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Full text of "History of Fayette County, Indiana : her people, industries and institutions"

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ALLEN COUNT-i PUBLIC LIBRARY 

11 II I I II I I II I i ill GENEALOGY 

lili'1l|;l'll''ll:l'j|i!illiillllli 977.201 

3 1833 02322 2976 F29H 



HISTORY 



OF 



FAYETTE COUNTY 

INDIANA 

HER PEOPLE, INDUSTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS 



FREDERIC IRVING BARROWS 

Editor-in-Chief 



With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and 
Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families 



ILLUSTRATED 



1917 

B. F. BOWEN & COMPANY, Inc. 
Indianapolis, Indiana 



1139177 



DEDICATION. 
This work i> respect fulK' dedicated to 



} long since departed. May the memory of those who laitl down tiieir burdens 

> by the wa\ side ever be fragrant as tiie breatli <if summer 

flowers, for their toils and sacrifices have made 



Fayette County a garden 
shine and delights 



FOREWORD 



Titles are usually iiidicati\e of la1)or and responsibilit}', but imt always. 
The editor-in-chief of this book respectfully disclaims any just ri,L;ht l<> the 
responsibilities and labors naturally implied by his title. 

There was a time when, with full appreciation of the interest and charm 
to he found in the histiiry oi Fayette county, he accepted a commissiDii to 
write a ^tor_\- of its founding" and progress, to comprise approximately (Hie 
hundred and fifty tliousanil words. The pressure tif business with the pub- 
lisher led to some two and one-half years of delay before it was absolutely 
positive that the work in full would be needed. In the meantime the mills 
had turnetl so fast, and responsibilities had gathered so rapidly, that the 
undertaking just mentioned was manifestly impossible. A conference took 
l)lace with the publishers and it was agreed that the association of the work 
with the name announced as editor-in-chief had gone so far that it wnuld be 
lietter for the work not to change this association. Consequently, the pub- 
lisher proposed, and it was agreed, that a historian of high ability should 
perform the work and that the duties of etlit(.»r-in-chief should be reduced to 
mere consultation and to the reading of so much proof only as was de\T)ted to 
the general discussion of the county and its institutions, and not including 
any examination or labor in connection with the biographical department of 
the work. 

The specious ]jhilosophy of Alexander Pope declares "whatever is, is 
right," and so it sometimes proves. Had the writer of this preface really 
carried out his original plan and written a history of the county which has 
for so many years been his home, it woukl have been a far different work 
from the careful and detailed labor of Dr. Ernest V. Shockley. 'Idie county 
history is valuable, as it gives detailed and specific facts and definite positive 
items from which the reader shall construct his own picture of days gone by. 
Such a w'jrk Doctor Shockley, by reason rif his learning and his association 
with the liistorical faculty of Indiana University, was amply qualified to ])ro- 
duce. 

The immense labor of searching little items of detail from the records 
of the state offices at Indianapolis, from the county records of Franklin 



county and of Fayette county, from papers and manuscripts, deeds, wills and 
mortgages, now well nigh effaced by the obliterating finger of time, were a 
joy to Doctor Shockley and his assistants, but would have been beyond the 
possibilities of a man absorbed in other things. 

Some day, using Doctor Shockley's data, someone will draw sketches 
of the typical scenes of our county. He will picture the period of the dogged 
retreat of the Indian ; of the rugged pioneer on the edge of civilization ; of the 
stately days just before the war, and of the grim determination of Fayette 
county that the Union should be preserved. Some one will picture the story 
of the old canal, when Market street and the site of the Big Four freight 
depot and yards was a great pond, in which canal boats stood at their moor- 
ings, discharging the cargoes to be distributed throughout all eastern Indiana. 

Someone who sees the historic old buildings at the comer of Fifth and 
Third streets and Central avenue, and who beholds the wide doors from 
second- and third-story windows, will learn that these were the headquarters 
of merchant princes handling a quarter of a million dollars a year in mer- 
chandise — a sum quite equivalent to twenty times that amount under our 
present conditions. 

Someone will some day picture the great herds of cattle, swine and 
turkeys being driven in from the north and west through Connersville, often 
miring by the hundred in the ford which was back of where Roots Foundry 
now stands, in a long pilgrimage to the Cincinnati market. Someone will 
picture the rattling stage coaches drawing up behind the stately elms which 
beautified the grounds of the United States Hotel, standing where the Roots 
building on Central avenue now stands ; he may even step within that hostelry 
and see in conversation the conspicuous figiu'cs of that day — Senator Smith and 
the Hon. Sam. Parker, Caleb B. Smith, and not improbably Judge Oliver P. 
Morton, from the neighboring village of Centerville. 

There is also another picture of the days long gone by of which very 
little actual historic record remains, but legend has it that the great French- 
man, the Marquis de Lafayette, thought it worth his while to visit the home 
of John Conner on his way to the New Harmony settlement — and when one 
reads the striking accounts given by the circuit riders as to the amount of 
silver plate displayed in the home of the one-time Indian trader, Conner, one 
can scarcely doubt that the reception of the great Frenchman was such as 
he little expected in the remote country village of Connersville. 

In the hustle of today's industrial activity, when the keyword is, doing 
the most in the best and quickest way, the stateliness of another day has 
jjassed away. Connersville and Fayette county are fair standards of 
industrial, commercial auf! agricultural efficiency, but those of us who are in 



tlie thick of the commercial fray of today still love occasionally to think of 
such reminders of -another period as we can recall. 

\Miile I am proud of the productix ity of our farms and tlie efficiency 
of our factories, I still love once in a while to recall the one stately figure I 
chanced to see in my boyhood — tiie ?Ionorable Benjamin I*". Clavpool. a .gen- 
tleman of the old school, a dignified, learned, aristocratic old man, daily 
marching between his law office and his Central avenue mansion, a heavy, 
silver-haired figure, with the brow and dignity nf a Roman senator, though 
withal clothed in the more modern garb. 

Had I written this history, it no doubt would ha\e l)een \ery interesting 
to me. for it would put in words my admiration for the great men w ho have 
builded this community. It could not possibly have contained the fund of 
exact information which Doctor Shockley has secured, and which, in a way, 
is a monument to the great pioneers like John Conner, the great journalists 
and radical agitators like Matthew Robinson Hull, the great lawyers like 
Judge Jeremiah M. Wilson, James C. Mcintosh and Reuljen Conner, great 
manufacturers like William Newkirk, John B. McFarlan and Edward W. 
Ansted, and the great men in every other line of activity who have been in 
our midst. 

I sincerely congratulate the authors of this work upon their success, and 
entirely disclaim any credit for having obtained or checked anv of the informa- 
tion herein. 

I wish to bear witness also to the patient persistence of the late Mr. C. 
M. Cyrus, w-ithout whose efforts to lay the foundation, the publishers would 
not have been able to bring out so large and creditable a work. I trust that 
in some other decade some one may take up Doctor Shockley's work where 
it has been left off and. supplementing it and bringing it down to date, add 
to this valuable contribution to the local history of our great state. 

FREDERIC IRVIXG BARROWS. 
Connersville, May, 191 7. 



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE 



All life and achievement is evolution: present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosi^erity has come only from past exer- 
tion and sacrifice. The deeds and motives of the men who have gone before 
ha\e been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation, ronijiarc the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of I'ayette county. Indiana, with what the\- were 
a century ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin land, the county has 
come to be a center of prosperity and cixilization, with millions of wealth, 
systeius of railways, educational and religious institutions, varied industries 
and immense agricultural and dair\' interests. Can any thinking person be 
insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the aspirations and 
efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the foundation upon which 
has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? To perpetuate the 
story of these ]ieople and to trace and record the social, religious, educational. 
I'olitical and industrial progress of the community fr(jni its first inception, is 
the function of the local historian. .\ sincere purpose to preserve facts and 
personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the 
present to the past, is the motive for the present publication. The publishers 
desire to extend their thanks to those who have so faithfully labored to this 
end. Thanks are also due to the citizens of Fayette county, for the unifonu 
kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking, and for their many 
services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. 

In placing the "FTistory of Fayette County, Indiana," before the citizens, 
the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the plan 
as outlined in the prospectus, livery biographical sketch in the work has 
been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any 
error of fact, if there be any, is solel\' due to the person for whom the sketch 
was prepared. Confident that our effort to please will fully meet the appro- 
bation of the public, we are. 

Respectfully, 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I— A SHORT HISTORY OF IXUI.WA : 33 

First White Men in Xorthwest Territory — Disputed Claims to tlic Terri- 
tory — Battle of Fallen Timbers — Territory Xorthwest of the Ohio. 1670- 
175-1 — French and Indian War, 1754-63 — Pontiac's Conspiracy — Xorthwest 
Territory and Quebec Act — Revolutionary Period — Capture of Vincennes — 
Vincennes, the Oldest Settlement of Indiana — First Survej'S and Early 
Settlers — Ordinance of 1787 — First Stage of Government Under the Ordi- 
nance — Second Stage of Government Under the Ordinance — Indian Strug- 
gles, 1787-1803 — Organization of the Northwest Territory — Representative 
Stage of Government — First Counties — First Territorial Legislature of 
Xorthwest Territory — Division of 1800 — Census of Xorthwest Territory in 
1800 — First Stage of Territorial Government — Changes in Boundary Lines 
of Indiana — Second Stage of Territorial Government — Congressional Dele- 
gates of Indiana Territory — Eflforts to Establish Slavery in Indiana — The 
Indian Lands — Organization of Counties — Changes in the Constitution of 
Indiana — Capitals of Xorthwest Territory and of Indiana — Military History 
— Political History — Governors of Indiana — A Century of Grow-th— Xatural 
Resources — Educational System — Public Institutions. 

CHAPTER II— GEOLOGY 69 

Area of Fayette County — White Water River and Other Streams — Drift 
Formations — Soils and Their Areas. 

CHAPTER III— HEIXEMANN'S RESEARCHES 76 

Difficulty in Tracing History of County Prior to Its Organization — John 
Conner, the First White Settler in Connersville— The Twelve Mile Pur- 
chase — An Inviting Field to the Whites — Financial Side of the Transaction 
— William Henry Harrison — Hack-ing-poms-kon and the Prophet — Kik- 
tha-we-nund, or Anderson — Petch-e-ke-ka-pon, Little Turtle and the Beaver 
— Our Original Pioneer — Proceedings of the Treaty — Verbatim Copy of the 
Journal — Mr. Heinemann's Third Monograph — The Indian Trail Down the 
White Water Valley — Indians Loth to Leave — Last Representative of the 
Aborigines — A Story of Old Ben Davis — Proper Xames of the Aboriginals 
— Topography of the White Water Country — John Conner Clings to the 
Frontier — Xew Sites Higher Up — First Attempt to Make Wagon Road — 
Cincinnati as a Supply Station — Ancient Landmarks Persist — Presence of 
French Traders — Probable Route of the Trail — War Clouds Begin to Lower 
— Where was Conner's Post — Early Location of Conner's Saw-mill — Cradle 
of Connersville's Industries — Conner's First Frame House — Probable Site 
of Conner!s Post — Crisis in Indian .Affairs — Several Definite Traditions — 
Minor Changes from Original Trail— Origin of Elephant Hill's Xamc — Site 
of Old Indian Camp — Location of the Old Block-house — Whole I'rontier in 
a Tremor — Connersville a Military Station — Business Grouped .\bout the 
Trail — 'Only a Memory of a Long Past. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV— JOHN CONNER 143 

Obscurity Surrounding His Career — His Indian Wife — His Second Mar- 
riage — Sketch of Conner by O. H. Smith — Sketch by Mrs. Sarah Conner 
Christian — Further Light on the Pioneer — Diary of David Zeisberger — 
Sketch of Conner by Baynard R. Hall— An Interesting Old Letter. 

CHAPTER V— COUNTY ORGANIZATION 155 

First Mention of Fayette County by Name — Motives Back of the Organiza- 
tion of the County — First Limits of the County — County Government and 
Early Proceedings — Tavern Rates — Early Finances of the County — Dona- 
tion Fund — Tax Assessment for 1831 and 1861 — County Receipts and Dis- 
bursements in .1916 — First Things in the County Records — First Court 
House — Present Court House — Jails — Benevolent Institutions — Centennial 
Memorial Hospital — Fayette Sanitarium Association — Population Statistics 
— Naturalization of Foreigners. 

CHAPTER VI— OFFICIAL ROSTER OF FAYETTE COUNTY 186 

Difficulty in Determining Accuracy of List of Officers — The List, by Years 
up to 1852 — Clerks of Circuit Court — Treasurers — Recorders — Surveyors — 
Auditors — Assessors — Sheriffs — Coroners — County Commissioners — Fayette 
County in the General Assembly — Congressmen from Fayette County. 

CHAPTER VII— TOWNSHIPS OF FAYETTE COUNTY 214 

Columbia Township — Boundaries — Land Entries — An Old Residence — Mills 
and Distilleries — Early Schools — Villages of Columbia, Nulltown, Alpine 
and Berlin — Connersville Township — Boundaries — Land Entries — John Con- 
ner and Other Early Settlers — Early Schools — Industries — Longvv'ood and 
East Connersville — Fairview Township — Boundaries — Land Entries — Early 
Settlers — First School House — Villages of Fairview and Falmouth — Harrison 
Township — Boundaries — Land Entries — Early Settlers and Industries — 
Early Schools — Villages of Harrisburg and Hawkins — Redville, Redtown 
or Stumptown — Jackson Township — Land Entries — Settlement — Early In- 
dustries and Schools — Villages of Everton and Bcntle.v — Jennings Town- 
ship — Boundaries — Land Entries — Settlement — Early Schools and Industries 
— Villages of Alquina and Lyonsville — Orange Township — Boundaries — Land 
Entries — Settlement — Early Schools and Industries — Villages of Orange 
and Glenwood — Posey Township — Boundaries — Land Entries — Settlement — 
Poll-book of Election of 1826 — Some First Events — Early Schools — Village 
of Bentonville — Waterloo Township — Boundaries — Land Entries — Voters in 
1825 — Early Schools — Villages of Waterloo and Springersville. 

CHAPTER VIII— TRANSPORTATION 273 

The Old Indian Trail — Character of First Roads — Legislative Acts to En- 
courage Road-Making — The Era of Toll Roads— Roads Under the Three- 
Mile Law — Bridges — The 'White Water Canal — Opposition to Its Construc- 
tion, Serious Financial Difficulties, and Its Final Disposition — Present Use 
of the Canal in Fayette County — Railroads and Electric Lines. 



CHAPTER IX— AGRICULTURE 283 

Fertility of the Soil of the White Water V^alley — Radical Changes in Meth- 
ods of Farming — Scientific Agriculture — Farming Conditions in the Twen- 
ties and Implements Used by the Pioneers — Striking Contrast to Present 
Methods — Cattle — Horses — Hogs — Sheep — Report of County Assessor for 
1916— Registered Farm Names — County Agent — Agricultural Societies and 
and Fairs — The Free Fair. 

CHAPTER X— MILITARY HISTORY 298 

The Military Period of 1816-1846— Muster Day— Mexican War- The Civil 
War — Relief Funds — Volunteers — Commands With Which Fayette County 
Men Served — Morgan's Raid — Drafts — Relief and Bounties — End of the 
War — Assassination of President Lincoln — Spanish-American War — Mis- 
cellaneous Naval and Military Notes — Military Organizations — Daughters 
of tlie American Revolution — Grand Army of the Republic — Sons of Vet- 
erans. 

CHAPTER XI— THE BENCH AND THE BAR 323 

The First Lawyer in History — Ever-present Need of Lawyers — Pre-eminent 
Lawyers of the County — Lawyers in Congress — Lawyer and Poet^Lawyers 
of Fayette County for One Hundred Years — Court History of Fayette 
County — Associate and Probate Judges — Separate Probate Court — Changes 
Under the New Constitution — Reorganization of the State Judiciary — Circuit 
Court Judges — Prosecuting Attorneys. 

CHAPTER XII— THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 334 

Character of Early Physicians — Account Book of Dr. Wilson Thompson — 
Early Physicians of Fayette County — A Root Doctor — Diplomas Easily 
Acquired — Practitioners in 1846 — Fayette County Medical Society — Dentist 
Made His Own Tools — Roster of Fayette County Physicians. 

CHAPTER XIII— BANKS AND BANKING 344 

Early Banking History in Connersville Enveloped in More or Less Obscur- 
ity — The State Bank of 1852 — Development of Banking^-A Brief History 
of the Various Banks, Trust Companies and Building and Loan Associa- 
tions of the County. 

CHAPTER XIV— EDUCATIONAL HISTORY 351 

The First Schools and Teachers — Description of an Early School House^ 
Establishment of Free Public Schools — County Superintendents of Schools 
— Enumeration Statistics — Connersville Township — Interesting Notes of "A 
Rambler" — Decrease in Enumeration — The Schools of Waterloo, Jennings, 
Orange, Jackson, Posey, Fairview, Columbia and Harrison Townships — 
Fayette County Schools in 1916-17 — Teachers, by Townships — Fayette 
County Seminary — Connersville Public Schools — Early Academy for 
Females — First Free Public School — Graduates of Connersville High School 
— City School Buildings — School Publications — Schools in 1916-17 — Present 
High-school Enrollment — Hawkins Playground — Marguerite Thiebaud 
Scholarship — City School Superintendents — High School Principals — Board 
of Education — Connersville School Directory, 1916-17 — Elmhurst School for 
Girls. 



CHAPTER XV— LITTERATEURS AND ARTISTS IN FAYETTE COUNTY. 386 
Indiana's Wide Reputation as a Literary Center — Fayette County's Writ- 
ers — Volumes That Deserve Mention — Tlie Poets of Fayette County — Mis- 
cellaneous Writers — A Few Samples of Local Poetry — Some Artists of Fay- 
ette County. 

CHAPTER XVI— CHURCHES OF FAYETTE COUNTY 398 

First Religious Movements in the County — Methodist Episcopal Churches 
— Baptist Churches — Christian Churches — Presbyterian Churches — United 
Brethren Churches — Lutheran Churches — Union Evangelical Church — Uni- 
versalist Churches — Seventh-day Adventists — Friends Societies — Episcopal 
Church— Church of Christ (Scientist)— Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene 
— Colored Churches — Catholicity in Fayette County. 

CHAPTER XVII— THE PRESS OF FAYETTE COUNTY 463 

Difficulty in Tracing the Early History of Fayette County Newspapers — 
The First Papers, and Others Which Followed — Conncrsvillc Papers and 
Some Well-known Editors. 

CHAPTER XVIII— FRATERNAL AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES 482 

Free and Accepted Masons — Royal Arch Masons — Royal and Select 
Masters — Knights Templar — Order of the Eastern Star — Scottish-Rite 
Masons — Nobles of the Mystic Shrine — Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
— Daughters of Rebekah — Knights of Pythias — Pythian Sisters — Fraternal 
Order of Eagles — Loyal Order of Moose — Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks — Improved Order of Red Men — Haymakers Association — Degree 
of Pocahontas — Modern Woodmen of America — Royal Neighbors of America 
— Knights of Columbus — Daughters of Isabelle — Patriotic Order of the Sons 
of America. 

CHAPTER XIX— LITERARY, MUSICAL AND SOCIAL CLUBS 504 

Simplicity of Society in Early Days — A Striking Picture of Club Life in 
1917 — The Cary Club — The Sesame Club — A Dozen of LTs — The Coterie — 
The Clio Club— Wednesday Literary Club— The Culture Club— Adelaide 
Procter Club — The Tri-Kappa Sorority — The Camerata — The Wayside 
Gleaners — The Merry-go-Round Club — The Labyrinth Club — The Review 
Club. 

CHAPTER XX— THE CITY OF CONNERSVILLE 517 

Location and Picturesque Situation — The Original Plat — Additions — The 
Early Village — An Attorney Without Money — Tavern License Granted — 
The First Newspaper and the First Library — Regimental Orders — Some 
Notable Connersville Men — Connersville in 1833 — The Succeeding Decade, 
1833-43— Connersville Directory in 1858-9— Connersville in 1861— Some 
Interesting Statistics — Renaming the Streets — Created a City — The Town 
Hall — Public Utilities — Fire Department — Waterworks — Public Lighting — 
Gas and Electricity — Sewerage System — Street Paving — Police Department 
— Telephones — Cemeteries — Industries — The Romance of Figures — Con- 
nersville's Peculiar Qualifications — Early Industries of the City — Beginning 
of the Furniture Industry and Other Well-known Concerns — The Ansted 
Industries and Other Local Enterprises — Business Directory — The Con- 
nersville of Today — Evidences of Public Enterprise — Church and School 
Expansion — The Postoftice — Public Library — Commercial Club — Commer- 
cial Club Boys' Band — ".\ Little Journey to Connersville"— Business Men's 
Credit Exchange — Some Historic Landmarks. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXI— FAYETTE COUNTY MEN OF A PAST GENERATION'. . 583 
Men Who Have, in Cine Way or Another, Contribnted to the Growth of 
the County — Oliver Hampton Smith — Caleb Blood Smith — Samuel W. 
Parker — William Watson Wick — Jonathan McCarty — Minor Meeker — 
James C. Mcintosh — Col. James C. Rea — Abram B. ConwcU — Francis M. 
Roots — Lieut. Samuel J. Shipley — Louis T. Michcner. 

CHAPTER XXII— GLIMPSES OF FAYETTE COUNTY 597 

"Early Indiana Trials and Sketches", by Oliver H. Smith — Arrival in Con- 
nersville — A Political Preacher in a Fix — A Political Jury — The Story of 
Betty Frazier — A Divinely Commissioned Thief Catcher — John McCormick 
— Reminiscences — Pioneer Days in Fayette County — Early Connersville 
Business Men — The Old Singing School — Independence Day, 1831 — Indus- 
tries of Fayette County in Early Days— The Wawassa Paper-mill — ^Relics of 
Fayette County in Indiana University — A Trio of Catastrophes in Conners- 
ville — Mrs. Nancy Hawkins Hackleman — Connersville as a Show Town — 
Bunker Hill — Origin of Rural Free Delivery — Loaning Surplus Revenue 
Fund — Fayette County's Vote on Constitutional Conventions — An Adver- 
tisement of 1839 — The First German Family — First Things — First Map of 
the County — Manifestations of Liberal Spirit — Centennial Celebration of 
1916. 



HISTORICAL INDEX 



Aboriginals. Proper Names of 112 

Aborigines, Last Representative of- 110 

Academy for Females 371 

Advertisement of 1839 623 

African M. E. Church 447 

Agriculture 283 

Alpine 221. 413. 429. 433 

Alquina — 

Additions 254 

Churches 400. 406 

Industries, Early 254 

Lodges 493. 497, 499 

Merchants, First 254 

Origin 254 

Physicians, Early 338 

Postoffice 255 

Ansted, E. W. 181 

Ansted Interests 557, 581 

Area of County 69 

Artists of the County 396 

Assessors, County 202 

Associate Judges 186, 328 

Asylum for the Poor 175 

Auditors, County 202 



Banks and Banking 344 

Baptist Churches . 411 

Bar. Members of the 325 

Ben Davis, Story of 111 

Bench and Bar 323 

Benevolent and Protective Order of 

Elks 495 

Benevolent Institutions 174 

Benevolent Societies 482 

Bentley 249 

Bentonville — 

Altitude 114 

Business Interests 266 



Bentonville, Con.— 

Churches 429, 433 

Location 266 

Merchants, Early 266 

Name 266 

Platted 266 

Postoffice 266 

Berlin 221 

Betty Frazier, Story of 599 

Block-house, Old, Location of 136 

Boundary Lines of State, Changes 

in 47 

Bridges 275 

Brownsville Township 158 

Bunker Hill 407, 619 



Canal, White Water 276, 527 

Capitals of Territory and State 59 

Care for the Poor 175 

Catastrophes, A Trio of 615 

Catholic Churches 448 

Cattle 288 

Census of Northwest Territory. 1800 45 

Centennial Celebration 628 

Centennial Memorial Hospital 177 

Christian Churches 421 

Church of Christ, Scientist 446 

Churches of Fayette County 398 

Circuit Court 327 

Circuit Judges 331 

Civil War 301 

Clark. Gen. George Rogers 37 

Claypool, Benjamin F 210, 324 

Claypool, Newton 161, 199, 210, f 7t 

211, 519, 523 

Clerks of the Court 186, 198 

Clubs 504 

Colored Baptists 447 

Columbia 218, 404 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Columbia Township — 

Boundaries 214 

Chuches 432, 440 

Creation of 158 

Distilleries -- 217 

Enumeration 355 

Land Entries 214 

Mills 217, 221 

Officials, First 158 

Physicians, Early 338 

Population 183 

Residence, An Old 216 

Schools 217, 365 

Settlement - 216 

Soil 71, 75 

Streams 70 

Teachers 368 

Commissioners, County 158, 205 

Congressional Delegates, Territor- 
ial 52 

Congressmen 212 

Conner, John . 76, 86, 104, 107, 115, 

118, 124, 127, 129, 143, 161, 186, 

203, 224, 240, 548, 580, 605 609 

Conner, Reuben 325 

Conner's Post 115, 117, 118, 124, 

125, 130, 139, 141, 519 
Connersville — 

Additions 518 

Altitude 114 

Ansted Industries - 557, 581 

Automobile Industry 558 

Board of Education 382 

Boys' Band 577 

Buggy Industry 555 

Business Interests, 1821 520 

Business Interests, 1830 521 

Business Interests, 1858 527 

Business Interests, 1917 560 

Business Men's Exchange 580 

Banks 344 

Canal 527 

Cemeteries 543 

Churches 399, 413, 422, 433, 

435, 443, 445, 450, 568 

City, Made a 531 

Clubs 504 

Commercial Club 574 

Electric Plant 540 

Enumeration 355 



Connersville, Con. — 

Favorite Meeting Place for In- 
dians 115 

Fifth Street Bridge, Strife 626 

Fire Department 533 

Furniture Industry 553 

Gas Plant 539 

Hawkins Playground 378 

High School Graduates 374 

In 1833 525 

In 1861 528 

Industries, Early 128, 549 

Industries, Present 544 

Landmarks, Old 580 

Library, First 522 

Library History 570 

Lighting Service 538 

Location 517 

Lodges 482, 499 

Made County Seat 161 

Military Station 138 

Mills 549 

Newspapers 465, 521 

Notable Men 523 

Officials, City 532 

Original Plat 126 

Paving 541 

Physicians 336 

Plat, Original 517 

Police Department 542 

Population 183, 184 

Population, 1867 531 

Postoffice 569 

Public Utilities 533 

Railroads 280 

Roots Interests 566. 575, 581 

School Buildings 375 

Schools 371, 568 

Sewerage System 541 

Situation 571 

Store, the First 519 

Streets, Renaming 531 

Superintendents, School 380 

Tavern Licenses 520, 521 

Teachers z. 383 

Telephone 543 

Town Hall 532 

War Times 301 

Water Power 279 

Waterworks : 536 

Woolen Mills 552 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



ConiuTsvillc Township— " 

Area --- 

Boundaries — 

Churches 410. 4J1 

Creation of 158 

Enumeration -553, J-iS 

Industries, Early --8 

Land Entries ^2- 

Lime 71 

Mills -^^8 

Officials, First 158 

Population 183 

Schools ^27. 355 

Settlement 223, 325 

Soil 75 

Streams 09, 70 

Teachers 368 

Constitutional Convention \'ote — 623 
Constitution of Indiana. Changes in 56 

Conwell, Abram B. 593 

Corn Fair 626 

Coroners 186, 204 

Counties, Organization of 54 

Counties, Territorial 43 

County Finances, 1820 162 

County Finances, 1916 164 

County Government 158 

County Medical Society 339 

County Officials 186 

County Organization 155 

County School Superintendents 354 

County Seat Located 161 

County Seminary 368 

Court History 326 

Court House History 168 

D 

Daughters of Isabelle 502 

Daughters of Rebekah 491 

Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution 319 

Deed, First Recorded 168 

Deed Recorded, First 625 

Disciples Churches 421 

Division of 1800, Territorial 44 

Doctors 334 

Donation Fund 161 

Drafts During Civil War 313 

Drift Formations 70 



E 

liagles, Fraternal Order of 494 

I'.ast ConnersviUe — 

Churches 403 

Enumeration 355 

Industries 229 

Location 229 

I'opulation 184 

Schools 358 

Teachers 368 

Eastern Star, Order of the 488 

Editors of Other Days 474 

Educational History 351 

Educational System of State 66 

Electric Lines 282 

Elephant Hill, Origin of Name 134 

Elks, Order of 495 

Elmhurst School for Girls 384 

Enlistments from Fayette County 304 

Enumeration Statistics 355 

Episcopal Church 445 

Evangelical Lutheran Cliurcli — '.-- 440 
Everton — 

Business Interests 249 

Churches 400. 409, 442 

Incorporation " 248 

Location 248 

Lodges 492 

Merchants. First 248 

Name, Changes in 248 

Physicians, Early 338 

Population 183 

Postoffice 249 

F 

Fairview 2ii. 489, 497 

Fairview Township — 

Boundaries 229 

Creation of 229 

Enumeration 355 

Industries, Early 2j2 

Land Entries 229 

Population 183 

Schools Zil. 364 

Settlement 231 

Soil 75 

Teachers 368 

Fallen Timbers, Battle of 34, 41 

Falmouth 2iX 234, 40^), 497 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Farm Prices, Early 285 

Farming Conditions, Early 284 

Fayette County Created 155 

Fayette County, First Limits of 156 

Fayette County Seminary 368 

Fayette Sanitarium Association 179 

Fifth Street Bridge, Strife Over— 626 

Finances, Early County 159 

First Surveys of State 39 

Fraternal Order of Eagles 494 

Fraternal Orders 482 

Free Public Schools 353 

Freemasonry 482 

French and Indian War 35 

French Settlements in the West-— 34 
French Traders 122 



Geology of Fayette County 69 

German Baptists 418 

German Family, the First 624 

German Presbyterians 437 

Glenwood 184, 260, 261, 400, 443 

Glimpses of Fayette County 597 

Governors of Indiana 63 

Grand Army of the Republic 320 

H 

Hackleman, Mrs. Nancy H 617 

Harrison Township — 

Boundaries 234 

Clubs 516 

Creation of 158 

Enumeration 355 

Industries, Early 237 

Land Entries 234 

Mills 237 

Officials, First 158 

Population 183 

Schools 239, 366 

Settlement 236 

Soil 75 

Stone Quarries 70 

Teachers 368 

Harrisburg 240, 338, 429, 433 

Harrison, William Henry 80, 82, 87 

Hawkins 240 

Hawkins Playground 378 

Haymakers Association 498 



Heinemann's Researches Id 

History of Indiana li 

Home for Dependent Children 177 

Horseless Vehicle, First 625 

Hospitals 177 

I 

Improved Order of Red Men 496 

Independence Day, 1831 612 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows- 490 

Industries, Early 612 

Indian Affairs, A Crisis in 131, 137 

Indian Camp, Old 135 

Indian Farming Efforts 119 

Indian Lands 56 

Indian Struggles, 1787-1803 | 41 

Indian Trail Down the White Water 

Valley 104, 106, 132, 135, 140, 273 

Indian Treaties 78 

Indian Tribes 80 

Indiana, History of 33 

Indiana in 1800 (map) 44 

Indiana in 1801 (map) 48 

Indiana in 1805 (map) 50 

Indiana in 1809 (map) 53 

Indiana in 1815 (map) 57 

Indiana in 1818 (map) 55 

Indiana's Natural Resources 66 

Indians Resist White Encroachment, 33 
Infirmary Farm 176 

J 

Jackson Township — 

Boundaries 242 

Churches 407, 411. 439. 442, 444 

Creation of 158 

Enumeration 355 

Industries, Early 246 

Land Entries 243 

Mills 246 

Population 183 

Schools 247, 361 

Settlement 244 

Soil 71, 75 

Streams 70 

Teachers 368 

Jail History . 172 

Jennings Township — 

Boundaries 250 

Enumeration 355 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Jennings Township, Con.— ^ 

Industries, Early 253 

Land Entries 250 

Mills 253 

Name 249 

Officials. First 158 

Population 183 

Schools 253, 359 

Settlement 251 

Soil 75 

Streams 69 

Teachers 368 

Journal of Proceedings of the 

Treaty of Ft. Wayne. 1809 87 

Justices of the Peace 186 

K 

Knights of Columbus 502 

Knights of Pythias 492 

Knights Templar 487 

L 

Landmarks. Ancient 121 

Lawyers of the County 323 

Lincoln, President, Assassination of. 316 

Literary Clubs 504 

Litterateurs of the County 386 

Lodges 482 

Longwood 228, 229. 443 

Loyal Order of Moose 494 

Lutheran Churches 449 

Lyonsville - 255. 419. 440 

Mc 

McCarty, Jonathan 161, 187. 189, 

198, 200, 212, 523, 588 

McCormick, John 602 

Mcintosh, James C. 591 

M 

Map of Fayette County, First 626 

Margaret Thiebaud Scholarship 379 

Marriage License, the First 168, 625 

Masonic Order 482 

Medical History 334 

Medical Society 339 

Meeker, Minor 590 



Memorial Hospital 177 

Men of a Past Generation 583 

Methodist Episcopal Churches 399 

Mexican War 300 

Michener, Louis T. 596 

Military History of County 298 

Military History of State 00 

Military Notes 317 

Military Organizations 318 

Modern Woodmen of America 501 

Moose, Loyal Order of 494 

Morgan's Raid 61, 311 

Musical Clubs 504 

Musical Congress 626 

Muster Day 299 

Mystic Shrine 489 

N 

Natural Drainage 69 

Naturalization Records 184 

Naval Notes 317 

Newspaper History 465 

Northwest Territory, First White 

Men in 33 

Northwest Territory Organized 42 

NuUtowii 220 



O 

Odd Fellows, Independent Order of 400 

Official Roster of County 186 

Orange 260, 400, 406, 429, 433, 497 

Orange Township — 

Boundaries 256 

Churches 410, 431, 436, 440 

Enumeration 355 

Industries, Early 259 

Land Entries 256 

Name 256 

Orchards 260 

Physicians, Early 338 

Population 183 

Schools 259, 360 

Settlement 258 

Soil 75 

Streams 70 

Teachers 368 

Order of the Eastern Star 488 

Ordinance of 1787 39 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



P 

Parker, Samuel W. 587 

Patriotic Order of the Sons of 

America 503 

Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene 447 

Physicians --- 334 

Pioneer, Our Original 86 

Pioneer Days 606 

Pioneer Farm Implements 286 

Pocahontas, Degree of 498 

Poetry by Fayette County Writers- 390 

Poets of Fayette County 388 

Political History of State 62 

Pontiac's Conspiracy 36 

Population of County 182 

Population of the State 65 

Posey Township- 
Boundaries 261 

Churches 410 

Enumeration 355 

First Events 265 

Land Entries 262 

Name 261 

Poll-book of 1826 264 

Population 183 

Schools 265, 363 

Settlement 263 

Soil 65 

Streams - 69 

Presbyterian Churches 434 

Press of Fayette County 465 

Primitive Baptist Church 420 

Probate Judges 328 

Prosecuting Attorneys 332 

Pythian Sisters 493 

Q 

Quebec Act 36 

R 
Railroads 280 

Rea. Col. James C. 592 

Rebekah, Daughters of 491 

Recorders 186, 200 

Red Men, Improved Order of 496 

Redtown 241 

Redville 241 

Related State History 33 

Relics of Fayette County 615 



Religious Life 398 

Reminiscences 604 

Representative Government 42 

Representatives 209 

Revolutionary Period 36 

Rival Claims to Northwest 34 

Road. First Attempt to Make 119 

Roads, The First 273 

Roberts Park 627 

Roots, Francis M. 594 

Roots Interests 566, 581 

Royal and Select Masters 486 

Royal Arch Masons 485 

Royal Neighbors 501 

Rural Free Delivery. Origin of 620 

S 

St. Clair. Gen. Arthur 41. 42, 45 

Sains Creek 433 

Sanitarium Association 179 

Savings and Loan Associations 349 

Saw-mill, Conner's 127 

School Enumeration 355 

School HousCj An Early 352 

School Superintendents, County 354 

Schools 351 

Scottish Rite 489 

Secret Societies 482 

Seminary, County 368 

Senators, State 209 

Settlements in Indiana Territory, 

1800 46 

Seventh-Day Adventists 443 

Sheriff's Residence 173 

Sheriffs 186, 203 

Shipley, Lieut. Samuel J. 595 

Singing School, an Old 610 

Slavery, Efforts to Establish, in 

Indiana 52 

Smith, Caleb B. 212, 323, 482," 

484, 523, S2S, 585 
Smith, Oliver H. .109. 110, 144, 148, 
212, 284, 323, 332, 
336, 386, 482, 519, 

523, 526, 584, 597 

Social Clubs 504 

Soils 71 

Soldiers from Fayette County 304 

Sons of Veterans 321 

Spanish-American War 62. 316 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Springersville - — 272. 431, 433 

State Roads lli 

Streams 69 

Stumptown 241 

Surplus Revenue Fund, Loaning of_- 021 
Surveyors. County 201 

T 

Tavern Rates, Early 159 

Tax Assessment, 1831 163 

Tax Assessment. 1861 164 

Tax Assessments, Early 160 

Territorial General Assemblies 51 

Territorial Government 47. 49 

Territorial Legislature. First 43 

Toll Roads 274 

Township History 214 

Townships, First 158 

Transportation 273 

Treasurers, County 199 

Treaties with the Indians 78 

Twelve Mile Purchase 11, 87 

U 

Union Evangelical Church 441 

United Brethren Church 439 

Universalist Church 442 

V 

\'incennes. Capture of Zl 

Vincennes, Oldest Settlement in 
Indiana 38 



W. 

War Relief and Bounties 314 

Water Tower from Canal 279 

Waterloo 270. 338, 439 

Waterloo Township — 

Boundaries 2(iO 

Churches 405 

Creation of 266 

Enumeration 355 

Land Entries 267 

Population 183 

Schools 269, 358 

Settlement 268 

Soil 75 

Streams 70 

Teachers 368 

Voters in 1825 269 

Wawassa Paper-mill 613 

White Water Canal 276. 527 

White W'ater Country. Topography 

of 114 

White Water River 69 

Wliite Water Valley. Natural Ad- 
vantages of 108 

Wick. William Watson 588 

Will Recorded, First 168. 625 

Writers of Fayette County 388 

Z 
Zeisberger, David, Diary of 149 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



A 

Adams, Alanson 940 

Ansted, Edward W. 672 

Ansted, Frank B. 715 

Archey, Charles M. 1051 

B 

Baker, David 995 

Barker, Virgil J. 738 

Barrows, Alvin E. 1056 

Barrows, Frederic I. 1096 

Basse, William C. 865 

Beaver, Hugh E. 1090 

Beaver, John M. 1087 

Beaver, Raymond S. ^^2, 

Beckett, Azariah T. 948 

Beeson, Charles 968 

Bell, Andrew M. 917 

Bilby, Morton L. Hi 

Bilby, Palmer T. 951 

Blevins, John T. 796 

Booher, Irvin E., M. D. 848 

Bowen, Gus 842 

Bowen, Ralph W, 844 

Bower, L. T. 728 

Brown, William 853 

Brown, William C. 846 

Buckley, Michael C. 683 

Burger, John J. 835 

Byrne, John L. 1011 

C 

Cain, William J. 687 

Caldwell, Cleve T. 1068 

Caldwell, Daniel W. 1089 

Caldwell, Scott E. 1060 

Carr, Clarence G. 991 

Carson, William A. 863 

Chrisman, Albert L. 755 



Chrisman, Jesse S. 726 

Clark, John S. 905 

Claypool, Austin B. 1033 

Claypool, Jefferson H. 644 

Clifton, James A. 663 

Cokefair, Lafe 1078 

Cole, Benjamin W. 692 

Cole, Joseph J. 920 

Collyer, Alfred 791 

Collyer, Fred P. 823 

Connor, John, Descendants of 1002 

Cook, James F. 874 

Cooper, B. W., M. D. 1145 

Cressler, Miss Isabel B. 694 

Culbertson, John M. 896 

Cummins, Frank 994 

Cummins, Millard F. 840 

Cummins, Murl D. 1010 

Cummins, Noah . 793 

D 

DeVaney, William H. 856 

Doenges, Fred 81S 

Doenges, John L, 1148 

Doenges, Henry P. 1137 

Doenges, Simon 701 

Doniker, Omer 1128 

Downs. Capt. Thomas 688 

E 

Earl, Morell J. 1038 

Eddy, Burl 1134 

Edwards, Clarence E. 953 

Elliott, Hon. Richard N. 652 

Enos, Edward A. 923 

Erb, Maynard M. 907 

F 

Fearis, J. H. 681 

Fiant, Oliver T. 1025 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Fisher, Fred W. 1127 

Fisher, James T. 900 

Fitzgerald, Thomas 786 

Fletcher, A. J., M. D. 671 

Florea, Joseph D. 1064 

Fries, George M. 836 

Frost, Hyatt L. 679 

G 

Gerber, Sam 1022 

Goble, Albert E. 967 

Goble, George W. 676 

Green, George 895 

Green, Levi N. 1012 

Greenwood, Robert J. 864 

Gregg, Vincent H., M. D. 696 

H 

Hackleman, Frank D. 650 

Hackleman, John W. 788 

Hadley, Willard 1029 

Hahn, Erwin H. 767 

Halladay, Warden 764 

Hamilton, James M. 1150 

Hanson, Frank M. 886 

Harlan, James M. 909 

Harry, William T. 925 

Hawkins, Edward P. 1104 

Hawkins, Edward V. 912 

Heinemann, George 784 

Helvie, A. P., D. V. S. 1144 

Hendrickson, William 698 

Henry, Jesse O. 1116 

Heron, James 636 

Heron, James M. 753 

Higgs, John M. 664 

Plimelick, E. Ralph 720 

Hinchman, Marshal!, Jr. 782 

Hinchman, Ulysses G. 928 

Holland, James F. 1039 

Holter, Josephus W. 935 

Hull, Charles C. 832 

Hussey, Elwood 1092 

Huston, Emery 1120 

Huston, James 723 

Huston, Joseph E. 1112 

J 

Johnson. J. H., M. D. 700 

Johnston, Edgar D. 942 



Johnston. G. Edwin 667 

Jones, William T. 1042 

K 

Kennedy, Jasper L. 743 

Kensler, Preston H. 760 

King, William H. 757 

Kline, Leonidas A. 1020 

L 

Lake, Ellis R. 960 

Lake, Franklin Z. 955 

Lake, George W. 982 

Lake, Willis R. 1114 

Leffingwell, Minor E. 741 

Leonard, George C. 776 

Lewis, Hayden 975 

Little, Melancthon R. 849 

Little, Thomas M. 800 

Lockhart, John 707 

Loudenback, William H. 876 

Ludlow, Henry L. 867 

Ludlow, James 1016 

Ludlow, John 888 

Lyons, Abram 1118 

Mc 

McBurney, Thomas C. 933 

McConnell, William H. 871 

McFarlan, Charles E. J. 712 

McFarlan, John B. 1008 

McFarlan, John B., Jr. 706 

Mcintosh, James M. 963 

McKee, David W. 669 

McKennan, Roy C. 735 

McKennan, Samuel O. 748 

McMullen, Richard A. S. 1142 

M 

Manlove, George E. 816 

Martin, Charles W. 898 

Mason, Charles W. 989 

Mason, Hon. James K. 985 

Massey, J. O. 763 

Maurer, Ernest A. 1075 

Maurer, Henry 1063 

Maze, William 1024 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



McnMuir. Cliarles =. 756 

Merrilield, Samuel S. 734 

Mesker, Rev. Theodore S. 673 

Messersinith, George D. 1138 

Michener. Edgar M. 6ol 

Moffett. Joseph E. 829 

Mofifett, Miles K. 745 

Moffett, Otho O. 1046 

MofTett, Samuel C. 1044 

Moncyhon, Charles 750 

Montgomery, Franklin V. 877 

Moore. Joseph A. 1140 

Moore. Lafayette 984 

Mount. James 659 

Mountain, Joseph R.. M. D. 736 

Moyer, William H. 739 

Munger. Warren H. 997 

Murphy, Elmer E. 826 

Murray, Warren B. 1081 

Myers, Oliver P. 1105 

N 

Naylor. John C. 811 

Neal, Frederick C. 747 

Xewkirk, William 731 

Nevvland. Charlie 806 

O 
Oldham. George E. 892 

Osborne, H. S., M. D. 828 

P 

Perkins, Fred B. 1097 

Peters, John J. 759 

Phillips, William R.. M. D. 809 

Porter, Clarence E. 766 

Porter, William R. 819 

Post, Samuel M. 891 

Powell, Gabriel G. 1131 

Powell, John G. 7iO 

Prifogle. George W. 838 

Pyke, Howell G. 1052 

R 

Rees, Hiram E. 710 

Reichle, John W. 719 

Rich. A. E. 831 

Ri,ggs. James S. 880 

Rickert. Edward L. 381 



Robinson. Willard 1123 

Roots. Daniel T. 640 

Roots, Francis M. 033 

Ross, Major John W. 649 

Rowe, Richard H. 1110 

S 
Saxon, Walter S. 869 

Schoenholtz, Frederick 685 

Schoenholtz, Adam 7ii 

Scott, James W. 957 

Scott, John M. 976 

Scott, William W. 944 

Sherry, William H. 768 

Shipley, Hiram 1054 

Shipley, Lieut. Samuel J. 656 

Shortridge. Sanford 1047 

Silvcy. Henry T. 717 

Simpkins, Al>salom 1032 

Sipe, Richard W., M. D. 813 

Smelser, H. W., M. D. 752 

Smith, B. R., M. D. 695 

Smith. Carl C. 1109 

Smith, Harry H. 821 

Springer, Hon. Raymond S. 879 

Stevens, Elmer E. 858 

Stoll, John 722 

Stone, Edwin M. 1099 

Strong, John A. 1018 

Sumner. Miss Caroline L. 792 

Sutcliffe. Joseph M, 1014 

Sweetland. Dr. A. T., D. C. 703 

T 

Tate, Curtis L. 1158 

Tate, James H. (First) 1146 

Tate, James H. (Second) 1157 

Tate, William H. 1091 

Tatman. Edwin W. 480 

Thiebaud, B. F. 824 

Thomas. Scott 655 

Thompson, William H. H02 

Thrasher. John P. 778 

Tingley. Lincoln K. 725 

Trusler, Prof. Claude L. 704 

Trusler. D. E. 481 

Trusler, Edmund B. 903 

Trusler, Hon. Milton (i41 

Trusler. Milton H. 647 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



W 

Wainwright, William W. 938 

Weaver, Harry E. 979 

Weaver, Philip F. 971 

Wetherald, Edgar K. 770 

White, John M. 803 

White, John T. 884 

Whiteis, J. N., D. O. --. 751 

Wiles, Joseph B. 798 

Williams, Charles R. 1152 

Williams, George M. 1085 



Williams, John J. 914 

Williams, John N. 918 

Wise, David L. 1067 

Worsham, Franklin M. 1121 

Worster, Thomas W. 1072 

Y 
Young, Amon 851 

Z 
Zell, Glen 686 



HISTORICAL 



CHAPTER I. 
A Short History of Indiana. 

The first white men to set foot upon the Northwest Territory were 
French traders and missionaries under the leadership of La Salle. This was 
about the year 1670 and subsequent discoveries and explorations in this 
region by the French gave that nation practically undisputed possession of 
all the territory organized in 1787 as the Northwest Territory. It is true 
that the English colonies of Virginia, Connecticut and Massachusetts claimed 
that their charters extended their grants westward to the Mississippi river. 
However, France claimed this territory and successfully maintained posses- 
sion of it until the close of the French and Indian War in 1763. At that 
time the treaty of Paris transferred all of the French claims east of the 
Mississippi river to England, as well as all claims of France to territory on 
the mainland of North America. For the next twenty years the Northwest 
Territory was under the undisputed control of England, but became a part 
of the United States by the treaty which terminated the Revolutionary War 
in 1783. Thus the flags of three nations have floated over the territory now 
comprehended within the present state of Indiana — the tri-color of France, 
the union jack of England and tlie stars and stripes of the Ehiited States. 

History will record the fact that there was another nation, however, 
which claimed jwssession of this territory and, while the Indians can hardly 
be called a nation, yet they made a gallant fight to retain their hunting 
grounds. The real owners of this territory struggled against heavy o'dds 
to maintain their supremacy and it was not until the battle of Tippecanoe, in 
the fall of 181 1, that the Indians gave up the unequal struggle. Tecumseh, 
the Washington of his race, fought fiercely to .save this territoiy for his 
people, but the white man finally overwhelmed him, and "Lo, the poor Indian" 
was pushed westward across the Mississippi. Tlie liistory of the Northwest 
Territorv is full of the bitter fights which tlie Indians waged in tning to drive 
^3) 



34 FAYKTTK COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the white man out and the defeat which tlie Indians inflicted on General 
St. Clair on November 4, 1792, will go down in the annals of American 
history as the worst defeat which an American army ever suffered at the 
hands of the Indians. The greatest battle which has ever been fought in the 
United States against the Indians occurred in the state of Ohio. This was 
the battle of Fallen Timbers and occurred August 20, 1794, the scene of 
the battle being within the present county of Defiance. After the close 
of the Revolutionarv War the Indians, urged on by the British, caused the 
settlers in the Northwest Territory continual trouble and defeated every de- 
tachment sent against them previous to their defeat by Gen. Anthony Wayne 
at the battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Although there was some trouble 
with the Indians after this time, they did not offer serious resistance after 
this memorable defeat until the fall of 181 1. when Gen. William Henry Har- 
rison completely routed them at the battle of Tippecanoe. 

TERRITORY NORTHWEST OF THE OHIO (167O-I754). 

Ohio was the first state created out of the old Northwest Territory, 
although Indiana had been previously organized as a territory. When the 
land comprehended within the Northwest Territory was discovered by the 
French under La Salle about 1670, it was a battle ground of various Indian 
tribes, although the Fries, who were located along the shores of Lake Erie, 
were the only ones with a more or less definite territory. From 1670 to 
1763, the close of the French and Indian War, the French were in possession 
of this territory and established their claims in a positive manner by exten- 
sive exploration and scattered settlements. The chief centers of French 
settlement were at Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Fort Crevecour 
and at several missionary stations around the shores of the great lakes. The 
French did not succeed in establishing themselves without incurring. the hos- 
tility of the Iroquois Indians, a bitter enmity which was brought about chiefly 
because the French helped the Shawnees. Wyandots and Miamis to drive the 
Iroquois out of the territory west of the Muskingum river in Ohio. 

It must not be forgotten that the English also laid claim to the North- 
west Territory, basing their claim on the discoveries of the Cabots and the 
subsequent charters of Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut. These 
charters extended the limits of these three colonies westAvard to the Pacific 
ocean, although, as a matter of fact, none of the tliree colonies made a settle- 
ment west of the Alleghanies until after the Revolutionary War. New York 
sought to strengthen her claim to territory west of the Alleghanies in 1701 



FAYETTE COUN'TY, INDIANA. 



3$ 



by getting from the Iroquois, the bitter enemies of the French, a grant to the 
territory from which the French and their Indian allies had previously ex- 
pelled them. Although this grant was renewed in 1726 and again confirmed 
in 1744, it gave New York only a nominal claim and one which was never 
recognized by the French in any way. 

English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began in 1730 to pay 
more attention to the claims of their country west of the Alleghanies and 
north of the Ohio river. When their activities reached the ears of the FVench 
the governor of French Canada sent Celeron de Bienville up and down the 
Ohio and the rivers and streams running into it from the north and took 
formal possession of the territory by planting lead plates at the mouth of 
every river and stream of any importance. This peculiar method of the 
French in seeking to establish their claims occurred in the year 1749 and 
opened the eyes of England to the necessity of taking some immediate action. 
George II, the king of England at the time, at once granted a charter to the 
first Ohio Company ( there were two others by the same name later organ- 
ized), composed of London merchants and enterprising Virginians, and the 
company at once proceeded to formulate plans to secure possession of the ter- 
ritory north of the Ohio and west of the Mississippi. Christopher Gist was 
sent down the Ohio river in 1750 to explore the country as far west as the 
mouth of the Scioto river, and made several treaties with the Indians. Things 
were now rapidly approaching a crisis and it was soon evident that there 
would be a struggle of arms between England and France for the disputed 
region. In 1754 the English started to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, on the site of the present city of Pitts- 
hurgii, but before the fort was completed the French a])iieared on the scene, 
drove the English away and finished the fort which had been begun. 

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ( I 754-63 j . "jLJLSSi » • 

The crisis had finally come. The struggle which followed between the 
two nations ultimately resulted in the expulsion of the French from the 
mainland of America as well as from the immediate territory in dispute. 
The war is known in America as the French and Indian War and in the 
history of the world as the Seven Years' War, the latter designation being 
due to the fact that it lasted that length of time. The struggle developed 
into a world-wide conflict and the two nations fought over three continents, 
America, Europe and Asia. It is not within the province of this resume of 
the history of Indiana to go into the details of this memorable struggle. It is 



36 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

sufficient for the purpose at hand to state that the treaty of Paris, which 
terminated the war in 1763, left France without any of her former posses- 
sions on the mainland of America. 

PONTIAC'S CONSPIRACY ( 1 763-64). 

With the English in control of America east of the Mississippi river and 
the French regime forever ended, the Indians next command the attention 
of the historian who deals with the Northwest Territory. The French were 
undoubtedly responsible for stirring up their former Indian allies and 
Pontiac's conspiracy must be credited to the influence of that nation. This 
formidable uprising was successfully overthrown by Henry Bouquet, who 
led an expedition in 1764 into the present state of Ohio and compelled the 
Wyandots, Delawares and Shawnees to sue for peace. 

NORTHWEST TERRITORY AND QUEBEC ACT. 

From 1764 to 1774, no events of particular importance occurred within 
the territory north of the Ohio river, but in the latter year (June 22, 1774), 
■ England, then at the breakihg point with the colonies, passed the Quebec 
act, which attached this territory to the province of Quebec for administrative 
purposes. This intensified the feeling of resentment which the colonies 
bore against their mother country and is given specific mention in their list 
of grievances which they enumerated in their Declaration of Independence. 
The Revolutionary War came on at once and this act, of course, was never 
put into execution. 

REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD ( I 775-83 ) . 

During the War for Independence (1775- 1783), the various states with 
claims to western lands agreed with the Continental Congress to surrender 
their claims to the national government. In fact, the Articles of Confedera- 
tion were not signed until all of the states had agreed to do this and Mary- 
land withheld her assent to the articles until March i, 1780, on this account. 
In accordance with this agreement New York ceded her claim to the United 
States in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 
1786, although the latter state excepted a one-hundred-and-twenty-mile strip 
of three million five hundred thousand acres bordering on Lake Erie. This 
strip was formally relinquished in 1800, with the imderstanding that the 



FAYETTU- COUNTY. INDIANA. 37 

United States would guarantee the titles already issued by that state. Vir- 
ginia was also allowed a reservation, known as the Virginia Military Di;*- 
trict, w^hich lay between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, the same being 
for distribution among her Revolutionary veterans. There is one other fact 
which should be mentioned in connection with the territory north of the 
Ohio in the Revolutionary period. This was the memorable conquest of the 
territory by Gen. George Rogers Clark. During the years 1778 and 1779, 
this redoubtable leader captured Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes and 
thereby drove the English out of the Northwest Territory. It is probable 
that this notable campaign secured this territory for the Americans and that 
we would not have had it included in our possessions in the treaty which 
closed the Revolutionary War if it had not been for its conquest byClark. 

CAPTURE OF VINCENNES. 

One of the most interesting pages of Indiana history is concerned with 
the capture of Vincennes by Gen. George Rogers Clark in the spring of 1779. 
The expedition of this intrepid leader with its successful results marked him 
as a man of more than usual ability. Prompted by a desire to secure the 
territory northwest of the Ohio river for the Americans, he sought and 
obtained permission from the governor of X'irginia the right to raise a lx)dy 
of troops for this purpose. Early in the spring of 1778 Clark l)egan collecting 
his men for the proposed expedition. Within a short time he collected alxiut . 
one hundred and fifty men at Fort Pitt and floated down the Ohio to the 
falls near Jeffersonville. He picked up a few recruits at this place and in 
June floated on down the river to the mouth of the Tennessee river. His 
original intention was to make a descent on Vincennes first, but, having 
received erroneous reports as to the strength of the garrison located there, he 
decided to commence active operations at Kaskaskia. After landing his 
troops near the mouth of the Tennessee in the latter part of June, 1778, he 
marched them across southern Illinois to Kaskaskia, arriving there on the 
evening of July 4. The inha1)itants were terror stricken at first, but upon 
being assured by General Clark that they were in no danger -and that all he 
wanted was their support of the American cause, their fears were soon 
(|uieted. Being so far from the scene of the war, the French along the 
Mississippi knew little or nothing about its progress. One of the most 
important factors in establishing a friendly relation between the Americans 
and the French inhabitants was the heartv willingness of Father Gibault, 



30 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the Catholic priest stationed at Kaskaskia, in making his people see that their 
best interests would be served by aligning themselves with the Americans. 
Father Gibault not only was of invaluable assistance to General Clark at 
Kaskaskia, but he also offered to make the overland trip to Vincennes and 
win over the French in that place to the American side. This he successfully 
did and returned to Kaskaskia in August with the welcome news that the 
inhabitants of Vincennes were willing to give their allegiance to the Americans. 
However, before Clark got his troops together for the trip to Vincennes, 
General Hamilton, the lieutenant-go\ernor of Detroit, descended the Wabash 
and captured Vincennes (December 15, 1778). At that time Clark had only 
two men stationed there, Leonard Helm, who was in command of the fort, 
and a private by the name of Henry. As soon as Clark heard that the British 
had captured Vincennes, he began to make plans for retaking it. The terms 
of enlistment of many of his men had expired and he had difficulty in getting 
enough of them to re-enlist to make a body large enough to make a successful 
attack. A number of young Frenchmen joined his command and finally, in 
January, 1779, Clark set out from Kaskaskia for Vincennes with one hundred 
and seventy men. This trip of one hundred and sixty miles was made at a 
time when traveling overland was at its worst. The prairies were wet, the 
streams were swollen and the rivers overflowing their banks. Notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties which confronted him and his men, Clark advanced as 
rapidly as ix)ssible and by February 2;^, 1779, he was in front of Vincennes. 
Two days later, after considerable parleying and after the fort had suffered 
from a murderous fire from the Americans, General Hamilton agreed to sur- 
render. This marked the end of British dominion in Indiana and since that 
<iay the territory now comprehended in the state has been American soil. 

VINCENNES, THE OLDEST SETTLEMENT OF INDIANA. 

Historians have never agreed as to the date of the founding of Vin- 
cennes. The local historians of that city have always claimed that the settle- 
ment of the town dates from 1702, although those who have examined 
all the facts and documents have come to the conclusion that 1732 comes 
nearer to being the correct date. It was in the latter year that George Wash- 
ington was born, a fact which impresses upon the reader something of the age 
of the city. Vincennes was an old town and had seen several generations 
pass away when the Declaration . of Independence was signed. It was in 
Vincennes and vicinity that the best blood of the Northwest Territory was 
found at the time of the Revolutionary War. It was made the seat of justice 



F-iYETTK COLINTY, INDIANA. 39 

of Knox county when it was organized in 1790 and consequently it is l)y 
many years the oldest county seat in the state. It became the first capital of 
huliana Territory in 1800 and saw it removed to Corydon in 1813 for the 
reason, so the Legislature said, that it was too near the outskirts of civiliza- 
tion. In this oldest city of the Mississippi valley still stands the house into 
wliich Go\-ernor Harrison moved in 1804. and the house in wliicli the Terri- 
torial Legislature held its sessions in 1805 is still in an excellent state of 
preservation. 

Today Vincennes is a thriving city of fifteen thousand, with paved 
streets, street cars, fine public buildings and public utility plants equal to any 
in the state. It is the seat of a university which dates back more than a 
century. 

FIRST SURVEYS AND EARLY SETTLERS. 

The next period in the history of the territory north of the Ohio begins 
with the passage of a congressional act (May 20, 1785), which provided for 
the present system of land surveys into townships six miles square. As soon 
as this was put into operation, settlers — and mostly Revolutionary soldiers — 
began to pour into the newly surveyed territory. A second Ohio Company 
was organized in the spring of 1786, made up chiefly of Revolutionary 
officers and soldiers from New England, and this company proposed to estab- 
lish a colony somewhere between Lake Erie and the Ohio river. At this junc- 
ture Congress realized that definite steps sh<iuld be made at once for some 
kind of government over this extensive territory, a territory which now in- 
cludes the present states of Ohio, Indiana. Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and 
about a third of Minnesota, ^^arious plans were proposed in Congress and 
most of the sessions of 1786 and the first half of 1787 were consumed in 
trying to formulate a suitable form of government for the extensive terri- 
tory. The result of all these deliberations resulted in the famous Ordinance 
of 1787, which was finally passed on July 13, 1787. 

ORDINANCE OF 1 787. 

There have been many volumes written about this instrument of gov- 
erninent and to this day there is a difference of opinion as to who was its 
author. The present article can do no more than merely sketch its outline 
and set forth the main provisions. It was intended to provide only a tem- 
porarv government and to serve until such a time as the population of the 
territorx- woukl warrant the creation oi states with the same rights and 



40 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

privileges which the thirteen original states enjoyed. It stipulated that not 
less than three nor more than five states sliould ever be created out of the 
whole territory. The maximum numljer was finally organized, although it 
was not until 1848 that the last state, Wisconsin, was admitted to the Union. 
The third article. "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of educa- 
tion shall forever be encouraged," has given these five states the basis for 
their excellent system of public schools, state normals, colleges and uni- 
versities. Probably the most widely discussed article was the sixth, which pro- 
vided that slavery and involuntary servitude should never be pennitted within 
the territory and by the use of the word "forever" made the territory free 
for all time. It is interesting to note in this connection that both Indiana 
and Illinois before their admission to the Union sought to have this pro- 
vision set aside, but every petition from the two states was refused by Con- 
gress in accordance with the provision of the Ordinance. 

FIRST STAGE OF GOVERNMENT UNDER THE ORDIN.\NCE. 

The Ordinance contemplated two grades of territorial go\'ernment. 
During the operation of the first grade of government the governor, his secre- 
tary and the three judges provided by the Ordinance were to be appointed by 
Congress and the governor in turn was to appoint "such magistrates and 
other civil officers in each county and township as he shall deem necessary 
for the preservation of the peace and good will of the same." After the 
federal government was organized in 17S9, a statutory provision took the 
appointment of these officers out of the hands of Congress and placed it in 
the hands of the President of the Ignited States. All executive authority 
was given to the governor, all judicial authority to the three judges, while 
the go^•ernor and judges, in joint session, constituted the legislative body. 
This means that during the first stage of territorial government the people 
had absolutely no voice in the affairs of government and this state of affairs 
lasted imtil 1799. a period of twelve years. 

SECOND STAGE OF GOVERNMENT UNDER' THE ORDINANCE. 

The second stage of government in the territory was to begin whenever 
the governor was satisfied that it contained at least five thousand free male 
inhabitants of the age of twenty-one years and above. The main difference 
between the first and second stages of territorial government lay in the fact 



FAvrrTi-: cm: 



41 



that tlie legislative functions were taken from the ,i,'o\ernor and juiliijes and 
given to a "general assemhly or legislature." The Ordinance provided for 
the election of one representative for each five hundred free male inhabitants. 
the tenure of the office to be two years. While the members of the lower 
house were to be elected by the i|ualilied voters of the territorv. the ni)])er 
house, to consist of li\e members, was lo be a])pointed by Congress in a 
somewhat complicated manner. The house of representatives was lo select 
ten men and these ten names were to be sent to Congress and out of this 
number five w'ere to be selected by Congress. Hiis provision, like the ap- 
pointment of the governor, was later changed so as to make the upper house 
the appointees of the President of the I'nited States. The five men so selected 
were called councilors and held office for five years. 

iNi)[.\x .sTRiTcr.i.KS (17S7-1803). 

The period from 1787 to 1803 in the Northwest Territory was marked 
by several bitter conflicts with the Indians. Just as at the close of the French 
and Indian War had the PVcnch stirred up the Indians against the Americans, 
so at the close of the Revolutionary War did the English do the same. In 
fact the ^^'ar of 1812 was undoubtedly hastened by the depredations of the 
Indians, who were urged to malce forax's upon the frontier settlements in the 
Northwest Territor\- by the P>ritish. The various uiirisings of the Indians 
during this critical ])eriod greatly retarded the inllux of settlers in the new- 
territory, and were a constant menace to those hardy pioneers who difl ven- 
ture to establish homes north of the Ohio river. Three distinct campaigns 
were waged against the savages before they were finally subdued. The first 
campaign was under the command of Gen. Josiah Harmar (1790) and re- 
sulted in a decisive defeat for the whites. The second expedition was under 
the leadership of Gen. Arthur St. I'lair ( 171)1 ), the governor of the Territory, 
and was marked by one of the worst defeats e\er suffered by an .\merican 
army at the hands of the Indians. A lack of knowledge of Indian methods 
of warefare. combined with reckless mismanagement, sufficiently accounts for 
both disasters. It remained for (len. Anthony Wayne, the "Mad Anthony" 
of Revolutionary fame, to bring the Indians to terms. The battle of Fallen 
Timbers, which closed his campaign against the Indians, was fought August 
20, 17Q4, on the Alaumee river within the ])resent limits of Defiance coiuity. 
Ohio. This crushing defeat of the Indians, a rout in which they lost twelve 
out of thirteen chiefs, was so complete that the Indians were glad to sue for 
peace. On June ro, I7()5, delegates from the \arions Indian tribes, headed 



42 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Ijy their respecti\-e chiefs, met at Green\ille, Ohio, to formulate a treaty. A 
treaty wa.s finally consummated on August 3, signed by General Wayne on 
behalf of the United States and liy ninety chiefs and delegates of twelve 
interested tribes. Iliis treaty was faithfully kept by the Indians and ever 
afterwards Little Turtle, the real leader of the Indians at that time, was a 
true friend of the whites. \Vhile there were several sporadic forays on the 
I)art nf the Indians up to 1811, there was no battle of any importance with 
them until the battle of Tippecanoe in the fail of 181 1. 

ORGANIZATION OE THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY. , 

The first governor of the newly organized territory was Gen. Arthur 
St. Clair, a gallant soldier of the Re\-olution, who was appointed on October 
5, 1787, and ordered to report for dut\' on the first of the following February. 
He held the office until Novemlier 22. [H02. when he was dismissed by Presi- 
dent Jefferson "for the disorganizing spirit, and tendency of every example, 
violating tJie rules of conduct enjoined by his public station, as displayed in 
his address to the convention." The governor's duties were performed by 
his secretary, Charles W. Byrd, until March i, 1803, when the state oflicials 
took their office. The first judges appointed in 1787 ,were Samuel Holden 
Parsons. James Mitchell Varnum and John :\rmstrong. Before the time 
came for the judges to qualify, .\rmstrong resigned and John Cleves Symmes 
was appointed in his place. The first secretary was Winthrop Sargent, who 
lield the position until he was ajipointed governor of Mississippi Territory 
by the President on May 2, 1798. Sargent was succeeded by William Henry 
Harrison, who was appointed by the President on June 26, 1798, and con- 
firmed by the Senate two days later. Harrison was later elected as the first 
delegate of the organized Northwest Territor)- to Congress and the President 
then appointed Charles \\'illing Byrd as secretary of the Territory, Byrd's 
appointment 1)eing confirmed by the Senate on December 31, 1799. 

REPRESENTATIVE STAGE Ol" (lOXERNMENT ( 1799-1803). 

The Northwest Territory remained under the government of the first 
stage until September t6, 1799, when it advanced to the second or repre- 
sentative stage as the result of a census showing that it had the necessary 
population. In the summer of 1798 Governor St. Clair had ascertained 
that the territory had a population of at least five thousand free male inhabi- 
tants and. in accordance with the provisions of the Ordinance of 1787, was 



FAYhllh ll)L'.\TV, INDIANA. 4/^ 

ready to make the change in its tdnn nf _<;()\ernnieiU. ()n ()cliilier _'<), ijwS. 
the ,£;i)\ernor issued a pniclaniation to tlie qualilied \(itei-s of tlie territory 
directing tiieni to elioose nienil)er> for tlie lower Imuse of the lerritdrial 
Legislature at an eleetion to lie held on the third Monda\- of the followint^ 
Decemher. The twenty-two nienihers so eleeted met on januar\- id. ijijij. 
and, pursuant to the provisions of the Ordinance, selected the ten men from 
whom the I'resident of the I'nited States later cliose ti\e fur the Le^islati\e 
Council. They then adjourned to meet on Septenilter i(). I7i)(), hut since 
there was not a quorum on that day they held adjourned sessions until the 
J^rd, at which time a quorum was ]M-esent. 

.\t the time the chanjje in the form of .ti;o\ernment went into eti'ect there 
were only nine counties in the whole territory, and onl\- one, Knox, con- 
tained territory within the ])resent slate of Indiana. These counties had heen 
created either by the governor 
the nine counties organized hef 
the number of legislators ;q)|)o 



County. C 

Washington fuly 

Hamilton fam 

St. Clair \pr 

Knox Tunc JO. i-go . 

l\andol]ih October 5. 1793 

Wayne \ugust A. 1796 

.\dams lulv 10, 1707 . 

Jefferson July 2q. 1707 . 

Ross \ugust 20, 1708 



is secretar\-. 


The h 


i>llowing table gives 


;00 with the 


dates , 


if their creation and 


(1 to each l)y 


the g( 


)\ernor : 


)ateof 




Xumber of 


ation. 




representatives. 


7. T7S8 






rv 4 1 700 






-'7. I70n . . . 




I 



l-^TRST TERKI'IdRI \l. I.HiUSI.A'n ' Itl-; of .VOKT 1 1 WKSI' TICKKITOKN-. 

The twenty-two rei)resentati\es and ti\e councilors were the liist re])- 
resentati\e body to meet in the Northwest Territorw They re])resented a 
constitiienty scattered o\-er a terrrilory of more than t\\i> hundred and sixty- 
five thousand scfuare miles, an area greater than dermany or l'"rance, or even 
.\ustria-Hungary. It wcuild be interesting to tell something of the <lelibera- 
tions of these twent\--se\en sterling pioneers, but the linu't of the jiresent 
discussion forbids. It is necessary, howexer, to make mention of one im])or- 
tant thing which they did in view of the fact that it throws much light on the 
subsequent history of the Xorthwest Territory. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



DIVISION OF 1800. 



The Legislature was authorized to elect a delegate to Congress, and two 
candidates for the honor presented their names to the Legislature, William 




Henry Harrison and .\rthur St. Clair, Jr., the son of the governor. The 
Legislature, by a joint liallot on ()clo))er 3, 1799, elected Harrison b}- a vote 
of eleven to ten. The defeat of his son undoubtedly had considerable to do 
with the subse(|uent estrangement which arose between the governor and his 
Legislature and incidentally hastened the division of the Northwest Terri- 



FAYETTE COUNTV. INDIANA. 45 

tory. Within two years from tlie time tiie territurv liad ailvancol to tlu- 
second stage of government the division had taken iiiace. On May 7, iSoo, 
Congress passed an^act divichng the Xortliwest Territorv l)v a hne (h"a\vn 
from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Fort Recovery, in Alercer countv, 
Ohio, and thence due north to the boundary hne between the United States 
and Canada. Governor St. Clair favored the division because he thouglit it 
would delay the organization of a state and thus give him a longer lease on 
his position, although he did not favor the division as tinallv determined. He 
was constantly growing in disfavor with the people on account of his ()\er- 
bearing manner and he felt that he would get rid of some oi his bitterest 
enemies if the western inhabitants were set ofif into a new territory. How- 
ever, most of the credit for the division must be given to Harrison, who, as 
a delegate to Congress, was in a position to have the most influence. Har- 
rison was satisfied that in case a new territory should be formed he would be 
appointed its first governor and he was not disappointed. The territory west 
of the line above mentioned was immediately organized and designated as 
Indiana Territory, while the eastern portion retained the e.xisting go\-ern- 
ment and the old name — Northwest Territory. It is frequently overlooked 
that the Northwest Territory existed in fact and in name uj) until March i . 
1803, when Ohio became a state. 

CENSUS OF NORTHWEST TERRITORY IN 180O. 

The di\ision of 1800 left the Northwest Territory with onl\- about one- 
third of its original area. The census of the territory taken by the Cnited 
States government in 1800 showed it to have a total population of forty-flve 
thousand three hundred and sixty-five, which fell short by about fifteen thou- 
sand of being sufficient for the creation of a state as provided by the Ordi- 
nance of 1787, which fixed the minimum population at sixty thousand. The 
counties left in the Northwest Territory, vvitli their respective populations, 
are set forth in the ap|)ended table, all of which were witliin tiie present state 
of Ohio, except ^Vayne: 

Adams ,^'43- 

Hamilton i4/\3- 

Jefiferson 8,766 

Ross 8.540 

Trumbull '. i ,302 

Washington .S.4-'7 

Wayne 3.-06 

Total 4.T-3'^5 



46 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Ilie population as classified by the census with respect to age and sex is 
interesting and particularly so in showing that considerably more than one- 
third of the total population were children under ten years of age. 

Males. Females. 

Whites up to ten years of age 9.362 8,644 

Whites from ten to sixteen 3.647 3.353 

Whites from sixteen to twenty-six 4.636 3.861 

Whites from twenty- six to forty-five... 4,833 3,342 

Whites forty-fi\e and upward 1.955 '.395 



Total -24.433 ^0,595 



Total of both sexes 45,028 

Total of other persons, not Indians .... 337 



Grand total 45,365 

The above tables show in detail the character and distribution of the 
population of the Northwest Territory after the division of 1800. It is at 
this point that the history of Indiana properly begins and it is pertinent to set 
forth witli as much detail as possible the population of Indiana Territory at 
that time. The population of 5,6.4 1 was grouped about a dozen or more 
settlements scattered at wide intervals throughout the territory. The follow- 
ing table gives the settlements in Indiana Territory in 1800 with their respec- 
tive number of inhabitants: 

Mackinaw, in northern Michigan 251 

Green Bay, Wisconsin 50 

Prairie du Chien. Wisconsin 65 

Cahokia, Monroe county, Illinois 719 

Belle Fontaine, Monroe county. Illinois 286 

L".\igle, St. Clair county. Illinois 250 

Kaskaskia, Randolph county, Illinois 467 

Prairie du Rocher, Randolph county. Illinois 212 

Settlement in Mitchel township, Randolph county, 111 334 

Fort Massac, southern Illinois 90 

Clark's Grant. Clark county. Indiana . . . ., 929 

Vincennes. Knox county. Indiana 714 

Vicinity of Vincennes (traders and trappers) 819 

Traders and trappers at Ouitenon and Fort Wayne 155 

Fur traders, scattered along the lakes 300 



FAYETTK COVN'IV, INDIANA. 4/ 

']'his total iiopulation of nearly six thousand was about equally (li\i(le(l 
between what is now Indiana and Illinois. There were one hundred and 
sixty-three free negroes reported, while there were one hundred and thirty- 
tive slaves of color. I'ndoubtedly, this census of 1800 failed to give all of 
the slave population. It is interesting to note that there were efforts to 
enslave the Indian as well as the negro, but statistics are not available to show 
the extent of the effort. 

.\11 of these settlements, with the exce])tion of the one in Clark's (Irani, 
were largely French. The settlement at Jeffersonville was made in large 
part by soldiers of the Rexolutionary War and was the only real .\merican 
settlement in Indiana Territory when it was organized in 1800. 

FIRST st.\c;k of TKRurroKi.M, (;o\i-;kxmfxt. 

The .government of Indiana Territory was formally organized July 4. 
1800, and in a large book, now in the secretary of state's office at Indianajiolis, 
there appears in the large legible hjind of John Gibson thfe account of tlie first 
meeting of the officials of the Territory. It reads as follows: 

"St. Vincennes, July 4, 1800. This day the government of the Indiana 
Territory commenced, \\'illiam Henry Harrison having been api)ointed 
.governor, John Gibson, secretary, ^^'illiam Clarke, Henr\- Vanderburgh \- 
John Griffin Judges in and over said Territory," 

L'ntil Governor Harrison a])peared at Vincennes, his secretar\ , John 
(jibson, acted as governor. The first territorial court met March .^. 1801, 
the first session of the governor and judges having convened on the i Jth of 
the preceding January. The governor and judges, in accordance with the 
provisicMis of the Ordinance of 1787. continued to ]>erform all le,gislati\e and 
judicial functions of the territor\- until it was advanced to the representative 
.stage of government in 180.S. The governor had sole executive jiower and 
appointed all officials, territorial and county. 

CHANGES IN BOfXDAKY LIMITS OF INDI.VNA. 

During this period from 1800 to 180.S, the territ(jry ni Indiana was con- 
siderably augmented as a result of the organization of the state of ( )hio in 
1803. At that date Ohio was given its present territorial limits, and all of 
the rest of the Northwest Territor\- was included within Indiana Territory 
from this date until 180.S. During this interim Louisiana was divided and 
the northern part was attached to Indiana Territor\- for purposes of ci\il and 



48 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 
-7- 




BY EUXEST \'. SHOCKI.EY. 



FAYETTK COUNTY. INDIANA. 49 

criminal jurisdiction. Tliis was, howex'er. only a teniiiorary arran.t^cnient. 
lasting- about a year after the purchase of Louisiana from l-^-ance. The 
next change in the limits of Indiana Territory occurred in 1S05. in which 
year the territory of Alichigan was set off. The southern line of Alichigan 
was made tangent to the soutiiern extreme of Lake Michigan, and it so 
remained until Indiana was admitted to the L'nion in iSi(). i'Vom 1S05 
to 1809 Indiana included all of the present states of Indiana, Illinois. Wiscon- 
sin, about one-third of Minnesota and a small portion of Michigan, in the 
latter year Illinois was set off as a territory and Indiana was left with its 
])resent limits with the exception of a ten-mile strip along the northern 
boundary. This stri]) was detached from Michigan in tXi6 and this subse- 
(|uently led to friction between the two states which was not settled until 
the United States government ga\e Michigan a large tract of land west of 
Lake Michigan. Thus it is seen how Indiana has receixed its present bound- 
ar\' limits as the result of the successive changes in rSo:;. 1803. [8og and 
1816. 

si-:co\M) sTAr.K ok territoriai covkrx.mknt ( 1803-1816.) 

The Ordinance of \-/?'j provided that whenever the population of the 
territory reaclliedTive thousand free male inhabitants it should \-ote u])on the 
(|uestion of advancing to the second or representati\-e stage. Goxernor Har- 
rison issued a proclamation .\ugusl 4, 1804. directing an election to be held 
in the various counties of Indiana territory on the nth of the following" 
month. In the entire territory, then comprehending six counties, there were 
tmly three hundred and ninety-one votes cast. The following table gives 
the result of this election : 

County. i'or .\d\ance. .\gainst .\d\ance. Total. 

Clark 35 13 48 

Dearborn o 26 26 

Knox 103 12 173 

Randolph 40 21 61 

St. Clair 22 59 8r 

Wayne o o o 

Total 2(<o 131 391 

It will be noticed that there is no \iite returned from Wayne and this is 
accounted for bv the fact that the proclamation notifving the sheriff of that 
(4) 



50 



FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 




Indiana on June 30, 1805, 
when Michigan was set off 
as a separate territory. 



BY EKNEST X. SHOCKI.EY. 



FAYETTF COUNTY. INDIANA. 5I 

county was not received in time to gi\e it tlie proper advertisement. Wayne 
count}' at that time included practically all of the present state of Michigan 
and is not to be confused with the Wayne county later formed within the 
present limits of Indiana. As result of this election and its majority of one 
hundred and twenty-nine in favor of advancing- to the second stage of gov- 
ernment, the governor issued a proclamation calling for an election on Janu- 
ar}' 3, 1805, for nine representati\ es, the same being apportioned to the 
counties as follows: Wayne, three; Knox, two: Dearborn, Clark, Randolph 
and St. Clair, one each. The members of the first territorial Legislature 
of Indiana convened at X'incennes on July _'<;, 1805. The members of the 
house \\ere as follows; Dr. Ceorge 1^'isher, of Randolph; William Beggs 
and Shadrach Bond, of St. Clair; Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of 
Knox ; Da\is Floyd, of Clark, and Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn. This 
gives, however, onh' seven representatives, Wayne county ha\ing been set 
off as the territory of Michigan in the spring of this same year. .\ re-a])por- 
tionment was made b}- the goxernor in order to bring the quota of re])re- 
sentati\es u)) to the required number. 

The T^egislative Council consisted of five men as provided by the Ordin- 
ance of 1787, namely; Benjamin Chambers, of Dearborn; Sanuiel (nv.'itb- 
mey, of Clark; John Rice Jones, of Knox; Pierre Menard, of Randolph, and 
Tohn Hay, of St. Clair. It is not possible in this connection to give a detailed 
history of the territory of Indiana from 1805 until its admission to the Union 
in i8t6. Readers who wish to make a study of our .state's history can find 
volumes which will treat the history of the state in a much better manner 
than is possible in a brief summary of this character. It may be noted thai 
there were five general assemblies of the Territorial Legislature during this 
period of eleven vears. Each one of the five general assemblies was divided 
into two sessions, which, with the dates of convening, are given in the 
appended summary : 

First General .As.sembly — h'irst session, July _'(). 1805; second session. 
Xovember 7,, t8o6. 

Second General .\ssembly — JMrst session. August 12, 1807; second 
session, Se])teniber 26, 1808. 

Third (leneral .Assembly — l-'irst sessinu, Xovember u, 1810; second 
session. .Xovember 12, 181 i. 

Fourth General Assembly — b'irst session, February i, 1813: second 
.session, December 6. 181 3. 

b'ifth General Assembly — First session. August 15. 1814: second session, 
December 4, 181 5. 



52 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATES OE INDIANA TERRITORY. 

Indiana Territory was allowed a delegate in Congress from 1805 until 
the close of the territorial period. The first three delegates were elected by 
the Territorial T..egislature, while the last four were elected by the qualified 
voters of the territory. The first delegate was Benjamin Parke, who was 
elected to succeed himself in 1807 over John Rice Jones, Waller Taylor and 
Shadrach Bond. Parke resigned March i, 1808, to accept a seat on the 
supreme judiciary of Indiana Territory, and remained on the supreme bench 
of Indiana after it was admitted to the Union, holding the position until his 
death at Salem, Indiana, July 12, T835. Jesse B. Thomas was elected Octo- 
l)er 22, t8o8, to succeed Parke as delegate to Congress. It is this same 
Thomas who went to Brookville in 1808 with .-Xmos Butler. He was a 
tricky, .shifty, and, so his enemies said, an unscrupulous politician. Pie was 
later elected to Congress in Illinois and became the author of the Missouri 
Compromise. In the spring of 1809 the inhabitants of the territory were 
permitted to cast their first vote for the delegate to Congress. Three candi- 
dates presented themselves for the consideration of the voters, Jonathan 
Jennings, Thomas Randolph and John Johnson. There were onl\- four 
counties in the state at this time, Knox. Harrison, Clark and Dearborn. Two 
counties, St. Clair and Randolph, were a part of the new territory of Illinois 
which was cut off from Indiana Territory in the spring of 1809. The one 
newspaper of the territory waged a losing fight against Jennings, tlie latter 
appealing for support on the ground of his anti-slavery views. The result 
of the election was as follows: Jennings, 428: Randolph, 402; Johnson, 81. 
Jonathan Jennings may be said to be the first successful politician produced 
in Indiana. His congressional career began in 1809 and he was elected to 
Cxjngress four successive terms before 18 16. He was president of the con- 
stitutional convention of 18 16, first governor of the state and was elected a 
.second time, but resigned to go to Congress, where he was sent for four more 
terms by the voters of his district. 

EEEORTS TO ESTABLISH Sr.AVERY IN INDIANA. 

The Ordinance of 1787 specifically provided that neither slavery nor 
invt>luntary ser\-itude should ever exist in the Northwest Territory. Notwith- 
.standing this prohibition, slavery actually did exist, not only in the North- 
west Territory, but in the sixteen years while Indiana was a territory as well. 
The Constitution of Indiana in 18 16 expressly forbade slavery and yet the 



■AYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 



census of 1820 reported one hundred and ninet\' slaves in Indiana, which 
was only forty-seven less than there was in rSio. Most of these slaves were 




Indiana Territory 
after February 3, 
1809, .hen Illlnol 



HY ERNEST X. SHOCKLEY. 



held in the southwestern counties of the state, there being one hundred and 
eighteen in Knox, thirty in Gibson, eleven in Posey, ten in Vanderburgh and 



54 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the remainder widely scattered throughout the state. As late as 1817 Frank- 
lin count)' scheduled slaves for taxation, listing- them at three dollars each. 
The tax schedule for 181 3 says that the property tax on "horses, town lots, 
servants of color and free males of color shall be the same as in 1814." 
Franklin county did not return slaves at the census of 1810 or 1820, but the 
above extract from the commissioners' record of Franklin county proved con- 
clusively that slaves were held there. Whether any of these slaves in Frank- 
lin county were in that part detached in 181 9 to form a part of Fayette is 
not known. No record has been found to show that slaves were ever held 
in Fayette county after its organization. Congress was petitioned on more 
than one occasion dtiring the territorial period to set aside the prohibition 
against slavery, but on each occasion refused to assent to the appeal of the 
slaverv advocates. While the constitutional convention of 181 6 was in 
session, there was an attempt made to introduce a provision permitting the 
holding of slaves, but the effort failed. 

THE INDIAN LANDS. 

The United States government bought from the Indians all of the land 
within the present state of Indiana with the exception of the Vincennes and 
Clark grants. The first purchase of land was made in 1795, at which time 
a triangular strip in the southeastern part of the state was secured by the 
treaty of Greenville. Bv the time Indiana was admitted to the L'nion in 
1816, the following tracts had been purchased: Vincennes tract, June 7, 
1803: Vincennes treaty tract. .August iS and 27, 1804: Grouseland tract, 
August 21. 1805; Harrison's purchase, September 30, 1809: Twelve-mile 
purchase, .September 30, 1809. 

X'o more purchases were made from the Indians until the fall of 18 18, 
at which time a large tract of land in the central part of the state was pur- 
chased from the Indians. This tract, known in Indiana history as the "New 
Purchase," included all of the land north of the Indian boundary lines of 
1805 and 1809. and south of the Wabash river with the exception of what 
was known as the Miami reservatidu. This treaty, known as St. .Mary's, 
was tinallv signed on October 6, t8i8, and the next Legislature proceeded 
to divide it into two counties, Wabash and Delaware. 

ORGANIZATION OF COUNTIES. 

.As fast as the population would warrant, new counties were established 
in this New Purchase and Favette county was the first to be so organized ' 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIAN. 



which inckuled any portion ot it. 'I1ii.>^ count}- was ere; 
act of December j8, i8i8. and 1)e_<;"an its fdrnial carei 



hy the legislative 
. an in(le])cn(lent 




The map also 
ail Indian ces- 
made previously. 



BY KKNKST V 



county on the ist of the foll^winj^- month. Imh" purpose of reference, a list of 
tlie counties organized u]) until 1819, when I-'ayette comity was established, is 



56 FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 

here appended. The dates given represent the time when the organization 
of the county became effective, since in many instances it was from a few- 
months to as much as seven years after the act estabhshing- the county was 
passed before it became efifective. 

1. Knox June 20, 1790 [6. SulHvan Jan. 15, 1817 

2. Clark Feb. 3. 1801 17. Jennings Feb. 1,1817 

3. Dearborn Mch. 7, 1803 18. Pike Feb. i, 1817 

4. Harrison Dec. i, 1808 [9. Daviess Feb. 15, 1817 

5. Jefferson Feb. i, 181 1 20. Dubois Feb. i, 1818 

6. Franklin Feb. i, 1811 21. Spencer Feb. i, 1818 

7. Wayne Feb. i, t8ii 22. Vanderburgh . . . .Feb. 1, 1818 

8. Warrick Apr. 1,1813 -\H- Vigo Feb. 15, 1818 

9. Gibson Apr. 1,1813 24. Crawford Mch. 1,1818 

10. Wasliington Jan. 17, 1814 25. Lawrence Mch. i, 1818 

11. Switzerland Oct. i, 1814 26. Monroe Apr. 10. 1818 

12. Posey Nov. i, 1814 2y. Ripley Apr. 10, 1818 

13. Perry Nov. i, 1814 2'^. Randolph Aug. 10, 1818 

14. Jackson Jan. i, 1816 29. Owen Jan. i, 1819 

15. Orange Feb. i, 1816 30. Fayette Jan. i, 1819 

The first tiiirteen counties in the above list were all that were organized 
when the territory of Indiana petitioned Congress for an enabling act in 181 5. 
They were in the southern part of the state and had a total population of 
sixty-three thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven. At that time the total 
state tax was only about fi\'e tliousand dollars, while the assessment of the 
whole state in 1816 amounted to onlv six thousand forty-three dollars and 
thirty-six cents. 

CHANGES IN THE CONSTITUTION OF INDI.AN.A. 

The Constitution of 1S16 was framed by forty-three delegates who met 
at Corydon from June 10 to June 29 of that year. It was provided in the 
Constitution of 1816 diat a vote might be taken every twelve years on tlie 
<|uestion of amending, revising or writing a wholly new instrument of gov- 
ernment. Altliough several efforts were made to hold constitutional conven- 
tions between 1816 and 1850. the vote failed each time until 1848. Flections 
were held in 1823, 1828, 1840 and 1846, but each time there was returned 
an adverse vote against the calling of a constitutional convention. There were 
no amendments to the 1816 Constitution, ahhough the revision of 1824, h\ 



FNVETTr. COUNTY, INUIAX. 




INDIANA AS IT APPEAKEI) IN 1S15, WHKN IT APl'LIKI) FOJ{ ADMISSION TO 
THE UNION. 

BY ERNEST V. SHOCKLEY. 



58 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

William Hendricks was so thorough that it was said that the Governor had 
done as much as a constitutional convention could have done. 

It was not until 1848 that a successful vote on the question of calling a 
constitutional convention vi'as carried. There were many reasons which in- 
duced the people of the state to favor a convention. Among these may be 
mentioned the following: The old Constitution provided that all the state 
officers except the go\ernor and lieutenant-governor should be elected by the 
Legislature. Many of the county and township officers were appointed by 
the county commissioners. .Vgain, the old Constitution ,attempted to handle 
too man}- matters of local concern. All di\-orces from 1816 to 1848 were 
granted b\' the Legislature. Special laws were passed which would apply to 
])articular counties and even to particular tt)wnships in the county. If Nobles- 
ville wanted an alley vacated or a street closed, it had to appeal to the Legis- 
lature for permission to do so. If a man wanted to ferry people across a 
stream in Posey county, his representatixe i)resented a bill to the Legislature 
asking that the proposed ferryman l)e gi\en permission to ferry people across 
the stream. The agitation for free scliools attracted the support of the edu- 
cated people of tlie state, and most of the newspapers were outspoken in their 
advocacy of better educational privileges. The desire for better schools, for 
the election of state and county officials by the voters, for less interference by 
the Legislature in local aft'airs, led to a desire on the part of majority of the 
])eople of the state for a new Constitution. 

The second constitutional convention of Indiana met at Indianapolis, 
■Octol)er 7, 1850, and continued in session for four months. The one hun- 
dred and fifty delegates labored faithfully to give the state a Constitution 
full}- abreast of the times and in accordance with the best ideas of the day. 
More power was given the people by allowing them to select not only all of 
the state officials, but also their county officers as well. The convention of 
1850 took a decided stand against the negro and proposed a referendum on 
the question of prohibiting the further emigration of negroes into the state. 
The subsequent vote on this question showed that the people were not dis- 
posed to tolerate the colored race. .\s a matter of fact no negro or mulatto 
could legally come into Indiana from 1832 until 18S1. when the restriction 
was removed by an amendment to the Constitution. Another important 
featm-e of the new Constitution was the ])ro\-ision for free schools. AVhat 
Ave now know as a public school, supported at the expense of the state, was 
unknown under the 1816 Constitution. The new Constitution established a 
s}-stem of free public schools, and subsequent statutory legislation strength- 
ened the constitutional prox'ision so that the state now ranks among the lead- 



KAyr.TTK COL'NTY. INDIANA. 59 

eis in educational matters througliout the nation. The people of the slate 
had voted on the question of free schools in 1848 and had decided that the\ 
should be established, but there was such a strong minority opjiosed to tiiem 
tiiat nothing was done. Orange county gave only an eight per cent, vote in 
favor of free schools, while Putnam and Monroe, containing DePauw and 
Indiana I'niversities, resjiectively, voted adversely hy large majorities. lUit. 
with the backing of the Constitution, tlie ad\'ocates of free schools began to 
l)ush the fight for their establishment, and as a result of the legislative acts 
of 1835. 1857 and 1867, the public schools were placed upon a sound basis. 
Such in brief were the most important features of the 1852 Constitution. 
It has remained substantially to this day as it was written sixty-five >ears 
ago. It is true there have been some amendments, but the changes of 1878 
and 1 88 1 did not alter the Constitution in any important particular. There 
was no concerted effort toward calling a constitutional convention until the 
Legislature of 191 3 provided for a referendum on the question at the polls, 
November 4, 19 14. Despite the fact that all the ix)litical parties had declared 
in favor of a constitutional convention in their platforms, the question was 
voted down by a large majority. .\n efYort was made to have the question 
submitted by the Legislature of 191 5, but the Legislature refused to submit 
the question to the voters of the state. The Legislature of 19 17, however, 
passed an act authorizing the calling of a constitutional convention. The 
election of the one hundred and ten delegates will be held September 2(k 1917. 
and the con\-ention will meet in January, 19 18. 



The present state of Indiana was comprehended within the Northwest 
Territory from 1787 to 1800, and during that time the capital was located 
within the present state of Ohio. When the Ordinance of 1787 was jnit in 
operation on July 17, 1788, the capital was established at Marietta, the name 
being chosen by the directors of the Ohio Company on July 2, of the same 
year. The name Marietta was selected in honor of the French Queen, Marie 
Antoinette, compounded by curious combination of the first and last syllables 
of her name. 

When Indiana was set oft by the act of May 7, 1800. the same act 
kicated the capital at \'incennes where it remained for nearh thirteen years. 
The old building in which the Territorial Assembly first met in 1803 is still 
standing in \'incennes. In the spring of 1813 the cajjital of the territory 
T^as moved to Corydon and it was in that cpiaint little village that the first 



6o FAYETTE COX'NTY, INDIANA. 

session of the Indiana Legislature convened on November 4, 1816. It 
remained there until November, 1824. when Samuel Merrill loaded up all 
of the state's effects in three large wagons and hauled them overland to 
the new capital — Indianapolis. Indianapolis had been chosen as the seat 
of government by a committee of ten men, appointed in 1820 by the Legis- 
lature. It was not until 1824, however, that a building was erected in the 
new capital which wovild accommodate the state officials and the General 
Assembly. The first court house in Marion county was built on the site 
of the present building, and was erected with a view of utilizing it as a 
state house until a suitable capitol building could be erected. The state 
continued to use the Marion county court house until 1835, by which time an 
imposing state house had been erected. This building was in use until 1877, 
when it was razed to make way for the present imposing building. 

MILITARY HISTORY. 

Indiana has had some of its citizens in four wars in which United States 
has 'engaged since 1800: The War of 181 2, the Mexican War, the Civil 
War, and the Spanish-American War. One of the most important engage- 
ments ever fought against the Indians in tiie United States was that of the 
battle of Tippecanoe, November 7, 181 1. For the two or three years pre- 
ceding, Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, had been getting the Indians 
ready for an uprising. Tecumseh made a long trip throughout the west- 
ern and southern part of the United States for the purpose of getting the 
Indians all (U-er the country to rise up and drive out the white man. While 
he was still in the South, Governor Harrison descended upon the Indians at 
Tippecanoe and dealt them a blow from which they never recovered. The 
British had been urging the Indians to rise up against the settlers along the 
frontier, and the repeated depredations of the savages but increased the hos- 
tility of the United States toward England. General Harrison had about 
seven hundred fighting men, while the Indians numbered over a thousand. 
The .\mericans lost thirty-seven by death on the battlefield, twenty-five were 
mortally wounded and one hundred and twenty-six more or less seriously 
wounded. The savages carried most of their dead away, but it is known that 
about forty were actually killed in the battle and a proportionately large num- 
ber wounded. In addition to the men who fought at Ti])pecanoe, the pio- 
neers of the territory sent their (|uota to the front during the War of 181 2. 
Unfortunately, records are not available to show the enlistment by counties. 

During the administration of Governor Whitcomb (1846-49) the United 



FWl.TTK CorXTV. INDIWA. 6l 

States was engaged in a' war with .Mexico. Indiana cunlrihuled live regi- 
ments to the government ihnang tliis struggle, and her tr()(i[)s perfurnied with 
a spirit of singular promptness and patriotism iluring all the time thev were 
at the front. 

Xo Northern state had a nmre i)atrit)tic go\ ernor during the Civil War 
than Indiana, and had e\ery goverudr in the North (k)ne his dul\ as eoiiseien- 
tiously as did Goverudr Morton that terribly struggle would undduhtedly 
have been materiallx- .shortened. When President Lineoln issued his call i m 
April 15. r86i. for 75.000 volunteers. Indiana was asked to furnisii 4.6f<3 
men as its quota. A week later there were no less than 12,000 volunteers 
at Camp Morton at Indianapolis. This loyal uprising was a tribute to the 
])atriotism of the people, and accounts for the fact that Indiana sent nmre 
than joo.ooo men to the front during the war. Indiana furnished i)rae- 
tically seventy-five per cent, of its total poijulatidu eajrable nf bearing arms. 
and on this basis Delaware was the only state in the Union which exceeded 
Indiana. Of the troops sent from Indiana, 7,-'43 were killed or mortally 
wounded, and iy.4-'9 died from other causes, making a total death lo>^ of 
over thirteen per cent, for all the troops furnished. 

During the summer of 1863 Indiana was thrown into a frenzy of excite- 
ment when it was learned that General Morgan had crossed the Ohio with 
J, 000 cavalrymen under his command. Probably Indiana never experienced 
a more exciting month than Jul\- of that year. Morgan entered the state in 
Harrison county and adxanced northward through Corydon to Salem in 
Washington county. As his men went along they robbed orchards, looted 
farm houses, stole all the horses which the\ could find and burned consider- 
able property. bVom Salem, Morgan turned with his men to the east, having 
been deterred from his threatenecl advance on Indianapolis by the knowled.ge 
that the local militia of the state would soon be too strong for him. He hur- 
ried with his men toward the Ohio line, stopping at Versailles long enough 
to loot the county treasury. Morgan ])as,sed through Dearborn county over 
into Ohio, near Harrison, and a few days later, he and most of his band 
were captured. 

During the latter part of the war there was considerable opposition to 
its prosecution on the ])art of the Democrats of this state. .\n organization 
known as the Knights of the fiolden (."ircle at first, .•nid later as the Sons of 
Liberty, was instrumental in stirring up much trouble throughout the state. 
Probably historians will never be able to agree as to the degree of their 
culpabilit\- in thwarting the govermiient authorities in the conduct of the war. 



62 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

That they did many overt acts cannot be questioned and that they collected 
arms for traitorous designs cannot be denied. The famous battle of Pogue's 
Run was the result of the activities of this secret organization. Governor Mor- 
ton and General Carrington, by a system of close espionage, were able to know 
at all times just what was transpiring in the councils of these orders. In the 
campaign of 1864 there was an open denunciation through the Republican 
press of the Sons of Liberty. On October 8 of that year the Republican news- 
papers carried these startling headlines: "You can rebuke this treason. The 
traitors intend to bring war to your liome. Meet them at the ballot box 
while (irant and Sherman meet them on the liattle-field." A number of the 
leaders were arrested, convicted in a military court and sentenced to be .shot. 
However, they were later pardoned by the President. 

The 'Spanish- American War of 1898 was the next one in which troops 
from Indiana pla3-ed a part. When President McKinley issued a call for 
75,000 volunteers on April 25, 1898, Indiana was called upon to furnish 
three regiments. War was officially declared April 25, and formally came 
to an end bv the signing of a protocol on August 12 of the same year. 
The main engagements of importance were the sea battles of Manila and 
Santiago and the land engagements of El Caney and San Juan Hill. Accord- 
ing to the treaty of Paris, signed December 12, 1898, Spain relinquished 
her sovereignty over Cuba, ceded to the United States Porto Rico and her 
other West India Island possessions, as well as the island of Guam, in the 
Pacific. Spain also transferred her rights in the Philippines for the sum of 
twentv million dollars paid to her for jxihlic works and improvemssnts con- 
structed by the Spanish government. 

In 1916 Indiana sent three regiments to the Mexican front, but none 
of them saw fighting service. Tiie last two regiments were ordered back 
to the state in February, 191 7. 

POLITICAL HISTORY. 

It is not possible to trace in detail the political history of Indiana for the 
])ast centurx- and in this connection an attempt is made only to survey it 
brief! v. l'"or more than half a century Indiana has been known as a pivotal 
state in politics. In 1816 there was only one political party and Jennings, 
Noble, Taylor, Hendricks and all of the politicians of that day were grouped 
into this one — the Democratic party. Whatever dififerences in views they 
might ha\e held were due to local issues and not to any questions of national 
portent. Chiestions concerning the improvements of rivers, the building of 



KAVKITK COr.NTY. INDIAXA. 63 

canals, the reiiio\-al of a>urt houses aiul similar (|uesti<ins of stale and eountv 
importance divided the politicians in the early history of Indiana into <;rou])^. 
There was one group known as the White Water faction, another called 
the Vincennes crowd, and still another designated as the White River dele- 
gation. I'Voni 1816 until as late as iS^J, Indiana was the scene of personal 
politics, and (.luring the years .\dams. ( 'la\- and Jackson were candidates 
for the presidency on the same ticket, men were known politically as .\dams 
men. Clay men or j.ackson men. The election returns in the twenties and 
thirties disclose no tickets laheled Democrat. Whig or Republican, hut instead 
the words "Adams," "Clay," or "Jackson." 

The question of internal improvements which arose in the Legislature 
of 1836 was a large contributing factor in the division of the politicians of 
the state. The Whig party ma\' be dated from 1832, although it was not 
until four years later that it came into national |5rominence. The Democrats 
elected the state officials, including the go\ernor, down to 1831, but in that 
year the opposition i)arty. later called the Whigs, elected Xoah Noble gov- 
ernor. h"or the ne.xt twelve years the W'higs, with their cry of internal 
improvements, controlled the state. The Whigs went out of power with 
Samuel Rigger in 1843, and when they came into power again they appeared 
under the name of Republican in t8Cii. Since the Civil War the two parties 
ha\e practically divided the leadership between them, there having been eight 
Republicans and six Democrats elected governor of the state. The following 
table gives a list of the governors of the Northwest Territory, Indiana Terri- 
tcn-y and the state of Indiana. The b'ederalists were in control up to 1800 
and Harrison antl his followers ma\- be classed as Democratic-Republicans. 
The politics of the go\ernors of the state are indicated in the table. 

GOVEKNOKS OF INDIANA. 

Of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio — 

Arthur St. Clair 1787-1800 

( )f the Territory of Indiana — 

John Cibson (acting! July 4, 1800-1801 

William H. Harri.son 1801-1812 

Thomas Posey 1812-1816 

Of the State of Indiana — 

Jonathan Jennings, Dem. 1816-1822 

Ratliff Boon (acting), Dem Sept. 12 to Dec. 5, 1822 

William Hendricks, Dem. 1822-182=; 



64 FAYETTF. COUNTY, INDIANA. 

James B. Ray (acting), Dem. Feb. 12 to Dec. 11, 1825 

James B. Ray, Dem. 1825-1831 

Noah Noble, Whig 1831-1837 

David Wallace, Whig 1837-1840 

Samel Bigger, Whig . 1840-1843 

James Whitcomb, Dem. 1843-1848 

Paris C. Dunning (acting), Dem. 1848- 1849 

Joseph A. Wright, Dem. 1849-1857 

Ashbel P. Willard, Dem. 1857-1860 

Abraham A. Hammond (acting), Dem. 1860-1861 

Henry S. Lane, Rep. . January 14 to January 16, 1861 

Oliver P. Morton (acting), Rep. 1861-1865 

Oliver P. Morton, Rep. 1865-1867 

Conrad Baker (acting). Rep. 1867-1869 

Conrad Baker, Rep. 1869-1873 

Thomas A. Hendricks, Dem. -1873-1877 

James D. Williams, Dem. 1877-1880 

Isaac P. Cray (acting), Dem 1 880-1 881 

Albert G. Porter, Rep. 1881-1885 

Isaac P. Gray, Dem. 1885-1889 

Alvin P. Hovey, Rep. 1889-1891 

Ira J. Chase (acting). Rep Nov. 24, 1891, to Jan. 9, 1893 

Claude Matthews, Dem. , 1893-1897 

James A. Mount, Rep. 1897-1901 

Winfield T. Durbin, Rep. 1901-1905 

J. Frank Hanh', Rep. 1905-1909 

Thomas R. Marshall, Dem. 1909-1913 

Samuel M. Ralston, Dem 1913-1917 

James P. Goodrich, Rep. 1917- 

A CENTURY OF GROWTH. 

Indiana was the first territory and the second state created out of the 
old Northwest Territorw It has just celebrated its one hundred anniversary, 
and it becomes the purpose of the historian in this connection to give a brief 
survey of what these one hundred \ears have done for the state. There 
has been no change in territorial limits, I)ut the original territorv has been 
subdivided into counties year by year, as the poinilation warranted, until from 



FWETTK Cm'NTY. INDIANA. 65 

thirteen counties in 1816 the state grew to ninety-two counties in 1859. I'^nmi 
18 16 to 1840 new counties were organized every year with the exception 
of one year. Starting in with a papulation of 5.64 1 in 1800, Indiana has 
increa.sed by leaps and bounds and in itjio had a population of two million 
seven hundred thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. The appended table 
is interesting in showing the growth of po])ulation by decades since 1800: 

Census Decades. f'o])ulation. Increase. I'ct. of Inc. 

1800 5.041 

1810 -'4.3-0 18,879 334-7 

1820 147.17-^ 122,658 500.2 

1 830 343.03 1 195.853 • ii- • 

1840 hS-:..H'V, 34-^.835 99-9 

1850 988.416 302,550 44-1 

i860 1.350.4-8 362,012 36.6 

1870 1,680,637 330.209 24.5 

1880 1,978.301 297,664 17.7 

1890 2,192,404 214.T03 10.8 

1900 2,516,462 3-^4.058 14-8 

1910 2,700.876 184,414 7.3 

.Statistics are usually \ery dr\- and uninteresting, but tliere are a few- 
figures which are at least instructive if not interesting, b^ir instance, in i(;io. 
1,143,835 people of Indiana lived in cities and towns of more than 2,500. 
There were 822,434 voters, and 580,557 men between the ages of eighteen and 
forty- four were eligible for military service. The interesting book of statistics 
from which these figures are taken, covering e\ery phase of the growth of the 
state, is the biennial report of the state statistician. 

The state has increaserl in wealth as well as population and the total stale 
tax of six thousand forty-three dollars and thirty-six cents of i8i() increased 
in roi6 to more than six nn'llion. In 181(1 the only factories in the state were 
grist- and saw-mills; all of the clothing, fiu-nitm-e and most of the farming tools 
were made bv the pioneers themsehes. .\t that time tlie farmer was his <i\\n 
doctor, his own blacksmidi. Ins own lawyer, bis own dentist and, if be had 
divine services, he had to be the preacher. But now it is changed. The spin- 
ning wheel finds its resting place in the attic; a score of occupations ha\e arisen 
to satisfv the manifold wants of the farmer. Millions of dollars are now in- 
vested in factories, other millions are invested in steam and electric roads, still 
other millions in jniblic utilitv i)lants of all kinds. The governor now receives 
(5) 



66 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

a larger salary than did all the state officials put together in 1816, while the 
county slieriff has a salary which is more than double the compensation allowed 
the first governor of the state. 

Indiana is rich in natural resources. It not only has millions of acres of 
good farming land, but it has had fine forests in the past. From the timber 
of its woods have been built the homes for the past one hundred years and, if 
rightly conserved, there is timber for many years yet to come. The state has 
beds of coal and quarries of stone which are not surpassed in any state in the 
Union. For many years natural gas was a boon to Indiana manufacturing. 
but it was used so extravagantly that it soon became exhausted. Some of the 
largest factories of their kind in the country are to be found in the Iloosier 
state. The steel works at Gary employs tens of thousands of men and are 
constantly increasing in importance. .\t Elwood is the largest tin plate fac- 
tory in the world, while Evansville boasts of the largest cigar factory in the 
world. At South Bend the Studebaker and Oliver manufacturing plants turn 
out millions of dollars worth of goods every year. When it is known that 
over half of the population of the state is now living in towns .and cities, it 
must be readily seen that farming is no longer the sole occupation. 

A system of railroads has been built which brings every corner of the 
state in close touch with Indianapolis. In fact, tvery county seat but four is 
in railroad connection with the capital of the state. Since iQOO electric lines 
have been built all over the state, no less than nine lines radiating from Indi- 
anapolis. Every county has its local telephone systems, its rural free deliveries 
and its good roads unifying the various parts of the county. All of this 
makes for better civilization and a happier and more contented people. 

Indiana prides herself on her educational system. With sixteen thousand 
public and parochial school teachers, with three state institutions of learning, a 
score of church schools of all kinds as well as private institutions of learning. 
Indiana stands high in educational circles. The state maintains universities 
at Bloomington and Lafayette and a normal school at Terre Haute. ^lany of 
the churches have schools supported in part by their denominations, 'i'he 
Catholics have the largest Catholic university in the United States at Notre 
Dame, while St. Mary's of the Woods at Terre Haute is known all over the 
world, .\cademies under Catholic supervision are maintained at Indianapolis, 
Terre Haute, F"ort Wayne, Rensselaer, St. Meinrad, Jasper and Oldenburg. 
The Methodists have institutions at DePauw. Moore's Hill and U])land. The 
Presbyterian schools are Wabash and Hanover Colleges. The Christian 
church is in control of Butler and Merom Colleges. Concordia at Ft. Wayne 
is one of the largest Lutheran schools in the United States. The Quakers 



-FAYKTTK COUNTY. INDIANA. 67 

support l"~ailliam College, as well as academies at i'ainnount. Bloominf^dale, 
Plaintield and Spiceland. The Baptists are in cliari^e of Kranklin College, 
wliile the Cnited ihethren give their allegiance to Indiana Central University 
at Indianapolis. The Seventh-Day .Kdventists have a school at Boggstown. 
The Dunkards at North Manchester and the Mennonites at Goshen maintain 
schools for their respecti\e churches. 

The state seeks to take care of all of its unfortunates. Its charitable, 
benevolent and correctional institutions rank high among similar institutions 
in the countr\-. Insane asylums are located at Indianapolis, Richmond, 
Logaiispiirt, K\ans\ille and Madison. The State Soldiers' Home is at 
Lafayette, while the National Soldiers' Home is at Marion. The Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Orphans' Home at Knightstown, is maintained for the care and 
education of the orphan children of Union soldiers and sailors. The state 
educates and keeps them until they are sixteen years of age if they have not 
been gi\en homes in families before they reach that age. Institutions for the 
education of the blind and also the deaf and dumb are located at In(hana]K)lis. 
The state educates all children so afflicted and teaches them some usefid trade 
which will enable them to make their own way in the world. The School for 
I'eeble Minded at Fort Wayne has had more than one thousand children in 
attendance annually for several years. Within the ])ast few vears an epileptic 
village has been established at New Castle, Indiana, for the care of those so 
afflicted. 

.\ prison is located at Michigan City for the incarceration of male crim- 
inals convicted in any of the courts of the state of treason, murder in the first 
or second degree, and of all persons convicted of any felony who at the time 
of conviction are thirty years of age and over. The Reformatory at Jefifer- 
sonville takes care of male criminals between the ages of sixteen and thirty, 
who are guilty of crimes other than those just mentioned. .\ state penal 
farm was established by the 1013 Legislature and it is now in successful o])era- 
tion in Putnam count}". h>male criminals from the ages of fifteen upwards 
are ke])t in tiie women's ]irison at Indianapolis. .\ school for incorrigible 
boys is maintained at I'lainfield. It receives boys between the ages of seven 
and eighteen, although no boy can be kept after he reaches the age of twenty- 
one. Each county provides for its own jxu^r and ])ractically every countv in 
the state has a poor farm and many of them have homes for orphaned or 
indigent children, hiach countv in the state alsf) maintains a correctional 
institution known as the jail, in which |)risoncrs are committed while waiting 
for trial or as jjunishment for conxicted crime. 

But Indiana is great not alone in its material prosperity, but also in tho.se 



68 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

things which make for a better appreciation of Hfe. Within the limits of 
our state have been born men who were destined to become known through- 
out the nation. Statesmen, ministers, diplomats, educators, artists and 
literar}^ men of Hoosier birth have given the state a reputation which is 
envied by her sister states. Indiana has furnished Presidents and Vice- 
Presidents, distinguished members of the cabinet and diplomats of world 
wide fame; her literar}- men have spread the fame of Indiana from coast 
to coast. Who has not heard of Wallace, Thompson, Nicholson, Tarking- 
ton, McCutcheon, Bolton, Ade, Major, Stratton-Porter, Riley and hundreds 
of others who have courted the muses? 

And we would like to he living one hundred years from today and see 
whether as mutrh progress will have been made in the growth of the state as in 
the first one hundred years of its history. In 2017 poverty and crime will be 
reduced to a minimum. Poor houses will be unknown, orphanages will have 
vanished and society will have reached the stage where happiness and con- 
tentment reign su])reine. iMery loyal Hoosier should feel as our poetess, 
Sarah T. Bolton, has said : 

"The heavens never spanned. 
The breelzes never fanned, 
A fairer, brighter land 
Than our Indiana." 



CHAPTER II. 

Geoi.ocy. 

The last geological survey fif I'^ayette county was made by the state 
geological department in 1909 and this chapter is largely a summary of the 
report made that year by A. E. Taylor, one of the field assistants attached 
to the department. The chapter is supplemented by data secured from other 
sources, but the main facts have Ix^en gleaned from the report of 1909. 

Fayette county covers 215 scpiare miles, or a total of 138,240 acres. 
In 1909 there were 82,732 acres under cultivation, 21,000 were in jxisture, 
11.000 in woodland i>asturc, anfl 8.500 in woodland. 

WHITF. W ATEK UP.'EK. 

Traversing the county almost centrally from north to south is the large 
valley of the West fork of White Water river. Its width varies from one 
tf) two miles, and its lower bottom is from one hundred to two hundred feet 
below the adjacent uplands. This valley, together with the valleys of many 
tributary streams, has developed ;i deeply dissected surface over the greater 
part of the county. In the eastern jiart of the county the areas which have 
escaped the eroding jxiwer of the streams have generally been found bv the 
tributaries of the East fork of White W'ater. which runs through I'nion 
county, about one mile east of the bayette-Union county line. The only 
gently rolling surface in the count\ is found in I'ose}- and b^airview town- 
ships and the western half of (Grange. 

STREAMS. 

The main streams tributary to White W'ater river in the count\- are as 
follow: Williams creek, which rises in I'osey township and, meandering 
south and east, empties into W hite Water about three miles south of Con- 
nersville, its main tributary being known as Little Williams creek ; Lick 
creek, also rising in Posey township, and coursing .south and east, empties 
into W^hite Water about two miles north of C'onner.sville ; Village creek, ris- 
ing in LInion county, and running through Jennings and ("onnersville town- 



70 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ships, empties into White Water two miles l>elow the county seat ; Wilson 
creek, rising in Jennings township, flows through Jennings and Jackson 
townships and, uniting with White Water river at Nulltown; Fall creek, 
rising in Connersville township, passes through that township and Columhia 
and empties into White Water about four miles below the county seat ; Gar- 
rison creek, and one large tributary, both rising in Orange township, flow- 
ing through Orange and Columbia townships, empty into White Water in 
Franklin county. The only other stream of any size emptying into White 
Water in the county is Noland's fork, which rises in Delaware county and 
empties in White Water about four miles north of Connersville. Simpson 
creek runs south through the eastern part of Waterloo township and empties 
into the East fork of White Water in Union county. 

DRIFT FORMATIONS. 

With the exception of a small district in the southern part of the county, 
situated on either side of the White Water, where the Illinoisan drift appears 
as the surface formation, the later Wisconsin drift covers the entire county. 
The southern boundary of this drift on the west side of ^Vhite Water is 
marked by a morainic ridge entering Fayette county from northwestern 
Franklin county, and continuing north in a northeasterly direction to a point 
along the White Water about four miles south of Connersville. Here it meets 
a morainic ridge on the east side, which extends south into Franklin county, 
also marking the southern limit of the Wisconsin drift. From the point 
four miles south of Coimersville, along White Water, an interlobate moraine 
was formed, extending northward into Henry and Wayne counties. In the 
upland the moraine is seldom less than fifty feet in thickness and is generally 
one himdred feet or more. 

In addition to these drifts which have been described, all bekmging to 
the Pleistocene period, there are outcrops of the laurel limestone of the 
Silurian period in the southwestern part of the county, and of the Cincin- 
nati limestone and shales of the Ordovician in the western portion of the 
county. Much of the stone is valuable for building purposes, the best being 
about six inches in thickness. There was considerable stone cjuarried in the 
southeastern part of Harrison township and the northwestern part of Con- 
nersville township during the years when the canal and railroads were being 
liuilt through the county, '("his stone was used for locks on the canals and 
alnitments on railroad bridges. It was also largely used for the foundations 
of houses, and at least one house in Harrison township was wholly con- 



i-'ayi:ttk forxTV, Indiana. 71 

stnictcd nf tliis stratilKNl stmic. In ilic sDuthwcstcrn part nf (.'(ninersville 
tinviisliip there w a>- fdnnerly ciinsi(leral)le lime produced by the huniinj^ of 
tlie stiiiie. A udDil (|ualit\- nf elay is found in large areas, which is suitable 
for the manufacture of tile and brick. 

SOILS. 

