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I 




COLORS OF THE FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY 

The Silver Eog'le ivas ffiren hy his associate Aides o7i Gov. Andrevi's 

staff as a compliinent to Lt. Col. H. B. Sargent. 



A HISTORY 

OF THE FIRST REGIMENT OF 

MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY 

VOLUNTEERS 



BY 



BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELD 

MAJOR FIRST MASSACHUSICTTS CAVALRY AND BREVET COLONEL U. S. V. 



Wiit}) Hoster anu ^mistka 

By D. H. L. GLEASON 



BREVET MAJOR 



FOR THE FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY 
ASSOCIATION 




. ,i,, or coA/^- 

AIM 2 ]m 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

1891 



A HISTORY 

OF THE FIRST REGIMENT OF 

MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY 
VOLUNTEERS 



BY 

BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELD 

MAJOR FIRST MASSACHUSICTTS CAvibRY AND BREVET COLONEL U. S. V. 

Mitt) Ho6ter anu ^mi&tit& 

By D. H. L. GLEASON 

BREVET MAJOR 



FOR THE FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY 
ASSOCIATION 




^f^fnt^kr 



IAN 2 




^^.N^^K^'f^ 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

1891 



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O ^ M 



Copyright, 1891, 

Bt b. w. crowninshield. 
All rights reserved. 




The Riverside Press, Cambridge, ^fass., U. S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton & Co. 



PREFACE. 



This history, written after so many years have gone by, is 
necessarily imperfect. It is mainly the recollections of an offi- 
cer of the regiment who was present with the colors continu- 
ously longer than any other. He has relied largely upon a 
good memory, fortified by a daily journal and his letters sent 
home ; but has also consulted the journals and letters of many 
other officers of the regiment, and, in considering many events, 
has had discussion of such with all available authorities. 

Opinions as to some events have differed considerably ; but 
the following pages are very nearly accurate. Individuals nat- 
urally see the same thing with different eyes, and in the con- 
fusion of a battle two men seldom see precisely the same thing 
when together. How, then, shall two at different parts of the 
field agree as to what took place ? 

Since much of the work was completed, late volumes of the 
" Rebellion Records," published by the United States Govern- 
ment, have given information and dispatches which were at the 
time of writing unobtainable. It is probable, also, that new 
light will for some time be given, as more is written about 
the war. 

The author wishes to acknowledge valuable assistance given 
by Colonel Greely S. Curtis, Majors D. H. L. Gleason, Charles 
G. Davis, George H. Teague, Captain J. J. Higginson, Lieu- 



IV PREFACE. 

tenants C. A. Longfellow and Parsons, Sergeant A. A. Sher- 
man, Co. C, S. N. Davenport, Co. A., and many others. 

On July 27, 1864, the writer was detached from tlie regi- 
ment, and the history from that date has been written from 
diaries and letters sent him, — principally by H. T. Bartlett, 
Co. H, who at the time Avas detailed as orderly at division head- 
quarters. 

The history of the old companies I, K, L, and M, later the 
Independent Battalion, has been comj)iled from various sources, 
largely from the notes and letters of Sergeant Andrew J. Clem- 
ent, of Company M (old). 

The statistical part of the history, involving great labor and 
time, has been written by Major D. H. L. Gleason. It has 
saved the record of no' less than one hundred private soldiers, 
improperly reported on the rolls as deserters, principally be- 
cause correct information at the time could not be acquired. 

No doubt many soldiers of the regiment will look in vain to 
find an account of something in which they were particularly 
engaged. It aims to be rather the history of the regiment than 
of individuals. As already said, it is mainly the recollection 
of one officer. This will explain Avhy some events seem to be 
given undue prominence over others which, perhaps, deserved 
more notice. 

Such as it is, it has taken no small amount of the writer's 
time. He has aimed at truth and justice. If it shall assist in 
recalling the stirring days from September, 1861, to July, 1865, 
in many fields of strife where the men of the First Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry followed the flag, the writer will be content. 
In its preparation he has been actuated by no other feeling 
than the most cordial affection for aU his brother soldiers of the 
regiment. 

B. W. C. 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORY OF THE REGIMENT 1 

CHAPTER I. 
Cavalry in Virginia during the War of the Rebellion .... 3 

CHAPTER II. 
In Massachusetts, September 11 to December 30, 1861 40 

CHAPTER III. 
In South Carolina, January 1 to August 19, 1862 51 

CHAPTER IV. 
Antietam Campaign, September 1 to November 28, 1862 68 

CHAPTER V. 
Winter before Fredericksburg, November 28, 1862, to April 12, 1863 93 

CHAPTER VI. 
Spring Campaign, April 12 to June 17, 1863 118 

CHAPTER VII. 
Battle of Aldie, June 17, and Gettysburg Campaign, to August 1, 1863 143 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Summer along the Rappahannock. To Centreville and back in 
quick time. Mine Run and to Winter Quarters at Warrenton, 
August, 1863, to January, 1864 167 



VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Winter Quarters at Warrenton. Reenlistment. New Battalion, 
January to May, 18G4 193 

CHAPTER X. 

Spring and Summer Campaign. Rapidan to Petersburg, Mat to Sep- 
tember, 1864 203 

CHAPTER XI. 

Muster out of Old Men. Reorganization of Regiment. Winter 
BEFORE Petersburg, August 1, 1864, to July 18, 1865 237 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Third Battalion, from August 19, 1862 255 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Miscellaneous Recollections. Horses, Arms, Equipments. Names of 
Battles on the Flag, etc 283 

ROSTER OF FIELD, LINE, AND STAFF OFFICERS, ETC 311 

Statistics of Companies 339 

APPENDIX 459 

The Regimental Band 461 

Engagements of the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry 466 

Engagements of Cos. I, K, L, and M, old 3d Battalion 468 

Losses of 1st Massachusetts Cavalry 469 

Casualties of 1st Massachusetts Cavalry 469 

Summary of Losses in the Union Armies 471 

Who raised the First National Flag at Richmond ? 474 

Commemorative Monuments 475 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

For alphabetical arrangement, see Index, under " Illustrations." 

Colors of the First Massachusetts Cavalry Frontispiece 

Map to illustrate the Campaigns of the First Massachusetts Cavalry in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, 1862-1865 in pocket 

Abraham Lincoln ^ 

Gov. John A. Andrew ° 

Generals U. S. Grant, George B. McClellan, George G. Meade, P. H. Sheri- 
dan 12 

Generals W. W. Averell, A. N. Duffi^, Judson Kilpatrick, J. Irvin Gregg, 

J. B. Mcintosh, H. E. Davies 18 

Generals Alfred Pleasonton, David McM. Gregg, John Buford, George Stone- 
man, George A. Custer, A. T. Torbert 22 

Capt. Robert Williams, 1861 28 

The Ideal Cavalryman ; the Real Cavalryman 32 

Col. Robert Williams 38 

Col. Horace Binney Sargent 42 

Camp Brigham, Readville, Mass., Sept. 6 to Dec. 29, 1861 46 

Col. Samuel E. Chamberlain 52 

Beaufort Island 56 

G Company, Drayton Plantation, S. C '^° 

Hilton Head, Jan., 1862, to Aug. 19, 1862 62 

Camp Williams, Beaufort, S. C, Jan. 21 to Aug. 19, 1862 64 

Lieut.-Col. Greely S. Curtis 72 

Antietam Bridge, Md. ; Potomac Creek Bridge, Va 78 

Lieut.-Col. Lucius M. Sargent "-' 

Lieut.-Col. John L. Tewksbury 88 

Plan of Camp at Potomac Run, Winter of '62-'63 94 

The Soldier's Dream ; Hut at Potomac Creek, Va 96 

Hartwood Church and Vicinity 1""' 

' Mai. Wm. F. White 1^^ 

Maj. Henry Lee Higginson ^^" 

Maj. Atherton H. Stevens, Jr H" 

Mai. T. Lawrence Motley 12^ 

Maj. Benjamin W. Crowninshield 

Maj. Charles G. Davis 1^^ 

Maj. Edward A. Flint 1^^ 

Maj. Amos L. Hopkins 

Maj. Geo. H. Teague 1'*^ 

Surg.-Maj. James Holland J^^ 

Surg.-Maj. Albert Wood 1^^ 



vm LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Surg.-Maj. Samuel W. Abbott 160 

Asst.-Surg. Albert R. Rice 164 

Asst.-Surg. Homer H. Warner 170 

Group of Officers, Horse Artillery 174 

Asst.-Surg. George S. Osborne 180 

Asst.-Surg. Samuel H. Durgin 184 

Lieut. Lucius W. Knigbt 190 

Camp at Warrentou, Va 194 

Lieut. Jolin L. Brigbara 200 

Lieut. Benjamin G. Mann 204 

Captains Lucius Ricbmond, D. B. Keith, Caspar Crowninsbield 210 

Captains Jas. H. Case, Horace N. Weld, Arnold A. Rand 214 

Captains Henry P. Bowditch, Randolph M. Clark, Myron C. Pratt .... 220 

Captains Moses F. Webster, Joseph C. Murphy, Herbert P. Curtis .... 224 

Captains D, H. L. Gleason, James J. Higginson, John Drew 230 

Captains James A. Baldwin, David W. Herrick, George L. Bradbury . . . 234 

Lieutenants Walter Miles, Edw. R. Merrill, Francis Washburn 240 

Lieutenants Lucius H. Morrill, George Blagden, Alton E. Phillips 246 

Adjutants Nathaniel Bowditch, Greenleaf W. Batchelder, William W. War- 
dell 250 

Lieutenants Albert F. Ray, C. Chauncey Parsons, George M. Fille brown . . 256 

Lieutenants Charles A. Longfellow, P. T. Jackson 260 

Lieutenants Edward J. Russell, L. N. Duchesney, John W. Martin, Timothy 

P. Lyman 266 

Lieutenants Harry D. Littlefield, George W. Flagg 272 

Lieutenants C. W. Dyer, Duett C. Clark, J. O. Josselyu 276 

Q. M. Sergeants Edw. H. Adams, Horatio Wood, Josiah N. Brackett . . . 280 

Capt. B. W. Crowninsbield 288 

Regimental Band. 

William Finney, W. J. Caswell, A. R. Bryant, E. H. Gooding, Frank M. Lund 292 
Dugald Mclnnis, Henry F. Wood, S. N. Davenport, A. W. Tyler, Henry C. 

W^eston 296 

Tyler Harding, Geo. A. Abel, George W. Filley, William H. Rice, Gerry R. 

Walker " . . 302 

A Company. 

J. Heinrich Hess, Lorenzo L. Howes, Thos. F. B. McDevitt, Corp. Gustave 

Evers, Edw. W. F. Macinaw, Chauncey Pettibone, Herbert Maycock . . . 308 

Sergt. Richard Walsh, Sergt. George H. Cavanaugh, Josiah D. Patterson, J. W. 

Richardson, Sebastian Zimmerman, Elijah Willard 314 

B Company. 

Lemuel Wood 318 

Corp. Joseph Gay, Peter S. King, Alexander McDonald, Isaac H. Preseott, 

Albert S. Shepard, Herbert L. Sliepard, Corp. George M. Washburne . . 322 
Alvan Barrus, Corp. William B. Buchanan, Sergt. William Tobey, Sergt. 

Thomas Preston, Jeremiah T. Daly, Andrew J. Dunham, Edward Fahey . . 328 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. ix 



C Company. 

Lucius B. Angier, William Boyd, Henry C. Davis, Alfred H. Keay, Williaua 
H. Legg, William H. Overton, George H. Whitney 332 

Com. Sergt. Ethan E. Cobb, Sergt. William N. Davis, Sergt. John A. Glines, 
Q. M. Sergt. Samuel D. Gale, Sergt. A. H. D. Hobbs 336 

Corp. George Kendall, Corp. Oren H. Webber, Sergt. Charles A. Legg, Corp. 
Augustus Severance, Bugler Joseph F. Ennis 344 

D Company. 

Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers D Company, Gen. Meade's Escort . 348 
Bugler Murray V. Livingston, Daniel Shannon, S. D. Rogers, Q. M. Sergi. Eli 

A. Smith, Almon L. Switzer, Chas. H. Whiting 354 

D Company, Gen. Meade's Escort 358 

William Blasland, George Hobson, Sergt. John H. George, Wagoner Nathan 

C. Hooper, Richard W. Lakeman 364 

E Company. 

Robert J. Cochran, Henry H. Galloway, Sherman W. Hubbard, Sergt. Horace 
A. Sunbury, John D. Littlehale, John Melenfy^ Andrew A. Mason .... 370 

Amasa C. Morse, Jarius H. Shaw, Farnum Southwick, Hosea L. Thayer, Ed- 
ward W. Vial, Sergt. William O. White 374 

Caleb F. Abbott, Robert Bellew, Marcus Butler, Corp. Charles M. Smith, 
James W. Carpenter, Franklin Chase, Alphonzo F. Childs 380 

F Company. 

Sanford W. Lasor, Bugler William H. Sisson, Ciarles Lynde, Joseph E. Stack- 
pole, William E. Stewart 384 

Joseph Beals, Franklin L. Cannon, Com. Sergt. Edwin O. Hyde, Chauncey E. 
Peck, Sad. Daniel B. Couch, Benjamin F. Davenport 390 

Joseph E. Felch, John M. Fiske, Corp. Ichabod Sampson, Corp. George E. 

Woodbury, Seymour Gardiner, Andrew J. Hunt 396 

G Company. 

George H. Lombard, Bugler James T. Walsh, Sergt. J. Warren Ball, Sergt. 

Albert A. Sherman ^qq 

Irving R. Cheney, Nathaniel H. Fish, Sergt. Frederick O. Crocker, Sergt. Or- 

rin W. Harris, Robert P. Skelton 406 

H Company. 

Michael Nennery, Daniel M. Ross, Bugler Henry T. Bartlett, Bugler William 
S. Sampson, Bartlett Shaw 410 

Bugler William Barker, E. A. Burnham, Sergt. Samuel W. Bartlett, Lewis 
Jones, Charles A. Kihlgreen 416 

I Company (Old). 
VirgU Marcellus Blaisdell, Com. Sergt. Edw. T. George, Samuel M. Patterson, 
Q. M. Sergt. J. H. Walker, Moody K. Stacy, William A. Vining, Charles 
E. Groton ^ 422 



X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

I Company (New). 

Irving Waterman, Stanton P. Allen, Corp. Charles B. Belcher, Nelson O. 
Bowen 426 

K Company (Old). 

Corp. L. Bartel, Alfred C. Belcher, Com. Sergt. Charles D. Bacon, Sergt. 
Frank A. Blaisdell, Bradford Hawes, William Welch 432 

K Company (New). 
Com. Sergt. Thomas H. Coville, Jacob Jackley 436 

L Company (Old). 

Corp. Amos Pierce, Corp. Gabriel Strang, Sergt. Edwin Chapman, Corp. James 
A. Willard, Lorenzo Bruce 442 

Sewall P. Ridley, Corp. A. R. Storer, Sergt. Lindley H. Stockbridge, Sad. 
William H. H. Wall, Preston Wood 448 

Merrick Cowles, Henry J. Hanks, Q. M. Sergt. William H. Fessendon, George 
H. Hill, Oliver D. Pratt 452 

L Company (New). 
Q. M. Sergt. H. W. Otis, Augustus M. Davis 456 

M Company (Old). 

Sergt. Robert Glenn, Sergt. Thomas Hickey, Orlando S. Kiff, Farrier Herman 
Mills 462 

M Company (New). 

1st Sergt. John Fisher, Edward Crabtree, George Crabtree, Farrier Charles 

W. White 468 

Monument First Massachusetts Cavalry, Gettysburg, Pa 474 

Monument First Massachusetts Cavalry, Aldie, Va 476 



HISTORY OF THE REGIMENT. 




ABRAHAM LINCOLN 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



CHAPTER I. 



CAVALRY IN VIRGINIA DURING THE WAR OF THE 
REBELLION. 

Before entering upon the history itself of the regiment, a good pre- Prelimi- 
paration will be to consider the general story of the cavalry of the two ^i^^- 
opposing armies in Virginia during the war of the Rebellion. 

The following account, in which the cavalry of the Army of the Poto- 
mac is described, with its difficulty of organization, its painful and slow 
steps towards excellence, then its sudden burst into power, and finally its 
triumph, contrasts the Union cavalry with the cavalry of Lee's armv, in 
which tlie march of events was just the contrary. There, almost in the 
beginning, was a combination which gave it the supremacy. Gradually, 
as the Northern cavalry approached it in equality, the Southern cavalry 
began to decline. The two became equal in the spring of 18G3. In 18G4 
the superiority of the Northern riders was very marked, and at the end, 
in 1865, Lee's cavalry was almost annihilated, while Grant's began at Five 
Forks the downfall of the Army of Northern Virginia, and pressed it to 
its end at Appomattox. 

This article was written for, and delivered before, the Massachusetts 
Military Historical Society by the writer of this history in 188G. 

Several of the statements contained in this account will appear later iu 
the regimental history, more elaborated. It has been thought better to 
brave the repetition this causes, rather than make either account barren 
by omission of anything that seems necessary to make it complete. 

When the war broke out, the North was by far less The North 
prepared for the struggle than the South. The two prepTrn 
sections afforded a very different material from which the South. 
to organize an army. 



