, 1911. The Sunday school, which had been organized with 
forty-four members November 19, 1911, grew nicely. Rev. Crig- 
ler. under whose efficient leadership the congregation grew rap- 
idly, continued as missionary pastor in addition to his work at 
Lutherville, until June 29. 1913. A splendid foundation was laid 
by Pastor Crigler for a strong church in years to come. The 
church was given the name of "First Lutheran Church of 
Govans." 

Through the generous assistance of the local Church Extension 
Society and the General Church Extension Board, an excellent 
lot was purchased for ,$5,000. Rev. Norman G. Phillipy was 
elected pastor and took charge July 1, 1913, being installed by 
the former pastor. Rev. J. F. Crigler, assisted by Rev. J. C. 
Bowers, November 9. 1913. 

On May 26, 1914. ground was broken for the church building, 
and the corner stone was laid July 12, 1914, the address being 
made by Rev. W. II. Dunbar. D.I). The present splendid church 
of gray stone was dedicated on Sunday. November 8, 1914, the 
sermon being preached by Rev. II. II. Weber. D.D., General 
Secretary of the Board of Church Extension, at the morning serv- 
ice, and Rev. J. A. Clutx. D.D.. of the Theological Seminary at 
Gettysburg, preaching in the afternoon. Rev. C. F. Crigler also 
assisted. The dedicatory service was conducted by the pastor. 
These services were followed by special services for several nights, 
in which a number of the pastors of the city took part. 

On September 25. 1917. the pastor. Xorman G. Phillipy, de- 
parted this life, after an illness of some weeks. This death, which 
seemed untimely to the many friends in the church and out of it, 
brought sorrow into the hearts of all. A noble man. talented as a 




-* as 

^ 5 



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1 



~ A Z 



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Z > 

x 

O x 

U g 

s 
a: 



260 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

leader and gifted as a preacher of the gospel, respected by all 
who knew him, had fallen in the very prime of life. The splen- 
did church stands as a lasting monument to his work. Having 
found the congregation worshipping in a second story hall, with 
a membership of a little over a hundred, he departed after four 
years, leaving a membership doubled and worshipping in a beau- 
tiful stone church, complete in all the arrangement and furnish- 
ings that belong to a Lutheran church. 

On Sunday. December 9. 1917. Rev. "William A. Wade, then 
pastor of Saint Mark's Lutheran Church, Washington, D. C., was 
unanimously elected pastor to succeed the late Rev. N. G. Phil- 
lipy. The newly elected pastor took charge the first Sunday in 
February. 1918. Installation services were held on Sunday, 
March i 1918. Dr. II. II. Weber. Secretary of the Board of 
Church Extension, preaching the sermon and conducting the 
service of installation. 

At a congregational meeting held on May 29. 1918, the name 
of the church was changed to "The Lutheran Church of the Holy 
Comforter." A bronze tablet was erected in the vestibule of the 
church in memory of the former pastor. 

The congregation has grown steadily and substantially, and 
now the communicant membership is about three hundred. The 
work of building a parsonage on the lot near the church has been 
completed, and with this newly annexed section of Baltimore 
developing rapidly, the future of the Church of the Holy Com- 
forter looks bright. 

From the beginning the congregation has held strictly to the 
common service, the pulpit gown, etc., and recently vestments 
have been added to the efficient choir. 

The church council has been trained well for the work of the 
church and they take the deepest interest in all departments of 
the work. The Sunday school is under good leadership and ranks 
among the best equipped schools of the city. The young people 
have received good training in the Luther League. The Ladies' 
Guild has been a most active and valuable support to the church. 
During the eight years of its existence it has turned into the 
church over $f>.000. The Missionary Society is also doing splen- 
did work under efficient leadership. The Brotherhood is active 
and doing good work. 

Mr. John E. Adolph is superintendent of the Sunday school : 
Mrs. George Edel is president of the Ladies' Guild : Mrs. George 
Boone is president of the Missionary Society; Mr. S. A. Douglas 
is president of the Luther League, and Mr. James Chambers is 
president of the Brotherhood. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



261 



LUTHER MEMORIAL CHURCH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Rev. L. L. Sieber, D.D., Pastor. 

At the request of the local Board of Church Extension of 
Baltimore, Maryland, Paul Wagner, of the graduating class of 
the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, canvassed the territory 
of North Baltimore, with a view of ascertaining the number of 
Lutherans who would encourage the organization of a mission. 
The effort resulted in securing 
sixty-six names of persons who 
promised to cooperate and become 
charter members. 

The first services were con- 
ducted September 19, 1917, in 
Waverly Hall, corner Greenmount 
Avenue and Thirty-first Street, 
and were conducted once a Sun- 
day until December 2, 3917, when 
an organization was effected 
with thirty-two charter members. 
Later there were added thirteen 
more, making the total forty-fiv?. 

Students from the seminary 
were secured as supplies until 
May 1, 1918, with the hope that 
one of the young men graduating 
might be secured as pastor. In 
this hope the mission was disappointed. Rev. L. L. Sieber, D.D.. 
of Gettysburg, supplied the mission for several Sundays and was 
unanimously elected pastor June 30, 1918, and by the endorse- 
ment of the Board of Home Missions and Church Extension be- 
came the first pastor. 

As the mission was organized during the 400th Anniversary of 
the Reformation, it was decided to name the mission "The Luther 
Memorial Church of Baltimore, Maryland. " In harmony with 
the name the first $3,000 paid to the purchase of a lot for the 
church was secured at a meeting of Baltimore Lutheran churches 
held in commemorating the 400th Anniversary of the Reforma- 
tion, under the auspices of the local Church Extension Society. 

Regular services were conducted by the first pastor, Dr. Sieber, 
twice each Sunday during the summer months, and the congre- 
gation increased to seventy-four, and on October 1 application 
was made to be received into the Maryland Synod, in whose 




REV. L. L. SIEBER, D.D. 



HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 



hounds it is located. The congregation, with its pastor, was duly 
received into the Synod at Frostburg, Maryland, December ">, 
191 S. Rev. L. L. Sieber. i)astor. and Mr. S. J. Zepp. delegate. 

The congregation celebrated the first anniversary of its pastor, 
Inly 6. 1919. with a membership of one hundred and seven com- 
nmnieants and one hundred and eighteen enrolled in the Sunday 
school. It has secured a lot for the future chapel, parsonage and 
church building, in one of the finest residence sections of North 
Baltimore, at the corner of (Juilford Avenue and University 
Parkway, at an expense of $6,500. on which they hope soon to 
begin the erection of a chapel and parsonage. 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, BROOKLYN, 
KALTIMOKK, MI). 

7iYr. P. ('. lluru<lorf. Ph.D., I'astor. 

March 22. 1914. about nine persons met at the home of Mr. 
John Dornbush. Brooklyn. Anne Arundel County. Maryland, to 
organi/e a Lutheran mission. The meeting was called by Rev. 

von Ilahmann. pastor of Salem 
Lutheran Church. Baltimore. A 
congregation was organ i/ed that 
day. 

At a meeting held in a hall 
above a grocery store on Septem- 
ber 28, 1914. the constitution rec- 
ommended by the Home Mission 
Board was adopted. A few months 
later the newly organ ixed congre- 
gation purchased the furniture 
and effects of the Missouri Lu- 
theran Home Mission Board, the 
mission of that Synod at Brook- 
lyn having disbanded. 

July 25. 1915. Rev. von Ilah- 
mann resigned as the pastor of 
the mission and accepted a call to 
Amsterdam, N. Y. Later in that 
year the Rev. Walter Schmitt. of Salem Church. Rev. von Ilah- 
mann 's successor, took charge of the mission. 

June 18, 19KJ. upon the recommendation of the Home Mission 
Board. Brooklyn and Lauraville were made one parish, the pastor 




KKV. P. c. BUKGDORK, PH. I). 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 263 

to live at Lauraville. Rev. Dr. Frank was recommended by the 
Home Mission Board and called by the two congregations. 

During Rev. von Hahmann's pastorate the congregation had 
bought a lot 90x100 feet on Washington and Third Streets. Dur- 
ing Rev. Schmittt's pastorate they completed the payment of 
$1,350. 

In January, 1917, Dr. Frank having resigned, the trustees of 
St. John's asked Rev. Paul C. Burgdorf, Ph.D., of Jerusalem 
Church, Belair Road, Baltimore, to assist the congregation and 
to keep together what was left of the mission. Dr. Burgdorf 
supplied there for a while. Upon recommendation of the officers 
of the Home Mission and Church Extension Board the congre- 
gation was reorganized. 

On account of the war, labor and material being too high, the 
officers of the Synod advised the building of a temporary build- 
ing, and so on August 5, 1917, the congregation decided to build 
a frame chapel on one of their lots facing A^ 7 ashington Street. 
The men of the congregation erected the chapel with their own 
hands in less than three days, the cost being about $1,170. The 
building was consecrated December 4, 1917. 

With the completion of the splendid Hanover Street Bridge, 
connecting Brooklyn and Curtis Bay with Baltimore, and the an- 
nexation of the village to the city, bright prospects are facing the 
little village across the river. 



ST. PETER'S LUTHERAN CHURCH OF BALTI- 
MORE COUNTY, MI). 

(CALVARY CHARGE.) 
Itcv. W. C. Erncij, Supply Pastor. 

The record of the church does not give the names of the mem- 
bers of the first council. The first communion was held on April 
29, 1838, by Rev. Jeremiah Harp 1. Twenty persons communed. 
The names of the pastors succeeding Rev. Ilarpel and the years 
of beginning service are as follows : 

Rev. P. Willard, 1841; Rev. J. Ruthroff, 1843; Rev. Elias 
Schwartz, 1845 ; Rev. Jacob Kempffer, 1846 ; Rev. Daniel Hauer, 
1854; Rev. P. Rizer, 1865; Rev. R. Weiser, 1866; Rev. P. P. 
Lane, 1870-1872; Rev. Ketterman, 1875; Rev. A. H. Burke. 
1877. 

Rev. Burke was not licensed until 1879. Revs. Sill, Warner, 
and Hauer assisted Mr. Burke with pastoral duties such as bap- 



204 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



tisins. communions, etc., until ho became licensed. During Rev. 
Burke 's pastorate the congregation built a new brick church. 
Previous to the building of the church, Lutherans and Reformed 
had worshipped jointly in the old stone building, but with the 
building of the new church the Reformed members withdrew and 
left the church purely Lutheran. 

Rev. S. J. Derr became pastor in October, 1886, and in 1887 
the church was incorporated according to the laws of the State 





MR. .Jos KIM i I,. WALTEMYKR. 



MR. THKOPORK F. SIIEARF.K. 



of Maryland. The incorporators were the following persons: 
Daniel F. Shearer. George L. Peterman, George Folk and John 
E. Slyder. Later pastors were : 

Rev. S. F. Tholan, 1901-1904; Rev. L. W. Gross, May, 1904- 
April, 1906; Rev. Samuel Stauffer, June, 1906-March, 1908; 
Rev. William D. Nicholl, April, 1908-April, 1910; Rev. J. H. 
Kellar, May. 1910- June, 1912. 

In 1913 the Ilampstead congregation decided to divide the 
Ilampstead charge, thus leaving St. Paul and St. Abraham's to 
form a charge of their own. 

Rev. Frank Gilbert became pastor of this charge on January 
1. 1915, and resigned October, 1917. 

At present Hev. \V. ( . Erney is supplying this congregation. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 265 

ST. ABRAHAM'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BECKLEYSVILLE, MD. 

(CALVARY CHARGE.) 

Rev. IV. C. Erney, Supply Pastor. 

This congregation was organized in 1854 by the Rev. Daniel 
Hauer. For about twenty years it was served by the same pas- 
tors as St. Peter's Church, near Alesia. These were: Rev. Dan- 
iel Hauer, 1854; Rev. P. Rizer, 1865; Rev. R. Weiser, 1866; 
Rev. P. P. Lane, 1870. 

Then for a short time the congregation was under the influ- 
ence and pastoral care of Rev. Uriel Graves, who had come from 
Baltimore after a spectacular trial at the hands of a synodical 
committee. During this period the church was independent of 
synodical relationship. Rev. Graves was succeeded by Rev. 
Archer, also of the so-called ' ' Independent Synod. ' ' Rev. Archer 
was succeeded in the pastorate of this congregation by the Rev. 
A. H. Burke, who began to serve the Hampstead charge in 1877. 
In 1886, when the Rev. S. J. Derr became pastor of that charge. 
St. Abraham's again affiliated with the Maryland Synod. After 
Rev. Derr's resignation the following pastors served the congre- 
gation : Rev. S. F. Tholan, 1901-1904 ; Rev. L. W. Gross, 1904- 
1906; Rev. Samuel Stauffer, 1906-1908; Rev. W. D. Nicholl, 
1908-1910; Rev. J. H. Keller, 1910-1912. 

In 1913 the Hampstead charge was divided: St. Peter's and 
St. Abraham's constituted a new charge, known as Calvary. 
This charge has been served by the Rev. Frank Gilbert, 1915- 
1917, and since October, 1917, has been supplied by the Rev. 
W. C. Erney. 

Mr. Daniel Beckley was a prominent member of this congre- 
gation during the seventies and eighties. He owned and oper- 
ated a paper-mill which was a large factor in the economic life 
of the community and in the financial affairs of the church. 

Mr. Joseph L. Waltemyer was superintendent of the Sunday 
school for seven years. He is the father of Rev. W. C. Walte- 
myer, our pastor at Thurmont, Maryland. 

SALEM LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
CATONSVILLE, MD. 

Rev. John C. Bowers, D.D., Pastor. 

On September 30, 1849, a meeting was held by a number of 
Lutherans in Catonsville. Maryland, for the purpose of organiz- 
ing a congregation. For some time previous they had cherished 



'2()f> HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

the hope of having a church of their faith and choice. This hope 
was stimulated by frequent visits and pastoral ministrations of 
Father 1 1 ever, then on leave of absence from his mission station 
in India. 

The meeting in the fall of 1849 resulted in the purchase of a 
plot of ground about a mile from what is usually designated as 
"th:> village." a reason being that a large number of people liv- 
ing in the immediate vicinity of the spot were Lutherans. The 
lot was splendidly located and large enough for a church, par- 
sonage, school house and cemetery. These three buildings still 
stand, the old parsonage being occupied by the caretaker of the 
cemetery, the school house being used by the School Hoard of 
Baltimore County for public school purposes. 

Pursuant to an oft expressed desire funeral services are fre- 
quently conducted at Old Salem Church, and occasional services 
are held there on Lord's Day afternoons. Many, especially of the 
older members of the congregation, have deep affection for the 
church, with which their parents were associated and the center 
of their own early associations. 

Those who laid the foundation for the newly organized con- 
gregation contributed liberally in money, labor and material, and 
were rewarded by seeing as the result of their sacrifice and labor 
a picturesque stone edifice, churchly in its exterior appearance 
and in its interior appointments, equipped with bell, which rings 
daily at six p. m., a sweet-toned pipe organ, made in Europe, and 
a baptismal font. 

The list of members in 1852 includes such locally familiar 
names as: Maeseh, Ege, Gerwig, Leimbach. Spelhaus, Wessling, 
Knuepling, Piel, Renz, Dill, Schneider, Maisel, and Reich. 

The first regular pastor of the congregation was the Rev. A. 
Brockman, a man of great energy and determination, but after a 
brief pastorate, death claimed him and he was laid to rest in the 
cemetery under the shadow of the church he had labored so un- 
selfishly to establish. 

He was succeeded by Rev. George W. Ebeling, Ph.D., in 1854. 
Dr. Ebeling was a man of strong personality, lovable disposition 
and marked ability, receiving his degree from the University of 
Goettingen. Under his pastorate the congregation grew numer- 
ically and in prestige. With a fine musical education and pro- 
nounced linguistic ability. Dr. Ebeling was much in demand as 
a teacher. Overlea College is the natural outgrowth of his teach- 
ing. This preparatory school was founded by him and gained an 
enviable reputation, and many successful men are fond of re- 
ferring to their school days at Overlea and their distinguished in- 



268 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



structor there. It was an occasion of rare joy to pastor and peo- 
ple when in October, 1899, they observed in a fitting way the 
fiftieth anniversary of the organization of Salem congregation. 

Because of Dr. Ebeling's age. Rev. M. L. Enders was chosen 
assistant pastor in June, 1901. The following August he was 
elected pastor and Dr. Ebeling made pastor emeritus. Dr. Ebel- 
ing departed this life September 25. 1901, and he and his wife 
are buried in Salem Cemetery. 

In December, 1901, it was decided to build a new church, more 

in the center of Catonsville and its business interests and real 

estate development. A site at Frederick and Newburg Avenues 




SAI.KM LUTHERAN CHURCH, CATOXSVIU.E, MD. 

was finally selected and in October, 1902. ground was broken, the 
corner stone being laid Palm Sunday, 190:]. The dedication oc- 
curred October 18. 1903, the sermon being preached by the 
pastor's father, Rev. G. W. Enders, D.D., York, Pa. At the 
afternoon service a large number of Lutheran ministers from 
Baltimore were present and made addresses, the present pastor 
being among the number. Pastor Enders was admirably adapted 
for the important work accomplished during the nine years of his 
pastorate. Many new members were received, the finances con- 
ducted in a conservative and judicious manner, the synodical 
benevolences always met and a fine church of Port Deposit gran- 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



269 



ite with a seating capacity of over four hundred and an indebted- 
ness of only $2,600, was dedicated to the glory of God by a happy 
pastor and people. 

In 1910, Pastor Enders having accepted a pressing call to St. 
Paul's, Cumberland, Rev. John C. Bowers. D.D.. was called as 
his successor. During the little more than nine years of Dr. 
Bowers' pastorate the original indebtedness has been paid, and 
a fine parsonage erected adjoining the church. An addition cost- 
ing more than twelve thousand dollars was made to the Sunday 
school building three years ago. making it an ideal in even' re- 
spect. The church and Sunday school building have been fres- 
coed and some fine memorials added to those previously installed. 
A more liberal and devoted people one cannot find, possessing a 
church property which cannot be surpassed in Baltimore County. 



ST. PAUL'S AXD ZTOX LUTHERAX CHURCHES, 
CORDOVA, MD. 

Rev. C. Freudenreich, Pastor. 

It w r as a little over twenty years ago. in 1899, that the first 
German came to Talbot County, Maryland. In the course of the 
following five years or so more 
families immigrated from the 
West. They came mostly from 
Nebraska, but a few from Iowa 
and Missouri. In all they com- 
prised about twenty-five families. 

In 1900 the first German serv- 
ices were held. These were con- 
ducted by pastors of the Missouri 
Synod and then by pastors of the 
Evangelical Synod of North 
America. These services were 
held at Longwood, Md. In 1906 
Rev. Reiss took charge of the 
field. 

In 1908 a disagreement con- 
cerning the location of the church 
building caused a split in the con- 
gregation. The Cordova people 
organized a new congregation and built a church of their own 
the St. Paul's Church. 

The Longwood people purchased the old Baptist church at 




REV. C. FREUDEXREICH. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Longwood aiul organized a congregation. This they called Zion 
Lutheran Church. 

In 1909 both congregations decided to join the General Synod 
and identified themselves with the Maryland Synod. 

Rev. Reiss' pastorate terminated in 1912. having continued 
about six years. From then until May, 191:$. no regular minister 
was in charge, except for a few months when a student from 
Wittenberg Seminary. Springfield. Ohio, served them. 

In May. 1913. the present pastor. Rev. C. Freudenreich. ac- 
cepted a call to the field. He hopes soon to introduce and mul- 
tiply the English services in these congregations. 

St. Paul's, at Cordova, comprises about twelve families, while 
Zion Church, at Longwood, comprises about thirteen families. 



FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH OF ELLTCOTT 
CITY. MI). 

Her. A. G. XuJl. Pastor. 

Ten miles from Baltimore, Md.. which place has now become 
one of the chief seaports for America on the Atlantic coast, one 
comes into a narrow but a very productive valley situated at the 
intersection of the main artery of 
the system of highways from the 
Middle North and \Y-st. and the 
grand old Patapsco River. It was 
just at this very spot that the first 
train of the Baltimore and Ohio 
system of railroads in America 
was run from the above city. 

Here it was that a colony of 
(Jermans settled in the years 1S40 
to 1845. Of these old founders we 
have laid to rest perhaps a half 
dozen in the past year. 1919. 
Their church was to them a mat- 
ter of first importance, but the 
only Lutheran church in reach 
was Salem congregation at Ca- 




KEV. A. (i. NULL. 



tonsville. four miles distant. So 
thither they journeyed Sunday 
after Sunday, some on farm wagons, others walking through 
sunshine and shower, through mud and snow. There the chil- 
dren were christened and afterwards confirmed. There their 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 271 

dead were laid to rest and their sons and daughters united in 
marriage. 

But as the years moved slowly on the distance seemed to 
lengthen and become a burden. For there were 110 automobiles 
then, not even many vehicles drawn by horses. And naturally an 
agitation arose as to a church in their very midst. Early in 3874 
the members of Salem congregation living in and about Ellicott 
City were called together in a meeting that was to be a memorable 
one. In that meeting one heard family names like Laumann, 
Kraft. Hermann, Wehland, Rodey. Werner, -Keiner, Engle, 
Wiese. Dontell, Meier, Bauer, Gerwig, Wosch, Buetefisch, and 
many others. The meeting was called to order by Rev. Martin 
Kratt. an independent pastor. Twenty-five charter members 
were enrolled. Services were held in the different homes for a 
time. Then Charles J. Werner offered all the granite stone, to- 
gether with the corner stone towards a church building. The 
building was begun at once. It was a two-story frame building, 
about thirty by forty-five feet, and was dedicated in 1875. It 
cost about $3,500. 

In 1877 Rev. Martin Kratt resigned and was succeeded by 
Rev. E. Lehnert, who served until 1881, when he gave up work 
here. Dr. Ebeling, then pastor at Salem, Catonsville, supplied 
it in connection with his own work, for one year. In 1882 Rev. 
Rhodes, of Chambersburg, Pa., took charge, but after eight 
months resigned the field. It was then that Rev. E. C. Ide, fa- 
ther of Dr. E. E. Ide, now pastor of Trinity Church, Baltimore, 
came upon the field. He labored earnestly for nearly a quarter 
of a century. In 1884 the congregation joined the Maryland 
Synod. 

Rev. C. F. W. Ilartlage, of the Joint Synod of Ohio, followed 
Rev. Ide, and ministered here till about 1907. During his pas- 
torate the church was remodeled and stained glass windows were 
installed. 

In 1908 Rev. I. Wegner became pastor. In his five years of 
service here a splendid parsonage was erected by the side of 
the church. It is a three-story frame building, and cost about 
$2,200. 

In 1912 Pastor Wegner resigned and Rev. Earl S. Rudisill 
from the Seminary at Gettysburg, supplied for two summers and 
did excellent work. 

In 1915 Rev. II. C. Fultz gave up his work in Washington, 
D. C., and came to this field. He succeeded in rallying the peo- 
ple and at once began to remodel the church extensively. A 
vapor heating plant was installed in the house and church at a 



272 HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

cost of over $900. The ceiling of the church was lowered and a 
choir loft was built to accommodate a pipe organ at some future 
time. New altar furniture was ordered and many other im- 
provements made. When the remodelling was about finished and 
before the altar furniture, arrived the hand of death took Pastor 
Fultx. from his labors of earth, in March. 1917. 

In June of the same year Rev. A. G. Null was called to fill the 
vacancy. On July 8 the house was rededicated with large audi- 
ences present. Rev. J. C. Bowers. D.D.. pastor of Salem Church, 
assisted. The improvements cost about $5.000. But in Febru- 
ary of 1919, by cash and subscriptions the debt was cancelled. 
A fund for the pipe organ is now being gathered. The congrega- 
tion numbers about one hundred and eighty-five baptized mem- 
bers. In the two years of the present pastorate the Sunday 
school attendance and enrollment has been doubled. The pastor's 
salary has been increased twice and the apportionment fully met. 
The congregation is aggressive and growing. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
LUTHERVILLE, MP. 

Essentially. St. Paul's congregation dates back to the year 
1853. when Dr. J. G. Morris founded Lutherville Seminary, now 
Maryland College; but practically it began July 19. 1856, when 
the corner stone of the first church, a one-story frame building, 
with an organ loft facing the pulpit, was laid. For twelve years 
it was a union, or rather an undenominational church, much of 
the time without a regular pastor, but served alike by Methodist 
or Lutheran supply. In the absence of any minister, Mr. J. R. 
Marsten. one of the founders and original trustees, would read a 
sermon and conduct worship. 

On September 7, 1869. it became distinctly Lutheran through 
the efforts of the Rev. Drs. John G. Morris and Benjamin Sadtler. 
Dr. Morris first leased to the church the lot on which the church 
now stands for a nominal sum. and later his heirs made a clear 
deed of property to the congregation. 

For many years Maryland College was conducted as a Lu- 
theran school and worshipped altogether with this congregation, 
but in the last ten years, through a change in presidents, it has 
become undenominational, though many of the students regularly 
attend St. Paul's. 

In December. 1869. Mr. Edward I'hrlaub. Hanoverian consul, 
made a bequest to the Sunday school of $500. the interest on 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AXD VICINITY. 273 

which was to be used to purchase books for the library, which 
fund the trustees of the church still hold for that purpose. 

For many years the Washington Service was used, but in 1894 
the Common Service was introduced. In 1882, through the ef- 
forts of Prof. James S. Xussear, organist, a large, two-manual 
pipe organ was installed and is still in use and good condition. 
In 1913 it was improved by the addition of an electric motor. 

In 1897, the old church being in bad condition, the council and 
the pastor. Rev. J. F. Crigler, decided to tear it down and replace 
it with a modern stone structure. The corner stone of the new 
church was laid in 1898, the first pastor, Rev. Dr. Benjamin 
Sadtler, preaching the sermon. 

Through the efforts'of St. Paul's pastor, the Rev. J. F. Crigler, 
and some of the congregation, the new and nourishing church at 
Govans was begun. 

The church since it has become distinctively Lutheran has been 
served by the following pastors: 

Rev. Dr. Benjamin Sadtler. 1862-1876; Rev. J. R. Dimm, 
1877-1878; Rev. J. G. Morris, 1879-1889 ; Rev. A. S. Fichtern, 
1889-1890; Rev. W. A. Sadtler, son of Dr. Sadtler, 1890-1892; 
Rev. D. S. Hoover, 1892-1895; Rev. S. P. Hughes. 1895-1896; 
Rev. John F. Crigler, 1896-1915; Rev. P. F. Bloomhardt, 1915. 

From its members have gone to India as missionaries, Miss 
Kate Sadtler, Mrs. Albrecht, Miss Rebecca Hoffman, and Dr. 
Eleanor Wolf. 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHEBAN CHURCH, 
PARKVILLE, MD. 

Rev. W. E. Saltzgivcr, Pastor. 

St. John's Church was organized July 24, 1887, with thirty- 
two members. Previous to the organization two services were 
held in Hiss Methodist p]piscopal Church, Ilarforcl Road, by the 
first pastor in charge, Rev. Louis Rymarski, the first on Sunday 
afternoon, June 19, 1887, when sixty persons were present, and 
the pastor preached on the sermon from Psalm 22:31, "They 
shall come and declare his righteousness unto a people that shall 
be born. ' ' The second meeting was held on July 17, when seventy 
attended. At the close of that meeting the people present voted 
to be organized as a congregation. July 24 was set for that pur- 
pose. On that day a constitution was presented by the pastor, 
which was received and adopted by the members, according to 
18 



274 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 




which the newly organized church was called "Deutsche Verein- 
igte evangelist-he (lutherischen-reformierte) St. Johannes Ge- 
nieinde" German United Evangelical Lutheran Reformed St. 
John's Congregation. According to this constitution. Art. 1, 
sec. 3. Luther's Small Catechism and the Heidelberg Catechism 

shall be used as text-books for the 
instruction of the young, and 
Art. VIII provides that both 
bread and wafers shall be used at 
Holy Communion. 

On the day when the organiza- 
tion was effected the sum of $1,000 
was subscribed by the members 
for the erection of a church build- 
ing, a mark that surpassed the 
hopes of many for the day. 

The corner stone of the present 
church building was laid Sunday 
afternoon. September 11, 1887, by 
the first pastor, who was assisted 
in the service by the Revs. Edward 
TTuber. Nicholas Buckhardt, both 
of Baltimore City, and Rev. Hyde, 
of Hiss Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The building was completed and dedicated Sunday 
afternoon, November 27, when the same ministers who assisted in 
the laying of the corner stone were present and took part in the 
dedication service. 

The Sunday school was organized on the morning of the day 
when the church was dedicated, the pastor being the first super- 
intendent. The Ladies' Aid Society was organized in the same 
month, November, 1887. The first communion was held on 
Christmas Day. 1887. when, according to the records, twenty- 
eight persons took part in the celebration. The Young People's 
Society was organized by the sixth pastor in charge. Rev. August 
E. Ernst, September, 1907. 

The pastors of the congregation have been as follows: Rev. 
Louis Rymarski. June, 1887. to November, 1888; Rev. Karl Buff. 
November. 1888, to October, 1892; Rev. Dr. Pape, October, 1892, 
to December, 1893; Rev. Henry Gyr. December. 1893. to Sep- 
tember. 1899; Rev. Richard W. Jungfer. October. 1899, to March. 
1900; Rev. August E. Ernst, July. 1906. to August, 1908; Rev. 
Frederick Hahn-Zumpf. August. 1908, to June. 1909; Rev. 
Richard Ulhorn. February. 1910. to April. 1912; Rev. A. William 



RF.V. W. K. SALTZGIVER. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



275 



Ahl. May. 1913. to October. 1916 ; Rev. Henry C. Schlueter, D.D., 
October' 15. 1916. to March 1, 1918. 

The congregation was received into the Maryland Synod in 
January. 1918. 

It was in July, 1918. that a call was extended to the present 
pastor, then pastor of the Uniontown Lutheran charge. He en- 
tered the field August 1, 1918. 

Since that date the communicant membership has been in- 
creased from forty to more than one hundred and ten. The con- 
gregation has a substantial church building and a modern par- 
sonage, valued at $10.000, free from debt. The Sunday school 
has a membership of 117, the Luther League 45, and the Ladies' 
Aid 30. The Board of Home Missions gives help in raising the 
pastor's salary in the amount of $200 annually. 



TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
REISTERSTOWN, MD. 

Rev. Paul W. Quay, Pastor. 

Trinity Lutheran Church was organized August 10. 1855, by 
Rev. Daniel Hauer, itinerant pastor of Manchester, Bachman's. 
St. Paul's (Arcadia), Schaeffer's, and Hofifacker's. at the home 
of John Gies, Sr. Fourteen char- 
ter members were present. A 
committee of two, John Gies, Sr., 
and Lewis Tritle, was named to 
secure a suitable place of worship, 
and Lewis Tritle was appointed to 
apply, in behalf of the newly 
formed congregation, for admis 
sion into the Maryland Synod. 
The little flock was received by the 
Synod the same year. They met 
for worship in the lower room of 
the Odd Fellows Hall from 1855 
to 1866. being served successively 
by Rev. William Heilig, of Lu- 
therville (1855-59) ; Rev. J. M. 
Orabill (1860-61), and Rev. Jos- 
eph R. Focht (1861-64). During 
Rev. Grabill's pastorate Reister- 
town was united with St. Paul's (Arcadia) and Trenton congre- 
gations into one charge, and when Rev. Focht became pastor 




REV. PAUL W. QUAY. 



276 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



the name "Harmony 

not become known as 

School" until about 



Chestnut Ridge was added. Rev. Focht preached in both the 
German and English languages. 

While yet occupying Odd Fellows Hall, the Sunday school was 
organ ixed (September IS. 18641 under 
Sunday School." The organization did 
"Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Sunday 
1890. although it had become distinctly Lutheran long before 
that time. The h'rst superintendent. Lewis Tritle. was succeeded 
after a year by Reister Russell, who served in that capacity from 
1866 to 1878. and again from 1899 to 1918. Brother Russell was 

present at the organixa- 
tion of the Sunday school 
and continued a faithful 
member thereof for fifty- 
four years. He is still ac- 
tive in the life of the 
church and a highly es- 
teemed member of the 
council. 

At the resignation of 
Rev. Focht. Rev. Jacob 
Martin, of Westminster, 
was elected to serve the 
combined congregations. 
During the early years of 
Rev. Martin's pastorate, 
the little flock began to 
feel the need of a more fit- 
ting plaee of worship. 
Accordingly a subscrip- 
tion list was opened and the work commenced. The corner stone 
was laid on July 8. 1866. and the building dedicated the follow- 
ing year. Mention is made in the records of the faithful and ef- 
ficient service of the Building Committee. John Geis, Sr., George 
Kephart. and George Crawford. In 1867 Rev. Martin resigned 
from St. Paul's and devoted all his time to Trinity, until he left, 
in 1871. 

Rev. Ileilig again came to the aid of this congregation and 
served them in connection with Chestnut Ridge. But the dis- 
tance between the two churches made the combination impracti- 
cable and accordingly Rev. Ileilig resigned after two years of 
service here. 

Then Reisterstown was reunited with St. Paul's and Rev. C. 
Lepley. who had been supplying the latter, was elected to serve 




TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
KKJSTERSTOWX, Mt>. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICIXITY. 277 

the new charge. He accepted and continued his work with the 
combined congregations until 1881. Rev. Lepley was the first 
pastor to occupy the Reisterstown parsonage, a double-brick 
dwelling adjoining the church, which had been purchased at the 
suggestion of the ladies of the congregation. 

Rev. Lepley was succeeded by Rev. Albert Bell, of the Gettys- 
burg Seminary, as pastor of Trinity and St. Paul's, and at the 
termination of his pastorate (1884), Rev. George H. Beckley was 
elected. Rev. Beckley served the combined congregations for 
thirteen years, at the end of which time, "because of the age of 
their pastor * * the congregation at Reisterstown concluded 
to withdraw from St. Paul's and keep Rev. Beckley to themselves 
* the Synod sanctioned the separation." Rev. Beckley con- 
tinued his pastorate at Trinity seven years longer, finally giving 
up the work in October, 1904. 

Rev. Silas H. Culler, from the Seminary at Gettysburg, was 
elected to fill the place of the retiring pastor and commenced his 
labors early in 1905. In the fall of the same year the congrega- 
tion, which had been steadily growing in numbers and influence 
during the half century of its history, determined to erect a new 
place of worship on the site of the building then being used. A 
building committee consisting of Messrs. Reister Russell, John 
Neel, F. H. Zouck, Kephart Pfeffer, and G. H. Stevenson, was 
elected. The old edifice was soon torn down and the new one 
under way. The corner stone was laid on August 5, 1906, and the 
building completed and dedicated the following summer. 

The new church is an ornamental brick structure. It contains 
four memorial windows, which are surpassed for beauty and 
quality of workmanship by few larger churches. During Rev. 
Culler's pastorate, J. Edward Graefe, a member of Trinity con- 
gregation, graduated from the Seminary at Gettysburg, was or- 
dained by the Maryland Synod, and is now rendering noble and 
efficient service in the Guntur mission of India. 

The present pastor. Paul W. Quay, took up the work here on 
May 16, 1918. The community promises to grow and the golden 
age of Trinity Lutheran lies before her. 

ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
SPARROW'S POINT, MD. 

Rev. Will F. Bare, Pastor. 

Many of the pioneers who helped to build the steelworks at 
Sparrows Point were Lutherans from Pennsylvania. They longed 



278 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



for tlu> church of their fathers and began by organizing a Sun- 
day school in the public school building located at Fourth and D 
Streets. Pastors from Baltimore on various <x-c.asions came and 
preached to the Lutherans on the Point. Kev. II. II. Weber, 
then pastor of (Irace Lutheran Church in Baltimore, several times 

brought his choir and church 
members by boat to Sparrow's 
Point to give the people a regular 
church service. The Rev. A. S. 
Ilartman, D.D.. Secretary of the 
Board of Home Missions, had the 
oversight of the work and erected 
a temporary organization Septem- 
ber 28. 1891. 

On March 1. 1892. the Rev. II. 
P. Kroh was commissioned by the 
Board as the first regular mis- 
sionary. He served the congrega- 
tion for one year. The flock was 
then without a pastor for over six 
years, except during the vacation 
of 1894, when George Beiswanger, 
a student in the Seminary at Get- 
tysburg, ministered to them. Dur- 
ing this long vacancy there was great industrial depression be- 
cause of the panic all over the country. Many members of the 
church accepted employment elsewhere. Throughout the dis- 
couraging years, until the next pastor came, the Gerhardts. Sim- 
mons. Potteigers, Gladfelters. and others, maintained their or- 
gan i/at ion and kept alive the Lutheran Sunda3 r school in the 
school house. 

June 1. 1898, a brighter day dawned upon the congregation. 
The Rev. C. S. Jones became the second pastor. lie served the 
congregation very acceptably for two years. A house of worship 
was erected during his pastorate. The corner stone of the new 
building at Seventh and D Streets was laid in December, 1898. 

He was followed by Rev. S. J. Miller on August 1, 1900. Dur- 
ing his ministry of two years and two months the church paid 
its indebtedness, except a mortgage of $500 held by the Board 
of Church Extension. 

Rev. George I. I'hler became pastor November 1. 1902. lie 
served faithfully for nine years and nine months. Pastor Uhler 
secured the money to build the parsonage adjoining the church. 
After seven years' labor he had the joy of seeing the membership 




KEV. WILL F. BARE. 



THE CHURCHES OF BALTIMORE AND VICINITY. 



279 



increased to one hundred and four, and the congregation as- 
sumed self-support. 

The late Rev. A. D. Bell became pastor September 1, 1913, and 
served three years, when on account of failing health he resigned. 

After a vacancy of eight months, on March 1, 1917, Rev. Will 
F. Bare became pastor of the fifty-seven members. The congre- 
gation still owed $475 on the mortgage given nineteen years be- 
fore. In a six weeks' campaign they paid the entire indebtedness 
and provided a nucleus for a new church building. The one 
hundred and thirty members are ready to contract for their new 
church at a cost of $20,000. 

During the late war thirty-five sturdy Lutheran lads from this 
congregation entered their country's service. The congregation 
led the Maryland Synod in average giving for the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Fund. In benevolence for the Synod the contribution is 
more than twice the apportionment. 

In 1917 the congregation sent George Mahaney as their first 
student for the ministry. Herbert M. Linn, the second candidate 
for the holy calling, entered college in 1919. 




SISTER ZORA HECKERT. 

House Mother, 
Baltimore Inner Mission Society. 



OTHER MEMBERS OF THE EASTERN CONFERENCE. 




REV. 



HARRY I). XK\V COMER, 
Superintendent, 
Baltimore Inner Mission Society. 




RKV. J. H. TURXER, D.D., 
Ruxton, Md. 





REV. (.'. M. EYSTER, 
Baltimore, Md. 



CHAPLAIN P. F. BLOOMHARDT, 
V. S. S. "George Washington." 



CHAPTER XIV. 
THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

.Ret 1 . John T. Huddle, D.D. Pastor. 

In 1800 the capital of the United States was removed to the 
City of Washington. Thirty-two years previously, in 1768, eight 
years before the Declaration of Independence, one Jacob Funk, 
a German landowner of this locality, had laid out a town which 
popularly bore his name and had set aside a lot therein for the 
use of a "German Lu- 
theran Congregation. ' ' 
It was not until 1833, 
however, that a body of 
German Lutherans, who 
had been worshipping in 
the City Hall, secured 
possession of the lot by 
a decision of the United 
States Supreme Court, 
and erected a church 
thereon. This congre- 
gation eventually be- 
came known as the Con- 
cordia Lutheran Church 
and still occupies the old 
site at Twentieth and G 
Streets, Northwest. 

At the Concordia. how- 
ever, services were held 
in German. The young- 
er generation wanted 




ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



them in English, some of the older members sympathized with the 
idea, and a separate Sunday school was started in 1842. In that 
year, by resolution of the Maryland Synod, the new body was 
established as a mission. There were forty charter members. 

281 



282 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

The old Odd Fellows' Hall (afterward known as Todd's Hall) 
on Pennsylvania Avenue, was seen roil as a place of worship and 
the first service was held there on January 8, 1848. At this meet- 
ing Key. Albert A. Muller. D.I)., appears as the first pastor. 

The complete organization, however, did not take place until 
Easter Sunday morning. April 15, 1848. when the first council 
was elected. This was composed as follows: Andrew Noerr, 
president; Henry (irieb and Cornele Andrae. wardens; John A. 
Kmmons. treasurer; Graf ton Powell, secretary, and J. C. Roem- 
inele. Charles F. Bihler, John P. Stallings, William Utermehle, 
and John E. School. 

At the convention of the Maryland Synod in October, 1848, 
Dr. Muller reported forty communicant members in the congre- 
gation, and six teachers and sixty-one scholars in the Sunday 
school. 

Meetings continued to be held in Odd Fellows' Hall for over 
two years, but plans were early discussed for securing a perma- 
nent church home. General John I*. Van Ness, who was well 
known for his public spirit and numerous benefactions, was ap- 
pealed to by a committee of ladies of the congregation and re- 
sponded generously by donating the lot upon which the church 
and parsonage now stand. 

The next problem was the erection of a church building. Ap- 
peals were made to private persons and to the Lutheran Church 
at large, and Dr. Muller made house to house visitations in West- 
ern Maryland and Northern Virginia. Finally, after much toil, 
enough money was collected to start work. On June 12, 1844, 
the corner stone was laid with imposing ceremonies. Notable 
among the guests were General Van Ness and Ex-President John 
Quiney Adams. Rev. John G. Morris, D.D., then President of the 
General Synod, delivered the address, and Dr. Benjamin Kurt/, 
took a prominent part in the exercises. 

As soon as possible the basement of the church was finished in 
modest style and was used by both church and Sunday school. 
The first service was held in this room on March 15, 1845. The 
financial situation was serious and further solicitation was neces- 
sary. An expedient was adopted by the council at this time 
which is worthy of record because of its picturesque character. 
A memorial was addressed to Frederick William IV. King of 
Prussia, signed by the church council, mayor of Washington and 
prominent citizens, stamped with the seal of the city and of the 
United States, and officially endorsed by John C. Calhoun. Secre- 
tary of State. This document was sent to the American Minister 
at Berlin and officially presented by him to the Prussian King. 
No financial benefit seems to have been derived from the experi- 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 283 

ment, but in due time a silver chalice was received by the con- 
gregation bearing the following inscription : 

"Friederich Wilhelm IV Konig und Elisabeth Konigen von 
Preussen der Evangelischen Gemeiiide zu St. Paul in Washing- 
ton. 1845." (Frederick William IV King, and Elizabeth. Queen 
of Prussia, to the Evangelical Church of St. Paul in Washington. 
1845.") This cup has been used at every communion service 
since that time. 

Dr. Muller's connection with St. Paul's ended abruptly in 
June. 1846, after a pastorate of three years and five months. The 
congregation had become sadly disorganized and so low had the 
church funds been reduced that even the old-fashioned settees in 
the lecture room w r ere threatened with removal by the cabinet- 
maker for default in payment. 

Under such conditions, Rev. John E. Graeff, who had been but 
recently ordained to the ministry, was elected pastor on Novem- 
ber 23, 1846. Work was immediately begun on the superstruc- 
ture of the church, and on Sunday, October 1, 1848, pastor and 
people had the supreme satisfaction of dedicating the completed 
building to the service of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. Rev. 
J. G. Morris, of Baltimore, F. W. Conrad, of Hagerstown, and 
C. P. Krauth, of Winchester, were the officiating clergymen. 
Among those present were James K. Polk, President of the 
United States, with his wife and household; James Buchanan, 
then Secretary of State; Members of Congress, and many other 
high officers of the government. 

The young pastor, however, had sacrificed his health to the en- 
terprise. He succumbed to several attacks of vertigo, and on two 
occasions was overcome in the pulpit. His physicians advised 
him to resign and with sad heart he bade farewell to St. Paul's 
on July 2, 1849, his pastorate having lasted two years and eight 
months. It was his first and only charge. Mr. Graeff' later be- 
came a successful coal merchant of Philadelphia, noted for his 
liberality and especially for his large benefactions to Pennsyl- 
vania College, his Alma Mater. 

Mr. Graeff was succeeded by another young man from the 
Seminary, Rev. John George Butler. The latter began his pas- 
torate on July 16, 1849. The old specter of church debt had to 
be faced again, but under the courageous leadership of the young 
pastor, success was achieved at last. Then came the eventful 
years of the Civil War. At the outbreak of that struggle, Dr. 
Butler declared himself squarely for the government and against 
secession. His bold utterances on the great questions of the day 
brought many strangers to his services and gained many friends 



284 HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

for the church, among the regular attendants being Hon. Schuy- 
Icr CoH'ax. Vice-President of the I'nited States; General Kkin, 
and others prominent in the Army and in Congress. I 'resident 
Lincoln appointed Dr. Butler chaplain to the hospitals in and 
around Washington, and in this capacity Dr. Butler served to 
the close of the \var. The assassination of President Lincoln oc- 
curred within three anil a half blocks of St. Paul's Church. 

After the surrender at Appomattox. St. Paul's being now 
tilled to overflowing, the thought of Lutheran enlargement came. 
This took shape in the organization of the present Memorial 
Church, so called as " A memorial of God's goodness in delivering 
the land from slavery and from war." In .March. 1866, the com- 
manding site at Thomas Circle was purchased by the people of 
St. Paul's for eight thousand dollars and a chapel was erected, 
being dedicated on Sunday. July 5, 18(58. Preaching services 
were begun and from 18(58 to the final organization of Memorial 
in 1873, Dr. Butler, with the aid of associate pastors, had charge 
of both the old and new congregations. When the corner stone 
of Memorial was laid, October 31, 1870, the pastor reported: 
"The cash book shows that nearly .$30.000 have been paid into our 
treasury, largely by the people of St. Paul's, but embracing con- 
tributions from all parts of the country." 

In 18(59 a mission was also planted on Capitol Hill. This de- 
veloped into the Church of the Reformation, with Rev. W. E. 
Parson as pastor. Speaking of this period, Dr. Parson said, 
"Two of us kept three churches alive for some years. Dr. Butler 
preached in the morning at St. Paul's and at night in the Me- 
morial. I preached in the morning on Capitol Hill and at night 
in St. Paul's. Thus each outpost had one service a day, and at 
the old hive there were two services." In May of this same year 
the twenty-fourth biennial convention of the General Synod was 
held in St. Paul's with one hundred and ten delegates present. 
At this convention the Boards of Home Missions and Church Ex- 
tension were created and the system of apportionment for raising 
benevolence adopted. Since the inauguration of this system St. 
Paul's has never gone to Synod without its apportionment met, 
and often doubled. 

On April 1. 1873. Dr. Butler resigned from St. Paul's and be- 
came pastor of Memorial. Seventeen years, therefore, he was 
pastor of St. Paul's exclusively, and then seven years more in 
conjunction with the preparatory work at Memorial, having in 
the meantime four associate pastors successively and making his 
total pastorate at St. Paul's twenty-three years and nine months. 
The associate pastors of St. Paul 's from 1868 to the close of Dr.- 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



285 



Butler 's pastorate were the Revs. II. S. Cook, July to September, 
1868; H. C. Grossman, 1868-69; W. E. Parson, 1869-71, and 
Henry B. Belmer, 1872-73. The latter succeeded Dr. Butler as 
pastor of St. Paul 's. 

Speaking of his pastorate. Mr. Belmer said, "There are some 
still remaining who will recall what a critical time it was for 
that church. The Memorial colony that went out included many 
of our most active members. The thinning of the ranks could 
not but be noticed and perhaps at times was a cause of discour- 
agement to pastor and people, which finally prompted him to re- 
sign in September, 1874. But he can claim an indirect share in 
the after years of St. Paul 's prosperity, in being the means of se- 
curing Rev. Samuel Domer. D.D.. as his successor, who so nobly 
served this church during the rest of his life." Mr. Belmer 's 
pastorate ended on October 1, 
1874. having lasted one year and 
six months. 

Dr. Domer arrived in Washing- 
ton from Trinity Church. Shamo- 
kin. Pa., on November 5. 1874. 
The congregation was so greatly 
weakened in resources and de- 
pressed in spirit that many doubt- 
ed the possibility of recovery and 
urged that the property be sold 
and the people join with Memo- 
rial. But said Dr. Domer, "1 
found a little company of deter- 
mined men and women who re- 
mained devoted to St. Paul's and 
rallied around the new pastor 
with such earnestness as to inspire 
the strongest expectations of suc- 
cess and blessing in the new departure." The little band moved 
bravely forward, others joined the ranks, and before long the 
struggling, doubting remnant became a vigorous, thriving con- 
gregation. 

In 1877 the audience room of the church was improved at a 
cost of $1,040, and in 1881 further improvements were made at 
a cost of over $3,700. At this time the outside of the building 
was remodeled, the towers finished, walls resurfaced with arti- 
ficial stone, and a new front and vestibule erected. 

The year 1883 marked the four hundredth anniversary of Lu- 
ther's birth, and it is safe to say that no congregation observed 




EEV. SAMUEL DOMER, D.D. 



286 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

it more fittingly than St. 1 Anil's. After a scries of fourteen Kr- 
t u res on the Reformation, by the pastor, the celebration reached 
its climax in a great platform meeting in the church on Sunday 
evening. November 11. 1883. The church was packed to the 
doors. General Eaton. Commissioner of Education, presided, 
and thrilling addresses were delivered by Pere Hyacinthe, the 
famous Catholic reformer of Paris, who happened to be in Wash- 
ington at the time; Hon. Simon Wolf, the celebrated Jewish 
leader and formerly United States consul in Egypt ; Mr. B. II. 
Warner, a prominent business man of the city, and Dr. David 
Wills, of the Presbyterian Church and chaplain, II. S. A. This 
was. without doubt, one of the most notable events in the history 
of St. Paul's, and has been pronounced "one of the most re- 
markable and interesting services, in all respects, of any that 
have ever taken place in any church of that city." 

St. Paul's was now sailing along like a magnificent ship in full 
career, with all canvas spread and her colors flashing brilliantly 
in the sun. In 1887 a mission Sunday school was started in 
Blake's Hall on Seventh Street. Southwest, with Mr. N. Z. Seitz 
as superintendent, and two years later eight members of St. 
Paul's received honorable dismission to "unite with and assist 
in the organization of a new congregation, to be known as St. 
Mark's Lutheran Church of South Washington." The present 
St. Mark's is the result. 

The next year extensive improvements were made on the 
church building at a cost of over $8,900. A special feature was 
the addition of a pipe organ toward which Mrs. Ann T. Clary 
contributed two thousand dollars as a memorial to her son James. 

On April 16 and 17, 1893, St. Paul's celebrated its semi-cen- 
tennial. The occasion will be long remembered. At the anni- 
versary services on Sunday morning the sermon was preached by 
Rev. J. G. Morris, D.D.. LL.D., and in the evening the pastor 
presented a historical sketch and reminiscent addresses were de- 
livered by Rev. J. E. Graeff. Rev. J. G. Butler, D.D., and Rev. 
W. E. Parson. D.I). On Monday night a grand reception and 
banquet were held at the National Rifles Armory, tables being 
spread for over one thousand guests. As a souvenir of the anni- 
versary a historical volume of the church and Sunday school was 
compiled by Dr. Domer and Mr. Lucius D. Alden. The semi- 
centennial council was composed as follows: The Pastor, Rev. 
Samuel Domer. D.D.. chairman ex-officio; John C. Parker, pres- 
ident; Albert F. Fox, treasurer; II. II. Seltzer, secretary; B. 
Frank Meyers, financial secretary ; A. S. Johnson, M. M. Rouzer. 
and Edward T. Kaiser. 




4toto> 



*HT 



f^'h*- 

" > t- 



288 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Special reference must be made to the Sunday school at this 
time. Under the able administration of Lucius I). Alden it had 
reached the flood tide of its history in enrollment, benevolence,- 
efficiency, equipment, teaching and splendid, aggressive, con- 
tagious enthusiasm. Mr. Alden became superintendent on July 
7. 1878. and thereafter for twenty-three and a half years had a 
career in Sunday school work which has never been surpassed in 
the District of Columbia. 

Owing to failing health and advancing years Dr. Doiner re- 
signed his pastorate on May 31. 1900. having served for twenty- 
five years and seven months, the longest in the history of St. 
Paul's. lie lived but a year afterward, his beautiful life coming 
to a sudden but peaceful close on Sunday morning, June 2. 1901. 
His passing was like some sweet visit to the roses who claimed 
him for one of them. 

After Dr. Domer's resignation, Dr. L. M. Kuhns, pastor for 
many years of Trinity Lutheran Church, Canton. Ohio, supplied 
the pulpit until the coming of Rev. F. W. Moot from Johnstown, 
N. Y. The latter took charge on October 15, 1900. and served for 
two years and nine months, his pastorate terminating unpleas- 
antly on July 27. 1903, because he had forfeited the confidence 
of the congregation by irregular financial dealings. 

After the latter 's withdrawal the church was supplied by 
various ministers for six months until the Rev. John T. Huddle 
was elected pastor. Dr. Huddle is a graduate of Roanoke College 
and Gettysburg Seminary, and previous to his coming to Wash- 
ington had served for seven and a half years as assistant pastor 
to Dr. Luther E. Albert in Trinity Lutheran Church. German- 
town, Pa. lie began his duties as pastor of St. Paul's on Feb- 
ruary 5. 1904, and has continued as such to the present time, a 
period now of over fifteen years. 

The prosperity and confidence of the church which had been 
seriously threatened during the preceding pastorate were quickly 
restored and the people rallied enthusiastically around the new 
pastor. Shortly after Dr. Huddle's arrival improvements to the 
church were undertaken. These consisted of a reconstructed 
organ, new frescoing, carpeting and renovation generally. The 
work was completed in May. 1906, at a total cost of two thousand 
dollars. 

On April 6, 1917, when Congress declared war on Germany, 
Washington became the center of a great war machine. Camps 
sprang up everywhere, soldiers filled the streets, war workers 
thronged to the city from every State in the Union. This activ- 
ity in the city found its reflex in the churches. St. Paul's was 



THF CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 289 

crowded morning and evening, and to afford an opportunity to 
meet and to welcome the many strangers a social hour was added 
to the evening service. Many a soldier has been present at these 
services who on the morrow departed silently with his command 
for the field of duty overseas. And more than one, before de- 
parting, had accepted Christ as his Saviour and had received 
communion at the hands of the pastor of St. Paul's. 

Three quarters of a century have passed since the first songs 
were sung in St. Paul's. The voices of that early morning are 
silent now, all except one. It is with reverence and affection that 
we record the name of Mrs. Mary A. Linkins. She was present 
at the organization of the Sunday school in 1842, was one of the 
first four teachers, was a member of the first confirmation class 
on Whitsunday, 1843, and was present both at the corner stone 
laying in 1844 and at the dedication in 1848. For seventy-six 
years she has been a faithful member of St. Paul's and still 
abides with us. 