There are eii^ht tyi>es of soil found in l'"a\ette county, six of which are 
ui)land and two bottom >oils. The Miami series, which is l>y far the most 
e.\tensi\e, occurs as the .Miami clay loam. Miami silt loam, Miami loam and 
.Miami black clav loam, and has had its derivation from the Later Wisconsin 
drift. With the exception of some small spots of Miami black clay loam in 
the western and northwestern portions of the county, some very limited 
areas of the .Miami loam alongr the .slopes of White Water and the Miami silt 
loam of the southeastern ciuarter of the county, the Miami clay loam covers 
all the county except Jackson and Columbia townships. The southern half 
of Columbia and a small area in southwestern Jackson have Oak Forest silt 
loam as the surface soil. The first and second terraces along the W^est Fork 
of White Water are mantled with Huntin,i,^on loam, while the bottoms of 
the smaller valleys contain an im])ure form of the same type. On a very 
few narrow \alley Hoors in Columbia and Jackson townshijis, where the 
limestone talus has accunnilated c.xtensi\'ely, the bottom-land soils should 
be more ]iroperl\- termed Hamburq- loam. 

The follow int^- table shows the extent of each of the types: 

ART \S OF DIKFKRE.N'T SOILS. 

Soil. Square Per 

miles. cent. 

Miami clay loam 149-5 ^-5 

Miami silt loam 34.0 15.8 

Miami black cla\' loam I.o .5 

Miami loam i.O .5 

Oak b'oresi silt loam 12.0 5.5 

Huntington Icjam 16.0 7.4 

Hamburg loam i.o .5 

Limestone slojje cla\- loam .5 .2 

Totals 21S.0 QQ.g 



72 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



MIAMI CLAY EOAM. 



Miami clay loam is very closely allied to its occurrences in Union, south- 
ern Rush and southern Wayne counties. It is a light brown or ash-gray 
clay loam or silt loam, with a depth of from six to eleven inches. When 
rubbed between the fingers it imparts a smooth feeling, which is indicative 
of a high percentage of silt. 

rhe .subsoil is a brown or yellow clay loam, becoming a sandy clay at 
a depth of two and one-half feet. This subsoil, because of the hillside wash, 
often appears as plow soil. In such cases the crops yield poorly and the 
land may be clas.sed as untillable. Many farmers remember when these 
hillsides produced as well as any of the upland, but through careless plow- 
ing and cropping, so as to leave the land bare, the soil has been carried down 
into the bottoms. .\ few suggestions from successful farmers jis to how 
to improve a soil of this character have been taken up in general discussion. 
Blue grass and crops that hold the soil should be grown on the slopes instead 
of corn. 

There are a number of farmers on the Miami clay loam who hold that 
tiling is not necessar\- where there is sufficient slo]ie for the water to run off 
from the surface, but those who have experimented along this line are of an 
entirely different oinnion. They find that it not only makes a decided differ- 
ence in the surface wash, but that it drains the water from the little inter- 
vening spaces between the grains of dirt and so permits the air to circulate 
more readily. This facilitates the conveying of the nitrogenous foods to the 
roots of the legtnninous plants, which results in a richer soil and better yields. 
In one case in the northeastern part of Waterloo township the corn crop 
was more than trebled li}- tiling a rolling surface which would ordinaril\- be 
said to drain itself. 

An average corn crop for this type is about thirt}-three bushels to the 
acre, while the leading farmers are getting fifty-five and sixty. Wheat aver- 
ages fourteen bushels to the acre and oats about thirty. Clover ranges 
between one and two tons, and timothy from one to one and a half tons to 
the acre. 

MIAMI .SILT LOAM. 

Miami silt loam is an extension of the Miami silt loam areas of Union 
and Franklin counties. It has a similar texture, color and subsoil, and bears 
about the same relation to the Miami clav loanL It differs, however, from 



FAYETTK CorNTV, IXDIANA. 73 

the Union connty soil in tliat a iar,t,aT |)<.Tcenla,y;f of its area occurs on a 
decidedly rolling surface, thus permitting a large auKiunt of wash, which has 
left either a very thin soil or has uncovered the subsoil. This results in 
cheaper land as a result of lighter crops. The axerage farmer is getting 
about thirty-two bushels of corn and fourteen of wheat to the acre, while 
the best farmers get fifty of corn and seventeen of wheat. 

MIAMI r.OAM. 

Miami loam occupies ;i \ cry limited area (one s(|uare mile I along 
\\'hite \\'ater river in the northern jiart of the countx. it is found on the 
steeper slojies and has conseouenlly i)een subjected to a greater surface wash. 

MIAMI 1U..\C"K C[..\y LOAM. 

Miami black clay loam also occupies but about one s(|uare mile in the 
county. Since stream erosion has been the prevalent factor in shaping the 
topography of I<"ayette county, most of the old marshes, lakes and ponds, 
renuiants of the glacial epoch, have l<ing since lieen drained, and the organic 
matter which accumulated in them has lieen thoroughl\- dcconi])osed or dis- 
solved out of the soil. .\ verv few of these basins have left traces in the 
scattered, isolated .-uid sm;di s])ois of lilack land occupying the sags in Orange. 
!''air\ie\\ and I'osey to\\nsbi])s. These spots ;ire known as the liest corn 
land in the county. 

OAK KOKI'ST Ml.T r.O.\M. 

The Oak |-"orest silt loam, covering about twelve S(|nare miles in the 
county, is a tyjie h;i\ing its main dexelopment in I'Vanklin county. The 
limited area in l'"a\elte count\- is found on the ridge summits in the southern 
part of the county. ()\\ing to the ridges l)eing narrow :uid high the soil is 
badly wa.sbed and is as likel\ to have lieen re|)laceil by the silt loam subsoil 
as it is to be present. Ibe soil is considered the poorest in the countv, being 
an ashen grav silt li:,im, cold, sour and very deficient in organic matter and 
lime. The improvements of this soil are \ery poor, tiling, green manuring 
and crop rotation being almost entirel\ neglected. \'er\' little stock is raised, 
most of the grain being marketed. ( orn ranges from se\enteen to twenty- 
tive bushels to the acre, and wheat from ten to eighteen. This t\pe of soil, 
with tiling, green manure, lime, stable manure, commercial fertilizer and crop 
rotation. ma\' be made to double its yield, and each succeeding vear finds 
more of this soil bringing satisfactory returns. 



74 FAYETTE COUNTY, 



Hl'NTINGTON LOAM. 



Huntington lo;ini. cosering sixteen square miles in the county, is found 
in sporadic areas in the smaller \alleys, hut hy far the more important occur- 
rences are in the first and second terraces of the ^Vhite Water valley. The 
farms located on these terraces are considered superior to those on the 
upland. With their natural underdrainage through the gravel heds, which 
are generally from three to live feet below the surface, and the loo.se, open, 
brown loam or sand)' loam, this soil is the earliest of all the types found in 
the county. Corn is planted two weeks earlier than on the upland and can 
be tended several da\s sooner after a heavy rain. The result is that the 
average farmer is getting fort}- bushels of corn to the acre, while the best 
farmers get sixty, as against thirty-three for the average fanner and fifty- 
five to sixty f(5r the best on the upland. \\'heat does not do as well on the 
first bottom, but sometimes yields twent\- bushels to the acre on the second 
terrace. 

The first bottom is not as desiralile lanfl as the second. This is due in 
part to the damage done by the flood, and partly to a more sandy and gravelly 
texture, with beds of sand or gravel near the surface which causes it to suffer 
more from droughts. Often old bars of sand and gravel are encountered 
on the first bottom which are classed as worthless, but which might make 
very good alfalfa soil. The most desirable land fif both bottoms is found 
north of Connersville. 

LIMESTONE SLOPE CLAY LOAM. 

There is only half a square mile of Limestone Slope clay loam in the 
county, and this is found scattered through the southern part of the county 
on the hillsides. It is not cultivated to an\- extent, and because of its tend- 
ency to wash it should not be tilled at all, but be kept in blue grass, alfalfa, 
or some crop that will hold the soil. Some farmers have even attempted to 
grow tobacco on these slopes, but for reasons just given the crop cannot be 
profitable after a few years. A^lost of the tobacco is grown in Jackson and 
Columbia townships. 

The following table compiled by the state geologist for the 1910 report, 
shows the types of soil found in each township in Fayette county, together 
with the total acreage in famis, acres of tillable land and acres of woodland. 



)rNTV. INDIANA. 75 



Township. Soil types. 

Columbia .Miami clay loam 

( )ak iMirest clay loai 

1 luntingtoii loam 
Conners\ille .Miami clay loam 

AH other types 
l''airvie\v Miami clay loam 

AH other types 
Harrison .Miami clay loam 

Huntino^on loam 

AH other tyjies 
Jackson Aliami silt loam 

llunting^ton loam 
Jennings Miami clay loam 

.\11 other types 
Orange Miami clay loam 

Oak Forest silt loam 

Huntington loam 

.\11 other types i,v4.i.^ 8.828 3,411 

Posey Miami clay loam 

All other types ^7,415 O.834 -',46f> 

Waterloo Miami clay loam 

Huntington loam 

All other types 10.7Q4 8,653 2,000 



Total 


Tilled 


Wood- 


acres. 


acres. 


land. 


1 4.og2 


6.003 


2.027 


i.vji.i 


T 1 . 1 56 


2,0(,6 


I r .607 


0.614 


1 ms 


16,667 


8,750 


''74 


i7.T5<) 


7-77^' 


.Vorj 


n.8.vS 


10,118 


1,720 



Total 128,718 82,733 iy.644 



CHAPTER III. 
Heinkmann's Researches. 

The history of the region now comprised in Fayette county and of its 
county seat prior to the organization of the county in January, 1819, is 
very difficult to trace. It is well known that when the county was organized 
there were nearly three thousand people within its limits, but where they 
came from, how they reached the various parts of the county or what steps 
they took to get the Legislature to organize the county are matters about 
which there has been very little ascertained until within the past few years. 
With the organization of the county in 1819 and the keeping of official 
records the historian is able to find some definite data on which to base the 
early history of the county, but the history of the decade following the 
first settlement of John Conner on the i^resent site of Conner sville in 1808 
or 1809 has been practically a closed record until 1909 — just one hundred 
years after John Conner, a young man who had not yet reached his ma- 
jority, first pitched his camp within the limits of the city now bearing his 
name, and thereb}- became the first white man to settle in the city of Con- 
nersville. 

This history of Conner's career in b"a}ette county is fairly well known, 
but an account of liis jjarticipation in state afi^airs seems to have been 
neglected by local historians until recently. Every citizen of Fayette county 
has more or less of a hazy idea of the fact that all of the land within the 
limits of the county was bought by the United States government from the 
Indians, but just when the purchase was made, who consummated it or how 
much was paid for it are matters which are not generally known. Like- 
wise most of the ]jeople now living in the county have heard of the old 
Indian trail up the White Water, but where it ran, how much it was used 
or anything definite about its connection with the history of Fayette county, 
in general or of Connersville in particular are cjuestions which have been 
unanswered until within the past few years. And of the city of Conners- 
ville itself — the location of the trading post of Conner, or the exact site 
of the block house where soldiers of the regular army were once stationed 
or the location of the proposed public square — these questions and many 
more ha\e been answered onh' witliin Ihe ])ast few vears. 

It lias remained for a local historian to delve into the dim and mistv 



' FAYETTK COlXTY. IN'DIANA. "7 

liistory (if tlie decade imuK-diatcly iirccfdiiij;- the (irtianizati<in vi llie cmiiUy 
and brino" to light a lari^e nunil)er of facts which had apparently been lost 
forever. This historian wiio deserves the gratitude of every citizen of the 
county for his jjatient and exhaustive researches into this neglected field of 
the county's histor\' is J. ],. Heineniann. of L'onnersviile. i-'or twenty years 
Mr. Heinemann has ))een collecting every available bit of information con- 
cerning the early history- of the county, but it was not until 1909 that he 
gave to the public the results of any of his lalxirs. in that year he issued 
his first brochure dealing with Fayette count\-, under the title of "The 
Twelve-Mile Purchase." in which he sets forth the provisions of the treaty 
which included practically all of the present territory of Fayette county. 
The treaty which resulted in the purchase of the strip from the Indians has 
peculiar interest to b'ayette countw not only because it resulted in the acquisi- 
tion of most of the land now in the countw but more particularly l)ecause 
John Conner was one of the interpreters present at the making of the 
treaty and the onl\- citizen of the future county of Fayette to have his 
name signed to the document which was to iriake possible the formation of 
the county just ten years later. 

Mr. Heinemann has made extensive researches into all of the events 
surrounding the making of this treaty, and for the benefit of future gene- 
rations of F'ayette county it seems apjirojiriate to give the result of his 
■Studies as it was originally jiublislied in looi). under the title of "The 
Twelve Mile Purchase." 



The Twelve Mile Purchase is a descripti\e phrase which became popu- 
larly the name for the ac(|uisition of the Indian lands Ijy the United States. 
of the territor}- in \\-liich I-'a_\"ette connt\- almost wliolh- lies. .\ map will 
show an uneven stri]i on the west l\'ing nutside of the purchase. The ex- 
pression is accurate, however, only, so far as it pertains to our neighborhood. 
The treaty with the Indians which took place at Vt. Wayne, Indiana, was 
concluded September 30. 1809. and provided for the cession of two sepa- 
rated portions of territor)-. The larger portion lies in the Wabash region, 
extending southwardly and eastwardly. but still not far enough east to make 
it contiguous to our own. .\s we expect to employ the local terminology, 
and call it The Twelve Mile Purchase, it may be well at the start to give 
the official rendering of the act. thus luaintaining accuracy as well as showing 
the origin of the title our forbears ga\e it. 



78 FAYETTE COITNTY, TNOIANTA. 

In Volume II (Treaties) page 101 of "Indian Affairs" (Senate Docu- 
ments ) it will be found complete, with the following title : 

Treaty with the Deliiwares, etc., (Sept. MDth ) 1.S0!». A treaty between the United 
States of An^eriea, and ,the tribes of Indians called the Delawares., I'ntawatiiuies, 
Miamies aud Eel River Miamies. 

The first paragraph is as follows: 

James Madison, President of the llnited States of America, by William Henry 
Harrison, governor and conniiander-ln-chief of the Indian Territoi-j-, superintendent 
of Indian .ilfjiirs. and commissioner pleiiiiioteutiary of the United States for treating 
with the said Indi.m tribes, and the saciienis. head-men and warriors of the Delaware, 
rnt.iwatiniie. Miami and Kel River tribes of Indians, h.ive agreed and concluded upon 
tile following treaty: which, when, ratified by the said I'resident. with the advice and 
conseni of the Senate of the T'nited States, shall be binding on the said parties. 

Conse(iuently, it is pfii]jerly called, Treaty of Ft. Wayne. September 30. 
180C); and, in text hooks, it will he found under that title. Our localism, 
"Twelve Mile I'urchase" s])rings from the use of a detail to describe the 
whole act, which fact will be readiK- seen, when it is noted that the west 
boundary of this purchase follows practicallx- the watershed dividing the 
basins of the White ri\er on the west and south and the White Water river 
on the east. It is seemingly made twehe miles wide because the basin of the 
White Water river a])i)roxiniates that distance and would he entirely covered 
by such a descri|)tion. In other words, the described stri]) of territory, the 
beautiful and fertile valley of the White Water, is enclosed exactly by the 
metes and bounds set down in the terms of the TweKe Mile Purchase. 

AN INVITINC, FIET.n TO THE WHITES. 

In article I of the treat}-, the territory is mimitely described. The first 
.set of details covers the tract which lies in the \\'abash region, extending to 
the southeast till it ititersects the boundary of an earlier treaty, that of 1805. 
Then follows this descri]ition of land : 

led between the following bound- 
.irdly .(long the general boundary 
r!)."i) to its intersection with the 
(A. II.. ISO.-,): thence .along said 
the fir.st mentioned line, will be 
id parallel line to its intersection 
el to the line established bv Oie 



In this description, the old boundary line established in 1795. by Gen- 
eral Wayne, is made the base, and a parallel line westward twelve miles 



— And. also, all tli;it Ir.-ic 


t which sh;ill be inc 


aries. viz: beginning at Fori 1 


Itecovery. tlien<-c sont 


line, established by Irt'aty of 


(Jreenville. (A. 1 >.. 


boundary line established by 


treat.v of (Jrouseland 


line to a point from which a 


line drawn parallel 


twelve miles distant from the 


s.ime. and along the 


with a line to be drawn fror 


n Fort Recovery ii.n- 


said treaty of (Ji'ouseland. 





fav!:ttk (.(M'Xtv. inihana. 70 

(.iistant is made llif ik-w limit dI the red man's Ikhiic. ( '(inse(|iK'ntly. in \ie\\ 
nt the tact, that nn communications existed between us and the settlements 
in tlie Waliasli coiuitr\ . it was an eas\- matter tor our pioneers to ii^nore the 
part of the purchase wliich la\ m that re.^ioii. and simply call the new ac(|ui- 
sition. "The Twehe Mile I'nrchase": which term, accm-ately enout^h describes 
our own portion since it is twelve miles wide, and conutint;' its t^reatest eloui^a- 
tion — about ninety miles north and south. 

How inviting- a lield to the whites wlio lirst trod its surface! it was a 
fan- country, destined to become the lionie of ci\ili/.ation. of the arts and com- 
merce, alniost instantly. Tlie strip became the heart of what is now the 
c;onnties of l'"ranklin. |-'ayette. Wayne and l\andol])h, and is tlie watersiied 
or valley of the west fork of the White Water river. lint the briefest jjcriod 
is needed to convert it into a well settled nei,!-liborhoo<l. The first settlers 
haxe left an abundance of monuments to mark the sta.tjes of their rapid i)ros.;-- 
ress. in domestic and ci\il ii-istitutions. in itidustries that still obtain, and in 
moral im])ulses that cannot be effaced, so that these are well remembered. 
They are still with us in their works and are honoretl in their jiosteritv. Anil 
in conse(|uence. it is llttint;- at this time, when liie centenary of his extinu-uish- 
ment dawns ui)on us. to consider t^enerously. for a few- niotuents, the known 
facts of the lone Indian who has departed. 

There are not many thint^s to say of him. Mis traditions are effacing- 
themselves year by year; and. as for written history, his takes the form mostly 
of land relint|nislinients and transfers of habitation. That he had ignoble 
traits is allowably the case; btit he had noble ones also. He may ha\e been 
uncouth and shiftless and susj^icious, and in the possession of plent\- of other 
undesirable traits, as judged by the white men who had to do with hini ; but 
then, the contact was not of his seeking, and. unfler the circumstance, it is 
l)robable that the futin-e will more and more reco.gnize iri him a courage, a 
tenacit}- and a daring, beyond the ordinary, in contending as he did for his 
hunting grounds, a.gainst the flood of whites that our colonial growth jjoured 
out oxer him. 

i-.'X.WCT \I. SIDK Of Till-: TR \.\-S.\CTIOX. 

'i'lie third and the seventh article of the treaty set forth the tinancial sule 
of the transaction, and they read as follows: 

Article 3: The coiiipensatioii to he given for tlie cession ni;i(lc in ilic first .irtirle 
sli.ill he as follows: viz., to the Delawjires, i\ pennjinent annnil.v of tivc Imnched (lol- 
lai-s; to the Miamies. a like annuit.v of five hundred dollars; to the lOel Hiver trihe. .1 
like annuit.v of two liundred Mn<l tifty dolhu-s; and to tin- I'ottawatiinies a like annuit.v 
of five hundred dollars. 



<50 FAYKTTi: CfJl'XTY, INDIANA. 

Article 7 : The tribes wlio are parties to tliis treaty being desirous of putting an 
end to the depredations which are committed by abandoned individuals of their own 
color, upon the cattle, horses, etc., of the more industrious , and careful, agree to adopt 
(lie following regulations: viz., when any theft or other depredation shall be committed 
by any individual or individuals of one of the tribes above mentioned, upon the prop- 
♦^rty of an.v individual or individuals of anotlier tribe, the chiefs of the party Injured 
shall malie apiilication to the agent of the T'nited States, who shall be charged with 
the delivery of the annuities of the tribe to which the offending party belong.s, whose 
duty it .shall be to hear the proofs and allegations on either side and determine be- 
tween them. And the amount of his award shall be immediately deducted from the 
annuity of the tribe to which the offending party lielongs. and given to the person 
in.iured. or to the chiefs of his village- tor his use. 

It is more than interesting to know who were the signatories to this 
treaty. The names present a curious admixture of \ocal sounds now lost to 
us. hut which once were familiar enougli to tliose who had acquired a knowl- 
edge of the pecuhar structure of the Indian's Hugo. Tliey are reproduced 
verhatim, below, as found in the original document. 

First, appears that of ^^'illiam Henry Harrison, who as plenipotentiary, 
sufficed to bind his government. 

Following his signature, and under the caption "Delawares" come the 
followins': 



-Anderson, for Hackingponiskon who is absent 

Anderson 

Petchekekapon 

The Beaver 

Capt. Killbuck 

Under the cajjti 
Winemac 

Five Medals, by his son 
Mogawgo 
Shis.sahecon, for himself and h 



his x mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 



■"ottawatimas," come the follow 



Ossnieet, brother of Five Medals 

Nanousekah, Penamo's son 

Mosser 

Checiuinimo 

Sockanackshut 

Conengee 



ng names : 
his X mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 
her Tuthimpee his x mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 
his X mark 



L'nder the 
Pucan 
Hie Owl 



i])tion, ".Miamies," cou.ie the following; 



his X mark 
his X mark 



ic l.ittlc Turtle 


his X mark 


.1X111 


his X mark 




his X mark 




his X mark 


\crs." tlie following: 






his X mark 


• wallow 


his X mark 


I Miami of !':ik Hart 


his X mark 


of certain witnesses. 


under the captic 


the commissioner. 





KAVhrTK COINTY. INI)I.\N.\. 8l 

Meshekeno-iKiua. or Tl 
W'apemanqua. or The 1. 
Silver Heels 
Shawaiienonio 

liuler the name. "I^el Ri- 
Charlie 

Sheshangometinah. or S 
The Vonno- Vvandol. ; 

Xext come the signatures 
the presence of" : 

I'eter Jones, secretary of 

John Johnson, Indian agent. 

.\. Heakl, captain. L'. S. A. 

A. luhvards, surgeon's mate. 

IMi. Ostr.-mder. lieutenant. L'. S. .\. 

John Shaw. 

Stejihen Johnston. 

I'"in;illy under the title. ".Sworn Inleri)reters," come these names: 

J. Hamilton, sheriff Dearliorn county. 

Henr\- Aupaumut. 

William Wells, 

John Conner. 

Joseph Barron. 

.\hraliam Ash. 

Here are grouped the high plenipotentiaries, whose conduct in solemn 
conclave, passed the so\ereignty over our lands, from one hand, nature's own 
children, the aborigines, the true sons of the soil, to that of another, the 
I'nited .States of America, the white man's government, lately installed on 
this contineiU with momentous promise, and even greater realization judged 
hy the standard of things done. Tlow rapid the progress, and how dazing 
to the children of our forests, the white men's ;ichievements were, is now 
difficult for us to ajipreciate. .\11 we know of the Indian's view-point is frag- 
mentary. We are acquainted with his history not at all, in completeness or 
with any -great degree of accuracy, h'ootprints here and there are left to us, 
hut, beyond this. the\- ha\e \anislied — the race is gone. 
'(6) 



Sz FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



WII-LIAM HENRY HARRISON. 

In noting the signatures to the treaty, it may be permissible to dismiss 
the first one, WilHam Henry Harrison, who became the first governor of 
Indiana Territory when organized in 1800, as too well known to bring it 
into contrast with the other names. He ser\ed continuously in public life 
for many years, and in tlie year 1840 was honored with the Presidency 
of the United States. His intimate connection with our Indian affairs follows 
after the campaigning of General Wayne which culminated in the treaty 
of Greenville, Ohio, under date of 1795. Subsequent to it, and up to the 
time of the Twelve Mile Purchase, he had negotiated five treaties for Indian 
lands. 

In the treaty which concerns us now, that of [8oy, the first family of 
Indians represented in the signing of the document, are the Delawares. This 
is the proper place for them, owing to the important bearing its terms are 
to have on their future life. Their hunting grounds are now to be dimin- 
ished exactly to the extent of the Twelve Mile Purchase, and it is they, prin- 
cipally, who are to move out of their homes into new quarters. 

The Delawares belong to the general group, Algonquin, and originally 
were at home on the banks of the Delaware ri\'er, whence their name as used 
by the whites. .\m(ing themselves they were Lenni Lenape (manly men). 
They occu])ied territory successi\•el^• in what is Pennsylvania, Ohio, and after 
that, following the establishment of the Indian boundary of 1795, found their 
abode in the White Water \alley. In establishing themselves here, thev had 
evidently displaced the Miamis: for the second article of the treaty of 1809. 
clearly foresees a further encroachment by them. It reads as follows : 

The Miamies explioitl.v ;iekiimvlt>(lge the wiual right of the DelMwares 'with them- 
selves to the country watered by the White river. But it is .-ilso to be clearly under- 
.stood, that neither party shall have the right of disposing of the same without the 
consent of the other: .ind, any improvemepts which shall be made on said land li.v the 
Delawares, nr their friends, the Mohicans, shall be theirs forever. 

The country watered by the White river liegins exactly west of the 
boundary agreed on in 1809. Thi.'^ west line of the Twelve Mile Purchase 
is about where the traction line crosses Williams creek, and as is well known, 
all the small streams, beyond the limits described. How in the opposite direc- 
tion, forming the headwaters of the east fork of the \Vhite river, which river 
courses southwestwardly to its junction with the east fork (of the White 
river) not far from Vincennes. .'^o that, acknowledging the ec|ual right of 
the Delawares to the country watered by the ^^^hite ri\er, simply allowed 



- F\YF.TTF. rOl-NTY. INDIANA. 83 

tlie latter Tmlians. tlie Delawares from this neislil)(>rhoo(l. to push their al)o(le 
lieyoiid WilHains creek. 

H AtK-IMM-OM.S-KON AND TIIK PROPHET. 

In the study of iiuii\i(luaiity — the personal element in man — there is 
oftentimes as much interest in the doings of a savage as any other humanV 
being. His nature moves in simple grooves, and in consequence, it is easier 
to weigh his silent motives. At the treaty of 1809. Hack-ing-poms-kon was 
not present at the close of the i)roceedings. His name .is at the head of the 
li.st of l^eiawares. as befits his station in his tribe, but he was not there to 
sign for himself. Why? The answer will likely never be known positively. 
He was tlieir senior sachem, and a genuine Indian with -long seasoning in 
the arts of his people. As much as fourteen years before (1795) he was a 
head warrior, for his name appears under the caption f)f Sandusky Delawares, 
in the treaty of Greenville. Perhaps liis name was considered essential to 
the j)resent treat}', and under jiressure he consented to its use by another. 
Wliether this \iew be truth or fancy, it is known that land relinquishment 
had become a liitter morsel to the aborigines ere this : and the important place 
in Indian affairs of the career of the Prophet and his brother Tecumseh, 
grows out of this fact. Their active labors originated only a few years before 
the events now considered, and the>- reached their upmost power immediately 
following, and because of the terms of the treaty of 1809. ''^^ Prophet had 
set himself u]) for the guidance of his brother redskins in the towns of the 
Delaware Indians, esijecially along the liead waters of the west fork of the 
White river. His doctrines were a mixture of self-reform and hostility to 
the whites : and, in view of recent events, carried consideral)le argumentative 
force with the natives. .\s e\ents proved, be completely alienated the 
Shawnees from the white man's compacts, and induced many Delawares, 
wlio. biu lately, had been neighbors with the Shawnees in Ohio, individually 
to join ni the aloofness. That Hack-ing-]3oms-kon was fully cognizant of 
these things is attested b\' one personal episode known to historv. It occurred 
near Muncie about i8of). where a momentary craze was worked up by the 
Prophet against the whites, under the title of "witchcraft," indirectly attack- 
ing them and the Indians favorable to the white man's methods. Several 
executions harl been enacted, when the case of Hack-ing-i)oms-kon was taken 
up. 

.Xdditional light on this subject is shed by J. P. Dunn in his "True Indian 
.Stories," as follows: 



84 FAYETTE COUNTY, IWDIANA. 

This chief was of different stuff from the others. He did not wait for any addi- 
tional accusation. Advancing to the Prophet, he denounced him as a liar and an im- 
postor, and threatened him with personal vengeance if he made any charge of witch- 
craft against him. This was a very practical test of divine protection, from the Indian 
point of view, to which the Prophet was not prepared to submit, and after some dis- 
cussion Haclv-ing-poms-lvon was remanded to custody to await further proceedings, 
but without being deprived of his standing and authority as a chief. No further action 
was talien against him. 

The crusade against supposed witchcraft wore itself out shortly and 
whilst the council was still sitting, a leader of a Chri.stian hand of mission- 
aries appeared hefore them to learn authoritatively, the mind of the Indians, 
as to the future stay of Christians ;unong- them. The council gave little 
encouragement, and finally referred die leader of the Christian band to Hack- 
ing-poms-kon. This chief coincided with the council in the view that their 
services were not particularly desirable to the Indians, especially in view of 
the surplus of religion ftu"nished by the Prophet. 

KIK-THA-WK-NrND, OR ANDERSON. 

During the three years that followed — leading up to the treaty of 1809 — 
the same sad tale of disa])pointment and discomfiture in his contests with the 
wliites continued, and that the old chief — typical redskin that he was — took 
on suUenness, where braxery failed, is at least a plausible theor\- for his 
absence during the closing hours of Se])tember 30, 1809, with permission to 
Anderson to sign for him, at that treaty. 

But who is Anderson ? Certainly not an Indian name, "^'et .Anderson 
himself is an Indian, notwithstanding this fact. As a Delaware he had been 
in contact for long years with border-land white folks, and for this reason, 
perhaps, should be held blameless for his English name — others gave it to 
him. In the treaty of 1795 his name ajjpears as "Kik-tha-we-nund, or Ander- 
.son." In other records it is found as Kith-til-kand : and as the s])elling is 
merely the white man's attempt to reproduce on paper, by means of the alpha- 
bet, a sound which an unlutored savage utters, the variation is not surprising. 
Our best ]3resent-day authority on Indiana Indians, J. P. Dunn, says, "Kok- 
to-wha." in Delaware language means, "making a cracking noise," i. e., as of 
a house or a tree abf)ut to fall ; and the suffix, "nund" indicates that the noise 
js caused by some ])erson. Consequently, he recoinmends "Kok-to-wha-nund" 
with accent on the second syllable, as a phonetic rendering in English of an 
Indian sound u.sed by them as the name of this chief. The same authority 
says Hack-ink-]3om-ska, pronounced with accent on the second last syllable, 
means "He Walks on the Ground." 



- FAYKTTK COUNTY, INDIANA. 85 

A (|uery ccnild he made licre, wliicli dues not helDno tn the sul)jecl pn)])er. 
It sugjj-ests itself, ho\ve\er, and may 1)e asked withmit prnfferin^- a definite 
answer. 

It, in the l)ela\\are dialect, Hack-ing-[)(Hii.s-k()n means "lie Walks on 
tile (iruund." wliy limk further for a source whence comes our Americanism 
'"hiking." C'axalrymen do not "hike"; but a commf)n description with u.s 
for the infantrymen's, or any other footman's, mode of travel, he who walks 
on the ground, is "hiking." Is it an Indian word? 

Sometimes valuable aid is derixed from geographical terms and descrip- 
tions, for tracing Indian history. We will always have Ander.son to the 
north and Andersonville to tlie soutli; tlie former ])lace is situate just beyond 
the new Ixnuidary established in iSoo; and it was an Indian rendezvous of 
importance for some time after that date. Chief .Knderson continued prpm^ 
inent in their councils and still maintained his eminence at the time of the 
treaty of iSiS, which finall}- extinguished Indian possessions throughout 
central and soutliern Indiana. Thus taking the two periods, the treaty of 
1795 and tlie one of 181.'^, there is a chieftainship of twenty-three years 
between tliem to Kok-to-wha-nund,. known better to the whites as \\''illiani 
Anderson. 

PETCH-E-KH-KA-l>O.V, I.m I,r. TIHTLK .\ND THE BEA\ER. 

Of the Delawares who signed the treaty of i.Sot), the next in order is 
I'etch-e-ke-ka-pon. Xo other trace of jiis career has come under notice. The 
same is true of the next one to sign, namel\- Captain Killbuck. except that the 
family name of Killbuck is connected with the afifairs of the Delawares before 
coming to us, while they still held sites in central Ohio. 

The only other signature remaining, under the title of Delawares is "The 
Beaver." 

\\'hat his subsequent career was cannot l)e said, hut tw(i years ])revious 
(1807) ^'1 event came into liis life, which, though a reflected glory, still lent 
some splendors to his re]Kitati(in at this time, no doubt. In describing it, it 
is necessary first to say that I ])ass o\ er the names of all the Pottawatomie 
Indians, for the reason that they were at home i)rinci])ally further north than 
our locality. And, also, for a similar reason I cannot take time td exann'ne 
all the Miami names, which come next in order. Rut there is one name 
among the latter that cannot be omitted. It is that of Meshekenoghqua 
(pronounced Mi-ski-kin-noq-kwa) or Tlie Little Turtle, 'i'his chief is the 
one who stood at the head of the great .Miami confederacv of two decades 



86 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

liefore ; and who successfully combated a superior white force on several occa- 
sions in the war which "Mad Anthony Wayne" eventually closed. 

Little Turtle will remain a permanent figure in American history. His 
talents were recognized by all who met him at the time under a great variety 
of circumstances, and he easily adjusted himself to whatever exigencies arose. 
It is natural, consequently, that with the close of hostilities (1795) he should 
wish to learn more of the white man's ways, and his travels to the "Big 
Council" (the City of Washington) brought him into contact with many 
capable men, some of whom left records of their impressions of this leading 
representative of the Indian race. 

One who met him east in 1807, which is two years before the Twelve 
Mile Purchase, speaks of "The Beaver" as one of the chiefs in the party of 
which Little Turtle was the leading spirit. The description which he gives 
cannot fail to enhance our story. 

(They) were dressed iu ;i costume usually worn by our own citizens of the time 
— coats of blue cloth, gilt buttons, pantaloons of the same color, and buff waist-coats; 
hut they all wore leggings, moccasins and large gold rings in their ears. The Little 
Ttirtle exceeded all his brother chiefs iu dignity of appearance — a dignity which re- 
sulted from the character of his mind. He was of medium stature, with a complexion 
of the palest copper shade, and did not wear paint. Itis hair was a full suit, and 
without any admixture of gray, although from what he said of his age, at Ft. Wayne in 
18(>4, being then flfty-three, he must at this time have been tifty-seven years old. His 
dress was comijleted by a long red military sash around the waist, and his hat (a 
chapeau braze) was ornamented by a red feather. Immediately on entering the house, 
he took off his hat and carried it under his arm during the rest of the visit. His ap- 
pearance and manners, which were graceful and agreeable in an uncommon <legree, 
were admired by .'ill who made his acquaintance. 

In such company il is to l)e ex)3ected that "The Beaver" learned things, 
and took on accomplishments that leave nothing to be desired. And, that if 
a full biography of him could be written, his life would lie found creditable 
by the best standards of Tndianhood. 

Ot:R ORIGINAL PIONEER. 

As this completes the list of names attached to the treaty under the title. 
"Delaware Indians." the ones who predominated in the Fayette county neigh- 
borhood, the -Story curtails itself and finds a finish. As to the whites who 
joined as witnesses to the treaty of 1809, it is not necessary to study them 
in this connection. Vet, there is one man whose name is attached to it — 
our original pioneer. John Conner, woodsman, scout and inter])reter — who 



- FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 87 

<leser\es special c(in>iclerati(Mi, l)ut another cliapter in this vohinie treats of 
his life in detail and it is unnecessary to expand upon it in this connection. 
It is perhaps appropriate to repeat a moral reflection which arises with- 
out effort, and is contained in a statement made by Governor Harrison upon 
a notable occasion when be said, that this land "seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and be the seat of civilization, of science 
and the true religion." The centurv which has passed since this fair tract 
of land became a pari of the state of Indiana has seen the fulfillment of the 
l)ropKecy made by our first governor : and we of Fayette county are not only 
full sharers oir the Inuxlens, but also of the honors and emoluments which 
ha\ e come to those who ha\e made their homes in the Twelve Mile Purchase. 

PROCEEDINGS OE THE TREATY. 

Following the a|>i)earance of this monogra])hic study of Mr. Heinemann 
the newspa))ers of the state began making favorable comments on the char- 
acter of the i)ublication. It was to be expected that the people of Fayette 
county andof the White Water valley should be interested, but it was some- 
what of a surprise to note that many papers over the state took the oppor- 
tunity to speak of it in \ ery complimentary terms. 

The second brochure of .\lr. Heinemann was also concerned with the 
Twelve Mile Purchase, the subject of his first monograph. It had not been 
known e\en to Indiana historians that Gen. William Henry Harrison had 
a journal ke])t of the proceedings of the deliberations at Ft. Wayne, Septem- 
ber 30, 1809. which finally resulted in the actual signing of the treaty, but 
the original of the journal had been hidden away in the archives at Wash- 
ington, D. C. for more than a hundred years. It was due to the indefatig- 
able efforts, .of. Mr. Heinemann that this rlocument was found and — but let 
him tell the story in his own words. It appeared for the first time in print 
in the brochure of Mr. Heinemann. 

TOURN.M. OE PROCEEDINGS. 



This pamphlet contains a reproduction without typographical alteration 
of the diary kept b}' Peter Jones, secretary to Governor Harrison, one of the 
commissioners appointed by President Jefferson to deal with the Indians (ju 
this occasion. 

It seems ti-uly deserving of ])reservation in the popular form here given 



iSa FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

to it, and of an lionored place in any collection of original data of those early 
days. 

Besides the local appreciation attached to its every detail, in a wider 
sense, the treaty is likewise not without some value to every student of Indi- 
ana history in general, because of the subsequent events that arose from it. 
The Indians under the influence of the Prophet and Tecumseh were some- 
what advanced in the formation of their plans at this time, but it was only 
in the progression of events that their real designs were uncovered. With 
the new treaty in existence, evasion ceased to be possible, and their hostile 
sentiments and their determination to fight were made manifest in the conduct 
that followed. 

What transpired after the treaty of Fort Wayne, can be indicated by a 
few brief extracts from Dillon's History. This book was written at a time 
when the local atmosphere of the pioneer days still surrounded our ancestors, 
and, consequently, the emphasis of e\ents as found there, is quite likely a 
verv true picture of one view of the pioneer period of our commonwealth. 

We quote from the edition of 1859: 

Tecumseh cleai-ly iutiiuated that he would resist auy attempt that might be made 
to survey lands which had been ceded to the United States by the treaty of Fort 
Wayne. (p. 431.) 

Throughout the course of the year ISIO, various rumors of the growing power and 
the hostile intentions of the Shawnee Prophet, produced a state of some alarm among 
the people, and retarded the progress of settlements and improvements in several 
counties of the Indiana territory. (p. 430.) 

In an interview with one of the messengers (of Governor Harrison), who visited 
the Prophet's Town in the month of June, 1810. the prophet declared that it was not his 
intention to make war on the white people; and he said that some of the Delawares. 
and some other Indians, "had been bribed with whiskey, to make false charges against 
him." When pressed by the messenger, Mr. Dubois, to state the grounds of his com- 
plaints against the United States, the prophet said that "the Indians had been cheateil 
out of their lands; that no sale was good unless made by all the tribes; that he had 
settled near the mouth of the Tippecanoe, by oivJer of the Great Spirit ; and that he 
was, likewise, ordered to assemble as many Indians as he could collect at that place." 
(p. 440.) 

"Brother: this land that was sold, and the goods that were given for it. was only 
done by a few. . . . The treaty at Fort Wayne w;is made through the threats of 
Winaniiic; but in the future, we iire pre]iared to punish those chiefs who may come 
forward to propo.se to sell land. . . . Those that did sell, did not own it. It was 
me. These tribes set up a claim; but the tribes with me will not agree to their claim. 
If the land is not restored to us, you will see, when we return to our homes, how it 
will be settled. We shall have a great council, at which all of the tribes shall be 
present, when we shall show to those that sold, that they had no right to the claim 
they set up; and we shall see what will be done with those chiefs that did sell the 
land to you. (p. 443.) 



1 WUIlld iMlU- 


liil.v (lu llif 


red |pei>i]|e. and do wU.il 1 have re- 


i;ive up the 


land, and do 


cross the boinidary of our present 


,• bard. Mild 


liriidvict" grent 


troubles auiong us. ... As we 


at tlie lliir 


on villaf;e. tlui 


1) is near the British, we may prob- 


ShouUl they 


oflVr u.s any 


presents of goods, we will not take 


ItVr us powtl 
:.•■ (p. 444. 


lev .-md Ihc Ic 


iiiiahawk, we will talce Ihc piiwder 


) 





FAYKTrK CHrXTY, 

•Krother: 1 wish y<.u 
unested. If you do not ; 
settlement, it will be veri 
intend to bold our council 
ably make them a visit, 
them: but should they ol 
and refuse the tomahawk 

The governor then re(iuesled Tecumseh lo stale, plainly, whether the surveyors 
who might be sent to survey the lands— purchased by the treaty of Fort Wayne, in 
tWlSI — would be interrupted by the Indi.ius: and whether the Kikapoos would, or would 
not. receive their, aauiuitie-s. Te<'.uiU}*eh. in reply, sjiid : "Brother: when you speak 
of annuities to me,' I' look at the' land, and pity the women and children. 1 am author- 
i/.eil to say that they will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of 
laud. We do not wish you to take i|. It is siiial! enough for our purjii'sc. If you 
take it. you must lil.inic yourself .-is the cause of trouble between us and the tribes 
who sold it lo you. 1 waul the present boundary line to continue. Should you <'ross 
it, 1 assure you it will be productive of bad consequences." The council, which was 

held in a small grove that si 1 ueai- the dwelling house of the goveru(U'. was then 

brought to a close. 

On tile ne.xt day (oivcnior ll.iirisoii, .UleHdeii only by his iutcriireler. visited the 
camp of Tecumseh. where he was ie<fived politely. In the <-ourse of .i long interview 
Tecumf<eh r<?peated the principal dei-laration and sentiments which he had previously 
uttered and avowed in open council; and when Goveriuu- Harrison told him that his 
claims and pretensions woulil not be acknowledged by the I'resident of the Fnited 
States — "Well." said Tecumseh. ".-is the great chief is to determine the matter. I hope 
the (Jreaf Spirit will jiut sense enough into his head to induce him to direct you t 
give uj) this land. It is true, be is so far off be will not be in.iuied by the war. He may 
sit still in his town, .-iiid drink his wine, \\hiie y<ni and I will have to fight it out." 
(I>. 44G1. 

'!"() enuiiierale fiirtlicr tlie liappeiiinos tliat fnlliiwed. wi'mld lie enttring- 
into the liistun- of tlie iiiilitai-y caniiiai.s^iis that culminated at Tippecanoe, in 
iXij, and e\en to the battles of .Maiden and tlie ri\er 'i'haines. in iHi^^j. 
whefe Teciiniseh in a forlofii lio])e laid dciwii his life, weririno- .a r.ritish 
tiniforni. 

l*'or some unknown reason. "The journal of the rroceedinos," printed 
hefewith, was omitted from the oii\ernment ])nhlications in the last century, 
when these matters were hrst collected in American State I'ajiers. and it 
remained hidden ;iwa\- for a hundred years, ;is a niaiuiscript in the files of 
the Dei)artment of War at \\ashinj.;ton. 

How it was hrnncrht to lijaht is shown hy a letter and its several answers, 
wliich follow: and their puhlication. also will render credit for the part per- 
formed by the eminent Indianian. Senator Beveridge. throug;h whose influence 
the .search, by the War Departiiient oflfcials. for the inissinq- diar\- was under- 
taken. 



go FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



A I.ETT£R AND ITS SEVERAL ANSWERS. 

Couneisville. Indiimji, June ISth, 1909. 
Hon. Albert J. Beveridge. 

Semite, Washiugtou, D. C. 

llEAK .Sir: — In the iiuthorizatioii t'loiii (he war ilepai-tiiieut to William Heury 
llariisoii. .Jul.v l.'ill). isnit. to luixeed witli a fuitbcr tieat.v witli tlie Indians, occurs 
tills instruction: 

"A diary of the iiroceedings. .sliould be lieiit by the commissioner or the 

secretary, and a carefully certified copy thereof forwarded with the treaty 

to this ilepjtrtment.'" (American State Pajiers. Vol. I, p. 761.) 

Tile treaty \v;is ccincluded September ;!(l. l.sdll. and is printed in full in the volume 
quoted .-ibovc, and also in \ol. II. Indian .Vffiiirs. Treaties, Senate Documents. But 
1 can find no ac<-ount of the diary retpured b.v the otHcial instructions. 

.Vic the minutes of the proceedings preserved in the archives of the department 
of w.ir, and are they accessible to the general public? To the best of my knowledge, 
the state lilirary. at Indianapolis, contains no reference to them e.xcept that to be 
found in the volume referred to, and if the minutes still exist, but have never been 
put into print. I should be exceedingly favored by whatever interest you manifest 
ill this belated exploration into Indiana history. 

The copy of the same b.v a suit.-ible stenographer is an expense which I shall 
gladly defray, if ,vou see tit to use your sujierior opportunities in locating the original 
manuscript. 

AVith the assurance that whatever aid yon give will lie very greatly appreciated, 
and thanking yon in advance for overlooking whatever trouble or inconvenience this 
letter gives yon. I beg to remain very resniectfull.v. 

Yours truly, 

J. li. Heinemann. 

Department of the Interior. 
Office of Indian Affairs. 

\Vasb!iigt(Mi. .lune 8(1. l!»(l'.». 
Hon. Albert J. Beveridge, 

T'nited States Senate. 
Sir : — The office is in receipt, by your reference of .June 2,Hrd, of a letter addressed 
to you by the war deiiartment returning a eoniniunication from Mr. .T. L. Heinemann, 
t'onnersville, Indiana, relative to his desire to obtain a copy of the Journal of Pro- 
ceedings of the commission that concluded a treaty with the Delaware, Pottawatomie, 
Miami and Eel River Indians at Ft. Wayne on September 30. 1S09 (7 Stat. L., 113-115). 
The .Journal referred to, which was found recently in the files of the war depart- 
ment, was referred to this oflSce by that department on June 23. 19<>9, and a certified 
<'opy thereof is being prepared and will be forwarded to you for Mr. Heinemann's use 
;is soon ;is it is completed. Very respectfully, 

R. I. Walentein, 

Commissioner. 

Indianapolis, Indiana, August 10, 1909. 
liKAR Mr. Heinemann: 

I have your letter of August oth, enclosing draft for the bureau of Indian affairs 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 9I 

iu iiayuieiit of certilietl cuiiy cif Journal of the Proteediiiss of the Indian Treaty of 
ISiV.). I am i-etuniiiis the ilraft to y<iu. and he« to suKKe^'l that yon have same maih- 
pnyalile to Mr. Ahhott. artuis conunissionor, and forward it to him at Washin;,'ton 
direct. 

Assuring' you tliat I was very pleased to do what I tinild in this matter, I am, 
\'ery truly yours. 

Alhkrt J. Bevkbidgk. 
.Mu. .T. I.. Heine.\i.u\n. 

I'onnersville. Ind. 

The ft)ll()\ving i,'^ a \erl)atiiii copy of the letter from Cieii. Wilham Henry 
Harrison to the Secretary of War, accompanyin"- tlie Journal alxjve referred 
to: 

Vincennes 15th Nov. ^S.m. 
Sir 

I have now the honor to enclose the slietch of the lands lately ceded hy the 
Indians to the United States and the Journal liept by Captain Jones, the secretary. 
There appears to be much more land in these tracts than I e.xpected being upwards 
of 2,900,0(10 acres. I believe there are two or three excellent salt springs on the 
tract near this. General William Clarke who is now at Washington can give you 
some information on this siib.iect. The one marked in the sltetch has been visited 
since the treatj- b,v some of our citizens who say that it promises well. 

The sketch is principally intended to show the advantages which would arise from 
opening a road to Dayton in the state of Ohio it would bring us 120 miles nearer the 
seat of government. I believe that the Indians would consent to have the road ojiened 
through that part of their country which it must necessarily pass through. 

I have Honor to be with 

great Uespect Sir your 
Humble Servant. 
The Honorable Wn.tAi Henry Harrison. 

Wn.r.i.\M I<>usTis. Ksq.. 

Secretary of War. 

\"erb.\t;m copy of the journal. 

On h'riday the i st of .Se])teniher (ioxernor Harrison, as commissioner 
for Treatino- with the Indian Trihes set out from Vincennes for Fort Wayne 
accompanied h}- his Secretary I'eter Jones one Interpreter a I-'rench Man 
as a guide a Servant of the tldverndr tS: two Indians, .\fter !ea\ing- tlie 
Settlement of Knox Connt_\- nur route was along the road newly cut out hy 
the orders of the Government in the direction of the Xorth liend to its 
termination, & tlien along the frontier of the Count\- oi ]J)earhorn to I'^ort 
Wayne, at which place we arrived on the fifteenth. Directions had 1)een 
gixen to Mr. John Johnston the Indian .\gent to assemhle the Inflians, against 
that time. The Deliware Trihe with their Interpreter) Mr. John Conner 



92 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

reached Fort Wayne at the very moment of our arrival. Two principal 
Chiefs HockinmioniscDn and tiie Bea^-er were however absent on a visit to 
Detroit. 

1 6th. Tart of the Putawatiniies arrived under their Chief VVinemack. 

The Governor learned witli regret that the head Chief Tipinipe of the 
I'ulawatimies & Five A-Iedals were not returned from Detroit but authorized 
their son & nephew to act for them. Tn the evening the Eel River Tribe 
arri\ed & more of the Putawatimies. 

i/th. The Miami Chief Peccan Oul Osage and some inferior ones 
arrived. A messenger was sent for the little Turtle who returned for answer 
that he would come in on the igth Inst. -\ mischievf)us report was circulated 
amongst the Indians that a Detacliment of American Troops were marching 
against them. Some of the young men were much frightened but the Chiefs 
treated it with the ridicule it deserved. The Putawatimies waited on the 
Governor & requested a little liquor which was refused. The Governor 
observed that he was determined to .shut up the liquor casks until all the busi- 
ness was finished. 

]8th. .\n express was despatched to Detroit to hasten the arrival of 
the Deliware & F'utawatimie Chiefs who had gone to that place & whose 
presence was \ery much desired 1)y the Governor. Mr. Barron the Inter- 
preter was also sent to the Miami Towns sixty miles distant to bring Richard- 
ville the Principal Chief of that Tribe who had excused himself under pre- 
tence of real or pretended sickness from comeing in withe the other Chiefs. 

The Governor had a conference with a Deputation from the Deliwares 
who reside west of the Mississi])])i who came for the purpose of prevailing on 
those of that Tribe who reside in this Territory to join their brethren in 
Louisiana. .\ reciprocal ])romi.se was made by the Governor to promote the 
above object as much as jiossible :uid In" tlie Chiefs to aid his views in respect 
to the proposfed Treaty. Measures were taken also to explain the wishes of 
the Government to the Putawatimies & to engage their cooperation. More 
of the Putawatimies & Miamies ari\ed the whole number on the ground this 
day was eight hundred and ninety-two. 

iQth. The Turtle arrived this day with a number of Miamies & Puta- 
watimies. The Goxernor visited the Putawatimies in their Camjj as had 
prex'iously done the Deliwares. Measures were also taken to sound several 
of the most influential Chiefs on the subject of the proposed Treaty. Captain 
Hendricks the Mohecan Chief informed the Governor that the British Agent 
of Indian affairs had ad\-ised all the Indian Tribes ne\-er to listen to any 



- FAYKTTK COl'NTY, INDIANA. t)^ 

proposition to sell tlifir lands to the L'nited States, l^inncvva a I'utawatiniie 
Cliiet ari\-ed with oiie hundred Indians of his Tribe. 

JOth. The (io\ern,.r had a conference with all the Miami .S: lud Kner 
Chiefs & e-xjilained to them at great lens^th the object of his \isit to this |)lace 
and the great advantage which they would derive from causeing the W'eas 
to move from the neighborhood of our Settlements an<l join their bretluxii 
the Miamies & Eel River Tribes) these three tribes are all ])ro])erly s])eaking 
Miamies see the Treaty of ("imnseland i Their Xation w<iuld then become 
mucii more respectable an<l thev would be enabled greatly to increase their 
anmiit)- b\' selling a Tract of hnul which was exausted of game and which 
was no longer useful lo them. They were desired to take the Governor's 
proposal inti> consideration iK: I'nolly iS: deliberatelx" to weigh all the argu- 
ments he had used to adopt his ad\ ice. .Mr. \\'ells remained with them at 
their conference and in the e\ening reported to the (io\ernor that they had 
determined on no account e\er to part from another foot of their lands. 
Tliere is some reason to beliexe lio\\e\er that this was a mere titiesse to 
enhance the ])rice of their land. This exening .Mr. liarron returned from the 
Mississinway &• rep(«rted that the Chief RicharcK ille was contined to his P>ed 
& obserxed that it was im])ossible for him to attend at i)i-esent ])ut he reipiested 
the Governor to be informed that he would come up in a few days if he should 
find himself able X: that he had advised the other Chiefs by all means to 
comiilx- with Governor's wishes. 

_'ist. The Governor had determined not to assemble the Chiefs in a 
Creneral Council until the arrival of the b'ive .Medals, the rutawatimie Chief, 
but finding that his object had been \ery much tnisre])resented to them, lie 
commenced on this da\- both to the Deliwares & I'utawatimies the wishes of 
the Go\-erninent in relation to a furtlier cession of Latids. 

In the e\"ening the I'vitaw ntimie Chiefs sent a message to the (loveruor 
to inform him that the_\- had delennined that the other Tribes should agree 
to make the proposed cession. 

_'2iid. In Council i)re'*eut. Go\enK)r Harrison as Commissioner i'leni- 
])otentiary on the ])art of the i'nited States and a full re])resentation of the 
Deliware, .Miami, Rel Kixei" i\; Ptttawatimie Tribes of Indians 1)\- their Chiefs 
& Head Men. 

William Wells Joseph liarr.ni John Conner and .\brahatn .\sh were 
sworn Interpreters. The Governor addressed the Chiefs in a speech of con- 
siderable leneth showing the pro])riety of their agreeing to his ])roposition to 
sell a tract of Country binding on the Wabash the Vincemies tract and the 
Ijoundary established by the Treatv of Grouseland and another bounded b\- 



94 KAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the latter on the st)uth & the old boundary line running from Mouth of Ken- 
tucky River on the East. He urged the vast benefit which they derived from 
their annuities without which they would not be able to cloathe their woman 
& children, l^he great advance in the price of Goods and the depression of 
the value of their peltries from the troubles in Europe to which their was 
ni> probability of a speedy termination. The little game which remained in 
their country particularly in that part of it which he proposed to purchase. 
The usurpation of it by a Banditti of Muscoes & other Tribes that the sale 
of it would not prevent them from hunting upon it as long as any game 
remained. But that it was absolutely necessary that they should adopt some 
other plan for their su))]:)ort. That the raising of Cattle & Hogs required 
little labor and would be the surest resourse as a substitute for the wild ani- 
mals which thev had so unfortunately destroyed for the sake of their skins. 
Their fondness for hunting might still be gratified if they would prevent 
their young men from hunting at improper seasons of the year. But t(> do 
this effectually it will be necessary that they should find a certain support in 
their Villages in the summer season. That the proposed addition to their 
annuities would enable them to jjrocure the Domestic Animals necessary to 
commence raising them on a large scale. He observed also that they were 
too a])t to im])ute their i)0\'ertv and the scarsity of Game to the encroach- 
ments of the White Settlers. But this is not the true cause. It is owing 
to their own im])ro\i(lence & the advice of the British Traders by whom they 
were stimulated to kill the wild animals for the skins alone when the flesh 
was not wanted. That this was the cause of their scarsity is evident from 
their being found in much greater quantitx- on the south than on the north 
side of the Wabash where no white man but traders were ever seen. 

The remnant of the W'eas who inhabit the Tract of Country which was 
wanted were from the \icinit\ to the Whites poor & miserable all the pro- 
ceeds of their hunts & the great ])arl of their annuities expended in Whiskey. 
The .Miami Xation would be much more respectable & formidable if its scat- 
tered members were all assemljled in the center of their Country. 

A rough sketch of the Country in which the two tracts which were 
wanted were ]>articularly delineated was shewn to them, after which the Owl 
a Miami Chief addressed the Governor. 

Father we are \ery hap]:)\- to here your address. We shall take what 
you ba\'e said into consideration & will return you an answer. 

23rd. The Chiefs met in Council at the Deli ware Camp to consider the 
Governor's ])roposition it was understood that the Putawatimies declared 
unequi\ocally in faxour of the sale and were seconded bv the Deliwares. 



" FAYKTTE CdlNTY. INDIANA. <>5 

The iniamics reiiiainecl silent. The (ioxernor had a private interview witli 
the Turtle who expres.sed some solicitude tn know whether tiie dismission of 
Mr. U'ells from his employment as X^ent wduld effect his standing with the 
(ro\-ernment. The (^lovernor assured him that he should be treated in all 
respects as he had heen heretofore so lonq as he conducted himself with pro- 
priety. He then assured the Governor unequivocally that he would exert 
himself to the utmost of his power to effect the proposed Treaty, hut that 
many difficulties were to he encountered before it could be accomplished. 
That great complaints were made by the Indians on account of the compen- 
sation formerly allowed That those who were in favour of the Treaty were 
decidedlv of opinion that they aught to be alloweil for the larger tribes at 
least a further annuitv of Siooo 6v; for the smaller ones $500 besides a con- 
siderable sum in hand. In the evening the Miami Chiefs waited on the 
Governor at his lodgings and spent the evening with him. The rec|uested to 
have a little li(|uor for their \oung man. Two Gallons were given to each 
Tribe. .\ Potawatomie Chief ^^ ineiuack waited on the Governor late in 
the evening and tokl him that he came to make him sleep well by communi- 
cating the agreeable information that his ]iroposition would be acceeded to 
by the Indians. 

J4tli. The Indians met in Council to determine upon the answer to be 
given to the (iovernor. When the .Miamies declared their determination not 
to sell a foot of Land. Observing that it was time to put a sto]) to the 
encroachments of the whites who were eternally ])urchasing their lands for 
less than the real value of them. That they had also heard that the Governor 
had no instructions from the President to make the purchase but that he 
was luaking it upon his own authority to please the \Miite peo])le whoom he 
governed. The Pnlawatimies vehementlv urged the sale & rejiroached the 
Miamies in the most bitter terms. "That the I'utawatimies had taken the 
Mianu'es under their ])rotection when they were in danger of being extenuin- 
ated & saved them. That the}' had always agreed to the .sale of lands for 
the benefit of the Miannes and they were now determined that the .Miamies 
should sell for their benefit." 

The Delawares would tJike no active ])art on either side. 

J^th. All the Tribes were assembled in Council and the (lovernor 
addressed them as follows 

My Children 

My lle.-irt is (ipiin'sscd. If I cdiilil hnvf hclieved tliiit I should Imve experiencwl 
liMlf (if tlic iii(ii-titi(;iti(iii .111(1 dis.i|iii(,iMtniciil wlik-li I now fwl. I would have eutrpiited 
your Fiitlipi- till- I'rcsidcnl to li.ivc chosen some otlior Ueprcsentative to have made 



yiin. I iuii sure that 


e^•erything wil 


fhiefs & Wan-iiii 


IS of the Pelii 


not (ieceived me. ya 


u liave united 


.■(.voiiiiJlisli the wisht 


■s of your Fa 


<pf this I'onufil wi-iti 


len by tlie Se 


& whenever yim take 


■ him by tlie 1 


brothers on the Miss 


lissiinii sliall a 



90 K.'.VKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Ivnown bis wislies to you. The proposition which I have uiade you, I foudly hoped 
would h.-ive iieen .uceptable to all, because I knew it would be beneficial to all. Why 
then this dis,i};reeinent auioughst you. Is there some evil spirit amonghst us'? That 
lias set Brothers against Brothers & the Children against the Father? The Wind I 
hear h;is blown from the North, no good Las ever yet come from that quarter. If we 
who inh.-ibit this great Isleand. who were liorn here, are not friends to each other, who 
will be our Friends. 

Believe me my ("hildren. the people u]ion the other side of the big water would 
desire nothing better than to set , us on<-e more to cut each others throats. Glad 
enough would they be to see us contending againsl e;iih other in battle provided the.v 
were secured behind the Walls of a strong fort. .Miamies be not offended with your 
brothers the I'utawatimies. If they have di.<covered to(j much eagerness to compiy 
with the wishes of their Father. Look .it their Woman & Childreu see>,tlieiii exposed 
to the winds & the rain as tlic.\' will he in .1 short time to the snows of the Winter. 
I'utawatimies do not suffer your love for ycmr Father and your own distresses to 
make you angry with your brothers the Mi.-imics. I know that they are .attached to 
vet be- ti.xed to youi- satisfaction, 
re. 1 li.ive put i-outidence in you and you have 
vith your grand Children the Puttawatimies to 
n-. he will remlier you for it. Tlie proceedings 
-tary will be sent to him. his eyes will see it 
id you will know tli:it his heart is .vours. Your 
1 feel the good eftVrts of your fathers affection 
for .vou. 

I promise you that the Osages shall not molest you in your hunting grounds. 
My Children the Miamies, what disconcerts youV Il.ive you not always received 
justice from the hands ef your- faftierV What is it he asks of you? Nothing but 
what .vou. can spare. Will not your situation be made better by agreeing to his 
proposal? I kuow that you have long desired to have your brothers the Weas along- 
.side of you. It will add to your strength -a< present they are of no use to you — 
bring .vour scattered members together & you will he strong, besides there is danger 
that this distant member may fall off it is already we.ikened by the excessive use 
of of licpior. My Children your father will never be the cause of breaking the chain 
of friendship that connects you with each other. 

I'uttawatimtes & Miamies look upon each other .-is brothers and at the same time 
look upon your grand fathers the Del.iw.ires. 1 love to see you all untied. I wish 
a strong chain to bind you all together in the bonds of friendship. I wish to hear 
you speak with one voice the dictates of our He.irt. All must go together. The con- 
sent of all is necessarj-. 

Delawares and Putawatimies. I told yon that I would do nothing with the Miamies 
without yoin- consent. Miamies I now tell you tli.it nothing can be done without your 
consent. The consent of the whole is necessary. This is the first request your new 
Father (President Madison) has ever made you it will lie the last, he wants no 
more of your land agree to the proposition which I now make you & send on some 
of your wise men to take him by the hand. lie will set .vour Hearts at ease. He 
will tell you that -he will never make ■•mother |iro|io.sition to you to sell your lands. 
My Children the Miamies will you not listen to the voice of your father will 
.vou not iijien your ears to the recommendjition of your grand fathers the Deliwares 
& vour brothers the Puttawatimies. Consult together mice more if any ill will remain 



' FAVETTK cor NTY. INDIANA. 97 

in your hre.-ists ;i-.iiiist c.-i.-li ntlicr li.-iMisli il. throw il mwm.v. nnd return ii f;ivor;ililo 
iinsucr lo tliis List roqiiesl of your Father. 

Tlu' Turtk- -\ Miami Cliit-t ilu-n s|Kike as follows 

We h.-ivo listfiUMl to wli.-it our l''allicr li:is s;ii(l. I'titnwMtiniies .V: 1 icliw.iros we liitvi' 
licMnl liiiu say lliat yon worr niiilcil for the iiurpose of c-onii'lyini: with his wi.slics 
I .iin sorry thiit he has met with so inncli dillii-nlty. It is true that we the Miamie.s 
are not unileil with the Deliw.ires .iinl rntawatimies in opinion. Father it appears 
that the thiiifi is now left with the .\Iianiies. tliey will withdraw and consult together 
.111(1 .-iftei- they h.-ive made n]) their minds yon shall hear our answer. 

hi the fveiiiti.y the .Miami Chiefs from two \"illaoes met with the l':el 
River Chiefs muler the .aiispices of the 'i'urtle iS; asfeed to meet the Gov- 
ernor's wishes. 

_>'.th. A meetin.ti- of the several Tribes took i)lace. The I'utawatimies 
m-i^ed ati immediate conii)liaiice to the i)roposal of the I'nited States. The 
Miamies from .Mississiinvay took the lead in the debate & declared tliat they 
would ne\ei- consent to sell any more of tlieir lands that they had been advi.sed 
liv the b'atlier the P.ritish nc\er to sell another foot. The I'utawatimies 
|)ourcd ni>on them a tori-eiU of abuse and declared that they wnuld no lousier 
consider them as I'.rothers but that they would loose the chain which had 
united tliem with the Toiuah.iwk & setting up a shout of Defiance which was 
echoed 1)\- all the warriors jtroceeded immediately to the Council House to 
inform the (roventor of what the\- bad done, the Governor blamed them for 
their rashness & made tliem i)i-omise not to otfer the Miamies any further 
insult to put their cause in bis liauds. 

Tt a])])eai-ed that such of the .Miamies as bad determined in fa\dur of 
the Treaty were intiniidated b\ the vehemence <if the Chiefs of the Mississiii- 
v\a\- N'illatje & remained silent. 1 Jm'ino- the whole of this dav and the pre- 
ceedin,<,r one. ])arties of youno nieii of the .Miami Tribe were constantl_\- ari\- 
ino- loaded with goods from the liritisb .\gents at Maiden and cbaroed also 
with strong remonstrances against the pro]X)sed I'reaty. 

In the evening the Go\-ernor bad the greater ])art of the Miami Chiefs 
at his lodgings and in a con\ ersation of some boin's e.xjxised ])rof'idious con- 
duct of t!ie British towards them from the commencement of the Rexolu- 
tiotiar}- War untill the present mometU. "To them all their misfortunes 
were to be attribnteil & tlteir present l<in(lness to them j)roceeded from ikj 
other cause but a wish to embroil them with the United States. In case of 
a War with tlie latter, the 1-jiglish know that they are unable to defend Can- 
ada with their own force, ihev are therefore desirous of interiiosing the 
(7) 



98 FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Indians lietween them and danger." --\ ccimplimentary answer was returned 
by tlie Head Cliief Paccon & they returned aliout ten o'clock a little inchm'cd 
with AVine. 

27th. The Miami Chiefs were this da\- debating on the proposed Treat}-, 
the Chief Silver heels ]jarticularly distingnisbed himself in favour of the 
Treaty. They came howe\-er to nt) decision. In the e\'ening the Governor 
recommended to the Putawatimies to accommodate their difference with the 
Miamies they immediately assented & a proper (|uantity of W'ampon was pre- 
pared for the purpose. 

28th. The Putawatimies & Miamies met & the bad words spoken by 
the former on the 26th being- recalled the>- shook hands and became again 
friends. The pro])osed Treaty was again taken under consideration and 
various objections \vere started by the ]\liamies , amonghst other things it 
was insisted that they ought to sell their lands In- the acre & that they should 
receive two Dollars for it. In the evening the Ciovernor was informed that 
they had agreed to sell the small tract near h\)rt Recovery only, and none 
on the Wabash. 

29th. In Council present the Cro\ernor and the Deliware, Putawatimies, 
Miamies & Eel River Miamies. 

The Owl a Miami Chief said "That it bad pleased the great Spirit to 
unite again all who were ])resent in the bands of friendship. 

Yesterday the fiiendsLi]i was ,ill afloat to-day it is made tinii. You the people 
of the T'Uited States h.ive as-seiiihled us all here, our Chiefs, &c. You remher the 
time when we first took each other by the h;iiid at Greenville. You there told us 
where the line would he between us. You told us to love our woman & children 
and take care of our lands, you told us that the Si)anish bad a sreat deal of money 
the English & some of your peo]ile likewise. I)ut that we should not sell our lands to 
any of them. In consequence of wbicb last fjill we ;ill |iut our band.s upon our lands 
& determined not to sell our lands. We all love our bauds. .\.fter this determination 
you sent for us ;it the end of out' year bul we did not ex|iecl to bea.r from you what 
we have beard. Imt we yesterday determined to sive you an answer. You have told 
us not to let ,iny pei-son have our lands hut consider well before we sell fbem. This 
was iioiid .idvii*'. you know when things are scasce the.v are dear, you know the price 
of lands. We .are willing to sell some for the price that it sells for jimouKhst 
yourselves. The land yon want on the Wabasb we have nolbini; to say to al ]a-esent 
as the Weas are not here. If i)eoiile have auytbini; that tbey do u<it waul tliey will 
jiart from it easily, -^'e yet find Kanie on this land when there is none. We will let 
you know it. Father you know the Mi.iniies. .vou know fh.-it when tbey do business 
with ,iny other Indians no resjiect is paid to what they say. Father at this Council 
you have told the Jliamies to si)eak. We therefore exfiect that you will he governed 
by what they say. When you spoke to ns you wished that we should comply. \A'e 
now wish that you would comply with what we wish. The land we propose selling 
to you will be measured and when it is we wish to he iiresent. Father the land you 



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iilxiut 


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not \vi 


Sll 


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lIUl 111 


Kir 1 


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is 



FAVKT'lE (■or> 

luoiilioiieil t(i us .III Ibf \V:ih.isli we liiivc n 

Id f;o lioiiie imsiiccessfui. We will li'l yon liiivi' senile land near Fort Uecovery. Ilii- 
land on the Wabash our younger Brotlieis (i(iu|i.\. I >on"t be dissjitisfied. This is oiii 
ili'ti>iiiiiuati(iii. We liavc dispntPil almiil yiinr pruiiDsal but our disinites were t'or- 
limali'ly si'lllcil yesterday. Kalher you kimw e\ cryrliing. you will immediately iiiider- 
siauil wlial 1 new say -we wisli tii Ueep as far as jiossible from the White people, 
we know that when your Horses are lost you hianie the Indinns, we wish to keep our 
people and yours as sei)arate as possilile. This is the sentiments of your ("hildreii here 
present. We have nothing more to sjiy. Our Chiefs. Warriors. Women & ("hildreii salute 
you, the former annuity due to us by the ruiteil Sl,ites we li,ive eonie to re<eive ami 
w isli them deliverert as soon as ixissible. 

The (iovernor then nddressed them in a .speech ut two h(jnr.s in which 
lie _oa\e a History of the Coiuhict of tlie L'nited States towards the red |)eo])le 
contrasted with that of Great P.ritain. "The loss of the conntrv from Pitts- 
luirs^h to the Miami was entireh- to he .-ittfihtited lo the hitter who urj^ed the 
Indians to commence all those Wars, which ha<l terminated so fatally to them, 
if all the lands wliich had heen taken from them in those Wars which they 
had enoatjed in hy the ad\ ice of the P.ritish had heen sold on the same terms 
as those ceded since ihc Treaty of (jreeinille tlieir .\mniity would now have 
heen e(|iial to all their wants nor would they have to lament the numerous 
warriors who had fallen in fighting the battles of the linghsh. How differ- 
ent was the conduct of the Uiu'ted States? Consious of their ability lo 
punish their enemies thev had never asked the assistance of their red children 
but ha\e always adxised them to remain at jieace in their Cabbitis & suffer 
the white jieople to fight their own battles." The Gosernor e.\])lained to them 
the nature of a Treaty "Xo other jiower but tlie I'nired St.'ites had e\er 
Treated with them. Other Civilized Xations considered the lands of the 
Indians as ilieir own and appropriated them to their own use whene\er they 
])leased. .\ Treaty was considered by white ])eo])le as a mo.st solemn thing 
and tho.se which were made by the L'nited States with the Indian Tribes 
\\ere considered as binding as those which were made with tlie most ]io\\er- 
ful Kings on the other side of the P.ig Water. The\- were all concluded with 
the same forms and printed in tlic same I'.ook so that alt the world might see 
them and brand with infamy the ]iart\ which violated them. The l'nited 
States would alwa\s adhere to their engagements. To do otherwise woidd 
be offensive to the great spirit and all the world would locik ujion them as 
a faithless ])eople. \\'ith res])ect to your selling the land bv the acre it is 
entirely out of the question. But if the L'nited States were to agree to ii, 
\ou have no one that could sur\ey it for you or who could tell whether it was 
accurately done or not. If it was sold by the acre we would onlv take what 
was good and leave the rest ujion your hands. When it is bought in the 



lOO FWETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

large (|uaiitit}- xou are paid for good and bad togetlier and }-ou all know that 
in every tract that is purchased that there is a great portion of bad land not 
fit for our pur])ose. This idea must have been suggested to you by some 
person who is as much your enemy as the enemy of the United States." 
The Governor then told them that he was tired of waiting and that on the 
next day he wduld submit to them the form of a Treaty which he wished 
them to signe and if they would not agree to it he would extinguish the coun- 
cil fire. 

Winemack a i'utawatimie Chief then addressed the Go\-ernor as follows 
FMther 

All the I'utMWMtimies ;i(l(lres>< you. listen to \vL;it the.v .s;iy. which come from them 
.ill. Fiither the Fnrawatimies are of the same o))inion that they have ever been, that 
.voiir iiroiio.«itioii is right and .just. We all know that our Father never deceived U.S. 
we therefore agree to his jiroijosal. All the Chiefs & Warrior.s have heard you say 
that they may go and see their great Father tlie I'resideut and that he would tell them 
as you have done. 

You have now lieard the sentiments of all the Putawatimies. Fatlier after 
we conclude the Treaty some of our young men would be glad to go and see their 
Father. Father your t'hildren have listened to you with attention all that .you have 
said is good, yon have asked for l:ind. we will give it to you. We have heard you 
say that the piece of land .-it the Wea Towjis which we li:id formerly given, you were 
willing to retore Ibis hiis laadc us lia|i|)y wc have always heard from you and our 

Father .Tefferson iiotbing but g 1. We wish lo conrnr with all the nations who 

are present. We your cbihln.n coiisider llic laud as belonging to us ;ill not to one 
nation alone, we know Ibal everytbiiig you have said to us is true. Vou have also 
recdinniended to us to be moderate & friendly to each other. 

A Deliware Chief then amse and ol),ser\ed that the Deliwares had always 
kept fa.st hold of the chain of friendshi]) which united them to the se\enteen 
fires at the 'I'reaty of Green\ille. That they had alwa^'s listened to the \-oice 
of their Fatlier and were now willing to agree to liis ])roposals. 

As .soon as the Putawatimie Chief began to speak all the Mississinway 
Aliamies left the Council House. 

30tli. It \\;is now the opinion of all the Gentlemen about the b^irt that 
the .Missisinwav Miamies could never be brought to sign the Treaty and all 
the attempts which the Governor had made through the Inteqireters and 
scjme confidential Chiefs to find out the real cause of their obstinacx- had 
hitlierto failed. Tie therefore determined to make them a \isit to their cani]) 
in ])erson for tlie purpose of ascertaining whether their opposition pmceded 
from a fixed determination ( rts they had asserted) not \o sell an}- more lands 
uid'ess they could get two Dollars pr. Acre, or some other cause which he 
might be enabled to remo\e. He accordingly \\ent to their camp about sun 
rise attended onl}- b\' his Tnterjjreter Mr. P.arron in whose integritv he had 



FAYr.TTK C(U'NIV. IMHANA. 1(11 

tlie utmost confidence. He was received In all the Chiefs with the ulinn>i 
cni])lacencv and liaviny collected them all in the Tent (if the principal he tnld 
them "that he had ])aid them that visit not as the representative ni the Presi- 
dent but as an old frienti with whom they had been many years acc|uainted 
and wiio always endeaxored to promote tlieir happiness b}- every means in bis 
l)ower. That be ]ilainly saw that there was something; in their hearts which 
was not ccinsistent with the attachment which they oug-ht to bear to tlieir 
threat b'ather and he was afraid that they bad listened to bad birds. That he 
had come there for the ])urpose of hearint]^ ever\- cause nf coni])lainl as^amst 
the L'nited States and he would not leave them untill they laid open esery- 
thint^- that o])))ressed their Hearts. lie knew that thev could ha\e no solid 
objection to the pnjimsed Treaty for they were all nieti of sense and rellection 
and well knew that they would be mush benefited b\- it." The ( iovernor 
requested that all the Chiefs present would speak in their turn, and callins.^ 
upon the principal Chief of the Eel Ri\er Tribe who was an old friend of 
his that bad serve<l with him in General Waynes .\rmy he demanded what 
his objections were to the Treaty. He drew out the Treaty of Crouseland. 
"P'ather — Here are your own wtirds, in this paper you jiromised that you 
would consider the Miann'es as the owners of the latul on the Wabash why 
tlien are you about to ])urchase it from others? The (".overuor assured them 
that it nexer was his intention to pm'chase the land from the other Tribes 
that be had always said and was ready now to confess that the land belonged 
to the Miamies and to no other Tribe that if the other Tribes had been inxited 
to the Treaty it was at their particular request (The Miamies). The Tula 
watimies bad indeed taken bi,a:her g^round than either the C.overnor or the 
Miamies e.xjjected they claimed an equal right to the lands in question with 
the Miamies. hut what of this their claiming it ga\e them no right and it \\a> 
not the intention of the C.overnor to ])ul anything in the Treat)' which would 
in the least alter their claim to their lands on the W'al)asb as established by 
the Treaty of Grouseland unless they cho.se to satisfy the Deliwares with 
lespect to their claim to the Countrv- Watered by the White i\i\er. 'That 
e\ en the whole compensation pro])osed to he gi\en for the lands w(ju1(1 be 
given to the Miamies if they insisted u|)on it but that tlie\ knew the offence 
which this would give to the other 'Tribes and that it was alwavs the C.ov- 
ernor's intention so to draw up the 'Treat}' that the I 'utawatimies iK: Deliwares 
would be considered as participating in the advantages of the 'Treat\ as allien 
of the Miamies. not as having- any right to the land." I'".ver\' countenance 
brightened at this declaration, the other Chiefs s|)oke in theii- tm-n, each had 
some grievance to complain of. 'They had been told that justice should he 



102 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

(lone to them in their (hsi)utes with the White People, the principal War 
Chief complained that he had heen cheated hy a Air. Audrain a connection 
of Mr. Wells out of se\enty Dollars that he had in vain applied to Wells for 
redress, the old story of the Spirits seized hy ^Vells was again broug:ht for- 
ward and a very strong antipathy both to Wells and the Turtle was mani- 
fested by all. The Governor had no alternative but to promise immediate 
satisfaction for these claims and to assure them that he perfectly understood 
and admitted that they (the Mississinway Chiefs) were the real Representa- 
tives of the A'liami Nation and that he should always consider them as such. 
Some attemjjts were then made to induce the Governor to alter his determina- 
tion with respect to the (|uantom of compensation to be given for the land 
but finding that the Governor was immovable as to this point they gave it 
up and after desultory conversation upon the Governor's demanding whether 
they were entireh- satisfied Paean the principal Chief told the Governor he 
might g'o to the Fort and they would shortly wait upon him with good news. 
The Treaty was immediately prepared and in full council at which all the 
Warriors attended, the Treaty was signed without a single objection except- 
ing on the part of the Turtle who objected to the article which gives the 
Mohecans the right to settle on the White River. The Other Miami Chiefs 
however declared in favour of it and the Turtle gave it up. 

The separate article with the Aliamies had been agreed on before upon 
their consenting to the Article in the original Treaty which embraces the Kick- 
apoos.' 

October the first, second and third The Goxernor was employed in 
delivering the annuities for the ]jresent year. The Goods promised bv the 
late Treaty and arranging the claims of certain Citizens against the Indians 
& those of the Indians against the Citizens for Horses stolen and other 
depredations all which were amicably adjusted. When the Goods for the 
I 'utawatimies were laid out Viz: fifteen hundred Dollars from the jjublic 
store & five hundred Dollars of their annuity which had been sent to Fort 
Wayne seeing that their fyilc was so much less than the Miamies they refused 
to take them alledging that their numbers were greater than all the other 
Tribes present put together & that they had less goods than any. As soon 
as the Governor was informed of this he assembled all the Chiefs & War- 
riors in the Council House and e.xplained to them the reason of their haxing 
hut five hundred Dollars of their present years annuity part having heen 
sent to Detroit & a part to Chicago .\fter some consultation the\- agreed to 
take the Cioods but as the Governor discovered that thev were not satisfied 



IvWKTII-; l(M\TV. INDIANA. IO3 

he agreetl to .ichance them fu e huiulreti I )ullai> in aiiticii>atinn <if tlieir next 
years annuity. 

4tli. We set mit oil our return to X'inceinies tiirous^h tiie liuliaii Coun- 
try on the nii)rnin,i); of tlie 5th passed the Lamp of i'acan the principal .Miami 
Chief & found one of his men mortally wounded in a drunken frolick the 
preceding night. The Chiefs informed the Governor that they had not dis- 
covered the murderer. The (iovernor recommended to them by all means 
to punish him when discovered if it should appear to have proceeded from 
previous malice, hut if it should appear tt) he altogether accident to let him 
know it and he would assist to make u]) the matter with the friends of the 
deceased. 

Passing through the Indian \illages at the h'orks of the Wabash we 
arrived at Mississinway on the 6th where we were hospitably recei\ed l)y 
Richardville the Grand Sachem of the Mianiies who expressed his entire 
satisfaction at the conclusion of the Treaty. At the Eel Ri\'er Village on the 
Rabiere we met with some of the Wea Tribe whom the Governor sent to 
collect the Wea Chiefs & conduct them to N'incennes at which place we 
arrived on the 1 _nh October. 

The whole number of Indians present the da\- the Treaty was signed 
was thirteen hundred and ninety. 

On the fifteenth of October Lapoussier the jirincipal Chief of the Weas 
arived with fifteen of his Tribe The little Kyes iS: .some others on the 18th, 
Shawnee and others on the icjjtii & the Xegro legs on the 22(1. In all on that 
day there were sixty-one. 

On the 24th. The Governor assembled in the e\ening at his own hou•^e 
all the Indians and informed tlieiii "that he wished to see them to discoxer 
whether they were in a situation to understand the important business which 
He had to lay before them. He had shut up the liquor casks, Init he was 
sory to see that some bad white men had disregarded his Proclamation & 
Secretly furnished them with the means of intoKication. He was glad how- 
ever to find that the\- were then all soljer & he hoped that thev would not 
drink any more until the business on which he assembled them was finished. 
On the morrow he would explain to them the proceedings of the Council 
at I'ort Wayne." 

October 25th. The \\'ea (.'hiefs being all assembled the (jovernor pro- 
duced the Treaty latel\- made at Fort Wayne and explained it to them. He 
then represented to them "the advantages they \vould derive from removeing 
from the neighborhood of \'incennes and settling higher up the Countrv 
with their older brothers the Mianiies and the great assistance that the\ 



I04 FWETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

would derive from the proposed addition to their annuity & the Goods which 
they were to receive in hand and which would be to the same amount as the 
larger Tribes received in consequence of the inconvenience they would suffer 
l)y remo\'ing from their present haljitations. 

October 26th. The Chiefs of the Weas all assenil)led & after some 
explanations with respect to the Treaty & a most urgent appeal from the 
Negro legs to the Governor's feelings on the subject of the injury done to 
the Indians by the sale of Whisky by the White people for which thev 
receive in payment Articles indispenciljie to the subsistence of the former & 
those which would cover their nakedness. The Treaty was chearfully signed 
by every Chief & head Warrior present. 

Octolier _'7th. The Goods were delivered and on the 29th the Chiefs 
again met the Goxernor & expressed their satisfaction at what had been 
done & most earnestly entreated "that some means might be fallen on to put 
a stop to the sale of Ardent Spirits to the Indians — Which prevented the 
Annuity granted them by the United States from affording them that benefit 
which their father wished & caused the young men to be so disobedient to 
their Chiefs that it is impossible to restrain them." 

The above is a true statement of the proceedings at the Treaties concluded 
with the several Indian Tribes at Fort Wayne on the 30th September last 
and with the \\'eas at Vincennes on the 26th Ultimo. 

Peter Jones, Secretary to Governor 
Harrison Commissioner of the United States. 

MR. HEINEM.ANN's THIRD MONOGRAPH. 

While the appearance of tlie fir.st two historical studies of Mr. Heine- 
mann brought him many favorable comments, it was left to his third and 
last publication to Ijring him state-wide recognition. This was his "The 
Indian Trail Down the White Water Valley," which first appeared in 1912, 
a second edition l)eing issued in 191 5. The monograi)h carries a sub-title, 
"Some Primitive Indiana History of the Connersville Neighborhood," and 
an examination of its contents shows that the author has covered the liistory 
of the Connersville neighborhood from the days when only an Indian trail 
led through its uninhabited precincts down to the early part of the twenties. 
More particularly, however, he is concerned with establishing the location 
of the old Indian trail through the county and the events concerned with 
John Conner's career in Connersville. The author has spent a lifetime in 



collecting the data tm which tliis m(iniii;rai)h is hased and lie has sohed idr 
;ill time to come the location of the early industries of Conner — his tradini;- 
])ost. house, hotel, saw-mill, distillery — and has also unearthed iletinite infor- 
mation concerning the hlock-house ami the soldiers who were (|uartere<l in it. 
All of these newly discovered facts are marshaled into line and l)acked hy 
imdisputed authorities. -\ \ aluahle feature of the nionotjraph is the illus- 
trations which show the location of the \-arious places described in the article. 
As has i)re\iously been staled, the newspapers of the state made a])pre- 
ciative mention of .Mr. Heinemann's tirst two historical ])amphlets, hut his 
third and last pamphlet called for nuich wider comment. The Iiuliiiiia/^olis 
Xczcs in an editori.al had the foUowint; to say of his "Indiim Trail Down 
the White Water \'alley" : 

Tilt' liiMikUM is .-I liislnry i 
Ullilf lllril. II cnllj,! Il.-il'illy 

llif (lislricl which il roiiiiircl 
s;uors of the li.-ickwiMKls. ll 
(lisre.sptn-tfully witli their li:irl 
iiinuineriUile hits of fjicl :.uil tr.j 

i-ounty. 

Considering the results achieved, and the evident pleasures flowing to 
himself from these efforts to know from first hand sources the real history 
of his home county, it is a safe prediction that no more potent factor will 
he found for preserving Fa>ette county's inner history correctly than the 
])rivate collection of historical material in the hands of J. L. Heinemann. 

The collection of all thi- material and the ])ul)lication of the three studies 
l.asfd thereon has been piirelv a labor of love for Mr. Heinemann. The 
recollections of the longings of his l,oyliood days to know sonielhing of the 
early hi-'tory of tl^e haunts (jf his youth induced liiiu later in life to engage 
in the task of collecting all the possible facts concerning the early history of 
the city of his birlli. He has written iiriimirib" for tlie bo\ s of St. < iabriel's 
l)arish. where his immature talent for this kind of work was fostered, but 
in writing for them he has written for all the people of the city and countv. 

The editor of the jjresent \olume is greatly indebted to Mr. Heinemann 
for the i)ri\ilege of using his e\tensi\e collection of materi.-il rel.ating to the 
countv. 



iMiliniis 


ill l'\\yotlt' county, .iftcr the ooniiri^' of 


Iht' (h'C'ii 


.illcutiDii of Miiyoiic who lives heyonil 


liul F,-i,> 


cite comity found it revehitioiitil. It 


iiresfiue. 


It tells why certiiiii old houses st.-iiul 


rho high' 


w.\y wliich imss them, and it relates 


Icfxeud wh 


licli invest the soil of neishliorlioods witli 


«:iS .-1 1 


ext book ill most of tlie schools of the 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



THE INDIAN TRAIL DOWN THE WHITE WATER VALLEY. 
(.1. L. Heinemann.) 

There is a l)len(ling of history and topography in the title "The Indian 
Trail Down White Water Valle}." The main purpose is to descrihe prim- 
itive conditidns in and anmnd (.'onnersville, hut in doing this, the Indian trail 




wliich came down from the nortlnvest to llie point Gninersxille occupies, and 
which passed down the valle}-, is made the thread to connect the various 
phases of the white man's intrusion. The suhject deals with the earlier stage 
of local history. There are no hooks nor maps treating of it in this particu- 
lar form. Only single facts are found, in the traditions of pioneers and 
voiced in their family circles or mentioned in newspaper articles of former 



!■ \V|-.TTK ri)l\LV. INDIANA. lOJ 

times; or perlia]).s used disci inncftc(ll\ and witiidut fu-(irdinati( m in tiic rt-in- 
iniscences tliat have lai<cn paiu])lilct nr iiouk form in later years. The sub- 
ject goes into a period that antedates all present-day records of our locality. 
It treats of John Conner, the frontiersman and trader, the scout, the inter- 
preter. It speaks of days liefore d )nners\ ille l)ec;une a ci\ic ort^anizatiun 
and when it existed in tlic forniatixe statue nf Conner's i'ost. — a time when 
Indians roamed unmolested in tlie \ alley and im the hillsides. It speaks n\ 
the days when thi.^ locality was an unhrdken forest, e.xcept The Tr.-iil, and 
latterh' The I'ost. and a camp here and there of simie hardy huntsman who 
pushed up from the white man's domain, lower dnwn than is our-- in the 
White Water \'alle\ . 

The use of a few date> fr..m the .general lii-.t(M-y nf our country will 
he helpful to gain a true ])ers]>ecti\ e of the local picture here treated. 

1795, A. D. Indian boundary, some miles eastward, is established, 
leaving our locality still Indian lands. 

iSoi, .\. 1). .Moravian missionaries, previously in louch with Indi.ius 
in ( )hio, re-establish cfYorts in their behalf in Indiana. 

1805. .\. 1). Treaty of Tirou.seland. which covers territory below iSrook- 
ville. This treaty ver\ much reduced hunting grounds for Indians. 

1809. A. 1). Our localitv is made government lands In TweKe Mile 
Purchase. .\ further reduction of bunting grounds for Indians. 

1810. A. I). William Henry Harrison. ( iovernor of the Territory, 
jiarleys and contests with Tecnmseh to secure non-interference of hostile 
Indians with surveying of lands .acquired the \ear before. 

181 1. .\. D. The lands of our district are thrown open to settlers with 
land office at Cincinnati. 

1813. A. 1). C'onnersville is platted by lolm Cornier. The record is 
made at Brookville. 

1816. A. D. Indiana ceases to be a territory, and the first stei)s taken 
for statehood. 

1819, A. D. Fayette Count) is organized. Connersville is made county 
seat and John Conner is the first sheriff. 

1823. A. D. About this date John Conner transfers his holdings in this 
neighborhood and moves to Hamilton Count}', near the site of his brother. 
\Villiam Conner. 



The boundary line of 1795, which h.id an important jilace in the early 
history of the middle west, starts at Fort Recovery, ( )hio, a i>oint only slightly 



I08 FWF.TTE COUNTY, [NDIANA. 

across the Indiana State line, and takes a southvvestvvardly course with suffi- 
cient angle to leave Union City, Richmond, Liberty and Brookville all east- 
ward, so that those localities are inside of the portion which became govern- 
ment lands at that time. Our locality, being west of the line mentioned, is 
still the redman's domain for somewhat near twenty years. Much of the 
upper East Fork valle}-, though outside of the government lands at that time, 
is in close proximity to the boundary ; and as the East Fork and the West 
Fork valleys are separated by \ery few miles oi highlands, broken by creeks 
and small waterways, coursing in l)oth directions, both of them served the 
Indians as an attractive route for reaching the Ohio river from their newly 
formed settlements westward from central Ohio. It would be strange indeed 
not to find man\- lingering aborigines wistfully looking at the beauties as well 
as the bounties of this valle}- whose courses they traveled as long as it was 
permitted them to do so. 

In the White Water valley there are many natural advantages to make 
it attractixe to white settlers, as well as to the Indians. The attempt to 
include the West Fork valley in a treaty pertaining to lands lower down in 
the state was futile in 1805, and only four years later was the transfer 
secured. In the main it was heavily timbered country: the poplar tree at 
home here was particularly majestic. It developed a sui-ijrising regularit\- 
of growth, as well as great height. The pleasures of roaming through poplar 
groves, as known to us — a mere remnant of the early scenes — can be nothing 
more than a ripple of the thrilling emotions felt by the redskin who bounded 
through these forests in quest of game. In the northwest portion of Fayette 
county the land is high and level, and elsewhere it is either roUing land or 
hillside or valley. The bottom lands of the streams afford ample haunts for 
all sorts of wild game. Besides, in all directions, in spots, are to be found 
])onds and marshes that harbor water fowl and fur-bearing animals. Just 
(ner the hill, west of the upper part oi Connersville, stretching northward a 
mile or more, la\' such a body of water surrounded by many acres of bushy 
marsh land, which remained until times within the recollection of persons 
still living. Another pond of considerable size lay north of Connersville, 
abiut (ine-half nu'le west ni Waterloo, which was known as Goose pond. 
How plentiful small game must have been when Indians were alone, can 
l:e inferred from the fact that a half century later, that is, in the days of 
the early manhood of persons now on the scene, a single discharge of a hunts- 
man's gun l)rought down ri\'e wild geese at (lOose pond. Wild turkeys al.so 
abounded in our neighborhood. Squirrels were so numerous that the early 
settlers found them a menace to the crops. And as to wild deer, these were 



FAYKTTK COIXTV, IXDIVN'A. 1(X) 

]ik'ntitul in tlie lifi^innin^;. I'.L'ars were at Ikmik-, and an ( icca^idnal cliasf ut' 
a fox. of Wdhcs or a ])antlicr wa;- i)os^il)k' at any lime. c\cn for tlic later 
])ioneer. Big" lierds uf huftaloo were at linnie in western .and Miutiiern 
intliana. hnl tliese wt-re ]irol)al)l\' infre(|uentiy found in I'.avette eninily. .and 
ndt at ,all within any known ]ieritid of ]iionecr liistory. 

A CASK IX I'OIXn'. 

Xo less a jjerson tlian a L'nited -States senator from Indiana — lion. 
( ). II. Smith — who l)ei.;an his career in C'onners\ ille as a xoun^^ la\\\er in 
iSjo. has preserved a story that illustrates the mixiiiij the early \illa.t;ers liad 
with untamed nature, and how dose was their contact with the wild elements 
of life. It is told in his reminiscences, as follows: 



The Al.ain .-treet referred to i'~ h'.aslern a\enue. ;ind Cross street is 
Second .-treet. The "wet. hushy prairie north of town" is without douhl the 
same that lay west of the l"a\ette coimt\- infirmary, lor the exjiression 
"I'rairie Marsh" is not infre(|uenlly to he met with in the lan^uat;e of the 
first settlers, as applyiiii,^ to it. and additionally. "I'rairie I'.r.inch" is a name 
even much later used for a small stream liexond kle]ihant llill. rnnnini^' 
toward kick Creek. There ;ire confirmatory tr.adilions ol this sioi-\- from 
Senator Smith, in some of the e.arly f.amilies: and one of tliem lends the 
excitement of a personal encounter to this cha>e. It is to the eftect that John 
Sam])le. who conducted a hotel in the lo^ house on lleinemamfs corner, came 
into too close touch with lirnin. in the hlock of lots south (.f fifth street, ami 



IIO FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

received for his trouble an embrace and some stineezing that was truly stren- 
uous before he was released b}- the vigorous onslaught of his friends. 

Oliver H. Smith, while a resident of Connersville, platted a small sec- 
tion of land of which "Cross street" is a part. It corresponds to the present 
Second street, between Central and Eastern avenues. This record was made 
in 1846. 

As the senator wrote his sketches in 1858, it is altogether likely that he 
would describe the killing of the large black bear correctly in saying it took 
place on the corner of Cross street. The name did not enter extensively into 
use, however, although Eastern avenue is well known as the "Main street" 
<jf the earl}- da_\s. 

Bears were sufficiently plentiful in the early village days of Conners- 
ville to allow another experiene with one of them to be handed down in tra- 
dition. The writer of these lines, in his boyhood, lias often heard it described 
by those who were on the scene, anil tiie contingent of men who rushed out 
from the Sample Hotel (southwest corner Fifth street and Eastern avenue) 
took a hand in the hnal battle. It is to be found also in a reminiscence once 
published in the local press, and can be liest told in the original words: 

Nut ftir from this il.-itf. .■<;i.v in ^s^s.'.. Kiios ll;irl:iii * * * killea a huRe he.-ir 

.lust ill front of wli;it is now store, on I'iftli street (the north side, about 

ninety feet west of E.istern .ivenue). Tlioinns P.niton .iiul a friend of his were sitting 
on .1 fence near tlie liouse that stood on tlie hill .iust where the "big cut" has been 
made for tlie Junction railroad, and saw bruin dasliing along at the top of his speed. 
Tlie.v got some dogs after him and ch.ised him along the hill and down that known 
.as Koofs Hill (west Sixth stieet ) and into the little village; and .iust where we have 
.stated, he was shot by .Mr. Harlan. 

These episodes belong to a time that is fully a decade of years after all 
the lands were taken up by whites, and when many little settlements scattered 
here and there were taking on village manners ; and, conse(|uently, are truly 
indicative of how rich must have been the rewards when the aborigine alone 
was here to pick the game that suitetl his taste or that fell victim to his 
prowess and care-free methods of pmviding for the necessities of a day. 

LA.ST REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ABORIGINES. 

There is an incident, in the policy of the government at the time of the 
treaty of 1795. which had an inii>ortant bearing on the kind of Indians our 
forliears were to tind in tliis part of Indiana. It determined who were to 
be the last reiiresentatives of the red race to use these lands. Geographically, 
we belong to tlie Miami basin, and conse(|uent1y are within the jjurlieu of 



FAVivni- cnrNTV. in-hiana. iii 

the c.iuntrv of tlie famous Miami Indians; \ct tlu'sc <li(l nol live lu-re at the 
time. Instead, anotlier is fotnid. and one whose historie liome is (|iiite dis- 
tant. In this treaty, tlie i^overnment. hy acts of ('.en. ,\ntli<>n\ Waxiie. 
declined to set aside sejiarate lands for the different trihes who were forced 
to vacate their homes in ( )hio. Tlie result was a lojjpin^ o\ er and miufjlinii' 
of Indians on the nearh\- horder. to which our locality is adjacent, 'i'he 
-Miamis, the <jris:inal owners ..f the whole re,!.;ion. crowded themselves into 
the upper ^^'abash section: the Shawnees became scattered hands or detached 
individttals throug;h<)ut central Indiana; and the Delawares, when leaving 
the \alley of the Muskegum and the u]iper Sandusky, in ( )hio, lodged mere- 
ly across the newh- made l)oundar\ among their kinsmen, who bought from 
the I^iankeshaws. as early as 1770. the right of donn'cile on the headwaters 
of the White river, that is, near the present sites of Muncie, .\nderson and 
.\ol)lesville. .\llhough occupying the ])ortion of ( )hio indicated, the Dela- 
wares had not alwa\s lived there. The fortune of the redmen to move out 
as civilization comes toward him, explains the successive locations of this 
tribe, who were eastern members of their nation, w^hich belonged to the 
general group, .\lgonc|uins. and who had sites successfully in 1 'ennsyb ania 
and in Ohio before coming hei-e. and who subsequently were moved to Mis- 
souri and Oklahoma. Their first intercourse with white men was on the 
banks of the Delaware river, where thev concluded a tre:U\ with William 
I'enn, near Philadelphia, in idSj. Among themselves they were l.enni- 
Lenape I len-ni len-ah-])a\' ) — m.anly men; and in their western homes were 
known by other Indians as \\'ah-])i-nach-i, or ])eople t()W-ard the rising of the 
sun, and because of their ancient lineage were called grandfathers, though 
with us their common name is Delawares. derixed from their residence at 
the river of that name when first known to the whites. 

Of personality — that is, the (|uality which singles out individuals — what- 
ever little there was originallv in then" Indian associates, to our lirst settlers. 
has been now all but effaced by tlie ravages of time; and. in the bistorv' of 
this neighborhood. Indian proper n;nnes of local significance .are lost irre- 
trievably. 

A STORY or 01. 1) I'.KX D.WIS. 

Ben Davis is the I'jigli.sh cognomen of the Indian who stood in the fore 
of the traditions of the early villagers, but it is noted he remained Ijehind 
— a sullen, morose, irreconcilable redskin, one who in his dotage wandered 
about the creeks and haunted the outlying districts of our neighborhood — 
when all others had departed and were gone to new western homes. One 



112 F-\YKTT1? CCK'NTY, INDIANA. 

Story aljoiit Eeii l)a\is has e\ident]y never ajjiieared in print since it was 
given to a local paper many years ago; and it will liear reprinting here, as it 
illnstrates the decadent state into which even the noblest of our Indians 
had fallen: 

III IlKisf (l.-iys (if ISl.N-li). liidi.ins were iiiiiiien.us .jiisl heyiiiid the riuvhiise line, 
wiiicli l.-i.v .-ilMmt Hve miles west (if I be vill;ij;e. Aiii(.n.i; llieiii \v,-is iiii eld ex-chief 
wild wMs cnlleil t'hief Hen D.-ivis. 'i'lie Iiuli.-ins were en friendly terms with the whites. 
.111(1 (ifteii c.inie into tile settlement te tr.-ide :in(l drink whislcey. Anion.!; them, iind a 
very freiinent visitor, too. w:is Hen Diivis. When .-i little intoxicMted. old Ken was 
very tMlUative; .-iiid would often tell of his (UhmIs of lilcxxl and murder when on the 
w:ir|iatli with his hr.ives. over in the Kaslern states. His mui'derous tales had become 
so notoriiiiis that all the children .iiid many of the women had come to fear him. as 
tliey would a wild lieasl. Alioiit this time, the widow linrlon lived in a cabin near to 

evening,'. Calvin F.nrton. when a lad of twelve or fourteen years. w;is ■■|)(inndinf; hominy" 
in .-III old-fashioned ■•Imrnt-ont mortar." as they wei-e called, with an iron weil.w fastened 
in the end of a stick of wood for a ]iestle. The Hrsi tliin.u' lie knew, in stepped old 
fhicf Hen Davis and asked in broken lOiiKlisb .mil in a tivuff Indian way. for the 

iiK f the house. Cal's e.ves ■•bnli.'ed mit" and the hominy pestle dropped from his 

iiaiids. and be replied as calm as he could: "They are .inst ont here a little wa.v. and 
I will !;o and call them." So sayiii?; be sicii]ieil ont .-it the door and as soon as he 
turned the corner of the caliin. be botinded awa.v like a deer, for a stillbonse which 
then stood near where (ieorj;e Frost's lionse stands, where there weie several men 
at work. He told them that Chief Hen I>avis was at their lioine. and they were 
afraid he would kill them. The men started for the caliin and met old Ben on his 
way for the still, while little Tom Hiirton. now niir tailor, Tbonias Hurton. was lioldlns 
hiin by the band. Old Hen b.id taken Tom .aluii-' lo show him the way. 

The men took him to the slilUionsc. pivc him whiskey, and had a j:reat deal of 
fun witli him. That iii>:bt after the old chief bad fallen asleep, a very roufili fellow, 
by the name of Kli Ilenders(ai. sifted j-iinl |iowder in bis Ion- hair and set fire to 
it. The Indian spraiii,' to bis feet and ^-.-ive wild yells of fury, and swore ven.sieiince 
a;.'aiiist every while man about the stillbonse. 

It is suiiposed fliat those rouirh fellows murdered tlie old chief that iii;rht and hid 
his body away, as he was never heafl of afterwards. 

The general histor\- of Fayette count}', (|uiiting from an article by Dr. 
John Arnold, in the Riislnillc Republican, saxs that Ben Davis was killed 
on Blue creek, near Rrookville, in 1820. 

PROl'IiR NAMES OF THE .\B0UIGIN.\L.S. 

Simon Girtv, notwithstanding his name, was truly an Indian in manners 
and in deed: and perhaps was a natural son of a white man who notoriously 
figures in the history of an earlier ejidch in southern Itidiana and in Kentucky. 
He had a band of followers, and was in a miibir sense a thief, and he camped 
on the river bank, below Third street, aliout the vear 1812. After a careftd 



FAVETTK COLXTY. INDIANA. I I3 

search aiiumg the family traditions of those of our pioneers who are left, 
for Indian proper names, in their true lingual setting, the result has been 
dishearteningly meagre. The Indians naturally possessed names proper to 
each individual ; but with the whites the tendehcy was to merge the aborigines 
in the t)ne common identit\- of Indians. And it is likely that no vogue ever 
attached itself here to the little which might have been learned of the native 
tongue. One excei)tion, however, relieves the degree of our ancestors' indif- 
ference on this point. Me-shin-go-me-tha is found to linger behind. Its 
preservation belongs to the Harrisburg neighborhood; \et who he was or 
what he did cannot be toliL Only the jingle of his name survi\es. But 
until disproved the tradition stands, and we may think of one native, at 
least — who lived here, and died somewhere in the happiness of I)eing known 
by his Fayette county acquaintances as Me-shin-go-me-tha. 

Mr. J. E. WilHams. of Harrisburg. furnishes the testimony that "Me- 
shin-go-me-tha" has been handed down in his family as the name of an 
Indian who was alxnit the Harrisburg neighlx;rhood after the arrival of 
white settlers. Mr. .Vnios \\'. Butler, of Indianapolis, who is a descendant 
of the .\mos Butler who founded Brookville, and consequently Indiana his- 
tory is a familiar field to him, in a letter suggested that this Indian might be 
the same whose career was mostly ])laced in Grant county. Indiana. In the 
history of that locality the name has l)een preserved as "Me-shin-go-me- 
sia." although this variation is not surprising, for it comes from the difificulty 
of correctly committing Indian vocal sounds to writing. The same experi- 
ence has been had also with the name of "Tecumseh," which very good auth- 
ority now says is more ])roperly spelt "Tecumtha," if kept true to the Indian 
pronunciation. 

Considering the open mute wiiich The Trail offeretl tt) the Wabash 
country, it is very probable that Mr. Butler's opinion is well founded; con- 
se(|uenth-, that .\le-shin-go-me-sia might well ha\e been an occasional inhabi- 
tant f)f our locality in the early days. .\ history of Grant county, published 
in t886. gives a sketch of him which will be interesting reading. The subject 
thereof lived to be a very old man, which left his traditions still fresh when 
it was written, although his young manhood easily corresponds to the prim- 
itive times of our locality. I'nder the heading: Me-shin-go-me-sia, his 
ancestors and descendants, the article reads : 

No reliiilile .icccuuits of the ancestors of Me-shin-go-nie-sia can be traced further 
hack th.in the foiirlh fieneration, or lo the time of Osnaudhih, who, at the head of 
one division of the tribe, left Ft.W.-iyiie (at wliat date is not IvHown) and .settled on 

(8; 



114 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the Big Miami River, in Oliio. Soon after his settlement at this point he visited 
General Washington, at that time President of the United States, who presented him 
with tokens of regard. This aroused the .iealousy of the other tribes, by whom it is 
believed he was poisoned. 

Upon the death of Osnandiah his son, Ataw-ataw, became chief, and he in turn 
was succeeded by his son, Me-to-cin-yah, who removed witli his tribe to Indiana and 
settled in what is now Wabash and Grant counties, and after a successful reign of many 
years, died, and his remains were buried in Wabash county. He was the father of 
ten children : Jle-shin-go-me-sia, Ta-cou-saw, Mack-quack-yno-nun-gah, Shop-on-do-sheah, 
Wa-pe-si-taw, Me-tack-quack-quah. So-lin-jis-yah. Wa-cau-con-aw. Po-kung-e-yah and We- 
cop-eme-nah. 

Upon "the death of Me-td-cin-y.ili, his eldest sun, Me-sliin-w-nie-sia. succeeded to the 
chieftancy. He was born in Wabash county, abmit the lies;inning of the last quarter 
(if the eighteenth century (the precise date not known). At the age of about thirty 
years, he married Tac-ka-quah, a daughter of So a-nah-ke-kah, and to them were born 
two .sons, Po-kung-gah and Ataw-ataw. He was a man of great firmness, though not 
obstinate. He was ordinarily intelligent and always displayed .iudgment and good 
business sense in the management of the affairs of his band. With his death, which 
occurred in the month of December, IS70, the last chief of this historic tribe passed 
away. 

TOPOGRAPHY OF THE WHITE WATER COUNTRY. 

A study of the topography of the White river country, stretching down 
through central Indiana, will reveal the connection it had with our own 
neighborhood — the valley of the west fork of the White Water — for the 
Delaware Indians. In highlands and hilly countr}-, a small distance some- 
times measures all the interval between the basins of two rivers whose 
courses are in opposite directions. The small streams of our valley, when 
traveled to their beginnings, are found in territory that is identical with that 
where other brooks, coursing leisurely in search of their geographical des- 
tiny, are directed oppositely, and form the White river, which flows west- 
wardly through the state and empties into the Wabash near Vincennes. The 
region referred to as the common source of both rivers contains the highest 
altitude in Indiana, viz., about 1,200 feet above sea level. (Near the north- 
west corner of Fayette county, at the town of Bentonville, it is 1,060 feet; 
and in Connersville, at courthouse square, it is 840 feet.) A map reveals 
the close connection which exists between the two sections of country when 
creeks and rivers are used for travel. The Delaware Indians had been in 
touch with borderland white folks now for more than a hundred years, and 
had accustomed themselves to fixed habitations, using the surrounding coun- 
try for hunting expeditions. In this way a familiarity arose with the region 
the White river drains. Their site northwest of here, on the White river, 
was well established and contained buildings for use the year around, but 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. II5 

temporary camps and hunting centers are found in all the adjacent territory. 
In this way, the site Connersville occupies, as also the west bank of the river 
for several miles north, became a favorite point for them, for it is an easy 
step from the Lick creek channel, near Harrisburg, and the country beyond, 
being merely a coming down into the lowlands from the higher ground of 
that locality. 

PATHS CONVERGE AT CONNER.SVILLE. 

But e\ents transpire rapidly in the years treated of, and soon an import- 
ant incentive for coining directly to Connersville's site arises for them. 
Their various paths are now made to converge to the immediate point where 
Connersville stands, because here exists the best opportunity for exchange 
and barter. For some time past it was a point on the main trail, from the 
country to the northwest, down to John Conner's trading post, near the mouth 
of Big Cedar creek, but now the post is brought up here. Conner had been 
in the lower valley, near Cedar Grove, for several years, and his place was 
a center of great activity. The site at Big Cedar creek is somewhat east- 
ward, besides lower down the valley than Brookville, and consequently 
nearer to Cincinnati. The year of 1805 sees John Conner aiding Governor 
Harrison of Indiana Territory as interpreter at the treaty of Grouseland 
(the section of country below Brookville), and after its completion he 
resumes his operations at Cedar Grove, l^ecause that point is tlie key to the 
route up the valley to Brookville, Connersville," and on to the northwest to 
the upper channel of Lick creek, and then southeast across the highlands to 
the small streams that led to the Indian settlements of the White river. 
There is a tradition in one of the old families of Brookville. which is told 
by Edgar R. Quick of that locality, relating to the change of base under- 
taken by Conner. At a log schoolhouse, on the road from Cedar Grove to 
Brookville, the grandfather of Mr. Quick, as a youth, was playing at ball 
with com])anions, when up the road came John Conner with a band of faith- 
ful Indians, all carrying ]iacks. Mo\-ing vans were an unknown convenience 
for obvious reasons. The properties were bundled and each individual car- 
ried according to strength. The fact that John Conner was moving his post 
up the valley is what the incident helps to confirm, for a halt was made and 
the Indians indulged in the pleasure of playing with the ball, much to the 
amusement of the toys, who looked upon the intrusion as a unique distinc- 
tion for themselves. The stop was of sufficient duration to make it clearly 
known that it was John Conner, the Indian trader, and that he was moving 
his post to a new location up the valley. The probable age of Mr. Quick's 



Il6 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ancestor, at the time of the experience, harmonizes with the general details 
of the testimony furnished by the Simpsons, an old-time family living several 
miles east of Connersville. The following recital of their tradition is taken 
from the general history of Fayette county: 

Thomas Simpson, now ii resident of the county, aged eight.v-four (in 18S5), with 
a clear memory and vivid recollection of the past, is authority for saying that John 
Conner had his trading post here at Connereville in the year of ISOS. Mr. Simpson's 
father was througli the county at that time and found Conner here. 

Also: 

In lSO8-lS0t» Tliimias Simpson. Sr., a native of Maryland, was employed .-is hunter 
to. and accompanied, the surveying party, while they were engaged in surveying the 
lands of the Twelve Mile Purchase, at which time he traversed the territory of the 
county throughout, and in the month of December. 1809, removed Ills family to a cabiu 
house, which had previously been erected for the surveying party, and stood in what 
is now the northeastern part of Jennings township. 

The exact location here given is far enough eastward to make it very 
close to the old boundary of 1795, and this adds to the plausibility of a sur- 
veying party being inside of the limits of the new purchase, so close to the 
date of the treaty (September 30, 1809). As the surveying was thoroughly 
done in preparation for the sale of lands by sections and quarter sections, 
it is very probable that the elder Simpson was fully cognizant of the facts 
preserved in his family. 

CONNER CLINGS TO FRONTIER. 

'Ilie disposition of John Conner to maintain himself at the outpost of 
civilization in the direction of the Indians' homes — of preserving for him- 
self a premiership in the frontier as trader — is well known, and his coming 
up here, in 1808, was clearly dictated by this ambition, and the denser popu- 
lation now filling- the country below Brookville. His life, at least for a few 
days to come, was still to be of the wilder sort. He preferred the open for 
his operations, and his choice was forestalling- white emigration in the regions 
toward which it tended. Governor Harrison attempted to include the scoi>e 
of the west valley of the White Water in the treaty of 1805, "but in conse- 
quence of some of the chiefs refusing to sign it upon other terms, the article 
relating to it was expunged." (Dawson, p. 135.) John Conner was a par- 
ticipator in this effort, as Delaware interpreter, and its failure cannot be 
dissociated witb. his sul)se(|uent move. Up the \'alle\' he transports the 
post into the heart of the territory involved, where several years of unchal- 



- fayi:ttk county, indianx. 117 

leiiged iinixirtance is in store for it. This neighborhoixl diil not lx.'coine 
government lands nntii the year later (uScx;); and even beyond that date, 
for several years, lamls are not in readiness for entry, during all of whieli 
time Conner's Post is the one point toward which all interests gravitate. 
Hunting and prospecting were indulged in by whites to the south and east, 
but strictly speaking it was the redman's domain until land was duly entered 
at the land office at Cincinnati. The name of John Conner appears in the 
purchase of portions of two separate sections, in 1812. But that he was 
without legal status previous to the land distribution of 181 1, is taking ,in 
imperfect view of the case, for his services as trader and interpreter indi- 
cates that Connersville's founder was ably an instrument in the hands of the 
territorial authorities in the furtherance of their work. In the first years 
of Governor Harrison's, office, he found the influence of British trading 
posts, auxiliary to Detroit, quite vexatious. He wrote f)f it to his superior 
officer at Washington, in 1802, as follows: 

In iirdci- the licfliT In tiiid imt wlint is goiug i'or\v:inl .iniciijn Ihe liidiinis. I li:nc 
eiiiliMvor^il to atliKli some of the best . intoriued tradeis to our interest; Jbut,. generally 
speaking, they are nnprincipled men, juui entirely devoted to the British, by whom they 
iire sui)i)lied with all their good.s. Could this be otherwise— <'ould the valuable skin 
and fur trade which our territory supplies he diverted to the ports of- the t'nited 
State.s,. instead of Canada, it wotild not only give a handsome emolument to our mer- 
chants, and increase our revenue by the additional consumption of imported goods, but 
it would also confirm the dependence of the Indians upon us. The princip:il objections 
nijide by the tr.iders to whom I have recommended the carrying of their furs and 
peltry, to the ports of the United States, is. that there are none of our merchants whit 
make the importation of Indian goods or purchase of furs and peltry their business, and 
of course they are not always certain of making sale of their commodities, or of obtain- 
ing in return goods suitable for their purpose; both of which they are sure of when 
they go to the British mereh;ints. who are exclusively employed in this kind of traffic 

NEW SITES HIGHER UP. 

It will be noted that the >ear this polic\- was inaugurated is followed 
with the appearance of John Conner in the lower portion of tlie White 
Water valley. And that to protect his operations, he selects new sites higher 
ti]> when white settlements come nigh. His name is associated with Brook\ille 
a year or two earlier than Connersville, but still earlier with Cedar Grove. 
Both stores are known in the traditions of those two places (Cedar Grove 
and Brookville) as "the French store."' owing, no doubt, to the nationality 
of the custodian left in charge by Conner. The name of "Pilkey" is con- 
nected also with the store of Brof)kville. Sometimes it is met with ;is 



Il8 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

"Conner and Pilkey." As this name is also found in Connersville records 
in "Pilkey's Donation Strip" — one of several land donations to secure the 
county seat — it is worth noting how much at fault the early settlers could 
be with French proper names, for their benefactor's name, in fact, was 
Michael Peltier, and under this form of spelling it is clearly French. Noah 
Beaucamp is another French proper name belonging to the first stages of 
Connersville history, but, except in the matter of land transfers, it can not 
be associated with the activities of the time. 

One other link in the chain of evidence holding our valley a primitive 
path, and explaining how it grew into a recognized route to the marts of 
civilization, is found in certain traditions of the county to which Noblesville 
belongs. The importance of The Trail to them, and, inferentially, the high 
character of our position in the development of early activities in central 
Indiana, will be seen by the statements of Augustus Finch Shirts, in "Prim- 
itive History of Hamilton County." 

His descriptions deal with the earlier stages of their local history, and 
he writes: 

He I William Oounerl was :\{ the time living in a double log cabin with bis Indian 
wife. This cabin was situate four miles south of the present site of Noblesville, on 
the east bank of White river. His place was called a trading post. In one room of 
his cabin he kept beads. lead. Hints, steel knives, hatchets and such other goods and 
trinkets as were usually necessary in such a place. These articles he exchanged for 
pelts taken from the Indians and brought to him for trade. 

Jlr. Conner had a lirother named .Tohn Conner, then living on or near the present 
site of Connersville. This brother was the proprietor of a trading post at that point. 
* * * .lohn Conner received his supplies from points along the Ohio river and 
William ('(inner received his supplies from his brother .lohn. 