4 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

The North In the North, particularly in the East, the population 

unaccus- „„ ii-i i 

tomed to ot tarmers and mechanics, devoted to peaceful ])ursuits, 

amis. 1 11 

was unaccustomed to all manner of arms, and as a rule 
strange to any horse but a work-horse ; and not one in 
a hundred a good rider, while a very large propor- 
tion had never fired a gun. Nearly all horses kept 
for pleasure were trotters used in harness and never 
£miifa°"*^ mounted. In the South, every man and boy was fami- 
withweap- liar with all kinds of weapons, and especially skilled in 
the use of firearms. The entire population was used to 
horses, and all were good riders. 
Regular The regular army remained with all its organization 

mained (cxccpt such officcrs as " wcut with their States " to the 

with the r^ c ^ n-iititi 

North. Contederate army) with the North, and furnished the 
model for all three branches of the service. This model 
developed a steady infantry, a superlatively good artil- 
lery, never equaled in the South, and a cavalry better 
adapted to fight in line than the Confederate, which ex- 
celled in individuality, and consequently for scouting 
and irregular work. The Confederate cavalry was 
largely composed of Virginia regiments, Avho fought 
on their own soil and were familiar with the remarka- 
ble system of by-roads, and who furnished scouts, spies, 
and raiders on our lines of communication, of singular 
ability. 

The regru- To tlic Federal army were left the five old regular 

larcavah"y. . , . . 

cavalry regiments, to which was added in April, 1861, 
a sixth. It was at first proposed to confine the cavalry 
of the Federal army to these six regular regiments ; 
and for good reasons, as things looked then. That 
was the time when many of those who ought to have 
known thought the war would be an affair of ninety 
days. 



CAVALRY IN VIE G INI A. O 

Accordino: to European ideas, a cavalry soldier is not The cav- 

o i ' ^ 1 t o airy soldier 

supposed to be of any use in the field before a very ^^i^J^^^'^^^^^ 
careful training at a cavalry depot, lasting from one to training. 
two years; and his horse requires the same time, or 
longer. In many armies the horses are specially reared 
for cavalry service in immense breeding establishments 
by government, and in time of peace the cavalry is 
mounted exclusively on such animals. Each regiment 
has a depot battalion, where the men are drilled and 
horses prepared for service in the field. Such an estab- 
lishment is thought indispensable. The regular cavalry 
of the United States has a cavalry depot at Jefferson United 

1 , T , States cav- 

Barracks, Missouri ; but, owing to the great distance airy depot. 
from where the cavalry is stationed, few horses are 
trained there, and the men are " licked into shape " in 
much less time than is the custom in Europe. The 
term of enlistment — three years here and at least seven 
in Europe — largely determines this, and the recruit has 
to learn his duty with his regiment principally. Fortu- 
nately, a large proportion of the enlisted men are vet- 
erans of many terms of enlistment. 

At the beirinnino' of the war it was impossible to Training 
properly train cavalry before putting it into the field, possible. 
and consequently whole regiments of exquisite green- 
ness were thrust into the Virginia mud in winter, there 
to try to learn, practically without a teacher, from 
books and hard knocks, in a few weeks or months at 
best, what in Europe in the best schools, under chosen 
instructors and on trained horses, years only can accom- 
plish. 

It cannot, then, be wondered at that the government 
hesitated to enhst volunteer cavalry, and only yielded 
when the battle of Bull Run had shown the hoUowness 



6 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Expense of 
equipping 
mounted 
troops. 



Early cav- 
alry com- 
panies. 



of the ninety-day idea. Another obstacle was the enor- 
mous expense o£ equipping and maintaining cavah*y. 

The equipments for a regiment of twelve hundred 
men alone cost nearly $300,000, the officers' pay was 
greater than that of the infantry, and a larger number 
of artificers was necessary. It cost, in favorable times, 
probably fifty cents a day for each horse, and in inac- 
cessible places three or four times that, for forage alone. 
It was obviously questionable whether at any expense 
an effective cavalry force could be evolved out of the 
peaceful Yankee citizen, unused to horses and arms, in 
any reasonable time. But mounted troops were a ne- 
cessity, and with its lavish bounty the government did 
not shrink at the expense, nor hesitate at the difficulty 
of the task. 

At first, the volunteer regiments were made up of 
the militia cavah-y companies, both North and South ; 
and all the companies in the first organized regiments 
bore high-sounding names, which, in the Federal service 
at least, were soon forgotten. In the Confederate cav- 
alry the troopers generally owned their horses, and con- 
tracted for a certain pay (forty cents a day) to keep 
mounted. I can recall only one regiment in the Army 
of the Potomac where the soldiers owned their horses, 
the 3d Indiana cavalry. 

We find in a Southern book, McClellan's" Campaigns 
of Stuart's Cavalry," the following apropos of horses 
and equipments : — 



Cavalry of A consideration of the difficulties under which the cavahy of the 
of NortTJ Army of Northern Virginia labored will not be uninteresting to one 

who would form a true estimate of the services rendered by it. 
At the beginning of the war, the Confederate government, charged 

as it was with the creation of an army and of war material of all 



ern Vir- 
ginia. 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 7 

kinds, felt itself unable to provide horses for the numerous cavalry 

companies which offered their services, especially from the State of 

Virginia. Many companies, organized as cavalry, were rejected. 

With those that were enrolled the government entered into a con- Contract 

111 1 with the 

tract, the substance of which was that the cavah-ymen sliould supply goveru- 

and own their horses, which would be mustered into service at a fair ™^° " 

valuation ; that the government should provide feed, shoes, and a 

smith to do the shoeing, and should pay the men a per diem of forty 

cents for the use of their horses. Should a horse be killed in action, 

the government agreed to pay to the owner the muster valuation. 

Should the horse be captured in battle, worn out, or disabled by any 

of the many other causes which were incident to the service, the loss 

fell upon the owner, who was compelled to furnish another horse, 

under the same conditions, or be transferred to some other arm of 

the service. 

That the government should have adopted such a policy at the 
beoinning of the war was a misfortune ; that it should have adhered 
to it to the very end was a calamity against which no amount of zeal 
or patriotism could successfully contend. 

It is not in the spirit of unfriendly criticism that we to-day pro- Unwisdom 

claim the unwisdom of such a policy. At the time, all acquiesced poUey. 

in it ; the cavalryman most cheerfully of all. Virginia was full of 

horses of noble blood. The descendants of such racers as Sir Ar- Blooded 

horsGs 
chy, Boston, Eclipse, Timoleon, Diomede, Exchequer, Red-Eye, and 

many others more or less famous on the turf, were scattered over 
the State. Gentlemen fond of following the hounds had raised these 
horses for their own use. They knew their fine qualities, their speed, 
endurance, and sure-footedness, and they greatly preferred to intrust 
their safety in battle to their favorite steeds rather than to any that 
the government could furnish. But the government might have fur- 
nished these horses at the outset, and by suitable activity it might 
have provided for replenishing the losses incurred in the service. 
The cavalrymen were kept mounted, but at an enormous loss of effi- 
ciency in the army, and by a system of absenteeism which sometimes Absentee- 
deprived the cavalry of more than half its numbers. Why should it 
have been thought that the people of Virginia would hold back their 
horses, when they refused nothing else to the government? 

The evil results of this system were soon apparent, and rapidly 
increased as the war progressed. Perhaps the least of these was the 
personal loss it entailed upon the men. Many a gallant fellow whose 



ism. 



8 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Loss sus- liorse had been irrecoverably lamed for the want of a shoe, or rld- 
the^menf ^^" ^^ death at the command of his officer, or abandoned in the en- 
emy's country, that his owner might escajje capture, impoverished 
himself and his family in order that he might keep his place in the 
ranks of his comrades and neighbors. Nor should it be a cause for 
wonder if this property question affected the courage of many a 
rider ; for experience soon proved that the horse as well as the man 
was in danger during the rough cavalry melee. If the horse were 
killed the owner was compensated ; but a wounded horse was a bad 
investment. 
Loss to the By far the greatest evil of the system was the fact that whenever 
from'^dis- ^ cavalryman was dismounted, it was necessary to send him to his 

mounted liome to procure a remount. To accomplish this required from 
men. _ _ ' ^ 

thirty to sixty days. The inevitable result was that an enormous 

proportion of the command was continuously absent. Many of the 
men were unable to procure fresh horses within the time specified 
in their " details," and the column of "Absent without leave " always 
presented an unsightly appearance. To punish such men seemed an 
injustice, and the relaxation of discipline on this point was abused 
by some with impunity. We have already seen that Fitz Lee's bri- 
gade, which should never have presented less than twenty-five hun- 
dred sabres in the field, was reduced to less than eight hundred at 
Kelly's Ford, on the 17th of March, and numbered less than fifteen 
hundred men at the time of the battle of Chancellorsville, when 
many of the absentees had returned. 
Detriment Great as was this evil among the Virginia regiments, it operated 
ton'sTrl- with tenfold force upon the cavalry of Hampton's brigade. Think 
gade. ^£ ggj,(j}ng a man from Virginia to South Carolina, North Carolina, 

Georgia, or Mississippi, to procure a horse! Recruiting camps were 
established in Virginia and in North and South Carolina, and every 
means which the cavalry commanders could devise were used to 
ameliorate this state of affairs. But the inevitable tendency was 
downwards ; and in the last year of the war hundreds of men were 
gathered together in the " Dismounted Camp," or, as the men called 
it, " Company Q," in the vain attempt to utilize good, but misi)laced 
material. Special officers were appointed for these men, and the 
attempt was made to use them, dismounted, in various ways ; but 
Disheart- with no success. The men were disheartened. Esjyrlt du corps 
could by no possibility be infused into such an assemblage. Every 
man looked and longed for the time when his horse might be re- 



ened men. 



:#^ 





GOV, JOHN A. ANDREW 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 9 

turned from the recruiting camp, or when some other kind provi- 
dence might remount him, and return him to his comrades. The 
penitentiary could not be more loathsome to him than his present 
condition, and yet even this was better than to give up all hope, and 
consent to a transfer to the infantry or artillery. 

The want of proper arms and equipments placed the Southern Deficien- 
cavalry at a disadvantage which can hardly be overestimated. At equipment, 
the beginning of the war the troopers furnished their own saddles 
and bridles. The English round-tree saddle was in common use, 
and sore-backed horses multiplied with great rapidity. After a time 
the government furnished an unsightly saddle which answered a 
very good purpose ; for although the comfort of the rider was disre- 
garded, the back of the horse was protected. Our best equipments 
were borrowed from our cousins of the North. The question of 
arming the cavalry was far more serious. Some of the more wealthy Arming 
of the Virginia counties armed their cavalry companies with pistols ^^''^^' 
when they were mustered into service, but whole regiments were 
destitute of them. Breech-loading carbines were procured only in 
limited quantities, never more than enough to arm one, or at most 
two squadrons in a regiment. The deficiency was made up, gener- 
ally, by Enfield rifles. Robertson's two North Carolina regiments, 
which joined Stuart in May, 1863, were armed with sabres and 
Enfield rifles. The difPerence between a Spencer carbine and an 
Enfield rifle is by no means a mere matter of sentiment. 

Horseshoes, nails, and forges were procured with difiiculty ; and 
it was not an uncommon occurrence to see a cavalryman leading his 
limping horse along the road, while from his saddle dangled the 
hoofs of a dead horse, which he had cut off for the sake of the sound 
shoes nailed to them. 

But in both armies the cavalry was a sort o£ elite Thecav- 
corps, and men preferred to enhst in that branch, prob- l/S corps, 
ably at the North because the would-be trooper pre- 
ferred riding to walking, with perhaps an idea that at 
the end of a march his horse would be put up at some 
peripatetic livery stable. Certainly none had any defi- 
nite idea of the duties. 

The men were enlisted from all ranks of life with no 



10 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Enlist- reference to previous occupation and capability. No 
from all selcction was even made according to size and weight, 
life. In Europe, except for the showy, expensive, and almost 

useless heavy cavalry which graces processions, opera- 
house entrances, imperial or royal drawing-rooms and 
staircases, and such pomps and vanities, a cavalry sol- 
dier must be light and active, and is especially selected 
for that branch of the service. An EngHsh authority. 
Beamish, says : — 

European The men, therefore, intended for cavalry service should be se- 
"^"**u'alil- Ifi^^ted with the utmost care respecting their disposition, size, and 
cations for vigor of constitution, and should, above all, be chosen from those 

tliis sGr~ 

vice. who have been accustomed to horses from their youth, such as the 

sons of farmers, hostlers, and others who love horses, and are capable 
of taking care of them and likewise of the harness and equipments 
with which they are intrusted. From other men than these it is 
difficult, almost impossible, to form a good cavalry. "What, for in- 
stance, can be expected from a stocking manufacturer, or a linen 
weaver, who considers the horse a wild beast ? We all know that 
sucli men rarely have confidence in their horses, but look upon them 
as their greatest enemies, against whom, for the future, they must 
struggle for their lives. They never learn to ride, never can pre- 
serve their balance, but hang on the horse like a senseless lump, 
which, in order to preserve its equilibrium, unnecessarily wastes a 
large portion of its strength, and on this account is soon wasted. 
The injudicious selection of men for cavalry may be productive of 
infinite mischief. 

Fitness But such principles were ignored in the great United 

Federfi'" States voluutccr army, and the men ranged from pigmy 
'"^* to giant, and there was never any authority for chang- 
intr them, after enlistment, into other branches of the 
service, according to fitness. Even later in the war, 
when experience should have taught better, whole regi- 
ments were recruited after the same ideas ; and as late 
as 1864 perfectly inexperienced company officers were 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 11 

put over them, and in some cases even the field of&cers 
were quite as ignorant as the men. 

In the South things were better managed. The cav- Southern 
alrv service was especially well ora^anized. All South- better or- 

'111 i? 1 1 gamzed. 

erners were good riders, particularly those or the better 
class. A good horse was a gentleman's pride, and the 
more important the gentleman, the better his horse. 
Consequently, their cavalry combined the men of the 
best class, mounted on the best horses — in the early 
days of the war largely thoroughbred or very well-bred 
animals. 

The officers were well-known men, of good social Well offi- 

„ cered. 

standing, and the field officers were many or them ot 
the old regular United States cavalry, I have under- 
stood that a considerable number of the old cavalry vet- 
erans of the regular army went South with their officers 
in 1861. Thus at the very beginning the Confederacy 
had a large force of capital cavalry ; every man a bold 
rider, well mounted, expert with revolver and rifle. 

In one respect alone was the Federal cavalry supe- Federal 
rior, namely, in arms and equii)ments, for these were oi better 

' '' ' '- ^ \ ^ armed and 

the newest pattern. And yet even in this respect the equipped. 
advantage was questionable, for the government issued 
an overwhelming outfit. The poor soldier was oppressed 
with his trappino-s and arms, and mounted for a marcli An over- 

>~ >~ ^ ^ ^ whelming' 

with three days' rations for himself and his horse, with outfit. 
saddle and bridle, wateruig bridle, lariat rope and picket 
pin, nose-bag, carbine and its sling, revolver and its 
holster, ammunition for both in their receptacles, sabre 
and belt, he looked little like the trooper Detaille or De 
Neuville loved to paint. The most difficult thing a re- 
cruit had to do when ready for the march was to get in 
and out of the saddle, and a derrick, sometimes, would 
not have been a bad thing. 



12 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Disposition The regulars, arriving from tlieir Western fields, were 

of the reg- ii* iniii • -r> 

uiars. at first pushed into the field by companies. Reorgan- 
ized later, they were so largely used as orderlies and 
headquarter guards as to seriously impair their effi- 
ciency. As regiments they were not brigaded until 
1863, and were then small. 
Should It has always seemed to me that they should have 

formed a becii filled up to the maximum and formed as a divi- 
sion, of three brigades of two regiments each ; which 
should have held in check, if it did not destroy, the 
Confederate cavalry in those early days when volunteer 
regiments were no match for the rough riders of the 
South, who also possessed the immense advantage of 
" fighting upon their own dunghill." 
At first, The regulars, in larger or smaller detachments, dur- 

smaii \\\cr the fii'st part of the war did brave work ; but they 

bodies. o 1 _ ? J 

were almost always used in small bodies, were usually 
outnumbered by the Confederate cavalry, and their ef- 
forts were frequently unsuccessful. At Gaines's Mills 
a most gallant charge was made by a small body of the 
5th cavalry, a desperate diversion to enable a new line 
to be formed, which succeeded in its object at the ex- 
pense of the cavalry, a gallant and heroic service. 
Nosepa- The volunteer cavalry, until 1863, took the field 
airy organ- usually as regimciits attached to separate commands; 
and also, occasionally, by brigades. Under good com- 
manders, notably under Buford, it did some handsome 
fighting. There was no cavalry bureau at Washington 
charged with its organization and equipment, and par- 
ticularly there was no general having command over 
the whole cavalry to direct its detail, and combine it for 
field work. Thus the regiments were not systematically 
recruited, or remounted as the horses became used up 





GEO. B. McCLE_LAN 
Major General 



U, S. GRANT 
General 





GEO. G. MEADE 
Mnjor General 



P. H. SHERIDAN 
General 



CAVALRY IN VIRGINIA. 13 

or killed. There was no combined movement of cav- 
alry, and no separate cavalry organization. The officers 
commanding divisions and corps to which cavalry was 
attached seemed greedy for as large a force of cavalry 
as possible, and very commonly nsed it up with unnec- 
essary and thankless work. There were many defeats, 
great discouragement, and demoralization resulting from 
this abuse. As a rule, success attended the Confeder- 
ates, and it seemed doubtful if volunteer cavalry in the 
Federal army was to be of any good. 