St. Paul's has given two members to the ministry. Rev. Chaun- 
cey R. Botsford and Rev. Elbert E. Oney. 

MEMORIAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Rev. George M. Diffenderfer, D.D., Pastor. 

This church, popularly known as Luther Place Memorial 
Church, had its inception in the mind of Rev. J. G. Butler. D.D., 
then pastor of St. Paul's English Lutheran Church, "Washington. 
D. C.. at the close of the Civil War, as a memorial of God's good- 
ness in delivering the land from slavery and from war. 

At the session of the Maryland Synod, held October 14. 1864. 
in the Second Lutheran Church. Baltimore. Dr. Butler, in his re- 
port as President of the Synod, called special attention to the 
growing need of churches in Baltimore and Washington particu- 
larly, and recommended the founding of another church in Wash- 
ington. In 1866 the site on which the church stands was bought. 
At the session of the Maryland Synod, held October 10, 1867. in 
St. Paul's Church, Washington, the President, in his report, re- 
ferred to the 350th anniversary of the Reformation, and recom- 
mended that it be marked by liberal thank-offerings, and cor- 
dially commended "as one and if possible the chief object of our 
Jubilee Offering, the projected Memorial Church in this the cap- 
ital of our nation." In .commenting on this recommendation, he 
said: "With comparatively little aid from the outside the con- 
gregation of St. Paul's, with a most commendable faith, have 
19 



290 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



purchased and paid for one of the most commanding sites in this 
city. They have in good faith begun the securing of a Memorial 
Hall at a cost of about $11.000. to be used for chapel purposes, 
and eventually to be a part of the commanding edifice, a plan of 
which is submitted to this Synod." 

The first structure erected on the property was the Memorial 
Chapel, still standing and used for Sunday school, prayer-meet- 
ing and social purposes. A large Sunday school was gathered 
and was known as the Mission School, and preaching services 

were held from time to time in 
the chapel, until the morning of 
February 2. 187:?. when the first 
regular morning service of the fu- 
ture congregation was held. Sub- 
sequently, on March 11. 187-S. the 
Memorial Evangelical Lutheran 
Church was organ i/ed and Dr. 
Butler was called as its pastor, 
lie continued in this pastorate 
until the day of his death. August 
2. 1909. In the organisation thus 
effected, forty-eight members of 
St. Paul's Church joined. Of this 
number five are still living, and 
all of these, with the exception of 
one. remain as members of the 
church. 

The first Sunday in June, 1874, 
the church was dedicated, the pastor being assisted by Doctors 
Frederick W. Conrad and J. (J. Morris. 

In 188:5 the Luther Statue Association was organised, and on 
May 21. 1884. the statue of Martin Luther, now standing before 
the church, was erected and unv -iled with appropriate cere- 
monies. 

In 1884 the Church of Our Redeemer, for work among the col- 
ored people, was established. This work, under the guidance of 
flu- first and only pastor. Rev. 1). E. "Wiseman, D.I)., has grown, 
and the pastor has made an honored name for himself in this city. 
In November. 1889. the Lutheran Eye. Ear and Throat In- 
firmary was opened, the office being located in the chapel. 

The next year the property at (5th and P Streets. X. W., was 
bought, and a Lutheran church organ i/ed. This is nou known as 
Zion's Church. The work of this church, under its successive 
pastors, has grown and prospered, and under the administration 




KKV. J. (!. BUTLKR, D.D., LL.D. 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



291 



of its present pastor. Rev. Richard Schmidt, has become one of 
the strong churches in this city. 

In 1891 a Sunday school was organized on Capitol Hill. This 
was the beginning of the Keller Memorial Church. The wonder- 
ful growth of Keller Memorial under its first pastor. Rev. Charles 
IT. Butler, son of Rev. Dr. Butler, and his successor. Rev. C. P. 
Wiles, D.D., and it's present pastor. Rev. S. T. Nicholas. D.D.. is 




LUTHER PLACE MEMORIAL CHURCH, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

too well known to need comment. The church is a living testi- 
monial to the fidelity, consecration and resourcefulness of its pas- 
tors and members. 

In 1899, upon the 50th anniversary of Dr. Butler's entry into 
his first and only parish, and after he had become widely known, 
not only in the city of Washington, but throughout the country, 
for his work as a pastor, as an army chaplain during the Civil 
War, and successively as chaplain of the House of Representa- 
tives and the Senate, the citizens of Washington, irrespective of 
creed, united in tendering him a public banquet at the Arlington 
Hotel. 

The congregation had been accustomed to observe the birthday 
anniversary of the pastor, and on January 29, 1904, while such 
observance was in progress, the church caught fire, and the com- 
manding steeple and the organ and most of the roof were de- 
stroyed. The interior was damaged by both fire and water. 




o 



Ss 



o ^a 



-1 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 293 

Immediate steps were taken for the restoration of the church, 
and on January 29, 1905, the next anniversary of the pastor's 
birthday, the reconstructed church was reopened. The reopening 
was honored with the presence of President Roosevelt. The ad- 
dress which Mr. Roosevelt delivered on that occasion was after- 
wards published in pamphlet form by the Board of Education, 
and widely distributed. 

Rev. Lloyd C.. Douglas succeeded Dr. Butler in 1909. Rev. 
Henry Anstadt succeeded Mr. Douglas on January 1, 1912. Rev. 
George M. Diffenderfer, D.D., the present pastor, was elected to 
succeed Dr. Anstadt, on January 26, 1919, and took charge on 
April 1, 1919. He was installed on May 26, 1919, by Rev. F. H. 
Knubel, D.D., President of the United Lutheran Church in 
America, and Rev. U. S. G. Rupp, D.D., President of the Synod 
of Maryland. 

Rev. Douglas took charge of the church after the withdrawal 
of a number of the members who formed the Epiphany Lutheran 
Church, Rev. Charles F. Steck, D.D.. pastor. Through the efforts 
of Rev. Douglas the church renewed and extended its activities, 
and the work thus begun by him was carried forward with pro- 
nounced success by the zeal, energy, and consecrated service of 
his successor, Dr. Anstadt. 

When Dr. Anstadt left, the Church Council undertook the diffi- 
cult task of finding a successor. Dr. Diffenderfer had gained the 
attention of a number of the congregation, and while still camp 
pastor at Newport News, preached several times in the Memorial. 
His successful work in former pastorates, and especially at Car- 
lisle, Pa., his work in connection with the Pastors' Fund, which 
several years before he had presented to the church, and his pa- 
triotic work as camp pastor in the great World War, had ap- 
pealed strongly to the congregation, and when the time for the 
election of a pastor came he was unanimously elected. Since 
taking charge, Dr. Diffenderfer has, by his energy, forcefulness, 
administrative ability and splendid pulpit power, endeared him- 
self to his people, and there is a bright prospect for continued 
growth and greater activity in all branches of the work of the 
church. 

The church has ahvays been well organized. Its Sunday school 
has a large adult membership of both men and women, in addi- 
tion to the children, a Sunday School Missionary Society, a 
Junior Mission Band, and a Home Department. There is also a 
Ladies' Aid Society; a Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary 
Society, and a very active Christian Endeavor Society, 

The church also has taken an active interest in the work of the 



294 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



National Lutheran 1 1 cum 1 for the Aged, and has always had at 
least two of its men as members of the board of trustees, and sev- 
eial of its ladies as members of the Ladies' Board of Managers. 
O:ie of its men was one of the architects of the new building of 
the Home. 

The prophecy previously referred to of the President of the 
Maryland Synod as to the national importance of the Memorial 
has been realixed in the history of the church. The church has 
been a sort of mecca for Lutherans visiting Washington, and it 
has been a delightful experience of the members of th? church to 
welcome fellow-Lutherans not only from all parts of our country, 
but from various foreign countries; and it will welcome in the 
heartiest fashion the prospective first meeting of the United Lu- 
theran Church in America in 1920. 

The church has just ended a canvass for the extinguishment of 
its debt and for the erection of a parsonage, and this effort has 
resulted in obtaining sufficient funds to pay the debt and to form 
a considerable nucleus for the purchase of a parsonage. 



THE LUTHERAN TIITUm OF THE REFORMA- 
TION. WASHINGTON, I). <\ 

It<r. John }Y<i<llcij. D.D., Pastor. 

This congregation had its begin- 
ning in the parlor of Mrs. Lucille 
Morrell. First Street, S. E., Wash- 
ington. 1). C., in 1868. 

The prospect was so promising 
as to impel the Rev. J. G. Butler, 
pastor of St. Paul's Lutheran con- 
gregation, and Mr. George Ryneal, 
Jr.. one of its lay members, to pur- 
chase an abandoned army hos- 
pital, remove it to First and C. 
Streets. S. E., and rebuild it for 
church. Sunday school and public 
school purposes. The magnificent 
marble structure, used as an office 
building by Representatives of 
Congress, now stands where the 
modest church building then stood. 

The congregation was organ i/ed on October 2:5. 18(59. by the 
Rev. W. E. Parson, assistant to Rev. .1. B. Butler. Dr. Parson 




THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



295 



became the first pastor. He resigned in 1872 to accept a profes- 
sorship in the Imperial College. Tokio, Japan. The Rev. Philip 
Graeff succeeded him and served the congregation until April 1, 
1877. Then the Rev. Lewis Hay became pastor and ministered to 
the mission until April 1, 1879. The Rev. AV. E. Parson was re- 
called May 11. 1879. He was installed October 19, 1879. by the 
Rev. Dr. Brown. President of the Seminary at Gettysburg, and 
the Rev. J. G. Butler, pastor of St. Paul's congregation, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

A lot was purchased March. 1881, at the intersection of B 
Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. S. E., for the sum of $6,470. 





MR. A. K. WAGXER. 



.MR. THOMAS P. HICKMAN. 



Ground was broken for the new church building in June, 1881, 
and on July 11 the corner stone was laid. Dr. Charles A. Stork, 
of Baltimore, made the address. Revs. Butler, Domer and Nix- 
dorf assisted in the service. 

October 16, 1881, the Sunday school room on the first floor was 
dedicated. Rev. A. W. Lilly, President of the Board of Church 
Extension, preached in the morning, and Rev. J. G. Butler, D.D., 
LL.D.. preached in the evening. 

The upper room was dedicated November 18, 1883, the consum- 
mation of years of patient toil. The Rev. Milton Valentine, D.D.. 
and the Rev. Charles Albert, of Baltimore, Maryland, preached 
the sermons. 

In the summer of 1889 the interior of the church was painted, 



2!)6 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

frescoed, and a new pipe organ was installed at a cost of $15. 000. 
the generous gift of Mrs. Sara I'lerinehle. 

An addition was made to the church for the Primary Sunday 
school, under the direction of the superintendent, Mr. I. C. Slater, 
in 1892. 

An event worthy of the congregation was the Silver Jubilee, 
on the evening of May 1(5. 1904. in honor of the twenty-five years' 
faithful service of the pastor. 

December 19. 1905. on the coast of Maine, far from home and 
congregation, after an eventful pastorate of twenty-seven years 
with the congregation he had organized, the eyes of the great 
preacher closed in death. 

At a congregational meeting, January 21, 1906, the Rev. John 
Weidley, D.D., of Pittsburgh, was elected pastor. He began 
his labors the first Sunday in March, 1906. In 1907 a beautiful 
tablet was unveiled in memory of Dr. W. E. Parson. A tile floor 
was laid in the vestibule of the church and a water motor was at- 
tached to the pipe organ. A brass pulpit was dedicated in mem- 
ory of Mr. I. C. Slater, elder and Sunday school superintendent. 
A brass lectern was presented in memory of Mr. L. W. Slater, 
elder and Sunday school teacher. An altar was presented in 
memory of Mrs. Elizabeth Beall. An addition to the building for 
Sunday school purposes, costing $12.000, was dedicated February 
2, 1913. In the summer of 1914 the auditorium was refrescoed 
and twelve memorial windows unveiled. 

Two young men have entered the gospel ministrj^ from this 
church. Rev. Artley Parson, son of the former pastor, and Rev. 
Homer S. Dise, of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this city; 
and two are now in course of training, having the ministry in 
view. 

The congregation celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, or Golden 
Jubilee, in October, 1919. 

The church building is well located, within walking distance 
from Union Station, two squares from the National Capitol, and 
on the square adjoining the famous Library of Congress. It is 
well organized, is doing a splendid work, is thankful for its his- 
tory of fifty years, and the good men and women associated with 
it. and looks hopefully to an even greater achievement in the 
Master's name and for His sake. 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



297 



ST. MARK'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WASHINGTON, I). C. 

Rev. John B. Ruplcy, Pastor. 

On the evening of May 16, 1887, at the weekly teachers' meet- 
ing of St. Paul's Sunday school, Dr. Domer, pastor, the super- 
intendent, Mr. Lucius D. Alden, made the following motion: 
"That St. Paul's do organize a branch mission Sunday school in 
South Washington," which was adopted. This work was at once 
undertaken, and Blake Hall on 
Seventh Street was the place 
chosen for organizing. Mr. X. Z. 
Seitz was chosen as the mission 
Sunday school superintendent. 
Out of this mission Sunday school 
grew St. Mark's Evangelical Lu- 
theran church. 

St. Mark's was organized on 
Friday evening, June 14, 1889, in 
Potomac Hall, corner of D and 
Eleventh Streets, S. W., with fif- 
teen charter members, by adopt- 
ing the formula of government of 
the General Synod. Dr. W. II . 
Gotwald was called to become the 
first pastor, and preached his first 
sermon on Sunday evening, May 
19, 1889. Potomac TIall was the 

place of worship until September 1 of that year, when the first 
service was held in the tent erected on the corner of Twelfth and 
C Streets, S. W. 

On Sunday afternoon, October 14, 1889, at three o'clock, a 
large audience gathered in the tent to witness the solemn exer- 
cises of laying the corner stone of the new church. The pastor 
had charge of the service, and those having part in the service 
were Dr. E. J. Wolf, Dr. Samuel Domer, Dr. W. E. Parson, Rev. 
G. II. Slaybaugh, and also Rev. Baldwin, of the Methodist E.pis- 
copal Church. 

When the weather became too cold in December of the same 
year the home of Mr. and Mrs. W. Wagner became the place of 
worship. The first service was held in the Sunday school build- 
ing on March 2, 1890. On October 8 of that year the congrega- 
tion was received into the Maryland Synod. 




REV. JOHX B. EUPLF.Y. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Rev. \V. II. (Jotwald. D.I)., the first pastor, served the congre- 
gation until 1S96. when the second pastor. Rev. John C. Bowers. 
\vas called. The new pastor entered upon his work on September 
1. at which time the congregation was reorganized with fifty-one 
members. Of these original members, still in active service of the 
congregation are the following: Mr. Austin Cooper. Mr. 1). A. 
Edwards. Mrs. F. II. Fridley. Miss Daisy F. Fridlcy. Mrs. E. 
(Jriflith. Mrs. Nettie Kayhoe, Mi's. Anna Koogle. Mr. F. W. Leon- 

hardt. Mr. and Mrs. 
Carl Leinbach. Mr. 
and Mrs. August 
Xoaek. Mrs. "William 
Ileffelfinger. Miss 
Bertha Ileffelfinger, 
Mrs. J. A. Han-old. 
Miss Edith Sweeny. 
Mi.ss Emma Strob; 1 !. 
Mrs. Antonia Tippett. 
and Mrs. W i 1 1 i a m 
AVagner. Quit e a 
number of improve- 
ments were made on 
the church property 
during Rev. Bowers' 
pastorate. A m o n g 
these was the install- 
ing of the pipe organ. 
On December 2. 
1896. a L n t li e r 
League was organixed 
by the late Cornelius 
Eckhardt. who was 
then business mana- 
ger of the National 
Luther League. This League was the first to be organixed in the 
city and has been an active and helpful society in the church. 

Rev. J. C. Bowers closed his pastoral work at St. Mark's, 1902. 
and the third pastor. Rev. John Luther Frant/, was called and 
assumed charge November 2 of that year. On November 1. 1903, 
the congregation declared itself self-sustaining. During the pas- 
torate of Rev. Frant/. in 1904. the church building was destroyed 
by fire. Then a most desirable lot on the corner of Eighth and B 
Streets. S. \V.. was purchased. The corner stone of the new 
church was laid October (5. 1904. The Sunday school was first 




ST. MAKK'S LVTHEKAN Ciinica, WASHINGTON, 
D. C. 



THE CHURCHES OP WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 299 

completed, and the first service was held in it on January 15, 
1905. Three months later, on Palm Sunday, the congregation 
worshipped in the new completed auditorium. 

The pastorate of Kev. Frantz continued until October, 1912, 
when the fourth pastor, Rev. William A. AVade, was called. Dur- 
ing this pastorate, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the congrega- 
tion was observed. Quite a number of needed improvements were 
made on the church during the years that Rev. Wade was pastor. 

At the conclusion of Rev. Wade's years of faithful service, as 
pastor of St. Mark's in 1918, Rev. John B. Rupley, the fifth and 
present pastor, was called. 

There are two active ladies' organizations in the church, name- 
ly the Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society and the 
Ladies' Aid Society. The latter was organized in the early his- 
tory of the church. The following have been its presidents: 
Mrs. Elizabeth Fellinger, Mrs. August Noack, Mrs. F. H. Fridley, 
and Mrs. P. R. R. Sattes, who now fills this office. The president 
of the Missionary Society is Mrs. Barbara Trede. 

One has gone out into the ministry from this congregation in 
the person of Rev. C. R. Botsford. The church also has one son 
now preparing for the ministry, Mr. P. H. Williams. 

When the United States entered into the great World War, 
eighteen of St. Mark's boys went out into the service of their 
country, and of these not one was called to make the supreme 
sacrifice. 

The present church auditorium is very churchly and Lutheran 
in all of its appointments, and almost from the very beginning the 
common service and robe have been used. The location of the 
church is a splendid one, facing on the Mall, or Park, leading 
from the capitol to the monument. 

KELLER MEMORIAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Rev. 8. T. Nicholas, D.D., Pastor. 

Keller Memorial Lutheran Church is a child of Luther Place 
Memorial. It was under the direction of their pastor, Rev. J. G. 
Butler, D.D., that the project had its beginning. Having con- 
ceived the plan of expansion, it was, of course, much in the pas- 
tor's thoughts and words. He talked of it from his pulpit. He 
discussed it in his parish work, and, as he expected, results began 
to follow. "Here," said one of his young men, "are twenty-five 
dollars. Go plant a mission." 

It was not long after this that Rev. J. G. Butler, D.D., cele- 



UOO HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

brated the fortieth anniversary of a continuous pastorate in the 
Capital City. In gratitude to Almighty (iod he was moved to 
make a thank offering of three thousand dollars. The daughter 
of a friend in the far South added five hundred dollars as a 
memorial to a sainted father. Two hundred and five dollars, the 
savings of a lifetime, were handed at the death of a consecrated 
handmaiden of the Lord to the pastor, to be used at his discre- 
tion. "I have provided five thousand dollars towards the new 
church of which you spoke.'' The speaker was General Haupt, a 




KELLER MEMORIAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, WASHINGTON, D. (J. 

prized parishioner of Luther Place Memorial. ''Thanks," said 
the pastor, "and we'll drive through the city and search for the 
lot upon which to build." There were two drives, and upon the 
second, General and Mrs. Haupt and Dr. Butler selected the lot 
upon which the church now stands. Soon after this Mrs. Haupt 
passed to the better land, and a letter came from the home of 
sorrow adding two thousand dollars to the liberal provision of the 
noble husband. It was deemed fitting that the wife and husband 
should, as the largest contributors, and as the daughter and son- 
in-law of the late Rev. Dr. Benjamin Keller, give the new church 
his name; hence, "Keller Memorial." It is not often that 
churches are started with as much generous help extended them 
as was given to "Keller Memorial," ten thousand seven hundred 
and thirty dollars having been secured through the direct efforts 
of the pastor of the mother church. In addition to the activities 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 301 

of their pastor, reference should be made to the substantial gifts, 
the unflagging interest and the prayerful helpfulness of the 
membership of ' ' Luther Place Memorial. ' ' 

On October 3, 1892, "Keller Memorial Lutheran Church" was 
organized with twenty members. The following is the list of the 
charter members : Mrs. Gertrude W. Carr, Mrs. F. A. McAllister, 
II. W. Weber, Mrs. II. W. Weber, W. T. Bowdler, L. A. Kalbach, 
Mrs. L. A. Kalbach, Dr. AV. W. Alleger, Mrs. Edith S. Alleger, 
Mrs. Lizzie Mantz. Mrs. Emma Wines, Joseph Manning, Mrs. 
Barbara Manning, D. T. Batson, Mrs. Mary P. Sickel, Elizabeth 
J. Bowdler, Gertrude Grace Keck. Abraham Huntington, Har- 
riet Zollers Home, Florence E. Sickel. 

The organization took place under the leadership of Rev. 
Charles H. Butler, son of the Rev. Dr. J. G. Butler. After the 
organization he became the first pastor. His activities form the 
largest chapter in the history of the church. Two years prior to 
the organization of the congregation the lot was purchased on 
which the building now stands and the chapel was dedicated on 
May 1, 1892. 

On December 12, 1897, the present church was dedicated. The 
sermons on that occasion were preached by the Rev. E. C. Haupt 
and Rev. II. H. Weber, D.D. It was a glad day and marked a 
new era in the development of the work. The events of the years 
that followed are not easily recorded but into these years were 
put the best strength of the pastor. Figures in no measure tell 
the story of results and yet they convey something of the toil 
and service of this consecrated man. From 1891-1907 there w r as 
contributed through the church treasury the sum of $31,848.19. 

In the report of the Marylan d Synod of 1907 we find the prop- 
erty valuation quoted as being $45,000, with a mortgaged indebt- 
edness of $6,000. 

There were two hundred and thirty-two communicant mem- 
bers; four hundred and eleven scholars in the Sunday school, 
and one hundred and seventeen members in the Young People's 
Societies. 

Rev. Butler resigned November 5, 1907. The record of fifteen 
years of service is a tribute to the untiring energy of a faithful 
pastor. The foundations were well laid. 

The next pastor was the Rev. Charles P. Wiles, D.D.. who en- 
tered upon the work in Keller Memorial, March 1. 1908. 

A partial exhibit of the work during the pastorate of Dr. Wiles 
is as follows : 

The Men's Bible Class was organized with an enrollment of 
more than eighty. A little later a Lutheran Brotherhood which 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 303 

grew to more than one hundred members. A "Women's Bible 
Class was organized with a membership of thirty-eight. It is safe 
to say that from the very beginning this class exceeded any other 
organization in the church in the way of charitable work. 

The Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society made 
rapid and substantial growth both in membership and offerings. 
The use of the mission study text-books became a regular feature. 

The church and Sunday school room were put in first class con- 
dition ; the walls frescoed, the church recarpeted, the Sunday 
school room covered with linoleum, new pulpit furniture and a 
pipe organ installed, and the woodwork within and without ren- 
ovated. The total cost of the improvements was approximately 
$4.500. Mr. Carnegie provided one-third of the cost of the pipe 
organ. 

The graded Sunday school lessons were introduced in the Pri- 
mary Department. The important work of teacher training was 
started. Each year the congregation exceeded its apportionment. 
The membership of the church was more than doubled, three 
hundred and sixty members being added. 

The death of Rev. Charles S. Albert, D.D., left vacant the 
editorship of the Lutheran Publication Society. Dr. Wiles was 
chosen by the Board of Publication in January, 1913, to fill that 
vacancy. He resigned the pastorate of Keller Memorial, the res- 
ignation taking effect April 1, 1913. 

Dr. Wiles was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel T. Nicholas, D.D., 
who accepted a call to become pastor of Keller Memorial on June 
1, 1913. 

Under Dr. Nicholas the growth of the church has continued to 
be normal. Nearly four hundred members have been received 
into membership during these six years. Through the introduc- 
tion of the duplex envelopes the financial resources have been 
greatly increased. 

For many years the Sunday school was greatly hindered for 
lack of proper equipment. A beautiful modern Sunday school 
building was erected in 1915 at a cost, with equipment, of $19.000. 
On May 1, 1918, the congregation cancelled the entire indebted- 
ness incurred in the new building. On October 1, 1918. the 
congregation purchased the valuable property situated at 917 
Maryland Avenue, N. E., as a parsonage. Seventy-four of the 
young men of Keller were enlisted in the service of their country 
during the war. Rev. Harrison D. Boyer entered the ministry 
from Keller Memorial in 1911. Mr. Robert Flynn is a prospec- 
tive student for the ministry and is now a sophomore at Gettys- 
burg. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Rev. J. C. Tu-clc, Pastor. 

St. John's was organized in 18")."). and at that time consisted en- 
tirely of the German-speaking Lutherans of the capital city. The 
congregation was gathered and the organization begun by the 
Rev. Emil Meister. Dr. Meister continued to shepherd the flock 

until the outbreak of the Civil 
War in 1861. 

In 1861 the Rev. F. Ph. Ilen- 
nighausen became the pastor of St. 
John's. lie had been licensed by 
the Maryland Synod in that year. 
The following year the congrega- 
tion appears for the first time in 
the parochial reports of the Mary- 
land Synod, indicating that it had 
then affiliated itself Avith the 
Synod. The membership at that 
time is given as 70. Dr. Hennig- 
bausen tells us that the congrega- 
tion suffered considerably during 
the years of the war. The ranks 
of the membership were thinned 
and their circumstances were 
straitened. But before long the 

church debt was paid, the building renovated, a parochial school 
organized, and a modest school building erected. The pastor ex- 
tended his labors to the hospitals in and around Washington. 
Many of the wounded and dying soldiers were of German nation- 
ality, in some cases unacquainted with the language of the coun- 
try for whose welfare they were, nevertheless, shedding their 
blood. The young pastor not only talked with them in their own 
tongue, but frequently with an English choir went out to sing 
for them, and thus his congregation grew into thousands. When 
Dr. Hennighansen left St. John's to go to Baltimore in 1864 it 
was with the greatest reluctance that the people of St. John's 
parted with him. 

He was succeeded by another recent licentiate of the Mary- 
land Synod, the Rev. William Frey. who served St. John's from 
1864 to 1870. Then followed Rev. Charles Diehl. 1870-1872; 
Rev. John II. Mengert. 1872-1874; Rev. Adolph Kurtz. 1874- 




REV. J. C. TWELE. 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



305 



1879; Rev. J. Salinger, 1880-1881; Rev. Lehnert, 1881-1887; 
Rev. II. K. Mueller, 1887-1892; Rev. C. M. H. Hamm, 1893-1897; 
Rev. George Brodthage, 1897-1910; Rev. II. C. Fultz. 1910-1914; 
Rev. Paul L. Leddin, 1914-1917; Rev. J. C. Twele, 1917. 

During Pastor Fultz 's pastorate the finances of the congrega- 
tion were greatly improved. Pastor Leddin introduced the du- 
plex envelope system and organized a Woman's Home and For- 
eign Missionary Society. During the present pastorate all in- 
debtedness has been wiped out and the number of church services 
has been increased. 

Two of the charter members of the congregation are still living, 
Mrs. Frederick and Mrs. Neiter. Mr. Rau is the oldest male 
member of the congregation and he has been president of the 
council for many years. The present president of the council is 
Mr. Charles Schaefer. John Hermann is the financial secretary. 
Trustees are Mr. Martin Wiegand and Mr. Henry Bieber. 



ZIOX LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WASHIXGTOX, D. C. 

Rev. Richard Schmidt, Pastor. 

March 31, 1867, thirty-three families, with pastor Rev. W. A. 
Frey, withdrew from old St. John's congregation on the South 
Side. April 14. 1867, they organ- 
ized as Zion German Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. Rev. Frey was 
elected pastor at a salary of $500, 
which was to be supplemented by 
his income from a German school 
he conducted. Services were first 
held in Temperance Hall ; then 
in Miller's Hall on H Street be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh Streets, 
X. W., and then for several years 
in the schoolroom of the pastor on 
N Street between Sixth and Sev- 
enth Streets, N. W. 

The Sunday school was even 
then, as now, a strong, helpful 
factor in the life of the congrega- 
tion, but the parochial school 
caused more or less concern and 

expense. It was difficult to secure consecrated and fully equipped 
teachers; the most satisfactory arrangement seems to have been 
20 




REV. RICHARD SCHMIDT. 



306 HISTORY OF MARYLAND RYXOD. 

to have the pastor as principle and teacher of religion and Ger- 
man, with a lady assistant for English and other studies. 

"When Rev. Frey joined the Missouri Synod he could not per- 
suade the congregation to take the same step, so he finally ac- 
cepted a call to Rockville. Connecticut, in 1871. 

July 5. 1871. the present site of our church was purchased for 
$3,000. Rev. Emil Henckell assumed the pastorate February 4. 
1872, and soon the congregation laid the corner stone of a modest 
frame church, which was dedicated March 30, 1873. Rev. Henck- 
ell resigned May. 1S74. lie was succeeded by Rev. Charles 
Steinhauer. whose pastorate was brief and stormy. Rev. A. 
Eisenhauder. of Bolivar. Ohio, then ministered faithfully from 
April. 1875, to October, 1877. November, 1878, Rev. G. W. I. 
Landau took charge, and congregation and pastor became Presby- 
terian for several years. April, 1881, Rev. Landau was succeeded 
by Rev. H. Unglaub, who stayed only one year. 

There was a crisis upon Zion. complete loss of the property 
and the very existence of the congregation being threatened. 
Rev. J. G. Butler, D.D.. and Mr. George Ryneal, Jr., came to the 
rescue of the discouraged little band by assuming the debt and 
assisting in securing again a Lutheran pastor. Rev. Albert 
Ilomrighaus. of Frostburg. Mel., was called and he accepted, tak- 
ing charge in the fall of 1882. He soon restored order and con- 
fidence, and inaugurated a successful movement to repay Dr. 
Butler and Mr. Ryneal. The name, "Church of the Fatherland," 
was dropped and the original name of Zion Evangelical Lutheran 
Church restored, a new constitution was adopted, and incorpora- 
tion was effected, and the congregation was received into full con- 
nection with the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland. Con- 
gregation and Sunday school responded quickly to the faithful 
leadership of the pastor, whose perfect command of German and 
English attracted many new members. A building fund was 
started, with a view of securing a large and modern house of 
worship. 

In April. 1903. after a faithful and successful pastorate of 
over twenty years. Rev. Ilomrighaus accepted a call to Messiah 
German-English Lutheran Church of Detroit, Michigan. Rev. 
Charles F. Bergner. of Nashville. Tennessee, was called, but did 
not see his way clear to accept at once. Several brethren min- 
istered faithfully as supplies for nearly a year, notably Rev. Dr. 
Luther II. "Waring, of our city, and Rev. Arthur E. Gringle, now 
also of Detroit. Michigan. 

April. 1904, Rev. Charles F. Bergner assumed the pastorate 
and soon the increasing activities in all lines of church work 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



307 



brought the agitation for a new church to such a point that the 
annual congregational meeting. January 3, 190o. resolved to pro- 
ceed at once. Kev. Bergner. Christian Herold, John A. Wagner, 
William Hasselbusch. and William Schlueter, were named as 
building committee. The congregation responded amazingly to 
-the appeal for subscriptions and pledges. 

July 15, 1906. the last service was held in the old church, and 
then the congregation accepted the offer of the trustees of the 
Baptist Sunday School, 
corner P and Fifteenth 
Street, N. W., to use their 
chapel until the new 
church should be com- 
pleted. 

September 16. 1906, the 
corner stone of the new 
church was laid and during 
the fall and winter, under 
the providence of the heav- 
enly Father and the ener- 
getic leadership of the pas- 
tor and the building com- 
mittee, the magnificent 
structure arose 
serious interrup- 

Ziox LUTHERAN CHURCH, WASHINGTON, D. C 

March 3, 1907. the con- 
gregation gratefully and joyfully entered the Sunday school room 
for the first service of worship in the new church. 

The day of dedication. May 19. 1907. is one great red letter 
day in Zion's history. Prof. David H. Bauslin. D.D., then Pres- 
ident of the General Synod, preached the chief sermon, assisted 
and followed by other prominent Lutheran divines, as Dr.-;. Harry 
Yarger, W. E. Peschau, Albert Ilomrighaus and local pastors. 
"What hath God wrought?" The seemingly impossible was ac- 
complished and stands now as a magnificent monument of faith 
and trust in God, and loyalty and liberality and cooperation of 
Zion r s congregation and Pastor Bergner. The heavy debt was 
gradually reduced, so when Rev. Bergner. in March, 1912. ac- 
cepted a call to Cumberland. Md., only $9.000 remained. 

Without belittling the splendid efforts of the Luther League, 
the Men's and Boys' Clubs, and the Ever Ready Circle, and the 
Evergreen Society, and Sunday school and confirmation classes, 
the chief credit for the rapid reduction of the church debt must 



granite 
without 
tion or accident. 




308 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

he given to the Ladies' Aid Society. In addition to their efforts 
to reduce the church debt, they have for years looked after the 
parsonage, which they built years ago, paying for all repairs and 
improvements. 

June 1, 1912. Rev. Richard Schmidt, after a pastorate of nearly 
eight years at St. Peter's Church, Syracuse. X. Y.. became Zion's 
pastor. Soon there was an agitation to complete the appoint- 
ments of our beautiful edih'ce by installing a large modern pipe 
organ in the space near the altar. The organ was built by the 
M. P. Moeller Company, of Ilagerstown, Md., at a cost of $2,000. 
and was dedicated June 11, 1914. At the same time electric light 
was secured for the whole building. 

Miss Martha Metzler generously presented a beautiful and 
costly communion service with individual cups. 

In the summer of 1914 Pastor Schmidt was given a three 
months' furlough for a visit to the German fatherland, after an 
absence of thirty years. The enjoyment and benefit of the trip 
were neutralized by the outbreak of the horrible war. Upon their 
return the pastor and his wife felt doubly grateful that the good 
Lord had brought them to this country and to such a devoted 
congregation as our Zion. 

The language question, which had been troublesome at times 
in Zion's history, was definitely and happily settled when the 
congregation adopted the pastor's suggestion to have a service in 
each language every Sunday morning, the evening services being 
all English. While this arrangement has added to the pastor's 
labor, and withal leaves him very little time for the Sunday 
school session, neither he nor the school have thus far suffered. 

The Sunday school, under its capable superintendent and loyal 
officers and teachers, has made remarkable progress. Bible 
classes for men and women and the growth in all departments 
have required more room. The house adjoining the church on 
Sixth Street was purchased for $4.000 and the lower floor con- 
verted into a fine chapel for the Primary Department. This in- 
creased Zion's debt again to $10.000. but the zeal and the liber- 
ality increased also, especially in the Sunday school, which, to- 
gether with the Ladies' Aid Society and a few individuals, made 
a payment of $1,000 as a 1916 Christmas gift to the church. 

During the "World War Zion gave twenty-three young men to 
active military service. One of them made the supreme sacri- 
fice. "William T. Deardorff. who had begun his education at Get- 
tysburg in preparation for the Lutheran ministry. As a fitting 
memorial to their dead hero his parents will educate another 
worthy young man for the ministry. 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



309 



THE LUTHERAN CHURCH OF GEORGETOWN, 

D. C. 

Rev. George D. Clarke, Pastor. 

The Georgetown congregation is the pioneer Lutheran organ- 
ization of Washington. Jt was organized in 1769, thirty-two 
years before that city became the capital of the nation. This is 
indicated by a deed recorded in Frederick, Maryland, May 17, 
1770, and by a decision of the Supreme Court, which in review- 
ing the title to this property in 
1829 recognized that "an organ- 
ized unincorporated Lutheran 
congregation existed here as early 
as 1769." 

One of the four lots given for 
public uses in Georgetown was for 
a Lutheran church. A log church 
was at once erected on this lot by 
the German Lutherans who lived 
in Georgetown and along Rock 
Creek, and services were conduct- 
ed more or less irregularly by 
various non-resident ministers. 
Tradition says that George Wash- 
ington attended at least one serv- 
ice in this church. The founder 
of Georgetown Presbyterianism 
held his first services for his peo- 
ple in this Lutheran church about 1780. The church appears 
to have been under the fostering care of the famous Lutheran 
missionary preachers, the Muhlenbergs. Rev. Peter Muhlenberg, 
the "fighting parson" of Woodstock, Va., made missionary tours 
in many directions seeking to gather together the scattered mem- 
bers of his faith. For a time, in 1779, owing to their inability to 
secure a Lutheran pastor, the congregation was served by an 
Episcopal minister by the name of Brooke. A German minister 
from Philadelphia served them during part of the year 1796. 
Another German minister was secured in 1799. The difficulty of 
securing permanent pastoral oversight will be understood when 
it is borne in mind that at that time the number of Lutherans 
in what is now the United States was but a few thousand. They 
had but few ministers, and not a single denominational college or 




REV. GEORGE D. CLARKE. 



310 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

theological seminary in the country from which to draw their 
pastors. 

The log church of 1769 having fallen into decay, after a lapse 
of some years a second building a frame structure was erected 
about the year 18:}."). This was used, like the first building, more 
or less irregularly, as a house of worship and perhaps as a parish 
school also, at times, up to a period within the memory of people 
still living, as it was still standing at the time of the Civil War. 

The Georgetown congregation continued its independent and 
struggling existence a half century after the organization of the 
Maryland Synod before it became connected with any Synod, 
and received no assistance from other congregations or from the 
Maryland Synod, on whose territory it was located. 

The attention of the Synod was several times directed to the 
needs of the struggling band of Lutherans in Georgetown. But 
the first definite move towards a permanent formal organization 
came from another direction. On June 24. 1866, at the residence 
of Henry A. Kaiser, a German Lutheran congregation was 
formally organized with the purpose of continuing the work of 
the church on the Georgetown property and making use of it. 
They elected John Kaiser president. George F. Wetzerich secre- 
tary, and Charles Memmert treasurer. .Eleven other gentlemen 
soon afterward joined the organization. 

On June 27. 1867, James Gossler, Henry C. Kaiser, II. B. Wis- 
ner. J. C. Kaiser, and George F. Wetzerick, were elected by the 
congregation, and on July 22d were properly confirmed by the 
Supreme Court of the District of Columbia as trustees of the 
German Lutheran congregation of Georgetown, U. C. It was 
decided to build a one-story brick building for church and paro- 
chial school purposes, and Rev. Samuel D. Finckel, D.D., then 
pastor of Concordia Lutheran Church, of Washington, was chosen 
pastor of the congregation. 

The services rendered this small congregation by Rev. Dr. 
Finckel were in addition to his work as pastor of the Concordia 
church. He did not serve Georgetown very long, however, be- 
cause on November 16, 1868, a very pressing invitation was ex- 
tended by this congregation to Rev. J. J. Suman, then living in 
Washington, and engaged in the government service, to preach 
for them. On Sunday. January 3, 1869, he received a formal call 
to become pastor of the church. He accepted the call and was 
formally installed by the President of the Maryland Synod on 
January 24th. Rev. Mr. Suman was thus the first permanent 
pastor formally installed by authority of any synod over this 
little band of Lutherans tenaciously clinging to the Augsburg 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 311 

Confession and to a Georgetown lot donated for Lutheran church 
purposes just a century before. that installation. The pastorate 
was received into the Maryland Synod and reported to that body 
in the fall of 1869, twenty-five communicant members in the 
church, and ten officers and teachers and sixty scholars in the 
Sunday school. 

On February 27, 1870, during the ministry of Rev. Mr. Suman, 
it was resolved, by a vote of the trustees, that "hereafter the 
church building be devoted exclusively to church purposes." 
There was some bitter feeling over this action, as the Germans 
took offense at it and ceased attending church services and Sun- 
day school ; but the German day school was closed and no Ger- 
man has been used since that time in the church or school. One 
of the old heirlooms still possessed and highly prized by the con- 
gregation, coming down from its early history, is its large old 
German pulpit Bible, printed in Tuebiiigeii, Germany, in 1730. 

On October 30, 1870, an English congregation was regularly 
and constitutionally organized, supplanting all prior organiza- 
tions, with an even dozen members. 

The records do not give the date of Rev. Mr. Suman 's resig- 
nation, but it must have been within a few months after this or- 
ganization of the strictly English congregation, inasmuch as Rev. 
George A. Xixdorff was invited to visit the field with a view to 
becoming pastor. The chronicler adds that "he visited us, was 
pleased, and on the first Sunday in April, 1871, he preached his 
first sermon as pastor of the church." 

At the annual meeting of the Maryland Synod, in the fall of 
1871, there were reported eleven communicant members in the 
church, and seven teachers and forty-five scholars in the Sunday 
school. The reorganized congregation was received into connec- 
tion with the Maryland Synod, and was represented that year, 
1871, by its first lay delegate, Mr. John W. Eli. 

A debt of $1.800 that rested on the congregation at the be- 
ginning of Mr. Simian's pastorate was successfully paid off 
through the assiduous efforts of Pastors Suman and Xixdorff and 
a donation of $500 from the Maryland Synod. Rev. Mr. Nixdorff 
continued as pastor until June 3. 1894, making a most faithful 
and self-sacrificing pastorate of more than twenty-three years, 
for he never received any financial return from this congregation 
through all those years. 

In October, 1894. Rev. Stanley Billheimer took up the work of 
this pastorate, reporting at that time a total of twenty-five com- 
municant members in the church, and eleven officers and teachers 
and forty-five scholars in the Sunday school. During his pastor- 



312 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

ate of ten years, ending October 31, 1901, the church member- 
ship increased to seventy-eight communicants, and the Sunday 
school enrollment to eight officers and teachers and eighty-two 
scholars, and the church property was much improved on the 
exterior and in the interior at a cost of about $3,000. 

Rev. David Bittle Floyd. D.I)., was called to the pastorate and 
took up its duties April 1, 1905, but resigned five months later. 
September 10. 1905, to accept a theological professorship in Sus- 
quchanna University at Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania. During his 
short pastorate he nevertheless rendered efficient service, added a 
number to the church, and introduced part of the historic Com- 
7iion Service. 

Rev. Luther Hess Waring. Ph.D.. began serving the congrega- 
tion as acting pastor March 1, 190(5. On October 25th following, 
the congregation extended him a formal call, to take effect No- 
vember 1, which he accepted, and he was regularly installed as 
pastor November 13, 1906. During the pastorate of Dr. Waring, 
the church having come into possession of $20,000 through the 
generous bequest of one of her honored members, Daniel E. Eli. 
it was made possible to erect the present beautiful house of wor- 
ship, which was dedicated to the glory of God, February 7, 1915. 
After having faithfully and successfully served the congregation 
for a period of ten years, Dr. Waring resigned August 31, 1916. 

He was succeeded by Rev. N. J. Gould Wickey, who had just 
graduated from Gettysburg Seminary and who assumed the pas- 
toral care September 1, 1916. Rev. Wickey 's pastorate was of 
short duration, resigning June 24, 1917, but he left a happy im- 
pression upon the hearts of his people. His pastorate was pro- 
ductive of great increase to the church. 

Rev. Wickey was succeeded by the Rev. George D. Clarke, who 
assumed the pastoral care, January 1. 1918. 



LUTHERAN CHURCH OF OUR REDEEMER, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Re i'. D. E. Wiseman, D.D., Pastor. 

The Church of Our Redeemer, a colored Lutheran congrega- 
tion. Unrated on Eighth Street above Florida Avenue, N. W., 
grew out of a desire of a few 7 white friends of the colored people 
to help them solve their many problems, especially along the 
spiritual lines. 

The work was first started as a Sunday school, under the name 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



313 



of "Lutheran Mission." A small hall, known as "VVorthington 
Hall, located on Brightwood Avenue, but better known now as 
Georgia Avenue was procured and for the space of ten months 
quite an interesting body of children was gathered from the 
neighborhood each Sunday afternoon at 3 o'clock. With the aid 
of a few volunteer teachers from other denominations some good 
work was done for the children, as well as for the community. 

On August 9, 1885, the corner stone of the church, which is 
located at Eighth Street near Barry Place, N. W., was laid amid 
.great rejoicing and in the presence of quite an audience of white 
as well as colored people. The 
choir of the Memorial Lutheran 
Church furnished the music, and 
its pastor, the Rev. John George 
Butler, D.D., acted as chairman of 
the occasion. Dr. Butler used the 
following words: "This church 
of our Redeemer, whose corner 
stone is laid to-day in the name of 
the Triune God, had its inception 
in the conviction and desire of 
some of our Lutheran people to 
work with other fellow Christians 
among the rapidly multiplying 
peoples of color of which there are 
now more than ten thousand in 
this capital city, furnishing a 
large and promising field for 
Christian labors." Associated 
with Dr. Butler in the ceremonies of that auspicious Sunday 
afternoon were the Revs. Samuel Domer, of St. Paul's; G. A. 
Nixdorf, of Georgetown, D. C. ; W. E. Parson, of Reformation, 
and G. A. Slaybaugh. At the conclusion of the service the pas- 
tor, the Rev. Daniel E. Wiseman, pronounced the benediction. 

The church building is of pressed brick, Gothic structure, and 
is twenty-five feet wide and seventy-five feet long. It is fur- 
nished with pews, pipe organ, bell and other necessary furnish- 
ings. It was one of the first churches of our denomination in 
the city to have a robed choir. It is in all its appointments up- 
to-date and furnishes to its jvorshippers a nice, bright, cozy audi- 
torium well fitted for worship. The church, though small from 
the standpoint of membership, has stood in the forefront in all 
movements for the welfare of humanity. 

It has not only preached a gospel of regeneration, repentance 




REV. D. E. WISEMAN, D.D. 



314 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

and faith, as being essential in the making of Christians for the 
other world, but it has tried to instill in the minds of its members 
and hearers the necessity of these things for the present as well 
as for the life to come. 

The influence and activities of the Church of Our Redeemer 
for civic improvements have been many and varied. When the 
government in years gone by could not see the utility of the kin- 
dergarten system, it was left to this church to foster by the help 
of kind friends one of the first six free schools of its kind, which 
to-day is an important phase of the school system of the District 
of Columbia. The church being small, as well as poor, not being 
able to pay the teacher, a friend of the pastor's, a Unitarian lady 
and a few of her friends, furnished the salary, while a colored 
lady furnished the necessary furniture for the room. Later in 
the history of the work a Lutheran lady who conducted a kinder- 
garten training school in the city assisted in the work, by sending 
two of her pupils each day. 

This work was carried on free of charge to the children until 
the government adopted it. Other efforts were put forth in the 
organi/ing of a Lutheran Alliance, Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Sew- 
ing School, etc. 

Its pastor, the Rev. Daniel Wiseman, D.D., was born in the 
Island of St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, but now one of the 
Virgin Islands of the United States. He is of Lutheran parentage, 
lie came to Brooklyn. X. Y., in 1871, when yet a boy, and joined 
St. .Matthew's English Lutheran Church. He sat under the pas- 
torates of the Rev. I. K. Funk (of Punk and Wagnalls), II gen 
Burrell. by whom he was confirmed; A. S. Hartman, and M. W. 
I lamina. 

It was the intention of Mr. Wiseman to enter Gettysburg to 
prepare for his work in life. But through the kindness of Rev. 
J. G. Butler and the help of the Maryland Synod, of which he is 
a member by licensure and ordination, he took his course at 
Howard University, Washington. D. C. 

This church, as has already been said, is a small one, but tak- 
ing it from all angles there is no more loyal and self-sacrificing 
people to be found anywhere than those who make up this con- 
gregation. The advice and help of the pastor is sought often by 
Protestants, Catholics and Jews, as well as others. 



THE CHURCHES OP WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



315 



THE LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE EPIPH- 
ANY, WASHINGTON, I). C. 

Rev. Charles F. Stcck, D.D., Pastor. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Elpiphany, of Wash- 
ington, D. C., was organized 011 Sunday, February 7, 1909, by 
forty-eight members of the Memorial Lutheran Chureh of that 
city, who had withdrawn from the Memorial because of the con- 
duct of a special congregational meeting of that church called to 
adjust radical differences among 
its members as to its internal man- 
agement. L. Russell Alden, now 
Treasurer of the Maryland Synod, 
conducted the first session of its 
Sunday school and his father. Lu- 
cius U. Alden, for many years su- 
perintendent of the Sunday school 
of St. Paul's Lutheran Church in 
Washington, and later a member 
and elder of the Memorial Church, 
conducted its first church services. 

The withdrawal of these mem- 
bers from the Memorial was not 
premeditated and their initial or- 
ganization was a temporary one, 
designed to hold them together 
until a reconciliation with the 
other members of the Memorial 

could be effected or other plans made. To it they gave the name 
"Independent Lutheran Congregation." It soon appearing that 
such a reconciliation was impossible, on March 25, 1909, the or- 
ganization was made permanent. 

In the following October a constitution was adopted and the 
following officers were elected: Lucius D. Alden, Charles S. 
Sloane and Harry R. Burrell, elders; Abner Y. Leech, Jr., Wil- 
liam L. Rhoads, I. B. Dodson, Frederick C. H. Wurdeman, Louis 
E. Hoover and Walter Locke, deacons, and Rev. George H. Slay- 
baugh, Henry F. Lerch, Sr., and Joseph W. Zimmerman, trus- 
tees. Lucius D. Alden was also elected a commissioner to the 
Maryland Synod, and Abner Y. Leech, Jr., Louis E. Hoover, 
Harry Burrell and Rev. George II. Slaybaugh were elected a 
committee with him to apply to the Maryland Synod for admis- 




KEV. CHARLES F. STECK, D.D. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



sion' thereto. This application was granted at the convention of 
the Maryland Synod held in Baltimore in the fall of that year. 
1909. and soon thereafter, on the anniversary of the Epiphany, 
the "Independent Lutheran Congregation" changed its name to 
"The Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Epiphany of Wash- 
ington. D. C.," and called to its pastorate Rev. Charles F. Steek. 




LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE EPIPHANY, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

D.D., then pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church at Fred- 
erick, Maryland, and President of the Maryland Synod. 

Until the coming of Dr. Steck, Epiphany was ministered to by 
many clergymen, but especial mention must be made of the help- 
fulness of Rev. Luther Hess Waring, Ph.D.. then pastor of the 
Georgetown Evangelical Lutheran Church in Washington, and 
of the services of Rev. Samuel V. Leech. D.D., uncle of Abner Y. 
Leech, Jr., Epiphany's Sunday school superintendent since its 
organization, a Methodist divine who, although voluntarily re- 
tired because of advanced years, had lost none of the ability which 
had made him one of the great preachers of his denomination. 
With true fidelity to his Master's call wherever it presented it- 
self and the strictest respect for the theological views of the 
Lutherans whom he temporarily served, Dr. Leech ministered to 
these people for several months while they sought a permanent 
pastor of their own and, by his wise counsel, his unquestioned 
prestige and his able preaching, held them together, gained for 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 



317 



them the attention of the community and attracted others to their 
fold. 

Dr. Steck entered on his pastorate at Epiphany on February 
1. 1910, and has continued therein to this date. Under his leader- 
ship the church has acquired a valuable property at IGth and U 
Streets and New Hampshire Avenue, X. W., overlooking 16th 
Street, AVashington 's most important boulevard, has erected a 
beautiful and commodious chapel and Sunday school house on its 
U Street frontage, and. in eight years, has paid for it all, a prop- 





MR. A. Y. LEECH, JR., 
Washington, D. C. 



MR. Lucius D. ALDEN, 
Washington, T). G. 



erty valued at $33.000. In addition to this, a considerable sum 
has been accumulated in its building fund and Epiphany looks 
forward to the early completion of its main church edifice. 

All this has been accomplished with the free will offerings of 
its members and friends, made without personal solicitation or 
canvass or public appeal from the pulpit. The church now has a 
membership of 125 and a Sunday school of about equal numbers. 
Its societies are enthusiastic and active and its future full of 
promise. But above all, Epiphany's members have grown in 
Christian grace and service: Christianity and its truth as ex- 
pressed in Evangelical Lutheranism are stronger in the nation's 
capital for their influence. Out from its walls the pastor's son, 
Rev. Charles F. Steck, Jr., has gone into the Christian ministry. 
In another of its members, Rev. George H. Slaybaugh, both pas- 
tor and people have had a valued counsellor and associate, and 



318 



HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 



still another. Rev. E. C. Dinwiddie, lias been one of the foremost 
champions in the national fight for prohibition. 

The present officers of Kpiphany are (September. 1919), Rev. 
Charles F. Steck. D.D., pastor; Abner Y. Leech, Jr., George C. 
Hnsmann and L. Rnssell Alden, elders; William L. Rhoads, I. 
H. Hodson. (Justav Loehler. Dr. Francis M. Crisell, Ferdinand 
Waldman and Homer Link, deacons, and Rev. George H. Slay- 
bangh. Frederick C. II. Wnrdeman and L. Russell Alden, trus- 
tees. 

COLUMBIA HEIGHTS LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Her. Charles II. Butler, Pastor. 

The Columbia Heights Church had its inception in the desire 

to care for Lutherans in that part of the city. The need of a 

church there had been felt for a quarter of a century, and two or 

three unsuccessful attempts to establish a church had been made. 

Rev. Charles II. Butler had been assisting his father, Rev. J. G. 

Butler, D.D., in the pastorate 
of the Luther Place Memorial 
Church. Washington, for nearly 
two years before his death, which 
occurred in the summer of 1909. 
Immediately afterwards the son 
took steps to inaugurate a new 
church work in the northwestern 
part of the city, known as the 
Columbia Heights section. After 
extensive canvassing, the new 
church project took shape in the 
renting of a house and the organ- 
ization of a Sunday school, and 
with the beginning of regular 
preaching service in January, 
1910. 

The Board of Home Missions 
assisted the work for a period of 

six months. In March. 1911. a congregation was organized with 
a small membership, and the work progressed, but not rapidly. 
Meanwhile funds were being collected, and in the fall of 1914 
a lot was purchased for $2.500, and a portable chapel erected. 
This move had a noticeable good effect upon the work. 

In March, 1918, a substantial one-story stone and brick church 
in a better location, yet in the same neighborhood was purchased 




KKV. CHAKLKS II. BUTLER. 



THE CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON AND VICINITY. 319 

from another denomination for $11,000, the Board of Home Mis- 
sions and Church Extension assisting. 

In September, 1918, the congregation received a bequest of 
$5,000 from the estate of Rev. J. G. Butler, D.D., who had 
realized the strategic importance of Columbia Heights to the 
welfare of the Lutheran cause in Washington, and who had 
planned to establish the church there in the fall of 1909. 

Owing to the inauspicious beginning of the work, literally with- 
.out money and without people, the fact that two or three attempts 
to plant a mission there had failed, and the troubled condition of 
the country due to the world war, progress has been slow. But 
the pastor feels that the potentially rich territory has been pre- 
empted for the General Synod, now the United Lutheran Church. 
And such is the character of the Columbia Heights section there 
is reason to believe, now that the foundation is laid, the growth 
will be steady, though probably not rapid, and that in the not 
distant future there will be developed a vigorous church in that 
important part of the city. 

THE LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE INCARNA- 
TION, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Rev. Henry Mankcn, Jr., Pastor. 