The furs jiun-hased by William Conner from the Indians were dressed, stretched, 
and ]iarked in proper form and sent Iiy him b.v means of pack horses to his brother, 
and in like manner the goods furnished William by his brother John were trans- 
jiorted from John Conner's post to W'illiam Conner's post. At that time there was 
no ro.ad leading from this |ioint in any direction. There was an Indian trail leading 
from the Jolni ('(innfr Ir.-iding [lOst to William Conner's place by \yay of the present 
site of New Castlo .md .\nderson to the mouth of Stony creek, thence down the river 
to William Conner's jilace. This was the route o\ev which the supjilies mentioned were 
transported. 

That the writer of those lines speaks with a full knowledge of the facts 
is shown by these several bits of histor}- from his own family: 

My f.ither. George Shirts, moved his f.-imily from the present site of Conuer.sville 
on p.ick horses, to William Conner's place in the month of March, 1819. My father 
made a Iriii from the William Conner place on horseback to the John Conner trading 
post .'it Comiersville. On his return trip to this count.v he was .ioiued by Charles I^acy, 



- FAYKTTE COUNTY. INDIANA. II9 

* ' Mr. Lacy ilid not briuj,' hia fjiiDily \vilb bini. lie cMiiie for tlie ],iiriio.>ie 

of building a cabin and luitting out a small field of corn. The implements brought with 
bim were carried on horses, pack-saddle fashion. 

On the first day of April. LSI!). .Solomon Finch, his wife. Sarah, his daughters, 
Itebeccah, Mary and Alma, and his sons, James and Augustus then living near the 
present site of Connersville. left their home for the Horseshoe Prairie, two miles .south- 
west of Xoblesville. Their route was over the Indian trail siwken of above. * * * 
Wagons and teams were useil : to these wagons two yoke of oxen were attaohe<l. • * * 
Solomon Finch and one or two of the men with him were constantly, when moving, in 
front of the team, axes in hand, cutting out .-i road and removing logs and brush. 

FIRST ATTKMPT TO MAKE WAGON ROAD. 

'Ilie year i8n), conse(|iieml\ , saw the fir.st attempt tu make a wagon road 
of what had been the recognized path through the woods for some years. 
That it had been a route to civiHzation — to the Ohio river points of com- 
merce — for the Delaware Indians, in their newer sites at the headwaters of 
the White river, froin the beginning, seems evident, for the Conner brothers 
were of a family that was an old-time friend of this division of the abor- 
igines. The father, Richard Conner, shared the fortunes of these children 
of forests in Ohio and Pennsylvania, and settled in the Detroit neighbor- 
hood with them as early as 1781 (Zeisberger Diary, p. 76), which place be- 
came his home, and because of his occupancy of the land was allotted title 
to it, at the close of the War of Independence. The close connection of the 
Conner family with the Delaware Indians is well known, and that either or 
both of the brothers, Jdhn and William Conner, operated in the White 
Water valley, is itself an e\idence of the use those Indians made of it. 

Of the conditions under which the Delawares lived. Governor Harri- 
son's first official communication contains another reference, which in its 
irrferences, has no doubt a connection with the to])ic here treated. 

On July 15th, 1801. he wrote: 

The Delawares are ni.-ikin^' one other altenipt .-it becoming agricultui-.-ilists — they 
are forming settlements U|ion the White river, a branch of the Wabash, under the 
conduct of two missionaries of the Society of the United Brethren for the propagation 
of the gospel among the heathens — otherwise called Moravians. To assist them in this 
pl.-in. the chiefs desire that one-half of the next annuity may be laid out in implements 
of agriculture, and in the imrchnse of some domestic animals, as Cows and hogs. 

One other topic reported on in Governor Harrison's communication of 
July 15, 1801, will be of interest, especially as it has been quite generally 
overlooked in our pioneer literature. That Governor Harrison knew human 
nature and could judge character is without question; consequently, the 



I20 FAYETTE COrNTY, INDIANA. 

opinion which follows and the facts upon which he bases it are worth pre- 
serving : 

.Some weeks ago, I received a letter from tbe imymaster-general of the army, 
written, as he said, by your direction, retiuesling to loiow whether the .services of 
Mr. Rivet, Roman Catholic priest, of this place, and Indian missionary, could not he 
dispensed with. If it continues to lie the intention of the government to ••ittempt the 
conversion of the Indians, the employment of missionaries like .Air. Rivet will be found 
one of the best means which can be employed for the accompli-shment of this oh.1eet. 
People of this description can he procured ,it much less expense than any other: and 
they certainly will be attended to by the Indians, much more than .any other that 
could be emi)loyed. At any rate the services of Jtr. Rivet have been, and still continue 
to be, equal to the .sm.iU sum allowed him. Tlie Indians in this quarter venerate tlie 
old French government formerly established here, and it would excite the most dis- 
agreeable feelings amongst them to have the only one of that nation removetl who is 
allowed to speak to them. Mr. Rivet is. indeed, constant in his exertions to diffuse 
principles of sobriety and .iustice amongst the Indians, .md to cause them to respect the 
authority of the t'nited States. 

CINCINNATI AS A SUPPLY STATION. 

Although their location was on a tributary of the Wabash river, and the 
seat of territorial government was at Vincennes, still Cincinnati, because of 
its location on the Ohio river, served as a supply station for both sections, 
including Vincennes. The Moravian missionaries used the White Water 
valley for reaching the new missions; and this seemingly confirms the fact 
of the prior use the Indians themselves made of the valley. William Conner 
is known to have teen at Noblesville in 1802, and John Conner was at Big 
Cedar creek— only thirty-five miles from Cincinnati — earlier than 1804. 
Consequently, the known facts establish the intimate character of the \Vhite 
W'ater A-alley"s use, for all who had to do with Indians on the White river ; 
and it is not unlikely that the government assistance furnished the Delawares 
in 1802, trailed its way over this route. A treaty with the Indians, in 1804, 
brings additional opportunities for usefulness to it, if the Delawares are to 
be provided with the following beneficences of that treaty: 

The United States to cause to he delivered to them | l)ehiw;ircs|, in the conrse 
of the following spring, horses fit for draught, cattle, bogs and implenienis of bnsliandry 
to the amount of four hundred dollars. 

That the Indians had a variety of recjuirements which called for a draft 
on civilization's superior store house, is to be expected; but how quaint is 
the touch of human nature in certain needs to which the governor, at this 
time, saw fit to give his official sanction. 



FA^'E•|■■rI■ corvTv. inihaxa. 121 

•■T1j<" Sun. a i:vr:\t rliicl- of tlu' I'ol.-iwnlimiics," sa.vs llic -ii\ iTiuir nf liidhiiiM T.Triliiry. 
to lieiidqua Iters at Wasliiiiiitini. •■ivciiic-^Is tlial a i-oat and hat of the unifonii of the 
riiiled States may be seal to him: and lo prevent jeahins.v, a few more may l)e added 
for th.' other chiefs. Indeed 1 am eoiivin.-i^l that nothliij; wouhl |iU'ase tile .-hiefs more 
than a donation of tliis l<ind. * •■ 1 tlierefore laUe tile lilierty of rerommciidin« 

tliaf ahont lialf a dozen roais. and as many cocUed liats. may lie sent for eacli of t lie 



Althoiigfi the physical evidences nt The 'itail are vefv tmich effaced, 
and clear traces of it are hardly discernihle imw. still, here and there vestijjes 
can he tmind in ancient landmarks and other local conditions. .\nKjno' theni 
is the present waiion road t'roni Cedar Cirove to lirookville. Withont at- 
temptinj^- a delineation of what there is helow that point — on towards Cin- 
cinnati — it is very ])lain that the road which comes up from Cedar Grove, 
and which crosses the East Fork at Brookville. is the one that John Conner 
followed. There may have been changes since his time, but generally si)eak- 
ing. it follows the old path. Where it crosses the East Fork, the bridge 
below Brookville, the older main entrance into the town is along the jiresent 
road to the right, the one leading up towards the Catholic church. The 
present Mill street is nearbw and the hrst grist-mill and saw-mill were not 
far distant. Up still further is an ancient gTa\Tyard, and this location con- 
tains also the site of the old French store — the store which has associated 
with its memor\- the names of Michael Pilkey, Charles Teiler and John 
Conner, Their business location antedates the arrival of Amos Butler, the 
first white settler, in 1804: and i)erhaps helps to explain the latter"s selection 
for the site of the new town the f(jllowing summer. All of these local mon- 
uments are in line with the road beyond, .along the F,ast h'ork, to Fairfield. 
And the use of this road toward l'';iirfield is connected with ;ill eai'liest tra- 
ditions of Brookville. In fact, viewing the location generally, the physical 
properties tif the route, the direction it takes, its altitude, all signs jxiint to 
it as the natural selection for reaching the Indian settlements to the north- 
west, on the W^hite river. 

The early settlements along the luist Fork, especially the Carcjlina set- 
tlement near I'airfield. in 1804, give them also an important place in the 
development of the theme under consideration. The locality is within the 
older government lands, and the date is several years prior to the Twelve 
Mile Purchase, 180Q. which opened u]) the lands between the two forks of 
the White Water. It is occupied as early as Brookville itself, and the ques- 



122 FAYETTE COt'NTY, INDIANA. 

tion may properly be asked : Are there any remains at Fairfield to asso- 
ciate it with the travel that belongs to the Indian Trail proper? 

PRESENCE OF FRENCH TRADERS. 

The subject seems to have never been considered in this light before, 
but the account of Fairfield township, in the Franklin county history, con- 
tains one item which may be found helpful to reach a conclusion. It relates 
to the winter following the arrival of the advance party of the Carolina emi- 
grants, who were temporarily domiciled near Harrison, Ohio. Several cabins 
had ))een erected, but not occupied as yet by the families for whom they were 
l)uilt. It reads as follows: "During the winter of 1804-5. '^'''^ Indians occu- 
pied the cabin of Robert Templeton. During their tenancy, an Indian woman 
died and the Indians were about to bury her in the cabin floor, but were 
prevented by French traders who were passing near." 

French traders were passing! The point at which they were passing 
is close to the Indian boundary (of 1795) ; it is the latest of the advances 
made by white settlers: it is close to the river, and across the stream, not 
very far above, comes a creek from the northwest — one which drains the 
highlands separating the two valleys of the White Water. This creek is 
named Eli creek after a member of the first colony of settlers. As to why 
French traders were passing near the Templeton cabin, below Fairfield, in 
the winter of 1804-5, ™'^}' easily be associated with the conditions just 
described; for, to say the least, it presents an alluring spectacle to one look- 
ing for evidences of The Trail which led to the Delaware towns, and it 
off'ers a promising channel in which to search for traces of this primitive 
route. 

There are no traditions extant favoring any other route. The bed of 
the West Fork, lietween Brookville and Connersville, is cjuite circuitous. 
It was used, no doubt, by Indians for fishing and hunting; and in this sense 
there was an Indian trail down t!ie West Fork to Brookville. But John 
Conner's career shows prominently a capacity for direct methods, where an 
accomplishment is aimed at; and his transporting merchandise or losing time 
in reaching his destination by following the West Fork's meanderings is 
altogether improbable. The Indians would act similarly, for the whole 
countr)- was well known to them at this time. There is no argument in favor 
of the present Brookville-Connersville pike, which passes through Everton 
and Bloomingrove, for it is clearly a surveyed road and was made after the 



FAYKTTK COl-NTY. INDIANA. I23 

lands were entered 1>}' the whites. The prohal)iHties are all in favor of The 
Trail passing over to the East Fork before entering Brookville. 

.\ SrMMARY OF REASONS. 

Was Eli creek the [loint of departure, when leaving the luist Fork, for 
the northwest? The reasons for assuming that it was may be summarized 
as follows: 

First: The weight of Brookville testimony puts all the earliest iiap- 
penings in the direction of the localities along the road to Fairfield. 

Second : The presence of some settlers in the Eli creek neighborhood, 
as early as the date of Conner's first connection with AMnite Water valley 
history, makes this creek the closest approach for him to Connersville. 

Third: The fact that the three-counties map (Fayette, Union and 
Franklin), made a half century ago with painstaking care, shows portions 
of a direct road from Eli creek to Connersville ; and additionally, that the 
missing portions of this direct road can be connected up, by traditions of 
an early path (never converted into a township road) along Crandel creek, 
which is a northwest arm of Eli creek, and then across the original Adam 
Pigman farm, where the existing township road (from Ouakertown) for a 
short distance coincides with the line to Connersville, lends color to the 
theory of its use for reaching Connersville in primitive times. 

Fourth : That this line from Eli creek, along Crandel creek, then across 
the Pigman farm, next following a portion of the existing township road 
(from Ouakertown), and tlieii. as is slil1 rcniemliered bv many, angling 
across the old Samuel Harlan farm, direct for the Sparks-Stoops' neighbor- 
hood and for the ford of the West I'ork at Connersville (near Roots' 
foundry), does correspond in its general direction with The Trail beyond 
Connersville toward the northwest along Lick creek to New Castle and 
Anderson, is an incident tlie historical significance of which cannot be 
overlooked in considering the question of the direction taken bv The Trail 
originally when it left Connersville for the lower portions of the vallev. 
The described route below Connersville is merely an extension of the route 
above it. 

Fifth: There is a close relationshi]) and similarity of general traits 
in the first settlers of the stretch of country descrilied between Fairfield and 
Connersville. indicating that in their choice of location, immigrants followed 
a common route. 

Sixth: If no other fact be tvev discovered, there is one that comes 



124 FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

from the .\bernath\- family which is sufficient to prove intercourse between 
the two localities. 

William Abernathy was a pioneer of the Fairrteld neighborhood, who 
came with, the Carolina colony and lived there till his death in 1888. In the 
Liberty Herald recently, in an interesting sketch, Theodore L. Dickerson, 
of Brookville, writes: 

He lAlicnuitliyl w.-is c-iiit.-iiii of the luilili.i and w.-is sent out ffom Fort Cornier 
Willi ,-1 cuniiiany cif volunteer scouts, in islo. to attMcl< llie IiKiian villages on Blue, 
i-iver. The e.xpeilition w.-is a success, the Indians heins; imt to flight and their villages 
tiunied. 

Captain Noble, of Brookville, presented .Vliernath}- with a sword for 
his services, which is preserved in the Dickerson collection of pioneer relics 
at Brookville. 

The incident of Captain Abernath)'s expedition establishes the fact 
that the P'airfield neighborhood at that time was a home for volunteer militia- 
men, and that Conner's Post was an out-station from which to start for Blue 
ki\-er Iinlian settlements. .\ corollary is, that there was .some known route 
between the two points. But as the time antedates the settlement of the 
intervening country by the whites, it could only be The Trail that was fol- 
lowed, and that Conner's Post was merely one station further out upon it 
than their own locality. 

WAR CLOUDS BEGIN TO LOWER. 

The summer of 1810, to which this military service of Captain Aber- 
nathy belongs, was not without a warlike sky in the territory of Indiana. 
The prime cause oi the trouble was the growing hostility of Tecumseh, an 
Indian of exceptional powers of strategy and cunning. He was engaged 
collecting the disafifected members of every Indian tribe within his influence ; 
and not a few facts were known to the territorial officers showing the pur- 
pose of the Indians, and also the effects of British aid froiu Detroit, ^^'ar 
was clearly inevitalile if their conduct remained unabated. As early as the 
year 1808, John Conner was the messenger sent by Governor Harrison, 
with a letter couched in the strongest terms, to bring home to the Indians a 
realization of the trend of the path they had taken up. But what the efifect 
of the letter was can be judged by the following reply which The Prophet, 
Tecumseh's brother, asked Conner to write down in the English language 
and take back to the governor ; 

Fatlfer — I am veiy sorry that you listen to the advice of bad birds — you have im- 
peaclied me with having porrespondence with the British; and with calling and sending 



speaks not llie words of llic (irciil S|iiril. hu( llic words of llio dc\ il." I':il her. Iliose 
iliipeacUllieuts I (leii.\-. mid s.iy tliry .nc noi tiuc I never li:id ,i woid willi llie Itritisll. 
iliul I never sent for nnv I iiili.iiis. Tliey .■.ime lie|-e lliemselves lo lisleii mikI Iumi- the 
words of the (ire.il Spirit. 

Father, I wish you woold iioi lisUMi nny more to Uie voiee of had Idnls: .iiid yon 



This serxice >>{ jdliii Cuiiner, in 1808. was associated with scfiies that 
led up to inii)i)rtant e\ents in Inchatia iiistory. and h\- the suninKT of 1810. 
a state of affairs existed which was not asstn-ino to tlie peace-lovnio", wliite 
settlers of the valley. 

To know something of the minor det;iils of The Trail at the point 
which was Conner's J^ost, or h'ort Conner, and which is now Connersville, 
would he interestino- ti> many persons at the present time. lUit the whole 
suhject seems to ha\e heen lightly appraised liy the rus^ged pioneers who 
were engrossed with the hardships surrounding them and they left little 
data concerning it. Consequently the suhject is poorl\- illuminated hy any 
present-day source of information. 



A study of the physical aspect and general surroundings of the location 
given to the new town, in 1813, hy Conner, will perhaps he useful in hring- 
ing light to the subject. I'lie early topography is still ascertainable to a great 
extent: and if the few detacliecl facts, that have escaped the general oblivion 
into which the subject has fallen, be coupled with a careful study of this 
phase of the question, some sort of order will unfold itself, and the vague 
tradition about The Trail coming down from the hill, northwest of Conner.s- 
ville, that it passed through the town and crossed the river at the foot of 
\'\'ater street, will become instantl\- clear and more definite. 

It may be well at this time to fit t<»gether these isolated facts, for the 
possibility of doing so is rapidly passing, and leave to the futiu"e a ct)nnected 
view of Connersville's ancient lineage. The main fact that The Trail was 
here, and that "Conner's Post" was a name hy which the ])lace was known 
for a number of years, is unquestioned, lint can we follow Phe Trail ex- 
actly ; and where was the post ? 

The first aid in deciphering these (|uestions no doubt is the original 
]>lat of Connersville, which occupies a small stretch of territory on a bluff 
of the west bank of the river abo\-e the ford and lielow Sixth street. The 



I20 FAYETTP: county, INDIANA. 

line of the bank Ijelow Fourth street furnishes the base line upon which to 
lay out the long streets of the town. A few years later, in 1819, Conner 
laid off some additional lots known as "Conner's North Addition," which 
extended above Sixth street. In making a sketch of this new addition, the 
first county surveyor, Thomas Hinkston, shows Eastern avenue narrowed 
down to the west half of the street near Seventh street. The river bank 



J.£<f£A/0 

PIAT , /3/3 
/. L0<} CAB/I^ 

z HAHLArf's syof^e. 
3. conr/£/^s 
4-. BLOCH HOUSE 
S CLAffiOOL 

6. LOU CABI/V 

7 ^/^S7~ <:£/Y£T£/^Y 




XMOKSVILLE. 



encroached to that e.xtent on the ground needed to extend Eastern avenue 
northward. It can still lie noticed at East Sixth street that the river bank 
makes a sharp turn westward. This condition was much more apparent 
only a few years ago : and, originally, it terminated in a deep ravine at 
Seventh street, where there was a natural watershed coming down from the 
we.st. Above Seventh street, say, two hundred feet or more, it turned east- 
ward again. This change of the direction of high ground was so sharp above 
Eighth street that half wa}- between it and Ninth street the original bank of 



FAYKTTK CorXTV. INDIXNA. \2J 

the river must ha\e l)een \ery nearl\- in accord witii present street directions, 
east and west. 

KARI.Y l.OCATTON OF SAWMILL. 

Charles street coincides with the hij,di part of tliis 1)ank since the place 
was made part of Conners\ille in 1866. In this locality, that is two squares 
east from Eastern a\enue, or, more exactly still, just beyond the mirror 
works' buildings, John Conner established a saw-mill in the very earliest 
days of the town's history. Tt was a crude prototype, this attempt at fore- 
stalling the achievements in the world of industry for which the new town 
was destined. P>ut a close study of the location of this early enterprise, and 
its associated activities, will unco\er much of the histor\- that is seemingly 
lost of Connersville's beginning. There are still evidences of the location of 
the saw-mill in the bottom lands belonging to the mirror works, for it was 
continued in an enlarged state by others who followed Conner, until about 
the year 1865, when it fell into disuse and was largely forgotten by the 
general public. There are some documentary references to this mill site, 
besides a pioneer story, which are illuminating. 

At an old settlers' meeting, held in the fairgrountls, in i86j. Dr. I'iiilip 
Mason gave a talk in which the following passages occur : 

I cMiiie to the v.-illcy iif Wliifewjiter in the sprins; of ISKi. niiil enrly in thi' siinimer 
of that year. I ri.'sited Coiinersville. A snuill tract of lanrt had heen hiirt ofT hy .Tohn 
Conner into town lots, which lay alons the river bank, on Water street and along 
.Main street, and a few log c.aliins had heen erected. The most of the land, which 
comprises the present site of the town, was then a forest. Iii traveling up the river to 
the place, there was now and then a small opening to lie seen, with an inhabited log 
cabin on it. .Tohn Conner, after whom the town is named, .and who owned the land 
on wliicli it staiiils. h:id Imilt a mill .inst above the town. 

In the traditions of the Claypool family is preserved an incident, which 
the late Austin B. Claypool was fond of relating, and it gave both local color 
and a definite date for a transaction at this saw-mill. Xew'ton Claypool, 
who was the father of .\ustin R. Clay])Ool. decided on Connersvillc for his 
futm-e residence, and in i(Si,S arri\cil licre with liis l)ri(le from l\(iss ci>unt\-. 
Oliio. As tliere was no Imuse for them, he decided to build one. .\nd as 
the onl) a\ailable source from which to obtain the needed hmiber was the 
saw-mill. a]>]ilication was made there, with the result, however, of l)eing 
told that no more business could be accepted, since the capacity of the mill 
was taxed to the utmost. Rut soiuething liad to be done, and the elder 
Claypool fell in with the plan suggested by Conner of using the mill for 
himself after sundown, and get out what lumlier he could by moonlight. 



128- F.\Yi:rTK C'UIJNTY, INDIANA. 

CRADLE OF CONNERSVILLE's INDUSTRIES. 

Many forms of activity centered in this particular spot in the early 
years. There was a saw-mill, a grist-mill, a distillery, and later a pork- 
jjacking establishmenl, l^esides a cooper shop or two. It was truly the cradle 
of Connersville's industries, and it is not a little singular that its history 
should have been so completely lost to most people. Conwell's old mill on 
Eastern avenue, the ruins of which are still to be seen, is the successor of the 
earlier one further up the mill race, but it also loelongs now to the lost activi- 
ties of Connersviile. There was a period of nearly fifty years in which the 
head race of the new mill — the one built in 1849 o" Eastern avenue — and 
the site of the old saw-mill established by Conner were allowed to fall into 
complete disuse, and the neglect of them was so pr(3found that a tangled 
mass of undergrowth grew up, through which venturesome boys roamed in 
later davs with the dread of the dangers incident to wild and unpeopled 
regi(jns. There are many grown persons, the \Ariter among others, who 
indulged \'(juth's imager}- about Indian hunts, and wild beasts and reptiles 
and adventures of many sorts, in this small tract of unused land, where life's 
conventional action was gone out, and the sleep was so long that nature again 
made it truly a wild country. But it is now restored to its rightful heritage 
by the presence of the mirror works; and the site of John Conner's first 
industrv will be marked with one monument at least; the tender mercies of 
an owner who appreciates the importance it once held in the period of time 
that led up to the o])eiiing of the White Water valley, no less than the import- 
ant place it holds in the memory of times when even Indianapolis residents 
were dependent upon this locality for some of the necessities of life. It is 
part of the histor}- of that city that going to mill for grist meant coming here; 
and that, for the first marriage at Indianapolis, the license was procured at 
Connersviile. 

The trip to Connersviile to procure the marriage license for the first 
marriage at Indianapolis was made directly across the country, Indianapolis 
to Connersviile. The route was known because George Pogue and John 
A'lcCormick, two Fayette county i)ioneers, who first settled in Columbia 
township, made their way across the Mat Rock countr\- and Rush county 
when Indianapolis was first located, in the year of 1820. Pogue. who lived 
here between the vears of 1816-1820, was a contributor to the fund that made 
Connersviile the county seat of Fayette county, and his companion in the 
first trip to Indianapolis liy the new route was an ancestor of the AlcCormick 
family still having representatives in Connersviile. 




.MOXr.MENT OX SITE OF JOHN CONNER'S SAW MILL. 
Erected by present owner, J. L. Heinemann. 



1813, John Conner's trading place: 1820, Absalom Bnrkham; 1821-^24 Sample's Inn 
also postoffice: 1S.54, length added to and remodeled by George Heinemann. Fiont 
halt of building is "Sample's Inn" of the early days. 



- fayette county. indiana. i29 

Conner's first frame house. 

Of the group of industries which John Conner established at this point, 
the saw-mill and grist-mill were close together, and the wisdom of the selec- 
. tion of their site can even \et be discerned. There is a straight line of bank 
northwardly (above and below the Cincinnati, Indianapolis & Western rail- 
way), but a sharp curve westwardly existed where the new city waterworks 
are located and at this point, the water was collected to start the head race 
for the two mills. On the high ground nearby, say fifty feet north of the 
office of the mirror works, Conner built himself a two-story frame home, 
of some pretensions, from the lumber produced at the mill. There has been 
no exact date found for the erection of this building, but it doubtlessly 
belongs to the period that expresses the prosperous days of its owner. He 
had been active for a dozen years or more, under the varying conditions of 
frontier life, and <inl\ lately the exciting times of the War of 1812-1814 
had ceased, h'or him. the more profitable, if less heroic, occupations of civil 
life were unfolding. He was the first sheriff of the newly-made county of 
Fayette, and his Connersville venture — the founding of the town — was pro- 
gressing satisfactorily. And to add to his social prospects — a something not 
unrelated to fine dwellings — about this time he married Lavina Win- 
ship, daughter of a respectable family, living at Cedar (irove. He 
was made a state senator in 1816. In his capacity of senator he served on 
the committee that selected the site of the state's new capital, the present city 
of Indianapolis. But while the location of Conner's saw-mill and grist-mill 
and frame-built residence, as described, are well enough known, it remains 
to be noted that, at a point somewhere above Eighth street, near the west 
end of Charles street, and exactly in the middle of Eastern avenue, there was 
a large-sized log house, in the first days of Connersville, which is unac- 
counted for or ignored in all the traditions or written reminiscences of the 
town. There are few now who know of it at all. It disappeared quite early, 
for the reason, no doubt, that it was an obstruction to the street. But what 
it was and how it came to be there is an interesting question. It is certain 
that those who were acquainted with its history have left no records. It 
was more than an ordinary cabin. It is described as a good-sized log house 
with at least two rooms and perhaps three of them, besides a loft over- 
head. It was an old house, in appearance, as remembered by those who 
knew local conditions as early as 1830, and it faced riverwards — to the 
southeast. It occupied a jjoint on the highest level after coming up from the 
'.9) 



130 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ravine at Seventh street; and besides, its original occupant must have been 
a person of large views and foresight and means, for a considerable apple 
orchard survived on the grounds, which fact is quite generally known, for, 
as late as the fifties, some old apple trees still existed there, especially on 
George Brown's present lot nearby. 

The position is simply the western portion of the high ground that ran 
eastwardly, as far as Fayette street. The natural waterpower, it would seem, 
was found at the latter point when the saw-mill stage was reached in the 
affairs of those who lived here. The log house was far enough westward to 
allow a southern course to cross the ravine at Seventh street, without leav- 
ing the line of Eastern avenue, conseciuently, a path from it might make 
for the ford on the south end of Water street by following Eastern avenue 
a short distance, then across the public sf|uare (the Fifth street school site) 
for Water street below Fourth. 

PROBABLE SITE OF CONNER'.S POST. 

There were three other log houses along the lower part of the route 
indicated, which together constituted the oldest portion of Connersville. 
They are closely connected with the subject now treated and will be referred 
to again later. Hawkins Hackleman, who lived just west of Elephant Hill, 
until his death a few years ago, came through Connersville with his parents 
in 181 5, when he was five years old. The character of the surroundings at 
that time left a clear impression on his youthful mind; and his statement is 
tliat Connersville consisted of the block-house and tliree or four log cabins. 

The log house in the middle of Eastern avenue was not, howe\er, 
within the limits of either of the quarter sections of land first entered by 
Conner at the land sales at Cincinnati, although it was very close to one of 
them. Yet this is not inconsistent with the theory that thevhouse described 
might be his old home. It could be explained by the uncertainties and con- 
fusion prevalent at public land allotments — with always a possibility of 
misreading the field notes of surveyors in new sections of a country ; or, 
again, by an enforced absence of Conner on account of duties elsewhere. 
John Conner retained close relationship with the Delaware Indians, and in 
the summer of 181 1, when the land of the Twelve Mile Purchase was 
opened for settlers, he was occupied with these duties, in the campaign 
inaugurated by Governor Harrison against the Indians under Tecumseh 
and The Prophet. But Conner, by purchase, soon put himself in possession 
of the adjoining quarter section of land upon which this house was actually 



FAYETTK COUNTY, INDIANA. I3I 

situated. Its ck)seness to the scenes of Conner's known activities in Con- 
nersville. its evident priority and age, and the clear distinction of com- 
parative size and equipment, besides nearness to a large spring, at the bot- 
tom of the hill, which still exists back of Convvell's mill site f)n Eastern ave- 
nue, gives it every earmark of being the first home of one whose foot- 
prints lead up to its door, the first site in fact of the founder of Conners- 
ville. No doubt, could the past be made to speak, this log house would 
be designated "Conner's Post," and around it would be woven many a tale 
of the interesting experiences of the days vvhich preceded the year of 1813, 
when it was the center of the activities of John Conner and his faithful 
band of Indians who left Cedar Grove in 1808. 

CRISIS IN INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

The first land entries near Connersville were made in October of 181 1. 
At this time the crisis had .teen reached in the affairs of the Indians under 
Tecumseh ; and Governor Harrison was determined to break up the con- 
federacy. .\s early as July of that year, the famous council took place at 
\^incennes, in vvhich Tecumseh was surrounded by three hundred of his 
warriors ; and on account of his insolence and the apparent plan to do as 
much mischief as possible, a forward movement, with the militia and regulars 
at the command of the Governor, was put on foot against the Indian settle- 
ments on the W'abasli. The culmination of this campaign was the battle 
of Tippecanoe. 

On the whole, the Delawares were friendly to the government of the 
United States, but not a little diplomacy was needed to maintain this con- 
dition : and John or William Conner was the usual agent trusted by both 
princi]ials. The following quotations from Dawson reveals the points of con- 
tact in which Conner seems to have participated, in the militarv expeditions 
of the summer of 181 1 : 

Before the Rovernor left Vinoeiiiies lie sent a (iepiit.-itioii to the Delaware tribe to 
re<niest some of their chiefs to meet him upon the march, that he mi^ht employ them iii 
missions to the several tribes which h.-ul a part of their warriors with The Trophet. 
All the chiefs of this faithful tribe, who were able to march, set out from their towns 
on the fith of October, Tliey had procee<lecl but n few miles when they were met by u 
deputation from The Prophet, requiring a categorical an.swer to the question, "whether 
they would or would not .ioin them in the war against the Tnitefl States? that they 
bad taken up the tomahawk and would not lay it down but with their lives; they had, 
however, positive assurances of victory, and when they ha<l beaten the Americans, those 
tribes which refuse<l to join tbeni would have caused to rei)ent it." 

The Delaware chiefs ininicdiately (lisi>at<be(l Mr, Conner, tiie interpreter, and four 



132 fay?:tte county, Indiana. 

of their men to inform the governor of the circumstance, and that they had determined 
to go immediately to The Prophet's town to endeavor to divert him from his purpose: 
that they would be with the governor in a few days and communicate the result of 
their mission ; and that if they were unsuccessful in their endeavors to prevent The 
Prophet from striking a blow, they would abandon him to his fate. 

On the 27th of October the Delaware chiefs, who had gone upon a mission to The 
Prophet, to induce him to lay aside his hostile designs, arrived in camp. They rei)orteil 
that they had been badly received, ill treated, and finally dismissed with the most con- 
temptuous remarks upon themselves and the governor. 

On the. 29th, the day after the army left Fort Harrison, the governor remained for 
some hours behind, for the purpose of holding a conference with the Delaware and 
Miami chiefs. As he had no reason to doubt the information he had received of the in- 
tentions of The Proi>het to burn the first jjersons he should take, and had apprehensions 
that lie would find iiuich difficully in opening a coniniunicatidn with him. as the inter- 
preters had become so alarmed that he could scarcely get them to the front of the array, 
he proposed to the Delawares that they should send three or four of their young men to 
be the bearers of another speech to The Prophet. 

On the evening of the 5th of November, the army encamped at a distance of nine 
or ten miles from The Prophet's town. * * * But no Indians were discovered until 
the troops arrived within five or six miles of the town on the Oth of November. The 
interpreters were then placed with the advance guard, to endeavor to open a <'omnnmi- 
cation with them. The Indians would, however, return no answer to the invitations that 
were made to them for that jiurpose, bnt continued to insult our people by their ges- 
tures. * * * During all of this time, Indians were frequqently seen In front and on 
the flanks. The interpreters endeavored in vain to bring them to a parley. Though 
sufficiently near to hear what was said to them, they would return no answer, lint con- 
tinued by gestures and menace to insult those who addressed them. Being now arrived 
within a mile and a half of the town * * * the governor determined to remain there 
and to fortify his camp. 

SEVERAL DEFINITE TR.\DITIONS. 

The location of The Trail towards the northwest, from the point just 
described, is less a matter of conjecture, as there are several definite tradi- 
tions which locate it with some degree of certainty. The Trail leaves the 
portion of Connersville that is associated with the river bank, or, transversely 
stated, the particular locality last described is the first contact it had with 
the river when coming down the hill above Edgewood. In traversing this 
section of Connersville. it crosses the location of the citv cemeterv, which 
carries the history of bearing- evidences of The Trail when first used for 
burial purposes. A vague tradition, also, of pony races, Indian fashion, in 
the early village days, say in 1830- 1840, in the neighborhood south and 
east of the cemetery, lends some additional weight to this opinion of the char- 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. I33 

acter of that ^■icinit^•. It ma)' be a mere fortuitous happening — an inciHise- 
quent choice of location, for the races — but even so, it is noteworthy that 
Connersville's first fairgrounds, 1850 to 1862, should be also located at the 
same place, west of Central avenue and north of the railway. These facts 
seem to mark the iocrdity as one of freciuent use. And it is most likely 
that The Trail, wendint,' its way across the territory described, in reality 
explains its popular uses in the early histt)ry of Connersville. 

After passing the cemetery, in going towards the northwest, a short 
distance brings the location of Edgewood. The road which still goes up 
the hill, from the northwest corner of Edgewood, through the Austin Ready 
farm, is, in fact, a part of the original path. The Trail, at this jKiint, came 
down into the lowlands now forming the upper part of Connersville ; "and 
the use made of it h\- tlie whites when following The Trail, in the pioneer 
days, has left this short stretch of road unaltered and consequently still in 
use. The fact of the identity of this road with The Trail of the Indians 
is borne out by every tradition to be found upon the subject. These traditions 
are more positive than traditions ofttimes are, for tlie reason that the Indians 
themselves lingered longest in that direction, and this kept afresh a large store 
of Indian lore in the families nf not a few of the old-time settlers along 
the route. 

One story often tuld — so often, in fact, that its telling has become 
inextricably mixed with the humorous — is that, in an early da\ , an old 
Indian came into the Harrisburg neighborhood looking for a pot of gold 
buried at the foot of a large tree along The Trail. He had what purported 
to be a map, a few marks and scratches on a leathered hide, and was serious 
enough about his business, although the pathetic side of the simple red man's 
visions are now only preserved as c^ne of the lighter veins in which he is 
remembered by the whites. The opinion grew naturally, that the Indian 
was loath to leave the burial grounds of his fathers, and any excuse to 
■return to them, and again to view his happy hunting grounds, was most 
welcome — the final leave-taking being made as tardy as possible. 



After reaching the toj) of the hill, by following The Trail, as the road 
still exists, through the Ready farm, there will be found only minor changes 
from the original path to the fcjot of the hill when approaching Harrisburg. 
At the latter point, instead of going up the hill westward. The Trail must have 
followed the creek bed northward, up past the old Hackleman home, to the 



134 FAYETTE COLtNTY, INDIANA. 

old Florea home, to Sanford Guard and David Gordon and others who in 
the very first days established themselves on their lands in reference to the 
creek bed rather than to the township roads which were created later. The 
evidence of two other trails in the vicinity of Harrisburg in nowise con- 
flicts with this theory. The explanation is that the other trails were of later 
origin, and served for direct communication after Bentonville and Harris- 
burg came into existence. There is truly reflected in many Indian traditions 
about Harrisburg the story of a trail which reached that place from Benton- 
ville by a direct line across the old Joseph Caldwell home farm. And also 
of another one which bore sharply southward, passing the old Murphy home 
on the south side. As can still be seen, the Murphy home, west of Harris- 
burg, is built with a south frontage instead of facing the present road on 
the north. 

This trail made its way towards the location of the Lick Creek ceme- 
tery and attached itself to the original trail along the south side of Elephant 
Hill, near the northeast corner of the Austin Ready farm, whence it came 
into the valley by means of the old trail as first described. A due measure 
of credence given to every fact bearing on the subject leaves little doubt 
of the precedence of the first-described route — the one from the northwest 
corner of Edgewood, passing along the east foot of Elephant Hill, to the 
foot of the hill near Harrisburg, and then along Lick creek to its source. 
This is evidently the original trail. The topography of the country in the 
channel of the upper portion of Lick creek lends itself readily to the purpose. 
A comparatively level country stretches across the highlands of Posey town- 
ship in the direction of Stony creek, straight past the site of New Castle, and 
on towards the Delaware towns on the White river where Muncie and 
Anderson are now located. 

ORIGIN OF ELEPHANT HILLS NAME. 

The hill along the old road to Harrisburg, commonly called Elephant 
Hill, is conspicuous from whatever point it is viewed. Its present name 
comes from an incident which, briefly stated, is as follows : Connersville 
for some years was the wintering quarters for the Van Amburgh Company 
circus shows, with which members of the Frost family were associated. In 
the winter of 1871-1872 a large elephant, which went bv the name of Tip-po 
Saib, died, or was purposely killed on account of iiis vicious disposition. 
Although liis demise took place in tlie old brick foundry building on Eastern 
avenue, which was used for housing the animals, the carcass was divided 



FAYin'TE COUNTY, INDIANA. 1 35 

into parts and the same carted to tlie high hill on tlie farm tlien owned l)y 
Charles Frost, and Imried on tlie very apex of the hill. The skeleton was 
later taken up l)y an t)fficial of Earlham College of Richmond, Indiana, 
where it is still preser\cd. The animal's height was over nine feet and 
weighed something more than nine thousand pounds. In consequence of this 
episode the hill came to be known as Elephant Hill : although previously it 
was known among the first settlers as Indian Hill. It has many associa- 
tions in pioneer histor\- with the Indians and their doings, and on account 
of being on The Trail it was a common camping ground for them. 

The county south of Fayette county has preserved a knowledge of sev- 
eral Indian mounds within its limits; although none are definitely recognized 
in Fayette county. 

As a retrospective study, it is uninviting now to attem])t to establish any 
claims ff)r this locality in that regard. If tumuli existed here the evidence 
is all but lost completely. But in the case of Indian Hill, in the beginning, 
some results might perhaps have been obtained. Any long-distance view of 
Indian Hill, say from Dale cemetery, reveals a sky line that clearly shows 
a crowai that seems to be hardly a natural effect. There are traditions extant 
that lend color to the opinion that tliere was an Indian mound on the top of the 
hill, but they are quite barren of definite details. No excavations are known 
to have been made for disco\ery. 

SITE OF OLD INDIAN CAMP. 

Early traditions, as well as the evidence of the sites selected by the 
pioneer white settlers, the local tojjography, all fix upon the old Harrisburg 
road as The Trail that led down to John Conner's post. And it is par- 
ticularly the l<nver portion of this ancient road, as it still enters Conners- 
ville. that retains the largest amount of pioneer evidence, establishing it as 
the identical path u>e(l by the Indians. It cannot be doubted that this is 
The Trail coming down from the northw-est. and in fact, it has no rival claim- 
ants disputing that honor. 

In looking for some final witness on the subject, it may be worth men- 
tioning that, not far above the old Hackleman home, in the Lick creek channel, 
is the location of the largest camping grounds of the Indians within I'avette 
county after the wlittes came into possession of their new homes. It lies 
westwarft of the present bridge across Lick creek, near the old Powell home; 
and it was an important point, judging from legends left behind of the num- 
ber of Indians assembling there and the frequency with w hich it was used. 



136 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

This Indian camp ( a part of the southw est quarter of section 34) became 
one of the favorite landmarks and centers of activity in an early day. A 
road formerly led from it towards Harrisburg, and another one, eastward, 
towards Waterloo; but both of them are now extinct. There was a saw- 
mill in operation there for many years, it was built some time prior to 
1819, and the log-cabin home of its owner still stands, as the oldest pioneer 
monument existing in Harrison township. 

LOCATION OF THE OLD BLOCK-HOUSE. 

On the top of a sharp bluff, the high bank to the southward of the Indian 
camp just described, and just where a spring still flows, at the bottom, is the 
location of the block-house of 181 J. The commanding position of this 
primitive fort, as it sweeps the channel of Lick creek in either direction, 
is surely well suited for its purposes. Something more than beautiful scenery 
will come into the mind of the student of local history when viewing it. A 
calm survey of the situation allows the mind's eye to trace out, even today, 
a ver}' probable route for The Trail to follow in wending- its way toward 
the setting of the sun. The traditions of the Caldwell family, whose original 
home is nearby, makes it certain that the block-house was of importance to 
the first settlers of the neighborhood, and that it was garrisoned by a small 
squad of soldiers. Vnd also that it was picketed after the fashion of the 
more important blockhouses of those days : that is, surrounding the fort there 
was a solid timber-built fence, made up of short logs planted in the ground, 
by first setting them on end in a ditch, and then filling Jjack the earth as is 
done with fence posts. The topography of the locality, if studied from the 
position of the fort, furnishes ample proof that along the foot of this steep 
bank, and where the spring is. and where only a short distance below, less 
than a mile, it joins on to what is commonly known as The Trail, must have 
traveled the main body of Indians, who were wont to go down to John Con- 
ner's on the west bank of the White Water, for trade and barter. 

Before dismissing the matter of block-houses and the collateral evidence 
to be found for the location of The Trail by the presence of these rude forts 
of the most trying period of pioneer Indiana, it should be noted in conclu- 
sion that Connersville has also the distinction of occupying a site which had 
one of them once as a garrisoned fort, and the history of which helps mark 
out the exact spot upon which the future town was to arise. It was inside 
of what became, in 1813, the first part of Connersville, and it touches the par- 
ticular parts denominated "the public square" in the original plat laid out by 



FAYi-:TTE CurNTY. INDIANA. T37 

Julin Conner. .\s Tlie I' rail came down from the northwest, it tirst tonched 
the river bank at Conner's I'ost. wliieli was no doul)t the point of high ground 
above Eighth street on Ivistern avenue: from there it made its course towards 
the foot of Water street. In doing tliis it crossed tlie ]'"ifth-street school- 
building site to reach Water street. At Fourth street, as is still to be noticed, 
there is ground somewhat iiigher than the surrounding locality, and of course 
but a few hundred feet removed from the Ijank of the river. It was upon 
this spot, say one hundred anfl fifty feet north of the Gernian church, and 
twenty-five feet eastward, the lilock-liouse was situated tliat was Jiuilt that 
}ear, and whicli slieltered a detachment of soldiers sent u]) there by Com- 
mandant \\'illiani flelm in iSt2. 

W 1 101. 1". FRONTIICR IN .\ TRE.MOR. 

That the hostile Indians were in their ugliest mood in the spring and 
summer of iSi_> is written in large characters in the traditions of pioneer 
Indiana. The severe defeat administered ti> them the ])re\ious fall, on the 
battle ground of Tippecanoe, was a bitter recollection to them; but with the 
opening of the war with luigland — June iX, iSij, events seemingly brought 
them a moment for rejjrisals on the whites. 

On July 17th the American ]iost at .Mackinac surrendered to a force oi 
British and Indians. A large force menaced Detroit, and early in .\ugust 
tlie commander of I'ort 1 >earl)orn~ Chicago — was ordered to abandon that 
l^lace and come to the relief of Detroit. But the hostile Indians fell upon 
the whole ])art\ of soldiers, men, women and children, leaving only a few- 
alive to tell the details of the horror of the massacre. .Vt this time the prin- 
cipal outpost of Vincennes was Fort Harrison. This place was treacherously 
assaulted by them on .September 4th, but less successfully. And as if to 
wreak their vengeance for the failure, the Pigeon Roost massacre, in an out- 
lying district, to the eastward ,ind to the south of \'incennes. was enacted on 
the same day. 

.\s this was .an onslaught on an unsuspecting settlement of white 
pioneers, it naturally put into a trenmr the whole of our frontier region. 
.And as central Indiana was still the red man's domain, the border, districts, 
of which the west fork of the White Water formed the eastern alignment, 
were quickly put in a state of open warfare. It is not strange, under the cir- 
cumstances, that the pioneers who had just come into the valley all fell to 
work building block-houses. There was a double ])urpose served bv it. In 
the first ])lace it was jirolection. but secondarily the buildings served later for 



I^O FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

other purposes and liesides lielped in the general plan of clearing the ground 
for the raising of crops. 

CONNER.SVILLE A MILITARY STATION. 

To most persons the statement that Connersxille had a military station 
at one time will ])e so iKuel that a resume of the ex'idence upon which its 
location has been determined ma\' be appropriate. It does not appear any- 
where in print what its location was, but the following considerations seem 
definitely to settle the point, in the absence of documentary proof. 

First-— At the old settlers' meeting in 1862, Doctor Mason makes this 
statement:- "One of these block-houses was located near the present site of 
our county seat ( i. e., the present court liouse), and was commanded by Col. 
William 1-lelni, who resided six miles below tlie present town of Connersville." 

Second — In a local paper, of about fifty \ears ago, a short sketch con- 
tains the following: ".Aliout that time ( iSu) Rew John Strange, * * * 
preached in a block-house, at this point, at another near Laurel and still 
another on the present site of Cambridge.'" This person represented the 
Methodist denomination, and when the latter erected a building of their own, 
in 1825, it was put on the present site of tlie German church. 

Third — Hawkins Hackleman. who first saw the block-house, as a boy, 
in 1815, has left behind descriptions of its location. The neighborhood had 
been built up with other houses during jiis young manhood, and consequently 
reconciling- the changed conditions with the (M-iginal aspect of things was 
difficult, especially as the names of the streets were changed in his later years. 
He described the location of the block-house, usually, however, as "not far 
from the road now coming up the hill, from East Connersville." 

Fourth — In the sale of lots by John Conner, after 1813, lot No. 8 was 
first sold jointly with two other lots, and lirought a price which clearly indi- 
cates that one of them had a building upon it. Lot No. 8 carries this apparent 
feature again in a sale in 1833 and in 1844. In 1849 David Jennings boug-ht 
the rear of lot No. 8 and the rear of lot No. 7, which luade his purchase front 
on Fourtli street: and he paid a ])rice in adxance of what lots alone sold for 
at that time. A niece of Mr. Jennings, Mrs. Macey, who still lives there, 
knows that a large log house stood in the rear i)art of the purchase. The 
location of this house consequently would be the rear part of lot No. 8, which 
had maintained an enhanced valuation in tlie previous transactions. 

The position of this log house in the rear of the lot, one door facing the 
present alley, says plainly that it was built liefore Connersville was platted in 



FAYETIK rorNTY. TN-DIANA. 139 

1813, and tliat when it was put u]) it was made tti trout nu the rei)r,i,ranizcd 
liighway of that day. viz. : Tlie 'IVail leadiiis: down to tiie toi'd at tlie foot 
of Water street. 

Fifth — In the traditions left l)ehind with tiie descendants of the pioneer 
family of .Alexander Saxon, it would seem the location gi\-en above is aliout 
correct. The traditions are to tlie effect tiiat among- their earliest experiences, 
after settling on their land in 1812, east side of the river, south of the present 
hall park, were the occasional visits of soldiers from "the fort." .\lso that 
they maintained a ferry boat at the ford, which was used by the soldiers. 

Sixth — Samuel Merriheld, who still li\es near C<inners\ille, is of the 
opinion that in his youth it \\as a generally accei)ted \iew of the matter, that 
the block-house built when the Indian disturbances were active was on the 
high ground on the north side of Fourth street, betweeti l'"astern a\enue and 
Water street. 

Seventh — In conclusion, it should be stated that Col. William Helm, who 
commanded the force of soldiers in this neighborhood, became an early asso- 
ciate judge of l-'ayette county, and he bought lot Xo. 7, which touches the 
block-hou.se site on the south side: and lot Xo. <), I)ordering on the north side. 
was donated by lolin I'onner to the county for the ftnifl to procure the couutv 
seat for Connersville. These facts, in connection with the other one, that the 
"public Sfpiare" denominated in the first plat by b'bn Conner touches the 
block-house site on the west side, gives the immediate vicinity an air of civic 
importance, hardly e(|ualed else\\here. 

.\ I'lONEER If.WKN Ol' .S.\KKTV, 

That no open liostilities are recorded, that no blood)- deeds mark the 
period that brought us these military fortifications, is surely a better heritage 
to all who now look out upon the beautiful scene of hills and \-alleys, and 
count it a part of home, than would be any number of heroic encounters 
whose measure could l)e taken onl\- in .sanguinary acts and in human misery 
and death. Viewed from the stand])oint of forestalling possible attack or 
as a harbor for fleeing refugees, the block houses of our pioneer history 
amply justify their erection: and the two which have been mentioned were 
certainly placed with wisdom and with reference to ready access. l'"s])eciallv 
is this quality to be noted in the case of the Connersville fort. The trading 
l)ost of John Conner, in its position on the best einineiice to be found w'hen 
first coming down The Trail frorn the northwest, con-imanded a full \iew- of 
the river channel about Fightb street. It served xery well at that ])oint as a 



140 FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

haven of safety; and the other structure, the one built in 1812 as a block- 
liouse for the soldiers near Fourth street, had an equally fine sweep of the 
portion of the river bank which led down to the ford at the foot of Water 
street. A seemingly conclusive proof that a path passed over the described 
district will be found in the fact, that, when the town was founded the next 
year, the tirst store to find a home for itself was on the south side of the 
alley between Fifth and Sixth streets and on the west side of Eastern avenue. 
It was conducted by Joshua Harlan, who came up from Brookville that year. 
In this early trading place will be found a true index of what The Trail 
stood for in its inner history. The military phase of our history is happily 
a minor incident. But with Harlan's store, as a beginning in the new town's 
activities. The Trail again asserts itself as the one main artery opening out 
upon tlie world; for the Harlan store is midway down from the post toward 
the site i>f the blockhouse. This neighborhood constitutes the incipient town 
of Connersville. 

Harlan (who had been a territorial judge before locating here) was 
destined to fill a large place in the affairs of Connersville during the period 
now entering. Fie was a man past middle life, of large stature and of wide 
experience, beside antecedents and ancestry and early training that peculiarly 
fitted him to hel]) bring about a safe fruition of the new venture imdertaken 
at this point. His services were of much \alue to John Conner, and they 
seem to have been used freely by tlie latter. Harlan oversees the erection of 
a brick building for Conner which was the largest, if indeed not also the first, 
to grace Connersville's streets. It is located also on the old route of The 
Trail, and can still he seen in the older part of the hotel building on the north- 
east corner of l'"ifth street and Eastern avenue. Harlan took over from Con- 
ner the land lying west of the plat of 1813, and opened up Harlan's Addi- 
tion, in 18U). .\s the organization of the county, in the early months of that 
year, transferred "the seat of justice" to the present site of the court house, 
which is in Harlan's Addition, the older section, of which Eastern avenue 
was "Main street" in reality, as well as in name, found a strong rival for the 
business and honors of the village. 

BUSINES.S GROITp-ED .\BOUT THE TRAIL. 

In glancing back tf) the period which represents the formative stages of 
Connersville's life, it is ])lain that the first enterprises group themselves about 
The Trail. Before the creation of Fayette county and the resultant growth 
whicJi came to Connersxille. the original part of the town and the route of 



FAYETTE COIJNTY. INDIANA. I4I 

The Trail just ahtnT il containeil all there was of inii)rt)vement ami pros^ress. 
The improvements may have been inconsiderable at first. In fact, only four 
separate buildings can be vouched for as belongings to the second year of its 
existence. These were: the post, the block-house, Harlan's store, and prob- 
ably a log house on the site of the present old Heinemann corner. The dura- 
tion of this state of civic development may ha\e been \ery l)rief, but it was 
snfticient to show by its associations the priority of an earlier condition in 
which 'i'he Trail was paramoiuU. It is The Trail that brings the travel which 
resulted in John Coimer's coming. And the central position of his post, on 
the route, is the explanation of its selection for the purpose of a main station. 
"Conner's Post" is a name that came to it by easy process, in the language 
of the first settlers. It was Fort Conner in the brief period of militancy, 
although posterity will know it as Connersville. There are many other 
developments that trace their origin directly to the commerce which followed 
this ]5rimitive path. And yet. with all the supremacy of The Trail, measured 
by the valuations of those da\s, it is soon to be replaced by other distinctions 
tt^ which the locality aspires. The town spirit fully possesses itself of the 
community's ambitions when Connersville is made the county seat. .\nd 
man\ new ventures are planned, which soon change the w'hole tenor of things. 
It is well established in the early history of Connersville that an old house 
existed on the southwest corner of Fifth street and Eastern avenue. John 
Sample owned it from 1820 to 1S24, and conducted an inn there, which has 
received frequent mention in the early traditions. As Sample was village 
postmaster in 1822, and for several years thereafter, it is a safe inference 
that this site \vas also Cnnnersx-illc's ]>ostoffice during that period. [nsliua 
Harlan had been postmaster in the years i8i8-r8_'j, at his place of business. 
one-half block further up "Main street." I'revious to t8jo, the corner site 
was owned by .Misaloni lUu-kiiam and in some statements of the historv of 
the corner, it is .said tb.at TUirkham built up the ])lace. But this probablv 
means that he added to it: for it is known, also, that Arthur Dickson was 
merchandising there at a somewhat earlier day than Burkham. Later on, 
Dickson, jointly with another ])ers<ni. liought the adjoining lot to the south, 
and set up a store there. 



The descendants of William Sparks, who entered land in r8i_>. 
below Fast Connersville, have preserxed the tradition that in the earliest 
ciations of their family with Connersville. John Conner's trading place 



142 FAYETTE COLNTY, INDIANA. 

the corner spoken of above. Becau.se of the well known custom of Conner 
to use the ser\'ices of other persons to attend to the details of his business, it 
is easy to conclude that Conner used this site for his headquarters, after the 
town was platted in 1813, .with Arthur Dickson as a helper. It would be 
natural enough for Conner to establish himself at this location. From a 
business standpoint it would serve his interests very much to do so; it puts 
him in a position which is across the street from the "public square," and 
one that is central between Harlan's store and the blockhouse. So far as 
public meetings entered into the plan of village life, in the beginning, the 
block-house must have been used for that purpose. There are no known 
records of any form of town government before the organization of the 
county in 18 19; and during all of this peritxl John Conner was the guiding 
power of the settlement. It is plain that his activities in the promotion of 
his venture, the starting of Conners\'ille. could be best directed from the 
location described, and doubtlessly it was so used by him. 

It is not surprising to find, consec|uently, that changes creep into the 
renow n which The Trail liad enjoyed up to this time. Glory is ever fleeting, 
and the high estate of the path made by the Indians, in coming down from 
the northwest and continuing on down the valley, has seen the limita- 
tion of its honors. There was a period of usefulness for it, and even fame, 
but it now enters into a term of recession. Its doom is not long delayed. 

What helped the mcjst to its efYacement was the changed character of 
the po]julation. .\nother race of people, with other equipments in life, have 
been attracted by the abundant wealth in nature's storehouse. In point of 
time, the Indians were the first to enjoy the largesses Divine Providence 
scattered with a lavish hand up and down the valley ; they were alone and 
were in the midst of plenty, and in their prosperity they left a trace. It was 
a humble means of disbursement and of travel. But civilization learns of it, 
and comes in ; and the coming of the latter brings changes. It alters the 
primal complexion of the whole country. \\'here trackless forests once 
were, and where a dense undergrowth held sway, now there are soon to be 
open patches of soil for husbandry, and there are to be known points where 
settlements are forming. The white race rearranges things, and, in doing 
so, follows a new standard. As a result, cultivated fields, section roads, 
established homes, village and town life abound! Our history truly begins. 
But with the beginning of history, alas, The Trail ends — it vanishes. It is 
too elusive to be held in perfect metes and bounds, it is too transitory to leave 
a 'deep' impress; unless, perchance, ; as a.jmemory, and,, at .that, only a memory 
of a long past. 



CHAl'TER I\'. 
■ ' John Coinner. 

There is considerable oljscurity surroiiiiding tlie career of Joliii C'diiiier. 
the founder of the city wliich bears liis name. As far as is known, tiiere 
is no contemporary account of his career, the best account l>eing- tliat of 
O. H. Smith in his "luirly Indiana Trials and Sketches." Smith knew Con- 
ner personally and what he has to say about him may be taken as the words 
of a man who knew him intimately, and for that reason his narrative pos- 
sesses more value than any of the other accounts of the old pioneer. 

In 1916 Mrs. Sarah Conner Christian, of Indianapolis, a j;;rand- 
daughter of John Conner, prepared a sketch of the pioneer's life which is 
given in the succeeding pages. Her biography, as she explains, was writ- 
ten from information handed down by members of the family and for this 
reason is particularly interesting to the readers of b'ayette county. 

Proliabl)- tlie liest lixing aiitliority on the life of John L'onner is j. L. 
Heineniann, of L'onner>\ illc. who has lieen collecting historical data concern- 
ing Conner and the early histor\- of l'"ayette count}- for a number of years. In 
the course of his investigations he has unearthed the diary of David Zeis- 
berger, a Moravian missionary, who was acfjuainted with the Conner fam- 
ily while they lived in Ohio, and after they reached Detroit, following their 
capture by Indians. Such parts of this diary as pertain particularly to the 
Conner family have been translated and preserved 1)\- Mr. Heincmann, who 
also has. added the result of some of his investigations in the life of C"on- 
ner.sville's founder. 

Still another view of John Conner is presented b}- ISaxnard R. Hall 
in his interesting volume. "The Xew r'urchase. or Seven and a Half ^'ears 
in the Far West." 

co.\.\i-:r's ixi)1.\.\ wifk. 

It is n(jt known whether John Conner married his Indian wife in ( )hio ■ 
or Indiana, nor is the date of their marriage known. It is certain, how- 
ever, that Conner married his Indian wife before he became of age. .She 
died in 1814, leaving two sons. John and James. John seems to have been 
enamored of Indian life and after his mother's death was reared In the Dela- 



144 FAYET1E COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ware Indians and when they were taken to Missouri he went with them. 
He communicated with his half-brother, Wilham Winship Conner, in 1862 
from Missouri, where he was then Hving. At that time he was a wealthy 
landowner, with a large estate along the Missouri river. He died sometime 
■during the sixties. James Conner, the other son of John Conner by his 
Indian wife, remained with his father, who often remarked that James was 
the best boy he ever saw. The boy died of typhoid fever while still a youth. 

After the death of his Indian wife, John Conner married Lavinia Win- 
ship, a daughter of Judge Winship of Franklin county. There were three 
children by the second marriage, two sons and a daughter, the latter dying 
in early childhood. The two sons were Henry I. and William Winship. 
Henry Conner became a lawyer and formed a partnership with James B. 
Ray for the practice of his profession, but died while still a young man. The 
career of William Winship Conner, the father of Sarah Conner Christian, 
is related elsewhere in this volume. 

It is not generally known that John Conner was one of the best educated 
men of his day, but such is a fact. He was a great student and had a fine 
library in his home. He was the righthand man of Governor Harrison for 
many years and was invaluable to the governor because of his ability to 
speak twenty-two different Indian dialects. He could also speak and write 
in the French language. In his service in the state Legislature, as a member 
of the commission to select the site of the ]jresent State Capital, and as an 
interpreter at the signing of various Indian treaties, John Conner proved 
himself to be a man of unusual ability. 

A SKETCH OF CONNER BY O. H. SMITH. 
(Early Indiana Trials and Sketches, page 174) 

John Conner, the proprietor of Connersville, was one of nature's strong 
men. Taken by the Shawnee Indians when a mere )'outh, he was raised 
and educated in Indian life, language, and manners. When dressed in their 
costume, and painted, it was difificult to distinguish him from a real savage. 
On one occasion, as he told me, he came to Andersontown, then the lodge 
of a large band of Indians under Chief Anderson. He was dressed and 
painted as a Shawnee, and pretended to be a representative of Tecumseh. 
As is usual with the Indians, he took his seat on a log barely in sight of 
the Indian encampment, quietly smoked his pipe, waiting the action of 
Anderson and his chiefs. After an hour he saw approaching the old chief 
himself, in full dress, smoking his pipe. I give his language: "As the old 




GRAVK OF JOHN CONNER. 



FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 145 

chief walked up to me I rose from my seat, looked him in the eyes; we ex- 
changed pipes, and walked down to the lodge smoking, without a word. 
I was pointed to a bearskin — took my seat, with my back to the chiefs. A 
few minutes after, L noticed an Indian by the name of Gillaway, who knevf 
me well, eyeing me closely. I tried to evade his glances, when he bawled 
out in the Indian language, at the top of his voice (interpreted) 'You great 
Shawnee Indian, you John Conner.' The next moment the camp was in a 
perfect roar of laughter. Chief Anderson ran up to me, throwing off his 
dignity. 'You great representative of Tecumseh,' and burst out in a loud 
laugh." ]\Ir. Conner was an active, prominent, honest man; represented his 
county in the Senate, and gave the casting vote in favor of the ballot system 
of voting. He was father of William \Y. Conner, of Hamilton county. He 
long since departed this life. 

A SKETCH OF CONNER BY MRS. SARAH CONNER CHRISTIAN. 

I deem it a very great honor to have the privilege of preparing this 
brief sketch of my grandfather, the man who founded the city of Conners- 
ville. What I shall have to say has very little of the traditionary in it. I 
shall give the plain facts gleaned from historical accounts and records, or 
related by my father, who was but six years old at the time of the death of 
his father, John Conner. In his (my father's) childhood memories were 
manv pleasing incidents, but his mother who lived until he was twenty-one 
years of age was his reliable informant. I shall not endeavor to go back 
of Richard Conner, the father of the subject of this sketch, but shall begin 
with his sojourn at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he was engaged in fur 
trading. In this capacity he often came into contact with the Indians, among 
whom he met Margarita Bovoir, a French girl, who at the time of the 
massacre of her family, was stolen by the Indians, she being about six years 
old at the time. She was sixteen years of age when Richard Conner mar- 
ried her. 

A couple of years later, Richard Conner pushed his way westward into 
Ohio. The Reverend Simpson in his history says that Richard Conner came 
to Coshocton county, Ohio, about 1770, bringing with him a small colony 
of friends for the purjiose of engaging with him in the fur trade. They 
built their cabins close together and the little group was known as Conner- 
town. James, the eldest of the tliree sons liorn tliere, was, according to the 
Reverend Simpson, the first white child born in what is now the state of 
Ohio. William w-as born in 1775 at the same place, and in 1786 or 1787, 
John Conner, the founder of Connersville. Indiana, first opened his eyes 
(10) 



146 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

upon this world at Connertown, Coshocton county, Ohio, in what was known 
as Wyoming Valley. 

In 1789 occurred the massacre from which the Williams family es- 
caped, while the Conners were taken into captivity by a band of Delaware 
Indians under the leadership of Simon Girty, a renegade, and one Elliott, 
also a renegade. The Conners were taken to Detroit, making the journey 
on foot. Upon arriving there they were thoroughly exhausted and almost 
dead. They were held for ransom by the Indians under the British. Their 
ransom was accomplished by Rev. James Heckwelder, a man of noble birth 
and a devoted Moravian missionary at Detroit. The ransom price paid for 
the Conners was four hundred dollars in cash, two kegs of powder, fifty 
pounds of lead and one keg of brandy. The Elliott who assisted in their 
capture was also instrumental in procuring their release. 

The family, with two exceptions, settled at Detroit, where some of their 
posterity still reside, but the older members are sleeping in the cemetery at Mt. 
Clemens, Michigan, where the cross above their resting place attest the faith 
that was their anchor throughout their tragic and romantic career. At the 
time of the massacre John Conner was between two and three years of age, 
with blue eyes and light hair. It was the custom of the Indians to kill the 
light-haired children, and the mother, knowing this, procured a piece of lead 
and rubbed little John's head and eyebrows. When morning came he was 
the black-headed one of the family. 

As the captors journeyed on, footsore and weary, William, who was 
about fourteen years of age, took little John from his mother's arms to rest 
her. No sooner was this done than one of the Indians' snatched the boys 
up, put them on a horse, and galloped through the forest to central Indiana, 
the hunting ground of the Delawares. The father and mother gave the 
children up for dead, supposing the Indians would kill them. 

I have no record of how William cared for little John, holding his hand 
while his delicate feet stumbled over the ground; how he quieted his cries, 
relieved his hunger, of protected him from the cold and rain ; who made his 
moccasins or provided them with clothing to keep them warm. Perhaps the 
squaws of the tribe gave them the help they required. 

When John was old enough the boys made the trip to DetrdTt-on horse- 
back in quest of their people. They were fortunate enough to find them in 
that city, and it is understood that their father, Richard, put the boys in a 
Moravian mission school, where they acquired what education they received. 
The boys returned to Indiana some time before 1800 for the purpose of 



■ FAYETTK COUNTY. UVDIANA. I47 

carrying on fur trading and establishing trading posts. They were among 
the first, if not the very first white traders in the White Water valley. 

John Conner had a supply store and trading post at Cedar Grove, in 
Franklin county, as early as 1804 — and he was not more than seventeen 
years of age at the time. This post, in his absence, was carried on by a 
Frenchman in his employ known as Pilkey. In 1808 John Conner made his 
first appearance on the present site of Connersville, and there is little doubt 
tliat the trading post he established here that year was the first white man's 
cabin in Connersville. 

Connersville was platted March 4, 181 3. He is on record as having 
entered the northwest quarter of section 27 (range 12, east, township 13, 
north). In 1808 he became of age and as he came to, Connersville in that 
year, it is natural to suppose that the entry was where he built the post. 
[This \aries slightly from tlie Cdunty record of entries, for which see 
page 227,. — Editor.] Fayette county at that time was a part of Frank- 
lin county, not being organized until January i, 1819. In the first Legis- 
lature that met at Corydon (after the state was admitted to the Union in 
1816) there were only ten members of the Senate and John Conner was one 
of the ten, being a member from Franklin county, and he was still a member 
of the Senate when Fayette county was organized in 1819. It is said that 
he cast the deciding vote for the ballot system of voting. 

John Conner was married on March 13, 1813, to Louisa Winship, a 
daughter of Jabez Winship, of Cedar Grove. It is unnecessary for me to 
speak of his life at Connersville for of that you know more than I do. The 
exidence of liis labors and ami)ition is here. The site of one of the first 
mills in the White Water valley is here, and it was John Conner who 
built it. 

My father, William Winship Conner, was born at Connersville, May 27, 
1820. In 1822 John Conner moved to Hamilton county, Indiana, where he 
purchased one thousand acres of land on the west fork of White river about 
two miles south of the present site of Noblesville. There was a small mill- 
site on the river on his land, and he at once built a large flouring mill and 
woolen factory at the same place. He built a large and comfortable resi- 
dence there and lived in it until the day of his death. He died in 1826 at 
the age of forty. 

Throughout his life he was the trusted friend of the Indians, never 
defrauding nor betraying their interests. At the outbreak of the Indian war 



148 FAYETTE COCINTY, INDIANA. 

in Indiana (War of 1812), he used all of his influence to avert trouble 
between the Indians and whites; always telling his Indian friends that in 
case of trouble he would stand by the United States government and the 
settlers. . . 

Early in 1808 Governor Harrison addressed a speech to the chief of 
the Shawnees. This speech was delivered by John Conner, the messenger 
and interpreter, before an assemblage of Shawnee chiefs. The Prophet 
dictated an answer which Conner put in writing and delivered to Governor 
Harrison. The reply was a denial of the charges, and affirmed good will 
and faith toward the whites. The growing dissatisfaction of the Indians 
and their increasing hostility began to alarm the people, and John Conner 
was chosen, as being the most influential man, to bear the governor's mes- 
sage to the Indians, assuring them of the friendship of the United States 
and to use his influence to promote harmony and peace. 

On November 25, 1812, Governor Harrison placed Colonel Campbell 
in command of a detachment of six hundred men, and in giving him instruc- 
tions, said : "Inform yourself from Conner of the locality, of the place 
and situation of the Indians." John and WiUiam Conner acted as guides 
to Colonel Campbell's expedition to the Mississinewa (Grant county, Indiana). 
They knew the country well and were conversant with Indian methods of 
warfare. Both brothers could speak twenty-two different Indian dialects. 

John and William were two of the commissioners appointed by the 
General Assembly to locate tlie capital of the state. The commissioners 
were instructed by Governor Jennings to meet May 22, 1820, at the home 
of William Conner, on the west fork of White river (in what is now Ham- 
ilton county). 

John Conner was a scout and carried the dispatches from Ft. Wash- 
ington, now Cincinnati, to Ft. Wayne. He was a member of the state 
militia and fought under Governor Harrison at Tippecanoe. He was a 
non-commissioned aide to Harrison in that battle. 

Oliver H. Smith, in his "Early Indiana Trials and Sketches." in speak- 
ing of John Conner, said: "John Conner, the founder of Connersville, was 
one of nature's strong men, active in the interest of the people, prominent 
in aiifairs of state, a man of integrity and honor, of dauntless courage and 
indomitable energy." 

John Conner now sleeps in Greenlawn cemetery at Indianapolis, and 
the Indian trail, the pack horse and canoe are replaced by the nation's race 
tracks, automobiles, locomotives and interurbans. The dear old mill that 
gladdened the settlers has given way to the high-class manufactories that 



- FAYKTTE COUNTY. INDIANA. I49 

help to make your city. When I see the magnificent residence.^, the exten- 
sive factories, the schools and churches — when I see the faith the i)eople of 
Connersville have in their city and their ambition for it, I know that the 
spirit of John Conner is marching- on. 

On John Conner's gra\estone is the folldwing inscription: "Blessed 
are the dead from henceforth : yea, saith the spirit, that they may rest from 
their labours; and their works do follow them." Originally there were other 
lines on the stone, but exposure to tlie elements has effaced them, the above 
lines l)ein.g preser\e(l through the' fact that for m?ny years they were covered 
with soil. 

FURTHER LIGHT ON THE PIONEER. 

The article of Mrs. Christian was submitted to Mr. Heinemann in order 
fur him to compare the facts stated therein with the result of his investiga- 
tions. He does not hesitate to pronounce her sketch a good statement of 
the Cornier family traditions; however, Mr. Heinemann is of the opinion 
that additional light on the life of Conner can be gleaned from the diary of 
David Zeisberger, who kept a day-by-day account from 1781 to 1798. As 
has been stated, Zeisberger was accjuainted with the Conners in Ohio, knew 
of their capture by the Indians and was evidently well acquainted with them 
after the family lived in Detroit. Mr. Heinemann's extracts from the diary 
of the Moravian missionary, together with his comments on the diary, are 
given in the succeeding paragraphs. 

DIARY OF DAVID ZEISBERGER. 

June 14, 1782 — Today and for several days all sorts of rumors have 
been flying about; and many preparations made for war. In the ship "San- 
dusky," the Conners came here [Detroit] with their children. They had to 
come on account of the unrest caused by war. 

July II, 1782 — We did not fail to give our Indian brethren news of 
us, as often as we have had a chance; and a week before, by some white 
prisoners who went there, we had again sent them word ; and yesterday 
Conner also was dispatched there on business by the commandant. 

April 25, 1783 — Brother Conner arrived [at Clinton river] from the 
fort [Detroit] to build himself a house, and soon to bring his family. For 
the sake of his maintenance he has had to stay there till now. 

April 2H, 1783 — (Clinton River.) We got back home again, haviijg 
been much hindered in the lake by head winds, and having had much trouble 



150 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

to row against them. But the Indians had to lie still. Both of their canoes 
were filled by the waves. We brought us in our boat Brother Conner and his 
wife, with provisions which now they get as we do, but which before they 
did not draw, so long as they were in Detroit. 

July 22, 1783 — Brother Conner came back from Detroit, where he got 
supplies, when we last got provisions there, and he at the same time went 
with us. Colonel De Peyster refused to let him have them longer, and so 
he had to provide himself with them by buying them. 

April 2, 1786 — . . . none of us remained behind, save Conner's 
family, who himself knew not whither to go, or what to do. In the evening 
we camped at the mouth of the River Huron. . . . It is just four years 
today that we landed in Detroit and in truth we could not do otherwise than 
give the Savior to recognize our thankful hearts for all the kindnesses He 
had shown us and that He has done everything so well with us. 
We left Conners' family behind. 

August 14, 1788 — Four Chippewas came visiting here [Canada], re- 
maining a couple of days. One of them was from the Huron river, and 
told us, for he spoke very good Delaware, that he lived in Brother Zeisber- 
ger's house, that the houses were all occupied by Chippewas; and that no 
white people lived there except Conner, to whom they had given leave [to 
stay there]. 

Mr. Heinemann's comments on the above excerpts from the Zeisberger 
diary follow : 

It will be seen from these entries that the Moravians, with whom the 
original Conner family was in touch, moved from American territory into 
Canada in 1786; consecjuently that there was no opportunity for Richard 
Conner to put his son John into Moravian mission schools at Detroit. 

That John Conner had the benefit of school training is evident from his 
career — his public services have left many evidences of it — but there are 
several good reasons for holding that his education was in fact received in 
the school attached to the old Catholic church built by the French in 170T, 
which school, about the time in question, was rejuvenated by the new church 
authorities from Baltimore. This was just after the War of Independence, 
the Baltimore priests superseding the French and English priests from 
Quebec. 

A large chapter of Detroit history, partly of an educational character, 
was inaugurated in 1798 with the arrival of Father Gabriel Richard for the 
purpose stated' atmve. Even Ann .'\rbor owes its origin largely to this man's 



FAYETTK COUXTY. INniANA. I5I 

interest in school work. He was one of the founders of tlie University of 
Michigan in 1817, vice-president, and in the beginning was professor of six 
of the thirteen departments composing its curriculum. 

This remarkable man began his career in Detroit in 1798 as parish priest 
of old St. Ann's, the church of the days of French occupation; and in giving 
his first attention to the restoration oi the ruin wrought by sieges and wars, 
he left an imperishable monument in a career notable in many ways. His 
life was closed as a victim of the cholera scourge of 1832. So active were 
his resourceful efforts in the beginning, that within three years, between 
1798 and 1802, he built a second church for the neighborhood and opened 
si.x primary schools and two academies. 

This is the period to which the youth of John Conner belongs; and 
it would be passing strange, indeed, if any other source be ever found and 
proven as the fountain whence were taken the rudiments of knowledge and 
the fair penmanship belonging to Connersville's founder. 

A SKETCH OF CONNER BY BAYNARD R. HALL. 

An interesting and delightful picture of John Conner in his home at 
Connersville is given by Baynard Rush Hall in his book entitled "The New 
Purchase." Hall was the first professor of the seminary at Bloomington, 
which was later to become Indiana College and still later Indiana University. 
Hall was also a Presbyterian clerg}-man and it was while on a ministerial 
trip that he paid a visit to Connersville and partook of the hospitality of the 
trader. It slioulil l)e sa'd. liowever. that as a matter of historical accur- 
acy, there is some doubt that Hall was actually ever at Connersville. But 
the fact remains that he left the state before the end of the twenties and 
that he must have either been at Conner's house or else well acquainted with 
some one who knew that Conner disported the silver plate which seems to 
have made such a marked impression on the eye of the preacher. It is well 
known tliat Conner collected a large (|uaiitit\- of siher and sent it luist to 
be made into dishes. 

As much of the volume as deals with Hall's sojourn with Conner is 
here reproduced verbatim. It may be found on pages 247-249 of the cen- 
tennial edition of Hall's "New Purchase," edited by James Albert 'Wood- 
burn, professor of history in Indiana University. 

Hall calls Conner "Redwhite," while himself he designates as "Carl- 
ton.'" It must be admitted that the author gets out of the region of facts 
into the field of fiction when he attempts to discuss the domestic life of 



152 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Conner, although it is certain that Conner chd have an Indian wife. The 
extract follows : 

Today tlie eveiiiug service was iu the neigliboiliuud of Mr. Itedwbite, for uiauy 
years a trader aiiiung the Iiidiaus. He being present insisted on our passing tlie night 
at his house. We consented. For forty years he had lived among the aborigines, and 
was master of five or six Indian languages; having adopted also many of their opin- 
ions on political and religious points, and believing with the natives themselves and 
not u few civilized folks, that the Indians have had abundant provocations for most 
of their misdeeds. Hence, Mr. Redwhite and Mr. Carlton soon became 'powerful 
thick' — i. e., very intimate friends. 

The most interesting thing in Mr. Redwhite"s establishment was his Christian 
or white wife. She, in infancy, had escaped the tomahawk at the massacre of Wyom- 
ing, and afterwards had been adopted as a child of the Indian tribe. Our friend's 
heathen or red wife was a full-blooded savagess — (the bcllc and the savarie) ; and 
had deserted her husband to live with her exiled people; and so IJedwhite, poor fellow, 
was a widower with one wife — viz, this Miss Wyoming. Much of this lady's life had 
passed among the Canadian French ! and she was, therefore, mistress of the Indian, 
the French, and the English ; and also of the most elegant cookery, either as regards 
substantial dishes or nicnacry. And of this you may judge, when we set on supper. 

But first be it said, our host was rich, not only for that country, but for this, 
and though he lived iu a cabin, or rather a dozen cabins, he owned tracts of very 
valuable land presented to him by his red lady's tribe — territory enough in fact to 
form a darling little state of his own, nearly as small as Rhode Island or Delaware. 
Beside, he ownetl more real silver — silver done into plate, and some elaborately and 
tastefully gravetl and chased, than could be found in ;i pet bank when dear old Fncle 
Sam sent some of his cronies to look for it. 

Well, now the eatables and drinkables. We had tea, black and green, .lud coffee — 
all lirst chop and superbly made, regaling with fragrance, and their delicacy aided by 
the just admixture of appropriate sugars, together with richest cream : — the addita- 
menta being banded on a silver waiter and in silver bow-Is and cups. The decoctions 
and infusions themselves were poured from silver spouts curving gracefully from mas- 
sive silver pots and urns. Wheat bread of choice flour and raised with yeast, formed, 
some into loaves and some into rolls, was present, to lie siiread with delicious butter 
rising in unctuous pyramids, fretted from base to aiiex into .-i kind of a butyrial shell 
work — this resting on silver and to be cut with silver. Corn, too, figured in pone and 
liudding, and vapoured away in little clouds of steain ; while at judicioiis inter^-als 
were handed silver plates of rich and warm flannel or blanket cakes, with so soft and 
melting an expression as to win our most tender regards. There stood a plate of 
planked venison, there one of dried beef, while at beconnng distances were large china 
dishes partly hidden imder steaks of ham and veni.son done on gridirons, and sending 
forth most fragrant odors — so that the very hounds, and mastiff's and wolf dogs of the 
colony were enticed to the door of our supper cabin by the witcliery of the floating 
essence ! 

But time would fail to tell of the bunns — and .iumbles — and sponge cake — and 
fruit ditto — and pound also — and silver baskets — and all these on cloth as white as snow ! 

Reader! Was ever such a contrast as between the untutored world around and 
the array, and splendor, and richness of our sumptuous banquet? And all this in an 
Indian country! and prepared by almost a sole survivor from a massacre that exting- 
uished a whole Christian village! How like a dream this! 



- FAYETTK (XHJNTY. INDIANA. 1 53 

And tlmu w;isl s.-nt'il nt W.voiiiin;;: Do 1 Iddk <in tlicc.-- u|miii wIkiso iiuKn-i-iil 
fiice of infancy years ago guslieil the warm lilood of tbe mother falling with her bahe 
locked to her bosom! Didst thou really hear the fiendish yells of that night? — when 
the flames of a father's house revealed the forms of infuriate ones dancing in triumph 
among the mangled corpses of their victims! Who washed the congealed gore from 
thy cheeks? And what barbarian nurse gave strange nourishment from a breast so 
responsive to the bloody call of the warwhoop that made thee motherless?— and now 
st> tenderly melting at the crys of the orphan ! And slie tied tliee to a barken cradle 
and bore thee far, far away to her dark forest haunts! — and there swinging thee to 
the bending branches bade the wild winds rock thee ! — and she became thy mother and 
there was thy home ! Oh! wh;it ditt'ovenv destiny thine in the sweet vilhige of thy 
birth — but for that night! 

And yet. reader, this hostess w;is not so wlmlly Indian and Canadian tli;it when 
she talked of Wyoming it was witlioiil emotion I -while I was rejiressing tears! .-ilasl 
she had not one faint desire to see the land of her .iiii-estors : Could this lie Camii- 
bell's (Sertrude?" 

AN INTKKICSTING OLD I.KTTF.R. 

Mrs. Sarali Conner Christian, a granddangliter of John Conner, has 
a, letter written by James Backhouse to lier grandfather, bearing the date of 
July 25, 1824. The letter was written from "Beach Near Brookville," but 
just where this place was is not detinitely known. It is certain, however, 
that Conner had a store at Cedar Crove, south of Brookxille. and another 
store either at or in the immediate \icinity of Brookville. The letter is writ- 
ten in a fairly legible hand although there are some words in it which are 
not rea<lil\- deci])hered. The whole purport of the letter is to the effect that 
Piackhouse was engaged in trans]j()rting merchandise for Conner and that one 
of the loads was lost, or partly .so, in crossing Taylor's creek. The letter 
with its lack of punctuation, excessive capitalization and misspelled words is 
here reproduced verliatiui. 

r.eacli Xc.-ir I'.r(M,U\ illc 
Mr. .Tohn Connor I set down to try to inforni yon of the most Siiignlar Circnmstani-e 
or more jirojierly sijeaking the Act of (Jod on S.-itnrday morning the seventeenth day of 
July my W.-igon Started from Fenton's Old .St.-ind l)eyon(l Mianie Town Karly in ordere to 
Cross the Itiver before It would I!i.>-(' as there was .in Ajipearance of Heavy Italn llie.v 
went on Will Crost Taylors Creek twiste wliicli li:id not Kaiscd or Swolon any Came 
opposide to .Jacob's Old Stand Str)rehouse i nr i,' (if .1 nnle lM'l(iW (liys .Mill the 
Water by tliat Time began to Swell very fast .is it Itaiiul in Tonenis bnl my ( )ld(.sl Son 
very Cautions for fear of any accident Todk mit nnc of the Horses and K'lilc 'riirouixli 
in Presents of four Persons besides my otlicr Smi, .ind Miidiii;.' tlic Water nni uiore 
than Belly deep he rode back claped I? | in tlie liorse and went cm Well williin a \cry 
small distance of dry Land and it appeared as Ihongh the water Kiss over the waggon 
and Horses in an Instant swep of the Body through out Some of the goods and With 
the most exertions Ininglnable Saved the waggon and cUane<l it fast there is SoUie 
of the goods Txjst I have had a very Considerable deal of Trouble with the goods 
and And them I^ess Injured then I expected I wish you not be displeased with my 



154 F.\^YET-FE COUNTY, INDIANA; 

Conduct Nor be ay ways PrejncUced iintill you See or hear from tliem that was 
and no ways Interested I want to see yoii here and there is no doubt but you and 
myself can make things right if not; I am disposed to do everything that is right I 
have it not in my power to Say what is Lost as they have given my boys no memo- 
randum of thy Load but no doubt there is an Invoice in the Letters this I will Say 
If my boys had not had poles as big as needfool all would have been Lost but that 
here after if you have any I-oading to this place and rtisi)osed to send it by them do so 
and it will be IJemembrd by yours & 

James Backhouse 
John Connor Esqr 

July 25th 1S24 

The above letter is written on "fool's-cap" folio paper and covers the 
first and half of the second page of the same. The mark of the orig^inal 
fold would indicate that the letter had become wet in transit, suggesting that 
the bearer may have been caught in a drenching rain. It later had been 
refolded, in a more convenient shape for pigeon-holing or file preservation, 
and the page on which the address, "Mr. John Connor, Indianapolis," is writ- 
ten bears the indorsement, in another hand (probably that of Mr. Conner) 
and in different ink : "Backhouse business." It is worthy of note that Con- 
ner's name is spelled throughout "Connor." 



CHAPTER V. 
County Okganizatiox. 

The first mention of Fayette county by name is to be found in the lejfis- 
lative act of December 28, i8t8, which defined its Hmits and provided for 
its formal organization on the 1st of the following- month, that is, fonr days 
later. The fact that such a short time was to elapse Ijetween the passage 
of the act creating the county and the time for its actual organization would 
seem to indicate that the politicians of the proposed coimt\- had their plans 
well in hand for the disposal of the few offices which it would be necessary 
to establish in order to get the countv started. Most of tlie first officials 
had had some connection witli bVanklin county aft'airs antl some of them Iiail 
held i>ositions in that county. Jonathan jMcCart\- and John Conner were 
undouI)tedly the men most responsible for the creation of the new count)-. 
Conner Ijeing a member of the Senate at the time the act was passed creating 
the county. 

Nearly one hundred years have passed since I'ayette county came into 
existence and it is impossilile at this date to determine the motives of the 
men who were I^ehind the movement which resulted in the organization of 
the county with the limits as defined in the act of 18 18. W'lien I'ranklin and 
Wayne counties were organized in 1810, llie dividing line between tliese two 
counties was an extension of the ))re.sent boundary line lietween the town- 
ships of Connersville and Harrison in Fayette county. There can 1ie no 
question but that it was the original intention (that is, when Wavne and 
Franklin were created in 1810) to organize one county — and only one — at 
some future date from parts of these two counties. The best evidence 
pointing to this conclusion is the fact that tlie village of Waterloo was laid 
out with a public square, the proprietor \ery evidently having the idea that 
when the new county was created liis town w oidd Ik? in a geographical ])osi- 
tion to l>e considered as the county seat. 

However, for some reason lost in tlie ninety-eight years which have 
elapsed since the Legislatureof i8i8-iq created I'^ayette county, the original 
idea of one count\- made frf)n-i parts of Wayne and Franklin counties was 
set aside and, instead, there appearetl two — Fayette and I'nion. The first 



i;6 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



limits of Fayette count}- did, nevertheless, inckule a part of the present Union 
count)- — that part between the Indian treaty line of 1795 and the present 
eastern boundary line of Waterloo and Jennings townships. The boundary 
of the original Fayette county as defined by the act of December 28, 1818, 
was set forth in the following language : 

FIRST LIMITS OF FAYETTE COUNTY. 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, that 
from and after the First dav of January next ( lanuarv i. 1810) all that tract 



^ 


Z 


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6 


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The limits of tli 
of December 2S. 1 
except six section 
coiintj — the same \i 
time it had been a 

In addition the 
were later made 
county was oreani 
east of it.s present 

The first meeti 
was held February 
divided into five to 


e county as defined by the legislative act 
18. included all of county as at present 


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12 


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county included several sections which 


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18 


17 


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ed January 5. 1821. that part of Fayette 
limits became a part of Union. 


22 


23 


24 


19 


20 


21 


8, 1819. and at that time the county was 
wnsiiips as indicated on map. 


27 


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FAVrrTTR CdfXTV. INDIANA. 



' .1/ 



or jwrcel of c<iuntr\- wliicli is enclosed within the tollowin.t; Ixmndaries shall 
constitute and torni a new county to he known and designated hy the name 
and style of I'ayette, to-wit. he.ijinnino- at tlie southeast corner of section ,^3, 
township 13. ran^e 13: thence north three miles; thetice east three miles to 
the old boundary line ( the Creenville Indian treaty line of 1795) ; thence north 
(really east of north, that is. following- the above mentioned treaty line) to 
fractions 28 and 33 (rather the line between these two sections), in town- 
ship 15. range 14, east of the second principal meridian; thence west on said 
line to a line dividing sections 27 and 28 (that is, to the northwest corner 
of section 34). in townshi]) 15. range 12, east of the second principal meri- 
dian; thence north on said line to a line dividing townships 15 and i6 (the 
present line): thence west six miles; thence sotith eighteen miles; thence 
east so far as to intersect the line dividing townships 12 and 13: thence along 
said line to the place of beginning." 

The above description is not clear in all its particulars and has l>een 
emended parentheticall}' to make the limits more definite. However, there is 
one line described which baflles explanation. It will l>e noticed that the next 
to the last line descril)ed above reads, "thence east so far as to intersect the 
line dividing townships T2 and 13." The ]ire\ious line — "thence south 
ei.ghteen miles" — clearly debnes the present eighteen-mile line dividing the 
counties of Rush and b'ayette, beginning as it does at the northwest corner 
of section 3 in Pose}- townshi]) and continuing due south to the southwest 
corner of section 34 in ("olumbia township, that is, to the "line dividing 
townships 12 and 13." Hence there is no apparent reason why the framers 
of the act should have inserted the description "thence east so far as to 
intersect the line dividing township 12 anfl 13," since the eighteen-mile line 
reaches the point thus defined. 

As will be seen from the map. the six sections {22. 2^:1,. 26, 2y. 34 and 
35) in the southeastern ])art of Jackson township were not included in the 
limits of the county in 1818, being left a part of Franklin county until an 
act of the Legislature. January 16, 1826. attached them to Fayette county. 
The part of Fayette l}ing between the treaty line of i7<)5 and the present 
eastern boundary line of Waterlof) and Jennings townships remained a part 
of Fayette county until 1/nion county was created on January 5. 1821. at 
which time the territory in (|uestion was detached from I'"a\ette and nride a 
part of the newly created l^nion. 

.\s has been stated, the act creating l'"a_\ette county pro\ ided that it 
should be formally organized on January i. 1819. four da\s after the passage 
of the act. Howexer, it was not until Februarv 8. 1810. that the countv 



15^ FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

commissioners held their first meeting and divided the county into townships, 
so, as a matter of fact, the coimty cannot be said to have been a separate 
poHtical entity until that date. It is not known just where the commis- 
sioners met for this first meeting, but it was evidently at one of the half 
dozen houses in Connersville. Conner's hotel, the present Buckley House, 
was not yet erected, although it was built in the summer of 1819. Since the 
commissioners appointed by the Legislature to select the county seat were to 
meet at the house of John McCormick, it may be supposed that the county 
commissioners convened at the same place for their first meeting. The loca- 
tion of McCormick's house is not definitely known, 1iut it must have been 
either within or near the present limits of the county seat. 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT AND EARLY PROCEEDINGS. 

The first commissioners of the county of Fayette were Basil Roberts, 
Herod Newland and John Tyner. Their first meeting was held in Conners- 
ville, on Monday, February 8, 181Q, at which the above named commission- 
ers were present. However, no business was transacted, for "it appearing 
to the board that no clerk had Iseen appointed for the county, and there being 
a probability of the clerk elected for the county being- commissioned shortly, 
it is ordered that this board adjourn until tomorrow morning at nine o'clock."' 

In pursuance to the above the board again assembled on the following 
da\- with all of the members present and also Jonathan McCarty, who pro- 
iluced his commission, dated February 2, 1819, as clerk of the Fayette county 
circuit court, and the following business was transacted : On motion it was 
ordered that the county of Fayette be divided into five townships, namely : 
Columbia, Connersville, Harrison, Brownsville and Jennings. 

It was ordered that the following named persons be appointed inspectors 
of elections in and for the different townships : Connersville township, 
Marks Crume : Columbia, Morgan Vardiman; Harrison, Joseph Dale; 
Brownsville, Richard George Paris: Jennings, Hugh Bell. 

It was next ordered that there should be two justices of the peace alloted 
to each township, to l>e elected in the respective townships on the first Mon- 
day in March ; the sheriff to give notice of the same. It was also ordered 
that the following persons be apiwinted constables in their respective town- 
ships: Abraham Bays, Columbia township, one year: Joel White, Jennings 
township: John McCormick, Connersville township one year: Reason Davis. 
Harrison township; Joseph Gassett, Brownsville township. With these 
appointments the business of the day was complete. 



FAYETTE COl'NTY, INDIANA. 



[59 



The board Iiaviiii^' conxened the foUowiiif^ da)-, Adariah Morgan was 
appointed Hster of the county tdr tlie \ear 1819, he being required to give 
bond to the amount of one thousand Ine himdred dollars. Newton Clay- 
pool was appointed treasurer of the comity and required to give a bond of 
two thousand dollars, with two good freeholders as security. John McCor- 
niick, Sr., and John Tyner were a])p(jinted overseers of the poor in Harrison 
township for one year: .\l)iather Hathaway and Nicholas Reagen, for Con- 
nersville township: Noah runiphrey and John Conner, for Columbia town- 
ship; James Haughan and Athariel .Sims, for Brownsville township; Joseph 
V'anmeter and Sannicl P>cil. .Sr., for Jennings township. Jonathan McCarty 
was authorized to contract for .uul jirocure a .seal, to lie made of copper or 
bronze, with the following w urds .uul letters engraved thereon : "Indiana, 
Fayette County, B. C.", which was to be known and used as the common 
seal of the board of commissioners. 

At the May session of the board of commissioners Adariah Morgan was 
allowed sixty dollars for his services as lister of the county for the year. 
\Villiam W. \Mck was allowed twenty dollars, the sum granted him by the 
circuit court for his serxices as ])rosecuting attorney. 

TA\'EKN RATES. 



At the same session it was ortlered that the following tavern rates be 
charged liy the ta\ern keejiers in the county: 

For every one-half pint of l<"rench l)randy or wine, rum 

and imported wines $0.^0 



For every one-half jiint ])each brandy or gin. 

For every one-half pint whisky 

For porter per (|uart 

h'or cider per (|uart 

For strong lieer ]>er quart 

h'or dinner, 1)reakfast or supper 

For lodging ])er night 

h'or horse to hay per night 

h'or oats or Indian corn per gallon 



25 

25 
12/3 

25 

I2K' 

25 

I 2 I/. 



EART.Y FINANCES OF THE COliNTY. 



In these latter days there is a great deal of talk about the high cost of 
living: in fact, the expression has 1)een used so frequently that manv of the 



IftO FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

])resent ne\vspa]jers simply refer to it as the H. C. L., an abl^reviation which 
is instantly recognized by ever}'one who reads the papers. Flowever, it 
seems that the same state of affairs existed, or, at least, was threatening, a 
half century ago. Tn an address which Dr. Philip Mason delivered at the 
first annual fair of Fa>ette county, September 3, 1862, he took occasion to 
warn his hearers against heedless and needless extravagance. 

"It has been fully realized within the last two years, especially at the 
county^ seat, that the great increase in the way of fine buildings, dress and 
equipages indicates extravagance in the future; but it is to be hoped that 
our people will take timely warning and a\ oid the breakers of luxury, 
extravagance and licentiousness by which so many nations have been wrecked 
and become desolate."' 

:\lthough Fayette county might lie charged with extravagance in 1862, 
certainly such an indictment could not have been sustained in the first two 
decades of the count_\-'s history. .\n examination of the records in the county 
treasurer's office discloses some \er}' interesting facts regarding the amovmt 
of money it took to run the county in the twenties, and when a comparison 
is made with the expenditiu'es in the county for 1916 it will be seen that our 
forefathers could hardly ha\ e "been charged with extravagance. 

At the :\Ia\-, 18 19, term of the county commissioners the assessor or 
lister, as he was called, made his report of the assessment of taxable property 
for the year, but no amount is given in the record, nor is the assessor's book 
or tax duplicate for that year, or any year up to 1831, to be found. Adariah 
Morgan was the lister and recei\-ed sixty dollars for his year's services. It 
is to be regretted that there is practically no way by which to determine the 
kind or amount of taxable property there was in the county during this 
peritid (iSig-31). At this session (Maw i8ic)) the commissioners levied 
the following ta.x for that }-ear : For each horse, mare, colt, mule or ass 
over three years of age, the sum of thirty-seven and a half cents; for every 
town lot, fifty cents on ever}- one hundred dollars' valuation ; for first-rate 
land, fifty cents for every one hundred acres; for second-rate land, forty- 
three and three- fourths cents for every one hundred acres; for third-rate 
land, thirty-one and one-fourth cents for e\ery one hundred acres; for every 
stud horse, the rate they stand for the season. 

The tax for 1820 was the same as that levied for 18 19, with the addi- 
tion of a tax on carriages ami watches. Neither the amount nor kind of 
])ropert\- is mentioned on the record. Benjamin McCarty was the lister and 
received sixty-four dollars for his services for the year 1820. The same 
tax was continued in 182 1, with the addition of a poll tax of fifty cents, 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. l6l 

and also a tax on work-oxen. It might be mentioned in this connection that 
Jonathan McCarty, later congressman from this district, and then serving 
as clerk of the county, was allowed fifty dollars for his services in 1819, 
while John Conner, the first sheriff, received the same munificent sum for 
his services in i8ig. James C. Rea, who was appointed in June, i8jo, to 
take the census of the county, received two dollars for each one hundred 
names listed. The associate judges, two in number, received two dollars a 
day for the time the\- actually sat on the bench hearing cases. 

B\- a settlement made on November 9, 1819, by the county commission- 
ers with Newton Claypool, the first county treasurer and the incumbent of 
the office for many successive years, there came into the liands of the treasurer, 
on account of tax duplicates and tavern licenses, the sum of one thousand 
eighty-nine dollars and three cents, exclusive of the donation fund. 

DONATION FUND. 

-\ word should be said of this "donation fund'", a fund which was to be 
found in every newly organized county in the state. The act of the Legis- 
lature providing for the organization of a county always named five men, 
called "locating commissioners", residents of counties adjoining the proposed 
county, wlio were to meet in the new county at a date specified in the act and 
select a site for tiie count\- seat. In the case of Fayette county these men 
were as follows: William liradley, of Switzerland; James Dill and John 
Watts, of Dearliorn : Williamson Dunn, of Jefferson; and John Ross, of 
Clark. These men were directed to meet on the third Monday of February, 
1819, at the house of John McCormick, in Fayette county, to perform the 
duty assigned them by the Legislature. They met at the appointed place on 
Februan*- 16, i8ig, and on the following day they selected the present site 
for the seat of justice. Their full report follows: 

"We proceeded to fi.x anfl establish the permanent seat of justice in 
and for Fayette county, to be in the public square laid oft' and recorded by 
Joshua Harlan, in the town of (dniiersville, county of Fayette and state of 
Indiana, on the northwest corner of section 25, in township 14, range 12, 
east of second meridian, in the district of lands oft'ered for sale ;it Cincin- 
nati. Said S(|uare is bounded on the northeast by Monroe street, as laid oft' 
and recorded by John Conner and Joshua Harlan, and as by the plat of said 
town. Permanent seat of justice declared as above, and fixed, b^bruary 
17, 1819." 
(11) 



l62 FAYETTE COUNTY, INPIANA. 

This report was submitted to the county commissioners at a special 
session, convening on March 2, t8iq, and promptly accq^ted. The commis- 
sioners next proceeded to appoint Nicholas Reagan as county agent, his 
duties being to manage the "donation fund,'" which had been made by sundry 
citizens for and in consideration of the locating of the county seat at Con- 
nersville. Part of the donations were in the form of cash, part in land and 
part in town lots. The total amount of these donations has not been found, 
but it seems to have been amply sufficient to pay for the building of the first 
court house and jail, the purpose for which the fuixl was intended. 

The second year of the county's history found a substantial increase in 
the amount of money raised by taxation. On November 15, 1820, the com- 
missioners settled with the county treasurer and the following report gives 
the first itemized report of the county's money : 

Kalauce remaining, November, 1819 .| ,SG!).o:{ 

Tavern licenses, taxes and notes and certificates to date 180.25 

Duplicates for the year 182(1 !)40.02i 

Total received in 1820 •_ $2,004.30* 

Orders allowed and disbursed to date .$ 680.06i 

Donation charge debited to treasurer in 1819 settlement 105.00 

Five per cent, on $900, received and disbursed in 1819-20 45.00 

Total disbursements in 1820 $ 830.(X!] 

Receipts $2,004.30* 

Disbursements 830.061 

Balance on November 15. 1820 '_ $l,174.24i 

The settlement of the commissioners with the county treasurer in 1821 
is given in such a manner that it is impossible to tell what was the amount 
of the tax list, but for the year 1822 it is given at $889.76^2. It appears 
that there have been delinf|uent taxpayers since the begini|ing of the county's 
history. John M. Wilson, the sheriff of the county in 1822. was allowed, 
on June 18 of that year, the sum of ^So.gqy^ for the delinquencies in the 
payment of taxes for 1819; $90.20 for 1820, and $56.02 for 1821. The 
county trea,surer was ordered to credit these three sums on his books. The 
lister (or assessor, as now known) was allowed $60.00 for 1819; $64.00 for 
1820: $40.00 for 1821 ; $60.00 for 1822. 

The treasurer of the county was allowed five per cent, on all moneys 
received and paid ottt of the county funds. On this basis he was allowed 
$45 at the November, 1820, settlement, and $66.05 for 1821. The .sheriff. 



FAYKTTK COUNTY. INIIIANA. 163 

who was charfjed witli tlie duty of collcctinj^- the taxes in those early days, 
was also <;;^iven a percentaj^e of the money actually collected as his comi>en- 
sation. Records have not heen found to show what he received, Init he 
undouhtedly received- alx)ut the same as the county treasurer. 

As has been stated, the first complete tax duplicate which lias l>een found, 
is that of 1 8,^1. In view of the fact that it is practically inaccessible to the 
citizens of the county it is here jiresented in full. 

TAX ASSESSMKNT FOR THK YKAR 1 83 1 . 

County. Stjite 

State tax on 1,417 polls .$ 531.37* 

State tax on 1,841 acres of first-rate land 14.72| 

County tax on 1,841 acres of first-rate land !(, 13.80^ 

State tax on 67.914 acres of second-rate land 407.48J 

County tax on 67,914 acres of second-rate laud 3.39.57 

State tax on 47,397 acres of third-rate land ISa.'iSJ 

County tax on 47,397 acres of third-rate land 177.73J 

County tax 011 1,869 horses, mares, mules, etc 700.87i _. 

County tax on 285 work-oxen 53.42} 

County tax on- 80 silver watches 20.00 

County tax on 3 gold watches .3.00 

County tax on 18 covering horses ,39.00 

County tax on .$9,507.80 valuation on town lots 47.535 

State tax on delinquencies for the year 1830 28.121 

County lax on delinquencies for the year 1830 16.00 

St;ito tax on unsold lands for the year 18.30 3.69* 



state tax 



county tax on transcript .$1.414.09J 



Road tax a.ssessment on non-resident lands for 18.31 $ 32.75i 

Road tax assessment on unsold lands for 1831 1.S4J 



Total state tax .$1.174.99§ 

Total county tax 1,414.99^ 

Total road tax 34.60^ 



_$2.624.59i 



The next financial statenienl of particular interest is the one of i<Sf)i 
and is here given in full in order to show the condition of the county at the 
opening of the Civil War. The nunilier of voters had increased only two 
hundred and fortv-nine since iSa. 



164 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



TAX LIST AND ASSESSMENT FOR THE YEAR 1 86 1. 

Number of polls taxable 1,667 

Number of acres of land, 131,401; valued at $3,076,210 

Value of improvements of same 396,705 

Value of town lots 164,265 

Value of town lot Improvements 207,710 

Value of personal property 2,104,795 

Total value of taxables for 1861 $5,949,6.S5 

State tax $12,732.87 

Sinking fund tax 1,189.87 



Total state tax $13,922.74 

County tax proper for 1861 $18,682.33 

School tax for 1861 6,783.29 

Road U\x for 1861 4,159.88 

Township tax for 1861 : 1,401.17 

Special school tax for 1861 2,417.18 

Total amount of county tax for 1861 33,443.85 

Total amount of state .ind county tax for 1861 47,366.59 

Deliniiuent taxes $2,643.61 

Penalty on delinquent taxes 447.39 

drand total on duplicate for 1861 .$50,457.59 

AMOUNT OF MONEY RAISED AND SPENT BY FAYETTE COUNTY IN I916. 

In 1866, just half a century a,^o, the total value of taxable property 
amounted to the sum of $6,779,775.00, the total county and state ta.x for that 
year being $120,752.41. Fifty years have brought abotit a large increase in 
the amount of taxable property, and a corresponding increase in the amount 
of taxes. There are many sources of taxation in use at the present time 
which were unknown fifty years ago, and likewise many more uses for the 
money so collected. 

The handling of the money of the county at the present time is done 
by the county auditor and county treasurer. During the year 19 16 these 
two officials handled $466,265.30, paying out on orders the sum of $409,- 
495.59, leaving a lialance in county treasury of $56,769.71. The finances 
of the county are in excellent shape, the county's debt being onlv $38,000, 
in the shape of bonds, against which there stands the balance above shown. 

It must lie understood that some of the townships have individual debts, 
largely in the shape of road bonds, but the countv itself is not charged with 



- FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 165 

tJiis indebtedness. The townships of Connersville. Jackson. Orange. Posey 
and Fairview have a total bonded debt for roads amounting to $149,805.50, 
but of tliis amount Connersville township alone is charged with $74,444.00. 
Fortunately, this indebtedness is stretched over a period of years, and thus 
does not work a hardship on the taxpayers. The levy for gravel road bonds 
in 1016 netted the county the sum of $15,857.27. 

One of the latest methods of raising; revenue is l)y means of the inherit- 
ance tax, and this source of revenue brought .$2,1^12.20 into the county 
treasury in 1916. Docket fees added $172; liquor license fees, $5,000; while 
manv other minor items added varying amounts, all of which added to the 
amount derived from direct taxation l)rouglit tlie total u]> to nearly half a 
million dollars. 

A stud\- of the itemized list of expenditures shows that the county's 
monev goes (lut in a wide variety of ways. For instance, the burial of old 
soldiers, the maintenance of the free county fair, and the county sanitarium 
called for a joint expenditure of ,$^^,400, of which amount $700 was used 
for the burial of old soldiers. The taking of cases to other counties, changes 
of venue, necessitated an appropriation of $381.10. The county shared the 
ex])ense of a number of bridges, appropriating $7,0,^2.28 for this item alone. 

Everv taxjjayer should be interested in the m;inner in which tiie money 
of his county is expended, and to this end he should study the .mnual joint 
report of the audited' and treasurer, which is always publislied in tlie local 
papers. The f|uestion of taxes is always a live (piestion and in order to dis- 
cuss it intelligentlv the taxpayer must know just how they are levied, and 
once collected, how they are expended. The average citizen does not object 
to paving taxes if he believes that he gets the worth of his money, and he 
cannot possilily know whether he is getting full value, unless he studies the 
question from the annual reports of the county officers who handle the taxes. 

A mere financial statement does not have the qualities of a romance, 
Imt one inmdrcd years from now — in 2017 — the reader who picks u]) this 
vohinie will read with a great deal of interest tlic re])ort which follows, giv- 
ing in detail how the money of the taxpayers of the count\- was raised and 
expended in 1916. The report follows: 



Received from Couuty Clerk I" 
Received from County Auditor 



itor 


anil Til 


'iixin-ir of /•'.///- 


■tir Cijiiiilii. 


Iiiiliaiui. 


'■ E,i 


ilhii/ Dr 


rem her .•?!. Iflli 


r,. 








RMliinccs 


Disbin-s.. 


I'.Mliince. 






11 nd 


ments 


He.'. 31, 






Keceii)t.« 


191(! 


191 (!. 






.$1..^.27 !Ki 
214 2(1 








i66 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



Balances 

County Revknve. mikI 

Receipts 

Received from Couuty Treasurer Fees 328 41 

Received from County Recorder Fees 1.321 80 

Received from County Sheriff Fees 310 19 

Received from Township Poor Tax 3,122 10 

Received from County Poor Farm 1,046 66 

Received from Highways 38 60 

Received from Change of Venue 274 60 

Received from Special Judges 65 00 

Received from County Deiwsitories Interest 1,475 27 

Received from Taxes, County Revenue 49,435 93 

Received from Miscellaneous 55 02 

Balance on Hand January 1st, 1916 17.664 36 

Disbursements Countt Revenue, 1916. 

Expense of County Clerk, Salary and Office Ex._ 

Expense of County Auditor. Salary and Office Ex. 

Expense of County Treas., Salar.y and Office Ex.^ 

Expen.se of County Rec. Salary and Office Ex. 

Expense of County Sheriff, Salaiiy and Office Ex. 

Expen.se of County Surveyor's Office 

Expense of Superintendent. Salary and Office Ex. 

Expen.se of County Assessor. Salary & Office Ex. 

Expense of County Coroner, Salary and Office Ex. 

Expense of County Health Com'r. and Office Ex. 

Expense of Countj- Com'rs., Sabii-j' and Office Ex. 

Expense of County Council and County Atty, Sal. 

Expense of County Board of Review 

Expense of County Truant Officer, Salary 

Expense of Township Assessing 

Expense of Township Poor _ 

Expense of Court House. Janitor Salary, Etc. 

Expense of County Jail 

Expense of County Poor Farm and New Building 

Exprnse of County Orphans 

Exiiense of Inmates State Institutions 

Expen.se of Insanity Inquests 

Expense of Elections 

Expense of Soldiers" Burial 

iOxpense of Public Printing and Advertising 

Expense of Highway, Viewers, Damages, Etc 

I'xpense of Farmers' Institute - 

lOxpense of Bridge, Superintendent and Engineer. 

E.KlK'nse of School Fmids 

Expense of G. A. R. Hall 

Expense of Taxes Refunded 

Donations-to'Psjette- Sanitarium -and Free Fair-. 

Expense of Bridges 

Expense of Judgments 



Disljurse- Balance, 

ments Dec. 31, 
191C 1916. 

$2,453 45 

2,744 93 

2,462 11 

1.384 13 

3,453 62 

27 87 

1,663 31 

657 26 

177 15 

275 94 

936 50 

370 00 

224 00 

352 00 

2,228 50 

1,618 31 

2,295 19 

17,233 23 

1.572 15 

1.513 66 

657 25 

3,566 95 

700 00 

476 20 

74 35 

53 76 

300 00 

126 85 

150 00 

94 41 

2,700 00 

7,032 2S 



.WKTTF, COUNTY. INDI.^iNA. 



167 



I-:\|ifnsf of Clinii;.-!' c.f \'cau.' 


lupous 


Receipts 


1916 

381 10 
2,796 98 
3.642 50 


1916. 


):x|iciisf (if CiiTuit Courl 




10\|ifUSf (if ('(.iiiity Hdiids iiikI (.'( 






$76,880 (M 

.$3,468 63 

5.972 10 
■ 1,194 07 

3.269 8.-! 

1.142 39 

250 74 

714 26 

76.r,(»:i 2.S 

l.-|.S,^,7 27 

."1,000 (10 

2,162 2<l 

9.901 OS 
12,893 77 

1.933 98 
18,489 31 

!),025 62 
172 00 

1,290 55 
11,268 78 
42,722 48 
49,895 49 
12,471 54 
16,207 73 
726 20 

2.714 36 
42,250 30 
10.960 62 

9,298 32 
978 77 

8,300 24 
12,348 38 


$67,725 15 

$2,9t!8 00 

5,8.S6 10 

1,194 (H) 

2.(546 ."i2 

1.142 :!!) 

250 74 

388 26 

36.518 70 

13.9.37 79 

;!.(i(i(» 00 

2.162 20 

i-',Mi:; 77 

1.9.3;; 98 
18.4«9 31 

9,023 62 
156 00 

1,290 55 
11,268 78 
42.722 48 
49,895 49 
12,471 54 
16,207 73 
720 20 

2,714 36 
42,250 36 
10,960 62 

9,298 32 
978 77 

8,300 24 

9,589 56 


.$9,154 S!) 

.$."1(10 o:; 


riiiiciii.il I'diiinion School Fund 




I'iiu(i|i,il Conj.'i-es.sional .St-liool 
I'riiuiii.U I'enunnent Eiulownieut 
Interest, Cotuiiion 

Interest. Coniire.ssioniil 


Fund 

School Fund -_ 


023 31 






326 00 
39.9.S4 47 
l.Olll 4S 
1.400 (K) 


.Sale of Bonds for ('(instruction of 
Taxiition for Itodeniiition of (Jnn 
Liquor License 

Inheritiince Tax 


Gnivel Roads., 
•el Road Bonds_ 














State Debt Sinking Fund 

State Seliool Tax 
















State Vocational 






Townshit) Tax 


















Road Tax 




Connuon School Revenue 




















SinUins Fund Tax 














Townshii) Bond Fund 




(;r;nel Uiiad Repair Fund 




2,758 82 








(Jr.-ind TdtMl (if .\ll I''inids__. 


.1!466.265 30 
.$38,000 00 

74,444 (K) 
19,200 00 
10,0(19 98 
15,751 50 
24.400 02 


.$409,495 57 


$56,769 73 


OITSTANUINO TOWNSHH 

Connersville Townshiii 


• nON'DS. 




Jaclcson l^jwnship 






Posey Township 






Orange Township 

Fairview Township 


I>cbt 












Tdtal Tdwnsliip (Jnivcl INiad 


.$149,,S05 ."lO 





l68 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Respectfully submitted this the SOtli day of December, 1010. 

Glen Zell, Auditor Fayette County, Indiana. 
B. W. Cole, Treasurer Fayette County, Indiana. 
Examined and approved by the Board of Fayette County Commissioners, in open court, 
this, the 1st day of January, 1917. 

R. H. Jebman, 
D. W. Caldwell, 
Chas. W. Mason, 
Board of Fayette County Commissioners. 

A FEW FIRSTS IN THE COUNTY RECORDS. 

The first marria.g^e license recorded in the county was that of Stephen 
Philpott to Rebecca Hawkins. The date of the issue of the Hcense was 
February g, 1819. The marriage was solemnized by Rev. Adam Banks. 

The first deed recorded in the county was an indenture raadf. January 
31, 1819, by Paul Davis and his wife, Margaret, of Connersville township, 
Fayette county, Indiana, on the one part, and James Davis of the same 
township, county and state, on the other part. It was the conveyance of the 
south half of the northeast quarter of section 21, township 14, range 12 east, 
and the consideration was eighty dollars. The transaction was acknowledged 
before John Perin, a justice of the peace. January 31, 1819, and recorded 
March 23. 1819, by J. C. Reed. 

The first will recorded was that of the last will and testament of George 
Kirschman. deceased, of which recurd was made in the court house, August 
26, 1819. 

THF, FJWST COITKT HOUSE. 

During the first year of the county's existence the affairs of govern- 
ment were transacted in private homes, but before the end of this period the 
necessity of a court house A\as (|uite evident and, with public sentiment fa\'or- 
able, plans were made at the Xo\-ember session of the county commissioners 
for a com-t house. P>>- this time the donation fund had reached sufficient 
proportions to begin the erection of the public liuildings for which this fund 
had been established. The ])lan of the building as first outlined was as fol- 
lows: The building was to be con.structed of brick, and to \ye fortv feet 
.square and two stories high — the first story eighteen feet high, the second, 
fourteen feet high. The front half of the lower floor was to be constructed 
of l>rick, and the other half of Oak or ash ]>]ank, one inch and a quarter 
thick, and not more than eight inches in width. The second floor was to 
be laid with oak or ash plank of the same description as the rear half of the 




COURT HOUSE. ERECTED IX 1X49. 
Remodeled in INSO and 1890, as shown belc 





k 


. 




1 


if 




HI 


1 


^K|\|, 


i 




s^^^^^H 


HI 


B 




1 


m 




f^^nEflDfeM 


_^^ 


:«.«^.j— --^ 


•^3 


U^u 



PRESENT COURT HOUSE. 



FAYKTTK COrNTY. INDIANA. 169 

lt)\ver floor. In the fust st(ir\- there were to l)e tliree windows in each side 
and end, except in front, where in tlie center of tlie Iniilchnf^- there were to 
be folding doors, with a window on either side. The windows were each 
to contain twenty- four li.i,dits, eiirht hy ten inches in size, and the window 
which was to he inimeihately lK.'hind tiie judge's bench was to be two and 
one-half feet hioher than the other windows. On each side of the second 
story there were to lie three windows of the same size and description as 
those given aI)o\ e. There were to l)e two fire]>laces below, in the southwest 
and northwest corners of the builcHng. and three fireplaces in the second 
story. Two girders, fourteen liy twel\e feet, were to extend through the 
center of the house (one above and one below) from side to side, equi- 
distant from either sitle of the house, each to be supported by two columns, 
which were to l)e well turned and round, thirteen inches in diameter at the 
bottom and pro])urtionately small a! the lo]). The roof was to Ik? ]>itched 
from either side to the center, from whence was to be raised a cupol;i, eight 
feet in diameter and thirty-two feet in height from the i)e<lestal; from the 
to|) of the cu|Kila was lo extend a spire ten feet liigh. .\ handsome gilded 
ball, fifteen incites in diameter, and a neat \-ane were to ornament the spire: 
above the \';me was to be extended across the spire a bar with a gilt ball on 
each side, and ;i neat cap was to be ])laced on the to]) of the spire. 

Through the center of the house and on the inside, on the ground floor 
and along the edge of the wooden floor, were to be a hand rail and banisters, 
and immediately under the middle window in the rear side of the house was 
to be a raised bench for the judges of the court. The bench was to be two 
and one-half feet from the floor, the bench to lie lianistered, and the stair- 
way t(j ascend thereto was also to be banistered. This room was to be pro- 
\-itled with jury boxes, a criminal box and other re(|uisites. On the second 
floor there was to be a ]);u-tition across the house from north to south, the 
west portion of which was to be di\-ide(l into two rooms and the east half 
of that floor was also to be di\ided by a jiartition. The walls were to lie 
painted and penciled, the roof to be painted Si>anish brown color, the cu]iola 
white, and the whole of the interior of the building of the same color, except- 
ing the judge's l)ench, jtiry boxes ruid banisters, which were to be painted 
blue. 