Until the summer of 1862, in the Federal army, the stuart ori- 
cavalry was groping about for its place in the field, the raid. 
while learning the elements of its duty. During the 
Peninsular campaign, under change of commanders, it 
did nothing to gain a name, being hardly mentioned in 
dispatches ; while Stuart won a brilhant reputation by 
his march around McClellan's army, and originated the 
"raid" which afterwards became such a feature in 
every campaign. Pope, in his retreat, exhausted his Pope ex- 
mounted troops by hurrying them hither and thither in mounted 
wild-goose chases. If his cavalry had been kept, on his 
flanks and always close to his enemy, he would not have 
lost sight of him, and eventually found him in his rear. 
This short campaign illustrates most forcibly what I in- 
sist upon, — that the Federal cavalry at that time had 
no general who understood its proper use. On the con- Use of 
trary, it was wasted and ruined in a service which stu- troops not 

. -.- . understood 

pidly not only e^ave it no rest to prepare for an emer- by Federal 

^ . . eommand- 

gency, but placed it where it could not even do good ers. 
service. Lee used his intelligently, and with half the 
work it did not only good service, but gained a brilliant 
renown. 

During the Antietam campaign the cavalry of Mc- 



14 FIEST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Inaction of Clellaii's armv did nothing; worthy of it. It moved aim- 
lan's cav- lesslj about. At the battle itself, about 8 a. m., the 
Autietam. wliolc division ci'ossed the Antietam on the Sharpsburg 
pike, and took a position close to Lee's centre, where he 
had concentrated about thirty-five pieces of artillery, 
with which, at times, without infantry support, he held 
the town. 
Porter Portcr's entire corps, also, was within striking dis- 

strikeLee. tance, but lay all day just out of fire on this road, and 
among the lost opportunities of the whole war none was 
more conspicuous than this. General Lee spoke of the 
Federal cavalry, " with a bravery worthy of a better 
cause " taking up this menacing position. Several times 
during the day the men mounted, and sabres were 
drawn, as all supposed, to charge, but the men were dis- 
mounted again without attempting anything. 

The artillery fire of Lee's guns Avas fierce, and to- 
gether with the fire of our own, of probably double the 
same number, across the Antietam Creek, the noise was 
infernal. This fire lasted all day, and this division of 
cavalry lay here accomplishing nothing, losing a few 
men by artillery fire. McClellan, by his inaction, per- 
McCiei- mitted Lee to take troops from his right (while Bum- 
tionanad- sidc did Hot cross) to rchcvc his sorely pressed left. 
Lee. And then, after he had, with their help, stayed the ad- 

verse tide there, he took them and others back and 
fought Burnside's tardy troops when they did cross. 
On both right and left there were natural obstacles to 
McClellan's troops getting into position to attack, be- 
sides Lee's veterans. In the centre was no natural ob- 
stacle. The bridge was intact and securely held, the 
road excellent. It led straight to Lee's centre. More- 
over, it was already crossed by the cavalry, 4320 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 15 

strong, and this force was within five hundred yards The road 
of Lee's centre, well protected by the ground, and all centre. 
ready formed for battle. Antietam was my first large 
battle, and I vividly recall the crossing of the creek. 
We suddenly came into the artillery fire before reach- 
ing the bridge, and it seemed as if the whole ground 
was ploughed up by shells, and the air full of them. 
The bridge was particularly exposed. On it, as I 
crossed, lay the dead body of the colonel of the 4th 
Pennsylvania cavalry and his horse. He had just been 
killed by a shell. The casualties were here numerous. 
But very soon after crossing, cover was found for the 
cavalry division, and could have been found for Porter's 
corps had it crossed, and a better place to put in troops 
was impossible. Attention has lately been called to this 
by an officer of the regular United States infantry, 
Avhose command was ordered out in front of the massed 
cavalry as skirmishers. He noticed the weakness of Weakness 

. of Lee's 

Lee s centre, unsupported by mfantry, and the excellent centre. 
opportunity to pierce it. He returned to General Por- 
ter and reported the situation in McClellan's presence, 
and entreated him to make the attack. At the moment 
Porter did not answer, but said later to McClellan, 
" Recollect, my corps is your only reserve." ^ 

The morning after Lee had, with perfect success. The day 
crossed the Potomac, the cavalry rode down to the high retreat 
river banks, looked across, stood and received the fire Potomac. 
of twenty-seven guns in battery at Shepherdstown for a 
long time, and collected the very meagre leavings of 
Lee's army, a few abandoned wagons, a caisson or two, 
and other worthless trash. This was heralded in Mc- 
Clellan's dispatches as "the cavalry pursuing Lee's 

1 This story has been denied by General Porter, although asserted by 
others. 



16 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

routed columns across the Potomac, with captures of 
guns," etc. 

The (lay before (September 18), Lee's army was 
Magnifi- beaten, not routed, and a magnificent opportunity of- 
tunityiost. fered for a dashing commander to score a real victory, 
one that might have gone far to end the war. That 
day the whole army rested while Lee prepared to cross 
the river. How he must have rejoiced that the Federal 
commander was not an enterprising man ! 

During the rest of the autumn the cavalry of both 
armies was rendered almost useless by an epidemic, 
Stuart called " greased heel," among the horses. Yet Stuart, 
prestige, in wliosc commaud the same disease raged, managed to 
ride around McClellan's whole army, without any loss 
to his cavalry, capturing over a thousand horses and 
much other plunder, and causing our men no end of 
wild-goose chases ; but, better than all that, so adding 
to his already great prestige, that his cavalry was feared 
as masked batteries were at one time. 
Picketing The following winter, in front of Fredericksburg, 
S ^ Whi- the Federal cavalry did picketing and scouting, not 
iil!" " merely on the flanks of Burnside's and Hooker's army, 
but kept open and protected the rear and in fact all the 
country from Washington down to the Rappahannock, 
and all about Washington, a duty that required the ut- 
most exposure, wear, and tear ; and at the same time 
added nothing to the glory of that ill-used branch of 
the service. 

In the spring of 1863 came a great change, which, 

for the Federal cavalry, might be called an emancipa- 

Hooker tiou. In February Hooker reorganized the entire Army 

izeTfed- of the Potomac. The cavalry was newly divided into 

airy.''^''' brigades and divisions, better officered than before. 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 17 

Probably at no time during the war was tlie army in 
so good condition as in May, 1863. The cavah-y had May, i863. 
been ill-used during the winter, and the horses were not 
in good condition, but the discipline was first-rate, the 
regiments well officered, and fairly well drilled. While 
not in comparatively such good condition as the in- 
fantry, the cavalry had greatly improved, and wanted 
but a dashing general to win laurels. 

General Stoneman was supposed to be such a man ; stone- 
but he made quite as marked a failure with the mounted ure. 
troops as Hooker did with the whole army in the 
wretched battles about Chancellorsville. His carefully 
prepared raid came to naught. For this the exceedingly 
bad weather was largely to blame. 

For nearly eighteen months the work had been scout- 
ing, picketing, and little encounters by companies or 
regiments, without any general leadership, without dash, 
enterprise, or success. How diiferent in the Confeder- 
ate cavalry ! TJiere, at the very outset, was an efficient 
force led to victory, and under such leaders as Ashby, Confeder- 
Stuart, and Fitzhugh Lee, made to feel they could do S^eadere. 
anything. They twice rode round the entire Federal 
army, in front of Richmond, and in Maryland, each time 
with perfect success, and almost with impunity, under 
J. E. B. Stuart, accomplishing excellent results in de- 
stroying and capturing, but particularly in learning that 
constant motion is the cavalry's forte, and boldness and 
audacity are its protection. 

But the younger officers were getting to know their 
duties, and the troopers were becoming educated to their 
work, and in the spring of 1863, under a new leader- 
ship, the Federal cavalry first asserted itself against the 
Confederate troopers at Kelly's Ford, and showed itself 



18 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

At Kelly's at the battle of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863, fully a 

Ford and i p ri ? i i 'J 

Brandy match foi* Stuart s cavalry, and never afterwards proved 

otation. . '' ■•■ 

a contemptible foe. 

I do not intend to say there were not gallant fights 
made by some cavalry commands, but that on the whole 

Unsuccess- the rcsult was thus far unsuccessful and unsatisfactory. 
Stuart and Fitzhug-h Lee and Hampton were con- 
stantly making successful raids upon the cavalry lines 
of pickets, and capturing men, horses, and wagons. 
They had the prestige, or, as it came to be expressed, 
" the bulge " on us. 

The battle of Brandy Station was a severe fight, in 
which the Federal cavalry, about ten thousand strong, 
crossed the Rappahannock on a reconnoissance in force. 

Attack on and attacked all Stuart's cavalrv, of nearly the same 

Stuart. II- .^ J 

strength, on his own ground. The artillery was freely 
used on both sides, and the number of guns was very 
nearly equal. After heavy and successful fighting all 
day, the enemy was put on the defensive, and made to 
develop his entire force, and even bring up his in- 
fantry. In the late afternoon our troops recrossed the 
river unmolested, having fully accomplished the object 
aimed at. There Avas more fighting than generalshij). 
This was, for the cavalry, the turning point in the war.^ 
Confeder- The Confederates were never met before or afterwards 

ate pres- . i i • • i 

tige lost, in such force. They here lost their prestige and never 

recovered it. 
Daily skir- 111 rapid successioii followed severe contests of the 

luislies. 

cavalry, successful for the Federals at Aldie, Upper- 
ville, etc., June 17 to 22, and engagements of more or 
less importance daily all through the campaign. The 
cavalry of both armies was in constant contact. 

^ McClellan says " it made the Federal cavalry." 





GENL. W. W. AVERELL 



GENL. A. N. DUFFIE 





GENL. JUDSON KILPATRICK 



GENL. J. IRVIN GREGG 





GENL. J. B. MclNTOSH 



GENL. H. E. DAVIES 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 19 

Ordered by Lee to keep on his right flank, and im- Stuart sep- 
able to break through the Federal cavalry, Stuart rode trom Lee. 
round its rear and crossed the Potomac between it and 
Washington, and, severed from him by the whole Fed- 
eral army, only joined Lee at Gettysburg the second 
day of the battle. 

General Lee has claimed that Stuart's absence caused 
him great inconvenience, and perhaps ruined his cam- 
paign of invasion. Stuart's historian indignantly denies 
this, and apparently gives good reasons. Be this as it 
may, it is sure that during this campaign, in a series of 
almost daily encounters, the Federal cavalry came out 
best, not without getting roughly handled at times, but 
always making itself respected ; and up to July 3 kept 
Lee's cavalry separated from his army, and prevented 
their help when most needed by him. 

Durin<r the rest of the summer after Gettysbursr, and After Get- 

^ vf 07 tysburg. 

until the middle of September, notlnng very unportant 
was accomplished by the cavalry of either army, al- 
though many encounters took place. 

At Culpeper, September 13, on the advance, Stuart's 
cavalry was met and defeated, with a loss of three 
guns. 

General Meade, in October, made his masterly retreat From the 

, . , . , Rapidan to 

from the Rapidan to Centreville, followed nnmediately Centre- 
by an advance to the Rapidan. His cavalry in this 
retreat played a conspicuous part as rear guard; and on 
the advance cleared the way. 

Later, in November, Meade crossed the Rapidan, and 
in the Wilderness met Lee at Mine Run in so strong a 
position that he declined to attack, and recrossed with- 
out fighting a battle. In this move his cavalry had 
several encounters, opened the roads in advancing, and 



20 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



The Con- 
federate 
partisan. 



Meade's 
cavalry- 
grains in 
efficiency. 



General 
Sheridan 
takes com- 
mand. 



brought up the rear in the retreat. It was well handled 
and beautifully manoeuvred, and won the admiration 
of all who saw it ; but no chance for great distinction 
occurred. 

This year developed the Confederate partisan. The 
flank of Meade's army and his long line of communica- 
tion by the Orange and Alexandria Railroad were ex- 
posed to constant attack by Mosby's battalion, White's 
battalion, company H of the 4th Virginia cavalry, — 
the so-called " Black Horse Cavalry," — and by other 
commands who operated in that district, where the men 
were at home. These attacks, which with little danger 
to the attacking force were very sure of success, caused 
the presence of a large body of Meade's cavalry at 
Warrenton and other points on his flank and rear, be- 
sides a cavalry brigade at or near Centreville. The 
Federal force accomplished little against Mosby and 
the other partisan battalions, but this service allowed 
something like rest to Meade's cavalry, and guarded 
the flanks and rear against any attack from regular 
Confederate troops. 

Meade was not a believer in mounted troops, yet he 
used his cavalry better than any previous commander, 
and under him that branch gained largely in efficiency 
and prestige. Wintering in places where with the least 
wear and tear the flanks of the army could be protected, 
and at the same time the men and horses drilled, it im- 
j^roved by good care and good food during the winter 
of 1863-64. 

Just before the campaign of 1864 opened, General 
Sheridan took command of the cavalry corps of the 
Army of the Potomac, reviewing each of the three divi- 
sions in turn. May 2, 1864, his cavalry crossed the 



CAVALBY IN VIRGINIA. 21 

fords of the Rappahannock, uncovered the roads on the 
south side, reconnoitred, and cleared the way until 
Meade and Lee were face to face. In doing this there 
was some severe fighting with Stuart's cavalry, in which 
the Federal cavalry invariably had the best of it. 

On May 9, as the Wilderness offered no chance for 
mounted troops, the raid to Richmond began, followed 
by a series of bloody engagements which ended at Yel- 
low Tavern and Richmond. Stuart's cavalry was very 
rouo;hly handled and he himself killed. This loss to Death of 

. General 

the Confederacy was never made good. There were Stuart. 
enough good leaders amongst his generals, notably Fitz- 
hugh Lee ; but Stuart had been the leader for nearly 
three years. Nobody doubted his right to the place, 
and after his death nobody quite filled it. He died at 
a good time for his own fame, for not even he could 
have chanofed the inevitable result that followed. It 
is no discredit that it was so. The Confederate cav- 
alry had fought long and well. The material for the 
rank and file was constantly deteriorating. Their pres- 
tige became always comparatively less as it increased on 
our own side. Now we had a leader, and not one only. 
From inferior grades had sprung up a plenty of able 
commanders of divisions, brigades, and regiments. Cas- 
ualties in any rank, with a change of personnel, did not 
change the efficiency of organization. 

The Confederate cavalrymen became better armed as Deteriora- 
the war went on, largely from captured weapons. Their Southern 
fine, well-bred horses went, never to return, and in 1864 men. 
they were not so well mounted as their Federal oppo- 
nents. Their granaries were laid waste, and a general 
decay set in that could not be stayed. All this was not 
without its consequences ; and we find all tlu^ough the 



22 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

rest of the war an almost invariable success attending 
the Federal cavalry in its battles. 
Reverses Somc rcvcrscs wcrc inevitable. Success urjres always 

and sue- " j 

cesses. to morc daugcrous deeds, and sooner or later to the 
impossible. Such was Wilson's raid to destroy Lee's 
southwestern communication with Petersburg. Sheri- 
dan's Trevillian Station raid resulted in hard fio^htino: 
and equal honors. It did irre23arable damage to Lee's 
cavalry, for the losses of men and horses, particularly 
the latter, could not be replaced. The Federal cavalry 
accomplished little else that was tangible. 

The desperate attempt of Early to make a diversion 
in favor of Lee, by invading Maryland, led to the 

The Vai- Valley campaio^n, and Sheridan took with him the lai- 

leycam- ^ ^ ^ ^ . 

paign. gest part of the cavalry, which in turn caused Lee to 
send most of his to oppose it. 

Here was a better country for cavalry than we had 
seen before during the war, and here the supremacy of 
the Federal cavalry was most marked. Here, for the 
first time, did the cavalry attack infantry in line on a 
large scale. By small bodies this had been done be- 
fore on both sides. 

Capture of At the battle of Winchester, the Confederate division 

a Lonied- ■' 

eratedivi- ^f Gcucral Wliartou was ridden over in perfectly open 
country by our cavalry, and almost the entire division 
— a small one — was captured. I will go into this 
somewhat in detail, as it has been often asserted that 
cavalry never during the war accomplished this feat. 

At the end of August, 1864, Sheridan, in obedience 
to his instructions, had withdrawn his army to Hall- 
town, near Harper's Ferry, on account of Anderson's 
division of Longstreet's corps coming to reinforce 
Early ; the Confederate infantry was pushed close up. 





ALFRED PLEASONTON 
Major Geiil. U. S. V. 



DAVID McWI. GREGG 
Brvi. Major Genl. U. S. V. 




JOHN BUFORD 
Major Genl. U. S. V 





GEORGE STONEMAN 
Ma/or Genl. U. S. V. 




GEO. A, CUSTER 
Major Genl. U. S. V. 



A. T. TCRBET 
Major Genl. U. S. V. 



CAVALRY IN VIRGINIA. 23 

While General Sheridan was at Halltown, he wanted Skirmish- 

. n . p PI- ing of pick- 

to have prompt inrormation oi any movement oi this eta. 

division, and accordingly Colonel Lowell, in command 
of the " reserve brigade," ordered, in the early morn- 
ing, an attack by two squadrons of the 2d Massachu- 
setts cavalry ujion the infantry pickets. The charge was 
successfully made upon what proved to be a South Car- 
olina brigade, and the greater part of a regiment was 
captured most gallantly. The attack was made at the 
same hour and the same place on two successive days. 
On the IGtli of September, the 3d New Jersey cavalry 
— a recently organized regiment — captured an entire 
infantry regiment (the 8th South Carolina of Conner's sth South 
brigade, colors, colonel, officers, and men) in front of infantry 
Winchester, on the Berryville pike. These small affairs 
were duly heralded, and inspired the cavalry with dar- 
ing. 

The battle of Winchester was fought on the 19tli of Battle of 

W inciiGS" 

September, Grant allowing Sheridan to attack Early, ter. 
after going to meet him at Charlestown. Grant says, 
speaking of General Sheridan : " I met him at Charles- 
town, and he pointed out so distinctly how each army 
lay, what he could do the moment he was authorized, 
and expressed such confidence of success, that I saw Grant bids 

, 111 IP* • Sheridan, 

there were but two words or instruction necessary, — "Go in." 
Go IN." 