An alliance of Evangelical Lu- 
theran Churches of Washington. 
D. C.. came into being on January 
17, 1917. Among its expressed 
aims was "the conservation and 
increasing of our membership by 
organized and systematic ef- 
forts." The first regular officers 
were Rev. William A. Wade. Mr. 
II. A. Benner and Mr. Harry T. 
Domer. 

At a board of directors' meeting 
held at Epiphany Church on 1 T 
Street, on June 4. 1917. favorable 
expression was given to the proj- 
ect of undertaking a mission in the 

Piney Branch Park section. At a 

T , , . , . , , REV. HENRY MAN KEN, JR. 

later meeting action was taken 

looking to the purchase of the northeast corner of Gallatin and 
Fourteenth Streets, N. W. Toward this project one thousand 
dollars was contributed by Washington Lutherans. 




320 



HISTORY OF .MARYLAND SYXOIX 



The Church of the Incarnation was thus brought into existence 
by the Alliance, and with the encouragement of the Hoard of 
Home .Missions and Church Extension. Cards had been dis- 
tributed throughout the community announcing the first service 
to be held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. II. A. Benner, at the 
southwest corner of Fourteenth and Ingraham Streets. X. W. On 
December 9, 1917. the Kev. William A. Wade. President of the 
Alliance, preached the first sermon. The new organization, hav- 
ing been begun so near the Festival of the Nativity, took for its 

name "The Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of the Incarnation/' 
Thirty-three persons signed the 
charter roll. 

The Bible School conducted its 
first service on January (i, 1918. 
Mr. II. A. Benner, Secretary of 
the Alliance, acting as the super- 
intendent. On April 18th. the 
congregation adopted its constitu- 
tion. Steps had been taken to se- 
cure a resident pastor, and finally 
a call was extended to the Kev. 
Henry Manken, Jr.. pastor of St. 
Luke's Lutheran Church. Balti- 
more, who assumed charge on Sep- 
tember 1, 1918. The service of in- 
Mi; HAIIVKY A. BKXXER stallation was conducted by tin* 

'Washington,' D. c'. Rev. Drs. C. F. Stock, of Wash- 

ington, 1). C., and John C. Bowers, of Catonsville, Md. A num- 
ber of representatives from the Washington Lutheran congrega- 
tions were present. The regular order of service of the new com- 
mon service was used, the mission being the first congregation in 
Washington to use the Common Service Book with Hymnal. 

At the meeting of the Maryland Synod at Frost burg, on De- 
cember 4, 1918. the congregation's petition, presented through its 
delegate, Mr. Charles Wise, was favorably acted on, and the con- 
gregation became a member of the Maryland Synod. 

The members of the Church Council are II. A. Benner, G. H. 
Ostermayer. C. W. Wise. J. M. Sitler, M. A. Schuler. C. Ludwig. 
Jr., R. E. Cannon, and II. P. Clarke, with the pastor as president 
ex-offieio. 

A "Woman's Guild" was organized on April 20. 1918, as a 
federation of all the women of the congregation. The officers 




THE CHURCHKS OF WASHINGTON AM) VICINITY. 321 

are: Mrs. G. H. Ostermayer. Mrs. C. Severn. Mrs. J. M. Sitler, 
and Mrs. II. A. Benner. 

A Young People's Department of Luther League of the Bible 
School was organized on Deeember 8, 1918. The express object 
of the league is to federate all the young people of the school 
and congregation in an organized effort for training and service 
in Lutheran Church work. The officers of the League are : Mr. 
E. M. Foust. Miss Mabel Freas, Miss Dora Freas. Mrs. Robert 
Falconer and Miss Helen Ostermayer. 

The corner stone for the congregation's house of worship was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies on July 21. 1919. and the con- 
gregation expects soon to occupy its new home. Mr. Harry A. 
Benner is chairman of the building committee. 



21 



OTHER MEMBERS OK THE EASTERN CONFERENCE. 





REV. W. H. GOTAVALD, D.D., LL.D., 
Washington, D. C. 



REV. G. H. SLAYBAUGH, 
Washington, D. C. 





KKV. L. II. WARING, PH,D., 
Washington, I). C. 



REV. J. 0. MOSER, 
Washington, D. C. 



OTHER MEMBERS OF THE EASTERN CONFERENCE. 




EEV. F. H. WEAVER, 
Newry, Pa. 





REV. N. J. G. WICKEY, 
Cambridge, Mass. 



REV. H. D. BOYER, 
Washington, D. C. 



CHAPTER XV. 
THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



BRADDOCK LUTHERAX CHURCH, 
BRADDOCK, MD. 

Rev. R. AS*. Poffenb'erger, Pastor. 

The little town of Braddock is located along the National Pike, 
three miles west of Frederick and three miles east of Braddock 
Heights, Maryland's famous summer resort. Until 1907 the 
church there was a union of Lutheran and Reformed congrega- 
tions. The Lutheran congregation 
was organized by the Rev. Dr. 
Diehl, of Frederick, sometime in 
the fifties of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. The union church was built 
in 1859 by the Lutheran and Re- 
formed congregations of the city 
of Frederick and was donated by 
those congregations to the congre- 
gations at Braddock. 

Then for a long period the Lu- 
theran congregation at Braddock 
was a preaching station for the 
Lutheran pastor in Frederick. 
From about 1900 until 1915 the 
Rev. S. A. Hedges supplied the 
pulpit in connection with his min- 
istry at Pleasant Hill, and while 
residing in Middletown. It was 

during his ministry that the present church building was erected. 
This was in 1907. 

The house of worship had become too small for the two con- 
gregations and the alternating of Lutheran and Reformed serv- 
ices in the one building caused some dissatisfaction. Accordingly 
it was decided that the two congregations ought to separate. The 
Lutheran congregation proceeded at once to become incorporated 
and then to build her own church. A building committee was 

325 




REV. R. S. POFFENBF.RGKK. 



HISTOKV OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



chosen as follows: George \V. IVrry. Simeon L. Hast. C. M. 
1'hleeger. Milton E. Akers, Saninel M. Suniuiers, Frank II. Grove, 
Leonard Hoffman. Hoy Schaff'er. and William .Mercer. Much of 
the labor and materials for the building were contributed by the 
members of the congregation and the completion of the plans was 
soon reali/.ed. Exclusive of these donations the house of worship 
cost JJO.n'OO. The church is beautiful for situation, is 100 feet long 
and 40 feet wide, and is well furnished and thoroughly equipped 
for service. For several years now the pulpit has been supplied 
b the Rev. R. S. Poffenberger. 



BETHANY LUTHERAN 

BRUNSWICK, MI). 

(BurxswicK CHAKCK.) 
h'<v. Charlrx \V. Iltss, 



Bethany Evangelical Lutheran Church, of Brunswick. Fred- 
erick County. .Maryland, was organized August 21, 1892, Rev. C. 
AV. Bixler, a seminarian from Gettysburg, being in charge of the 
work during his vacation. The work was under the direction of 
the Hoard of Home Missions. The incorporators were: Elders. 

George II. Tritapo;> and Jonas 
Haupt; deacons. Luther E. Mc- 
Bride and "William E. Evans. 

The first services were held in a 
store-room on Fifth Avenue. 
Later the "Brunswick Seminary" 
furnished a temporary home for 
the congregation. Professor J. J. 
Shenk. owner of the seminary, was 
elected superintendent of the 
Sunday school, and succeeded in 
keeping up the interest in the 
work even during the times when 
there was no pastor in charge. 
Mr. Shenk served as superintend- 
ent until 1904 and was active in 
all the work of the church. 

Rev. W. ('. Wire was pastor of 
the mission three months, begin- 

ning his work December 1. 1892. lie sought to gather the Lu- 
therans into the church. 

Rev. Ferdinand D. Hesse, another seminarian, served the 




RKV. CHAIM.KS \V. HKSS. 



THE CHUHC'liF.S OF THK MIDDLK COXFKKKNCK. 

congregation three inonlhs. beginning his work .June 2:5. 1893. 
During this time ten members were added and a building lot on 
Second Street was bought. The comer stone was laid on Sep- 
tember 24th, and this was the final act of Rev. Hesse's ministry. 

The church building was completed before another pastor was 
called. The Sunday school held services in the new church for 
the first time on February 11, 1894. 

Rev. Henderson N. Miller began his labors here on June 1, 
1894. The church building was dedicated on the seventeenth of 
the same month. This structure was 36 feet by 50 feet in size. 
The entire cost of lot, building and furnishings was $2,100, of 




BETHANY LUTHERAN CHURCH, BRUNSWICK, MD. 

which amount the Church Extension Board paid $500 $300 as 
a gift and $200 as a loan; $1,170 remained to be provided for 
on the day of dedication. Rev. Miller continued to serve the con- 
gregation until September 1, 1895. 

A vacancy followed until March 1, 1896, when Rev. Cyrus E. 
Held became the pastor. During his pastorate the membership 
was increased to about one hundred. His resignation took effect 
on December 1, 1898. 

Rev. John H. Diehl took charge of the work, June 1, 1899. 
His services were continued until December 9, 1900. Some prog- 
ress was made in reducing the church debt while he was pastor. 

From January 2, 1902, until the present. Rev. Charles W. Hess 
has had the pastoral oversight of the congregation. 



HISTORY OF MAKYI.ANn >YNOI>. 



As the town grew the church building was found to be unde- 
sirably located. Dr. A. (!. Ilorine. a member of tin- congregation 
and a man of business ability, saw that a better location was im- 
perative, and in the name of the church bought the lot upon 
which the present church building and parsonage are located, at 
the corner of A Street and First Avenue, said lot to be paid for 
by the church at such time as the congregation was able to do so. 

By the will of Mr. Joseph \Valtman (died in 1S7(M. a Lutheran 
who at one time owned a large tract of land adjoining the town 
of Berlin (now Brunswick), the congregation, upon its organi/a- 
tion. became entitled to one acre of land and a graveyard, now 





MIC. OSCAIC M. Fo(;i,K. 
Hrunswirk, Mil. 



Hi; A. ('. HOICIXK, 
Hrunswii-k, Mil. 



within the corporate limits of the town. This gift netted the 
church $745 in cash, and reimbursed Dr. Ilorine for the A Street 
lot. 

The first church property was sold June (i. 190:?. The pur- 
chaser converted it into dwellings. The congregation worshipped 
in AVenner's hall until the new church was built. 

The corner stone of the present structure was laid August 14. 
1904. As will be noticed considerable delay was experienced in 
starting the work. This was in part due to the legal steps re- 
quired in consummating the sale of the "NValtman lots. 

The first service was held in the basement of the church Janu- 
ary S. 190.~>. 

The church is .'U feet bv ">() feet in sixe. It was dedicated Julv 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 329 

16, 190f>. The total cost of the building was about $3.200; the 
furnishings, about $1,300. The members of the building com- 
mittee were Professor J. J. Shenk, J. F. Bittle, M. W. Magaha, 
L. E. McBride, and the pastor. The debt remaining to be pro- 
vided for at the time of dedication was $1,148. 

During the summer of 1916 a parsonage was erected on the 
church lot fronting on First Avenue. The members of the 
building committee were J. W. Kaetzel, L. B. Cline, Professor 0. 
M. Fogle, Mrs. A. G. Ilorine, and Mrs. Sadie E. Mehrling. The 
entire cost of this improvement was $2,900. The parsonage debt 
is $2,000, and there are no other financial obligations outstanding. 
The pastor and his wife have been the occupants of this splendid 
addition to the church property since October, 1916. 

The confirmed membership of the church is one hundred sev- 
enty-two. The Sunday school is progressing nicely under the 
leadership of C. Earl Kelly, superintendent. The Christian En- 
deavor Society has been an important factor in the work of the 
church. Much credit is due the Mite Society for the financial in- 
terest its members have taken in the work. 

Bi-pocket envelopes have been in use since 1915 in the congre- 
gation. The Common Service Book was introduced on Easter 
Sunday, 1919. 

LUTHER CHAPEL, LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
PETEBSVILLE, MB. 

(BRUNSWICK CHARGE.) 
Rev. Charles W. Hess, Supply Pastor. 

Luther Chapel Evangelical Lutheran Church, Petersville. 
Maryland, was organized on October 28, 1873. Prior to this time 
Rev. Nixdorff, and possibly Rev. Wire, pastors of the Burkitts- 
ville charge, had preached in Petersville, but no organization was 
effected until the above date. The Rev. L. A. Mann, D.D., was 
the first pastor of the organization. 

The records show that "The Church was completed and dedi- 
cated to holy use on the first Sabbath in November, 1874." The 
entire cost of the building in money was about $1,850. "The 
brethren George Richards, Lewis A. Easterday, Joseph Waltman 
(deceased), Henry Hoffman and others deserved especial mention 
for their generous liberality, etc." 

This church continued to be a part of the Burkittsville charge 
until 1913. Since that time Rev. Charles W. Hess, of Brunswick, 
has been acting as supply pastor of the congregation. 



HISTORY Oh' MARY!. AND SYXoD. 



ST. PAUL'S Ll'TIIKKAX ('IintCII, 
WKKITTSVILLK, Ml). 

( Bl'RKITTSVlLLE ClIAKCK.) 

A'/} 1 . //. ('. Krtlmnn. I'aslur. 

The first Lutheran preacher of whom there is any record, who 
served in liurkittsvillc, was the Rev. Martin Sackman, wlio came 
over occasionally from Virginia and officiated in the German 
language. That was in the year lSlf>. The services were held in 
the upstairs of a building owned by Mr. E. L. Korn, and since 
used as a furniture room. 

The Rev. Abraham Reck, who was pastor at Middletown. 1829- 

1S:W. preached here occasionally 
in a building used as a wagon- 
maker's shop. lie is spoken of 
also as having preached once in a 
barn owned by Mr. (). Ilarley. 

In the year 1829 the Lutheran 
and Reformed congregations unit- 
ed their efforts and undertook the 
erection of a church building. At 
the completion of this building 
Rev. A. Reck, of the Lutheran con- 
gregation, and Rev. Bucher, of 
the Reformed congregation, each 
preached here regularly every 
four weeks. 

The Rev. Michael Wachter suc- 
ceeded Rev. Reck in the pastorate' 
of Middletown, and also preached 
at Hurkittsville every four weeks 

from June. IS.'W. to September. 184:5. He is spoken of in an old 
record as an "Israelite indeed in whom there is no guile." He 
was generally much beloved and was instrumental in the conver- 
sion of many souls. 

Rev. Charles Hay came next into the Middletown pastorate 
and preached here also. His stay was short. He was called to a 
professorship in the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. lie 
served here from .January 11. 1844. to November .'$. 1844. 

At the close of Rev. Hay's pastorate a change was made and 
the Burkittsville congregation became connected with the Jeffer- 
son charge. Rev. Harpel is said to have served at this period for 
a short time. 




II. ('. EltDMAN. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 331 

Rev. Daniel llauer became the pastor of Ihis charge in 1845 
and served until 1853. He was very diligent and untiring in his 
labors and much beloved by his people. 

Following Rev. Ilauer, Rev. George S. Collins was pastor for 
about a year. He was compelled to give up the work on account 
of a disease of the lungs which shortly afterwards resulted in his 
death. He is spoken of as a man of fine intellect and great gen- 
eral as well as theological information and possessed one of the 
largest and best selected private libraries. 

Rev. B. Appleby, of Baltimore, came next into the Jefferson 
charge and served here faithfully for about two years. He then 
resigned and returned to Baltimore. 

Rev. Edwin Dorsey, M.U., served the charge for about one 
year but finding the work too laborious he received and accepted 
a call to the Martinsburg charge in West Virginia. 

After the departure of Rev. Dorsey the Burkittsville congre- 
gation withdrew from the Jefferson charge and determined to 
support a pastor for themselves. After some time Rev. G. A. 
Xixdorff was called and entered upon his duties November 1, 
1858. At this time the Burkittsville congregation sold their in- 
terest in the union church for $600 and immediately proceeded to 
plan for a new church building. The corner stone of the new 
edifice was laid on August 20. 1859. The old church building 
being too small for the congregation assembled, the preaching 
service was held in the grove in the rear of the church. Rev. 
William F. Eyster, of Jefferson, addressed the people in a very 
happy manner. Revs. Klink and Smeltzer also participated. It 
was during this pastorate, after the battle of South Mountain 
at Crompton's Gap, September 14, 1862, that the church build- 
ing was used as a hospital. Rev. Nixdorff served the congrega- 
tion until the spring of 1865. 

In August, 1865, Rev. W. C. Wire took charge of the congrega- 
tion and in November had quite an interesting meeting, resulting 
in a number of accessions. About this time the idea of establish- 
ing a female seminary tinder the control of the church was ad- 
vanced and finally carried out in 1866. 

Rev. Wire also served the congregation at Weverton, and acted 
as principal of the seminary. 

In 1868 a house for the use of the sexton was built. 

Rev. Wire resigned his pastoral duties July 1, 1869, to devote 
all his time to the female seminary. 

From September 17, 1869, to April, 1876, Rev. L. A. Mann 
was the pastor. During the pastorate of Rev. Mann a large lot 
was secured and a brick parsonage built on it. Rev. Mann was 



'{.'52 HISTORY OF MARYLAN'h SYNOD. 

devoted and untiring in his labors and was much beloved by his 
people. 

Rev. J. II. Turner became pastor July 20. 187(5. and closed his 
labors here .June 1. 1SSO. During tbis pastorate, a tower and 
spire were built to the church edifice. 

Then came the following pastors: Rev. M. C. Heisler, 1880- 
1881; Rev. M. L. Beard. 1881-1888; Rev. T. W. Dosh. D.I).. 
1888-1889; Rev. S. E. Slater. 1891-1896; Rev. 0. L. Hitter. 1896- 
190:{; Rov. 1'. H. Fasold. 1908-1909; Rev. J. \V. I). Scherer. 
from January. 1910. to May of the same year this pastor died 
here of pneumonia. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Charles J. Ilines. December 1. 
1910. to December 1. 1914. the church edifice was improved by 
installation of steam heating and acetylene lighting plants, new 
carpet and new pews for main auditorium, entire interior re- 
painted, bath room and other improvements in parsonage and 
new cement walks in front of church and parsonage. The church 
was reopened April 20, 1913. 

Rev. Harry 0. Erdraan became pastor April 10. 1915. 

During this pastorate a two-manual Moller pipe organ was 
installed in the church and a hot water heating plant placed in 
the parsonage. 

Among many admirable traits of that have been characteristic 
of this congregation, two especially stand out prominently: the 
strong devotion the people have always had for their pastor, and 
the unbroken harmony of its members. In the one hundred 
years of church life there is no trace of a church quarrel. 



TKIXITY LUTHERAN <TIUR( 1 H, 
KXOXVILLE, MI). 

(BrRKITTSVILLE CHARGE.) 

Kev. II. ('. ErdmdH. Pastor. 

Tn December. 1848. Rev. I. P. Smelt/er, as a missionary of 
the Maryland Synod, took charge of the congregation formed a 
few months previous by the Rev. P. AVillard. then pastor of the 
church near Lovettsville. Virginia. At that time there was no 
house of worship and the congregation met in an old mill, now 
burnt, and in private houses. 

The church, which was built of stone, was located at Weverton, 
ami was dedicated in 1849. 

The church was very prosperous during the pastorate of Rev. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 333 

Smelt/er, numbering seventy or eighty members. After he left 
Rev. G. A. Nixclorff preached there occasionally from 1859 to 
1864. 

During the war troops occupied the church and prevented the 
holding of services. 

In 1865 Rev. W. C. Wire took charge of the congregation at 
Burkittsville and Weverton. In September. 1865, he canvassed 
the field with a view of resuscitating the church but could find 
only eight of the former members. The church was very much 
injured by the soldiers, the roof was partly burned, the pews 
were all gone, stoves broken or carried off, and windows broken, 
making the house nothing more than a wreck and entirely unfit 
for service. Because of this services were held in a school house 
in Knoxville. 

In the spring of 1866 the church was repaired. During the 
pastorate eighteen members were added. From this time for- 
ward this congregation has been a part of the Burkittsville 
charge. 

During the pastorate of Rev. L. A. Mann, the church building 
located at Weverton was torn down and the material removed to 
Knoxville and used in erecting a neat, substantial stone structure 
there. 

All of the pastors, in the records they have left, speak of the 
activity of the Sunday school, a devoted little band of Christian 
workers. Their harmonious action, their benevolence, their at- 
tachment to the doctrines of our Lord Jesus Christ as taught and 
practiced by the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and their liber- 
ality have been remarkable and praiseworthy. The spiritual con- 
dition of the church has been uniformly good. The pastors, with- 
out exception, have received nothing but kindness and tokens 
of love. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Slater a frame Sunday school 
building was erected at a cost of about $800. 

During the summer of 1915, under the present pastorate, the 
church building was much improved. A new steam heating 
plant installed, electric lights, interior painted and decorated, 
steel ceiling put in, new carpet, stone work on outside repointed 
and cement walk laid in front of church and Sunday school 
building. 

During the present pastorate ninety-two members were re- 
ceived into the church. 



>-'54 HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

TRINITY LUTHERAN TIITUm, DKKK PARK 
ROAD, MI). 

Ifc i'. William L. Swihruok. I'aslor. 



This congregation was organized on February 5. 1866. It was 
incorporated in October of that year. Those who united in its 
organization had recently come directly from Germany, and so 
the articles of incorporation provided that "all worship and 
services of the congregation should be in the German language as 
long as one male member should desire it." 

The congregation attached itself with the Maryland Synod. 
The first pastor was the Rev. Gerhardt Rademacher. A church 
building was erected in 1867. The lot for the building was do- 
nated by George Hit/el and his wife Elizabeth. Subsequently the 
congregation acquired an adjacent property of several acres. 
upon which was built a parsonage and a parochial school build- 
ing. In May. 1868. Pastor Rademacher influenced the congre- 
gation to sever its connection with the Maryland Synod and 
unite with the Missouri Synod. 

In 1878 Pastor Rademacher was succeeded by the Rev. J. 
George Ilaefner. Through his influence the articles of incor- 
poration were amended the next year so as to bind the ministers 
and other officers of the church to all of the symbolical books. 
Pastor Ilaefner served the congregation until 1884. His suc- 
cessor. the Rev. G. II. Zimmerman, ministered here from 1884 to 
1890. Then the Rev. F. G. Schaller was pastor of the congrega- 
tion for three years until 189:$. From 1894 until January. 1901. 
the Rev. S. S. Henry was the faithful shepherd of the flock. 
During all this time the German language was used almost ex- 
clusively in the services of the church and in the work of the 
parochial school. 

But the steady Americanization of the young people of the 
congregation was followed by an increasing demand for the use 
of the English language. From the beginning of 1901 until the 
end of 1907 the congregation was without a regular pastor. For 
several years Rev. S. J. Derr. of Hampstead, and Rev. P. II. 
Miller. D.I)., of Westminster, ministers of the Maryland Synod. 
rave the congregation occasional services. Many of the members. 
adhering closely to the Missouri Synod, refused tit attend the 
services at which these ministers officiated. 

In February. 1904. Mr. John Schaefer. acting for himself and 
many others, filed a bill of complaint against the trustees of the 



THE CHURCHES OK THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 

congregation and the Rev. P. II. Miller. D.I)., and the Rev. S. J. 
Derr, alleging that the trustees had permitted the use of the 
church property for worship and devotions other than those con- 
templated by the articles of incorporation, and were having such 
worship and services conducted by ministers "who deny the 
validity, integrity and binding force, the sanctity and absolute 
authority of the Symbolical Books of 1580." The bill prayed 
for an injunction restraining Dr. Miller and Rev. Derr from 
conducting religious services in the church. The bill of com- 
plaint was dismissed by the Circuit Court of Carroll County, and 
upon appeal to the Court of Appeals of Maryland the decision of 
the lower court was affirmed. Meanwhile Doctor Miller con- 
tinued to serve the congregation regularly, preaching on alter- 
nate Lord's Day afternoons and instructing the children of th'3 
congregation and preparing them for confirmation. 

This unhappy litigation caused a deep schism in the ranks of 
the congregation. But the great Head of the Church had been 
preparing the instrument for the healing of the differences. From 
1879 to 1888 a young lawyer of Westminster. William L. Sea- 
brook, whom they had known from boyhood, enjoyed the close 
confidence of many members of the congregation. In 1888 Mr. 
Seabrook gave up the practice of law and entered the Theological 
Seminary at Gettysburg. After serving General Synod congre- 
gations at Wichita and Abilene, Kansas, he became a member 
of the United Synod of the South, and was pastor of Grace Lu- 
theran Church, at Winchester, Virginia, from 1895 to 1902, and 
of Trinity Lutheran Church, at Xewberry, South Carolina, from 
1902 to 1907. 

In July, 1907. circumstances brought the Rev. Mr. Seabrook 
back to his old home at Westminster. The Deer Park congrega- 
tion asked him to become its pastor. Believing that with divine 
help he would be able to reunite the congregation he accepted 
the call. By letter and by personal visitation he succeeded in 
rallying the members of the congregation. A large catechetical 
class was organized. The Common Service was introduced into 
th? weekly worship. A note of loyalty to the Lutheran Church 
and to the Lutheran faith was emphasized, and in a short timo 
all but one of the enrolled members of the congregation had 
again taken up their active relations to the church. To this day 
many of those who had been alienated are among its most faith- 
ful members. The beautiful spirit in which Mr. John Schaefer 
and those who were in sympathy with him accepted the new 
order is evidenced by the fact that he received and regarded Mr. 
Seabrook as his pastor, received from him the holy communion 



3:56 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



two days before his death in February, 1911. and asked to be 
buried with services in the old church which he helped to found 
and for which lie cherished such ardent affection. In his will 
he left to the congregation the sum of $200 unconditionally. In 
respect to his memory the congregation applied a portion of this 
bequest to the purchase of an individual communion service, 
which, suitably inscribed, will remain a memorial to the devotion, 
lovaltv and charity of John Schaefer. 



ELIAS LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
EMMITSBURG, MI). 

h'( r. Charles Rcincwald, D.D., Pastor. 

The Lutheran church of this community dates its origin from 
the year 1757, on the banks of Tom's Creek, two and one-half 
miles east of Emmitsburg. According to the primitive style of 
that colonial period the structure was built of logs. According 
to a historical letter of Rev. John G. Young, written to Rev. Dr. 

Ilelmuth, Philadelphia, the year 
1757 is the date of this congrega- 
tion's beginning. At a later peri- 
od a new church building was 
erected on the same site by the 
Lutheran and the Reformed con- 
gregations. 

The first pastor was Rev. John 
G. Bager (Baugher). whose suc- 
cessors in office were the follow- 
ing: 

Rev. John G. Bager, 1757-1759 ; 
vacant, 1759-1761 ; Rev. Ludwig 
Beck, 1761-1767; vacant. 1767- 
1769; Rev. Charles F. Wildbahn, 
1769-1782; Rev. John G. Young. 
1782-1794; Rev. Guenther \Vin- 
gert, 1794-1795: Rev. John F. 
Ruthrauff. 1797-1802 (first pastor 

after erecting present church building at Emmitsburg) ; Rev. 
John G. Grobp, 1802-1828; Rev. John X. Hoffman, 1828-1833; 
Rev. Samuel D. Finekel, 1833-1837 ; Rev. Ekra Keller, 1837-1840; 
Rev. Solomon Sentman. 1841-1852; Rev. John Welfley, 1852- 




KKV. CUAI:I,K.S REINEWALD, U.D. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



337 



1854; Rev. George S. Collins, 1854-1855; Rev. Henry Bishop, 
1855-1863; Rev. Washington V. Gotwald, 1863-1866; Rev. E. S. 
Johnston, D.D., 1866-1888; Rev. Luther DeYoe, D.D.. 1889-1892; 
Rev. 0. G. Klinger, 1892-1892; Rev. Charles Reinewald. D.D., 
1892. 

During the one hundred sixty-two years of its history this con- 
gregation has been served by nineteen pastors. Until the year 
1852 Emmitsburg was part of the Taneytown Lutheran pastorate. 
Rev. John Welfley, in 1852. became the first resident Lutheran 
pastor of Emmitsburg. 
Until the year 1869 the 
Lutheran and Reformed 
congregations owned and 
used the stone church 
building cojointly and on 
alternate Sundays Lu- 
theran and Reformed 
services were held. 

The present stone build- 
ing was erected in the 
year 1797. when the pres- 
idency of Washington was 
merging to its close. This 
historic structure has been 
washed by the waves of 
one hundred and twenty- 
two years and has af- 
forded privileges of wor- 
ship and spiritual enlarge- 
ment for four genera- 
tions. Numerous have 

been the lights and shadows amid which the congregation's strug- 
gles and triumphs, its joys and sorrows, have found enactment. 

The pastorate of the writer covers a period of twenty-seven 
years exceeding in point of time that of any former incumbent. 
During this period of twenty-seven years lying in two cen- 
turies not a few events have come within our appreciative sur- 
vey. 

Christianity and Christian education must ever march together 
with unbroken step. In 1828 our church established an academy 
on our church ground, affording educational advantages under 
competent Christian teachers until a time within the memory of 
persons yet living. The old school academy exerted a marked 

and most important influence on the progressive life and intel- 
22 




ELIAS LUTHERAN CHURCH, EMMITSBUUG, MD. 



!"> s HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

licence of tliis entire community. This academy antedated the 
founding of Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg by four years. 

In 1S:>.~> the church building was remodelled and rededicated. 
Rev. S. I). FincUel preached the sermon on the glad occasion. 

In October of this same year. 1S:{~>. the Maryland Synod con- 
vened in tli is church at which time Rev. E/ra Keller was or- 
dained to the holy ministry and subsequently went to Saint 
John's Church. Ilagerstown. and then to Springfield. Ohio, to 
become the founder and first President of Wittenberg College. 

The Synod of Maryland, in less than a century of its memor- 
able history convened six times within the walls of this church, 
vi/.: 1S:{:>. 1S4(i. ls:>S. 1S70. 1SS2. 1907. 

In the year 1S97 the centennial of our congregation's life in 
the present town structure was commemorated with deep interest 
and great enthusiasm. Many former parishioners and all ex- 
pastors except one returned for the Jubilee Service which began 
September :}()th and continued until October :>d. Historical ad- 
dresses were delivered by Rev. John Wei Hey. of Braddock. Pa.. 
Rev. E. J. Wolf. D.D.. of Gettysburg, and Rev. Charles Reine- 
wald. Addresses were also delivered by Rev. Luther DeYoe, 
Rev. (). (J. Klinger. Dr. T. C. Billheimer. Dr. A. S. Ilartman. 
Rev. George (loll. Rev. William Simonton. Rev. I). F. Garland, 
and others. Before the celebration the church building was re- 
furnished with new pulpit and chancel furniture, fine art glass 
memorial windows, and new carpet, greatly improving the church 
interior. 

In 1909 further improvements were made in the frescoing of 
the church walls. 

In 1904 a direct avenue of concrete \vas made from the street 
to the church door, commanding a wide and beautiful approach. 

On October 12-14. 1917. the Quadri-Centennial of Protestant- 
ism, along with the pastor's twenty -fifth anniversary of his pres- 
ent pastorate, was commemorated. Addresses were given by Dr. 
Luther Kuhlman. Dr. C. T. Aikens. Rev. V. S. G. Rupp. I). I).. 
Rev. C. A. Shilke. Rev. W. (). Ibach. and the address on the Lu- 
theran Quadri-Centennial by Dr. Abdel R. Went/, of Gettysburg. 

The Lutheran Church of Kmmitsburg stands first in numerical 
strength among the Protestant churches and covers rather a 
large territory, not only in Maryland but over the state line of 
Pennsylvania. 

Through a varied and tested life our people have been inter- 
ested in noble ideals and have given for all purposes and objects 
which tell for the advance of Christ's kingdom both at home and 
abroad. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 339 

The families of our church have furnished many noble and 
splendid examples of faith and service in our long-time career. 
Among these we may mention the Rowes. the Eiehelbergers, the 
Sheets, Gillellans, Zimmermans, Ilokes, Zecks. Shuffs, the Hos- 
j)elhorns, Maxwells, Rhodes, Pattersons. Fife/., Linns, Byers, 
Shrivers, Caldwells, Ohlers, Eysters, Gelwicks, ]\IcXairs. Win- 
ters, Bullingers, AVortz. Weant, Bishop, Stonesifcr, and others. 

Dr. James Eiehelberger. Sr., was for many years our Sunday 
school superintendent. lie was succeeded by Charles F. Rowe, 
who filled the position faithfully until the time of his death in 
1911. 

In 1835, during the convention of the Maryland Synod, Dr. 
Joseph Augustus Seiss experienced the call to the gospel ministry. 
At that time he was a youth of fourteen, seated in our church 
gallery his home at Graeeham, seven miles south of Emmits- 
burg. lie gave a long and distinguished term of service to his 
Lord and Master. 

Our second son from this church for the ministry comes in the 
person of Mr. Wade E. Stonesifer, uow a student in our seminary 
in Gettysburg. 

In addition to these men for the ministry, the congregation has 
furnished one very useful member to the ranks of the deacon- 
esses. Sister Flora Belle Older. 

The present pastor. Rev. Charles Reinewald, D.D., served four 
years at Braddock, Pa., before coming to Emmitsburg in October, 
1892. The past has its lessons; the present its vision and hope; 
the future its victory and felicity. 



THE FREDERICK LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
FREDERICK, MD. 

Rev. U. 8'. G. Rupp, D.D., Pastor. 

The published materials on the history of this church are many. 
The Evangelical Review of April, 1856, contains a lengthy article 
from the pen of Rev. George Diehl covering the history of the 
congregation from the beginning to 1837. The Lutheran Quar- 
terly of October, 1883, presents a still longer article by Rev. B. 
M. Schmucker. D.I)., covering about the same period of history 
of the congregation, but in the light of additional sources of in- 
formation. In 1905 there was published a nineteen-page booklet 
by Rev. Luther Kuhlman, D.I)., containing the story of the 
church's life down to that date. For a complete history of this 
old and influential congregation, therefore, the reader is referred 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



to those printed documents. From them we gather the following 
salient facts : 

The pioneers of Lutheranism in this region journeyed hither 
from Pennsylvania along the line of travel through Lancaster, 
York and Hanover (Conewago). The original settlement begun 
about 1730-1732. had its nucleus somewhere near the Monocacy. 
about ten miles north of Frederick. Here was located the mother 
church of all the Lutheran congregations subsequently established 
in this general region. The Frederick church is a daughter of the 

Monocacy congrega- 
tion. The oldest rec- 
ord book in possession 
of the congregation is 
stamped on the back 
"Gemeinde Monakes." 
that is. the congrega- 
tion of the Monocacy. 
and the most precious 
historic relic in their 
possession is the Eng- 
lish Constitution con- 
tained in this same 
book, prepared by 
Muhlenberg and pre- 
served in his hand. 

The Rev. Mr. Wolf, 
who administered the 
first baptism, was a 
Lutheran pastor on 
the Raritan in New 
Jersey, and the bap- 
tism may have been 
performed at that 
place. 

It is known that a 
congregation was in 
existence in 1741, that 
a house of worship 

was bought or built in 17-13. and that Rev. David Candler was 
the first pastor, not resident here, however. This fixes the organ- 
i/ation not later than 1743. and perhaps before that date. Of 
this first pastor we know only that he resided near Hanover, and 
such was his xeal that at first he gathered the people in his own 
home, that his field extended from York to Frederick, that he died 




FltKDKItlCK LUTHEKAN ClIUUCII, FltKDKIUCK, MD. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 341 

in 1740, and is buried at Conewago. It is probable that he was 
a spiritual son of the Rev. John Casper Stoever, whose center of 
operations was that Lutheran stronghold. York, Pa. 

Candler was followed by Rev. Nyberg, a Swede. It is the testi- 
mony of Muhlenberg that he had charge of the Monocacy congre- 
gation, and that without doubt he occasionally preached here. It 
was a sorry day when Xyberg made his entrance into this valley. 
He was at heart a Moravian, and so lax was his sense of honor that 
in 3745 or 1746 he tried to carry the congregation over to the 
Moravians. In this reprehensible attempt he did not succeed, 
though the congregation was rent in two, the Moravian party 
locating at Graceham, while the Lutheran portion retained the 
old church. This is the disturbance to which Muhlenberg refers 
in his report, and was the occasion of his visit. 

In 1746 or 1747, a Rev. Nicke, also a Moravian, and apparently 
sent hither by the Moravian authorities at Bethlehem, undertook 
to feed this flock. But it did not recognize his voice as that of a 
true shepherd, would none of his provender, and did the sensible 
thing when it locked the door on him and his following after he 
had preached a single sermon. In this same year these defenseless 
people were set upon by yet two other wolves. The first was a 
pretended Lutheran minister by the name of Carl Rudolph, who, 
in Georgia, came near hanging. lie w r as accepted at Monocacy, 
but "soon showed himself to be a thief, a drunkard, licentious 
and utterly worthless." and he was compelled to move on. The 
second of this precious pair was a vagabond whom "Muhlenberg 
terms Empiricus Schmidt." He undertook to administer both 
to the bodily and spiritual ills of the people. He, however, found 
few supporters. Still another of this same ilk, Streiter by name, 
caused them no little distress in 1751. 

From 1747-1749 this congregation received occasional ministry 
from Rev. I. H. Schaum and Rev. Valentine Kraft, both godly 
men. The latter of these moved to Frederick, was an old man 
and infirm, very poor, and was granted, by the wardens of the 
English church, an allowance of ten pounds annually as charity. 
He died in 1751. 

In correspondence by the officers of the congregation in Fred- 
erick, addressed to the Rev. Mr. Schaum about 1752, a strong 
light is thrown upon the difficulties against which they had to 
contend. Their confidence in the friendly disposition of Mr. 
Schaum toward them is very great, and their appeals to him for 
counsel and assistance are pathetic. 

There is testimony that Rev. Mr. Hausihl came to Frederick as 
early as March 20, 1752. and that his labors extended to 1758. 



342 



HISTORY OF .MAHYI.ANM) SYNOD. 



He was the first resident pastor and the story of his life is most 
interesting. 

hi 17f>S. after repeated and urgent requests which would take 
no denial. Muhlenberg again visited Frederick. He counselled 
witli the members of the Lutheran Church there, but steadfastly 
refused to let them extend a call to him. In 17(12 Rev. J. C. 
Hartwig consecrated the ne\v church building that had taken the 
place of the one erected in 174:$. 

After a vacancy of some five years they secured a pastor in 
17b':J in the person of Hev. J. S. Schwerdfeger. But he seems 
to have remained less than a year. 

The next pastor was the Rev. John Andrew Krug. He came 
to Frederick from Reading in 1771. and in spite of much oppo- 




LITIIKUAN SUNDAY SCHOOL BUILDING, FHKDKKICK, MD. 

sit ion from within the congregation succeeded in maintaining 
himself in office until his death in 1796. 

Rev. Charles Frederick Wildbahn succeeded Rev. Krug. He 
also came from Reading. He served the congregation only a year 
and a half until June. 1798. 

Upon the resignation of Rev. Wildbahn the congregation ex- 
tended a call to Rev. Charles Augustus Gottleib Storck. of North 
Carolina, which call was declined. 

In 1799. the Rev. John Frederick Moeller. a youth of twenty- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 343 

six years, became the pastor and ministered most acceptably for 
three years. 

When Mr. Moeller went to Chambersburg in 1802, the last 
pastor of that place came to Frederick. His name was Frederick 
William Jasinsky. Dr. Diehl gives an interesting and forcible 
sketch of the man. In 1807 it was agreed that for the sake of the 
peace of the congregation he should withdraw. 

In July. 1808, Rev. David Frederick Schaeffer took charge of 
the congregation. lie was then twenty-two years old. only re- 
cently licensed. He continued as pastor until nearly the day of 
his death in 1837. During this long pastorate the congregation 
nourished exceedingly and her influence was felt in many direc- 
tions. Dr. Schaeffer came from an influential family and was 
prominent in the founding and early history not only of the 
Maryland Synod but even of the General Synod. During the 
first sixteen years of the life of the Maryland Synod he was an 
officer every year except one. Of the first six meetings of the 
General Synod four were held in his church, and of the first seven 
meetings he was five times secretary and twice president. He 
was a teacher of students for the ministry and the editor of the 
first English Lutheran periodical, the Intelligence)-. 

Dr. Schaeffer was succeeded by Rev. Simeon W. Harkey, D.D.. 
who filled the pastorate from 1837 to 1850. When Rev. Harkey 
began his ministry here there were two congregations, with a 
communicant membership of three hundred, and a Sunday school 
of one hundred and seventy -five scholars. The number of con- 
gregations was subsequently increased to four. In 1840 the 
Manor and Mt. Zion congregations were relinquished and in con- 
nection with Jefferson formed a new charge. In 1844 the Bethel 
congregation united with two others, one at Fair View and the 
other at Rocky Springs, thereby constituting this congregation a 
separate charge from that time. 

Of Rev. Harkey it may be said that he was an able, devoted, 
spiritually-minded minister of the gospel. In zeal he was untir- 
ing; in preaching scriptural, fervent, direct, persuasive; and in 
pastoral work sympathetic and helpful. By all he was held in 
high regard. In the Synod he was easily among the leaders 
Much of its best work was either suggested or performed by him. 
During his pastorate the present parsonage was completed in 
1846, at a cost of $1,995. 

Rev. Dr. Harkey resigned in 1850. Two years later he became 
professor of theology in the University of Illinois, an office that 
he graced for fifteen years. 

Upon the retirement of Rev. Mr. Harkey the council addressed 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 345 

itself to the task of securing a successor with great diligence but 
at first indifferent success. A number of ministers were invited 
to preach as candidates, but most of them declined. Rev. Joseph 
A. Seiss. then at Cumberland, Md., was extended a call, and it 
appeared at first as though he would be the next pastor. After 
some correspondence, however, he felt it his duty to remain 
where he was. 

On December 12. 1850. an invitation was extended to Rev. 
George Diehl, p]aston, Pa., to preach for the congregation with a 
view of becoming its pastor. He was elected, accepted the call, 
and was formally installed on August 12, 1851. His pastoral 
relationship extended over a period of more than thirty-six years, 
and exceeded in length the service of any other pastor. 

The opening years of the new order were marked by unusual 
activity. Then it was that the congregation decided upon and 
performed the largest single undertaking in its history, the erec- 
tion of the present house of worship. The corner stone was laid 
on August 26, 1854, and the new edifice was dedicated on Decem- 
ber 8, 1855. 

At the same time the congregation began to contribute munifi- 
cently to the benevolence of the church. The minutes of the 
Maryland Synod give ample evidence of the prominence and in- 
fluence of Dr. Diehl in the counsels of the church. He was Presi- 
dent of the General Synod in 1861. 

In 1878 the pastor evidently began to weary under some of his 
burdens, and requested relief from the delivery of the German 
sermon. How the matter was adjusted is not stated. The 
record furnishes abundant evidence of the diligence of the pastor 
in his manifold duties. But the passing years left their weight 
of infirmities upon him, and the time finally came when he was 
no longer equal to the arduous duties which he once carried with 
ease. It was thought that the situation might be satisfactorily 
adjusted by the employment of a younger man as assistant. This, 
however, was not found feasible, and so the relation that had 
existed for so many years, terminated December 31. 1887. 

In 1888 St. James Lutheran Church was organized, and as its 
pastor Dr. Diehl continued his ministerial labors in this city until 
October 15, 1891, when in the silence of the night his spirit went 
home to God who gave it. 

Rev. Luther Kuhlman, D.D., became pastor of the Frederick 
church on February 1, 1888, and served for more than fifteen 
years. This was a period of unparalleled growth not only in the 
size and property of the congregation, but even more in its spirit 
and activities. A Sundav school building was erected at a cost 




c HS' i 

w o 

' 



CO ^ 2 O 
M I J^ I 

o 5^ ..I 
< ^"* 



im 



^. : a; 



5 ad g o 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 347 

of more than $16,000. The main church building was overhauled 
at a cost of over $5.500. A third story and other improvements 
were added to the parsonage. The congregation was taught the 
grace of direct giving. 

Lutheran usages were introduced. The chancel arrangements 
and furnishings were made to accord with Lutheran ideas. The 
Washington Service was first introduced and later the Book of 
Worship and the Common Service were adopted. Under the di- 
rection of Mrs. Kuhlman there were organized the influential 
Woman's Missionary Society which to-day numbers seventy-five 
members, the Young People's Missionary Society (to-day fifty), 
the enthusiastic Junior Mission Band (to-day one hundred), and 
the model Primary Department of more than three hundred chil- 
dren. 

During Dr. Kuhlman 's pastorate at least seven young men 
were started for the Christian ministry, five of them for the Lu- 
theran ministry. Three of these are to-day faithful pastors and 
preachers, namely. Rev. M. J. Kline, D.D., of Altoona, Pennsyl- 
vania; Rev. A. J. Carty, of Philadelphia, and Rev. G. Z. Stnp, 
of Trenton, New Jersey. In a large way, therefore, Dr. Kuhl- 
man 's ministry deepened the spiritual life of the congregation, 
created an appreciation of things Lutheran, and cultivated an 
intelligent cooperation in the work of the church. He resigned 
the pastorate September, 1903, to accept a professorship in the 
Gettysburg Seminary. 

Rev. Charles F. Steck, D.D., was pastor from 1903 to February 
1, 1910. Two important events marked his pastorate. First, the 
constitution was revised, 1904, giving women of legal age the 
right to vote. Second, the fiftieth anniversary of the dedication 
of the present church building was observed by a special festival 
of religious services, December 3-5, 1905. 

On July 1, 1910, the Rev. Ulysses S. G. Rupp, D.D., assumed 
the office of pastor here. He is the present incumbent and under 
his ministry further visible improvements have been made. In 
1911 the duplex envelope system was introduced. A Beginners' 
Department was organized in the Sunday school in 1912 ; $12,000 
was spent to enlarge and improve the Sunday school building so 
as to accommodate this new department and the growing adult 
Bible classes. The Sunday school enrollment has reached the 
mark of 1,200. One hundred fourteen men were given to the 
country in the World War, and four of these died in France. 
The Sunday school is preparing for a fitting observance of its 
centennial in September. 1920. 

Thus we see this venerable church is still young and vigorous 
in life. 



34 S 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



ST. MARK'S LUTHERAN rilUKrH, 
HAMPSTKAI), MI). 

(I I. UMPSTKAD ClIARUE.) 

AYr. John A. Ilan-r, I'aslor. 

St. Clark's Lutheran Church, of Hampstead, is one of four 
congregations which originally formed the Ilampstead charge. 
The otlier three are St. Peter's, near Hoffmanville, and St. Abra- 
ham's, at Beckleysville. and Christ's, of Trenton. 

This union existed until the meeting of the Maryland Synod 
at Ilagerstown. in October. 1913. On April 20, 1913. St. .Mark's. 

of Ilampstead, and Christ's, of 
Trenton, at congregational meet- 
ings called to consider the matter 
of separation, voted to sever their 
connection with St. Peter's and 
St. Abraham's congregations of 
the aforesaid Ilampstead charge. 
Due notice was given of the action 
thus taken by St. Mark's, of 
Ilampstead. and Christ's, of Tren- 
ton, at a meeting of the joint coun- 
cil of the four congregations on 
August 1, 1913. A petition was 
taken to the Maryland Synod 
meeting in convention at Hagers- 
town. on October 22. 1913, pray- 
ing that their request be granted, 
namely: that they be permitted 
to sever their relations from St. 

Peter's and St. Abraham's, and recognized as the Ilampstead 
charge. The petition was granted and St. Mark's, of Ilampstead, 
and Christ's, of Trenton, were constituted a separate charge. 

Rev. C. Lepley began to preach to the Lutherans in Ilamp- 
stead in the spring of 1873. He held his services in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, where he continued to preach for five 
months. The Red Men's Hall was then rented and in addition to 
preaching a Sunday school was organixed and a class of cate- 
chumens gathered and instructed. Rev. Lepley served the few 
Lutherans in Ilampstead for eighteen months, after which they 
were without a pastor for four and one-half years. 

Rev. A. II. Hurk then commenced services in the Red Men's 




KKV. .loirx A. UOWK. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 349 

Hall in April, 1879. On November 4th of the same year a elass 
of sixteen members was gathered for catechetical instruction, and 
on the thirteenth of November a congregation was organized. 
John Scheaffer and Casper Millender were the first elders, and 
Jesse Bixler and Thomas Gardner were the first deacons. The 
corner stone of the church was laid on May 27. 1883. and the 
building, a brick structure 46 feet by 32 feet, was dedicated on 
December 27, 1883. The congregation then numbered twenty- 
five. Rev. Burk then continued to serve them until 1886. 

In October of that year Rev. S. J. Derr became pastor, and as 
the result of his untiring zeal and faithfulness the congregation 
was almost trebled in numbers. The debt was paid, the church 
was improved, and an enthusiastic, devoted spiritual life devel- 
oped. 

The pastors of Saint Mark's have been: Rev. C. Lepley, 1873 
to September, 1875; Rev. A. II . Burk, 1879 to 1880; Rev. S. J. 
Derr, 1886 to 1901; Rev. S. F. Tholan, April, 1901, to May, 
1904; Rev. L. W. Gross, July 1, 1904, to May. 1906 ; Rev. Samuel 
Stauffer, September, 1906, to March. 1908; Rev. W. D. Nichols, 
May, 1908, to March, 1910; Rev. J. S. Keller, May, 1910, to 
April, 1912. Rev. T. T. Brown, a Presbyterian clergyman, sup- 
plied the charge from July 1, 1913, to October 1, 1914. Rev. W. 
M. Spangler, October 1, 1914, to July 1. 1919. The present pas- 
tor, Rev. John A. Howe, took charge in October, 1919. 



CHRIST'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
TREXTOX, MD. 

(HAMPSTEAD CHARGE.) 
Rev. John A. Howe, Pastor. 

Christ's Evangelical Lutheran congregation, of Trenton, was 
organized by Rev. D. J. Hauer, D.D., in 1858, as nearly as can 
be ascertained. In 1859 the corner stone of the church building 
was laid by Dr. Hauer and the church edifice was erected and 
dedicated that same year. 

It was made ;i part of the same charge with Si. Paul's, of 
Arcadia, and was served by the pastors of that charge until 1880. 
when it became a part of the Hampstead charge. 

Rev. S. J. Derr served the church as pastor from 1886 to 1901 ; 
Rev. S. F. Tholan from April, 1901, to May. 1904; Rev. L. W. 
Gross from July 1, 1904, to May, 1906; Rev. Samuel Stauffer 



''}">0 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

from September. 1906. 1o March. 1908; Rev. \V. I). Nichols from 
.May. 1908. to March. 1910-, Rev. J. S. Keller from May. 1910. to 
April. 1912; Rev. T. T. Brown from .July 1. 19U. to October 1. 
1914; Rev. W. M. Spanker from October 1. 1914. to July 1. 
1919; Rev. John A. Howe. October 9. 1919. to the present. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN ( 1 1H T K( 1 II, 
ARCADIA, MI). 

( 1 1. \MPSTKAD ClIAKCK. ) 

lief, ,/olin A. I loin . I'tislor. 

A complete history of this church was written by Rev. Charles 
S. Jones in 1 1)02, and published in a book of sixty-two pages. 
From this we gather the following facts: 

According to tradition St. I'aul's was founded in 1770. Hut. 
the records go back only to the year 1794. The first congrega- 
tion consisted largely of former members of the Manchester 
church, who desired a more convenient place of worship than 
Manchester, which was fifteen miles distant. It is probable that 
the first organization was formed during the pastorate of Rev. 
Daniel Schroeder, of the Manchester charge. A few years later, 
in 1794. the first church was built. As it was built on a lot once 
owned by Jacob Allgeier. it was long known as "Allgeier's 
Church.'' 

Originally the congregation was a union organization of Lu- 
therans and Reformed, but the Reformed part of the congregation 
died out in 1842. 

Rev. John Ilerbst seems to have been the first minister to serve 
the congregation after th-> building of the log church. lie took 
charge about 1797. After about twenty-eight years of service 
he was dismissed by St. Paul's council because "he had violated 
the discipline of the Chun h on a sacramental occasion." From 
this time until 18n'() the line of pastors is the same as that of the 
mother church at Manchester. It is recorded that Rev. Keller in- 
troduced revivalist ic methods, that Rev. Albert was famous for 
using big words, that Rev. Ilarpel "because of certain irregular 
conduct was forced to leave the charge." that Rev. Willard was 
also a revivalist, a strict disciplinarian, a very popular preacher, 
and overmuch given to joking, that Rev. Ruthrauff was a "pro- 
found theologian." that Rev. Schwartx was a young man and 
preached his farewell sermon on the text. "Brethren, these things 
ought not so to be." that Rev. Kaempfer, as pastor at Manchester, 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 351 

did not preach at Arcadia, and that therefore the coming of Doc- 
tor Haiier in 1853 was like the coming of Nehemiah to Jerusalem. 

During the pastorate of Dr. Hauer. in 1860. two of the churches 
of the Manchester charge. St. Paul's and Zoucksville. were 
dropped from the charge by the other churches. Thereupon St. 
Paul's and Zoucksville united with the church at Reisterstown 
to form the Reisterstown charge. They called the Rev. J. M. 
Graybill. of the Virginia Synod. He served just ten months and 
then Rev. Joseph R. Facht was called. lie took charge in Janu- 
ary, 1862. The Chestnut Ridge Church was now added to the 
charge. In 1864 Rev. Jacob Martin succeeded Rev. Facht. 

Meanwhile the German element had become quite strong at 
St. Paul's and a separate German congregation was organized. 
This congregation worshipped in St. Paul's Church. During the 
pastorate of Rev. Martin there was much difficulty between these 
two congregations. The Germans supported Rev. Martin, while 
the English rejected him and finally locked the door on him. 
The English element prevailed and Rev. Martin was obliged to 
resign from St. Paul's. By this act St. Paul's church separated 
herself from the Reisterstown charge. She had no regular serv- 
ices from 1867 to 1870. In 1869. however, she joined the Beck- 
leysville charge, which consisted of Beckleysville. St. Peter's 
(near Alesia). Hampstead. and Zoucksville. In 1870 this charge 
secured a pastor in the person of Rev. P. P. Lane. After much 
difficulty about the paying of the joint salary Rev. Lane resigned 
in 1872. 

The Beckleysville charge now divided on the question of the 
next pastor. Arcadia and Zoucksville insisted on electing Rev. 
Christian Lepley, while the other churches stood firm for Rev. 
Bergner. From 1874, therefore. Hampstead, Beckleysville, and 
St. Peter's constituted a charge and Trenton was added in 1880; 
and St. Paul's united with Reisterstown to form the second 
Reisterstown charge. This latter charge was served by Rev. 
Lepley until 1881. 