The contract for the building was let on the last Saturday in Xoveml)er, 
i8t(). Jonathan b)bn was evidentb- the contractor, as the building was 
accejited b\- the count)' conmiissioners from him in .\ugust, 1822. The total 
cf)St to the county was one thous,-md two hundred sixt\'-twi) dollars ;iud tiftv 



I/O FAYKTTF COUNTY, INDIANA. 

cents. Ilii.s building' was one among- the early Ijrick structures in the county 
and stood on the center front of the public square fronting to the east, the 
square having been donated by Joshua Harlan. 

Within three years after the first court house was completed it was found 
that it was not sufficiently large to accommodate all of the county officials. 
Consequently, the l)oard of justices- —who were at that time performing the 
duties of the county commissioners — authorized Jonathan McCarty to erect a 
separate building of two rooms for the use of the clerk and recorder. The 
contract was evidently let soon after the September, 1825, session of the 
board, but who secured it or when it was finalh- completed the official records 
fail to state. In ^larch, 1827, AlcCart}- was allowed three hundred twenty 
dollars and forty and one-half cents for work done on the building, and the 
inference is that AicCarty had the contract and that this amount was the 
total cost of the structure. The building was a frame structure and was 
located on the northwest corner of the public S(|uare. It was evidentlv in 
use until replaced by a second building which was ordered constructed in 
1833. This second building-, also for the use of the clerk and recorder, was 
a one-story two-rO(im brick structure, thirtv b\- twenty feet, and stood on 
the southeast corner of the pul:)lic square. It was built b}- Sherman Schofield 
under the supervision of Gabriel Ginn, the latter being- appointed bv the 
county comraissionefs. This building was used for the po.stoffice after the 
new court house was built in 1849. 

PRESENT COURT HOUSE. 

The present court house has had a curious history — a history which has 
had few parallels in the state. Jt is the usual custom in most counties to tear 
down a court house when it has outlived its usefulness, but the thrifty people 
of Fayette count)-' have not been so prodigal of their public money. When 
the first court house of 1822 and the subsequent two small county buildings 
were replaced by a substantial brick Iniilding in 18.1.9, the county had a court 
house which was one of the finest then in the state. This second court house, 
like a majority of the court houses of that ]3€riod, also contained the jail as 
well as the sherilT's residence. The contract for its erection was let to John 
Elder, of Indianapolis, in the amount of $20,000, and he agreed to have it 
readx' for occupancy by October 12, 1840. It was a handsome structure, 
with a wing on either side of the main l)ody of the building. The front was 
adorned with six large columns, which were set on an extended front of the 
first storv and extended to the gable of the Iniilding. Fron-i an artistic view- 



l>i)iiit tlie 1841) structure was a uKn-e liandsonK' l)uil(lin^- tlian the ])rcsciU mie. 

Tliis secoiul courl hduse was oi sufficient size to meet all the ileinaiuls of 
the county for several years without any additions or alterations. However. 
])y the latter part of the sexenlies the local newspapers hetjan to make fui;^iti\e 
references to the need of a new jail and cnurt Iiouse. (ir at least a new jail. 
The agfitation fur increased i|uarter> for county pur])i)ses finally resulted in 
the Cdunty CdUiniissicnerN (irderins; the cunstructii m of a jail and the remodel- 
ing- i)f the court house. The jail was comi)leted in the sprin.t,'- of iSSi and 
as soon as the ]iri^oners were transferred from the cells in the court house 
to the new jail, the ])art of the court house formerlx used for jail and resi- 
dence purposes was remodeled into offices. There were a few other minor 
changes made in the interior part of the court house, while its external ap|)ear- 
ance remained as originalh' constructed. 

Xineteen }-ears later the court house was com])letely o\erliauled and 
given its present apjiearance. It was at lirst ])roposed to tear down the old 
1840 structure .and erect a new l)uildin_g;. hut it was found possible to utilize 
the old buildings in its entirety — excepting; the senn-( iothic spire--;uul this 
plan was finally adopted. The present court house therefore is nothing hut 
the 1849 huilding with a few additions and the whole faced with new hrick. 
An examination of the two photographs will show the difference between 
the 1849 building- and the same after it was remodeled in 1890. 

-\ granite block imbedded in the northeast corner of the court house 
informs the passerby when the building- was given its present appearance, 
who was the architect and contractor, and who constituted the board of 
countv commissioners. This tablet reads : 

Remodelkd 
A. D. 1890 



O. A. .M.\RTI.> 



F. Y. TnoM.^.s 
Coininissit 



W. S. K-vriM.\x, 
Architcrt. 



Downs, IJk.miv & Co., 

Ciintniotors. 



FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



FIRST COUNTY JAIL. 



At a si3€cial meeting of the county commissioners, held March 6, 1819, 
the question of tlie erection of a county jail was favorably discussed and it 
was ordered that such a building- should be built according to the following 
plans : 

There shiill be a jail built aiul erected on the public square ou which the seat of 
.justice is established, in the town of Connersville. in and for the county of Fayette, and 
on the west side of an alley running through the public square, nearly in a north and 
south direction, at or next to where the school house now stands; which said jail shall 
lie built on the foUowiug plan: To be l)uilt with logs thirty feet long by sixteen, hewn 
to ;i square twelve inches thiclc; two partition walls of logs of the same size; floor ami 
loft to be laid of logs the same size aforesaid, the middle room to be twelve feet in the 
clear, the othei- two "rooms seven feet each in the clear; the logs out of which said jail 
is to be built to be of good sound oak, cherry, red elm, houey locust, or ash timber ; the 
logs when said jail is raised, to be let in b.v a half dove-tail in such a manner as to let 
the logs as near together as conveniently can Ije; the upper and lower floor to be laid so 
as the timbers will touch from end to end; to be under-framed with good stone, one foot 
under ground and one foot above the surface of the ground; each room of said jail to be 
ceiled inside, except the under part of the upper floor, with oak plank an inch and a 
half in thickness, well seasoned, and not to exceed twelve inches in width, and to be well 
spiketl with iron spikes at least four inches in length and not less than eleven in each 
plank; said jail to be at least nine feet between the floors, and one round of logs above 
the upper floor, as before mentioned, on which upper round of logs the rafters shall so 
far be projected as to give an eave twelve inches clear of the wall; said jail to be cov- 
ered with poplar joint shingles not exceeding eighteen inches in length ; two outside 
doors to be made of oak plant, one inch and a half in thickness, well doubled and spikeil 
with spikes at least four inches in length, to be placed not to exceed four inches apart 
and clinched in the inside of each door; each door to be two feet in width, two iron 
li.irs to be fixed to each outside door, which bars to be one-half inch by two inches, one 
end of each bar to be fa.stened to the logs ou each side of the door by a staple, and the 
other end to lie locked to a stajile on the opposite side of the door; one window to be in 
each ro(un. twelve inches by eighteen in size, iron grates, of an inch and a quarter in size, 
fixed in each window, two inches apart, said grates to be well plastered in at least three 
inches on the u|iper ,ind lower part of each of said windows; said jail doors to be well 
bung with gdiid and suttic-ient strap hinges; the whole of the work on said jail to be done 
in a workmanlike nianncr. 

The building of this jail is to be set up and ottered at public sale and outcry to the 
lowest biddei- at the public stpiare in the town of Connersville on the 1.5th of this instant 
I March lit, ismi to be <-om|ileted by the first of September next at the expense of the 
<-omity. 

Tht sheriff was commissioned to represent the county in the letting of 
the contract. Jonathan John was the successful bidder and the building was 
completed within the time specified. The jail was duly examined and accepted 
hv the coimt\- commissioners in August, 181Q. and the contractor was allowed 
seven hundred and sixt\-four dollars for its construction. 



FAYETTF. COrNTV, IXniANA. I73 

SECOND JAIL. 

The first jail serveil well its purpose for a few years, but, with the gen- 
eral trend of progress, a more substantial building was needed. The agita- 
tion for such a structure began in the spring of 1834 and in May of that 
year the county commissioners offered a prize of ten dollars to the person 
submitting the best plans for a jail of three rooms. John Sample, Jr., was 
awarded the prize. There seems tu ha\e been a difference of oj^inion con- 
cerning the erection of a new jail, because at the fall term of the circuit court 
the, judges recommended the rehtting of the old jail according to plans sub- 
mitted by Elijah C<jrbin. However, this recommendation was not heeded, 
for in November. 1834, ("jeorgc Frybarger and Gabriel Ginn were ai^jjointed 
superintendents to supervise the Iniilding of a brick jail, to be a story and 
a half high, and to have three apartments, two below and one above. The 
building stood on the south side of the public sfpiare and was erected by 
Philip Mason at a cost of eight hundred dollars. 

THIRD JAIL AND FIRST SHERIFF'S RESIDENCE. 

In January, 184^, the court house and the clerk and recorder's otffce 
(second) were sold to A. B. Conwell for five hundred and seventv-five dol- 
lars and the jail to Sherman Scofield for ninety-six dollars. The old court 
house bell was sold to the Presb\terian church for one hundred and seventeen 
dollars. 

The second court house, the third jail and the lirst jailer's residence were 
all combined in the one l)uiKling erected in the summer of 1841) bv bihn 
Klder, of Marion county, Indiana, at a cost of twenty thousand dolI;irs. The 
center apartment was occupied b\- the jail and the jailer's residence. There 
were six cells for prisoners, who could be taken to and from the court 
through a rear passage by a door entering immediatel}- into the court room. 



In 18S1, improxements were ni;i(le upon the interior (if the court house 
and the space that had been utilized for the jail was converted into rooms 
for the use of the county officials. But previous to the remodeling, w-ork 
had l)een started on the new jail located on Fourth street, directly opposite 
the court house, llie building, erected by J. W. I'erkinson, of Indianapolis, 
was completed in the spring of 1881 at a total co^t of fourteen thousand nine 



174 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

iuindred clfillnrs. The rear of the building- forms the jail; underground is 
the dungeon, consisting of a cell about ten feet square. The jail contains 
ten cells, four on the lower floor and si.x on the upper, two of which are 
for women. 

KENEVOLENT IN.STITUTIONS. 

One (if the most striking evidences of our Christian civilization is the 
care and protection which is extended to those who, for one reason or another, 
are unable, to care for themselves. 1"he state of Indiana provides schools 
for its blind, its deaf and dumb, its feeble-minded and the orphans of its 
soldiers and sailors; it proxides institutions for the insane, for the epileptic, 
and for tln)se whose deeds ha\e temjiorarily placed them in such a iX)sition 
that the demands of societ}' necessitate their incarceration for definite periods 
of time. 

While the state thus cares for its dependents, defectives and delincjuents, 
each county of the state has its particular institutions of this character main- 
tained at the e.xpense of the countv. From the beginning of the history 
of Fayette county it has had its share of dependent people and one of the 
first acts of the county commissioners was to appoint overseers of the poor 
and provitle means for taking care of the indigent. This relief was a mat- 
ter largely of townshi]) supervision at first, the county not having an asylum 
of any kind to house these unfortimates. 

In 1824 the (leneral .Assembly ]iassed an act which provided for a more 
uniform system of taking care of the poor. This act of January 30, 1824, 
set forth the following provisions: 

Seetion 1. That the commissioners of the several comities shall, at their first or 
.second session in each and every year, nominate and appoint two substantial inhabitants 
of every township within their respective comities to be overseers of the poor of such 
townishlp. 

Section 2. It shall be the duty of the overseer of the poor every year to cause all 
poor persons who have or shall hereafter become a public charge to be farmed out. on 
contracts to be made on the fir.st Holiday in Alay annually, in such manner as the said 
overseers of the poor shall deem liest calculated to promote the general good. 

Favette county followed this law in all particulars for the following 
decade, l>ut the experience of the various counties of the state — and Fayette 
was one of them — showed that the "farming out" system, as it was generally 
called, was not conducive to the best interests of society. This method of 
caring for the poor was a development of the old indenture system, with 
modifications of the apprentice system. This system actually jo/d the poor 
to the highest bidder and left the poor creatures to the mercy of their owner. 



FAYETTE fOrNTY. INDIANA. 1 73 

The whole s\stein of poor rehef was chant^ed in the early lliirties, 
l-'ayette county changiii"- its s\ stem as the result of the legislative act of Janu- 
ary 23, 1834, entitled, "An Asylum for the Poor of the Counties of Franklin, 
I'ayette and Union." This act did away forever with the idea of selling the 
services of a poor man and made provisions for a central home where the 
])oor should live together at public e.\])ense. that is, the county as a whole 
l)ecame responsible for its poor and not some few individuals who might 
exploit the unfortunates in some such manner as the slave owner in the South. 

On December 26, 1S34, the commissioners of the three counties named 
met at Fairfield, in Franklin county, for the ])uri)ose of jointly erecting an 
asylum for the poor of the three counties. (/)n January 25, 1835, a farm of 
two hundred and eight acres located in township 13, range 13, Jackson town- 
ship, Fayette county, was pmchased of Thomas Clark for two thousand and 
fifty-three dollars. The commissioners met thereon, August 10, 1835, and 
agreed to build an as\ lum which w.is to be in readiness by May, jS,t,(\ The 
building, which was of brick, was completed in the specified time and the 
farm let to the highest bidder. 

On May q, 1836. Isaac (iardner, of Unirm count}, was chosen as the 
sui>erintendent of the institution at a salary of five hundred dollars a year. 
The first board of directors was composed of Josejih D. Thompson. Martin 
Williams and Zachariah Ferguson. The paupers of Fayette county were 
ordered removed from the several townships to the asykmi in Mav, 1836. 
The maintenance of the asylum was ])rorated among the three counties 
in proportion to their \oting po]julation. The first year of o]ieration ( 1836) 
Franklin had 1,800 voters, b'ayette had 1.555, <'i"*' Cnion had i,27cj. The 
total expense of keeping up the as\lum for the year 1836, and u]) until I<"ebru- 
ary 9, 1837. amounted to one thousand seven hundred and nine dollars and 
forty-one cents. From February 9, 1837. until March 6. 1838. the total 
expense of the asylum was one thousand fort\- dollars and sixteen cents, of 
which amount Fayette county's ap]X)rtionment was three hundred and fortv- 
nine dollars and three cents. The su]ierintendents of the asylum while con- 
trollefl by the three counties, and in the order given, were Isaac Gardner, 
1836-40; W^illiam Rigg.sbee, 1840-44; ^^'illiam P.arnard, 1844-55: Thomas 
Curry, 1855-56; Samuel Henderson, 1856. 

This joint institution remained in operation fr)r t\vent\- \ears ( 1836-56), 
but by the latter year it was felt that better results could l)e obtained bv a 
separate asylum for each countv. Of course, during these two decades each 
county still extended relief to many ])oor within their re.spective counties who 



176 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

were not inmates of the asylum, Ijut no longer were the\- "farmed out" to 
the highest bidder. 

The report of the board of directors of the asylum to the county com- 
missioners of the three counties on March 3, 1856, the last report of the 
joint asylum, gives the following interesting .facts (the record from which 
this was taken is in the Franklin county court house at Brookville ) : 

Number admitted during ])ast }ear ( 1855 ) 47 

Number dismissed 24 

Number of deaths 8 

Number in asylum February 26, 1856 64 

Number from Franklin county 35 

Number from Fayette county 17 

Number from Union count}- 12 

During the winter and early spring of 1855-56 the commissioners of 
the three counties reached an agreement to dissolve the contract under which 
they had ijeen maintaining the joint asylum for the previous twenty years. 
The final settlement of the matter was made on June 12, 1856, the counties 
then entering into an agreement whereby they were to sell the entire prop- 
erty and prorate the proceeds, the land and liuildings being disposed of to 
private ]>arties. The counties were, howe\-er, to retain possession of the prop- 
ert\- until March 10, 1857, at which time the agreement was to go into efifect. 

In September, 1856, the commissioners of Fayette county purchased a 
portion of the present infirmary farm adjoining Connersville on the west and 
tit once contracted with Sherman .Scholield for the erection of a building to 
cost seven thousand dollars. It was a two-story brick building and was ready 
for occupancy in ,\ugust, 1857. The sixty years which have elapsed since 
the present site was chosen have seen the farm increased from time to time 
until it comprised one hundred and se\ent)--twc) acres, but some of it was 
later sold and at the present time it contains only one hundred and forty- 
acres. The building erected in 1856-57 continued in u.se until 1916, when the 
present beautiful structure was erected. The contract for the building was 
let June 16, IQT5, to S. F. Miller, a contractor of Connersville, for the sum 
of $2 1, 90)2.33. A bond issue of $22,200 was authorized to cover the cost 
of construction. The building was completed and occupied for the first time 
in January, 1916. 

There have Ijeen only nine superintendents of the asylum between 1857 
and 1917. the present incumbent of the office being Harry Smith, who was 
appointed by the county commissioners in 1914 for a term of four years at 



FAvi/rn-: county, Indiana. 177 

an auiuial salarv ui nine hundred dollars. The previous eight supcriiUend- 
ents served in tiic tulKiwini; order, the dates of tenure of the hrst five not 
heing given: William Custer, I'eter Reed, William Morse, Jacob Ridge, 
John B. Salver. J-".. .M. .McCreadx ii8S7-()7), J, M. .Sanders (1897-1906), 
and George .\. ( )stheinKT ( j<)o(>-i4). The salary in 1897 was fixed at six 
hundred dollars; in ujoh it was increased to seven hundred dollars; in 1914 
it was raised to nine hundred dollars. In ever\- instance the wife of the 
superintendent has served as matron. 

The last financial statement shtnved thai the receipts for i<>i6 were 
$i,046;6f), while the county still owed $17,2,^3.23 on the new building and its 
ecjuipment. The inmates vary in number from year to year, but there is 
usually a sufficient number of able-bodied men to take care of the farm. 
The last report (January 24. 1917) of the superintendent t;ives the number 
of inmates as follow: Six males, nine females and si.\ children. The chil- 
dren are held in tiic institution until they ma\' be placed in homes. 

IIOMH FOR nEPENDKNT CHILDREN. 

b'ayette county has never maintained a separate home for its dependent 
children. When the I^egislature passed the law in 1901 forbidding the keep- 
ing of children in the poor as\lnm, Fayette county decided to place its depend- 
ent cliildren in homes in other counties rather than erect a separate building 
for their housing. The law made ])rovision for such a procedure, it lieing 
very evident that many counties would not ba\e a sufficient number of 
dependent children to warrant the erection of a s])ecial building for their care. 
Vov a number of years the county contracted with .Mrs. .Marv -\. Cotton to 
keep the poor children in her own home. The general superxision of tlie 
children is placed in the hands of a count}' board of charities, ajipointed by 
the circuit judge. At the present time i 11)17) the county has contracts with 
the boards of charities in Delaware. .Miann' and Marion counties for the care 
of the dependent children of the county. The home in .Miami countv is 
located at Mexico, the homes in the other two counties l)eing at the county 
seats. 

F.WETTE CENTENNIAL MEMORIAL HOSPITAL. 

The historx- of the present city hospital of Connersville may be traced 
back more than eighteen years and during all of these years there has been 
some kind of an institution in the city that might be called a sanitarium 
which also did hospital work. In the nineties there came to Connersville 
Dr. D. D. McDougall, who o]iened a sanitarium on Central avenue l)etween 
(12) 



178 FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Fourth Street and Fifth street. He was not a regular practicing physician, 
but had been trained in a Battle Creek (Michigan) sanitarium and seemed 
to have been well qualified to conduct such an institution as he proposed. He 
made free use of electricity, massaging, baths and such treatments as are 
now associated with mechano-therapy. He installed electric machines as 
soon as their efficacy was demonstrated, and, if statements of persons treated 
by him are to be credited, he was well worthy of the extensive patronage he 
enjoyed. 

Doctor McDougall continued in charge of his private sanitarium until 
about 1903, when he associated himself with a group of Seventh-Day Ad- 
ventists, most of whom were non-residents of Connersville, in an association 
for the purpose of establishing a permanent sanitarium. A board of direc- 
tors was constituted to manage the institution, five of whom were members 
of the religious denomination, while the two remaining members were B. F. 
Thiebaud and E. D. Johnson, the idea of the promoters of the sanitarium 
being to establish an institution not only for members of the Seventh-Day 
Adventist church, but also for the public at large. Shortly after this second 
institution was put into operation the members of the church conceived the 
idea of making it the state Sanitarium for their church. 

With the idea of enlarging the institution and increasing its usefulness 
the directors jilanned to secure the present home of the Elmhurst School 
for Girls, when that buildino- was jjlaced on the market in [905. This effort. 
however, proved luisuccessful, tlie l)uilding finally lieing bid off by George B. 
Markle, and the Adventists at once gave up the idea of trying to make Con- 
nersville the home of their proposed state sanitarium. They abandoned the 
sanitarium in Connersville and selected Lafayette as the site for their insti- 
tution, and the second chapter in the Fayette sanitarium project thus came 
to an end. Soon after this change came. Doctor McDougall, who had l>een 
prominently identified with the sanitarium work in Conners\-ille for more than 
ten years, located in Cincinnati, where he is still engaged in sanitarium work. 

MOVEMENT FOR PUBLIC HOSPITAL. 

When the Seventh-Day Adventists left the city the local organization 
came to an abrupt end, but it was felt by the citizens that some provision 
must be made at once to provide some kind of a public hospital. Interested 
citizens took up the matter and the Commercial Club and others were induced 
to ask some one who was competent to manage such an institution to locate 
at Connersville. After considering the offers of several persons, arrange- 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 179 

ments were finally concluded with W. P. Schuster, a reputed sanitarium 
e.xpert, to superintend and conduct a sanitarium and iiospital in the former 
residence of E. W. Ansted. This building was rented from the owner by 
Mr. Schuster for the nominal sum of twenty-five dollars a month and the 
manufacturers of the city and the city council agreed to give five hundred 
dollars each, annuallw for charity purposes toward the maintenance of this 
institution. Schuster remained in charge only two years, disposing of his 
interests to the Sahli sisters, both of whom had lieen trained in sanitarium 
methods at Battle Creek. 

The Sahli sisters managed the instituticjii until March i, 1912, When 
they assumed control in 1907 the Commercial Club appointed an advisory 
board to assist in supervising the affairs of the hospital, the manufacturers 
and city, at the same time, agreeing to continue their annual appropriations 
of five hundred dollars each. During their regime the institution enjoyed a 
reasonably prosperous career and maintained a reputable standing for the 
character of its work. When the Sahli sisters decided to give up the work 
in the spring of kh-' the citizens of the city, under tlie leadershii) of the late 
Alvin E. Barrows, raised ;ibout one tliousand dollars liy snbscri])li()n to pur- 
chase their interest in sanitarium and hospital ap])aratus. The investment 
included the amount the\- had paid Schuster, together with such eritiipment 
as they had installed during their five years of cx-cupancy. The home of the 
hos])itai was still in the old .\nsted home, where it had been established in 
1905. Erom the time the .Seventh-Day .Adventists abandoned the sanitarium 
]jroject in Conners\-ille until the citizens jiurchased tlie entire sanitariniii and 
hospital outfit from the Sahli .Sifters in 1912, the institution was ;i ])ri\ate 
affair aided and ;!ssisteil liy tlie city council, tlie Commercial Club and the 
manufacturers of the city. 

FAYETTE SANITARIUM A.SSOCIATION. 

G. L. Brown, the present superintendent of the hospital, assumed 
charge on .March i, !()ij. He was appointed by representatives of the Com- 
mercial Club, the city council and the manufacturers, after making a thor- 
ough investigation as to his fitness for the position. Mr. Brown received 
his training in sanitarium and hospital methods in an Eastern institution 
where the Battle Creek sanitarium methods were employed. He had had 
extensive ex]3erience in managing hospitals and superintending nurses I)e- 
fore he took charge of the local instittuion in h)I_'. 

Tn 1914 the present association was perfected under the laws of the 
state. A charter was secured under an act by the 1909 Legislature, the 



1 



l8o FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

passage of which was largely due to the efforts of the citizens of Richmond, 
who were interested in securing aid for the maintenance of the Reid 
Memorial Hospital. This act provided that city councils and county com- 
missioners might make appropriations for charitable purposes to a hospital 
coming under this provision, the appropriation so granted to be used for the 
maintenance of any hospital in a county which might apply for aid. In 
compliance with this act the city council of Connersville appropriated five 
hundred dollars and the county commissioners fifteen hundred dollars 
annually for the support of the institution. 

The association is known as the Fayette Sanitarium Association. The 
directorate consisted originally of seven trustees, made up of a representative 
of each of the following organizations ; The Commercial Club, the 
I'^ayette Covmty Medical Society, the Masons, the Loyal Order of Moose, 
the Fraternal Order of Eagles, the city council and the county commis- 
sioners. Improvements were necessary for the buildings and E. W. Ansted 
proposed to deed the building and grounds to this association and accept 
five per cent, first-mortgage bonds for the consideration of the transfer. 
Mr. Ansted's proposition was accepted and the grounds and buildings be- 
came the property of the Fayette Sanitarium Association on November 
lo, 1914. 

I'Voni the time Mr. Brown took charge of the Fayette sanitarium it 
bid fair to liecome a popular and helpful instituti(jn for Connersville. At 
the end of two years of his management it was felt that a larger and more 
complete hospital must lie provided for the needs of Connersville, and in 
the latter part of 19 15 and early in 19 16 the demands became so pronounced 
tliat committees were ap])ointed to formulate plans to provide for more 
commodious and up-to-date quarters for Connersville's sick and unfortunate. 
Appeals were made to the county commissioners for appropriations for the 
building of a county hospital. Init owing to the large expenditure then 
being made for the new county infirmar}- this body felt they could not 
make such an appronriation. Not to lie daunted by the decision of the 
commissioners to assist the project, the hospital soliciting committee at 
once laid plans for a campaign to raise the necessary funds by public sub- 
scription. The campaign opened in Jime, 1916, but it was not until the 
latter part of that month that an event occurred which really put the cam- 
paign forcefulK- before the people of the county. 



FAYETTE COINTY, TNOIANA. l8l 



MR. ANSTED STARTS KAI 



It was on June 26. 1916, that the chairman nf the hospital committee 
received the following letter : 

Ml-, c. c. Hull, 

Ohiiinuiiii Hospital I'oniuiittee, City. 
You perliaps kuow I have long been interested in our present hospital and sani- 
tarium. In connection with the movement to appropriate funds for the erection of a 
new hospital 1 beg to advise that 1 will donate to the good of the cause all of the 
mortgage bonds that I hold on the Fayette sanit;iriuni. These bonds represent the 
full valuation of all buildings and two himdred tifty feet of ground on Virginia 
avenue. The only stipulation that I ask is that the citizens of Payette county raise 
in subscription the sum of thirty-six tliousand dollars. I feel that this is tJie least 
amount of money that you should have to carry the pro.1eot through in a creditJible 
way. This offer holds good until August 15. 1016. 

Yours truly. 

E. W. Anstkd. 

'{"he announcement of this mnnificenl i>;\h of tweKe thousand dollars' 
wortli of property by Mr. Ansted to the people of Fayette ■ county so 
inspired the soliciting committees that on July 5. the closing day of the 
centennial celebration of Indiana's statehood, the committee had pledges to 
the hospital fund to the amount of more than twenty thousand dollars and 
were ready to guarantee the fulfillment of the recpiirements of Mr. Ansted 
in the announcement of his gift. It was at eleven o'clock on July 5. 1916, 
that appropriate dedicatory services were held on the ground of the old 
Ansted homestead announcing the certainty of a splendid hospital for Con- 
nersville and Fayette county and naming it the Fayette Centennial 
Memorial Hospital. 

APPROPRI.\TE DEDICATORY CEREMONIES. 

It was at the above-mentioned time and place that a large number of 
Fayette county's citizens gathered to witness the brief but l>eautiful cere- 
monies attending the dedication of the hospital. E. P. Hawkins spoke of the 
magnitude of the gift and F. B. Ansted, son of E. W. Ansted, delivered 
to the hospital committee the bonds delivering the property free of debt. 
C. C. Hull, as chairman of the hospital committee, accepted the gift; 
B. F. Thiebaud accepting as chairman of the lx)ard of trustees for the hos- 
pital association, and Mrs. W. E. Ochiltree accepting in behalf of the 
women's associations of the city. The donor, E. W. Ansted, was present 



l82 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and was deeply ino'ed by the exercises, as he lieard the kindly and apprecia- 
tive expressions of his friends and neighbors. 

After the dedicatory services had been completed and Mr. Ansted had 
returned to his palatial home on Central avenue he was given an ovation by 
his neighbors and friends, who were so filled with gratitude toward him for 
his part in so great an enterprise that their feeling had to be manifested in 
outward expressions. 

From the time the hospital project assumed definite form to this time 
(February i, 1917) the subscription fund has steadily grown until it is 
now about forty thousand dollars. The centennial celebration committee 
donated nearly one thousand dollars to the fund, the amount left after all 
the expenses of the celebration were paid. The building committee has 
aiccepted plans and the work of constructing a magnificent hospital that 
will care for forty patients will soon be realized. This work was all made 
possible by the greatness of one man's soul and the ready response of the 
good people of Fayette county, for in this movement there is no community 
in all the county that has not liad a definite part in this benevolent enter- 
prise. 

Tt is in trutli and in deed the people's hospital — which is as Mr. .\nsted 
would have it. The man in the factory, the farmer, the merchant, the 
banker, the manufacturer, the man and woman of every walk and vocatipn 
f>f life, all ha\e done nobly in lending substantial aid to tiiis much needed 
institution. 

The main structure will cost forty thousand dollars; the interior fix- 
tures and equipment, seven thousand five hundred dollars. The women of 
the city and county, through their various organizations, propose to raise 
the means for the greater part of the interior fixtures and ec[uipment. The 
building is to be made of brick, trimmed with Bedford stone, and will have 
every advantage in the way of appointments shared by our most elaborate 
and up-to-date hospitals. Every foot of space will be utilized for some 
practical purpose, and the people of Connersville and Fayette county will 
have, in October, 1917, one of the most beautiful, useful and complete 
hospitals in the Hoosier state. 

POPULATION STATISTICS. 

I'axette county was organized about a year before the 1820 federal cen- 
sus was taken and consequently figured for the first time in the returns for 
that decade. There was a rapid influx of people into the territory now 



- FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 183 

included within the count) in the spring- and summer of 1819. In Octol>er, 
18 1 8. the United States government had bought all the central part of the 
state from the Indians and opened it ready for settlement, Fayette county 
being the first county organized out of a part of the "New Purchase." The 
1820 census returned a population of 3.950 for the county and each decade 
since year has shown an increase. The returns for the ten decades follow : 
1820, 3,950; 1830. g,ii_': 1840, 9,837: 1850, 10,217; i860, 10,225; 1870, 
10,476; 1880, 11.394; 1890, 12.630; 1900, 13.495; 1910, 14,415. 

The first censiis available which made returns by townships was in 1850. 
At that time Fairview township was not yet organized, its territory still being 
a part of Orange and Harrison townships. It first appears in the census 
of i860, and its org-anization out of Orange and Harrison partly explains the 
sharp decline in the population of Orange and Harrison townships in i860. 
.\ comparison of the population of the nine townships between 1850 and 
1910 reveals the fact that every one but one, Harrison, has suffered a decline. 
The small increase in Harrison is fully explained by the fact that the city of 
Connersville has extended its limits into it. In 1850 the rural ix>pulation 
(that is, the total outside of Connersville city) was 8,921 ; in 1910 it was only 
6,677, ^ decrease of 2,244. It is said that some of the townships in the 
county actually had a larger population in 1830 than they do today, but in 
the absence of .statistics this fact cannot be proved. The following talile 
exhibits the poi)ulation by townsliips from 1830 to 1880 : 

POPUI.ATIOX BY DECVDES, I85O-1880. 

1850 

C-olumbiii 88!) 

Connersville l.OC.T 

Connersville (City) 1.306 

F;iirview 

Harrison 1.544 

Jackson 1,284 

Everton 

Jennings 8'.i:{ 

Orange 1.12fi 

Posey 1.184 

Waterloo 883 

Total 10.217 10.22.-I ]0.4(i7 11.;51i-l 

The tabulated returns for the last three decades are shown in the follow- 
ing table : 



1800 


1870 


1880 


912 


020 


8o:i 


1,162 


1.211 


1.42.-! 


2,119 


2,400 


3.228 


662 


601 


030 


889 


867 


0!K) 


1,199 


1.037 


OSL' 


230 


140 




700 


8.3(i 


840 


701 


881 


812 


1,080 


047 


081 


651 


071 


ti72 



184 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

1890 1900 1910 

Total 12.630 13,495 14.4ir> 

Columbia township 65S 541 522 

Connersville township 1 1.518 891 90S 

Connersville township, including East Connersville town 
and wards 1 to 3 and part of ward 4 of Connersville 

city 6,524 7,700 S,(i()9 

Connersville city (part of) 4,548 6,313 7,(1.55 

Total for Connersville city in Connersville and 

Harrison townships 4,548 6,836 7.738 

East Connersville town 458 556 706 

Fairview township, including i)art of Glenwood town — .598 560 .506 

Glenwood town (part of) 8 

Total for Glenwood town in Fairview and Orange 
townships, Fayette county, and Union township. 

Rush county 260 

Harrison township, including part of ward 4 of Conners- 
ville city 1.119 1,280 1.567 

connersville city (part of) 523 (;.S3 

Jaclison towmship 841 789 7.52 

Jennings township 731 658 .593 

Orange township, including part of Glenwood town 751 646 ()3!l 

Glenwood town (part of) 41 

Posey township 861 750 72S 

Waterloo township 547 511 43!) 

Of the total population of 14,415 in igio, 7,130 were white males and 
6,824 white females; 210 colored males and 230 colored females; and one 
Chinese. Practically all were native-born citizens, only 363 being returned 
as foreign-born. The total population was made up of 3,761 families, occupy- 
ing 3,647 dwellings. 

NATURALI2.\TION OF FOUF.IGNERS IN FAYETTE COUNTY. 

The population of Fayette county includes very few citizens of foreign 
birth. The extensive manufacturing interests of Conuet^4He have not 
attracted the foreign element as has been the case in so many other cities of 
the state, the owners preferring native Americans to the illiterate workman 
from foreign shores. The few foreigners in the county are a good, sub- 
stantial class of citizens and make a valuable acquisition to the citizenry of 
the countv. A sttidy of the naturalization records of the county discloses 
the fact that since 1904 there have been only twenty-four citizens who have 
become naturalized, and most of these were in presidential election years. 
In 1904 there were eight and there were no more until 1908. In the laitter 



- FAYrTTK CorXTY, INDIANA. 185 

)'ear there were six wIki declared their intentitm nl" hecdiiiin.o- citizens, lliereb\- 
allowing them the right to vote. l)iit onl\ one who became a full-Hedged 
citizen. Since ic^oS the reconl stands as follows: 19OQ — First papers, 3; 
full citizenship, i. i<)io — I irst jiapers, 2: full citizenship, 2. 191 1 — First 
papers, 12; full citizenship. 1 _>. kjij — First papers, 7; full citizenship, o. 
1913 — First papers, 5; full citizensiiip. _>. 1Q14 — First papers. 4; full citizen- 
ship, I. T015 — First i)ai)ers. i; full citizenship, 3. 1916 — First papers. 8; 
full citizenship, i. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Ol-KICIAL ROSTKR OF FaYKTTE CoUNTY. 

The first official on the records in the office of secretary of state at Indi- 
anapolis which is credited to Fayette count}- is that of justice of peace. For 
some reason, and presumably because it was known that the county was just 
about to be organized, Governor Jennings issued a commission as justice of 
peace to Richard Tyner on J^ecember 25. 1818, although it was not until 
three days later that the General Assembly passed the act creating the county. 
I'>om that date there is a record of most of the county officials on file in the 
secretary of state's office. The commissions of all justices of peace are also 
on file, because the office is provided by the Constitution. For the purpose 
of preserving to the peo])le of Fayette county this record from the secretary 
of state's office the full record up to 1852 (the period of the 1816 Constitu- 
tion) has been copied and is given verbatim. There is also an occasional 
entry of court matters and they are likewise given. 

In many cases it is imjiossible to decipher the names: in other instances 
there is no indication as to when the officer was to assume the office for 
Avhich he was commissioned ; in still other instances it is impossible to tell 
whether an appointee is following a deceased, resigned or removed official. 
The first record on Fayette comity is the commissioning of a justice of the 
peace on December 25, 1818. three days before the bill for the creation of 
the count}' was signed by the governor. The record is given by years. 

1818. 

December 25 — Richard Tyner. justice of peace. 

December 30 — John Conner, sheriff, to ser\-e until his successor is elected 
and qualified. 

December 30 — Jonathan John, coroner, to ser\e imtil his successor is 
elected and qualified. 

J819. 

February 2 — Jonathan AlcCarty, clerk. 
February 2 — Joseph C. Reed, recorder. 
February 2 — Train Caldwell, associate judge. 



.\yv:ttk county, Indiana. 187 



February _' — Kdwanl \\el)l). associate judge. 
March 5 — James Leviston, surveyor. 
-\pril 17 — John I'errin. justice of peace. 
April 17 — FMelding Ilazehigg, justice of peace. 
April 17 — James Webster, justice of peace. 
April 17 — John Conner, justice of peace. 
April 17 — Joseph Rell, justice of |)eace. 
April 17 — David Wilson, justice of peace. 
April 17 — -Joseph Hawkins, justice of peace. 
April 17 — Ephraim Reed, justice oi peace. 
April 17 — John Sleetii. justice of peace. 
April 17 — .'\nthon\' iunby, justice of peace. 



i2o. 



February 13 — John M. Wilson, sheriff, vice John Conner, resigned. 

April IT — lulmund Harrison, justice of peace. 

August i<y — William Helm, justice of ]ieace, vice James Webster. 

September 7 — John .\1. Wilson, sheriff. 

October 11 — Thomas I. Larrimore, justice of peace. 

October 1 i — l''li Keiicli, justice of peace. 

1821. 

March 23 — William Helm, associate judge, vice Train Caldwell. 

April 17 — Moses l-"ay, justice of peace. 

April 17— -Wilson Wadons ( ?), justice of peace. 

May 25 — William Logan, trustee nf public seminary fund. 

On May 25. 1S21, an entry reads: "h'ull and complete pardon granted 
to Henry Myers of b'ayette County sentenced by the Honble the Circuit 
Court of said county at their March term, 1821, to receive one stripe on 
his bare back, also the fine of $9.75. Remitted. T.arceny." 

July 9 — Thomas Hinkston, survex or. 

September 7 — Jonathan McCarty, recorder, vice J. C, Reed. 

September 7 — Daniel Skinner, justice of ])eace. 

September 7 — Thomas I'atton. justice of peace, vice Joseph lieli. 

September 7 — David Xohle, justice of peace, vice D. Wilson. 

September 12 — Jonathan .McCarty, recorder, vice J. C. Reed (second 
commission. ) 

September 12 — John Sample, coroner. 



l88 FAYETTE C0I;NTY, INDIANA. 

On September u, 182 1, an entry reads: "Fine of $200 inflicted on 
Sniitli ik Kidd by the Honble the Circuit Court for the County of Fayette 
on a recoi^nizance for the appearance of John Harris. Remitted." 

1822. 

June 19 — Samuel Fuller, justice 01 peace. 

June 19 — Isaac Thomas, justice of peace. 

Au.sjust 26 — Samuel Fuller, justice of peace, (second commission.) 

September it — John M. Wilson, sherifif. 

November 26 — William lulwards, justice of peace. 

November 26 — John Royd, justice of peace. 

Noveml)er 26 — John Davidson, justice of peace. 

1823. 

April 18 — James Buchanan, justice of peace. 

June i,^ — William AlcC^ann, justice of peace. 

June ] T, — Manlove Caldwell, justice of peace. 

C^n July 8, 1823. an entry reads: "AVhereas. judgment was rendered 
against John Adair and James Adair, Sr., in the sum of $1,000 on a recog- 
nizance for the ajJiiearance of James Adair, Jr., at the term of 

the Fayette Circuit Court (1820) charged with larceny. $900 thereof 
remitted." 

September ]o — John Samjjle, coroner. 

December 23 —Thomas S. Francis, trustee of public seminary fund. 

1824. 

Ma}' 17 — Henry 7'hornburg, justice of peace. 

July 26 — Marks Crume, justice of peace. 

July 26 — Justus Wright, justice of peace. 

July 26- — Robert D. Helm, ju.stice of peace. 

July 26 — Joseph Hawkins, justice of peace. 

July 26 — Jacob Goodlander, justice of peace. 

July 26 — Jonathan Hougham ( ?), justice of peace. 

Jul}' 26 — James t'urnutt ( ?), justice of peace. 

July 26 — Daniel Nolea ( ?), justice of peace. 

July 26 — Wil-son W. Adams (?), justice of peace. 

August 2T,- — Willia:iTi Caldwell, sherifif. 



FAVETTF. COUXTV, INDIANA. 



[825. 



March 8 — William Arnold, justice of ixface. 

March 8 — Gabriel Ginn. justice of peace. 

July 14 — Triplet Lockhart, justice of peace. 

Septeml)€r 14 — John Milner, coroner. 

December u — I'dward Webb, associate judo;e. to serve se\en years fnun 
February 2, 182(5. 

December 12 — James l')ro\\nlee, associate jud^e, to serve se\en years 
from Fel)ruar\- 2. 1826. 

December 12 — Jonathan McG.irty. clerk, to serve seven years from 
February 2, 1826. 

December 12 — Jonathan Mc('arty. recorder, to ser\-e seven years from 
February 2. 1826 I the two olnces were combined in I'ayette as in many other 
counties in the state, i 

December 2q — Thomas Aloflitt. jn.stice of ])eace. 

December 29 — John Gonner. justice of peace. 

1826. 

April 22 — Aloses h'a\-. justice of ])eace. 
.Vpril 22 — Jacob Shinkle ( ?), justice of peace. 
July 24 — Samuel Loi^an, justice of peace. 
August 27 — AV'illiam Gakhvell. sheriiT. 
September 24 — Thomas liinkstnn. survexor. 

1827. 

March 7 — Daniel .Skinner, justice of |>eace. 

?^Iarch 7 — Elijah Gorbin, justice of peace. 

July 21 — Writ issued for an election on first .Saturday of .Septeml)er, 
1827. to fill vacancy in office of associate judge caused by death of James 
Brownlee. 

Xo\'ember i — .\brahani T!oys. coroner. 

-Vovemlier 1 — \\'illiam Miller, associate judge, to serve seven years from 
F'ebruar\- 2, 1826. 

1828. 

Feliruary 22 — .\\ery Clates, justice f)f jjcace. 

.Vpril .:; — Writ issued for an election on fir.st Monday of August, 1828. 
to fill vacancy in office of clerk caused by resignation of Jonathan McCarty. 



igO FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

June 1 7 — Second order for election ordered on April 2. 

June 28 — Manlove Caldwell, justice of peace. 

June 28 — John Treadwa}-, justice of peace. 

June 28 — Horatio Mason, justice of peace. 

June 28 — Samuel Hutchings, justice of peace. 

June 28 — Joseph Noble, justice of peace. 

August 26— Robert D. Helm, sheriff. 

August 26 — William Caldwell, clerk. 

August 26 — L)-mder ( ?) Carpenter, justice of peace. 

1820. 

January 6 — \Vrit issued for an election on last Saturday of February, 
1829, to vacancy in office of recorder, caused by the resignation of Jonathan 
McCarty. 

March 18 — Second writ for election for recorder issued; mistake in 
making returns of election : two iiighest candidates agreed to a second elec- 
tion rather than contest first one. 

May 1 1 — John Tate, recorder. 

June 29 — Jacob Goodlander, justice of i>eace. 

June 29 — Joseph Hawkins, justice of peace. 

June 29 — Maiuhias Dawson, justice of peace. 

August 18- -Philip Mason, probate judge. 

August 18 — Robert Miller, coroner. 

18.30. 

September 8 — Gabriel Ginn, sheriff. 

October 2 — George H. Cook, justice of peace. 

October 2 — John Swayzee, justice of peace. 

1831. 

March 7 — Thomas Moffitt, justice of peace. • 

March 7 — John Davison, justice of peace. 

^lay 24 — Moses F"a}-, justice of peace. 

September 22 — George L. Fearis, coroner. 

(October 28 — Joseph D. Thompson, justice of peace. 

October 28 — John Loder, justice of peace. 

November 2 — Thomas Grewell ( ?), justice of peace. 

December 2_^ — Moses \Villiamson, justice of peace. ' 



FAYETTE COl^NTY, INDIANA. I9I 

1832. 

April 23 — Ebenezer Heatdii. justice of peace. 
April 23 — \\'i]liani Beckett, ju.-;tice oi peace. 
Aiio;iist 23 — (lahriel (linn, clerk, tn serve seven years from I""el)ruary 2. 

.August 23-— l'~(l\\ard W'elil). as>ociate juclge, to serve seven years from 
February 2, 1S33. 

.\ugusl 22, — John Treadway. .associate judge, to ser\-e seven years from 
February 2. 1833. 

.August 23— \Villiam Dickey, sheriff. 

Octol>er 24 — James Hacklenian. justice of peace. 

October 24 — Isaac Afedcalf ( ?). justice of peace. 

October 24 — Daniel .Skinner, justice of ]ieace. 

1833. 
June 20 — Jonathan Shields, justice of peace. 
July 2~i — Horatio Alason, justice of peace. 

August 22 — George I.. Fearis, coroner, to serve two vears from .August 
5. 1833.' 

December Kj— James C. Ross, justice of (x-ace. 

T834. 
April 28 — Micajah Jackson, justice of peace. 
Alay 26 — i'hilip Mason filed resignation as [irobate judge. 
June 8 — F.lisha \ance. justice of peace. 
Julv 12 — Collin liannister, justice of jieace. 
July 12 — James C. Rea, justice of peace. 

August 8 — Justus Wright, ])r()bate judge from .\ugust 4, 1834. 
.\ugiist T5 -John Willey. sherifl'. 



January 28 — William 11. ('oomlis. notary public (first commission of 
notary public. ) 

February 27, — (ieorge l)a^•is. justice of peace. 
.\ugust 22 — John Tate, rec(;rder from Ma)' ti, 1836. 
August 22 — George L. l-'earis, coroner. 
October 24 — George K. Cook, justice of ])eace. 



192 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

1836. 

March 5 — John Hillis, justice of peace. 

March 25 — John Conner, justice of peace. 

March 25 — Thomas Moffitt, justice of peace. 

August 29 — John Willey, sheriff'. 

October 3 — Isaac Le\'iston, justice of peace. 

October 24 — James M. Conner, justice of peace. 

November 26 — Joseph I). Thompson, justice f)f peace. 

1837. 

A]jril- 18 — John Treadway tiled resignation as associate judge. 

May 5 — El:)enezer Heaton, justice of peace. 

3Tay 25 — Benjamin Caldwell, justice of peace. 

May 2C, — David Wilson, justice of peace. 

June 2^^ — George Talbott, justice of peace. 

June 2T, — Stanhope l^oyster, associate judge, to ser\-e seven years from 
Februar}' 2, 1832; \ice John Tread\va\-, resigned, l:)ut Royster served until 
l-'ebruary 2, 1840. 

.\ugnst 12 — \Villiam Tullex', coroner. 

1838. 

January 20 — Ivubert S. Cox, notar}- public. 

A'larch 7 — Risden L^ord, justice of peace. 

June 6 — Jonathan .Shields, justice of peace. 

Jul}" 2JI, — Mordecai Millard, justice of peace. 

August 14 — Thomas Tines, sheriff, vice John \Villey, resigned. 

August 20— Horatio Mason, justice of peace. 

September 20 — John Scott, justice of peace. 

December 13 — John Mclvankey ( ?), justice of i>eace. 

1839- 
I'"ebruary 21 — John Burk, justice of peace. 
April II — Isaac Ivay, justice of peace. 
April II — William Cook, justice of peace. 
June 18 — Elisha Vance, justice of peace. 

July 10 — JMartilla Remington, justice of ])eace, vice R. Ford, resigned. 
July 24 — James C. Rea, justice of peace. 




,^ATER RIVER. LOOKING NORTH FROM EAST CONNERSVILLE BRIDGE. 




WINTER SCENE NEAR LONGWOOD. 



FAYiiTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. I93 

July 24 — Collin B;innister, justice of peace. 

AugTist 17 — Gabriel Ginn, clerk, to serve seven years from February 2, 
1840. 

August 17 — jereniiab A, Wilson, associate judge, to serve seven years 
from February 2, 1840. 

August 17 — I'xUvarcl \\''el)l), associate judge, to serve seven years from 
February 2, 1840. 

August 17 — William Tulley, coroner. 

December 4 — Edwin F. Gabriel, notary public. 

1840. 

April 27 — Calvin Smitb, justice of peace. 

August 17 — Thomas TJnes, sheriff. 

August 17 — Ephraim Turner, justice of peace. 

Novemljer 25 — Henry Beitzel, coroner, vice Tulley removed. 

December 8 — Edward White, justice of peace. 

1841. 

May 10 — Zimri Utter, justice of peace. 

May 10 — William Freeman, justice of peace. 

July 14 — James Tuttle, justice of peace. 

.August 1 1- — Henrv Beitzel, coroner, to serve two vears from August 
2, 1841.' 

August 23 — Justus Wright, probate judge, to serve seven years from 
August 4, 1841. 

1842. 

January 20 — Joshua ATcIntosh, apix)inted sheriff vice Thomas Lines, 
resigned. 

February 10 — Jared P. Tharp, coroner, vice H. Beitzel, resigned. 

July 13 — Israel W'. Bonham, justice of peace. 

July 13 — William Hart, justice of peace. 

July 13 — Jonathan \'each, justice of peace. 

.Vugust 9 — William 'W. .Smith, sheriff, to ser\'e two vears from August 
I. 1842. 

August C) — Henry Beitzel, coroner, to serve two vears from August 
I, 1842.^ 

(13) ... 



194 FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

August 9 — John Tate, recorder, to serve seven years from May ii, 
1843. 

September 23 — David Wilson, justice of peace. 

October 19 — William Hart's commission returned, he having failed to 
qualify. ' 

October 20 — Enoch Applegate, justice of peace. 

Noveber 24 — William Robinson, justice of peace. 

1843- 
February 23 — William L. Spooner, notary public. 
March 23 — Lewis C. Fouts, notary public. 
August 4 — Jonathan Shields, justice of peace. 

August 15 — George W. Ginn, clerk, to serve seven years from Februarj^ 
2, 1840, vice Gabriel Ginn, deceased. 

September 14 — Forest Webb, justice of peace. 
Octol)er 20 — John Scott, justice of peace. 

1844. 
January 13 — ^John McConkey, justice of peace. 
January 17 — EHjah Corbin, justice of peace. 
March 28 — Jacob W. Blew, justice of peace. 
May 24 — Mirtilla Remington, justice of peace. 
July 17 — ^Joseph Justice, justice of peace. 
August 17 — William M. Smith, sheriff. 
August 17 — Henry Beitzel, coroner. 
August 23 — Charles M. Stone, justice of peace. 
August 23 — Charles Williams, justice of peace. 
October 8 — Robert G. Hedrick, notary public. 
December 11 — William Conner, justice of peace. 

1845. 

March 15 — John I. Burk, justice of peace. 

May 19 — Thomas I. Crister, justice of peace. 

August 18 — Amos R. Edwards, clerk, to serve seven years from 
February 2, 1840. 

August 18 — Thomas P. Silvey, coroner, to serve two years from date. 

October 16 — Ephraim Turner, justice of i>eace, to serve five years from 
date. 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. I95 

Octolier 22 — James JNl. Green, justice of peace, to serve five years from 
date. 

December lo — T-ouis C. Fonts, appointed recorder, vice Joiin Tate, 
deceased. ' 

1846. 

January 12 — Thomas Dill, notary public, to sen'e five years from date. 

March 17 — Jacob B. Powers, justice of peace, to serve five years frortx 
date. 

.\pril 1 1 — Lewis B. Tupper, notary public, to serve five years from 
date. 

April 25 — Ellis R. Lake, justice of peace, to serve five years from May 
10, 1846. 

April 25 — William Freeman, justice of jieace, to serve five years from 
May 10, 1846. 

July 17 — Zimri Utter, justice of peace, to serve five years from date. 

.Vugust 18 — John Scott, associate judg-e. to serve two years from Febru- 
ary 2, 1847. 

August 18 — Joshua Mcintosh, associate judge, to serve two years from 
February 2, 1847. 

August 18 — ^^loseph Tate, recorder, to serve seven years from date. 

August 18 — Amos R. F^dwards. clerk, to serve seven years from Febru- 
ary 2, 1847. 

August 18 — Joseph H. Clark, sherifif. to serve two years from date. 

August 18 — James Beard, coroner, to serve two years from date. 

September 26 — Richard Nash, justice of peace, to serve five years from 
date. 

1847. 

July 30 — George Woodberry. justice of peace, resigned May i, 1851. 
August 19 — Wilson Limpus. coroner, to serve two years from date. 
August 30 — Israel \\ . Conham, justice of peace. 
December 4 — William A. H. Tate, justice of peace. 
December 17 — Richard R. Nuzam. justice of peace. 

T848. 

January 17 — A\'illiam Roljinson. justice of j)eace. 

F'ebruary i — Joseph Forr\-. justice of peace, died prior to August 7, 
1849. 



.196 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

April 18 — Jonathan Shields, justice of peace. 

August 24 — Joseph H. Clark, sheriff, to serve two years from date. 

August 24 — Wilson Limpus, coroner, to serve two years from date. 

August 24 — William S. Burrows, prosecuting attorney, to serve three 
years from August 2"/, 1848. (This is the only prosecuting attorney ever 
elected in the county ; he performed the duties of the circuit prosecutor, but 
was in reality only a county prosecutor.) 

August 24 — Justus Wright, probate judge, to serve seven years from 
date. 

October 2j — -Caleb E. Clements, justice of peace. 

1849. 

April 16 — ^John McConkey, justice of peace. 

April 16 — Martillo Remington, justice of peace, failed to qualify. 

April 16 — James Beard, justice of peace. 

April 16 — Charles M. Stone, justice of peace. 

April 16 — Collin Bannister, justice of peace. 

April 16 — William Conner, justice of peace, successor elected February 
9, 1850. 

July 3 — Writ issued for election of coroner; vice Wilson Limpus, 
resigned. 

July 16 — Solomon Maker, notary public. 

August 15 — Daniel Welty, notary public. 

August 1 7 — Josiah Mullikin ( ? ) , coroner, to serve two vears from 
date; resigned June 12, 1852. 

December 22 — William H. Thomas, justice of peace. 

December 22 — Amos Chapman, justice of peace. 

December 22 — James C. Rea, justice of peace. 

1850. 

February 23 — Archibald F. Martin, justice of peace. 
April 19 — Joseph \i. Sutcliff, justice of peace, refused to qualify. 
April 19 — David Wilson, justice of peace, resigned November 17, 1851. 
April 19 — James M. Green, justice of peace. 

August 21 — Lewis W. i\lcCormick, sheriff, to serve two vears from 
August 24, 1850. 

August 21 — Abraham Boys, coroner, to serve two years from date. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. I97 



April 25 — Henry O'Brient ( ?), justice of peace. 

April 25 — James AI. Cockefair, justice of peace. 

April 25 — William Freeman, justice of peace. 

April 25 — James Limpus, justice of peace. 

April 25 — Lorenzo D. Springer, justice of peace. 

May 15— Alexander W. Lemon, justice of peace. 

June 13 — Alexander Matney, justice of peace. 

October 22 — Joseph P. Daniels, justice of peace. 

October 22 — David Rawls, coroner, to serve two years from date. 

1852. 

Januar\- \6 — Thomas T. Courtne\-, justice of peace, to serve four years 
from date. 

January 21 — John Sprintjer, justice of peace, to serve four years from 
date. 

April 2J — Samuel Herron, notary public. 

April 22 — Lewis D. \llen, notary public. 

April 23 — William A. H. Tate, justice of peace. 

April 23 — Moore King, justice of peace. 

.\pril 2T, — Moses Greer, justice of peace. 

.\pril 23 — Raney Gillum, justice of peace. 

October-25 — Zimri Litter, justice of i>eace. 

October 28^ — Joseph T. Tate, recorder, to serve four vears from August 
18, 1853, 

Octol>er 2h' — Lalvin McClain, coroner, to serve two vears from October 
12, 1852. 

Novemlier 17 — Thomas E. McConnell, justice of peace. 

November 17 — Linville Ferguson, justice of peace. 

Noveml)er 23 — William H. Reck, trejisurer. to serve two years from 
September 3, 1853. 

Novemlier 23 — William Frwin. surveyor, to serve two years from the 
cx])iration of the term of the present incumbent. ( No commissions for sur- 
veyor are on record in the office of the secretary of state from September 
24, 1826, and November 2^, 18^2.) " '■' 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



t853- 



February 17 — Benjamin F. Claypool, notary public. 
March 29 — John H. Ray, justice of peace. 
April 18 — John Beck, justice of peace. 
April 18 — James Hamilton, justice of peace. 
April 25 — William Newkirk, notary public. 
September 20 — E. M. \'ance, notary public. 

November 8 — Amos R. Rdwards, clerk, to serve four years from Febru- 
ary 2, 1854. 

November 8 — Henry Morris, surveyor, to serve until December 31, 1854. 
November 11 — William M. Smith, notary public. 
December 12 — Ezra Perrin, notary public. 
December 19— Joseph Marshall, notary public. 

The succeeding pages list the county officials in groups, giving their 
respective years of service. It will be noticed that up to 1901 there is no 
uniformity in the time their terms begin, but that after 1901 all terms except 
that of recorder begin on January i. The legislative act of March 11, 1901, 
provided that the county auditor, clerk, sheriff, recorder, prosecuting attornev, 
assessor, coroner, surveyor and county commissioners should begin their 
term of office on January i, 1902, following the term of office of the present 
incumbent. I'he circuit, probate, associate and common pleas judges and 
prosecuting and common pleas attorneys are not given in this connection, but 
may be found in the chapter on the bench and bar of the county. The county 
superintendents of schools are listerl in the chapter on education. 

CLERKS OF CIRCUIT COURT. 

The clerk of the circuit court under the 1816 Constitution had a seven- 
year tenure and the length of the term remained unchanged until 1852, when 
it was made four years. In the early history of the county the clerk also 
performed the duties later assigned to the recorder by the act of 1841. In 
the entire history of the county there have been only two Democratic clerks, 
James G. T. Veach and \A^illiam Reeder, the present incumbent. In the 
November, 1914, election the vote lor clerk was very close, the first count 
giving .\mbrose Elliott the office by a majority of three over William 
Reeder. The election was contested and his opponent, William Reeder. was 
declared elected. The complete list of clerks since 1819 follows: 

Jonathan McCarty, February 2. i8iq, resigned April 3, 1828. 







!•' \YFT' 


IK rnrNTY, Indiana. 


William fa 


Idwtll. 


\llgUsl 


Jo. 1X2X — l'"ehniary 


(iahriel (iin 


n. f'ch 


rnaiy J. 


183J. tiied in office, 


(leoro-e W . 


' 'liiin. 


Au.i^ust 


13, i84_:; — August 18 



199 

1843. 
18. 1845. 

Anids K. lulwanlN Vugusl 18. 1845— I'ehruary _', 1858. 
fimfucius I'.. I'.dwards. I'eliruary 2. 1858 — ]'"ebruary J. 1866. 
(jilbert Trusler, I'ehruary 2, 1866 — November 2. 1874. 
James C. T. Veacli. Xo\eniber j, 1874 — Novemlier 2, 1878. 
Xelson T. Barnard. November 2, 1878. removed January 31. 1881. 
Tbomas Al. Little, appointed January 31, 1881 — November r.^, i8()o. 
James M. Mcintosh, November 13, 1890 — November 13. 1894. 
Miles K. Moffett, Novemlier 13, 1894, resioued May 22. 1898. 
\\'illiani F. Downs, appointed ^[ay 22. i8(;8. died in office, Marcli, 1905. 
All)ert I .. Clirisnian, apjxiintcd l\[arch J4. 11)05 — JcHiuary 1, 1907. 
W. '■'.. Sparks, janu.iry 1. 11)07 — January 1, 191 5. 

Ambrose I'dliott. januar\- I, i')i5, rcninved as result of contested elec- 
lidu, March 10. 11)13. 

William Reeder. March \o. 1015. 

TRKASUKERS. 

The office of Cdunty treasurer was hlled by api)ointment at the hands 
of the county commissiiniers under the 1816 Constitution, that is, from 1819 
t'l 1 832. I'onseipiently, there is no record of their \ears of service in the 
office of secretary of state. The treasurers during this period were as fol- 
lows: Newton Clay])ool, 1810-24; Samuel Vance, 1824-25; Abraham W. 
Harrison. 1826-27; Gabriel Ginn, 1827-28; George Davis, 1828-29; Larkin 
Sims, 1829-31: Henry Goodlander, 1831-47: William M. Smith, 1847-50; 
Joseph Clark. 1850-53. Heginning with 1853 the record has been taken from 
the commissions in the office id" the secretary (if state. W. II. Beck and 
Hen Ccile, the recent incumbent, are the onl\- Democrats elected under the 
])resent Constitution. The list <if treasurers since 1853 follows: 

Willi.im H. Beck. September 3. 1853 — September 3, 1859. 

loseph T. Tate, September 3. 1859 — September 3, 1861. 

William Watton, Sei)tember 3. 1861 — September 3. 1863. 

Alfred B. Gates. Se])tember 3. 18^^13 — Septemljer 3, 1865. 

James K. Rhodes, Se])tenil)er 3, 1865 — September 3, i86g. 

William Cotton, September 3, 1869 — September 3, 1873. 

George M. Nelson. September 3. 1873 — September 3. 1877. 

James D. Henr\, Se])tember 3, 1877 — September 3, 1881. 



200 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Robert Utter, September 3, 1881 — September 3. 1885. 
Preston H. Kensler, September 3, 1885 — September 3, 1889. 
William N. Young, September 3, 1889 — September 3, 1893. 
Benjamin F. Thiebaud, September 3, 1893 — September 3, 1897. 
Simon Ostheimer, September 3, 1897 — January i, 1902. 
Florance R. Beeson, January i, 1902 — January i, 1906. 
Samuel E. DeHaven, January i, 1906 — January i, 1910. 
William G. Starr, January i, 1910, died in office, January 6, 1910. 
Monroe A. Starr, appointed January 7, 19 10- — January i, 191 5. 
Ben W. Cole, January i, 1915 — January i, 1917. 
E. Clyde Masters, January i, to 17. 

RECORDERS. 

The office of recorder has been in existence from the beginning of the 
county's history. Under the old Constitution the tenure was seven years 
and one incumbent, John Tate, served continuously from 1829 until his 
death in 1845. Although the legislative act of 1901 specifically provided 
that the term of county officials should begin on January i, the office of 
recorder in Fayette county is an exception to the act. The complete list of 
recorders since the organization of the county is as follow : 

Joseph t'. Reed, February 2, 181*9, resigned, 1821. 

Jonathan McCartv, appointed September 7, 1821, resigned 'January 6, 
1829; 

John Tate, appointed May 11, 1829. died in office, 1845. 

Louis C. Fonts, appointed Decemlier to, 1845 — .\ugust 18, 1846. 

Joseph Tate, August 18, 1846 — .\ugust 18, 1857. / 

James K. Rhodes, August 18, 1857 — August 18, 1865. I 

Daniel Rench, .Vugust 18, 1865. resigned March, 1872. 

Charles E. Smith, appointed March 29, 1872 — October 28, 1872. 

Charles B. Sanders, October 28, 1872— October 28, 1880. 

William N. Young, October 28, 1880— October 28,, 1888. 

Fremont Cliftord, October 28. 1888— October 28. 1896. 

Jacob Ridge, October 28, 1896 — January i, 1905. 

Charles H. Smith, January i, 1005 — October 28, 1912 

William J. Cain, October 28. 1912 — term expires October 28, 1920. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, 



A aimplete list of the o unity surveyors has not )>een found eillier in 
the records in the office of the secretary of state or in the local county 
records. It appears that Thomas Hinkston served after 1828, but the official 
records coverin,ij the period from i8_'8 to 1852 have not been found, although 
the commission of William I'Lrwin in 1852 says that he was "to serve two 
years from the exj^iration of term of present incumbent." The name of this 
"present incuml>ent" does not appear. 

James Leviston, March 5. i8ig — July 9, 1821. 

Thomas Hinkston, July <), 1821 — September 24, 1828. 

(No commissions found between September 24, 1826, and November 
23, 1852.) 

W-illiam b>win. commissioned .\'o\ember 23. 1852, "to serve two years 
from expiration of term nf present incumljent." 

Henr\' Morris, November 8, 1853 — December 31, 1858. 

AVilliam Erwin. December 31, 183S — December 31, 1862. 

Elihu W. Shrader, December 31, 1862 — December, 1864. 

James Harrell. Decemlier, 1864 — (Jctober 26, 1865. 

Rlihu W. Shrader, October 26. 1865. resigned l-'ebruary, 1869. 

Michael 11. O'Toole, appointed March 4, 1869 — October 24, 1870. 

Charles 1\. Williams, (October 24, 1870 — November 2. 1874. 

Edwin I^llis, November 2, 1874, resigned January, 1877. 

Michael 11. ()"Tiiole, appointed January 25, 1877 — November 2, 1880. 

Oliver W.'. .Morris, ?s^ovember 2, 1880 — December 2^, 1880. 

John Z. I'errin. api)ointed Deceml>er 2^. 1880 — November 13, 1884. 

Charles ]<. Williams, Nox cniber 13, 1884 — November 13, 1892. 

Roy Williams, .November 13. 1802 — November 13. 1898. 

Charles \\'illiams, Jr.. NoxemlxT 13, 1898 — Januar\- i. T(;o5. 

Karl L. Hanson, January i, 1905 — Januar\- 1, 1913. 

Paul F. Carlos, January i, 1913, failed to (|ualify. 

\\'illiam J. Little. January i, 1915. resigned March i, 1916. 

Robert J. Greenwood. a]ipointecl March i, 1976 — Januarv i, 1917. 

Plarry M. Grififin. January i, 19 17. 

Paul J. Carlos was commissioned to take the office on January i, ic;i3, 
but failed to fpialify and Hanson continued in office until Januarv i, 191 v 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIAN/ 



AUDITORS. 



The office of county auditor was not in existence in I-'ayette county 
for several years after the counts- was organized, the duties later assigned 
to the office being transacted lay the other county officials, most of them 
.being in the hands of the clerk of the circuit court. Under the 1816 Con- 
stitution there was no uniformit\' in the transaction of county affairs, the 
Legislature pro\iding for one set of officers for one county and another for 
other counties, li was not until 1S41 that the Legislature provided for an 
auditor for l''a\ette cnunty, the lirst incumbent being Daniel Rench, an old 
newspaper mrui. He ser\ed from 1841 tn 1852, at which time Job Stout 
was elected. The first commission of Stout on record in the office of the 
secretary of state bears the date of November 1, 1855. The complete list 
of auditors since that time, together with their respective tenures follows: 

Job Stout, November i, 1855 — November i, 1859. 

James P^lliott, November i, 1859 — November i, 1867. 

\Villiam H. Green, November i, 1867 — November 2, 1875. 

Charles R. Williams. Noxember 2, 1875 — No\ember i, 1883. 

John \V. Payne, November t, 1883 — Noxember i, 1891. 

James Backhouse, November r, t8qi — November i, 1895. 

Homer M. Broaddus. Nxvvember 1, 1895, ^''^d in office July 2t,. 1903. 

Richard E. McClure, appointed July 2y. 1903 — January i, 1904. 

John W. Ross, January i, 1904 — Januar}- 1, 1908. 

Jasper L. Kennedy, January i, 1908 — Januar}- i, 1916. 

Glenn Zell, Januar)- i, 1916, term exjiires January i, 1920. 

COUNTY ASSE.SSORS. 

The office of county assessor as now established dates only from 1891, 
the General Assembly of that year creating the office. From 1852 to 1891 
the duties now performed by the assessor were in the hands of the county 
auditor. A county board of review, consisting of the assessor, auditor and 
treasurer, and two members appointed by the circuit judge, annually ecpializes 
the valuation of real and personal property assessed in the county. The 
board passes on each individual \aluation, hears complaints, and re\ises the 
assessment list. It also et[ualizes as between townships or di\-isions of town- 
ships and determines a rate per cent, to be added to or deducted from the 
A'arious classes of property throughout the township. And if necessary, the 



KAYl TTE COLNTV. IN'OIAXA. 20^ 

board may e\ en set aside tlie assessment of the whole county and order a 
new one, Init it has no ]iower to depart from tlie true casli vahie in hxinj,^ 
assessments. The ])rci|)eny is assessed by the townsliij) assessors, wlio work 
under the immediate su))er\ision of the county assessor, who lias tlie ])o\\er 
to list sequestereil or omitted pro]»eriy. The county assessor in turn is under 
the direction of tlie state hoard of tax commissioners. 

There have been only four county assessors in Fayette county since iS'U. 
one incumbent tilling the oi'lice fc^r fifteen consecutive \ears. The present 
assessor is a son of the first incumbent. The foiu- assessors are as follow: 
H. T. Thomas. i8gi-Qj.; luiwin M. Stone. i8<)4-t)8: William T. Murray. 
i8q8-iOi4: Scott Thomas, since I<)14. 

SITEKIFFS. 

The office of sheriff was provided for in the (/(institutions of iSi() and 
185 J. The tenure has ahvax s l)een two years in the state. It will Ix- noticed 
that John ( 'onner, the founder of ronuersville, was the first incumbent nf 
the office, his ap]]ointnient b\- the oo^ernor lieint;- dated two flays before the 
county was to be formally urganized. The sheriti" is the nnly count\ official 
who is provided with ;i liouse at the expense of the c<ninty. The list of 
sheriflfs follows : 

John Conner, ap[)(jinted Decenilier .^o. 1818. resig-ned. 1820. 

John M, Wilson, appointed February 13, 1820 — Aug^ust 23, 1824. 

William Caldwell, August 2,^. 1824— .\ugust 28. 1828. 

Robert D. Helm. August jS. 1828- -September 8, 1830. 

Gabriel Ginn, September 8, 1830 — August 23, 1832. 

William Dickey, -\ugust 23, 1832 — .\ugust 21), 1834. 

Jdhn \\'illey. \ugust 20. 1834, resigned, 1838. 

Thomas Lines. August 14. 1838, resigned January, 1842. 

Joshua Mcintosh, appointed January 20, 1842 — August <). 1842. 

William M. Smith, August 0, 1842 — August 17, 1846. 

Joseph H. Clark, August 17. 1846 — .August 24, i85(x 

Lewis W. McCormick, .\ugust 24, 1850 — October u, 1854. 

William ■\lcCleary, Octol)€r 19. 1854 — November 6. 1858. 

William J. Orr. Xoveml)er 6, 1858 — Xovember 6. i860. 

John Savage, November 6. 1860 — Xo\ ember 6. 1864. 

William Cotton. November 6. 1864 — November 6, i8h8. 

\\'i]liam McCrfir\ , No\ ember 6, 1868, resigned January 30. iRfx). 

Jnnatban .S. Miller, appointed l"ebruar\- 10, i86<; — No\eml)er 2, 1874. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Doctor B. Ball, November 2, 1874- — November 2, 1878. 
John T. Lair, November 2, 1878 — November 13, 1882. 
Samuel Kirkham, November 13, 1882 — November 13, 1886. 
Matthias T. Lair, November 13, 1886 — November 13, 1890. 
Knos M. McCready, Noveml^er 13, 1890 — November 13, 1894. 
Charles S. Lewis, November 13. 1894 — Noveml^er 13, 1898. 
Daniel D. tiall, November 13, 1898 — November 13, 1900. 
George W. Oldham, November 13, 1900 — Tanuar}' i, 1905. 
Cyrus Jeffrey, January i, 1905 — January i, 1909. 
Anson B. Miller, January i, 1909 — January i, 191 3. 
Perry D. Ferguson, January i, 1913 — January i, 1915. 
William Hendrickson. January i, 191 5. 



The coroner's office is provided for by the Constitution and in certain 
stipulated cases the coroner is authorized to perform the duties of the sheriff. 
The office is usually associated with the medical profession, but a great 
majority of the incumbents of the office in Fayette county have not been 
physicians. If there is any one man in the list of coroners of Fayette county 
who deserves sjiecial mention it is John Farner. an old-fashioned German, 
who held the office for twenty years. .\s far as known, he had no other 
occupation than that of attending to the duties of the office during these 
twenty years, but he managed in some way to make enough to eke out an 
existence. The complete list of coroners since the organization of the county 
follows : 

Jonathan John, appointed December 30, 1818 — September 12, 1821. 

John Sample, September 12, 1S21 — September 14, 1825. 

John Milner, September 14, 1825 — November i, 1827. 

Abraham Bays, November i. 1827 — Augu.st 18, 1829. 

I'iobert Miller, August 18. 1829 — September 22, 1831. 

Cieorge L. Fearis, September 22, 1831 — August 12, 1837. 

William Tulley, August 12, 1837, resigned November, 1840. 

Henrv Beitzel, appointed November'2-5. 1840— ^August 18, 1845. 

Th(;nias 1'. Silvey. August 18. 1845— August i^- 1846. 

James Beard, August 18, 1846 — August 19, 1847. 

Wilson Limpus, August 19, 1847, resigned July 3, 1849. 

Josiah Mullikin, August 17, 1849, resigned June 12, 1850. 

Abraham Bays, August 2i, i850^0ctober 21, 1851. 



FAYKTTK COUNTY, INDIANA. 2O5 

Davitl Rawls. October 22. 1831— Oct()l)er 12. i85_>. 

Calvin C. McClain, October 12. 1852^-October 24, 1S54. 

John H. Fattig, October 24. 1854 — November 1. 1855. 

Calvin C. McClain, Xovember i, 1855— November 6. 1856. 

David H. Dawson, Xovember 6, 1856 — November 6. 1858. 

Benjamin H. Gardner. Xovember 6, 1858- — X'ovember Ti, 1859. 

Walter Lockhart, November 6, 1859 — November 6, 1861. 

John B. Tate. November 6. 1861 — Novemlaer 6. 1862. 

Isaiah McCameron, November 6, 1862 — Noveml>er 6. 1864. 

Jacob Schmidt, .November 6. 1 864— November 6. •1866. 

John Farner, November 6, 1866— November 13, 1886. 

Dr. Joseph D. T,arimore, November 13, 1886 — November 13. 1890. 

Dr. Alexander D. Tyrrel, November 13, 1890 — November 13. 1894. 

Lyman Cooley, November 13. 1894 — November 13, 1896. 

Dr. Alexander D. Tyrrel, November 13. 1896 — Janiiarv i, 1903. 

Lyman Coole\-. January i, 1903 — January i. 1903. 

Dr. Eugene Everett Hamilton, January i. 1905 — January i. 1909. 

Chester M. Spicely, January i, 1909— January i, 1913. 

Dr. Harry M. Lamberson. January i. 1913 — January i, 191 5. 

Charles Myers. January i, 191 5- —January t, 1917. 

Dr. Benjamin W. Cooper, January i, 1917. 

COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. 

Tiie county commissioners occui)y a \ery important place in tiie affairs 
of the county ant! in the ninety-se\en years which have elapsed since the 
county was oroanizcd they have had general charge of ail the affairs of the 
county. This l)ody of tiu'ee men among other things l)uild all the countx' 
]>ublic buildings, oxersee the construction of mads and bridges and |)ass on 
all bills to be ])aid out of county funds. As stated in the succeeding list 
of commissioners, there was a short time in the history of the county when 
the commissioners were replaced by a board consisting of one justice of 
peace from each township in the county. This system, however, was too 
ex])ensive and besides the board was too cumbersome to do good work. The 
complete list of commissioners is given by years. 

1819 — Basil Rol)erts,-fIerod-Newland. J<>lin Tyner. 

1820 — ^ftasil Roberts, Herod Xewltind. Joim Tyner. 

182T — Basil Roberts. John i'yner. Stanhope Royster. Herod .Vewlind. 
James M. Ray ( Newland was succeeded in May by James M. i\a\ . wlio 
was appointed until the .\ugust election, and was succeeded bv Rovster. ) 



206 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

1H22 — Basil Roberts, .Stanhope Royster, Samuel \ ance, the latter, being 
appointed to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Tyner, was succeeded in 
August by Jonathan John. 

1823 — :Basi\ Roberts, StanhopesKoyster, Jonathan John, the latter l^ejng 
s^ucceeded in August by Alexander Dale. 

1824 — Basil Roberts, Stanhope Royster, Alexander Dale. In 1824 a 
Ixiard composed of one justice of peace from each township, was given 
charge of all county aB'airs and performed all the duties formerly transacted 
by the county commissioners. There was a provision that the oldest justice 
in each township should ha^•e a seat on this county board of justices. From 
September, 1824, until November, 1S27, the county was governed by this 
board of justices. During this period the presidents of the board were as 
follows: Moses Fay, 1824-25; Justus Wright, 1825-26; Gabriel Ginn, Sep- 
tember-November, T826; Marks Crume, 1826-27. The office of county com- 
missioner was re-established by an act of the 1827 Legislature and has been 
in continuous operation since that date. 

1827 — ^.Hezekiah Mount, ^'^'^lliam Dickey, , David Ferree. 

1828 — Hezekiah Mount, William Dickey, David Ferree (until Septem- 
lier), Gharles Hubbartt. 

1829 — Hezekiah Mount, William Dickey, Charles Hubbartt. 

1830 — William Dickey, Charles Hubbartt, Hezekiah Mount (until 
August), Charles Salyer. 

i83i--Charles Salyer. William Dickey. Charles Hubbartt. 

1 832— Charles Salyer. Charles Hubbartt. \A^illiam Dickey (until Sep- 
temlier ) , William Dale. 

1833 — Charles Sal\er. Charles Hulibartt, William Dale. 

1834 — Charles Salyer, Charles Hubbartt, William Dale. 

1835 — Charles Salyer, Charles Hul)bartt, William Dale (until Septem- 
ber), Hezekiah Mount. 

1836 — Charles Salyer, Charles Hubbartt, Hezekiah Mount. 

1837 — Charles Salyer, Charles Hulibartt, Hezekiah Mount. 

1838 — Charles Salyer, Charles Hul)bartt, Hezekiah Mount (until Sep- 
temlier), Alexander Dale. 

1839 — Charles Hubbartt, .Mexander Dale, Charles Salyer (until Sep- 
teml)er), James Veatch. 

1840 — Alexander Dale, James Veatch. Charles Hubbartt (until Sep- 
temlwr), Henry Simpson. 



FAYFTTK KlfNTV, INDIANA. 207 

1841 -hiiiifs \c.ttcli. llciirv Sinips.m. Ak'xan.lcr Dak- mntil Aus^iist), 
riKiiiias Moffett. 

iS4_' — Jame.-- \eatcli. Henry Sinipsi.n. 'I'lioinas Mdffett. 

1843 — James W-atcli. 'I'honias Mdffctt. I lairy Siini)snii (until SeiUnii- 
ber ). Jacob Troxell. 

1844— James \eatch. Ilionias Al.ittett. Jaci.h Troxell. 

1845 — Thomas Moffett, Jacob Troxell. James \'eatcli (until Septem- 
ber ), John Jemison. 

1846 — Thomas Aloffett, John Jemison, Jacob Troxell (until Septem- 
ber). Daniel H. White. 

1847 — Thomas Moffett, John lemison, Daniel 11. \\hite. 

i848--Thomas Moffett, Daniel H. White, John Jemison (until Sep- 
tember). James Steele. 

184(1 — Thomas .Moffett. Daniel U. White. James Steele. 

1850 — Daniel II. White. James Steele. Thomas Moffett (until Sep- 
tember). W. W. Thrasher. 

1851 — Daniel 11. A\'hite. A\'. \\'. Thrasher. James Steele (until .Kusiust), 
A. T. Beckett. 

185J— \\'. W. Thnisher. .\. T. Beckett. Daniel H. White (until \ovem- 
ber). A\'illiam H. Huston. Thrasher was succeeded by Joseph Dale in 
December. 1852. 

1853— Joseph Dale, .\. T. Beckett, William H. Huston, 

1854— Joseph Dale. A. T. Beckett. William H. Huston. 

1855— Joseph Dale. .\. T. Beckett. William TI. Huston ('until Septem- 
Ijer ) . John Stoops. 

1856 — John Stoo])s. A. T. Beckett. Jose])h Dale. 

1857 — John Stoops. Joseph Dale. A. T. Beckett (until September). 
George .Scott. 

1858 — George Scott. Joseph Dale. John Stoops (until September). 
Joseph M. Sutclift'e. 

i85()-— Joseph M. Sutclifte. George Scotl. Jose]>h Dale (until Se])tem- 
ber). W. T. Hensley. 

i86o--\\'. T. Hen.sley. George Scott. Joseph M. Sutcliffe. 

1861 — W. T. Hensley. George Scott. Joseph M. Sutcliffe (until Sej)- 
teml)er). Raney Gillman. 

i86> — Raney Gillman. George Scott. \\'. T. Hensley (until December), 
Ephraim Jeffrey. 

1863- — Ephraim Jeffrey, Ranc)- Gillman. A. T. Beckett ( ajipointed in 
June in place of George Scott, deceased.) 



2o8 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

1864 — Ephraim Jeffrey, A. T. Beckett, Robert Holland. 

1865 — Ephraim Jeffrey, A. T. Beckett, Robert Holland. 

1866— Ephraim Jeffrey, A. T. Beckett, Robert Holland. 

T867 — Ephraim Jeffrey. A. T. Beckett, Robert Holland (nntil Septem- 
ber), John Beck. 

1868 — John Beck, A. T. Beckett, Ephraim Jeffrey (until December), 
Ezra Martin. 

1869 — John Beck, Ezra JMartin. A. T. Beckett (until September), 
Hiram B. .Langston. 

1870 — Hiram B. Langston, John Beck, Ezra Martin. 

1 87 1- — Hiram B. Langston, John Beck, Ezra Martin. 

1872 — Hiram B. Langston, Ezra Martin, John Beck (until June), 
William A. Holland. Langston was succeeded in Novemljer by John Spivey. 

1873 — John Spivey, William A. Holland, Ezra Martin. 

1874 — John Spivey, William .\. Holland, and until December, Ezra 
Martin, when succeeded by Linville Eerguson. 

1875 — William A. Holland. Linville Ferguson, and until September, 
John Spivey, vvhen sucTeeded b}' John Sims. 

1876-77 — William .\. Holland. John Sims, and until December, Lin- 
Aalle Ferguson, when succeeded by McHenry Saxon. 

1878 — McHenry Sa.xon. William A. Holland, and until September, John 
Sims, when succeeded by Samuel P. Jemison. 

1879-82 — William A. Llolland, Samuel P. Jemison, McHenry Saxon. 

1883 — William A. Flolland, Samuel P. Jemison, and until December, 
McHenry Saxon, when succeeded by Henry C. Rees. 

1884 — William A. Holland, Samuel P. Jemison, Henry C. Rees. 

1885— William A. Holland, Henry C. Rees, O. A. Martin. 

1886— Williani .\. Holland, Henry C. Rees, O. A. Martin. 

1887— William A. Holland, Henry C. Rees, O. A. Martin. 

188S— O. A, ^lartin, Henry C. Rees, Thomas J. Caldwell. 

1889—0. .V. Martin. Henr\- C. Rees. Thomas J. Caldwell. 

1890 — O. A. Martin, Thomas J. Caldwell, F. Y. Thomas. 

1891 — F. Y. Thomas, D. Ker.scliner, S. E. Thomas. 

1892 — F. Y. Thomas, D. Kerschner, S. E. Thomas. 

1893 — F. Y. Thomas, D. Kerschner, S. V.. Thomas. 

1894 — F. Y. Thomas. D. Kerschner, S. E. Thomas. 

1895 — F. ^'. Thomas. D. Kerschner, S. E. Thomas. 

1896 — F. "W Thomas, I). Kerschner, E. L Chance. 

1897— l'. Y. Thomas, E. L Chance, H. L. Hurst. 



- FAYETTK COCNTY. INDIANA. 2O9 

1S9S— I-'. ^■. Tlionia^. i:. I. Chance, H. L. Hurst. 
180Q— 1-\ \ . TlKimas, [■:. I. Chance, M. I.. Hur.st. 
1900 — F. ^'. Tlionias, !•:. 1. Cliance, H. L. Hur.st. 
i()or — h\ ^'. Tlionias. V.. I. Cliance, li. L. Hurst. 
i()02— K. I. Chance. H. L. Hurst. W. D. Thomas. 
1903— H. L, Hurst. W. I). Thomas, J. AT. White. 
i()04-H. T,. Hurst. W. IX Thomas. J. M. White. 
1905--H. 1.. Hurst, W. D. Thomas. J. M. White. 
1906— H. 1.. Hurst. W. D. Thomas, J. M. WMiite. 
1907— H. T. Hurst. W. D. Thomas. J. M. White. 
1908 — L. D. S])rin.i>er. i^aniel Fiant, John A. Kellum. 
1909— L. D. SpriuLjer, Daniel 1^'iant, John A. KeUum. 
191&— L. D. Sjirinijei-, Daniel Fiant, John A. Kellum. 
toil — L. D. S])rinser. John A>. Kellum, James V. Holland. 
ic)i2 — L. D. S]irin,iier. John A. Kellum, W. (". ^Vhipple. 
ic)r3--L. D. .S])rint;"er. John .\. Kellum. ^^^ C. \Miip]>le. 
K) 1 4 -John A. Kellum, U". C. Whipple, H. Shipley. 
1015— H. Shipley. U. 11. Jerman. \-.. W. Caldwell. 
1916 -H. Shipley, K. H. Jerman, 1'.. W. Caldwell. 
1017— R. H. Jtrnian, F. W. Caldwell, Charles W. Alason. 

FAYK'I'TK roV.N'TY IX I'llE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 

Fayette count}- had its first representation in the state Legislature in 
the session of i8i(). the fourth regular session. This session had only ten 
members in the Senate and twenty-nine in the House. During- the ninety- 
seven }ears which lia\e elapsed since the count}- was first represented in tiie 
Legislature it has al\\a}s heeii iniited with one or more counties in a sen- 
atorial district, and usuall}- with one or more in a representative district. 
The following tahle shows the nrunes of tlie members of the Legislature 
representing the districts to which hayette county has been attached, the 
dates of their inciimbenc\-, and the countv from which thev were elected: 







SENATE. 




Member. 


Session. 




Year. 


Counties of District 


^\•illiam C. Drew . . 


■ • • 4-5 




1819-20 


Fayette. Franklin 


Patrick Baird 


• • • 5 




1820 


Part of Fayette, and 
Wayne and Randolph 



(14) 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



Member. Session. 

6 

Lewis Johnson 7-8-9 

Ross Smiley lo-i 1-12 

Newton Claypool 1 3- 1 4- 1 5 

James Leviston 16- 17- 18 

William Caldwell 19-20 

Newton Claypool 21 

William Watt 22-23-24 

Samuel W. Parker .... 25-26-27 

James Leviston 28-29-30 

Henry Simpson 31-32-33 

John S. Reid 34-35-36 

Minor Meeker 37-3^ 

John Yaryan 39 

Thomas ^V. Bennett ... 40 
Benjamin F. Claypool. .41-43 
Thomas W. Bennett . . . 44-45 

James Elliott 46-4/ 

Richard M. Haworth .. 48-49 

Milton Trussler 50-51 

Jesse J. Spann 52-53 

James N. Huston 54 

James N. Hu.ston 55 

William Grose 56-57 

Leonidas P. Newby . . . 58-59-60 
Leonidas P. Newby ...61 
.Albert D. Ogborn .... 62-63 
Edward E. Moore .... 64 
Edward E. Moore .... 65-66 

Ca ry Jackson 67-69 

Walter McConaha 70 

Oliver H. Smith 7 

James Brownlee 8 

Newton Claypool g-io^ii- 



Year. 


Counties 


of District 


1821 








1822-25 


Fayette, 


Lfnion 




1825-27 


Fayette, 


Union 




1828-30 


Fayette, 


LTnion 




1831-33 


p-ayette, 


Union 




1834-35 


Fayette, 


Union 




1836 


Fayette, 


Union 




1837-39 


Fayette, 


Union 




1840-42 


Fayette, 


Union 




1843-45 


Fayette, 


Union 




1846-48 


Fayette. 


Union 




1849-51 


Fayette, 


Union 




1853-55 


Fayette, 


Union 




1857 


Fayette, 


Union 




1859 


Fayette, 


Union 




1861-63 


Fayette, 


Union 




1865-67 


Fayette, 


Union 




1869-71 


Fayette. 


L'nion 




1873-75 


F^ayette, 


Union 




1877-79 


Fayette, 


Union, 


Rush 


1881-83 


Fayette, 


Union, 


Rush 


1885 


Fayette, 


Union, 


Rush 


1887 


Fayette, 


Henry 




1889-91 


Fayette, 


Henry 




1893-97 


Fayette, 


Henry 




1899 


Fayette, 


Henry, 


LInion 


1901-03 


Fayette, 


Henry, 


Union 


1905 


Fayette, 


Henry. 


Union 


1907-09 


Fayette. 


Ru.sh. H 


[ancock 


1909-15 


Fayette, 


Ru.sh. F 


[ancock 


iqr- 


Fayette. 


Ru.sh, H 


[ancock 


1822 


Fayette 






1823 


F^ayette 






1825-27 


F^ayette 







FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



Member. Session. 

Marks Crume 13-14-1: 

17-18-IC 

Philip Mason 20 

Caleb B. Smith 21 

Wilson Thompson .... 22 

John \Mlley 23 

Matthew R. Hull 24 

Caleb B. Smith 25 

Wilson Thompson .... 26 

Xewton Claypool 2-j 

Sanniel W . Parker 2^ 

Samuel Little 29 

W'illiam Stewart 30-31 

Samuel Little 32 

Thomas D. Hankins. . . .33 

Charles M. Stone 34-35 

John V. Lindsey 36 

Archibald F. Martin ■ . .t^"; 

Nelson Trusler 38 

Charles M. Stone 39 

George \\'. Treadway . .40 
Richard M. Haworth . .41 

Russell P.. Perry .43 

Gilbert Trusler 44 

Richard X. Elliott .. ..64-65 
W^oodson W. Tiirasher . . 43 

B. F. Williams 46-47 

Warner H. Broddus . . .48 

Milton Trusler 49 

James P. Kennedy .... 50 
Joseiih W. Conaway ...51 

James X. Huston 5--53 

R. M. Haworth 54 

William Grose 35 

Jefferson H. Claypool .. 36-37 

-\. C. Lindemuth 38 

James M. Mcintosh . . . . 39 
I'^rancis T. Roots 60-61 



Year. 



Counties of District 



1828-34 


F'ayette 




1835 


Fayette 




1836 


Fayette 




1837 


Fayette 




1838 


Fayette 




1839 


h'ayette 




1840 


Fayette 




184 1 


Fayette 




1842 


Fayette 




1843 


Fayette 




1844 


Fayette 




1843-46 


Fayette 




1847 


Fayette 




1848 


Fayette 




1849-30 


Fayette 




I85I 


F""ayette 




1853 


Fayette 




1855 


Fayette 




1857 


Fayette 




1859 


Fayette. 


Union 


1869 


Fayette, 


Union 


1863 


Fayette, 


Union 


1863 


Fayette. 


Union 


1903-07 


Fayette, 


Union 


1867 


Fayette. 


Union 


1869-71 


Fayette, 


Union 


1873 


Fayette, 


Union 


T873 


Fayette. 


L^nion 


1877 


F^ayette, 


LTnion 


1879 


Fayette. 


Union 


T88I-8:; - 


Fayette. 


Union 


1883 


Fayette, 


Henry 


T887 


Fayette, 


Henry 


T 889-9 1 


Fayette, 


Wayne 


1893 


i-'ayette. 


Wayne 


1895 


Fayette, 


Wayne 


1897-99 


Fayette, 


Wayne 



^15 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



Member. Session. 

Roscoe E. Kirkham . . . 62-63 
Richard N. Elliott .. ..64-65 
-Vlonzo M. Gardner . . .66-67 

Earl Crawford 68 

James K. Mason 69-70 



Year. 
1901-03 
1905-07 
1 909- 1 1 
1913 
1915-17 



Counties of District 
Fayette, Wayne 
Fayette, Wayne 
Fa}'ette. Wayne 
Fayette, Wayne 
Favette. ^Vavne 



>.MEN FROM FAYETTE COUNTY. 



Fayette county can claim six congressmen who have Ijeen elected from 
the county: Oliver H. Smith, Jonathan McCarty, Caleb B. Smith, Samuel 
W. Parker, Jeremiah M. ' Wilson and Finly H. Gray. At least two other 
congressmen lived for a siiort time in the county, viz., Andrew Kenned}' 
and Samuel C. Sample. 

When Fayette county was organized in 1819 Indiana was represented 
by only one congressman, William Hendricks, and it was not until after the 
congressional apportionment of 1821 that the state was first divided into 
districts. The first apportionment gave the state three congressmen and 
placed Fayette county in the third district with the counties of Randolph, 
Franklin, Dearborn, ^^'ay^e, Switzerland, Ripley and Delaware. John Test, 
of Brookville, was the first congressman of the new district and served two 
terms (1823-27), being followed by Oliver H. Smith for one term (1827- 
2()). Test was then elected for another term, giving way in 1831 to Jona- 
than McCarty, who served three consecutive terms (1831-37). During his 
second term the state was allotted seven congressmen (act of January i, 
1833). the act attaching Iviyette tci the newly created fifth district, which 
included the counties of Fayette, Union, Wayne, Henry, Delaware. Grant, 
Randolph. Huntington, Allen and Lagrange. 

McCarty was followed in 1837 '^.v James Rariden, of Wayne county, 
who maintained his seat through two terms (1837-41). Andrew Kennedy 
succeeded Rariden in 1841 and represented the fifth district one term, the 
ap])ortionment of February 8, 1842, taking his county, Delaware, out of the 
fifth and placing it in the newly organized tenth district, leaving Fayette in 
the fourth with the counties of Henry, Union and Wayne. In the fall of 
1842 the third congressman from Fayette county was elected, Caleb B. Smith, 
and he served three terms ( 1843-19). George W. Julian, of Wayne county, 
represented . the district the Tiext two years, being followed by Samuel W. 
Parker, of Conner.sville, in 1851 for two terms. 

During Parker's first term the state was redistricted for congressional 
purposes with the act of February 9. 1852, Fayette being placed in the fifth 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2I3 

with the LX)unties of Henry, Union, Wayne, Delaware and Randolph. David 
1'. Holloway followed Parker in 1855 for one term and Diivid Kilgore, the 
"Delaware Chief" of Delaware county, served the next two terms (1857-61). 
The next five terms (1861-71) saw George W. Jitlian as the congressman 
from the district. During his term the act of h'ebruary 20. 1867, reorgan- 
ized the congressional districts of the state and ])laced Fayette county again 
in the fourth, along with the counties of Shelby, Rush. Franklin, Union, 
Wayne and Hancock. 

Jeremiah AT. Wilson, the fourth congressman to be elected from Fay- 
ette count}-, followed Julian in 1871 for two terms. The act of Decemljer 
22, 1872, again rearranged the congressional districts, Fayette county being 
put back into the fifth district with Dearborn, Franklin, Union, Wayne and 
Randolph. This was the lirst apjxjrtionment which gave the state thirteen 
congressmen, the same number which it has since been allotted. 

William S. Holman, of Dearborn county, followed Wilson in 1875 for 
one term, giving way to Thomas M. Browne in 1877. Browne ser\'ed t.h^ 
district loijger than any other congressman, being in congress . continuously 
from 1877 to i8qi. During his long congressional career two changes wer^ 
made in the district, but his county, Randolph, ^remained in the district with 
bayette. The act of March 20, 1870, made Fayette a part of the sixth dis- 
trict, where it has since remained, although a number of different counties 
have been in the district. The act of 1879 united the counties of Fayette, 
Delaware. Randolph, Henry, Wayne and Rush in the sixth ; no changes 
were made in the composition of the district with the acts of March 6, 1885, 
or March 6, 1891. 

Browne was followed in 1891 by Henry U. Johnson, of Wayne county, 
who served four consecutive terms ( 1891-99). The act of Alarch 9, 1895, 
took Randolph and Delaware out of the sLxtli district, and reconstituted it 
to consist of the counties of Fayette, Henry, \\'ayne. Rush, Hancock, Shelbv. 
Union and Franklin. 

James E. Watson, of Rush county, served five consecutive terms ( 1899^ 
1909), being succeeded in 1909 by William O. Barnard, of Henry county. 
The act of March 5, 1901, attached Decatur count}- to the sixth district, but 
the act of March 6, 191 1, detached it, leaving tlie district as it was in i8()5 
and as at present constituted. 

Barnard served only one term ( iqoo-ii ), liis successor being Finly H. 
Gray, of Fayette county. Gray represented the district three terms (1911- 
17), being defeated for re-election by Daniel W. Comstock, of Wavne 
county. Comstock began his term of two years on March 4, 191 7. 



CHAPTER VII. 
Townships of Fayette County. 



COLUMBIA TOWNSHIP. 

Columbia township, one of the five townships organized by the county 
cou^ittissioners on February 8, 1819, originally included all of its present 
limits, more than half of Jackson and all but the two northern tiers of sec- 
tions of Orang-e township. Its limits as defined originally were as follows : 
"Beginning at the southeast corner of section 33 in township 13, range 13; 
thence west along the line dividing the counties of Franklin and Fayette to 
the western boundary of the county of Fayette; thence north along said 
county line five miles ; thence along a direct line east to the northwest corner 
of section 8, in township 13, range 12; thence east along the line dividing 
sections 8 and 9 in township 13, range 13; thence south along the line divid- 
ing said sections 8 and 9, to the southwest corner of section 16, township 
and range last aforesaid; thence east to the line dividing the counties of 
Franklin and Fayette; thence south along the said line to the place of 
beginning." 

When Jackson township was organized by the commissioners at their 
August, 1820, session it was made to embrace all that part of Columbia 
township east of White Water. Two years later, February 18, 1822, Orange 
township was organized by the commissioners, leaving Columbia township 
with its present limits. • 

All of tlie recent township falls \\ithin the Twelve-mile Purchase of 
1809, except a small portion of sections 18 and 7, in the northwestern part 
of the township. All of the seventeen sections and six fractional sections 
of land in the township lie in township 13. range 12. 

The first land entries were recorded in 1811, eleven settlers having 
entered upon land during that year. .\ complete list of the land entries of 
the township, designated by sections, is as follows : 

Section 7 (fractions) — Sold in 1817. 1830 and 1832 to S. Todd, Will- 
iam C. Drew, Thomas Hibhs and John G. Grav. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 215 

Section 8 — Sold in 1814 and 1817 to Benjamin McCarty, Samuel 
Logan, Samuel Newhouse and Cale Smith. 

Section 9 — Sold in 1812 and 1814 to Benjamin McCarty, R. Marshall. 

Section 10 — Sold in 1813 to John Knox. James Hamilton, James New- 
house and Christopher Ladd. 

Section 11 — Sold in 181 3 to VV. S. Hand and Benjamin Sailor (one- 
half section.) 

Section 14 — Sold in 181 1 to Nicholas Reagen and William Eagen (one- 
half section.) 

Section 15 — Sold in 181 J, 1813. 1814 and 181 5 to Morgan Vardiman, 
William Helm, William Conner and Benjamin Sailor. 

Section 16 — Reserved for school purposes. 

Section 17 — Sold in 1814. 1817, 1832-1835 to James Buchanan, Gale 
Hamilton. H. N. Burgo\ ne. W. C. Plummer and James Conwell. 

Section 18 — Sold in 1814 to Charles Hardy (fractional). 

Section 19 — Sold in 1818 and 1820-1835 to Wilson Waddams, Charles 
Hardy, Benjamin F. Utter. James Conwell, George Klum, John G. Gray, 
John Ronald, John Combs, il. N. Burgoyne and William Jacobs. 

Section 20 — Sold in 1S13, 1814 and 1832 to John Bridges. Elijah 
Stevens, Wilson Waddams. 

Section 21 — Sold in 181 4. 1829-1834 to James Wiley, Wil.'^on Wad- 
dams, James Conwell, and Isaac Eimpus. 

Section 22 — St)ld in 181 1, 1813 and 1814 to Charles Scott, R. Russell, 
Reuben Conner and John Conner. 

Section 2t, — Sold in 181 r, 1812 to William Helm, Gabriel Ginn. 

Section 27 — Sold in 1811, 1813, i8i4,'i8i8. 1831 to John Grist, .Mien 
Crisler, William Conner. William WHierrett. 

Section 28 — Sold in 181 1, 1812, 1816 to Moses Martin, Enoch Limpus 
and Elijah Allen. 

Section 29 — Sold in 1813, 1816. 1831-1834 to Jonathan Gillani, Enoch 
Hills. Lewis Bishop. Cornelius Rinerson and Rinerd Rinerson. 

Section 30 — Sold in 1815. 1832-1836 to Rol^ert Glidwell. Charles 
Stevens, Benjamin Tharpe, Job Waltz and James Conwell. 

Section 31 — Sold in 1826- 1836 to James Moore, Charles Meloncl, T<imes 
Linville, Charles Morrow and S. Resum. 

Section ^2 — Sold in 1K32-1836 to Rinerd Rinerson. Moses Harrell, 
John J. Shaw. V. A. Conwell, James Wells, Jr. 

Section 33— Sold in 181 1, i8i8. 1819 and 1831 to Edward Webb, 



2l6 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Enoch Limpus, Horatio Mason, James Conwell, Henry Vandalson, Hugh 
Reed and Isaac Thomas. 

Section 34 — Sold in 181 1, 1812 to Elijah I.impus, M. Huston, H. J- 
Byram, Hugh Reed and John Richardson. 

One of the iirst things to be noticed in connection with the settlement 
of the township is that nearly all of the land entries made in 181 1 were 
along the water courses. William Eagen is thought by many of the pioneers 
to have been the earliest settler in this township. With only a few excei>- 
tions, nearly all of the early settlers came from Kentucky. Among the num- 
ber were William Helm, Edward Webb, John Conner, .\llen Crisler, Joshua 
Crigler, Vincent Cooper and Michael Hackleman. From Virginia came 
Abraham Bays, Charles Scott, Jonathan, David and James Newhouse, Isaac, 
Enoch. Levi, Elijah and Jonathan IJmpus. 

Philip and Horatio Mason, with their wi\es, settled on Garrison creek 
in i8ig. They emigrated from Herkimer county. New York, in the spring 
of 1 8 16, going by sleigh to some point on the Allegheny river, ithence to 
Cincinnati by raft and to the vicinity of Laurel by wagon. Samuel Jenks, 
a brother-in-law of Philip Mason, was a resident of that vicinity and with 
him Philip stopped and shared their cabin until January, 181 7, when he 
removed to a cabin that stood near Ciarrison creek. 

In 1819, Joshua Heizer, a native of Virginia and a soldier of the War 
of 1812, settled in the township, as also did Reuben Conner, from Kentucky. 

AN OI.D RESIDENCE. 

During the early part of the century Judge Webb constructed what was 
considered to be the most substantial cabin of that day in that settlement. 
The cabin occupied a site on the fertile bottom land along White Water 
river, a situation connnanding a beautiful view. It was of the second class 
of pioneer cabins, constructed of hewed logs, two stories high and the build- 
ing being eighteen by twenty-eight feet in size. On the north end of the 
building was a large chimney, constructed of stone of various sizes, built 
on the outside of the house. Two doors from without opened into the 
House, one on either side. Below on either side was a window, though of 
different sizes, and on the east side of the second door were two half or 
garret windows. \Vithin the house were three apartments, one above and 
two below, each floor being provided with one fireplace, large below and 
small on the second floor. 

Just below Nulltown. and not far from the old graveyard, was the old 






FAYF.TTK COUNTY, INDIANA. 



hlockliouse Iniilt liv tlie settleiiicnt f<ir ihe i)rotectioii atjainst the Indi 
diirintr the ^^'ar (if 1812. 



The industries durino- tlie early days were confined mostly to mills 
and distilleries. The first mill in the township is thoujjht to have been a 
saw-mill erected 1>\ .\llcn t'risler and which stood at the north end of the 
village of Alpine. Doctor .Mason became the owner of the mill in 1X16 and 
operated a flour-mill in connection. A still-house and a hemp-mill were 
added, all four beinsj operated under the i^eneral luanaijement of Colonel 
Crisler, until a change in the course of the ri\er destroyed the power and 
then all went out of use. 

.\t a very early day a saw-mill was luiilt at .Xulltown by Thomas Silvey, 
who sold it to Null brothers, .\fter they became the owners they added a 
very small grist-mill and then, after Crisler's mill went out of oi>eration, 
thev built a large flouring- and grist-mill. Avhich was not in operation manv 
years, the canal and hydraulic destroying the ])ower. 

.\l)Out 1H44 a grist-mill was built at Alpine by Thomas Crisler. James 
and John Timpus. In 1863 the mill was purchased by Thomas and .\. X. 
Briuier. who operated the same for many years. 

During the period of early settlement several men operated copper 
stills, aiuong whom were \Villiam Helm, on Garrison creek, and John Con- 
ner. Wilson \\'addams also o])erated a corn cracker in connection with his 
still. 

.\ saw- antl grist-mill w;is erected by H. X. P>urgo\-ne about 1833 in 
section iq. on the south fork of Garrison's creek. The mill changed owners 
many times antl finally Xathan Lewis and brother became the proprietors. 
.\fter operating the mill alwiut two years, they built a new saw-mill. 

E.VUI.V SCHOOLS. 

The first school house built in the township was near the 1-ranklin 
church, iust below Xulltown. erected in 1S15. The first school teacher seems 
to have been Gabriel (Hun. \ few years later a school was conducted in 
an old cabin about a mile southwest of \l])ine by Mark Whitacre. Robert 
Helm and a lady by the name of Klum also taught in the same comnuuiitv. 
About i8_'i a log school house was built one mile west of .\lpine and among 
the first teachers were Daniel McTntyre and Dr. Philip Mason. 



2l8 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDiANA. 

Probably the ttrst school in the northern part of the township was held 
in the little log house that stood on the farm of Hinkson Halstead. John 
Ronald was the first teacher. 



This little \ illa^e of Coluniliia. located north of the center of Columbia 
township, has a histor}' not uncommon to the other villages of the county. 
At one time it served well- its purpose as a local commercial and trading- 
center. The. little hamlet was laid out on laild beldn_^ittg- to ISaac Limpus 
and James Buchanan and was surveyed b\- Isaac Fowler, June 15, 1832. 
An addition was made to the original plat in 1849 liy a man by the name 
of Martin. 

The first man to build a house in the village was Isaac Limpus, and in 
it he conducted an inn. He was also the first postmaster, the postoffice hav- 
ing l)een established on February t6. 1833. For several )'ears following he 
conducted a grocery and saloon. In 1835, John Hardy was granted a license 
as a merchant, a privilege which was renewed for several years. Later mer- 
chants were George Scott, David Smith and George Logan. 

In 1843 the hamlet had two general stores kept by George Scott and 
Horatio and John Hardy ; one shoe-shop and postoffice combined, by Will- 
iam Wherrett; one blacksmith shop, by Joseph Little; a general repair shop, 
l)y IX O. Darby; one wagon shop, by Louis Black. What was once a lix'ely 
commercial center has long since fallen into decay, and at the present lime 
the little hamlet consists of a Methodist church, one store conducted by Will 
Larmore, and a few houses. 

It is doubtful if any postoffice in the count}- has been served by as 
n-iany postn-iasters as has Columbia. Following- is the list with their period 
of service: Isaac Limpus, 1833-1837; \\'illiam Wherrett, 1837-1850; 
George W. Logan, 1850-1851; Caleb R. Clements, 1851-1852; Lafayette 
Mount, 1852-1854; Daniel O. Darby. 1854- January 9, 1861 (discontinued) ; 
John D. Darby, F'ebruarv i, 1861 (re-established), to November 14, 1861 ; 
Benedict Hutchinson, 1861-1863; John W. Thomas, 1863-1864: George W". 
Tucker, 1 864-1 865 ; John I. Thomas, February 21, 1865- December 5, 1865; 
John S. Perrett, 1865-1866; George W. Tucker, 1866-1867; Benedict Hutch- 
inson, 1867-1874; John Perin, 1874-1875; John H. Sterett, 1875-1877; 
David S. Alzeno, 1877- 1880; Samuel E. Perin, 1880- 1883; .Sarah Ronan, 
A])ril 12, T883- December i-j. 1883; John Z. Perin, 1883-1900; Mrs. Mary 
Wiles, 11)00-1904, when the office was discontinued. 



FAYRTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2Xq 

.\s Macaula} has (lei)icteil ancient Ronie in all of its tiillncss, sn has 
William H. Tate preserxed for all (generations a <:^rai)hic descrijition of the 
little village of C'ohimhia as outlined in the following- poem: 

THK VILLAGE OI-' COLUMBIA. 

.Tune liftei'iith eifrlileeii liuiulred ;uul thirty-lwd, 

Ike Fowler, with his compass true. 

Ran lines a('r()ss and through. 

Upon the lands then rather new. 

Of Isaac IJnipns and .Tames Buchanan, too. 

Ike Linipus then ((uite .voungsmd- stout. 

Within the new town thus laid out. 

Built the Hrst house thereabout 

And changed it to an inn throughout 

To shelter travelers from the storms without. 

On February sixteenth, eighteen hundred and thirty-three. 

Was established there, as to told to me. 

A postoffice. which distributed free. 

Such mail as might come to the community — 

And Ike Liuipus. postmaster, was the tirst in this c.ipacity. 

Witn liostofflce aiid grocery store. 

Saloon and patrons by the score, 

The trade of Limpus tore 

And to the heavens seemed to soar ; 

For well he thrived that .year and many more. 

Sometime in eighteen hundred and thirty-five, 
.John Hardy, who was then nli\e. 
Thought he himself would liU(> to tlii-ivo. 
And oi)ene<l up a store to drive 
Ike Limpus from his hive. 

Soon after Hardy cast here his lot. 
The store of Linipus was quite forgot ; 
Then came another, knowni as George Scott, 
Followed by Dave Smith and (Jeorge Logan. I wot — 
And all playing for the self-same pot. 

In forty-three this town was young indeed. 

With but two stores in it to meet tlie iiublic need; 

Tet busine.ss ran with rapid speed 

Despite man's well known avarice anil iirccd. 

For there was nothing serious to impede. 

In eighteen fifty canre the tci rHili-cliniax : 
f It was awful, .-ind our Inniu it almost racks 

To think the town wimld so m>«\\ wax 
And then get into trouble and leave its tracks 
To run on switches and suddenly relax. 



220 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA: 

The old town liiiU conclemuecl to use 
Still stands, a model of excuse; 
For social welfare's plain abuse, 
I-iike a game wliere playing's loose 
And the ace is taken by the deuce. 

In nineteen seventeen there is but one store 
Kept open now by one Will Larmore; 
This makes it seem like times of yore 
When Henry Crago swung his door 
To welcome customers upon his floor. 

Xo blood has slained the sacred soil 
In this old town of ceaseless toil. 
No troi)ic heat has risen up to boil. 
No arctic breezes are here to foil. 
No wells are here to give us oil. 

The hum of spindjes can't be heard. 
The only sound is simg of bird; 
The woodman's axe is .seldom incurred 
The rattle of cars lias never occurred 
To disturli our people in (piiet interred. 

The light has well been fought 

15y m-ju with greatness fraught 

Who either doctored, preached or taught 

< >!• licMt out irons, or .sold and bought, 

'i'liongh of this now there's almost naught. 

Columbia sets on a beautiful hill. 

Has set there long and sets there still ; 

The store, church, school house and old grist-ndll 

t'ould tell a story, but they probably never will 

Because it is forgotten: it is gone, it is nil. 

NULLTOWN. 

Xnlltowii, a village of seventy-eight people, is located in the north- 
western part of Cohimliia township and is five miles south of the county 
seat. It is also another village that owes its (jrigin to the mills erected dur- 
ing the period of early settlement. The village apparently was named in 
honor of the Null brothers, Israel and Michael, who became the owners of 
a saw-mill built at this point at an early date and later the ]>roprietors of a 
riouring- and grist-mill. .V jjostofiice was estal)lished here, February 26. 
1847, and called Ashland, later known as Null's Mills and finally desig- 
nated as Nulltown. James .\i. Conner was appointed the first postmaster 
and was succeeded by the following: William O'Neal, January 24, 1848-49; 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 221 

Caleb P). Clements. i84()-i8si: Snlnnion I'.rown. i(S5i-i<S5_' ; Oliver (iritiliii. 
1852-1854: Solomon Hn-wn. 1854-1855; Oliver C. McUvvain, 1855^857: 
Nelson M. Smith. 1857-1858: Anthony j. Cavender, 1858-1861: Oliver II. 
Millspaugh, 1861 to May 4, 1864 ; discontinued ) : Henry Alcllwain, March 
19, 1867 (re-established) to 1870: Samuel Cra.sjo, 1870-1873: John W. 
Tilton, 1873-1874: Sere]>ta King, 1874-1881 : Jacob Faikert. 1881-1884; 
Andrew J. Salver, 1884. Among later i)ostmasters were VAun Turner and 
Jacob I<"aikert, the last incumlient of the office. The vfllage and the ci im- 
munity is now being ser\ ed by a rural route out <it the count)- seat. Dora 
l-'aikert has the only store in the hamlet : b'aikert Brothers handle farming 
inT]>lejnents. coal and building supplies. 

ALPINE. 

The \'illage of .\lpine. located iu the eastern jiart of Columbia town- 
ship, owes its origin to the mills erected there during the early settlement 
of the count\-. The lirst luill in the township was a saw-mill erected about 
1814 by Allen Crisler at the north end of the \illage. A postoffice was 
established ^'ebruar^• J4. 1868. with William T. l.imjius ;is postmaster. 

Alpine is a station mi tlie Cbicag(j, Cincinnati, Clexeland and St. Louis 
railroad, about seven miles south of Connersville and foiu" miles north of 
Laurel, the banking point for the village. Idie noi)ulation is about sixty. 
E. 1. Chance conducts a general store and is also postmaster, railroad and 
e.Kpress agent. The industries include two saw-mills, one operated b\ Sher- 
wood Brothers and the other by Shuttleworth & Stone. 

A postoffice was established here on I'"ebruary 24, 1868, and the fol- 
lowing postmasters with their dates of ser\ice are herewith included: Will- 
iam T. I.impus, 1868-1876: l-jlwin J. Thom])son. 1876- i87f): Jejjtba 1). 
Newhouse, 1879-1880: luiphrates I. Chance, i88o-i()i7. 

HEREIN. 

Berlin was one of the villages which came into existence as the result 
of the building of the canal. It was laid out In Dr. I'hilip Ma.son, who 
was also the proprietor, and recorded October 2(), 1838. It was a ])reten- 
tious village — on paper — of seventy-three lots and was located about half 
way lietween Nulltown and \l])ine (section 23, township 13, range 12). on 
the west side of the canal. It may be better defmeil to the ])resent generation 
as being located at the crossing of the second road south of Xulltown and 
the river road. There was never much of a \illage at this point. The best 
evidence on the village gives it a shoe sho]) owned by Morgan T. N'ardiman. 



222 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

a store 1>elonging to S. Brown, a i)hysician named John Turner and a few 
dwellins^ houses. As a 'trading center it could not comi>ete with Nulltown 
to the north and Alpine to the south, and within a few years it ceased to 
have anything which might give it the right to be called a village. Appar- 
ently it was born only to die and can hardly he called a town at any stage 
of its brief career. 



CONNEKSVII.I.E TOWNSHIP. 

Connersville township, one of the five townships of the county organ- 
ized February 9. 1810, was set off as follows: "Beginning at the south- 
west comer of section 5, township i_^. range 13: thence west to the western 
extremity of said county of Fayette; thence north four miles; thence east 
to the line dividing sections 20 and 17, in township 14, range 12; thence east 
to the northeast corner of section 20. in townshi]) 14, range 13; thence south 
to place of beginning." Thus the township included as much territory as 
it does today, with the addition of the two northern tiers of sections of 
Orange township, and the two southern tiers of sections of Fairview town- 
ship. W^ith the creation of Orange township February 18, 1822, Conners- 
ville township was left with its present limits. 

The township is the largest in the county, containing thirty-two full 
sections of land. An examination of the original entries of the township 
discloses the fact that practicalh- all of the township had been entered before 
the county was organized in iSiQ. Tiie first' land entities wei-e recorded in 
181 I, no less than twenty settlers entering land in that }-ear. The last entry 
was made in 1833. .\ comj)lete list of the land entries of the township, 
described by township, range and section, is exhibited in the following table: 



I 



■Vm- 


Scifions 


'/ T, 


:f'ush 


> !.^ 


.\' 


irth. Raii^ 


ic 12 Easf. 


.Section i- 


-Sold in 


81 t. 


1813 


and 


18 


7 to Jere 


m'ah Worsham. James 


'i'eudy. Nathan 


Aldridge 


and 


Basil 


Roberts 






Section 2- 


-Sold in 


t8ii 


and 


j8i2 


tfi 


V/illiam 


McConkey. Roberts & 


Birson, Arthur 


Dixon ar 


d J(jhn Reed. 








Section 3- 


-Sold in 


.811 


anil 


t8i 


4 t 


Joshua 


Porter. John V^ance, 


Sanuiel Snodgrass ami J 


unes 


Kitch 


en. 








Section ).- 


-Sold in 


18,3 


and 


1814 


to 


William 


onner, John Thomas, 



Josejih X'ance and Thomas Oully. 
Section 5— Si^ld in 1814 and 
and William Dailev. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 223 

T7V0 Scctii)i!s of Toziiislnf^ 13 Xortli. Range 13 East. 

Section 5 — Sold in 1814 and 1S15 to Daniel Xorris, John Milliner and 
Cornelius Cummins. 

Section 6- Sold in ]8ii, i8i.:^ and 1814 to Samuel llarlan, Richard 
Thomas. Cornelius \\'illianis and Thomas Bray. 

Eic/litrrii Sections of 7'o:K'iisliip 14 North. Range 12 East. 

Section ii)-— Sold in i8_>i, 1822, 1824 and 1830 to John Huston, .Scott 
Horsely, Isaac Martin, A. R. ( )rr. David, Milton and Benjamin Huston. 

Section 20 — Sold in 1811 and 1813 to Timothy Orr, Zachariah Glover. 
John Henderson and William Demnan. 