At this time. Early, with his inferior force, had his Early's po- 
army spread out between Winchester and Martinsburg. 
His communications were upon a splendid road, the val- 
ley pike, and he could rapidly concentrate ; but his ex- 
treme divisions were twenty-two miles apart. 

Sheridan was at Berryville, eight miles from Win- Sheridan's 
Chester, his army well in hand and fortified with breast- 



24 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

works along part of the line. The road to Winchester 
was fairly good, but the Opequan, with steep banks on 
the east side, lay between, and had to be crossed. A 
difficidt and narrow defile lay between the Opequan and 
Winchester, and it Avas not easy to rapidly concentrate 
in front of Winchester, though the distance was not so 
great as that of Early's most distant division from that 
place. 
Attempts Sheridan previously sent all his cavalry but one divi- 
Early's siou, wliicli protcctcd the left flank, down to Summit 
Point, to cross there, and then march up the road to 
Winchester and come in on the enemy's flank. If his 
troops could get into position quickly enough, Early's 
divisions could be beaten in detail, and perhaps the 
greater part captured. 

A very slight obstacle of water will cause great delay 
in crossing, and the little stream of the Opequan, not 
two feet deep, proved no exception. 
A race for Earlv soou fouud out wliat was ffoina: on, and for 

Winches- -i , ^ ^ . 

ter. hours it was a race between the armies to get into po- 

sition, one to attack and the other to defend Winches- 
ter. The gi'ound becomes open and quite clear as 
the town is approached, and AVinchester is surrounded 
by rising ground, which commands all the approaches. 
Here Early's infantry was posted. The battle was 
fought at most points in perfectly open country. The 
movements of the Confederate troops about the town 
could be plainly seen, as they were placed by the offi- 
cers behind walls, and in some places were slight for- 
tifications with artillery. This was the case where 
Wharton's division was in line, late in the afternoon. 
As the troops came up slowly, Sheridan, impatient of 
the delay, attacked with the 6th and 19th corps, be- 



CAVALBY IN VIRGINIA. 25 

fore either Crook's 8th corps or the cavalry got on the 

field. 

The attack was delivered just as Early had put his Sheridan 
infantry in position. On his left he had placed Gor- liariy. 
don's division in a piece of woods at a considerable an- 
gle with his front. The horse artillery was in battery 
on our right flank and poured in a very severe fire as 
our fine advanced. The 6th corps attacking on the left 
and centre was successful, with its 2d division on the 
left. On the right the 3d division, 6th corps, and 2d 
division, 19th corps on the extreme right, were repulsed 
and had to retreat, but the enemy made no attempt to 
follow up his advantage at this point. The reserve, 
Russell's splendid 1st division, 6th corps, advanced and 
restored the 6th corps fine, Russell being killed; and 
on the right Dwight's 1st division, 19th corps, came 
into line and put things to rights there. Meanwhile, 
the 8th corps was coming up, and the cavalry in the 
distance was engaging Early's troopers. His flank be- Early's 
ing thus threatened by our cavalry. Early withdrew the thr|at- 
horse artillery and Gordon's division, closing in nearer 
to the town. 

Torbert, in command of the Federal cavalry, was driv- J^'^f^^s^ 
ing Fitzhugh Lee steadily, slowly at first, then more treats. 
rapidly, and when the attack in front of Winchester was 
renewed with the 8th corps, he came up in chase of 
Fitzhugh Lee, whose forces speedily and energetically 
retreated towards and through the town. 

Our cavalry in pursuit, in line of battle, more or less 
disturbed by the speed of pursuit, came through the 
open fields until they suddenly saw in front of them 
Wharton's division of infantry in Hue, protected by a 
small fortification and by artillery. Instantly taking in 



26 FIEST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Our men tlie situatioii, tliey charged the line and carried all be- 
Wharton's forc them, riding over the opposing infantry and cap- 
turing many prisoners. I went over the ground the next 
morning at daylight, and carefully examined the place 
where this successful charge was made. Where Whar- 
ton's division had been in line was a slight hill sloping 
away north ; a large house was on his right, and in 
front of it a small work, in which had been apparently 
two pieces of artillery. Wharton's infantry had been 
in Hue to the northwest from the house, facing about 
northeast. Their arms lay in piles, or windrows rather, 
Where the wliere they had dropped them when the cavalry struck 
chl^^. them. The plain across which the cavalry had charged 
was dotted with dead horses, and many dead cavalry sol- 
diers lay about; one, that I particularly noticed, be- 
cause one half of his head was shot away down the line 
of his nose so cleanly that not a drop of blood was vis- 
ible, lay just in front of Avhere a gun had been. I 
judged him to have been killed by the last discharge of 
the gun, when the soldier was close to it, trying to cap- 
ture it. An officer in Colonel Lowell's brigade says 
Colonel Lowell ordered him to charge this Hne of in- 
fantry and the guns, but before he could accompUsh it, 
— having to collect his regiment, — another body of 
Wharton's cavalry had done the work. Wharton's division at this 
moraUzed. time was the extreme rear guard, had been working 
hard all day, and was undoubtedly demoralized. Ear- 
ly's troops were going to pieces behind them. Defeat 
was inevitable and imminent. It v.as not a formidable 
force on account of these things. It was a small divi- 
sion in line of battle ; a good line admirably situated 
to deliver an effective fire. Two guns were there and 
in use. But the cavalry saw them only to charge 



CAVALRY IN VIRGINIA. 27 

them instantly, and they did it well. In his book, 
" The Shenandoah Valley Campaign," Pond says noth- 
ing' of this. 

We captured in the battle o£ Winchester five guns, Captures, 
some colors, and about 2000 prisoners, chiefly of Whar- 
ton's division. Most of Sheridan's cavalry folloAved up 
that of the Confederate army, and drove it up the little 
valley, or Page Valley, as it is called, and was not pres- 
ent at the battle of Fisher's Hill, two days after Win- 
chester, where Early's infantry and artillery were drawn 
up behind works. Averell's brigade, however, was there. General 
In the afternoon he went into camp behind the right relieved. 
of Sheridan's line without orders, and when Sheridan, 
by a wonderful couj) cVml, had utilized his opportunity, 
turning a reconnoissance into a real attack, he sent for 
Averell to follow up the victory. Finding he had gone 
into camp, Sheridan relieved him on the spot. 

Recalled to the main army, Sheridan's cavalry pressed 
Early back beyond Staunton, in a succession of eager 
but small engagements. 

The Confederate cavalry, unable to cope with Tor- 
bert's bold riders, was reinforced by another brigade 
under General Rosser. Rosser on taking command 
boastingly proclaimed what he would do. What he did 
was to be fairly dashed out of the way, October 9^ at 
the battle of " Woodstock Races," as our men called it. ^'^Wood- 
His squadrons were ridden over and pursued twenty-six Races." 
miles, at a gallop. Rosser's artillery was all captured 
entire, guns, horses, men, and even officers. Rosser's 
headquarter Avagons Avere taken, or, as Sheridan re- 
ported it, " everything he had on wheels," and Custer 
came to headquarters wearing Rosser's best uniform. 
Fitzhuffh Lee was wounded at Winchester, and Rosser 



28 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Rosser sooii after assumed command of all Early's cavalry. He 
inaiid. was not a West Point graduate/ but so well thought of 
that he was selected to fill Fitzhugh Lee's place, and 
was heralded by somebody at the South, in advance, as 
"the saviour of the valley." He kept this title after- 
wards, and I fancy it proved somewhat distressing to 
him. 

One of the Confederate batteries captured at " Wood- 
A fallen stock Raccs " had in it as a private soldier a West Point 
graduate, an old United States officer, who, at the 
breaking out of the war, Avent with the South. At first 
he had a higfh command. Rum ruined him, and his 
humiliation must have been complete as the West Point- 
ers among Sheridan's officers recognized him that night, 
when dirty, hungry, a private, and a prisoner, he helped 
drive his own guns to his captors' headquarters. 
(General General Early's own report to General Lee of this 

woes! '' battle gives a pathetic account of his woes, and an ex- 
cellent and impartial account of his cavalry. It is as 
follows : — 

This is very distressing to me, and God knows I have done all in 
my power to avert the disasters which have befallen this command ; 
but the fact is, that the enemy's cavalry is so much superior to ours, 
both in numbers and equipment, and the country is so favorable to 
the operations of cavalry, that it is impossible for ours to compete 
with his. Lomax's cavalry is armed entirely with rifles, and has no 
sabres, and the consequence Is that they cannot fight on horseback, 
and in this open country they cannot successfully fight on foot 
against large bodies of cavalry ; besides, the command is and has 
been demoralized all the time. It would be better if they could all 
be put into the infantry ; but if that were tried I am afraid they 
would all run off. 

1 Was at West Point about four years, and resigned on account of the 
war. 




ROBERT /'/ILLIAV1S 
Capt. 2nd U. S. Dragoons, iSbt 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 29 

The Confederate cavalry was fairly used up and un- 
able to take the field in any considerable force, and it 
made no show at the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 
beino- brushed away almost ignominiously by Custer 
early in the day. Not so the Federal cavalry, who came increasing 

1 • 1 1 T\T effective- 

into line with the infantry {Custer on the right and Mer- nessof our 

•^ ^ /->( 1 cavalry. 

ritt and Lowell on the left, the whole under General 
Torbert). On both flanks they fought infantry, and 
Lowell particularly put in his men mounted against 
Kershaw's division of Longstreet's corps, who were not 
merely in open country, but were protected by stone 
walls. For hours did our cavalry attack and keep back 
Kershaw's fine division, and they charged up to the 
stone walls, and here Lowell lost his life, and many 
brave officers and men were killed and wounded. 

Charles Russell Lowell was a man made by nature for Charles 

1 • 1 T r» 1 n Russell 

a cavalry leader. Durnig the eight weeks oi the valley Lowell, 
campaign his command, the regular brigade of 1st, 2d, 
and 5th United States, and 2d Massachusetts cavalry, 
was almost daily engaged ; and at one time for twenty- 
four consecutive days was in a fight of more or less im- 
portance. He had in the eight weeks no less than fif- 
teen horses killed under him. What he did so conspic- 
uously, all the rest did in high degree. The losses were 
severe, the glory great, the success splendid. Sheridan 
had picked Lowell out almost at once as an officer of 
exceeding merit. 

Cedar Creek may be considered the end of this cam- 
paign, for no fighting of any importance followed. 

In the spring of 1865 Sheridan's cavalry rode down 
to Grant before Petersburg, sweeping up all that re- 
mained north of the James, capturing the last guns left. Early re- 
and putting a military quietus on Jubal Early, General quietus. 



30 FIBST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Lee's " bad old man," as he was called. His undoubted 
ability as a soldier, his perseverance and couraoe, de- 
served a better fate. We knew him as a hard fighter 
and o-ood hater, and he is still irreconcilable. 
Before Pe- Arriving before Petersburg, March 27, Sheridan was 
ere urg. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ j^|.^ flank witli his cavalry, and how 

he helped to push the Army of Northern Virginia to its 
At Five fate is a matter of history. At the battle of Five Forks 
the cavalry fought infantry, besides what remained of 
the Confederate cavalry. 

In the final and successful attack in that battle, it 
was the 5th corps, particularly Ayres' division, that 
turned the flank of the breastworks, and made the vic- 
tory complete ; but on the front the cavalry, before the 
arrival of the 5th corps, drove all the Confederate troops 
behind their works and held them there ; and later, at 
Cavalry the final battle, rode over the breastworks and followed 
the breast- up tlic victory. General Pickett, commanding the Con- 
federate infantry at Five Forks, said that while giving 
his final orders that day, just behind the breastworks, 
" a Federal cavalry soldier, mounted on a mule, jumped 
over the works and called on me to ' surrender, and be 
damned.' " 
At Appo- No one can doubt to-day, that the final surrender at 
Appomattox was due very largely to the cavalry, which 
constantly, during those splendid days, pressed against 
the Confederate army in front, flank, and rear ; never 
hesitating to inquire whether the force in their way was 
cavalry or infantry. Like the Irishman with his shille- 
lah, " they hit a head wherever they saw it." 
^Vlten Lee It was ouly Avlieu General Lee found Sheridan's cav- 
that'^the airy finally between his army and its supplies at Appo- 
come.' mattox that he reaHzed the end had come, and surren- 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 31 

clered. Whether the cavahy directly caused the surren- 
der or not, it is safe to say that the surrender would 
not have occurred then and there but for the boldness, 
dash, and perseverance with which Sheridan, with his 
splendid force, attacked Lee's army, and relentlessly fol-' 
lowed his retreating^ columns. 

In the Army of the Potomac there were in 1863 about Numerical 
forty regiments of cavalry, originally of 1200 men and 
horses each. In 1864 there were about forty-two. As 
these were recruited from the States in which they were 
enlisted, and as the desire was to recruit as many regi- 
ments as possible, rather than to keep full the regiments 
already in the field, it resulted that these soon became 
very small. Seldom could one be found, unless very 
recently put in the field, with over three hundred men. 
And many were smaller. To say that this was a very A faulty 
faulty way of administration falls far short of a proper 
condemnation. It prevented efficiency in those regi- 
ments which were best disciplined, for want of strength. 
It not only brought into the field useless regiments, be- 
cause wanting in drill and experience, but it usually 
furnished plenty of inexperienced field officers, of high 
rank, who would by mere seniority come into j^romi- 
nent command, unless specially got out of the way. 

This was managed better in Lee's army, where the 
companies of old regiments were kept filled up, instead 
of creating new and consequently useless battalions. 
Their regiments were almost invariably stronger than 
ours. A comparison by number of regiments^, therefore, 
gives an incorrect idea of the strength of the cavalry in 
the two armies. Lee had about thirty-six regiments. 

Nobody who has not served in the cavalry can appre- Sources of 
ciate the many sources of demoralization constantly at Lldon! 



32 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Cavalry 
service no 
sinecure. 



Heavy 

losses in 
cavalry 
fights. 



Unremit- 
ting hard 
work. 



work. The man and horse are essentially one ; any ill- 
ness of either affects both. A false fold in the horse's 
blanket may ruin him. Epidemic diseases may for 
months paralyze the entire force. " Greased heel " and 
" glanders" were the most formidable epidemics. 

It has been thought by many infantry soldiers, men 
and officers, that the cavalry service is easy and not 
dangerous. Joe Hooker's exclamation, " Who ever saw 
a dead cavalryman ! " was hugely relished by the in- 
fantry. 

I have already shown that for want of experience and 
training, and of proper cavalry generals, until June, 
1863, the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac never 
had a fair chance to show its prowess. When it did, 
later, it improved it nobly, and made up for former 
want of opportunity ; and many of the cavalry battles 
were remarkable for the losses. At Aldie, the 1st Mas- 
sachusetts cavalry lost, in about an hour, one hundred 
and sixty one officers and men out of three hundred. 
During the Richmond raid in 1864, the same regiment 
lost eight of fifteen officers, and nearly half its men, in 
eleven days, without fighting a general engagement, but 
constantly engaged in small affairs. It is not likely 
that such figures are at all peculiar to this regiment. 

Certainly General Hooker would never have made his 
famous remark a little later, nor was it deserved then. 

As to the work done by the cavalry, it was severe 
at all times, and was never remitted, even in winter. 
The same terrible picket duty and patrol, with constant 
skirmishes and hard marches, continued the whole year. 
Such a thing as a permanent camp behind w^orks was 
unknown. Terms of picket duty sometimes continued, 
with the same men, in winter, for two weeks at a time. 




'"^^^ ^J> 



THE IDEAL CAVALRYMAN 




THE REAL CAVALRYMAN 



CAVALBY IN VIRGINIA. 33 

In the winter of 1863-64 the men averaged more than 
half their time on picket, and raids and reconnoissances 
were extra. 

The vedettes were on post alone (not by twos and 
threes) two hours at a time. During the winter of 
1862-63, when Hooker's army was in front of Freder- 
icksburg, the picket duty was something horrible. The Exp9sure 
soldiers had only shelter tents, the horses no protection, duty. 
The roads were, in places, two feet deep with mud, 
slush, and water. Sometimes on relieving the vedettes, 
horses would be found dead from exposure and hunger. 
Oats alone could be taken on picket as forage, and the 
horses were always kept saddled. In their hunger they 
ate off each other's manes and tails, and a more mis- 
erable spectacle than the cavalry horses during this 
winter could hardly be found. They died by hun- 
dreds. 

Be it remembered, this was not necessary. It was a Unneees- 
wanton and disgraceful and costly misuse of a splendid ships. 
body of men and horses. But this misuse was not 
without its benefit. It was an effective school, if ex- 
pensive, for when a man has found out what he will not 
do, he is on the way to knowledge at any rate. 

The daily work of the cavalry soldier cannot be called Cavalry 

• T> • 1 n 1 T duties not 

easy, even when m camp. Besides all the ordinary du- easy. 
ties of the infantry soldier is the care of the horse. 
And the soldier has not only his own horse to clean, 
but the horses of all the men on camp guard, the sick, 
and any on extra duty. The forage is to be hauled, 
and all the horse equipments are to be kept in order, 
besides carbine, pistol, and sabre. 

During a campaign, at the end of a long march, be- 
fore a tent is pitched or any attempt at individual com- 



rest 



34 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

fort can be made, forage must be procured, frequently 
from a distance. The horses must be unsaddled, cleaned 
and watered twice a day in camp. *^ Stable call " lasts 

Never at two hours cvcry day. In fact, the cavalry soldier is 
never at rest, and while in the field all these things 
must be done in intervals of fighting. 