Rev. Albert Bell, of the Gettysburg Seminary, took up the 
work of the Reisterstown charge in June. 1881. He ministered 
here until November. 1884. He was succeeded in 1885 by Rev. 
George II. Beckley. In 1897 Rev. Beckley resigned St. Paul's 
and continued to preach at Reisterstown. Thus St. Paul's stood 
independent. Then Rev. A. II. Burk, a son of the church, who in 
middle life had been ordained a minister, supplied St. Paul's for 
two years until June. 1900. Then the Rev. Charles Stork Jones 
accepted a call to the church, and served the congregation for 
about two years. Rev. S. J. Derr was pastor of St. Paul's from 



3.V2 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



1903 to 1911. After a vacancy of two years Rev. W. K Hensel 
became pastor in 1913. Rev. Ilensel was a recent graduate of 
Hreklum Seminary, Germany, and had just graduated from the 
Seminary at Gettysburg. He continued to serve St. Paul's until 
his death in March. 1918. In December of that year the Mary- 
land Synod made St. Paul's a part of the Hampstead charge and 
the present pastor is Rev. John A. Howe. 

The original church building was of logs. This was replaced 
in 1838 during the pastorate of Rev. Ilarpel with a house of stone. 
Again as early as 18f>9 the matter of building a new church was 
discussed. Hut nothing was done in that direction until in 1882 
during the pastorate of Rev. Albert Hell. Then the first brick 
church was built. The cost of this building was a little more 
than $2.200. In 1892 this structure was enlarged and improved. 
In 1902 the congregation secured its own parsonage. 

ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN" rilUROH, 
.JEFFERSON, MI). 

(JEFFERSON CHARGE.) 

l\< v. (!y< I. Uhlcr, I*axtor. 

This charge receives its name from the place in which the larg- 
est of the four congregations that originally composed it is loca- 
ted. The town of Jefferson is sit- 
uated about eight miles from 
Frederick, along the state road 
leading from the latter place to 
Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. 
The Jefferson charge was formed 
about June 10. 1838. Originally 
the Hurkittsville congregation and 
St. Matthew's, of the Manor 
charge, were included. The Hurk- 
ittsville congregation severed its 
connection in 18f>8. and St. Mat- 
thew's in 1886. 

During these thirty-one years 
therefore. St. Paul's, of Jefferson. 
St. Luke's, of Feagaville. and 
Mount Zion congregations have 
composed the Jefferson charge. It 
should be noted that Mount Zion 

almost from the formation of the charge, was comprised in the 
same. The beginnings of St. Paul's congregation antedate the 




(iKOKCK I. t'lll.KI! 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 333 

organization of the charge by nearly half a century. As people 
of German descent mostly comprised the congregations of Mid- 
dletown Valley, so we may infer with certainty that in the early 
formation of what is now St. Paul's they were also in a large 
majority. However a few names of those of other descent seem 
to be present. But it was a pastor of German extraction whose 
name is associated with a number of congregations surrounding 
Frederick in their primitive period, that also apparently min- 
istered first to the Lutherans of Jefferson, viz : Rev. D. F. Sehaef- 
fer, D.D., of Frederick, who in the year 1810 conducted services 
in the school house every four weeks. 

What the developments were during the next twenty-five years 
seems rather obscure. St. Paul's was included in the Middle- 
town charge during the ministry of Rev. J. G. Graeber in that 
place. That there must have been an increasing activity in the 
church life not only among the Lutherans, but also among the 
Reformed, is evident from the fact that an organization was 
effected by the former in 1825, and that the stone church was 
jointly constructed by these two denominations in 1827. during 
the ministry of Rev. Reck, then of the Middletown charge, who. 
with Rev. M. Wachter, served from the latter place until 1838. 
The lot on which the union structure was erected was donated 
by Mr. Henry Hershberger of the Reformed faith. The first of- 
ficers of the Lutheran congregation were : Captain Henry Cul- 
ler. Mr. Thomas Thresher. Mr. Abraham Blessing, and Mr. Philip 
Williard. 

The new Lutheran church was begun some time in 1840. during 
the pastorate of Rev. C. C. Baughmaii. and completed in 1841, 
during the ministry of Rev. W. F. Eyster. The lot was deeded 
to the church by Captain Henry Culler for less than half its real 
value. $266. The church, which was of brick, cost $3.000. The. 
first officers of the church in 1841 were Messrs. Solomon Blessing. 
Jacob Ahalt, Captain Henry Culler. George Richards, Daniel Cul- 
ler. Lewis Easterday, and John Willard. The first bell was a 
gift of the Middletown congregation. 

The excellent parsonage and beautiful grounds were pur- 
chased in 1850, during the pastorate of Rev. D. J. Hauer. for 
$2.000. 

The present commodious church building was erected in 1866. 
during the pastorate of Rev. H. G. Bowers, at a cost of $16,000. 
In September, 1874. the rear gable was blown in by a severe 
storm, causing considerable damage. The church was promptly 
repaired with the expenditure of $1,000. The fine bells in the 
tower, sending out the joyful invitations to the house of God, 
23 



.*]54 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

were purchased for $400. In 1S97. during the ministry of Rev. 
S. A. Hedges, repairs, improvements and additions were made, 
such as new leaded-glass windows, frescoing, painting, light re- 
Hector and pipe organ, costing in all $8.000. The church cemetery 
has also been recently enlarged and improved with an expendi- 
ture of about $1.000. During the month of April. 1899, a new 
roof was placed upon the church with the outlay of $250. With 
all these material improvements the congregation has grown 
numerically and spiritually. 

Dr. Ilorine. in referring to this congregation, says. "With the 
number of church papers and periodicals it reads, we justly infer 
that the people have an intelligent appreciation of the work of 
tli;- church at large." 

Among the first officers at the time of organization appears the 
name of J. Phillip Willard. He afterwards entered the min- 
istry. Resides serving a number of charges with unusual suc- 
cess he was also equally successful in soliciting funds for the 
various operations of the church. Fourteen thousand dollars 
were secured by him in eleven months for the completion of the 
endowment of a German professorship in the Theological Sem- 
inary at Gettysburg. As financial agent for the Lutheran Hoard 
of Publication, he secured $40.000. It was he who originated the 
idea of the Orphans' Home at Loysville. Pa., and he was its su- 
perintendent for twenty-five years. II is name has been familiar 
in that home and the church as Father Willard. 

Rev. W. A. Wadsworth is described as a man "of fine intellect, 
good scholarship and sterling integrity of character." He how- 
ever suffered ill health and was thus hindered from engaging in 
the active work of the ministry except for a little time. 

Rev. Charles A. Stork. D.I)., whose mother was born in Jeffer- 
son, usually spent his summers on his grandfather's farm when 
a boy. 

Rev. J. M. Friday was a son of St. Paul's who met a seemingly 
untimely death. He left his home in Harper's Ferry, West 
Virginia. May 81. 1877. to perform a marriage ceremony in Mary- 
land and upon his returning after the rite was "unhumanly" 
murdered. But four years were thus permitted to be spent in 
the ministry. 

Rev. M. L. Culler. D.I)., now in his eightieth year is also a son 
of this church. He has now retired from the ministry after a 
long period of active work. He has held various positions of 
honor in the church. In 1899 he wrote "The Early History of 
the Lutheran Churches in the Middletown Valley," to which we 
are indebted for much of the material of this narrative. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 355 

Seldom does it happen that two sons of a minister enter the 
ministry from the place in which they were born and from the 
church in which they were reared. This virtually occurred in 
Jefferson from St. Paul's during the long ministry of their fa- 
ther, Rev. H. G. Bowers, both Rev. George S. Bowers. D.D., and 
his brother Rev. John Culler Bowers, D.D., entered the Lutheran 
ministry. 

We come to rather a productive period of ministers in this con- 
gregation from 1900 to 1905. The first during this time was Rev. 
Frederick W.. son of Rev. J. M. Friday, whose father's sad death 
is noted above. Rev. Robert W. Doty entered the ministry 1902. 
He is at present serving a large congregation in Western Penn- 
sylvania. George II. Easterday was ordained in 1904. He later 
demitted the ministry and is now well located in New York City. 
Rev. Silas H. Culler was the fourth of those born in Jefferson 
bearing that familiar name to enter the ministry in 1905. 



MOUNT ZION LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
FREDERICK COUNTY, MI). 

(JEFFERSON CHARGE.) 
Rev. George I. Uhler, Pastor. 

This congregation precedes St. Paul's, of Jefferson, in the time 
of organization. The church was built in 1819. It is located a 
little over four miles from Jefferson and about the same distance 
from Frederick, about a mile inland from the state road, on an 
elevation, in view of St. Luke's three-quarters of a mile distant. 
Rev. D. F. Schaeffer, D.D., served this congregation from Fred- 
erick. It was during his ministry at the latter place that a stone 
building was constructed jointly by Reformed and Lutherans. 

It continued to be a union church until about 1880, when the 
Lutherans bought the Reformed interest for one dollar, the lat- 
ter locating at Feagaville. The Lutherans continued to be served 
by the pastors from Frederick until 1840. It was during Rev. S. 
W. Harkey's pastorate at the latter place that Mount Zion, with 
the Manor congregation, was "relinquished" and became con- 
nected with the Jefferson charge. 

In 1885 there was a desire to construct a new church but on 
account of a disagreement as to the location of the new building, 
a small part of the constituency of Mount Zion congregation with- 
drew. The remaining members built a new brick church on the 
same site on which the original church was located, during the 



356 HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

pastorate of Kcv. \V. II. Set'llemeyer. at a cost of $1.800. While 
there were hut a few that at first withdrew upon the decision of 
the location of the new Mount Xion. there were those who after- 
wards followed. Since that time to the present there have heeu 
severe losses hy removal and death, hut it has maintained its ex- 
istence with reniarkahle fortitude. In the wills of Messrs. Rehr 
and Smith, deceased, the church has received kindly remem- 
hrances. The most familiar name in this congregation is Fulmer. 
Five of the council hear that name. 



ST. LUKE'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
FEAGAVILLE, MD. 

(JEFFERSON CHARGE.) 
h'ci'. (jcor<j< I. Chirr, I'aslor. 

The early history of this congregation is not hidden hy dis- 
tance of time as that of the other two of the charge. It is located 
hetween Jefferson and Frederick in the village of Feagavillc. 
Of the members who withdrew from Mount Zion seventeen met 
for organization August 30, 1885. The first officers were: J). 
Milton Culler. Joseph A. Unglehower, Charles E. Feaga, John L. 
Kenn. George B. Culler. E. C. Renn. R. R. Zimmerman, and E. 
II. Easterday. The membership increased to twenty-seven in a 
short time. But this little flock would hardly have undertaken 
the building of the present fine structure during the same year, 
had not financial aid been extended from a source outside of 
themselves. The lot. however, was donated by one of their own 
numher. Mr. John L. Renn. Colonel Henry Culler, of Jefferson, 
contributed $3,000 towards the building of St. Luke's, in mem- 
ory of his deceased son. Clayton Culler. The ground of the cem- 
etery was also a contribution of his. 

The entire cost of the church was $4000. It was built during 
the pastorate of Rev. W. II. Settlemeyer. It was dedicated De- 
cemher 6. 1885. and was incorporated January 23. 1886. It was 
enlarged in 189(5. and dedicated January 10, 1897. The cost was 
.$900." Five hundred dollars of this amount was contributed by 
Colonel Henry Culler. Upon the death of the wife of Colonel 
Culler in 1911. St. Luke's received by her will $3200. The in- 
tention of the bequest was to purchase a parsonage, should St. 
Luke's ever become a separate charge. Otherwise the interest of 
the same was to be used for repairs for the church. 

The membership of St. Luke's has gradually increased from 



THK CriURCHES OF THE MIDDLE COXFEREXCE. 357 

its inception to tliis time. Besides the family names above. Derrs, 
Hoards. Murrays, Howards, as well as others, have been active 
from its earliest days. In these days of consolidation one would 
think that the proximity of Mount Zion and St. Luke's would 
lead them to unite into one organization, but at this writing there 
are no such indications. Each seems happy in its separate exist- 
ence. 

Following is a recapitulation of the pastors of the Jefferson 
charge : 

Revs. A. Reck and M. Wachter served from Middletown until 
1838. 

Rev. Harpel was pastor from 1838 to 1840. 

Rev. Jesse Winecoff became pastor in 1840 for a few months. 

Rev. C. C. Baughman was pastor but a short time, in 1841. 

Rev. W. F. Eyster became pastor in 1841. and continued until 
1843. lie was a man highly esteemed for his work's sake, and 
greatly beloved for his Christian kindness and general excellence 
of character. 

Rev. D. J. Hauer's pastorate began in 1844, and closed in 1852. 
He was an earnest and pungent preacher, very positive in his 
convictions. He was abundant in labors, and his ministry was 
very prosperous. 

Rev. G. S. Collins was pastor for two years, from 1853 to 1855. 
He was a man of fine literary attainments and remarkably fluent 
in speech. For a village pastor he possessed an exceptionally 
large and well-selected library. Failing health compelled his 
resignation. His deceased wife is buried in the Lutheran grave- 
yard in Jefferson. 

Rev. B. Appleby was pastor from 1855 to 1857. 

Rev. Edwin Dorsey's pastorate extended from 1857 to 1858. 

Rev. II. G. Bowers became his successor in April, 1858, and 
remained the faithful pastor until 1878. His abundant success 
put an end to the short pastorates so long characteristic of this 
charge. Reference has already been made to the results of his 
ministry. He was pastor during the exciting period of the Civil 
War. His prudence, caution, Christian forbearance, together 
with his continuously faithful labors, advanced the spiritual and 
material welfare of the entire charge. The mortal body of Rev. 
Bowers rests in the cemetery of the church he served so well. 

Rev. W. H. Settlemeyer became pastor in 1878, and continued 
his ministry until 1886. Under his active ministry the charge en- 
joyed much prosperity. During his pastorate the new churches. 
Mount Zion and St. Luke's, were built in 1885. 

In 188fi, Rev. S. A. Hedges took charge. Under his faithful 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



and efficient ministry the entire charge enjoyed very much spir- 
itual and material prosperity. Rev. Hedges served this charge 
until 1900. 

Also the following pastors have served this charge: Rev. L. A. 
Hush. 1901 and 1<M)2; Rev. George Millar, 1902 and 1903; Rev. 
W. S. T. Met/ger, 1903 to 1908; Rev. A. G. Null, 1908 to 1914; 
Rev. G. I. T'hler, 1915to- 



LOYETTSVILLE PASTORATE, 
LOVKTTSVILLK, VA. 

/.Vr. /'. \\'. Mi rt: 



The first real settlers to locate in London County, Virginia, 
came in 1732. 

Among the early settlers to locate in the northern part of the 
county was a colony of Germans from Pennsylvania and pos- 
sibly some of the colony direct from the Fatherland. 

As early as 1824 Lovettsville had become quite a village. This 

proved to be another illustration 
of the rule that wherever a Ger- 
man settlement located the school 
house and church followed. 

The first authentic record of th 
organ i/.at ion of the New Jerusa- 
lem Lutheran Church at Lovetts- 
ville is dated 1765. Inferences. 
however, warrant that the church 
was organised much earlier. 

In 1732 the Rev. John Casper 
Stoever, an early missionary of 
the Lutheran Church, was pastor 
of Hebron Church in Madison 
County, Virginia. In his "Lu- 
theran Church in Virginia," pub- 
lished in Hanover. Germany, in 
1737, he states that he visited the 
congregations of the German set- 

tlers in the locality of Lovettsville. This German nucleus evi- 
dently crystalli/ed into the New Jerusalem Church. 

Little progress seems to have been made in the Lutheran 
church in London County until 17(5"). Then, under the pastoral 
oversight of the Rev. Schwerdfeger. a log church and school 
house were erected on the ground now occupied by the present 




HKV. K. W. MKYF.IJ. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 359 

edifice. This seems to have been the beginning of regular serv- 
ices for the congregation. The congregation outgrowing the 
capacity of this, their first church, a stone building was erected. 
This succumbed to a notable snow-storm in 1839. Courageous 
and relying upon the help of God they soon rebuilt. This third 
church was burned in 1868. The Rev. X. J. Richardson was 
pastor at the time the church was burned. True to the faith and 
courage that has ever characterized the followers of the heroic 
Martin Luther, the congregation immediately set about to build 
the present beautiful and commodious brick church, with a seat- 
ing capacity of five hundred. 

Because of the expansion and growth of membership, the Lan- 
kerville church was erected in 1865, being four miles east of the 
"Home Church." Likewise in 1895, a substantial stone build- 
ing (Shinar) was erected, being four miles west of the "Home 
Church." Following are the names of the pastors that have 
served the congregation : 

Rev. Schwerdfeger, Rev. John Andreas Krug, Rev. J. G. Grae- 
ber, Rev. F. W. Jasensky, 1805-1806; Rev. David F. Schaeffer, 
D.D., 1807-1808 ; Rev. John M. Sackman, until 1830 ; Rev. Abra- 
ham Reck, 1830-1832; Rev. M. Blumenthal, 1832 (dismissed same 
year) ; Rev. Daniel J. Hauer, 1833-1847 ; Rev. P. Willard, - 
1849; Rev. C. Startzman, 1849-1853; Rev. William Jenkins, 
- -1857 ; Rev. J. B. Anthony, 1858- - -; Rev. X. J. Richard- 
son, 1860-1873 ; Rev. A. J. Buhrman, - - -1876 ; Rev. P. H. 
Miller, 1876-1888; Rev. Daniel Schindler, - --1890; Rev. M. 
E. McLinn, - --1896; Rev. Luther H. Waring, - --1899; 
Rev. Asa Richard, 1899-1913 ; Rev. J. E. Maurer, 1914-1918. 

The following men have entered the ministry from this con- 
gregation: Dr. L. A. Mann, Rev. W. C. Wire, Rev. S. E. Smith, 
Rev. B. J. Ilickman, Rev. Havire Hough, Rev. Thomas Fry, Rev. 
R. R, Richard. 



IMMAXUEL LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
MANCHESTER, MD. 

h'cv. C. G. Lcailicrman, Pax/or. 

Immanuel congregation, of Manchester, was organ i/ed Febru- 
ary 12, 1760, and is, doubtless, the oldest Lutheran congregation 
in the county. The organization likely antedates the erection of 
the church. Unfortunately, the time of the building of this old- 
est Lutheran-Reformed church is lost. The first church was a 
log structure, built, owned and used jointly by the Lutheran and 



II1STOKY OF MARYLAND SYXOD. 



Reformed congregations, and located cast ol' the present edifice, 
on ground now used for burial purposes. This original log 
structure was the oldest and first house of worship erected by 
these denominations in Carroll County. Maryland. 

The second house of worship was also a joint Reformed and 
Lutheran church, known as /ion's Church, located just inside 

the entrance to the cemetery and 
was built largely from the profits 
of a lottery, which was frequently 
done in those early days. This 
was erected in 1798. 

In 1836 a brick tower was erect- 
ed on the north side of the build- 
ing, which gave it a churchly ap- 
pearance. For these repairs a 
committee was appointed : Rev. 
Jacob Albert, of the Lutheran 
Church, who was president and 
chief manager, and Rev. Jacob 
(Jeiyer, pastor of the Reformed 
Church. Mr. Jacob Houck was 
the eontractor and builder. In 
1863 the Lutherans and Reformed 
parted company, each building its 
own church. The Lutherans 

adopted a new name and called their church "Immanuel Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church." The building committee for the Lu- 
theran church consisted of Jacob Hoffacker. Henry Gla/e. Michael 
Ritter, Jacob Campbell, George Trump, and Henry Reagle. The 
corner stone was laid in June. 1862, and the new church was 
dedicated Sunday, October 4. 1863. during the meeting of the 
Melancthon Synod in Manchester. Dr. I). J. Ilauer preached 
the dedicatory sermon. 

Upon examination of the early church books of St. Matthew's 
Lutheran congregation, of Hanover, Pa., it is found that the 
early pastors of the Manchester congregation were the pastors 
of that congregation also, from which fact it is safe to conclude 
that the Manchester congregation was originally a part of the 
Hanover pastorate, or at least was supplied by the pastor of St. 
Matthew's. The Manchester Lutheran parsonage was bought 
in 1796. so that it is very probable that Manchester became dis- 
tinct from Hanover at or near that date. The following is a list 
of the pastors, as nearly as can be ascertained: 

Rev. Lars Nyberg. 1760; Rev. Daniel Schroeder. 1783-1790; 




KKV 



LEATHER. MAN. 



THE CHUKCHKS OF TIIK MIDDLK CONFERENCE. 



361 



Rev. Meltzheimer (the elder). 1791-1796; Rev. .John Ilerhst, 
1797-1825; Rev. Emaiiuel Keller. 182(5 (6 months); Rev. Jaeob 
Albert, 1827-1836; Rev. Jeremiah Ilarpel. 1837-1839; Rev. 
Philip Willard, 1841-1843; Rev. Frederick Ruthrauff, 1843 (1 
year, 9 months); Rev. Elias Schwartz, 1844-1848; Rev. Jacob 
Kaempfer, 1848-1853; Rev. Daniel J. Tlauer. D.D.. 1853-1862: 
Rev. Peter Rizer, 1862-1865; Rev. Reuben Weiser, 1866-1869; 
Rev. George Sill. 1870-1881 ; Rev. Edmund Manges, 1881-1885; 




I M MANUEL LUTHEKAX CHURCH, MANCHESTER, MD. 

Rev. C. M. Eyster. 1885-1900; Rev. IT. H. Flick, 1900-1910; Rev. 
J. B. Lau, 1910-1916; Rev. C. G. Leatherman, 1916- - . 

For a long time the services in this church were conducted in 
German exclusively. The early records are also in German. 
Constant additions to the congregation from the Fatherland 
made it necessary to have an occasional German service until 
quite recently. During the pastorate of Rev. J. B. Lau the Ger- 
man services, owing to few attendants, were discontinued May 11. 
1913. 

In 1910 it was found necessary to make extensive repairs to 
Tmmanuel Church, built in 1863. After consideration for nearly 
three years it was decided to build anew; the old building was 
razed April 14, 1914, and the ground cleared for a new church. 
The corner stone was laid July 19, 1914. The new church was 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



dedicated August 2'2. 191"). This handsome church, of red pressed 
brick, with lime-stone trimmings, costing $:iO.OOO. equipped with 
sanctuary. Sunday school room and many class rooms, social hall, 
and beaut itied with opalescent windows of rare beauty, is a great 
credit to the congregation and the patient and untiring efforts 
of Pastor Lau. 

Those in the church council during this period were: \V. D. 
Hanson. II. F. Leese, (Jeo. AV. Sharrer. II. It. Iturgoou. Roswell 
Hoffacker, J. R. L. AVink. AValter K. (Jarrelt. Charles Reed. The 
building committee: David L. Itrown. James T. Tingling, llor- 





MK. J. II. L. WINK, 
Manchester, Md. 



Mu. H. F. LEESE, 
Manchester, Md. 



atio R. Garrett, Geo. M. Reed, George W. Sharrer. Pastor Lau, 
with the cooperation of the above committee, deserves great credit 
for the building of the church. II. F. Leese and J. R. L. Wink, 
as secretary and treasurer of the church council, deserve special 
mention for their accurate record-keeping. 

In 1911 a Ladies' Aid was organized and under the manage- 
ment of President Mrs. II. S. Musselman, the gifts to the church 
totaled $4.500, while the social and educational work of the so- 
ciety became a great help to the church. 

After Rev. Lau's resignation in 19HJ, Rev. C. G. Leatherman, 
of Vandergrift. Pa., heard the call to Manchester, and on June 
:M, 191b'. was installed pastor of the charge. After six months' 
vacancy and oppressed with $10,500 debt, the membership rallied 
splendidly to the call of the new leader. Renewed courage tilled 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 363 

their hearts. The spiritual atmosphere was prevalent and the 
uplift was felt in every line of work. 

Benevolent work was regularly presented and the offerings 
grew from .$250 the first year, to .$600 the second and $1.200 the 
third. Loeal expenses were promptly met for the first time in a 
generation. The pastor issued neat and helpful Lenten folders, 
each presenting an appeal for a liberal free-will offering for the 
debt and resulting in $2,100 in 1917, $1,800 in 1918. and $5.100 
in 1919, at which time the debt and interest, amounting to $11,- 
500, was paid. 

Meanwhile the field had grown to proportions much too large 
for one man to cultivate it efficiently. In 1797 Bachman's Church 
had been added to Manchester; in 1853 the Lineboro Church 
was added, and in 1878 the Snydersburg Church was organized 
as a part of the charge. Each of these four congregations pre- 
sented a large and growing field. Tn 1917, therefore, by action of 
the Synod the Snydersburg Church was detached from the Man- 
chester charge, and in 1919 it was amicably agreed by the remain- 
ing congregations that the Manchester congregation should con- 
stitute a separate pastorate and that the Lineboro and Bachman's 
congregations should constitute a new charge. This new charge 
is known as the North Carroll charge. Thus with the full time 
and energy of a pastor at her service Immanuel church faces 
the greatest advance and the most thorough development in her 
history. 

This church has given to the ministry Rev. J. K. Miller, Rev. 
Peter Warner, Rev. Michael Fair, Rev. Adam Zimmerman, Rev. 
Dr. Jeremiah Zimmerman, of Syracuse; Rev. Dr. Leander M. 
Zimmerman, of Baltimore, and Rev. Dr. Charles S. Trump, late 
of Martinsburg, West Virginia. 



MANOR-DOUBS PASTORATE, FREDERICK 
COUNTY, MD. 

Rev. E. L. Folk, Pastor. 

The Manor-Doubs pastorate covers the territory south of Fred- 
erick between the Catoctin Mountain and the Monocacy River, 
known as Carroll's Manor, from which it derives its name. 

The pastorate consists of three churches: St. Matthew's, on 
the Point of Rocks road, four miles north of Doubs; St. Mark's, 
at Doubs, and St. Luke's, at Point of Rocks. The parsonage is 
at Doubs. 



:;r,4 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 




HKV. K. L. FOLK. 



St. Matthew's Church is tin- parent church of the pastorate 
and was for a Ion*; time the only Lutheran church in this part of 
the county. Its early history is involved in obscurity. The date 
of its organi/ation is not known. On August S. 1812. the corner 

stone of a union church (Luther- 
an and Reformed ) was laid on 
land presented by Mr. Walt/, near 
the old meeting house on Car- 
roll's Manor, at which time Rev. 
David F. Schaeffer. of Frederick, 
preached in English and Rev. S. 
Ilelfenstein in German. 

For many years this church was 
supplied by Lutheran ministers 
from Frederick, but in ]841 it was 
made a part of the Jefferson 
charge, with which it was con- 
nected until the year 1886. 

During this time it was served 
by the following ministers: 

Rev. AV. F. Eyster. 1841-1843; 
Rev. D. J. Ilauer, 1 845-1 853 ; Rev. 
<!. S. Collins. 1853-1854; Rev. H. 

Appleby. 1855-1857, Rev. E. Dorsey, 1857-1858; Rev. II. (J. 
Bowers, 1858-1878; Rev. W. II. Settlemeyer. 1878-1886. 

On January 4, 1893. the Lutherans sold out their interest at the 
Manor to the Reformed and the present St. Matthew's Church 
was dedicated August 13. 1893. 

Prior to 1878 St. Matthew's was the only Lutheran church on 
Carroll's Manor, though the Lutheran pastors of the Jefferson 
pastorate preached at intervals of from six to twelve weeks in 
the old Calico Rock school house, midway between Douhs and 
Point of Rocks. 

In 1886 St. Mark's congregation, at Doubs. was organi/ed. and 
a church built under the direction of Rev. Settlemeyer. 

The St. Luke's congregation, of Point of Rocks, was organi/ed 
in 1887, and the church built in 1889. 

In 188(1 the Jefferson pastorate was divided and the Manor- 
Doubs pastorate was formed. Rev. A. II. Burk was the first 
pastor of the new charge and served one year, lint was recalled 
in 1892 and served the pastorate five years. 

Rev. C. W. Sechrist served 1887-1892: Rev. A. II. Burk served 
1892-1897; Rev. William L. Ilauser served 1897-1903; Rev. (J. 
William Millar served 1904-1907; Rev. William B. Oney served 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



365 



1908-1909; Rev. Paul II. Ketterman served 1910-1912; Rev. P. 
J. Wade served 1912-1917 ; Rev. E. L. Folk served 1918- 

The St. Matthew's congregation, the mother church, at present 
has a membership of one hundred twenty. The St. Mark's con- 
gregation has about one hun- 
dred, and St. Luke's forty. 

Among the older and charter 
members of the pastorate we 
record the names of Samuel T. 
Whip. John Buzzard, George 
Willard. D. M. Whip, and AVil- 
liam N. Hoffman. 

The superintendents of the 
Sunday schools at this writing 
are: St. Mark's, L. E. Wil- 
lard; St. Matthew's. Edward 
Ilawken; St. Luke's. Charles 
Stunkle. 

The present pastor. Rev. E. 
L. Folk, entered the ministry 
in 1884, after taking his course 
at Roanoke College, Va.. and at 
the Theological Seminary at 
Salem, Va., and at Mount Airy, 
Philadelphia. He has served 
pastorates in Botetourt Coun- 
ty, Virginia; Somerset County, Pennsylvania; Shenandoah, and 
Augusta and Rockingham Counties in Virginia; at Winston, 
Salem and Greensboro, North Carolina, and Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, and entered upon the work at Doubs June 1, 1918. 




ST. MATTHEW'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
Manor-Doiibs Pastorate. 



ZIOX LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
MIDDLETOWX, MIX 

Rev. Charles M. Teufel, Pastor. 

The first church for this congregation was built about two miles 
southwest of Middletown. It was known as Zion Church, was 
built of logs, 30 by 30 feet, a rather rude structure, a union of 
Lutheran and Reformed. It was situated on 50 acres of land, 
purchased or given, and deeded by Henry Kefauver in trust to 
Conrad Young for the Lutherans, and to Jacob Flook for the 
Reformed. As the laws of Maryland did not permit any church 
to hold more than two acres of land, forty-eight acres of this 



HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOP. 



valuable laud fell into the hands of Jacob Shawen. In a law-suit 
for the land the church lost the suit, and Jacob Shawen sold the 
land for $80 an acre. 

The Hrst church was erected in 1755 and used until 1790, when 
it was converted into the use of a parochial school. 

In 1775 the Reformed built a log church in Middletown on or 
near the cite of their present church, and gave the Lutherans th 

privilege of using it for worship. 
The two denominations alternate- 
ly using this church dwelt to- 
gether for a number of years in 
most delightful harmony. 

About the year 1783. upon a lot 
in Middletown, donated by the 
generosity of Mr. Conrad Crone, 
on the site of the present church, 
the Lutherans erected their first 
church, the first Lutheran church 
in Middletown Valley, and the 
first Lutheran Church west of 
Catoctin Mountain. 

It was built of logs, in hex- 
agonal form, and for that day and 
in a new country, is said to have 
been well furnished. It was hon- 
ored with a tower, bell and pipe 

organ. The bell, which had been used on a man of war, was pur- 
chased by Mr. Conrad Young, and consecrated to the peaceful 
mission of calling people to the worship of the Prince of Peace. 
It became broken, but was soon replaced by a larger and better 
one, contributed by the young men of the congregation. It was 
afterwards donated to the Lutheran church built in Jefferson in 
1841. 

Rev. Schnee, while pastor, purchased two bells in Philadelphia, 
whose combined weight was eleven hundred pounds. Owing to 
defective hanging they were broken, recast into one and another 
one was added. Ever since that time they have been calling 
thousands of worshippers to the house of God and in solemn tones 
leading the funeral procession to the silent tomb. 

.Money was scarce at that time, just about the close of the ex- 
haustive eight years of the Revolutionary War. The farmers, 
therefore, gave wheat, which was made into flour; this was ex- 
changed for lumber and sold for money, which was paid to labor 
employed in the erection of the church. This church, which was 




KKV. CHARLES M. TEUFEL. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



built during the pastorate of Rev. J. A. Krug, served the pur- 
poses of the congregation for about thirty-five years. 

The second Lutheran Church, also called Zion, was built during 
the ministry of Rev. John G. Graeber, on the site of the first one. 
Built of brick, it cost over $9,000. and was dedicated September 
24. 1815. It is said there were present at the dedication twelve 
hundred people. Rev. B. Kurtz, then a young pastor in Balti- 
more, preached the sermon. Dr. I). F. Schaeffer, who may be 
considered, in a large measure, the 
father of Lutheranism in Freder- 
ick County, performed the act of 
dedication. 

The steeple of this church was 
made at Shepherdstowri, Virginia. 
The excellent bells of the previous 
church were hung in this steeple. 
The communion cup, which was 
gold-lined, was presented by Mrs. 
Iliestand as a memorial to her de- 
ceased husband. The wife of Rev. 
Graeber was buried beneath the 
floor of this church. It no doubt 
shocks the moral sense of the pres- 
ent generation, and may shock 
that of future generations, to be 
told that a part of the money for 
the erection of this house of God 

was obtained by lottery. But that was a rather common custom 
in those days. 

The first parsonage was also built during the pastorate of Rev. 
Graeber. It was of stone. During the ministry of Rev. Michael 
Wachter, repairs and improvements were made to the church 
costing $2,000. During the pastorate of Rev. D. F. Bittle, D.D., 
the present brick parsonage was built, the lecture room, and also 
the academy in which, for a considerable time, was conducted a 
first-class school, and at which a number of young men prepared 
for college, several of whom have entered the ministry of our 
Church. Mount Tabor Church was also built while Dr. Bittle 
was pastor. It served as a preaching station for the convenience 
of those living in that distant locality. 

During the ministry of Rev. Charles Kling, the present com- 
modious and splendid church was erected at a cost of $25,000, 
said to be capable of seating about fifteen hundred people. In 
addition to the cost of the building it was necessary to purchase 




REV. W. A. HAKTMAN. 



:!(58 



HISTORY OF .MAKVI.AND SYNOD. 



it house and lot to secure sufficient space for the new church. 
The church was dedicated in the summer of 18(10. Revs. B. 
Kurt/. D.D.. and John MeCron. D.I)., conducted the interesting 
and impressive services. The church was used as a hospital after 
the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. in September, 18(i2. 
It was very much damaged by this usage but was afterwards 
thoroughly repaired and beautified. 

During the pastorate of Rev. L. A. .Mann, in 1879. Harmony 
Church, at Hellsvillc. for the joint use of the Myersville and 
Middletown charges. w;-s built at a cost of $1.800. It was not in- 
tended to organ i/.e a congregation, but 
to use the church for Sunday school 
and catechetical classes. The first 
Sunday school in the valley was or- 
gan i/ed in the Middletown church in 
December. 1827. Its first superin- 
tendent was Mr. S. G. Ilarbaugh; the 
second. Mr. Daniel Remsberg; the 
third, Mr. Samuel Derr. 

In the list of pastors of this church 
are the names of many noble servants 
of God. 

The first pastor was Rev. Nicode- 
mus. but there is no record or knowl- 
edge of the time of his ministry, or 
the place of his residence in the valley. 
The second pastor was Rev. Frederick 
Gerrisheim. who lived in Middletown. 
and whose ministry extended from 
December. 1779. to July. 17S 

Rev. John Andrew Krug was his 
successor. lie resided in Frederick 




ZlON LVTHEKAX (JHL'KCH, 

Mii>i)i,KTo\vx MD. 



and continued his pastorate from 1782 to 1794. lie is said to 
have been a man of extended scholarship, having been also for a 
time a teacher in the orphans' home connected with the great 
institution in Halle. Germany. He was ordained by Dr. Herman 
Franke in 17(J-J. The church records of Reading. Pennsylvania, 
his first pastorate in this country, speak of him as "a faithful 
teacher, having served that congregation seven years in sincerity 
and love." Dr. Muhlenberg and others of his ministerial breth- 
ren thought he ought to resign at Reading and take charge of 
the church at Frederick, which he did in 1771. All of his con- 
gregations prospered under his ministry. He was a man of deep 
piety. He died in Frederick. March 30. 1796. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 369 

Rev. Jacob Goering became the next pastor, but for only one 
year after which he moved to York, Pennsylvania. Professor 
Stoever says, "he was an extraordinary man, a profound scholar, 
and eloquent preacher." It is said he was able to "electrify 
whole assemblies, transferring to them his own will and passion." 
Most of his unpublished manuscripts on theological subjects and 
inquiries in the Oriental languages were, unfortunately for the 
church and literature, during his last sickness, committed to the 
flames. 

The name of the man who succeeded him as pastor cannot be 
obtained. 

Rev. J. G. Schmucker was the next pastor for about two years. 
He lived in Ilagerstowii while he served the Middletown church. 

Dr. Benjamin Kurtz, his successor, said of him, "the affection 
and deep-toned enthusiasm with which the congregation still con- 
tinued to speak of him, as their spiritual father, their mention 
of the power of his preaching and the searching character of his 
pastoral visits, afford the best evidence of the fidelity of his min- 
istry." 

The seventh pastor was Rev. J. G. Graeber. He began his min- 
istry June 2, 1796, and closed it in July, 1819. His ministry 
was abundantly successful in building up both the spiritual and 
material interests of all the churches in his extended pastorate. 
His residence was at Middletown. His charge embraced not only 
Middletown, but also Boonsboro, Ringer's church, Jefferson, 
Schaff's school house, Burkettsville, Lewistown, and also Lou- 
don County, Virginia. He was a most excellent Christian gen- 
tleman, preacher and pastor. 

Rev. John Kaehler was the next pastor from July, 1819, to 
October 18, 1821. 

Rev. Jacob Schnee succeeded in a pastorate of about four years, 
from March 15, 1822, to April, 1827. His ministry was acceptable 
and profitable to the church. 

Rev. A. Reck succeeded in a ministry which extended from 
August 15, 1829, to April 3, 1836. His work was remarkably suc- 
cessful in the awakening of hardened sinners, the increase of 
spiritual life in formal believers and in many accessions to the 
church. His xeal in the cause of temperance, his insisting upon 
the evidence of true repentance in the life of the professed, be- 
liever met with some opposition. But from his day and ministry 
we may date the beginning of a more active piety in the churches 
of this valley. 

Rev. Michael Wachter was the next pastor for seven years, 
from June, 3836, to September 19, 1843. He served the charge 
24 



^70 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



with much acceptance and excellent results, great Iv beloved by 
all. 

Hev. C. A. Hay. D.I)., was the pastor next in order, for a period 
of only nine months. His ministry was closed by his being 
called to a professorship in the Theological Seminary at Gettys- 
burg. He was exceedingly methodical, having in his short pas- 
torate made a complete directory of all the homes of the member- 
ship of the church. 

Rev. I). F. Hittle. D.I)., became pastor in May, 1845, and con- 
tinued until February. lS-">2. A writer, in estimating the results 
of his enthusiastic, /ealous and wise ministry, said. "With his 
pastorate began a n-'W era of prosperity in the church. He was 





Mn. G. ('. RHODEKICK, 
Middletmvn, Md. 



MR. SAMUEL DEKR, 
Middletown, Md. 



remarkable in this that in everything he undertook he engaged 
all the powers of his noble mind, all the emotions of his soul, and 
the resolution of his unconquerable will." Dr. Ilorine said of 
him, "the influence of his godly life, his clear scriptural preach- 
ing, his fervid appeals to sinners, his sound doctrinal views of 
divine truth led to several true revivals of religion." They were 
characterized by deep solemnity, true contriteness of heart, and 
an earnest desire to know the will of God. and submit to Christ 
the only Saviour and Lord. He also made faithful, intelligent 
and conscientious use of the catechism in training the mind and 
heart in the truths of the Christian religion. Dr. G. Diehl, in 
speaking of the spiritual fervor of his ministry, calls him "a 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 371 

flaming preacher." In every respect his ministry was a great 
blessing to the charge. His resignation to become the first pres- 
ident of Roanoke College, in Virginia, filled the congregation with 
deep sorrow and the entire community with unfeigned regret. 

Rev. J. A. Rosenberg became his successor and continued his 
ministry for less than a year, from December 1, 1852, to Septem- 
ber 27, 1853. 

Rev. John McCron, D.D., a man of pleasing and captivating 
eloquence, was pastor for eighteen months, from November 27, 
1853, to August, 1855. The church services were well attended 
and the congregation enjoyed prosperity. 

Rev. P. Rizer followed, in a pastorate of two years, from Oc- 
tober, 1855, to August. 1857. which was marked by devoted 
earnestness and quiet dignity. 

Rev. Charles M. Klink, the next pastor, produced a decided in- 
fluence in the congregation. There were numerous additions to 
the church. Gifted with popular eloquence and very practical 
ideas, he possessed the happy faculty of unlocking the hearts, and 
loosening the purse strings of the people. He was just the man 
to build the present splendid church. His ministry continued 
from October, 1857, to 1861. 

Rev. Lloyd Knight became pastor December 29, 1861, and re- 
signed in 1862. 

Rev. D. W. Strobel, D.D., entered upon his work as pastor 
April 10, 1863, and continued until June, 1867. It seems pecu- 
liarly providential that this venerable minister of Christ should 
be the pastor during the disturbed period of the Civil War. By 
his prudence, Christian culture, sound judgment and patience, 
he was an example of true Christian charity and forbearance in 
the midst of the alienations produced by divergent political views. 
He held together the congregation as perhaps no one else could 
have done. 

Rev. M. J. Alleman became his successor from May 1, 1868, to 
April 2, 1869. He was an able and impressive preacher of the 
Gospel. 

Rev. Daniel Steck, D.D., became pastor September 1, 1870, and 
served the church with much acceptance until March, 1875. He 
was a very eloquent preacher. 

Rev. Jacob Hawkins, D.D., filled a brief but acceptable min- 
istry from April 15, 1875, to April, 1876. 

Rev. L. A. Mann became pastor April 25, 1876, and continued 
until 1887. His ministry was abundantly successful in the ma- 
terial interests and religious development of the congregation. 

Rev. P. Bergstresser, D.D.. followed in a ministry extending 



372 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

from 1887 to April 1. 1893. His ministry was earnest and ac- 
tive and resulted in permanent good to the congregation. 

Key. M. L. Heard served the congregation from October 15, 
1893. to August 31. 190(5. This long ministry was fraught with 
useful service, the crowning achievement of which was the dedi- 
cation on November 26. 1899. of extensive interior improvements, 
full altar equipment and splendid pipe organ; total cost $8.000. 

Rev. AYilliam E. Hrown became pastor May 1, 1907. and con- 
tinued to October 1. 1910. His pastorate marked the elimination 
of a $2.500 debt and the modernizing of the Sunday school room. 

Rev. Josaver AV. Gent/ler succeeded Rev. Brown and served 
from November 1. 1910. to June 1, 1914. 

Rev. \Yilmer A. Hartman came to the h'eld November 3. 1914. 
His ministry was made memorable by the celebration of the con- 
gregation's one hundred seventy-fifth anniversary in 1915. Also 
he planned and began lighting and other improvements for the 
church building and desirable changes and additions to the par- 
sonage, lie greatly endeared himself to the people and his death 
January 26. 1918, created profound and widespread sorrow. 

Rev. Charles M. Teufel, the present pastor, assumed the work 
August 9, 1918. 

Zion Church has reason to be proud of the long list of her 
devoted sons who have entered the ministry, as follows: Rev. 
C. E. Derr. Ph.D.. Rev. S. J. Derr. Rev. O. C. Dean, Rev. R. A. 
Fink. D.I).. Rev. D. H. Floyd. D.I).. Rev. S. A. Hedges. Rev. II. A. 
Koogle, Rev. W. C. Mann, Rev. \V. G. Minnich, Rev. Carl E. 
Mumford, Rev. W. L. Remsburg, Rev. I). \V. Smith. D.D.. Rev. 
M. L. Smith, Rev. C. M. Wachter. Rev. J. J. Welch, Rev. II. L. 
AVile, D.D., Rev. M. L. Young, Ph.D., Rev. Fuller Bergstresser. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
MYERSVILLE, MD. 

l\i v. Janus Willis, 



This congregation was organized October 25. 185;"). and the next 
year became a part of what was then known as the St. John's 
charge, composed of St. John's and Wolfsville churches. It was 
a branch, growing out of St. John's church, having its inception 
in an informal meeting in a room over the store of Mr. Joseph 
Hrown. Having resolved to organize, the four men present at 
this meeting at once pledged themselves to give together $1.200 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



373 



toward the erection of a church. Their proposition met with the 
cordial endorsement of their pastor, Rev. C. Start/men. The 
organization was completed with forty-five charter members. 

The corner stone of the church was laid in July, 185,1, ;uid the 
church was dedicated in November of the same year. Rev. B. 
Kurtz, D.D., preached the sermon. The entire cost of the build- 
ing was $3,100. In April, 1872, the church was totally destroyed 
by fire. Immediate steps were taken to rebuild. The church, a 
brick structure, was completed at a cost of $7.000. The corner 
stone was laid in June, 1873, and 
the church was dedicated in the 
fall of the same year. Rev. George 
Diehl, D.D., preaching the sermon. 
The pastor at this time was Rev. 
J. J. Kerr. 

On September 25, 1896, the con- 
gregation again suffered a severe 
loss. A storm unroofed the 
church, blew down a portion of 
the west wall, and otherwise 
caused considerable damage. The 
church was immediately repaired 
and improved at an expense of 
$700. At the same time, at the in- 
stance of the pastor, Rev. W. L. 
Remsberg, a Moller pipe organ 
was placed in the church. The 
high pulpit was replaced by a 

much smaller and neater pulpit stand ; also a small and inade- 
quate choir gallery was erected in the rear of the pulpit. The 
total cost of building, rebuilding, repairs and furnishings of St. 
Paul's church while connected with the St. John pastorate was 
$11,390. 

At a joint council meeting called to secure a pastor to succeed 
Rev. W. L. Remsberg, who had resigned November 17, 1902, the 
council of St. Paul's church, firmly believing that the pastor 
should reside in Myersville rather than at St. John's church in 
the country, proposed that this change be made. This was strong- 
ly and positively opposed and rejected by the councils of St. 
John's and Wolfsville. Whereupon, at a meeting of the council 
of St. Paul's Church of Myersville, held April 6, 1903, it Avas 
resolved to withdraw from the St. John pastorate and form a 
separate pastorate. This resolution was ratified by the congrega- 
tion April 25, 1903, there being only two dissenting votes. Rev. 




Ricv. JAMES WIMJS. 



'574 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

W. II. Settlemeyer was engaged to supply until a regular pastor 
could bo secured. St. Paul's church, of Myersville, was there- 
after entered in the minutes of the Synod as the Myersville pas- 
torate. 

As a separate pastorate the congregation at once erected a 
commodious parsonage now worth $4.000. Rev. E. O. Bregenzer 
accepted a call to become pastor. 

In 1910 the audience room was covered with Brussels carpet 
and the basement Sunday school room was enlarged to the full 
size of the building (50 by 40 feet reseated and greatly beauti- 
fied. The expenditures in this connection amounted to $3,650. 

In 1916 improvements were made in both the church and the 
Sunday school at a cost of nearly $3.500. 

The membership now on the roll is two hundred fifty. In the 
meanwhile the grim reaper has been gathering from within a 
goodly number. The pastorate has a well-organized Sunday 
school of one hundred ninety-five, of which the Primary Depart- 
ment of thirty-five members is a part. Mr. G. W. Bittle is the 
superintendent. Christian Endeavor, both Senior and Junior, 
have been active in supporting mission workers in India. To 
these church and missionary workers should be added the Ladies' 
Missionary and Mite Societies, two most valuable aids. 

The first pastor was Rev. C. Startzman, from January, 1854. 
until July, I860. His ministry was fruitful in much good to the 
charge. He was succeeded by Rev. J. M. Graybill, whose pas- 
torate continued until December. 1862. On January 1, 1863, 
Rev. C. Startzman was recalled and served the charge until No- 
vember 17. 1866. Rev. Hiram Knodle became pastor in .July. 
1867, and closed his labors January 5. 1872. Rev. J. J. Ken- 
became pastor in 1872 and resigned in 1875. Rev. J. C. Forsythe 
was pastor from December, 1875. to December, 1878. The next 
pastor. Rev. II. G. Bower, began his ministry in March, 1879, and 
closed it in March, 1882. That of Rev. A. M. Smith began June 
25, 1882. and continued to September, 1895. Rev. W. L. Rems- 
berg began his labors June 1, 1896, and closed them November 17, 
1902. He was the last to serve the charge as originally consti- 
tuted. 

Rev. W. II. Settlemeyer supplied the pulpit from June, 1903, 
to October 11, 1903. Rev. O. E. Bregenzer became the first reg- 
ular pastor of St. Paul's as a separate pastorate October 18, 1903. 
He resigned September 30, 1905. It was during his pastorate 
that the comfortable eight-roomed parsonage was built. The Rev. 
James Willis, the present minister in charge, became pastor Feb- 
ruary 25. 1906, and has served longer than any preceding pastor. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



375 



What is now the Myersville pastorate, during: her connection 
with the St. John's pastorate and during her life as a separate 
charge has enjoyed the services of ten ministers covering a period 
of sixty-five years. In return she has given to the ministry, the 
Rev. J. Lawson Smith, D.D., deceased, who became one of the 
leading ministers of the old Pennsylvania Synod ; Rev. W. S. 
T. Metzger, now pastor of Glenn Gardner, New Jersey; Rev. 
John L. Metzger, who, having served the Salemsberg, Besserville. 
Pembroke, and Rebersburg charges, all of Pennsylvania, fell 
asleep April 28, 1917, and Rev. II. L. Zimmerman, pastor of 
Mount Morris, Illinois. 

Rev. D. F. Bittle, D.D., founder of Roanoke College, and Rev. 
Ezra Keller, D.D., founder of Wittenberg College, were born and 
reared within the boundaries of what is now the Myersville pas- 
torate. 



JERUSALEM LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BACHMAX'S VALLEY, MD. 

(NORTH CARROLL, CHARGE ) 



When St. Matthew's, of Han- 
over, swarmed in 1760, Immanuel 
Clinch, of Manchester, was organ- 
ixed. Thirty-seven years later 
another swarm resulted in the or- 
ganization of Jerusalem Church 
in Bachman Valley. This church 
was first known as the Bowers' 
Church, after the donor of the 
land for the church; later as the 
Bachman 's Church, after a lead- 
ing family. 

The church is the joint prop- 
erty of the Reformed and the Lu- 
theran congregations, which wor- 
ship each alternate Sunday. It 
is a very neat and roomy sanctu- 
ary, with a splendidly lighted 
basement for Sunday school and 




MR. JOHN D. SCHAEFFER, 
Westminster, Md. 



social purposes. The building committee was William Bachman, 
Lutheran, and P. H. L. Myers, Reformed, with Joseph Slagle, of 
Hanover, as builder. 



This 
prime. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

congregation has enjoyed singular prosperity in her 
The type and character of her members residing in the 

valley made her a pow- 
er for the kingdom. 
The membership was 
substantial in members 
and finance. The fate, 
however, of many rural 
churches is approach- 
ing this one. Many of 
the land owners have 
lemoved both residence 
and membership, and 
the tenants, more tran- 
sient, return in their 
autos to the home 
church. 

With the severance 
of pastoral relations 
with Manchester and 
the organization into a 
new charge with Line- 
boro only, comes the 
promise of increased 




JEKVSALEM CHUKCH, BACHMAN'S VALLEY, Mn. 
(Carroll County.) 



prosperity and more thorough spiritual oversight and ministra- 
tion for Jerusalem Church. 



LAZARUS LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
LIXEI5ORO, MI). 

(NORTH CARROLL CHARGE.) 

The North Carroll charge is the most recent inter-congrega- 
tional development in the Maryland Synod. The congregations 
constituting this charge. Lineboro and Hachman's. until the con- 
vention of Synod in 1919. belonged to the Manchester charge. 
For some years, however, it had been felt that the growing field 
at Lineboro ought to have more pastoral attention and more serv- 
ices than the arrangements with Manchester permitted. At the 
same time it was felt that the Manchester church could well use 
all the time and energy of a pastor. Accordingly, in July. 1919. 
Manchester voted to sever her pastoral relationship with Line- 
boro and Hachman's. These two congregations shortly thereafter 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



377 



concurred in this action of the Manchester church, and insisted 
that the severance of relations take place as soon as the Synod 
would give assent. Thus at the meeting of the Synod in 1919 the 
North Carroll charge was officially constituted. 

The corner stone of Lazarus Church was placed September 25. 
1853. The building committee was V. B. Wentz, John Kroh, and 
George Grove. The brick structure was rapidly carried to com- 
pletion and shortly thereafter Lutheran and Reformed congre- 




LAZARUS LUTHERAN CHURCH, LINEBOKO, MD. 

gations were organized at Lineboro by the pastors of their re- 
spective denominations at Manchester. 

In 1908 the old church was razed and a new one was erected. 
The building committee this time was 0. B. Wentz, J. V. Wentz, 
and J. F. Warner. The church was dedicated December 20, 1908. 

The building is jointly owned by the Lutheran and Reformed 
congregations. The structure is of brick, with Indiana limestone 
trimmings. The style is Gothic, the dimensions 65 by 9714 feet, 
and the shape cruciform. The building is heated with steam, is 
illuminated with gas supplied by its own gasolene plant, and its 
roof is of slate. Three beautiful windows, each ten by fifteen 
feet, throw a flood of light from the thres large gables, and there 
is another fine window in the gable of the Sunday school depart- 
ment. All these windows, together with the smaller ones, are of 



:>>78 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOD. 



cathedral and opalescent glass. The tower, through which is the 
main entrance, is twelve by twelve feet, and is furnished with a 
tine 1,435-pound MeShane bell. The main audience room is forty 
by sixty-five feet, exclusive of the sanctuary, in which is placed a 
fine altar, with reredos. The pews are circular, heavy and "de- 
lightfully comfortable." and will seat three hundred fifty. The 
Sunday school room is separated by folding doors, and will seat 
four hundred, which makes the total seating capacity seven hun- 





Mii. CHAULES IT. TRACY, 
Linoboro, M<1. 



MK. HORATIO T. WENT/., 
Liiu'boro, Md. 



d red fifty. Iii addition, there is a Primary Sunday School De- 
partment, pastor's room and choir alcove. The total cost of the 
church was about $15.000, all of which was provided for before 
the day of dedication, except the small sum of $900. An appeal 
made for this amount resulted in an offering of $1,40(5. Dr. J. A. 
Singmaster, of our Seminary at Gettysburg, and Dr. William C. 
Schaeffer. of Lancaster. Pennsylvania, delivered the dedicatory 
addresses. 

This congregation has given two of her sons to the Lutheran 
ministry, namely: Rev. Professor Abdel Ross "Went/, Ph. 1)., of 
the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, and Rev. Charles A. 
Shilke. pastor of the I'tica charge in this Synod. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



379 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, PLEASANT 
HILL FREDERICK COUNTY. MD. 

Rev. S. A. Hedges, Pastor. 

The corner stone of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, at Pleasant 
Hill, was laid in 1882. The Rev. Dr. George Diehl, of Frederick, 
performed the official act, the Rev. Dr. Eshbaugh. of the Re- 
formed Church, assisting. The present pastor made the address 
on that occasion. The church has from the beginning b?en a 
union of Lutherans and Re- 
formed. The Lutheran congrega- 
tion did not unite with the Mary- 
land Synod until some years after 
the church had been built. 

Mr. William Feaga donated the 
site for the church building and 
took great interest in its erection. 
He afterwards became a member 
of the Lutheran congregation. 