Section 21 — Sold in 181 1 and 1813 to David Milton, Paul Davis, 
HenjaiTiin Bond and William Bennett. 

Section 22— Sold in 1811 and 1814 to Richard Tyner, Piatt B. Dixon, 
.Adam Hamilton and James DeHaven. 

Section it, — .Sold in. 181 j. 1812 and 1815 to Lewis Johnson. John 
Conner, Benjamin Sailor, l.arkin Sims and .\. Baily. 

Section 24 — Sold in 181 1 and 1812 to Jacob Cass. Jacob Hacklenian, 
Benjamin Sailor and Noah Beaucamp. 

Section 25 — Sold in 181 1 and 1812 to James .\dair. Alexander Saxon. 
John Conner and A. Thar]). 

Section 26— Sold in 1811. 1814 and 1815 to A. Hathaway. Jonas Will- 
iams, Jolm Perin and James Port. 

Section 27 -Sold in 1813, 1814 and 1815 to -Xbner I'.rdl. John Hender- 
son, Smith 1-ane and William Hall. 

Section 28 — Sold in 1813, 1814. 1815 and 1816 to John Fallen. James 
-Alexander, Thomas .Smith and James Smith. 

Section 29 — Sold in 1813. i8ij. 1815 and i8i() to Alexander Saxon, 
James .Alexander, James Smith and Jonas Williams. Jr. 

Section 30 — Sold in 18 14. 1820 and 1823 to William Sparks. Jonathan 
I'.ddy. Ira ^^'i!cox. John AlcOary and John McMillan. 

Section 31 — Sold in r8i2, 1820, 1821 and \^2t, to Hezekiah .Mount, 
John Crejj^-,, T<mathan Wilson- and Sanu»el -finnis. 

Section 32 — Sold in 1813. 181 4, 1816 and 1833 to John \'ance. Will- 
iam Weir, William Bridges and James (ireer. 

Section 33 — Sold in 181 1, 1814 and 1817 to Joseph Justice, William 
Snodgrass, John Huehes and Piatt E. Dixon. 



224 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Section _:;4 — Sold in ]8ii, 1813 and 1814 to Thomas Reed, Moses 
Lockiiart, James Brownlee and Thomas Hinkson. 

Section 35 — Sold in 181 1 and 1813 to John Russell, Joseph Miner, 
John Perin, H. Sailor and B. Sailor. 

Section 36 — Sold in 1811 and 1813 to .Arthur Di.xon, William Sparks, 
Larkin .Sims and W'illiam Denman. 

Sis Si\-fi(>iis (if 'fdiciishit' 14 Nortli. Range 13 East. 

Section 19 — Sold in 181 1 to .Abraham Heaton, David Heaton. Robert 
Brown and Jacob Case. 

Section 20 — Sold in 1812 and 1813 to (leorgc Death. K. Homar, James 
Death, .Sr., and Thomas Brown. 

Section jq — Sold in 1813, 1814 and 1815 to Isaac Martin, Joel White, 
James Ward and I'hineas McCra\-. 

Section 30 — Sold in rSii to Robert Brown, George Fragin, John 
Hughes and George R. Adair. 

Section 31 — Sold in 181 1 to Samuel Harlan. 

Section 32 —.Sold in 1814 and i8r5 to James Freel, Daniel Conner, 
Roliert Williams and John ^^'iison. 

The first settlement in the to\vnshi]> w;is clustered around the trading- 
post estahlLshed Ijv John Conner. The history of Connersx'ille township is 
larg-elv the history of the count}- seal, which for many x'ears has contained 
more than half of the ]K)pulation of the cinii-ity. In 1910 the total popula- 
tion of the county was 14,415, while the population of Conner.sville and East 
Conners\-ille combined was 8,444. 

The list of original land entries has been given, but in this township, as 
in all other t(-)w-nships of the count}-, many of those who entered land never 
settled on it. Since there was no land in the county open for entry before 
181 1, all of the settlers prior to that date were "squatters" :uid were nomin- 
allv under the jurisdiction of either b'ranklin or Wa}ne counties, both of 
which were organized in 181 1. In fact, if the year 1808 is taken as the 
date for the hrst .settlement in tlie count}-, that of John Conner, it follows 
that there was a period of more than ten }-ears that the territory now compre- 
hended within tl-ie limits of Fayette count}- was a j^arl of either Franklin or 
W'a}ne counties. 

When John Conner conceixed the idea of la}-ing- out a tow-n in 1813, 
he ]irobabl\- had no idea that it would ever lie a county seat. If tradition 
ma\- be trusted in any wa\', the town of Waterloo rather than Conners^'ille 
was l(-)oked upon as the future count}- seat of a count}- which was to l)e 
org-anized out of parts of bTanklin and Wayne C(junties. In the organization 




CENTRAL AVENUE, LOOKING NORTH IN AN EARLY DAY. 











: OVER WHITE WATER RIVER, TORN DOWN IN 1887. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 225 

of the county tlie fact was set forth that the iiurtheni limit of l*"rankiin 
county was the present houndary hue I>etween Conners\'ille and Harrison 
townships of Fayette county. Consequently, the history of Connersville 
township from 1808 until haxette county was ort;anized on February 8. i8i(;. 
is a part of the history of franklin cotinty. 

As has been stated, practically all of the land in the townshi]) had been 
entered prior to the ori^ani/ation of the county, although as late as 181 5, it 
seems that there were not more than three or four houses on the present 
site of Ctmnersville. A large number of the men who entered land during" 
the War of 1812^— that is, Ijetween the years of 1812 and 1815 — did not 
settle on their holdings until after the close of the war. While there is no 
record of any trouble with the Indians during this period, yet there is no 
doubt that it was because of the Indians that the tirst settlers did not locate 
with their families until after the treaty of peace with England. In the 
history of other townships of the coitnty references have been made to block 
houses which were built to provide protection against the Indians, and, as 
far as is now known, the block house which stood on the present site of 
Connersville was built for the purpose of housing all of the settlers of the 
vicinity in case of an Indian uprising. 

Prior to 1815 the following families located within the liiuits of Con- 
nersville township : 

John Conner probably settled on the site of Connersville in 1808 and 
for at least three years was the only white man li\ iiig in the township. He 
had an Indian wife, talked her language and existed solely b\- bartering with 
his Indian friends. In 181 r .Mexander Saxon came with his famil\- from 
Georgia and settled on the southeast (|uarter'of section 25, now within the 
limits of Conners\ille. and established a ferry across the river near his cabin. 
The onl}- other settler to \enlure into the township in 1811 for permanent 
settlement appears to have been John Perin, a native of Massachusetts, who 
entered a part of section 26 in that year and at once located upon it. This 
section adjoins the city of Conners\'ille on the southwest. 

The War of 181 2 naturally hindered the settlement of the township, 
Init a few sturdy settlers )>raved the Indians and located in the townshij) in 
the year the war o])ened. ibises I.ockhart and Thomas K'eed. both of Ken- 
tucky, were among the lirst to arrive in the township in the s])ring of 181 2. 
Joseph Minor. John and Thomas Reed, Parkin Sims and Tobias Smith 
appeared to have made up the group of settlers who ctnie into the town- 
ship (luring 1812. It is not known whether all of these men liroug-lit their 
(15) 



226 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

families with them, but they became permanent settlers and either l)r(iu£jht 
their families at this time or the following year. 

The }'ear 1813 saw a few more settlers locating in the township. 
Thomas .Sargent, a native of North Carolina, later a resident of Virginia, 
still later ( 1807) a resident of Kentucky, came to Connersville township in 
1813 and settled along the river south of the county seat. After Rush county 
was organized he entered land in that county and soon afterward left Fayette 
county for his new home. There were undoubtedly other settlers in tlie 
township in 1813, but it is impossilile to determine who they were. 

The year 1814 saw the close of the War of 1812, Init there was still 
sufficient apprehension of the Indians to keep the settlers who had entered 
land in the township from settling on it. Among those who located here 
in that year were Thomas Hinkson, a native of Ireland, who had come to 
America in 1791 and located in .\dams county, Ohio. In February, 1814. 
he came to Connersville township and settled in section 34 on land which 
he had entered two years previously. Hinkson became the first surveyor of 
the comity and served in this capacity for several years. He did much of 
the early surveying, not only in Fayette county but also in adjoining counties. 
He laid out the tirst addition to Connersville. He died in 1850. John Phil- 
pott, a native of Kentucky, arrived in the township in the fall of 18 14. 
About the same time William Sj^arks, James Adair and Samuel Harlan, all 
of South Carolina, settled in the township. Still others to reach the town- 
ship in the fall of 1814 were Nathan Aldridge, James Tweedy, Cornelius 
Williams, William Kdwards. J. F. Marshall and Benjamin Booe. 

It was not until the spring of 1815 that it was known that the War 
of 18 1 2 -had closed, General Jackson fighting the battle of New Orleans on 
January 7, 1815, and this occurring about three weeks after the treaty had 
been signed. From this year emigration to Fayette county was very rapid 
and by the time the county was organized in 1819 there were settlers scat- 
tered all over Connersville township. In fact, they came in so fast that it 
is impossible to trace them year b\- year. Among those who located here 
in 1815 may l)e mentioned the following: Nathaniel Hamilton, two of 
whose sons were in the War of 1812, the family then living in Franklin 
county ; .Stanhope and Robert Royster, the former of whom served as asso- 
ciate judge and county commissioner : Benjamin Sailor, who had lived in 
Franklin county for a number of years ; Paul Davis and James Alexaufler. 
1x)th of South Carolina : Zachariah Glover and two others., Hazielrigg and 
Lacy by name. 

It is not possible, even if it were profitable, to list the heads of all of 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 227 

the families who located in the township prior to 1820. The population 
of the county in 1820 was three thousand nine hundred and fifty and it is 
undoubtedl)- true that C^oimersville townshi]) had a heavier population than 
anv other township in the comity. \n enumeration of some of the leading 
families of the township who settled here before 1820 is given in the suc- 
ceeding paragraphs. 

James Brownlee. a native of Ohio, first settled in Franklin county, 
whence he was sent as one of the delegates to frame the state Constitution. 
He moved on to this coiuJt} and town^ip about 18 16. and ..soon aftcFward 
was chosen as one of the associate judges. In 1813 Douglass Burton, a 
native of South Carolina, moved his family to Kentucky and from thence 
to land north of Conners\ ille. where the father died the following summer; 
the widow with her family thus moved onto what is now the farm of the 
county infirmary. John Swift, along with his parents, natives of New Jer- 
sey, first made a tempc^rary settlement in Ohio and in 1818 settled i>er- 
manently in ConnersviHe township. .Although coming from Virginia, the 
same • can be-'said-of William- Jones,- who came -here with -his parents frrtm 
Kentucky in 1 816. 

Jonathan John came from Kentucky in 1816 and settled near the village 
of ConnersviHe. He was one of the first business men of the village and 
was an intimate friend of John Conner. He died in 1838. The Ru.ssell, 
Martin and McCrory families settled in the township about i8ig. Jeremiah 
Worghaman, a \"irginian, was one of the very early settlers along the river, 
entering land about iSii. John Baily removed from Kentucky to the village 
of ConnersviHe in 1819 and shortly afterward located on a farm five miles 
north. Those who settled in the township in 181 7 were, William Edwards, 
from IVIaryland, Rawlston Shields, from Pennsylvania, and probably -W. H. 
H. Tate. Another early settler was Thomas White, a native of Tennessee. 

What is thought to be the first frame house in the township, outside 
of the village of Conners\ ille, was erected on the farm of Larkin Sims alxint 
1818 and was built by John Perin. 

EARLY SCHOOLS. 

As early as 181 5 there were a sufficient number of families along Will- 
iams creek and in the Hinkson neighborhood to justify a school, of which 
Thomas Hinkson. Sr.. was the teacher. Hinkson had received a liberal 
education in the Catholic schools of his native state .and taught in the settle- 
ment for a niunber of vears. A small school was taught close to this settle- 



228 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ment in 1819 by a young lady whose name was Ingham. John Justice, 
Hannah Hathaway and Alilhe Perin were also early teachers in the same 
school. Located in the southeastern part of the township was another 
school built at an early date and taught by Jonathan Shields. 

EARLY INDU.STRIE.S. 

Doubtless the first industry of any kind in the township was a grist- 
mill owned by John Reed and built in 18 14. The first building was built of 
logs in their natural state, but during the following year a frame building- 
was constructed. The exact location cannot be ascertained, but it was on 
Williams . creek alx)Ut three or four miles below Connersville. John A. 
White was one of the early carpenters and assisted in the construction of 
the saw-mill which was added. Prior to 1819 and as early as 1820 John 
Vance and John Hughes operated grist-mills on the same stream. 

It is quite a noticeable fact that all of the early industries were located 
along Williams creek. In 1818 James Brownlee built a carding and fulling- 
mill and also a saw-mill in connection. About 1825 the same man erected 
a building for a grist-mill, but the mill was never put into operation. A 
man.bv the name of Buckley later purchased the property and removed the 
carding machine into the building built for the grist-mill. Saw-mills were 
also operated by Avery Gates and Miller & Clink. Subsequently William 
Miller became the owner of the latter and added a still-house and an oil-mill. 
In the northwestern part of the township and on the same stream an early 
saw-mill was built bv John Kellum. He also operated a grist-mill in the 
same neighborhood. 

Thomas Moffett was the owner of two grist-mills, one in Harrison 
township, built by John Philpott, and the other in Connersville township, 
erected in 1847. There was also a saw- and grist-mill located on Village 
creek, built and operated, in 1829 by Qiristian Furry. ]\Ioses Wolverton is 
supposed to have been the first owner. 

Stills were so numerous that it is impossible to mention all of the 
owners, but among the many were Thomas Burris, Glover Perin, John Perin, 
John Reed, William Miller, Tobias Smith, Larkin Sims, William Thompson 
and James Vance. 

LONGWOOD. 

The hamlet of Longwood is located in the northwestern part ofCon- 
nfersville township on the Indianapolis and Cincinnati electric line. On 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 229 

December [5, 1832, a ijostoffice was established at rhilix)tts Mills. William 
Philpott Ijcing the postmaster from 1832 to 1837. On April 3, 1837, the 
office was changed to Longwood. The following persons served as post- 
masters: Ross Smiley, 1837-1861; Thomas Mofifett, 1861- September 28, 
1868 (discontinued); Philip N. Marks, March 25, 1872 (re-established), 
to 1873; Samuel M. Atherton, 1873-1876; Matthew P. Hawkins, 1876-1879; 
William C. Moftett. 1870. 

EAST CONNER.SVILI.E. 

East Connersville, a village of about seven hundred people, is located 
a half mile east of Connersville, on the east side of the West- fork of -White 
Water, and on the Cincinnati, Indianapolis & Western railroad. The town is 
really a part of Connersville, but has its sejKirate town government. The 
village was laid out and platted by Basil McCann in October, 1857. Not 
many years passed until the little town was provided with a brick school 
building and several thriving industries. The industries of the present time 
include the following: C. C. Miller, general store; Charles H. Rigor, 
grocer; John W. Jones, grocer; J. S. Petro, grocer; Dora Ball, grocer; 
Walter Newell, confectionery; East Side Fuel Company ( E. E. and A. V. 
Henry) ; National Burial Vault Company, Joseph Woodward. The latest 
industry in the town is the Moorish tile factory, which began operations in 
the spring of 1917. Its plant is located along the Cincinnati, Indianapolis & 
Western tracks at the east side of the town. This plant manufactures all 
kinds of plain and decorative tiling for floors and a wide variety for other 
interior furnishings. 

East Conners\-ille is connected with Conners\'ille by a cement highway, 
which is continued south through the town to the cor]X)ration limits. 

Within the last few years several handsome residences have been built 
in the town. .\n excellent school is maintained, including instruction in 
all of the common branches. The religioijs life is cared ff>r by an active 
church organization. 



FAIiniEW TOWNSIIII 



I'airview. the last township organized in the count), was created l)y the 
county conmiissioners on December 4, 1851, out of jiarts of Harrison and 
Orange townships. Its boundaries as first defined lia\e not been clianged 



230 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

and are as follows: "Beginning- at the southeast corner of section 25, town- 
ship 14, range 11. running thence west three miles to the Fa3'ette and Rush 
county lines: thence north six miles on said line to the southwest corner of 
Posey township ; thence east three miles to the range line ; thence south six 
miles to the place of beginning." 

This is the only township in the county which lies wholh' within the 
new purchase of 1818, and consec|uently none of its territory was entered 
until after 1820. However within three years practically the entire town- 
.sliip had been disposed of to enterprising settlers. The complete list of land 
entries follows: 

Township 14 North. Range ii East. 

Section i — Sold in 1820 and 1821 to Hugh and William Dickey, 
Stephen Hull and James B. Reynolds. 

Section 2 — Sold in 1820, 1821 and 1824 to John Stephens, Samuel 
Shortridge, James B. Revnokls, Jonathan Wallace, .\nanias Gifford and 
Harrison Baker. 

Section 3 — Sold in 1821 and 1823 to John Wheeler, John Smelser and 
Benjamin B. Isles. 

Section 10 — Sold in 1822. 1824, 1825 and 1828 to Jeremiah Jeffery, 
John Wallace, John Hair, Ira .\lward, William Jeffery and Zachariah Parish. 

Section 11 — Sold in 1820. 182Q and 1831 to Michael Brown, Hugh 
Dickey, Solomon Gifford and I^ewis Robinson. 

Section 12 — Sold in 1820, 182T, 1830, 1832 and 1833 to James Smith, 
John Darter, Minor Meeker, Daniel Campbell, David Scott. Philip Bilby and 
Samuel Davis. 

Section 13 — Sold in 1820, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1829 and 1830 to William 
Smiley, John Ellis, John Bogar, John Philpott, John Smith. Andrew JNfoffitt 
and Joshua Wallace. 

Section 14 — Sold in 1820 and 1823 to Ross Smiley. Jacob Kinder, 
Thomas Smilev. Thomas Keaton. James Putman and Houseworth. 

Section 15 — Sold in 1820. 1821, 1823 and 1830 to James Smiley, 
Thomas McConnell, William Parker, Jacob \si)augh, John Clifford, J. Justice 
and A. Sloan. 

Section 22 — Sold in 1822 and 1S30 to Joseph Putenny, Robert McCrory, 
George Heizer, John Rees and Samuel Heizer. 

Section 23 — Sold in 1821 and 1822 to Thomas McConnell, Thomas 
Moffitt and fohn Morrison. 



FAVKTTI-; COIXTY. INDIANA. 2_^T 

Section 24 — Sold in iSjo, i8_m. i8j_> and 1831 to Jonatlian luldy, John 
Jake, John Kee.s, Jr., David Stewart. John Darter and John Kee.s. 

Section 25 — Sold in 1820 and 1827 to \.\'iniani F. Conashv, John 
Ryburn, Alexantler Rnssell and William Iannis. 

Section 26 — Sold in 1820, 1821, 1822 and 1828 to Ale.xander Russell, 
William H. Pulenny, l^phraim Frazee, John Rees and William \ash. 

Section 2y — Sold in 1821, ^822 and 1823 to William Banks. John 
Morris. W^illiam Finder. Ixichard Xash and John McColm. 

T(m')isliip 15 Xorlli. Raiujc 11 Hast. 

Section 34 — Sold in 1822 and 1823 to Ira Starr, John (iifford, John 
i'attison, Samuel B. Fouden, John Murphy and Fdward Pattison. 

Section 35 — Sold in 1822, 1823 and 1824 to Joseph Relfe, James Beak- 
ley, William Brooks, Thomas Fegg, William Feer and .\braham Baker. 

Section 36 — Sold in 1821 and 1822 to William Dickey, Trueman Mnn- 
.ger, lulward R. Mnnger and William Berkle)-. 

The period of immigration into l<"airvie\v township began about 1820 
and, roughly speaking, extended o\ er a period of nearly ten years. FIow- 
c\-er, it ma\- be saifl that there were a few settlers prior to the date men- 
tioned and among tiiem was C'b.arles Williams, a young man from New 
^'ork. lie settled in section 12 and to him is given the credit of being 
the first .settler in the township. He was a caqDenter by trade and during 
the pioneer days was identified with the erection of many of the earl_\^ houses 
in this section of the country. 

.\mong the settlers who became permanent residents ui the township 
in 1810 were ^^'illiam Xels<in. William and Alexander Russell, who located 
in the northern ])art of the township, and John Ryburn. Two vears later 
another tide of immigrants came in, among whom were Andrew Nelson, 
Robert Mctrory, Sr., John Rees, Sr., and his son John, Rol>ert Hastings. 
Matthew Hastings, Richard Nash and Ananias Gifford. Not far from the 
same time came .Sanuiel Knot, .Xbraham Kinder, from \'irginia, and Samuel 
and George Heizer, from .\'ew Jersey. All located southeast of the village 
of Fairview. 

In 1825 Josiah I'i]>er and family and Fllis D. McConnell settled in the 
vicinity of Falmouth and in the northern part of the township respectivclv. 
Hugh and William Dickew emigrating from Kentucky, located in the north- 
ern tier of sections in 1X25. 

.\mong other pioneers in this localitx' were Ross Shiile\-, William Fear, 



232 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Collin Banister, Jacob Ashpaw, John Hawkins, Samuel Shortridge, James 
Runnels, John Rees, G. Saxon, Zachariah Parish, Thomas Keaton, John 
Baker, David Baker. James McConnell, the Jacks family, Andrew Moffett, 
P. M. Wiles, Joseph Booe, Ezekiel Parish, John Gifford, John Bates and 
Daniel Rhea. 

There being no roads at the time of the advent of the early settlers, 
they were obliged to cut out the undergrowth in order to reach their respec- 
tive homes. The pioneers underwent hardships and endured inconveniences 
that seem almost unbelievable in the present day. An instance is told of 
how the Pipers resided for some time !:>}■ the side of a large poplar tree that 
had fallen, or until their cabin was built and ready for occupancy. They 
were compelled to carry water for family use about three-fourths of a mile 
and the onh' vessel was a five-gallon-Jteg'. They were so far distant from 
their neighbors that weeks and even months passed without seeing anvone 
outside of their own family. 

There were very few industries during the early i>eriod. Frank Jeffre\- 
operated a tan-yard on the Jeffrey land. There have been very few mills 
and industries in this section. The pioneers and subsequent residents of the 
township have depended upon the mills of neighboring subdivisions for such 
conveniences, in about 1838 John Mofititt operated a saw-mill on Williams 
creek and on the Nelson land. Joshua Wallace also operated a saw-mill 
near the one owned by John Moffitt. 

THE FIRST SCHOOL HOUSE. 

The first school house in the township was erected in 1825 and stood 
a half mile east of jNIoftitt's crossing, and was then in the third district of 
Orange township. A vivid description given by an old pioneer follows : 
"It was of round logs, afterward hewed down; clap-l)oard roof; no chim- 
ney, but a stone fireplace in the center of the ])uncheon floor; a flue, built 
of sticks and mortar, rested on six posts; the fire lieing in the center of the 
house, all parts of the room were heated equalh-. The crevices of the house 
were closed with mortar except those fn^nting the writing-desks, where 
they were enlarged to furnish light, which was -a<4mitAed^.tbrougii grea.sed 
paper which was pasted to frames fitted to those apertures." Jonas Price 
taught the first school in this house in the fall of 1826. 

The first school house in what is now Fairview township was Jmilt in 
about 1827 on the Jefifre}- land and the first school was taught b\- Thomas 



FAYF.TTK COfNTY. INDIANA. 233 

Dawson. Alxuit twn \ears later a sciioul liouse was ercctL'tl in the northern 
part (if the tnwnsliip and Jdlm [.et;.y was one of the first teachers. 



The village of I*"air\ iew is a settlement in l-'airview township on the 
Rush county line. ilie hamlet was laid out on land owned by \V. W. 
Thrasher, but the date is not known. The first house built in the village 
was a log structure, erected b\- William Towers about 1828. The first 
merchant to o|)en a store was John McClure ;ind lie was succeeded by Bird- 
sail &- Company, in 1835. William Mofifitt became tiie successor to this 
firm. A man named X'anvalkenlnirt;- was probalilx' tlie first l)Iacksmith. He 
was followed by Brown ISrothers ami tiiey 1)\- William Irwin. l'"airview was 
made a postoftice, l-eliruarv 17. 1835. with Woodson W. 'I'hraslier as [xist- 
master. The office was discontinued, .August 3. 1836. A postoffice was 
again estal)lished here, b'ebruary 7, 1840, under the name of Groves. John 
McClure was the postmaster and served until 1845. i fe was followed by 
Arthur Miller, who served only about a \ear. \\'i!liam Clifford was the 
next postmaster and served until May 14, 1847. At this time the name of 
the postoffice was changed to Melrose, with John Abernathv as postmaster. 
He held the office until Jmie 12. 1840, when the name of the office was again 
given the name of Croves and \\'illi;uii Clift'ord. Jr.. became the postmaster. 
Following is a com])lete list of jiostmasters with their dates of service: 
William Clifford. Jr.. t84()-i8:;2: Jacob B. Power, .\ugust 7, 1852. to 
November 12, 18^2: William B. Clifford, 1832-1853: William A. Bu.sh. 
1853-1858: Smith b>y. i838-i85(): T.eander C. McConnell, 1859-1860: 
Thomas Moffett, i86o-r8f)i: Chri.stian Wiles, 1861-1865; John McClure. 
1865-1871 ; Joseph W. droves, 1871-1878; T.afayette Groves, 1878-1880; 
b'hn McClure, 1880-1881 : Caroline Caldwell. 1881. 



The \illage of b'almoutb is located in the northwestern part of Fair- 
view to-wnship,, on tlie- Rush county line and is a station on the Httsburgh, 
Chicago, Cincinnati and .^t. Louis railroatl. The town-site was surveyed by 
Thomas Hink.son, July 24. 1832. on the land belonging to James and Flijah 
Patterson and Patrick McCann. Vdditions were made in 1838 by Kdward 
L. McGee. Stephen Isles and Jeremiah Jeffery. 

William Smith bears the distinction of Iwilding the first house on the 



::'34 fayette county, Indiana. 

I'avette county side. Among the first merchants were P. Shawhan, WilHani 
Stewart and John Birdsall. .\n early caljinet-maker was John Carr, who 
had a tnrning-lathe and manufactured all kinds of furniture. 

The village is in the center of a rich farming community and a large 
amount of grain and live stock is shipped each year from this place. It 
has one bank. A. E. Bilby, cashier, and a number of industries. Among its 
business enterprises may be enumerated the following: Wilbur E. Chance, 
general store and postmaster; Jacoli Gross, grain elevator and coal: Eal- 
mouth Mutual Telephone Company; E. H. Hackleman, undertaker; Shelby 
D. Davidson. wag(in-maker and blacksmith: Charles W. PJeck, general store; 
Lenna Benson, grocer: .Mfred Collyer, general store: G. H. Cummings, 
cigars and pool; W. S. Thompson, blacksmith; \\'illiam Higle\- & Son, 
blacksmith and implements; h'almouth Natural Gas Comjiany; D. C. Allen 
is the express and telegraph agent. 



HARRISON TOWNSHII'. 

Harrison township, one of the five townships organized liy the com- 
missioners in 1819, at iirst included all of its present territory, all of Posey 
township, the northern two-thirds of l^'airview township and that part of 
Waterloo township l>etween \Vhite Water and the range line dividing sec- 
tions T,2, 5, 8 and 17 and sections 33, 4, Q and 16. It was reduced in size 
at the time Waterloo township was organized, h'ebruary 12, 1821, at which 
time all that part of Harrison east of ^Vhite \\'ater became a part of Water- 
loo township. Harrison was next decreased when Posey township was 
organized, h^ebruary, 1823, the new township of Posey being given its present 
limits. The third and last change in the boundary of Harrison township 
was result of the organization of Eairview township, December, 185 1. 

Harrison township lies within the twelve-mile purchase with the excep- 
tion of about five sections along the western side of the township. It was 
practically all entered at the time the county was organized, all or a part of 
every section having been sold before i8i(). 

A complete list of the land entries is shown in the following schedule; 

Tuzviixli-ip 15 Xortli, Range 12 East. 

Section 31 — Sold in 1821 and 1822 to A\"illiam Dickey, Hugh Dickey, 
Minor Meeker, lohn Dailev, Ebenezer W. b'inev and Collen Smith. 



l-'AVIM TK COlNri'. INliIAXA. _',^5 

Section j^_' — Sold in 1S14, iSji and iNjj tn Willi.nn liakcr. Minor 
Thomas, Tiioinas Shijilcx- and tra Starn. 

Section ,:3-Sol,l in iSii to Jolm Tvner, Jo.scph (ai.iweli. Richard 
Tvner. 

Section 34— Sold in iSii. iNij and 181,:; to John l'hilli|.s. Train Cald- 
well. Solomon Hornlx and Isaac Willson. 

Section 35 — Sold in i8i_', iNi,:^ and 1814 to Reason Davis. Charles 
Davis. William Willson .and John Ward, 

Section j,(> — Sold in 1811 to Larkin Sims. Thomas Carter and Isaac 
Willson. 

Section 31 — Sold in 1811 and i8r_' to John I'eard. John Hardin and 
E. Harding'. 

7'ira'iisltif> T4 Xort!:. Raiii^c [3 luist. 

Section h— Sold in 1811. 1812 and 1816 to J.)hn Grcwell. Andrew 
Tliorp and Edward Wehh. 

Section 7— Sold in i8ii and \>'\2 to Silas C,re,t;-g-. l^dward Wehh. /a- 
dock Smith. 

Section 18-— Sold in 1811 to Ehenezer Heaton .and Archihald Reed. 

'/'('Ti'H.v/n'/i 14 North. Ruiii^c u Hast. 

Section i — Sold in 181 1 and 1813 to George Geage. Jacoh Shreller and 
Charles Roysdon. 

Section 2 — Sold in 181 1 and 1815 to James Daugherty. John White 
and Wier Cassady. 

Section ^--Sold in 1811. 1813 and 1814 to James Caldwell. Jesse 
\\'ehl), and Isaac Hackleman. 

Section 4— Sold in 181 1, 1813 .and i8]4 lo Alexander Dale. William 
Henderson. Jose])h Caldwell and Joseph Dale. 

Section 5 — Sold in 1811 .and 1820 (fractional) to Willi.am .McCarty. 
John McCarty. William Jeti'rey <ind John I. Morrison. 

Section 6 — Sold in 1820 and 1821 to William Birch. John 1 Johnson. 
Hugh Dickey, David Anderson. Ira Starr and M. Meeker. 

Section 7 — Sold in 1820 and 1822 to John Hawkins. .Matthew Haw- 
kins. William Dickey, John I. [ohnson and Erancis Ellinwcmd. 

Section 8 — Sold in 181;, and 1820 to William Dickey (fractional). 

Section <) — Sold in i8r2 rind 1814 to James Joh. Alexander Dale. John 
Murphy and John Under. 



236 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Section 10 — Sold in 181 4 to Isaac Seward, John Peawell, Eli Scotten, 
William Bell and Richard Tyner. 

Section 11 — Sold in 1812 and 1813 to Samuel DeHaven, John Brad- 
burn and William Henderson. 

Section 12 — Sold in 181 1, 1812 and 1813 to William Webb, James 
Nichols, Archibald Johnson and George Hollingsworth. 

Section 13 — Sold in 181 1, 1812 and 1813 to John Perkins, Robert 
McCormick and John McCormick. 

Section 14 — Sold in t8ii, 1812 and 1813 to Joel Dickens, Lewis John- 
son, Asa Stone and Forest Webb. 

Section 15 — Sold in 181 1 and 1815 to Forest Webb, Lewis Johnson 
and James Smith. 

Section If) — Reserved for school purposes. 

Section 17 — Sold in 1813 to John Orr and Alatthew Hawkins (frac- 
tional ) . 

Section 18 — Sold in 1820, 1821 and 1829 to John Darter, John Haw- 
kins, William Saxon, William Philpott, Stephen Philpott and John Philpott. 

.\mong the earliest settlers of the township were the Caldwells, who 
lirst emigrated from North Carolina to Preble county, Ohio, and in 181 1 
removed to what is now the present township. There were four brothers, 
all of whom had families. L^pon the approach of the War , of 1812 they all 
returned to Ohio, Ixit in 1814 returned to their possessions. Li order to 
be secure a block house was built on section 34. 'Hie block house was of 
the usual style, being picketed by an outer fence. 

A year after the coming of the Caldwells, came Patrick McCarty and 
John C, Smith. Smith was a scjldier of the War of 181 2. His son, W'ill- 
iam Al., long identified with the hi.story of the county, was born in a bliKk- 
house some miles west of Brook\'ilIe in the fall of 1812. 

John Tyner and wife, natives of North Carolina, first settled in Frank- 
lin county, and in 1913 relocated in what became Fayette county. Tyner 
became one of the first board of commissioners and died in 1822. William 
McCarty was one of the early settlers and was one of the chain carriers of 
the surveying party which in 1817 sur\eyed the lands of the "New Pur- 
chase." 

Joseph and Alexander Dale, emigrating from Kentucky, settled in the 
township in 1813. Airs. Eliza Florea, daughter of Joseph Dale, was born in 
the township in 1815. She used to relate the story of how the Indians used 
to come to trade with her father and that on one occasion nearly three hun- 
dred came from the purpose, bringing with them all kinds of wild meats. 



PAYKTTE county. INDIANA. 2 i,J 

'I'heyear 1815 marked a period of great imniiqration to tliis towiisliip 
and among the niimlier were Daniel Campbell, John Savage, Jacob Xeison, 
Henry Welch and James. Robert and William Dickey. 

l-"nim i.Sici to iS_'j a number of familie.s coming from the Xew luig- 
land states settled mostly in the "Xew Purchase.'" in the northwestern part 
of the township, and founded what was known as Yankeetown. .Among 
these were Eider Minor Thomas, Joshua Wightsman, Elder Minor Meeker, 
Eleazer Car\'er, bVancis Ellinwood, Collen Smith, Stephen Ellis and likely 
several others. 

The widow of Joseph B. Shipley and the mother of Samuel J., of this 
township, .settled in the county in 1819, bringing with her several children 
from the state of Delaware. In the same year Samuel B. Ludlow, of Xew 
York, walked to the county of b'ayette and entered land at the land ofificc 
at Brook\ille. Another early settler of about the same time was William 
Monteith. 

Among others who came into the township at \arious times from 1810 
to i8j6 were Moses Ellis, who was made the tirst postmaster of the Yankee- 
town settlement, the name of the office being Plumb Orchard, John Groen- 
dyke, James C. Rea, John Thomas, the Trowbridges, David Gordoii, Jesse 
Ferguson, Capt. Robert Broaddus, Lewis Robertson, Zenas Powell, Da\id 
Wolf, Jonathan Clifford and Jesse Shaw. Shaw was for a time the miller 
at the old Goodlander mill. 

EARLY INDfSTRIES. 

The grist-mill owned by Jacob Goodlander, located in section 7 on 
the west fork of White ^Vater river, was built prior to 182^:5 and is supp(.i.sed 
to have been- the hrsl in the townshiii. Thomas Campbell was the miller for 
a number of \-ears. .\bont 1840, James Troxell built a saw and grist-mill 
ab(_)Ut two miles abo\e the Goodlrmder mill, both of which ha\e long since 
ceased to operate. 

• The first saw-mill in the townshi]) stood in section _^4. on Lick creek. 
Minor Meeker was later one of the owners and then it passed into tiie hands 
of Lewis Rorea and continued under the Florea management- until its opera- 
tion ceased. (Jn the same stream and about a mile below was a saw-mill 
built in 1830- ownerl and operated by Ca])tain Broaddus. 

In the early days the eastern part of the townshi]) was (piite a com- 
mercial center, .\long Williams creek alone there were six mills within an 
area of four miles. One factorv which was rather uncominon was that for 



238 l-AYF.TTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the luajuifaclure ni wooden bowls. Tlii.s institution was under the manage- 
ment of Anson King- and Josliua W'ightsman. 

Tlie first one of the six mills referred to was on section 6 and was 
owned by the' Kings. It w'as a griSt-mill" and ground corn only. Another 
one of the grist-mills which ground both wheat and corn was built bv 
Thomas Moft'ett and was in the southwestern part of the township. The 
other four were saw-mills, the oldest of which was located in section (> and 
built by Levi Trowbridge about 1830. Moses Ellis thought the communit\- 
needed another mill and built one on section 31. The mill was in later years 
replaced by a larger one in whicli was a turning lathe and machinery for 
the manufacture of shingles. The plant was finally moved to Bentonville b\- 
Lewis I^llis, a son. A few years subsec|uent to the construction of the Ellis 
mill another saw-mill was built in the northern part of section 31 by John 
l'"inney. The fourth one was built by John Campbell in section 7 about 1842. 
Most (jf these mills have long since ceased to operate. 

The copper stills in this township were operated by Joseph. Dale and 
Tharjie & Gorden, both prior to 1839. A' carding- machine- was 'in exist<- 
ence o]:)erated by a man named Stockdale, about 1827. Minor Meeker, Jr., 
was the ])roprietor of a tan-yard on his farni about 1835. 

Tile n-ianufacture was carried on in the northwestern part of the town- 
ship for many },ears by Ellis & Williams and later by John Payne, ex- 
county auditor. 

E.VRI.V INDUSTklKS OF HARRISON TOWNSHIP. 

The historian is indebted to E. R. Taylor, of Harrison township, for a 
\i\'i(l account of the early industries of Harrison township. He enun-ierates 
no less than twehe mills in the towushi]i, besides a number of blacksmith 
shops and other industries, all of which bad ceased operation before the Civil 
War, with the ])ossible excejftion of the P^llis mill. 

Ill Mliout I80O tliei-e w:is .1 saw-mill owned autl operated b.v a man of the name of 
riiinne.v on the farm of Omer Doniker. A half mile south of the Phinuey mill w.-is 
another built by Moses Ellis. After the death of Ellis his son, Lewis, operated the mill 
initil .'ibont 1858 or 1850, when it was moved to Bentonville and made over into a steam 
mill. I'rior to this time it had been operated by water power from Big Williams ereek. 
While the siiw-mill was still being run by water power, there was a tannery near by, 
which was owned and operated b.v Minor Meeker, ileeker was also a shoemaker and 
euiplo.ved the winter months in turning out shoes and boot.s from the leather he tanned 
during the suunner. Another shoemaker of the township was Louis Robinson. 

About half a mile below the Ellis mill ou the same ereek was the grist-mill of King 
& Wightman. They ground only corn. In connection with their grinding this firm had 



FAYETTE CdrXTV, INDIAXA. 1> V;? 

:i Inthe iilt;ieheil to tlie WMtcr wlii'el iiiid luriied out l.-iruo woodiMi linwls. A ilisiriurc 
of .■mother balf mile down tlie creek brought the enrly iiioueer to the mill nf ,i iii;iii id' 
the iiniiie of Trowbridge. ;iiul ii short distance lower down w:is foinid tlic saw-iiiill nf 
>roffitt & Perhie. This latter mill was in operation until about ISTo. 

ContinuinfT down Willi;nns creelc w.'is to lie fonnil llie mill nf Joslnia Wallace, .nid 
still farther down, the irrist-mill of Thomas Jtoltitt. Tlic saw-mill nt SlepluMi I'.ilbj was 
on .1 small stream tributiiry to Williams <'reeU. 

On Little Williams creek, on the farm now owiiwl by Henry Jlourer. was a wooli-n- 
mill which manufactured a larse amount of yarn. About a mile west of Ilarrisbiirs; 
was a nursery owned by Henry Sater. who also ni.-ule wairmis and plows for the farmers 
of the vicinity. 

In the villajre of Harrisbiir:.' lber<> were iw.i hla.Usmilh shops and mie wa-oii shop. 
The latter was oiK^-ated by Wilson T. Dale, who later moveil it to ( '(inMersville and 
established it across the street north of the Coiuiersville Lumber Comiianys otlice. There 
was even a foundry at Harrisburg early in its history. 

l/ouis Florea had .1 saw-mill on Lick creek, one mile north of Harrisburj;. (jii the 
farm now owned by Charles Bell. Near Ihe present residence of F. .S. Broaddus. his 
grandf.-ither had a .saw-mill. A blacksmith sho)) was run in the north central part of 
the township by Ira Kendall. He was known as the axe-maker, btit he also made all 
other kinds of ed.ire tools. He even made s.ins.isc i:rinders. 



Tile early settlers seemed to he wide-awake tu the itii))i)rtaiK-e ut ati 
education and as early as 1S18 a school was being taught by William Mc- 
Kemmey in a log house that stood on the land owned by John Tyner. 
Manlove Caldwell and a man by the name of Banks were also early teach- 
ers, hut after the time of McKemniey. 

The next school house in the townshii) was built between iSiS and 
1S22 in the northwest corner of section 6. William W. Thomas was ])n)b- 
ably the first teacher. In the summer of 18^3 a summer school w :i> taught 
here by M}riam Swisher. 

As -the townshi]) became more thickly populated the necessity for iiKjre 
sciiools became evident. The next log school house was l)uilt in the scxith- 
ern part of section i J. or the tiortliern part of section 13. The first teacher 
is not known, but amotig the early ones were W'ilham Xelson, Ltinsfol-d 
liroaddus and a man l)y the name of Clark. The next house for this neigli- 
borbood was built one mile north. 

Several years after the beginning of the Tyner school a building was 
erected at Harrisburg and among the first teacliers were Xelson I'enwell 
and William Thomas. 

Another of the early school houses of tiie township was built on the 
site of the Second Williams Creek Baptist church. Just when the house 



240 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

was constructed is not known, but sometime Ijefore 1837, a nian by .tbe 
name of Isaac Scare was teacbing liere at tbat time. Otber teacbers in tbe 
same building were Jasper Davis and Harriet Thomas. 

Two more scbool buildings were built soon after 1838, one being about 
one and a balf miles nortb of tbe one at the Second Williams Creek cburcb, 
and tbe other a mile south of tbe church. Among those teaching in tbe 
north bou.se were Hiram Dale. C. M. Stone. Harriet Thomas. Ann Ellis 
and Edw in Trowbridge. 

HARRISBURG. 

Harrisburg at one time was the cduimercial center of Harrison town- 
ship. Perhaps the earliest merchants were Nathaniel McClure and Lyqian 
Thomas, who. in 1828, were granted a license liy the count}- commissioners 
to keejj a grocery and sell spirituous li(|uors. Tbe firm of Lackey & Mc- 
Clure secured a license from the commissioners in July, 1827, to vend mer- 
chandise, for which they paid twelve dollars and fifty cents. ^ In i8.i8 a gen- 
eral business was conducted under the name of McClure & Dickson, and in 
1829 a similar Inisiness was conducted In- Nathaniel McClure and John 
Murphy. 

A jjostoffice was established at this jjoint, March 17. 1828, with Na- 
thaniel McClure as postmaster, b'ollowing is a complete list of die post- 
masters who ba\e held tbe otbce. along with their dates nf ser\ice : 

Nathaniel McClure. 1828-1846: Andiony Watt. i84()-iK.i7: Jacob New- 
kirk, 1847-1848: Anthony Watt, 1848-1853; Robert .McWatsou. 1853-1857: 
Oliver Caldwell, 1857-18(10 ; Wnthony Watt, 18O0-1870: Edgar J". Thomas, 
1S70-187,.;: David E. Shallsmitli, 1873-1873; John W. Foster, 1875-1879; 
b'rank T. Williams, 1879-1904, when the office was tliscontinued. Tbe vil- 
lage is now served by a rural route from Connersville. T. W. Fisher con- 
ducts tbe only store in the village. 

Tradition declares tbat tbe people of Harrisl)urg cberisberl tbe fond hope 
of securing tbe county seat in 1819. But they did not take into consideration 
tbat Connersville was nearer tbe center of tbe county, and, also the inliuence 
of John Conner. 

HAWKINS. 

Hawkins, located in the southwestern part of Harriso'n township, was 
for a time a postofhce. .getting its name from tbe store of M. P. Hawkins, 
and. as far as known, tbe onl\- industry ever located here is a blacksmith 
shop now operated by Albert McConnell. 





STAGE COACH AND COXESTOGA WAGOX OF PIOXEER DAYS. 



RKm'II.I.K. KICDIdW \ OK SIT M I'TdW X. 

Ancient I'onipeii was lusl to the world from 79 A. 1), nnlil the middle 
(■\ the eighteenth century, hut. when it was accidentally discovered hy a man 
di;^i;ing a well, it was hut a short time mitil the full identity of the ;nicient 
city was full}' established. The traveler who ^t'C^ to Ilal\ today may see 
practicallv the whole city as it appeared on the ilay it wa- covered h\ the 
cimlers and lava from Mt. X'esuvius. 

.\:u] what has Pompeii to do with the history of Ivavetle inuntx. Indi- 
ana, r. S. .\.? l-'ayette county, like ancient Italy, has an ancieni city, hut, 
unlike I'ompeii, it has not been lost to history because of a solcmic upheav.'il. 
Xo evidence is left of this villa.^e of ancient Fayette; it has disappeared 
from the face of the earth. The historians have heard va<iuc and indelinite 
hints of a once flourisliiui^- village on the banks of Williams creek in the 
southeastern corner of Harrison township, but when it came to getting defi- 
nite facts about it thev were completely baffled. Its name was even shrouded 
in obscurity; it was variously known as Redville, Redtown and Stumptown. 
according- to the person trying to recall something about it. 

lUit fortunately one person was finally found who had exact informa- 
tion on this uri>»H- mystery, hrom !1. L. Ludlow, of Glenvvood, the histor- 
ians have been able to get what is believed to be an accurate description of 
this ancient \illage. His account is substantially as follows: 

About 1SJ5 William I'hilpfitt located in the southwestern corner of 
Harrison township, along Williams creek, and built a rude log cabin This 
>.ame structure is now ( 1017 ) a jiart of I.ydia Hall's residence. Ills father, 
John Philpott, built another, liou.se on the site now occupied by the residence 
of Bunvan Martin: later. lohn T'hilpott built three other houses. These 
houses, together with all the outbuildings, he painted \enetian vcd. Trav- 
elers .-md drovers jiassing this way christened the collection of houses Ki-d- 
\ille. or Redtown. atid the name became universally used throughout this 
])art of the state. It was on the road fre(|uently used by men driving hogs 
to Cincinnati and was always referred to in this manner. Where the name 
Stumptown originated is not known, but it does not seem to ha\e bad wide 
usage at any time in the village's brief career. 

)ohn LckUow had a blacksmith shop in the midst of the embryonic urban 
center — and there were other important industrial establishments located 
here. William Philpott operated a chair factory: John Philpott, jjrobably 
(16) 



242 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the most extensive manufacturer, \vas a wagon-maker, shoemaker, cooper 
and blacksmith. WilHam Philpott disposed of his chair factory to James 
Molden a short time later. John Philpott built the first grist-mill and sub- 
sequently sold it to Thomas Moffett. While all of these industrial changes 
were going on in the village, Hampton Stewart opened a tailor establish- 
ment; William Hawkins launched out as a shoemaker, shortly followed by a 
competitor, Thomas Schasick. The latter was a full blooded Indian, but his 
reputation as a maker of good shoes has been handed down through three 
generations. 

The village was booming by the early forties and gave promise of be- 
ing something more than a mere cross-roads hamlet. In 1842 John Philpott 
sought to foster the religious feelings of the increasing population by erect- 
ing a building for church purposes. Accordingly he built a frame structure 
and presented it to the members of the Christian church — and this building- 
is now used by Bunyan Martin as a corncrib. Thus has this once sacred 
edifice descended to a secular use. In the meantime there was a demand for 
a postoffice; in fact, William PhiljMtt succeeded in getting the United 
States government to appoint him postmaster as early as December 15, 1832, 
and in his honor the office was duly designated as Philpott's Mills. Five 
)'ears later the location was changed to a place about a mile west, Ross Smiley 
becoming the postmaster on April 24, 1837. -^t the same time the name of 
the office was changed to Longwood — just why that name, is not known. 
Smiley remained postmaster until July 31. 1861, when Thomas Moffett took 
charge. 

But with the disappearance of the postoffice from the vicinity of Phil- 
pott's mills and the abandonment of the mill, the hope of the inhabitants for 
further growth was doomed to disappointment. Soon the few red-]iainted 
houses became faded, the few inhabitants scattered, and by the time of the 
Civil War there was little to indicate where the once hopeful village of Red- 
ville raised its sanguinary head. Its story was told; its race was run. .\nd 
in 1 91 7 only a very few of the oldest inhabitants of the county recall the 
name of the village that was well known to e\ery ])erson in the forties and 
fifties. 



TACK.SON TOWNSHIP. 



Jackson township, named in honor of Andrew Jackson, was cut oft' from 
Columbia township by the county commissioners in August, 1820. As first 
constituted it included all of the territory of the original Columbia township 



Ri 


nigr 


13 


East. 










Benj; 


finiin \\'hite, 


, Samuel 


Harl 


an. 


\ 


i8i() 


to 


James 


Newlaiul 


, Da 


\'iVl 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 243 

east of the White Water river. Hut the six sections in the .southeastern 
corner of the township — 20, Ji, 28. 29, 32 and t,;3, — did not become a part 
of the township until January 16, 1826. Prior to that date these six sec- 
tions had been a part of Franklin county, their attachment to Fayette county 
being brought about by the legislative act of 1826. In March, 1826, the com- 
missioners of Fayette county formally attached the six .sections to Jackson 
township. No change has been made in the township limits since that time. 
Practically all of the land in the township had been entered before the 
county was organized in iBig, although there were two small tracts which 
were not entered until 1837. The complete list of land entries follows: 

To'i^'llshi^^ 13 North. 

Section 7 — Sold in 181 3 and 1816 
Nicholas Pumphrey and Le\i Plummer. 

Section 8 — Sold in 1814, 181 5 and 
Ferree, Morgan Vardiman and Samuel Harlan. 

Section 17 — Sold in 181 5 and 1816 to T.evi Cambridge. Zachariah I'ook- 
ney and Levi Plummer. 

Section 18 — Sold in 1816 to Samuel Harlan. Moses I.add. B. I'luminer, 
X. Ladd and John Plummer. 

Section ig — Sold in 1815 and 1816 to John W'illianis, Thomas Toner, 
Samuel Walker, Elislia Stout and John Maple. 

Section >20 — Soldin i8t2 and 181 5' to George' Monroe. John Richard- 
son and W'^illiam Hipkins. 

Section 21 — Sold in 1812. 1813 and 1814 to John Morrow, lUi Lee, 
William .\dams and Thomas Garrin. 

Section 22 — Sold in 1814' and 181 5 to David Fallen, Elijah Corbin, 
Thomas Stockdale and James Morrow. 

Section 23 — Sold in 1814, 181 5 and 181 7 to William Beckett, Isaac 
M. Johnson, John Fisher and Thomas Rish. 

Section 26 — Sold in 1813, 1814 and 181 5 to 01)edia]i Kstis, Koherf F. 
Taylor, Lyman Grist, S. Stanton, R. and A. Clarke. 

Section 2- — Sold in t8ii and 181410 Eli Stringer, Thonias Henderson, ' 
Daniel George, James Mallach and Thonias Stockdale. 

Section 28 — Sold in 1813, 1814. i8_'i and 1825 to Samuel Wallace, 
Archibald Morrow, John I'oUard. Sarah Lee, Charles and James Salyer.s. 

Section 29 — Sold in 18 14. 181 5, 18 16, 181 8 and 1832 to Solomon 
Shephard, Thomas Logan, Samuel Logan, Edward McKeen and J. Ward. 









244 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Section 30 — Sold in 18 16, 1817, 18 18 and 183 1 to Edward Simmonds, 
Joel Scott, Calvin Kneisley, Blackly Shoemaker, E. ^^^alker and I. T. Riggs. 

Section 31 — Sold in 181 5, 1818, 1821 and 1837 to Susanna Teagar- 
den, John Troth, Joseph Whitelock, Stephen Lee, John H. Carmichael, 
Michael Null and Enoch Youngs. 

Section 32 — Sold in 1813 and 1836 to Hugh Abernathy and \\'illiam 
Rish and others. 

Section 33 — Sold in 181 1, 1813 and 1814 to John Salver, James Craig 
and Solomon Shephard. 

Section 34 — Sold in 181 1, 1812 and 1815 to Thomas Henderson, 
James and John Walters and Ebenezer Smith. 

Section 35 — Sold in 1813 and 1814 to Ebenezer Smith, John Mc- 
Ilwain, Edward Caring and Alexander Sims. 

Tozi'iishiji 13 A'ortli, Range 12 East. 

Section 11 — Sold in 1811 to W'illson and John Vincent (fractional). 

Section 12 — Sold in 181 1, 1814 and 1816 to Samuel Eallen, Moses- 
Baker and George Shaeffer. 

Section 13 — Sold in 1812, 1813 and 1814 to Williman Vardimau, 
James Brownlee. John Eagen and John Julian. 

Section 14 — Sold in 181 1 to Thomas Gilliam and John Eagan (frac- 
tional ) . 

Section 27, — Sold in i8i 1 and 1812 to Daniel Green, William Helm 
and Gabriel Ginn (fractional), 

Section 24 — Sold in 1813, 1814 and 1816 to John Baker, Jacob Black- 
lidge and Christopher Ladd. 

Section 25 — Sold in 1814, 1815, 1821-1837 to Morgan Vardiman, 
Amos Isher, John Lewis, John McCabe and Greenbury Stitte. 

Section 26 — Sold in 1814. 1816 and 183 1 to Daniel Green, Edward 
Johnson, James Handley, Thomas J. Crisler, John McCabe and William 
Wherrett. 

Section j^=, — Sold in 181 1, 1824-1834 to Jacob Burnett, James Conwell, 
O. Gorden, E. ^Valker and Jeremiah Conwell. 

Section 36 — Sold in 1817-1836 to Sanford Keller, Charles Melon, Jo- 
seph Crowley, Michael Null and James Conwell. 

Man}' of the ]Durchasers of land in this township were actual settlers, 

the first of' whom, with some exceptions, procured land along the west fork 

of the ^\'hite Water river. The first settlements were made chiefly bv emi- 



FAYKTTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 245 

grants from the Soutlieni states, the greater mimber coming from South 
C'arohna and Kentucky, .\niong the first settlers from the former state and 
those who were acti\e in tiie early organization of the county were Charles 
Salver, wlici served as a county commissioner for eight years, and h'is 
hmtlier. John, wiio was also acti\e. hut held no official ix>sition. Coming 
at the same time as the men mentioned above, was Gabriel Ginn, from Ken- 
tucky, who served as county clerk and also as sheriff for a number of years. 
Daniel Green, who came from Maryland, \\as one of the earliest settlers in 
this part of the coun.try. The story is told that while. prospecting for land in 
what is now Franklin county, he was attracted by the sound of a cow-beB 
and upon following it he came to the cabin of John Kagen and family, who 
lived near the bridge over the river at Nulltown. The Eagen settlement 
was the earliest in the township of which there is anj- record. 

Another one of the very early settlers was Daniel Moore, who came to 
the '"Twelve-Mile Purchase" in 1809, and after .spending one winter in 
Brookville, settled in Jackson township in March, i8to. 

.\mong,the settlers coming in 1812 were Joel Scott, a native of South 
Carolina, and James Craig, from Virginia. The Pumphreys and the 
Renches made permanent settlements in the township about the same time. 

In 1^1 T, the southeastern part of the township was settled by a number 
of related families from South Carolina knd included among them Ebenezer 
Smith. George Stanley, Simon Crist. James AVaters and John Waters. John 
and James Waters bad come to the vicinity in 1812. purchased a tract of 
land and returned to their famihes. Then in the fall of 1813 the families 
mentioned above made the journey together, requiring about one month to 
make the trip. It is believed by the descendants of some of these families 
that on their arrival there were no residents south and east of Everton to 
what is noAv the Cnioii and Franklin cotmty lines, 'i'hat section was then 
very heavily timbered, the forest!; abounding with fine p()])lnr. 

Coming from the same locality as the Waters family, and only a few 
months after, were Hanson and Jolm Mcllwain, Samuel Logan, .\lex- 
ander Sims, and Robert T. and David Taylor. John Jemison made i. 
permanent settlement in 1S13 or 1814 and ojjerated a tan-yard for severa! 
vears. .\t about the same time \\^illiam r>eckett. a native of Ireland, emi- 
grated to the township and effected a permanent settlement. James Morrow, 
a native of North Carolina, and Jolin Milliner came from Kentucky. 

Besides those already mentioned, the following became residents of the 
township prior to 1826: Noble Ladd. Sr.. William Kobles. ThfMnas Waters, 



246 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Edward McClure, Simon and Ebenezer Grise, Michael Bash, EH Lambert. 
William C. Jones, Nathan Hulse, David Portlock, Constantine Eadd, Bar- 
rack Phimmer, David Moore, David Smith, Patrick Carmichle, Joel Hollings- 
worth, William Hortoy, John Smith. Peter Coon, John Richards, Michael 
F. Miller, GeOrge Shelocke, Levi Rench, Presley Silvey, Andrew Brock, 
Stephen Lee, Stephen Moore, Richard Morrow, Thomas Budd, Archibald 
Cook, John Jassap, Lewis G. Ray, John Lee, William Gilmore, David Fer- 
ree, Thomas Logan, Charles Wise, John Plummer, Philip Hinneman, Will- 
iam B. Adams, Abraham Whitelock, Michael Law, Daniel Fox, 
John Estis, Thomas Craig, Robert White, Benjamin White, Andrew Wood, 
Amos Milliner, WiHiam F.erree, Daniel Gorman, Charles .Malone, -Mose Car- 
roll, Lot Pumphrey, Noah Pumphrey, Morgan Rench, James Crawley and 
Isaac Miller. 

EARLY INDUSTRIES. 

Eli's creek was the center of all industry during the early period. The 
first grist-mill in the township was erected by Doctor Johnson in 1816. The 
mill is believed to have passed into the hands of Jonathan Wr.ight, who, in 
later years, erected what was known as the Cockefair mill. Li 1818 Jonathan 
Wright erected the first saw -mill which stood about a half mile east of the 
grist-mill and on the line dividing Fayette and Union counties. 

John Jemison began the operation of a tannery soon after taking up 
permanent residence and carried on the business for almost a c[uarter of a 
century. William Evans also operated a tamiery in 'the Beckett neighbor- 
hood during the early days. 

On Eli creek, between the grist- and saw-mill owned by Wright, was a 
carding machine, and in connection with it a hominy-mill, built by Zacheus 
Stanton. In aliout 1848, Elisha Cockefair became the owner of these indus- 
tries and converted them into a mirror factory, which was operated for sev- 
eral 3'ears. 

About 1846 Wilson Adams built a saw-mill and a pump factory about 
a half mile above the grist-mill and did an extensive business for many years. 

At a very early date Sanford Keeler built a grist-mill about a mile from 
the mouth of Bear creek. The industry was later owned by Rev. Joseph 
Williams and John Lambert. North of the mill was a saw-mill built by 
Charles Malone and later owned by John Conwell. The mill finally fell into 
disuse and was supplanted by another mill of the same kind on the south 
fork of Bear creek, built bv E. R. Lake and later owned bv \^^ilson Adams, 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 24/ 

wlio l):iilt the second pump estahlisliment in the township. .\(hinis also 
installed a pair of buln^s and had a httle corn-cracker in connection. 

Aboul; two miles nortli of the mouth of Bear creek, on the west fork 
of White Water, was tiie Morgan \'ardiman ofrist-mill, whicli was l)uilt at a 
\'erv early date. 

During- the early jieriod in which stills were in existence, such were in 
o])eration on the farms of John and Charles .Salver, John Baker and William 
Arnett. 

EARI.Y SCHOOLS. 

One of the finst, if not the first, school houses in the township was the 
one that stood northeast of Everton in .section 21. John Lee is thought to 
ha\e taught a three-months school prior to 181 7. I^ot Green and Andrew 
Lewis were also early teachers. 

The next school house in the township was built in section 26 and on 
the farm of Obediah Estis. Lot Green is thought to have been the first 
teacher. School was sometimes held in the old meeting-house that stood by 
the grave-yard on Poplar Ridge and which for a number of years served the 
Friends as their place of worship. An Irishman by the name of Thomas 
O'Brien taught several terms at this ])lace and among his pupils were the 
Stantons. Truslers, Becketts, Wrights and the \\'ards. 

In 1816 or 1817 a .school was taught by David Sloan in a cabin that 
stood on section IQ. Soon after th.is a log school house was built about a 
mile farther south in which the first teacher was Joseph Moore. 

The third school house built in the township was on section 24. between 
two and three miles west of Everton. Robert Gathers, Robert Willis and 
William Eskew were early teachers. Just a little later another school house 
was built on section _^o. on the north fork of Bear creek and John Giuin 
taught here for several terms. 

In about 1827 or 1828 a school was taught by Tra\-is Silve}- in an 
abandoned dwelling that stood in section 12. Another school house of the 
same kind was standing just east of the Mount Zion church, around which 
many interesting events occurred. One of these happened wdiile John Barnes 
was teaching about the year 1829. In this particular case Barnes was 
"barred out" and after being satisfied that he could not make an entrance 
was willing to submit to any kind of a compromise. The boys suggested 
that "Daddy" Baker, who lived close by, had a good store of winter apples 
and that if going for a bushel was any object the barricade would be 
removed. Suffice to say that the apples were forthcoming. 



248 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



The village of E\erton is located near the center of Jackson township, 
seven miles southeast of the county seat, its banking point, and four miles 
east of Nulltown, its shipping point. The \-illage as originally laid out was 
on parts of the farms of William Adams and Eli Lee, who purchased the 
land from the government in 1813 and 1812 respectively. The origin of 
the hamlet is quite obscure and, bids fair to remain as such b£<;ause not even 
tradition has been able to trace the early years of its history. The place 
seems to have first been named Lawstown, or Lawsburg, and then West 
Union. During the time it was called by the latter name an addition of 
twelve lots was made just south of South street, this occurring in December. 
1836. In March, 1856, the county commissioners ordered that the name 
of the village be changed to that of Everton, which was the name given the 
postoffice, which had been established on November 10, 1827, with Joseph D. 
Thompson as postmaster. No one in the village in 1917 could explain the 
origin of the name Everton. 

The first persons to whom the county commissioners granted license to 
carry on business were Thomas J. and Miles H. Larimore, merchants, in 
1828; in 1829, Maria Haughton, merchant: Thomas A. v Thorn, tavern; in 
1832, Thomas A. Thorn, tavern and liquor; William Beckett and Robert 
Taylor, groceries and liquor; in 1834, Isaac T. Riggs, tavern and liquor; 
in 1836, Frederick A. Curtis, tavern and liquor; 1838, Hugh Morrow, tav- 
ern and liquor. More than a score of diiterent men have had mercantile 
establishments of one kind or anotlier since the forties. There was a time 
when Everton even rivaled Connersyille as a trading center. In the village 
itself, or within three miles of it, there were to be found in the period prior 
to the Civil War a shingle factory, coffin factory, pump factory (still in 
operation by S. E. Adams), saw-mill, wagon shnji. tannery, distillery, woolen 
factory, grist-mill and a charcoal kiln. 

The village became a corporate body. January 20, 1841, and William 
H. Evans was elected president of the village council and R. N. Taylor was 
chosen clerk. However, the tow-n had only two separate population returns; 
in i860 it was given a population of two hundred and thirty-nine and in 
1870, one hundred and forty-nine. The local records of the town during 
its period of incorporation have long since disappeared and it is impossible 
to tell when tb.e corporation was dissolved. If. the corporation had a con- 
tinuous existence up to 1870, it appears that the town would have had a 



FWKTTI- roiTXTV, ixni\NA. J40 

separate iiopulatiini reluni in 1S50. hul it ilnes iidt. Returns were made 
separately tor tlie town in i8()C) and iS-o and as none was made in iSSo. it 
is very evident that the cnqKiraticin was (h'sscihed some lime between 1X7(1 
and 1880. 

The business interests at the luL^iunint;- nf U)\J were in tlie hands m' 
the following-: Thomas Dawson, general store: Jerniain & ("irittith. black- 
smiths; W. M. Moore, general store: E. R. Lake, farm implements: Dr. AI. 
Ross, physician and surgeon. The Methodists have the one church in the 
village, E. A. Hartsaw being the ])astor. The present population is about one 
hundred and fifteen. The postmaster is Thomas Dawson. Two rural routes, 
in charge of George Scott and .\rthnr I'lark. are connected with the local 
postofifice. 

A town ball furnishes a meeting i)lace for all |>iiblic gatherings, lodges, 
etc. 

The government established a postoftice at lAerton. \'o\ember in, 
1827. l-'ollowing is a list of the postmasters to date with their lengths of 
service: Joseph 1). Thonjiison. i8j7-i8;v8: Robert X. Taylor, i8;yS-i847: 
James M. Cockefair. 1847-1S4.); William 11. lAans, i84()-i83i: e-harles II. 
Chambers, 185 1 - 183.:; : James W. ( )li|)liant, 1853-1833: William Kerr. 1833- 
1861: Allen \'. Larimore. 1861-1863: James L. Miller, March 3, 1863, to 
.March 30, i8()3: William I'. Adams, i8h3-i864: Edwin J. Thompson, 18C4- 
i8(.7; John 1!. Salyer, )anuar\- 3. 1 8(17— Seiitember jo, i8r)7: bldwin J. 
Thom])son, 18^17-1874: William Johnston. 1874-187O: John I). Lambert, 
i87(i-()3: Horace Ridge, i8(;3-()4: b'anny Ridge, i8()4-()7: R. T. Taylor, 
i8()7-o8: Cornelius McGlinchey, 1008-14: Thomas Dawson, since Jnlv [4, 
1914, 

BEXTLEY. 

The little hamlet of P.entley, located in the southeastern ])art of Jackson 
townsbiji, was chosen for a jxistolfice in i88_'. The i>ftice was established 
on June 3J. i88j, with Lbenezer ("denn, who conducted .a generrd store, as 
postmaster. Anions; other postmasters were 1 lenry Trusler, Ira Trusler and 
"l'.ul>" Smith. The \illage has no store at the ])resent time and is on a 
rural route. 



TENXIXr.S TOWXSI 



Jennings township, named in honor of Jonathan Jennings, then gov- 
ernor of the state, was one of the fixe townships organized by the county 



250 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

commissioners on February 9, 1819. As originally constituted its bound- 
aries were as follow: "Beginning at the southwest corner of section 16, 
township 13, range 13: thence north to the northwest corner of section 21, 
township 14, range 13; thence east along the line dixiding sections 21 and 
16 to the boundary line (Indian boundary line of 1795) ; thence south along 
said boundary to the southeast corner of fractional section iS; thence west 
to the place of beginning." Thus the townshi]) included, in addition to 
its present territory, a considerable strij) of Union county, now parts of 
Liberty and Harmony townships of the latter county. 1^'pon the. organ- 
ization of LTnion county, January 5, 1821, Jennings township was left with 
its ]3resent limits. 

When the county was organized, 1^'ebruary q. 1819, ail of the land in 
this township had been entered with the exception of the northeast quarter 
of section 15. this tract iieing entered by William 1'. and James A. Belton 
on November t8. 1831. 1'he complete list of land entries of the entire 
township is as follows : 

To-a'iishil^ 14 Kortlt. Range 13 East. 

Section 21— Sold in 1812, 1813, 1815 and 1816 to John C. Death, Isaac 
Fletcher, Jonathan Hougham, O. Stoddard and N. Robinson. 

Section 22 — Sold in 1811, 1812 and 1813 to John Keeney, Abraham 
Vanmeter, David Fletcher and Hill & Oldham. 

Section 23 — Sold in 1814 and 1816 to Thomas Simpson, .\mos Sutton 
and Valentine Harman. 

Section 26 — Sold in 181 1, 1813 and 1814 to Lewis Noble, William 
Kr.ott and Daniel Boyles, Jr. 

Section 2j — Sold in 181 1, 1814, 1815 and 1816 to Samuel Riggs, 
Michael Brown, John Oldham and Zachariah Ferree. 

Section 28 — Sold in 1813, 1814 and 1816 to Smith & Conner, James 
^^'ard, John Keeney and Robert Brown. 

Section- 33 — Sold in 1813, 1814 and 1815 to Samuel Bell and Phineas 
McCray. 

Section 34 — Sold in 1813 and 1814 to Peggie Shields, Jacob Darter, 
Thomas Patton and Richard Colvin. 

Section 35 — Sold in 1814 and 1815 to Robert Abernathy, Samuel Wil- 
son and Joseph Dungan. 



FAYKTTK COUNTY. INDIANA. 25 1 

ToTCiisliif^ 1.^ Xortli. Raiif^c 13 East. 

Section j— Sold in 1813 and 1814 to Joseph N'annieler. Ciiles Mattix 
and .Michael Brown. 

Section ,^— Snld in iSi 1, 1S13 and 1S14 Ici Sanuiel h'allen, Jacob Dai'ter. 
Joseph Vanmeter and Andrew P.ailey. 

.Section 4— Sold in iSi.:; and 1S14 n, Idinnias flark, William I'atti.n, 
John Manley and William Manley. 

Section 9 — Sold in iSiS and iSr; U> Adam Pit;nian, Jesse Pii.;nian, 
Herod Newland and John Wood. 

Section 10 — Sold in iSi_| !o John T5iay. Benjamin hdliott. h'.phraim 
Bering and John Hilff. 

Section 1 1— Sold in 1S14 and iSi^ to Henry Bray, Jacob Mattix. John 
Black and Solomon Wise. 

Section 14 — Sold in 1814. 1815 and 1816 to Benjamin 11. Hanson. 
Herod Xewland, Klisha ("randel, William and Robert .\n<^ent. 

Section 15 — Sold in 1813, iS[4 and 1831 to James Worster, llero.l 
New-land, John HntT, W'illiam 1'. and James A. Belton. 

Section 16 — Reserved for school purposes. 

Although a great amount of the land in this township was purchased 
in 181 1 and 181 2, there were very few actual settlements prior to 18 14. 
To Thomas Simpson, a native of Maryland, is given the credit of being the 
first settler within the limits of this subdivision. About 1805 or 1806, ha\- 
ing in view the purchase of land in the Indiana territory, he removed to 
the \icinitv of Harrison, Dhio, and there awaited the further pre])aration of 
lands for market. \Mien the ])arty was being made u]) for the ])nrpose of 
making the survey of the '"Twelve-.Mile Purchase." Simpson joined them 
to act as hunter for the party. He remained with the surveying party until 
the survey was completed, after roaming o\er the country from Michigan to 
the Ohio river. With the approach of winter in the fall of 1809. the part\- 
built a log-cabin by a spring on the northeast quarter of section 23. town- 
ship 14, range 13, which they occupied during the survey of that region of 
the country. 

Upon the completion of the survey Simpson moved his fann'ly into the 
cabin and there passed the remainder of his days. Within three-f|uarters of 
a mile from the cabin was the Indian cami)ing ground and many were the 
visits paid to the Sinijison cabin where the red men were often fetl and 
treated with kindness. Just north of the creek known to the Indians as 
Brushv creek, subsequently gi\en the name of Simpson by the pioneers, was 



252 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the huryving place of the Iiuhans and upon the arrival of the Simpsons was 
still used. 

'Hie majority of the early settlers were emi<^rants of the Southern 
states, yet many were natives of the North and East who had emigrated in 
the earlier history of that section. 

The next earliest settlers coming into the township were John Keeney, 
James Smith, Samuel Smith, John and Stephen Oldham, all men of families, 
who came from the same neighborhood as the Simpsons. Smith and one 
of the Oldham brothers were ministers of the Regular Baptist church. 

James l])arter and family, from Virginia, settled on the east fork of 
White Water river in what is now Union county in 181 2 and in the spring 
of 1813 moved over into Fayette county. The same season Joseph Van- 
meter and John Manley came t(j the same neighborhood. About this time 
Isaac and James Jones settled in the same \icinity and are supposed to have 
purchased land of Joseph Vanmeter. 

AIan\- of tho.se entering land settled upon it near the time of the pur- 
chase, while a few neier liad any itlea of.nittking permanent settlement, but 
bought for others and for speculation. 

Isaac I^letcher was one of the early settlers, but after remaining for 
only a short time sold his land to William Walker, from Ohio. 

.\aron and Jonathan Hau,gham, from Kentucky, after a residence in the 
township for a few years, removed farther west. Some of those who fol- 
lowed their example were Lewis, Daniel and Joseph Noble, the Stoddard 
and Robinson families from Ohio. 

.\dam and Jesse Pigman, brothers, were among the earliest settlei's and 
were men who tocjk an active interest in public affairs and civic improvement. 
The land on which tiiese men entered was a dense forest. The first year 
the}' managed to clear about six acres, which they planted in corn. By the 
ne.xt spring twehe acres more had been cleared, part of which was planted 
in fruit trees, the first planted in the Village creek valley. 

Several families came from Pennsylvania about 1814 and 1815, among 
whom were James Worster and his father, Robert, who was among the early 
school teachers of the county and also was the first Methodist minister west 
of the .-Mlegham- mountains. Other settlers from Pennsylvania were Amos 
Milliner, a soldier of the Re\'olution who settled in the township in 1819. 
David Sutton, who came in 1816 and entered a \ast tract of land, John 
Jacob Scholl, a later settler and the father of Jacob, Solomon and George 
Scholl. 



FAYKTTK CDINTY, INDIAXA. 253 

From \'irt;inia caiiu' ^cxcral sftllers. anioni^' wlmm wore Aliialiaiu 
l.yoiis, will) came in Indiana territury in 1 SoS ami in 1X13 Im-atod in the 
vicinity n{ .\l(|uina. William l.air. a s.ildicr nl the War oi iSu. was an 
early settler, entering- land in the township, n])on which he died. William 
Walker was another settler ivom \'ir<^inia and settled here in iSn). Michae' 
Petro came from tlie same state and located in iSid. 

From North Carolina came the Rosses and ("larland Stanley. Ihe 
Rosses were ])ionecrs in the vicinity of Alquina. The Stanley lannly imnn 
,<;rated to I'nion connt\ in iSjJ :>.nd in 1SJ4 settled in this tiiwnshi]). 

.\mont;- settlers fr(i\n xaricnis nther places of the Scmth and West were 
the Rutherfords. who i)nrchased a trad i.f land of one Inmdred and seventy 
acres in section 4 tor the snni of eight hnndreil dollars. Samuel and josei:)h 
Bell, Stephen Gonlding. Jeremiah and John Woods were \ery earl\- settlers. 
Others were George Deatii. Sanuicl Riggs, William Knott, Michael llrown. 
the \'eatch, Fondenhack and Hutchins families. 

KARI.V SCITOOr.S. 

The Jones and Darter school houses were among the first places oi 
learning in the townshi]i and were located ahout half-way l>etween those 
farms. Bayliss Jones was one of the first teachers. Another school house 
of the same period, known as the l'>estone school, stood probahly one mile 
east of the Mount darrison meeting-house on the .Asliury Hanson farm. 
Some of the early teachers in this locality were Matthew R. Hull, Green 
Farimore, Washington C'urnnit, Thomas O'F.rian, John 1\ Brown an(' a 
man hy the name of Finn. James Worster was also an early teacher in 
the .southern jiarl of the townshi]i. An garly school was taught in ti'e 
neighborhood of .Mquina h\ .S(|uire Harrison, of C'onners\ille, and a man 
by the name of Barnard. The tirst houses were constructed of logs and the 
teachers were paid entirely by subscri])lion. 

E.\KI.V IXni STKIKS. 

The early industries of the townshi]) were characteristic of those of 
the other townships. During the early i)eriod co])])er stills were found on 
nearly every creek and brancli. Those who owned stills were John Harlan, 
JamesRi^s, WiHiam Walker, llige llnbbell and .Michael I'etro. 

Henry Cashner erected the tirst and onl\- grist-mill of the township on 
Simpson's creek sometime jjrior to iSjf.. In connection, he also operated 



254 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

a saw-mill and a distillery. Peter P'iant and Lewis Monger were later 
owners and for a number of years a large amount of business was transacted. 

ALQUINA. 

The origin of this little village seems wrapped in mystery and doubt- 
less will always remain thus. The original proprietor of the land occupied 
by the village was Joseph Vanmeter. According to tradition, a merchant 
there by the name of Green Larimore gave the name to the place. 

Records show that two additions have been made to the village. The 
first and south addition was laid off, November 2, 1838, by Joseph D. Ross 
and Isaac Darter, while the northern part was laid off by Jacob Reed, Decem- 
ber 2"], 184], William Dickey-being the surveyor. 

The first merchant of whom there is any record was Samuel N. Harlan, 
who was granted permission by the county commissioners to sell merchan- 
dise in May, 1830. H. G. Larimore was gixen a similar privilege in Janu- 
ary of the following year and continued in business for some time. Moses 
Lyons conducted a general store from 1836 until 1839, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Joseph D. and Samuel K. Ross. On May 23, 1839, Joseph D. 
Ross was appointed postmaster to succeed Joseph C. Ross, the first post- 
master, appointed December 15, 1832. Joseph D. Ross kept the postoffice 
in his store and was postmaster until the office was discontinued, March 
30, 1843. Da\'id Maze became the business successor to the Rosses and 
after several years sold to John H. Eyestone. Subsequent 'firms were S. & 
T. Jackson, Eyestone & Newland, H. H. & Thomas Jackson, Maze & Jackson. 

The earlier blacksmiths of the village include the following: John 
Cashner, Joseph Graham, Jacob. Davis, Joseph Pullen, John Sims, Aaron 
Goulding and a man by the name of Mallery. 

One of the early industries of the \illage and one which was operated 
for more than a decade was a tan-yard, owned by John H. Eyestone. The 
only other industry worthy of mention was a steam flour-mill, in operation 
alxnU 1841 and owned by George P. Lyons, Samuel Branum, William Freely 
and a fourth ]jarty. After having changed ownership a number of times, 
the mill was tlestroyed by fire w hen owned b\- Price Brothers. It was rebuilt, 
with the addition of a planing-mill for the manufacture of doors and sashes. 
In later vears it was removed to another location. 

The village, which is unincorporated, has a population of about one 
hundred and is ser\-ed bv a rural mail route out of the countv seat. L. C. 



FAVETTK COl'NTY. IN'DIANA. 255 

Titteringtoii & t'onipany li;i\e tlie only ■^lore in the \illaiJe. There are two 
resident physicians, Drs. Onier Iv Pale and Stanton K. Gordon. 

The followino- inchules the names and times of service of eacii post- 
master, be.g^inning with Decenilier 13. iS_^j, when tlie otYice was estabhshed 
with James C. Ross as postmaster: James C Ross. 1832-1839: Joseph D. 
Ross. 1839, to March 30. 1843 (discontinued); Thomas H. Jackson, April 
28. 1843 (re-estabhshed). 1848: Baltharis Whitsel. August 10, 1848, to 
November 22, 1848; (ieorge W. \\'oodbury. 1848-1849; John H. Eyestone. 
1849-1854: Thomas H. Jaci<son, 1854-1855; I'ahs E. Jones, January 23, 
1855, to November 2y. 1855; Joshua Lemmon, November 27, 1855, to 1857; 
Hiram H. Maze. 1867- 1869; ^fiUon A. Price. 1869-1870; Isaac Weils, 1870- 
1872; Hiram H. IMaze, 1872-1875: ^lartha R. Hull, 1875-1876; Hiram H. 
.Maze. 1876, to Octal)er 2(). 1877 ( discontinued 1 : Mary V. Darter, Novem- 
ber 26. 1877 (re-established), to 1881; William H. Hewitt, 1881-1883: 
Andrew Young. March 8. 1883. December 17, 1883: Willis O. Parker. 
December 17, 1883. 

I.YONSVIT.LR. 

When the Cincinnati. Hamiltcm tS: Daylon railmad. now known as the 
Cincinnati. Indianaimlis \- Western, was l)eing Iniilt tlirough the county, a 
station was estal)lished just soutli of Siiringersxille and given the name of 
Lyons Station. The station and jMistottice. tlie latter lieing established June 
2. 1863. continued to iiear this name until June, i()i(). .\t that time the post- 
ofTice was discontinued and the railmad comi)any at once changed the name 
of their station to Lyonsville. This was done becau.se there was a town by 
the name of T.yons in Greene county. Indiana, and freight and express for 
the two places frequently got misshipped because of the similarity of names. 
The little hamlet contains aliout eight dwellings and contains a population 
of nearl\- fift\- peo])le. The business interests include the following: (^. P. 
Stelle, general store; G. W. Walker, general store; T. O. Stanley, grain 
dealer; Meider & Bland, wagon-makers; Dickson P>rothers maintain a store 
room and warehouse for hardware and farming ini])lenients, but conduct no 
retail store. The station agent is R. .\. Lyons. 

The first postmaster of the \illage was Robert R. Monger. wJio held 
the office- fr(Mn 1863 to 1865. He was succeeded by James V. Lyons. C. 
E. Brandenburg was ]iostniaster for some time prior to June. ioi''>. 



256 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ORANGE TOWNSHIP. 

Orange township, named in honor of a county in North Carolina 
from which many of the early settlers came, was organized out of parts 
of Columbia and Conners\ille townshijis cm February 18, 1822. Its origi- 
nal limits were as follow s : "Beginning at the southwest corner of Fayette 
county, running easterly with said county line three miles to the range line ; 
thence north with the said range line to the nothern boundary of Conners- 
ville township; thence west with the said townshij) line to the county line; 
thence south with the said count}- line to the place of l>eginning;'" The 
township thus contained six more sections than it now has, the organization 
of Fairview township in December. 1 85 1 , resulting in the detachment 
of the two northern tiers of sections. 

All of this township, with the exception of small fractional portions 
of sections 13, 24, 2~, and 36 falls within the "New Purchase," and conse- 
c|uently was not open for entry until after 1820. In fact, there was no 
land entered in the township until at least one \-ear after the county was 
organized. The complete list of land entries follows : 

Toniishif^ 14 North, Raiu/c 11 East. 

Section 34 — Sold in 1820 to Robert Lyon and Joseph Justice. 
Section 35 — Sold in 1820 to Ephraim Frazee and John Gregg. 
Section 3()-— Sold in 1S20 to E]ihraim Smith, Nathan Ells, Aloses Scott 
and Ephraim Frazee. 

Township 13 North. Range 11 East. 

Section i — Sold in 1822, 1825, 1830 and 1831 to Ephraim Frazee, John 
Coley, Dyer Woodsworth, Abraham Finch, Enos Carter, Samuel Smith and 
William Martin. 

Section 2— Sold in 1822, 1824, 1826, 1828 and 1830 to David Dill. 
John Coley, Robert M. Orr, John Wagoner, Philip Rich and Aaron Ander- 
son. 

Section 3 — Sold in 1820, 1821, and 1822 to Aaron Betts, John Ratclifif, 
John Russell, Susannah, Margaret, Marion and Regannah Ronald, David 
Dill. 

Section 10 — Sold in 1820, 1821, 1822 and 1830 to Isaac Thomas, Hugh 
Allen, Joshua Moore, David Dill, George H. Puntenny and Joseph McDonald 



FAYKTTK COUNTY, INDIANA. 25/ 

Section ii — Sold in 1822. 1830, 1831. 1832 and 1834 to (Jeorj^e II. 
Puntenny, Silas M. Stone, Thomas R. Stevenson, John Alexander, Jefferson 
Helm, James Case, Hugh Wilson, James Lathers, and Noah Dawson. 

Section 12 — Sold in 1820, 1831, 1832 and 1834 to John Ronald, John 
C. Halstead, John Thomas and Hugh Wilson. 

Section 13 — Sold in 1820, 1822, 1823, 1825, 1827, 1831 and 1832 to 
William Callett, John Klum, Henry Khini, George K. Cook, John Cook, 
John Haglett and Thomas G. Stephens. 

Section 14 — Sold in 1821, 1822, 1824 and 1831 to Triplett L.ockhart, 
Shelton Jones, Thomas Williamson, Elias B. Stone, Jonas Jones, Silas H. 
Stone, Bethuel Rychmaul and Henry Klum. 

Section 15 — Sold in 1821 and 1822 to Henry Brown, .\aron Betts anil 
Elias B. Stone. 

Section 22 — Sold in 1821, 1822, 1824 and 1830 to William Stephens, 
John Wagoner, Charles Scott, David Dill, Elias B. Stone, John Longfellow, 
and Daniel Jackson. 

Section 2;^ — Sold in 1822, 1824 and 1830 to Daniel McNeill, David Dill, 
Peyton Cook, John L. Lindsey, John Daniel and Thomas G. Stephens. 

Section 24 — Sold in 1825, 1831, 1832 and 1843 to William McPherson, 
Josiah MuUikin, Euphemia Morrison, Daniel Jackson, John Klum and Lewis 
B. Tupper. 

Section 25 — Sold in 1821, 1823, 1832, 1833 and 1834 to Elias Matney, 
John Jacobs, Elisha Ellison, James Stevens, Thomas G. Stephenson, Mary 
Johnson and Richard Stevens. 

Section 26 — Sold in 1822, 1S24, 1830 and 1833 to Robert Stevens. 
Ephraim Johnson, Le\\is Jolmson, Jacob Moss, Samuel Wilson, John Ting- 
lish and Lawrence Johnson. 

Section 27— Sold in 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1825 and 1830 to David 
Crews, Jr., William Moore, Michael Beaver, James New, Solomon Carn, 
Lawrence Johnson and Rinard Rinearson. 

Section 34 — Sold in 1820, 1822, 1823. 1825 and 1829 to C. Rinearson, 
William Pool, Joseph Stevens, William Dearning, Conrad Plow, William 
Arnold and Moses Bart. 

Section 35 — Sold in 1821, T822, 1823 and 1831 to Catherine Watson, 
B. E, Hains, Conrad Plow, Elijah Pool, Adam McNeill and C. W. Burt. 

Section 36 — Sold in 1820, 182 1, 1822, 1829 and 1834 to Cornelius 
Rinearson, Alexander Ayers, Timothy AlHson, John Woolech, John Lin- 
ville and James Conwell, John Gregg. 
(17) 



258 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Pioneers in Orange township were John Scott, John Reed and wife, 
Mrs. Sarah Wyle, Silas Stone and wife, WilHam Huston and wife, W. J. 
Daniel, Joseph Cotton, Wells Stevens, John Springer, Elias Matney and 
wife, Edwin Austin, Mrs. Stevens. 

As will be noted from the above land entries, no settlement was made 
in Orange township prior to 1820. Probably the first to settle in the town- 
ship was Wells Stevens, the son of Robert Stevens, who emigrated from 
Carolina during the first decade of the century and settled in tlie vicinity 
of the east fork of the White Water river. Wells Stevens, in 1820, having 
just married, settled in the southwest corner of the township and began 
the work characteristic of the early settler. He completed his little pioneer 
cabin before the completion of the survey and the story is told that on sev- 
eral occasions the surveyors sought comfort and rest in his humble dwelling. 

Another man who made settlement in 1820, but somewhat later in the 
year than Wells Stevens, was Elias B. Stone, who emigrated from Kentucky 
and settled on Garrison's creek, southeast of Fayetteville. Silas B. Stone, 
a brother, came two years later, but did not make a permanent settlement 
until 1824. 

Adam McNeill, a brother-in-law to Robert Stevens, and William Pool 
were early settlers in the Stevens neighborhood. In 1821. George Creelman, 
a native of Ireland, settled in the township. At the same time the Dills 
settled here. 

In 1822 John Scott entered land in the township and the same year 
constructed a shanty upon it and removed his mother's family thereto. The 
father had died leaving the family in destitute circumstances. The son 
John travelled the river, worked on flat-boats and in other employment 
and with his earnings made the purchase mentioned. Later he served as 
one of the associate judges of the county and occupied other public posi- 
tions. 

During the period from 1820 to 1830 the following persons settled 
north and east of Fayetteville : Hugh Allen, John Russell, Samuel Hornadv , 
John Coley, James Lathers and a Mr. Perkins. 

About 1823, Ral])li Titsworth and family settled prohablv one mile 
and a half north of Fayetteville. 

Among others who were early jiioneers were Henry Dicken. Triplet 
Lockhart. Joseph Justice, Cornelius Rinearson, Laurence Johnson, Elias 
Matney and Ale.xander Ayers. 

The farms in this township were improved and cleared mostly by 
renters. These renters, as soon as they had made the specified improve- 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 259 

ments on the premises, usually moved on to another location, thus leavinfj 
little account of themselves. In some cases the purchasers of the land 
remained away until the land was partially cleared up and the ground put 
into a tillable condition. 

EARLY SCHOOLS. 

A little log cabin located just north of Fayetteville is supposed to have 
acted as the first school house in the township. The first teacher was Eleanor 
Blair, who taught in 1823. .Another school was conducted two or three 
years afterward in a cabin that stood about a mile and a half northeast of 
Fayetteville on what was known as the Russell farm. One of the first teach- 
ers was a lady by the name of Mitchell. 

School district No. i was organized in 1824. The building, which was 
in keeping with the houses of the period, was built on the ground donated 
by John Cole}'. The school tax was nearly all paid in labor and material. 
A man by the name of Gunn taught the first school in this building. In 
1825 another scluxjl district was organized in Danville (later Fayetteville, 
now Orange). \Viley J. Daniel was one of the early teachers at this place. 
J. P. l')amei and Tanies l^hodes were also early teachers in the village. 

In the Sain's creek neighborhood, the first school house stood in the 
northwest quarter of section 36, on what was later known as the Winchell 
farm. John Bell, Thomas Points and Alexander Patton were among the 
early teachers. After several years the building became inadequate to the 
needs of the community and another building was constructed about four 
hundred yards south of the old one. Alexander Matney was one of the 
early teachers. 

EARLY INDUSTRIES. 

Ehas B. Stone had the honor of erecting the first grist-mill in the town- 
ship, located on the south branch of Garrison's creek. Subsequently. S. H. 
Stone bought the grist-mill, and operated it for several years. He disposed 
of his interests to John Lindsey and James Tuttle, who built and carried 
on a distillery in connection wiili the mills. Later, S. H. Stone built another 
grist-mill in the northeast part of the southeast quarter of section 14, and 
afterwards aflded a saw-mill to the grist-mill. On the north branch of Gar- 
rison's creek, a saw-mill was built by Hugh Gray sometime prior to 1833. 
William Reed erected a saw-mill only a short distance above the Gray miU 
about the same time. A man by the name of Starbuck started a tanyard at 
the \'illage of Fayetteville (now Orange) \ery early and was succeeded by 



26o FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Ishani Keith. i\n industry that was of a short Hfe was the carding machine 
that was operated in Fayetteville by Benjamin F. Morrow. 

Located in the northeastern part of the township is the largest apple 
orchard in the county, owned by Reed & Fielding. The orchard is a model 
of its kind and, along with others, has been favorably mentioned as one of 
the best in this section of the state. 



Orange, formerly known as Fayetteville. is in Orange township and on 
the lioundary line I)etween the two counties. The village was sur- 
veyed* and platted by Thomas Hinkson for Elias B. Stone and Isaac Thomas, 
October 12, 1824, and given the name of Danville. On September 30, 
1841, an addition was made on the south side by Elias B. Stone. Robert 
Cox was the first business man of the town, he conducting a general store 
and a blacksmith shop and also manufactured bells. Robert Wilson was 
perhaps the first blacksmith and Doctors Mason, Helm and Daniel were 
early physicians. 

In 1833 Burgess G. Wells was given permission to vend merchandise 
and in 1837 became postmaster of the village. Other early merchants were 
James M. Conner and Thomas Marks. John Latcbem and Joshua Wolf 
were among the early blacksmiths. John B. Williams was the cabinet- 
maker for the community in 1833. A man by the name of Vantyne was 
one of the first wagon-makers in this section. 

Doctor Jefferson had the distinction of building the first frame house in 
1830 or 1831. The first brick house was built by Joshua Wolf. 

A postoffice was established here, February 8, 1833, under the name 
of Orange. The following is a complete list of the postmasters up to the 
time the office was di-sconiinued : Wiley J. Daniel, 1833-1837; Burgess G. 
Wells, 1837-1840: Thomas Marks, 1840-1842; John B. Williams, March 
2, 1842-July 28, 1842; Isham Keith, 1842-1846; Joseph P. Daniel, 1846- 
1862; Joel Rhodes, 1862-1865; Joseph George, 1865. 

GLENWOOD. 

Glenwood, a village of about three hundred and seventy-five population, 
is on the Fayette-Rush county line, the part of the village in Fayette county 
being in Fairview and Orange townships. According to the 1910 census 
the village had a population of two himdred and sixty-six — with forty-nine 



FAYETTE COfNTY, INDIANA. 261 

in Fayette and two hundred and seventeen in Rush county. Of those forty- 
nine in Fayette county, eiglit were in Fairview and forty-one in Orang-e 
township. The village is on the Cincinnati, Indianapolis & Western rail- 
road and the traction line running between Indianajwlis and C'onnersville. 
The history of this village really belongs to Rush county. 

The following places of business in Glenwood are on the Fayette 
county side: Saw-mill, Orlando Nichols; barber shop and pool room, Jesse 
\'andiver; livery stable and auctioneer, Clarence Carr; veterinary surgeon, 
Leon Mingle; harness shop and confectionery, Otto Cameron; butcher shop, 
William Combs & Son; general store, A. P. Reynolds; blacksmith, Bert 
Timmerman; garage, Mr. Osborn; physician. H. S. Osborn. The three 
fraternal organizations of Glenwood are on the Rush county side. There 
was formerly a congregation of the Seventh-Day .\dventists in Glenwood 
on the Fayette county side. The congregation built a small church in the 
southwestern corner of Fairview township about twenty-Bve years ago, 
but the congregation was disbanded several years ago. The old church 
building is now a part of a dwelling house with a store room in front. The 
grain elevator is on the Fayette county side. It is managed by Jesse Murphy 
& Son, who also handle coal, cement, flour, paint and farming implements. 



POSEY TOWNSHIP. 

Pose?\r township,. named in honor of Thomas Posey, governor of Indiana 
territory from 1812 until the state was admitted to the Union, was created 
out of Harrison township by the county commissioners in February, 1823. 
The boundary lines as first defined in 1823 have never lieen changed. They 
follow: "Henceforth all that district of country and part of Harrison 
township w^hich is inclosed in the following bounds shall form and consti- 
tute a new township td be known and designated by the name of Posey 
township, to-wit : Beginning at the southwest corner of Wayne county, 
at the southeast corner of .section 28. running thence north on the county 
line five miles to the extreme northeast corner of [''aNette county; thence 
west six miles to the northwest corner of .said county; thence south five 
miles to the southwest corner of section 2~\ thence east on the section line 
to the place of beginning."' 

The following is a complete list of the original lai:d entries in i'osey 
township : \ 



262 FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 

Toivnship 15 North, Range 12 East. 

Section 4 — Sold in 1817, 1821, 1822 and 1823 to Joel Rains, Thomas 
Reag-an, Henry Thornburg and Chancey Ridgeway. 

Section 5 — Sold in 1821, 1822, 1823 and 1824 to James Swofford, 
Henry Thornburg, Peter Wails, Daniel Mills, Nehemiah Stanbrough, Andrew 
Pentecost, Michael Spencer and Isaac Galbraith. 

Section 6 — Sold in 1822, 1824, 1826 and 1836 to Rachael Frazier, David 
Galbraith, James McConkey, William Moore. John Frazier, Ezra Hunt and 
Benjamin Griffin. 

Section 7 — Sold in 1823, 1824 and 1829 to James Kirkwood, James 
Gilleland, Thomas Kirkwood, Robert Harrison, James S. Kirkwood, Levi 
Charles, Andrew Pentecost and Garrison Miner. 

Section 8 — Sold in 182 1, 1823 and 1828 to Joel Rains, Henry Thorn- 
burg, Elizabeth McColum, James Gilleland and Joseph Gard. 

Section q — Sold in 1817. 1825. 1828 and 1829 to John Bell. Henry 
Th(.irnburg, Thomas Hutler and John Beal. 

Section 16 — Reserved for school purposes. 

Section 17 — Sold in 1821, 1822 and 1823 to Samuel Bantham. John 
Whitehead, Micajah Ferguson and John Ingles. 

Section 18 — Sold in 182 1 and 1822 to John Higer, John Ingles, John 
Higer, John K. Munger, William McCann and John Weaver. 

Section 19 — Sold in 182 1 to Lawrence Ginn, Trueman Munger, Hugh 
Dickey, and Edward K. Munger. 

Section 20 — Sold in 182 1 and 1823 to John Gilleland, John Huston, 
John C. Cook, Prudence Manlove, Laurence Ginn and James Gilleland. 

Section 21 — Sold in 1812, 1813, 1814 and 1821 to Elisha Dennis, 
William Lowry, Amos Ashew, Samuel Heath and John Gilleland. 

Section 28 — Sold in 181 1, 1812 and 1814 to George Manlove, R. Kolb, 
Manlove Caldwell and John Caldwell. 

Section 29 — Sold in 18 14, 1821 and 1822 to John Loder, Philip Srader, 
David Sprong, John Huston and Charles Legg. 

Section 30 — Sold in 182 1 and 1822 to John Higer, Philip Srader, John 
Huston, William Sutton, John Murphy and Bennett B. Cook. 

Township 15 North, Range 11 East. 

Section i — Sijd in 1821, 1822, 1823 and 1824 to Stephen Hull, Joseph 
Evans, Solomon ^^'aller and John Finney. 



I-AY1:TTK COl-XTY. INDIANA. 263 

Section 2 — Sold in 1821. i8j2 and 1823 to Joseph Evans, John WaUers 
and Conrad Walters. 

Section 3 — Sold in 1822. 1823, 1829 and 1830 to William Walters, 
Isaac Metcalf, Charles Smith, R. Spencer, Peter \'oorhees, John G. Eaton 
and Thomas K. Stiles. 

Section 10 — Sold in 1821, 1826, 1830 and 1831 to Noah Fonts, Thomas 
Smith, Edward Frazier. John Moifitt, luhvard h>yan. William Shaw and 
Thomas Knipe. 

Section 11 — Sold in 1822. \':<i\. 182(1, 1829 and 1833 to Mai-y Wetter- 
field, George Merrick, Catherine Heck, Godfrey Heck and John SHnks. 

Section 12 — Sold in 1824, 1826, 1830 and 1833 to Peter Kemmer, John 
W. Waterfield, William Henry, Charles Campbell and Joseph Evans. 

Section 13 — Sold in 1821, 1823, 1824 and 1827 to Thomas K. Stiles, 
John Treadway, Enoch Warman, Jane Gilleland, John Norcross and Jesse 
Dobbins. 

Section 14 — Sold in 182 1, 1822. 1824 and 1825. to Roliert Dollahan, 
John Banfill, Isaac Metcalf, William Beard, Samuel Alexander and Casper 
Stoner. 

Section 15 — Sold in 1S21, 1822, 1824 and 1826 to L. French, Jacob 
Lonen, John Hillis and Thomas Woodman. 

Section 22 — Sold in 1824, 1825, 1826, 1828 and 1829 to John Coleman, 
Isaac Personett. Robert Moulton, G. Pattison, A. J. \"eatch and William 
Jackson. 

Section it, — Sold in 1821, 1823, 1826 and 1828 to Micajah Jackson. 
John Mallins, John Peanell. William Pattison, Matthew Marland, L. White- 
head, Henderson Bragg and Xathan Wilson 

Section 24 — Sold in 1821, 1822 and 1823 to John Stephen, William 
Dickey, James Russell, Elijah Haymon, James Gilleland, and Robert McCann. 

Section 25 — Sold in 1821, 1822 and 1823 to John Huston, John Dauben- 
speck, William Alger, William Pattison and Henry Conkling. 

Section 26 — Sold in 182 1 to Matthew Howard. 

Section 27 — Sold in 1821, 1823, 1824 and 1826 to Michael Brown, John 
C. Cook, Reason ^^^ Debriler, Samuel Knotts, Jonatlian Hatfield, and Green- 
bury Lahine. 

The earliest settler of whom there is any authentic information was 
George Manlove. who came to this country from North Carolina in October, 
181 1, and settled on the northwest quarter of section 28. However, it seems 
that he remained on his purchase only a short time, as he feared trouble 



264 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

with the Indians and consequently returned to Preble county, Ohio. He 
remained in Ohio until 1814 and then returned to the place of original set- 
tlement. 

The Hungers, among the lirst to enter and settle upon land in the 
"New Purchase,' came from Rutland county, Vermont, and settled about 
one and one-half miles southeast of Bentonville in the fall of 1821. Among 
others who settled in this territory were, Isaac Galbreath, David Galbreath, 
both from Kentucky, and Jehu Vickroy, from North Carolina. 

The years of 1821 and 1822 were periods of greater settlement up to 
that time and included settlers from many parts of the Eastern and Southern 
states. Among the number were, John Chapel, Micajah Jackson, Henrv 
Thornburg, Reason Reagan, Bennett B. Cook, John Mullins, John Coleman 
and John Frazier from North Carolina; John Hallis, William Beard, Rob- 
ert Mitchell, James McConkey, Daniel New, William Patterson, Godfrey 
Peck, John and Peter Kemmer, Lawrence Ouinn and Amos Gofif from Ken- 
tucky; Thomas Legg," Randall Brewer, Peter Voores, John G. and William 
Eaton from Ohio; Peter Marts, William Alger, John and James Gilleland 
from Pennsylvania; John Middleton and Thomas B. Stiles from New Jersey: 
Isaac Metcalf, from England. 

Following is a copy of a poll-book of an election held in 1826 and 
includes the names of many of the pioneers. "Poll-book of an election 
held at the house of Thomas K. Stiles, in Posey township, Fayette county, 
Indiana, on the eighth day of April, A. D. 1826, for the purpose of electing 
one justice of the peace for said township, agreealsle to an order of the 
board of Fayette justices at their March term, at which time and place 
the following persons appeared and gave their vote : Henry Thornburg, 
Paul Coffin, Randall Brewer, John Thornburg, Aaron Youke, John Frazier, 
William Russell, Thomas H. Stiles, John Huston, Peter Kemmer, Joseph 
Spencer, Thomas Dancen, Abijah Haman, George Weirick, Robert McCann, 
John Rasher, George Raines, Andrew Penticost, John Treadway. Jaco]> 
Shinkle, Nehemiah .Stanleydogh, Barnes Claney, Samuel Ridgeway, Tittman 
Kolb, James Kirkendall, Daniel New, Micajah Jackson, Masters Vickroy, 
George Shinkle, John Norcross, David Canady, William Sutton, Isaac Suther- 
land, Solomon Sprang, Samuel Minanda, Jehu Vickroy, Jacob Watson, 
James Denkearad, Thomas Legg, Nathan Billson, James Sprang, Samuel 
Peaks, John Shinkle, Moses Gard, Thomas Kirkwood, John W^eaver, Law- 
rence Guinn, Cornelius Wadword, John Mullins, Thomas Patterson, Peter 
Shepler, Edmund K. Munger, Samuel Banther. James Gilleland." 



FAYETTE COrNTY. INDIANA. 263 

The candidates f(ir this election were Thomas Kirkwood, Jacol) Shinklc 
and John Treadway, and the numher of votes cast for eacli was seventeen, 
twenty-one and sixteen, respectively. 

SOME FIRST EVENTS. 

William Manlove, Ijorn January 19, 1815, son of Georjjje Manlove, is 
believed to have been the first white child liorn in the township. 

The first wedding- is Iielieved to liave 1)een that of John Case to Mary 
Caldw-ell and occurred at the lionie of the bride's father. 

The first death in the townsliip is thouo;ht to have 1ieen that of W'ilhain 
Manlove, Sr. 

The first house constructed with a sliinolt- roof was the dwelling- of 
George Manlove. 

The first and onl\- jurist -mill in tlie township was built about 1830. in 
section 5, on Simon's creek. The mill was in operation for nearly twenty 
years. Located on the same stream in section 4, and about the same time, 
was a .saw-mill operated by the father of J. A. Baldwin. 

EARLY SCHOOLS. 

The first school house in the township was located in section j8, 
in what is commonly known as the "Twelve-Mile Purchase." The exact 
time that the school house was built is not known, but it is known that 
.school was held there in 1818 and that George Manlove, who settled in 
the vicinit}' in 181 1, was the first teacher, .\nother one of the early schools 
in this community, but which stood just o\er the line in \Vayne county, 
was the one in the I.oder settlement, erected about 1826, Joseph Williams 
being one of the first teachers there. During the period from 1820 to 1830 
as many as five school houses were built in various parts of the township. 

The first school hou.se erected in the \'an Buskirk settlement, just west 
of Rentonville. was on the land owned by one of the Van Buskirks in 1831. 
The house was of the usual iM-imitive t\i)e — round logs, large fireplace, 
greased jiaper for win(k)ws, etc. .\ni(ing the first teachers here were John 
Treadwav, ?ilerchant Kellev, John Legg and Lavinia Church. This Iniild- 
ing had not been in use man\- years until it was su])planted by a more niod- 
prn one, located about a quarter of a mile farther west. 



266 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



lNTONVILLF 



Bentonville, named in honor of Thomas Benton, of Missouri, is located 
near the center of I'ose}' township (Mt the I'ittshurgh, Cincinnati, Cliicago & 
St. Louis railroad, twelve miles northwest of the county seat, and six miles 
from Dublin, the nearest banking jwint. William Dickey surveyed and platted 
the site of the village for the proprietor, Joseph Dale, December 7, 1838. 
The original plat consisted of thirteen lots. A small addition was made 
in 1844 by Thomas K. Stiles. 

William ^"oung. a tailor, built a liouse nn tlie townsite before it was 
surveyed and doubtless was the first business m;ui on the ground. Among 
other business men were Bradle\' Perr\-, a blacksmith ; Samuel Dickey, Joseph 
McCauley, Woodford Dale, Alfred Loder and a man by the name of Wood- 
son, merchants; William Stockdale, tanner. 

The business interests of the present time are represented by the fol- 
lowin.g; A^an !). Chance, general store and postmaster: Smullen Brothers, 
groceries: Mason & llacklcman, farming implements: Connell & .\nderson. 
Grain Company. 

The I3enton\'ille jjostdflice was formerly known as I'luni Orchard and 
was established under the latter name November 28, 1827, with Moses Ellis 
as postmaster. On February 13, 1838, the name of the office was changed 
ti) P)enton\-ille and Samuel Dickey was tlie first postmaster. In connection 
witli the office is one rural route. 

WATERLOO TOWNSHIP. 

Waterloo township came into existence after the creation of Union 
county, the organization of which by the legislative act of January 5, 1821, 
resulted in the detachment of several sections from the eastern side of 
Fayette county, leaving the latter county with its present limits. When the 
commissioners of Fayette count}^ divided it into townships at their first 
meeting, February 8, 1919, they organized the northeastern part of the 
county as Brownsville township. This township, which disappeared with 
the organization of Waterloo township, was given the following limits: 
Beginning at the southwest corner of section 16, range 13; thence north four 
miles to the Wayne county line; thence east to the Indian boundary line 
of 1795; thence with the said line in a southwesterly direction until it 
meets the line dividing sections 17 and 20 of township 14, range 14; 
thence due west to the place of beginning. 



FAYF.TTF. COIXTV. INDIVNA. 267 

As before stated, the creation of Union C(iunt\- l)ront;-|il ahuiu the 
organization of Waterloo township, the new township inchuhng all oi that 
part of Brownsville township in Fayette county, to which was addcil that 
part of the original Harrison township east of White Water river. This 
was done at the February, 182 1, session of the county commissioners. No 
change has been made in the limits of the township since the organization. 

.\11 of the land in Waterloo townshi]> had been entered prior to the 
organization of the county in i(Si9 with the exception of jj.-irl of section J. 
.\ complete list of the land entries of the township follows: 

Section 31 — (Fractional) — Sold in 181 1 to Samuel Grewell and |ohii 
Hardin. 

Section 32 — Sold in [811 to John Tharpe, Mathias Dawson, Thomas 
Sloo, Jr. 

Section 33 — Sold in 1813 to Jonathan lliggins, James I'arker, Jon.-Uhan 
Coleman and Xathan Roysdon. 

Section 34 — Sold in i8i4-i8i6to Abraham \'annieter and James Sleeth. 

Section 35 — Sold in 1814-1815 to Robert Huffman, Andrew Huffman. 
W^illis P. Miller and John AI. Fay.son. 

'l'o7Viis/ii/^ 14 North, Range 13 Easl. 

Section 2 — Sold in 1815, 1818 and i8[r> ti) James X. Chami)ers, James 
Montgomery, Uriah Farlow, Robert Holland and ls;iac Aliliner. 

Section 3 — Sold in 1814 to Alordccai Morgan, Josiah Lambert and 
Abraham Vanmeter. 

Section 4 — Sold in 1814 and 1813 to Abraham \ .-mmeter, ( leorge P. 
Terrence, Lewis Whiteman and Mathias Dawson. 

Section 5 — Sold in 1811 and 1815 to James Mclntyre and (ieorgc P. 
Terrence. 

Section 7 — Sold in 1814 to James Sutton, Jr., Anthony Wile\- ( frac- 
tional). 

Section 8 — Sold in 181 4 and i8i(> to h'benezer 1 leaton, Sanniel \'ance. 
Aaron Haughham. 

Section 9 — Sold in 1815 ;uid 1817 to Daniel Heaton, James White .-ind 
William and John Demstor. 

Section 10 — Sold in 1814 and 1815 to (.barles t'ollett, Isaac Dawson, 
Benjamin Dungan and Garis Haughham. 

Section 11 — Sold in 1815 and 1817 to Mathew Xico, John Riters, 
James Montgomery and ("hristojiher \Vamsley. 



268 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Section 14 — Sold in 181 5 and 18 16 to William Heins, Thomas Cooper. 
James Montgomery and Joshua Simpson. 

Section 15 — Sold in 1814 and 1815 to Thomas Dawson, Henry Hol- 
land, James Runilley and Aaron Delelon. 

Section 16 — Reserved for school pur^wses. 

Section 17 — Sold in 1812, 1814 and 1816 to Samuel Wilson, Archi- 
bald Reed, James Sutton and Samuel Vance. 

Section 18 — Sold in 181 1, 1812 to Archibald Reed and Zadoch Smith 
( fractional). 

The name of Matthias Dawson is perhaps the best known of any in 
connection with the early history of this township. He was a native of 
Virginia and, when a small boy, was captured by the Indians. He remained 
a captive for- many years and in the western- trend journeyed to this region 
when it was yet the unrestricted heme nf the red race. The story is told 
that the chief promised Dawson the land which he subsequently had to buy 
from the government, in the vicinity of Waterloo. After the battle of 
Fallen Timbers Dawson was released and settled on his possessions, liv- 
ing here for a number of }-ears, finally removing to St. Joseph county, where 
he died. 

The state, of Ohio doubtless furnished more settlers in this part of 
the county than any other. Among those who w^re early settlers are the 
following: Jonathan Higgins, 1812; Jonathan Coleman, about the same 
year; Ebenezer and Daniel Heaton settled on their land in 1814. Daniel, 
after remaining here for many years, removed to Howard county, Indiana; 
.Abraham Vanmeter and James Sutton were also early settlers from Ohio. 

From Pennsylvania came some sturdy pioneers among whom were the 
following: Samuel C. Vance, one of the earliest; Daniel F"iant, 1820; Henry 
Henry, of Irish descent, but a native of Penns3dvania ; Daniel Kline, 1825; 
William Hart, 181 7; John Hubbell, 1817; Daniel Skinner, chosen the first 
justice of the peace of the town.ship, settled in 1919. 

John Tharpe, a native of Kentuck}', settled on his land at an early date. 
He was a brother of Moses Tharpe, who resided west of the west fork 
of White Water river and in 181 3 had a child stolen by the Indians. 

One of the early pioneers was Joseph White, who in the very begin- 
ning of the century, started out from his home in Maryland and journeyed 
to Warren countv, Ohio, where he made a purchase of sixty acres. This he 
sold during the War of 1812, in which he was drafted, in order to pay a 
substitute. In the fall of 1814 he removed his family to what is now \\'ater- 
loo township. 



FAYKTTE COUNTY. INDIANA. ^69 

Nathan Roysdon removed from North CaroHna to Indiana Tcrritorx 
in 1808, and not long thereafter settled in the south half of the southwest 
quarter of section t,i,. He died in Waterloo township in 1832. Tiic Hardin 
and Grew-ell families were very early settlers in the northern part of the 
township, near the Wayne county line. The Farlows came from North 
Carolina and settled over the line in Union county. In 1814 Benjamin 
Dungan and family settled in the township and entered land, and at the 
same time his brother, Isaac, settled on a part of the same. Another faniil)- 
from Carolina was James Rumbley. He sold his entry to Erwin Boyd. The 
widow of Erwin Boyd, with several children, settled on the land in 1822. 

There were several who entered land, hut whose date of settlement is not 
known. Among them are the following: Henry Holland, John Sleeth, 
William Hiers, Abraham Vanmeter. 

Other permanent settlers of the tnwushi]) nf win on little is known were 
James Hamilton, William C Jones, Robert Holland, William McGraw and 
John Ruby. 

At a general election held at the home of Joseph Ruby, on the first 
Monday in August, 1825, for the purpose of electing a governor and lieu- 
tenant-governor, one senator for the counties of Fayette and Union one 
representative, clerk, two associate judges, recorder and coroner, the follow- 
ing men appeared and voted: Alfred Coleman, Joseph Dawson, Thomas 
Williams. Jonathan Williams, Jacob Vanmeter, John Brown, Benjamin 
Williams, Samuel Dawson, Joseph Camblin, Thomas Dawson, Nathaniel 
Blackburn, John Swazey, Mathias Dawson, Charles Wandle, Jonathan Cole- 
man, Daniel Skinner, William Port, Isaac Stagg, Francis McGraw, Eli 
Dawson, Abijah Holland, Steven Wandle, William Robinson, Matthew 
Robinson, Henry Henry, Joseph White, William McGraw, John Blackburn, 
James Beeks, Isaac Dungan. Benjamin Dungan, Cornelius Cook. Robert 
Holland, Elijah Dills, Zachariah Dungan. Aaron Haugham, Nathan Roys- 
don, Enoch Chambers, Hezekiah Bussey. 

EARLY SCHOOLS. 

The first school in the townsliip was most likely erected in section lO in 
the fall of 1815, the first teacher being h^lijah Holland. Only a year or two 
later school was-held in a cabin in section 17 and it is ix)ssible that Absalom 
Heatou: and a^man by the name of Ta\lor were among the first teachers 
there, as they were among the very first in the township. In the north- 
western part of the township, not far from 1821, the people were \ ery nuich 



270 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

interested in education, and instead of erecting the usual primitive t3'pe of 
school house, a frame building was erected. A man 1>3' the name of Gray 
was one of the pioneer teachers. 

WATERLOO. 

The village oi Waterloo, located on the east bank of Nolan's Fork, 
one of the most thriving commercial and social centers in the county, 
has gradually faded into history and now nothing remains of the place with 
the exception of three or four houses. William Port, a merchant and grocer 
of 1825, appears t(. liave lieen the first Imsiness man in the village: Joseph 
Flint was a grocer and liquor dealer in 1829, as was also Robert Scott and 
Louis Beaks the year following : John M. Turner was the keeper of a tav- 
ern and a saloon in 1837. 

The first physicians of the village were Doctors Chapman and Richard- 
S(in, who were there in 1839 and for several years after. Doctor Richardson, 
during the years of his practice, erected a saw-mill on Nolan's Fork. The 
mill was subsequently owned b\' John Grewell and later by John Troxell. in 
whose hands it fell into disuse. 

The village reached the crest of its prosperity in the decade preceding 
the (rivil War, During this time there were two hotels in the village that 
had more than a local reputation. One was known as the Turner hotel, of 
which "Dad" Turner was the proprietor, and the Eagle, of which Joseph 
Forrey was the owner. The building of the latter hotel is still standing. 
Robert Watt conducted a dry goods store, and John Gruelle was the owner 
of a grocery and saloon. Two physicians, whose names were Gillum and 
Rose, the latter also a dentist, practiced in the period just before the war. 
The saw-mill was owned and operated by John Fawcett and the blacksmith 
was Jacob Heider. The greatest numl)er of people the village ever had is 
estimated at seventy-five to one hundred. 

The village lost its existence much more (|uickly than it gained it. On 
the night of May 14, 1883, it was visited by a cyclone and only three build- 
ings in the entire village were left standing, they being at the north end of 
the one street that the place afforded. Every other building, barn or dwell- 
ing, was either unroofed or totally destroyed. About seventy-five people 
were rendered liomeless yet, mar\-eli)us as it may seem, only one person was 
injured. 

The Waterloo postoffice, established May 4, 1825, was the second one in 
the county. Following is a hst of postmasters with their dates of service 
and the time the office was discontinued: William Port, 1825-1844: Amos 



FAYKTTE rOfNTY, INniANA. _•"( 

Chapman, 1844-1845: William I'ort, 1845-1851: Isaac l<"oi-r\ , 1851-1854; 
R. Ciillam, 1854-1855: Thomas (',. I'rice, 1855-1862: K. Gillam, 1862-1863: 
John Troxell." 1863-1866; William T. I'.olles, 1866-May 18, 1868 (discon- 
tinued). 

The following poem was written l)y William Dunuan to be read before 
the Beeson Literary Societ)- about 1887, and is a true picture of the ancient 
village of Waterloo. The author was l)orn a mile and a half north of Water- 
loo, September 3, 1842. the son of Joseph and Rebecca (Chambers) Dungan. 
He lived on the farm until the >ear before the Civil War and then moved 
to Harrisburg and lived there about four years. He then moved to Beeson's 
Station, Wavne county, lived there until i8r)2. when he moved to Conners- 
ville, where he is still living. 

The historians are very much indel)ted U> Mr. Dungan for his valued 
assistance, especially for his hel]) in writing and securing the history of the 
Baptist churches of the county. 

WA'J'EIU.OO 



Ix)ng before the caual was made. 
And the railroad's rails were laid. 
Before the news o'er the wires flew. 
Was Iniilt the town of Waterloo. 

It was built on the banks of Nolands Fork, 
Almost as old as great New York: 
Where once the thistles and briers srew, 
Xow stands the town of W.aterloo. 

An inn was kept for the trjiveler weary 
By a man whose name was Forrey; 
The Eagle sign was kept in view 
To all who stopped in Waterloo. 

"Dad" Turner in the lown did dwell: 
He also kept a large hotel : 
Thus you see there once were two 
Great hotels in Waterloo. 

The gushing springs on the great hillside 
Once were her glor.v and her pride. 
The Reilman's arrows once thickly flew 
Where now is standing Waterloo. 