I have known horses to remain saddled fifteen days 
and nights at a time, and only a part cleaned and fed. 
The only sleep the troopers got during the first two 
weeks of May, 1864, was on the ground in front of the 
horses, holding the bridle in their hands ; and oflicers 
had to do the same. During the 1864 campaign all 
officers had shelter tents, the same as the troopers. The 
troopers acquired a faculty of sleeping on horseback on 
the march. 

Faacina- As to the comfort, there can be no comparison be- 
tween cavalry and infantry service, none as to the 
amount of work. But there is something very attrac- 
tive in the service in spite of all. It is more venture- 
some and varied. Here to-day, there to-morrow. More 
chance for foraging. Sometimes better food ; never so 
much hardtack and pork, but not unfrequently great 
hunsrer and want. 

The sauce During the Antietam campaign, from September 2d 
until the 20th, neither forage nor rations were issued to 
the cavalry. The troopers fed upon green corn, apples, 
and past recollections, with an occasional feast at some 
farmhouse. The sauce of hunger was always plentiful 
and strono-. The horses fed on screen cornstalks almost 
entirely, a very poor food by the way, and supposed to 
have much to do with producing the epidemic of 
"greased heel," which broke out among them soon 
after. 



tion of the 
service 



of hunger. 



CAVALRY IN VIRGINIA. 35 

In many respects the equipments were faulty and Faulty and 

, . T f^ . f unneces- 

senseless. Cavalry is supposed to enect surprises, it sary equip- 
should be able to march silently. Why then the jing- 
ling- sabre ? The metal scabbard and metal fastenings 
make the noise. They also keep the sabre dull, invite 
rust, and add to the soldier's work. A wooden or 
leather scabbard lined with wood is better, would be 
noiseless, and keep the sabre bright and sharp ; for the 
sabre is supj^osed to be sharp. 

Of the horse equipment much was useless. The lariat 
rope and picket-pin were born of service on the plains, 
where they were necessary in feeding the horses on 
grass ; parts of the saddle had the same origin, as, for 

examnle, the hooded stirrups. The soldier had too Burden- 
^ 1 /~i p 1 ' 1 c • ^ some out- 

many arms. The Confederate, instead or arming the fit. 

entire regiment with rifles or carbines, had sharpshooter 
companies, thus leaving a part of the regiment with 
only pistol and carbine. Until towards the end of 
1863, their carbines and rifles were muzzle-loading. By 
that time they had captured enough breech-loaders to 
largely arm their reduced numbers with them. The 
Federal cavalry had breech-loaders of various systems, 
principally Sharps, and the Michigan brigade had the 
Spencer magazine seven shooters — " coffee mills," the 
Confederates called them. The various carbines were 
of different calibre, and with a variety of ammunition 
that caused confusion. 

Compared with this the Confederate outfit was mea- 
gre and simple, but strong in essential points. I have 
spoken of their well-trained and well-bred horses. When 
my own regiment was mounted, the horses were bought 
of contractors, and were said at the time to include all ment of 

vicious 

the vicious and unmanagfeable animals in the State of animals. 



36 



Fin ST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Canadian 
liorses. 



Dash and 
enterprise 
of rebel 
cavsilry. 



Par nobile 
fratrum. 



]\Iassacliiisetts. They were a motley lot, few having 
ever been ridden, generally " Canucks," as the Canada 
horses are called — short-leo-ged animals with thick 
mane and tail, about fifteen hands high. They proved 
excellent animals, and seemed able to endure hardshii) 
and hunger nearly in proportion to their Canadian 
blood. These Canucks are supposed to be Norman- 
French horses, degenerated in size ; good-tempered, and 
exceedingly hardy. When they could not get hay they 
would eat the bark of trees, leaves, almost anything; 
and would thrive where horses of some other breed 
would starve. The last of these Massachusetts horses 
in the regiment was stolen in crossing the Pamunky, at 
Hanovertown, in June, 18G-i, much to the grief of his 
rider. 

The Confederate cavalry was efficient, well-mounted, 
and led with dash and enterprise from the very start. 
It obtained at once the prestige, and held it until June, 
1863. 

Our Southern friends in the cavalry certainly fought 
well, and some of them are evidently as strong with the 
pen as with the sword, notably Von Borcke, Gilmor, 
and Mosby. 

General J. E. B. Stuart not only commanded the 
Confederate cavalry, he made it. At Chancellorsville, 
after Stonewall Jackson's death, he commanded his 
corps, and showed himself a general of very high order. 
Fitzhugh Lee was far and away next best after Stuart, 
if not his equal. He Avas called to the chief command 
at a time when the task was desperate. 

The Confederate cavalry started its career in pride, 
sti-ength, and success; the Federal cavalry in confu- 
sion and inefficiency, and had to make itself. This was 



CAVALBY IN VIRGINIA. 37 

naturally not done in a day, nor did any leader of mag- 
netic influence call out its powers. It was done pain- 
fully, slowly, and with many a humiliating experience. 
Hard knocks and defeats taught it vigilance, and the 
most able officers grew up with and out of it. 

The Federal cavalry, for a long time, was not fortu- 
nate in its leaders. Perhaps it is fairer to say that the 
faulty system, or want of system, prevented the leaders 
from accomplishing anything. A cavalry general is not Rarity of 
easily found in even trained armies, and none appeared generals. 
in the Army of the Potomac to hasten the natural pro- 
cess. 

Sheridan, who was the most brilliant commander the 
war furnished, perhaps, on either side, was not trained 
in the United States cavalry, having been an infantry 
officer, and for some time serving as quartermaster. 

I find in a most interesting book on cavalry, by Bis- 
marck (Lectures on the Tactics of Cavalry, 1818), the 
followino' : — 

o 

"A sufficient number of able generals of infantry has been found at Bismarck's 
all times, in all armies, but very rarely ojie of cavalry." " Cavalry 
will jjroljably in future times no longer occupy a place in line of bat- 
tle, until some eminent talent on a throne discerns its strength, and 
out of the whole body of officers places the ablest, most resolute, 
steady, and boldest at its head, and in future wars overcomes those 
nations who, following the spirit of our time (ever less productive of 
truly warlike characters), neglect the cavalry." " But all command- 
ers of armies have not known how to derive advantage from cav- 
alry," etc., etc. 

" The secret of bringing about great effects by cavalry lies in the Secret of 
personal qualities of the leader. Striking instances are recorded of f^^^,^ " 
the opposite effects produced l)y different commanders upon the same 
troops. When Murat upbraided Junot for his inaction after cross- 
ing the Prudisi, Junot alleged in excuse that he had no orders to at- 
tack, that his Wurtemberg cavalry were shy, etc., that they could 



38 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

never be brought to charge the enemy's battalions. These words 
Inspiration Murat answered by deeds. He rushed on at the head of the troops 
leader. who, with a different leader, were quite different men ; he urged 
them on, launched them against the Russians, overthrew their sku'- 
mishers, and then returning to Junot said, ' Now finish the business ! 
your glory and your marshal's staff are before you.' A similar an- 
ecdote is told of Colonel Rousset, an oflBcer of Louis XIV., and Cap- 
tain Churchill, afterwards Duke of Marlborough, at the siege of 
Nimeguen (1672). On this occasion the French colonel had been 
obliged to abandon a post. Turenne, who witnessed the retreat, 
betted that Churchill, with half the force, would regain it. He gave 
him the command, and after a desperate struggle the future duke, in 
presence of the whole army, recovered the position." 

" In these wars (1756) amongst other ai'mies were actions of 
single cavalry detachments and regiments worthy of being handed 
down to military posterity. But there was nothing done upon a 
large scale. There was hut one Seidlitz." 

General Sheridan was selected by General Grant on 
this principle, and fully justified his intelligence. Un- 
der Sheridan only did the Federal cavalry gain the 
prominence it deserved. 
What Think of what might have been effected at several 

have been, battles iu tlic War had there been in command a general 

at Antie- , , ^ ^ ^ 

tarn. ^i^Q ii^^i i\^Q power of seeing his opportunity and im- 

proving it when it occurred ! At Antietam, McClellan 
in the centre, above tlie Antietam Creek, on high 
ground, with Porter's large and efficient corps at his 
elbow, and all his cavalry within five hundred yards of 
Lee's guns, which alone connected the two wings of his 
army, should have seen his opportunity. He was not ac- 
customed, as was Sheridan, to be on the ground visit- 
ing in turn all the critical positions, in contact with his 
generals, and almost with his enemy, ready to fight his 
battle as opportmiity offered, taking advantage of his 
enemy's errors, and snatching victory from him. But 




^th.:' ■■ ■",'*. 



0^^^i: 



m. 



M 



%l\ 




ROBERT WILLIAMS 
Co/, nnd Brvt. Briif. Geiil. U. S. A. 



CAVALEY IN VIRGINIA. 39 

he could not help seeing the chance at Antietam, for it 
was thundered into his ears, and must have burned his 
eyes. He was of the generals who fight battles in tents, 
on paper, at a table the day before. His enthusiasm 
was shown at reviews, or before the battle. The battle- 
field showed him nothing. 

After Gettysburg, a general of marked ability in com- Duty of 
mand of all the combined cavalry of Meade's army after Oet- 
should have at least captured all Lee's wagons and 
much of his artillery, if not have prevented his crossing 
the Potomac. 

It is not without interest to notice the remarkable 
number of distinguished officers of the Confederacy who 
served in the United States cavalry before 1861 ; most 
of them were always cavalry officers : Generals R. E. Galaxy of 
Lee, A. S. Johnston, J. E. Johnston, Kirby Smith, Har- ate cavalry 

o£B.C6rs 

dee, J. E. B. Stuart, Fitzhugh Lee, W. W. Loring,Van 
Dorn, G. B. Crittenden, J. B. Hood, Field, Evans, 
George H. Stuart, Richard B. Ewell, and many more of 
less note. 

In the Federal army the list is not so long nor so re- Sedgwick 
markable, John Sedgwick and George H. Thomas being Thomas. 
the most distinguished. 

My sketch is of necessity very imperfect, since, to be Imperfect 
general, it had to be greatly condensed. I trust it may 
have illustrated to infantry listeners some peculiarities 
of the cavalry. To cavalry listeners I almost feel I owe 
an apology for saying so much that is trite, and partic- 
ularly in seeming to labor to prove propositions that to 
tliem must be self-evident. 



CHAPTER 11. 

m MASSACHUSETTS, SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 

30, 1861. 

The first volunteer rej^iments of cavalry were raised Tiie regu- 
about September 1, 1861. Prior to that time there formed the 

• 1 TT • 1 o model of 

were of resfular cavah-y troops m the United States volunteer 

~ . regiments. 

army six regiments, of twelve companies each. These 
formed the model upon which the volunteer regiments 
were built. And in almost all cases volunteer regi- 
ments Avere organized from the militia cavalry organ- 
izations in the different States. 

As cavalry was considered a chosen corps, and the 
volunteer soldiers had an idea that the work would be 
easier, and as the idea of riding upon a horse was an 
attractive one, these regiments filled up very rapidly. Volunteer 
But no attempt was made to enlist the men with regard regiments 

. . 1 n 1 p 1 nil rapidly. 

to a previous occupation, which should fit them lor that 
peculiar service. It would have been better to have se- 
lected men of light weight, accustomed to horses, rather 
than men of heavy weight who were strange to the ani- 
mal ; but this is merely one of the things that were not 
done as they should have been, owing to the vast un- 
dertaking of organizing an immense army suddenly. 

The 1st Massachusetts cavalry was made up almost 
entirely from existing military organizations. Compa- Origin of 
nies A and B were made out of the Boston Dragoons ; panies?"' 
companies C, D, and G from the Boston Lancers ; com- 



IN MASSACHUSETTS. 41 

panies L and M from the Waltliam Dragoons (the lat- isei, 
ter company received a large number of men recruited ber. 
in Haverhill by Lieutenant Batchelder); companies I 
and K from the North Bridgewater Dragoons, in the 
Old Colony ; E and F from near Springfield, from the 
Springfield Horseguards ; company H was raised in 
Essex County, from no cavalry militia company. Its 
original officers were from Marblehead. 

Not a few of the men who had been drilled in these 
militia companies enlisted for the service in the regi- 
ment. All of these companies elected their officers ac- Officers 

dGCtcd bv 

cordinof to the reg-ulations of the Massachusetts militia, the men. 
and reported at the camp at Readville, Camp Brigham, 
with the idea that they could also elect their field offi- 
cers. Major William F. White took command as the 
companies reported for duty, from September 6 to 12. 

Governor Andrew, fully aware of the difficulty of 
bringing a cavalry force into a high state of efficiency, 
selected for the colonel of this regiment Robert Wil- Colonel 
Hams of Virginia, of the United States Army, a cavalry 
officer graduated from West Point, who had been cadet 
instructor of cavalry at the academy, and was highly 
recommended by General Scott. A better officer to or- 
ganize and discipline a regiment of cavalry could not 
have been found. He was a thorough disciplinarian, 
possessed of remarkable dignity and presence, a splen- 
did horseman, and fitted eminently for the position. 

His military secretary telegraphed as follows to Gov- 
ernor Andrew on getting Captain Williams' acceptance 
of the offer of the colonelcy of this regiment. 

Washington, September 11, 1861. 
Williams accepts. Scott requests Cameron to grant Williams 
furlough. Adjutant-General protests and opposes. Scott requests 



42 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1861, 
Septem- 
ber. 



Colonel 
Williams' 
accept- 
ance. 



Lieuten- 
ant-Colo- 
nel ap- 
pointed. 



Mutiny. 



me to assure you that he knows no young cavalry officer in America 
or Europe who is Williams' superior, and thanks you for the spirit 
which impelled such an offer from Massachusetts to Virginia. Says 
he esteems it the most graceful patriotic incident thus far in war. 

A. G. Browne, Jr., 
Military Secret anj. 

Captain Williams wrote as follows to the governor, 
accepting the colonelcy. 

Headquarters General Banks' DryisioN. 
Darnestown, Md., September 21, 1861. 

To His Excellency, Governor Andrew. 

Sir, — I have the honor to express to you my sincere thanks for 
the high compliment you have paid me in tendering to me the colo- 
nelcy of the cavalry regiment now heing raised by the State of Mas- 
sachusetts. I assure you I fully appreciate the honor as well as the 
responsibility, and I shall strive to the utmost to render myself wor- 
thy of both. I beg that you will not think me dilatory in not having 
reported to you in person before this. I shall do so as soon as I can 
after another officer has been appointed assistant adjutant-general to 
General Banks, the position which I now hold. 
I am, very respectfully, 

Robert "Williams, 
Assistant Adjutant- General. 

For lieutenant-colonel, Colonel Horace Binney Sar- 
gent, of Governor Andrew's own staff, was selected. 
He was a superb horseman, very enthusiastic about 
cavalry service, and a student of military matters, al- 
though of no experience. Majors were left for later 
selection. 

When the two colonels appeared on the field, the 
company officers, who had expected that the field officers 
would be chosen from among their own numbers, were 
astonished and dissatisfied, and this feehng soon spread 
among the men. In consequence, a mutiny broke out, 
the effects of which were never wholly eradicated from 




HORACE BINNEY SARGENT 
Col. and Brvt. Brisr. Genl. 



IN MASSACHUSETTS. 43 

the reo-iment. Colonel Williams was not a man to stand isei, 

""* . -j-^ . • i» 11 1 1 October. 

any insubordination. Energetic action followed, and 
this trouble culminated in the wounding of one man 
and the dismissal of many officers by the colonel. For 
a time, an infantry guard from the •24th regiment was 
placed in camp, in anticipation of further disorder. 

Many of the elected officers who reported with the Changes in 

\ tip'- • field and 

companies proved to be, lor various reasons, mcompe- company 

officers. 

tent, and Colonel Williams soon decided to choose not 
only his own field officers, but, to a great extent, the 
company officers also. He told all of them that they 
held the places only on probation, and that, if found 
unfitted, they would be dismissed. Later, when the 
regiment was in South CaroHna, he acted upon this 
principle, and many more were told to resign and did so. 
With reference to the roster of those who came to 
camp in September, 1861, in command of the different 
companies. Colonel Williams, in his letter to the gov- 
ernor, October 29, wrote as follows : — 

Headquarters op the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. 
Camp Brigham, October 29, 1861. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Harrison Ritchie, Alde-de-Camp. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the Colonel 

\Vi11i3j1IIS 

2£)th inst., containing instructions from His Excellency, the comman- letter 
der-in-chief, concerning the nominations for officers, which I have officers.^^ 
sent in, as well as directing me to send a roster of officers now on 
duty with the regiment. I would respectfully state that the nomina- 
tions referred to were not intended to displace any of the officers, 
hut to fill vacancies. I enclose herewith the roster required. I 
have placed opposite the name of each officer my opinion concern- 
ing his qualification as a cavalry officei\ These opinions I have 
formed after careful study of the officer's character during the time 
I have heen on duty with the regiment. It is my belief that those 
whom I have spoken of as unfit for cavalry duties will never be 
able to learn them in such manner as to work satisfactorily to them- 



44 



FIMST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1861, 
Septem- 
ber. 



What a 
cavalry 
officer 
should be. 



selves or me in the regiment. The duties of a cavalry officer require, 
in my opinion, talents and physical capacity of high order, wliich are 
of a peculiar nature, and which these gentlemen cannot acquire. As 
I wish to see the regiment reflect the greatest credit upon the State 
of Massachusetts, as I know that it can be made such if well officered, 
I would most earnestly recommend that none of the officers be ap- 
pointed to whom I have referred as being unfit for cavalry duties. 
A cavalry officer should be a man of comparatively light, active fig- 
ure, of quick, active intellect, ancl, in addition, capable of leading his 
men, if necessary, into the most desperate encounters with coolness, 
but at the same time with the greatest rapidity. He should be the 
first in every charge, the last in every retreat ; and, above all, should 
admit nothing, in the power of man and horse to accomplish, as im- 
possible. I beg that I may not be presumptuous in speaking so 
plainly. I have made cavaliy and its duties the study of my life, so 
that I hope that I understand them. These gentlemen to whom I 
have referred cannot be made to understand them. With these as 
officers I look forward to anything but honor with the regiment ; 
without them, and with good officers, I hope everything. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Robert Williams, 
Colonel 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. 