The church is located on a beau- 
tiful elevation in the Frederick 
Valley. It is on the turnpike from 
Frederick to Yellow Springs, and 
about four miles distant from 
Frederick City. The appropriate 
name of "Pleasant Hill" was sug- 
gested by Dr. Diehl. 

For some years after the con- 
gregation was organized it was served by Dr. Diehl and his suc- 
cessors in the Lutheran church in Frederick. Then the Rev. S. 
A. Hedges took charge of the congregation. It ceased to be an 
out-station of the Frederick church, and became an independent 
congregation. As such it united with the Maryland Synod. 

When Pastor Hedges began to serve the church its members 
numbered twenty -two. To-day they number between forty and 
fifty. Lutheran services are held only every two weeks. 




RKV. S. A. HEDGES. 



.'SO HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOO. 

ST. MARK'S LUTHERAN rilURril, 
SAHILLASVILLK, MI). 

/MI-. Charles Keincwalrl. D.D., I'nslor. 

Tliis congregation was organi/ed in 1892. Rev. J. II. Barb, 
then pastor at Thnrinont. began holding religions services iu the 
home of Mr. Levi Lichtenberger. Tims was formed the nucleus 
of the Lutheran congregation. 

As the number of worshippers increased the use of the United 
Brethren church was secured for a time. Soon after this steps 
were taken to build a house of (heir own. In 1893 the present 
brick structure was erected. It was dedicated in May of that 
year. Rev. II. II. Weber, D.I)., preached the dedicatory sermon 
and solicited the funds yet needed to complete the payment of 
the building. The entire cost of the structure was $3,000. The 
Church Extension Society gave a loan of $400 and this amount 
was finally donated to the little village congregation. 

Rev. Harb. who began the work, removed from Thurmont in 
1896. Until this date, with some assistance from Rev. Charles 
Reinewald, of Emmitsburg, he was the supply pastor of the con- 
gregation at Sabillasville. On March 1. 1896. Rev. Reinewald 
began to serve the congregation and continued to do so until 
December, 1897. when Rev. \V. S. T. Met/ger. of Thurmont, took 
charge of Sabillasville in connection with his Thurmont pastorate, 
lie was aided also from time to time by students from the Gettys- 
burg Seminary. 

In 1903 Rev. Charles Reinewald was again called by the con- 
gregation to assume its pastoral charge in connection with his 
pastorate at Emmitsburg. This charge he has faithfully carried 
from that date to the present. 

Services are held on alternate Sunday afternoons and require 
a drive of eighteen miles on the part of the pastor. The congre- 
gation numbers sixty-six confirmed members and a fair-sixed 
Sunday school. Among the chief workers of the congregation 
was Dr. Charles L. "Wachter. a grandson of Rev. Michael AVach- 
ter. Other earnest and faithful workers to be named are Thomas 
F. Eyler. Levi Lichtenberger. Charles E. Dutrow. Samuel Dut- 
row, Maurice E. Schaeffer, Lewis I). Crawford, John (Jladhill, 
Charles (jlargner. and James Poole. Some of these brethren have 
passed to their eternal reward. The congregation draws its mem- 
bership also from Blue Ridge Summit and Deerfield. Tin 1 church 
has been characterized by faithfulness and loyalty to the Mas- 
ter's service. 



THE CHURCHES OP THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



381 



ST. BENJAMIN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, NEAR 
WESTMINSTER, Ml). 

(SALEM CHARGE.) 
Rev. Stephen Tmvct', I'aslor. 

Salem charge is composed of St. Benjamin's, next to the old- 
est congregation in Carroll County, and St. John's organi/ed 
nearly three-quarters of a century later. 

St. Benjamin's church was built on ground donated for the 
purpose by a man named Greyder and later corrupted into 
K rider, by which name the church 
is commonly known to-day. It is 
located about three-quarters of a 
mile northwest of Westminster. 

The date of organixation was 
August 12, 1761. Early in 1763 
the members of the Lutheran and 
Reformed congregations united in 
building a log church, which was 
used until 1809. 

In 1809 the two congregations 
built a two-story brick church, 
which continued to be used until 
1890, a period of eighty-one years. 
Then, during the ministry of Rev. 
J. U. Asper, the Lutherans built 
a new church of their own at a 
cost of $4,500. 

The church was at one time a 

part of the Manchester charge, at one time a part of the Union- 
town charge, and later a part of the Westminster charge. Since 
1887 it has been a part of the Salem charge. 

The following pastors have served the church : Rev. Christian 
Wildbahn, November 23, 1777; Rev. Frederick Gerresheim, June 
16. 1782; Rev. John A. Rudisill, June 5. 1813; Hev. Henry 
Graber (resided at Uniontown), 1821; Rev. Jacob Albert (re- 
sided at Manchester), 1831; Rev. Jeremiah Harpel (resided at 
Manchester), 1838; Rev. Philip Willard (resided at Westmin- 
ster), 1842-1845; Rev. Cornelius Riemensnyder, 1846-1850; Rev. 
John Winter, 1850-1853; Rev. Samuel Henry, 1853-1859; Rev. 
Jacob Martin, 1860-1863; Rev. II. C. Ilolloway, 1863-1868; Rev. 




KEV. STEPHEN TRAVER. 



382 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

O. A. Stroble. 18(58-1869; Rev. J. A. Earnest, 1870-1878; Rev. 
II. W. Kuhns. 1878-1887; Rev. J. U. Asper. 1887-1891; Rev. S. 
A. Diehl. 1891-1902; Rev. R. W. Doty. 1902-1912; Rev. W. F. 
Hcrsh, I!>12-l<n6; Rev. Stephen Traver, 1916-1920. 

The Rev. A. 0. Null, of Ellieott City. Maryland, is a son of 
St. Benjamin's. 



ST. .JOHN'S LUTHERAN TIITHm, XKAK 
WESTMINSTER, MI). 

(SALEM CHARGE.) 
h'ci'. Stephen T rarer, I'astor. 

St. John's Church grew out of a revival held at Abbott's school 
house, a short distance from the church, by Rev. Philip Willard, 
in 184M or 1S44. 

The congregation was organi/ed February 11, 1844, with h'fty- 
two members, prominent among whom were the Leisters, Shar- 
rers, Zimmermans. Houcks. Zinkams, Derrs. Zepps, Weeklys, 
Iloffmans. and Schaeffers. 

The land was given by Daniel Leister and John Reese. The 
church is often popularly known as Leister's church. 

The church was finished and dedicated in 1845. It was re- 
paired in 1864. when it was reroofed. plastered, weather-boarded 
and painted. The congregation was a part of the Westminster 
charge until 1886, when Grace Church. Westminster, having de- 
termined to support a pastor, St. John's and St. Benjamin's, 
with the sanction of the Maryland Synod, united in forming the 
Salem charge. A new church was built in 1898 at a cost of $5.000. 

St. John's has sent one son into the ministry, the Rev. J. E. 
Lowe. Jr., of Brookville, Pennsylvania. 

The two churches own a very modern parsonage in West- 
minster. There is a joint membership of five hundred fifty mem- 
bers in the charge. The same pastors that served St. Benjamin's 
served St. John's from Rev. Philip Willard to the present. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



383 



ST. MARY-S LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
SILVER RUX, MD. 

(SILVER RUN CHARGE.) 
Rev. A. G. Wolf, Pastor. 

The Silver Run charge is composed of St. Mary's, at Silver 
Run, and St. Matthew's, at Pleasant Valley, both of which places 
are small country villages. The data necessary to a sketch of 
these congregations is exceedingly meagre; and there are no 
records from which the necessary information can be obtained. 

St. Mary's is a beautiful church edifice, modern in all its ar- 
rangements, one of the most handsome in the State, and stands as 
a monument to the enterprise and 
devotion of the pastor and the 
congregation. It is the first ex- 
clusively Lutheran church ever 
built at the place. 

The Lutheran and Reformed 
congregations worshipped togeth- 
er until 1893, when the Reformed 
dedicated an elegant church, cost- 
ing many thousands of dollars. 
The Lutherans tried in vain to sell 
their interests in the joint prop- 
erty of the Reformed, and also to 
buy from the sister church. Fail- 
ing to secure the old site, where 
they had gone so many years, and 
which they were loathe to leave, 
the Lutherans finally purchased a 
corner lot, and with united effort 

and generosity have accomplished what seemed almost impos- 
sible, namely, the erection of so desirable, beautiful and costly an 
edifice. 

The Lutheran congregation was organixed May 31, 1762. under 
Rev. George Bager. The first church, a log structure, was erected 
jointly by the Reformed and Lutherans in 17(58. In this rude 
structure the two congregations worshipped until it was replaced 
by a brick church in 1822. 

After seventy-two years of united worship in this second 
church, the two congregations having attained a membership of 
nine hundred, it was decided to separate. TTence the two churches. 




REV. A. G. WOLF. 



384 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



On July 14. 1894. the Lutherans laid the corner stone for their 
new church, on their new location in Silver Rim, and two years 
later, December 21. 1896. it was dedicated free from debt. The 
property as a whole represented an expenditure of perhaps $30,- 
000. The indefatigable pastor, the Rev. Herman C. Fultz, sup- 
ported by such men as K. Z. Mathias. William Yinglinjj. Josiah 
Lawyer. Samuel Kesselring, and many others, made possible the 
erection of this beautiful edifice. 

During the pastorale of Rev. J. L. Hoffman the church was 




ST. MARY'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, SILVER RUN, MD. 

completely renovated, interior and exterior, at an expenditure of 
about $3.000. 

The pastoral succession as nearly as can be ascertained, is as 
follows: Rev. George Ba^er, 1762; Rev. John Herbst. 1797; 
Rrv. Henry (Jrabcr. 1820; Rev. John Grobp, 1825; Rev. Jacob 
Albert, 1827; Rev. -Jeremiah Harple. 1837; Rev. l. Scheurer, 
1842; R<-v. Samuel Henry. 1859; Rev. M. .1. Alleman, 1869; 
Rev. J. A. Lake. 1875; Rev. M. J. Alleman. 1877; Rev. (). C. 
Roth. 1878; Rev. P. Scheeder. 1884; Rev. II. C. Fult/. 1887; 
Rev. W. H. Earhart. 1896; Rev. II. I). Newcomer, 1904; Rev. 
J. O. Yoder. 1905; Rev. J. L. Hoffman. 1912; Rev. A. G. Wolf. 
1917. 

This congregation was taken by a German minister then serv- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



385 



ing them, into Western Pennsylvania Synod, in 1845; but being 
in Maryland it returned to the Maryland Synod in 1878. 

Two Sunday school superintendents are living, Claude Lawyer 
and G. \V. Yeiser, the present incumbent. In addition to being 
superintendent for two years, Mr. Lawyer has been in the council 
for many years, and its secretary and treasurer. Mr. Yeiser has 
been in the council and Sunday school superintendent for quar- 
ter of a century at different periods. He organized the County 
Sunday School Association and was its president for thirteen 





MR. GEORGE AV. YEISER, 
Silver Run, Md. 



MR CLAUDE LAWYER, 
Silver Run, Md. 



years ; he organized the temperance forces of Carroll County and 
was their chairman in two hard campaigns, through which the 
saloons of the county were closed. He has traveled extensively in 
Bible lands. He was twice delegated by the Maryland Synod to 
the General Synod and is now Sunday school field worker of the 
Middle Conference. 

St. Mary's for many years has believed in efficiency through 
organization and adopts all progressive methods in her council 
and in her Sunday school board. She has two sons in the min- 
istry. Rev. George Bowersox, of Shrewsbury, Pennsylvania, and 
Rev. Grover Knipple. 



25 



386 



HISTORY OF .MARYLAND SYNOD. 



ST. MATTHEW'S LUTHERAN rilUKrH, 
PLEASANT VALLEY, MARYLAND. 

(SllA'KR RlN ( 1 IIAR(1E.) 

ltn\ .1. (i. Wolf. I'aslor. 

The village of Pleasant Valley is three and one-half miles from 
Silver Hun and. like the village of Silver Run. has a population 
of about one hundred fifty. John Myers. Samuel J. Lawyer. 
George Howers. Kmanuel Myers. .Joseph Itelvig, members of St. 
Marv's. were among the brethren who saw the great need of a 





MR. JOHN F. UNTERMAHLEN, 
Pleasant Vallcv, Md. 



Mi:. .JKHEMIAH KUHXS, 
Pleasant Valley, Mil. 



church at Pleasant Valley and secured its organixation. The 
congregation is a union of Lutheran and Reformed. 

May 24. 1879, the corner stone was laid, and on November 30th 
of the same year the church was dedicated. 

Immediately after the organixation of St. Matthew's a joint 
parsonage was erected at Silver Run. which the minister serving 
Silver Run charge always occupies. The late Rev. (). C. Roth 
was the first incumbent. The parsonage is a thoroughly modern 
and very comfortable home. 

St. Matthew's is a commodious church edifice, with seating 
capacity of four hundred, exclusive of the basement Sunday 
school room. Recently, under the leadership of Rev. J. L. II off- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



387 



man. the pastor, the church was renovated, interior and exterior, 
at an expenditure of about $3.000. and is now really one of the 
pretty, neat, comfortable rural church edifices of the Maryland 
Synod. 

The congregation, like St. Mary's, believes in efficiency through 




ST. MATTHEW 's LUTHERAN CHURCH, PLEASANT VALLEY, MD. 

organization, and she promptly meets all her benevolence and 
current expenditures. 

St. Matthew's has a large, well-organized Sunday school, under 
the leadership of the superintendent, Upton E. Myers, of the 
Lutheran congregation. 

The present officers are as follows : Elders Jeremiah Kuhns, 
John F. Utermahlen. Deacons Edward Welk, Claud Myers, 
Edward Wantz, and Lee Roy Myers. 



J588 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



ST. MARK'S LrTIIKKAX 




RKV. S. J. DEIJIJ. 



HS, .AID. 

Rev. S. J. Dcrr, Supply Pastor. 

St. Mark's Evangelical Luther- 
an Church, of Snydersburg, was 
organ ixed March "2'.}. 1S7S. by the 
pastor of Manchester Lutheran 
Church for the convenience of the 
members of Immanuel Church, 
Manchester, residing in that sec- 
tion. 

For some years the congrega- 
tion was only a preaching station 
of the Manchester congregation, 
and was not fully and inde- 
pendently organized. Its mem- 
bers continued to enjoy some priv- 
ileges at the Manchester Church, 
such as rights of burial and the 
right to vote for pastor. But in 
course of time it secured its own 

burying-ground and as the older members passed away the young- 

er members developed an inde- 

pendent congregational existence. 
The membership has never been 

large. The church building is the 

joint property of the Lutheran 

and Reformed congregations of 

Snydersburg. The pastor of Im- 

manuel church at Manchester reg- 

ularly preached at Snydersburg 

once every four weeks. But with 

the growing demands upon his 

time and energy elsewhere even 

this one service monthly seemed 

burdensome, and in 1917 the 

Maryland Synod detached the 

Snydersburg church from the 

Manchester charge. Since then 

the council of Immanuel Church 

at Manchester has been providing 

the pulpit supplies for Snyders- 




MK. L. (J. SXYDKK, 
Snydersburg, Md. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 389 

burg once each month, and these have generally come from 
Hampstead. The present membership of St. Mark's is about 
thirty. 




ST. MARK'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
SNYDERSBURG, MD. 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, XEAK 
MYERSVILLE, MD. 

(ST. JOHN'S CHARGE.) 
Rev. J. B. Umbergcr, Pastor. 

St. John 's charge is composed of St. John 's Church, located at 
Church Hill, about two miles north of Myersville, and Wolfsville 
Church, about four miles farther north, at the north end of the 
famous Middletown Valley. 

The earliest available records indicate that St. John's congre- 
gation was organized in 1790, during the ministry of Rev. George 
Hehl, and a humble log church was erected on a tract of about 
three acres of land bought of Mr. Daniel Gaver for "five pounds 
of current money. ' ' Rev. Hehl served the double office of pastor 
and parochial school teacher. He lived in a part of the school 
building which was burned while he occupied it, and his work 
seems to have closed with that event. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



There are some data indicating that this school house had been 
built as early as 1772. but no records of an organized congregation 
can be found. 

No doubt there was an earlier organization in the community 
known as "Jerusalem." about a mile and a half southwest of the 
present location of St. John's Church. There is on record a deed 
by 1'. Kodenpiller. dated September 12S. 17S(i. conveying a tract 
of land called "Second Choice" to Jacob Sagasser, an elder of 

the Reformed Church, and Mi- 
chael Troutman, an elder of the 
German Lutheran Church, for the 
joint use of the two churches. On 
this ground a church building was 
erected and a bury ing-ground laid 
out and used jointly by the two 
churches. There is frequent ref- 
erence in the minutes of St. 
John's council to the sale of this 
building and the old cemetery 
there is still cared for by the coun- 
cil of St. John's church; so there 
must have been an organized con- 
gregation, but no records of the 
organization can be found. 

The log building erected in 
1790 served as a place of worship 
until 1830. when it was torn down 

and the logs were sold to Mr. George Hark and with them he 
built a dwelling now owned by Mr. Charles Gaver, son of the 
late Henry Gaver. On or near the same site the present substan- 
tial stone structure, with galleries on three sides, was built in 
1880. during Rev. Reek's pastorate. Having stood the storms of 
nearly ninety years it is still in good repair and not a crack is 
to be seen in the walls. 

St. John's congregation formed a part of the Middletown pas- 
torate, or at least was served by the Middletown pastors from the 
close of Rev. Ilehl's pastorate until 1850, when the Wolfsville 
congregation was united with St. John's, forming the St. John's 
charge, under the pastoral care of Rev. David Smith, who served 
for fifteen months. He was followed by Rev. J. P. Probst, who 
served from 1851 to 1858. On the sixteenth of October, 1853, 
Rev. C. Start/man was elected pastor and served until 1860. His 
ministry was fruitful of much good. During his pastorate, in 
1856. St. Paul's congregation, of Myersville, was organized and 




HEV. J. B. UMBEKGEK. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



391 



connected with the charge and remained in connection with it 
until 1903, when St. Paul's withdrew and became the Myersville 
pastorate, and St. John's and Wolfsville congregations again 
formed the St. John's pastorate and continue so to the present 
time. 

Following Rev. Startzman, Rev. J. M. Graybill was pastor from 
1860 to 1862. Then Rev. C. Start/man was recalled January 1, 
1863, and served until November 17. 1866. Rev. Hiram Knodle 
became pastor in July, 1867. and ceased his labors January 5. 
1872. Rev. J. J. Kerr became pastor in 1872 and resigned in 
1875. Rev. J. C. Forsythe was pastor from December 1. 187"), to 




ST. JOHN 's LUTHERAN CHURCH, NEAR MYERSVILLE, MD. 

1878. The next pastor was Rev. II. G. Bowers, whose ministry 
began in March, 1879, and closed in March, 1882. The longest 
pastorate was that of Rev. A. M. Smith, which began June 25, 
1882, and continued to September 25, 1895. Then came Rev. W. 
L. Remsburg, in 1896, and served till November, 1902. He was 
the last pastor before St. Paul's withdrew and formed the new 
pastorate of Myersville. During his term of service the interior 
of St. John 's was rearranged and beautified. 

Rev. G. W. Stroup became the first pastor after the charge was 
divided, taking charge in August, 1904. and resigning April 1, 
1910. During his pastorate the parsonage was burned, in 1905, 



392 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

and immediately rebuilt, and the "Wolt'sville church was repaired 
and a vestibule and tower added at a cost of $1.100 and reopened 
June G. 1909. 

Rev. AV. I). Nicoll became pastor May 1. 1910, and served not 
quite two years. 

Rev. A. II. Burk became pastor April 1, 1913. and served till 
stricken by death in the midst of his label's, March 28, 1914. 
He had taken hold of the work with energy and consecration that 
promised great results when called suddenly to his home above. 
He drove three miles to Harmony, taught a catechetical class, 
came home and passed to his reward that same evening. 

The charge was then vacant till June 15. 191 5, when Rev. .J. 
B. Umberger. the present pastor, was called to the work. Dur- 
ing this vacancy it was supplied by students from Gettysburg 
Theological Seminary. Rev. J. G. C. Knipple, a student, sup- 
plied the charge very acceptably during the vacation of 1914. 

The parsonage was built by St. John's congregation, in 1850. 
on a plot of ground adjoining the church grounds, at a cost of 
$1,600, of which the Middletown congregation gave .$239. The 
erection of this parsonage was made memorable and peculiarly 
sad by the accidental death of Mr. Enos Routxahn, one of the 
most highly esteemed members of the church, who was killed 
while assisting in placing some heavy timbers in the building. 
During the past few years extensive improvements have been 
made to the church and the cemetery and surroundings. 

St. John's congregation has furnished three of her sons for 
the Gospel ministry : the Rev. J. Elmer Bittle, D.D.. son of the 
late T. F. Bittle, and for many years Missionary Superintendent 
of the Pittsburgh Synod; and the Rev. Elmer F. Rice and Rev. 
Clay E. Rice, sons of Mr. and Mrs. M. L. Rice, both of whom are 
now in the active ministry and rendering efficient service in the 
Pittsburgh and East Pennsylvania Synods, respectively. 

From this community, if not from this congregation, came Drs. 
Daniel and David Bittle, who figured so prominently in the Lu- 
theran Church and the early history of Roanoke College. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



393 



WOLFSVILLE LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WOLFSVILLE, MD. 

(Si 1 . JOHN'S CHARGE.) 
Rev. J. B. Umberger, Pastor. 

The early records of the Wolfsville Church are very meager 
and deficient. But from the information available it seems to 
have been organized by Rev. C. C. Culler, then pastor of the 
Funkstown charge, in 1845, with forty members, and remained 
in connection with the Funkstown charge until 1850, when it 




WOLFSVILLE LUTHERAN CHURCH, WOLFSVILLE, MD. 

was connected with St. John's, forming the St. John's charge. 
The church was built in 1847. In August, 1912, it was unroofed 
and -otherwise damaged by a storm. After being repaired and re- 
roofed with metal roofing it was again reopened March 2, 1913, 
Rev. Null officiating. The repairs cost $400. 

From this congregation the Rev. Lemuel F. Stotelmyer entered 
the Gospel ministry. 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
TAXEYTOWN, MI). 

If i r. L. /'. llnfer. I'astor. 

Trinity Lutheran Church, of Tancytown. is one of the land- 
marks of early Lutheranism in America. No one can fix the date 
of its beginning. Imt it was certainly not many years after the 
tii-st Lutheran beginnings west of the Susquehanna. The oldest 
record pi-eserved is thai of a baptism in 17SS. This record is 

made in a book which tells more 
definitely the story of the church 
since 1792. At that time the pas- 
tor was Rev. John Gnenther 
\Vingandt, and this is the first 
regular pastorate of which we 
have definite knowledge. The of- 
ficers of the church at that time 
were Michael Null and Ulrich 
Reaver, elders; and Matthew 
Shriner and John Zumbrum. dea- 
cons. The first three of these 
family names are still on the 
church record, and the last is well 
remembered in the community. 

The congregation was first 
known as the "German Lutheran 
Congregation of Taneytown." 
Services were conducted exclu- 
sively in the German language until 1828. when the demand for 
English preaching became so strong that an English assistant was 
secured for the pastorate. From that time until several years 
after the civil war both languages were used, and now for nearly 
a half century the services have been in English only. 

During the latter part of the eighteenth century this congre- 
gation was served by pastors who were not resident, but about the 
beginning of the nineteenth century this became the center of a 
pastoral charge, which included at various periods, Emmitsburg. 
Fountaindale. Mount Joy. Baust. Uniontown, Winters. Mount 
Union and Keysville. Some of the pastors were almost entitled 
to be called itinerant missionaries, so faithfully did they labor to 
establish the church in all the surrounding communities. Their 
work abides even to the present time. In Taneytown especially 




RKV. 



HAFKU. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 395 

was there great success in gathering people into the church, so 
that from the early records this appears as a large congrega- 
tion. There are now about six hundred seventy confirmed 
members. 

Five buildings have been used in the history of this congrega- 
tion. First the Lutherans, with the Reformed and Presbyterian 
congregations, used in com- 
mon for many years a frame 
building that stood on ground 
which is now part of the Re- 
formed cemetery, but in 1811 
the congregation laid the cor- 
ner stone for a building 
where the church now stands, 
and two years later the struc- 
ture was formally dedicated. 
About thirty years later this 
building was remodeled and 
enlarged. Beginning in the 
fall of 1870 a new church was 
built, and after more than 
twenty-five years that build- 
ing was so extensively remod- 
eled, enlarged and improved 

as to give the present beauti- 

f , -. -,. i u R EV - EZRA KELLER. D.D. 

tul and commodious church 

all the appearance of an entirely new structure. This was dedi- 
cated May 9, 1897. 

The list of pastors of this congregation, as far as can be ascer- 
tained, includes eighteen: John G. Wingandt, 1788-1795; John 
F. Ruthrauff, 1796-1799; John David Young, 1800-1803; John 
Grobp, 1803-1828; John X. Hoffman, 1828-1833; Samuel D. 
Finekel, 1834-1837; Ezra Keller, 1837-1840; Solomon Sentman, 
1841-1858; Levi T. Williams, 1858-1867; Peter Bergstresser, 
1867-1874; W. II. Luckenbach, 1875-1878; Samuel G. Finekel, 
1878-1883; Oliver C. Roth. 1883-1889; George W. McSherry, 
1890-1896; D. Frank Garland, 1896-1899; Charles A. Britt, 
1899-1904; William E. Wheeler, 1904-1910; Luther B. Hafer, 
since March 1, 1911. 

Most of these terms of service have been short. One conspicu- 
ous exception among the German pastors was the last, Rev. John 
Grobp, who served a quarter of a century, and then continued to 
live in the community. His body rests in the cemetery here. 
Rev. Solomon Sentman was the most notable exception among the 




>% HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

English pastors, serving over seventeen years. No man ever left a 
deeper impression than he, the most missionary of them all. Rev. 
E/ra Keller attained distinction as the founder of Wittenberg 
College soon after leaving Taneytown. 

In a history so long as that of this congregation there have 
been, of course, many persons whose life and work would be 
worthy of mention, but on account of the limitation of space no 
fair individual mention is possible, so that we do not venture into 
that except to note the sons that the congregation has given for 
the ministry. These, in chronological order are: Rev. Nathan 




TKIXITY LUTHERAN- CHURCH, TAXKYTOWX, MD. 

Cornell. Rev. Milton Valentine. D.D., LL.D.. Rev. Henry Reck. 
Rev. John W. Kregle. Rev. Jacob A. Chit/. D.D., and Rev. 
Charles AV. Hess. Some of these, as is well known, rose to posi- 
tion of eminence in the church. The last two are still in the serv- 
ice. Dr. Clutx in the Seminary at Gettysburg, and Rev. C. W. 
Hess an honored pastor in the Maryland Synod. Besides these, 
Daniel E. L. Mehring prepared for the ministry, but died in 
1856, just before completing his course in the seminary; and 
Verle E. C. Snider, a student for the ministry and volunteer for 
the foreign field, laid down his life in France, 1918. 

This congregation cannot lay claim to great distinction in any 
particular, but it can fairly be said that in all its history it has 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



397 



maintained at least a fair average, and generally there has been 
a steady, even, if not rapid, progress. The greatest advance in 
recent years has been in the matter of church finances, so that 
the congregation stands to-day with its valuable property free of 
debt, with a good beginning of an endowment for the cemetery 
fund, with good balances in nearly all its treasuries, and con- 
tributing much more largely to the general benevolences of the 
church than in former years. There is still room, however, for 
much progress before the limit of ability shall have been reached. 
For a more satisfactory, though by no means complete, sketch 
of the history of this congregation, the reader is referred to "A 
Brief Sketch of Trinity Lutheran Church, Taneytown, Md." 
This was written by Rev. L. B. Ilafer and was published by 
the congregation in 1911, in connection with the celebration of the 
centennial anniversary of the laying of the corner stone of the 
first separate building. Tt is available by application to the pas- 
tor, or at the seminary library at Gettysburg. 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 

THURMOXT, MD. 


Rev. W. C. Waltemyer, Pastor. 

The St. John's Evangelical Lu- 
theran congregation of Thurmont 
was organized about 1760. Tile- 
first building was located about a 
mile northeast of the town and 
was called Appel's Church. The 
property Avas held jointly with a 
Reformed congregation. Unfor- 
tunately many of the early rec- 
ords of the congregation were ac- 
cidentally destroyed, with the re- 
sult that we have only a tradi- 
tional knowledge of the events of 
those first years. 

In the year 1857 the Lutherans 
decided to relinquish their rights 
in the Appel's Church and build 
in the town itself. That same 
year a splendid structure was erected. It was of brick and stone, 
with Sunday school rooms in the basement and the church audi- 




KEV. W. C. WALTE.MYEK. 



398 



HISTORY' OF MARYLAND SYXOO. 



toi'ium above. During the pastorate of the Rev. J. II. Barb. 
D.I)., a pipe organ was installed. In 1909, during the pastorate 
of the late Rev. M. L. Heard, a new and larger ehureh building 
was erected on the site of the former one. This present building 
is of brick and attractive and commanding in appearance. The 
Sunday school rooms are on the first rioor and above is the main 
auditorium with a seating capacity of three hundred and fifty. 
The interior is most attractive and is chnrchly in all its appoint- 
ments. The congregation in 1917 purchased and improved the 



- 




ST. JOHN'S LTTHEUAN CHCUCH, THTKMOXT, Mr>. 

modern and comfortable residence next door to the church for a 
parsonage. The present value of the church property is conserva- 
tively placed at $20.000. 

The following pastors have served the congregation: Roden- 
biuk I). F. Sehaetrer. P. Haas. J. G. Grubb, Michael Wachter, 
S. \V. Harkey, Reuben Weiser. J. J. Remensnyder, J. Richards. 
(}-. AV. Anderson. isr>3-18f>(i : W. Hunt. 1856-1861; S. Curtis. 
iHttMSWi: .John I'linih. ISIitf-1871 ; John J. Summers. 1871- 
1877; AV. C. AVire. 1877-1887; J. II. Barb. D.D., 1887-1896; 
Arthur Brcdenbeck. 1897-1S98; AV. S. T. Metzger. 1899-1903; 
C. E. Keller, D.I)., (supply 1903-1906) : M. L. Beard, 1906-1915; 
AV. C. AValtemyer. 191(5- - . The Rev. Prof. Abdel Ross AVentz, 
Ph.D.. acted as supply one year (March, 1918-March. 1919), while 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



the present pastor. Rev. W. C. Waltemyer. was serving as chap- 
lain in the United States Army. 

Three sons of the congregation attended our educational in- 
stitution at Gettysburg in preparation for the ministry. War- 
ren Demuth left the seminary to enter the Episcopal Church. 
Luther S. Black entered the Lutheran ministry in 1888, but in 
1908 became a minister of the Presbyterian faith. Edgar J. 
Eyler had but one more year at the seminary when responding 
to the call of patriotism became an officer in the United States 





MR. GEORGE J. TREXLER, 
Thurmont, Md. 



MR. LESTER S. BIRELY, 
Thurmont, Ml. 



Army and bravely died on the field of battle early in the fall of 
1918. 

The congregation in this year of 1919 has among its members 
four veterans of the Civil War. There were thirty young men to 
represent her in the World War, and three of them gave their 
lives for their country. 

St. John's has been blessed in having a continuous line of 
strong, efficient and zealous laymen. Conspicuous among those of 
earlier days were: Joseph E. Webster, who entered into his 
eternal reward in 1891, and who for more than thirty consecutive 
years was superintendent of the Sunday school; John Rou/er, 
who died in 1892. a most liberal contributor and earnest worker; 
Van B. Osier, who died in 1901, Sunday school superintendent, 
choir leader and frequently a member of the church council; 
Judge William J. Black, who died in 1902, a man of keen men- 



400 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

tality and deep spirituality, a strong leader; and Col. John R. 
Ron/er. who passed away in 1915, Sunday school superintendent 
and active in the church council. 

The present active laymen are worthy sons of their church 
fathers. A few of the present-day leaders are: Senator J. P. T. 
Mathias. formerly Sunday school superintendent and active in 
the church council; John G. Jones, active and efficient in all 
phases of church work; George J. Damuth. zealous and most de- 
pendahle; Lester S. Hirely. for six years the efficient superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school and a strong leader in the general 
work of the congregation ; George J. Trexler, the present enthu- 
siastic superintendent of the Sunday school and vice-president of 
the church council. The photographs of the last named two lay- 
men appear with this sketch. 

The organixations within the congregation continuously have 
been directed by efficient and godly men and women. The chief 
organizations are the Sunday school, the Mite Society and the 
Woman's Missionary Society. 

The Sunday school has been a vital help in the building up of 
the congregation both materially and spiritually. Besides those 
whose names have already appeared as active in the Sunday 
school, mention should be made of the following splendid work- 
ers: Franklin Dotterer. Miss Linnie McGuigan, Miss Maude 
"Weller and Miss Grace Ilenshaw. 

The Mite Society, with ninety women in its membership, has 
contributed untold energy and much money to our local work. 
Mrs. L. R. Waesche. Miss Estelle Castle and Mrs. Belva A. E. 
Hi rely have been excellent leaders. 

The Woman 's Missionary Society has been a real blessing. Its 
members have combined knowledge with zeal and the result has 
been that the congregation has always had an intelligent in- 
terest in missionary activity. Mrs. Harriet Landers, Mrs. Jas. A. 
McGuigan, Mrs. H. C. Foreman, Mrs. Ruth M. Jones, and Mrs. 
Levi Leatherman. all of whom are still active, have been enthu- 
siastic members for years. 

St. John's Church of Thurmont has a present communicant 
membership of three hundred, a Lutheran consciousness and a 
world-wide vision of service for the Master. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



401 



ST. JAMES' LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
UNION BRIDGE, MD. 

(UNION BRIDGE CHARGE.) 

Rev. W. 0. Ibach, Pastor. 

In the summer of 1881, John W. Angel, Abram E. Null, H. 
II. Rowe, members of Mount Union, and Rev. D. B. Floyd, pastor 
at Uniontown, began to agitate the question of building a Lu- 
theran church at Union Bridge. D. C. Derr, a Lutheran, and 
Professor James Yates,- a Presbyterian, residents of the town, 
cooperated. October 23, 1881, at 
a congregational meeting at Mount 
Union, it was decided to disband 
as a congregation and unite with 
the Lutherans in and around 
Union Bridge in an effort to build 
in the growing town. That same 
evening Rev. D. B. Floyd 
preached the first Lutheran ser- 
mon there and continued the 
services every two weeks, the little 
band worshipping in Ander's 
Hall. Twenty-one Lutherans in 
the place united with those from 
Mount Union and a committee was 
appointed to secure a lot and 
funds for building. At a meeting 
of the Middle Conference of the 
Maryland Synod at Taneytown, 

October. 1881, a committee consisting of Revs. D. B. Floyd, 
George Diehl. D.D.. H. W. Kuhns, John W. Angel, and D. C. 
Derr, was appointed to encourage the movement. The removal 
of the chairman of this committee from the bounds of the Synod 
delayed the work. 

The corner stone was laid May 24, 1883, and the church was 
dedicated January 1, 3884, at the cost of $4,000. 

Some of the members at Mount Union who had voted to re- 
move to Union Bridge, changed their minds and remained with 
the old church. This was followed by a reorganization at Union 
Bridge and weakened the young congregation. During the sum- 
mer of 1884 and winter of 1885 the new church was supplied 
from the seminary at Gettysburg. In May, 1885, Rev. C. L. T. 
Fisher was elected pastor and assumed charge. 
26 




REV. W. O. IBACH. 



402 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

During his pastorate of a little more than a year considerable 
accessions were made to the membership and Messiah Lutheran 
Church of Freedom with St. James' were formed into a charge. 
the pastor receiving financial aid also from the Board of Home 
Missions. 

Rev. Fisher resigned June 30, 1886, and was succeeded by Rev. 
M. E. McLinn. During his pastorate, St. James' built an elegant 
parsonage at a cost of $2. (500. On his resignation in 1890, the 
charge was divided and Keysville and Union Bridge made a pas- 
torate. 

On March 31. 1891. Rev. G. G. M. Brown became the first pas- 
tor of the new charge. lie labored faithfully and successfully 
until December 1. 1893. 

Rev. R. L. Patterson became Rev. Brown's successor June 10, 
1894. The church made steady and solid progress and the debt 
on the parsonage was reduced from $2,100 to $375. Tn 1897 
negotiations were begun for the addition of Mount Tabor congre- 
gation. Rocky Ridge, to the charge. Largely through the efforts 
of the pastor this arrangement was consummated on October 1, 
1897. Rev. Patterson closed his labors on September 24, 1899. 

Rev. G. W. Enders, Jr., began his pastorate on December 1, 
1899. He labored faithfully and was instrumental in paying the 
mortgage indebtedness and floating debt of .$1,810, besides mak- 
ing repairs to church and parsonage. Rev. Enders resigned Sep- 
tember 1. 1905. and was succeeded October 1. 1905. by Rev. 0. E. 
Bregenzer. who continued his labors until December 31, 1912. 

Rev. G. A. Royer began his labors October 1. 1913. During 
his pastorate the church was thoroughly remodeled, so much so 
that virtually a new church was the result. It was modernized 
and on the completion of the work was pronounced the most beau- 
tiful church in the community. Rev. Royer closed his pastorate 
January 31. 1916. and was succeeded by Rev. W. O. Ibach, on 
July 1, 1916, the present pastor. St. James' is composed of a 
loyal, consecrated band of workers. About ten years ago the 
congregation lost many of its good workers when the railroad 
shopmen were moved to Hagerstown. The remaining members 
took on renewed courage and by hard work have kept the work 
moving. 

Tn the summer of 1919 it was resolved to build a social hall. 
This was felt to be necessary in order to care for the development 
of the young people and impress upon them that the church is 
their spiritual home. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 

MOUNT TABOR LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
ROCKY RIDGE, MI). 

(UNION BRIDGE CHARGE.) 
Rev. W. 0. Ibach, Pastor. 

This congregation was organized in 1873. Owing to the lack of 
records very little information of the early history is to be ob- 
tained. On March 4, 1874, the corner stone was laid of the Mount 
Tabor Lutheran and Reformed Church. This marked a definite 
point in the spiritual development of the community. The first 
regular pastor was Rev. AV. C. Wire, who entered upon his labors 
in 1876. Rev. J. II. Barb began his labors on November 17, 1887, 
and served the field until February 17. 1896. The above pastors 
served the Thurmont charge of which Mount Tabor was a part. 
On October 1, 1897. the congregation became part of the Union 
Bridge charge, at which tim? Rev. R. L. Patterson assumed pas- 
toral relationship and faithfully ministered until October 1, 
1899. From this time to the present the pastors of the above 
charge have ministered to the spiritual needs of Mount Tabor. 

During the pastorate of Rev. G. A. Rover the church was reno- 
vated and modern furnishings secured. A two-manual pipe 
organ Avas installed and the church frescoed. In 1917 stained 
glass memorial windows replaced the old windows; a beautiful 
altar painting, representing "Christ, the Comforter," also a 
memorial; and a complete electric plant and motor for the organ, 
were purchased. Thus this rural congregation is worshipping in 
a plant that is up-to-date in all particulars. 

On August 30. 1919, six acres comprising a beautiful grove 
near the church were purchased and permanent buildings will be 
erected to care for the social needs of the congregation. 

KEYSVILLE LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
KEYSVILLE, MD. 

(UNION BRIDGE CHARGE.) 
Rev. W. 0. Ibach, Pastor. 

This congregation was organized October 21. 1872, under the 
pastoral supervision of Rev. P. Bergstresser, who was pastor of 
Trinity Church, Taneytown. Most of the charter members were 
from Trinity congregation. From the time of the organization 



404 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

until made part of the Union Bridge charge, in 1889, the pastoral 
supply was somewhat irregular, as it was too weak to support a 
regular pastor and had no connection with any charge. The 
pastors at Taneytown as a rule supplied Keysville. Sometimes 
a student from the seminary at Gettysburg preached for them 
during vacation. Since it has become a part of a charge and has 
enjoyed the regular ministrations of a pastor it has grown 
steadily. 

Since its organixation it has worshipped in a union church, 
owned by the Reformed and Lutheran congregations. In the 
spring of 1919 it was decided that a new church home of its own 
was necessary to maintain its congregational life and its share in 
the building was sold to the Reformed brethren. Preparations 
were immediately made to secure a site for the new building and 
Brother and Mrs. Kisor presented an acre, beautifully located on 
the Taneytown road, one dollar being paid so that a clear title 
could be obtained. Active work is going on and materials are 
being secured to complete the structure within the next year. 
Ground for the new building was broken on September 6, 1919. 
When this is completed this congregation will have a dignified 
and substantial house of worship and be in the best position to 
minister to the spiritual needs of its devoted people. 

The following pastors have served the congregation : Rev. P. 
Bergstresser, 1872; Rev. L. T. Williams. 1874; Rev. E. S. John- 
ston, 1876; Rev. M. L. Beard, 1877; Rev. J. U. Asper, 1886; 
Rev. O. C. Roth. 1887; Rev. L. DeYoe, 1889; Rev. M. E. McLinn, 
1890; Rev. G. G. M. Brown. 1891 ; Rev. R. L. Patterson, 1894; 
Rev. G. W. Enders. Jr.. 1899; Rev. 0. E. Bregen/er, 1905; Rev. 
G. A. Royer, 1913; Rev. W. O. Ibach. 1916. 



ST. LUKE'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
NEW WINDSOR, MD. 

(UNIONTOWN CHARGE.) 
I\( r. B. E. P circa, Pastor. 

This large charge, located in Carroll County, Maryland, is com- 
posed of four country churches: St. Luke's (Winter's), Eman- 
uel (Baust's). Mount Union (Middleburg), St. Paul's (Union- 
town), and was formed on October 1, 1870. 

About the year 1766. Francis Winter, one of the earliest set- 
tlers in the neighborhood of what is now New Windsor, this 
county, received an application from German colonists near Lan- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



405 



caster, Pa., for land for fanning purposes, and for the erection 
thereon of a prospective Lutheran church of the Augsburg Con- 
fession. Family after family arrived and took up land in this 
vicinity, then part of Frederick County. In 1772 a log church 
was erected for a house of prayer ; but the congregation was not 
organized until January 1, 1783, under the pastoral care of Rev. 
Johann Daniel f Schroeter. when 
the Ecclesiastical Discipline of 
the Church was submitted and 
adopted by the congregation. 

On May 31, 1784. the first of- 
ficers of the church were elected 
and installed. They were : Elders 
Francis Winter and Henry 
Craul. Deacons Jacob Haintz 
and George Spangler. Pastor 
Johann Daniel Schroeter. The 
old log church becoming inade- 
quate for the increase in popula- 
tion, it was resolved by the con- 
gregation to build a new and 
more commodious edifice, which 
was accomplished in the year 1875. 
The original records, written in 
the German script, are well pre- 
served. The present church has been repaired and remodeled 
several times, once under the pastoral care of the Rev. G- AY. 
Baughman, later under the care of the Rev. W. E. Saltzgiver. 
Extensive repairs were made by the last named pastor at a cost 
of $2,500. 

The congregation is alive to the up-keep and beautifying of its 
own church property. It has a large and very active Ladies' Aid 
Society. Plans are being made for the organization of a Lu- 
theran Brotherhood in the Uniontown charge. Two legacies have 
been applied by the congregation, one of $400, the other of $300. 
Of the first, known as the Fannie Engleman legacy, $300 was 
given to missions and $100 to the Deaconess Home in Baltimore. 
The other, known as the E. J. Frountfelter legacy, in amount of 
$300. was given to missions. The duplex envelop system is used 
by all churches in the pastorate. The present membership is one 
hundred thirty. The prospects for future growth are relatively 
good. The present congregation is very much scattered. 

The list of pastors is as follows: Rev. Johann Daniel Schroe- 
ter^ 1783 ; Rev. John Grobp, Rev. Michael Wachter, Rev. Reu- 




EEV. B. E. PETREA. 



400 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOO. 

Ix'ii AYeiser. Rev. E/ra Keller. 1836-1842; Rev. Solomon Sent- 
niaii. 1842-184:1: Rev. Philip Willard. 1848-1845; Rev. C. Reim- 
ensnyder. 1846-1849; Rev. John Winter. 1849-1852; Rev. Sam- 
uel Henry. 1853-1859: Rev. Jacob Martin. 1859-18(5:!; Rev. II. C. 
Ilolloway. 1863-1868; Rev. P. A. Stroble. 18(58-1869; Rov. John 
F. Diener, 1870-1872; Rev. C. W. Anderson. 1873-1876; Rev. 
D. B. Floyd. 1876-1881 : Rev. W. E. Delp. 1882-1890; Rev. J. R. 
Williams. 1890-1893; Rev. (}. W. Baughman. 1893-1914; Rev. 
W. E. Saltzgiver, 1915-1918; Rev. B. E. Petrea, 1919- - 



EMMANUEL (HAUST'S) LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
(\\KKOLL COUNTY, MIX 

(UNIONTOWX CHARGE. ) 

Rev. K. E. I>ctrea. 1'axlor. 

Emmanuel Church is the second oldest in the Uniontown 
charge. It is popularly known as Baust's Church. The ground 
on which it stands, including the cemetery, was deeded by Valen- 
tine Baust and his wife. Maria Elixabeth. to John Ilahn and 
Peter Shoemaker on the tenth day of January. 1794. as a site for 
a schoolhouse and church. The dates of laying the corner stone 
and of the dedication are not known. 

The first building was of logs and stood about one hundred 
yards northeast of the present building. A new brick building 
was erected in 1815. with high arched windows, two stories high, 
with galleries, wine-glass pulpit and sounding board. This was 
vast improvement on the old log church with its rough boards for 
benches. 

The congregation was incorporated in 1835, and in 1868 the 
church was repainted and frescoed at a cost of $700. 

In the year 1907. June 16, under the pastoral care of the Rev. 
G. \V. Baughman, the corner stone was laid for the erection of 
a new building. The old building had been used ninety-two years. 
On April 26. 1908, the new building was dedicated. The present 
building is of brick, is got hie in design, and is a thoroughly mod- 
ern building. The main auditorium, thirty-four by fifty feet, 
and the Sunday school room, eighteen by thirty-two feet, which 
can be thrown into one, will seat 400. The building cost about 
$10.000. The building is jointly owned by the Lutherans and 
Reformed. The present membership is one hundred sixty. The 
congregation is scattered. The prospects for future growth are 
bright. A good Sunday school and Missionary Society are at 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 407 

work. At present a nice comfortable house is being built, wheiv 
the original log house stood, for the use of the sexton. 

There is no list available of the earliest pastors, but it seems 
probable that they were the following: Rev. John Ilerbst. 1797; 
Rev. Henry Graeber, 1820 ; Rev. John Grobp, 1825 ; Rev. J. w! 
Hoffman, 1831; Rev. S. D. Finckle, 1834: Rev. Exra Keller. 
1837. 

Then follows the same line of pastors that served St. Luke's 
down to the present time. 



MOUNT UNION LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
MIDDLEBURG, MD. 

( UNIONTOWN C H ARGE. ) 
Itev. B. E. Pctrea, Pastor. 

Mount Union Church, situated two miles east, of Middleburg, 
was built in the summer of 1857, as a union church to be held 
jointly by the Lutheran and Reformed congregations. Abram F. 
Null, John Angel, Sr., John Koons, John Feeser and John W. 
Angel were the leading persons in the erection of the church. 
It was dedicated in 1858, and the congregation became a part of 
the Taneytown charge. In 1860 it was taken from the Taneytown 
and united with the Woodsboro charge, and in 1869 was made a 
part of the Uniontown charge, which was formed during that 
year, and of which it is still a part. 

The Lutherans, during the pastorate of Rev. G. W. Anderson, 
proposed to buy the interest of the Reformed or sell to them, but 
they could do neither. In 1882 a number of the members pro- 
posed building a new Lutheran church in Union Bridge, which 
was afterwards done, resulting in the loss of some of the best 
members of Mount Union church. For a number of years Lu- 
theran services were discontinued, with the hope of drawing the 
entire congregation to Union Bridge. Failing in this, during 
the pastorate of Rev. W. S. Delp, and through his untiring energy 
and that of some of the laymen who still held to the old church, 
it was remodeled and rededicated, and the congregation reor- 
ganized. The Reformed having in the meantime abandoned it, 
the Lutherans took new hope, and with united effort developed a 
live, progressive congregation. 

It was incorporated 1903, by the Rev. G. W. Baughman. 
Under the wise and efficient leadership of Rev. Baughman in 
1903 the congregation resolved to build a new church. The cor- 



408 ^ IIISTOKY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

nor stono was laid August 20, 1905. and tho building dedicated 
March 25, 1906. The present membership is seventy. The Mis- 
sionary Society, the Sunday school and the Young Peoples' 
Christian Endeavor, under the /ealons efforts of Miss Li/zie 
Birely, are doing good work. Special mention should he made of 
the Christian Endeavor. It has carried off the Carroll County 
banners many times. The church property is in excellent re- 
pair. 

The following pastors have served the congregation : Rev. L. 
T. Williams. 1858; Rev. George II. Bockley, 1859; Rev. S. AY. 
Owen, 18(56; Rev. J. F. Diener, 1870, and all the succeeding 
pastors of the I'niontown charge. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHER AX CHURCH, 
UNIOXTOWX, MI). 

(UNIONTOWN CHARGE.) 
liev. B. E. Petrca, Pastor. 

St. Paul's church, located at Uniontown, a small country vil- 
lage, is the youngest and smallest congregation in the charge, 
and still retains its youth and vigor. The congregation was or- 
gani/ed October 1, 1870. Only one charter member is still living. 
The original members came partly from St. Luke's and partly 
from Emmanuel. The corner stone was laid October 24, 1874, 
and the church was dedicated June, 1875. The congregation was 
incorporated in 1887. 

The building is a neat frame structure. Close by the church 
stands the parsonage of the pastorate, owned jointly by the four 
churches. The church has twice been renovated and remodeled. 
The present membership is sixty-five, generally very active. The 
Sunday school is alive and active. The Missionary Society and 
the Young People's Christian Endeavor are at work. 

Special mention must be made of her three sons in the active 
ministry. They are the Rev. G. W. Englar, D.D., now at Bethany 
Church. Pittsburgh, Pa.; the Rev. Ilixon T. Bowersox, at St. 
James' in York, Pa., and the Rev. Harry F. Baughrnan, a son 
of the former pastor, Rev. G. W. Baughman, now at St. Stephen's, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Two other boys in the congregation are thinking 
of entering the ministry. One young lady has partly completed 
the course for deaconess work at Baltimore. The pastors are the 
same as those for St. Luke's of the Uniontown charge. 



THE CHURCHES OP THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



409 



UTICA CHARGE. 

Rev. Charles A. Shilke, Pastor. 

' The Utica charge, formerly known as the Monocacy Valley 
charge, comprises four congregations: St. John's at Creagers- 
town, Bethel, St. Paul 's at Utica, and St. Paul 's at Walkersville. 
The parsonage is located in AValkersville and for that reason the 
charge is sometimes referred to as the AValkersville charge. 



BETHEL LUTHERAN CHURCH, FREDERICK 
COUNTY, MI). 

(UTICA CHARGE.) 
Rev. Charles A. Shilke, Pastor. 

During the eighteenth century, German settlers filled up and 
occupied every part of the Monocacy Valley. Small centers of 
population formed at Utica, where a schoolhouse was built about 
one hundred and sixty years ago, in which the Lutherans, with 
three or four other denominations, held occasional services. 
Amid such places as Mountain- 
dale, near the Fishing Creek Gap, 
and Yellow Springs, Charlesyille 
and Hansonville, which had each 
a schoolhouse, was a central point, 
now called Bethel. A schoolhouse 
was built there about 1760, which 
stood near where the church now 
stands, and on ground now en- 
closed in the graveyard. Here 
the Lutheran pastors of Freder- 
ick, who had members living in 
this section, preached occasional- 
ly. John Andrew Krug, pastor of 
Frederick from 1771 to 1796, gave 
these people an occasional sermon 
and buried their dead. David F. 
Schaeffer. who became pastor of 
Frederick in 1808, also filled oc- 
casional appointments in the school house. But the people all 
this time belonged to Frederick and went there for the holy com- 
munion. 




REV. CHARLES A. SHILKE. 



410 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



Kev. Michael \Yaehter. a native of this section, who was li- 
censed in 1821. and received ordination in 1881. also assisted 
Rev. ShanVr in his work and preached in the sehoolhouse occa- 
sionally. Still it was a mere supply under the Frederick pastors. 

After Dr. 1). F. Schaeffer's death. Rev. Simeon W. Ilarkey. his 
successor at Frederick, also took charge of this sehoolhouse ap- 
pointment. 

He had the revivalistic temper, and awakening the community, 
they desired a church and the means of grace in their midst. In 
the spring of 1888 ground was broken, the wall built, and the 




BETHEL LUTHERAN CHURCH, FREDERICK COUNTY, MD. 

corner stone laid of a union church. The church was dedicated 
that same year. Dr. Ilarkey and the Reformed pastor holding the 
feast of dedication. Dr. Ilarkey, of Frederick, tail, spiritual and 
active to the last, resigned in August, 1850, and hence his serv- 
ices at Bethel also closed at that time. 

Rev. George William Anderson now accepted the charge, com- 
posed of Creagerstown. Utica and Bethel. lie began his labors on 
January. 1853. and lived at Creagerstown, being unmarried. He 
served the charge until the autumn of 1856, when he married, 
resigned and served the church elsewhere for many years. 

Rev. William Hunt became pastor in the fall of 1856 and served 
over four years. His first communion was held October, 1856, 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



411 



and his last May 2(5, I860. His highest number of communicants 
\vas fifty -seven. 

Rev. William II. Harrison became pastor on July 1, 1800. His 
pastorate continued until 1862, when he resigned to enter upon 
educational work, for which he was well adapted, as he was a man 
of more than ordinary ability. 

His successor was Rev. S. Curtis, whose baptisms date from 
August 22, 1862. His labors closed August 1. 1866. He was a 
faithful shepherd and served many years in the ministry. 

Rev. John Unruh served this charge from August 1, 1866, and 
continued five years. lie baptized fifty children and confirmed 





MR. SPENCER E. STUP, 
Bethel Lutheran Church. 



MR. CHARLES T. STULL, 
Bethel Lutheran Church. 



thirty-three persons, some of whom are our substantial members 
to-day. On November 18, 1866, his first communion, ninety-two 
members availed themselves of that grace. This was the largest 
on record to that time. Father Unruh served five years, closing 
his labors August 1, 1871. 

His successor was Rev. J. Summers, and his charge consisted of 
Creagerstowii, Utica and Bethel. Many members were received 
and the church was built up. He served for six years, from 1871 
to 1877. Twenty-two were confirmed and others were received by 
letter and baptism. 