The old brown church that stood in town 
One Sabbath day was torn down. 
This wicked act the people did do 
Who lived in the town of W.iterloo. 



2^2 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Thus the Louse where worshipijed the great aud good 
Was scatteral abroad for kindling wood. 
Go, stand on the hill and take a view 
O'er the mouldering town of Watei'loo. 

Her glory and grandeur are fading away ; 
Her eminent structures are on the decay. 
-Alen of renown there are hut few 
Dwelling today in Waterloo. 

Oh, look at the creek with its rock-bound shore. 
Where once was heard the cannon's roar. 
But the cannon bursted and its fragments flew 
All over the town of Waterloo. 

The greatest cities of the earth 

Have thrived and grown from hinnhle birth. 

But will this saying now prove true 

About the town of Waterloo V 

SPRINGERSVILLE. 

The village of Springersville, as platted and surveyed July 27, 1840, 
was located in the southeastern part of Waterloo township. Thomas Simp- 
son was the proprietor of the townsite, which was surveyed by William 
Dickey. About 1838, Thomas Simpson, Jr., erected the first building in 
what later became the village and in which he conducted a general store. 
On May 16, 1840, he became the postmaster of the village and served in 
this capacity for nine }ears. James Culley was another early merchant. 
What once gave promise of being a thriving village has now dwindled down 
to a mere collection of about twelve scattered houses, a church and a black- 
smith shop. 

The postmasters who hax-e had charge of die jjostoffice include the fol- 
lowing: Thomas Simpson, Jr., 1840-1849; Nicholas Remington, April 2, 
1849-November 14, 1849 (discontinued); Avarenas Pentecost; November 
2, 1849 (re-established) to May 22, 1850 (discontinued); Alvar E. Pente- 
cost. May II, 1852 (re-established) to May 5, 1853 (discontinued). 



CHATTKR VIIT. 



in l'"a\cttc county niu.sl lic.Qiii with an 
cli fin-nislic-d the avenue alnn^- wliich all 
itv traveled to their future homes. This 
it\- I'roni the southeast to the northwest, 
what i.> now h'aslern a\cnue. A eoni- 
) thorouyhfare. written h\ J. L. Ileine- 
lunie and the reader is referred to it as 
vette county's first hit^'hway. 

^ in e\er\' other county in the south- 
traces or hridle paths thron.t;h the wocds, 
across the prairies. It was accidental 
■ction line, the ]iiotieers who laid theni 
iiind, and that was to i;et the shortest 
the \arious settlements or to the mills 
and villages of the county. 

From the beginnino- of the history of the state the Legislature has 
passed acts to encourage road making. F,\ery able-bodied citizen from the 
beginning of the history of Fayette count}- has 1)een compelled by law to 
work a certain number of days on the road or ])ay an equivalent in taxes. 
This law still prevails in the state. The early commissioners' records are 
largely taken up with petitions for new roads or changes in roads ah-eady 
estalilished. In fact, at least half of the minutes of their meetings are 
devoted to the (juestion of roads. While the county itself was l)us\- in lay- 
ing out roads, the state was also interested in providing what were known 
as "state roads." Two so-called state roads passed through Fayette county. 
One came u]) the White Water \alley from Lawrenceburg by way of Brook- 
\ille, passed through Connersville and Waterloo, and thence on north 
through Centerville, in Wayne count}-, to Winchester, in Randolph county. 
The other road started from Liberty, in Union county, passed through Fay- 
ette county and thence west, through Rush count}-, to Lidianapolis. 
(r8) 



The history ot 


trans 


portatioi 


account of the old 1 


Indian 


Trail wl 


of the early settleis 


ot I'a 


\ette coi 


trail ran di;igonall} 


acn .s.^ 


. the coi 


passing through fo 


nners\ 


ille alon 


plete account of thi 


s fauK 


.us Indi; 


maun, is gi\en else\ 


vhere 


in this \ 


a most interesting a 


ccount 


of 1-ayt 


The first roads 


in l-'a} 


;e11e con 


ern part of Indian:i 


,. were 


' mere ti 


o\er the liill.^. ;iroun 


d tlie : 


■iwamps 


if tlie\- happened to 


coincii 


lie with 


out having onl}- one 


■ consit 


leration 


and most easil}' tra\ 


eled n 


.ad betw 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



TOLL ROADS. 



The contour of the county does not readily lend itself to the making' 
of good roads. It is very rolling over a considerable portion of its extent 
and this necessitates a much hea\ier outlay to construct roads. The 
era of toll roads began about the middle of the fifties, following the legis- 
lative act of May i, 1852, which made it possible for counties to have a 
larger road fund. This act furnished the basis for the thousands of toll 
roads which were built throughout the state. It seems queer in the year 
191 7 to think of a pri\ate company, oftentimes of less than a half dozen 
citizens, building a road — a public highway — and then charging as much 
per mile for citizens to travel on it as we of tofla\- ha\'e to pay for the best 
service on the railroads. Such, however, was the case and it was not until 
the nineties that the taxpayers of ]<"ayette count}' saw the last toll-gate 
disappear. 

It is not profitable to follow the history of the many private toll roads 
constructed through Fayette county during the fifties and sixties. By 1856, 
there were no less than thirteen of these pay-as-you-drive roads in Fayette 
county, aggregating a total of seventy-five miles. The longest road was 
from Connersville to Fairview, a distance of eleven miles; the shortest was 
the Benton\nlle-Milton road of two miles. The average length of these 
roads was between six and seven miles. As late as 1885, seven of these 
roads were still privately owned, or rather maintained, by pri\'ate jiarties. 

ROADS UiV'DEK THE THREE-MILE LAW. 

The old toll roads were gradually acifuired b\' the county and placed 
under the super\'ision of the township road super\isors and all disappeared 
before the close of the nineties. 1'he history of highway legislation within 
the ]iast few years has been one of confusion ; in fact, so many laws affecting 
roads have been jiassed that it is difficult to follow the xagaries of some of 
them. .\t the present time there is a three-mile law which permits a county 
to build a road of such a length under certain stipulated conditions. There 
are sixteen three-mile roads already constructed in the county. 'Phese mads 
are named after the person who was instrumental in having them constructed 
and are as follow: George A. Looney, Orange township; Charles H. Flwell, 
Posey township ; Charles IT. Flwell, Fairview township ; Janies H. De .\rniond. 
Orange: William M. Gregg. Connersxille town.ship: D. W. Moore, Jackson 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 275 

township; Lewis Matney, Orange township; Alherl Rees. Conners\'ille town- 
ship; George Lambertson. Posey township; C". \\'. Martin, Connersville 
township; James McCann. Connersville townsliip; Will Beeson, Posey town- 
ship; Falmouth-Glenwood. Fairview township; C. A. Ryman, Posey town- 
ship; Jesse Chrisman. Harrison township; Albert Collins, Connersville town- 
sliip. Tliere are in 1917 about four hundred miles of impro\'ed roads in 
the count}-; in January. 11)17. there were thirteen miles in tlie course of con- 
struction. 

The law prorates a certain amount of tiie automobile tax to the various 
counties of the state in proportion to the number of miles of "improved 
highways", the definition of such a road being somewhat confusing". The 
1917 Legi^ature is considering several riidical changes- in the roath laws of 
the state, the chief desire of the T-egislature being to frame some kind of a 
statute which would put the state in a position to share the federal appro- 
priation provided for in the Bankhead act of 1013. The interest in good 
roads has never been more prominently before the people of the state than 
it is at the present time and it is safe to say that within the next few years 
Fayette county will have roarls which can Ije used at all times of the year to 
the best advantage. 

liRinOKS IX FAYETTE COl'NTY. 

The question of bridges is and always has l)een a very ex))ensive con- 
sideration .in the .county .owing, to the pre.sence of the White W"ater river 
and the many .streams which ha\e to be bridged. The first bridge over the 
river in the county was built at Connersville between the years 1838 and 
1842, by .Minor Meeker, H. B. Woodcock and James Veatch. This bridge 
stood until 1887, ^vhen it was replaced by the present structure, an attractive, 
substantial frame covered liridgc with an arched ceiling and lighted by elec- 
tricity. Tlie hrst and only bridge across the river between Connersville and 
the northern line of the county is still standing. It 'is located ;it Waterloo 
and was built by the Canton (Ohio) Wrought Iron Compan_\- between the 
years 1881 and 1884 at a cost of $16,637.37. One span had to be replace<l 
after com])lete destruction by a cyclone. The third bridge across the 
river is just below Xulltown and the first bridge there was constructed by 
the Canton firm two years prior to the btnlding <ii the Waterloo bridge. 
The Xulltown liridge was destroyed in the s])ring of \<)\7^ ])y the most 
destructive Hood which has occurred since the count\- was organized. The 
county commissioners at once took stejjs to rejjlace it and a four-.s])an steel 



Z-^d FAYETTE COUNTY, INDiANA. 

bridge was constructed llie same year, During the past three years the 
county has had to Imild a number of bridges which were swept out in the 
spring of 1913, and this has necessitated a heavy outlay. Likewise many of 
the highways suffered se\erely on account of the liigli waters at that time. 

THE WHITE WATER CANAL. 

The histor)- of Fayette county prior to the Ijeginning of th.e (7i\-il War 
is replete with references to the White Water canal, and it is not too nuich 
to sa}- that the building of this canal through the count}' and its suljse([uent 
use meant as much to the early prosperity of the county as any other single 
factor. While actual work on the construction of the canal did not begin 
until 1836, the agitation for an artificial waterway down White Water to the 
Ohio river began as early as 1822. In that year a convention nt delegates 
from Randolph, Wayne, Fayette, Lhiion, Franklin and Dearborn comities 
met at Harrison, Ohio, to consider the practicability of constructing a c;inal 
down the White Water \-alle3'. The newspapers were enthusiastic in favor 
of the canal, Augustus Jocelyn, the editor of the PJrookville Wc.^hrn Agrl- 
cuhnnst, being the most active champion of the proposition. '!"he con- 
sensus of opinion among the delegates at the con\-ention was heartilx' in 
favor of taking steps toward a preliminary sur\ey, and tine beginning of 
actual work as soon as possible. 

Shortly after this meeting was held, Colonel Shri\-er, an engineer of the 
United States army, began a survey for the canal, but died befoix- he had it 
completed. y\fter a short suspension of the survey, the work wns resumed 
by Colonel Standbury, also an engineer of the regular arm\% and within a 
short time he completed the survey. His estimates of the cost somewhat 
dampened the ardor of the advocates of the canal, and as a result the ques- 
tion lay dormant until 1832, in which year the citizens of the valley peti- 
tioned the Legislature for another survey, and the following year that body 
authorized a preliminary survey. It was made in the summer of 1834 by 
competent surveyors and their report was submitted to the Legislature by 
William Goodwin on December zt^. 1834. The survey began at Nettle 
Creek, near Cambridge City, followed the west fork of White Water to 
BroOkville, thence down the river to Harrison, and from there to Lawrence- 
burg on the Ohio fixer. The total length of the canal was seventy-six miles, 
the fall of four Inindred and-ninety-one feet necessitating se\-en dams and 
fifty-six locks. The estimated cost was $14,908 per mile, or a total cost of 
$i,i42,T26 for the entire canal. 



FAVnTTK COUNTY, INDIANA. 



As uiight have been expected there was much opposition In the canal. 
and it \\as only by tlie most ingenious arguments tliat tlie conslructinn of 
tlie waterway was finally ordered. The discussion in the Legislature, in the 
press and among the citizens of the state culminated in the act of January 
27, 1X3(1, known as the mammoth internal-improvement hill. The White 
Water canal was only one of a number of canals, highways and railroads 
which were provided for by this act. but it is the unly one with which this 
chapter is concerned. The White \\ ater canal was at last ordered constructed 
and the sum of $1,400,000 was appropriated for its completion. 

The actual work on the canal began on September 13, 1836, at which 
time a big celebration was held at Brookville. Gov. Noah Noble, former 
Gov. James B. Ray, Da\id Wallace, George H. Dunn and other speakers 
were i)resent. and the occasion was one which must have brought great joy 
to the as.sembled -thousands. , A pick, shovel and wheelbarrow had been 
provided, and at-ithe cloge of the speaking one of- the- orators- -seized a- pick, 
loosened the dirt for a few feet, another trundled the wheelbarrow along the 
site of the future canal, another took the shovel and filled the \\heelbarrow, 
and Wallace wheeled it ofif — and in this fashion the "ground was broken" 
for a canal which was to cost considerably more than a million dollars, a 
sum out of all proportion to the returns from it before it was discontinued 
forever. 

.\ SERIOUS FINANCIAI. PROBLEM. 

It is not profitable in this connection to follow the construction of the 
canal from year to year. The work proceeded rajiidly and by December 15, 
1837, the supej-inleiident of con.str-uction reported that the section from 
Brookville to Lawrenceburg was under way and about half com|jletcd. Me 
further reported that nine hundred and se\enty-fi\e men were em])l<>yed and 
that with the .same number of men the canal could be com])Ieted in two more 
seasons. The laborers received eighteen dollars a month. < )n December 
20, 1838, Superintendent Long reported the canal finished to lirookxille. but 
it was not until June 8, 1839, that the first Ixjat arrived in I'.rook\ille from 
Lawrenceburg. The cost of the canal to Brookville had been S6()4,6()5 and 
it was easy to be seen that it would be impossible for the .state to complete 
the canal within the original appro])riation. In fact the state was on the 
verge of bankruptcy, and the canal commissioners reported on .\ugust 19, 



278 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

1839, that tlie state was unable to expend another cent on any of its canals, 
highways or railroads. 

What was to be done ? The canal was only partially completed : money 
was needed to keep in repair that portion that was completed; the hopes of 
the people of the valley for an easy outlet to the Ohio seemed doomed. The 
people could not realize that the state was bankrupt, but the truth was soon 
forced upon them as month after month went by and nothing- was done 
toward a resumption of work on the canal. No work was done from the 
fall of 1839 until the summer of 1842, when the state sold the canal to a 
Cincinnati company headed by Henry S. Vallette, a wealthy man of that city. 
There had: been some work done l>etween Brookville and Connersville before 
the suspension in the fall of 1839, and within two years the canal was opened 
to Connersville, the first boat from Lawrenceburg reaching the city in June, 
1845. I" the following October the canal reached Cambridge City, and a 
year later it was opened through to Hagerstown. The new company had 
expended $473,000 on the canal between Brookville and Cambridge City, 
part of this amount, however, being used for repairs on the portion com- 
pleted when it assumed the ownership of the canal. The total cost of the 
canal as reported in .1848 was $1,920,175.13. 

THE BEGINNING OE THE END. 

The canal was hardly completed before it began to fall into ruin. The 
character of the \alley mafle the canal suffer from the floods which swept 
down it e\-ery year, and to the present generation it seems queer that this 
fact had not been considered before the canal was built. In January, 1847, 
a flood destroyed the aqueduct at Laurel and the one immediately south 
nf Cambridge City, at the same time cutting channels around the feeder 
dams at Cases, i>niok\ille. Laurel, Connersville and Cambridge City. The 
damage was estimated at $90,000 and during the summer of 1847 ^^'^^ com- 
pany spent $70,000 in rejuiirs. In No\ember of the same year another 
flood destroyed all the repairs that had been made in the summer and an 
additional $80,000 was spent before the canal was again ready for use. 
During the summer of 1848, through traffic was impossible, and it was not 
until September of that year that it was again opened.' The following year 
another flood rendered the canal useless and the peojjle began to despair of 
the canal ever j)eing of any \-alue in the future. The agitation for a rail- 
road down the \alle\- in the fifties and the assurance that it would be built 
as soiin as the right of way could be secured, kept the canal company from 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 2J(.) 

expending- any nune nionex- on the canal, although it was still used for local 
traffic. 

C.VN.Vl. SOI.n TO RAILKO.M) COMPANY. 

The canal was tinally sold on July _'_', icSd^. at the court lu)use door 
at Brookville by the L'nited Stales niar.shal to H. C. Lord, president of the 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Railroad Company, for the sum of $63,000. The 
railroad had been trying to secure the canal for several years, so that it 
could _u5e, the tow-path for its track. This sale, for some reason, was set 
aside, alth'oug-h the railroad had started tn build its track, and the canal was 
sold to the White Water Valley Railrond Company for the sum of $137,- 
34(S. ij. Thus passed out of use a canal which had cost nearly two million 
dollars and had never been in ojieration throughout its entire length more 
than four months at an\ one time. Hut it was the means of bringing- thou- 
sands of settlers into Indiana; it did furnish a cheap means of transporting- 
produce to the Ohi(t and, even if it did cost such a staggering amount, it was 
worth much more to the state tlian it e\er cost. Some \alues are not entirely 
com])uted in dnUars and cents ,-ind such is the case with the AMiite W'ater 
canal. 

.\fter the canal passed into private hands the headquarters of the com- 
pany was established at Conners\ille and remained there until the canal 
passed out of existence. The company erected a substantial brick building 
on the south side of Fourth street between Central and Eastern avenues, anfl 
the building- is still standing immediately east of the Palace Hotel. It has 
itnposing pillars facing the front and is the best type of colonial architectm-e 
to be found in the city. The building- is now used as a private residence. 

PRE.SENT USE OF THE WHITE W.NTER C.\NAL IN FAYETTE COUNTY. 

The abandonment of the canal as a means of transportation was fol- 
lowed l)_v the employment of portinns of it for power piu'poses. 

The canal furnishes power at Connersville, Metamora and IVookville, 
the i)Ower at all three places being of the feeder-dam ty])e. The power 
froni the canal at Connersville is utilized by four different conipanies, the 
following table exhibiting the extent (^f the use made b\- then-i : 

Head Water Horse- 

Xjime of Ciiiiiii;uiy in feet used AVliei'l powpr 

Hydro-Electric Company 18 Portion 35 8n 

McCann Milling Company 9 All 35 60 

P. H. & F. M. Roots Manufacturing Co.... 23 Portion 21 90 

I'hl & Snider Flour-mill 26 Portion 21 100 



28o FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

'J'he water from the river is diverted into the canal by a dam constructed 
across the river seven miles north of Connersville. The total fall of the 
water from the intake to the tail race at Uhl & Snider's mill is eighty feet, 
but of this total only fifty-three feet are used. The water is first used by 
the Hydro-Electric Light and Power Company. At this' point the Conners- 
ville Furniture Company also formerly used a 30-inch wheel developing 50 
horse-power, but has recently discontinued it, and now uses the water fn^m 
the canal only in its boilers and condensers. A few blocks further south the 
full stream in the canal is used by the McCann Milling Company. The 
stream is divided at the southern end of the town, where a portion of it is 
used by the P. H. & F. M. Roots Alanufacturing- Company and the remainder 
by the l^il & Snider flour-mill. 

The total horse-power developed at Connersville from the canal amounts 
to 388 horse-power, and yet experts have estimated that there could easily 1)e 
produced an additional 210 horse-power. This is figured on the basis that 
six inches per mile is suflicient fall for a hydraulic canal ; that the canal has 
an available head of 76.5 feet; and that it has a discharge of from 85 to 
90 cubic feet per second. The whole hydraulic system is owned and con- 
trolled by the Connersville Hydraulic Company. 

RAILROADS. 

The first railroad to Conners\'ille was built by the Cincinnati & Indi- 
anapolis Junction Railroad Company, later the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Day- 
ton Railroad Company and now the Cincinnati, Indianapolis & Western Rail- 
road Company. It was completed in 1862. As early as 1848 steps were 
taken toward the construction of a road from Rushville, Indiana, by the way 
of Connersville and Oxford, to connect with the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Day- 
ton road at Hamilton, Ohio. In March, 1849, -li^ state Legislature of Ohio 
granted the right to the railroad com])any to extend its road from the state 
line to Hfunilton. The company was organized in 1849, 'ii""^ surveys were 
made preparatory to the location of the road from Rushville to Hamilton. 
However, the company could not agree on a route and a temporary suspen- 
sion of operations followed. Early in the spring of 1852 the company was 
reorganized and after electing a set of officers, adopted measures to construct 
the road upon the route originally agreed upon. 71ie construction of the 
road was commenced the same year but was not completed to Connei'sville 
until twelve vears later. S. W. Parker and William Tindall were Conners- 
ville men connected with the company in official capacities. Joshua Leach, 



1-\YKTT1- Cor.NTY, IN'DIANA. jHl 

the secretary and linancial aj^enl ot the road, hiter inoved tn C"nniH'r^\ ille, liv- 
iii"^ liere at the time of liis death. 

'I"he need of a <hreet nmte from ln(hana])oh-~ to Cincinnati led lo tiie 
organization of tlie Oliio .S: in(h'ana]>olis Railroad (."ompanv in l'"c]>rnar\. 
185,^, for the purpose of constrnctinL;- ;i mad from Ruslnillc to I ndianaiiolis. 

Company. hi I(S()() an cHorl was mailc lo ciiiii])lelc the construction of the 
road from Coiiiiersville to Uuslnille, hut hecansc of hnancial rcason> the 
work was siispended. .U the liegiiinini;- of the ne\l ^])riut;- the controlling 
interest in the companx- was ])urcliased hy a coni])an\- of tweKc men who 
took up the work, and conii)leted the line lo Indianapolis. In |niie, iS()S. 
trains were running hetween Iiidiana])oIis and Cincinnati. The estimated 
cost of the road per mile from lndiaiia]>olis to Hamilton was twent\-one 
thousand h\-e luiiidred and sixteen doUars and se\enl v-ti\e cents. The road 
has a main track mileage of i(>.5 mileage in h'ayette countv and a side- 
track mileage of <).JK miles, all of which has an as'^cssed valuation of $355,300. 

liU; KOTK (WHITK W-\TKR nUISlOX). 

It was not until after it was seen that the canal had outlived its useful- 
ness that the huildiiig of a railroad along the course of the canal took on a 
serious a.sjjcct. The floods of the latter fifties damaged the canal so that it 
was little used after the hegiuning of the Civil War. hi iSO^ the Indi- 
anapolis (K: Cincinnati Railroad Company secured the right lo use the tow- 
path of the canal for the huilding of the railroad. The road was coni])leted 
to Connersville in the s])ring of \i«.y and soon thereafter to Camhridge 
City, from which place the road ])assed to Ilagerstown on the (.'olumhus. 
Chicago & Indiana Central line. 'Die road has a track mileage of 14.1^1 
miles: a side track mileage of j.^S miles, and an ;issessed xaluation of 
$70,000. This road has passed through several hands and has ne\er heen 
a paying projjosition, due iio( onl\- to llie limited terriloi-\- which il ser\cs. 
hut also the heaw e-\i)eiise entailed hy llie fre(|uent Hoods which ,^weei) 
down from the White Water \alley. 

THE I.AKK KKIK \ \vr..ST|-.KX UAlI.RO.vn. 

The Fort Wayne, Cincinnati (S: Louisville railroad, now the Lake h'rie 
& Western, was originally a hranch of the Cincinnati & Indianapolis lunc- 
tion railroad, extending from Connersville through Camhridge City lo Xew 



282 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Castle and known as the Connersville & New Castle Junction railroad. The 
road was built directly after the completion of the Cincinnati & Indianapolis 
Junction railroad, it was subsequently extended and became known as the 
Ft. Wayne, Muncie & Cincinnati railroad. The mileage of the road in this 
county is 4.87 miles: a side track mileaoe of .4[ miles and an assessed valua- 
tion of $48,600. 

Tlie railroad crossinj;;- the nurthweslern ])art of the county was orioin- 
ally a part of the Lake I'-rie & Louisxille railroad, extendino- from ]'"remont, 
Ohio t(i RusliAille, Indiana, and was com])leted on July 4, 1867. Subse- 
(juently it became a i)ranch of the Jefferson\-ille, Madison & Indianapolis 
railroad, but is now known as the Cambridge Cit}- branch of the Pittsburgh, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. I.ouis railroad. 'Hie main track mileage of this 
road within the county is 7.75 miles: the side-track mileage .39 miles. Tlie 
total assessed valuation is $70,437, It was at one time known as the "Calico 
road." because of the method used by its construction in paying for work in 
merchandise. 

The a.ssessment values already mentioned cover only the main tracks 
of the railroads. The total assessment on the side tracks, rolling stock, and 
impro\ements on right of way bring the total assessment for the railroads 
of the county up to $688,560. 

ELECTRIC LINES OF FAYETTE COUNTY. 

There is only one electric line in Fa3-ette county — Indianapolis & Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company — and its 9.28 miles of main track and .39 miles 
of side track in Fayette county, together with its rolling stock and improve- 
ments on right of way, bring its total assessment up to $60,942. 



.^ 



CHAPTER IX. 
Agriculture. 

Fayette county lies largely in the valley of White Water river and the 
land in the valley is very productive. The soil is fertile and with scientific 
rotation of crops yields abundantly year after year with little artificial ferti- 
lizing. The different soils of the county are discussed in detail in the chapter 
on Geology. The land area of the county is approximately 138,240 acres 
and the census of 19 10 reported 134,200 acres in farms, or 97.1 per cent, 
of the total area. The average size of the 1,126 farms was i 19.2 acres, and 
the total value of all farm property was $11,443,825. 

Methods of farming have undergone radical changes within the past 
few years, and as a result farmers are getting better returns than ever before. 
The work done by the agricultural experiment station of Purdue University 
has been of incalculable benefit to the farming interests of the state. The 
Legislature in 1913 provided a means whereby each county could employ 
what was known as a county agent, whose duties were to co-operate with 
the farmers in advancing their interests. The creation of the office was 
an outgrowth of the demand on the part of the farmer to l)e kept in con- 
stant touch with the latest and best agricultural thought, and the subsequent 
development of the work as outlined in the act establishing the office has shown 
the value of the county agent. 

Never before has there been the interest shown wliich is now l)eing 
manifested in scientific agriculture. Industrial trains under the direction of 
Purdue University are sent up and down the state ; the university also has 
an educational exhibit at the county fairs: frequent farmers' institutes are 
held: short courses in suljjects of interest to the farmers are held, not only 
at Purdue, but also in many counties of the state : corn shows, horse shows, 
apple shows and exhibitions of all kinds of farming products are l)eing held 
with increasing frequency : the federal government distrilnites an enormous 
amount of literature bearing on agricultural topics and Purdue University 
is doing the same thing, and more magazines and papers devoted to the 
interests of the farmer are being read than ever before. The net result 
of all this constructive work means better farming, larger returns, and 
improved conditions in social, educational and economic life. 



284 FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 



EARLY AND MODERN CONDITIONS OF AGRICULTURE. 

In the early history of the county swamp,s, marshes and ponds abounded 
where, fertile and cultivated fields are the prevailing conditions at the present 
time. Settlers avoided the Ioav and marshy tracts for the higher grounds, 
not only on account of the ever-present water, but for health purposes. The 
shack or cabin was generally constructed at or near a spring, and convenience 
alone was the prime purpose in the location of other structures. The corn- 
crib was as likely to be in close proximity to the front door as to be placed 
in the rear of the habitation. The latter was built of logs; the logs were 
usually "undressed." In most localities a fence enclosing the pioneer posses- 
sions was unknown; but at a late period the "worm" fence was erected to 
enclose the holding. 

FARMING CONDITIONS IN THE TWENTIES. 

Oliver H. Smith in his "Trials and Sketches of Early Indiana," presents 
a vivid picture of agricultural conditions as existed in Fayette county in the 
twenties. Since he was an actual resident of the county during that decade 
and was actually engaged in farming, his description of the conditions of 
that time merit inclusion in this chapter. To quote verbatim : 

The finest farms around Connersville, in one of the most beautiful countries in 
the world, cleared, with orchards and common, were fne and ten dollars per acre. 
I bought the fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres, adjoining Connersville, the 
same now (1857) the residence of Hon. Samuel W. Parker, of .John Adair, ^of Brookville, 
for nine dollars per acre, in three annual installments without interest. The brick 
two-story dwelling in which I lived when I was elected to Congress, in the heart of 
Connersville, twenty-six feet front, well finished, with back kitchen, lot twenty-six by 
one hundred and eighty feet, good stable, I bought of >Sydnor Dale for three hundred 
and twenty-five dollars — which was considered a ■ high price at that time. The 
excellent farm over the hill below the town I bought of William Denman for five 
dollars per acre, in payments. There was very little money in the country, and 
produce was equally low in proportion. I bought the finest qualities of stall-fed beef 
and corn-fed hogs, for family use, at a cent and a half .-i pound; corn, ten cents; wheat, 
twenty-five cents per bushel ; wood delivered and cut short at the door at a dollar 
jier cord : boarding at common houses, with lodging, from a dollar to two dollars a 
week, and at the very best hotels at two dollars and a half. The first year I traveled 
the circuit my fees fell short of two hundred dollars, and the second, when they 
increased to three hundred, I felt as Sfife as a Stephen Girard. All of my wants were 
supplied. I owed nothing and had money in my pocket. No white man had settled more 
than five miles west of Connersville at that time. 





EVIDENCES OF PROSPERITY. 



FAYETTK COIXTY, INDIANA. 285 



FAKMICD OXI.Y FOR MOMK RKOri KKM KNTS. 

The soil was new aiul pnulnctixe, hut for a consideralile miinlier of years 
the crops were not extensi\e. With markets placed at long tlistances. tlie 
pioneer was contented to produce for home requirements. Yet. his remote- 
ness from points where indispensable supplies were to be obtained, was a 
matter of no little concern to him. As the ground was cleared antl the crops 
increased, the question of marketing l>ecame more acute, and the difficulty of 
getting the produce to the nearest market — then Cincinnati, — sixt\' miles dis- 
tant, was embarrassing. The crops had to be hauled over hill and through 
dale, the way being fre(|uentl\ inipassal)le, as the roads were mere apologies 
for paths, with logs ami underl)rush cut away. Many days were consumed 
in making the journey and the farmer had little inducement to increase the 
output of his land beyond the home and immediate district demand. Writing 
of travel over those iirimitive roads, an early pioneer of l\-iyette county 
recorded the following : 

Nothing was more winiiuon than to tind hy the wayside, at ne;irly every place 
where good water could be had, a camping ground where the weary wagoner had 
camped, as also liad the emigrant and hi.s family. They generally tied their horses 
to the wagon-tongue on which was fastened a feed-trough, which, when traveling. 
they carried swung to the hind-gate of their wagon, for the purpose of feeding their 
horses. They would build a fire b.v which to cook their scanty niejil and. if night had 
overtaken them, the ground was their bed and the star-decked heaven their canoiiy, ami 
fortunate would they consider themselves if they h.-id .-i small luiiidle for a pillow. 

The hoe or mattock was brought in service in the preparation of the 
ground for crops. The mattock, as some styled it, was a tool al>out two feet 
long, one end of which was a blade three inches wide, w ith a sharj) steel edge, 
the other end being brought to a sharj) edge intended to be used as an ax. 
Occasionally a field would be sown to produce what was termed "sick wheat." 
The latter has been descrilietl as being little different from wheat grown in later 
years, except in the appearance of a red spnt on the grain, or an indication <<{ 
sprouting. The cause for the wheat being so named has been attributed to 
the excess of vegetable matter in this locality, jiroducing a sur])lus of straw 
and not unfrequentlv a kind of rot or blight in many of the wheat grains, 
which rendered it unfit for use, and was so named from the result on the 
stomach of one eating it. 

Bacon sold at 214 cents per ixmnd ; corn, jo to 25 cents ])er bushel: but 
there was a season of great scarcity when it sold for $i._'5 per bushel. lUitter 
for a long time sold for 3, 4 and 6 cents i)er pound. While produce was so 



286 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

low, the farmer had to pay 50 cents per yard for muslin, that later could be 
bought for 8 or 10 cents. Calicoes cost ^7y2 cents per yard. The foregoing 
prices prevailed between 1810 and 1820. In the latter year oats sold at 8 
cents jier bushel. Doctor Mason, an early settler in the county, wrote on the 
foregoing subject as follows : 

Corn was often sold at 6 cents a bushel .-mcl wheat at 25 cents; and it was difficult 
to get money at that, and then only in small amounts. Salt was frequently as high 
as $2.50 and $3 per bushel. When the farmer could sell his pork on foot at the rate 
of .$1.50 per hundred, net weight, he felt rich and began to thrive. 

. FARMING IMPLEMENTS OF PIONEER D.\YS. 

In pioneer days farming implements were few and of rude and simple 
construction, and could be made by an ordinary blacksmith. The plows used 
were the bar-share and the shovel. The iron part of the former consisted of 
a bar of iron about two feet long", and a broad share of iron welded to it. At 
the extreme point was a coulter which passed through a beam six or seven 
feet long, to which were attached handles of equal length. The mould board 
was a wooden one split out of winding timber, or hewed into a winding shape 
in order to turn the soil over. The whole length of the plow was eight or ten 
feet. On this subject the following is gathered from the writing of a pioneer: 

The old bar-share plow, with a coulter smd wooden mould-board, was the best plow 
then in use. though by far the greater number used the shovel plow. . . . The 
gearing or harness used by a majority of the pioneers was so novel in its construction 
tli;it 1 must describe it. The bridle for the horse was an Iron hit. the.balaitce being of 
small rope. The collar was made of shucks — the husks of corn. The liames were 
shaped out of a crooked oak or a hickory root, fastened at the top with a cord and at 
the boUoni In the same way. The traces were of rope, the backhands being of tow 
cloth. The whiffletree or single tree was of wood with a notch on each end ; the trace 
was hitched by a loop over the vk^hiflletree and to the hames through a hole. The 
whiffletree was attached to the doubletree by a hickory withe, and sometimes by a 
wooden clevis made of two pieces of tough wood with wooden pin ; the doubletree 
fastened to the end of the plowbeam by the same wooden form of clevis, and sometimes 
an iron one. To the rope bridle was attached a cord, called a single line, by which 
file hor.se was driven. By far the largest number of plow teams was only with a 
single horse, geared as before described and hitched to the shovel plow; the ground 
broken up, crossed oft" and tended by the same plow .ind horse. 

In the early history of this section the land was much better adapted to 
corn than small grain, especially wheat, owing to the excess of vegetable mat- 
ter in the soil. When the ground had become cleared of roots and other 
obstacles, the land adniitted of the harrow, which implement was triangular 
in form, resembling the letter A ; the teeth were as heavy again as those in 



FAYETTK CcrNTV, INDIANA. 28j 

later use in order to withstand tlie effects of collision with roots and stumps. 
The introduction of the cast-iron plow was slow ; the harrow was improved, 
the cultivator invented: drills for sowing and planting came into use, as did 
other labor-saving implements, and the whole aspect of farming transformed. 

.STRIKINC, C'ONTK.\ST TO PRKSENT METMOD.S. 

For cutting grain the sickle w as first used, and was succeeded by a larger 
iiTiplement — the cradle — which came into use about 1825. The cradle was 
gradually superseded by the reaper, and mowers took the place of the scythe. 
The first reaping machines merely cut the grain: a rake was necessary to 
gather the grain into shea\es, ready for the binder. Self-raking machines 
soon followed, and about 1878 self-binding machines were introduced. Grain 
was threshed with a flail, which, in. its rudest form, was made of a hickory 
sapling about two inches thick and se\en feet long. The grain was then 
beaten on the ground, if there was no barn floor. Another of the old-fash- 
ioned methods of threshing the grain, and the most common, was by tramping 
it out with horses. There were no fanning-mills to separate the grain from 
the chaiT. To raise the wind a linen sheet was held at the corners by two 
men, and bv a semi-rotary motion the chafT was driven from the falling- 
grain, the pure wheat lying in a pile, ready to be garnered. The sheet process 
was at length succeeded by the fanning-mill. This slow method of separating 
the grain has passed into oblivion, and the steam-jjower threshing machine 
took its place, by which the grain is not only separated from the chaff, but the 
latter is carried off and the straw borne to the- stack at the same tiine. .\ 
single machine now receives the sheaves and delivers the cleaned grain at the 
rate of several hundred bushels a day. How wonderfully striking is the 
change. A lad of ten years can mow u]) to one hundred acres of meadow in 
an ordinary haying season, and the hay is all raked during the same time by 
a single hand. 

Our forefathers followed their agricultural pursuits on foot and all the 
labor was done by hand, the results being small and the physical exhaustion 
much. .\'owada}s, all farm work is done bv machinery — plowing, planting, 
cutting, hu.sking and tying. Potatoes are now planted by a sower and dug 
by machinery, as are also sown the plants from which springs the succulent 
tomato. In short, present-day labor-saving devices operated on farms enable 
work to be performed in much less than half the time devoted to the same 
work fifty years ago. Persons familiar with the modern gasoline tractor, are 
aware of its \alue in farming operations: the tractor was imknown twenty 



2»0 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

}ears ago. Haybaling, shredding of fodder and storage of ensilage have 
made it possible for the farmer to utilize to the Ijest advantage all of his for- 
age crops. 

The development of the canning industry led to the cultivation of the 
tomato on a larger scale, to meet growing public demand for that edible. The 
farmer, who formerly cultivated perhaps two dozen tomato plants in his 
garden, is now devoting anything from a half-acre to three acres to the pro- 
duction of this fruit, which is in demand on every Ijreakfast talile. In like 
manner, the invention of the cream separator has revolutionized the dairy 
industry, and has induced the farmer to increase his cattle stock for milk 
purposes, being always assured that milk sup])lies will be received at the local 
creamer^-, or lind a reach- market in the cities. 



Many early immigrants to I' ayette county brought cattle with them ; 
especially did those coming from Ohio and Kentucky, bring a cow or two. 
Cattle were also brought from various otiier quarters, and though of common 
class, in every way sufiiced the wants and answered the purposes of pioneer 
times. The cattle of the early farmers \\ere suffered to roam at large, and 
the}' went through the woods and uncultixated grounds, browsing for their 
living, and b}' this means some of the native grasses were extirpated by being- 
trampled dowi-i and cropped off early in the season, before giving the seeds 
time to form. Few buildings sheltered the herds from the cold and piercing 
winds, the deep snows and chilling rains of the winters. They hovered around 
the stacks of wheat straw-, which served the double purpose of shelter and 
subsistence. After corn husking in the fall, the}- were given these fields to 
forage for food, and occasionally unhusked corn was thrown to them, the 
ground being the feeding trough. 

An improved breed of cattle was ])r()ugiit at an early day to Fayette 
county from Kentucky and Ohio. Farl}- in the history of southwestern Ohio 
the Shakers at Union village, in Warren county, were in possession of some 
of the first descendants of the Kentucky importation of English cattle, and to 
that locality importations of thoroughbred Shorthorn cattle direct from Scot- 
land were made in 1854. Cattle from Union village were brought to Fayette 
county, but at what date there is nu evidence to show. Newton Claypool, Gen. 
William Caldwell and William Daily, about the year 1838, purchased in 
Kentucky three heifers and one bull, which they brought to Fayette county, 
and which were descendants of the Shorthorn cattle of 1837. The bull was in 




CATTLE OX THE EDWIN :\I. STONE. FARM. 



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1 


B 


1911 


BHil 


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ij^^iMl 


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A GROUP OF THOROUGHBREDS. 




PRIZE CORX. 




:\IORTGAGE LIFTERS. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 289 

joint ownership of the three men, and there being- but t)ne Democrat in tlie 
number, he insisted on naming tlie animal, which was consented to, and the 
bull was christened "Van Buren." At a time subsequent to the purchase just 
mentioned, the man of whom the cattle were bought, brought a large drove 
of the same Shorthorn breed to this locality, and at a still later period the 
Hon. W. W. Thrasher purchased a Shorthorn bull and two cows from (jne 
Cunningham, who resided near Lexington, Kentucky, and brought them to 
Fayette county. In 1^5.3 Isaac B. Loder, James McCollem and Mr. Train 
brought from near Lexington, Kentucky, several thoroughbred Shorthorn 
cattle, and with them was the l)ull named "I'dlmont." The Shorthorn breed 
is now to he found in almost every locality. 

In the seventies Jersey cattle were introduced, and this breed is in favor 
with many, owing to the richness of the milk ancP its properties for butter- 
making. .\t a former day the Devon breed were raised to some e.xtent in 
this county, but were not \ery jxipular, being wanting in size for beef cattle, 
and thev never became numerous. 



Fayette county has a just claim for a high grade in horse-flesh. How- 
ever, in the early days of the county's history, oxen were more in use for 
agricultural work than was the horse, the sustaining qualities of the ox prov- 
ing more valuable in the heavy labor of clearing the ground for tillage. 

Among some of the early breeds of horses in the county was "Kentucky 
Whip," a blood bay horse, with black legs, mane and tail; this animal was 
advertised in Connersville in 1829. In 1832 Merril Williams advertised 
"Hilander," an iron-gray, standing sixteen hands high. About the same 
period was introduced into the county a horse styled "Comet," and "Top 
Gallant" was another of the early horses at Connersville. The latter was in 
charge of John and Lot Abraham, and was descril>ed as "a dark chestnut sor- 
rel, sixteen hands high, lofty carriage and a good mover." He was first 
brought from Georgia to Butler county, Ohio, by a Mr. Titsworth; was sired 
by the imported horse, "Matchless Bob" : his dam by the imported horse, 
"Mast," and his granddam by the importe<l horse, "Diamond." The im- 
provements in the horse are largely due to the infusion of the blood of the 
thoroughbred ; the strains of blood have not Ijeen kept distinct, but the tend- 
ency has Ijeen to blend it with the stock already in use. 

Towards the late forties, the Xorman and Clvdesdale stocks were intro- 
(19) 



290 - FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

duced into Fayette county. A report issued in 1852 by the state board of 
agriculture, showed that there were upwards of six thousand horses in the 
county at that date ; that the quahty all round was excellent, and the prices 
high — ranging from one hundred to two hundred dollars for good geldings, 
and mares in proportion. 

HOGS. 

Referring to the quality of the hogs of the early settlers, a writer of the 
period gives the following description : 

Tliey were long and slim, long-snouted and long-legged, witb an arched back and 
bri.stles erect from the back of the head to the tail, slab-sided, active and healthy. 
The "sapling-splitter" and "razor-back," as he was called, was ever in search for food, 
and quick to take alarm. He was capable of making a heavy hog, but required two 
years or more to mature; and until a short time before butchering or marketing was 
suffered to run at large, subsisting mainly as a forager, and in the fall fattening on 
the "mast." 

Probably no change wrought in the stock of the farmer is so marked 
as in this animal. Those of today mature earl}- and are almost the re\-erse 
of the "razor-back," having a small head, small ear, short neck, with a long 
body and hams, and in general shape are almost square, and are capable of 
taking on two hundred and fifty pounds of flesh in eight or ten months. 

It is thought that one Jeremiah May was the first to introduce the breed 
of hog known as "Poland-China" into Fayette county about the year 1832, 
and with little exception this breed has been the most extensively raised in 
this section ever since. Matthew R. Hull, a resident of the county in 1851, 
gave the following description of this breed : 

The Poland, crossed upon the Byfleld and Russian, exceed all others for beauty^ 
size and profit. They are a good grass hog, and are .sufficiently lively and industrious 
to make a good living off good pasture. They mature early, have a small head, small 
ears, short neck, thick shoulder, long body and long ham. and are capable of bearing 
more fat than any other kind we have had among u.s. They are familiarly known as 
the "Warren county hog." Some of these hogs turn the scale at four hundred and ten 
pounds. 

There was a belief expressed in 1872 that the word "Poland" as applied 
to these hogs was a misnomer. It is believed to have originated from the 
fact that a Polander residing in Hamilton county, purchased some of the breed 
many years ago and disposed of them to purchasers who named them Poland 
or Polander hogs. The national convention of swine breeders of 1872 re- 
tained this misnomer for the reason that the great mass of breeders had been 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 29I 

SO calliiii;- them tor several years prior t<i tlie date of Cdnveiitinn, and to cliange 
a name generally used is difficult. 

Thousands of hogs were amiually slaughtered and packed. an<l quite an 
extensive jxirk market was carried on at Connersx ille fur nian\- \ears. The 
report of the state lioard of agriculture for 1852 states: 

Twenty-two tliousaml bogs hiive been slaughtereil ami iiaokerl at Coiiiiuisvillo din- 
ing tiie past season, which will average two hundred and twenty pounds per ho.id, fur 
which the average price paid was $5.50 per hundred. 

The hog-packing- industry has not been active in C(imiers\il!e for many 
years. The 1916 report of the county assessor showed a total of -^5,138 hogs 
in the county at that time. With the price of hogs around ten cents a pound 
during 1916, the farmers tiiid hog raising more profitable than ever before. 



In the decade between 1830 and 1840, W. W. Thrasher, who lived on 
the western edge of Fayette county, brought some fine sheep to that section 
from near Lexington, Kentucky, of the breed known as "Cotswold," which 
were among the first fine-wool sheep introduced into the countv. I'"or a 
long period Mr. Thrasher continued to breed this variety and raised anil sold 
thousands. 

In 1852 the total number of sheep in the county was estimated at fifteen 
thousand. At that time much interest was manifested in the growing of wool, 
antl an encouraging number oi valuable breeds had been imported and propa- 
gated. The price of the common breeds was from one dollar to one dollar 
and fifty cents per head. For 1870 there were reported eight thousand one 
hundred and five head of sheep in the county, and for 1877 o"b' three thou- 
sand nine hundred and eighty-nine head. In 1878 the T'ayette County Agri- 
cultural Society reported that the wool-growing interest of the cc^unty "was 
on the wane." 

Undoubtedly the decrease in the number of sheep in the county is largely 
due to the disappearance of the local woolen factories. While sixty years 
ago there were fifteen thousand sheep in the county, the county assessor's 
report for 1916 shows a total of only 2,476, a fourth of which (589) were 
credited tn Pose_\- to\vnshi[) alone, 'i liese figures indicate thai there are 
only about one-seventh as many sheep at the present time in the countv as 
there were in the days when the local woolen mills were in operation. It 
may safely be .said that the abandonment of the mills, together with the 
fact that the farmers found that other live stock was more profitable or 



292 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

that the land used for sheep-raising purposes would yield a greater return 
under tillage, fully explains the heavy decrease in the number of sheep now 
raised in the county. 

REPORT OF COUNTY ASSESSOR FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE, I916. 

Farms. Horses. Cattle. Sheep. Hogs. Autos. 

Connersville city 240 6 6 285 

Connersville township 114 659 1.333 190 3.568 45 

Jennings 80 475 654 307 2,446 44 

Jackson 106 605 1,117 188 2,746 30 

Columbia 75 350 614 94 1,696 21 

Orange 85 513 735 182 1,990 31 

Harrison 112 662 1,287 511 4,468 53 

Posey no 657 841 589 4,014 51 

Waterloo 70 327 714 177 1.714 23 

Fairview 74 398 537 228 2,458 31 

East Connersville 38 18 5 15 

Connersville (Harrison 

township) 15 251 I 8 

Total 826 4,939 1,857 2,476 25,138 643 

REGISTERED FARM NAMES. 

One of the innovations of recent years in agricultural circles is the 
registration of farm names. The Legislature in 1913 passed a law which 
provided "That any owner of a farm in the State of Indiana may have the 
name of his farm, together with a description of his lands to which said 
name applies, recorded in a register kept for that purpose in the office of 
the county recorder of the county in which the said farm is located." For 
the privilege of having this official recognition the farmer must pay one dollar. 

Since this law has been passed nineteen farmers of Fayette county have 
taken advantage of its provisions, the last registration being dated October 
II, 1916. The complete list of registrations follows: 

August 28, 191 3 — Katherine F. Bailey, "The Pines."' 

August 28, 1913 — Orris S. Ludlow, "Cosey Lawn." 

August 28, 1913 — T. C. McBurney, "Summit Farm." 

August 28, 1913 — J. H. Fearis, "Meadow Brook Farm." 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 293 

August 28, 1913 — Effie B. Trusler, "Spring Dale." 

August 28, 191 3 — Prof. John C. Bush, "Glen Bush." 

September 5, 1913 — Emery A. Scholl, "Pleasant View Farm." 

September 5, 1913 — George Ostheimer. "Park Place." 

October 6. 1913 — Mary Coin, "Sunny Side." 

November 8. 1913 — Theodore E. Murphy, "Maple Lawn." 

June 14. 1914 — William C. Basse, "Bassdale." 

August 4, 1914 — Peter Fiant, "Maple Grove." 

October 22. 1914 — Charles Newland, "Grand View." 

November jt,, 1914 — John J. Henwood, "Hill Crest Fruit Farm." 

January 8, 1916 — Martha H. Ludlow, "Whispering Pines." 

March 23, 1916 — Buell J. Thomas Estate, "Brookdale." 

July 3, 1916 — A. Wildridge, "Spring Valley." 

July 22, 1916 — Elisha Williams, "Pine Lawn Stock Farm." 

October 11, 1916 — Anna Henry, "Highland Farm." 

COUNTY AGENT. 

One of the latest innovations in agricultural affairs is the establishment 
of an office whose duties are concerned altogether with the farmers. The 
General Asseml)ly of Lidiana, by the act of February 22, 1913, provided for 
an official to \x known as the county agent. The law provided that the 
state would guarantee a part of the salary of the office, while the counties 
should raise the remainder by public subscription. Furthermore, the official 
must be recommended by the agricultural department of Purdue University 
before he can be elected by the county board of education. After this recom- 
mendation by Purdue the local authorities have the right to accept or reject 
the man proposed. Many counties of the state have taken advantage of the 
law and employed county agents and the experience of the past three years 
of those counties which have employed county agents indicates that the work 
of the agent is being appreciated by the farmers. 

During the year 1916 the farmers of Fayette county discussed the 
c(uestion of securing a county agent. County Superintendent Trusler and the 
countv lioard of education took the lead in advocating tlie establish- 
ment of the office in the county, and as a result of their joint efforts a meeting 
was held in the Commercial Club rooms at Connersville on Deceml)er 21, 
19 16, to perfect arrangements for the establishment of the office. County 
Superintendent Trusler represented the county board of education and I.-ouis 
Perkins, J. Edgar Scholl, W. S. Brown, Grant Williams, James K. Fielding, 



294 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Anthony Riebsomer, Howell Pike and Elmer Scholl represented the farmers 
of the count}^ It was announced at the meeting that the guaranty fund of 
five hundred dollars was raised and that the board of education would pass 
a resolution at its regular January meeting calling upon the county commis- 
sioners to take steps at once to employ a county agent. This notice on the 
part of the board of education, backed by a petition signed by twenty free- 
holder citizens,, makes it mandatory for the county council to take action. 
By the time this volume is issued the county will undoubtedly have the office 
filled, and if the agent measures up to expectations, the county will derive great 
benefit from his services. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES AND FAIRS. 

In the summer of 1834 an attempt was made to organize an agricultural 
society in Fayette county. Horace Van Vleet, then editor of the Watchuian, 
published at Connersville, wrote several articles on agriculture and explained 
the importance of an agricultural society. On the solicitation of a number of 
farmers he published a call for a meeting, which was responded to and resulted 
in the appointment of General Caldwell for president and Horace Van Vleet, 
secretary. About forty dollars was subscribed and paid in for the organization 
to Van Vleet, but soon after this Van Vleet died. No claim was made for 
the agricultural fund, and the first attempt to organize an agricultural society 
came to an end with the death of the man who tried to establish it. 

In the year 1841 a call was published for an agricultural meeting, to be 
held on the Fourth of July, the meeting to be held in the court house. Dr.- 
Philip Mason was appointed president, and Charles Shipley, secretary. There 
was lack of animation in the meeting which went to show that the commun- 
ity was not quite prepared for a permanent organization. Samuel W. Parker 
was present and made a few remarks. He then turned the meeting to account 
by getting subscribers to the Indiana Farmer, then published at Indianapolis, 
and succeeded in less than an hour in getting fifty-four subscribers. So ended 
the second attempt. 

During the year 185 1 seven agricultural meetings were held to establish 
an agricultural society. The attempt was discouraging, but several who were 
faithful to the cause persevered, and success crowned their efforts. On Octo- 
ber 18, 1851, a permanent organization of one hundred and forty-six sub- 
scribers was formed and a constitution adopted. John Spivey was elected 
president and D. W. Welty, secretary. According to the official report, as 
■required and sent to the State Board of Agriculture, forty-eight dollars were 



F.WKTTK COL-NTY, INDIANA. 295 

received I)v the society. Because it was so late in the fall no exhihilion or 
fair was held, and the money was loaned out. 

THE FIRST COUNTY FAIR. 

The first county fair in l'"ayette county was held in Connersxille in Septem- 
ber, 1852. The fair ground site occupied the land on which now stands the 
residence of E. W. Ansted and other hoines Ijetween Central avenue and the 
canal, from the cemetery to the Cincinnati, Indianaixilis and ^\'estern rail- 
road. By the fall of 1852 the membership had increasetl to 410. while by 
1856 it had grown to 1,213. 

.\t the lirst fair held, A. G. Saxon was awarded the lirst premium for 
the best cultivated farm, and Benjamin Thomas the second premium for the 
second best. 

The receipts of the first fair were $1,052.06, the expenses $600.54, leaving 
a balance of $451.52 in the treasury. The fair continued to prosper, the 
receipts reaching as high as $3,233, and expenses in proportion, until 1861, 
when the society declared its intention to dissolve and transfer its interests 
to a joint stock company. 

The second annual fair was held in the fall of 1853 and was known as 
the I'ayette County Agricultural I-"air. The third annual fair was held on 
September 20, 21, and 22, 1854. Samuel Heron was the secretary. Premiums 
were given on crops, cattle, horses for all purposes, geldings and mares, asses 
and mules, swine and fine wooled sheep. Sweepstakes were open to the world. 
In another department premiums were offered on flowers, needlework, fowls, 
grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, farming implements, plowing match, 
woodwork, blacksmithing, leather work, casting, iron, etc., woolen manufac- 
tures, designs, miscellaneous. To the best female equestrienne, exhibiting the 
most grace and ease in riding, was awarded a splendid embossed side saddle, 
valued at fift\- dollars. gi\en by John Cassaday, of Connersville. Rozie, daugh- 
ter of Caleb B. Smith, won the prize. The judges of the contest were Dr. 
George Chitwood, Greenbury Rush, B. M. Pumphrey, ^^. ^^^ Davis and 
Charles Frost. 

Among the women judges of the third annual fair were Catherine 
McCarthy, Amanda McCullough, Sallie Lockwood, Elenora Youse, Helen 
Heron. Eliza Cockefair. Airs. Hannah Spivey, Mrs. Phobe Caldwell, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Veatch, Mrs. Nancy Jane Fiant and Mrs. Rebecca Montgomer)-. 

Among the men who acted as judges were Minor Meeker, Alex Heron, 

Helm, Josiah Smith, O. H. Woodcock, Christian Heller, Josiah Millikin, 
Christian Brown, Othniel. Beeson, John SchuU, W. \V. Thrasher, Wilson 



296 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Dale, Daniel Morrison, William Johnson, Byron Stephens, Milton Gardner 
and Stephen Thomas. 

Premiums were commonly paid in money ranging from one dollar to ten 
dollars. In some instances premiums were paid with silver medals. 

HORACE GREELEY ADDRESSE.S THE FAIR. 

One of the prominent features of the fair held in 1858 was Horace 
Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, who was present and delivered 
an address. Premiums had been offered for the best cultivated and most 
highly improved farm for which there were two entries, S. W. Parker and 
Alexander Heron. The committee being unable to decide between the two, 
recommended a premium to each, to the former for the best improved farm, 
and to the latter for the best cultivated farm. A premium was also offered for 
the best essay on agriculture, this being awarded to Samuel Little. 

During the ten years of its existence al>out twenty-three thousand dol- 
lars was handled by the society. 

The joint stock association referred to above was known as the Fayette 
County Joint Stock .Agricultural and Mechanical Society, and was organized 
December 21, 1861. 

Until the fall of 1865 the fairs were held on leased premises, but in the 
fall of that year twenty-six acres of ground were purchased of A. J. Clay- 
pool, situated about one mile north of the court house and subsequently suit- 
able buildings were erected. In 1870 the grounds were valued at twenty 
thousand dollars. 

The earliest report accessible is the one of 1867. at which time A. B. 
Claypool was the president. The number of entries for this year were as 
follows: Live stock, two hundred and twenty; mechanical, ninety; agricul- 
tural, two hundred and seventy-seven ; miscellaneous, one hundred and ninety- 
six. The amount of premiums — live stock, one thousand two hundred and 
forty-two dollars; mechanical, four hundred and four dollars; miscellaneous, 
one hundred and eighteen dollars. The total receiptts of the fair amounted 
one hundred and eighteen dollars. The total receipts of the fair amounted 

The secretary's report for 1877 makes the following statement : 

During the last decade the live stock interest has. predominated, but latterly it 
Is giving away to the raising of grain ; about six thousand head of hogs were lost 
in the past season by cholera. Cattle raising is profitable, and more attention is 
given to the breeding of improved stock — three thousand six hundretl and seventy-six 
head reported this over three thousand three hundred and twenty-two last year. More 
attention is given to the breeding of good horses, especially heavy draft horses, for 




FIRST FREE FAIR AT ROBERTS PARK, 1903— THE ONLY FREE PAIR IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 




EARLY OFFICERS OF THE FREE FAIR ASS0CL\T10N 



FAYETTE COL'NTY. INDIANA. 297 

which this edunt.v is iKvoiniiij; fjiinims. Stntislii-s show :iii incriMst' in mimlier. one 
thousand four humlred and twenty head aKainst one tliousand three hundred and twenty- 
eight the year before. Mules are used more than formerly, and are much improved 
in size and appearance. 

Fairs were held annually until 1884, when, at a meeting of the associa- 
tion held on February 12, 1884, the stockholders surrendered their charter 
and resolved to offer their grounds for sale. Between 1884 and 1903 Fay- 
ette county was without a fair of any kind, the jiresent so-called free fair 
dating from 1903. 

FREE COUNTY FAIR. 

Fayette county is unique in having the first free county fair in the state. 
After the donation of the Roberts park by Col. James E. Roberts, of Indian- 
apolis, in June, 1902, to the city, the question of utilizing the site arose. 
Arising from the fertile mind of Mart Meyer and others was the original 
idea of a free county fair. On June 8, 1903, officials of the first free fair 
were chosen, and on June 12, 1903, an organization since known as the Free 
Fayette County 1^'air Association had its birth. The first officials included the 
following: F. T. Roots, president; W. F. Downs, secretary; Mart Meyer, 
marshal. On August 28, 1903, ground was broken for the erection of the 
main pavilion in which the townships made their exhibits. The formal open- 
ing of the grounds took place Septemljer 9, 1903, when Colonel Roberts and 
Charles W. Fairbanks were present. In 1904 an educational department was 
inaugurated through the instruinentality of Dr. L. D. Dillman, ably assisted 
by the educators of the county. In 1907 the city council l)uilt a ceinent seat- 
ing terrace and in 1909, a number of ])ublic-spirited citizens of the city and 
community erected a inagnificent amphitheatre building, built of steel over 
this concrete work built by the city. The complete structure seats tliree 
thousand people. General impro\ements have l)een made and now the 
grounds are provided with all of tlie requisites necessary to a successful 
county fair. Tlie officers of tlie fair association for 1917 are the following: 
James C. Mount, president: James K. Mason, vice-president: F. W. Tatman, 
treasurer: Jasper L. Kennedy, secretary; O. M. Hempleman, assistant secre- 
tary: T. C. McBurney, su])erintendent. Tlie fair is on a firm financial I)asis 
as is evidenced liy the fact that at the end of 1916 the association had a credit 
balance of three thousand dollars. 

In this connection it is quite appropriate to make mention of the name 
of Tod Sloan, a Fayette county lad, who became the world's most famous 
jockey. He began his career at Connersville and for some time was one of 
the feature attractions at the county fairs in this section of the state. 



CHAPTER X. 

Military Annals. 

Fayette county has had a part in the four wars waged by the United 
States: War of 1812, Mexican War, Civil War and Spanish-American 
War. Ahhough the county was not organized until 18 19 it played a part 
in the War of 1812 and there seems to be evidence of participation by 
some of the settlers of the territory now within the county in an Indian 
raid even as early as 18 10. Reference has already been made to the settle- 
ment of John Conner on the present site of Connersville about 1808. Some 
time before 18 10 Conner and other citizens built a rude log fort or stockade 
in the village for protection against marauding Indians, and it was from this 
fort that William Abernathy, then living at Fairfield, in Franklin county, 
lead a company of volunteers in 1810 against some hostile Indians on Blue 
river. The expedition proved successful and evidently convinced the Indians 
that the settlements in the White Water valley were amply able to protect 
themselves; at least, there is no evidence that the Indians ever attacked any of 
the settlements in the valley. 

There is no record extant of the names of these courageous settlers of 
1810 who made the foray against the Indians, but it is probable that most 
of them were from the vicinity of Brookville and Fairfield. Franklin county 
was not yet organized, all the territory north of the present county of Dear- 
born which had been purchased from the Indians being a part of that county. 
There were undoubtedly a few of the settlers from Conner's Post, as it was 
then called, who joined the expedition, but the}- could not have been many in 
number. 

It is not generally known that a company of soldiers was stationed in the 
blockhouse in Connersville some time during 1812 and 1813. It is known 
that William Helm, later an associate judge of the county (1819-26), com- 
manded the troops, but how many there were, or who they were, is a point 
concerning which no record has been found. All the facts obtainable of this 
military station in Connersville have been collected by J. L. Heinemann,. of 
Connersville, and set forth in his brochure, "The Indian Trail Down the 
White Water Valley," which may be seen in another chapter in this volume. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 299 

THE MILITARY PERIOD, 1816-1846. 

When the forty-three delegates representing the fifteen organize<l coun- 
ties met in June, 1816, they made ample provision for a state militia (Art. 
VII). All able-bodied white citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty- 
five, except those conscientiously opposed to bearing arms, were required to 
be enrolled in some militia company and undergo such training as might be 
prescriljed by statute. The article in the constitution was a lengthy one of ten 
sections and prescribed in detail how the military arm of the state was to be 
built up. Subsequently statutory provisions elaborated upon the constitution, 
until it might be said that the state really, inaugurated what we might now call 
a system of "militarism." 

This complex military .system was in operation for thirty years, although 
after the danger from Indian uprisings had subsided the system gradually 
fell into decay. Little change was made in the system from the time of the 
first Legislature until 183 1. In 1828 the adjutant-general of the state reported 
that there were sixty-five regiments, organized into eighteen brigades, enroll- 
ing a total of forty thousand officers and privates. This sounds like the 
people were militant, and especially so in view of the fact that the state 
experienced diflicult\- in 1916 in raising onlv three regiments for duty on 
the Mexican front. !>ut these volunteers of the twenties, not to be classed 
as volunteers as they are known toda}', knew that they were not in any imme- 
diate danger of being called out for duty. 

In 183 1 the Legislature revised the militia laws of the state, but from 
that time interest gradually died out in local militia. The year following 
the revision of the militia laws, the adjutant-general reported 50,913 ofiicers 
and privates and this marks the high mark in the numl>er of enlisted men 
under the law of 183 1. The one reason why the militia was kept up was 
the annual muster of all enlisted men. 

MUSTER DAY. 

Holidays were few and far between in the early days of Indiana, but 
there was one day in the year tti which old and young looked forward 
with pleasant anticipation. This was the annual muster day — the day on 
which the local militia donned their uniforms, shouldered their muskets and 
side-arms, and paraded before an admiring public. Records have not been 
kept in Fayette county which show the number of men in the local militia 
companies, but they must have numbered several hundred. Regimental mus- 



300 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ters were held either in the spring or fall, usually at the county seat, and on 
a level tract known as the "parade grounds." On this eventful day every- 
body in the county who could possibly get away was present. They came on 
horseback, on foot and in wagons; the young and the old; men and women, 
and, as one early settler said, there were as many dogs present as militiamen. 
The people came partly to see the muster, partly to see each other — and many 
came to eat and drink. More blood was shed in fistic encounters on this day 
than all the rest of the year put together. 

The muster itself must have been an interesting sight. The men had 
to parade whether they had uniforms or not, and the great majority of them 
were not uniformed. They wore all sorts of hats, or no hats at all; hundreds 
of them were barefoot; most of them were in their shirt sleeves or at best 
with linsey wamuses. As for arms, they lined up with all sorts of 
weapons. Some had their old squirrel rifles, others had canes, others bore 
hoop-poles, some were equipped with corn-stalks, still others had fence rails. 
And this motley arrayed and strangely armed soldiery paraded for hours to 
their own glorification and the amusement of the onlookers. They marched 
two abreast, four abreast and ten abreast ; some were drunk, some sober. 
Ludicrous as this must have been, yet it constituted a muster in the eyes of 
the law. 

This annual performance continued in much the same manner up to the 
time of the Mexican War, although by the close of the thirties it had ceased 
to have the importance that it had previously enjoyed. No effort was made 
to keep the companies full, or the men equipped according to law. The Indians 
had all been removed from the state; England was no longer to be feared 
and consequently there did not appear to the hard-headed Hoosier any good 
reason why he should spend so much time in drilling and parading. During 
the progress of the Mexican War the Legislature passed an act putting an 
end to the local militia — and thus the muster days of our forefathers came 
to a legal end. 

MEXICAN WAR. 

An examination of the official records of the Mexican War shows that 
Fayette county did not have a regularly organized company in any one of 
the five regimeni^s which the state raised- for that struggle. Furthermore, 
a detailed study of the rosters of these regiments does not disclose any volun- 
teers from the county, although the method of crediting enlistments does 
not make it possible to determine the counties from which they were made. 
In that struggle of the latter forties (1846-48) the counties were not required 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3OI 

to liirnisli a definite nuiiil-)er of men. hence tlie official records furnisii no 
clue as to the nuniher who may have come from Fayette county. It is 
known, however, that there were a number of enlistments from the county 
and also that a number of Mexican Wnv veterans from other counties in 
the state later settled in the county. 

THE CIVIL WAR. 

On Sunday morning, April 14, 1861, the streets of Connersville were 
filled with people discussing the fall of Ft. Sumter, which had taken place 
the day previous. Il is doubtful whether a more solemn Sabbath had ever 
been observed in the United States. For more than a decade there had 
Jjeen threats of disunion, though no one really believed that the South would 
ever openly secede — but the fall of Ft. Sumter was conclusive proof that the 
long expected break between the North and the South had finally come. 
To tell in detail the story of Fayette county and of the i)art it played in the 
Civil War would take more space than could be given in this work. 

No better description of conditions in Connersville on the eve of this 
great struggle can be given than that contained in the issue of the Coiiiicrs- 
villc Times of April 25, 1861. This was written during the week the events 
here chronicled were taking place and presents a vixid picture of the actual 
state of affairs at that time : 

The greatest entliusitism has existed during the piist week. Meetings of all the 
citizens of all the parties express a determination to aid the government with means 
and money to be utmost capabilities of Fayette county, if need be. A cannon squad- 
has been organized under the command of W. W. Frybarger, tendered to the governor 
of the state, and accepted. They comprise a small band of brave hearts and stout 
arms, and they will preserve the honor of Fayette county untarnished in the trying hour. 

A company of volunteers of over a hundred men has been organized, tendered to 
the governor and accepted. The company is 'styled the "Fayette County Guards," and 
is officered as follows: Captain, Joseph Marshall: first lieutenant, Joseph (Jreer; second 
lieutenant, Thomas J. Powell: third, lieutenant, Jesse Holton : first ensign, John Kensler; 
orderly sergeant, John lleOleary. 

* * * * A Zouave company is being formed. A large luniiluM- (it <iii/,cns t<f Fayette 
county assembled in the court house square in Connersville on .\pril 2(illi for ilie pur- 
pose of providing men and means for the defense and support of the constilnlion of llie 
United States, and the laws passed by congress in pursuance thereof. 

On motion. Elisha Vance was chosen president: William H. Beck inid William 
Watton. vice-presidents: Henry Goodlander and Confucius B. Edward.s, secretaries. After 
music by the Connersville band, the ladies and gentlemen comprising a choir for the 
occasion sang "The Star-Spangled Banner," which was received with immense applause. 

On motion a committee of three from Connersville township and one from each 
of the other townships was appointed to draft resolutions expressive of Ilic scnlinients 



302 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

of tbe iieople of tlie county. The comiuittee consisted of the following seutlenien ; 
Oonnersville, Benjnmin F. CUinwol, Judge Reid, Judge Wilson; Orange, .S;inuiel Little: 
Jennings, Josejih D. Ross; Jackson, James Smith; Columbia, Hemnn Jones; Fairview, 
John D. Lewis; Harrison, Thomas Jloffltt ; Posey. Isaac Powell; Waterloo, William C. 
Forrey. 

KESOLUTIONS -UiE ADOrTED. 

Late Develin, of Cambridge City, was called to the stand and m,ule ;in eloquent 
anil piitriolic speech. Subsequently the committee on resolutions snlmiitted .-i series of 
resiiliitions, wliirh were unanimously adopted with great applause. Patriotic speeches 
were made liy Rev. George Camiibell, Rev. P. Carlaud, Captain Joseph JIarshall and 
I'.-iptain XewkirU. The resolutions were as follows: 

"Whereas. In certain states of our county, citizens thereof having taken up arms 
and are now in open rebellion against the same; and whereas for the purpose of put- 
ting down said rebellion, maintaining the laws and authority of the governmeut, and 
prosecuting the property of the same, the President of the United States has issued his 
proclamation calling upon the loyal citizens of the same to volunteer their services and- 
plaee themselves at the disposal of the government; and whereas, divers good and loyal 
citizens of the county of Fayette, have, pureuant to the said proclamation, tendea'ed 
their services. Therefore, in consideration of the premises aforesaid, it is hereby 

•'Ordered hii the Board of County Commissionerf<, That the sum of five thousand 
dollars of the funds of the county be and the same is hereby appropriated, to be paid 
out on orders to be issued from time to time, as may be necessary, for the purpose 
of maintaining and supporting the families of such iiersons as have volunteered or 
may volunteer, as may stand in need of assistance during the absence of the persons 
;ibove referred to. 

■■Risiih<d. That the board of commissioners be instructed to appoint such .agents 
in each i(i«iiship, .-is may be necessary for the purpose of acting as receiving and 
dishursing .igc^nls in order to supply the families of the absent volunteers, who may 
re(|uirc .issisiance and support in maintaining the same. 

•■Uoiiilnd. That our senator and representative in the General Assembly be re- 
quested to vote .-It the called session of the Legislature for an efficient, judicious and 
military law. and for the appropriation of all money needed for a vigorous prosecution 
of the war in which our country is now involved. 

-RrsiiJrvd. That it may be necessary for the volunteers to furnish themselves with 
uniforms and articles necessai-y for their comfort at the opening of the campaign, it 
is requested that, in addition to the necessary uniform, each volunteer furnish himself 
with one conunun blanket, one spoon, knife and fork, and file his voucher for the cost 
thereof with the captain of his company for the reimbursement of the same. 

■■!,'( snircil. 'I'h.it the county commissioners employ some competent person or house 
to funiisli llie necessary uniforms for the voliiiiteei-s. and that proper vouchers be taken 
for till' cdst thereof, so that the county may lie indemnified by the state or central 
govei-niiient. 

■■h'< siilicd. That Misses Roxa Edmonds, Oallie Disuey, Augusta Mason, Fannie New- 
kirk, F,-niuie Durnan, Sophia Fi-ybarger, of Counersville township; Misses Matilda 
Stone, Kitty Wagniicr and E, A. Irwin, of Orange township; Misses Harriet Thrasher, 
Mary Bates and .lane .McCrory, of Fairview township; Misses Eda McMullen, Eliza 
Jones and Sallie Cnlc. of Waterloo township; Misses Mary Munger, Frances Ix)der and 
Lizzie Cole, of Posey township ; Misses Margaret Thomas, JIary Dale and Rosa Thomas, 
of Harrison township; Misses Mary Jones, Mary Webb and Lydia A. Jlessersmith. of 



FAYETTE COLNTY, INDIANA. 3O3 

('(pUiiiiliia tinviisliip: Misses Mnry Kfllici-lonl. Alaii.-i Newhiiul :iii(l II.hIicI I'.uik, ,.f 
JeuiiiiiKS towiisliip; Misses t'iiroliiic r.ofketl. Kiiiiico Moure iuiil lOiiiil.v Clifluii, of .}:uk- 
sou townshii), are hereby requested to oill upon the citizens of Fnyette <'ounty and s<)llcil 
(Umiitions of woolen bhinkets, and srive one to each volunteer from the county of Fnyette. 
and the citizens of said comity be and arc licrcliy rccpu-stcd fo send fo said (Mnnniittee, 
at the room of Hiss Fannie Ne^ykirl;. sin'li liJauUcIs as ilicy may lie williii;.' lu roii- 
trilinte for the imrpose aforesaid. 

"Rcxohcd, That the president of lliis nieelin- (ele-rapli 'I'. A. Morris, ipianeriiiasl.T 
fieueral. that Fayette county will do liev duly iu furuisliiu^' vohuileers, aucl lilauUels. 
knives, forks and spoons for their use. 

lictnlrcd. That the county conunissioners he inslruileil lo huy the eanumi helouiriu^' 
to W. W. Frybarger, for the use of the county, it heiii- uuderslood ih.-il said Kryhar;.'<M- 
will sell the same at cost and carriage." 

GENEROfS KEI.IEK El'ND.S RAISEO. 

The ciiiiiniis.sioners were pre'^ent and respmided tn llie re(|iiests of tlie 
tneelino-. and in accofdance with tlie order ])assed ])y tlieni, the followin.!.;' 
agents \vere a])pointed tor llie ])nrpose of .sohcitint;- ])ro\isions : C'onners- 
ville. josiali .Mnllikin; I'oiinersyiile townsiiip. (k-or^e Harlan and Stmit 
Atherton : Jaekson townshi]). .\. \'. Laviniore: and Achilles IJackhouse; Jen- 
nings township. J. J. Biirk and J. W. Ross; Cohimhia town.ship, George 
Scott and Thomas J- Crisier ; Orange township, Emainiel Wagoner and 
William Conner ; Harri,son township, Joseph Dale' and .Anthony Watt ; 
Posey to-\vnship. Temple Reason and Jacob Newkirk: l^'airview township, 
Joseph AI. Siitliffe and Amos (i. Smith. 

May 10, 1861, marked a day long- to he remembered in Connersville 
and Fayette connty. .\t ten o'clock on the morning of that day the "hXyette 
Connty Uni(_in Gnards" were drawn up in line in the court house yard, 
where Cajitain .Marshall sjioke a few words and Rev. William Pelan deliv- 
ered a pathetic farewell address to the departing .soldiers, manv of whom 
were de.stined neyer to return. .\t the close of the ceremonies each volun- 
teer was presented \yith a small Testament. .-Vmid the waxing of flags and 
the sound of patriotic music the soldiers departed for the camji. Party 
lines were wholly obliterated and there was Init one aim anrl (jne cause and 
that was the preservation of the L'nion. 

VOLfNTEEU.S EOR THE UNION .\RMY. 

The method of raising volunteer troo])s in the Civil War was very 
diiTerent from the plan followed in the Mexican War. Each county was 
asked lo furnish a number of men on each call of the President, the num- 



304 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ber asked from each county being proportioned to the number of men of 
military age. Officials were appointed in each county to have charge of 
the enrolling of volunteers and they were charged with the duty of seeing 
that the county furnished the quota proportioned to it. 

The following pages list the regiments containing men from Fayette 
county, together with the commissioned officers and a brief account of the 
part the regiments took in the war. The muster rolls of the county have 
not been found and the data given has been compiled from Adjutant-General 
Terrell's reports. 

• .SIXTEENTH REGIMENT. 

Company E of the Sixteenth Regiment was one of the several com- 
panies raised in Fayette county. Two Connersville men, John M. Orr and 
William H. Greer, were captain and first lieutenant, respectively. 

The regiment was organized at Richmond in May, 1861, with Pleasant 
A. Hackleman as colonel. The regiment was organized with the intention 
of remaining within the confines of the state for one year but need of men 
caused the company to offer their services to the government the same day 
that the news of the battle of Bull Run reached the North. The regiment 
departed from Richmond on July 23, and was the first company to march 
through Baltimore after the firing upon the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment. 
After reaching Harper's Ferry, the regiment was assigned to the army of 
General Banks. The regiment was not engaged in any important engage- 
ment until October 21 — the fatal day at Ball's Bluff. In the afternoon of 
the 22nd an attack was made upon the pickets, resulting in two men being- 
killed. Immediately the regiment was rushed to the front, on the Bluffs, 
and in the evening of the 22nd participated in an engagement w^ith the enemy. 
On the following day the regiment was detailed to picket ditty, and was the 
last regiment to recross the Potomac, reaching the Maryland shore on the 
morning of the 24th. Two men were drowned during the expedition. On 
December 6th the regiment went into winter quarters near Frederick City. 

Winter quarters were broken up in February, 1862, and the long- 
expected movement of the armies began. In March, with a detachment of 
other troops, a bridge was built across the Shenandoah at Snicker's Ferry, 
the structure being completed in forty-eight hours. At this point six men 
of Stonewall Jackson's command were captured by Lieutenant Copeland. 
On May 12 the regiment started on a march to Washington, D. C, and on 




MODEL SILO BUILDLXG ON WHITE WATER CREAMERY FARM. 




CUTTING WHEAT OX E. JONES FARM. 



FAYETTE COfNTY, INDIANA. 3O5 

the I4tli was mustered out nf the ser\ice and returned to huUana. ( )n 
April 30 tlie commanding colonel was commissioned a brioadier-general, 
and on May 13, in the presence of tlie regiment, was presented witli an ele- 
gant sword by iiis men. 

The regiment was reorganized for the tliree-years service at Indian- 
apolis on May 2-, 1802, with Thomas Lucas as colonel. On August 30 the 
regiment took ])art in the battle at Richmond, Kentucky, losing two hun- 
dred men killed and wounded, and six hundred prisoners. After the defeat 
the prisoners were paroled and sent to Indianapolis, where they remained 
in parole cam]) until Xovemljer i, when they were exchanged. 

FURTHER ACTION OF THE REGIMENT. 

On January 1. 18(^)3, the regiment engaged the enemy at Chickasaw 
Bayou, near Vicksburg, and was driven back, the brigade to which it was 
attached losing five hundred men. On the iith it participated in a general 
engagement near Arkansas Post, and was the first to plant its colors within 
the fort: its loss was seventy-seven men killed and wounded. On May 16 the 
regiment went into the trenches near Vicksburg, and participated in all of 
the operations of the siege until the capitulation on July 4. In the assault 
on the enemy's works on May 22. the regiment bf>re a conspicuous part, 
holding an important position for nearly ten hours of continuous fighting, 
and part of the time was within twenty-five feet of the rebel fort. During 
the siege the regiment lost sixty men killed and wounded. The regiment 
then marched to Jackson and thence was transi>orted to New Orleans and 
distributed along the .Mississij)])i to protect transportation. In October the 
cavalry corps was ordered on an expedition up the Bayou Tecbe, in which 
section skirmishes were held with the enemy until Januarv 2. 1864. The 
regiment was finally reviewed in New Orleans and was mustered out by 
General Grierson and complimented for having the best horses that had ever 
been in the department. As a compliment to the men whose terms of ser- 
vice had not then expired, it was ordered that they be transferred to the 
Thirteenth Indiana cavalry, thus putting together infantry and cavalry for 
the first time during the war. The regiment was mustered out on June 30, 
1865, at New Orleans. On July 10. 1865, it arrived at Indianapolis with 
three hundred and sixtv-fi\e men and officers. 
(20) 



306 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT. 

Company H formed a part of the Thirty-sixth Regiment, which was 
organized at Riclimond, and was mustered into the ser\'ice on September 
i6, 1861, and immediately left for the front. During the fall and winter 
of 1862 it marched and encamped with the army from Ohio, and reached 
Nashville in February, 1862. From there a march was made to the Tennes- 
see river and thence to the field of .Shiloh in time to participate in that great 
battle, where it sustained a loss of nine killed, thirty-eight wounded and one 
missing. It took part in the siege of Corinth, pursued Bragg through Ken- 
tucky with Buell's army, participated witli Rosecrans' army in the battle at 
Stone's river, and was at Chickamauga. Subsec|uently it joined Sherman's 
army in the march to the sea and participated in the marches, skirmishes 
and engagements of that campaign. 

The successive commissioned ofTlcers of the company were as follow : 
Captains, Gilbert Trusler, William F. Limpus ; first lieutenants, Addison M. 
Davis, John L. Hensley, William F. Limpus, George Mullikin; second lieu- 
tenants, William 1'". Limpus, George Mullikin, James Peterson and Joseph 
Hilligoss. Gilbert Trusler, of Connersville, was commissioned major of 
the regiment, June 3, 1863, and resigned in the following December. Daniel 
D. Hall, also of Connersville, served as a surgeon of the regiment from 
September, 1861, to March, 1862. 

SIXTY-NINTH REGIMENT. 

Company K formed a part of the Sixty-ninth Regiment, which was 
organized at Richmond on August 19, 1862. Its successive commissioned 
officers included the following : Captains, \\''illiam Iverr, Jesse Holton ; first 
lieutenants, Jesse Holton, William G. Plummer, Joseph Senior. Harvey -\. 
Zimmerman : second lieutenants, ^Villiam G. Plummer, Joseph Senior. Jed 
Scott, of Connersville, was commissioned a lieutenant-colonel of the regi- 
ment, and William M. Smith and William Stewart, both of Conners\ille. 
served respectiveh' as quartermaster. 

The first. real engagement of the regiment was at Richmond, Kentucky, 
where two hundred and eighteen men were lost. The captured soldiers 
were sent to the parole camp, and upon being exchanged the regiment was 
reorganized at Indianapolis and left that place on November 27, 1862, for 
Memphis, Tennessee, in command of Colonel Thomas ^V. Bennett. The 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. J^Oy 

regiment was tlien detached down tlie Mississippi river with Sheldon's 
tjrigade of Morgan's division of Sherman's wing of Grant's army, on the 
expedition to Vicksburg. After engaging in several minor engagements, 
the regiment began to advance in the movement against Vicksburg, March 
30. On reaching Roiindaway Bayou, a rebel force was met and put to 
riight. On April 30 the regiment began a march to Port Gibson, where on 
May I, occurred the battle of Thompson's Hill. In this engagement Ihe 
regiment lost se\enty-()ne men killed and wounded. After numerous skir- 
mishes, on May J3, the regiment went with the Osterhaus division to the Black 
river bridge, where it remained during the remainder of the siege of Vicksburg. 

On l'>bruary 13, 1864, the regiment began its return to Indianapolis, 
and after reorganization, departed on March 13 for Matagorda Island. 
Beginning with March 27, it made a march through Florida and southern 
Alabama, arri\ing in the rear of Blakely on April i. 

On July 5, 1865, the battalion was mustered out of service (the regi- 
ment was consolidated into a battalion) at Mobile, and on the 7th left for 
Indianapolis, having sixteen officers and two hundred and eighty-four men. 
This regiment left its dead in eleven states and participated in the battles 
of Richmond, Kentucky, Chickasaw Bluffs, Arkansaw Post, Thompson's 
Hill, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, the sieges of Vicksburg and Jack- 
son, and the capture of Blakely, Alabama, which latter xictory caused the 
surrender of Mobile. 

SECOND C.WALKV, FORTY-FIRST REGIMENT. 

Company L formed a part of the Second Cavalry of the Fortv-first 
Regiment, that was organized at Indianapolis in September, 1861, with 
John A. Bridgeland as colonel. The successive officers of the company 
included the following: Captains. Isaiah D. Walker, Christian Beck, James 
(i. Hackleman : first lieutenants. Christian Beck, James G. Hackleman, Pro- 
basco Thomas; second lieutenants, James A. Smith, James G. Hackleman, 
Probasco Thomas. Rev. \\\ Pelan was a chaplain. Flarvey Y. Burt sei-ved 
as an adjutant for a short period and Charles Mount as commissary for a 
year. 

In l'>l>ruary, 1862, the regiment marched towarfl Nashville and from 
that point to the Tennessee river, reaching the field of Shiloh after the 
battle. During the next month it was actively engaged at Pea Ridge, 
Tennessee, and at Tuscumbia, .Alabama, losing several men in each case. 
In August the .same year it was again in Tennessee and contested with the 



308 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

enem)' at Gallatin and McMinnville. In September, a march was made into 
Kentucky, participating in the Buell and Bragg campaigns. On November 
30, while the regiment was still at Nashville, a detachment under command 
of Major Samuel Hill was highly complimented by General Rosecrans, in 
special field orders, for having recaptured a government train, defeating a 
rebel army, killing and capturing two hundred. 

While at Mossy Creek, Tennessee, the regiment re-enlisted, January 10, 
1864, and during the winter and spring was engaged in numerous scouts 
and skirmishes, losing several men. In May, 1864, the regiment partici- 
pated in Sherman's campaign against Atlanta, engaging in many skirmishes 
and battles. The non-veterans were mustered out when Atlanta was taken, 
and in September, 1864, the remaining veterans were consolidated into a 
battalion of four companies and placed under the command of Major Ros- 
well S. Hill. After a raid through Alabama antl Georgia, the regiment was 
mustered out at Nashville. July 22, 1865. 

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT. 

Company A formed a part of the One Hundred and Forty-fourth Regi- 
ment that was mustered into the service on March 10, 1864, with James 
Burgess as colonel. The regiment was first sent to Nashville and there was 
assigned to the division of General Hovey. On April 5, the regiment left 
Nashville for the front. The Twenty-third corps, to which the regiment 
was assigned, arrived in front of Buzzard's Roost on May 8. On June i 
the regiment was engaged in sharp skirmishes in the vicinity of Allatoona 
and Pumpkin Vine Creek, and took a position opposite and near Lost Moun- 
tain. After the enemy had evacuated the position, the regiment took posi- 
tion on the right of Kenesaw Mountain. The regiment took part in many 
engagements prior to the siege of Atlanta, in which it played an important 
part. 

On October 4, the regiment began its pursuit of General Hood, moving 
by the way of Marietta to Allatoona, and thence, through Cassville and 
Kingston, to Rome. The pursuit continued through Snake creek and White's 
Gap to Summerville, and down the Chattanooga valley to Gaylesville, Ala- 
bama, where the pursuit was discontinued. Subsequently the regiment was 
transported to Na.shville, where it arrived on November 9. On November 
21, the regiment constructed temporary breastworks at Columbia, and for 
two days was engaged with the- enemy under General Hood. At Spring 
Hill a severe skirmish occurred during which Company C was captured by 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3O9 

tlie enemy. On December 15 tiie army, nnder (ieneral Tliomas, advanced 
from its fortifications aronnd X'ashville upon the army of General Hood, 
and after two days of fioiiting', (lecisi\ely defeated the rebels. 

In February, 1865, the regiment proceeded to North Carolina. Upon 
reaching- Wise's Fork the enemy was encountered and repulsed in confusion. 
On October 15 it crossed the Neuse river and marched to Kingston, thence 
to Goldslx)ro, where the junction was formed with the victorious army of 
Sherman, who had marched from Atlanta to the sea. The regiment was 
mustered out at Greenslx)ro, August 31, 1865. 

The successive commissioned officers for Company A follow : Captains, 
John M. Orr, John M'. Hannah ; first lieutenants, John W. Hannah, Martin 
S. Bush: second lieutenants, Martin S. Bush, Lot H. C. Pumphrey; George 
F. Stewart, of Connersville, was a first and second lieutenant in Company 
E : John B. Schissler, 'a first lieutenant in Company F. Quite a numljer of 
pri\-ates from Company G were from Fayette county. 

THIRD BATTERY. 

On August 5, 1861, the Third Battery, Light Artillery, was organized 
at Connersville, and was mustered into the service on August 24, 1861, with 
W. W. Frybarger as captain. The battery was dispatched to St. Louis and 
there became a part of General Fremont's army in the campaign through 
southwest Missouri. When the campaign came to a close Captain Frybarger 
was promoted to the office of major and was ordered to Indianapolis to organ- 
ize batteries. Lieut. James M. Cockefair was promoted to captain. During 
the summer and fall of 1862 parts of the Third Battery were dispatched to 
different portions of Missouri, and engaged in numerous encounters and 
skirmishes with the enemy, but no decisive battles were fought. During the 
winter of 1862 and until late in 1863, the battery was located in and around 
the vicinity of Springfield. In November, 1863, a majority of the members 
re-enlisted as veterans. Under the command of Gen. A. J. Smith, it moved 
through western Tennessee and on to Memphis, and with its division proceeded 
to \'icksburg by boat, thence to Meridian, ^Mississippi. After having destroyed 
the enemy's communications, the battery returned with the army to Tennes- 
see. In the summer of 1864 the battery was engaged almost constantly in 
covering the retreat of Banks' army, until it reached INIorganza Bend, on the 
Mississippi river. Thence it embarked to Vicksburg and on to Mississippi, 
where an extensive campaign was conducted. In the fall of 1864, the battery 
moved with the Sixteenth Army Corps to St. Louis and joined the forces of 



3IO FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

General Rosecrans in the pursuit of General Price. After making a march of 
eight hundred miles in twenty-four days without overtaking the enemy, the 
battery returned to St. Louis and thence to Nashville, Tennessee. Combined 
with the army of General Thomas, the battery took part in the decisive battle 
in front of Nashville, on December 15 and 16, 1864. As a result Hood's 
army was completely routed. Later the battery was placed under the com- 
mand of General Canby, and operated with his army in the vicinity of Mobile. 
It was actively engaged in the capture of Ft. Blakely, an event which com- 
pelled the surrender of Mobile. The Third Battery was mustered, out at 
Indianapolis on August 21, 1865. 

Following the command of J. M. Cockefair, Thomas J. Ginn and then 
Richard Burns commanded the battery. 

ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH REGIMENT, MINUTE MEN. 

Company K of the One Hundred and Fourth Regiment, Minute Men, 
was from Fayette county. The regiment was formally organized at Greens- 
burg on July 10, 1863, with James Gavin as colonel. Including privates and 
ofificers the company was composed of seven hundred and nineteen men. The 
regiment marched from Greensburg to Sunman's station, thence to Lawrence- 
burg, and on to Harrison, Ohio. After Morgan's eventful dash through 
Indiana and Ohio, the regiment returned to Greensburg and was mustered 
out on July 18, 1863. 

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-NINTH REGIMENT, ONE-HUNDRED-DAY 
VOLUNTEERS. 

Company F of the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Regiment, One-Hun- 
dred-Day Volunteers, originated in Fayette county. The regiment was mus- 
tered into the service at Indianapolis June 8, 1864, with George Humphrey 
as colonel. From Indianapolis the regiment moved direct to Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, where it was assigned to duty along the lines of the Nashville & 
Chattanooga, Tennessee & Alabama, and Memphis & Charleston railroads. 
These lines were being used by General Sherman for the transportation of 
supplies to his army then advancing on Atlanta and due vigilance was recjuired 
to insure constant transportation and communication. The regiment served 
beyond the period of one hundred days, and returned to Indianapolis, where 
it was finally discharged from the service. 

In addition to the above-named companies the county was represented 
in various other organizations, among which were the Eighty- fourth Regi- 



FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3 II 

iiieiit, Xelsoii Truslcr lieiiii^' at niie time a colonel; ■rueiity-tliird llattorv I-i,!;"lit 
Artillery; Third Qivalry ( Forty-litth ) ; Sixth Cavalry Battalion (Seventy- 
first) ; Thirty-fifth, Fourth Regiment (Hancock's Corps), One Hundred and 
Forty-seventli Regiment, Indiana Volunteers, and Seventh Cavalry, Indiana 
Volunteers. Dr. Joshua Cliitwood served as assistant surgeon and surgeon 
of the Seventh Cavalry, Indiana \'olunteers, in 1863- 1864. Christian Beck 
was a major of the Thirty-fifth regiment in 1863, and in 1864 was commis- 
sioned lieutenant-colonel of the Ninth Ca\alrv. 

morga">n''s raid. 

The summer of 1863 furnished Fayette county with the most exciting 
time it experienced during the Civil War. Many persons are still living who 
recall the excitement aroused by the news that General Morgan had crossed 
the Ohio in Harrison county and was reported to be headed for Indianapolis 
with his cavalry command. 

While Morgan's men never reached the limits of Fayette ct)unty, yet 
Colonel Claypool, with the F'ayette Minute Men and the i^shland Home 
Guards played a very important part in the preparation for defense, as 
will be noted in the following account of Morgan's raid through Indiana. 

On Wednesda}- morning, July 8, 1863. General Morgan crossed the 
line from Kentucky tn Indiana. He had four thousand mounted men 
with him. and for the next five days created more consternation in Indiana 
than the state has ever known. It is not the purpose of this paragraph to 
give in detail the story of Morgan's raid in Indiana, only in so far as it 
is concerned with Fayette and incidentally FVanklin counties. Morgan first 
appeared before Corydon, and at that place three volunteers were killed and 
one mortally wounded. On the afternoon of the 9th Morgan marched out 
of Corydon and soon appeared before Palmyra in the northern part of Harri- 
son county. Here Morgan separated his forces, part going to Greenville, 
part to Paoli and the rest going to \'ienna. Flis forces came together at 
Salem at nine o'clock on the morning of the loth. From Salem, Morgan 
started in an easterly direction, having found out that it was not prudent to 
advance toward Indianapolis, as he originally intended to do. Some of his 
men went through Brownstown and others through Canton and New Phila- 
delphia and spent the night at Lexington in Scott county. On Saturday after- 
noon, the nth, Morgan came in sight of Vernon, but there was too strong a 
force posted there, so he passed the town without making an attempt to 
capture it. On Saturday night Morgan camped near Dupont, about eight 



312 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

miles southeast of Vernon. About four o'clock on the morning of Sunday, 
July 12, Morgan passed through Dupont on the way to Versailles in Ripley 
county. He reached that place at half-past one o'clock, captured Col. J. H. 
Cravens with three hundred militia, and robbed the county treasury of five 
thousand dollars of public funds. 

CITIZEN SOLDIERY ON GUARD. 

It was on this memorable Sunday that the citizens of Fayette and 
Franklin counties received their first-hand experience of the Civil War. 
The knowledge that Morgan with his band of marauders was in Ripley and 
Dearborn counties on that day created the wildest excitement. The gallantry 
and the alacrity with which the citizen soldiery rushed to arms in the defense 
of their hofnes was praiseworthy and commendable in the highest degree. 
From early Sunday morning until Morgan crossed the line into Ohio on 
Monday night, the wildest excitement prevailed in both counties and prepa- 
rations for defense were to be seen on every hand. 

The Franklin Democrat, of Brookville, in the issue of Juh- 17, 1863, gives 
the following graphic description of those exciting days in the town and sur- 
rounding country: 

"lu our town, witb the most generous enthusiasm, the people have hastened to 
take up arms to drive out the impudent invaders of our soil. With a zeal and alacrity 
almost without parallel, they have dropped the sickle and plow, and, rifie in hand, 
have joined in pursuit of the freebooters. On Sunday, learnius that the rebels were 
in the vicinit.v of Sunman's Station, every conceivable mode of conveyance was pro- 
cured to convey our armed citizens to the locality where it was suppo-sed a collision 
would take place. In his march, Morgan is making a wholesale work in the way of 
stealing horses and his men are mounted on the finest stock in the countr.v. Several 
of the citizens of this county were relieved of tlioir horses by this freebooter and his 
men. Among the citizens of the county who contributed horses to Morgan's cause, 
against their own will, were John P. Case, of New Trenton, and Dr. John Cleaver, 
of Drewersburg. In addition to robbing the stables, the marauding band did not 
hesitate to appropriate any articles which met their fancy as they rode through the 
country. 

According to the best information obtainable, there were only about ten of Mor- 
gan's men in this community. Two troopers appeared at Oldenburg in Franklin county 
on Saturday afternoon, and riding iuto the blacksmith shop of 3. H. Kessing, they told 
him they wanted their horses shod at once. They insisted on having new shoes put 
on their horses, but Kessing told them he did not have any, although he did ha^e 
some hanging from the ceiling of the shop. There were some farmers in the shop, 
but the troopers demanded that their horses be shod at once, and told Kessing that 
when he had them shod to bring them to the Kuntz saloon, and they would pay for the 
work. He shod them and took them to the saloon, but they immediately jumped 
upon them and rode away without paying. They rode off toward St. Marys, and 



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FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 

iiii't lidiiiiuic Siefei-t aldiii; tlip road. Seifort had .iiisl suli 
money in liis pofkc-t, but the trooinns kindly ii'licvcd li 
reaching St. Marys they appeared [<< have pas'^cd (i\cr ii 
tliey are next heard of at Xew Alsate. 

<»n Sunday ten of Morgan's men appo.iicd ai llic Imiii 
ihree miles west of St. Peters, and asked to hi' fiMl. Wliilf 
something for them to eat tliey visited the haiii to looU ;i 
he had heard of their coming and had hidden liis liorses 
any horses, they satisfied themselves liy taking three sliirt 
After eating the meal prepared for tlieni hy Mrs. l>iidlcy, 
farm of Frank Bosfelt, in tlie same lowiisliip :iii(l look a .-oiipU" of liorsis. They 
continued on east, and on the otliei- side of New 'rrcnlou inot the oiiinihus L,'oiii^' up 
the Miami hill and comiielled all of the passengers to li.ind over their nioney .iiid val- 
ual)les. One man from Hrookville. Alliert ("ooper. escaped some way or otiicr. while 
the others were relieved of their money, and hid in an oais field near tlie road. The 
onmibus company lost twelve horses. 

It was expected that Brookville woiihl ho .■ilt.irkcil hy .M(iru:ni and coii-^cqiu'iilly 
every effort was made to defend the town. Colonel Cl.iypool. hroiii;lil to Hrookville 
on Sunday the Fayette Minute Men .inil the .\shland Ibnne Guards, numhering. alto- 
gether, about one hundred and fifty men. The mounted troops remained in Hrookville 
until Thursday morning and carried away with them the heartfelt wi.shes of every 
member of this community for the soldierly bearing and gentlemanly deiiortment which 
characterized the whole troop during their stay. As an evidence of the nniuner in which 
they were treated by our citizens, the following resolution w.is nn.inimonsly passed liy 
them .lust previous to their depart lire: 

■■l{rs<,ln<l. That the heartfelt thanks of the Fayette .Minute .Men and the Ashland 
H<mie (Juards be hereby tendereil to the citizens of Brookville. for their generous hos- 
pit.-ility and kindness during the time that said conip.-inies have hwn ipi.-irteied in their 
midst, and that this resolution he imlilished in the Uriiidiiiit and iHfrndn ■' 



As the war advanced it became increasingly difficult to fill the quota 
of the county and toward the latter part of the war it was filled with consid- 
erable difficulty. Drafts and the offer of lx)unties became necessary to meet 
the demands of the state authorities. On October 6, 1862, a draft assignment 
was inade to Fayette county as follows: Connersville township, six; Orange 
township, one ; Harrison township, five ; Posey township, t\\ent\-se\'en : \\'ater- 
loo township, eighteen ; Fairview township, thirteen. 

With the exception of a very few the (juota of Fayette county was com- 
posed of volunteers. The county, with a total militia enrollment in Sep- 
tember, 1862, of one thousand six hundred and eighty-one men, had sent to the 
field five hundred and sixty men. recjuiring the foUowiiig month the small 
draft of seventy. 



314 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



SUFFERING AND ANGUISH. 



A detailed story of the part Fayette county took in this conflict will 
never be told ; it is one of those events which cannot be pictured. As far as 
a recital of the battles and marches of the various regiments containing Fay- 
ette county men is concerned, that is a mere matter of official record. But 
no pen will ever trace the story of the suffering and anguish experienced 
by the women and children who were left behind ; that account was indelibly 
stamped on their hearts and minds and most of it never even found vocal 
expression, and certainly none of it ever found its way into the official records. 
The county officials and groups of citizens in a private capacity ministered to 
the material wants of those dependent upon the soldiers in the field, but 
they did not have the power to assuage their grief or offer compensation 
for the loss of a father, son or husband. And thus a vital part of the 
Civil War history of Fayette county must be dismissed as being of such 
a character that the chronicler cannot record it. 

RELIEF AND BOUNTIES. 

The material assistance rendered the dependent families during the 
progress of the war is a matter of official record. The county funds for 
this purpose during the entire war were in charge of James Elliott, who 
was designated as the "county agent." He distributed a total of $64,366.37 
for the relief of soldiers' famihes, and an additional amount of $9,201.45 
for other ptirposes of a charitable nature. This total of $73,567.82 repre- 
sented only a part of the money expended in behalf of the dependent families. 
The various townships voted funds to the amount of $190,664, part of which 
was for relief and part in the shape of lx)unties offered for enlistments. In 
the latter case the amount, that is, the bounty money, was sufficient to take 
care of the family during the absence of the father, husband or son at the 
front. Before the end of the war the total bounty — state, county and town- 
ship — paid the individual recruit amounted to five hundred dollars. The 
county itself paid bounties totaling $190,764. 

Nor was this the full extent of the aid extended to those who needed 
help. Not only did every church have an organization which actively assisted 
in this charitable work among the needy at home, but there were scores of 
other organizations working along the same line. The soldiers in the field 
Avere the recipients of food, clothing and other comforts from their loved 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 315 

ones at home. The farmers in the various townsliips donated wood and food 
to the cause. A notice in the newspapers on October 22, 1863, gives the 
information that two hundred and fifty cords of wood had been donated 
for needy families. Other references in the newspaper files note donations of 
wood from time to time. On one day the farmers of Waterloo township alone 
contributed seventeen loads of wood; on another occasion forty loads were 
credited to the Lockhart neighborhood, and other townships and separate com- 
munities contributed in proportion. Connersville township reported donations 
of fifty-two loads of wood at one time. The largest number of loads at 
any one time was reported at one hundred, that number l>eing contributed 
in December, 1864. 

THE END OF THE WAR. 

The long struggle finally came to an end with the fall of Richmond in 
April, 1865, and when the news was received in Connersville it was made 
the cause of great rejoicing. The Times, in commenting on the receipt of 
the news that the capital of the Southern Confederacy had fallen, had the 
following to say in its issue of April 13: 

Sueli sceues never liiive ;iud probably uever will occur again in Connersville as 
were witnessed last Monday. The fall of Iticliuiond was celebrated here in a measure, 
but then the cup of joy was not yet full, and the surrender of Lee and his army 
remained to assure our people of the final triumph of the glorious old Army of the 
Potomac, and to make "assurance doubly sure" that the Rebellion had received its 
death blow. Early on Monday morning the glad news of that great event was borne 
us on the telegraph wires, and our pen cannot portray the joy with which our citizens 
received the news that the army which for four years had given the Rebellion all its 
vitality, was among the things of the past. Demoralized, battered and broken it had 
been, but our fondest hopes were consummated when the bleeding remnant of the Army 
vf Northern Virginia laid down its arms at the feet of that glorious hero, U. S. Grant. 
Upon the receipt of the news the first notes of rejoicing rang forth from the church 
bells, which had the day before called their congregations to peaceful worship; to these 
chimes were soon added those of the court house bell and all other bells, both large and 
small, in the town, and the clamor had reached its climax when guns and anvils joined 
in the chorus. The stores were closed, every-day avocations were abandoned instantly, 
and soon the whole population of the city were jambed into Monroe street. Then 
who can describe the scene that followed and continued far into the night? Not a 
countenance but bore a smile. Shouts upon .shouts rent the air amid the shaking of 
hands and frantic embraces. The people were wild with joy. Col. Nelson Trusler 
arrived from Indianapolis in the evening, and in resiwnse to the call of his fellow- 
citizens made a short .si)eech, which aptly illustrated the condition of the people. He 
said that he left Indianapolis that morning because ever.vbody was drunk, and he 
wanted to go to some place where he could find sober folks; they captured and detained 
him awhile at Cambridge City, but there he found the citizens drunker than they were 
at Indianapolis. 



3l6 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Ivast Siiiulay was a glorious epoch, and if it were not a day for whicli all other days 
were made, yet it was a day for generations, and our children will hereafter hold it in 
grateful remembrance so long as the nation sh.ill survive. 

ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN. 

An account of the news of the assassination of President Lincoln was 
given to the people of Conners\'ille and Fayette county in the Times with 
its issue of April lo, 1863. It must have been an occasion of impressive 
moment to judge b}' what the editor has to say : 

Ceremonies appropriate of the funeral of the President of the United .States were 
held in all the churches of Connersville that are regularly oijened for worship, yester- 
day. The stillness and solemnity of the Sabbath prevails throughout the town. The 
business houses were closed the entire day, and uiwn all were the emblems of mourn- 
ing. The court house and many of the private residences were also draped in mourning. 
Such a scene was never before witnessed in Connersville. 

SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. 

I~ayette county did not have a company in the Spanish-American War, 
but a number of young men from the county, mostly kom Connersville, 
enlisted in companies recruited in other counties in the stats. An examina- 
tion of the official roster of the five regiments raised by the state for service 
in this war shows the following with their residence given as Connersville: 
Edward L. Cooley, Frank R. Dinger, Charles E. Payne and Harry Wregg, 
all of Company A, One tlundred and Fifty-eighth Regiment Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry, mustered in on June 16, 1898, and mustered out on November 
4, 1898: Clinton Crago, Jacob Godar, Joe Morford and Thomas J. Wolfe, 
of Company D, same regiment ; Basil Middleton, Will Glisson, Harry H. Hall, 
Charles S. Hoffner, George Holder, Will Myers, George A. Plummer and 
Ernest L. Ragan. of Company H, One Hundred and Sixty-first Regiment, 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry: George W. Eshelman, Henry A. Hosey, Charles 
'M^'illiams, Jr., and Joim F. Hunt, Second United States Volunteers, Engineer 
Corps : and Aquilla B. Hatton and Clement D. Rowe, Fourteenth United 
States Signal Corps. 

The only enlisted man from Fayette county to rise above the rank of 
a private was Harry Hall. He was appointed corporal on October i, 1898. 
The records show that Basil Middleton was mustered in as a musician with 
the Rushville com])any. All the others were privates. 



FAYETTE COl'XTY, INDIANA. 317 



,Nn MILITARY NOTKS. 



l'"a}ette county's only na\al ofticer. Lieut. -Coninianck-r Hilary Williams, 
is now executive officer alioard the "'Xew Hampshire,'" one of the navy's 
largest fighting ships. Lieut. -Commander Williams, the son of .\m1jrose 
Williams and wife, was liorn and reared near Harrishuri;- and received all 
of his elementary etlucation in this county. He was ajipointed to the Xaval 
.\cadem\- at .\nnapolis in the spring of 1803, •i''"' ^^'^^^ graduated from that 
noted institution at the beginning of the .Spanish-American war. During 
the time that the L'nited States fleets and the shi])s of Spain were contesting 
for supremacy upon the high seas. Williams, then a midshipman, was assigned 
to duty aboard the historic "Oregon." which made a record-breaking cruise 
around Cape Horn. He was in the battle of Santiago on board the "Iowa." 
This naval officer's younger brother. Major Arthur Williams, of the United 
States army, received an appointment to \\'est I\iint in 1897 ''^''"' ^^''^ gradu- 
ated from that celebrated institution four years later. He is now stationed 
at San Francisco as a member of the l'nited States Engineering Corps. 

Edward Berling is a Connersville boy who is now in the l'nited States 
navy. He enlisted at lndiana])olis, January 29, 1916, and after serving a 
short time at Great Lakes, Illinois, was assigned to the battleship "Okla- 
homa." He has received se\'eral promotions and is in line to occujiv still 
higher positions. 

In February. 1016, Russell T. \\'agner, of Conners\ille, enlisted in the 
ser\-ice of the United States nav\- and served the usual ajiprenticeship ;it 
Great Lakes. Illinois. He remained there until Mav _' [ and then was 
assigned to the battleship "Florida." 

The most recent enlistment in the navy from Connersville was that of 
Earl Gwinnup who enlisted in January, 1917. He is now at Great Lakes, 
Illinois, receiving his preliminary training. 

It is not known how many of the young men of Fayette county have 
served for various periods of service in the navy, but one of the most prom- 
inent of the number is D. E. Trusler, now editor of the CoimcrsviUc Dailv 
Examiner. He was in the navy from h;o5 to 1909 and during that time 
visited every port of any importance in the world, crossing the equator no 
less than twenty-eight times. He was first stationed on the "Charleston" 
and later on the "West Virginia." 

The only Fayette county boy to invade Mexico with General Pershing 
in 1916 was Charles J. Drescher. of Connersville. He enlisted, on January 



3l8 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

5, 1914, at Atlanta, Georgia, and became attached to Troop D, Eleventh 
Cavalry, of the regular army. He enlisted as a private and on November 
I, 1 916, was promoted to coqDoral. 

Another Connersville boy who is a member of the regular army is Alvin 
H. Hall. He enlisted on June 5, 1916, and on August 5, 1916, was sent to 
Ft. Bhss, Te.xas. He is now stationed at that point and is a member of 
Troop B, SeA'enteenth Cavalry. 

William N. Ochiltree was one of the young men of Connersville to go 
to the Mexican border with Company I, in the summer of 1916. Upon 
reaching the border he was promoted to first orderly and was promoted 
from time to time until he became supply sergeant. 

.\lbert Kuhlnian, of Connersville, enlisted in the regular army in 
P'ebruary, 191 5, and at the present time is stationed at Honolulu. 

Will K. Henry is a Connersville boy serving in the United States army 
in the Philippine Islands. 

Major Edward Chrisman. son of Jesse Chrisman and wife, was appointed 
to West Point Academy in 1884 and graduated in 1888. After graduation 
he was stationed at Omaha, Nebraska, for a short time and then spent one 
year in the torpedo school at Willets Paint near Brooklyn. When war was 
declared between the United States and Spain, he entered the army as a first 
lieutenant, finally being promoted to captain. He was in the memorable 
siege of San Juan Hill and has seen service in the Philippine Islands. He 
is now stationed in the canal zone, in Panama. 

A Connersville boy who has made an enviable record in the regular 
army is Basil Middleton, now instructor at Culver Military Academy. At 
the outbreak of the Spanish-American War he enlisted with Company H, 
One Hundred and Sixty-first Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, as a 
Inigler. During the Mexican activity of 191 6 he served as captain, and 
adjutant of the First Regiment, Indiana National Guard, stationed along 
the Llano Grande river. He is an expert rifleman and has won many honors 
on account of his excellent markmanship. 

MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 

There are two organizations in the county which are based on wars in 
which the United States has engaged. One is the Daughters of the American 
Revolution and the other the Grand Army of the Republic. There was for- 
merly an organization of the Sons of Veterans in Connersville, but it has 
ceased its existence as an active organization. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 3I9 

DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 

Connersville Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, was organ- 
ized on April lo, 1909, with the following charter members: Flora Cald- 
well Broaddus, Mrs. Sophia Alice Chitwood, Cornelia Disney Conwell, Annie 
Disney Conwell, Lillian Chambers, Margaret I. Dickson, Mrs. Sarah Eliza- 
beth Carver, Mrs. Irene Pepper Johnson, Mrs. Isabel Morrison Kensler, Mrs. 
Mary Susan Pepper and Sophia Ethel Pepper. The first officers were as 
follows: Regent, Mrs. Tracy B. Johnson; vice-regent. Miss Cornelia Con- 
well; recording secretary, ]\liss Margaret T. Dick.^^on : registrar, Mrs. P. H. 
Kensler; treasurer, Mrs. K. \'. Hawkins; historian. Flora Broaddus: chap- 
lain, Mrs. Mary Pepper. 

The membership of the chapter has shown a commendable growth since 
its organization and now has fifty-nine actix-e memljers on its roll. They 
follow : Mrs. Laura Jane Backous, Ethelyn May Backous, Isabel Ball, Rachel 
Blanche Hall, Josephine Barrows, Mrs. Ruth Hull Barrows, Mrs. Bessie Mer- 
rell Bird, Mrs. Lillian Wilson Beck, Mrs. Sophia Alice Chitwood, Cornelia 
Disney Conwell, Annie Disney Conwell, Mrs. Eleanor McCann Carlisle, Mrs. 
Rebecca L. Chrisman, Margaret I. Dickson, Mrs. Caroline Barrows Dixon, 
Mrs. Beulah Hamilton Frazee, Essie May Frazee, Mrs. Alice Green Gray, 
Mrs. Margaret Pratt Hawkins. Mrs. Rozzie Lair Hull, Mrs. Elizabeth New- 
kirk Houghton, Mrs. Mabel Sanders Hart, Mary Helen Huston, Mrs. Jessie 
Olive Hayes, Mrs. Gladys Lockhart Hassler, .Mrs. Irene Pepper Johnson, Mrs. 
Isabelle Morrison Kensler, Mrs. Anna Sinks Kehl, Inez Lockhart, Mrs. Emma 
Sanders McFarlan, Mrs. Elh Hughes McFarlan,. Mrs! Madge Kensler McKen- 
nan, Mrs. Adella McGrew Michener, Mrs. .\delia McGee Mclnto.sh. Mrs. 
Mary F. Murphy, Jessie Murphy. Mrs. Fanny H. Xe\'in. Mrs. Estella Norris 
Ochiltree. Sophia Ethel Pepper, Mrs. Pearl Sanders Page, Mrs. Fanny Tay- 
lor Sanders, Mrs. Lulu Trusler Sil\e\-, .Mrs. Mary Helen VValden and Mrs. 
Mabel Buckley Zeiu-ung. Three of tlie active members are also life members, 
namely: Mrs. Isabel Morrison Kensler, Mrs. Margaret Pratt Hawkins and 
Mrs. Adelia McGee Mcintosh. 

The non-resident members include the following: Mrs. May Sinks 
Crane. Cincinnati, Ohio; Harriet Day, Laurel, Indiana; Mrs. Sarah Elizabeth 
Garver, Huntington Park, Cahfornia;. Elizabeth Johnson, Indianapolis, 
Indiana ; Ada Belle Jacques, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mrs. Ruth Merrell Jackson, 
Highland Park, Chicago; Mrs. Kate Limpus, Laurel, Indiana; Mrs. Genevieve 



320 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Beck Middleton, Culver, Indiana; Mrs. Anna Conwell McElhinny, Ames 
Hill, West Brattleboro, Vermont; Etha Anna Wright, Toledo, Ohio. 

Since the organization of the local chapter it has lost only two by death : 
Mrs. Martha Anna Brumfiel, died July 5, 191 3: Mrs. Mary Susan Pepper, 
died December 31, 191 5. 

The chapter has made an effort to locate the graves of all the Revolu- 
tionary War soldiers who are buried in the county, and thus far has located 
ten: Jonathan Davis (1760-1845), Springersville cemetery; James Hamer, 
Union cemetery; Daniel Bloomhart (died in 1837), Jonathan Gillian (1758- 
1833), James Justice (1742-1832), Nicholas Keemar (died in 1828) and 
James Pierce, Orange township cemetery: Amos Milner (died in 1851), Mt. 
Garrison cemetery: Robert Groves (died in 1855) and Samuel Isles (died 
in 1855), Fairview cemetery. 

The chapter has presented a flag to the public library of the city and 
a framed copy of the Declaration of Independence to each of the five school 
buildings in the city. On April iq of each year the chapter gives three prizes 
to the pupils of the eighth grade for the best essay on a Revolutionary sub- 
ject. It has contributed to the Southern Industrial Institution, and to the 
purchase of Turkey Run. As a Centennial Memorial it selected a site for a 
boulder on which will be inscribed "To the Defenders of Our Country." 

The officers for the year 1916-1917 are as follow: Regent, Mrs. C. C. 
Hull; vice-regent, Mrs. Scott Michener; recording secretary, Mrs. Fanny 
Nevin ; registrar, Mrs. P. H. Kensler ; treasurer, Mrs. J. E. Page ; historian, 
Mrs. W. F. L. Sanders: chaplain, Mrs. A. L. Chrisman. 

GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

Connersville Post No. 126, Grand Army of the Republic, was instituted 
on January 9, 1883, in accordance with the charter granted on December 
20, 1882. The installation ceremonies were in charge of P. C. Iliff, O. D. 
\\'ebster. Adjutant Pixell and Quartermaster-Sergeant Campbell, of Rich- 
mond, Indiana. Of the original thirt3^-six charter members only twelve are 
now living. Their names are Justin K. Proctor, ^^'illiam N. Young, James 
M. Waldrip, George S. Johnson, Joseph S. Hoover, Samuel Kirkham, John 
Payne, Harvev Smith, Lycurgus L. Cooley, James S. Scott, George F. Stew- 
art and John H. Whiteford. The deceased charter members are William J. 
Jewiss, Frank W. Reynolds, S. W. Johnson, Robert Utter, John A. Dunn, 
William Cotton, Thomas J. Clark, Noah Lyons, Homer B. Woodcock, Wil- 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 321 

Hani G. Plunimer. Tlioiiias M. I-ittle, Gabriel Dresclier, Samuel H. Van 
Kooton. Dr. Samuel N. Hamilton, John W. Ross, A. E. Barrows, Thomas 
Shaw, Barton S. Barker, D. B. Ball, Dr. \'incent H. Gregg, Jacob Kribs, 
Newton Perkins and Adolph Segrist. 

This is the only post which has ever been established in the county and 
has had a total membership of alwut three hundred during its entire career. 
The membership at any one time has not reached this number. Since its 
organization it. has held regular meetings. At first they were held weekly, 
but for several years the post has met only twice each month. The hall, 
which is over the First National Bank, is furnished by the county commis- 
sioners. It should be mentioned in this connection that the county com- 
missioners are authorized by law not only to pay for the rental of the hall, 
but also to allow fifty dollars for the burial expenses of each old soldier. 
In 1916 the appropriation for the hall was one hundred and fifty dollars, 
while seven hundred dollars was appropriated for the burial of old soldiers. 
There are now two soldiers of the county in the National Soldiers Home at 
Dayton, Ohio, but none in either the National Home at Marion, Indiana, or 
the State Soldiers Home at Lafayette. The best estimate of the present num- 
ber of Civil War veterans in the county places the number at one hundred 
and twelve, of whom thirty-seven are now members of the post. 

OFFICERS OF THE POST. 

The first officers of the post were as follow : John A. Dunn, post com- 
mander; W. G. Plummer, senior vice-commander; Capt. George S. Johnson, 
junior vice-commander; W. N. Young, officer of the day; S. H. Van Kooton, 
officer of the guard; John W. Ross, quartermaster; J. M. Waldrip, sergeant; 
T. M. Little, chaplain; W. J. Jewiss, adjutant; T. J. Clark, sergeant-major; 
Robert Utter, cjuartermaster-sergeant. In connection with the foregoing 
Comrades Woodcock and Reynolds were appointed as an administrative com- 
mittee. 