ROSTER OF REGIMENT, SEPTEMBER, 1861. 



Company A. 
Company B. 
Company C. 
Company D. 
Company E. 



John S. Leonard. 
E. R. Merrill. 
H. N. Weld. 
S. E. Chamberlain. 
M. F. Webster. 
P. C. Stevens. 
O. R. Shaw. 
W. M. Miles. 



A. H. Stevens. 
G. F. Jennings. 
J. H. AVyman. 
J. S. Robinson. 
M. C. Pratt. 



Captain. 
1st liieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut, 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 



(Enlisted man.) 



IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



45 



Company F. 
Company G. 
Company H. 
Company I. 
Company K. 
Company L. 
Company M» 



H. Crane. 



L. Slade. 
D. B. Keith. 
C. E. Rice. 
W. C. Bowler. 
F. Boardman. 
T. W. Coffin. 
L. Richmond. 
N. Merchant. 
F. H. Shiverick. 
J. H. Case. 
R. D. Hills. 



Wm. Gibbs. 

G. W. Batchelder. 



M. A. Moore. 
A. W. Corliss. 
J. G. Thayer. 



1st Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
Captain. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 



1861, 
Septem- 
ber. 



He criticised each officer as to capability, mental and CoJ^pei 

^ '^ ' W illian 

physical, severely and pitilessly. of'wi^'^ 

Without giving the names, some o£ the criticisms are officers. 
appended, as they give an idea of the faults he particu- 
larly noticed, and they illustrate his letter, which is a 
forcible exposition of the qualities he wished for. 

Is too old. Is unfit for cavalry duty. 

Lacks energy of mind and body. Is unfit for cavalry duties. Has 
been requested to send in his resignation, and has declined. Is ab- 
solutely unfit for cavalry duties. 

Will make a very good cavalry lieutenant. 

Might be tried further as a lieutenant. 

Lacks energy of mind and body, and is unfit for cavalry duties. 

Resignation accepted by the governor, October 21. Entirely unfit 
for cavalry duty. Is too heavy, lacks energy, has sent in his resig- 
nation. 



46 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1861 Lacks energy of both mind and body. Is unfitted for cavalry 

Novem- ^^^i^g^ 

Will make a very good lieutenant (2d) of cavalry. 
Will make a very good captain of cavalry. 

Dismissed Tliis actioii of Coloiiel Williams was military, arbi- 

ofiicers _ _ . 

prefer trarv- and necessary. The officers dismissed at the time 

charges. ./ ^ ./ 

of the mutiny preferred charges against him and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Sargent. The newspapers commented 
extensively on the occurrences and his action, and much 
feelino; was aroused. He never for a moment wavered 
in his conduct of the regiment's affairs, and the public, 
just getting used to military matters, saw that here, at 
least, was a man who knew his business. Feeling qui- 
eted down. The charges ao^ainst Colonel Williams and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent fell through, and the men 
of the regiment found they had a man in command who 
not only knew his business, but meant to be obeyed. 

The discontent in the regiment prevented the accom- 
plishment of all his plans at once ; but very soon, — 
about Thanksgiving time, — young men selected by him 
to be company officers began to appear at Readville in 
camp. There were about twenty such who reported 

Volunteer simply as voluutcers, with the promise that if found 
fitted for the duties, they should later receive definite 
rank, before the regiment left the State. 

The camp. The camp Avas at Readville, where now are the 
grounds of the Norfolk County Agricultural Society, 
on the Boston & Providence Railroad, about eight miles 
from Boston, well situated for getting supplies ; but it 
was as cold a spot as could be found in Massachusetts. 
Great wooden stables were built for the horses across 
the parade, and on a line with the company streets. 
These were made of rough boards, and ventilation was 
abundant. 



□ □ 



□ 



n 





oo 


oooooo 


D 


oo 
oo 


oooooo 
oooooo 


n 


oo 
oo 


oooooo 
oooooo 


D 


oo 
oo 


oooooo 
oooooo 


□ 


oo 
oo 


oooooo 
oooooo 


□ 


oo oooooo 
oo oooooo 




oo oooooo 



J 
^ 






lU 






® 



< 


m 


6=^ 


5S 


^ 


®l 


^ 


"H 


(S^ 


is==i 


sa 


in 


m, ^ 


IWl 


m 




@ 




> 


B 


^ m 


^ 


X 




h 


< 


g^ 


.Hi) 



/.¥ MASSACHUSETTS. 47 

The men were drilled as much as the weather per- isei, 
mitted, and pretty much all the rest of then- thne was 
occupied in taking care of the horses. Mounted drill, Drill, 
also, began about December 1, in the beginning with- 
out saddles, and afforded great amusement to every- 
body but those unfortunates who were thrown from 
their own fiery steeds, or kicked and bruised by those 
of others. Sabres were the only arms issued before the 
regiment reached the field. 

In the neighboring camp was organized the 24th in- 
fantry, Colonel Thomas G. Stevenson. 

Shortly after the regiment went into camp at Read- 

ville, horses purchased by contractors began to be is- Horses 

sued, and it was said that the regiment possessed nearly ^"^"^ 

all the unruly beasts in New England. A great many 

of these, unfitted for harness, became afterwards capital 

troop horses. These horses were distributed to the Distrib- 
, . 1 -r-» . uted ac- 

companies according to color. J3ays were oiven to cording to 

color. 

companies A, B, C, and D, the 1st battaHon ; sorrels 
and roans to companies E, F, G, and H, the 2d batta- 
lion ; blacks to companies I, K, L, and M, the 3d bat- 
talion, while the grays were given to the band. Every 
trooper wanted the best horse, and no little heart- 
burning was caused when in companies the horses were 
given out. Forcible exchanges occurred, not to call 
the deed by a worse name. 

The autumn of 1861 was very cold, with periods of a cold, 
wet weather, and the camp about the stables soon be- tumu. 
came a vast sea of mud, which, frozen, somewhat resem- 
bled an arctic sea in irregularity, and dirty as the Au- 
gean stables. There was a great deal of sickness among 
the horses ; and the men who had enhsted with an idea 
of riding on horseback, perhaps with the further notion 



48 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

,. ^^^\ that grooms would be furnished to take care of their 

December. o 

horses when they dismounted, soon found that in addi- 

sio^s'^dis- tion to being a soldier, a cavalry soldier would have to 

^^ ^ ' be also groom and stable keeper. The duty of tak- 

ino; care of sick horses under unfavorable circumstances 

was very irksome and trying. There was nothing but 

novelty and friendship to attract visitors to Camp 

Briijham. 

March to Qu December 19, the whole regiment marched into 

Boston. ' ^ 

Boston, made the usual tour through the j^rincipal 
streets, and back to Readville. It was a fatiguing pa- 
rade to all who marched, and would not have satisfied a 
critical and experienced beholder. 
Notabrii- The cavalrv to which Boston liad been accustomed 

liant pa- -^ 

rade. ^rr^g ^jj-j^^ distinguished by the red uniforms and flying 
pennants of the Lancers, and the dark blue uniform and 
shiny brass ornaments of tlie Dragoons. Our regiment 
could show nothing of this. Dingy uniforms begrimed 
with mud and dirt and showing hard usage ; untamed 
steeds, rough with their autumn coats ; a redundant out- 
fit of saddles, bridles, queer stirrups, and superfluous 
bits, all stiffened by December cold, rendered enthusi- 
asm on the part of friends of the regiment difficult. 
The rio^ht stuff was there. The Boston public saw 

Boston .=• . ' o ^ 

sees a regi- somethmp" it ucvcr saw before, — a reo^mient or cavalry, 

mentof ^ ' * . „ „ ,. 

cavalry, and acceptcd " the unknown as magnificent. This 
parade was the second mounted march of the regiment 
only. Indeed, horse equipments were only issued on 
December 15. Before that the horses were ridden bare- 
back, guided by watering bridles. 

Colonel Williams gradually tightened the discipline, 
and the men soon found that their life was not to be an 
easy one. Everybody in camp, from the colonel down, 



IN MASSACHUSETTS. 49 

had hard work from sunrise to sunset, and punishment isei, 

i^GCGlUDGr 

for breach of discipHne became common. This proved 
very trying to men unused to it, and Colonel Williams l>iscipiine. 
became anxious to get the regiment away from the 
State into the field, where he would be free from news- 
paper criticism and the visits of the innumerable friends 
of the men and officers. 

A few commissions had been gradually given to new 
officers for weeks past. About the middle of December 
most of the officers who had volunteered received 
their commissions and were mustered into the United 
States service. Later, while in New York, several 
joined, and the roster was (a few officers being dis- Roster, 
missed) as follows : — 

Colonel Robert Williams. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. B. Sargent. 

Major Greely S. Curtis. 

Major John H. Edson. 

Major Wm. F. White. 

Surgeon Dr. James Holland. 

Assistant Surgeon Dr. Oscar C. DeWolf. 

Regimental Q. M. Lucius W. Knight. * 

Battalion Q. M. Edward A. Brackett. 

Battalion Q. M. Milton R. Bowen. 

Captains. 

1. Henry Lee Higginson. A. 7. Oren R. Shaw. C. 

2. Lucius M. Sargent, Jr. H. 8. Samuel E. Chamberlain B. 

3. Marcus A. Moore. M. 9. David B. Keith. G. 

4. Atherton H. Stevens, Jr. D. 10. Caspar Crowninshield. E. 

5. William Gibbs. L. 11. James H. Case. K. 

6. Lucius Richmond. L 12. T. L. Motley. F. 

1st Lieutenants. 

1. Charles E. Rice. G. 4. Henry T. Davis. H. 

2. Greenleaf W. Batchelder. L. 5. B. W. Crowninshield. F. 

3. Walter M. INIiles. C. 6. F. H. Shiverick. L 



50 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1861, 
December. 



7. C. F. Adams, Jr. H. 

8. M. C. Pratt. E. 

9. Lucius H. IMorrill. K. 
10. II. Pelham Curtis. C. 



11. Edward R. Merrill. 

12. M. F. Webster. B. 

13. Rufus D. Hills. K. 



1. Arnold A. Rand. 

2. Dean. 

3. H. P. Bowditch. 

4. N. Bowditch. L. 
^. Channing Clapp. 
6. H. N. Weld. A. 



2d Lieutenants. 

F. 7. W. H. Forbes. E. 

8. George Blagden. M. 
G. 9. R. M. Clark. F. 

10. Frank Washburn. K. 
D. 11. Louis Cabot. I. 

12. John Tewksbury. C. 



CHAPTER III. 

m SOUTH CAROLINA. JANUARY 1 TO AUGUST 19, 

1862. 

The first part of the regiment to leave camp was the 1861, 
1st battalion, companies A, B, C, and D, under Major ^^"^ ^^' 
Greely S. Curtis. This battalion left Readville Decem- 
ber 25, and went to Annapolis, Maryland, expecting the Dee. 25, 
other battalions to join it there, and make a part of battalion 
Burnside's expedition to North Carolina. The 2d and oiis. 
3d battahons started December 26 and 28 respectively, Dec. 20. 
in cars for New York, arriving next day, and with them Stkiion 
Colonels Wilhams and Sargent, and Majors Edson and Yo?k.''' 
White. The men of the 3d battalion were quartered at Dec. 28, 
City Hall Park barracks, and the horses in East 24th battalion 
Street. The 2d battalion was marched to the old sta- York."^ 
bles of the Third Avenue Horse-Car Company, and the 
horses were stabled there. These stables were exces- 
sively dirty and dilapidated, having been built as a tem- 
porary accommodation for the horses of this horse rail- 
road company, to replace one that had recently burned 
down. The men were quartered at first in the barracks 
in City Hall Park, opposite the Astor House, and later 
in a lager beer garden adjacent to the horse-car stables, 
known as " Landmann's Hamilton Park." The two bat- 
talions were detained here ten days, and while they were Anuncom- 
in this uncomfortable and irregular condition, the mea- detention. 
sles broke out in company F, and later became very 



52 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1861, 
December. 



Order to 
disband 
new cav- 
alry regi- 
ments. 



Order 
counter- 
manded. 



troublesome on the transports wliicli took them to South 
Carolina. The two battalions while in New York rode 
out once in the Central Park, at that time quite new. 
In returning the 3d battalion received quite an ovation 
in passing- down Fifth Avenue. 

The rapid enlistment of cavalry regiments alarmed 
army headquarters at Washington. The old feeling re- 
turned about the difficulty of making so many raw re- 
cruits, with expensive equipments, into a useful part of 
the army. The following order was issued to disband 
many of the newly recruited cavalry regiments, and the 
1st Massachusetts was among the fatal number : — 

Wak Department, Washington, December 3, 1861. 
To THE GOVERXOK OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Incomplete eavaliy regiments will not be completed. If they can 
be consolidated so as to form complete regiments, they will be re- 
ceived. If not, they will be mustered out of service. No other cav- 
alry regiments will be raised. 

Please report your action in the case. 

No more cavalry will be sent forward without express orders to 
that effect. The Department desires to turn a number of the cav- 
alry regiments already raised into infantry or garrison artillery. 
Please report if this can be done. Per order 

L. Thomas, 
Adjutant- General. 

Colonel Williams hurried to Washington, and such 
representations were made by him and the other friends 
of the regiment that the order was countermanded, as 
far as it related to the 1st Massachusetts. Doubtless the 
high reputation of Colonel Williams as a cavalry officer 
had much to do with this result. 

Having obtained its second lease of life, the destina- 
tion of the command was changed. Instead of becom- 
ing a part of Burnside's expedition to North Carolina, 




SAMUtL E. CHAMBERLAIN 
Col. and Brvt. Brig. Genl. U. S. V. 



IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 53 

it was ordered to be attached to the Southern Expedi- 1862, 
tionary Corps of General Hunter, which in November ^'^"^'^' 
captured the forts at Hilton Head, and opened up a Attached 
small territory on the South Carolina sea islands. This Hunter's*" 
command threatened Savannah and Charleston, and con- ^*^^^^" 
sisted of about fifteen thousand men, infantry and artil- 
lery, and Avas accompanied by a large fleet under Ad- 
miral Goldsborough. The siege of Fort Pulaski was 
the next step after the capture of the forts, and small 
garrisons were placed on the sea islands all along the 
South Carohna coast, from Charleston to Florida. 

January 8, orders came for the two battaHons of the Ordered 
regiment in New York to go on board transports and Head*s!c. 
proceed to Hilton Head, South Carohna; and it was 
expected that Hilton Head, from which a good deal of 
country was accessible by inland waters, would form the 
base of operations for an invasion of South Carohna. 
Embarked in different large steamers these two battal- 
ions proceeded to Port Royal, and were joined a little 
later by the 1st battahon, which had previously gone to 
Annapolis. 

The 3d battalion went from New York on board the Details of 
steamers Baltic and Marion, company I on the latter, tS^" 
and companies K, L, and M on the former; the 2d 
battalion on the steamers Empire City, Cahawba, and 
Star of the South. On board the Empire City were 
company F, and twenty men of company G, witli one 
hundred and fifty horses. The Star of the South, with 
company E, and one hundred and twenty-five horses, 
left New York on Saturday, the lOtli of January, but 
as it was rainy and foggy, the Baltic, with three hun- 
dred horses, the Marion, with one hundred horses, Ca- 
hawba, with companies G and H, and one hundred and 



54 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



January, 



Landing 
delayed 
by fog. 



Jan. IS, 
1802, ;}d 
battalion 
arrives at 
Hilton 
Head. 



Jan. 10, 
and liO, 
1862, 2d 
battalion 
arrives at 
Beaufort. 



On shore 
at last. 



fifty horses, and Empire City, could not sail until early 
Monday morning. The Empire City rolled badly, and 
this made it very uncomfortable for everybody on board. 
On the 16th the fleet arrived off the South Carolina 
coast. But the weather was thick, the shore low, all 
the buoys taken away, and the landmarks on the shore 
destroyed. On account of numerous shoals, the ship 
could not go in without a pilot. In the meantime a fog 
came up, and the vessels were all detained. The shoals 
extend fifteen miles out from shore, and it was a diffi- 
cult place for navigation. All these things combined 
kept them outside several days, and both the Empire 
City and the Baltic struck on the shoals. The Empire 
City, after a little trouble, was got off, but the Baltic 
had to throw overboard about $20,000 worth of cargo 
before she could be sufficiently lightened to float her ; 
and for a time they were very anxious about her. The 
Empire City did not get in until Sunday, the 19th, so 
that the men and horses were on board eleven days, and 
the last of them did not get off until Monday morning, 
the 21st. The men and horses on the Baltic were put 
on board the steamer Mayflower, and taken to the Sea- 
brook plantation and landed January 18. They remained 
here until the 21st in camp, and then marched four and 
a half miles to Hilton Head, where Camp White was es- 
tablished. Later, the 1st battalion joined them, coming 
from Annapolis. 

At Hilton Head, at the time they arrived, there were 
about nine thousand troops, and two regiments were 
temporarily at Tybee. There were six thousand at 
Beaufort. 

On the steamer Empire City there was no doctor, and 
no medical stores. Several men became permanently 



IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 55 

disabled from the consequences of the measles and the 1862, 
voyage, who, properly taken care of, would have speed- 
ily recovered. It can hardly be realized what an im- 
mense deal of room cavalry, with horses and equip- 
ments, takes up on board ship. 