Rev. S. A. Hedges became pastor of the charge November 1, 
1877, and he continued in the charge for six years, during which 



412 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

time his labors were abundant, lie received forty-seven into the 
church. 

hi 1881 a movement was made to rebuild the old church, which 
had always been a union church. Lutheran and Reformed. But 
a majority of the Reformed, desiring their own church, withdrew 
under the direction of Rev. Ilench, to Charlesville, where they 
established a church and cemetery. 

The Lutherans, under a competent building committee com- 
posed of the pastor. S. A. Hedges. Abraham Michel, Henry 
Wachter. Philip Wachter and Lewis II. "NVachter, leveled the old 
building and built the present well adapted and comfortable 
house of worship. It was dedicated on May 28, 1882, Rev. 
Hedges performing the holy act of consecration. The church 
cost about $3.000. It has been improved since and will remain 
a monument of the fidelity and piety of the fathers of the church. 
Rev. Hedges closed his labors November 1, 1883, and removed 
from the charge. 

John Milton Snyder became pastor of the charge on September 
1. 1884. and continued in the charge to January 1, 1889. He 
lived in the parsonage at Lewistown, which had been purchased 
during the early part of Rev. Hedges' ministry. Bethel now 
had one hundred members. Rev. Snyder confirmed thirty -four 
adults and baptized fifty children. His labors were appreciated 
and his ministry successful. 

Rev. J. E. Zerger assumed the labors of the pastorate in the 
spring of 1889. His records are meager, but we learn that he 
received twenty-two members, baptized ten infants, and held 
communion six times, the last being April 3, 1892, indicating a 
three years' service. 

John U. Asper became pastor of the charge in July, 1892. His 
first sacramental feast numbered only thirty-seven. His last 
communion on record notes fifty-one members communed. His 
pastorate was very fruitful, and continued until November 1, 
190"), a period of thirteen years and four months. 

In 1893 Walkersville congregation was received into the charge 
and it then consisted of four congregations. R<?v. Asper re- 
signed the charge on November 1. 1905. 

Rev. G. W. Crist, who became pastor July 4, 1906, continued 
his pastorate until his death, July 8. 1914. He was an efficient 
pastor and loved by all. 

On February 14. 1915. Charles A. Shilke. then a student in the 
Seminary at Gettysburg, was called to be pastor. Immediately 
after graduation. May 20. 1915. he took charge of the work and 
is the present pastor. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



413 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
CREAGERSTOWN. MD. 

(UTICA CHARGE.) 
Eev. Charles A. Shilke, Pastor. 

The Creagerstown church enjoys the distinction of being the 
oldest in the Maryland Synod. It is nearly twice as old as the 
venerable Synod herself, was twice visited by the patriarch 
Muhlenberg, is mentioned by him in the Halle Reports, and is the 
mother of the flourishing church at Frederick. 

St. John's, of Creagerstown. is the direct successor of the old 



4 




ST. JOHN 's LUTHERAN CHURCH, CREAGERSTOWN, Mb. 

Monocacy church, which was built early in the fourth decade of 
the eighteenth century, about 1734. For an account of this 
earliest of Lutheran settlements in Maryland the reader is re- 
ferred to Chapter One. The first church building served the pur- 
poses of the congregation for nearly sixty years. 

The organizer of this congregation was in all probability the 
Rev. John Casper Stover, the same who organized Christ Church 
in York, and a number of churches in Berks and Lebanon Coun- 
ties. The first pastor who served the congregation with any de- 



414 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

gree of regularity was the Rev. David Candler, whom Stover or- 
dained in 174-'$. Candler resided at Conewago (now Hanover), 
and ministered to four congregations: York. Conewago. Monoc- 
aey, and Frederick. After his deatli in December. 1744. the con- 
gregation fell for a short time under the influence of Lars Ny- 
berg. the Swede, who had secretly espoused the Moravian faith. 
When his sinister purposes were discovered the doors of the 
church were closed against him. Then the congregation became 
a victim of several impostors, such as Carl Rudolph (174(5). and 
Kmpiricus Schmidt (1747). 

But these irregularities ceased with the visit of the patriarch 
Mnhlenberg, in 1747. Muhlenberg preached and prayed and ad- 
ministered the Lord's Supper. lie also wrote in their church 
book a set of articles of faith and fellowship. These articles were 
signed by the six wardens and twenty-six other members of the 
congregation residing at Monocacy and Frederick. This was on 
June 24th. 

On June 25th Muhlenberg visited Frederick, where he preached 
in the new church and administered the communion to such as 
were hindered by the rain from coming to Monocacy the previous 
day. He also baptized children and then returned to Monocacy 
for the night. Muhlenberg regarded Frederick as part of the 
Monocacy charge. 

Rev. John II. Schaum, of York, paid occasional visits to Monoc- 
acy church, and Valentine Kraft, an aged pastor opposed to 
Muhlenberg. who settled in Frederick in 1749, rendered some 
services for a year or two. After his death Schaum again 
preached, during 1751 and 1752, and gave counsel. He also 
counteracted the evil influence of a man named Streiter. who was 
exceedingly zealous in his efforts to gain influence and serve the 
congregations. 

In May. 1752. Frederick and Monocacy called Rev. Bernard 
Michel Ilausihl. a gifted, educated and regularly ordained pastor. 
He served from 1752 to 1758. Streiter 's opposition caused him 
much trouble in FYederick. but at Monocacy and elsewhere his 
labors were blest and the divisions were healed. In 1758 Ilausihl 
removed to Reading. 

Muhlenberg now paid another visit. The Germans desired him 
to become their pastor, hoping to have exemption from the taxes 
assessed for English preaching, as Muhlenberg could preach in 
both languages. But he could not accept. The charge then suf- 
fered a vacancy of five years, except occasional supplies. 

Rev. John C. Hartwick was one of these. In June, 1762. he 
dedicated the new Lutheran church at Frederick. Monocacv was 



THE CHURCHES OP THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



415 



dependent upon its school teacher, who also soon failed. The 
charge even offered to pay the fare of a minister from Germany, 
but none came until 1763. 

In 1753 Rev. Samuel Schvverdfeger was licensed by John C. 
Stoever and Tobias Wagner. He spent some time at York and 
Conewago. He was opposed to Schaum at York, and came in 
1763 to Frederick, having been examined and ordained by the 
Ministerium in 1762. He served the charge until 1768. when he 





MR. EOY W. HAXKEY, 
Creagerstown, Md. 



MR. JOHN M. AHALT, 
Creagerstown, Md. 



made a trip to Europe. Upon his return in 1770, he came to his 
old field, but they received him coldly. He then went to Al- 
bany, X. Y. 

John Andrew Krug. of Reading, came to the Monocacy charge 
in April, 1771. He served the Monocacy church during his entire 
pastorate of twenty-five years. He lived in Frederick, which 
church now had the lead. During his pastorate the old Monoc- 
acy church became unfit for use and a union church was built at 
Creagerstown in 1791. It was of logs, and was afterwards 
weatherboarded. It stood about twenty feet northwest of the 
brick church, a little nearer the street. We believe this was the 
first church in Creagerstown, and the immediate successor of 
the old Monocacy church, as there is a dead silence of any other 
church building between this and the Monocacy of 1734. 

A cemetery was provided for the church, and for more than 
a century have the people buried their dead hard by the church, 



41 f> HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

until it lias become a large, well-ordered cemetery, occupying 
several acres. 

Rev. Krug died May 30, 179(>. and was buried beneath the aisle 
of the Frederick church. Creagerstown lost a faithful, loving 
and gentle pastor. 

Rev. Charles F. Wildbahn became pastor December 4, 179(i. 
lie came from Reading, where he had served fourteen years. He 
only remained eighteen months and then went to Virginia. 

John F. Moeller followed Wildbahn in the pastorate. He 
came to America in 179b'. and served Frederick and Creagerstown 
from December 1. 1799. to June 1. 1802. Tie was only a licentiate 
of Synod during his pastorate. lie went to Chambersburg. 

Frederick W. Jasinsky came from Shepherdstown. He was a 
man of brain and brawn. He served Creagerstown, Woodsboro, 
London. Virginia and Frederick. The latter place soon tired of 
him and desired his resignation. Woodsboro and London held to 
him; Creagerstown was neutral. In 1807 Synod advised his 
resignation for the benefit of all, and to this he agreed on cer- 
tain conditions, which were complied with. 

Rev. David F. Schaeffer became pastor on July 17. 1808. His 
charge consisted of Creagerstown. Woodsboro, London, and Fred- 
erick. He had been assistant to his father in Pennsylvania, under 
whom he also studied. 

In 1810 a new charge was formed of Woodsboro. Creagerstown. 
etc.. of which Rev. Fred Haas became pastor. In that year he 
reported six churches. 75 baptisms and 29 confirmations. The 
number of members is not given, but Creagerstown was now 
in a flourishing condition with nearly a hundred members. Rev. 
Haas continued pastor of the charge and in 1819 reported 298 
members. In 1821 Creagerstown petitioned the Maryland Synod 
that Rev. Haas discontinue as pastor, and that Creagerstown be 
permitted to secure another pastor. This privilege was granted, 
and Rev. Haas ceased to serve Creagerstown, on November 1, 
1821. Creagerstown desired a revival minister and Rev. Haas 
opposed any excitement in worship. 

Rev. John Winter took charge about January 1. 1822. He 
served six years and added large numbers to the church. Ill 
less than six years one hundred and twenty-seven members were 
added. 

On November 1. 1827, a subscription was taken for Rev. Michael 
Wachter. and January 1. 1829. it was paid to him. showing that 
he served them during 1828. It amounted to $35. R;>v. Wachter 
appears to have served some eight or ten years. lie lived in 
Frederick and was very successful. May 9, 1830, eighty-seven 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 417 

eommuiied, the highest number during Rev. Wachter 's first pas- 
torate. His ministerial services are not recorded after 1835. But 
we feel certain that he served until 1838, when Rev. J. J. Reimen- 
snyder, of Pennsylvania, took charge and preached several years. 
In 1842 he received seven members. But he has left few records 
indeed. Perhaps someone else rendered supply from Woodsboro 
or Emmitsburg. or Apple's Church. 

In 1844 Rev. Wachter came back again as pastor. He was a 
member of the Wachter family, so numerous in the county. He 
served Creagerstown twice, and altogether about fifteen years. 
He was pastor during the building of the old brick church, which 
was dedicated on the exact centennial of the old Monocacy 
church. He added many to the church. He died in Woodsboro 
in 1850, after a ministry of thirty years. 

Rev. George W. Anderson's letter of acceptance is dated De- 
cember 19, 1852. He refers to the Creagerstown charge as hav- 
ing trouble and speaks of healing the difficulties. His labors 
began January, 1853. He was unmarried and lived in Creagers- 
town. His labors continued for three and a half years. He was a 
man of courage and piety and spent many years in the ministry. 
He married about the time he left this charge. His successor was 
Rev. William Hunt, who took charge in 1856 and served four 
years. He lived in Creagerstown. where a parsonage was now 
erected. 

Rev. W. H. Harrison served the charge composed of Creagers- 
town. Utica and Bethel, from 1860 to 1862. He was a man of 
more than ordinary ability and learning. His successor was Rev. 
S. Curtis. His record of baptisms date from August 22, 1862, to 
August, 1866. He was faithful in the ministries of his office, a 
true shepherd. 

John N. Unruh began his ministry on August 1. 1866. In five 
years, the time of his pastorate, he baptized one hundred and four 
children. The communicants at his first communion numbered 
one hundred and sixty-one. He made large additions to the 
membership. He held forty-three funerals in the congregation, 
and conducted several extensive revivals of religion. Still the un- 
rest of the congregation caused him to remove from the field. 

His successor was Rev. J. Summers. The charge consisted 
of Creagerstown, Utica and Bethel, and numbered more than four 
hundred members. Rev. Summers remained six years and bap- 
tized one hundred and eleven children at Creagerstown. He was 
a large, strong, robust man of powerful endurance. He served 
this field from July 15, 1871, to July, 1877, a period of six years. 
His ministry was a success. 
27 



418 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Rev. S. A Hedges followed him in the pastorate. He lived at 
Lewistown, where a parsonage was purchased. His labors began 
November 1. 1877. and he continued in the eharge for six years. 
His labors were abundant and his ministry successful. At his 
second communion. May 12. 1878. eighty-one communed and a 
year later ninety -eight. 

Rev. John Milton Snyder became pastor after a vacancy of 
ten months, serving from September 1, 1884, to January 1, 1889. 

Rev. J. E. Zerger succeeded to the pastorate of the same 
churches in the spring of 1889. He remained three years. 

After a short vacancy Rev. John U. Asper became the efficient 
pastor. He had about two hundred members enrolled, but left 
no records of his abundant ministry behind him. His service was 
the longest of any in the brick union church. It continued from 
July. 1892. to November, 1905. He was loved and honored. But 
difficulties arose regarding the parsonage, and regarding the 
building of a new church at Creagerstown, which caused him to 
resign and remove to Pennsylvania. 

During his ministry the Walkersville congregation was added 
to his charge, which he served with increasing appreciation, and 
the Utica congregation withdrew from the charge. 

On July 4. 190(5, Rev. George W. Crist took charge of the 
Creagerstown church and continued until his death in 1914. It 
was during his pastorate, in 1908, that the present handsome 
church was erected. 

With the coming of Rev. Charles A. Shilke, a graduate of the 
Lutheran Seminary at Gettysburg, who took charge of the work 
immediately after graduation, the congregation seemed to take on 
new life. All financial obligations, including a debt of $900 on 
the new church, were cancelled. 

In May and June. 1919, was celebrated the 185th anniversary 
of the building of the old Monocacy church, and also the tenth 
anniversary of the building of the present church. As a feature 
of this celebration, the interior of the church was beautifully fres- 
coed at a cost of $670. 

ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, UTICA, 
FREDERICK COUNTY, MD. 

(UTICA CHARGE.) 
Rev. ('harks A. Shilke, Pastor. 

This congregation was originally an off-shoot of the old Monoc- 
acy church now at Creagerstown. As the people lived several 
miles from the Monocacy church they began to hold services in 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



419 



an old schoolhouse. In 1838 a union congregation of Lutherans 
and Reformed was organized. A church building was begun that 
same year and was completed and dedicated in 1839. This stood 
just half a century. 

The pastors of the Creagerstown church served the congrega- 
tion at Utica. In 1877, at the close of the pastorate of the Rev. 
John Summers, the charge consisted of Mechanicstown (now 
Thurmont). Rocky Ridge, Creagerstown. Utica and Bethel. That 
year the Maryland Synod adopted the recommendation that the 




ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, UTICA, FREDERICK COUNTY, MD. 

charge be divided. Bethel. Creagerstown and Utica were joined 
together in the "Utica Charge" with the parsonage at Lewis- 
town. After that the pastors of St. Paul's at Utica were the same 
as those already recorded for Bethel and St. John's at Creagers- 
town. 

During the pastorate of Rev. John U. Asper the Walkersville 
congregation was added to the charge. Shortly after that Mrs. 
Mary E. Dodrear, by her will, presented her property in Walkers- 
ville to the Walkersville congregation to be used as a parsonage. 
The bequest was accepted and the pastor removed to Walkers- 
ville. Thereupon in 1905 the Utica congregation declared itself 
independent and secured the pastoral services of Rev. S. A. 
Hedges. Rev. Hedges had been pastor of the entire charge from 



420 



HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 



1877 to 188:}, and it was during his ministry that the parsonage 
at Lewistown had been purchased. lie served them very accept- 
ably until 1916. 

Meanwhile the Creagerstown. Bethel and AValkersville con- 
gregations were united under the name of the "Monocaey Valley 





MR. E. J. FTTERHACK, 
Utica, Md. 



MB. WALTER S. WILES, 
Utica, Md. 



Charge." In 1917, under tlie ministry of the present pastor, 
Utica was reunited with the other three congregations and the 
charge is now known as the Utica charge. 

The present commodious church building was erected in 1889, 
and dedicated in March. 1890. during the ministry of the Rev. 
J. E. Zerger. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WALKERSVILLE, MD. 

(UTICA CHARGE.) 
If < r. Charles A. tfhilke, I'aslor. 

The Lutheran church at Walkersville is of recent date, and 
hence it has no savor of hoary age, but is full of strength and 
beauty. The Lutheran people of the community were compelled 
to go to "Woodsboro or Utica to enjoy the ministries of a Lutheran 
church. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



421 



In 1890, at the meeting of Synod, Rev. S. A. Diehl and Rev. 
J. E. Zerger were appointed to look after the Lutheran interests 
at Walkersville. This indicated that there was a concentration 
of Lutherans in this growing town. In February, 1891, this com- 
mittee appointed Adam Diehl, Sr., and Augustus Clemm to so- 
licit subscriptions for a new church in Walkersville. In a short 
time more than $2,000 was secured in subscriptions, and thirty- 
one names of persons for an organization. The congregation was 




" 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, WALKERSVILLE, MD. 

organized on July 6, 1891. and the following officers were elected, 
and afterwards duly installed : Adam Diehl, Sr., and John W. 
Crum. elders; T. S. Albaugh and A. S. Neff, deacons. Rev. S. A. 
Diehl. of Woodsboro, was elected pastor. A brick church, cost- 
ing $3.500, was built on Pennsylvania Street. The corner stone 
was laid in the late spring of 1891. and the church was dedicated 
on Sunday, July 17, 1892. Rev. Charles S. Albert, D.D., 
preached the sermon, and Rev. R. S. Patterson, who had recently 
accepted the pastorate of the Woodsboro charge, performed the 
service of dedication. New officers were also elected as follows: 
Elders. Lewis II. "Wachter and Augustus Clemm. Deacons 
Charles S. Wachter and Edward Zimmerman. 

Rev. Patterson continued as pastor of the church until July 1, 
1893, when his services closed, since the Woodsboro charge re- 



42 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



fused to accept the Walkersville church as part of the charge. 
The church was pastorlcss four months hut services were held by 
Revs. Asper. Hitter. Hedges. Haskarl. Kuhlman. and Bare. 

On Noveml)er 1. 1893. Rev. John T. Asper hecame pastor of 
the congregation in connection with the I'tica charge, which he 
was serving. He held services every two weeks, living near 
Lewistown at the parsonage of the charge. 

On August 1. 19(W. the congregation came into possession of a 





MR. T. S. 
Walkersville, Md. 



MR. WALTER W. CULLER, 
Walkersville, Md. 



valuable parsonage, containing eight rooms and other valuable 
appurtenances, situated near the five points in Walkersville. This 
valuable property was the gift of Mrs. Mary A. Dodrear by be- 
quest. Rev. Asper 's long ministry and Christian spirit have left 
behind nothing but the most kindly memories. Long will he be 
remembered as the beloved pastor of Walkersville. 

Rev. George W. Crist was the next pastor. He visited the 
charge on June 3, 1906. being Whitsunday, and on July 4, his 
pastoral labors began in this charge. When Rev. Crist was called 
to his heavenly reward in 1914 he was taken from a people by 
whom he was loved. Kind memories indeed has he left behind. 

During the interval between the death of Rev George W. 
Crist and the calling of the present pastor. Rev. R. S. Patterson, 
then pastor of the Woodsboro charge, preached for this congre- 
gation. During this time the interior of the church was beaut i- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



423 



fully frescoed, and new pulpit furniture installed. This makes it 
an attractive, tasteful and worshipful church. 

Thanks to the zeal and consecration of the present pastor and 
the devotion of his people, the congregation has grown in num- 
bers and every department of the church is flourishing. 



GRACE LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WESTMINSTER, MD. 

Rev. William II. Hctrick, Pastor. 

Lutheran preaching in this section of the state began as early 
as 1747, over a quarter of a century before the nation was born. 

The first organized Lutheran congregation in Westminster was 
established in 1842, when, by action of Synod, the little congre- 
gation of forty Lutherans who 
worshipped at intervals in the 
"Old Union Meeting House," 
used alternately by the different 
Protestant denominations of the 
town, was made an integral part 
of a newly constituted pastoral 
district known as the Westminster 
charge. Rev. Philip Willard, then 
serving the Manchester district, 
was made pastor and served until 
1845. 

The pastors who held services in 
the "Old Union Church'' while 
serving the Westminster charge, 
were Rev. Cornelius Reimensny- 
der, 1846-1849, and Rev. John 
Winter, 1849-1853. It was during 
the pastorate of the Rev Mr. Win- 
ter that preaching was discontinued in Westminster and it was 
not resumed again until a permanent Lutheran church was built 
in 1868. Other pastors of the charge in the interim were Rev. 
Samuel Henry. 1853-1859, and Rev. Jacob Martin. 1859-1863. 

To Rev. H. C. Holloway, D.D., still living at this writing, is 
due the credit of having firmly established a Lutheran church in 
this city. Rev. Holloway was called to the pastorate from the 
Seminary at Gettysburg, assuming charge July 16. 1863. At 
once the young graduate became possessed with the "set pur- 
pose" of building a church in the town and assiduously applied 




REV. WILLIAM H. HETRICK. 



424 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



himself to the task. In the face of many difficulties and consid- 
erable misgivings on the part of the Lutheran residents, he suc- 
eeeded in his purpose. Without an organized congregation to 
authorize the enterprise, a church was built at a cost of $15,000. 
Only twenty-two members constituted the congregation when it 
was subsequently organized. Dr. Ilolloway has erected a lasting 
monument to his name which shall not be forgotten as long as 

Grace church is in existence. 
The corner stone was laid Au- 
gust f>, 1866. and the edifice 
dedicated February 23, 1868. 
In l"ss than three months from 
the completion of the new 

l__^k church the congregation was 

lei t without a pastor, Rev Hol- 
loway having resigned May 5, 
1S68. 

Rev. P. A. Stroble, 1868- 
1S69. succeeded Rev. Holloway 
and served the charge only one 
year. This was a short pastor- 
ate, yet the records show an in- 
crease in membership from 
twenty-two to one hundred 
twenty. Some of the most ac- 
tive and prominent laymen of 
the church in after years were 
among these accessions. 

Under Rev. John A. Earnest. 




GRACE LUTHEPAN CHURCH, 
WESTMINSTER, MD. 



1869-187S, a period of more effective organization and internal 
development began. Organizations such as the Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety, a Teachers' Meeting and a Children's Missionary Society 
in the Sunday school, were begun and firmly established. The 
children of the Sunday school were taught the importance of 
weekly systematic support of missions. Rev. Earnest not only 
provided a very effective plan for reducing the church debt, but 
taught the congregation the highly important duty of giving to- 
ward benevolence at this opportune time. lie resigned in the 
spring of 1878. 

During the pastorate of Rev. II. W. Kuhns. 1878-1887, the 
church passed through its period of greatest trial and suffering. 
It also had its glorious time of triumph. While the pastor was 
busily engaged in introducing the various festivals of the church 
year and bringing his people also to observe the annual commem- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



425 



oration of the Reformation, he suddenly found himself without a 
church and parsonage. On that night of April 9, 1883, a fire 
broke out in the town, burning everything in its path until it 
reached the church properties and left these in ruins also. The 
loss to the congregation was $22,000 with only $5.000 insurance. 
Immediately steps were taken to rebuild both church and par- 
sonage and by August of that year the corner stone of the present 
church was laid, and on October 26. 1884, the building was con- 





Ma. THOMAS F. BABYLON, 
Westminster, Md. 



ME. JACOB H. HANDLEY, 
Westminster, Md. 



secrated. The cost of the new church was $17,000, all of which 
was provided for on the day of dedication. 

It was during the latter part of Dr. Kuhns' pastorate that the 
Westminster charge was divided. Thus Grace church became an 
independent congregation, the other two churches henceforth to 
be known as the Salem charge. Dr. Kuhns resigned October 16, 
1887. 

Rev. P. H. Miller, of Lovettsville, Virginia, became pastor of 
the church on November 18, 1887. Dr. Miller labored hard and 
faithfully through a long pastorate of twenty-three years, in 
which period the church received its present strength and sta- 
bility. The membership increased from one hundred forty to 
three hundred fifty communicants The single envelope system in 
church finances was introduced and the present pipe organ pur- 
chased and dedicated June 5. 1892. 

In 1892 Dr. Miller published in commemoration of the church's 



426 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYN'OO. 



Silver Jubilee, an admirable history of Grace church, iu one vol- 
ume, with an appendix of brief sketches of the Lutheran congre- 
gations in Carroll County, a work of inestimable value for his- 
toric purposes to the Lutherans of this section of the state. Dr. 
Miller resigned to accept a call to Lilly, Pa., February 1, 1911. 

Rev. William II. Iletrick. of Immanuel Lutheran Church. 
Philadelphia, was elected to succeed Dr. Miller and took charge 
of the church May 21. 1911. Rev. Iletrick introduced the bi- 
poeket envelope system for church finances, which has proved 
very satisfactory. An Every Member canvass has been held an- 
nually for the past seven years. Last year over $1,600 was raised 

for benevolence alone. The syn- 
odical minutes show a steady in- 
crease of excess on the apportion- 
ment each succeeding year. A dis- 
tinctive missionary spirit has de- 
veloped. The church subscribed 
$700 for the Diamond Jubilee 
Fund for India, .and at present is 
gathering a fund for the hospital 
in Rentachintala. Dr. Alfred 
Ptitsch, the medical missionary in 
charge of the hospital, received his 
inspiration for the foreign field 
while worshipping in Grace 
church when a student at Western 
Maryland College. Rev. Luther 
M. Kuhns, Litt.D., of Omaha. 
Nebraska, entered the ministry 
from this congregation. 

The present roll of membership 




MK. JOHN* ,T. REESE, 
Westminster, Md. 



shows a number of names of persons who are descendants of the 
Lutherans of the first congregation of 1842, such as the Wag- 
oners, the Reeses, and the Schaeffers. Mrs. Mary L. Cunning- 
ham, one of the charter members of Grace church in 1866. is still 
a faithful attendant every Sunday at both Sunday school and 
church. Several teachers of the Sunday school in Dr. Earnest's 
time are still with us, Mrs. Nelson Gilbert, Mrs. George Sulli- 
van. Mrs. Amanda Shunk and Mr. Jacob Elgin. The church has 
had some of the most prominent men of the community in her 
membership, the Honorable John E. Smith, associate judge of 
circuit court; Mr. Joseph M. Park, Mr. Edwin J. Lawyer. Mr. 
H. F. Grouse, and Mr. W. L. W. Seabrook. The former Chil- 
dren's Department Secretary of the W. II. & F. M. S. of the 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 427 

General Synod, now the Junior Department Secretary of the 
Woman's Missionary Society of the United Lutheran Church. 
Mrs. John D. Belt, is an active member of the church. The three 
laymen, whose photographs accompany this sketch, have served 
on the church council for a period of twenty-five years or more : 
Mr. Jacob H. Handler, Mr. Thomas F. Babylon, and Mr. John 
J. Reese. 

MESSIAH LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BERRETT, MIX 

(WOODBINE CHARGE.) 
Her. M. E. McLinn, Pastor. 

The Woodbine charge, Carroll County. Maryland, is composed 
of two congregatons. viz: Messiah, near Berrett, and Calvary, 
located at Woodbine. The charge was at one time called the 
Freedom charge. 

The congregation worshipping at Messiah church was organized 
June 11, 1882. under the pastoral oversight of Rev. C. Lepley. 
who then resided at Reisterstown. Hearing of a little colony 
of Lutherans who had settled near Freedom, he visited the com- 
munity and preached for these children of Luther. Loyal to the 
faith of the great Reformer, in which they had been reared, they 
rejoiced in the privilege of hearing the Gospel, as in former years, 
from a Lutheran minister, and invited Rev. Lepley to continue 
his ministrations, which he did. The services were held at the 
Methodist Protestant church at Berrett, until the privilege was 
withdrawn, when a schoolhouse nearby was secured for the pur- 
pose. The charter members were as follows: Jonas Ebbert. D. 
M. Shoemaker, Charles F. Beck. William L. Xott. William Will, 
Mahlon Bower. George W. Hess, Mrs. Wolbert. Susanna Ebbert, 
Laura E. Hess, Mary S. Shoemaker, Mary M. Beck. Esther Baker 
and Mrs. F. A. E. Will. The most of these people, if not all, 
came from the neighborhood of Taneytown. 

The corner stone was laid September 5, 1883. on a lot donated 
for the purpose by Mr. D. M. Shoemaker, but the church was not 
dedicated until the spring of 1885. In October of the same year, 
by the action of the Maryland Synod, the congregation was made 
a part of the Union Bridge charge, w r hen Rev. C. L. T. Fisher, 
the pastor of this charge, succeeded Rev. C. Lepley at Messiah 
church. In 1886 Rev. M. E. McLinn succeeded Rev. Fisher, and 
served the congregation for four years and four months, when 
Synod divided the charge, to which two new congregations had 



428 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

been added by Rev. McLinn; one at Woodbine and one at Tay- 
lorsville. which made it too largo to be served by one man. Rev. 
J. C. MeGaughey then supplied the charge, consisting now of 
the Messiah and the two new congregations just named until the 
spring of 1891. Rev. II. A. Letterman took charge as pastor 
July, 1891, and served until July, 1894. 

The parsonage owned by the Messiah church is located at Ber- 
rett. 

The list of pastors of this congregation from the beginning is 
as follows: Rev. 0. Lepley. 1883; Rev. C. L. T. Fisher, 1885; 
Rev. M. E. McLinn. 188(5; Rev. J. C. McGaughey, 1891; Rev. 
II. A. Letterman, 1892; Rev. .1. L. Nicholas, 1897; Rev. P. J. 
Shriver, 1901; Rev. George Trostle, 1907: Rev. I). R. Becker, 
1912; Rev. G. \V. Baughman. 1915; Rev. M. E. McLinn, 1919. 

CALVARY LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WOODBINE, MIX 

(WOODBINE CHARGE.) 

Re i<. M. E. McLinn, Pastor. 

Calvary church grew out of services held in a lumber building 
nearby, by Rev. M. E. McLinn. then pastor at Union Bridge, be- 
ginning in February, 1889. The corner stone was laid, December 
29, 1889; a congregation of seventeen members was organized 
January 14. 1890. and the church was dedicated October 26, 1890. 
By action of the Maryland Synod, the same month, the new con- 
gregation, St. Paul's at Taylorsville, which had just been organ- 
ized, and Messiah congregation, were formed into a pastorate. 
Rev. J. C. McGaughey was at once called as a supply, and served 
the charge until March. 1891. In July. 1891. Rev. H. A. Letter- 
man assumed charge, and continued as pastor until July, 1894. 

The pastors for Calvary church were the same as the above list 
of pastors of Messiah church from 1890 to the present. 

SOLOMON'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WOODSBORO, MIX 

(WOODSBORO CHARGE.) 

Rev. R. S. Patterson, D.D., Pastor. 

Solomon's Evangelical Lutheran Church, of Woodsboro. was 
organized February 10. 1805. Rev. W. Jasinsky was the first 
pastor. The church and grounds, as was the custom of that day 
in many places, were jointly owned by the Lutheran and Re- 
formed congregations. The original church was a stone struc- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 



429 



ture thirty-five by forty-five feet, and was built in the year 1805. 
To this edifice there was built a splendid stone tower and spire, 
the base of which served as a vestibule. It was not entirely com- 
pleted until 1822. 

The following are the names of the pastors that have served 
the church from its founding up to the present time, with the 
dates of their installation: Wil- 
liam Jasinsky, 1805; D. F. 
Schaeffer, 1808 ; Frederick Haas. 
1816; Michael Wachter, 1823 ; S. 
W. Harkey, 1835; R. Weiser, 
1836-37 ; John J. Reimensnyder, 
1841; Michael Wachter, 1847; 
William Hunt, 1850; George H. 
Beckley, 1857 ; S. W. Owen, 1866 ; 
Michael N. Fair, 1870 ; B. F. Alle- 
man, 1873; A. W. Lentz, 1874; 
D. M. Lamotte, 1876 ; S. A. Diehl, 
1885 ; Richard S. Patterson, 1892 : 
W. E. Wheeler. 1900 ; R, S. Pof- 
fenberger, 1905 ; R. S. Patterson, 
1917 (returned). 

In 1839-40 the church, which 
was still owned by both Lutheran 
and Reformed congregations, was 

repaired at a cost of $1.200. At this time Rev. R. Weiser was 
pastor of the Lutheran congregation. Dr. James W. Eichelberger 
was the member of the repair committee from the Lutheran con- 
gregation. It was at this time that the ancient funnel-shaped 
pulpit, attached high up upon the wall, gave place to another of 
more modern style and character. About the year 1859 the stee- 
ple of the church lost its equilibrium and leaned over to one side. 
To add to the trouble it was struck by lightning, and henceforth 
became quite a dangerous looking concern. Strange to say. about 
the time the tower became unsettled on its foundations, the two 
congregations that had worshipped peaceably together for more 
than a half century became unsettled also. There was a sharp 
contention between the two councils about the regularity of the 
election and organization of the Reformed council and hence their 
right to participate in the joint council meetings. The feeling 
waxed warm and spread through the congregations so that it 
soon became apparent that two churches were needed for the 
contending parties, one for the Lutheran and one for the Re- 
formed. 




REV. R. S. PATTERSON, D.D. 



430 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Iii the year I860, with Rev. George Beckley as pastor, the 
building of a new church was begun. The site selected was that 
now occupied by the church building on Main, or Frederick 
Street. The structure was a plain massive 1 building, forty by 
sixty feet, with Sunday school and lecture room in the basement. 

In 1865 Rev. (}. H. Heckley preached his farewell sermon, and 
the church was again without the services of a pastor. It was 
not long to remain so. for on the twelfth day of March. 1866, the 
council met and extended a call to the Rev. S. W. Owen, after- 
wards pastor of St. John's church. Ilagerstown, Maryland. He 
was called "upon a salary of $650 and a free house." 

One of the first acts under the administration of Dr. Owen was 
to buy the splendid and convenient church property now used as 
the parsonage. As an evidence of the charge's appreciation of 
the services of Rev. Owen, they annually increased his salary, so 
that if he had remained for another year he would have received 
one thousand dollars for his services. 

The most important act of the congregation during his pas- 
torate was the purchasing of a bury ing-ground for the church. 
The records show that at a congregational meeting in the month 
of May. 18(57. Adam Diehl, George D. Mertx and Michael Shank 
were appointed a committee to select and purchase a suitable lot 
of ground to be used as a cemetery by the church. Accordingly 
on September 27. 1867, they bought of George Flickinger four 
acres of land lying on the southwest corner of his farm, along the 
Woodsboro and Frederick turnpike south of the town. They 
agreed to pay one thousand dollars for the piece of ground. 

This cemetery has since figured prominently in the history and 
workings of the church. The money was not paid down for it 
when bought : Dr. Owen soon left the field ; meanwhile the debt, 
with interest and cost of improvements kept on increasing. It 
soon became a heavy burden to the church and was not finally 
settled until March 1. 1887. when the total amount paid for it 
was $2.266.05. 

Rev. D. M. Lamotte was called to the charge in July, 1876, the 
historic centennial year. No man has ever served the church 
with greater acceptance. Unfortunately he died on January 17, 
1885. from the shock of having a limb amputated. lie was buried 
in the Mount Hope Cemetery, right near the main entrance, 
where his admiring church members and friends have erected a 
beautiful marble monument to his sacred memory. He was a 
much beloved pastor and his portrait may be seen upon the 
walls of the homes of nearly all his former parishioners. 

Rev. S. A. Diehl was called to become his successor. Rev. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 431 

Diehl was a great financier and builder. He paid off the old 
cemetery debt and built a new church in the charge. He served 
until 1892, when he resigned to accept a new field of labor. 

There was a vacancy of a few months following Rev. Diehl 's 
departure, during which time the pulpit was supplied by mem- 
bers of the senior class of the Theological Seminary at Gettys- 
burg. Among those who came to fill the appointment for one 
Sabbath was the present pastor, Rev. Richard S. Patterson, a na- 
tive of North Carolina. The people took kindly to him from that 
first service and extended him a call on February 8, 1892, to be- 
come their pastor, on the completion of his theological course in 
June. He accepted taking charge on June 12, 1892. During this 
pastorate many forward movements were inaugurated. 

The next pastor, Rev. W. E. Wheeler, served the charge very 
acceptably from 1900 to 1905. During the pastorate of his suc- 
cessor. Rev. R. S. Poffenberger, the present handsome church 
was erected. The estimated cost of this new edifice is $25,000. 

During the past two years the Rev. Dr. Patterson has been 
serving the charge for a second time. During this time the 
church debt has been reduced from $10,000 to $1,500. and the 
parsonage has been completely transformed at a cost of $4,000. 

Some of the honorable family names in connection with this 
congregation are : Diehls, Shanks. Dorcus, Smiths, Hulls, Hol- 
brenners, LeGores, Cushalls. Devilbiss. Sharretts, and others. 
The present council is composed of the following : Elders Mil- 
dred Phillips, D. A. Sharretts (deceased), Lycurgus Flanigan. 
William Cutshall. Deacons W. C. LeGore, Morris Saylor, John 
M. Smith, and Roy Moore. 



MOUXT ZIOX (HAUGH'S) LUTHERAN 
CHURCH, WOODSBORO, MI). 

(WOODSBORO CHARGE.) 
Rev. R. S. Patterson, D.D., Pastor. 

Mount Zion is six years older in its organization than Woods- 
boro. It was established in the year 1799. Like Woodsboro, it. 
too, at first was a union church Lutheran and Reformed. The 
old church was a typical one of the times. It had a high pulpit 
and gallery on three sides. The present pastor of the Woodsboro 
charge preached in it on one occasion more than twenty-five years 
ago. 

Like Woodsboro, Mount Zion also felt that a half century of 



432 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



time was long enough for them to learn to go it alone. So they 
secured ground and built a stone church across the road from the 
old site. This church stood for many years and was used for wor- 
ship by the congregation until the year 1904 and 1905. Then the 
present beautiful brick church was erected. The promoters of 

the new building were : E. O. 

('ash, Edwin Sharetts, Frederick 
Mehring, John Rielil and others. 
The plans were adopted and the 
building was Hearing completion 
when the vacancy of the pastorate 
was filled in 1905, by the calling 
of Rev. Poffenberger. 

Some of the honored family 
names connected with the church 
are: Sharretts, Biehl, Birely, 
Cash, Krons, Warner, Mehring, 
Cover, Garver, Eyler, and others 
who are worthy also of mention. 
The present council is composed 
of the following: Elders Healt, 
Devilbiss, E. 0. Cash, William 
Mehring. Deacons Milton Mil- 
ler, Harry Leatherman, Emery 
Warner and Lewis W a r n e r. 
Charles Garver is the superintendent of the Sunday school. 

The congregation has enrolled among its members some of 
the most liberal and loyal supporters of the Tre>isler's Orphan 
Home at Loysville. Pa. Children's Day is a sort of rally day for 
this worthy institution and the Mount Zion Sunday school ranks 
high in the synod with its offerings for the Home on that day. 
This year the amount was $175. The outlook for prosperity and 
growth in this old country congregation is reassuring. 




MR. K. II. SHARK-ITS, 
Koymar, M<1. 



GRACE LUTHERAN CHURCH (ROCKY HILL), 
AVOODSBORO, MI). 

(WOODSBORO CHARGE.) 
Rer. R. 8. Patterson. /)./)., Pastor. 

Grace church is by far the oldest congregation of the four 
constituting this pastorate. It was organized in 1767. a decade 
before the Declaration of Independence was signed. How long 
before that the fathers gathered and worshipped God under the 



THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 433 

gnarled and gigantic oak trees that crown the hill, no one living 
knows ; but it must have .been for some time. 

In the grant given by the English Government, the grounds 
were to be used for a place of worship by the Lutherans and Pres- 
byterians. There are no Presbyterians in this vicinity. The Re- 
formed may have been meant, for later their name and the names 
of their pastors are used in the church records instead of the 
name of the Presbyterians. The church burying-ground, etc., 
w r ere jointly used by them until the pastorate of Rev. S. A. Diehl, 
who took charge in 1885 and under whose leadership a wise and 
amicable separation took place and the present church was built 
the Reformed people returning to the old church. This they 
moved to Centerville about the year 1887, leaving the Lutherans 
in full possession of the old site, which is one of the most suitable 
and attractive anywhere. 

The Rocky Hill congregation is one given largely to sentiment 
and love for the old church home. Many of them live much 
nearer the other churches of the parish but retain membership 
here. This old church is in sight of the Woodsboro church. 
Nevertheless some of the members of this church find no other 
just like it, and they cling to it with an affectionate zeal. 

The honored names found on the records of this congregation 
are : Beard. Fogle. Keeney, Smith, Eyler, Feezer, Hildebrand. 
Locks, and others who made a good record for the church in their 
day. 

The present church council is composed of the following: 
Elders Benjamin Eyler, Jacob Feezer, J. P. Cramer, and 
Thomas Arnold. Deacons Franklin Grimes, John Toms, Sam- 
uel Fogle. and John Welty. 

One of the features of this congregation is a family reunion 
and all-day picnic on the grounds about the church once a year. 
The ' ' Rocky Hill ' ' picnic has become an institution and is always 
attended by large crowds. The day for this event is always the 
first Saturday in August. The scattered clans and distant friends 
of old "Rocky Hill" are sure to be on hand on picnic day. 

UXIOX CHAPEL, LIBERTYTOWN? MD. 

(WOODSBORO CHARGE.) 
Rev. K. S. Patterson, D.D., Pastor. 

This is the fourth member of the congregational family con- 
stituting the Woodsboro charge. It is what its name suggests 
a chapel and a union congregation. It is located about two miles 

28 



434 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

east of Libertytown. Md.. and five miles southeast of Woodsboro. 
Before the present chapel was built, the Lutherans and Reformed 
met and held services under a large chestnut tree which stood on 
the present burying-ground. The tree has long since been re- 
moved. 

This chapel was built to accommodate a certain number of 
good people who lived in this vicinity and regarded it too far to 
attend Lutheran or Reformed services, either in Woodsboro or 
Frederick. Hence it was called a chapel. So it has remained and 
so it will be. It is still used by both bodies and is among the very 
few union congregations in the county, where fifty years ago 
there were so many. 

The prominent family names are: Albaugh, Beard, Reddick, 
Valentine, Filler, Burrier. and others. The Valentines are mem- 
bers of the family that gave to the General Synod Lutheran 
Church the late Dr. Milton Valentine, of Gettysburg, who was a 
distinguished leader and theologian in the church for many years. 
A nephew of his, M. 0. Valentine, is at present the superintend- 
ent of the Sunday school. The congregation is small, less than 
one hundred communicants, but very loyal to the church of the 
fathers. 



OTHER MEMBERS OF THE MIDDLE CONFERENCE. 





REV. W. H. SETTLEMEYER. REV. LI-THER KUHLMAX, D.D. 





REV. \V. M. SPAXCLER. 



REV. J. P. WADE. 



CHAPTER XVT. 
THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BOONSBORO, MIX 

(BooNSRORO CHARGE.) 
Rev. Frederick L. Will, Pastor. 

I. Ringer's Church. This church, which was exclusively Lu- 
thoran and in which the services were all German, was located on 
"Ringgold's Manor." near "Fountain Rock," six miles from 
Hagerstown and three miles from Boonsboro. The place is now 
called "Monroe." 

The congregation was organized as a preaching point as early 
as 1750. Its first building was of logs. Tn 1774, when Rev. John 
George Young, of St. John's 
Church in Ilagersto\vn. supplied 
the congregation with preaching, 
the lower part of the building was 
occupied as a schoolhouse and 
dwelling for the teacher. The 
upper part was used for worship. 
The congregation in 1775 con- 
sisted of twenty families. For 
many years there were no stoves 
in the room occupied for worship 
by the congregation. "When the 
children of these sturdy old Ger- 
mans in later days grew up and 
their parents had passed away, 
they introduced stoves, which at 
first created a sensation. Many 
thought Satan had gotten into the 
church by the introduction of heat. 

The known pastors were Rev. Jacob Goering, who came in 1792, 
and Rev. John George Schmucker, who came in 1793. The 
former was the pastor of the Lutheran Church of Middletown, 
Frederick County, and the latter was pastor of St. John's Church, 
Hagerstown, Washington County. 

IT. The Church in Boonsboro. The Lutheran Church in Boons- 
boro is the offspring of Ringer's Church. The town of Boonsboro 

437 




REV. FREDERICK L. WILL. 



4:18 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

was laid out in 1778. There was no preaching in the town in 
1800. The Lutherans worshiped at Ringer's. In 1802 the Lu- 
therans joined with the Reformed congregation, which had a 
church at Schwang's, half a mile away, and formed a Union 
church in Boonsboro, and named the organi/ation. "The Salem 
Lutheran and Reformed Church." This was during the ministry 
of Rev. .1. (ieorge Schmucker. whose pastorate included the con- 
gregations of Ilagerstown and Middletown. The Lutheran and 
Reformed congregations at tirst held their services in the school 
house of the town. The money for a church building was raised 
in part by a lottery. The. church was built in 1810 and called 
"Salem Church." It was the first church built in Boonsboro. 
It was built during the ministry of Rev. J. G. Graeber of the Lu- 
theran, and Rev. Jonathan Rauhauser of tin 1 Reformed Church. 
Rev. Grabber was also pastor of the Lutheran Church at Middle- 
town where he lived. 

The site upon which "Salem Church" was built is the location 
of the present Reformed building on Church Street. The ground 
was a gift from the Boon family, descendants of William Boon, 
the founder of the town. It was built of stone. The total cost 
was $3.200. 

From 1802 to 1832 Salem Church of Boonsboro was attached to 
the Middletown pastorate. The pastors in that time were Revs. 
J. G. Graeber, J. Kaehler, Jacob Schnee. Abram Reck and Peter 
Riser. From 1829 to 1830 Rev. Henry Lewis Baugher served the 
Salem Lutheran Church. In 1832 he became professor in Penn- 
sylvania College, Gettysburg, and afterwards president of the 
college. 

In 1835 a new pastorate was formed by the union of Ringer's, 
Bakersville and Boonsboro Lutheran congregations, called the 
"Boonsboro Charge." The first pastor of the charge was Rev. 
Solomon Oswald. lie became pastor in 1835 and resigned in 
1840. 

In 1840 the Rev. George Diehl became the second pastor of the 
Boonsboro charge. During Rev. Diehl's pastorate a Lutheran 
congregation was organized by him at Locust Grove, five miles 
south of Boonsboro. Rev. Mr. Diehl resigned the charge Septem- 
ber 1, 1843. to accept a call to Easton. Pa. 

In 1843 Rev. William Hunt was called to the Boonsboro pas- 
torate. He was a noted revivalist. During his pastorate in 1844 
he built a church at Locust Grove. The charge was now com- 
posed of Boonsboro. Bakersville. Sharpsburg and Locust Grove, 
Ringer's congregation was absorbed by Boonsboro and preaching 
at Ringer's was discontinued. Through some disagreement with 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 439 

the Boonsboro congregation Rev. .Mr. Hunt resigned the Boons- 
boro congregation in 1848 and removed 1'roni Boonsboro to Loeust 
Grove and continued to preach to the remainder of the congrega- 
tions in the charge. 

On .March 1. 1848, Rev. C. C. Culler received a call to Boons- 
boro and attached Funkstown and Beaver Creek to Boonsboro, 
thus forming a charge consisting of Boonsboro, Funkstown and 
Beaver Creek, and called the Boonsboro charge. While Mr. Hunt 
was holding revival meetings in Sharpsburg in January, 1849, 
Rev. Mr. Culler was holding the same at Boonsboro. In 1851 
Rev. Mr. Culler resigned and Rev. John M. Unruh became the 
pastor of the Boonsboro charge. 

In 1859 another charge was formed out of Boonsboro, Sharps- 
burg and Locust Grove. Funkstown and Beaver Creek joined 
Bakersville to form the Funkstown charge. Locust Grove and 
Sharpsburg joined Boonsboro to form a new Boonsboro charge. 
To this new Boonsboro charge the Rev. Amos Copenhaver was 
called in 1859. He resigned in 1867. 

In 1867 Rev. G. "W. Weills was called to the charge, and he re- 
signed in 1868. Rev. George H. Beckley was called to the charge in 
1868. Rev. Mr. Beckley now organized St. Peter's of Keedysville 
and St. Mark's of Rohrersville and built two churches. When 
these two new congregations were admitted to the charge, the Lo- 
cust Grove congregation withdrew and joined the Harper's Ferry 
charge. During the pastorate of Rev. Beckley, the separation of 
the joint interest of the Lutheran and Reformed congregation of 
the Salem Church took place. The division occurred in 1870. 
The Lutherans sold their interest to the Reformed and bought a 
lot on Main Street and built a church with the name of "Trinity 
Lutheran Church of Boonsboro." 

Rev. Mr. Beckley was the church builder of the Boonsboro 
charge. During his ministry he erected three churches in the 
charge, one in Boonsboro, one in Keedysville and one in Rohrers- 
ville. lie resigned in 1882. 

Rev. David B. Floyd was called to the Boonsboro charge April 
1, 1882. The charge was composed of four congregations, vix: 
Trinity in Boonsboro, St. Peter's at Keedysville, Mt. Calvary at 
Sharpsburg, and St. Mark's at Rohrersville. On October 1, 1882, 
the Sharpsburg and Keedysville congregations withdrew and 
united with the Bakersville congregation to form a new charge. 
Boonsboro and Rohrersville congregations now constituted the 
Boonsboro charge. During Rev. Floyd's pastorate a parsonage 
was built and Albert 0. Mullen and William G. Slifer were 
started on their way to enter the Lutheran ministry. Other sons 



440 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

of the congregation \vh<> had long before entered the ministry 
were William J. Smith and Luther L. Smith. 

The following are the names of the pastors of the Ringer's and 
Boonsboro congregations, with the date of the years of their pas- 
torships: 

At Kinycr'x. Rev. Jacob Goering. 1792; Rev. John George 
Sehmueker, 1793-1809. 

At Ifiiitftr'x and Kooiisboro.liw. J. G. Graeber, 1809-19; 
Rev. J. Kaehler. 1819-21; Rev. Jacob Sehnee. 1822-26; Rev. 
Abram Reck, 1829-32; Rev. Peter Riser, 1832-35. 

At Boonsboro. Rev. Henry Lewis Baugher, 1S29-30; Rev. 
Solomon Oswald. 1835-40; Rev. George Diehl. 1840-43; Rev. 
William Hunt. 1843-48; Rev. Christopher 0. Culler. 1848-51; 
Rev. John M. Vnruh, 1851-59; Rev. Amos Copenhaver, 1859- 
67; Rev. G. \V. Weills, 1867-68; Rev. George II. Heckley. 1868- 
82; Rev. David B. Floyd, 1882-85; Rev. Martin L. Beard. 1885- 
93: Rev. John E. Bushnell. 1894-95; Rev. J. E. Maurer, 1895- 
1903; Rev. L. A. Bush. 1903-15; Rev. John B. Rupley. 1916-18; 
Rev. F. L. Will, 1918 . 



ST. MARK'S LUTITKKAX CHUR( 1 II, 
KOHKEKSVILLE, .AID. 

( BOONSBORO CHARGE.) 
Rev. Frederick L. in'//, 1'astor. 

This congregation is a daughter of Mount Zion Lutheran 
Church at Locust Grove. It was organized by the Rev. George H. 
Beckley in June, 1879. Rev. Beckley was at that time the pastor 
of the Boonsboro charge. There were thirty-eight charter mem- 
bers. 

Immediately after the formal organization of the congregation 
steps were taken to erect a house of worship. The building com- 
mittee consisted of Joseph Rohrer, E/.ra 1). Miller. John II. l?of- 
fenberger, Henry Clay Rohrer. Noah Rohrback, and the pastor 
Rev. Mr. Beckley. This committee proceeded at once to action 
and the new church was dedicated March 21, 1880. 

The church edifice stands on the ground where the first build- 
ing had been erected in the village of Rohrersville. The ground 
was purchased from Mrs. Magdalena Buck for $100. The build- 
ing cost the congregation $3.500. It has a seating capacity of 
about 300. 

St. Mark's has always been served by the pastors of the Boons- 
boro charge of which it is a part. The list of its pastors is there- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN" CONFERENCE. 441 

fore the same as that of Trinity Church in Boonshoro beginning 
with Rev. G. H. Beckley. 

To-day the congregation has a membership of eighty-five. The 
council consists of Messrs. Paul Haynes, William Albin, Stanley 
Dean, Harry Hightman. Morris Zecher, and Silas AA T assler. Mr. 
Stanley Dean is superintendent of the Sunday school. 

The congregation has sent two of its sons into the Lutheran 
ministry : Rev. Reese Poffenberger, of Braddock, Maryland, and 
Rev. William G. Slifer. of St. Thomas. Pennsylvania. 

ST. MATTHEW'S LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
BEAVER CREEK, MD. 

(BOOXSBORO CHARGE.) 
Rev. Frederick L. Will, Pastor. 

This congregation was organized about 1845 by the pastor of 
the Funkstown charge. The cornerstone of the present building 
was laid April 12. 1845. and the church was completed and dedi- 
cated that same year. The congregation has never been a large 
one; the organization began with fifty-two members, and there 
are now fifty-eight. The membership of the church comprises 
some of the best families of the neighborhood. 

St. Matthew's has been served through most of its history by 
the pastors of the Funkstown charge, of which it was a part. But 
in 1908 it withdrew from the Funkstown charge and attached it- 
self to the Boonsboro charge. Since that date it has beeu served 
by the pastors of the Boonsboro Church. 

The present council is composed of Messrs. Frank Funk, Henry 
Long, Elias Baker. John Newcomer. Clifford Houpt, and John 
Hose. The superintendent of the Sunday school is Mr. Elias Baker. 

The church itself stands on a beautiful elevation near the hand- 
some edifice of the Disciples' Church and the Beaver Creek High 
School. 

ST. PETER'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
KEEDYSVILLE, MD. 

(BOONSBORO CHARGE.) 
Rev. Frederick L. Will, Pastor. 

This congregation was organized by Rev. George H. Beckley, 
pastor of the Boonsboro charge, about 1870. The house of wor- 
ship was erected in 1871, the corner stone being laid on May 6th, 
and the dedication of the finished building taking place about 
Christmas. The congregation was incorporated in 1879. 



442 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Rev. Beckley was the first pastor of the church and after the 
completion of the church preached regularly until 1881. lie was 
succeeded by the Rev. \). B. Floyd, who began his labors here in 
April. 1882. and continued as pastor for eighteen months. Rev. 
Ellis II. Jones was pastor from November. 18S3, until August, 
1890. The next pastor was the Rev. J. W. Lingle. His pastorate 
was from April 1, 1891. to March 31, 1896. Five months later the 
Rev. A. A. Kerlin began his service as pastor and continued until 
May 14. 190;"). In that year the congregation was joined to the 
Boonsboro charge and since then it has been served by the same 
pastors as Trinity Church in Boonsboro. 

The first superintendent of the Sunday school was Mr. Joseph 
E. Keedy. but through most of the history of the congregation the 
Sunday school superintendent has been Mr. David II. Snively. 
The members of the church council at present are David II. 
Snively. John Flook, Clarence Eakle, Frisby Clopper, J. W. Bax- 
ter, and Albert Shank. The membership is about fifty. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, NEAR 
CLEARSPRIXG, MI). 