The officers for the year 1917 are as follow: George Williams, post 
commander; Elbert DeHaven, senior vice-commander; Oscar Caswell, junior 
vice-commander; William T. Murray, adjutant; George F. Stewart, quarter- 
master ; Justin K. Proctor, sergeant : John Whiteford, chaplain ; Lycurgus L. 
Cooley, officer of the day ; Frank Mason, officer of the guard ; Peter Cline, 
sergeant-major; A. Y. Neff, quartermaster-sergeant. 
(21) 



322 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

SONS OF VETERANS. 

Davis Camp No. 4, Sons of Veterans, was instituted at Connersville 
on March 7, 1884, by Col. J. E. Edmondson, assisted by the members of 
the Connersville Post. The camp was organized with nineteen members 
and named in honor of Lieut. A. M. Davis, who was wounded at the battle 
of Shiloh and afterwards died from the effects of the wound. About 1906 
the order was revived, Camp Frank I-. Johnson being instituted and at one 
time having a membership of seventy-five, but after two or three years the 
camp died because its members were too busy to keep up regular meetings. 

It is interesting to note that there are at the present time nearly three hun- 
dred men in Fayette county eligible to membership. 



CHAPTER XI. j 

The Bench and the Bar. 

Moses is credited with being- the first lawyer in history and since the 
days when he compiled the first code the legal profession has been con- 
sidered one of the most highly honored professions. As long as men persist 
in \iolating the Ten Commandments and the Golden Rule, so long will there 
be need of lawyers: and accordingly every community finds it necessary to 
have lawyers in its midst. 

Fayette county was hardly more than organized when the first lawyer 
made his appearance. Somewhere in the embryonic village of Connersville, 
William W. Wick hung out his shingle in 1819 and he appears to have had 
the field to himself until Oliver H. Smith appeared on the scene in the spring 
of the following year. From that day down to the present time the lawyer 
has been an intimate part of the life of the county, and, as far as is known, 
all of the lawyers of the county have been residents of the county seat. 
No other town has been of a sufiicient size to attract a lawyer. 

The question of rating lawyers on the basis of their ability is a difficult 
thing to do, and yet by common consent there are a few of the lawyers of 
the county whose pre-eminence is universally conceded. First and foremost 
among this number are the two Smiths, Oliver H. and Caleb B. (not kins- 
men), both of whom rose to a high rank in their profession and to a Jiigh 
position in the affairs of the nation, the former becoming a United States 
senator, and the latter, a member of Congress and later secretary of the 
interior under President Lincoln. An extended sketch of both men is given 
in another chapter. 

Ranking along with these two men is Samuel W. Parker, a teacher, 
newspaper editor, member of the Legislature and finally a member of Con- 
gress. .\s a lawyer he was probal)ly the equal of either of the' Smiths, 
although he was not as widely known in national affairs. These three men- 
together with William W. Wick, .\ndre\v Kennedy and Samuel C. Sample', 
constitute the leaders among the lawyers of tiie county who finally reached 
the halls of Congress. Wick, Kennedy and Sample, however, can hardly 
be considered as Fayette county lawyers, since they left the county shortly 



324 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

after being admitted to the bar and cast their lots with other counties in the 
state. 

MORE LAWYERS IN CONGRESS. 

There are two other local lawyers who have been elected to Congress, 
Jeremiah H. Wilson and Finly H. Gray, the latter having closed his third 
term on March 4, 1917. Wilson was a former common pleas and circuit 
judge, and after his second term in Congress (1875) located in Washing- 
ton, D. C, where he practiced until his death. This completes the list of 
lawyers of Fayette county who have succeeded in being elected to Congress. 
Jonathan McCarty, the other congressman from this district elected from 
this county, was not a lawyer. 

Of the remaining lawyers, now deceased, there are a few who stand out 
above the rest. Probably the best of the earlier group was Benjamin F. 
Claypool, who was born in Connersville on December 12, 1825, and who 
spent his whole career in the city of his birth. He. is credited with being 
the first person born in Fayette county to graduate from Asbury (DePauw) 
University (1845). He took a prominent part in political affairs. He was 
a delegate to the first Republican convention in 1856 and served as presi- 
dential elector in 1864 and again in 1868. He was also interested in bank- 
ing, first as president of a state bank and later as president of the First 
National Bank of Connersville, serving in the latter capacity until his death. 

Contemporaneous with Claypool, and but two years younger, was 
James C. ■ Mcintosh, likewise a native of Connersville (January 13, 1827- 
August 27, 1878), and a lifelong resident of the city. He was also a gradu- 
ate of Asbury (DePauw) University, class of 1849. ^"d a year after gradu- 
ating began the study of law and practiced continuously from the time of 
his admission to the bar in 1851 until his death in 1878. He is deserving 
of being ranked with the best lawyers in the county. 

LAWYER ALSO A POET. 

A peculiarly gifted lawyer of Connersville for twenty-five years was 
John S. Reid, a native of Scotland, and a resident of the United States from 
1839 until his death at Indianapolis, September 5, 1879. He was educated 
at Oxford, England, and after coming to this country took a degree from 
Miami University, Ohio. He taug+it school and practiced law at Liberty, 
Indiana, from 1840 to 185 1; practiced in Connersville from 1851 to 1876, 
and lived in Indianapolis the last two years of his life. He served as a com- 




ItEUBEN COXNEIt. 



KAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 325 

nion pleas judge for seven years ; as a member of the constitutional con- 
vention in 1850-51, and as a member of the state Senate. He was con- 
sidered one of the best poets of the state during his generation and left one 
pretentious volume of verse to justify his right to be classed among the 
poets of the state. 

Reuben Conner was for more than forty years one of the leading law- 
yers of the local bar. Born in Decatur county, Indiana, December 8, 1850, 
he became first a teacher and later a lawyer, practicing in Connersville from 
the time of his admission to the bar in 1873 until his death, February 9, 
191 5. He never held an ofiFicial position, but devoted his whole legal career 
to the general practice of his profession. He has one son, Alonzo, who is 
now practicing in Connersville. 

The official careers of all the lawyers of the county as far as they have 
been connected with the local courts is given in the discussion in the latter 
part of this chapter. The bar in 1917 is composed of the following mem- 
bers: F. B. Ansted. F. I. Barrows, L. L. Broaddus, Albert L. Chrisman, 
James A. Clifton, Alonzo Conner, Frank M. Edwards, Richard N. Elliott, 
George C. Florea, Hyatt L. Frost, George W. Goble, Finly H. Gray. George 
L. Gray, J. S. Hankins, E. Ralph Himelick, G. Edwin Johnston, David W, 
McKee, John S. Muddell, WilHam E. Ochiltree, Clarence S. Roots, W. E. 
Sparks, Raymond S. Springer, Charles F. Vance and Allen M. Wiles — a 
total of twenty-four. 

Tt is not possible to give a summary of the living lawyers. They are 
yet making their rq^utatioos liefore the bar. Of the older attorneys, George 
C. Florea, George I,. Gray, Hyatt L. Frost, David W. McKee, L. L. Broad- 
dus and W. E. Ochiltree may be mentioned. Raymond S. Springer, the 
present judge of the circuit court, is the youngest judge who has ever been 
elected to the bench in the local circuit and one of the youngest in the state. 
All of the younger generation of lawyers are graduates of law schools, 
while practically all of the older members of the bar received their training 
in the office of some lawyer already in the practice. 

LAWYERS OF F.WETTE COUNTY FOR ONE HUNDRED YEARS. 

It win probably never be known how many lawyers have practiced in 
Fayette county. Under the old constitution every lawyer who practiced in 
any other than his own county had to be admitted to the bar of any other 
county where he might happen to have a case. For this reason the local 



326 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



records in the clerk's office, which gi\'e all the lawyers prior to 1852 who 
were at any tirne employed in a case, do not give a clue as to the actual 
residence of those so listed. The following list of lawyers includes only those 
who have been actually residents of the county for a time at least. The list 
follows : 



Ansted, Frank B. 
Barrows, Frederic I. 
Broaddus, Lunsford L. 
Burrows, William S. 
Chrisman, Albert L. 
Claypool, Benjamin F. 
Clay pool, Jefferson H. 
Clifton, James A. 
Conner, Alonzo 
Conner, Reuben 
Daily, William 
Durnan, Richard A. 
Rdwards, Frank M. 
Klliott, Richard N. 
Fay, James A. 
Finchi Cyrus 
Florea, George C. 
Florea, I^ewis W. 
Forrey, William O. 
Fduts, Ivewis O; 
Frost, Hyatt L. 



CiOble, George W. 
Gray, Finly H. 
Gray, George L. 
Hale, Martin 
Hall, Ozias 
Hankins, J. S. 
Hiraelick, E. Ralph 
Huston, Frank M. 
Johnston, G. Edwin 
Justice, Joseph 
Kennedy, Andrew. 
Little, Joseph I. 
Little. Thomas M. 
Mcintosh, James C. 
Mcintosh, James M. 
McKee, David W. 
Muddell, John S. 
Murraj', Charles A. 
Nevin, Frank E. 
Ochiltree, William E. 
Parker, Samuel W. 



Kay, Martin M. 
Reid, John S. 
Roehl, Charles 
Roots, Clarence S. 
Sample, Samuel C. 
Sinks, Augustus M. 
Smith, Caleb Blood 
Smith. Oliver Hampton 
Sparks, W. E. 
Spooner, William L. 
Springer, Raymond S. 
Trusler, Gilbert 
Trusler, Ira T. 
Trusler, Nelson 
Trusler, Thomas 
Vance. Charles F. 
^'ance. Elisha 
Veeder, Charles 
Wick, William W. 
Wile.s, Allen M. 
Wilson. Jeremiah M. 



THE COURT HISTORY OF FAYETTE COUNTY. 

The history of the various courts of Fayette county takes the discussion 
outside the limits of the county. The county has ne\'er had a separate circuit 
court, having been united with one or more counties since its organization. 
The same may be said of the old common pleas court, which lasted from 
1852 to 1873. The following account of Fayette county in its relations to 
the various courts with which it has been connected has been compiled 
directly from the official records. No effort has been made to characterize 
any of the lawyers; in fact, many of the court officials herein mentioned 
were not lawyers, and did not pretend to be. If an associate or probate 
judge was a lawyer it was counted as an accident. Dr. Philip Mason, how- 
ever, takes the trouble in his autobiography to explain how hard he studied 
law in order to pass the necessary examination to qualify for the office of 
probate judge, but there is no evidence to indicate that he ever tried a single 
case in the locaj courts. His legaJ career .seems to have been confined solely 
to his administration of the office of probate judge. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 327 



FIRST SESSION OF THE CIRCUIT COURT. 



The legislative act oi December 2<S, 1818, creating Fayette county, pro- 
vided that the count}- should start its independent career on the first of the 
following Januar\-, but it was not until May 3, 1819, that the first session 
of the circuit court con\ened. The first court met at the house of George 
Reed in Connersville, with John \\'atts as president judge and Train Cald- 
well and Edward \Vebb as associate judges. The first court house, a rude 
log structure, was not ready for occupancy until later in the year. 

The judicial system of the state under the 1816 Constitution bore little 
resemblance to- the system established by the present Constitution in 1852. 
During the first thirty-six years of the history of the state (1816-1852) the 
circuit judges, known as president judges, were elected by the Legislature 
for terms of seven years. Each cpunty, howe\-er, elected two judges, known 
as associate judges, who sat with the president judge, or, in his absence, had 
the authority to preside o\-er the circuit court. These associate judges were 
more frequently than otherw ise men of no legal training, but made up in 
good common sense what they lacked in judicial knowledge. The associate 
judges, like the president judges, had a tenure of seven years, and in many 
counties they ser\-ed two or n-iore tern-is. 

\\'hen Fayette county was created it was attached to the third judicial 
circuit, which, at that lin-ie included the counties of Randolph, Wayne, Frank- 
lin, Dearborn, .Switzerland. Ripley and Jennings. Fa^-ette county remained 
in the third circuit until the act of January 20, 1830, made it a part of the 
sixth circuit with .\llen. Delaware, Randolph, Henry, Wayne, Union, Riish 
and Elkhart counties. During the eleven years it was a part of the third 
circuit only two president judges presided o\er the local court, John Watts 
and Miles Eggleston. At the time the county was organized, Alexander 
Meek was the presiding judge of the third circuit, but he resigned on Febru- 
ary 2, 1819, before a session of court had convened in the county. John 
Watts was elected by the Legislature on February 2, 1819, and continued to 
preside over the circuit until January 21, 1820, when he was succeeded by 
Miles C. Eggleston, one of the most famous of the early judges of the state. 
Judge Eggleston was still on the bench of the third circuit when Fayette 
county was placed in the sixth circuit by the act of January 20, 1830. 

Three- days- a-fter the Legislature had created the sixth circuit it elected 
Charles H. Test as the first judge of the new circuit, and he remained on 
the bench of the circuit until he resigned on January 20, 1836. Judge Test 



328 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

was followed by Samuel Bigger, who served until he resigned to make the 
race for governor. He was elected and served one term (1840-1843), being 
defeated for re-election in 1843 by James Whitcomb. Upon the resignation 
of Judge Bigger the Legislature elected James Perry to fill out the unex- 
pired term. Judge Perry served seven years, being followed on January 23, 
1844, by Jehu T. Pllliott, who occupied the bench for a full term. The last 
president judge was Oliver P. Morton, who served from February 15, 185 1, 
to October 12, 1852, on which date the new Constitution went into operation. 

ELECTION OF ASSOCIATE AND PROBATE JUDGES. 

As has been mentioned, each county elected two associate judges during 
the period of the 1816 Constitution. The first two associate juc|ges elected 
in Fayette county were Train Caldwell and Edward Webb, the latter of 
whom served continuously from February 2, 1819, to February 2, 1847, 
when he was succeeded by John Scott, who served until the new Constitu- 
tion went into effect in 1852. Caldwell resigned on March 21, 1819, and 
two days later the governor appointed William Helm to fill his unexpired 
term. The successive judges following Helm, with the dates of their service 
were as follow: James Brownlee, February 2, 1826 — died in office, July, 
1827; William Miller, chosen at a special election and commissioned on 
November i, 1827, to serve seven years from February 2, 1826; John 
Treadway, February 2, 1833 — resigned on April 18, 1837; Stanhope Royster, 
appointed on June 23, 1837, to serve seven years from February 2, 1832, (so 
his commission reads), but Royster actually served until February 2, 1840: 
Jeremiah M. Wilson. February 2, 1840-February 2, 1847; Joshua Mcintosh, 
February 2, 1847-October 12, 1852. 

In addition to president and associate judges the state had probate 
judges under the 18 16 Constitution. Such probate business as came before 
the circuit court prior to 1818 was handled by that court, but with the act 
of January 29, 181 8, there was established a si>ecial probate court in each 
county in the state. These courts were to be presided over by the associate 
judges of the circuit court sitting as such. The statute also provided that if 
court was not sitting the clerk of the circuit court might take proof of wills 
and testaments and grant letters of administration and letters testamentary. 
However, all probate business transacted by the clerk was- subject to the 
subsequent approval of the associate judges. The next step in the history 
of the old probate court was taken with the act of February 11, 1825. an 
act which provided for a further separation of the probate court from the 



rAYETTE COUKTY, INDIANA. 329 

circuit court, the associate judges still being left in charge of the court. The 
two judges held the sessions of the probate court at the county seat on the 
week immediately preceding the session of the circuit court. 

A SEPARATE PROBATE COURT. 

The business of the circuit and probate courts increased to such an extent 
that by 1829 it was deemed advisable to establish a probate court with a 
separate judge, and the act of January 23 of that year effected a complete 
separation of the probate from the circuit court. Instead of placing the 
court in charge of the two associate judges, provision was made for a spe- 
cial probate judge, elected by each county, for a term of seven years. The 
county sheriff and clerk of the circuit court were made ex-officio officers of 
the newly established court. This court continued in operation until 1852, 
when it was abolished by statute and all probate business placed under the 
jurisdiction of the newly created common pleas court. 

The first session of the probate court in Fayette county convened on 
April 26, 1819, with Train Caldwell and Edward Webb, associate judges, 
in charge. As has been stated, the associate judges had charge of the pro- 
bate court until 1829, the first elective probate judge, Philip Mason, being 
commissioned on August 18, 1829. Mason handed in his resignation on May 
26, 1834, and there seems to have been an interim when there was no pro- 
hate judge in the county. Justus Wright, who was elected in August of the 
same year, was commissioned to serve seven years from August 4, 1834, 
and was re-elected in 1841 and 1848. serving until the court was discpn- 
tiruied in 1852. 

CHANGES UNDER THE NEW CONSTITUTION. 

The discussion thus far traces the judicial history of Fayette county 
up to the adoption of the 1S52 Constitution. The new Constitution made 
a radical change in the judiciary of the state. Under the old constitution not 
only had the president judges been elected by the Legislature, but the supreme 
judges as well. In fact, all the state officers — secretary of state, auditor, 
treasurer, adjutant-general and others — had been elected by the Legislature. 
But with the new Coj,istitiitipn all of. tliis changed. The supreme, judges and 
all state officers were elected l)y the voters of the state. Tiie president judges 
gave way to circuit judges elected by the voters of each circuit, the old asso- 
ciate and probate judges being discontinued. But while the probate court 



330 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

was abolished a new court — tlie common pleas court — was created by, statute 
(May 12, 1852) to take o\er the jDrobate business and also some of the busi- 
ness formerly coming under the jurisdiction of the circuit court. This 
new court continued in operation until abolished by the Legislature with the 
act of May 6, 1873, all business over which it had had jurisdiction being 
transferred to the circuit court. 

The act establishing the common pleas court divided the state into forty- 
four common pleas districts, Fayette county being united with Franklin 
and Union counties in one district. John S. Reid became the first judge of 
this district in 1852 and served by re-election until October 28, i860. The 
act of March i, 1859, redistricted the entire state for common pleas purposes, 
placing Fayette county in a district with Franklin, Union and Wayne. The 
district was not numbered by the act, but the succeeding Legislature (March 
II, 1861) gave each district a number, the one containing Fayette county 
being No. 6. Jeremiah M. \\'^ilson liecame judge of the enlarged district 
on October 28, i860, and served until he resigned on March 6, 1865. John 
F. Krbbey was appointed to fill his unexpired term and was later elected, 
serving Iw re-election until the ofiice was abolished bv the act of May 6, 

1873. 

Each common pleas court had a special prosecutor with a two-year tenure. 
James R. McClure was the first prosecutor of the district to which Fayette 
county was attached, and served from 1852 to 1854. His successors were 
as follow: Joseph Marshall, 1854-1856; Nathaniel McCrookshank, 1856- 
1858; Clement C. Cory, 1858- 1860; John C. Whitridge, 1860-1864; Henry 
C. Fox, 1864-1868; William H. Jones, 1868-1870; John L. Rupe, 1870-1873. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE STATE JUDICIARY. 

The constitutional convention of 1850-51 had no more troublesome prob- 
lem before it than the reorganization of the state judiciary. As it was finally 
worked out, the Constitution pro-\'ided that "The judicial power of the state 
shall be vested in a supreme court, in circuit court and in such other courts as 
the General Assembly may establish." The one "other court" established in 
1852 was the common pleas court, which has just been discussed. The Legis- 
lature, by the act of June 17, 1852, divided the state into ten judicial circuits, 
Fayette county being played in the fourth circuit with the counties of Dear- 
born, Franklin, Decatur, Shelby, Rush and Union. The next change in cir- 
cuiting was made by the act of May 5, 1869, which reorganized the fourth- 
circuit to include Fayette, Decatur and Rush counties. The act of April 22; 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 33 1 

1869, had placed Union, Franklin, Dearborn and Ohio in tiie newly organized 
twenty-sixth circuit. The act of March 6, 1873, recircuited the entire state and 
united Fayette with Rush and Decatur counties in the eighth circuit. The 
next change was ])rought about by the act of March 2, 1883, this act leaving 
Rush and Decatur counties as the eighth circuit and uniting Fayette county 
with Franklin and Union counties in the thirty-seventh circuit, h'ranklin 
and Union counties had been constituted as the sole counties of the thirty- 
seventh circuit by the act of March 6, 1873. No change has been made in 
the thirty-seventh circuit since 1883. 

CIRCUIT COURT JUDGES. 

The first circuit judge elected for the circuit to which Fayette county 
was attached in 1852 was William M. McCarty, who ascended the bench 
on October 12, 1852, and served until he resigned on July 29, 1853. Will- 
iam S. Holman was at once- appointed to fill the vacancy, but he resigned 
on August 10, 1853, before holding a session of court in the county. Reuben 
D. Logan was then appointed and served by subsequent re-election until Octo- 
ber 12, 1865. He was followed by Jeremiah M. Wilson, who had resigned as 
common pleas judge of the district to make the race for the circuit judge- 
ship. Judge Wilson ser\-ed a full term of six years, being followed on October 
12, 1871, by William A. Cullen. During Judge Cullen's term the circuit 
was changed by the act of March 6, 1873, and he was transferred from the 
fourth to the eighth circuit. Judge Cullen was followed, October 24, 1877, 
by Samuel A. Bonner, but the act of March 2, 1883, transferred Bonner to 
the newly reorganized eighth (Rush and Decatur) circuit and Judge Ferdi- 
nand S. Swift to the newly reorganized thirty-seventh circuit (Fayette, Frank- 
lin and Union). Judge Swift had been appointed judge of the thirty-sev- 
enth circuit on July 28, 1880, following the death of Judge Henry C. Hanna. 
Judge Swift was on the bench of the thirty-seventh circuit for twentv-four 
years, serving continuously from the time of his appointment until Octoljer 
27, 1904. George L. Gray became judge of the circuit in 1904 and served 
two full terms, being followed by the present judge, Raymond S. Springer, 
on October 26, 19 16. 

"k neces.sary evil." 

The office of circuit prosecutor in Indiana has Ijeen subject to a large 
number of legislative acts. A lawyer under the i8i6 Con.stitution once stated 
that the prosecuting attorney was a "necessary evil," and the difficultv that 



332 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the Legislature experienced in getting the office and its duties defined shows 
that there was a great divergence of views concerning the "evil." The Con- 
stitution of 1816, unlike its successor of 1852, made no provision for the ofifice, 
and it was not until 1824 that the Legislature formally established the office. 
Prior to that date the president judge appointed a prosecutor for each term 
of court. The act of 1824 provided that the Legislature should elect a prose- 
cutor for each circuit, whose term of office was to be two years — the salary 
to be certain stipulated fees and such additional "compensation as the judges 
in their discretion may allow." No radical change was made in the method 
of election or matter of compensation until the act of February 11, 1843. 
This act placed the election of the prosecutors in the hands of the voters of 
each circuit, the tenure remaining two years, and the compensation continuing 
on a fee basis. Four years later (January 2"], 1847,) the Legislature — ^appar- 
ently solely on political grounds — provided for a prosecutor for each county, 
again allowing the voters of the counties to fill the office. This act was so 
expensive that it aroused a storm of disapproval and the Legislature was 
forced (January 16, 1849.) to repeal it in part. Two circuits, the fourth 
and the eighth, were allowed by this act of 1849 to elect a prosecutor for 
their respective circuits. But continued dissatisfaction with the county prose- 
cutor led the Legislature (February 14, 1851), to return to the former method 
of allowing each circuit to elect one prosecutor, and the Constitution of 1852 
(Sec. IT. Art. VH.) embodied this method of providing for the office. 

LT.ST OF PKO.SECUTING ATTORNEYS. 

The list of prosecutors for the circuit to which Fayette county has been 
attached since 1824, when the office was established, has been compiled from 
the records in the office of the secretary of state at Indianapolis. The list 
follows: Oliver H. Smith, August 9, 1824 — resigned August i, 1826; 
Amos Lane, appointed August i, 1826-December 30, 1826; Cyrus Finch, 
December 30, 1826-December 30, 1828; Martin M. Ray, December 30, 1828- 
January 20, 1830: James Perry, January 25, 1830- January 25, 1832; Will- 
iam J. Brown, January 25, 1832 — resigned December 10, 1836; Samuel W. 
Parker, December 10, 1836-December 10, 1838; David Macy, December 10, 
1838-December II, 1840: Jehu T. Elliott, December 11, 1840 — resigned on 
January 23, 1844; Samuel E. Perkins, appointed on January 23, 1844-August 
20, 1844: Jacob B. Julian. August 20, 1844-August 2j, 1846; John B. Still, 
August 27, 1846-August 27, 1848 (from 1848 to 185 1 each county in the 
circuit elected a prosecutor, Fayette county electing William S. Burrows, 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 333 

wlio served from August 2y, 1848, to August 18, 185 1) : Josliua M. Mellelt, 
August 18, 1851-October 12, 1852 (the 1852 constitutiou went into oi>era- 
tion on October 12, 1852) ; Oscar B. Horcl, October 12, 1852 — resigned on 
November 2, 1854; William Patterson, November 2, 1854 — resigned on Aug- 
ust 13, 1858; Sebastian Green, appointed on August 13, 1858-November 2, 
1858: Henry C. Hanna. November 2, 1858-November 2, i860: Milton H. 
Cullum, November 2, 1860-November 3, 1862; Samuel S. Harrell, Novem- 
ber 3, 1862-November 3. 1864; Creigliton Dandy (or Daudy), November 
3, 1864-November 3. 1866: Kendall M. Hord, No\ember 3, 1866-Novem- 
ber 3, 1668; Piatt Wicks, November 3, 1868-July i, 1869; Alexander M. 
Campbell, appointed July i, 1869-October 21, 1872; Elias R. Monfort, Octo- 
ber 21, 1872-March 6. 1873; Robert B. F. Pierce. March 6. 1873-October 
26, 1874: Orlando B. Scobey, October 26, 1874-October 26, 1878: John L. 
Bracken, October 26. 1878-October 26. 1880: Richard A. Durnan, October 
26, 1880— resigned January 22, 1881 ; Marine D. Tackett, appointed on Janu- 
ary 22, 1881-March 2, 1883: Leland H. Stanford, March 2. 1883-October 
22, 1885: Lewis M. Develin, October 22, 1885-October 22, 1889; George W. 
Pigman, October 22, 1889-October 22, 1893; George L. Gray, October 22, 
1893-October 22, 1895: F. M. Smith, October 22, 1895-October 22, 1897; 
George L. Gray, October 22. 1897-January i, 1902; Frank E. Nevin, Janu- 
ary I, 1902-January I, 1904; Robert E. Barnhart, January I, 1904-January 
I. 1908; Allen Wiles. Januar}^ i, 1908-January i, 1910; Frank M. Edwards, 
January i, 1910-January i, 1916; James A. Clifton, January i, 1916-Janu- 
ary I, 1918; E. Ralph Himelich. January i, 1918-Jahuary 1,-1920. 



- . - CHAPTER XII. 

The Medical Profession. 

There is no more interesting chapter in the history of Fayette county 
than the one deahng with its physicians. More than one hundred years ago 
the followers of .■Esculapius were plying their profession in this county, and 
during the century which has passed since the first physician arrived there 
have been at least ninety who have been identified for a greater or less 
period with the county. There may have been more, but the names of that 
many have been preserved. Local medical societies have not kept a com- 
plete list of the physicians and for this reason it has not been possible to 
get all who have practiced in the county, or more than the most meager data 
concerning most of them. 

The first physicians were usually trained in the ofiice of some practi- 
tioner and were without any college training. Doctors Mason and Chit- 
wood trained probably a score of the physicians of the county. Doctor Mason 
for many years always having one or more young men in his office prepar- 
ing themselves for the profession. The early physicians made free use of 
native herbs and "yarb" doctors were to be found everywhere, many of 
them attracting their patients by advertising that they would use no calomel. 
Most of the physicians prior to the Civil War period made all of their own 
medicines, and some of these remedial compounds were fearful concoctions. 
There was nothing the old-time doctor would not attpmpt to cure. A search 
of okl physicians' records shows that they had specified cures for such diseases 
as scrofula, rheumatism and consumption. One physician of the thirtie.s 
used whiteoak bark for one disease, redoak for another, blackoak for another, 
and a judicious mixture of the three for still another. 

.\CCOUNT BOOK OF DR. WILSON THOMPSON. 

Dr. A. J. Fletcher, of Connersville, has in his possession the account, 
book of Dr. \Vilson Thompson, but there is nothing in the old ledger to 
indicate that he ever practiced in Fayette county, nor has any reference to 
a physician of that name been found in the county. Doctor Fletcher picked 



FAYKTTE COl'NTY, INDIANA. •^^5 

the ledger up in Harrison township. On the fly-leaf the old doctor says that 
he began practice in January. 1830. However, the same prescriptions used 
by Thompson were widely used in Fayette county. The day-by-day charges 
from January i, 1830. to May 4, 1831. do not indicate wliere he was prac- 
ticing, but from that date to the end of the ledger book ( November 24, 
1834) he was located at Lebanon, Ohio. 

The old record is interesting in .showing the charges for medical services 
in those days, ranging from six and a quarter cents upward. It also con- 
tains a number of prescriptions, three of which are gi\en in the old doctor's 
own words : 

For "King's Kvil." — R(Kk s,ilt pulverizoil mikI milieil dii m tine clotli next to tlie 
wound and wash with the siiiue in solution. 

To Cure the Cancer.— A.shes of the Imrlie of Ued Olve made in lie anrl boiled down 
to the consistance of molasses, spi-ed this on leather and appl.v to the sore for 90 
minutes, renue it-e»:er.v 00 minutes for three times, then follow with salve of Rosin, 
bee.swax aud sheeps tallow . 

Cure for Rhumetism — Tal^e one quart of whiske.v. one iHinnd tol)ac(o. 12 pods 
red i)epper, steep the tobacco and pepper together in water, then add the whisky and 
1 iwund hog's lard and boil them to.aether till the whisky .ind water is evaporated. 
then strain. 

Just how tliis latter fearful concoction or decoction was to be taken, 
whether inwardly or outwardly, in long or short doses, bv the spoonful or 
by drops, the good old doctor fails to state. 

EARLY PHYSICIANS OK FAYETTE COUNTY. 

.\moiig the earHest physicians who settled iti Fayette county were John 
Bradburn. James Tliomas. Joseph .Moffitt, Temple F. Gayle and Joseph 
S. Burr. 

Doctor Bradburn was a native of Lancaster county. Pennsylvania, and 
as early as 1814 settled within the limits of Fayette county in the vicinity 
of Harrisburg. The doctor's experience as a practitioner in this county was 
marred by a fearful tragedy in which he became instrumental in the death 
of two young men in the spring of 1825. . Shortly afterward, the doctor 
removed to the southern part of the state, and later to the vicinity of Brook- 
ville. where he died. 

Doctor Thomas was born in New York and was one of the colony 
of immigrants that settled in the vicinity of Harrisburg in 1819, and formed 
what was commonly known as the "Yankee Settlement." He was a college 
graduate and for years was a successful practitioner in the countv. 



336 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Dr. Joseph Moffit was another physician who came from the East and 
settled in the village of Connersville. He came to this county in 1820, a 
graduate of Yale, and was a man well versed in his profession. He died in 
1833- 

A ROOT DOCTOR. 

About this time Burr and Gayle came to Connersville and began the 
practice of medicine. Burr was a doctor who utterly denounced "doctor 
larnin' ", as he spoke of it and based his cures entirely upon the "root" sys- 
tem, common sense, and a knowledge of human nature. The story is told 
that a few days after he arrived in the village there appeared nailed to the 
weather-boarding of the hotel an enormous swamp-lily root almost as large as 
an average size man, with head, eyes, ears, nose and mouth nicely carved, 
arms and legs with feet stuck on, and just above the sign on a board, 
marked with chalk, "Joseph S. Burr, Root Doctor; No Calomel." The 
news of the arrival of the root doctor spread over the country like wild-fire, 
and hundreds came from all parts of the county to see the doctor and the big 
root. 

Doctor Moffit looked upon the strange root doctor as a quack, intending 
to gull the people, and spoke of him freely with the utmost contempt, while 
on the other hand the root doctor openly charged Doctor Moffit with killing 
his patients with calomel. The people soon began to take sides, some for 
roots and some for calomel. It was a sickly season and a great many of 
Doctor Moffit's patients died. Each case of death was referred to by the 
root doctor as evidence that the calomel doctor was killing the people and 
many believed the slander. Doctor Moffit was at length almost driven to 
despair, and called upon O. H. Smith to bring action for slander against 
Doctor Burr. Smith at first objected but ultimately yielded at the urgent 
request of the doctor. The action was brought and some five of the attorneys 
of the circuit were engaged on each side. The trial lasted for more than a 
week; the lawyers distinguished themselves and the evidence pro and con left 
the case in doubt in the minds of the jury and bystanders whether the people 
died "with the fever" or were killed by the "calomel doctors." The widow 
of a man who had recently died was called as a witness by Doctor Burr. 
Doctor Moffit remarked as the witness was brought into court, "that he 
had him now, as he. could prove by a witness in court that her husband died 
before he got there." The jury failed to agree and was discharged and the 
case was cont4nued. The root doctor ran away and the suit was dismissed 
by Doctor Moffit. 



•AY^-TTE COrXTY, INDIANA. 



DIPLOMAS EASILY ACQUIRED. 



337 



The effect nf tliis trial upon the practice of medicine in Fayette county, 
as well as upon the necessary qualifications to practice, was prodigious. Doc- 
tor Burr had been granting diplomas to his students upon three weeks' study, 
and as a result the country was soon filled with root doctors. One of his 
graduates, by the name of Thomas T. Chinn, a constable three weeks before, 
barely able to write his name, sallied • forth with his diploma to the then 
"New Purchase" as Doctor Chinn. His sign — "Root Doctor and no Calo- 
mel" — flung to the public eye upon newly-painted lx)ards hung upon the limb 
of a tree near his log cabin, but he was soon relegated to medical oblivion. 

Dr. Philip Mason, another "Yankee," was lx)rn on December lo, 1793, 
in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, and settled in what is now Fayette county 
in 1816. He .served as one of the Franklin county commissioners when Fay- 
ette county was a part of that county. In 1824 he finished his course of 
reading and clinical studies under Doctor Moffitt, of Connersville, and began 
the practice of medicine at his farm in Columbia township, where he remained 
until the spring of 1827, when he removed to the village of Danville (now 
Orange ) and tiiere in connection with Dr. Jefferson Helm continued his 
practice. Upon the death of Doctor Gayle, in the following fall, Doctor 
Mason moved to Connersville. In 1829 he was elected the first probate judge 
of Fayette county, and served as such until. 1834. He later served in thp 
Legislature. He practiced in Connersville and also operated a drug and book 
store for a few years. He died on April 25, 1869. 

SOME OTHER PIONEER PRACTITIONERS. 

Temple E. Gayle came to Connersville early in the twenties and was soon 
recognized as a practitioner of superior qualifications. He died in October, 
1827, at the age of thirty-two. A local paper in commenting on him after his 
death said of him: "As a man of talent the doctor was excelled by few, if 
any, in the state : as a practicing physician he was eminently successful and 
popular." 

Jefferson Helm was born in Mason county, Kentucky, in 1803. He 
located in Connersville in the twenties and studied with Doctor Moffitt and 
Doctor Mason, l)eing licensed to practice in 1827. He first started to practice 
in Orange township, later moving to Glenwood and in 1845 permanently set- 
tling in Rushville, where he died in 1888. 
, ■ (22) 



338 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Hayman W. Clark studied with Doctor Moffitt and Doctor Mason at the 
same time that Doctor Helm was in their office and was admitted to practice 
in 1827. No record of his future career has been found. 

Samuel Miller and Charles Brown complete the list of physicians who 
located in the county in the twenties, but little is known of either. Miller 
came from Dayton, Ohio, in 1828, while Brown is known only from the fact 
that he advertised his appearance in Connersville by an announcement in the 
local paper in 1830. The later career of both men is unknown. 

Ryland T. Brown, a native of Lewis county, Kentucky, located in Rush 
county, Indiana, in 1821. For a time he acted as a guide for land seekers, 
later attending Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati. He was graduated from 
♦liat institution in 1829 and in August, 1832, located at Connersville, where 
he formed a partnership with Doctor Mason. It seems that Doctor Brown 
was the owner of the Indiana Telegraph iii the early forties. In 1853 he was 
appointed state geologist by Governor Wright and filled the office until 1859. 
In 1858 he was elected to the chair of natural science in the Northwestern 
Christian University at Indianapolis. He was the author of a well known 
text-book in its day, "Brown's Physiology." 

D. D. Hall, a native of Virginia, located in Connersville in the thirties, 
and "with the exception of a few months of service in the Civil War as surgeon 
of the Thirty-sixth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, continued to 
practice in the city until his death, June 20, 1871. 

ROLL OF PRACTITIONERS IN 1846. 

During the period prior to the Civil War a number of physicians located 
either at Connersville or at some of the villages in the county, but definite 
information is lacking concerning most of those early practitioners. In 1846 
•the following physicians were practicing in the county: Connersville — Philip 
Mason, Samuel Miller, D. D. Hall, John Arnold, E. A. Bacon and S. W. 
Hughes; Cokimbia township — Greenburg Steele; Alquinaj — Alfred Ruby; 
Columbia township — George Winchel; Harrisburg — U. B.. Tingley; Water- 
loo — ^Amos Chapman ; Everton — Presley Libay ; Orange township— rEdward 
Daniels. 

One of the most famous of the early physicians of the county was 
George R. Chitwood, the father of the late Dr. Joshua Chitwood and Dr. 
Frank A. Chitwood, now practicing in Connersville. The senior. Chitwood 
was born in Gallia county, Ohio, May 10, 1805, and was licensed to practice 
medicine and surgery in 1830. The following year he located at Mt. Carmel, 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 33^ 

in Franklin county, Indiana, and remained there for a few years. In 1835-36 
he attended lectures at Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, and in 1837 located 
in Liberty, in Union county, Indiana. In 1846 he was granted the degree of 
doctor of medicine by the Western Reserve Medical College of Cleveland, 
Ohio. In 1849 he located in Connersville and for the next ten years devoted 
himself to private practice. In 1859 he was elected to the chair of general 
pathology and physical diagnosis in the Cincinnati College of Medicine and 
Surgery. The following year he was transferred to the chair of obstetrics 
and diseases of women and children, holding that jiosition for six consecu- 
tive sessions. 

In 1861 a directory of the town credited it with nine physicians: G. W. 
Barber, G. R. Chitwood, Joshua Chitwood, V. H. Gregg, D. D. Hall, S. W. 
Hughes, James M. Justice. W. J. Pepper, S. W. Vance and Philip Ma.son. 

FAYETTE COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 

On May 24, 1856, the physicians of Fayette county met and effected an 
organization, calling it the Whitewater Valley Medical Society. In the tem- 
porary organization Dr. G. R. Chitwood presided and Dr. Samuel W. Vance 
acted as secretary. Permanent organization was effected by the election of 
the following officers : Dr. Amos Chapman, of Alquina, president ; Dr. W. 
A\'. Taylor, of Vienna (Glenwood), vice-president: Dr. Samuel W. Vance, of 
Connersville, recording secretary: Dr. L. D. Sheets, of Liberty, corresjwnding 
secretary: Dr. D. D. Hall, of Connersville, treasurer; Dr. Daniel Frembly, Dr. 
George R. Chitwood and Dr. O. S. Ramsey, censors. The following were 
charter memljers of the society : Dr. Samuel Miller, Dr. D. D. Hall, Dr. 
Amos Chapman, Dr. P. S. Silvey, Dr. W. J. Pepper, Dr. D. Fremley, Dr. 
W. W. Taylor, Dr. Samuel W. Vance, Dr. H. W. Hazzard. Dr. A. H. Thomp- 
son, Dr. G. R. Chitwood, Dr. M. F. Miller, Dr. C. D. B. O'Ryan, Dr. V. H. 
Gregg, Dr. R. T. Gillum, Dr. U. B. Tingley and Dr. O. S. Ramsey. 

.\t the annual meeting held on April 22, 1858, the societv was dissolved 
by mutual consent of its officers and members, and on May i of the same 
year, the physicians of the county met at the court house and founded the 
I'^ayette County Medical Society with the following officers: Dr. U. B. 
Tingley, president; Dr. P. S. Silvey, vice-president; Dr. Samuel W. Vance, 
corresponding and recording secretary; Doctor Gregg, Doctor Pepper and 
Doctor Chapman, censors. The society retained its working organization 
until the breaking out of the Civil War, when its deliberations were quietly 
discontinued in the general suspense that followed the first clash of arms. 



340 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



REORGANIZATION OF THE SOCIETY. 



During the four years of strife, no attempt was made to reorganize the 
society, but after the establishment of peace and the readjustment of natural 
conditions, a reorganization was effected. In 1866 the society was reorgan- 
ized with the following membership : Dr. D. D. Hall, Dr. W. J. Pepper, 
Dr. Samuel W. Vance, Dr. G. R. Chitwood, Dr. Joshua Chitwood, Dr. V. H. 
Gregg, Dr. U. B. Tingley, Dr. G. W. Garver, Dr. A. .Koogler, Dr. J. G. 
Larimore, Dr. W. H. Smith and Dr. R. W. Sipe. The latter three represented 
respectively Waterloo, Fairview and Fayetteville. 

In 1879 the society became a member of the Indiana State Medical 
Society, but in so doing had to reorganize and draft a new constitution. 
Pursuant to the reorganization the following officers were elected : Dr. 
Samuel W. Vance, president; Dr. W. J. Pepper, vice-president; Dr. Joshua 
Chitwood, secretary; Dr. V. H. Gregg, treasurer; Dr. S. N. Hamilton, Dr. 
George R. Chitwood and Dr. G. A. Sigler, censors. 

The organization is still maintained in 1917, but it does not hold regular 
meetings. Most of the physicians of the county belong to it as well as to the 
Indiana State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. The 
physicians of the county in 191 7 include the following practitioners: Irvin 
E. Booher, F. A. Chitwood, J. H. Clark, B. W. Cooper, L. D. Dillman, W. 
R. Phillips, R. H. Elliott, A. J. Fletcher, J. H. Johnson, J. R. Mountain. 
H. S. Osborn, W. J. Porter, J. S. Rice. M. Ross, J. M. Sample, H. W. 
Smelser, Bernard R. Smith and Frank J. Spillman. 

The principles of osteopathy were introduced in Fayette county largely 
through the efforts of Dr. J. H. Baughman, a graduate of Dr. A.' T. Still's 
original .school of osteopathy at Kirksville, Missouri. Doctor Baughman 
practiced in the county about a dozeii years, retiring late in 1916, with the 
intention of taking up special practice in a metropolitan city. He was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. G. C. Flick, who is now actively engaged in osteopathic gen- 
eral pi-actice. 

Besides these followers of the healing arts. Dr. A. T. Sweatland is 
engaged in chiropractic work. 

Mention may also be made of Glen L. Brown, who has, as superintendent 
of the Fayette Sanatorium, administered curative baths and massages. Such 
services, as well as electric applications, are offered by J. N. Whiteis, who 
carries after his name in the telephone directory and in other advertising. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 34f 

tile mystic ami a\ve-insi)iring symbols "J. J. J." In connection with the med- 
ical profession should be mentioned the name of Roy C. McKennon, a manu- 
facturing and analytical chemist, who has done much work for the profession, 
particularly urinalysis. It should also be mentioned that Dr. Joseph R. 
Mountain, a pfominent general practice physician, has installed a very com- 
plete X-ray photographic equipment, which lie uses very extensively for his 
own practice and for other physicians. 

The physicians of the county have uniformly been active in all phases 
of the county's development. Doctor Mason was a probate judge for several 
years and also served with distinction in the General Assembly of the state. 
Dr. R. T. Brown later became state geologist. Dr. G. R. Chitwood and his 
son, Joshua, were also prominently identified with the varied interests of 
the county. Of the many physicians since the time of the Civil War who are 
now deceased, the names of Doctor Hamilton, Doctor Hughes, Doctor Vance, 
Doctor Gregg and Doctor Sipe are among the best remembered. Doctor 
Derbyshire is credited with being the first man in the county to own 
an automobile. 

PHYSICIANS OF FAYETTE COUNTY FOR ONE HUNDRED YEARS. 

The following alphabetical list of physicians has been compiled from 
the records of the local County Medical Society, the files of the newspapers, 
city directories, volumes of O. H. Smith and Philip Mason, the "Medical 
History of Indiana" (Dr. G. W. Kemper) and from conversations with 
old residents and the several physicians still living in the county. In this 
list are some who may hardly l>e called orthodox physicians, but the his- 
torian has called all those who practiced the healing art by this title. Con- 
cerning many of these ninety-three physicians very little is known, other 
than that they practiced in the county for a time. A volume could easily be 
written about the medical profession as it has existed in Fayette county, but 
the limits of this chapter forbid such a procedure. The days when the phy- 
sician was also a dentist are still recalled by old citizens. One Merchant 
Kelly of Harrisburg, while primarily a dentist and public-school teacher, 
was also a "pill doser." Among the scores of healers of many different 
varieties who have appeared in the county, this Kelly seems to have left 
a distinct impression on the minds and jaws of a large number of people.- 



342 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

DENTIST MADE HIS OWN TOOLS. 

Kelly was probably the first professional dentist in the county and the 
stories of his dental operations are still current. He made all of his own 
tools and invariably filled teeth with gold, although Doctor Mason advised 
filling them with tin-foil. Kelly was never seen in a vehicle, but, eschewing 
such transportation as beneath the dignity of a man of his profession, he 
was wont to traverse the county on foot, carrying all of his dental para- 
phernalia in a large carpet-bag. One of his operations has been graphically 
described to the historian, the reciter of the story being the daughter of 
the victim. 

The patient had a very sore tooth and asked Kelly to extract the 
offending member. Preliminary to the actual extraction, the patient was 
asked to lay flat on his back out in the yard, and then with one knee on his 
victim's breast and a clamp securely fastened to what was supposed to be 
the tooth in question, Kelly began a tortuous, twisting movement which 
resulted in two teeth being violently and painfully pulled from their sockets — 
but, strange to add, he had not only extracted two instead of one, but had 
actually missed the one causing the trouble. It is not on record what the 
victim said or did, but Kelly did not pull any more teeth for him. 

ROSTER OF FAYETTE COUNTY PHYSICIANS. 

The complete list of physicians — and those claiming such designation — 
follows: John Arnold, E. A. Bacon, G. W. Barber, Charles Barnes, J. H. 
Baughman, Hugh Beaton, Irwin E. Booher, John Bradburn, Charles Brown, 
Ryland T. Brown, Thomas Buchanan, Joseph S. Burr, Daniel W. Butler, 

Byles, Amos Chapman, Thomas T. Chinn, Frank A. Chitwood, 

George R. Chitwood, John E. Chitwood, Joshua Chitwood, Hayman W. 
Clark, J. H. Clark, B. W. Cooper, Jonathan Cox, James J. Dailey, Omer E. 
Dale, Edward Daniels, A. W. Daum, Ephraim Derbyshire, Lurton D. Dillman. 
Roy H. Elliott, A. J. Fletcher, James Ford, O. P. M. Ford, G. C. Flick, Daniel 
Frembly, George W. Garver, J. T. Gassard, Temple E. Gayle, R. T. Gillum, 
Stanton E. Gordin, Cameron Gossett, A. Graham, Vincent H. Gregg, 

— Haines, D. D. Hall, E. Everett Hamilton, Samuel N. Hamilton, 

H. W. Hazzard. Jefferson Helm, J. H. Hoag, Frank G. Hornung, Samuel 
W. Hughes, J. H. Johnston, A. C. Jones, George E. Jones, James M. Justice, 
A. Koogler, H. M. Lambertson, J. D. Larimore, Pressly Libay, V. D. Lud- 



FAYETTE CnuNTY. INDIANA, 343 

wick, D. H. McAl)ee. D. D. McDougall, G. W. McNutt. Philip Mason. M. F. 
Miller, Samuel Miller. Joseph Moffit, Joseph R. Mountain, C. D. B. O'Kyan, 
H. S. Osborn. W. J. Paxton, William J. Pepper, W. J. Porter, W. R. Phillips, 

O. B. Ramsey, J. S. Rice, Richardson, M. Ross, Alfred Ruby, J. M. 

Sample, I,. D. Sheets, S. D. Shepard, G. A. Sigler, P. S. Silvey. Richard \V. 
Sipe, H. W. Smelzer, B. R. Smith, \V. H. Smith, Caleb Smitii, F. J. Spilman, 
Greenbuiy Steele, A. T. Sweetland. W. W. Taylor, James Thomas, Alex- 
ander D. TATrell, A. H. Thompson. Joiin Turner, Samuel W. Vance. John 
Wall, Elias Welister, George Wincliel, J. X, Wliiteis, I'riali H. Tinglev. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
Banks and Banking. 

The history of early banking in Connersville is enveloped in more or 
less obscurity and it is impossible to trace with any degree of accuracy the 
history of the private banks which existed prior to 1852. Connersville evi- 
dently did not have a bank chartered by the state until after the present Con- 
stitution was adopted in 1851, although some of the early merchants carried 
on a banking business for the convenience of their customers. Most of this 
so-called banking consisted of buying and selling notes and the handling of 
paper currency issued by the merchants themselves. During the flourishing 
days of the old White Water canal there was very little specie jn circulation 
in the state, practically all of the currency being in the form of bank paper 
of various kinds, and the "shin-plasters" issued by the merchants. When 
the Legislature chartered a state bank in 1834, the act establishing the bank 
divided the state into ten districts and provided that the directors should 
select one town in each district for the branch bank. 

Fayette county was placed in the third district with the counties of 
Union, Rush, Wayne, Henry, Delaware and Randolph. The bank for the 
district was located at Richmond by the directors, Newton Claypool, Elijah 
Coffin and Achilles Williams. Claypool was then a resident of Connersville. 
If there was a bank of deposit in Connersville during the lifetime of the state 
bank chartered in 1834, it was a private concern and not a part of the state 
system. 

^The Constitution of 185 1 provided for a state bank (Art. XI.) and the 
Legislature of the following year passed an act formally establishing a state 
bank. The act was dated May 18, 1852, and was to go into effect on the 
1st of the following July. Connersville was one of the first fifteen banks 
organized in conformance with this act, the state bank directors reporting 
that many as being actually organized by December, 1852. 

Of the first fifteen banks organized in 1852 the Bank of Connersville, as 
it was designated, started out with twice as much capital as any of the other 
banks, its original capital stock being $400,000. 



FAYKTTF. COUNTY, INDIANA. 345 



DF.VEUIPMENT OK BANKING. 



Tliis hank was opened for Imsiiiess in tlie rear of l'"rybarger's store 
which stood at the soutlnvest corner of Central avenue and Fifth street, 
However, it was not long- after the institution was opened before it was able 
to build a three-story brick building which stood on Central avenue between 
Fourth and Fifth streets. The first president of this bank was George Fry- 
barger, later followed b\- A. B. Conwell. The Fayette County Bank was 
opened sometime in 1853 in the building which stood at the southeast corner 
of Central avenue and Fourth street, and which is now used as the Palace 
hotel. The stockholders of this bank included such men as Newton Clay- 
pool. L. D. Allen, Henry Gmidlander. .Minor Meeker. Josiah Mullikin, Henry 
Simpson and Meredith Helm. The cashier of this bank was L. D. Allen 
and when tlae board of directors replaced him with E. F. Claypool in 1854, 
he at once started a bank of his own. calling it the Savings Bank of Indiana. 

Allen associated himself with Elisha Vance, a lawyer of Connersville, 
in his undertaking and they opened their bank in the building erected by the 
White Water Canal Company on Fourth street between Eastern and Central 
avenues. This building stands to the rear of the present Palace hotel and 
is now used as a residence. This bank issued one- and three-dollar cer- 
tificates signed by L. I), .\llen and T. G. Stevens. J. L. Heinemann has 
some of these certificates bearing the date of August 2T,, 1854. The bank 
evidently did not command public confidence; at least it closed its doors 
within a year. 

The Fayette County Bank was consolidated with the Connersville branch 
of the Bank of the State of Indiana in January, 1857. T'""^ directors of that 
institution were John Caldwell, Newton Claypool, Henry Simpson, Amos R. 
Edwards, Thomas J. Crisler, ^\^ W. Frybarger and Sherman Scofield. 

James Mount and William Merrill opened a bank in 1857 '" t^i^ room 
formerly occupied by the Bank of Connersville, and for several years car- 
ried on a kind of bank business under the name of the Farmers Bank. 

FIRST NATIONAL BANK. 

The Comiersville branch of the State Bank was reorganized as the First 
National Bank of Connersville on February 13, 1865, with a capital stock of 
$100,000. The first officers were: President, B. F. Claypool: cashier, E. 
F. Claypool. Xhe fir.^t board of directors consisted of J. M. W'ilson, H. D. 
Carlisle, P. H. Roots, F. M. Roots, B. F. Claypool and E. F. Claypool. In 



346 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

1873 P- H. Roots was chosen ])resident and Charles Mount, cashier. In 
1879 P. H. Roots died and was succeeded in the presidency by his brother, 
F. M. Roots, and F. T. Roots, son of P. H. Roots, became vice-president. 
From 1873, until his death in 1883, G. W. Uhl was assistant cashier. The 
business of the bank is still conducted at the old location on the northwest 
corner of Central avenue and Fifth street. The present brick building was 
erected to replace the small two-story brick structure in which the business 
was formerly conducted. 

The present officials are : President, G. C. Florea.; vice-president, T. C. 
Bryson; cashier, L. K. Tingley. The directors are G. C. Florea, T. C. Pry- 
son, L. K. Tingley, E. D. Johnson, A. E. Leiter, George Cain, J. E. Williams. 

The following condensed statement shows the position of the bank on 
December 16, 1916: .Cash and exchange, $210,770.04; loans, $468,924.75: 
United States bonds at par, $101,000: others bonds and securities, $49,171.98; 
stock in Federal Reserve Bank, $3,900: due from United States treasurer, 
$5,000: bank building, $70,000; furnit^ire and vault, $1,000 — Total, $909,- 
766.77. Capital stock, $100,000: surplus, $30,000: undivided profits, 
$17,942.36; deposits, $661,824.41 ; circulation, $100,000 — Total, $909,766.77. 

THE FAYETTE NATIONAL BANK. 

On November 17, 1892, the Fayette Banking Company was organized and 
began business in the small room at the corner of Sixth street and Central 
avenue, now occupied by the Grand Leader store. J. B. McFarlan, Sr., 
served as president, Jos. I. Little, cashier and P. H. Kensler, assistant cashier. 
The first board of directors consisted of J. B. McFarlan, Sr., W. W. McFar- 
lan, Jos. I. Little, William Newkirk and George M. Sinks. 

Late in December, 1894, the company moved into the corner room of 
the McFarlan building just across the street from their old location, which 
has been occupied ever since by the institution and its successor — The Fay- 
ette National Bank. 

The business was successful from the start, and when in 1902 the change 
was made to The Fayette National Bank, their deposits had grown from 
$12,806.52 to $301,184.48. At that time also the capital was increased from 
$30,000.00 to $100,000.00. The business has continued to grow steadily 
and solidly with the passing years, until now the deposits have reached 

$679,574.47- 

.While some of the original officers and directors have passed away, 
the bank has been practically under 'the same management all these years — 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 347 

the present president and cashier liaving l)een officially connecteil with the 
institution from the beginning. 

The present officials of the hank are: President, P. H. Kensler; vice- 
president, J. E. Huston : cashier, Charles Casse! ; assistant cashier, Alton G. 
Trusler. The board of directors is comprised of E. \V. Ansted, P. H. Kens- 
ler, G. \V. Ansted, J. K. Huston and W. B. Ansted. The bank is a member 
of the Federal Reserve Bank. 

The following is tlie statement of the condition of the Fayette National 
Bank at the close of business, November 17, 1916. 

Resources. 

Loans and discounts -$613,517.33 

Overdrafts 2,876.68 

United States bonds 102,000.00 

Bonds, securities, etc 22,675.00 

Stocks in Federal Reserve Bank 4,200.00 

Furniture and fixtures 2,000.00 

Due from United .States treasurer 5,000.00 

Cash and due from banks 174,022.06 

$926,291.07 
Liabilities. 

Capital stock paid in . . $100,000.00 

Surplus 40,000.00 

Undivided profits 8,016.60 

Circulation 98,700.00 

Deposits 679,574.47 



$926,291.07 

Growth in deposits: November, 1912, $584,754.54; November, 1913, 
$590,716.58: November, 1914. $592,700.29: November, 1915, $629,957.39; 
November, 1916, $679,574.47. 

FARMER.S AND MERCHANTS TRUST COMPANY. 

The Farmers and Merchants Trust Company, Connersville, was organ- 
ized on April 5. 1902, with a capital stock of $100,000. The first officers of 
the company were : President, F. T. Roots ; vice-president, E. W. Ansted : 
cashier, B. F. Thiebaud ; secretary and treasurer, B. F. Thiebaud. The first 



348 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

directors were: F. T. Roots, E. W. Ansted, Julius Turkenoph, U. H. 
Rothschilds, L. T. Bower, B. F. Thiebaud and F. R. Beeson. 

The present officials are : E. W. Ansted, president ; F. B. Ansted, vice- 
president; B. F. Thiebaud, cashier; F. M. Tatman, assistant cashier; B. F. 
Thiebaud, secretary and treasurer. The directors are E. W. Ansted, A. A. 
Ansted, M. Holberg, James McCann, R. T. Huston, F. B. Ansted and B. F. 
Thiebaud. 

The following is the report of the condition of the Farmers and Mer- 
chants Trust Company, at Conners\ille, at the close of its business on Novem- 
ber 17, 1916: 

Resources. 

Loans and discounts $684,799.79 

Overdrafts 1,202.79 

Bonds and securities 21,338.71 

Furniture and fixtures 1,000.00 

Real estate 9,574.00 

Due from Banks and Trust Companies $95,112.16 

Cash on hand 34,572.44 

Cash items , 2.947.69 132,632.29 

Total Resources $850,547.58 

IJnbilifies. 

Capital stock — paid in $100,000.00 

Surplus 30,000.00 

Undivided profits 20,000.00 

Exchange, discounts and interest 5.503.91 

Demand deposits $490,440.80 

Demand certificates 166,702.87 657,143.67 

Notes, etc., rediscounted 37,900.00 

Total Liabilities $850,547.58 

THE CENTRAL ST.\TE BANK. 

The Central State Bank at Connersville was organized on March 9, 
1907, with a capital stock of $60,000. The first officials were : President, 
W. W. McFarlan; vice-president, A. E. Barrows;, cashier, Frederic L Bar- 
rows; assistant cashier, H. M.. McFarlan, 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 349 

The present officers are: President, Alex Edwards; vice-presidents, E. 
M. Michener, F. I. Barrows; cashier. A. H. Rienian. The board of directors 
is comprised-of Alex Edwards, E. M. Michener, F. I. Barrows, A. H. Rie- 
man. J. R. Mountain. B. M. Barrows, C. I. Sliowalter and George Manlove. 
The bank owns the building on the corner of Central avenue and Seventh 
street. By the early part of 191 7 the deposits were over $300,000. 

Tlie following is the report of the condition of the Central State Bank 
at Connersville, at the close of business on November 17, 1916: 

Rrsoitrccs. 

Loans and discounts $172,128.91 

Overdrafts 690.27 

Other bonds and securities 41,690.00 

Furniture and fixtures 3,425.00 

Other real estate 41 ,600.00 

Due from Banks and Trust Companies $35'399-39 

Cash on hanrl 12,575.88 

Cash items 3,915.44 51,890.71 

Total resources $3 10,824.89 

[Jahilities. 

CajMtal stock — ])aid in $ 60,000.00 

Surplus 5,250.00 

L'ndivided profits 2,429.91 

Demand deposits $198,473.99 

Time certificates 23,665.74 

Certified checks 1,005.25 223,144.98 

Bills payable 20,000.00 

Total liabilities $3 10,824.89 

I-AVETTE SAVINGS AND LOAN ASSOCIATION. 

The Fayette Savings and Loan Association, of Connersville. was organ- 
ized in May, 1887. During the thirty years it has been in operation it has 
been the means of assisting hundreds of its members to build and own homes 
of their own, and has tbus contributed inrna.,small.rHeasure to the general 
prospecity of the community. The association now has a subscribed capital 



350 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Stock of $1,495,000 and cash assets, about $700,000. A statistical summary 
of its condition at the time its last report was made shows the following: 
Total membership, 1,338; investing members, 842; borrowing members, 496; 
amount of capital stock subscribed and in force, $1,472,500; value of shares 
when matured, $100; rate of interest, 6 per cent. The present officers are as 
follow : President, John T. Lair ; vice-president, Richard G. Wait ; secretary, 
F. I. Barrows ; treasurer, E. M. Michener ; assistant secretaries, Caroline Bar- 
rows Dixon, Arthur Dixon; other directors. Fred C. Neal, Charles I. 
Showalter, Charles Monyhon. 

GERMAN BUTLD'iNG AND LOAN ASSOCIATION. 

The German Building and Loan Association of Connersville was incor- 
porated on April 20, 1902. with an authorized capital stock of $500,000. 
The first officers were as follow : President, D. W. Andre ; secretary, John 
Rembusch : treasurer, F. R. Beeson. Its condition at the time of its last 
report is shown in the following summary: Total membership, 460; invest- 
ing members, 310; borrowing members. 150; amount of capital stock sub- 
scribed and in force, $211,400; par value of shares when matured, $250; 
rate of interest, 8 per cent; total shares of stock in force, 2,114. The pres- 
ent officers of the association are as follow : President, James E. Pattee ; 
secretary, William Frank; treasurer, James McCann; attorney, G. Edwin 
Johnson. 

HOME LOAN ASSOCIATION. 

The Home Loan Association of Connersville was incorporated on Decem- 
ber 20. 1902, with an authorized capital stock of $1,000,000. The first 
officers were as follow : President, J. B. McFarlan ; secretary, John Payne ; 
treasurer, W. H. Bertsch; attorney. Finly H. Gray. The last report of the 
association shows the following: Total membership, 1,397; investing mem- 
bers, 1,061; borrowing meml^ers, 336; amount of capital stock subscribed 
and in force. $1,070,200; par value of share when matured, $100; rate of 
interest. 6 24/100 per cent. The present officers are as follow: President. 
W. T. Edwards ; secretary, S. O. McKennan ; treasurer, R. C. McKennan ; 
attornev, W. E. Ochiltree. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

EducatioiVai. History of Fayette County. 

The first schools of Fayette county were either voluntary- schools taught 
by some public-spirited i)ioneer or else what was known as a subscription 
school. Public schools supported by a state fund did not come into exist- 
ence until after the adoption of the Constitution of 1852. The educational 
history of Fayette county before that time was not dissimilar to that of other 
counties in the state. As early as 18 1 8 the Legislature of the state made 
provision for a seminary fund in the various counties of the state. This 
was made necessary because the first constitution of the state, which was, in 
a measure, based on the Ordinance of 1787, provided that every sixteenth 
section of land in the state should be set aside for school purposes. This 
land was to be sold or, if a purchaser was not to be found, it was to be 
rented and the proceeds from the sale or rent were to be used for the main- 
tenance of schools. Unfortunately, the price of land in Fayette county was 
verv low, and the result was there was not a sufficiently large sum derived 
from this source for school purposes. In addition to the proceeds of school 
sections, the money from fines, forfeitures and money collected from win- 
ners in gam\)lipg, when tlae. loser was. not- on- hand to claim- it. was placed 
in the school fund. In the early days of the history of the state lotteries 
were a common thing, and, strange as it may seem, the first university in 
Indiana — the University of Vincennes — was put on a sound financial basis 
by a lottery scheme, which was authorized by the territorial Legislature. 

Since there was but little public money for school purposes, it was not 
jxissible to get teachers without offering them additional compensation. 
Hence for a period of about thirty-five years, Fayette county had what was 
known as subscription schools. L'sually the patrons of a school district 
would build a rude log school house and some itinerant i>edagogue would be 
selected -to -"coiKkKH--sdiool" for periods varying from two to six months. 
The rates of tuition were very low, and the average compensation of the 
early teachers seldom amounted to more than twenty dollars a month. The 
usual rate of tuition was from seventy-five cents to one dollar a quarter, and 



352 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the masters were frequently paid in wheat at thirty-seven and one-Iialf cents 
a bushel, or corn at eight or ten cents a bushel. 

The teachers were nearly always men, for the reason that in those days 
physical prowess was as essential to success in a schoolroom' as a well disci- 
plined brain. No truer picture of early school days in Indiana has ever 
been drawn than may be found in Eggleston's "Hoosier School Master." 
The qualifications of the early school teachers were \ery limited, and as late 
as 183 1 the Legislature of Indiana went on record to the effect that "the 
English language, writing and arithmetic" should constitute the qualifica- 
tions for a teacher in the schools of the slate. These are the "three Rs" of 
our forefathers and they passed their examination in "readin", "ritin' and 
"rithmetic" before a trustee who very frequently was unable to read or write. 
Therej.yveje many cases where no examinations were given, this being 
p^peicially, ihe j^ase with those teachers who derived all of their compensation 
fro^n subscriptions. 

the' EARI^Y SCHOOL HOUSE DESCRIBED. 

This article would not be complete without a description of oiie of 
these early log school houses. By the law of 1824, for building school houses, 
each voter was made a builder. When a school bouse was to be built the 
people would meet and eacii was asSigiied to some particular class of work — • 
there were choppers, masons (daubers), h6wers and the like. A fine of 
thirty-seven and one-half cents a day was required of those who did not 
work or pay the equivalent. The building might be as large as the patrons 
wanted to make it, but, interesting to note, the Legislature provided that 
the floor had to be one foot off of the ground and the ceiling at least eight 
feet high. As a matter of fact, however, the roof was frequently used as 
a ceiling. The interior arrangement was designed with the view to taking 
advantage of the one window on either side of the building. This window 
was made b}- removing a log from the side of the building and covering the 
opening with sheets of well-greased linen paper. The paper frequently fur- 
nished another purpose as well. On it wei^e written the letters of the alpha- 
bet by a good penman, also the .\raliic and Roman notation, as well as vari- 
ous geometrical figures. Before this window was placed a long, hewed log, 
made as smooth as possible, and this was the table at which the boys and 
girls ■ saf diirtng' the period of their writing lessons. The rude bench before 
this equally rude table was without a back, and as far as that was concerned, 
there were no benches in the school with backs. The pupils sitting at the 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 353 

long- table had tlieir copy Ijefore them on the window, and many stories are 
told of the letters of Jonathan Jennings, the first governor of Indiana, which 
served as copies for the boys and girls of early Indiana. The two ends of 
the school house were occupied by a door and fireplace, respectively. The 
fireplace was from fi\e to ten feet wide, and enough wood was consumed 
during a long winter to heat a modern school building of several rooms. 
As to the equipment of the rooms and the supplies of the children, there 
was a great variance. There was no paper for use for any purpose, except 
in the copy-book, and oftentimes the writing exercise had to be done on a 
slate. If paper was used, then the writing was done with a goose quill pen 
and with ink made out of pokeberries, walnut juice or soft-maple bark. In 
order to make this ink have the proper consistency and permanency, copperas 
was used, while the modern blotter was simulated by fine sand sprinkled over 
the paper. The ]5a])er at that time was made out of rags and was expensixe 
in comparison to its cost toda)'. Consequently, it was used as sparingly as 
possible, while the slate was considered as indispensable as the spelling book. 
There were no dictionaries, no globes, no maps, and in many of the first 
school houses there was no blackboard. However, this last deficiency was 
soon remedied, since it was necessary to have a blackboard for ciphering. 

The course of study and the method of recitation should be briefly 
noticed. As has been stated, the "three Rs" furnished the basis of the edu- 
cation which was given in the early schools. There were no classes in 
school, as we understand them. Grading the pupils according to their age 
or adxancement was unheard of. I-'or many years the pupils held up their 
hands when they thought they had their lessons ready to recite, and the 
teacher would call them one by one to his seat, and have them repeat their 
lesson — and what is interesting, they had to memorize their lesson word 
by Word. There were really as many classes in school as there were pupils. 
These schools, supported in part by public funds, but mostly by private sub- 
scriptions, continued to flourish until the adoption of the new Constitution 
in 1852. Then there was ushered in a new era in education throughout the 
state, although there were many counties which were slow to take advantage 
of the provisions of the new law. 

establishjMent of free public schools. 

The problem of free public schools was practically settled before 1852, 
although it was several vears before the svstem became universallv estab- 
(23) 



354 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

lished over the state. In 1848 the people of tlie state were pennitted to vote 
on the question of free schools, but it was a decade liefore Fayette county 
had the system in operation. 

The legislative act of February 16, 1848, provided for a viva voce on 
the cjuestion "Are you in favor of free public schools?" If Fayette comity 
voted on the question it made no return of the vote to the secretary of state. 
The vote of the state stood "8,523 to 61,887 in favor of the proposition. 
The succeeding Legislature submitted a second proposition to the voters of 
the state on the question of free schools, the act of January 17, 1849. P™" 
posing a vote on the question "Are you in favor of the act of 1848-49 to 
increase and extend the benefits of the common schools?"" At the election 
held on August 6, 1849, Fayette county declared itself in favor of the ques- 
tion by a \ote of 932 to 925. 

The records of the public schools of the county outside of Connersville 
are very meager and it is impossible to trace the steps which the county took 
to establish the new free school system throughout the county. In the suc- 
ceeding pages an effort has been made to collate the chief facts about each 
township separately as well as to gi^■e a separate account of the old county 
seminary, the Connersville city schools and Elnihurst School for Girls. The 
present county superintendent of schools, Claude Trusler, has been collecting 
the material for a history of the schools of the county and his material fur- 
nishes the basis for this chapter. After a few points of general interest are 
taken up the remainder of the chapter will be devoted to a discussion of 
the schools of each township, the seminary, Connersville schools and Elm- 
hurst School for Girls. 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS. 

There was no system of public schools under the 1816 Constitution and 
it was not until after 1852 that there were ofificials at the heads of the schools 
of the \'arious counties of the state. At first the official was known as the 
county examiner, but the Legislature in 1873 created the office of county 
superintendent of schools as it is now known. Since that date the following 
men have been elected to the office by the trustees of the various townships 
of the county. The office is filled every four years and is the only one in the 
county which demands certain qualifications of its incumbents. The county 
superintendents of Fayette county since 1873 have served in the following 
order: J. L. Rippetoe, 1873-75; Josiah Gamble, 1875-87; Frank G. Hornung, 



FAYETTi: COrNTY. INDIAN. 



1887-89: P.. V. Thiehaud. i88()-oi : G. W. Rolierlsnn, 1891-95: W. II. CA\ 
well, i8()5-97: Cahin ( )oliiltree, 1897-1907; Claude Tnisler, since 11)07. 



lNI' M HR.\TION STATISTICS. 



.\ Study of the enunieratin 
shows tliat in most of the tdwnsli 
tion during tlie past tliirty years 



I of children of school age, year by year, 
ps there has been a decrease in the enumera- 
the greatest decrease being in Connersville 



and Posey townships. The city of Connersville shows the greatest increase. 
.\s far back as 1854 the city enumerated 612 children of school age. These 
figures, by 1887. had increased to 707 and by 1916 to 1.985. In 1887 there 
were 51 school houses in use, but by 1916 this number had decreased to 29, 
because of the consolidation of many of the rural schools. The following 
table exhibits the enumeration by townships in 1887, 1897, 1907 and 1916, 
together with the number of school houses in use at each period : 



Townshii)s. 

1887 

Connersville 415 

Posey 218 

Fairview 169 

Orange 1 77 

Harrison 22^ 

Columbia 166 

Jackson 211 

Jennings 184 

Waterloo 149 

Kast Connersville .... 97 

Conners\-ille City 707 









Number of 


Enumeration. 






School Houses. 


897 1907 


1916 


1887 


1897 


1907 1916 


220 240 


220 


8 


7 


6 


195 162 


145 


6 


6 


2 


191 132 


145 


5 


4 


2 


139 141 


167 


4 


4 


3 


141 246 


266 


6 


6 


2 


108 155 


183 


5 


4 


4 4 


19^ 195 


155 


7 


7 


4 


168 126 


150 


4 


4 


2 2 


140 144 


140 


4 


4 


I 


118 214 


222 


I 


I 


T I 


,181 1,803 


1.985 


I 


3 


4 4 



CONNER.SVILI.F. TOWNST 



There liave lieen schools in C()nners\ille township for more than one hun- 
ilreit \eai"s. the first building for sciiool purjjoses having been erected about 
1814 near where Williams creek em])ties into White Water ri\er. This was 
a log structure standing on the farm of Thomas Hinksoii, this pioneer 
farmer alsc) serving as the first teacher and continuing to teach for several 
vears. Hinkson was educated in a Catholic school and seems to ha\e had 



356 FAYETTE COUNTY^ INDIANA. 

more scholastic training than most of tlie early teachers of the county. 
Another of the early teachers of this same vicinity was a Miss Ingham, who 
held forth in a log school house in 1819, the same standing where the Lock- 
hart school house stood in later years. 

One of the earliest school houses erected in the county was on the farm 
of John Kellum, a few rods east of where Longwood station now stands. 
The structure was built of logs but was weatherboarded with slabs. At one 
end of the house was a large fireplace and on each side a cupboard. The 
house was well lighted, having windows on three sides, and was provided 
with two doors. Desks were built the full length of the walls on three sides, 
the benches being the same length as the desks. The older pupils sat with 
their faces to the wall and the little ones on long benches with no desks. 

Unfortunately, there ha\'e not been records kept of the early schools 
of the county and the names of most of the pioneers teachers have disap- 
peared along with tlie log school houses in which they wielded the rod. 
Among the early teachers of Connersville township may be mentioned Millie 
Perin, Jonathan Shields, Hannah Hathaway, Philip Mason, Ryland Brown, 
John Justice and Har\'ey Xutting, some of whom taught in the village of 
Connersville. 

INTERESTING NOTES OF A RAMBLER. 

Several years ago there appeared in one of the local papers an account 
by one "Rambler" of a school known as "Solomon's School", which stood 
on the east side of the ri\er. The vivid description of the building, its ecjuip- 
ment, its pupils, the method of instruction and the general conditions of 
educational affairs at the time this school was in operation, were graphically 
set forth by the "Rambler" in this article and it seems appropriate to give 
the account in full in this connection. 

The buikling Wiis iiboiit eijrbteen liy tweut,v-two feet, of i-ound logs, with a fireplace 
occupying one end of it. A file of six or eight hoys were usually detailed to tarry in 
the baclv logs, while the lesser ones carried iu the fore, middle and top sticks, and 
occasionally this huge pile of wood and the fire by it would cause the cry of fire 
to be raised by some who were watching other things closer than their books The 
windows consisted of one log removed from each of the three sides of the building, 
slats placed vertically in the si^ace, and newspapers pasted on those slats and to the log 
above, then the paper oiled with melted lard applied with a feather to admit the light ; 
then a temporary fortification, consisting of forks and poles, was thrown up to prevent 
(he stock from eating out the paper thus saturated with the grease. 

The furniture in the room was as simple and primitive as the room itself. The 
writing tables were one long board under each window and the same length of it. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 357 

.MttMclied to the wnll nud roslini; on wooden iiins driven into tlie \v;ill, inclining' :\ lillle 
downward at the outer end. At these tables tlie writers sat with their faees to tlie 
window. The seats consisted of blue ash saphngs, cut the in-oi)er length, split in two, 
two holes bored at proper angles in each end, and also in the middle, for the legs, 
the split log then being placed with the bark side up, the bark being all nicely shaved 
off. On these seats have we sat swinging our feet back and forth from early dawn to 
Latest eve, wishing we were anything else but a school boy ; wishing there was no such 
thing as a school house, school teachers, school books, pen, ink or pai)er in the world. 
Foolish, inconsiderate thought, childish thought. But then we thou.ght and .ictcil ami 
talked like a boy, but since we have viewed things from a different standpoint. 

Could the sc'hool boy of the present day [this article was written in the seventies] 
compare the stock of books now in use in the schools with that used in those primitive 
times, he could appreciate his advantages over those of the early settlers of the county. 
(Jeograiihy, grammar, globes, outline maps and uther modern facilities for stud.v wetv 
neither seen nor talked of in the schoolroom of those days. There is one tribute of 
re.spect we willingly pay to the teacher, and that is, considering the times, the sur- 
roundings and the facilities, he taught a very .good school. 

In those days there were certain inalienable rights claimed by the scliool boys, which 
had been handed down from time immemorial from father to son. and that was the 
right to close the door against school teachers about the holidays: a right, too, to which 
in some localities they still adhere with the same tenacity that a descendant of Abraham 
adheres to his nationality. Now. the big boys and the little boys were not willing that 
this time-honored usage should pass by uiiimproAed on the present occasion. Accord- 
ingly a council of war was held and the subject discussed in the most formal manner, 
the question being: Shall we bar out the teacher and make him treat? was put and 
<-arried by such a vote that no veto could set it aside. The next (inestion was. how 
shall the castle, windows, door and chimney be so fortified that a successful attack 
c.innot be made either from the front, flank or rear. To do this, bolts, bars, benches, 
spikes, with a large lot of other weapons, offensive and defensive, were called into 
requisition, not forgetting a good supply of fuel and provisions, for the siege might 
last for several days. Morning came and with it came hope, fear, doubt, anxiety, and 
solicitude as to the result. Directly the teacher is seen in the distance, approaching the 
scene of contest, quietly and peacefully: he comes on nnconscioiu* of the spirit of nnitiny 
and rebelli(m within. He comes to the door, attempts to open it: all is silence within: 
he gues.ses the cause, retreats, recounoiters, examines the vxilnerahle points, gathers a 
large rail, and in old Roman style, tries his battering ram on the door once. Crash, 
it comes against the door: he retreats to a greater distance to give it greater momen- 
tum: crash, it comes the second time; down comes the door: in comes the rail, full 
length into the school room. All is hurry-scurry within, and during the general fright, 
the teacher enters through the breach. "Seize him and tie him." was the rallying cry. 
It was like magic: soon he was surrounded, borne down by the crowd, which had 
merged all ^li.gnity in the right of the scholar. The teacher comes to terms, is released, 
and soon a squad of the quondam rebels is sent off to bring the treat. Jleantinie the 
benches are righted, the door is repaired, the good things come, all partake, and care 
nothing whether they are presidents or plebians. And thus passed the Christmas of 
ISIS at the old log school house. Among those who attended this .school were the 
(iilkeys. .Sparks, .\ldridges. Harlans. Thomases, Streets, Whites, Denisons. McCreas and 
Williamses. * 



358 - FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



DECREASE IN ENUMERATION. 

The enumeration in Connersville township has shown a very marked 
decrease during the past thirty years. In 1887 it amounted to 415, but by 1916 
it had dropped off to 220, although there are only two fewer school houses 
at the present time. The only high school in the township is in the city of 
Coimersville. There are still six rural schools in operation, the teachers for 
the present year (1916-17) being Blanche Paris. Mary Harlan, John Peck, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Mahle, Mrs. Jennie Carter and Serena Ostheimer. 

East Connersville has a separate school in charge of the village. It 
has a large brick building and employs four teachers, M. R. Lake, Mrs. 
Charity Rudd, Gertrude Elliott and Ruth Koch. East Connersville had an 
enumeration of 97 in 1887, 118 in 1897 and 222 in 1916. There is no high 
school work in the school. 

It quite often occurs that pulilic buildings are peculiarly designated and 
one striking example exists in Connersville township. The institution in 
mind is known as the Contention school. Many decades ago a log school 
house was built on the hill near the site of the present building, and after 
the old building had served its day of usefulness the question of a new one 
arose. .Mong with this (juestion was the selection of a site. Some of the 
patrons were in fa\or of building on the old site, but many more were in 
favor of a new site and the latter was finally chosen. Community factions 
arose, long-time friends became enemies, and until the important question 
was finally settled the entire community was in constant turmoil. Thus the 
name "Contention" has lieen \ery aptly applied to the school and although 
the school house was constructed in 1854 or 1855 the name still remains 
and will doubtless persist. 

WATERLOO TOWNSHIP. 

The first .school in \\'aterloo townshi]) dates from 18 15, the building- 
being erected on section t6 and the hrst teacher being Elijah Holland. About 
two years later a school house was built in section 17. although this second 
Ijuiiding may have been originally erected as a dwelling. At least it was 
used for school purposes and it is known that Absalom Heaton and a man 
by the name of Taylor taught in it. The first building- mentioned seems to 
lia\-« been in use only a short time as a school house. In the southern por- 
tion of the township log school houses made their appearance before 1820 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 359 

and here were finiiid Alexander Wilson and a man hy the name of Hardin, 
lidth (if wlumi tauijht fmni time to time. 

'J1ie first frame hnildins.;- f(jr school purposes seems to have lieen erected 
ahout iSji. It stood in the northwestern part of the township near the 
river. -\n Irishman by the name of (".ray was ])rohal)ly the first teacher in 
this frame huildini;-. .\t the ancient villat^e of Sprinoersville there stood a 
frame building in tiie cemetery, which building seemed to have been used 
for both school and church, purposes. There lia\e never been more than 
four school houses at any one time in this township. As far back as 1879 
a total of 262 pupils were enrolled in the township schools, but by 1887 
the enumeration had dropped to i^<), while in loK' there were only 140 
enumerated in the entire township. 

In 10 '3 the countv superintendent and township trustee. T. O. Simpson, 
eft'ectetl a consolidation of tlie four schools of the township and a modern 
brick building was erected in the eastern part of section to accomodate all 
the pupils of the townshi]). .\n accredited high school was established and 
three years of high-school work are now gi\en b\- the two high-school teach- 
ers, l-'ay O. Burns and Lon Ranch, both of whom are graduates of Indiana 
I'niversity. The two grade teachers in the school are Efifie Squires and 
MarY Greer. This is the only township in the county with only one school 
building — one of the \ery few townships in the state where complete con- 
.solidatioii has been perfected. 

JENNINGS TOWNSHIP. 

The desire for education in the early days of Jennings township marie 
itself manifest in the erection of a school house about a mile southwest of 
Alquina. During the period from 1826 to 1830 Baylis Jones was one of 
the teachers, .\nother school that was in existence about the same time was 
what was kncjw n as the I'A-estone school and stood about a mile east of the 
church at Mt. Garrison. 1"he early teachers at this place include Green 
Larimore. Matthew R. Hull, Washington Curnutt, Thomas ()T^>rien and 
John P. Brown. Robert Wooster, fine of the first preachers in the C(iunty. 
was also one oi the first teachers in this townshij). He was a teacher of 
more than average ability and a man who tlevoted his life to the advance- 
ment of education and religion. 

In the periiid between 1832 and i<S4o a school was conducted in the 
vicinity of Alquina by S(|uire Harrison and subsequently by a man named 
Barnard. These schools were all run by subscription and continued in 



360 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

operation on this basis until after the introduction of tlie present system of 
free pubHc schools. 

For more than seventy years there were four school houses in the town- 
ship, but at the present time there is only one district school outside of 
Alquina, the one located just south of Lyonsville. There has been a high 
school at Alquina for many years, and on December 6, 1916, the school was 
granted a commission. There are now four teachers at Alquina, two of 
whom devote all of their time to high school work, the high school teachers 
bemg Earl Lines and Edith Haines, both graduates of Indiana University: 
and the grade teachers, Ruth Kline and Mazie Moore. Three hacks are in 
use to haul the children from the various parts of the township. The teacher 
at Lyonsville is Catherine Gettinger.' Some idea of the difference that the 
years Iiave wrought is shown when it is stated that in 1880 there were 
ninety-six pupils crowded in the same room in which only twenty-three sat 
in the winter of IQ16-17. Emery A. Scholl, the present superintendent of 
the Lutheran Sunday school at Lyonsville, was a pupil of the school in 1880 
and has a vivid remembrance of the crowded room, three pupils in a seat, 
and the teacher, C. W. Carpenter, ])arading up and down the aisles with a 
large hickory gad in hand. At least twenty-five of the number were grown. 

ORANGE TOWNSHIP. 

Orange township was settled later than most of the townships of the 
county and did not have a regularly organized school until 1823. Li that 
year Eleanor Blair taught school in a small log cabin just north of the 
village of Fayetteville (now Orange). The next school of which any definite 
record has been preserved was tauglit by a Miss Mitchell in the abandoned 
cabin of a man of the name of Russel. This cabin stood about a mile and 
a half northeast of Fayetteville, and there a few terms of school were taught. 

The first school organized under the legislati\-e act of 1824 in this town- 
ship, known as district No. i, was luiilt on the upper part of Garrison creek 
on land donated by John Coley. The funds for the building were raised by 
a tax levied on the citizens to be benefited, most of whom paid their appor- 
tionment in labor or supplies. This building was as fine a structure 
as ingenuity could devise and pioneer carpenters could erect. It was built 
of hewed logs, with a floor of walnut puncheons, with the inevitable clap- 
board roof, but its aristocratic feature was a stone chimney. The best evi- 
dence points to one Gunn as the first teacher in this new building, but how 
luno- he held forth is not known. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 361 

Tlie year tnlluwing- (i8-'5) tlie second scliool district was urs;ani/,ed in 
the tuunshii), the building 1)eing- erected in Kayetteville (now Orange), then 
known as Danxille. Among the early teachers in this second district was 
Wiley J. Daniel. The fir.st log structure in Danville was later replaced by 
a frame structure, and in this J. 1'. Daniel held forth for .several terms. 
Another early teacher of Danville was James Rhodes. 

Another one of the early schools was on the farm of Rbenezer fooper, 
one and one-half miles south of Glenwood. Reverend Cooper built the 
school house himself and taught the first school. 

The Sains Creek settlement was early provided with a school building 
which stood in the northwest corner of section 36. Somewhat later a second 
building was erected about four hundred yards south of the one just men- 
tioned. Among the early teachers of these two schools were John Bell, 
Thomas Points and .Me.xander I'atton. This townsliip had hve school 
houses in 1880 and an enrollment of about J75. 

The present school year ( 1916-17). finds the school houses reduced to 
three in number, a certified high school at Orange, doing four years' work, 
and two district schools. It is the plan to raise the standard of the high 
school so that it will be eligible for a full commission during the coming 
vear. Roth the high school teachers for 1916-17 are graduates of Indiana 
University and are fully competent to place the school on the highest basis 
provided for high schools of the state. Edgar Starr is principal of the 
Orange consolidated high school, and is assisted by Merle Colvin. The two 
grade teachers in same school are Rolland Morris and Marguerite Sipe. The 
district teachers are \\'illiam Cameron and Brvan Da\ison. 



Ahhough the task of making a living was foremost in the minds of 
the pioneers in Jackson township yet they were not too busy nor too poor 
to provide for the education of their children. The first log-built school 
house of which there is any mention in that lownshi]) was located in section 
21. northeast of Everton. .\ccording to tradition, a man of the name of 
John Lee taught school in this i)lace ])rior to 1817. Subsequent teachers 
were .\ndrew Lewis and Lot Creen. The next school house in this settle- 
ment was in section 26 and stood on the farm of Obediah Estis. Lot Green 
is given the credit of teaching the first school in this building. For a num- 
ber of years school was held in the log meeting house that stood at the grave- 
yard on Poplar Ridge and which was occupied by the Society of Friends 



362 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

for a number of years. Thomas O'Brien, an Irishman of more than ordin- 
ary intelHgence, was a teacher in this vicinity for several years and among 
his pupils were the Truslers, \\'ard3, \\'rights and Becketts, some of whom 
became prominent characters in state and national affairs. 

In section 19 stood a log cabin where school was conducted in 1816 or 
1 81 7. However this cabin was used only until a better structure could be 
jjuilt, the erection of which was effected about 1819 or 1820. Joseph Moore 
\\as the first teacher. William Siixey taught the same school a few years 
after. 

The fourth school house erected in the township was built about 1822, 
in section 24, about two or three miles west of Everton. Among the early 
teachers were William Eskew, Robert Gathers and Robert Willis. Subse- 
quently another school house was built in section 30, on the north fork of 
Bear creek and John Gunn was one of the first teachers there. 

An abandoned dwelling hicated in section 12 was used as a school house 
in 1827 or 1828 and Travis Silvey was one of the first teachers. About the 
same time a log school house of the old t}'pe was erected just east of the 
Mt. Zion church. The attendance at this latter school was quite large and 
many interesting" stories cluster around it. The ages of the pupils ranged 
from six to twenty years. The girls and young men were often larger and 
older than the teacher and as a result many pranks were played upon the 
teachers without fear of any real punishment. According to a story handed 
down to this generation a teacher of the name of John Barnes, who taught 
there as early as 1829, was "barred out" on one occasion. The boys after 
being satisfied that he could not make an entrance to the school house, and 
Barnes himself being aware of the same fact after making several vain 
attempts with a large timber used as a battering ram, agreed upon a com- 
promise that was suggested by the boys, to the effect that a neighbor of the 
name of Baker, who lived close by, had a good store of winter apples and 
that if going for a bushel was any object the barricade would be removed. 
Immediatel}- the apples \\ere forthcoming. 

11:e townshijj had se\'en school houses from its earliest histor}', but the 
flight of years has been attended with a heavy decrease in the number of 
school children of school age and at the present time there are only four 
buildings in use. There is a non-commissioned high school at Everton in 
charge of Sherman Waggoner during the school year 1916-17. The two 
grade teachers at the same place are Ethel Moore and Frank Scott. The 
three district school teachers are Grace Newland, Hazel Banning and Edna 
Lake. 



FAYETTE COfNTY, INDIANA. ^^63 

POSEY TOWNSHIP. 

The first teacher in Posey township was George Manlove and he taught 
in the first house erected for school purposes, the same standing in the south- 
east corner" of the township, in section 28. A school house just across the 
line in Wayne count)- from the Loder settlement was in use as early as 1S20 
and was patronized by the residents of Posey township. This school was 
in charge of Joseph Williams, one of the best known of the earl\- teachers 
of Wayne county. 

The decade between 1820 and 1830 witnessed the erection of live scIkjdI 
houses in Posey township, scattered over the township in such a way that 
schools were in easy access to all the pupils living in it. One of these 
stood in the Van Buskirk neighlx)rhood, alx)ut a mile and a half west of 
Bentonville, and was erected about the end of the decade. It was one of 
the typical log \-ariety — round logs, greased-paper windows, log seats and 
puncheon floor. Among the first teachers were John Treadway, John Legg 
and Lavinia Church. Miss Cinn-ch was the first woman teacher in the com- 
munity and probably the first in the townshi]). The house was in use only a 
few years, being replaced by another log structure about a quarter of a 
mile farther west. These schools, as were all the schools of an early day, 
were what were known as subscription schools, although the second one 
mentioned was maintained by public funds Ijefore the introduction of the free 
public-school system in the fifties. Merchant Kelly taught in the settlement 
west of Bentonville for many years. 

There were never more than six school houses in the tow'uship. Even 
as far back as the seventies there was a high school at Bentonville, although 
it was later discontinued and was not re-established until a few years ago. 
Hyatt Frost taught there in 1879, and from 1880 to 1884 B. F. Thiebaud 
taught the school. There is now an accredited high school in the \illage doing 
three years of high-school work. Within the past few years a modern brick- 
school building has been erected at Bentonville and all but one of the rural 
schools has been discontinued. The pujjils from the various parts of the 
township are hauled to the consolidated school, which has four teachers, 
two of whom devote all of their time to the high-school wurk. The high- 
school teachers are L. S. Miller, princijjal, and Mayme Thonii)son, assistant; 
Sarah Hussey and Emma Sutton, grade teachers. The one rural teacher is 
Mrs. Charles Freeman. The enumeration in tins township has dropped from 
218 in 18S7 to 145 in 1916. 



364 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

FAIRVIEW TOWNSHIP. 

Fairview township was not organized until 1851 and hence the schools 
of that part of the county prior to that year were either in Harrison or 
Orange township. The township lies in the part of the county west of the 
Indian treaty line of 1809 and was consequently not settled until in the 
twenties. The first school house was erected in 1825 about a half mile 
east of what was known as Moffit's crossing and was the third district of 
what was then Orange township. This building was the typical log structure, 
but, unlike most of them, it had a stone fireplace in the center of the room. 
Jonas Price was the first teacher in the building. 

The Fairview neighborhood had its first school house about the same 
time, the building standing just across the line in Rush county at the old 
burying ground. In fact, the building was erected to be used for both church 
and school purposes, the site being donated by Robert Groves. A Mr. Noble 
was probably the first teacher there. 

There were two other schools which made their appearance within the 
present limits of the township before 1830 : One was in the Jeffrey neigh- 
borhood where Thomas Dawson became the first teacher; the other was in 
the northern part of the township, then a part of Harrison township, in 
which John Legg was the first preceptor, he later was followed by a pedagogue 
by the name of McClure. 

While not in Fayette county it seems that mention should be made of 
the Fairview Academy, just across the line in Rush county, an institution 
of learning established in 1848, which was patronized as liberally by residents 
of Fayette county as by those of Rush county. Among those instrumental 
in organizing the school were Dr. K]3hraim Clifford, W. W. Thrasher, Wil- 
liam Shawhan, Rev. H. R. Pritchard, Rev. George Campbell, John Campbell, 
John Thrasher, Donovan Groves and G. B. Bush. The brick building was 
erected by Josiah Smith at a cost of three thousand five hundred dollars. 
The first principal of the academy was A. R. Benton, a graduate of Bethany 
College, W^est Virginia, who resigned after alx)ut ten years of service to 
accept the chair of Greek in Northwestern Christian University at Indian- 
apolis. Other instructors were Rev. Daniel Van Buskirk, William Thrasher, 
Walter Campbell and Professors Hull, Bowen and Piercy. The school was 
under the control of the Christian church and during its prosperous years 
numbered students from all over Indiana, as well as from Illinois, Ohio, 



FAYETTE COl'NTY, INDIANA. 365 

Kentucky, Louisiana and New York. The school was discontinued in tiie 
eighties. 

There have never been more tiian five schools in the townsiiip, hut since 
the system of consohdation has been introduced the number has been reduced 
to two, a certified high school at Falmouth with six teachers and one district 
school. It is the intention to have the high school in shape to obtain a com- 
mission as a full commissioned high school during the coming year. The 
principal for the present year (1916-17) is Ernest JeiYrey, his assistants in 
the high school being Florence Doane and Alfred Hall. The grade teachers 
in the school are \'ina Lockhart, Xellie Retherford and C. W. Saxon. The 
one district school in the township is in charge of Frank Tlinchman. 

COLUMBIA TOWNSHIP. 

Among the early settlers in Columbia township were some families from 
the Eastern states and they brought with them certain ideas regarding edu- 
cation which they wished to adopt in this new country. Hence they were 
not long in establishing schools. The first school house established in the 
township was near the old graveyard just below Nulltown and was erected 
in the summer of 181 5. Gabriel Ginn, a pioneer from Kentucky, was the 
first schoolmaster and taught in this house for several years. The next 
school taught in the township was in a cabin one mile south of Alpine, 
taught by Mark Acre. Robert Helm and a woman whose name was Klum 
taught in the same community. 

The second school house built in the township was situated one mile 
north of the village of Alpine and was erected about 1821. Daniel Mclntyre 
and Dr. Philip Mason were two of the early teachers in this school. Another 
one of the school houses built at an early date was the one on the farm of 
Hickson Halstead. John Ronald was the first teacher. 

There were other log cabins built in the township for school purposes, 
but their locations and dates cannot be ascertained. Other teachers besides 
those mentioned who taught in this section of the county were Benjamin 
Smith, James C. Rea, David Allen, George Winchell and Jefiferson Crisler. 
It is interesting to note that the pioneers of this township laid great stress 
upon the fact that their children should be taught spelling. Spelling and 
reading constituted the fundamental studies, supplemented with a little writing 
and simple arithmetic. 

There are sliJl four rural schools in operation in the township, but 
no high-school work is given in the township. Those desiring high-school 



366 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

work are transferred to adjoining townships having high schools. The 
teachers for the year 1 916- 17 are Anna Smith, Marie Utter, W. H. Tate 
and Mrs. Anna Custer. 

HARRISON TOWNSHIP. 

The people of Harrison township have ever been wide awake to the 
advantages of education and as early as 1818 school was held in a log 
school house on the farm of John Tyner near the South Lick Creek church. 
The first teacher or teachers of this school are not known, but Millie Perin 
and William McKemmey were among the first and the latter taught several 
terms in this place. Subsec[uently, Manlo\-e Caldwell, Hugh Gilchrist, Jeffer- 
son Casady and a man by the name of Banks \\-ere teachers. Hawkins 
Hackleman was a pupil in this school when it started and his daughter, Mrs. 
Willard Robinson, of Harrison township, still has the arithmetic which he 
compiled. It is a stitched volume of more than one hundred pages and con- 
tains all of the principles of the subject up to the double rule of three. Three 
of the children of this pioneer later taught in the township: George and 
James Hackleman, and Mrs. Willard Robinson. 

In the northeastern part of section 6, stood a log school house of the 
usual primitive type, erectec^ sometime in the early twenties. In all proba- 
bility \Villiam W. Thomas was the first teacher. In this building was taught 
one of the first summer schools if not the first in the county by Myriam 
Swisher. This school was held in the summer of 1823 and was attended 
not only by the children of the immediate community but those from several 
parts of the township and county. 

The third school house in the township known as the Broaddus school 
house, was built in 1823, or possibly a little later, in the southern part of 
section 12, or the northern part of section 13. Three of the first teachers 
were William N^elson, Lunsford Broaddus and a pioneer by the name of 
Clark. Within a period of a few years this building was supplanted by a 
more modern (^ne a mile north. In the latter part of the thirties the pio- 
neers in the vicinity of Harrisburg awakened to the need of a school and 
erected a log house for the purpose. Nelson Penwell and William Thomas 
were among the early teachers. 

Sometime previous to 1837 the settlers in the northwestern part of the 
township built a school house on the site later occupied by the Second 
Williams Creek Baptist church. Jasper Davis, Isaac Scarce and Harriet 
Thomas were some of the first teachers. Shortly after 1838 another school 
building was erected about a mile and a half north of the one mentioned 



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GROIP AT THE VA.NKEETOWX SCHOOL. HARRISOX TOWXSHl 



)L-XTV, IXDIAKA. 



;>67 



above, tlie first teachers Ijciiii,'- Harriet Thomas, Ann IClhs, Hiram Dale, C. 
AI. Stone and Edwin Trowljridge. 

The township now uses only tliree school huiidinss ; A conscilidated 
Iniilding at Harrishurg', the (irantl Avenue Iniilding in the southeastern part 
of the township near the city of Connersville, and one district school. The 
Harrishurg school has three teachers, does non-commissioned high-school 
work and has displaced three rural schools, hacks bringing the children from 
the outlying districts to the school. The teachers are C. E. Brookbank. 
principal, and Hope Kerr and Leila Trusler. The Grand Avenue school 
has two teachers. Homer Taylor and Margaret Sturwold. Tlie district 
teacher is Lillian Lake. 

F.XYETTE COUNTY SCHOOLS IN I916-I7. 

During the past few years I\'iyette county has been gradually abandoning 
its rural schools in favor of a consolidated school sx'stem, a change which 
has been of incalculaljle benefit. There can be no (|uestion but that in a town- 
ship like Waterloo, for instance, the pupils are getting l)etter training in the 
consolidated school than they formerly did when there were four meagerly 
equipped one-room buildings in operation. Better teachers, better buildings, 
better equipment and conse(|uenth' better results follow the consolidation of 
the rural schools. This system has l)€en carried to a farther degree in Fayette 
county than in any other county in the state, and all of this work has been 
accomplished under the efficient direction of the present count\- superin- 
tendent of schools, Claude Trusler. 

At the present time there are oni\- eighteen rural schools in the entire 
count)-, while every townshij) but Columbia has a high school of some kind. 
Special music and drawing teachers are employed, so that every pupil in the 
county has the opportunity to get instruction in these two subjects. With 
the adoption of the present vocational system in 1913. Fayette county, under 
tiie direction of Superintendent Trusler. at once put the system in operation 
throughout the county. In fact, every act which the Legislature has jiassed 
during the past decade for the benefit of the public schools has at once been 
inc(jr])orated in the schools of the county. 

During the year 1916-17 there were emi)loyed a total of ninetv-four 
teachers in the county, not including the s])ecial teachers employed outside 
of Connersville. Of this number there were fifty-one outside of the county 
seat, the remaining forty-three lieing in Conners\ille. Nineteen teachers 
outside of the county seat were men and thirtv-two were w(jnien ; in Conners- 



368 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ville there were only nine men, including the superintendent, to thirty-four 
women. 

TEACHERS By TOWNSHIPS. 

The following shows the teachers for the entire county outside of Con- 
nersville for the year 1916-17: 

Columbia Township — Anna Smith, Marie Utter, W. H. Tate and Mrs. 
Anna Custer. 

Connersville Township — Blanche Paris, Mary Harlan, John Peck, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Mahle, Mrs. Jennis Carter and Serena Ostheimer. 

Fairview Township — Ernest Jeffrey, principal of the high school at 
Ealmouth; Florence Doane, Alfred Hall, Vina Lockhart, Nelle Retherford, 
C. W. Saxon and Frank Hinchman. 

Harrison Township — C. E. Brookbank, principal of the high school at 
Harrisburg; Hope Kerr, Leila Trusler, Homer Taylor, Margaret Sturwold 
and Lillian Lake. 

Jackson Township — Sherman Waggoner, principal of the high school at 
Everton; Ethel Moore, Edna Lake, Grace Newland, Hazel Banning and 
Frank Scott. 

Jennings Township — Earl Lines, principal of the high school at Akjuina ; 
Ethel Haines, Ruth Kline, Mazie Moore and Catherine Gettinger. 

Orange Township — Edgar Starr, principal of the high school at Orange; 
Merle Colvin, Rolland Morris, Marguerite Sipe, William Cameron and Bryan 
Davison. 

Posey Township — L. S. Miller, principal of the high school at Benton- 
ville : Mayme Thompson, Sarah O. Hussey, Emma Sutton and Mrs. Charles 
Freeman. 

Waterloo Township — Ray Burns, principal of the high school at the con- 
solidated school ; Lawrence Scott, assistant principal ; Mary Greer and Effie 
Scjuires. 

East Connersville — M. R. Lake, Mrs. Charity Rudd, Gertrude Elliott 
and Ruth Koch. 

FAYETTE COUNTY SEMINARY. 

The distinct feature of public-school education under the old Constitu- 
tion (1816-1852) was the county seminary. This was the only public school 
in operation in the state, and in some counties there was even a tuitional 
charge for it. The establishment of the seminary in Fayette county was 
made possible by the legislative act of January 27, 1827, and the building 



KAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 369 

of the t\vo-stor\- structure provided for by this act was the first building 
in the county for school purposes erected by public money. Unfortunately, 
the records of the seminary seem to have been lost, and the following sketch 
of this school has been prepared largely from former accounts of the school, 
supplemented by data furnished by Miss Katharine Heron. 

The first trustees, appointed by the circuit court, were George Frybarger, 
Dr. Philip Mason and James Groendyke. ' Martin M. Ray was appointed 
clerk. This board was authorized to select the site for a seminary building, 
superintend the erection of the same, have general management of the school 
funds and select the teachers. The board of trustees selected two lots on the 
.southeast corner of Fifth street and \\''estern avenue for the site of the build- 
ing, the lots being owned at that time by Oliver H. Smith, and still the site 
t>f a school house. The officials entered into a contract with Richard Miller 
for the erection of the building, which was to be constructed of brick, to be 
two stories high and to be completed by January i, 1829. for which he was 
to receive seven hundred and seventy-three dollars. Samuel C. Sample was 
appointed to superintend the construction of the building. The furnishing, 
painting and plastering of the structure was let to different contractors. 
Thomas Alexander agreed to lath and plaster the house for fifty dollars; 
Thomas J. Sample and William Burnett furnished the seats, desks and other 
necessary furnishings for forty-five dollars; Caleb B. Smith, afterwards in 
Lincoln's cabinet, contracted to paint the house, furnish the paint and 
brushes, for one dollar and twelve and one-half cents a day. The building, 
when completed, consisted of a hall and one room on the first floor, and on 
the second, a large room and a small room. In the large room were the 
grown Ijoys and men and in the smaller room were the maps, charts, globes 
and other paraphernalia of the school. On the lower floor was an elevated 
platform running lengthwise with the room on which were seated the young 
women and girls, the smaller girls being seated in front of the older ones. 
On the opposite side of the room were the boys seated on wooden benches 
which extended crosswise with the room. 

The building was not cr:)mpleted at the time specified in the contract, 
but was finished in time to begin school on July 13, 1829. According to an 
official notice issued by the school clerk, Caleb B. Smith, "the establishment 
of a seminary has been at the expense of the county, and the object of the 
managers is to afford to the youth of the county an opportunity of acquiring 
a good academic education." School opened on the above date with Samuel 
\V. Parker, later member of Congress, as principal. 
(24) 



37G FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



:W0 COURSES OF STUDY. 



The original plan provided for two courses of study and the school' j'ear 
was divided into four terms. First, there was to be the elementary school, 
followed by a so-called English scientific course, the latter being divided into 
two classes, namely, the junior and senior. In the elementary school was 
taught orthography, reading, penmanship and arithmetic (Pike's sys- 
tem) through the "rule of practice." In the junior year arithmetic was 
completed, and Greenleaf's English grammar, ancient and modern 
geography (Worcester), bookkeeping through single entry, elements 
of history with historical charts ( \\'orcester) and weekly recitations in 
declamation and composition. The senior year comprised rhetoric ( Jame- 
son), logic (Hodge), natural philosophy and chemistry (Keating), algebra 
( Bonnycastle), geometry (Playfair), surveying (Gummerie) and mensura- 
tion ( Bonnycastle). Tuition for these courses was two, three and fi\'e dollars, 
respectively. Latin, Greek and French could be taken with higher mathe- 
matics if applied for. Upon the completion of the course of study the stu- 
dent was given a diploma, and those completing it in part were given certifi- 
cates of progress. The greatest number of pupils in. attendance at one time 
was about one hundred. 

Subsequent early teachers in the seminar}- were Elder M. Bradley, a 
graduate of Brown University, and Harvey Xutting, who was graduated 
from Amherst College. Nutting also taught school in the basement of 
the Methodist church, now the German Presbyterian church. 

After the academy building had been occupied a few }-ears the need 
of a school bell became manifest and on Christmas Day, 1833, a subscrip- 
tion paper was circulated for the purpose of raising funds for the purchase 
of a bell that was to cost thirty dollars and fifty cents. 

The seminary continued in operation until the adoption of the present 
.state Constitution in 1852. and thereafter it appears that a private school was 
in operation for three years. In the summer of 1855 the school trustees of 
the town decided to acquire the old seminary building and use it for pul)lic- 
school purposes. It was decided to tear down the old building and erect 
a new structure and during the following year the old seminary building 
was torn down. Thus came to an end the seminarv historv of Favette countv. 



FAYETTli COL'XTY, IXDIAXA. 37I. 



coxxERsvii.i.K i'I'ht.ic schools. 



There were no public selnuils in t 'tmnersville under the iXi() (.'onstiuuii mi. 
Such schools as were in operatidU jirior to \8-,J were maintained hy i)ri\ate 
funds and the schools were either what were known as "subscrii)tiiin" scIkimIs 
or tuitional schools. Owing- to the fact that all these schools of early times 
were private affairs, there are no t)fficial records extant concerning them. The 
names of some of the teachers have Ijeen preserved, Init it is impossil)!e to 
give a consecutive history of the schools. Of course, after the opening of 
the countv seminarv in Connersville in 1829 that institutiiMi was liberally 
patronized bv the citizens of the town, but this was not a town school, and 
is not to be so considered. It was a county institution and the only school 
in the county supported by public funds. 

Tust who the first teacher was in Connersville. where he held forth, 
what he taught, or what the length of the teriu may have been, are points 
upon which the historian is left to conjecture. The best e\idence indicates 
that one Charles Donovan (or Dawson) opened a school about 1823 in a 
building which stood on the east side of what is now Central avenue. The 
same pedagogue subsequently taught in a log building on the east side of 
Central avenue, imniecliatelv south of Third street. Some time in the twen- 
ties, and before the establishment of the seminary in 1829, school was con- 
ducted in an abandoned dwelling on Central avenue. No records of these 
earlv schools are in existence, but it is known that in addition to Donovan, 
two men. Gilbert and dray, had taught in the village before 1828. 

EARLY .\CADEMV FOR FEMALES. 

One of the very early female academies in this section of the countr_\- 
was opened in Conners\-ille in 1830 1)\- a woman named Maines. A woman 
(jf the name of Stone also was a teacher. The school was conducted in the 
basement of the Presbyterian church, the site of which in later vears was 
occupied by the Caldwell pork house and still later by the .\ntlre theater. 
-Mthough the school was sujjposed to be for girls only, the names of William 
llankins. David Mount and Thaddeus Lewis were among the names of young- 
boys enrolled. The pupils of the school used to sjjend their recess periodij 
playing in the canal bed, at that time in the course of construction. 

Private schools were also conducted in the early days. The Mrs. Stone 
above referred to was a teacher in the female academy, taught school in her 
own home, a one-story house that stood on the site of the Michael Shoeing 



372 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

building. A Mrs. Earl also taught a private school in her one-room cabin. 
A school designated as the "Female Academy" was conducted by Mrs. Haines, 
wife of Doctor Haines, in a brick house on the site of the present Fifth 
street school building during the early period. 

Very early the basement of the old Methodist church, now the Ger- 
man Presbyterian church, was used for school purposes. Up to about 1840 
the church trustees furnished the room where many subscription schools 
were held in the period from about 1834 to 1840. 

In 1843 the territory comprising the village of Connersville and vicinity 
was styled school district Xt). 7, of which Josiah MuUikin and Richard 
Winchel were the trustees. They employed John B. Tate to teach the com- 
mon branches in the village of Connersville for a term of six months, begin- 
ning on May 17, 1843, ^^^^ which he was to receive a salary of twentv- 
two dollars a month. 

In the absence of all records, a complete list of teachers in Conners- 
ville prior to 1853 cannot be given, but among the teachers in addition to 
those previously mentioned, were J. G. Edgerton, Harriet Mcintosh, the 
Reverend Nelson, the Reverend Jenkins and a woman whose name was 
Ginn. 

SCHOOL BOARD DEVISES A PLAN. 

After the adoption of the free public school system in Indiana in 1852, 
the school board, composed of Messrs. Hagerman, Crawford and Applegate, 
in September, 1853, adopted the following resolution: 

M^hcrcus, The gradeit free" public scLool ))i-esents advantages not to be founil in 
the older systems, it is desirable to bave introduced into the corporation schools as 
soon as possible, but in view of the expense involved in paying for tuition and other 
contingencies which would follow on the adoption of said system iu all its provisions, 
and in the further consideration that all the means to be used in buying grounds and 
liuilding school houses are .vet to be provided, it is thought advisable to introduce a 
plan. The corporation school trustees shall furnish .schoolrooms, including furniture, 
together with fuel to warm the same, on condition, tirst, the trustee must have satis- 
factory assurance that proper inducement will be presented to secure as many pupils as 
may be thought advisable. Second, that proper efforts will be made to introduce and 
carry out the plan in compliance with such rules and regulations as may be prescribed 
by the person or i)ersons whose duty it may be to direct and control the same. All 
teachers engaging under this management will tix their own price of tuition, and make 
their own collections. 

Be It Further Kcsalrcd. That to execute the above plan the corporation school trus- 
tees shall appoint an educational committee to be composed of two branches, first an 
executive branch to consist of three members, whose duty it shall be to prepare all the 
rules and regulations necessary in carrying out said system, viz., to receive the a) rili- 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 373 

tiiriiiii of te;ichers. :uul to ui;ike .ill iu-0|>tn- iii-r;infj;eiiients to ciiiililc llieiii (the U-acluMsi 
til enter upon the di.scbiirge of their duties, to arrange the division of the grades, to 
selet-t a series of text-books, and, in short, attend to all such duties as devolve liiioii 
the general superintendent of the district school. They will apply to the conioration 
sc-hool board for the schoolroom, when wanted, and for any repairs or material of iiny 
kind which may be required. Second, an auxiliary branch to be composed of three 
members from each of the three school districts, whose duty it shall be to as.sist the 
teachers in making up their schools, and also to confer with the citizens generally on 
the subject of the above management, giving all the information necessary to encour.ige 
and iironiote the desired success. 

The executive committee appointed according to the above conditions 
were Rev. J. B. Brownlee, Rev. E. G. Wood and Rev. WilHam Pelan. The 
auxihary committee consisted of Joseph Justice, James Miller and James 
Mount, district No. i ; William Hawk, N. H. Burk and Alexander Morrison, 
district No. 2 ; William Brown, A\' illiam Tindall and John Farner, district 
No. 3. 

A suitable building could not be procured at this particular time and the 
idea of opening a school had to be abandoned temporarily. Subsequently 
a new school board was elected consisting of N. H. Burk, J. Justice and E. 
B. Thomas, and they remained in office until after the erection of a school 
building. 

In 1854 nine teachers were employed in the Connersville school. They 
were Hannah Ginn. O. Aborn, L. J. Beach, Eleanor Jones, Catherine Farner, 
Harriet Mcintosh, John W. McLain, H. R. Grosvenor and Euphemia Mulli- 
kin. The male teachers received thirty-six dollars a month, and the females, 
twenty dollars. The school enumeration for 1854 was six hundred and 
twelvt; the number enrolled during the year was four hundred and twenty- 
nine; average daily attendance, two hundred and forty-nine. 

FIRST FREE PUBLIC SCHOOL. 

In September, 1855, the county commissioners leased the seminary lot 
for a period of ninety-nine years to the city school Ixjard and preparations 
were made for the erection of a school building. The building as com- 
pleted in 1858 was eighty-six feet long and sixty-nine and one-half feet 
wide, three stories high, the first and second floors containing four rooms 
each, thirty-five by thirty-feet. Twelve-foot halls extended the entire breadth 
of the building. One-half of the third floor was finished for chai>el purposes, 
Friday afternoon exercises and school exhibitions. This building stootl until 
condemned in 1893. 

The first free public school in Connersville opened in the new building in 



374 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the fall of 1858 with John Brady as superintendent. He held the position until 
i860 and from that date until 1865 Harvey Nutting was in charge of the 
schools. Charles Roehl was elected superintendent in 1865 and served in 
that capacity for two }-ears. During these two years, the free school 
s\steni was cniploxed during the first six months and the remainder 
of the school term was taught as a subscription school. J. L. Rippetoe was 
selected, as superintendent in 1867 and served four 3-ears. During his admin- 
istration the school term was lengthened to eight months in 1867, and to 
nine months in 18(18. Several changes in the manner of instruction were 
introduced under his management. In 1871 a man of the name of Hughes 
was elected superintendent, remaining one year, and he was succeeded by 
one Housekeeper, who was compelled to resign on account of poor health 
before the close of the school year. In 1873 J. L. Rippetoe again assumed 
the management of the schools and continued in that capacity until 1885. 

GR.VDUATES OF CONNERSVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

It is impossible to trace in detail the history of the Connersville public 
schools during the two decades, 1858-1878, at the end of which the first class 
was graduated from the high school. The names of several of the teachers 
during this period, and all of the superintendents have been previously given. 
There are no official records which will show the character of the work done, 
whether there was a regular high-school course in operation, or whether 
the schools were graded. There were high-school subjects given during the 
seventies, but it is evident that the course was not planned with a view to 
graduation, since the first class did not graduate until 1878. In the fall of 
1877, W. J. Bourn is designated as having been principal of the high school. 
Who he was, or where he came from, the local records do not state. 

Since that vear there has been a class of graduates to complete the 
high school each year, and a tabulated summary of the graduates shows 
that there have been six hundred and eighteen who have received the 
diploma from the high school. 

The first graduating class from the Conners\'ille high school held its 
exercises on June 14, 1878, at which time nine graduates made their bow 
to the public. Since that time there have been a total of 618 graduates, 
218 boys and 400 girls. To this should be added a consideralile number who, 
during the first twenty-five years, were denied a diploma because they did 
not study Latin. A tabulated summary of the number and sex of the grad- 
uates since 1878 is given below. 



FAYETTE COUXTY, INDIANA. 375 

Year. Boys. Girls. Total. year. Boys. Girls. Total. 

1878 279 1899 3 II 14 

1879 44 1900 3 8 11 

1880 3 3 1901 4 II 15 

1881 2 9 II I90_' 5 10 15 

i88j 2 5 7 1903 4 5 9 

1883 4 10 14 1904 5 6 II 

1884 9 9 1903 4 8 12 

1885 10 10 1906 5 10 15 

1886 I 8 9 1907 8 II 19 

1887 6 9 15 1908 16 18 34 

1888 2 9 II 1909 16 13 29 

1889 I II 12 1910 16 9 25 

1890 437 191 1 14 17 31 

1891 2 9 II 1912 15 22 37 

1892 38 II 1913 7 18 25 

1893 3 8 II 1914 14 23 27 

1894 6 8 14 1915 17 27 44 

1895 10 5 15 1916 9 30 39 

1896 7 16 23 

1897 5 II 16 Total 218 400 618 

1898 8 3 II 

CITY SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

There was only one building in the cit\- tor pulilic school purposes 
between 1858 and 1888. In that year the present lughth street building 
was erected. This building has eight rooms. In 1893 the old building 
which stood on Fifth street was replaced by the present structure, also an 
eight-room building. In 1S94, the northern section, known as Maplewood 
was annexed to the city. The building was considerably enlarged about 1900. 
In 1015 the Maiilewond building was remodeled, a large addition built, and 
to all intents was made a new building, with every convenience which 
modern school architecture ilemandetl. The present magnificent high school 
building was built in 1904 at a co^t of si.xty thousand dollars. It contains 
twenty rooms, and a number of other rooms used for offices and for various 
other purposes. Thus at the present time the city owns four school buildings, 
and all of them are ef|uippcd to meet all of the modern demands of school 
work. \\'hen the high school building was completed in 1904, wnnien of 



37^ FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

the city started an agitation to have nothing but the best of classical pic- 
tures and statuary in the different school buildings. The different clubs 
of the town co-operated in buying pictures and statuary for each room, and 
within two years they placed seven hundred and fifty dollars worth of pic- 
tures and works of art in the various rooms. 

SCHOOL PUBLICATIONS. 