The horses were placed on the lower decks and fas- stable 
tened, with their heads and tails across the vessel. The shipboard 
weather was rough, and the air between decks, where 
the horses were, became almost intolerable. The men 
who took care of the horses had to remove their cloth- 
ing on account of the great heat, and even then could 
not remain long below. Sea-sickness added to the dis- 
comfort both of men and horses. 

While waiting outside for clear weather and pilots, 
although the sea was calm, a heavy swell rolled in, and 
the horses, fastened as described, would brace them- 
selves against the motion of the vessel. This increased 
the rolling of the ship, so that the vessel became a see- 
saw, rolling frightfully and continuously. This was 
very trying, the horses suffering more than the men. 
When finally they went in through the channels, the 2d battai- 
2d battalion, companies E, F, G, and H, proceeded to Beaufort, 
Beaufort, which continued its post until the regiment 
left South Carolina. 

The horses on being discharged from the vessels were 
in a very weak condition, a few even died, but terra 
firma and pleasant weather soon brought the remainder 
round. 

These four companies established their camp on the Camp es- 
western border of the town, in a field opposite the Mar- 
tha Barnwell place, and the officers were ordered to 
procure from the town boards to make floors for the 
tents of officers and men, and the horses were also made 



56 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1862, 
January. 



Houses at 
Beaufort 
aban- 
doned. 



Vandalism 
in Beau- 
fort. 



Treasure 
trove. 



very comfortable, as forage was plenty. When other 
boards could not be obtained, small buildings were torn 
down to furnish them. 

The Confederates had to abandon all this part of 
South Carolina very hastily ; and Beaufort, a very pretty 
town, Avhich had been a favorite resort of rich South 
Carolinians at all times of the year, was so hastily de- 
serted that the houses, on the entrance of the United 
States troops, contained all the furniture, and even stores, 
which they had when their Southern residents occupied 
them. Many of these were large and elegant, probably 
the finest in the South. Even the food was left on 
the tables, ready to be eaten. All these things had to 
be administered by the officers commanding the troops, 
and it happened, as one of the unpleasant consequences 
of war, that the houses were more or less plundered. 
In some cases, where general officers or their staffs oc- 
cupied them, they were protected. Such as had not that 
ffood fortune soon showed the result of their unfortu- 
nate situation. Between tlie negroes and undisciplined 
troops much vandalism resulted. The day after the reg- 
iment arrived, being ordered to procure boards for the 
purpose of making a floor, an officer of the regiment 
entered a handsome residence on the river, Avalked into 
a parlor, and stood facing a large mirror. While he 
was looking at it, a soldier came in behind him and 
threw a brick at the mirror, breaking it in pieces. The 
floors of this house were littered Avith books, articles of 
clothing, broken furniture, and letters. The inhabi- 
tants left in such haste that they could only take with 
them what could be carried in a small parcel. They 
frequently buried in the gardens many things which 
they hoped afterwards to come back and recover : silver 




Beaufort 



IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 57 

ware, china, wine, and such things as were not injured i8(j2, 

1 1 • , T 1 January. 

by being put under ground. 

The soil on the sea islands is largely sand, and a Search for 
sabre could be easily pushed into it to its full length, treasure. 
The negroes, all of whom were left behind when the 
Confederates abandoned this country, soon informed 
the soldiers of these burials, and resurrection became 
the order of the day. Soldiers could be seen prodding 
in the earth with sabres and ramrods, and many curious 
things were unearthed. An officer in this battalion, 
who had formerly visited Beaufort and Charleston in 
their palmy days, and who knew and appreciated the 
South Carolina madeira that he had tasted there, anti- 
cipated finding some of the same buried in the earth, 
but his hopes were not realized. 

Beaufort Island was ten miles long, traversed by a Beaufort, 
fine shell road. Bordered by hedges of jasmine, Chero- 
kee roses, and other flowers, tliis furnished a beautiful 
ride. Many of the plantations on this island belonged 
to rich people, and some, used as places of residence, 
where company was entertained, had handsome grounds. 
The first detachment for picket duty established head- 
quarters at the plantation of a Mr. Milne. He had a 
beautiful garden, in which were trees, twenty feet in 
height, of the camellia japonica, at this time in full blos- 
som. The soldiers broke off branches of these beauti- 
ful flowers, and when they returned to camp the com- Flowers in 

,-- abund- 

pany resembled Macduff s army, loaded with flowers ance. 
instead of branches of Birnam wood. Strawberries 
were also ripe in the garden, and roses bloomed every- 
where. A few days of contact with troops proved ruin- 
ous to this scene of beauty. The japonica trees were 
soon torn in pieces. But roses never ceased to bloom. 



58 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1862, Blackberries grew in profusion along the hedg'erows, 
and in many respects soldiering in South Carolina in 
early spring was like soldiering in the Garden of Eden. 
Other things were not so pleasant. There was a tor- 
ment of mosquitoes, sand flies, and innumerable insect 
pests, not to speak of the nimble flea, which abounded 
luxuriantly. Dress parade in the evening was some- 
times ludicrous, on account of the attempt of the sol- 
dier to stand immovable with a good, healthy mosquito 
on the end of his nose. 
Feb. !«>, On the 19th of February, company G, Captain Keith, 

paiiyGto was dctaclicd, and proceeded to Edisto Island, where it 
remained, and was joined by seven other companies a 
month later. The 2d battalion was commanded at first 
by Captain Keith, until February 12, when Lieutenant- 
Colonel H. B. Sargent came from Hilton Head and took 
command. In the middle of April, Major H. L. Hig- 
ginson (promoted major vice Major Edson, resigned) 
took command of the 2d battalion, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sargent came to headquarters at Hilton Head. 

The climate caused some little sickness among the 
men, coming so recently from a colder one. To coun- 
teract this, the men at roll call, in the morning and 
evening, had issued to them a mixture of whiskey, qui- 
nine, and red pepper. Many could not drink it ; but 
there was always somebody ready to take discarded 
medicine of which spirits formed a prominent compo- 
nent part. 

It was February 20 when the 1st battalion of the 
regiment joined at Hilton Head, coming from Annapo- 
lis in the steamer Baltic. At Annapolis they had been 
Annapolis, well drilled and disciplined. On leaving for Port Royal 
General Hatch issued the following order : — 



Tonics. 



Feb. 20, 
18(52, 1st 
battiJion 
arrives at 
Hilton 
Head from 



^.aw 




I2f SOUTH CAROLINA. 59 

Headquarters .3d Brigade Volunteer Cavalry. 1862, 

Camp Harris, near Annapolis, January 18, 1862. January. 

Colonel, — Will you oblige me by communicating, at some con- General 
venient opportunity, to the officers and men of your command the opinion''o£ 
very favorable opinion I have formed of the battalion ? For subor- J*^* battal- 
dination, attention to military duty, cleanliness of camp, neatness of 
personal appearance, and general military bearing, I consider them 
quite the equal of any troops in the service. With a good know- 
ledge of drill and horsemanship (which they are acquiring with re- 
markable rapidity) they will be an honor to the State which has 
sent them into the field and to the government in whose service they 
are. Wishing you every success in the campaign on which you are 
entering, I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
[Signed] George P. Hatch, 

Brigadier- General Comvianding, 

Colonel H. B. Sargent, Commanding 1st Battalion 
Massachusetts Cavalry, Camp Harris. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. B. Sargent, while in command 
of battalion at Annapolis, secured one thousand Colt's 
revolvers. Of these, thirty were stolen from boxes while 
in Q. M. storehouse. General Stoneman, in command 
of the cavalry, peremptorily refused to furnish any more 
pistols, or carbines of any kind. 

General Isaac Stevens commanded the post, com- Composi- 
manding the 1st brigade of General Thomas W. Sher- Gen.T.w. 
man's division. This brigade included the 8th Michi- brig™' ^ 
gan, 79th New York (Highlanders), 50th Pennsylvania 
(Roundheads), and 100th Pennsylvania infantry, a sec- 
tion of Captain Hamilton's United States regular bat- 
tery, besides the 2d battalion, 1st Massachusetts cav- 
alry, and later, the 1st Connecticut battery. Captain 
Rockwell. 

Beaufort was, in most things, superior to Hilton 
Head as a camping ground, more beautiful, shady, 
cleaner, and affording with its larger negro population 



60 FIRST 3IASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1862, j^j^ J fewer troops some chance of fresh vegfetables, some 

January. -t^ & •^ 

fruit, and occasional chickens and young pigs. 
Hilton Hilton Head afforded quite a contrast, as the troops 

were encamped in an open field, entirely lacking in 
shade. The captured fort was near at hand, and the 
surrounding field abounded with jagged pieces of ex- 
ploded shells, a memento of the action in November. 
It was very hot, exposed as it was to the sun's fierce 
rays. The thermometer, during the month of April, 
would frequently mount to 100° under the tents. But 
the worst enemy was the soil itself. Formerly cot- 
Great heat ton fields, they had become loose, shifting sand, and 
ingsand. uudcr the impulsG of a light breeze, searched out every 
nook and corner of man and his habitation, and of 
everything that was his. Clothing and food were 
alike exposed to the inroads, and it made life misera- 
ble indeed. Sea bathins" on the beautiful beaches was 
Sea baths a uot iucousiderable compensation. Tlie sea breezes 
breezes, too, wlicu they came, as they frequently did in the af- 
ternoon, were cooler than Beaufort could boast. But 
generally speaking, Beaufort was a much more attrac- 
tive place. The Hilton Head part of the regiment, un- 
der Colonel Williams' searching eye, was better drilled 
and disciplined. All food came from the commissary 
department, and steamers from Norfolk, bringing fresh 
meat, Avere very welcome. The mail was more regu- 
lar than at Beaufort. 
Discipline The most rio'id discipline was exacted from officers 

and drill. ^ / • i i i i 

and men. To the men it seemed almost mtolerable, and 
scarcely less so to the officers. It made soldiers, though, 
and very rapidly the regiment became celebrated for its 
discipline and drill, while the horses soon acquired a 
training which made them admirable. To see the regi- 



IN south: CAROLINA. 61 

ment at drill and parade was an inspiring sight. It i862, 
soon had the reputation of being the best disciplined in ^^"^' 
that army. 

Major G. S. Curtis commanded the 1st battalion, 
Major White the 3d, and Major H. L. Higginson the 
2d battalion, the two former at Hilton Head, the latter 
at Beaufort. 

There was a good deal of difficulty in getting pure 
water for horses and men. It was obtained from wells 
sunk in the sand, and curbed with barrels and boxes. Water. 
As this Avas the dry season, the water came from a 
depth of about eight feet, but as the weather became 
wetter, the water came from a higher level of the soil, 
and was very ofPensive in both taste and smell, and un- 
doubtedly was the principal cause of the sickness of the 
men, which soon became serious, a low fever beino- com- 
mon. Among the horses, the disease known as glan- 
ders broke out first in company B, and later spread 
through the regiment. Glanders is a most terrible 
disease, commonly fatal among horses, never curable, Glanders 
and by contagion capable of being communicated to Head.*°" 
men. In some cases the horses would die within twenty- 
four hours after the disease declared itself, in others it 
would continue for years. The disease went through 
three stages, ordinarily, all but one of which made the 
horse useless, and that one did not prevent his being 
dangerous to his companions. This disease was never, 
during the war, wholly eradicated from the regiment. 
An immense number of horses had to be killed, and a 
great many died. 

On the 26th of April, General Hunter, in command April 26, 
of the department, declared all negroes free, and began Hunte?"' 
to organize a negro infantry regiment. rSoes! 



62 FIEST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY, 

1862, A few recruits joined the regiment while in South 

Carolina, and some men were discharged for disability. 

Early in May a movement began whose object was to 

take Charleston, and troops were slowly concentrated 

Expedi- for the purpose at Edisto Island, where company G of 

^ake the 1st Massachusetts, and Wrisht's infantry briirade, 

Charles- _ -^ j o 7 

**^"- had been stationed for some time. All the 1st Massa- 

chusetts, except companies E, F, I, and K were one after 
another taken to Edisto on transports, to make a part 
of the column to march against Charleston. When the 

Efand ^rmy was finally ready for th!s movement, it was organ- 
ized into two divisions, one commanded by General 
Benliam, and the other by General Stevens. Colonel 
Williams of the 1st Massachusetts was in command of 
a brigade consisting of his own regiment, the od Rhode 
Island infantry, and a battery of artillery, and on his 
staff were Lieutenants Clapp, Washburn, and Blagden, 

Johns from his own regiment. The movement via Johns 
^^^ ' Island was slow and cautious, the base of operations 

^•"^i™®? beino; James Island on Stono River ; it culminated on 

Island. c? ' 

Battle of June 15, in an attack upon a Confederate fort at Seces- 
viiie, June sionvillc. It is said that this attack was ordered by 
General Benliam, in spite of the dissent of all his infe- 
rior officers consulted. It resulted in a loss of over five 
hundred men in a very short time. The troops attacked 
a powerful fort with guns in position, and it resulted in 
disastrous defeat, although a few men actually got in- 
side the fort at one time. Supports were wanting, and 
the attack was ill sustained. 
Expedi- It became at once apparent that nothing could be 

accomplished here, and the troops returned to Hilton 
Head and Beaufort, after heavy losses and much suffer- 
ing, without accompHshing anything at all. The fact 



tion fails. 



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OOS OOOOOOOOD 



IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 63 

was, that owing to the intricate islands and water pas- i862, 

p 1 • 1 1 1 Ml June. 

sages, want or nignways, and marshy country easily de- 
fended, an attack on Charleston was difficult, if not im- 
possible. The weather was excessively hot and trying 
for Northern men, and the proportion of deaths among 
the wounded was appalling. Sickness became very com- 
mon, and principally from a fever known on the coast 
as a black bilious fever. Dr. Holland became ill, and On the 
went home on leave of absence, as did also Captain B. ^^'" '^ " 
W. Crowninshield and Lieutenant N. Bowditch. Sev- 
eral other officers, including Lieutenant-Colonel Sar- 
gent, were on the sick list, but soon returned to duty. 
Dr. Rice acted as assistant surgeon of the resfiment at 
this time, and later, when the rest of the regiment went 
to Virginia, Dr. F. W. Mercer was made assistant sur- 
geon of the 3d battalion. Dr. Rice being transferred to 
another resfiment. 

South Carolina campaigns, while adding no glory to Effect of 
the history of the regiment in the way of bloody bat- drill, 
ties, or even of hard marches, gave to officers, men, and 
horses an opportunity afforded no other cavalry regi- 
ment of the army for drill and discipline. The horses 
developed wonderfully, and the men, constantly subject 
to a most rigid discipline, got to know the officers, and 
the officers the men. Drilling every day shook the 
whole together. The result was a very effective body 
of cavalry, that would have disgraced no regular army. 
This discipline had its effect to the end, and was never 
lost. 

For all, it was a tiresome experience, unrelieved by any 
amusement or relaxation. Dreary surroundings, dearth 
of news, poor food, and a wearisome round of camp 
duty, drill, and discipline, were calculated to make any 



continuous 



64: 



FIUST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1862, 
June. 



A pluckj' 
parson. 



A change, 
but no 
glory. 



Return to 
Hilton 
Head and 
Beaufort. 



change pleasant. The regimental parson, even, could 
not obtain much hold on the minds of men fatiofued 
with monotonousj daily camp life, and exhausted by 
heat and exertion ; and he soon became merely the post- 
master. While discharging his duties as postmaster, 
it is related that one day at headquarters, in trying to 
get the regunent's mail, Mr. Patterson was treated, as 
he thought, with some indignity. He thereupon said 
to his opponent : " If you, sir, will come out here, I 
will throw off my coat and my sacred office and pro- 
fession, and give you a well-deserved and d d good 

lickinjr." 

The advance to James Island came just as the hot, 
rainy season began. It was a change, and therefore 
welcome. But the movement was a failure, and the 
battle of Secessionville offered no opportunity for cav- 
alry, and no glory either to the troops engaged or their 
commanding officers. General H. G. Wright after- 
wards commanded the 6th corps in Meade's army, and 
became a general of great distinction. General Stevens 
with his division went to the Army of the Potomac, and 
was killed at Chantilly two months later. He was an 
officer of distinction in the regular army, having in 
1853-54 commanded the important surveying expedi- 
tion to the Pacific, to lay out a route for a railroad. 
Generals Hunter and Benham, comparatively old men, 
both served through the war, but were too old to keep 
up with the new order of things. 

July 14, companies L and M embarked at Edisto 
for Hilton Head, arriving next day. They went on to 
Beaufort, where company F had a good supper in wait- 
ing for them. The other companies followed, and joined 
regimental headquarters at Hilton Head. 



.HILL ROAP. 







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CAMP"WI LL3AMS" 






ElAOP'ORT, S.&.C'^ 








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ysi-- 


T® AlSJi^ol® - IS g S = 


- 



79 TH N.Y. 
RE01MENT„ 



fiTMMICH. 
REGIMENT. 



IN SOUTH CAROLINA. Q5 

Under such circumstances, the abandonment of the 1862, 
campaign was hailed with gladness, and the rest of the 
expedition returned to their camps at Hilton Head and Campaign 

^ , against 

Beaufort. When, later, orders came for the regiment Charleston 

to go to Virginia, to the Army of the Potomac, every- doned. 

body was delighted. All the casualties up to this time 

in the 1st Massachusetts were from disease, except that 

two men of company H, acting as orderlies and pickets Co. H at 

on James Island, were wounded. land, June 

Captain Sargent, commanding company H, the only 
part of the regiment actually engaged, made the follow- 
ing report of his operations : — 

REPORT OF CAPTAIN LUCIUS M. SARGENT, JR., 1ST MASSACHUSETTS 

CAVALRY. 