(CLEARSPRING CHARGE.) 
Rev. "ir. K. DieM, Pastor. 

This charge consists of three congregations: St. Peter's, of 
deal-spring ; St. Paul's, two and one-half miles east, on the Na- 
tional Road; and Mount Tabor, situated near the little town of 
Fair View, Maryland. We shall consider these three in the order 
of their age. 

The oldest of the three is St. Paul's. This congregation dates 
from the year 1747. It was from the first a union organization, 
and was known as the Lutheran and Presbyterian Congregations 
on the West Side of the Conococheague Bridge. This union or- 
gan i/at ion worshipped in a log church on the west bank of the 
Conococheague Creek. The lot on which this old log church stood, 
consisting of three acres, was originally part of a tract of land 
known as the Resurvey on the Mountain of Wales. The old 
church stood on the Cedar Ridge. Here was made the beginning 
of what is now St. Paul's Lutheran and Reformed congregations. 

The first Lutheran pastor associated with the congregation was 
Charles Friedrich Wildbahn. who traveled through all these re- 
gions hunting up scattered villages of his German brethren, and 
Tninistering to their wants in holy things. lie came from Saxony 
as a soldier in the employ of Great Britain, but shortly after his 



THE CHURCHES OB' THE WESTERN' CONFERENCE. 



443 



arrival in America he was sought by his countrymen as a teacher 
and abandoned the military service. 

In 1762 he came to Philadelphia, where the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania was in session, with letters from four or five con- 
gregations in southern Pennsylvania and Maryland. They stated 
that Charles Friedrieh Wildbalm understood Latin and Greek; 
that he was a beautiful writer; that he was a good singer, having 
been leader of a choir in Germany; that he was apt at teaching, 
was a good catechist, and was eloquent in the pulpit, a person of 
good character ; and moreover, he 
had ministered to their wants for 
some years. These congregations 
asked that the Ministeri um ordain 
him and receive them into fellow- 
ship, as it was expensive and often 
very inconvenient for them to get 
an ordained minister to celebrate 
the Holy Communion with them. 
This proves conclusively that the 
Conococheague, which was one of 
the petitioning congregations, was 
then a well-known and thoroughly 
established congregation ; that for 
years previous to 1762 they had 
been having some ordained min- 
ister visit them and administer 
the communion; that Charles 
Friedrich Wildbahn had already 

served them for some years, and would be acceptable to them as 
their pastor, if ordained to the ministry. The Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania had adjourned when Wildbahn arrived, and the 
ministers and delegates were on their way home, so that the let- 
ters of recommendation and petition were not presented until a 
later session of the ministerium. 

It is not definitely known who was the pioneer in organizing 
and establishing this congregation. It probably was John Nich- 
olas Kurtz, the elder Kurtz, as he was often called. His labors 
extended from the year 1745 to 1799, as a missionary through 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. In the minutes of the Ministerium 
of Pennsylvania for 1770, he gives an account of a communion 
which he celebrated with the Lutheran congregation on the west 
bank of the Conococheague, and states that for many years he was 
accustomed to minister to their wants in that way. This shows 
that he had a long-standing acquaintance with the congregation, 




KEV. W. K. DIEHL. 



444 HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

probably from the time when as a young man he traveled as a 
missionary through the wilds of Pennsylvania and Maryland. Jf 
this is the true beginning of the congregation it dates back as 
early as 1745 or 1746. After the ordination of Charles Friedrieh 
\Vildbahn he became regular pastor, and lived at McAllistertown 
(now Hanover). Pa. The congregation from the west bank of 




ST. PAVI/S CHUKCH, NEAR CLEARSPRING, MD. 

the Conococheague was separated from McAllistertown in 1771, 
and in 1772 it sent a delegate to the ministerinm. asking that the 
elder Kurtz become their pastor; and if this could not be they 
would like to have the young Mr. Kurtz or Friedrieh Muhlen- 
berg. The name of the young Mr. Kurtz was proposed, and an 
appointment was made for him to preach a trial sermon, Septem- 
ber 27, 1772. About this time. Rev. George John Young became 
pastor, and continued until the year 1794, the beginning of the 
pastorate of the Rev. George Schmucker. During the pastorate 
of Rev. George Schmucker the old St. Paul's Church was built. 
The corner stone was laid in 1795 and the building was completed 
in 1798. The lot upon which the church stood, and which is also 
the site of the present St. Paul's, was given by John Ankeny in the 
year 1795. for burial purposes and for a church. The old St. 
Paul's was built of stone and was made possible largely by the 
gift of Joseph Firey. It was for many years called Firey 's Church. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN* CONFERENCE. 445 

The pastorate of Rev. George Sehmucker terminated in 1809. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Solomon Schaeffer, whose pastorate 
ended in 1813, when he was succeeded by Rev. Henry Baugliy, 
who labored from 1813 to 1815. Rev. Mr. Baughy completed his 
studies for the ministry under the tutelage of Rev. Solomon 
Schaeffer. and upon his resignation became his successor in the 
pastorate. His call to the congregation aroused opposition on the 
part of some of his parishioners, and after a year and a half of 
strife he was deposed from the ministry for conduct unbecoming 
a minister. 

Rev. Benjamin Kurtz was called to the pastorate to which St. 
Paul's belonged in 1815. He was a man of marked ability and 
under his wise counsels and firm hand order was soon restored 
and peace secured. Benjamin Kurtz became a prominent figure 
in the development of the church in the last century. He was 
editor of the Lutheran Observer from 1833 to 1862. He was one 
of the founders of the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettys- 
burg, for which he collected both funds and books in Germany. 
His pastorate at St. Paul's terminated in 1823, when it was found 
necessary to divide the pastorate and form a new pastorate of 
Williamsport and St. Paul's. Rev. Frederick Ruthrauff was the 
first pastor, continuing in the field for two years. Rev. John 
Winter became pastor in 1825 and continued until 1834 with 
great acceptability to the congregations. Rev. S. Harkey was 
called to the pastorate in 1834 and continued three years. Rev. 
Christian Startzman was called to the pastorate in 1838 and con- 
tinued laboring with great acceptability for eleven years. Dur- 
ing his pastorate old St. Paul's was remodeled and refitted and 
large accessions were made to the membership. 

Rev. Henry Bishop became pastor of St. Paul's and continued 
for five years. Rev. William F. Greaver was elected to the pas- 
torate in 1855 and ended his labors in 1857, when death claimed 
him. Rev. J. H. Barclay became pastor in 1858 and continued 
two years. He was then a young man and gave promise of the 
brilliancy which he afterwards achieved, both as a writer and as 
an orator. Rev. Christian Lepley became pastor of St. Paul's in 
1859 and continued his labors until 1864. Rev. J. Berlin became 
pastor in 1865, and remained until 1867 when death called him 
away. Rev. Martin L. Culler received a unanimous call to the 
pastorate and labored with great success from 1867 to 1869. when 
he was called to Martinsburg. 

In 1870, St. Paul's was separated from the Williamsport pas- 
torate and united with the Clearspring pastorate. Christian 
Startzman was then pastor of Clearspring pastorate and con- 



-14(5 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

tinned in that relation until 1875. Rev. David Swope became 
pastor in 187"). and in 1877 presented his resignation. Rev. Sam- 
uel Firey was called to the pastorate in 1877. and in 1883 termi- 
nated this relation. Rev. Isaac Bohst began his labors as pastor 
in 188.'}. and continued seven years. Rev. E. II. Jones began his 
care of the pastorate in 1890, and continued until the year 1900. 
Rev. George A. Rover began his pastoral labors in the Clearspring 
pastorate. June 1. 1901. lie was succeeded by the present pastor. 
Rev. AV. K. Diehl. in 1908. 

The old St. 1'anl's church stood 102 years and became one of 
the old landmarks in the community. The first step was taken 
toward a new church December 12. 1896, when the joint consis- 
tories met to consider the advisability of remodeling the old 
church. Its walls, however, were found to be insecure and it was 
finally decided to build a new church. The old church was torn 
down May 17, 1897. and on June 26th the corner stone of the new 
church was laid. The new church was dedicated March 20, 1898. 
The building committee consisted of three Lutheran and three 
Reformed members, namely : Lutheran, Isaac Corbett. David 
Sword and John Harsh ; Reformed, L. R. Schnebly, John Strite 
and \V. \V. Seibert. Rev. E. II. Jones was the Lutheran and Rev. 
William Goodrich the Reformed pastor. The church is modern 
in architecture, containing a main auditorium and lecture and 
Sunday school room connected by sliding doors. It is constructed 
of blue limestone, and trimmed with brown sandstone; it stands 
like a crown on the summit of its hill. 

This congregation is in a flourishing condition having more 
than doubled its membership in the last decade. 

It has sent the following sons into the ministry: Rev. "Wash- 
ington I lower. Rev. Samuel Firey, Rev. Milton Fiery. D.D., (who 
was one of the organ i/ers of the Prohibition Party), and Rev. 
Victor Miller, D.D. 

ST. PETER'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
CLEARSPRIXG, MI). 

(CLEARSPRING CHARGE.) 
Ifcr. 11'. K. Dichl, Pastor. 

St. Peter's Church in the town of Clearspring was organ i/ed 
in 1828. The first church was built in union with the Reformed 
congregation. The first pastor of the congregation was Rev. John 
"Winter, under whose supervision the first church was built. His 
pastorate continued from the organization of the congregation in 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



1828, to 1838. In 1834 Rev. S. Harkey became pastor of the Wil- 
liamsport pastorate, but Clearspring still adhered to the pastoral 
care of Rev. John Winter until 1838, when it was again united 
with Williamsport under the pastoral care of Rev. Christian 
Startzman. He resigned the pastorate in 1849 and was succeeded 
by Rev. H. Bishop who continued in this relation until 1854, when 
he resigned and Clearspring came again for a short time under 
the pastoral care of Rev. John Winter. He died in March, 1854. 
and is buried in the graveyard at Clearspring. 

His successor was Rev. H. C. Bowers, whose pastorate began in 
1856 and terminated in 1858. In 1858 Rev. J. I. Miller became 




ST. PETER'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, CLEARSPRING, MD. 

pastor, and for the space of three years labored with great suc- 
cess. Rev. Mr. Curtis became pastor in 1861 and continued for 
one year. Rev. Mr. Knodle supplied the pulpit until 1864, the 
beginning of the pastorate of Rev. J. M. Graybill. He continued 
to labor in the pastorate until 1866. Rev. Christian Start/man 
became pastor for a second time in 1866 and continued until 1875, 
making a total of twenty years in which he served this people. 
Rev. David Swope became pastor in 1875 and continued two 
years. In 1877 Rev. S. M. Firey became pastor and continued to 
sustain this relation to the congregation for six years. In 1883 
Rev. Isaac Bobst became pastor and his pastorate continued for 



448 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

seven years. Rev. E. II. Jones beeanie pastor in 1890 and his 
pastorate continued for ten years. The pastorate of Rev. George 
A. Rover began June 1. 1901. lie was succeeded by the present 
pastor. Rev. W. K. Diehl. in 1908. 

In I860 movement was inaugurated either to buy out the Ger- 
man Reformed congregation or to sell to them. A council meet- 
ing was held and a committee was appointed to devise some equit- 
able arrangement by which St. Peter's Lutheran congregation 
would either buy or sell. The committee appointed appraised 
their interest in the church and decided that they would either 
buy or sell for nine hundred dollars. The Reformed agreed to 
sell to the Lutherans at that price, and the church became Lu- 
theran from that time, the Reformed congregation reserving the 
right to bury in the irraveyard. The old church was burned down 
February 14. 1875. and the congregation at once took steps to re- 
build their house of worship. The present church was dedicated. 
July 16. 1876. and the total cost of .^6.000 was fully met on the 
day of dedication. Rev. F. W. Conrad, editor of the Lutheran 
Ohs( rrt r. preached the dedicatory sermon, and succeeded in rais- 
ing the amount of the remaining indebtedness. The church was 
refrescoed. recarpeted. reroofed and repaired generally in 1909. 

While St. Peter's has suffered many losses by death and re- 
moval she is nevertheless manifesting a vigorous congregational 
activity. Being well organized for service her loyal-hearted mem- 
bers are doing splendid work in Sunday school. Christian En- 
deavor Society and Women's Missionary Society. 

Extensive improvements have been made in recent years, in- 
cluding iron fence. Sunday school room remodeled and refur- 
nished, auditorium recarpeted, electric lights, two-manual pipe 
organ, memorial altar, and opalescent art windows. 

Rev. D. II. Bauslin. D.D., LL.D., Dean of ITamma Divinity 
School. Springfield, Ohio, is a son of whom St. Peter's may well 
be proud. 

About five years ago the charge sold the old parsonage in the 
center of the town and purchased a house and lot adjacent to St. 
Peter's Church in Clearspring. Having remodeled and enlarged 
it and installed a hot water heating plant, they now own a very 
comfortable house for the pastor's use. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 449 

MOUNT TABOR LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
FAIR VIEW, MI). 

(CLEARSPRING CHARGE.) 
Rev. IV. K. Diehl, Pastor. 

Mount Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized by 
Rev. II. C. Bowers in 1856. The church was built in 1858. The 
building is of brick and is plain in architecture. This congrega- 
tion was incorporated in 1879 under the title of .Mount Tabor 
Lutheran Church. 

In the spring of 1909 the congregation resolved to build a new 
church and the resolution was put into effect without delay. The 




MT. TABOR LUTHERAN CHURCH, FAI& VIEW, MD. 

corner stoue was laid by the pastor September 25, 1909. Rev. 
Victor Miller delivering the address. The building committee 
consisted of D. L. Whitmore, M. L. Steck, Jacob Trmnpower. J. 
H. Strite, J. R. Eckstine, Fred Filsinger, F. T. Spickler, J. F. 
Dulebohn. The new church is of brick, auditorium and Sunday 
school room connected by sliding doors, metal ceiling, heating and 
lighting plants, organ, piano, baptismal font, with bell in tower, 
making a modern and beautiful house of worship. July 24, 1910, 
the church was dedicated by the pastor. Rev. J. A. Singmaster 
29 



4:>o 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



preaching the sermon. The congregation has been steadily ad- 
vancing in Christian activity, in beneficence and in general pros- 
perity. 

Rev. Simon Snyder is a son of this church. His ministry in the 
Scalp Level pastorate of the Alleghany Synod has been fruitful 
and greatly blessed. 

The pastors were the same as those of the Clearspring charge, 
from 1856 to the present time, as follows: Rev. H. C. Bowers, 
1856-1858; Rev. J. I. Miller. 1858-1861 ; Rev. Curtis. 1861-1862; 
Rev. Knodle. 1862-18(54; Rev. J. M. Grabill, 1864-1866; Rev. 
Christian Start/man. 1866-1875; Rev. David Swope, 1875-1877; 
Rev. S. M. Firey. 1877-1883; Rev. Isaac Bobst, 1883-1890; Rev. 
K. II. Jones. 1890-1900; Rev. George A. Rover. 1901-1907; Rev. 
\Y. K. Diehl. 1908. 

ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
FUXKSTOWX, MI). 

(FUNKSTOWN CHARGE.) 
Rev. Wilson L. Remsbery, Pastor. 

The Lutheran congregation of Jerusalemtown (now called 
Funkstown) was at first united with the Reformed congregation 

of the town and the two wor- 
shipped in one church. The first 
building was of logs. Tt was con- 
secrated in 1771 by pastor John 
A. Krug. In those early days the 
children of the Lutheran congre- 
gation went to Hagerstown to be 
catechised by the pastor of old St. 
John's. They were often con- 
firmed in Hagerstown and at- 
tended church services in Funks- 
town. At first the field of the 
Hagerstown pastor extended to 
Funkstown and Beard's; after- 
wards it widened to Boonsboro, 
Clearspring. Bakersville, and 
other adjacent points until it em- 
braced a very large territory. 

The first pastor who served the 

congregation at Funkstown was the Rev. John George Young. Tn 
1786 Pastor Young wrote in a letter to Dr. Helmuth as follows: 
"In 1771 a congregation was gathered two miles from here 




Kr.v. W. L. REMSBEIU; 



THE CHURCHES OP THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 451 

(Hagerstown) in a small village called Jerusalem or Funkstown, 
and in the year above mentioned built in connection with the Re- 
formed a Union Church. Pastor Krug consecrated it. I have 
served it since 1773. From sixteen to eighteen families belonged 
at the beginning, but the congregation now includes about fifty 
families. They have a good schoolhouse and a regular and ef- 
ficient teacher. Every four weeks I preach here, both forenoon 




ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, FUNKSTOWN, MD. 

and afternoon. Since most of the people are poor the compensa- 
tion is uncertain. It amounts probably to nineteen pounds." 

Pastor Young served Hagerstown and therefore Funkstown 
for twenty years. He died in 1793 and was succeeded by the Rev. 
Dr. John George Schmucker. He came to the charge as a young 
man in 1794 and ministered here until 1810. Funkstown con- 
tinued to be served by the pastors of St. John's at Hagerstown 
until 1844. After Dr. Schmucker came Rev. Frederick Solomon 
Schaeffer, 1810-1815; Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, 1815-1831; Rev. 
Samuel K. Hoshour. 1831-1S34; Rev. Charles Frederick Schaef- 
fer, 1834-1840, and Rev. Ezra Keller, 1840-1844. 

The first pastor of the "Funkstown Charge" after its separa- 
tion from the Hagerstown charge was Rev. Christopher Columbus 
Culler. He had received his theological instruction from Rev. 
Ezra Keller. The Funkstown charge now consisted of Funks- 



HISTORY OK .MARYLAND SYNOD. 



town. Beaver Crock, and Middleburg. Three years later Middle- 
burg withdrew from this charge and attached itself to the Green- 
castle charge, hut at the same time the "Wolfsville congregation 
was organized and joined the Funkstown charge. A little later 
Boonsboro hccaine a part of the charge, the parsonage was re- 
moved to that |)lace. and the charge was known for some years as 
the "Boonsboro Charge.'' 

In 1S")() the Funkstown congregation built a new church at a 
cost of $M.400. Two years later the Rev. Mr. Culler resigned and 





MK. JACOB STOUFFEU, 
Funkstown, Md. 



MK. JOHN' D. HOLLYDAY, 

Funkstown, Md. 



became associated with the Doctors Bittle in the establishment of 
the Hagerstown Female Seminary. lie was succeeded by the Rev. 
John X. Unruh. who was pastor of the charge from 3852 to 1858. 
An effort late in the year 18f>'2 to dissolve the union with the Re- 
formed congregation failed because of the vigorous protest of the 
Reformed vestry. But in 1857 adjustments were made that satis- 
fied all parties and the dissolution of the union was effected. 

Rev. Amos Copenhaver was the next pastor. He ministered 
here from 1859 to 18(>7. He succeeded in maintaining the activi- 
ties of the congregation during the critical period of the Civil 
War. It was during his 'pastorate that the congregation acquired 
through the bequest of Mrs. Anna Schultx the present parsonage 
property. 

For two years. 1808-1870. Rev. M. W. Fair served the charge. 
During this time the parsonage was improved at a cost of $000. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 453 

Then K'V. Levi Keller became pastor until 1SSO. His failhiul 
ministry was terminated by a fall from an apple tree, from the ef- 
fects of which he died. For five years, from 1881 to 1886. Rev. D. 
S. Lentz. was pastor of the charge. Under his ministry old debts 
were liquidated and better financial methods were introduced. 

The pastorate of Rev. W. S. T. Metzger. 1887-1891. is charac- 
terized as a period of spiritual interest and increased member- 
ship. Rev. J. Milton Snyder remained in charge of the pastorate 
only two years, until October. 1893, but during this time the 
church was renovated at a cost of about $1 ,000. In 1 886 the cor- 
porate title of the church had been changed from Christ's to St. 
Paul 's. 

During the ministry of Rev. Charles A. Hoy. 1894-1899, fur- 
ther improvements were made to the church building and a house 
and lot were purchased with a view to extending the limits of the 
cemetery. Then for four years Rev. David B. Floyd, D.D., was 
pastor. The Common Service was introduced and the Sunday 
school was more thoroughly organized. Rev. M. S. Sharp was 
pastor from 1905 to 1907, and during his pastorate improvements 
were made in the church consisting of gothie windows, raised pul- 
pit, choir platform, and chancel rail. 

The present pastor. Rev. W. L. Remsberg, began his ministry 
in St. Paul's in 1908. During his devoted ministry a great many 
improvements have been made to the church property and the 
auxiliary organizations have taken on increased activity. A pipe 
organ and a piano have been installed and an orchestra has been 
organized. During the recent war the church sent fifteen young 
men into the service of the nation, three of whom sleep on the soil 
of France. The church has sent one of her sons into the ministry, 
Rev. Emory Stockslager. whose ancestors together with the Stcuf- 
fers and the Fierys have been pioneers of this church. Mr. John 
D. Hollyday has been the efficient superintendent of the Sunday 
school for twelve years. The school numbers about 240. while the 
communicant membership of the church is about 220. 

SALEM LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
BAKERSVILLE, MI). 

(FUNKSTOWN CHARGE.) 
Rev. Wilson L. Rcmsbrrg, Pastor. 

At the close of the eighteenth century the need for a house of 
worship was strongly felt in the region now known as Bakersville. 
There being but few families in this section, though they were 
of different faiths, principally Methodists, German Reformed and 



454 HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Lutherans, they came together, and at a point in the edge of a 
clearing, these sturdy Godfearing people built a log church about 
1800. Later, in lSi>:>. finding this house too small, they tore it 
down and replaced it with a very large stone structure, now used 
as a school house. Among the early contributors were Peter 
Palmer, Henry Poffenberger. Martin Newman, John Brantner. 
John Knode. Henry 7ook. William Reynolds, Joseph Roberts. 
Henry and Jacob Dovenberger. Watkins James, and Olho Baker. 




SALEM LUTHERAN OHUKCH, BAKERSVILLE, MD. 

These three congregations worshipped in this house for a quar- 
ter of a century, when the Methodists either died out, or merged 
with the Lutherans and Reformed. These two congregations grew 
very rapidly, and finally, in 18f>3, they mutually and willingly 
agreed to separate, the Reformed people moving two miles west 
and building for themselves a church at Mount Moriah. 

The Lutherans built a new meeting house known as Salem 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, in 1854; it is the edifice in which 
they now worship. This building was remodeled in 1888 at a cost 
of one thousand dollars, and now we have a church building 
worth $4.000. with a seating capacity of three hundred. The land 
where this church, with adjacent cemetery, now is, was donated 
by John and William Reynolds. 

The first Lutherans were Germans and therefore conducted the 
services in German. The English ministers of whom we have rec- 
ord were: Rev. George Diehl, from 1840 to 1852: Rev. Unruh. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



455 



1852-1854; Rev. Marts. 1854-1857; Rev. Lunger, 1857-1804; 
Rev. Wiles. 1864-1868; Rev. Fair, 1868-1872; Rev. Levi Keller, 
1872-1882; Rev. Lentz, 1882-1885; Rev. Ellis II. Jones. 1885- 
1892; Rev. J. W. Lingle, 1892-1896; Rev. A. A. Kerlin, 1896- 
1902; Rev. M. S. Sharp, 1905-1907; Rev. W. L. Remsberg, 
1908- - . 

Mrs. Alice Reynolds, who died in 1912, bequeathed the church 
$3,000. Just before her death she had donated an additional acre 





MR. ALLEN D. EAKLE, 
Bakersville, Md. 



MR. CORNELIUS SNIVELY, 
Bakersville, Md. 



of ground to the cemetery. Miss Savilla Welty, who died in 1916, 
bequeathed the church $500. Out of these bequests the congrega- 
tion in 1913 purchased new pews and a new carpet costing $1,200. 
Tn 1918 a pipe organ and a new lighting system were installed at 
a cost of $1.976. For thirty-two years Mr. Cornelius Snively has 
been treasurer of the church. 

The present communicant membership is one hundred thirty. 
The Sunday school of which Mr. J. H. Brill is superintendent 
numbers one hundred twenty-seven. The Women's Missionary 
Society has a membership of twenty-one; the Young People's 
Missionary Society nineteen, the Mission Band twenty-nine and 
the Christian Endeavor thirty. 



HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 



GERRARD8TOWN LUTIIKKAX 

(iERHAKDSTOWX, W. Va. 

Ift r. .17. L. Kinlixill. 



This congregation was organ ixed before the Maryland Synod 
was, but it has not always boon attached to the Maryland Synod. 
It was a German minister. Rev. John Zimmerman, who organ ixed 
the congregation. That was in 1809. The records give very scant 
information concerning the history of the church, but the follow- 
ing is the list of the pastors to the present time: Rev. John Zim- 

merman. Rev. Isaac Baker. Rev. 
E. Proctor. Rev. John Winter, 
Rev. J. J. Suman. Rev. J. S. 
Ileilig. Rev. W. M. McClanan, 
Rev. II. G. Bowers, Rev. A. Co- 
penhaver. Rev. J. Fraxier. Rev. 
Webster Eigelberger, Rev. George 
A. Long. Rev. J. Kuhn, Rev. M. J. 
Sibole. Rev. J. M. Graybill, Rev. 
W. C. Day. Rev. M. L. Rudisill. 

It was during the ministry of 
the Rev. John Winter that the 
congregation first became affiliated 
with the Maryland Synod, but 
that relationship was not continu- 
ous thereafter. Three churches 
have been built in the course of 
these one hundred and ten years 
of the history of the church. In 

1909. during the pastorate of Rev. J. M. Graybill, the church was 
completely remodeled. The cost of these improvements was met 
by the gift of $500 bequeathed for that purpose by Mr. J. Henry 
Weidman. Commemorating, this fact the church when it was re- 
dedicated in October. 1909. was named Weidman 's Memorial 
Church of Gerrardstown. 

Between the pastorate of Rev. J. M. Graybill and that of Rev. 
W. C. Day. the church was supplied by ministers of the United 
Evangelical Church. The present pastor. Rev. M. L. Rudisill. 
took charge of the pastorate in 1917. Since then auxiliary or- 
ganixations have been formed and the membership has increased. 




RKV. M. L. RUDISILL 



THE CHURCHES OP THK WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



457 



TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, NEAR GER 
RARDSTOWN, W. VA. 

(GERRARDSTOWN CHARGE.) 
Rev. M. L. Riidisill, Pastor. 

Trinity Lutheran Church, which is a part of the Gerrardstown 
charge, is of much more recent origin than the church at Ger- 
rardstown itself. Trinity was not organized until 1886. The or- 
ganization was effected by the Rev. R. C. Holland, who was at 
that time pastor of the Lutheran Church at Martinsburg, West 
Virginia. The church building was destroyed by an enemy in 
1902 but was rebuilt in that same year. Under Rev. M. L. Rudi- 
sill's ministry the work has been progressing nicely. 



ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
HAGERSTOWN, MB. 

Rev . J. Edward Harms, D.D., Pastor. 

A brief historical narrative, such as this must necessarily be. 
cannot present a full account of the historical development of an 
organization which is one hundred 
and fifty years old. Many signifi- 
cant events and the names of 
many faithful and devoted work- 
ers must of necessity be omitted. 

"Old St. John's'' has a long 
and splendid history. Through- 
out all these years this church has 
been an agency of righteousness 
in this community and has made 
its influence felt in the social and 
religious life of the people in 
whose midst the church has oper- 
ated. 

From the available records the 
exact year when the Lutheran 
Church was organized in ITagers- 
town cannot be definitely deter- 
mined. Fragmentary records 

contain the account of ministerial acts having been performed by 
a Lutheran pastor in this community as early as 1759. The prob- 
ability is that these ministerial acts were performed by some vis- 




REV. J. EDWARD HARMS, D.D. 



4.",8 



HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOO. 



iting Lutheran pastor prior to tin- formal organization of a Lu- 
theran congregation in Elizabethtown (Hagerstown at that time 
was called Kli/abcthtown and belonged to Fmleru-k County). 

The year 1770 may. with a reasonable decree of certainty, be 
h'xed as the date of the organization of St. John's Lutheran 
Church. This was six years prior to the Declaration of American 
Independence. 

Rev. Charles Frederick "Wildlmhn was the first duly elected 
pastor of this church. He served the congregation for two years. 

At the time of his resignation in 

1772 the congregation numbered 
271 communicant members. 

Rev. John George Young be- 
came pastor in 1772 and served 
the congregation till 1792. It was 
during this pastorate that the first 
church building was erected. 

Rev. John George Sehmucker, 
D.D., became pastor in 179.'5. The 
corner stone of the present church 
edifice was laid in 379"). The new 
church was dedicated in 1806. 
Dr. Sehmucker resigned the pas- 
torate in 1810. He died in Wil- 
liamsburg, Pennsylvania, in Oc : 
tober, 18r>4, at the age of 83 years. 
While the new church was in pro- 
cess of erection the congregation 
worshipped in the old "Lecture 

Room." which was the sexton's dwelling situated between the 
church and parsonage. 

Rev. Solomon Schaeffer was the fourth pastor of St. John's. 
He served the congregation for four years. Tradition has it that 
Rev. Schaeffer was a young man of remarkable ability. In early 
manhood he was called to his eternal reward and was buried be- 
neath the church. A marble tablet in the west aisle of the present 
Sunday school room marks his last resting place. 

In 1815 Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, D.D., LL.D., was called to the 
pastorate of this church. In addition to the work of the pastorate 
here he served the Lutheran congregations at Funkstown. \Vil- 
liamsport. Beard's and Smithsburg. During Dr. Kurtx's pas- 
torate English preaching was introduced, and mid-week prayer 
services and "protracted meetings" were held. Dr. Kurtz was 
granted a leave of absence in 1826 that he might go to Europe as 




REV. S. W. OWEN, D.I)., LL.D. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



459 



the representative of the Lutheran Church in America, to collect 
money for the purpose of establishing a Lutheran Theological 
Seminary in this country. lie returned the following year bring- 
ing with him $10,000 which was spent in the erection of our 
Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. His ministry here ended 
in June, 1831. He died in Baltimore, Maryland, December 26, 
1856. During this pastorate the largest communicant member- 
ship is reported. There is a record of 300 having communed on 
Whit-Sunday of 1819. The following names appear on the 




ST. JOHN 's LUTHERAN CHURCH, HAGEUSTOWN, MD. 

church record as members of the Church Council : Samuel Ride- 
nour, Theodore Eichelberger, John Wise, Sr., Frederick Stover, 
George Shyrock, Daniel Showman, Jacob Knodle, Jacob Kausler, 
Elders; Daniel Williard, Daniel Startzman, William Hawken, 
David Artz, Deacons. 

The next pastor of St. John's was Rev. Samuel K. Hoshour. 
He became pastor in 1831. His pastoral relationship terminated 
in 1834. After leaving Hagerstown Rev. Hoshour entered the 
ministry of the Christian Church. 

Rev. C. F. Schaeffer, D.D., became pastor in 1834. He resigned 
in 1840. Dr. Schaeffer was a younger brother of Rev. Solomon 
Schaeffer. 

Rev. Ezra Keller, D.D., took charge of the congregation in 1840 



460 HISTORY OK MAHYI.ANI) SYNOD. 

and remained its pastor for four years. At the end of this pas- 
torate the communicant membership numbered 460. 

Rev. F. \V. Conrad was pastor from May, 184-4, to October, 
1850. The present parsonage was built during Kev. Conrad's 
ministry here at a cost of $:VJOO. The most significant event of 
this pastorate was the organization of St. Matthew's German Lu- 
theran Church. The German portion of St. John's cong relation 
presented a formal request that they be permitted to have an or- 
ganization of their own, to have their own church council and 
support their own pastor. The request was granted and a Ger- 
man congregation was organized. This congregation disbanded 
in 1918. Another significant event of this pastorate was the or- 
ganization of four Sunday schools in the country districts sur- 
rounding Hagerstown. The congregation about this time con- 
tributed $2,500 toward the endowment of two new professorships 
in the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. 

In the fall of 18f>0 Rev. F. R, Anspaeh, D.D., was called to St. 
.John's Church. He resigned January 1, 1857. 

Rev. Reuben Hill entered the field as pastor on December 1, 
1857. His resignation took effect December 5, 1859. 

Rev. J. Evans was pastor from 1860 to 1866. 

Rev. Evans was succeeded in 1867 by Rev. T. T. Titus, who in 
October, 1869, resigned and became pastor of Trinity Lutheran 
Church, Hagerstown, a new congregation which separated from 
St. John's. 

In November, 1869, Rev. S. W. Owen, D.D., LL.D., became the 
pastor of this church. Dr. Owen was the faithful and beloved 
pastor of this congregation for nearly half a century. He heard 
the call of God to come up higher on April 16, 1916. 

It was during Dr. Owen's pastorate that the church made its 
most substantial growth. Dr. Owen was one of the most forceful 
and eloquent preachers in the Lutheran Church. His death was 
a great loss to the Lutheran Church in America. The following 
extract is taken from a sermon preached by Dr. Owen upon the 
occasion of his 45th anniversary as pastor of St. John's: 

''Allow me to give a few statistics of my pastorate here. I 
have preached between three and four thousand sermons during 
the 45 years, baptized 562 infants, married 1,514 couples, and 
have added to the membership of the church 1,376 persons. The 
relationship between pastor and people during these years has 
been most peaceful and loving. The current expenses of the 
church have been met, and to-day we have no debt except that 
which we owe to our heavenly Father for His protection and 
care. Of the 12 pastors who have served the church during the 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN' CONFERENCE. 461 

time embraced in this sketch, I am the only one remaining. Let 
me but be enrolled with such Worthies, and I will say to any sor- 
rowing friends, ' Carve not a line, raise not a stone, but leave me 
alone in my glory.' : 

The present pastor, Rev. J. Edward Harms, D.D., was called to 
the St. John's pastorate January 15, 1917. At the time of his 
election here he was serving the First Lutheran Church of Day- 
ton, Ohio. The present communicant membership of the church 
is 715. The Sunday school membership is 660. Plans are being 
made for the erection of a modern Sunday school building to pro- 
vide for the rapidly growing Sunday school. The following 
members of the church constitute the present Church Council : 
Elders Edward Oswald, secretary ; M. P. Moller. George W. 
Fridinger, J. Frank S. Beck, J. Harry Schueler, Richard S. Os- 
wald; Deacons John H. Jones, Frank R. Middlekauff, E. Bane 
Snyder, Hugh N. Garver, Harry D. Burger, John S. Kausler, 
treasurer. 

ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

1. In this church the delegates from the Pennsylvania, New 
York, Maryland and North Carolina Synods met on October 20, 
1820, to adopt a Constitution and formally organize the General 
Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. 

2. In this church a committee appointed by the General Synod 
met to determine the location of a Theological Seminary, this con- 
gregation contributing the largest amount toward the establish- 
ment of it. 

3. Three of the pastors of St. John's became editors of the Lu- 
theran Observer. 

4. One of the pastors of St. John's was the founder and first 
president of Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio. 

TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
HAGERSTOWX, MD. 

Rev. J. S. Simon, D.D., Pastor. 

While the history of Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church of 
Hagerstown, as a separate organization, dates back only to 1869, 
yet the roots of its life run back to the very beginning of Lu- 
theranism in Hagerstown. Until August 26th of the above men- 
tioned year, St. John's Lutheran Church, throughout its long 
and successful history, continued undivided. About a year be- 
fore the organization of Trinity a difference of opinion arose 
among the members of St. John's Lutheran Church concerning 



1) HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

the remodeling of the ehurch building. This difference of opin- 
ion finally grew to such proportions that it was thought best, by 
those in favor of remodeling, to withdraw from the Mother 
Church, and to form another Lutheran Congregation in Hagers- 
town. 

Among the prominent leaders in the new organization were 
Messrs. David Artx, Philip AVingert, Frederick Posey, "NVm. 
Tice, Win. Prot/man, Martin Start/man, Jonathan Schindel, 
.Jacob Koessner. Otho Swingley, 1-. L. Mentxer, Abraham Miller, 




THIXITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, H.VGEKSTOWN, MD. 

Wilson L. Hays, and Dr. J. E. Herbert. These were all members 
of the first Church Council. A lot for a new church building 
was bought on West Franklin Street, conveniently situated, and 
ground was broken for the new building on October 18, 1886. 
On November 7th of the same year, the corner stone was laid, the 
Rev. Joel Swartx officiating. 

While it was considered necessary for the two parties, holding 
diverse opinions, to separate, yet they continued to worship to- 
gether until August 2(i, 18(W, when the new congregation was 
formally organized. On that date it was decided by the congre- 
gation that it should be known as "Trinity Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of Hagerstown, Washington County, Maryland." On 
this same date the new congregation extended a call to Kev. T. T. 
Titus, pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church of Ilagerstown. He 




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ri/i 

Q W 



Cos: 
r- >H K 



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tf 
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O (to 

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464 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

accepted the call and took charge on October 1, I860. On the 
same date the new house of worship was dedicated, Rev. F. \V. 
Conrad preaching the dedicatory sermon. The Rev. Titus was 
not permitted to serve the people of Trinity for a very long 
period. Because of throat affection he was compelled to resign, 
to the great regret of the congregation to whom his earnest piety 
and loyal, faithful, pastoral work had much endeared him. His 
resignation took efl'ect on July 1, 1871. In August of the same 
year he removed to Hartwick Theological Seminary, of which in 
June he had been elected principal. 

Tt is but right that testimony should be given to the faithful 
women of the church, who worked continuously and with much 
self-denial ; who, having "riven themselves to the Lord, gave their 
time, energy, money, to the service of His Church, and so con- 
tributed, in large measure to the payment of the debt upon the 
church building, as well as to the building up of the congrega- 
tion and of the Sunday school in numbers and in influence. 

After the resignation of the Rev. T. T. Titus, there was a va- 
cancy for three months, during which time the Rev. J. A. Clutx, 
D.D., at that time a student in Gettysburg Seminary, supplied 
the pulpit. On February 25, 1872, the congregation extended a 
call to the Rev. Henry Luckenbaugh, a man of well-known and 
marked literary ability and pulpit attainments. He accepted the 
call, to take effect in April, 1872, and served the congregation 
until the latter part of 1874. During the ensuing vacancy the 
Rev. Dr. McCron, then principal of the Hagerstown Seminary, 
supplied the pulpit. 

On June 13, 1875, the Rev. J. R. Williams was called to the 
pastorate. He served the congregation faithfully for eight years. 
In October, 1883, Trinity again became vacant. 

On January 13, 1884, the congregation extended a call to the 
Rev. Harvey "VV. McKnight, D.D. He accepted the call, but re- 
signed on July 16, 1884, to accept the presidency of Gettysburg 
College, which had been meanwhile offered him. Ilis resigna- 
tion was a grievous disappointment to the congregation and a 
long period of restlessness ensued. For more than a year the 
church was without a pastor. 

The Rev. Edwin Heyl Delk, D.D., was called to the pastorate 
on June 11, 1885, and took charge in October of the same year. 
He served the congregation with ability and success, until May 1, 
1902. During his pastorate Trinity made signal progress, in- 
creasing in membership, paying the indebtedness on both church 
building and parsonage, and extending widely its power for good 
in Hagerstown. During the vacancy caused by the resignation 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 465 

of the Rev. Mr. Delk, to accept a call to St. Matthew's Church of 
Philadelphia, the pulpit was acceptably supplied by the Rev. J. 
F. Baum. The present, incumbent, the Rev. J. S. Simon, was 
called to the pastorate in October, 1902, and assumed charge De- 
cember 5, 1902. 

About the year 1872 the congregation, feeling the need of a 
home for its pastor, purchased a house on West Franklin Street, 
at a short distance from the church. In 1883 this was sold and 
in 1885 a large and substantial brick building, conveniently situ- 
ated on North Potomac Street about a square from the church 
building, was erected at a cost of $7,000. Tn 1887 a new primary 
school building and library room were built. In 1891 the chancel 
was rearranged and the church repaired. 

The Sunday school was organized October 10, 1 869, with eight 
officers, twenty-three teachers, and ninety-eight scholars. At the 
present time it has an enrollment of more than a thousand, with 
ninety teachers and officers. The Sunday school is noted for its 
benevolent spirit, giving for the support of the school and for the 
missionary work of the church more than two hundred dollars 
per month. 

The Woman's Missionary Society of Trinity Church was or- 
ganized in April, 1880, and has at present a membership of al- 
most one hundred. The Young People's Missionary Society was 
organized in September, 1884, and now has a membership of 
about two hundred. The Mission Band, a company of boys and 
girls organized for training in the work of missions, was organ- 
ized in March, 1889, by Mrs. J. D. Main, and has accomplished 
much toward the training of the young for service in the church, 
especially in the Missionary Societies. 

Trinity has given two boys to the work of the Gospel ministry, 
Benjamin Lantz and Harry Main. The Rev. J. H. Main, D.D., 
is located at Philadelphia, and the Rev. B. L. Lantz, D.D., at 
Salina, Kansas. 

In October, 1890. about twenty members of Trinity, who ob- 
jected to the use of the Common Service in the worship of the 
congregation, withdrew from its fellowship and formed a new 
congregation, St. Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church, which 
has since that time grown into a flourishing church of nearly four 
hundred members. 

Recently a new era dawned for Trinity Church. The exact 
date of its beginning cannot be fixed, for that beginning was not 
so much a matter of time as of the spirit of the congregation. 
The Sunday school of the church had outgrown its rooms and 
there arose a demand for a larger place and one better adapted 
30 



46(5 HISTORY OP MARYLAND SYNOD. 

to the needs of a growing progressive school. Besides, the imme- 
diate surroundings of the church property were becoming, with 
increasing population and growing business in Hagerstown, less 
and less desirable. After many proposals for enlargement and 
rebuilding had been made, earnestly and harmoniously discussed, 
and almost unanimously rejected, a member of the Church Coun- 
cil, directed by the Spirit of God, as it now seems, suggested the 
purchase of a new sight, the erection of new buildings, and the 
selling of the old church and parsonage properties. After long 
and prayerful discussion of the project, the Church Council or- 
dered the submission of the entire project to the congregation, 
which, after full and free discussion, by a unanimous vote in- 
structed the Church Council to buy the three lots located on the 
corner of North Potomac and Randolph Avenue, for the sum of 
.tl.'J,~)00, awl to secure plans for the erection of a church costing 
about $50,000. But afterwards in order to meet the needs and 
the religious spirit of the congregation these plans were greatly 
enlarged and nearly doubled in cost. 

Ground was broken for the new building on June 14, 190!), Mr. 
Jacob Roessner, a charter member of Trinity, and a most en- 
thusiastic and faithful member of it, wielding the shovel. The 
corner stone was laid, with impressive and joyful services, on Oc- 
tober 10, 1909. 

The church wax set apart for the worship of God on March 19, 
1911. At that time the indebtedness of the congregation was 
more than $55,000. Under the constant blessing of the great 
Head of the church, the congregation has had a splendid develop- 
ment in Sunday school and church until at the present time there 
are but few churches in the synod to which it belongs, which ex- 
ceed it in numerical strength. It also seems certain that by the 
tenth anniversary of the dedication of the church this willing and 
liberal people will have canceled the entire indebtedness incurred 
in building. And so, the new era which began with the demand 
for an enlarged place has proved to be an Era of Enlargement. 

Meanwhile the Lutheran Churches of Hagerstown have become 
thoroughly united in spirit. That which came as the result of a 
difference of opinion among the members of the Mother Church, 
has, under the direction of the Holy Spirit, brought about blessed 
results for Lutheranism and for the kingdom of Christ in Hagers- 
town. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



467 



ST. MARK'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
HAGERSTOWX, MD. 

Rev. J. W. Ott, D.D., Pastor. 

St. Mark's Lutheran Church, of Hagerstown, Maryland, dates 
her beginning to the summer and autumn of 1889. August 9, 
1889, a meeting was held at the residence of William Marr to 
consider the advisability of organizing another Lutheran Church 
in Hagerstown. August 16th and 23d meetings were held to con- 
sider the subject further. At the last named meeting a commit- 
tee reported that the hall in the 
engine house of the Western En- 
terprise Fire C o m p a n y, on 
Franklin Street, had been rented 
as a temporary place of worship. 

October 6, 1889, the first regu- 
lar service was held in the hall. 
It was conducted by Rev. S. A. 
Hedges. At that service the con- 
gregation was organized as the 
' ' Third English L u t h e r a n 
Church," with seventeen or eight- 
een members. Others were soon 
added, increasing the number to 
about thirty. 

For several months after the 
organization of the congregation 
the pulpit was supplied by stu- 
dents from the Theological Semi- 
nary at Gettysburg. In January, 1890, Rev. S. E. Bateman, of 
Selinsgrove, Pa., was elected pastor of the young congregation. 
He entered upon his duties as pastor on March 7th. At the first 
council meeting after Rev. Bat email's arrival, the name of the 
church was changed from "The Third Lutheran," to "St. Mark's 
Lutheran Church." The Maryland Synod, at its annual meeting 
in October, 1890, in Washington, D. C., formally received the 
new congregation into its membership. For a period of eight 
years the congregation received some aid from the Board of 
Home Missions. It became self-supporting in December, 1898. 

November 29, 1891, the congregation decided to purchase the 
Straub property at the intersection of Washington Street and 
Washington Avenue for the sum of $5,750. The fine brick 
dwelling-house on the property was converted into a chapel, the 




REV. J. W. OTT, D.D. 



468 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYXOD. 



corner stone of which was laid in October, 1892, and the re- 
modeled building was dedicated in January. 1898, after having 
worshiped in a hall for three years. Valuable aid was rendered 
the congregation at this time by the Board of Church Extension 
of the General Synod Lutheran Church. 

Rev. Bateman resigned as pastor in June, 1893, having served 
the congregation over three years and having increased the mem- 
bership to almost one hundred. December 1, 1893, the second 
pastor, Rev. George S. Bowers, of York, Pennsylvania, entered 
upon his duties. During the Rev. Bowers' pastorate a primary 




ST. MARK'S LUTHEKAX CHURCH, HAGEKSTOWX, Mu. 

room was added to the church building to accommodate the grow- 
ing Sunday school. This building was dedicated in June, 1895, 
during the meeting of General Synod in Hagerstown. Tn the 
autumn of the same year the comfortable three-story brick par- 
sonage was built adjoining the church. It was ready for occu- 
pancy about Christmas. On the tenth anniversary of the organi- 
xation of the congregation the indebtedness to the Board of 
Church Extension was cancelled. 

Rev. Bowers served the congregation until December 1, 1902, 
a period of nine years. Marked material and spiritual progress 
was made during those years. The value of the church property 
was enhanced, the indebtedness was reduced, and the membership 
was increased to two hundred fortv. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



469 



Rev. S. G. Dornblaser, of Columbus, Ohio, became pastor of St. 
Mark's March 1, 1903. He served the congregation until Sep- 
tember 1, 1906, a period of three and one -half years. During this 
pastorate a steady development was manifest, 

In February, 1907, a call was extended to the Rev. J. William 
Ott, of Trinity Lutheran Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan. On 
March 19th Rev. Ott entered upon his duties as pastor. At the 





MR. A. T. ZENTMYER, 
Hagerstown, Md. 



MR. JOHN W. KOOGLE, 
Hagerstown, Md. 



time of his installation which took place on November 3, 1907, a 
debt of $1,300, which yet remained on the church, was canceled, 
and the mortgage burned in the presence of the congregation. 

In the autumn of 1910 the church was entirely renovated and 
an annex built to meet the need of the growing Sunday school, 
all at a cost of $4,500. At the same time a new Moller pipe organ, 
handsomely finished in dark golden oak and costing $2,000, was 
installed. On November 13, 1910, the impressive service of re- 
dedication took place. At the same time the financial obligation 
of $6,500 was fully met. 

This pastorate has witnessed a grand realization of Christian 
devotion on the part of some of its young members, two of them 
having chosen the ministry as their vocation. Miss Lydia Seip- 
plemyer, a graduate of the Deaconess Motherhouse, Baltimore, 
Maryland, is in active work in Williamsport. Pennsylvania. At 
Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Mr. Lawrence Showe is in 
preparation for the Gospel ministry. Mr. Henry Young, who is 



470 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



at this writing in Franco in the service of the Tinted States will, 
upon iiis return to the States, prepare for Foreign Missionary 
work. St. Mark's is not unmindful of her duty to the work of 
the Church abroad. One missionary helper in India is supported 
by the Christian Endeavor Society and another by a faithful 
member of the church. Mr. James Start/man. The congregation 
also has a splendid record as to other benevolences, always meet- 
ing or exceeding the apportionment. 

July 1, 1 !)!(), finds the church free of all indebtedness, a com- 
municant membership of four hundred and a Sunday school with 
an enrollment of over six hundred. This growth in numbers has 
made necessary a more spacious and commodious church build- 
in jr, the construction of which is contemplated in the near future. 

ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
LEITERSBURG, MD. 

(LEITERSHURG CHARGE.) 

Rev. J . G. Koser, Pastor. 

In August, 182(i, the corner stone of a Lutheran Church in 
Leitersburg was laid by Revs. John and Frederick Ruthrauff, H. 





REV. J. O. KOSK,:. 



REV. VICTOR MIU.EK, D.D. 



Kroh and Jacob Medtart. Many Lutheran families of the vicin- 
ity were members of Beard's congregation, which was served by 
Rev. 15. Kurtz from St. John's of Hagerstown, but he was then 
(182")-2()) in Germany soliciting aid for the Seminary at Gettys- 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



471 



burp:, and bis place was temporarily filled by tbe Revs. Ruthraun" 
and Medtart. 

The places of worship nearest to Leitersburg were Beard's and 
Jacob's churches, each several miles distant and in opposite di- 
rections. Organization of a congregation had been effected be- 
fore laying the corner stone. The preamble states: "Since the 
congregation in the past year has greatly increased and has de- 
cided to build a house for di- 
vine worship, for the main- 
tenance of religion, etc., we 
lay this stone. ' ' The site for 
church and cemetery were 
purchased for $100 of John 
Lahm and deeded to Fred- 
erick Ziegler, John Byer, 
Jacob Bell, Lewis Tritle, 
John Bowers and H. H. 
Snyder composing the 
Church Council. 

The pastors have been 
Rev. John Ruthrauff, Jacob 
Medtart, and B. Kurtz, D.D., 
1825-28; Samuel Hoshour, 
1828-30; John Reck, 1831- 
33 ; John P. Kline, 1833-46 ; 
J. J. Reimensnyder, 1846- 
51; Daniel H. Bittle, D.D., 
1851-52 ; J. F. Probst, 1853- 
56; J. Heck, 1857-61; W. 




ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
LEITERSBUUG, MD. 



F. Eyster, 1861-65; M. C. Horine, 1865-69; Samuel MeHenry, 
1870-72; X. J. Richardson, 1872-81. 

Prior to 1828 Leitersburg was part of the Hagerstown charge 
which embraced a large territory. From 1828 to 1880 it was part 
of the Smithsburg charge of four congregations. In 1880 a 
peaceful division of that charge took place and Leitersburg and 
Beards formed the Leitersburg charge, which in January, 1881, 
unanimously called Rev. V. Miller to be pastor. He served the 
charge till September, 1914, when he resigned because of increas- 
ing bodily infirmities and was elected pastor emeritus. He was 
followed in September, 1914, by Rev. J. S. Koser. Dr. Miller 
during his long pastorate of thirty-three 3 r ears won a warm place 
in the hearts of his people by his faithfulness and devotion. He 
now resides in Hagerstown but he is often called back to his old 
charge to assist at special services. 



472 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYN'OH. 

Tlu 1 church building erected in Leitersburg in 1820 by the con- 
gregation was a large and substantial two-story stone and rough- 
cast building, with galleries on three sides. Originally it had 
neither belfry nor bell, but one was secured in 1850 and placed 
on a tower in the rear of the church until 1853 when a belfry 
was built. 

In 1884-85 the church was remodeled at a cost of .$4,100, a 
new front wall and tower built, side galleries removed, corre- 
sponding upper and lower windows made into one, and new pews 
placed. Dr. F. W. Conrad preached the dedicatory sermon Feb- 
ruary 1, 1885. 

The parsonage is a two-story ten-room brick dwelling, erected 
in 1881 at a cost of $:UOO on a lot donated by Rev. V. Miller and 
is jointly owned by the charge. 

The Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society was or- 
ganized June 15, 1887. The Christian Endeavor Society was 
formed December 22, 1892. 

From this congregation the following ministers have come: 
Revs. C. Lepley, I,. J. Bell, E. K. Bell, D.D, J. F. Kayhoe and 
Luther F. Miller. 

BEARD'S LUTHERAN CHURni, WASHING- 
TON COUNTY, Ml). 

( LEITERSBURG CHARGE.) 
Rev. J. S. Koscr, Pastor. 

Beard's Church is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, congre- 
gation in Washington County. There is conclusive evidence that 
it existed earlier than any other place of worship in the county, 
with the possible exception of St. Paul's near Clearspring, and 
the Episcopal Chapel near Chapel Woods school in the Funks- 
town district. 

Reliable church history shows a Lutheran congregation and 
church building on the banks of the Antietam in 1756, two miles 
west of our present building. The county records place them 
earlier than 1754. The will of Robert Downing, dated November 
1, 1754, in a clause referring to that church says. ; 'F give to my 
daughter Esther all that tract of land one hundred and thirteen 
acres (indicating terminals) excepting ten acres convenient to 
the meeting house, providing the people resorting thereto pay 
for it, etc." 

On June 9, 1787, nine and a half acres of the reserved ten were 
sold bv Martin Ridenour and John Bard to William Shanafeld 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN COXFEREXCE. 473 

reserving one-half acre on which were located the church and 
burial ground, to he forever exempted. This occurred in 1787 
when the site of the church was changed to the present one. Just 
a century later when Rev. V. Miller, the pastor, was preparing 
a centennial sermon he visited this place and found in an open 
field part of the unplowed graveyard about twelve by thirty-five 
feet with eight or ten old sand gravestones lying on the ground, 
showing burials as early as 1763. Certainly this was the site of 
the first Beard's Church erected probably before 1754. 

In the journal of Rev. Schlatter a missionary of the Reformed 
Church there is record of his preaching, etc.. in 1747 in a church 
on the west bank of Conococheague Creek. That church was the 
original of the present St. Paul's ten or twelve miles west of 
Beard's Church, and as all settlements went westward most likely 
Beard's Church was organized before 1747 as Mr. Downing's will 
record of 1754 speaks familiarly of a church building and grave- 
yard as if it had existed for years. 

Owing to want of records previous to 1799 we can but imper- 
fectly give a record of pastors of that period. From Rev. J. G. 
Young, pastor at Hagerstown, 1773-91, we have the statement in 
1786 that Beard's was served several years by Pastors Haushihl 
and Schwerdtfeger from Frederick, we know not whether as pas- 
tor or supply, probably the latter. Haushihl arrived at An- 
napolis in 1752, removed to Frederick in 1758, and Schwerdtfeger 
was pastor at Frederick from 1763 to 1768 when he returned to 
Europe leaving Rev. Hartwig over his congregations, possibly in- 
cluding Beard's. 