The first course of study, or "School Manual," as it was called, was 
issued in 1891, by W. F. L. Sanders, and since that time there have been 
others published, in 1907 and 1912, each carrying a five-year period. These 
reports are prepared by the superintendent and contain a wide variety of 
information concerning the schools of the city. The report for 1916-17 is 
now being prepared by Superintendent E. L. Rickert. and will be a work 
of more than one hundred and fifty pages. In addition to these reports 
of the superintendents at various times, Superintendent Guy M. Wilson 
issued a course of study in mathematics in 191 1. These official publica- 
tions have been supplemented at times by an "Annual" produced by the senior 
class of the high school. These "Annuals" are very valuable compendiums of 
historical material and throw an interesting light upon the progress of the 
high school from year to year. A school paper called The Clarion is in the 
fourth year of its publication. 

NEW SUBJECTS TAUGHT. 

The public schools of today teach a wide variety of subjects that were 
not included in the curriculum a few years ago. The casual visitor to the 
high school building of Connersville today will see girls baking biscuits, 
trimming hats, making aprons and receiving instruction in a multitude of 
other points concerned with domesticity. In another room boys may be 
seen making various kinds of furniture and engaged in the several forms 
of the industrial arts. Courses in agriculture are provided so that the boy 
who is from the farm or wants to engage in farming after leaving school 
has an opportunity to receive scientific in.struction in the modern methods 
of agriculture. 

In other worils, the public sciiool of today is trying as never before to fit 
boys and girls for active life when they leave the school room. No one 
will say that a knowledge of Latin or algebra is going to help a girl to 
bake biscuits or a bov to select seed corn, and it is for this reason that 




.MAPLEWOOD SCHOOL BUILDING, CONNERSVILLE. 




HAWKINS FLAYGROrND, CONNERSVILLE. 




FIFTH STREET SCHOOL BUILDING, CONXERSVILLE. 




EIGHTH STREET SCHOOL BflLDING, CONXERSVILLE. 



FAYETTE COTXTY, INDIANA. T,!! 

the state of Indiana has provided a practical course of domestic science for 
girls and of industrial arts and agriculture for Ixiys. 

The course in domestic science in the Connersville schools was intro- 
duced in 1913, and has been extended each )-ear since that time. Complete 
courses in cooking, dressmaking and kindred subjects, such as are usually 
included in domestic science courses, are given. The cooking department 
is ]irovided witli tables, cabinets, range, and a full complement of all kitchen 
utensils necessary to cooking. The sewing room is fitted up with a number 
of sewing machines and all things necessary for such a course. 

The manual training department is fitted with an electricall\-(lri\en saw 
and planing and turning outrits. One room is dexoted to cabinet-making, eacli 
.student having a separate work bench, with his own tools. Another room 
is set aside for finishing the furniture made by the bo}'s. The manual training 
department was installed in the summer of 1916 and it is the intention of the 
school board to add to it until it is as complete a system of manual training as 
may be found in any city in the state of this size. 

.scHOOL.s IN 1916-17. 

It seems pertinent in this connection to give a birdseye view of the 
schools as they appear in 1916-17. There are four buildings, forty-three 
teachers, and fifteen hundred pupils. All of the high school work is done 
in the high school building, and also the eighth-grade work is conducted in the 
same building. The elementary schools employ twenty-eight teachers. All 
the pupils in and above the 5A grade come under the departmental system 
of instruction. All the music and drawing instruction is given or sujiervised 
by special teachers. Music has had a special teacher since 1892. A commer- 
cial course including typewriting, shorthand and bookkeeping has l)een in 
operation since the new high school was opened in 1904. This course pre- 
pares its graduates for positions in business offices and more than twenty-five 
graduates of the course are now filling responsible i>ositions. .Ml the domes- 
tic science instruction is given in the high-school building, with the exception 
of one class in sewing in the Eighth street building. 

A noticeable feature of the public school buildings of the citv is the 
completeness with which they are equipped. Every wall in each room is 
painted in such a way as to give the best lighting results. The buildings have 
modern ventilated toilets, sanitary soap and towels, semi-indirect electric light- 
ing, phonographs, display theaters, outside drinking fountains, plavground 
apparatus and material and a system of supervised. play. 



378 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Each teacher is provided with a loose-leaf manual which contains the 
bulletins issued by the superintendent from time to time, so that each teacher 
is kept in constant touch with the superintendent. There is also a daily 
messenger service maintained between the superintendent's office and each 
school. There are supplementary lists in reading, geography and history 
provided for the different grades, and all sorts of "helps" for the teachers 
in the lower grades. Each room has a small lilirary of books adapted to the 
needs of that grade. Each room is provided with a cabinet of sufficient size 
to allow each to have a separate compartment for his work. 

PRESENT HIGH-SCIiOOL ENROLLMENT. 

The high school during the current year employs eleven full-time teachers, 
and has an enrollment of two hundred and sevent\-five. The building is 
modern throughout and is well e(|uipped to meet the modern demands for 
school work. During 1916-17 there were thirty-five graduates of the local 
high school in college. The school is commissioned by the state and is also 
accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. The teachers in the high school are expected to contribute, within 
their respective abilities, to the literary, athletic and social life of the school 
and these phases of school life are prominent. 

The students in the high school maintain a paper known as The Clarion. 
whicli is now in the fourth year of its jjublication. An athletic association 
includes l)oth students and high school teacliers. High school athletic teams 
engage in competitive contests with ntlier schools in the state. There are 
literary and debating clubs for both buys and girls. A motion-picture 
machine is in operation and a regular film service is provided. Illustrative 
work is done in English, history, Latin and other high school subjects. 
There is a complete course in history and a])preciation of music under the 
super\ision of a competent instructor. In the music room there is a grand 
piano and a pbonograpli. During the past few years, the school has acquired 
a series of phonographic records which demonstrate the music, both vocal 
and instrumental, of many of the leading artists of the world. Each room 
also has its own particular paintings and works of art. 

THE HAWKINS PLAYGROl'ND. 

\A'hile the buildings themselves and their equipment will measure up to 
the buildings and equijMuent of any other city in the state of a similar size, 
Connersville has one feature of its public school s}-stem which demands 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 




379 


S])ecial iiiemidii. 'I'liis is a |)la\\L;riiuii(l >>i tlircc acrcv 


. and 


a h.-ill known as 


tlie Hawkins plavi^round, the site ni whiili was pre^.' 


nted t. 


. the sch.H.l city 


of Connersvillc In- .Mr. and .Mrs. l'.. \'. Hawkins, Mr. 


llawl 


vin. havin- heen 


president of the Ixiard of school tru.stees since 190S. 


With 


the exception of 


two years .Mr. Hawkins has l)een a member of the sc 


hool h 


oard .since 1894. 


'Hic formal transfer of the proi)erty, consistino- of th 


rec ani 


(1 one-half acres, 


or fonr city blocks, to the irusteo occnrred at a pnhlit 


■ ceren 


lony on July 31, 


11)14. The play.i^round is located at the northern ei 


lid of 


h'astern avenue, 


opiiosite lui^hteenth street. 






The play.s:;roiin<l is provided with the nioder 


n e(|n 


ipnient such as 



is usually found in the playgrounds of the lars^er cities and includes a hrick 
tield house, twenty-ei.^ht hy forty-two feet, provided with a shelter room, 
toilets, shower baths, store rooms, attic and veranda on all sides. In addi- 
tion the playground has an elliptical running- track with a straighiawax-, two 
tennis courts, basket-ball goals, a baseljall diamond, two sets of six swing.s 
each for girls, a horizontal l:)ar, rings, giant strides, ocean wave, swings for 
boys, a cement wading-pool twenty feet and two inches in diameter and 
twehe inches in deptli, outside drinking- fountains, sand box, bab\- swings, 
jumping standards, flagstaff and electric lights. 

The initial costs of the improven-ients and equipment, not including the 
land donatetl. are as follows: I'ield house, wading pool, fountain and gates. 
$3,700; tennis courts, running track and ball field, $618; walks and grading 
around building, $275; hedge grading and fences. $200: ajjparatus and play- 
ground material. $457; flagstaff, lights and pedestals. $200 : total. $5,500. 
This makes the cost for improvements and equiprnent a])proximatelv the 
cost of one room in the erection of a new modern school building. The 
initial costs of iniprovements have been met. to the extent of one thousand 
dollars, in part by donations b\- friends of ;\lr. Hawkins and the remainder 
is being paid for b\' pul)lic taxati<in as pro\-ided b\- law. 

This gift of a very fine site so well suited to the ])urposes of a pulilic 
playground made it possible for Connersville to be the first lifth-class citv in 
the state to avail itself of this law. The ])layground was ])o]ail;ir from the 
beginning and all classes of the i)eo])le take pride in and believe in it as a 
most excellent factor in the present eflicient school svstem. 



The history of the Conners\-ille schools would not be coiuplete without 
n-iention of the Marguerite Thiebaud scholarship in Karlham College. .Miss 



380 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Thieliaud was liorn in Connersville, was graduated from the local high school 
in 1908, from Earlham College in [912, and died at Bryn Mawr, Pennsyl- 
\'ania, in March, 1914. while in her second year of post-graduate studies in 
Bryn Mawr College. In her honor her parents, B. F. and Alice Thiebaud, 
established a scholarship in Earlham College, carrying an honorarium of 
three hundred dollars annually. Hanging on the waW of the high school 
auditorium is a framed announcement of this scholarship, and such of it as 
pertains to the scholarship proper is here given. 

I. Miirgiiei-ite Thiebaud was born iu Connersville iu 1S!J«). She was graduated from 
the Connersville high sc-hool in 19<)S, and from Earlham College with the class of l!)ti'. 
She died in Bryn Mawr in March, 1914, while in her seeocd year of po.st-graduate studies. 

Marguerite Thiebaud possessed and cultivated the finer qualities, both of mind ^nd 
character. She represented well the modest, earnest, high-minded type of young Chri.stian 
womanhood. She cared for the better things. She set a good example. 

II. In October. 1915, her parents, Ben,iamin F. and Alice Thiebaud, founded a 
scholarship in Earlham College as a memorial "to their daughter. This scholarship is 
open to graduates of the Connersville high school, young men and young women, who 
have been residents of Fayette county for at least two years previous to graduation. 

The candidate shall meet these requirements : 

(a) He shall be able to enter the college without conditions. 

(b) He shall be worthy morally. 

(c) He shall rank well in scholarship and ordinarily shall be selected from the 
group standing highest fourth in the class, i. e. In a class of forty he shall be one of 
the highest ten in point of scholarship record. 

(d) He shall by ability, industry, variety of interests, and qualities of leader.ship 
and character, give promise of usefulness in life. 

III. The scholarship is awarded as follows: 

The superintendent of schools of the school city of Connersville, the princii)al of 
the high school and the assistant principal constitute a committee to determine the 
n)ethod of selection of the beneficiaries and to make or to approve the selection, which 
when certlfled to the college by the superintendent of schools is final, sub.i'ect only to 
the approval of the college. 

The first award of this scholarship was made in the spring of 1916 and 
Grace Edwards, a graduate of the class of 1916, was selected as the first one 
to receive the benefits of the scholarship. She is now attending Earlham 
College, where she is making an enviable record. 

CITY SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Since the present system of public schools was established in Conners- 
ville in 1858 there have been thirteen .superintendents, their names and dates 
of service being as follow: John Brady, 1858-60; Harvey Nutting, 1860- 
05: Charles Roehl, 1865-67; J. L. R.ippetoe, 1867-71, 1873-85; Mr. Hughes, 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



381 



1871-73: Mr. Hou.sekeeper, 1873: D. \L Hunter, i88(.-88; W. V. L. Sanders 
1889-98; W. S. Rowe, 1889-1904; Lotus D. Coffnian, 1905-06: E. A. Turner, 
1907: Guy M. \\'ilst)n, 1908-11: Edwin L. Rickert, 1912. 

Tlie superintendent lias had an office clerk since January r, 1904, this 
position having heen held in turn hy Harriett Williams. Flora Doenges, 
Myrtle Morgan and Sophia Nickel. The superintendent's office is equipped 
with an adding machine, rotar\- mimeograph, safety vault and up-to-date 
record and filing devices. .Ml the high .school liooks are handled thnnigh 
the superintendent's office, which is a regularly appointed depository. The 
regular school lihrary contains in excess of one thousand \olumes. 



luhvard L. Rickert. superintendent of the C'onnersville city schools, was 
horn in Columhiana county, Ohio. Xovemher 12, 1874. He was graduated 
from the Columhiana high school and received the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts from the College of Wooster in 1901. Subsequently he did ix>st-graduate 
work in the L'ni\ersit}- of California and in Harvard L'ni\ersit\- and in 
191 1 receixed his degree of Master of .Arts from Columbia Unixersit}'. 
Superintendent Rickert's teaching experience began in i8()3, and for two 
years he taught in the rural schools of his home count}", h'rom 1895 to 
1897 he taught in the Xorth Lima, Ohio, schools. Following his gradua- 
tion from Wooster in icjoi, he became principal of the Lowellville, Ohio, 
schools, and remained there until 1005. The two following years he was 
princi])al of the elementary school at Voungstown, Ohio. In the fall of 
1907 he tnok charge of the schf)ols at Maquoketa, Iowa, as sujierintendent, 
and continued there until 1912, when he became superintendent of the 
schools of Connersville. 

Mr. Rickert was married on July 31. 1912, to firace Weimer. of Beach 
City, Ohio. They are the parents ai two sons, Fdward \\'. and (leorge .\. 

IIIGH-SCHOOI. l'RINCIPAL.S. 

-Apparently from the official records the office of high school principal 
was first established in 1877. the year in which the high school adopted a 
course leading to graduation. The first graduating class was in the spring 
of 1878. It will be noted from the appended list of principals that only one 
of the number later became superintendent. Three of the former princijials 
are now living in Connersville, E. M. Michener, W. R. Houghton and John 



3»2 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



F. Clifford. The complete list of principals follow: ^V. J. Bowen, 1877- 
79: J. H. Hayes. 1879-81: George Vinnedge. 18S1-82: C. F. Coffin, 1882; 
C. E. Bickmore, 1882-83: R. M. Zan Horn, 1883-85: E. M. Michener, 1885- 
93: R. S. Ludlow, 1893-94: J. F. Clifford, 1894-95: W. R. Houghton, 1895- 
1903: E. A. Turner, 1903-05, 1906-07: G. \V. Gannon, 1905-06: A. E. 
White, 1907-09: Guy Cantwell, 1909-I1: M. S. Hallman, 191 1, incumbent. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. 



The first records of the Conners\-ille city school trustees which gives the 
members of the board are those of 1873. The following table gives the 
three members, year by year, since that date. It will be noticed that it has 
been the rule to continue the members in office from year to year. The 
complete list follows : 



Year. 


President. 


Secretary. 


Treasurer. 


1873 


C. Wright 


Charles Roehl 


L Zeller 


1874 


C. Wright 


Charles Roehl 


L Zeller 


1875 


Charles Roehl 


\\'. H. Beck 


L Zeller 


1876 


Charles Roehl 


W. H. Beck 


L Zeller 


1877 


Charles Roehl 


W. H. Beck 


L Zeller 


1878 


Charles Roehl 


W. H. Beck 


L Zeller 


1879 


Charles Roehl 


W. H. Beck 


L Zeller 


1880 


J. W. Ross 


At. L.. Nichols 


L Zeller 


1881 


J. W. Ross 


U. L. Nichols 


L Zeller 


1882 


P. B. Wood 


J.. H. Hayes 


J. W. Ross 


1883 


P. B. Wood 


J. H. Haves 


J. W. Ross 


1884 


G. \V. Pigman 


I. H. Haves 


P. B. W^ood 


1885 


M: C. Buckley 


j. M. Higgs 


P. B. Wood 


1886 


M. C. Buckley 


J. M. Higgs 


P. B. Wood 


1887 


J.W.Ross 


T. M. Higgs 


■P. B. ^^^ood 


1888 


T. W. Ross 


T. I. Little 


P. B. \\'ood 


1889 


J. W. Ross 


T. L Little 


Thomas Downs 


1890 


Thomas Downs 


T. L Little 


G. M. Sinks 


1891 


Thomas Downs 


T. L Little 


G. AI. Sinks 


1892 


Thomas Downs 


T. L Little 


G. M Sinks 


1893 


Thomas Downs 


■y. I. Little 


G. M. Sinks 


1894 


Thomas Downs 


E. V. Hawkins 


T. L Little 


1895 


Thomas Downs 


E. V. Hawkins 


j. L Little 


1896 


Thomas Downs 


E. V. Hawkins 


J. L Little 


1897 


E. V. Hawkins 


Thomas Downs 


L. D. Dillman 


1898 


E. V. Hawkins 


B. F. Thiebaud 


L. D. Dillman 


1899 


E. V. Hawkins 


B. F. Thiebaud 


L. D. Dillman 







FAYETTE 


COrXTY. IXDIANA. 


31 


Year. 




rresiilent. 


Secrclarv. 


Treasurer. 


1900 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


:. i<;. I. AlcFarian 


B. !•. Tlneliaud 


1901 


B. 


F. Tliiebaud 


]-:. \'." Hawkins 


C. E. I. Mcl'arlan 


1902 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


|]. V. Thiebaud 


C E. j. .McFarlan 


1903 


B. 


F. Tliieliand 


!-:. \'. Hawkins 


C. E. r. McFarlan 


1904 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


W. I.. Cortleycu 


C. E. 1. McFarlan 


1905 ' 


:\L 


C. Buckley 


W. L. Corlieyou 


C. E. T- McFarlan 


1906 


M. 


C. Buckley 


W. L. Cortleyou 


C. E. j. McFarlan 


1907 


M. 


C. Bucklev 


E. V. Hawkins 


C. E. J. McFarlan 


1908 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


R. V Tliiebaud 


C. E. J. AlcFarian 


1909 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


P.. V. Tliiebaud 


C. E. I. McFarlan 


1910 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


B. 1\ Tliiebaud 


C. E. T. McFarlan 


1911 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


B. F. Tliiebaud 


C. E. I. McFarlan 


1912 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


C. C. Hull 


B. F. Tbiebaud 


1913 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


C. C. Hull 


B. F. Tbiebaud 


1914 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


T. E. Pace 


C. C. Hull^ 


1 91 5 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


T. E, Page 


S. 0. ^IcKennan 


1916 


E. 


V. Hawkins 


J. E. Page 


S. 0. ATcKennan 






coKxi-;Rs\-n.TJ-: st 


:nooL nTRF.CTnR^', 1 


9 if)- 17. 



383 



During tlie current year ( ioiCi-i7) tbere were torty-lbree teacbers in 
tbe city scliools. twenty-six grade teacbers, eleven bigb-scbodl teacbers and 
six special teacbers. .Ml nt tbe grade teacbers and special teacbers bave bad 
college training, many of tbeni being college graduates. Tbe present 
directory of the schools follows : 

Board of School Trustees. — ]i. V. Hawkins, president; J. E. Page, 
secretary: S. O. McKennan, treasurer: E. E. Rickert, superintendent. 

Teachers in the Fifth street building. — Chester Boone, jirincipal, ()F>: 
Harriet E. Williams, 3A ; Ethel Carter, 3n; Xellie White, 4.\ : niandie 
lliggs, 4B-,v\; Laura CKldard, 3P.--'.\ ; llnrtense C"rag<i, _'P,-i.\: .May Mer- 
ritt. iB. 

Figbth street. — S. B. Piersnn, priiKMpal, -.\: Margaret Ci>nne]l, 7B: 
Helen Scott. Ck\: Kema Risk, 4B : Kathleen Carl.is, ^P.-^.A: I'.l-ie SuAl. j.\- 
3B: Mattie Gamble. _'B : Ida Bottles, i.\-iB. 

Maplewo.Kl.— D. W. Jacnt. imncipal, 7!',-'. \ : Martha Schug, 7.\--:,\: 
Pearl McCaslin, f.B ; Elir/abeth Tnrrcll, 5I'.: Ivln.-i Cilbert. 4\-4P.: Kuliy 
Schneider, 4B-3.\ : Susan Hull. ^I'.-JA; .Mae Mnxley. -'A^^,!'-: I'.bsabelh 
Friedgen, i-\; Sue Procter, i B. 

High Scb.xT— M. S. Hallman i)rincipal ; .Minnie Torr, bisU.ry; W. F. 
L. Sanders, niatheniatics ; H. H. IvadcliiTe. science: f. \\'arren Sniitli. indus- 



384 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

trial arts; Mary Melrose, science and mathematics; Lucy Hawk, domestic 
science: Mabel D. Brown, Latin; Grace J\L Hall, German; Louise Keller, 
English; Mary Rieman, English; R. E. Mathews, commercial; Anna Kett- 
mann, physical training; Cora Sutton, 8B-8A. 

Supervisors. — A. A. Glockzin, music; lone Reynolds, art; Sophie Nickel, 
clerk. 

THE ELM HURST SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. 

One of the most beautiful sites in Fayette county is the picturesque little 
park at the southern edge of the city of Connersville in which stands a stately 
building, now the home of the Elmhurst School for girls. This school was 
established by Isabel Cressler and Caroline Sumner in 1909 for the purpose 
of giving to the girls of the Middle West educational opportunities equal to 
those to he had in the Eastern schools for girls. Miss Cressler and Miss 
Sumner have had charge of the school since it was organized in 1909. 
Miss Cressler is a graduate of Wilson College and Miss Sumner is a gradu- 
ate of Smith College. 

Elmhurst is a unique school in many respects. In the first place, the 
enrollment is limited to twenty-four, the number which can be accommo- 
dated in the building. While the school is strictly non-sectarian, it is per- 
meated with a religious atmosphere. Each day's work begins with a short 
chapel service, and Sunday morning attendance at one of the churches in Con- 
nersville is required of all pupils. The curriculum is divided into two courses, 
an academic and college preparatory course, and what is denomitrated an 
advanced collegiate course. The first course includes the following subjects : 
English, mathematics, Latin. French, German, Greek, history, science and 
history of art. The second course adds civil government, social and political 
science, logic and psychology. In addition to these subjects instruction is 
given in painting, drawing, vocal and instrumental music, dancing and a 
practical course in domestic science. The school property comprises one 
hundred and twenty acres and by utilizing the tillable land the school has 
developed a combination agricultural and domestic-science course which 
is unique in the work of private schools for girls. There is also an excel- 
lent course provided in physical training, the system in use being known 
as the Mensendieck system. Elmhurst is the first and only .school in America 
to use this system and the instructor in charge is a graduate pupil of Frau 
Dr. Mensendieck. 

The historic building in which the school is located was not all con- 
structed at the same time. The nucleus of the present structure was erected 




EW AT ELMHI-RST SCHOOL. 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 385 

by Oliver H. Smith, then a member of Congress, in 1831, but his contribu- 
tion to the magnificent building of the present day was only four rooms. 
These same four rooms are now in the middle of the forty rooms now 
found in the building. When Smith removed to Indianapolis in 1839 
he sold the building to Caleb B. Smith, also a congressman and later a 
member of President Lincoln's cabinet. The building next became the 
property of James Shaw, later of Nicholas Patterson, and from the latter 
it passed into the hands of Samuel \V. Parker, another congressman from 
Connersville. Parker eventually disposed of it to James N. Huston, and 
after passing through ditYerent hands it finally became the property of Dr. 
W'. J. Porter. While Senator Huston occupied the residence, it was a part of 
an estate of man\- hundred acres, called "Old Elm Farm." from the ancient 
elm grove. The Senator was the political manager for Benjamin Harrison, 
who. with his first wife. Mrs. Caroline Scott Harrison, was a frequent visitor 
at the place. When Harrison became President, Senator Huston became 
United States treasurer. 

Later, when "Old Kim Farm" was divided and sold, Mrs. W. J. Porter 
applied the modified name of "Elnihurst" to the part held for a time for 
sanatorium purposes by her husband. About 1905 it was purchased by the 
late George B. Markle. of Hazelton, Pennsylvania, who used it as a summer 
home. Four years after he became the owner the present school was estab- 
lished. 

The magnificent forest trees surrounding "Elmhurst" furnish one of its 
most distinctive features. The famous "Elmhurst" elm stands ninety-five feet 
high and measures sixteen feet in circumference at the base. Good authorities 
have placed the age of the tree at three hundred years. Standing near the elm 
tree is a catalpa spcciosa, eight feet in circumference and one of the best 
specimens of this variety in the country. "Elmhurst" has one of the finest 
beech trees in the state. The tree measures thirty-two feet in circumfer- 
ence at the base and stands one hundred feet high. Another tree proclaimed 
by Dean Coulter, of Purdue University, to be a perfect type of the American 
elm is a century old and measures ten and one-half feet in circumference. 



(25) 



CHAPTER XV. 
Litterateurs and Artists of Fayette County. 

Indiana is known throughout tlie nation as a Hterary center. Its men 
and women have contributed thousands of volumes of both prose and poetry, 
of varying degrees of merit, to the hterature of the country. More than two 
thousand Hoosiers have found their names on a printed volume and at least 
a hundred of this number have attained a fame which extends beyond their 
own state. No fewer than twelve Hoosiers have written volumes of such 
merit as to be included in the list of "best sellers" of the country. They are 
George Barr McCutcheon, Meredith Nicholson, Booth Tarkington, David 
Graham Philips, Gene Stratton-Porter, Charles Major, Maurice Thompson, 
Mary Hartwell Catherwood, Elizabeth Miller Hack, Marjorie Benton Cook, 
James Whitcomb Riley and Albert ]. Beveridge. 

While Fayette count)^ has never produced a writer who has been classed 
as a "best seller," yet it has produced a number of writers who have made 
a state-wide reputation. Two of the best volumes dealing with life in Indi- 
ana prior to the Civil War have come from the hand of residents of this 
coimty. Oliver H. Smith in his "Early Indiana Trials and Sketches" (1858), 
and Dr. Philip Mason in his ".Autobiography and Original Essays" (1868), 
have given to the state two volumes which are very valuable for the light 
thev throw on the early history of the state. The volume of Doctor Mason 
deals more with the history of Fayette county than the volume of Smith, 
the Doctor's autobiography being a recital of his career in the county from 
1816 until his volume was issued in 1868, and covering a wide variety of 
topics. He touches on the schools, churches, social and industrial affairs, 
and the civil life of the county; lists the prevailing ailments of the community 
and prescribes for their treatment ; tells about farming conditions in the early 
days and ofifers suggestions to farmers as to methods for obtaining the best 
results from their efforts: traces the growth of Masonry in Connersville : in 
short, he offers in his volume the results of his life work in Fa3^ette county. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 387 

VOI.rMF.S THAT DESERVE MENTION. 

While the vohiines of Smith and Alason are best known throughout the 
state, yet tliere are a number of others in the county who have written vohunes 
that deser\e mention, j. L. Heinemann and Katharine Heron have written 
extensively on local history. Mr. Heinemann has issued three brochures 
covering the early history of the county, which are given in full in a separate 
chapter of this volume. He has been an indefatigable worker in the field 
of local history for a numl>er of years and has done more research work 
in the early records than any other person in the county. Miss Heron has 
also delved into the early history of the county and contributed numerous 
articles to the local papers embodying the result of her research. During the 
summer of 1916 she contributed a series of valuable historical articles to 
the Coiincrsi'illc Ncius, which covered a wide variety of topics touching the 
history of the county from its organization down to the present time. She 
has also traveled widely over this country and Europe and contributed travel 
sketches to newspapers and magazines. 

Another local historian is Edward E. Moore, who although not a resi- 
deiit of the county at the present time, yet was associated with it for a num- 
ber of years. In 1910 he issued a volume, entitled "A Century of Indiana," 
which covered the history of ihe state down to that year. 

Walter R. Houghton, who has been a resident of Connersville for a 
numljer of years, has written a number of historical works of a general 
nature, none of which, however, were concerned with Fayette county his- 
tory. Among his writings are the following: "A Portrayal of L'nited States 
History", "Literature and Geography", "A Conspectus of the History of 
Political Parties and the Federal Govemment", "The Lives of Blaine and 
Logan". "History of American Politics from 1607 to 1882", "A Map of 
United States History" (a large wall map on which were printed the leading 
events in the states in which they occurred) : "A Map of PoHtical History." 

A number of writers have contributed local historical articles to the 
newspapers from time to time. Among these may be mentioned D. T. Leach, 
who published what he called "A History of Fayette County" in the Con- 
iicrsc'illc Exani'mcr during 1872. The chapters ran through successive issues 
of the paper for several months, but were never collected in book form. 
Samuel J. Little was another contributor of historical articles to tlie news- 
papers in the seventies and eighties. 



388 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



THE POETS OF FAYETTE COUNTY. 

A number of \'olumes of poetry have been written by Fayette county 
people, while many others have contributed verse to papers and magazines. 
John Reid, a lawyer of Connersville, issued a volume of poems in 1845 under 
the title of "Gulzar, or Rose Bower." Thomas E. Smiley has contributed 
a volume of "Lays and Lyrics"; Thomas Trusler, a volume entitled "Poems" 
( 1907) ; J. Morris Widdows, a volume of verse, "Rainy Day Poems" (1902). 

A. Charlton Andrews, a son of Marie Louise Andrews, has issued at 
least three volumes: "A Parfit Gentle Knight" (1901); "The Drama of 
Today" ( 1913), and a play, "His Majesty, the Fool" (1913). His mother 
was one of the leaders in the Western Association of Writers during the 
life of that organization and contributed one valuable article to the year- 
book of the orgaiiization, "Poetry of the Ante-Bellum Period of the West 
and South" (1890). Another poet of the county was John C. Ochiltree, a 
newspaper editor, who issued a volume of "Poems and Sketches" in 1890. 
He also issued one novel, entitled "Handicapped by Fate." 

The list of those who have contributed fugitive poems to the news- 
papers includes a score or more. One of the best known of these versifiers 
of former days was "Jimuel" Tate, whose real name was James H. Tate. Mr. 
Tate contributed numerous verses for a numljer of years to the local papers 
and attained more than a local reputation. The contributions of "Jimuel" 
were sometimes ordinary, but not infrecjuently they evidenced fully the 
rugged genius and native wit of the old man whom so many in Fayette county 
loved. Mrs. W. E. Ochiltree, now a resident of Connersville, has written a 
number of poems and short stories for papers and magazines. Her stories are 
of a juvenile nature, two of the best known being "Bayless' Need" and "Why 
Marianna Stayed." 

Mrs. Hamlin T. Risk, who died in 1916, was a prolific writer of occa- 
sional and commemorative poems, which were published locally and in church 
and metropolitan papers. 

Dr. Frank Clijtwood of Connersville has written a number of creditable 
poems which have found their way into the papers. William Dungan, for 
many years a resident of \\'aterloo township, and now living in Conners- 
ville, has a volume of poems written in long hand containing more than one 
hundred of his productions. Harlan E. Stephens, a native of Orange town- 
ship and now living on a farm in Fairview township, has written a number 
of poems which he has set to music. Many of these have been published 
in sheet-music form and have commanded an extensive local sale. He con- 



FAYKTTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 389 

tributed a .Memorial Day poem for tlic Co)uicrsrillc 'fiiiics in 1887 wliich 
\va.>^ widely copietl. I). W. McKce, a niem1)cr of the local bar, writes occa- 
sional verse and ctnitrilnited the poem which was reatl at tlie Centennial 
hancpiet. 

Earl Williams, now as.sociated with the Coiiiicrsrillc News, has written 
a number of poems and stories, but lias had \ery few of them published. He 
has recently completed a no\el which his friends are anxiouslv waitin-i' to 
read upon its publication. Mr. Williams is a versatile writer of both prose 
and poetry and all of his work bears the imiirint of real genius. 

MI.sCEr.I.ANE(jrS WRITERS. 

Among those who ha\-e written on subjects of a miscellaneous character 
may be mentioned W. F. L. Sanders. John P. Brown. Ryland ']", Brown, 
Lewis Edwards, Hyatt L. Frost and William H. Tate, a son of "Jimuel". 
Air. Sanders has been connected with the schools of Connersville and other 
cities for a number of years and is the author of two text-books which were 
formerly widely used: "The English Sentence,"' and a "Spelling Book." 
John P. Brown was the editor of a magazine on arboriculture published in 
Connersville. Several years later he published a volume entitled "Practical 
Arboriculture" (1906), which is regarded as a standard authority on this 
subject. 

Ryland T. Brown was a newspaper man, physician, geologist and one 
of the best known citizens of Fayette county before the Civil War. He spent 
his later years as a professor in Northwestern Christian University at Indi- 
anapolis as head of the department of natural science. He is the author of 
one of the first text-books on physiologv which was produced in the United 
States. 

Mrs. Jennie Buckley Carter, a life-long resilient of the C(juntv, has 
written many educational and political articles for metropolitan newspajiers. 
Hyatt L. l-Vost, a leading lawyer oi Connersville. has written rather exten- 
sively regarding automobile touring and other subjects. 

I,ewis Edwards, a native of the county, now a resident of Xorman, 
Oklahoma, deserves inclusion among the literary people of Fayette county. 
He has always been an extensive traveler and has a happy faculty of describ- 
ing his travels in such a style as to make them \ery readable. He has been 
contributing travel letters to the Coinwrsc'illc A'czi's for many years — letters 
from every part of the world which he has visited. It is safe to say that 
more than five hundred of these letters ha\e appeared in the local papers. 



390 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Frank M. Huston, a brother of M. Helen Huston, of Connersville, has 
been financial editor of the Chicago Evening Post for a number of years and is 
considered one of the best writers on general financial subjects in the country. 
Nathaniel W. Wright, a former Fayette county resident and now living in 
Toledo, is one of the big newspaper men of the country who may be included 
in the list of Fayette covuity literary people. He was a resident of Conners- 
ville from 1869 to 1904. He is the owner of the Toledo Free Press and 
at least two other metropolitan papers of wide circulation. 

The contributor of this chapter is pleased to add to the list of local 
writers the name of the supervising editor of this volume. During 1910 to 
1912 Mr. Barrows wrote for such magazines as Colliers JVeeklx, The Stnart 
Set, The Blue Book and Hearst's Magazine. His financial articles in var- 
ious national magazines were written under his own name. The bulk of his 
writing consisted of short stories under the noni de plume, "Frederic Irving." 
His efforts in this line were abruptly stopped in 19 12 by entering a line of 
work which left no time for side-lines. 

No record of literary efifort in Fayette county would be complete without 
a mention of George Randolph Chester, of "Wallingford" fame. Mr. Chester 
here spent the first few months after severing a salaried connection with a 
newspaper staff, and some of his most interesting characters were inspired 
during that period. For many years he was a regular visitor at Connersville 
and an intimate acquaintance of those with kindred interests. 

Finally, on word would be complete without mention of Edwin W. 
Tatman, editor of the Connersznile News, if not the producer, at least the 
encourager of multitudes of literary effusions. Always a sane critic, he 
was more — a sympathetic visioner of better things to come. 

A FEW SAMPLES OF LOCAL POETRY. 

Following will be found a few of the poems that have appeared from 
time to time as the work of local poets, interesting contributions to the 
literature of the White Water valley. 

PLAYMATES. 

By Earl WiUoughby Williams. 

A blue yarn ball that is old aud wise, 

At the end of a raveled string. 
And a wonderful bear with brown glass eyes 

And a smile for everything — 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 39I 

Slaves are the two, for they have no choice 

But to do the strange commands 
Of :i tDttminK. tow-head angel's voice 

And two liltio tousling hands; 

And woe to tbeni if they fail to heed. 

Though the angel's voice be low. 
For the angel's ire is swift indeed. 

And the bear ;iud the ball, they IvUdw. 

And yet. whenever the day is tied 

The heart of the queen is shown. 
Fur she puts them both in a cozy bed 

In the arms of the royal throne; 

Then tlie kingdom fades, as kingdoms do. 

And the iionii) and the power they flee. 
For the sjinie old Sand Man takes the two 

And the tow-head angel, three. 



ABOUT LITTLE HOMER. 

By William Dungan. 

Little Homer Broaddus came home one Sunday night 
And called out loudly. "Mother, where's that light;" 
His mother heard his words and sfiid: 
"Hush np that noise and go to bed." 

"I will as soon as I warm my feet; 

But. Mother. I wish I had something to eat. 

Are there any sweet potatoes; tell nie, if you can. 

Where is that rice pudding you made in that pan"/" 

Homer at last found a light, 

Then everything went on all right ; 

He went to the cupboard like a fox so sly 

And ate his mamma's pumpkin pie. 

He ate a bowl of milk and bread. 
Then pulled off his boots and went to bed; 
And all that night had happy dreams. 
Waking from sleep with the daylight's beams. 

So down .stairs he made his way, 

r>opJjing cheerful, glad and gay ; 

"Where were you last night my darling boy — 

What makes you smile, so bright and gay?' 



392 FAYETTE "COUNTY, INDIANA. 

"I'll tell you, mother, by the way, 

Xou know last night I went astray; 

So what makes me feel so well' — 

Last nigbt I liad the best chat with Miss Caldwell." ' 

[As a matter of history Homer Bromldiis later iiianied Alice Caldwell, but both of 
them have been deceased for many years. This little ikhmii was written to be read before 
the Beeson Literary Society, Broaddus being- a niemlier nt the society, and present the 
night the poem was read by Mr. Dungau— more than thirty years ago.] 



DEDICATED TO Bl'XKER HILL. 

By William' H. Tate. 

It reminds me of a picture I have seen 

Of verdant hills with a vale between ; 

A babbling brooklet running through 

And an old frame house by the streamlet, too, 

Where boyhood fancies were a little greater 

Than the man pictures them a few years later. 

The back ground of the Hill is the old, old earth. 
And the picture itself the picture of my birth ; 
Molded by nature's indelible hand 
From the rocks, and the clay and the -sand; ; 
Enraptured by song of the robin and wren, ,. ~ 

Let it be home as it was then. 

At the breaking of day when the gi-eat red sun 

Emblazoned the morn of the day just begun; 

The charming, sweet chorus of the gleeful wood folk 

Has oft from my pillow my sleepy head woke 

And I sang and I danced in the morning so new 

'Midst joys all around me and troubles so few. 

I watched in the spring time the rills trickle by; 

The soft, fleecy clouds float 'neath the blue sky; 

The thrush and the oriole building their nest. 

And the flowers awakening from a long winter's rest. 

How jocund I was my tongue cannot tell. 

To hear the rain-drops on the roof as they fell. 

Jly father afield with his team and the plow: 

My mother bent down, with a i)ail, b.y the cow; 

The geese on the creek, with wings .spreading wide^ 

They ambled about as the growing wind sighed; 

The calf in tlie lot with the pup was at play ; 

My work quite forgotten. I had scampered away. 



- FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The cliii-ks in tlu' lumltr.v y.-ird iicciumI from Ihoir coo 
The boughs in the on-hnnl wciv liogiiiiiiiig In (Iniop; 
The hjiy MUd the whe;it were stiiiuiing in shocks, 
As thick on the ground :is the sheep in their flocks; 
The apples were drying, the berries all canned, 
And the weather .so hot thai 1 had lo be fanned. 

The nights and the days nne(iually grew, 

Yet the gra.ss in the fields was all wet with the dew; 

The sun passed over and sank in the west. 

To pacific repose in its cradle of rest — 

"Midst the song of the cricket, the cro.ik of the frog. 

The mew of the cat and the whine of the dog. 

The corn in the field, with its great yellow eaf, 

Presagetl certain that Autuuui was near; 

The wheat in the bin, the fledglings awing. 

And we pa.ssed to the dead like to life in the Spring; 

But uierry was I. and I skipped as I went. 

And winked a farewell to the season just s|ient. 

The fallow made re.-iily, the glebe w.is all broke. 

The sower abroad soon after he woke; 

The wheat sprouted forth with its green for the whi 

The fodder in .shocks was a beautiful sight : 

O'er hills and throngli meadows, by dam and by pool. 

I gamboled in n.-itnre as I jonrney'd to school. 

The games that I playeil on the green of old swamp 
Were played by the players in true, kingly pomp ; 
My tasks were assigned me and my labors begun, 
And I studied quite hard to excel everyone; 
Think you not for a moment that the act was amiss, 
For the closing of school was simply all bliss. 

The wagon-bed filled with great golden ears: 

The pens built of rails, with tiers upon tiers; 

The orchard's deep fruitage in the cellar was stored; 

The bung in the cider b.-irrel carefully bored. 

And I sat there astride, with str.-iw after straw. 

In my riile to contenlnient. with draw aftci- dr.-iw. 

The .stables prepared for the colts .and the kino; 
The sheds rearranged to .shelter the swine; 
The flowers all dead, and the birds flown away, 
The leaves sprinkled, — it was Autumn's last day; 
And I hailed with a whoop the season so near — 
Old Winter ! old Winter ! to boyhood so dear ! 



393 



394 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

I always set my traps for 'possums and for skunks, 
But all the catches I recall were weasels and chipmunks. 
The coon I'd often trail to his lofty woodland bower, 
Though to get his furry coat was beyond my youthful power; 
In the bramble was the coney, which I also hunted then — 
But if I killed one running, I can't remember when. 

The snow with glistening whiteness fell thick on hill and dale, 

And blocked up half the highways with drifts made by the gale; 

The stream that babbled b.v, lost the accent of its song. 

And it whispered softly to the rocks as it seemed to dance along; 

I skated on its cover and. really, I was glad 

That it had lost its accent by being now thus clad. 

I coasted down the hill and snow-balled with the boys, 

And waited patiently for Santa with his toys ; 

There were strains of sweetest music from the fiddle and the horn, 

And that my life was palmy is as sure as I was born; 

Around the fireplace, with back-log burning low 

Sat I there, in childlike faitli. secure from every foe. 

RETROSPECTION. 

And now I look down the long-trodden lane. 
From the top of my years to boyhood's plain ; 
And I turn from the scene with eyes full of tears, 
And groan 'neath the burdens of on-coming years; 
Yet I long and I love and I watch and I smile, 
And I liibor and wait, and trust all the while. 



CHRISMI'S TIME IS HEAH. 

By Mrs. W. E. Ochiltree. 

Don't you heah dem bells a ringiu". 
Don't you heah dem angels singin'. 
Don't you see dem doves a tlyin'. 
Don't ,vou heah de chilluns cryin'? 

Chrismus time is heah ! 



Don't you see dat puddin' smokin'. 
Don't you see ole mammy pokiu' 
At de fiah, to heat the oven. 
Don't you see us all a movin' — 
'Cause Chrismus time is heah? 

Don't ,vou think ole Santa's neah, 
Don't you- feel de happy cheeah' 
In yo' heart come up a singin'. 
When you hear dem bells a ringiu', 
'Cause Chrismus time is heah? 



FAYETTF. COUNTY. INDIANA. 395 

nou't you know (lis iiiu do diiy 
When all folks au' iiukpIs say, 
"Peace on earth, to uieu good-will'.'" 
Bethrem's Star am shinin' still, 
On every Chrisuins day. 

TO THE FLAG. 

By I>. W. .McKee. 

All hail to tlR" tl.if: of the l>rave and free: 

Far famed in song and in story. 

It waves o'er the hmd, it floats o'er the sea. 

And no other lianner ever can be 

So dear to us as "Old (ilory." 

Then hail to the flag, the red, blue and white. 
Its stars and stripes tell the stoiy 
Of the fathers' tight for freedom and right 
Through seven long years of war's lurid night 
That gave to the world "Old (Jlory." 

Though we have no turreted castles old 
With moss and with lichens hoary. 
We've a heritage richer far than gold— 
'Tis a birth-right which h.is never been sold, 
Our freedom under "Old Glory." 

From the North .-uid the South, the East and the West, 

From the fields of battle once gory. 

All strife now at rest, as one nation blest 

From the ocean's strand to the mountains crest, 

We've only one flag, "Old Glory." 

Then fresh garlands bring to our (Jod and King: 
Tell millions unborn the story. 
Let loud anthems ring as His praise we sing 
And proudly to heaven our banners fling. 
While over all floats "Old Glory." 



Choi- 



Then hark to the song as it rolls ak 
Its theme is our country's story. 
Cheer, cheer, the old flag, till from hi 
The echoes ring hack, "Old Glory." 



396 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

SOME ARTISTS OF FAYETTE COUNTY. 

In tlie course of a hundred years Fayette county has produced a few 
artists wlio liave won. more tlian local fame. Probably the first of a number 
was Adam Robe, a nati\e of Connersville, and a resident of the county up 
to the time of the Civil War. In that struggle he was connected with 
Harper's Weekly as pictorial correspondent and his drawings of battlefields 
and other events of the war were known throughout the length and breadth 
of the country. After the war closed he drifted West and Connersville lost 
sight of him. The next time that local people heard of him was at the time 
of the World's Fair at Chicago in 1893, when he appeared as the director 
of art exhibits of one of the Western states at the exposition. His death 
has occurred within recent years. 

The only artist of recent years who has made painting the means of a 
livelihood is Rozzie Morrison, a daughter of Alexander Morrison and a 
sister of J. H. Morrison. She was born in Connersville and early in life 
developed talent for painting. For several }-ears she has maintained a studio 
in Washington, D. C, where she dex'otes her time to miniature work. She 
is one of the direct descendants of Joshua Harlan, one of the first settlers 
in Connersville, and the donor of the present court house square. 

A'ccording to the opinion of Theodore Heinemann, who may very 
properly be called the dean of Fayette county artists, and who has furnished 
all of the data for this article on the artists of the county, the most gifted 
natural artist of the county is Frederick Conwell, better known as "Fritz" 
Conwell. He is the son of William Conwell, another gifted artist of the 
city, but in a totally dififerent line than his son. The junior Conwell is 
employed by a Chicago firm as a designer and interior decorator, and also 
as an outside painter of artistic ad\-ertising signs. He is strictly a com- 
mercial artist, but his work in his line stamps him as being a genius. His 
mother is still living in Conners\ ille. Philip Braun, Jr., the son of Mayor 
Philip Braun, has shown considerable artistic aljility as a commercial artist. 
He is a protege of Conwell and has already done considerable work of a 
creditaljle character. 

Among the younger generation of artists the name of E. Pierre Wain- 
wright is probably the best known, ^\''hile his work thus far has been largely 
of a commercial nature, some of it in the shape of newspaper cartoons, yet 
he has shown considerable native talent. He is now giving most of his time 
and attention to interior decorative work for a Chicago firm. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 397 

Tliere are a score or more of local painters of more or less ability, most 
of whom are women. .\s in every city the size of Connersville there are 
a number of women who do a little china painting or pastel work. Draw- 
ing is taught in the city schools and the teacher in charge usually has had 
art-school training. The ])resent teacher of drawing in the city schools is 
lone Reynolds and she does very creditable work herself, while she has had 
excellent success- in helping her pupils to a l^etter appreciation of art, e\en 
though they may not be able to become artists themselves. There can be 
no question that tiie teaching of drawing in the public schools w ill result in 
more artists in the community within the next few years. 

l'~inally, the historian desires to pay a tribute to the best landscape 
artist the county has ever ]iro(luced. .\ny one who has had the ])rivilege of 
examining the scores of landscapes of Theodore Heinemann, a native and 
lifelong resident of Connersville, will recognize in his work the brush of a 
lo\er of Fayette county scenery. He has preserved for future generations 
views of many landmarks which have already disappeared and many others 
which will soon be lost to the eye fore\-er. His pictures cover a wide variety 
of subjects: Sketches i)\ the old canal from various viewpoints; bits of 
scenery up and down the White Water \alley and around Connersville; old 
houses, churches, mills, streets of the city and many other points of interest 
have found in him a faithful delineator. In connection with the history of 
the Catholic church set out in this \dlume is reproduced a sketch of the first 
Catholic church, which he made when a small boy, the only sketch of any 
kind extant of the church. The artist has never taken a lesson in painting, 
but nevertheless is able by virtue of his inherent talent to produce work 
which compares very favorably with that of many others who ha\-e had 
technical training. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Churches of Fayette County. 

The religious life of Fayette county spans a period of more than a cen- 
tury, and during these years scores of churches have come into existence 
representing fourteen different denominations. The religious history of this 
county is not unlike that of all other counties in the southern part of the 
state ; many of the churches which (ince boasted of flourishing congregations 
have long since disappeared, and some others have practically been discon- 
tinued. 

When it is taken into consideration that there were more people living 
in the rural districts of Fayette county in 1840 than there are today, an 
explanation may be seen for the disappearance of these rural churches. With 
the abandonment of most of the churches there also disappeared their records 
and for this reason it is difficult to trace their history wuth any degree of 
accuracy. This county, like all other counties in the southern part of the 
state, formerly had what were known as union churches, that is, a building 
erected bj' the people of the community for the use of any denomination 
which might care to occupy it. 

The first denominations to establish congregations in the county were 
the Methodists and the Baptists and both denominations had secured a foot- 
hold in the county before it was organized in 1S19. The Methodists have 
had no less than twenty-two different churches in the county, while the 
Baptists have had at least twelve distinct church organizations. These two 
denominations had the field to themselves until about the middle of the 
twenties, when the Presbyterian church made its first appearance in the 
county. The Christian church came in before the close of this decade. These 
four denominations — Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians and Christian.s — 
represented practically the only Protestant denominations up to 1850. 

In the early part of the fifties the Lutheran church made its appearance, 
following immediately after the first influx of Germans to the county. Later 
came the Universalists, United Firethren, Episcopalians, Seventh-Day 
Ad\'entists and the Pentecostal church of the Xazarene. Mention should 
be made of the Society of Friends, which had a church organization for a 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 399 

sliort time in the cmiiity. It was located in tlie extreme eastern part of 
Jackson townsliip (section 23). hut tlie most difficuU research lias failed to 
disclose just when it was estahlished or wlien it was ahandoned. Tt is 
known, however, that it disapjieared many years hefore the Civil War. 

There is only one Catholic church in the comity and it is found in the 
county seat. It dates from 1844 and has had a continuous and prosperous 
existence since its organization. There is a Catholic church at Laurel in 
P'ranklin county, a few miles below the Fayette county line, and another 
Catholic church at Cambridge City in Wayne county, just north of Fayette 
county. Both of tliese churches have members in b'ayette county. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHfRCHES. 

The early liistor\- of AletlKKlism in I*"a}-ette county is \er_\- obscure owing 
to the fact that there were no regularly organized congregations, but only 
"classes", as they were then called. It was not until the early twenties that 
the population was sufficient to warrant the establishment of a church with 
a definite organization. Rev. David Sharpe. who traveled the White Water 
circuit in 181 3, has left the liest account of the early history of the church 
as it existed in the count} at that time. The old account, which also carries 
with it the history of his whole circuit, is here gi\-en in full: 

Mr. Sliiirpe began his work at Brookville, and preached there his first Sunda.v. from 
there on Monday to Williams' on Deer Creek: Tuesda.v. to Dryson's tilock-house, about 
four miles below Laurel: Wednesday, to Robert's block-house: Tuesday, to Jlontgom- 
ery'.s, in Wayne county; Friday, at Moflitt's, on the east fork of White Water; Satur- 
day, in Hugh Cull's neighborhood: Sunday, at .John Meek's, on the east side of the 
East Kork of White Water; Jlonday, in the court house in Xew Salisbury; Tuesday, 
at Hardy Cain's; Wednesday, at Abijah Cain's; Thursday, name of place forgotten; 
Friday, at Eaton, Treble county, Ohio; Saturday, si.x miles north of liiton-; Sunday, 
at Widow Sharpe's, on Twin Creek; Monday, at Stepheus', fonr miles south of Eaton; 
Tuesdaj-, at Hanna's. on Hanna's Creek. Indiana ; Wednesday, at Xott's, west of the 
East Fork on White Water; Thur.sday, at .Tones' school hou.se; Friday, at Bright's. eight 
miles above Brookville ; Sunday, at .Johnson's, on the West Fork, four miles above 
Brookville: Sunday, in the school house in Brookville. 

At each of the alx)ve appointments, he preached once in six weeks. cx<<'|it at 
Brookville. where he preached every three weeks. 

There was no jjreaching at that time at "t'onnersville Sr.it ion." Iiul lie pivmcIumI 
occasionally at Mr. Tharpe's. near the river, about one .ind one-lialf miles above Con- 
nersville. 

That the early citizens of the village of Connersville were not very 
religi')usly inclined may be judged from the following extract taken from a 
letter of a pioneer preacher. "The proprietors and first settlers of Conncrs- 



400 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 



\'ille were skeptics on religion, and it was a hard place for any Evangelical 
religious influence. The towns of Center\'ille and Brook\ille were much in 
advance of Connersville in Methodist societies." 

THE CONNERSVILLE DISTRICT. 



Fayette county is in the second, or Connersville district, of the Southern 
Indiana Methodist Conference. At the present time there are thirteen 
churches in the county, t\vo of which are independent charges, the others 
being attached to circuits of two or more churches. The following table 
compiled from the last report of the conference, shows all the Methodist 
Episcopal churches of Fayette county, except the two colored branches of 
the church at Connersville. 



Name of Church. 


Pastor. 


IMembership. 


Connersville 






First M. E. 


John W. McFall 


I, GO I 


Grand Avenue 


L. H. Kendall 


441 


Main Street 


F. M. Westhafer 


196 


Columbia 




76 


Bunker Hill 




19 


W'iley Chapel 




23 


Everton Circuit 


E. A. Hartsaw 


322 


Everton 




"3 


Alquina 




132 


Mt. Zion 




17 


Falmouth Circuit 


F. O. Overbaugh 




Falmouth 




47 


Glenwood Circuit 


Daniel Ryan 


188 


Glenwood 




138 


Orange 




50 


Brownsville Circuit 


James A. Gardner 




Robinson Chapel 




64 



The Alain Street Circuit (Connersville) also includes the Mt. Pleasant 
church of Union county: the Everton circuit includes Ouakertown, in Union 
county; the Falmouth circuit includes Raleigh, in Rush county; while the 
Brownsville circuit includes Brownsville, Woods Chapel, Boston and Locust 
Grove, all in Union county. The thirteen Methodist churches of Fayette 
county have a total membership of 2.376. 





^ 


WF 




^^^^^^^^■1.- . ;^i 




FAY'aTTE county, INDIANA. 4OI 

The minutes of the last Indiana conference also give the following data 
on the ministers now presiding over churches in Fayette county : 

John W. McFall : Borden, 1904-06; Paoli, 1906-10; Mooresville, 1910- 
T3; lutst Tenth street, Indianapolis. 1913-16; Connersville, 1916. 

L. H. Kendall: Fredericksburg, 1904-06; Moberly, 1906-09; Port 
Fulton, IQ09-13: Fdinhurg. it)i3-i6; Connersville, 1916. 

F. ?*1. \\'esthafer: Osgood, 1886-88; Lawrenceburg circuit, 1888-89; 
W'estport, 1889-93; Greenwood, 1893-98; Fairland, 1898-00; Morristown, 
1900-O-I ; ]\[ilroy. 1904-08; Ilartsville, 1908-12; Milton, 191J-13; Conners- 
ville, 191 5. 

F. A. Hartsaw : Monrovia. 1913-14; Everton, 1914. 

Daniel Ryan: Brownsville, 1 882-85; Mount Carmel, 1885-88; Clifford, 
1888-89; Irvington, 1888-91; Milroy, 1891-92; Hartsville, 1892-95; Utica, 
1895-98; Flat Rock, 1899-01; Rock-port circuit, 1901-03; New Lebanon, 
1903-05; Carlisle, 1905-0S; Hynicra, 1908-10; Fairfield. 1910-12; superin- 
tendent of Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, Knightstown, 1912-13; 
Arlington, 1913-14 ; (ilenwood, igi4. 

James A. Gardner: Junior jiastor, Hartford City, 1907-08; Rising 
Sun, 1908-OQ; Sugar Branch, 1909-TO; Osgood, 1910-11; Dupont. 1911-13; 
Milford, 1913-10; Brownsville, 1916. 

FIRST JMETHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH OV CONNERSVILLE. 

The I'irst ^Icthodist Episcopal church at Connersville traces its 
l)eginning tii the time when the first Methodist class met in the \illage at 
the home of Robert Swift. .\s Swift settled here in 1818 it is likely that the 
meeting was held in the same year. Rev. John Havens, a local preacher, 
formed a circuit in 1S21 in which was included the village of Connersville 
and was styled the Conners\ille circuit, which became a member of the con- 
ference the following year. Rev. James Murray was appointed to the cir- 
cuit in r822 and in the following year was succeeded by Rev. .\aron Wood. 
When Re\erend Wood Ijegan his labors on tlie circuit the Cnnnersville 
societ}' was composed of eight women and two men. 

In 1825 preparations were made for the erection of a church building. 
.A site was procured from John McCormick, Sr., on the south side of Fourth 
street between Water street and Eastern avenue. The deed bears the date 
of November 8, 1825, and was made to the trustees of the church, the same 
being Joshua Mclqtosh, Thomas Hinkson, David Melton. Isaac \\^iod and 
"(26) 



402 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

Charles Donovan. During the following summer a brick building twenty- 
two by thirty-two feet was erected and it thus became the first edifice dedi- 
cated to God as a place of public worship in the village. Continuous ser- 
vice was held in this building until 1,840, wlien it was supi)lanted by a much 
more modern structure on the same site. The congregation worshiped in 
this church thirty-two years at the end of which time it was sold to the Ger- 
man Presbyterian congregation. Serx'ices were then held in the court house 
until in January, 1873, when the congregation took possession of the Grand 
Opera House which they had purchased in December, 1872, at a cost of 
sixteen thousand dollars. 

In 1848 the church was divided and two societies were formed, one 
remaining in the old church and the other located on ^\'estem avenue. A 
church building was built by the later societ}- and the two congregations 
became the heads of two circuits known as the East and West Connersville 
circuits. The societies were made into .stations in 1850 and 1851 and con- 
tinued as such for three years. 

In 1853, Rev. S. T. Gillett became the presiding elder of the district. 
He and the ministers were of the common opinion that the two churches 
should be consolidated and under their management the union was effected 
and ratified by the bishop at the next session of the annual conference. The 
pastors who served the church on Western avenue were Rev. F. W. White, 
185 1 : Rev. Jacob Whiteman, 1852, and Rev. E. D. Long, 1853. The pas- 
tors of the eastern charge during the same time were Rev. J. B. Lathrop, 
1851; Rev. Tewis Dale, 1852, and Rev. Joseph Colton, 1853. 

Following is a partial list of all of the pastors since the union of the two 
churches: S. P. Crawford, 1855: E. G. Tucker, 1856-1857: J. G. Chafee. 
1858-1859; C. Tinsley, 1860-1861 ; J. Cotton, 1862-1863: J. E. Lathrop, 
1864; R. M. Barnes, 1865-1866; J. S. Tevis, 1867-1869; G. L. Curtis. 1870- 
1872; J. K. Pye, 1873-1873: J. G. Chafee, 1876-1878; E. L. Dolph, 1879; 
F. C. Holliday, 1880-1881 ; John S. Tevis, 1882-1884; John H. Doddridge, 
1885-1887; Robert Roberts, 1888-1892; Virgil W. Tevis, 1893-1897: L. F. 
Dimmitt, 1898-1900; W. B. Slutz, 1900-01; W. G. Barron. 1901-03; T. H. 
Willis, 1903-07; W. F. Smith, 1907-12; Frank Lenig, 1912-14; J. F. 
O'Haver, 19 14- 16; J. W. McFall, since 1916. 

In 1889 and 1890 the beautiful church edifice, located on Central a\-enue 
and Eighth street, was erected at an approximate cost of forty thousand 
dollars. The pastor at that time was Rev. R. Roberts and the building com- 
mittee consisted of the following: William Newkirk, J. H. Riley, L. T. 
Bower, N. W. Wright, L. J. Edwards, J. A. Sargent, Charles Roehl, A. E. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 403 

Ean-ows, J. -M. .Mcintosh, E. V. Hawkins, Edwin Mcintosh. Tlie arcln- 
tects for the building were Grapsey & Brown. 

The site of the present parsonage of the First Methodist church was 
formerly occupied as the family burying ground of General McCarty. 
After making preparations to lea\e Connersville for the West, (jeneral 
McCarty deeded the site to the trustees of the Methodist church, with the 
proviso that they should build a church over the bodies of his children. 
The offer was accepted and a church Iniilding was erected. The building- 
was a low, one-story structure, with the floor laid on the ground. The 
building was entered through two front doors, one for the men and the other 
for the women. As the congregation grew and prospered the limits of the 
church were outgrown and a new site was very much desired. Howe\'er, 
according to the provisions of the deed, the property was to revert to the 
McCarty heirs in case the site was abandoned as a church. But this matter 
was satisfactorily arranged during the pastorship of Rex-erend Ro1)erts, tlie 
heirs giving a quit claim to the property. 

The church projDerty includes the stone church, the sexton's residence 
and the parsonage, and is probably worth $60,000 to $70,000. The Sunday- 
school has an average attendance of over 600. E. V. Hawkins, the superin- 
tendent, has done long )'ears of efficient work in building up and maintaining 
this branch of the church. He has been ably assisted by John E. Page, assist- 
ant superintendent, and Charles C. Hull, teacher of the Men's Bible class, 
which has an average attendance of over 150 men. 

MAIN .STREET ilETilOPIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, EAST CONNERSVIELE. 

In tlie year 1S88 three young women. Misses Rose Lilie, Hattie Piper, 
and Anna Elmendorf, became interested in the many children on the East side 
and organized a Sunday scliool. Tlie)' desired the use of tiie school house 
in which to hold their sessions, but for some reason their request was denied, 
although the law would iiave lieen on their side. They did not ])ress their 
claims, as William T. McEerren gave them tlie use of a Ijuilding whicii stood 
on the rixer bank south of the bridge. Here the school grew to number 
about one hundred and thirty members. The building was on a temporary 
foundation and so open that hogs would congregate under it and their squeal- 
ing seriously interfered with the work of the school. Others liecame inter- 
ested and Herman Fuchs, a Lutheran, gave the ground for a church build- 
ing. Several of the different denominations of the city assisted in building a 
house to be used as a community ciiurch. The project looked well on the sur- 



404 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

face, as all such church enterprises look, but it ended as all such organizations 
usually do. A Reverend Mr. Herch, the pastor of the First Presbyterian 
church, endeavored to bring the factions together. He was a man of gentle 
spirit and had some success. The deed was made by Herman Fuchs and Eliza 
h^ichs. his wife, to the trustees of "East Connersville Chapel," August 12, 
18S9, "for church purposes only," and with the proviso: "In case there are 
no church services, Sabbath school or prayer meeting held in the building to 
be erected for a period of five years, the said real estate should revert to the 
said grantors." The trustees of East Connersville chapel were men of 
different denominations; no more than two from any one denomination could 
be allowed on the board. The trustees arranged with a Mrs. Ayers, 
wife of the Methodist pastor at Arlington, to hold a revival meeting and sev- 
eral professed conversion. Her husband came to do the baptizing. Among 
the candidates were some who desired to be immersed. This the preacher 
did, caught pneumonia and died. As the enterprise was not fulfilling th.e 
dream of the organizers they held a meeting on March 3, 1892, and instructed 
the trustees "to di.spose of the property to some religious organization recog- 
nizing the best interests of the people," the vote standing forty-eight in 
favor and five against. Se\en days later the property was deeded to the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and the trustees of the newly organized East 
Connersville Methodist Episcopal church, Charles E. Grubb, William G. 
Thomas, William T. McFerren, Ed. A. Enos, and A. J. Faurote, assumed 
the indebtedness of the old organization. In diie time this was paid. In 
1896, under the pastorate of Rev. John T. Jones, the building was remodeled 
along modern lines at a cost of three thousand one hundred dollars. The 
church with its country members supports a resident pastor, Sabbath school, 
senior and junior Epworth Leagues, a Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 
and has a flourishing Ladies Aid Society. The present pastor is F. M. 
Westhafer, A. M. 

COLUMBI.V METHODIST EPISCOPAL CflURCH. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Columbia was organized in 1822 
and became a part of the Connersville circuit the same year. The church 
was the outgrowth of a class composed of Rev. Charles Hardy, Sr., and his 
family, with others whose nanies are not now obtainable. Their first place 
of \\(irship was a school house, which stood about half way down the hill 
on the north side of the road in the village of Columbia. Later, in 1838- 
1839, a church was built west of the present residence of Noah Hood. The 
present church building was erected in 185 1 by Rev. Hugh Compton, Noah 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4O5 

Heizer and Daniel Hall. The bniklino- was repaired in 1894 and remodeled 
in 1908. At one time Columbia was the head of the circuit and the frame 
church that stands on the lot west of the church was the parsonage. 

The church was lirst a charoe on the Conners\-ille circuit, later being 
changed to the Columbia circuit, .\niong the pioneer preachers were Rev. 
.Mien \\'iley, James Ha\ens, and James Coiiwell. Reverend Griffith became 
the pastor in 1844, and was succeeded in the following year by Rev. D. A. 
Robinson and Rew Thomas Crawford, Columbia then being on the "doulilc 
circuit." .After Columbia became the head of the circuit the following early 
pastors served it: Rev. Jacob Miller, 1851-1852; Rev. VV. Dole, 185-'- 
1853: Rev. James Barnes, 1854-1855: Rev. Jesse Tasoner, 1856-1857; Rev. 
George P. Jenkins. 1858-1859: Rev. B. F. Gatch, i860; Rev. Patrick Carlin, 
1861; Rev. Isaac N. Tomlinson, 1862: Rev. T. B. Carey, 1863-1864. These 
were followed by Rev. Thomas Williams, Rev. D. C. Benjamin, Rev. Landy 
Havens, Rev. James McCaw and Re\'. John W. JNIellender. The following 
presiding elders have administered to this church: Rev. Allen Wiley, Rev. 
Enoch G. Wood, Rev. John \\'. Locke, Re\'. F. S. Holliday, Rev. Samuel T. 
Gillett, Rev. John W. Mellender, Rev. John Tevis, Rev. James A. Sargent, 
Rev. Charles Tinsley. Rev. E. L. Dolph. Rev. F. .\. Hester, Rev. C. C. 
Edwards, Rev. F. S. Tincher, Rev. E. B. Rawles, Rev. V. W. Tevis and 
Rev. C. E. Bacon. 

In connection with the church is a lively Sunday school and a Ladies 
Aid Society. The church is now associated with the Main Street church. 
Connersville, and Rev. F. M. Westhafer is the pastor. 

WESLEY CHAPEL (SECOND M. E. CHURCH). 

The colored Methodists ha\e met with more or less regularity since 1844. 
Their pastors have been connected with the Lexington conference and have 
many of them been capable men; particularly can this be said of Rev. E. A. 
White, twice elected to the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. The membership is about 125 and Rev. Singleton is in charge. The 
church has recently spent several thousand dollars improving the property 
owned since 1872. A comfortable parsonage is also owned. 

ROBINSON "S CHAPEL. 

The first Methodist society in Waterloo township and one of the first 
in the county, was that out of which later grew Robinson's chapel. Just 
when the society was organized cannot be ascertained, but it was several 



406 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

years before the formation of tlie Connersville circuit in 1822. As far back 
as history can be traced the original class was an appointment along with 
Waterloo, a class at John Ouinns, Brownsville, Bethel, Alquina, Veatches 
(Mt. Garrison) and others farther south. The old White Water circuit 
was formed in 1806 or 1807 and in all probability the society was a part 
of this circuit. A house of worship was built sometime between 1820 and 
1830 and was replaced by the present church building in 1845. 

The follo\\ing list contains the names of the earlier preachers who 
traveled the old White Water circuit and the circuits growing out of it, on 
which Robinson's chapel was an appointment: Bigelow and Gatch, 1823; 
Everhart and White. 1824; Stephens and Griffith, 1825; Havens and Jones, 
1826; Havens, 1827; Hitt and Scott, 1828; Thompson and Robinson, 1829; 
Havens and Smith, 1830; Taylor and Kimball, 1831 ; McReynolds and 
Dailey, 1832; Tarkington and Griss, 1833; Bonner and Robins, 1834; 
McReynolds and Harris, 1835; Burwick and Stallard. 1836; Phelps and 
Kiger, 1837; Beswick and Hartie, 1838: Beeks and Kelso, 1839; Kig'er and 
Landy Havens, 1840. 

No available records of the church prior to 1905 are at hand and it is 
only from this date that the names of the pastors can be given. They are 
as follow: Rev. J. T. Perry, 1905: Rev. J. W. Cardery, 1906-1907; Rev. 
C. W. Dobson, 1908; Rev. W. G. Abbott, 1909; Rev. T. R. Ragsdale, 1910; 
Rev. H. Humble. 191 1: Rev. Oscar Polhemus, 1912; Rev. W. B. Collier, 
1913-1914: Rev. A. C. Porter, March, 1915, to September, 1915, and Rev. 
J. A. Gardner, 1916-1917. 

Among the organizations of the church are a good Sunday school, 
Epworth League, a Woman's Home Missionary Society and a Queen 
Esther circle. The present membership of the congregation is seventy-five. 

ALQUINA AIETIIODTST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Alquina is one of the pioneer reH- 
gious organizations of the county. The exact date of organization is not 
known, but the society was probably the outgrowth of a class that was formed 
prior to 1820. In all probability the society was officially organized about 
1825. In 1828 the congregation was a part of the \^'hite \Vater circuit and 
remained as such for many years. Among the early members were the 
Darter, Jones and Mills families. 

The original church building was built in the early thirties and was a 
log structure, twenty-four by thirty-four feet. As the society grew and 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4O7 

prospered the log church was outgrown. A new frame Ixiilding- was liegun 
in tlie spring of 1858 and was decHcated on August 8 of that same year. 

Tlie cluirch lias alwa^'s maintained an active organization and lias an 
acti\-e Suiulay school. The ])resent niemliersliip is one hundred and thirty- 
two. The pastor is tiie Ke\-. K. A, Hartsaw. 

METHOniSTS AT ORANGE. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Orange iiad its origin in a class 
that was organized in 1822 hy Rev. J<ihn Ha\'ens, a local preacher, at the 
home of Judge Gregg, one luile west of the village of Fayetteville (now 
Orange). The class was comj^osed of the following: Judge Gregg and 
wife, Samuel Rounds and wife, Noah Dawson and wife, Mrs. Sarah George, 
Hugh Wilson, Thomas Dawson', John Merrick, Sr., and John 'Merrick. Jr. 
Prior to tlie erection of a building in Fayetteville in 1838, meetings 
were conducted in a wagon shop Owned by John Merrick. The first church 
was used until 1872, in which year a new edifice was erected at a cost of 
three thousand dollars. 

■ In the beginning the church was an appointment on the Conners\-ille 
circuit and remained as such until the formation of the Columbia circuit in 
1 85 1. Later it became a charge on the Glenwood circuit and still remains as 
such. Rev. Daniel Ryan is the pastor and the membership is about fifty. 

MT. ZION METHODIST CHURCH. • 

' A sufticient number of ^Methodists settled in Jackson township during 
the earl}- days to establish the Mt. Zion Methodist church. Among the 
early settlers who were instrumental in forming a Methodist church were 
John Plummer and wife. Noble Ladd and wife, ^Michael Bash and wife, John 
Williams and wife, David ^^'illiams and wife. Miles H. Larimore and wife, 
the Silveys and.Eskews. The site of the graveyard and church was donated 
by John Plummer. In the course of time additional burial ground was 
needed and a two-acre tract was deeded to the church by Basil Roberts. 

The first church house was a hewed log structure that was built about 
1820, and was used as a place of worship until destroyed by fire about 1836. 
Soon afterward a new edifice Avas erected by Alfred Shaw. Until 1835 Mt. 
Zion was an appointment on the old White Water circuit, which at that time 
included nearly twenty preaching places. 

Many changes ha\e been made in the church since the early days. The 



408 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

congregation is now an appointment on the Everton circuit and the pastor is 
Rev. E. A. Hartsaw. Tlie present membership of tlie cinn'ch is seventy- 
seven. 

BUNKER HILL METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Rehgious services were first held at Bunker Hill by the Baptists. 
On September 22, 1832, a deed to fifty-three one-hundredths of an acre of 
ground, where the church now stands, was made to Avery Gates, Isaac 
Travis and Charles Henderson, trustees, by Calvin Smith and Deborah 
Smith, his wife; consideration twenty-five dollars. After a time the Bap- 
':ists ceased their work there leaving the church to an\- denomination that 
would continue the work for the good of the community. The Disciples of 
Christ took up the work for a time and abandoned it. After this Rev. 
Thomas H. Hench, pastor of the First Presbyterian church in Connersville, 
frequently preached for the people there, but did not organize a society. The 
work seems to have been, during these years, that of a community church, 
for most part, and resulted as such religious work usually does — bore poor 
fruit, from lack of system and Organization. Later the Methodists got per- 
mission to carry on the work, repaired the building and had a reopening. 
The Presbyterian preacher, who had made many friends among the people, 
was invited to speak on this occasion. He said he had set Presb3'terian 
eggs, but they had hatched out Methodists. For awhile this church was on 
Columbia circuit, later with Falmouth circuit. The early ]\Iethodists were 
Washington M. Michener and Eliza, his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Bund- 
rant and "Grandmother" Derrickson, who always "testified," to the pleasure 
and profit of all who heard her. Following these the \york was continued 
by Josephine Michener, Mary B. (Michener) Burris, now of Indianapolis, 
Edwin Michener, Abraham Michener, Ella (Michener) Davis, Oscar Mich- 
ener, Effie (Michener) Ouyle and her husband, L. E. Quyle, C. L. Tate and 
others, who started early in the work and are continuing patiently. Bunker 
Hill Methodist Episcopal church is now connected with Main Street, Con- 
• nersville circuit. Rev. F. AI. Westhafer is the pastor. 

WILEY CHAPEL METHODIST CHURCH. 

Wiley Chapel Methodist church was the outgrowth of a class organized 
during the early settlement of the county. The charter membership of the 
society included the families of the following: John Hawkins, Joshua 
Wallace, Robert Fielding, Andrew Moffett, John Moffett, Sr., Thomas 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4O9 

Moffett, John Rees. Steplien Kees, James Moldeii and Tiatl Molden. For 
many years the society owned no Ijiiikhng- but held services at the home of 
Thomas Moffett. Later, Sunday scliool and church serxices were held in a 
building formerly used as a store room, which was owned ])y Moffett. 
Finally a chapel was built b>' John Moffett in 1S44, which lias been remodeled 
twice since that time. 

Among' the early ministers connected with the church were the l\e\-erend 
Stone. Re\'. John Winchester, Rew \\'illianison Terrell, Rew John Locke, 
Re\-. George Smith, Rew G. P. Jenkins. Re\-. Samuel T. Gillett, Rew Isaac 
N. Tonilinson, Rev. B. V. Gatch, Rev. S. S. McMahan and Rev. J. R. 
Soured. For many years the congregation was a charge on the Falmouth 
circuit but at a recent conference it was placed in the care of the Main 
Street (Connersville) circuit. The present membership of the congregation 
is twenty-three. Although Rev. F". M. ^^'esthafer is the pastor in charge, 
he is assisted in his work by Rev. Phares Di Ball. 

MKTHODIS'IS .\T EN'ERTON. 

Li the earl_\- fifties a .Methodist society at F^verton erected a small frame 
editice, which was used until both congregation and building became so 
weakened as to be abandoned. Prior to this meetings were held in the village 
without res]ject to denomination, hut finally resulted in the organization of 
a regular church society which in the course of time became a Methodist 
congregation. 

In 1889 ]Mrs. Rebecca Lake donated two acres ior church and cemetery 
purposes and in the same year the present building was erected. V.. R. 
Lake donated an additional acre for cemetery purposes a short time after- 
ward. The last report of the church shows a membership of one hundred 
and thirteen. The present pastor is Rev. E. .-\. Hartsaw. 

ABANDONED METHODLST CHURCHES. 

A Methodist class was formed three miles southwest of Alquina prior to 
1820, but no organization was formed until about 1825. F'or many years 
services were conducted at the homes of the meml^ers and very often at the 
home of James Worster, whose father was the first Methodist minister west 
of the Allegheny mountains. 

The first church building was the usual log structure and was rather 
small, being about twenty by twenty-seven feet. The lot for the building 



4IO FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

was given by John and Samuel Huff. This building- satisfied the needs of 
the congregation for many years, but in the course of time a frame addition 
Avas made to the log structure, making the building thirty-six by forty-five 
feet in size. The families who were instrumental in the organization and main- 
tenance of the church were the Veatches, the Worsters, Eyestones and 
Millners. 

TL'LI.IS CHAPEL METHODIST CHURCH. 

The Tullis Ghapel Methodist church was another one of the Methodist 
churches organized at the time of the institution of the Coimersville circuit 
in 1822. At that time a class was meeting at the home of a man by the 
name of Hinkson, located in the southern part of Connersville township. 
Among the early members were John Hinkson and wife, Susan Hinkson, 
Anna Reagan, William Harrall, Mrs. Roberts, George Hinkson and wife, 
and John Grace, the latter of whom was leader of the class. About 1836 
the society erected their first church building, which was constructed of brick 
and was used until about 1861 or 1862. 

The site of the old church and graveyard was donated by Henry Tullis. 
The site of the later church was deeded to the congregation by John Messer- 
smith. The congregation ceased to exist many years ago. 

One of the early religious societies in Orange township was that of the 
Methodists. Services were held in school houses and in the homes of the 
members until about 1837, when a small building was erected in the southern 
part of the township. The society existed until about 1875, when, on account 
of natural and usual circumstances, the organization was abandoned and 
the building was sold to Alexander Matney. 

EARLY METHODISTS IN POSEY TOWNSHIP. 

Quite a large number of the early settlers in Posey township were Meth- 
odists and it was they who formed the first religious body within the township. 
Meetings were conducted in the homes of the members, who, in the begin- 
ning, included Dower, Hardin, Miller, Wilson and a few other families. 
Among the later members were Thomas Stiles and' wife, George Patterson 
and wife and John Eyestone and wife. The society was included in the Con- 
nersville circuit, which only recently had been formed, and was a very large 
one. The appointment remained on the Connersville circuit foi" many years 
hut later became a part of the charges along the western part of the county. 

The first house of worship was a log structure which stood about a mile 



FAYT^'ITE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4II 

and a half southwest of Bentonville. Later tlie congregation IniiU a frame 
house at Bentonville, but this was tinally disposed of to the township and 
was converted into a public hall. The society is no longer in existence. 

For twenty-five years or more prior to the Civil War, there existed a 
Methodist congregation which worshipped at a log church that stood on 
the ground later occupied by the English Lutheran denomination in the 
northern part of Jackson township. The society exerted a great deal of 
influence during the early period, but gradually passed out of existence 
because of deaths and removals. The ground upon which the old log house 
stood was donated by the few remaining Methodists, about 1863, to the 
English Lutheran denomination, which completed a frame church there in 
1865. The first congregation was styled the Union Methodist Episcopal 
church and among those identified within early organization were Basil 
Roberts and wife, Isaac Updyke and wife, P. Silvey and wife, George Talbot 
and wife, Nathan Aldridge and wife, and ,\mos Noah and Nicholas Pum- 
])hre}' and their wives. 

During the early forties the Methodists built a small lueeting-house on 
the land of James Mount in the northwest quarter of section 33, Connersville 
township. Services were held there for many years by the Methodists, and 
later by other denominations, but all traces of the building have long been 
erased. 

The first Methodist congregation in the township that was included 
in the Connersville circuit was at the home of the grandfather of Thomas 
Hinkson. The size of the society was very small, in 1823 consisting of 
Grandfather Hinkson and wife, Thomas Hinkson and wife, Mrs. Basil 
Roberts and daughter and Merrill Williams. 

BAPTIST CHURCHES. 

The Baptists were the first to establish churches in Fayette county 
and as early as 18 14 there were three definite congregations in existence 
in the county: Franklin church, located just below NuUtown ; New Bethel, 
which now stands at the edge of the village of Lyonsville in the northern 
part of Jennings township, and Lick Creek, the first branch of which was 
established a short distance south of the village of Harrisburg. Of these 
three churches the one located at Lyonsville is still in existence, and has 
had an unbroken history of nearly one hundred and three years^ — the oldest 
church organization in the county, and one of the oldest in the state. 

During the century which has elapsed since the first church was organ- 



412 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

ized there have heen eleven different Baptist churches organized in the 
county, and of these seven are still in existence. In the forties there was a 
schism in the Baptist communion, a schism which extended to nearly all 
the Baptist churches of the United States, and this resulted in the forma- 
tion of new churches by those who seceded from the parent church. So 
many years have passed since those troublesome times of the forties that 
the causes of the dissension which disrupted so many of the churches have 
been nearly forgotten. Tiie main facts in the matter seem to be substantially 
as follows: 

In the confusion arising from the use of a multiplicity of local names 
it is extremely difficult to define the distinction between the several branches 
of the church. There were Softshells and Hardshells, Means and Anti- 
Means, I'rimitive and Missionary (Free-Will), Close Communion and Open 
Communion, New School and Old Schdol, and other names, some of them 
applied in derision — all of which were in current use in the forties and 
many years later. 

These different names were often applied indiscriminately, but in reality 
there were but two marked divisions of the church — the Primitive, or Anti- 
Means, and the ^Missionary, or Means. Questions of church discipline and 
management, of music in the church, of Sabbath schools, of the character 
of ministerial call, were responsible for the dissension. Those who beheved 
in a divinely called ministry for the edification of the saved, were denom- 
inated Hardshells. or Anti-Means, while those who softened the predestina- 
tion dogma considerabl\- were the ^Missionary Baptists. The question of 
secret societies was also a frec^uent cause of trouble. 

Both branches are still represented in Fayette county in 191 7. As far as 
is now known there have been only two branches which have called them- 
selves Missionary Baptists. One was located about a mile west of Benton- 
ville, but disappeared before the Civil War ; the other is still in existence. It 
is the Twelfth Street church at Connersville, locally known as the First Bap- 
tist church. There are still three branches of the Primitive Baptists in exis- 
tence, the Village Creek church, located about a mile and a half southeast 
of Connersville; the second, known as the Williams Creek church, is in the 
northwestern comer of Harrison township, and the Lyonsville church. The 
Regular Baptists are represented by two congregations, the North Lick 
Creek and East Connersville churches. Another branch of the Baptist church, 
the German Baptists, usually called Dunkarcls, or Dunkers, is represented 
by a church in Waterloo township. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 4I3 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH AT CONNERSVILLE. 

The First Baptist church at Coiinersville was formally organized (ju 
March 12, 1899, with the following- charter members: H. T. Thomas 
and wife, Cora Thomas, S. D. Lynch and wife, L. D. Worden and wife, 
L. J. Stiff and wife. Claire Stiff, Buelah Stiff, Mrs. Minnie Watson. G. L. 
Huxtable and wife, W. C. Seward and wife, Mrs. Alice Jordan, Ola Jordan, 
Mrs. Lida Swain and R. B. Fowler and wife. Most of these charter mem- 
bers were former members of the North Lick Creek church. Rev. O. J. 
Redmon was the first regular pastor and he was succeeded by the following : 
Rev. C. L. Berry, Rev. H. E. Wilson, Rev. William Spencer, Rev. L. C. 
Bauer, Rev. S. A. Sherman. Rev. C. F. Dame and Rev. J. Leo Noland, 
the present pastor. 

The congregation owns a frame building at the corner of Twelfth 
street and Grand avenue that was dedicated in March, 1900, at a cost of 
five thousand dollars; also a neat parsonage built in 1906 at a cost of two 
thousand five hundred dollars. The congregation has grown steadily since 
its inception and now has a membership of ninety. 

FRANKLIN BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The original records of the Franklin Baptist church at Alpine show 
that it was formally organized on March 17, 1814, and thus it was one of 
the first churches to be organized within the limits of the county, if not, 
indeed, the first church. The church started out with twenty-three charter 
members, namely: Charles Scott, Archibald Guthrie. Rachel Guthrie, Wil- 
liam Helm, Elizabeth Helm, Allen Cresler, Frances Cresler, John Conner, 
Polly Conner, Joshua Cregler, Sarah Cregler, David Gillam, Elizabeth Gil- 
lam, Polly Gillam, William Morgan, Sarah Morgan, Edward Webb, Polly 
Webb, John Webb, James Xewbouse, Eliza Newhouse and Hugh Brownlee. 
James Newhouse and David Conner were among the first ministers. The 
church was organized by Riders Lewis Deweese and William Tyner. of 
Cedar Grove, in Franklin county: Elder James Smith, of West Fork churcii. 
and Elder John Blades. .\s first constituted it was what was then known as 
an "Old School" Baptist churcli. 

Meetings were held at the homes of the members until a building was 
provided. The first liuilding was erected of iiewed logs, and was a one-story 
structure with a gallery, .\lthough it appears from the records that it was 



414 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

not completed until 1817, yet it is known that services were held in the 
house a year or more before it was finished. For many years the pulpit 
was filled by ministers from neighboring churches, the congregation not 
being able to employ a regular minister. John Conner was made an elder 
in 1817 and, with James Newhouse, served the church until his death. Among 
the other early elders were David Conner, Madison Conner and William 
Sparks. Madison Conner was a regularly licensed minister, while William 
Sparks, althougli only an elder, preached regularly for the congregation for 
several years. The log church was abandoned in 1850 and a frame struc- 
ture was erected within the village of Alpine. This remained the property 
of the congregation until November 29, 1898, when the only remaining 
trustees. B. F. Conner and George M. Newhouse, deeded it to John H. Gray, 
William Seal and Euphrates I. Chance, trustees of the Christian church of 
Alpine, which was organized in that year. 

The history of the Franklin Baptist church at Alpine is the history 
of practically all the Baptist churches of southern Indiana in one respect. 
In 1845 the Baptists of the state became divided as the result of differences 
in regard to church polity — and there arose the "Old School" and "New 
School" Baptists. The definite schism in the Franklin congregation may be 
set down as occurring on June 30, 1840, although the separation had been 
pending for four or five years previously. 

It was e\'idently the seceders who erected the new l:)uilding in Alpine, 
the new congregation being known as the Fayette Baptist church. This sec- 
ond congregation was organized on the above stated date with the following 
charter members : Elder Daniel Conner, H. D. Conner and wife, Mary 
Conner, Nancy Reed, Henry Morris, Corwin Millspaugh and wife, and 
Benjamin F. Carter. Daniel Conner was the regular minister of the church 
until his death. Other leaders were Elders Harvey Wright, Corwin Mills- 
paugh. H. W. Conner and Benjamin F. Carter. Elder D. H. Conner is 
recorded as still preaching in 1885. 

The history of the Baptists at Alpine from the time of the schism in 
1849 on down to 1898 seems to be largely the history of the Fayette church. 
Year by year the congregation grew smaller and it became increasingly 
difficult to ha\'e regular services. The membership had practically dis- 
appeared by the nineties and with the purchase of the old frame building 
by the Christian church in i8q8. ihe Baptist church of Alpine concluded its 
history. 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 415 

REGULAR BAPTIST CHURCH AT LICK CREEK (1814-1846). 

In the years 1813 and 1814 a number of the members of the Baptist 
church removed from the lower part of the White Water valley, chiefly from 
the Ijounds of Little Cedar Gro\e church in Franklin county, and ItKated 
on the west fork of White AN'ater river. They carried with them letters 
of dismissal, and on May 14, 1814, the following named persons met at 
the home of James Tyner and there formed an organization known as the 
Baptist Church of Jesus Christ : John Tyner, Forest Webb, James Tyner, 
Thomas Carter, Richard Kolb, William \Vebb, John Gilliam, Jehu Perkins, 
William Henderson, Jesse Webb, Robert Atkinson, Fannie Tyner, Katie 
Webb, Nancy Carter, Nancy Webb, Flizal>eth Perkins, Lear Webb, Martha 
Henderson and Rebecca Anderson. 

In the following June a committee was appointed to secure a site for 
a church building, and subsequently a tract of land belonging to Forest Webb 
was chosen. It was decided by the congregation to construct a meeting 
house on the purchase in the s]>ring of 1816. This edifice was constructed of 
logs and was about thirt\- feet scjuare and contained a small gallery. This 
building served as a place of worship until 1833, when a brick structure 
thirty-five by fifty-five feet was erected. This building stood until 1882, 
when it was replaced by a neat and commodious frame structure. 

Forest AA'^ebb and John Tyner were chosen deacons of the church early 
in 1814. For a time in the l)eginning the congregation was served by visit- 
ing elders, among these being James Smith and Stephen Oldham, as moder- 
ators. Later moderators of the early period were Forest Webl), John Tyner, 
John Caldwell, Isaac ]\Iartin, Lewis Johnson, ^^'illiam Miller and Elder 
Thomas. 

Elder William Miller seems to have been ordained on June 3, 1820, as 
one of the first ministers. Later, along in the early part of the thirties, were 
John Sparks, Joseph ^Martin and Wilson Thomps(^n, all of whom served 
as pastors, the latter serving the congregation for a number of years, begin- 
ning early in 1835. 

CONTROVERSIES ON DOCTRINAL POINTS. 

The church on Lick Creek flourished and became one of the strong 
churches of the White Water Association, but dissensions and controversies 



4l6 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

on points of doctrine finall}- arose, which terminated in a division of the 
church, occurring on April ii, 1846, at which time the membership was one 
hundred and twenty. 

Out of this division grew two churches, which have been numbered 
among the strong rehgious societies of tlie count)'. Tlie division was not 
merely local, but extended beyond county and even association limits, and 
affected many of the "Old School" Baptist churches of this entire region 
of the country. Both branches of the Lick Creek church retained the name 
of the original church and each claims to be the old organization. The same 
can be said of the associations to which each belongs. For a time the two 
churches were styled the "Means" and the "Anti-Means," although these 
names were not countenanced by the congregations. For convenience one 
is herein termed the "South" church and the other the "North" church. 

REGULAR BAPTIST CHURCH OF LICK CREEK .SOUTH (1846-I917). 

This branch, after the division, retained the church property and con- 
tinued to worship in the old building until 1882, when a new edifice was 
erected. The regular minister of the old church at the time of the division 
was Elder Wilson Thompson (1846-63), who remained with those continuing 
worship in the same church. The membership of the old church, herein 
spoken of as the South church, after the division was about eighty-seven. 
Elder Thompson's successor was Elder George Harlan, who served the con- 
gregation three years. Harvey Wright followed in 1866, for a period of 
thirty-three years, or up to 1899. There was no regular pastor between 
1899 and 1903. In the latter year M. L. Ford became pastor and served 
until 1910. Din"ing Ford's pastorate manv of the meetings were held in the 
homes of the few members. There has been no pastor since 1910, the mem- 
bership having fallen away until it is not possiljle to employ a regular pastor. 

REGULAR BAPTIST CHURCH OF LICK CREEK NORTH, (1846-I917). 

About forty of the old Lick Creek membership, prominent among whom 
were James Tyner, William Webb, Ale.xander Dale, William Thomas and 
Enoch Applegate, withdrew from the old church, and declared themselves the 
Regular Baptist church of Lick Creek. Elder John Sparks was chosen 
their pastor. In 1847, o"^ and one-half acres of land, located one-half mile 
north of Harrisburg, was secured from John Caldwell and B. S. Trowbridge, 



FAYETTE CUTNTY, INDIANA. 4I7 

Upon which was erected a church edifice. Alexander Dale, William \V. 
Thomas and James Tyner were chosen the first trustees. In March, 1848, 
Elder D. H. Drummond began giving the church a portion of his time, and 
in 1854 Elder George Harlan was employed, followed by E. D. Thomas. 
Elder W. T. Pence began to serve about 1865. Following Pence came in 
succession the following: E. D. Thomas, William Sparks, Samuel Williams, 
Tlromas Lines, and William Rupert, of Kentucky. Elder Rupert preached 
for tjje congregation for about twenty years, being followed in the nineties 
by Elder Sliirle}'. Rufus Reed followed Elder Shirley in 1902. for a two- 
year period. Elder Gregg, of Boone county, Indiana, came in 1904 and 
serxed until 1006, followed by Preston Smith, a minister-banker, of \Vhites- 
town, Indiana. R. A. Fuson, the present pastor, also of Boone county, has 
had charge of the church since 1908. Regular services are held on the fourth 
Sunday of each month. There are about thirty regular members. 

.\bout 1892 a few members, about twenty-five or thirty, of the Xorth 
Lick Creek church, seceded from the old society and established themselves 
at the old brick school house, a half mile west of Harrisburg. William 
Rupert was the pastor of the seceders until his death, about ten years later; 
although during the latter part of his life. Rev. Edward W^ Harlan was the 
regular pastor. The congregation styled itself the Lick Creek Baptist church, 
while those not belonging to this group called them "Murphyites," because of 
John Murphy, one of their leaders. 

The most important event in the history of the Lick Creek church 
occurred in 1892. In this year, November 22-24, the general meeting of 
the Regular Baptists of America was held in the little church in Fayette 
county. Delegates were present from Indiana, Virginia, West Virginia, 
Ohio, Kentucky, Missouri, Kan.'^as, and Canada. 

MISSIONARY BAPTISTS. 

There have been two congregations of Missionary Baptists in Fayette 
county, but one of them disappeared more than thirty years ago and its his- 
tory has been difficult to trace. The date of its organization evidently was 
shortly after the Civil War, although it may have been even before the war. 
It was composed of a number of families living in Posey township, about a 
mile west of Bentonville, among the members being the Longwells, Carvers, 
Thomases and Knapps. They first held their meetings in a neighboring 
(27) 



4Io FAYEiTE COIjNTY, INDIANA. 

school house, and after the school house was abandoned for school purposes 
the congregation bought it, built an addition to it and used it for a church 
purposes until the society was disbanded. The church as a definite organi- 
zation disappeared about 1880. 

• GERMAN BAPTISTS. 

From 1804 to 1808, something like fourteen families, most of whom 
were from Pennsylvania and Virginia, formed a settlement along what is 
known as Four Mile creek in eastern Indiana and western Ohio. These 
pioneers were all adherents of the German Baptist church and upon effecting 
a permanent settlement began to look forward to the organization of a church 
of their denomination. Elder Jacob Miller is thought to have been the first 
German Baptist minister who preached west of the Great Miami river and 
it was he who first preached to this little group. He with the assistance of 
John Hart and a man by the name of Bolton effected the first organization. 
In later years the congregation grew rapidly, two districts were formed and 
a second church house was erected in the southern part of Union county, 
Indiana. Subsequently an organization was formed in Waterloo township, 
among whom were John Moyer, Samuel and Elizabeth McLinster, Salome 
Fiant, Sarah Moyer, Mrs. Daniel Fiant (the first member of this denomi- 
nation in the community), Daniel Jamsey, Susannah Strong, Catherine 
Priser, Martin Fiant, Mrs. Fiant, John Moss, Elizabeth Disc, Jonas and 
Mary Fiant, Samuel and Catherine Crick, Ada Simpson, John Fiant and 
wife, Polly McPherin, Lewis Paten and wife and Elizalieth and Susannaii 
Ward. 

Prior to the erection of a church edifice services were held in the homes 
of the members and also in a Ijarn. Finally tlie need of a building became 
urgent and a building committee composed of John Fiant and Isaac Pritch- 
ard was appointed for the purpose of securing a church site and securing 
funds for the erection of a building. The edifice was completed in 1868. 
Among the ministers who have served the congregation have been Rev. 
John Moyer, Rev. William Moss, Rev. Abraham Moss, Rev. Daniel Miller, 
Rev. Daniel Brown and Rev. Jacob Rife. 

NEW BETHEL REGULAR BAPTIST CHURCH, LYONSVILLE. 

The New Bethel Regular Baptist church, long since discontinued, had 
its inception on the fourth Saturday in February, 18 14, and is probably the 



FAY) NTY, INDIANA. 4I9 

first church to attempt an organization within the present limits of the county. 
Meetings were held at the homes of the members at first, but in July, of the 
same year, Charles McLaughlin and one Litteral, a committee selected by the 
congregation, made prqjarations to Iniild a house of worship. They bought 
one acre of ground from Thomas Simpson, Sr., for two dollars, and on this 
lot erected a log structure, twenty-six b)- twenty feet. This stood about half 
a mile east of their second church. 

The petition for the establishment of the church was drawn up on Janu- 
ary 15, 1 814, and was signed by the following prospective members of the 
proposed congregation : Elder Stephen Oldham, Rebecca Oldham, John 
Keny, Polly Keny, Thomas Simpson (deacon), Sarah Simpson, Rebecca 
Conner, Katherine Williams, Charles and Jane McLaughlin, James and 
Sarah Conway, John Keny, Sr., Jonathan Keny, William and Ann Oldham 
and Susan WTiite. This petition was sent to one of the established churches, 
undoubtedh- in Franklin county, was favorably acted upon, and on the Sunday 
following the fourth Saturday in February, 1814. the new congregation was 
constituted as the "New Bethel Regular Baptist Church" by Lazarus White- 
head and James Smith. 

The log structure was soon found too small to accommodate the grow- 
ing congregation and in 1821 steps were taken to provide a new and larger 
building. In 1822 Elder Oldham donated an acre of ground about half a 
mile west of the first church, a short distance south of the present site of 
Lyonsville, and here was erected a second log church, under the direction oT 
Matthias Dawson, Aaron and Jonathan Haughman. This continued in use 
until i860 when a frame building was erected at a cost of one thousand five 
hundred dollars. 

Elder Stephen Oldham served as minister until his death in 1834. Other 
early pastors were William Sparks, George Harlan, Daniel- Conner and 
Thomas Lyons. In 1885 Elders Reed and Parker were ministering to the 
church. The congregation has been served by many ministers of more than 
local importance, and it is only within the last decade that no regular services 
have been held. The membership has grown smaller and smaller with time, 
and now the number is comparatively few. 

SECOND REGULAR BAPTIST CHURCH ON WILLIAMS CREEK. 

This church was made up mainly of members formerly belonging to 
the Lick Creek church, and was instituted on July 21, 1832, representatives 
being present from the churches of Lick Creek, Franklin and East Fork. 



420 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

The original membership was composed of the following: Eleazer Carver. 
Gregg M. Thompson, Abigail Trowbridge, Mar_v Johnston. Anna Drapier, 
Harriett Thomas, Phoebe Thomas, Schuj-ler Jagger. D. F. Thomas, Eliza- 
beth Stephens. Benjamin Stephens, Aiartha Aloqahew, W. M. Buck, Ellen 
F. Buck, Elizabeth Carver, Phoebe Jagger and Elizabeth Rich. 

The first letter of the church and messengers were sent to the meeting 
of the White Water association on July 21, 1833. the latter being prepared 
by Gregg M. Thompson and Nathan Morphew. In the following August the 
church was received into the association as one of its members. 

The first clerk of the church was Nathan Morphew, who was followed 
by G. M. Thompson. For several years prior to the erection of a church 
building, services were held at the school house then standing on the site of 
the edifice that was erected in 1846. 

Among the pastors who served the congregation were the following : 
Elders James Newhouse, G. M. Thompson, Wilson Thompson, John Sparks, 
David Drummond, William Sparks, E. D. Thomas and Charles Reed. 

This church, like many of the other country churches of Fayette county, 
has had a long period of prosperity and usefulness. Within recent years 
it has gradually declined vintil its membership is too small to employ a full- 
time pastor. Services are still held at intervals. 

PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH ON VILLAGE CREEK. 

The Village Creek Baptist church (the Primitive branch) began its 
existence as an organized body on July 24, 1824, with the following members: 
Robert Gilky, Thomas Wolverton, William Denman, William Sparks, Phineas 
McCra\-, Stephen Harlan, James \Vood, Sarah Gilky, Mary Denman, Mary 
Sparks, Mary Harlan, Sarah McCray and Hannah McCray. The society 
was organi;;ed at the home of Robert Gilky. For the next two years services 
were conducted at the homes of the various members. The first church, a 
small hewed-log building, was erected in 1826 and served as the place of wor- 
ship until 1848, when it was replaced by a brick structure located about a 
mile and a half southeast of Connersville, which was later replaced by the 
present frame building. Among the regular resident pastors of the church 
have been Elders Minor Thomas, George Harlan, William Sparks, Samuel 
Harlan, Walter Benson and Charles Reed. 

Although no regular services are now conducted, the congregation 
still maintains its organization and the influence of the church is vital. 



FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 421 

One of the very early Baptist churches in the county was located in sec- 
tion 20, Connersville township. No definite information can be gained as 
to when it was organized or when it was abandoned. However, it is known 
that the members belonged to the Primitive branch of Baptists. Among 
the members were Samuel Martin, Ann Martin, Benjamin Booe and Philip 
Hoyl. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. 

The historv of the Christian church in Fa\-ette county dates from the 
latter part of the twenties. The church in this county is what is scMiietimes 
known as the "Campbellite" church, a designation formerly used to dififeren- 
tiate it from another denomination claiming the right to the name "Chris- 
tian," the latter being commonly called the "Newlight'" church. The New- 
light branch never secured a foothold in Fayette county to such an extent 
that its members were strong enough to organize a congregation of their 
own. 

The organization of the first Christian church in Fayette county may be 
traced directly to John P. Thompson, a Baptist preacher, who came fr(^m 
Bracken county, Kentucky, to Indiana, in 1822. He became the pastor of 
the Baptist church at Little Flat Rock in Rush county and preached the 
orthodox doctrines of his church until about 1828. The story of his conver- 
sion to the doctrines of Alexander Campbell is an interesting chapter in the 
religious history of Indiana. 

In 1828 the teachings of Campbell, as set forth by eloquent Kentucky 
preachers, particularly by the Rev. John Smith, reached the ears of young 
Thompson in Rush county. The more he heard alxiut the new doctrine the 
more interested he became, and finally he decided tri return to his old home 
in Kentucky and investigate the new movement at first hand. He m;ifle the 
trip in the summer of 1828 and the new doctrine appealed to him so strongly 
that he became fully converted to it, and renounced the doctrines of the 
Baptist church which he had been serving so faithfully. 

Shortly after Thompson returned to his charge in Rush county he issued 
a notice that there would be a meeting at the house of Elias Stone, a farmer 
living near Fayetteville (then called Danville), on Sunday, October 5, 1828. 
On that memorable day Thompson preached the first sermon in eastern Indi- 
ana advocating the doctrines as set forth b\- Alexander Campbell. This meet- 
ing was followed by a revival at his church at Flat Rock (in Rush county) 
and in the course of a few weeks he had bajitized about one hundred persons. 



422 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

It seems that most of the members of the various Baptist churches which 
Thompson had previously organized were willing to follow him into the 
new church. This was not accomplished, however, without considerable 
dissension and, as a result, religious controversies were found everywhere 
throughout this section of the state. Many churches became divided, and 
schisms brought about which exist to this day. 

Thompson naturally became the moving spirit in the organization of 
all the Christian churches in this section of the state and, being a man of 
unusual energy and ability, his efforts were attended with marked success. 
The first formal organization in Fayette county was made at Fayetteville, 
the church being established on July 4, 1829. About the same time he ' 
effected an organization at the home of Judge Webb, then living near Null-' 
town, the members later erecting a house of worship at the village of Colum- 
bia. Connersville followed with an organization in 1833: Bentonville, in 
1836; Fairview (just across the line in Rush county), in 1843; Harrisburg, 
in 1864, and Alpine, in 1898. An organization also was early effected at 
Springersville. At the present time there are seven distinct societies of this 
denomination in the county, located at Connersville, Harrisburg, Orange, 
Springersville, Alpine, Bentonville and the church known as Sain's Creek, 
located in the southeastern part of Orange township. 

CONNERSVILLE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

[The following history of the Christian church at Connersville was writ- 
ten by Marguerite Thiebaud, assisted by Louisa Nelson, Balzora Schofield 
and other members of the congregation. Miss Thiebaud spared no pains to 
obtain the fullest possible data regarding the early history of the church, and 
the history as she compiled it is here given. It was read before the congre- 
gation on June 15, 1908. on the occasion of the diamond jubilee of the church. 
The editor has brought the history of the church down to date. — The Editor.] 

In the early part of the nineteenth century the little village of Connersville 
was one of the most important trading posts in the White Water valley and 
was made a stopping place by all travelers in the middle west. Thus the 
inhabitants of this little settlement were, in a way, kept in touch with the 
world at large. So it is not surprising that when the teachings of Alexander 
Campbell were causing so much excitement in Kentucky and the neighboring 
states that their influence should be felt even in Fayette county. 

In the summer of 1832 Dr. Ryland T. Brown, a man of great intel- 
lectual ability, a scientist of note, and later state geologist and still later a 



' FAYETTE COL'NTY, INDIANA. 423 

professor in Xorthwestem Christian College, at Indianapolis, settled in Con- 
nersville, where he engaged in the practice of medicine. In August of the 
same year Gabriel Ginn and his wife, Hannah, removed to the village from 
the Webb neighborhood. As both of these families soon gained prominence 
in the community, and as they had previously become interested in the Chris- 
tian church, it was largely through their efforts that the first organization was 
effected here. For some time these two families, together with a few others, 
held meetings of prayer and devotion in the Ginn home, which is supposed 
to have stood where the Big Four depot is now located. 

In October. 1832. Elder John O'Kane stopped in Connersville on his 
ivav to Milton and held services for several successive days in the court house. 
These meetings resulted in several accessions to the little band. Again on 
Christmas Day, O'Kane made the village a visit. By this time the country 
was being aroused by the teachings of such men as O'Kane, John P. Thomp- 
son and Gabriel C. McDuffee, and Christian churches had been established 
at Fayettesville and Nulltown. This fact made the little company of Disciples 
at Connersville all the more anxious to organize themselves into a church, 
and at length this was brought about, in January, 1833. 

LIST OF CH \RTEK MEMBER.S. 

-About this time the little band of worshippers were joined by Elder 
Jesse Holton and family, who had recently moved from Kentucky to a farm 
a few miles north of town, thus bringing the charter niembers up to about 
seventeen. Among these were Gabriel Ginn and wife. James McCann. Sr., 
and wife, Jesse Holton, wife and son, Alexander C. Holton and daughters. 
Elizabeth and Mrs. Mary Helm, Daniel Morrison, Mrs. Jacob Vandergrift, 
Rhoda McKinney, Mr. and Mrs. Paqua, Dr. R. T. Brown and wife and 
Elijah West, a colored servant of the Holtons. 

Shortly after the founding of the church Elder O'Kane renio\ed to 
■ Connersville and had the distinction of being the first regular pastor. 
Because of his wonderful strength and ability, as well as his vehement and 
awe-ins])iring sermons, he was often known as the "Cyclone of the Reforma- 
tion." During Elder O'Kane's residence here a religious paper under the 
title of the Cliristiaii Caslccf was published in connection with the church. 
It was a monthly paper of si.xteen pages, but was discontinued at the close 
of the first volume (1834). 

In those early days it was frequently necessary for the \illages which 
were fortunate to secure the serxices of a minister, to permit him to hold 



424 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

services in other portions of the country as weh, and so during Elder 
O'Kane's pilgrimages of this sort, Elder Jesse Holton and Dr. R. T. Brown 
served the church in a pastoral relation. Holton died in 1839 and ill health 
compelled Dr. Brown to abandon the practice of medicine about the same 
time. 

For two years the society continued to meet in the court house and dur- 
ing this period many noted men held services there. Prominent among 
these was Dove H. Jamison, who is remembered by all who knew him as a 
great and good man. It was during one of these meetings that Louisa Nel- 
son united with the church and was baptized. At the same service in which 
Miss Nelson came into the church. Martha Ginn, a girlhood friend of Miss 
Nelson, was also baptized. Later she moved to the west and had not been 
heard of until a few days ago when Miss Nelson recei^■ed word that her 
friend, now Mrs. Dale, is still living and resides at Cedar Vale, Kansas. 
The wife of Reverend Jamison is also living [1908] and is taking a promin- 
ent part in the jubilee services which are being held in the Central Christian 
church at Indianapolis today, [June 15, 1908]. 

CARRIED THE MESSAGE EAST. 

Another noted preacher of this early period was John Longley, a small, 
earnest man, who throughout his career, baptized more than three thousand 
people. One Sunday morning while Reverend Longley was holding service 
in Connersville, George Campbell, a young man from Connecticut, was 
among the congregation, and to this youth from the East the principles of 
primitive faith as taught by this religious body, were both new and impres- 
sive. At the close of the sermon he stepped forth and confessed this new 
faith, and on the following day he straightway set forth to prepare himself 
for the ministry. Indeed, he was such a successful minister that even toda\' 
the name of George Campbell is held in the utmost regard. 

In the latter part of the year 1834 or the first part of 1835, Rev. S. K. 
Hoshour, one of the greatest preachers the Christian church has ever known, 
came to Connersville. He was one of the most highly educated men of 
his time, and his elocjuent sermons, together with his impressive personality, 
are remembered by many of the present congregation. Reverend Hoshour 
livefl at Centerville, where he was engaged in teaching, and for fifteen years 
he preached in Connersville once each month. Louisa Nelson remembered 
distinctly his first sermon and recalled that his text was found in the eighth 



FAYF.TTE COl'XTY. INDIANA. 425 

chapter of Jeremiah. Re\erenil Hoshmir later tauglit in tlie Xorthwestern 
Christian Univer.sity at In(Hanapolis. 

VISITKI) liV FOUNDER OF CHURCH. 

But perhap.s tlie interest and entliusiasm were ne\-er so great in Con- 
nersville as when Alexander Campbell visited the local congregation in iS3_i. 
Little is known of the events connected with his coming, beyond that he was 
entertained, with forty other visitors, at the home of Sherman Schofield, a 
man prominent i nthe early church organization. 

At length the meeting place of the little ciMnpan\' nf men and women 
who bore the name Christian was changed, and for some time serx'ices were 
held in an upper room of the county seminary, which was situated where 
the Fifth street school building now stands. The organization had gradually 
gained both members and strength and at this time (the latter part of the 
thirties) they determined to build a house of worship for themselves. Sher- 
man Schofield donated a lot on the bluff of East Fifth street hill and pre- 
])arations were immediately made for the erection of the building. The 
contract was gi\en to Schutield and work was liegim as soon as possil)le. 
Clark I'orter, the father of William and Robert I'orter, laid the brick for the 
walls of the new edifice. Before the buikling was completed, h(.iwe\er, 
Andrew Ringer, an e\-angelist of some note, came to Connersville to hold a 
meeting. Ser\ices were begun in the seminary, but the crowds soon became 
so great that it was necessary to find rooms elsewhere. As a result, benches 
and boards were carried from the school to the unfinished church building, 
and there, before the walls were completed or the windows even in place, the 
meeting was successfully continued. At length the building was completed 
and in January, 1S41, the little company of Christians entered their first 
real teni]jle of worship. 

l'^)r years the)' gathered here on each Lord's Da\- and in their peaceful 
and unassuming manner worshipped their God. Many successful re\i\als 
were held during the period that followed, the congregation being \isited by 
the leading preachers of the middle west, among whom were George Camp- 
bell, John Sweeny and the Pinkerton brothers from Kentucky. Joseph and 
Benjamin Franklin were also frequent visitors to the church. Often when 
things seemed depressing- and the people desired a change, the pastor would 
summon someone whom everyone loved, to hold a few days' meeting, and 
in .such times Rev. D. R. Van Buskirk was usuallv called. 



426 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

In 1849 Henry R. Pritcharcl lield a successful meeting here, and from 
that time often conducted services in this community. Because of his knowl- 
edge of Bible subjects and his cheerful willingness to impart information, 
he was called a "walking encyclopedia." Until his death he never ceased 
in liis untiring efforts in behalf of the church. 

NOTABLE SUNDAY SCIiOOI. REVIV.-\L. 

Time passed swiftly and in the course of time few of those who endured 
the early hardships were left, but their children were carrying forth the 
work which these sterling pioneers had begun. About 1868 it became pos- 
sible to take up the work in larger measures and a Sunday school re\-ival 
took place. A large class of men who saw the need of Bible training was 
organized with the pastor, Rev. S. R. Wilson, in charge, and soon the inter- 
est became so intense that about two hundred members were enrolled. This 
growth in the Sunday school caused the entire church to aspire to greater 
things, with the result that in 1869 Rev. Knowles Shaw, a preacher and 
singing evangelist, was secured to conduct a revival in .\ugust and Septem- 
l)er. The meeting was one of the greatest ever held in Connersville. 

.\gain in 1871 Louis Pinkerton and John Shackleford carried on a 
re\-ival meeting which lasted ele\'en weeks, a meeting of almost phenomenal 
character. In 1872 Rev. Black ^Viles, of Covington, conducted a revival of 
great importance. By this time many new members had been added and a 
.spirit of enthusiasm filled the congregation. The little building on the river 
bank, which had ser\ed them for over thirt\- years as a place of worship, 
was no longer sufficient for the needs of the enlarged congregation. At 
this juncture the Old School and New School Presbyterians of Connersville 
eiit'ected a consolidation and the Christian church purchased the building 
occupied by the older branch of Presbyterians, the purchase being con- 
cluded in July, 1872. The deed was signed b}' William Huston, Valen- 
tine Leonard, Thomas M. Little, John Gilchrist, F. M. Roots, Edward F. Clay- 
pool, \Villiam Pepper and ^\'. J. Hankins. 

The Christians paid thirt\'-fi\-e hundred dollars for the building and at 
once began extensive re])airs un it, finally expending about three thousand 
dollars in overhauling the building and refurnishing it. In the meantime 
they had sold their old building to the Second Methodist Episcopal church 
of Connersvilk. The new house of worship was dedicated on June i, 1873, 
by Rev. Isaac P'rrett, editor of the Christian Standard, of Cincinnati. 



- FAYETTE COUNTY. INDIANA. 42/ 

From the organization of tlie church in 1833 until 1873. a period of 
forty years, nine different pastors had served the cliurch. John O'Kane, 
Thomas Coughley. Jacob Vail and Charles Evans were the early ministers. 
but no records were kept of their services and it is impossible to give the 
years of their respective tenures. Following Evans came Matthew R. 
Henry, 1859-60: R. L. Howe, 1861-63: William Irwin, 1863-66; S. R. Wil- 
son. 1866-71: William Irwin. 1871-73. 

CONGREGATION STEADILV GAINS IN .STRENGTH. 

For a number of years after the congregation had moved to the I'^ourth 
Street building the church continued to develop gradually along larger lines 
and to gain strength in so doing. During this period the Christian Womens 
Board of Missions was organized, and with the Ladies Aid Society, proved 
to be of lasting importance. The first evangelistic meeting held in the new 
church was conducted liy J. C. Hobbs. while later other successful revivals 
were held by J. H. O. Smith. J. V. Coombs, and Revs, b'owler, Doris and 
Spicer. In the fall of 1888 Rev. Ira J. Chase, later governor of Indiana, 
held a remarkable meeting here, which resulted in about fifty accessions, 
which, at that time, was an unusualh- large number for a revival meeting. 

In 1888 the church became imbued \\ith the spirit of progress and 
decided to improve their house of worship* The building was again remod- 
eled, decorated and rededicated by Rev. Sweeny, of Columbus, Indiana. The 
years came and went, the church took an acti\-e part in all mo\ements of 
the community which stood for better citizenshi]). and in e\ery way attempted 
to fulfill the highest mission of the church. Little arose to disturb the even 
tranquility of the congregation : various ministers who came to guide this band 
of four hundred souls, soon learned to love them, and then were called to 
other fields. Thus runs the history of all churches and the history of the 
Christian church of Connersville is no exception to the rule. 

The pastors of the church since 1873 have ser\ed in the folKnving order: 
A. A. Knight, 1874-76: C. B. Watkins, 1876: T. M. Wiles, 1877-80; Rev- 
erend Meade, 1880: C. A. Robinson. 1881-82: John A. Thomas, 1883-84; 
W. W. Whitmer, 1885-86: J. H. Vinson. 1886-88: \\-. W. Stairs, 1888-90: 
George E. Piatt, 1890-91: G. B. Vanarsdal, 1891-94: T. A. Hall, 1894-96: 
Reverend Rice, 1897: George Darsie, 1897-1901 : J. C. Burkliardt. 1902-07: 
Reverend Newcomer, 1907-12: L. E. Brown. December. i9[2-i7. 



428 FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 

A NEW HOUSE OF WORSHIP. 

One of the most important events in tlie history of the cliurch during 
this ]3eriod was tlie founding of the Society of Christian Endeavor during 
tiie nu'nistry of Re\erend Stairs (1S88-90). ^^'ithin twenty years after the 
congregation went into their new home on Fourth street, it was very evident 
that larger quarters were necessary. The question of a new building was 
agitated during the pastorate of Reverend Darsie (1897-1901), but nothing 
more was done at this time than to purchase a lot at the corner of Central 
a\'enue and Eighth street, the lot costing the sum of fifty-three hundred dol- 
lars. It was not, howe\-er. until 1903 that definite plans were completed 
for the Iniilding of a house of worship on the new site. It was planned to 
build a church which would satisfy all the demands of the congregation for 
man\- years to come, and to this end it was proposed to construct a building 
of greater proportions than the congregation at that time really needed. 
The accepted plans of the architect and the subsequent successful bidder of 
the contract contemplated a structure to cost about thirty-four thousand dol- 
lars. This seemed like an almost pr(ihibiti\e amount, but those in charge 
of the construction never faltered and went \'aliantly to work to raise the 
money. Their first canvass resulted in donations of seventeen thousand dol- 
lars, while on the day the church was dedicated (October 15, 1905) an 
additional sixteen thousand dollars was ])ledged. 

The dedicatory sermon was preached on Sunday, October 15, 1905, by 
Dr. F. \[. Rains, of Cincinnati, before an audience that taxed the capacity 
of the church. The building is a Gothic structure of brick and stone with 
a tile roof and copper gutters. One of the most striking features of the 
interior of the building is the series of Biblical scenes painted on the walls, 
the work of an artist, B. F. Harris, of Union City, Indiana. The main part 
of the Iniilding is finished in golden oak. the basement being finished in hard 
pine. It has a fine pipe organ, Sunday school rooms, a beautiful baptistry, 
dining room and all the appointments of a modern house of worship. 

BENTONVILLE CHklSTIAN CHURCH. 

The Christian church at Bentonville was organized about 1836, the first 
organization being brought about by the efforts of Elder John O'Kane. 
Among the charter members were George Van Buskirk and wife, Philip 



FAYETTE COUNTY, INDIANA. 429 

Slirader and wife, 'i'rueman Munger and wife. Moses Ellis and wife, and 
Richard Kolb and wife. Services were first held at the homes df nienil)ers, 
but in 1840 a building- was erected, a frame structure, which stoDtl snuth of 
Bentonville a short distance. Tiiis building was in use until 1SS4, when the 
present building was erected at a cost of two thousand five hundred dollars. 
The ground, an acre and a half, was donated to the church b\- b)hn Gille- 
land. and a cemetery was established adjoining the church. Among the early 
ministers of the congregation were the following: John ()'!\ane, Elijah 
Martindale,