In the journal of Rev. Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg, 1769, we 
find a petition to the Ministerium of Pennsylvania of laymen in 
Pennsylvania, in Maryland on the Antietam, on the Conoco- 
heague and Sharpsburg, in Virginia from Shepherdstown and 
Winchester, asking the ministerium to admit Rev. "Wildbahn to 
its body. He resided then near Littlestown and in 1770 removed 
to what is now Hanover. In the minutes of the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania of 1772 is this entry, ' ' A delegate from vacant con- 
gregations between Pennsylvania and Virginia in Maryland, 
called by Indians Conococheague, which Senior Kurtz visited 
now and then and ministered the means of grace, laid before the 
ministerium a petition for an able teacher and pastor and to me 
privately said they desired the older Mr. Kurtz." The younger 
Kurtz was sent but the minutes of the next year, 1773, says, 
"Four congregations in Conococheague district in Maryland pe- 
tition for Frederick Muhlenberg as pastor and teacher, because 
Mr. Kurtz, Jr., could not get along well." 



474 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Rev. F. A. Muhlenberg acted as a supply for a short time. 
Later he became a member of Congress and the first speaker of 
the first House of Representatives of the t'nited States. 

Rev. J. George Young, pastor at Hagerstown from 177;] till his 
death in 1791, served Beard's till 178") and was followed there by 
Rev. Daniel Schroeter, of Hanover. Pennsylvania. He served 
congregations in Frederick and Washington Counties, Maryland, 
and Franklin County, Pennsylvania, and died 180(5. He proba- 
bly served when the second church was built in 1787 on the site 
of the present church, almost two miles east of the first church. 
He is believed to have come to America with the Hessian troops, 
as many students did and remained here and became a minister. 

The oldest church record of infant baptisms in the church, but 
not first recorded were, Elizabeth, daughter of J. G. and Cath- 
erine Hammel, and John Jacob, son of Peter and Anna M. Luber, 
both baptized May 9, 1790. The minister's name is not recorded 
but from the similarity of the writing recording an adult baptism 
and confirmation on June 17, 1791, we doubt not that he was Rev. 
Joel G. Hale, and that record is that Catharine Retsin, first wife 
of Christian, was born and bred in York County, Pennsylvania, 
and that her parents were William and Margaret Hart. On June 
12, 1791, she was baptized and confirmed, and by her side was 
Christina Bart. This was signed by J. G. Hale. This clearly 
shows that he was pastor in 1790 and 1791. Unfortunately after 
that record of a minister's name, we have no other till that in 
1848 of Rev. J. J. Reimensnyder, although there are records of 
baptisms. How long Rev. Hale served or when he left is not 
known, but in 1798 we are assured Rev. John Ruthrauff was pas- 
tor as his name is attached to the Congregational Kirchen Ar- 
ticles. He was pastor at Greencastle, Pennsylvania, from 179.") 
to 1837 when he died. 

How long Rev. Ruthrauff served here is not shown but in De- 
cember, 1806, the name of Rev. J. G. Schmucker appears in the 
minutes of a council meeting as pastor. As he served at Hagers- 
town from 1793 to 1810 and as Rev. Ruthrauff was certainly pas- 
tor of Beard's in 1798 it follows that Rev. Schmucker served here 
only in his later ministry in Hagerstown, presumably from 1806 
to i810, and it is likely that Rev. Ruthrauff served from 1797 to 
1805. 

Rev. Solomon Schaeffer served from 1810 to 1813. Rev. 
Baughey who served during 1812-1814 was unworthy and was 
suspended. Rev. B. Kurtz served from 1814 to 1831. He and 
former pastors, except Ruthrauff. had charge of Hagerstown, 
Beard's, St. Paul's, AVilliarnsport, Funkstown and later Leiters- 



THE CHURCHES OF THR WESTERN CONFERENCE. 475 

burg. Ill 182-1-26 he visited Europe soliciting aid for the Gettys- 
burg institutions. Revs. Ruthrauff and Medtart supplied his 
charges during this absence. 

In 1828 a new charge was formed of Beard's, Leitersburg, 
Smithsburg and Mt. Moriah with Rev. S. K. Iloshour, pastor, who 
served 1828-30. He was followed by Rev. John Reck, 1830-32 ; 
J. P. Kline, 183346; J. J. Reimensnyder, 1848-51; Daniel H. 
Bittle, 1851-53; J. F. Probst, 1853-56; J. Heck, 1857-61, who 
died just as the present building was being completed ; ~\V. F. 
Eyster, 1861-65, M. C. Horine, D.D., 1866-69; S. McHenry, 
1870-72; X. J. Richardson, 1872-80, when a peaceful division oc- 
curred, Leitersburg and Beard 's forming the Leitersburg charge, 
and Smithsburg and Mt. Moriah forming the Smithsburg charge 
which retained Rev. X. J. Richardson. 

In January, 1881, Rev. V. Miller accepted the call to Leiters- 
burg and served until 1914, when Rev. J. S. Koser was elected. 

The first two buildings were of logs, the second one having gal- 
leries on three sides and a pipe organ built in 1787. The church 
site was changed and the third church, forty-two by sixty feet, 
was erected with brick in 1860. German was used until replaced 
in 1828 by English. 

From Beard's came these clergymen: John. Solomon and 
Samuel Oswald, W. B. Bachtell, Christian and Clinton Hoover, 
C. Lepley, L. J. Bell, Ezra K. Bell, Albert Bell, A. A. Buhrman, 
J. F. Kayhoe, L. F. Miller, S. J. Miller, and probably others. 

JACOBS LUTHERAN CHURCH, WASHINGTON 
COUNTY, MD. 

(LEITERSBURG CHARGE.) 
Rev. J. S. Koser, Pastor. 

Jacobs Church is the oldest institution in Leitersburg District. 
The Lutheran congregation that worshipped on the banks of the 
Antietam in 1754 doubtless numbered among its membership 
some of the families afterward embraced in the constituency of 
Jacobs Church. Others were members of St. John's at Hagers- 
town, organized prior to 1769; of the church at Grindstone Hill 
in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, which was in existence as 
early as 1765 ; or of Zioii Lutheran Church at Greencastle, also 
one of the oldest in Franklin County. The date at which Jacobs 
Church was organized cannot be satisfactorily determined, but 
there is reason to believe that this occurred in 1791. The grounds 
for this conclusion are as follows : 



470 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



The records of St. John's Church at Hagerstown show that 
several Lutheran families from this locality were members from 
1770 to 1780. Peter and Anthony Hell were among those whose 
names occur in this connection; and as they lived within a mile 
of Jacobs Church it is not probable that they would have jour- 
neyed so far if an organization had existed in the immediate vi- 
cinity at the time. In 178(i Rev. John George Young of Hagers- 
town prepared a brief historical sketch of the churches of his 




JACOBS LUTHERAN CHURCH, WASHINGTON* COUNTY, Mn. 

charge in which, referring to Beard's, he says: ''From this con- 
gregation four others have originated, viz: Hagerstown, Funks- 
town, Manorland, and Conococheague. " Mr. Young's pastorate 
embraced the churches referred to, as well as others in Frederick 
County. If Jacobs Church had been organized at this time it is 
more than probable that it would have been part of his charge, or 
that he would in any case have mentioned it ; hence its omission 
affords strong presumptive evidence that it had no existence in 
1786. Furthermore, the present church grounds were not ac- 
quired from the State until 1787, and it is extremely improbable 
that a church building would have been erected here before that 
date. 

Affirmatively, it may be positively stated that the church was 
organized in the year 1791 or prior thereto, as the protocol of the 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 477 

Ministerium of Pennsylvania shows that the Rev. Guenther 
Wingardt was pastor from 1791 to 1795. While this evidence is 
conclusive, it leaves to doubt and conjecture much that would be 
most interesting regarding the circumstances under which the 
organization was effected. Wingardt was succeeded by Rev. John 
Ruthrauff in 1795, and with this date adequate local records 
begin. 

Within a few years after the Rev. John Ruthrauff became pas- 
tor he proposed a constitution for the church, which was duly 
adopted and signed by the officers and members on September 
23. 1798. This document is entitled "Constitution for the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Congregation situated at the Maryland and 
Pennsylvania line, called Peace Church." Tt defines in detail the 
duties of pastor, council, and members. The church council at 
that time was composed of Jacob Rider, Anthony Bell, Philip 
Ripple, David Goll, and John Bell. 

The membership at this time was widely scattered. Four other 
Lutheran churches have since been organized upon the original 
territory of Jacobs Church, located, respectively, at Waynesboro, 
Leitersburg, Quincy, and Rouzerville. The formation of the two 
first named practically reduced the congregation to its present 
limits. Its numerical strength has varied widely. In 1796 the 
number of communicants was thirty-three, but in 1798 one hun- 
dred five persons attached their names to the constitution as 
members and officers. The formation of the Waynesboro congre- 
gation in 1818 undoubtedly deprived the mother church of many 
members, but defective records at this period render it impossi- 
ble to estimate the loss. In 1826, after the organization of the 
Leitersburg Church, there were still seventy-six communicants at 
Jacobs. In 1830 the number was 93 ; in 1835, 67 ; May 26, 1839, 
65 ; April, 30, 1843, 87 ; May 11, 1845, 88 ; June 4," 1848, 97 ; 
May 19, 1850, 102; May 13, 1855; 85; May 19, 1860, 70; No- 
vember 21, 1869, 64; April 27, 1879, 65; September 20, 1885, 
61 ; October 31, 1897, 69. The following note is appended to a 
communion record in 3855: "This congregation has lost a con- 
siderable number of members by removal." This remark would 
apply to the church at almost any period in its history. Many 
families have removed from its bounds at various times and lo- 
cated in neighboring towns or in the West, where they have in 
more than one locality been active in establishing or sustaining 
other Lutheran churches. 

The site of the church and the burial ground adjacent are em- 
braced in a tract of land called Martin's Good Hope. Martin 
Jacobs secured a warrant for the survev of this tract on the 



478 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

twenty-first of August, 1787; the survey was made on the first 
of April, 1788, and a patent was issued in his favor, September 
21, 1790. The area of the traet was eighteen acres. The church 
land was deeded by Martin Jacobs to Christian Lantz "for the 
use of the German Lutheran congregations and their successors," 
November 18, 1799, at the nominal consideration of five shillings 
"and in consideration of divers other good causes him the said 
Martin Jacobs thereunto moving. 1 ' It contained three-fourths 
of an acre and thirty-four perches of land "together with the 
church thereon and other the appurtenances thereunto belong- 
ing.'' 

From this deed for the church land it is evident that the 
church building had been erected thereon at the time; how much 
earlier it may have been built is a matter of conjecture, but it is 
extremely improbable that this occurred prior to 1787, when the 
land was acquired by Martin Jacobs. For this was a substantial 
and somewhat pretentious building, one that the projectors would 
scarcely have erected upon ground that might possibly have be- 
come vested in an owner indifferent or unfriendly to their inter- 
ests. It survived, in all probability, all who were prominently 
identified with its erection. Hut the time at length arrived when 
its usefulness was terminated. In 1841 it was removed; the logs 
were hauled to Leitersburg and used in the construction of 
houses. 

On September 10, 1841, the corner stone of the new building 
was laid and already on the following December oth the church 
was complete and dedicated. This was during the pastorate of 
Rev. F. \V. Conrad. The new church occupies the site of the old. 
The old one was named FViedens Kirche, but the new one was 
named Jacobs Church. 

In 18.")4 the church building was enlarged to its present dimen- 
sions by an addition about sixteen feet in length at the western 
end. Extensive repairs were again made in 1881. Ten years 
later the interior was again remodeled, the principal improve- 
ment being the present pews. 

The following is a list of pastors of Jacobs Church since 1791 : 
Rev. Ouenther AVingardt, 1791-171)."); Rev. John Ruthruiiff, 179,">- 
18.T>; Rev. Jeremiah Harpel, 1835-1837: Key. Jacob Martin. 
18:17-1839: Rev. Peter Sahm, I).]).. 1840; Rev. F. W. Conrad, 
D.D., 1841-1844; Rev. John Heck, 1845-1856; Rev. J. F. Camp- 
bell, 18.") 7-1862; Rev. Edwin Dorsey, 1803; Rev. Alfred liuhr- 
man, 1864-1871: Rev. C. L. Keedy, 1871-187.") : Rev. P. Berg- 
stresser, D.D.. 1876-1887: Rev. II. S. Cook. 1888-1899; Rev. C. 
H. Rock.-v, 1900-1911 : Rev. A. A. Kelly, 1911-1910. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 479 

Wingardt resided at Taneytown, Maryland, and was pastor of 
the following churches: Taneytown, Jacobs, Winter's, Thomas 
Creek, Upper Bermndian, Zion, and Flohr's. The charge to 
which Ruthrauff was assigned in 1795 was composed of Green- 
castle, Jacobs, Beard's, Mayfield (?), and Mercersbnrg, but its 
limits varied at different times during his long pastorate. He 
resided at Greencastle, and Jacobs was part of the Greencastle 
charge until 1841, when the Waynesboro charge was formed ; the 
original constituent churches were Waynesboro, Jacobs, Quincy, 
and Funkstown. For some years past the Waynesboro and 
Jacobs Churches have constituted a charge. 

In the summer of 1916 the brethren of the Waynesboro Church 
felt that their church demanded all the time of their pastor and 
determined to sever their relations with the Jacobs Church. 
Some thought the church should be abandoned, for many of the 
members had died or had moved out of the district, leaving a 
community in which there were few Lutheran families. The 
church at the time had a communicant membership of twenty- 
nine and the members were scattered: they could attend the 
Waynesboro Church as easily as they could attend their own 
church. Others, not willing to abandon the old church entirely, 
thought preaching services should be held there occasionally. 
But there were many, accustomed to worship there for years, who 
were unwilling to abandon it at all. These last prevailed. A few 
families transferred their membership to the Waynesboro Church 
but the majority remained. Later that year the venerable church 
was attached to the Leitersburg charge. 

At present the communicant membership of Jacobs Church 
numbers thirty-eight. Preaching services are held there every 
two weeks in the afternoon. The Sunday school has an enroll- 
ment of eighty. 

ST. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
MARTINSBURCr, W. VA. 

Rev. F. R. Wafjner, D.D., Pastor. 

This is one of the oldest congregations in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia. It was originally composed of German immigrants and 
their descendants from Pennsylvania and Maryland. The nu- 
cleus of the congregation was formed in 177>~>. Until 1832 the 
Lutheran congregation worshipped in the same house with the 
Reformed. But already in 1782 the Lutheran congregation began 
to keep its own record book. The first record in it is the baptism 
of Jacob Krug, December 1, 1872. 



480 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

Xot until 1790 did St. John's have a resident pastor. But the 
gospel was preached and the sacraments were administered to the 
congregation by ministers of the Lutheran Church who visited 
them as often as possible in connection with numerous other con- 
gregations scattered over as many as four or five counties. 

One striking feature of the history of this church is its large 
number of short pastorates, except the last. Another is the un- 
usual number of men who served this church and who afterwards 
became highly prominent in the Lutheran Church at large. 

The first regular pastor of whom we have any certain knowl- 
edge was Rev. Christian Streit, a man of fine education and abil- 
ity, of deep piety and earnest devotion to the work of the min- 
istry. He took charge of the Lutheran Church at Winchester in 
1785 and lived there, but in connection with his other work regu- 
larly ministered at Martinsburg. The field of his operations em- 
braced a circuit of about fifty miles. He ministered here until 
1790. 

The first church building was the common property of the Lu- 
theran and Reformed congregations. It was acquired in 178(i. 
It had been built as a tavern, but equipped as a church it served 
the purposes of the congregations until they separated in 1832. 

After Christian Streit, the next pastor, and the first who re- 
sided at Martinsburg, was Rev. John David Young. He took 
charge of the congregation in 1790 and served it until 1800, and 
again, after an absence of two years at Taneytown, Maryland, 
served it from 1802 until his death in February, 1804. His labors 
were abundantly blessed, and he added to the church during his 
short ministry no less than one hundred forty-three members. 
He it was who drew up the first constitution and form of govern- 
ment for the congregation. It shows great prudence and splen- 
did judgment. It was signed by one hundred and three members. 

During the time that Rev. Young was absent from the charge, 
from 1800 to 1802, the congregation was supplied by Rev. Fred- 
erick William Ja/insky for about one year. He had been an 
army officer under Frederick the Great, and was a man of very 
determined will. He was of spotless character but too severe to 
be very popular. This was shown by his subsequent experience 
as pastor in Frederick. Rev. Melsheimer also supplied a few 
months at this time, but left no records. 

The second resident pastor was the Rev. John P. Ravenach. 
He began his ministry here in 1808. He was faithful, diligent, 
and blameless in life. Hut his usefulness was greatly hindered 
by domestic troubles. On account of these troubles he was com- 
pelled to resign in 1814. He then demitted the ministry. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 481 

hi 1817 Rev. John KaehLer, a very young man who had been 
horn in Frederick and had studied theology under Dr. Schaeifer, 
became pastor of St. John's and continued in that relation until 
1819. 

He was succeeded in 1819 by Rev. Charles Philip Krauth, then 
a young man. This was his first charge and he was eminently- 
successful both as preacher and as pastor. He brought about a 
revival of religion that continued unabated for at least two years. 
During his ministry of eight years one hundred sixteen members 
were added to the church. He was the first pastor who preached 
chiefly in English, and this fact is supposed to account for his 
great success. Dr. Krauth resigned in 1827 and became pastor 
of St. Matthew's in Philadelphia. He afterwards became the 
first president of Gettysburg College and then the second pro- 
fessor in the Gettysburg Seminary. 

Dr. Krauth was succeeded at Martinsburg by the Rev. Jacob 
Medtart in 1827. In 1835 he also resigned to accept a call to St. 
Matthew's in Philadelphia. It was during his ministry at Mar- 
tinsburg that the union with the Reformed was dissolved and the 
Lutherans built their own house of worship. It was dedicated 
June 10, 1832, and cost the congregation bout $4,000. 

Then followed a number of short pastorates. Rev. Reuben 
\Veiser was pastor from 1835 to 1837. He gathered a ccng^^a- 
tion and built a church known as St. Paul's, near Greensburg in 
the same county as Martinsburg, which was ministered to by all 
the succeeding pastors of Martinsburg until the outbreak of the 
Civil War. 

Rev. Charles Martin served the congregation from 1837 to 
1842. Then Rev. Samuel Sprecher, afterwards president of Wit- 
tenberg College, ministered as pastor during most of the year 
1842. He was followed in 1843 by Rev. Joseph A. Seiss, who was 
regarded as "a young man of much promise." He remained 
only two years and then went on his way to great prominence in 
the Church. Rev. John Winter served the congregation from 
1845 to 1847. Then for five months, Rev. Charles Porterfield 
Krauth, son of the former pastor, ministered at Martinsburg. 
He resigned in April, 1847, to take charge at Winchester. 

Rev. B. M. Schmucker was the next pastor. This was his first 
experience in the ministry. He took charge in 1848 and resigned 
in 1852. From Martinsburg he went to Trinity Church in Read- 
ing where he became eminent as preacher and scholar. He was 
succeeded at Martinsburg by Rev. Reuben A. Fink. From this 
time forth Shepherdstown ceased to constitute a part of this 
charge. Mr. Fink became too deeply concerned in politics to 
31 



482 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

please all his people and his resignation came in 1S.~>4. During 
his brief ministry tho ehurch building was enlarged and im- 
proved at a eost of $1,200. 

The next two years were occupied by Rev. William Kopp. lie 
was obliged to resign in 18.~>7 on account of failing health. Rev. 
Kopp and his two predecessors. Revs. Medtart and Krauth,all laid 
away their life companions in the cemetery at Marti nsburg during 
their pastorates there. Rev. Kopp was succeeded by Rev. Edwin 
Dorsey, M.D.. who served the congregation from 1858 to 1800. 

The next pastor was also a doctor of medicine. This was Rev. 
Charles Martin, M.I). lie came to Marti nsburg for his second 
pastorate in the fall of I860. Hut his labors here were terminated 
by the outbreak of the Civil War in the spring of 1861. St. 
John's suffered intensely during the war, not only the property 
but also the congregation. For four years the church was used 
as a hospital, the congregation was without a pastor, and intense 
differences of political views added to the confusion and strife. 
Not until 1806 did another pastor come to the field. 

The first pastor after the Civil War was Rev. J. S. Heilig. 
During his short pastorate of two years the church building was 
completely overhauled a:ut renovated. The government granted 
a lit.le more th)i.tf,000 for damages and the congregation raised 
an s'^dit-i-onal $1, ")()(). It is recorded that Rev. Heilig's ministry 
was not very satisfactory, and lie was succeeded in 1869 by Rev. 
M. L. Culler. 

Dr. Culler was the historian of the church. lie served a very 
successful pastorate of twelve years. Rapid growth of the con- 
jrregation and many improvements to its property marked his 
ministry. In 1881 a parsonage was built. 

In 1S82 Rev. R. C. Holland. D.D., came to Marti nsburg from 
Shepherdstown. He ministered here six years. During his min- 
istry the church was remodeled at an expense of $12.000. He re- 
signed the charge in September, 1888, and removed to Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. 

The last pastor of this church was the Rev. C. S. Trump, D.D. 
He succeeded Dr. Holland in October, 1888. And his has been 
by far the longest pastorate the church has known. For thirty- 
one years he labored in this field. Many are the 'results of his 
work. All indebtedness has been removed. In 18i)8 the parson- 
age was enlarged and improved. In 1001 the church was again 
remodeled and a pipe orjran was installed. These improvements 
cost, over $3,000. Missionary organizations have been formed and 
have flourished. And the membership of the congregation has 
been "increased from 400 to 842." 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 483 

It is our sad duty to chronicle in conclusion the death of Dr. 
Trump on October f>, 1!)19. He was buried at Martinsburg where 
he had labored so long and so faithfully and where he spent the 
major portion of his life in the ministry. Of his approaching 
death Dr. Trump must have had a clear premonition, for he wrote 
in his historical narrative dated December, 1918: "Ere long my 
congregation will be listening to another voice from the pulpit 
and another pastor will visit their homes. ' ' 

TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
SHARPSBURG, MD. 

(SiiARPSBURO CHARGE.) 
Rev. A. A. Kerlin, Pastor. 

This church is one of the oldest in the Synod. It was made 
memorable by the part that it played in the battle of Antietam. 
The church building that stood at the time of the battle was in 
the thick of the fight and the building that has taken the place of 
the old one is a memorial to the Federal soldiers who fought and 
died in that battle. 

On March 16, 1768, a deed for a site for a church and burial- 
ground was executed by Colonel Joseph Chapline to the Lutheran 
vestrymen, who were Dr. Christopher Cruss, Matthias Need, 
Nicholas Sam and William Hawker. 

The vestrymen of the church began at once to erect a building 
of logs and roughcast, 33 by 38 feet in dimensions in the north- 
east corner of the graveyard. This quaint, old-fashioned struc- 
ture, which was a century and a quarter old, was surmounted by 
a to\ver in which hung a bell of English make. The interior of 
the church was ancient looking. The pews were straight -backed 
and high. The pulpit was goblet-formed and half way up the 
wall, arid was reached by a flight of ten or twelve steps. Over 
the pulpit and just above the preacher's head was suspended 
from an iron rod in the ceiling, a canopy, or sounding-board, as 
it was termed, which resembled in form an open umbrella. 

The vestrymen occupied one corner of the church, seated on a 
platform considerably elevated, so that they could be readily dis- 
tinguished from the rest of the congregation. The foresinger, or 
leader of the singing, with his tuning-fork and note-book, was 
seated on a high chair in the center of the church. The singing, 
praying and preaching, from the organization of the congregation 
until the year 1831, was conducted in the German language. 

The early records of the church having been lost or destroyed, 



484 HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 

it is impossible to give a very correct account of the ministers 
who officiated here in the very early times. It seems quite evi- 
dent, however, that this church at the beginning was supplied by 
ministers from Frederick City, Middletown and Itagerstown, as 
Frederick City Lutheran Church was organized in 1737, Middle- 
town in the year 17.")."), and Hagerstown in the year 1770. The 
records of Middletown Lutheran Church show that Rev. Johann 
George Graeber officiated occasionally at Boonsboro, Ringer's 
Church, and Sharpsburg in early times. 

From the records of our oldest inhabitants, we find that Revs. 
Schmucker and Kurt/ preached regularly to this congregation, 
and they were ministers stationed at Hagerstown. The following 
is the list of the ministers stationed at Sharpsburg Lutheran 
Church from the year 1800 to the present time: Revs. Ravenock. 
Baughey, 1). F. Schaeffer, Little, Schnay, John Winter, Peter 
Ri/er. I). Oswald, George Diehl, William Hunt, John N. Unruh, 
G. J. Mart/, J. C. Lunger, I. J. Stine, Christian Start/man, Al- 
fred Buhrman, G. W. Weills, George H. Beckley, 1871-1884, D. 
B. Floyd, 181)2: Ellis II. Jones, 1884-1801 : J. W. Lingle, 1891 
1896, and the present pastor, Rev. A. A. Kerlin, since 1806. 

This quaint old building remained until the year 1864. Dur- 
ing the Battle of Antietam, September 7, 1862, it was shelled con- 
siderably. After the battle it was taken possession of and used 
by the Federal troops for a hospital, and filled with sick and 
wounded, by which use it was so much damaged as to render it 
totally unfit for worship. It was therefore torn down, and the 
ground exchanged for the site on which the present church edifice 
stands. The corner stone for the second church was laid Sep- 
tember 1."), 1866. The building was dedicated May 23, 1869, the 
sermon on that occasion being preached by the Rev. Alfred Buhr- 
man, assisted by Revs. G. H. Beckley, G. W. Anderson, M. W. 
Fair, and Revs. Cronise and Wilson of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

The second church was a poorly constructed building and in a 
few years began to show signs of decay. The walls began to give 
way, and it was deemed unsafe to worship in it. On Sunday, 
December 13. 1891, it was unanimously agreed by the pastor, 
vestry and members to build a new church, to be known as The 
Memorial Lutheran Church, to perpetuate the memory of the 
Federal soldiers, who fought and those who fell at the Battle of 
Antietam, September 17. 1862. 

In the spring of 1892, the second church was torn down and 
preparations were made to erect a third church. The building 
committee were: Rev. J. W. Lingle and Messrs. George Ile.s.x. 



THE CHURCHES OF THK WESTERN COXKERENCE. 485 

.John Bemier, Martin K. Suavely, -Jacob Mc(!ra\v and William 
Earley. On September 17, 3892, the thirtieth anniversary of the 
Battle of Antietam, the corner stone was laid. The church is 
cruciform in design, with gothie windows and corner spire, 95 
feet from base to top and is surmounted by a cross. The lecture 
room was finished and ready for worship December 25, 1893, and 
was used until the completion of the auditorium. The windows 
in the lecture room are memorials of aged departed members of 
the church. 

Dr. Christopher Cruss, whose name appears among the early 
vestrymen was a German chemist and emigrated to this county 
from Germany about the time of the settlement of the town. He 
was associated with James Rumsey in the construction of the 
first steamboat built in the United States. 

Matthias Need, another of the vestry, was a brave soldier in the 
war of the Revolution and participated in a number of battles, 
doing honorable service. He lies buried somewhere in an un- 
marked grave in the old Lutheran graveyard. 



LOCUST GROVE LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
LOCUST GROVE, MD. 

(SHARPSBURG CHARGE.) 
Rev. A. A. Kerlin, Pastor, 

This congregation is a part of the Sharpsburg charge. It has 
had the pastoral oversight of Rev. Mr. Kerlin for nearly a quar- 
ter of a century. 

The building in which the congregation worships was erected 
in 1844. The congregation is one of the most active country con- 
gregations in Washington County. From 1844 to 1878, it was 
served by the following pastors : Revs. William Hunt, John N. 
Unruh, G. J. Martz, J. C. Lunger, I. J. Stine, Christian Startz- 
man, Alfred Buhrman, G. W. Weills and George H. Beckley. 

In 1878, Rev. Beckley built a church at Rohrersville, one mile 
south of Locust Grove. This divided the congregation. Locust 
Grove was supplied by the Revs. Bobst, Nichol and Trump, pas- 
tors from Harper 's Ferry, until 1884 ; then by Rev. Jones, of 
Sharpsburg, until 1891, and then by Rev. Lingle, of Sharpsburg, 
until 1896, when by action of Synod, it again became part of the 
Sharpsburg charge, which relation it sustains at present. Since 
September 1, 1896, the church has been served by Rev. A. A. 
Kerlin. 



48f> 



HISTOKV OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 



TKIXITY LUTIIKKAX niTRC'lI. 

SMrrnsm T K(j, MI). 

(SMITIISBURO CHAROK.) 
Kev. Ferdinand Hesse, Pastor. 

The history of Trinity Lutheran Church of Smithsburg goes 
hack to 1822 or earlier. There was an organization prior to that 
time. The work in the neighborhood of Smithsburg was begun 
by Dr. Kurt/, who was the pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church 
of Hagerstown. He conducted services at Smithsburg in a 

schoolhouse for some time before 
a church was built. 

The first church was begun in 
1822. The corner stone was laid 
Whit-Monday, May 27, 1822. The 
clergymen present on this occa- 
sion were Benjamin Kurtz, Jacob 
Schnee, Jacob Medtart and Peter 
Ricksecker. Rev. Jacob Schnee 
delivered a discourse and Rev. 
Jacob Medtart preached a sermon 
from 1 Cor. 7:31. The church 
was built of stone and the name 
given to the congregation was 
" Dreieinigkeits Kirche, " that is, 
"Trinity Church." The congre- 
gation was incorporated Decem- 
ber 26, 1825. At that time Trin- 
ity Church was part of the 

Smithsburg charge in connection with \Vaynesboro, Pennsyl- 
vania ; Leitersbunr, Maryland ; Mt. Moriah at Foxville, Mary- 
land, and Beard's Church near Smithsburg. \Vaynesboro left the 
charge in the year 1840. The remaining four churches consti- 
tuted the charge until 1880, when Leitersburg and Beard's with- 
drew and constituted a separate charge. Then Trinity, Smiths- 
burg and Mt. Moriah formed a charge. In 1897 St. Paul's at 
Greensburg, Maryland, was made a part of the charge. There 
are now three churches in the charge : Trinity, Mt. Moriah and 
St. Paul's. 

In the year 182") there were one hundred and fifteen members 
and by 1833 the membership had increased to one hundred and 
eighty. During Rev. P. Kline's long period of service as pastor, 




HKV. FKKDIXAND HESSE. 



HISTORY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 



he received into the church one hundred and sixty-six. The total 
membership was two hundred and sixty-eight when he i'el'1 the 
church. Those most active at that period of the church were the 
following: Christopher Flory, John Flory, John Etnoyer, Jacob 
Trille, Peter Mong, John Welty, (Jeorge Sigler, Conrad Flory, 
Adam Shank and David Ludy. 

The pastors in the order of their terms of services are these: 
Rev. Benjamin Kurt/ was instrumental in organi/ing the con- 
gregation and building the first church and served as the pastor 





Mu. 1). \V. HAIJKDOU., 
Snrithshurg, Mil. 



Mu. R. B. BKO\VX, 
Smithshurg. Mil. 



of the congregation until 1828. Rev. Samuel Iloshour, 1828-:>0; 
Rev. John Reck, 18:}()-:52; Rev. John Philip Kline. 18:5:5-40; Rev. 
John J. Remensnyder, 1840-51 ; Rev. Daniel Bittlo, 1851-5.'}; 
Rev. John Probst. 185:5-56: Rev. John Heck. 1850. until his death 
March 11. 1801 : Rev. William Kyster. 1801 -Of), who is still living 
at a very advanced age in Crete. Nebraska; Rev. M. C. Horine, 
1805-69; Rev. Samuel McIIenry. 
son, 1872 until the division of the 
came pastor of the new charge. Trinity, Smithsburg. and Mt. 
Moriah. from 1881 to 1887: Rev. J. B. Keller. 1888-96; Rev. J. 
B. Killian. 1897-1901: Rev. 1). S. Kurt/, 1901-1906: and Rev. 
Ferdinand Hesse. 1907 to the present. 

During the pastorate of Rev. J. J. Remensnyder the stone 
church was torn down and a new brick building erected. The 
corner stone of the new church was laid in the fall of 1851. and 



1870-72; Rev. X. J. Richard- 
harge in 1880. and he then be- 



mi: curuciiKs <>!' TIII: WKSTKKX COM-I:I;I:.\CI:. 489 

Ihe church was completed and dedicated November 21, 1852. Dr. 
Benjamin Kurt/, who organized the church thirty years before 
officiated, assisted by Rev. C. C. Culler, of Hagerstown, Mary- 
land. 

In 1870 the church was repaired, repainted, refurnished and 
otherwise improved under the pastoral oversight of Rev. S. Mc- 
Ilenry. 

The church was again repaired and refurnished under the pas- 
toral care of Rev. X. J. Richardson and reopened October 24. 
1880. 

The church was again remodeled during Rev J. B. Keller's ad- 
ministration as pastor. The tower spire was erected, pulpit re- 
cess added, stained glass windows, panel ceiling, change of gal- 
lery and pews, pulpit furniture and other improvements made. 
The church was rededicated by the pastor May 10, 1891. 

Trinity has sent some very useful men into the ministry. 
Three brothers, Martin, Joseph and William Baechtell, went to 
Gettysburg and entered the seminary about the year 1842 ; Davicl 
Jacob Eyler, 1850 ; Arthur Franklin Richardson, 1887 ; Rev. 
Lewis Bikle, D.D., 1858; Rev. Philip Bikle, D.D., 18G9 ; Rev. 
Gideon Brown, 1889; Rev. Charles Krauth Bell, D.D., 1898. 
Some of these men have completed their labors and have en- 
tered into their rest, while others are still faithfully tilling im- 
portant positions in the Master's work. 

The charge has had a parsonage since 1829. The present 
building was purchased in 1863. In 1910 the parsonage was im- 
proved by installing a hot water system and adding a bath room 
at a cost of $625. In 1915 a new porch was added to the building 
and the house wired for electric lights. With these modern con- 
veniences the parsonage has been made a comfortable home. 

The congregation built a Sunday school chapel in 1909. The 
building is of brick and is Gothic in design. It is heated by 
steam, is electric lighted and all of its appointments are modern 
and appropriate. There are three rooms, one for the main school, 
another for the primary department and the third appropriately 
furnished for general purposes, and is used by the Bible class 
and special meetings. The chapel was dedicated free of debt. 

A Miiller pipe organ was installed in the church in 1913 at a 
cost of .$1,700. 

A history of the charge was published by the pastor, Rev. 
Ferdinand Hesse, in 1912, and this will give more general in- 
formation to anyone desiring to learn more of the Sniithsburg 
charge. 



4!)0 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN ri 
(JHKKXSIU'Kd, MI). 

(S.MiTiiswiK; CHAROK.) 
Ifer. Ferdinand 11 fuse, 



A Lutheran Sunday school was organized in the public school- 
house of Greensburg, Maryland, near Edgemont, Maryland, ]88<i 
by Joseph Sleasman, \V. I). Barkdoll and "W. 0. Donaldson. The 
school was carried on successfully for four years in the school- 
house. About one hundred scholars were enrolled. Mr. Sleas- 
man was elected superintendent and served until his death, Jan- 









MR. CHRISTIAN P. LKATIIKI:, 



MR. WILLIAM BARKDOLT/, 
GrciMisl)urg, Md. 



nary 10, 1917. Mr. 1). M. Kidenour was elected to succeed him. 
Since the school was organized in 1886 only two superintendents 
have served the school. 

On December 29, 1889, steps were taken to organize a congre- 
gation and this resulted in a new church organization for the 
community. On February 9, 1890, a building committee of five 
was appointed to arrange for a new church. A lot was donated 
by ('. P. Leather and the ground consecrated by Rev. !. B. Keller 
of the Smithsburg charge. 

The corner stone was laid April 2, 1890. The congregation was 
organized with thirty-two charter members and with twenty-nine 
dismissed from Trinity. Smithsburg, making sixty-one in all. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN* COXKEREXCE. 



491 



Tlie church \v;is completed and dedicated October 1, 1890. Key. 
Victor Miller officiating. 

At first the congregation was supplied by students from the 
Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. The Rev. E. E. Ide was 
elected the first pastor and a call was extended to him May, 1891. 
which he accepted June 22, 1891. 

Rev. E. E. Ide served St. Paul's congregation in connection 
with the Lutheran churches of Rouserville and Quincy, Penn- 




ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, GREEXSBURG, MD. 

sylvania. The latter two belonged to the West Pennsylvania 
Synod and St. Paul's Church being in Maryland, this congrega- 
tion applied to the Maryland Synod for recognition and was re- 
ceived October 1, 1892. Therefore the annual report was made 
independent of the other two churches to the Maryland Synod. 
Rev. Ide served this church as regular pastor about two years. 
He resigned in December, 1892, to take effect January 1, 1893. 



4!>2 tllSTOKY OK MARYLAND SYNOD. 

lii the fall of 189:1 Rev. John Adams was elected pastor and re- 
inaiiH'd tiiiiil Ins death, which occurred December IS. 189(5. 

St. Paul's Kvangelical Lutheran Church was admitted into the 
Smithsburg charge .March (>. 1897. thereby being separated from 
the churches of the West Pennsylvania Synod. The pastors that 
succeeded Rev. John Adams are the same as those of Trinity of 
Smithsbnrg, Maryland, and Mt. Moriah, Fox\ille, Maryland, 
which appear in their order und"r those histories, beginning with 
Rev. J. M. Killian who was elected July 4. 1897. 

Mr. Thomas A. Brown who lived to be nearly ninety-three 
years old and who was one of the charter members of this congre- 
gation remembered the church with an annual gift of .$^5 to con- 
tinue for fifty years after his death. This money to be used for 
the most necessary purposes of the St. Paul's congregation. Mr. 
William Shull has also remembered the congregation with a gii't 
that will be a permanent legacy. 

One young man has entered the ministry from this congrega- 
tion, the Rev. Samuel Miller, of Oreenslmrg, Maryland. He is 
preaching at present at West Arlington, Baltimore, Maryland. 

This congregation has measured up to the amount of benevolent 
work that the Synod has asked for the last twelve years. She has 
had a splendid growth until there are at present one hundred and 
seventeen members and a splendid Sunday school. 

MT. MORTAH LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
FOXVILLE, MI). 

(SMITHSBURG CHARGE.) 
Re v. Ferdinand 7/r.s.sv, fast or. 

The Mt. Moriah Lutheran Church was organixed in 1829 by 
Rev. Samuel Iloshour. pastor of the Smithsburg charge. Tn the 
undertaking of the building of the church a general subscription 
was taken and three hundred and fifty-seven names appear on the 
subscription list. The contributions amounted to $751.98. The 
church was built on land donated by Mr. George I*. Fox. The lo- 
cation is a commanding one and can be easily reached from any 
part of the community. 

The first record of members is that by Rev. John Reck. It is a 
communion list. Beginning with his pastoral oversight the first 
church council was.elected; therefore it is more than likely that 
he had much to do with the completion of the organization. 

In 1887 an additional piece of ground was bought from Mr. 
William Brown for twentv-five dollars. The church was rebuilt 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN' CONFERENCE. 



493 



in 1887. The new church was built of stone. Rev. X. J. Richard- 
son was pastor at the time of the building. The cost of the build- 
ing was about $1.800. The church was dedicated on May 26, 
1878. This church was burned and entirely destroyed on Easter 
afternoon. March 31, 1918. Plans have been laid for a new 
church which will be the third 
church in this their history of a 
little less than a hundred years. 

Ever since this church has been 
organized it has formed a part of 
the Smithsburg charge ; therefore 
the pastors are the same for Ml. 
Moriah as those of T r i n i t y. 
Smithsburg: Rev. Samuel Hos- 
hour. 1829-30; Rev. John Reck, 
1830-32; Rev. John Philip Kline, 
1833-46; Rev. John J. Remensuy- 
cler, 1846-51; Rev. Daniel Bittle, 
1851-53; Rev. John Probst. 1853- 
56; Rev. John Reck. 1856 until 
his death March 11. 1861; Rev. 
William Eyster, 1861-65. who is 
still living at a very advanced age 
in Crete. Nebraska; Rev. M. C. 
ITorine, 1865-69; Rev. Samuel 




Mu. THOMAS 0. Fox, 
Foxville, I'a. 



McIIenry. 1870-72; Rev. X. J. Richardson. 1872 until the division 
of the charge in 1880. and he then became pastor of the new charge. 
Trinity, Smithsburg. and Mt. Moriah, from 1881 to 1887 ; Rev. J. 
B. Keller, 1888-96; Rev. J. B. Killian, 1897-1901; Rev. I). S. 
Kurtz, 1901-1906; and Rev. Ferdinand Hesse. 1907 to the present. 

WAYXESBORO LUTHERAN CHURCH, 
WAYXESBORO, PA. 

Rev. J. M. Francis, D.D., Pastor. 

About the year 1791 Frieden's (now Jacob's) Church was or- 
ganized. This church building was located four miles south of 
the present site of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. The original 
charge consisted of Greencastle. Grindstone Hill. Jacobs and 
Smithsburg churches, and the Rev. John Ruthrauff became pas- 
tor of this charge in the year 1795. The exact date of the organi- 
zation of the Lutheran Church of Waynesboro is not known. The 
probability is that Rev. Ruthrauff preached here as early as 1800. 
in the log schoolhouse near the toll gate that stood at the east end 



4!4 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 







of the town. The Lutherans. Presbyterians and German Re- 
formed congregations uiulertook in 1807 thr erection of a Union 
Church upon ground donated by John Wallace the founder of 
Wayneshoro. This church was built of brick and not completed 
until the summer of 1818. It was at the completion and dedica- 
tion of this building that the first records of baptism and com- 
municants were made by Rev. Ruthrauff, and the probability is 
that the organization was effected about this time. According to 
these records sixty-six persons received the communion. Rev. 

Ruthrauff was an able and vigor- 
ous preacher, his parish extending 
from mountain to mountain. His 
ministry at Wayneshoro con- 
tinued until 1828, laying strong 
and broad the foundations of our 
Church. 

In 1828 the Waynesboro Lu- 
theran Church was detached from 
the Greencastle charge, and a new 
pastorate was formed, consisting 
of Waynesboro, Smithsburg and 
probably Beard's and Leitersburg 
Churches. The pastor, Rev. Sam- 
uel K. Iloshour, resided at 
Smithsburg. and the charge was 
connected w i t h t h e Maryland 
Synod. This pastoral arrange- 
ment, continued thirteen or four- 
teen years, until 1841 . Rev. 

Iloshour introduced the English language in the services of the 
church. In 1830 the first church building was taken down and a 
second one erected on the same ground. The Lutherans and Pres- 
byterians used it on alternate Sundays. This building is still 
standing on Church Street, and is now owned and occupied by 
the Church of the Brethren, formerly known as the German Bap- 
tists. Tn 1831 Rev. Iloshour resigned. lie was succeeded by 
Rev. John Reck, whose ministry continued until 1834, and in the 
same year he was succeeded by Rev. John I*. Cline. Tn the spring 
of 1839 a vigorous Sunday school was organi/ed in the Union 
Church, the first successful and permanent Sunday school in 
Waynesboro. Rev. Cline served as pastor for about six years. 

In 1841 a new pastorate was formed, consisting of Waynesboro, 
Jacobs, Quincy. and (for a time) Funkstown Churches. Rev. 
Frederick W. Conrad became the first pastor of the newly con- 




Mi:. DAMKI, HOOVKI:. 



THE t'HURCHKS OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 



495 



stituted charge in June, 1841, and was the first Lutheran pastor 
to reside in Waynesboro. lie resigned in 1844. 

In 1845 Rev. John Reck became pastor, and continued as such 
for eleven years. From April, 1857, to the close of 1862, Rev. 
John F. Campbell served as pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Edwin Dorsey in 1863. After a few months incumbency he died, 
and was succeeded in the spring of 1864 by Rev. Alfred Buhr- 
man. Tic served the charge for seven years, resigning in the 




THE LUTHERAN* CHURCH OF WAYNESBORO, PA. 

spring of 1871. During his ministry, in 1869, the union that had 
existed between the Presbyterian and Lutheran congregations 
was severed and the first Lutheran church was erected on the site 
of present church building at a cost of $11.000 and the Lutherans 
of Waynesboro for the first time worshiped in their o\vn church. 
In 1871 Rev. C. L. Keedy became pastor serving until 1875, and 
resigning to take charge of Kee Mar College. Rev. Peter Berg- 
strcsser became pastor in 1876 and remained until 1887. Tn 1885 
the church was remodeled at a cost of about $9,000. In 1886 the 
Young Women's Missionary Society was organized. 

On the first of January, 1888, Rev. Herman S. Cook became 
pastor of the church, and continued until October 31, 1899. Sev- 
eral extensive revivals added large numbers to the church, the in- 
debtedness on church and parsonage was liquidated, the Woman's 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 497 

Home and Foreign Missionary Society and the Christian En- 
deavor Society organized. In 1898 the individual communion 
cups were used for the first time. 

Rev. C. H. Rockey became pastor February 1. 1900. During 
his pastorate the present Lutheran church was erected at a cost 
of .$52,000, and the parsonage was built in 1906. Rev. Rockey 
resigned June 18. 1911. He was succeeded by Rev. A. A. Kelly, 
December 15, 1911. During his ministry of four years and three 
months the church was entirely freed from debt. He resigned 
March 23, 1916. 

July 9, 1916, the bond that had existed for more than one hun- 
dred years between the Waynesboro Church and Jacobs Church 
was severed. 

On September 1. 1916. the Rev. J. M. Francis, D.D., became 
the fifteenth pastor of this church. Under his ministry the church 
continues to prosper and has now a membership of over thirteen 
hundred souls, and a church property valued at $90,000. 

At least three sons of this congregation have entered the min- 
istry: Rev. Julius F. Seebach, now of Hollidaysburg, Pennsyl- 
vania ; Rev. C. A. Eyler. now of Collingswood, New Jersey, and 
Rev. Dixon Geiser. Mr. Clarence A. Neal is now in the Seminary 
preparing for the ministry. 

Accompanying this sketch is a picture of Mr. Daniel Hoover. 
He is worthy of special mention. He was a resident of Waynes- 
boro from 1865 until his death on November 17, 1904. He was 
the father of eight children, four of whom died in infancy. The 
surviving children are Ira N.. Dr. Percy D., Roy J. D., and Mrs. 
J. E. Byers, wife of Rev. J. E. Byers, pastor of Grace Lutheran 
Church in Baltimore. All the children Avere baptized in infancy 
by Lutheran ministers and of the four living, Ira N. and Dr. 
Percy D. are members of the Church Council. Roy J. D. is a 
consistent and active member of the church at Waynesboro and 
Mrs. Byers is a member of Grace Lutheran Church in Baltimore. 
Daniel Hoover was a loyal member of the Lutheran Church at 
Waynesboro for forty-nine years. He was active in church work 
until his death. He filled practically every official position in 
connection with the church, and was on the building committee 
during the construction of the present church edifice. He was 
deeply interested in the welfare of the church and community 
and will be long remembered on account of his consistent life and 
good works. 



32 



4!)S 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



ZIOX LUTHERAN 



WILLIAMSPORT, 



MI). 



This organization luid its begii tiling about the year 1701. Its 
early history js closely associated with St. .John's Lutheran 
Church of Hagerstown. The pastors of that congregation were 
the pastors at AVilliamsport until 1827. The exact date of the or- 
ganization of this congregation is not given; hut a plan of incor- 
poration. was adopted by the congregation, January 9. 1S07. 

There must have been, therefore, 
prior to the adoption of this plan 
of incorporation, a congregation 
and a church building at this 
place; very probably the first 
church building, which was a 
small log structure, was erected in 
the last years of the eighteenth 
century. 

The first pastor was the Rev. 
John George Schmucker. He was 
pastor at the time of the adoption 
of the plan of incorporation. The 
Rev. Mr. Schmucker was suc- 
ceeded in the pastoral office by the 
Rev. Solomon Schaeffer in June, 
1814. After serving as pastor for 
two years, the Rev. Mr. Schaeffer 
was succeeded by the Rev. Benja- 
min Kurtz, who continued as pastor until 1820. The Rev. Fred- 
erick Ruthrauff then became pastor. He continued in the pas- 
torate until 1827. At this time the congregation was separated 
from the Hagerstown charge, and was united with the congrega- 
tion at Clearspring and St. Paul's, forming a new charge. 

The first pastor in the new charge was the Rev. John Winter. 
who began his work in February. 1828. During the pastorate of 
the Rev. Mr. "Winter, the old log church was taken down and a 
neat substantial brick church was erected. This building was 
placed upon the foundation of the old church. The corner stone 
was laid in June. 1829. The sermon on the occasion was preached 
in the woods adjoining the town. Eleven weeks after the corner 
stone was laid the new church was dedicated. The sermon on the 
occasion was preached by the Rev. S. K. Hoshour. The Rev. Mr. 




RKV. J. S. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 499 

Winter continued as pastor for six years. After a vacancy of 
seven months the Rev. Simeon W. Harkey was called as pastor. 
He remained but one year. Then the Rev. Daniel Miller came 
into the charge. Mr. Miller remained but one year, resigning in 
August, 1837. 

During these two brief pastorates this congregation was sepa- 
rated from St. Paul and Clearspring, and was unable to give 
adequate support to the pastor. After a vacancy of one year and 
four months, the Rev. Christian Startsman was elected pastor in 
1839. He remained eleven years and under his ministration the 
congregation increased in membership and had the largest pros- 
perity so far in its history. He was an earnest and devout 
preacher of the Gospel, and an ardent friend of revivals. Large 
7iumbers united with the church under his ministry, many of 
whom remained faithful through a long life. 

The next pastor was the Rev. Henry Bishop. He took charge 
in 1850 and continued in charge until 1855. He did not pursue 
the revival methods of the former pastor, and on this account 
some of those who had united with the church under the revival 
influence withdrew. In January, 1855, the charge was again sup- 
plied with a pastor in the person of the Rev. William F. Greaver, 
a man of devout piety and earnest zeal. Under his brief ministry 
the church prospered. The congregation esteemed him highly for 
his work's sake. After a ministry of one year and nine months 
he died, and was buried in the cemetery at Williamsport. 

The successor df Rev. Mr. Greaver was the Rev. Joseph Bar- 
clay, a young man coming directly from the Theological Semi- 
nary. During his ministry the church building was enlarged and 
tastefully frescoed. He resigned the charge in August, 1859. On 
October 20, 1859, the Rev. Christian Lepley became pastor. He 
continued in the pastorate for five years. The Rev. Mr. Lepley 
made an earnest effort during the first years of his ministry here 
to pay the indebtedness of the congregation, but the Civil War 
coming on. differences of opinion arose, causing bitterness of feel- 
ing and alienations, in the church as well as in the social life, and 
he did not succeed in his efforts. His ministry during the years 
of the war was very unpleasant and unsuccessful. The church 
building was used for some time as a hospital for the sick and 
wounded soldiers. Other churches of the town were used for the 
same purpose. These other churches received liberal compensa- 
tions from the Government for damage but the Lutheran Church 
has received nothing. The reason given for this was that there 
were those belonging to the church who were disloyal to the Gov- 
ernment. 



500 



HISTORY OF MARYLAND SYNOD. 



After a vacancy of more than a year, the Rev. S. Jesse Berlin 
was elected pastor, November 1, 186o. He found the congregation 
very much scattered and distracted. He labored to unite the 
membership again, to liquidate the church debt, to have repairs 
made to the church property, and to awaken a larger spirit of 
benevolence in the congregation. He was successful in paying 
the debt, a portion of which had been resting upon the congrega- 
tion since the church was built in 1829; and in his efforts in other 

directions for the welfare of the 

church he was in a large measure 
successful. The Rev. Mr. Berlin 
resigned the charge in December, 
1866. 

The Rev. M. L. Culler was the 
next pastor. He received a unan- 
imous call, March 1, 1867. He 
was an earnest a n d devout 
preacher of the Gospel and a zeal- 
ous pastor. He added sixty-four 
to the membership of the church 
in the two years and nine months 
of his pastorate. The church 
property was repaired, the benev- 
olent offerings were much in- 
creased, and the spirit of church 
love was more largely manifested. 
In 1870 St. Paul's congregation 
withdrew from the Williamsport 
charge, leaving this congregation to form a charge by itself. 
The Rev. W. 1). Stroble, D.D., became pastor in April, 1871. 
Prior to his coming the parsonage had been repaired and enlarged 
at a cost of sjvSOO. Dr. Stroble was successful in his ministry here. 
After a pastorate of three years he resigned. For a short time 
the congregation was supplied temporarily by the Rev. Dr. Mc- 
Cron. of the Hagerstown Female Seminary. 

In April. 1S74. the Rev. J. B. Keller became pastor. His was 
the longest pastorale up to that time in the history of the congre- 
gation. It continued from 1874 to 1886, a period of twelve years. 
During this period the membership was largely increased and a 
"Dime Society" was organized and kept in successful operation. 
All indebtedness of the congregation was paid off; the offerings 
for benevolence and current church work were largely increased. 
The communicant membership at the time of Rev. Mr. Keller's 
resignation numbered one hundred and fifty-six. 




Mu. JOHN D. BYKKS, 
Williamsport, Md. 



THE CHURCHES OF THE WESTERN CONFERENCE. 501 

The Rev. Charles M. An rand was the next pastor. He took 
charge May 1. 1886, resigning December 81. 1889. At the be- 
ginning of his pastorate he introduced the full service of the Lu- 
theran Church without opposition. During the summer of 1887 
the church building was extensively repaired and a Sunday school 
room was provided at a cost of more than three thousand dollars. 
The bell was presented by Mr. Ripple. At the meeting of the 
Maryland Synod, which convened in this church in October, 1887, 
the rededication of the church took place. The sermon was 
preached by the Rev. J. G. Morris. D.D. A Woman's Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society was organized. The society con- 
tinues at this day to do most efficient work for missions. 

After a vacancy of nine months the Rev. M. D. Gaver was called 
as pastor. He took charge September 3, 1890. The ground east 
of the church was purchased in the autumn of 1896 for three hun- 
dred dollars. A Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor 
was organized during the summer of 1894. The church building 
was again repaired in 1897. In the summer of 1901 a new par- 
sonage was built. The building cost about $2,800. 

The Rev. D. Upton Bair, Ph.D.. became pastor June 1, 1910, 
and served through a very successful pastorate to July 1, 1919. 
During the first year of his pastorate a new pipe organ was pre- 
sented to the church in memory of his sainted wife by W. D. 
Byron. In 1911 a new church was begun. The dedication took 
place August 18, 1912. The church was dedicated free of debt 
and without solicitation for funds on dedication day. 

The church is a handsome structure of Gothic style, built of 
light brick, with gray-stone trimmings, is 115 feet in length, in- 
cluding an auditorium fifty by fifty feet with seating capacity of 
three hundred fifty. The main Sunday school room is on the 
same floor in the rear and is divided into class rooms. It com- 
municates with the auditorium by means of a large lifting door 
and the combined seating capacity for special occasions is over 
six hundred. The Primary department occupies a room over the 
Sunday school room and is light and airy. Beneath the Sunday 
school ro