James Island, S. C, June 17, 1862. 
At ten o'clock, p. M., June 15, 1862, ordered by General Stevens Captain 
to have my command ready to march at one o'clock, A. M., with sixty report. 
rounds of cartridges and twenty-four hours' rations. Ready at one 
o'clock, with one lieutenant and twenty-seven men, including non- 
commissioned officers, and one bugler. Immediately ordered by 
Captain Stevens, assistant adjutant-general, to get my men into line, 
leave them in camp, and report myself to the general. Did so. Or- 
dered by the general to detail four orderlies for Colonel Fenton, of 
the Michigan 8th, to return to camp, to follow the main body at 
dawn, and then act according to circumstances. Let the men sleep 
until nearly dawn, and then took them across the causeway, and 
placed them in a tolerably safe position, behind a wooded ridge, by 
the roadside. Told orderlies as they passed to report my position 
to the general. Remained there about two hours. The rebels then 
got the range of the causeway. I led the men across it again, at a 
walk, and drew up behind the woods. Immediately I received or- 
ders from General Stevens to resume, as I understood, my former 
position, and await orders. Did so, crossing the causeway at a trot. 
Leaving the troop with the lieutenant, rode forward to the general, 
who ordered me to bring my men on at once, and form them in the 
cornfield, in the most protected situation, and to charge if the re- 



66 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1862, treat became disordered by the enemy's advance. After placing the 
'^""®" men in the cornfield, ordered by the general to reconnoitre toward 
the left with six men. Did so pretty thoroughly, and discovered no 
signs of the enemy's advance. Ordered to return and follo^v up the 
retreat, by Captain Stevens, assistant adjutant-general. Did so at a 
walk. Presently informed by Captain Stevens that the rebel sharp- 
shooters were close upon us, and advised to move more rapidly. 
Closed up with the column at a trot. Ordered by the general to 
post vedettes and reconnoitre generally, till fresh infantry pickets 
should arrive. We were utterly unable to discover any trace of the 
enemy's advance. Soon received orders to withdraw the vedettes. 
Did so, the infantry pickets being posted. 

During the action two of my horses were killed, one being shot 
in the head, the other in the body ; and two of my men were 
wounded severely, one in the hand, groin, and thigh, the other in 
the leg. Another, whose horse's head was blown to pieces, was 
stunned and considerably bruised by his fall. The men's conduct 

excellent. 

Lucius M. Sargent, Jr. 

Captain Company H, 1st Mass. Volunteer Cavalry. 

General Stevens, in his report of operations, speaks 
as follows : " There was no opportunity for cavalry 
movements proper, but the orderlies furnished from 
Captain Sargent's company did most gallant service, 
and the remainder of his company served effectively as 
vedettes and pickets. Two men of his company were 
severely wounded, and two horses were killed." 

Besides the battle of Secessionville, Captain Sargent's 
company had a skhmish with the enemy June 17, on 
John's Island, in which it captured three of the enemy. 
Pocotaiigo. On May 28 one company, under command of Major 
Higginson, formed part of the column tbat crossed from 
Beaufort Island, and reconnoitred towards Pocotaiigo. 

Being the first field duty, this reconnoissance was ex- 
citing, and perhaps caused more enthusiasm than any- 
thino- afterwards in the regiment's history. The com- 



I^ SOUTH CAROLINA. 67 

1862, 



Corner 



mancl was advanced by the road towards Pocotaligo, i«,z, 
and was drawn up, expecting to charge into the setSe- '^""'• 
ment called Sarden's Corner. As there was a consider- Sarden' 
able force there, the command naturaUy looked forward 
to a bloody engagement. Sabres were drawn, and the 
men, ready to charge, waited for the word. Just then, 
an order came from General Stevens countermanding 
the movement. He had learned that the place was so 
well protected that a charge could not succeed. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. SEPTEMBER 1 TO NOVEMBER 

28, 1862. 

1862, McClellan's peniiisular campaign soon demonstrated 

Augrust. ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ .^^ Virginia the real battles had to be 

Virginia to fouglit. All ti'oops that could be spared from South 
tiefieid!'''*' CaroHna during the months of July and August were 
ordered into Virginia, and among them the 1st and 
2d battalions of the 1st Massachusetts cavalry, leaving 
at Hilton Head only troops enough to hold the Sea 
Islands. 
Two bat- On the 19th of August these two battalions of the 
thiT/-* regiment went in transports to Virginia, with orders to 
vS^a,*" report at Fortress Monroe. Companies E, F, B, and H, 
^62."'* ^^' were on the Atlantic ; companies A, C, D, and G, un- 
der Major Higginson, on board the Planter, an enor- 
mous cotton ship of two thousand tons, carrying two 
hundred and eighty horses in her hold. The Planter 
was towed by the Ericcson. It was supposed that the 
3d battahon would follow the other two. For a year 
and a half constant efforts were made to have the 3d 
battahon rejoin the regiment, and it was always sup- 
posed at the headquarters of the regiment that they 
were about to do so ; the influence that kept it in South 
Carohna, where it was almost useless, was never under- 
stood. 

The 3d battalion, companies I, K, L, and M, re- 



1862. 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 69 

mained in the department of the South, reportino- to 1862, 
regimental headquarters for nearly a year, with three "^"^*' 
companies, and headquarters at Beaufort, undel' the sdbattai- 
command of Major A. H. Stevens, Jr., promoted from South cTr- 
company D,^ and the other company at Hilton Head. 

When the first two battalions arrived at Fortress Fortress 
Monroe, August 24, General Pope was in the middle Aug™4. 
of his disastrous campaign, with all Lee's victorious 
army rapidly pressing him back towards Washington. 
It became evident that Fortress Monroe would no 
longer be the base of operations, and the transports 
Avere ordered from there to Acquia Creek, for a time the Acquia 
base of supphes for Pope's army, and the first install- Aug. 24, 
ment of McClellan's troops, who had come up from the 
Peninsula and disembarked. Here companies E, F, B, 
and H, under the immediate command of Colonel Wil- 
liams, were landed, and two companies were sent out 
towards Fredericksburg. But history marched fast in 
August and September, 1862, and Acquia Creek, owing 
to General Lee's rapid forward movement, soon had to 
be abandoned as a base, and the Planter, with its four 
companies, was ordered to Alexandria. On the way 
thither the ship, drawing eighteen feet of water, fre- 
quently got aground, and narrowly escaped collision 
with a large steamer. The four companies were finally g^ ^ ^ ^^^ 
landed on the first and second days of September, after \]^^^^. 
having been seventeen days on board ship. The horses 
confined below decks for so long a time, at such a hot 
season of the year, suffered terribly. They were, many 
of them, entirely unshod, and the rest only in front. 
When taken off the ship they were hardly able to stand, 

1 See chapter xii., in which the subsequent doings of the 3d battalion 
are related. 



dria. 



70 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1802, 
Septem- 
ber. 



March to 
INlaj-yland 
Sopt. 4, 
1802. 



Without 
clothing 
and tents. 



Horses 
unshod. 



and it was expected that some time would be given to 
get them into condition. The other four companies 
came up from Acquia Creek on steamers, on the 2d of 
September, and landed at once. 

Although in wretched condition, these two battal- 
ions under Colonel WilHams marched throuo'h Wash- 
ingtoii and Georgetown into Maryland, early in the 
morning of September 4, and began a most fatiguing 
campaign, without any proper preparation. The con- 
dition of the men was not much better to enter upon a 
severe campaign than that of the horses. They had 
suddenly left South Carolina in August, clad in the 
lightest clothing. They entered Maryland at a time of 
very cold nights, — and the autumn of 1862 was un- 
usually cold, — clad just as they left South Carolina. 
Their bajTiiasre was not even unloaded from the trans- 
ports. From the day of landing until November they 
could get no clothes, not even stockings or boots. Not 
a tent went with the regiment. Even shelter tents were 
wanting. They were utterly destitute. But the de- 
mand for cavalry was so pressing that their going — 
and at once — was a military necessity. 

The principal trouble, however, was that the horses 
were unshod. In South Carolina the soil is sand, and 
horseshoes are quite unnecessary. Maryland has stony 
roads, and without shoes the horses soon became foot- 
sore and useless. 

Alexandria, at this tune, was crowded with troops, 
some almost disorganized, from the battle-field of Ma- 
nassas, some landing from transports, with which the 
river was crowded, and all in a state of ferment and 
uncertainty. 

It was at this time that General McClellan was rein- 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 71 

stated as commander of the Army o£ the Potomac. The 1802, 

- , . . , 1 • 1 Septein- 

appointmeiit caused great entlmsiasm 111 the army, which ber. 
always had a strong love for this general. His cavalry McCiei- 

p. , ,, -, ,.. „ lan's rein- 

was in such a fatigued and exhausted condition after statement 
Pope's campaign as to be almost useless, (general Mc- mander. 
Clellan, anxious to use a regiment of which he had 
heard much, sent no less than five times on the 2d 
and 3d of September to urge it forward into Maryland. 
Colonel Williams was temporarily absent, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sargent was on sick leave, and for two days 
there was no head to the regiment, which was scattered 
on different vessels, and with no established headquar- 
ters. Had Colonel Williams been there, it is probable 
that a strong representation would have been made of 
the regiment's condition, and time might have been ob- 
tained at least to get the baggage. Every moment 
would have been precious, in order to get the horses 
shod. But it was not to be ; and it was a most unfor- 
tunate circumstance for the 1st Massachusetts. 

From Tenallytown, just west of Washington, where 
the regiment encamped September 4, Captain Chamber- Sept. 5, 
lain was sent out the morning of September 5, in com- mish at 
mand of one hundred men from different companies, to viUe. 
watch the fords of the Potomac. Fitzhuirh Lee of the 
Confederate cavalry crossed at Edwards Ferry the same 
day, and ran into Captain Chamberlain's command at 
Poolesville. The detachment of the 1st Massachusetts 
marched through the principal streets of Poolesville to 
meet the Confederates, and the citizens of the town, in 
sympathy with the enemy, placed obstacles of stones 
and other things in the road behind him. When the 
command, after a skirmish with superior numbers, was A retreat. 
obliged to retreat rapidly through the town, it was 



72 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

18(12, thrown into confusion by the horses falHng over the 
ber. obstacles, and liere Captain Chamberlain, with thirty 

men, was captured by the Confederates. The Confed- 
officers erate loss was three killed and four wounded. Nobody 
captured, was killed on our side, but eight or nine were wounded. 
Those captured were paroled by the Confederates, and 
in the course of the next day or two came straggling 
into camp, and gave their account of the affair. 
Roster in The officcrs Avlio cauic up with these eight companies 
Sept. 1802. from South Carolina were Colonel Williams, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sargent, Major Higginson, Captains Sargent, 
Motley, Chamberlain, Caspar Crowninshield, B. W. 
Crowninshield, Weld, Pratt, and Thayer, Lieutenants 
C. G. Davis, H. T. Davis, N. Bowditch, Clapp, Clark, 
Adams, Blagden, Forbes, Gleason, Curtis, Coupe, Mer- 
rill, and Batchelder. The last was on the sick list. 
Major Curtis expected to follow with the 3d battalion, 
but a little later came up without them, and joined the 
regiment in Maryland September 16. 
Carbines While ill South Carolina the regiment had been 
revolvers, amicd witli rcvolvers, and ten men in each company 
with Sharps' carbines. The balance of the men were 
armed with sabres and Colt's revolvers. But just be- 
fore entering Virginia, to the rest of the men was 
given the Smith carbine, — a breech-loader using an 
India-rubber cartridge. This was not a good weapon, 
and during the ensuing winter they were all condemned 
and replaced with the Sharps' carbine. 

From Tenallytown, September 5, besides the engage- 
Sept. 5, ment at Poolesville, the regiment, together with the rest 
Pieason" of the cavalij of McClellan, under General Pleasonton, 
patrolled the banks of the Potomac along the tow-path 
of the Cumberland Canal, watched the fords, scouted 



ton's divi- 
sion. 




GREELY S. CURTIS 
l.i.Hi (-.,/ .,,;,/ Brvt. Briir. Geiil. U. S. V 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 73 

ahead of the infantry columns on the march towards ^^^^^^_ 
the west, and near the mouth of the Monocacy, on the ber. 
9th, actually witnessed the rear-guard of Lee's infantry 
crossing the Potomac by a ford just above. 

McClellan's army concentrated at Frederick City Sep- McCieiian 
tember 10 and 11, from which Lee's rear-guard was trates at 

r redericK 

driven out the 10th. During these days, from Septem- City. 
ber 5 to 11, the cavalry — an inconsiderable and ill- 
conditioned force — had not been brigaded, but acted 
as one division under Pleasonton. It was said to have 
been General McClellan's idea at first to put Colonel 
Williams in command of all his cavalry, with proper 
rank, instead of General Pleasonton. 

At Frederick City, September 12, it was attached to ^J b^r||acie 
Colonel Farnsworth's (2d) brigade (consisting of the 3d 
Indiana, 8th Ilhnois, and the 1st Massachusetts), of the 
division under the command of General Pleasonton, and 
this was the first time the regiment had been attached 
to any large body of cavalry. In the early morning 
of the 13th Pleasonton's cavalry was ordered to clear Sept. ^is^ 
the way to the South Mountain, Lee's troops being in mk£at^ 
that direction, and this was really the beginning of the ^l^^^^f^ 
attack by McClellan on Lee in Maryland. Up to this 
time McClellan's troops had been assembling on that 
place. Lee's cavalry was close up to Frederick City, and 
watchino; this concentration on the Catoctin ridge, west 
of that city, with a battery of horse artillery and a con- 
siderable force. It was a bright, pleasant morning 
when the cavalry marched out to attack it, the main 
body halting at the foot of the hill along the road, 
while two reo-iments, the 3d Indiana and the 8th Illi- 
nois, dashed up to the right and left, to flank the artil- 
lery and cause its withdrawal. The men of the 1st 



74 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

isry2, Massacliusetts dismounted in the road and sat on the 
hex. roadside, holding their horses. While this was being 

done the Confederate artillery on the liill fired several 
shots down the road. The first of these, a round shot, 
took the line of the street, and striking just ahead of 
our regiment, took off the legs of two infantry men who 
Under ar- were sittius^ by the roadside. This was the first artil- 

tilleryfire. i n i i 

lery shot fired at the regnnent, and caused the men to 
jump on their horses and get in place in a hurry. The 
Confederate artillery, after a sharp fight for the hill, 
was limbered up, and started on a gallop down the long- 
opposite sloj)e, which terminated just beyond the town 
of Middletown, where a little stream ran through the 
Cavalry vallcy towards the Potomac River. As soon as the 
enemy's artillery left the ride^e, all Pleasonton's cavalry started 

artillery. . . 

in pursuit. The 1st Massachusetts galloped downhill 
across the fields in a lively manner, but could not over- 
take the Confederates. The burning^ bridoe caused a 
halt until it could be sufficiently repaired to allow our 
artillery to cross. After this was accomplished, Lee's 
cavalry and artillery were forced back to the position of 
South Mountain, and they retired beyond their infan- 
try lines, while Pleasonton halted in close proximity to 
the Confederate infantry, and waited for our infantry 
to come up. In this charge to Middletown, in places 
where the ground was rough, many horses went down, 
and their riders took a header. This was the first 
day of the regiment, as a body, coming under fire. 
The battle of South Mountain followed on the 14th 
Sept. 14, of September, — the first large battle witnessed by the 

battle of , , . . T 1 p 

South reo'iment. Ihe enemy s position g"uardino' the passes oi 

Mountain. ^ . 

the South Mountain range was assaulted by McClellan, 
Burnside's corps and Hooker's being prominently en- 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 75 

gaged, and he was driven from his position with con- i862, 
siderable loss, the battle lasting into the night. The be?/'" 
cavalry could not take much part in such a battle ; but 
the 1st Massachusetts was posted up the main road 
leading to the gap under a heavy fire of artillery, in 
close proximity to the enemy, halting in a field of tall 
corn which concealed and doubtless saved it from seri- 
ous loss. Exactly what it was expected the cavahy 
would do against a mountain pass guarded strongly by 
infantry and artillery was not apparent. Before night 
the regiment was withdrawn and made itself as comfor- 
table as possible, without anything for horses oi' men to 
eat, bivouacking in the fields near Richardson's infantry 
division. Somebody found in a stable a barrel partly 
filled with rye meal. This mixed with water, spread on 
barrel heads, and cooked by the direct heat of fires, 
was all that stood between the regiment and hunger. 
It only lacked salt and butter to be first-rate. 

Next morning at daylight the regiment with the rest Sept. is, 
of the cavalry division marched up to and through the WoT 
pass, trotting down the other side through Boonsboro', 
and pursued the Confederate cavalry, handling them 
roughly. The road was strewn with the debris of Lee's 
infantry defeated at South Mountain : abandoned wag- 
ons, some broken artillery, prisoners, and wounded. 
The road was very dusty (that irritating lime-stone 
dust) and hard, and the long-continued trot was very 
fatiguing, particularly downhill on the stony road. As Antietam 
the Antietam was approached the enemy's artillery 
opened, and a desultory skirmish occurred, a few men 
being wounded. Lee was across the creek with his 
army in position, and McClellan was following up the 
cavalry with all his army to take position opposite Lee. 



76 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

i£62, The regiment bivouacked in a little piece of woods 

ber. close o\\ the main road, at a place called Keedysville, and 

Sept. i(), witnessed next day a grand march past as the infantry 
Keedys- wcnt down towards Sharpsburg. Occasionally as a 
Massachusetts regiment passed, friends Avould be recog- 
nized and salutations follow. Here Avas a new experi- 
ence for the regiment. It had been a year in service 
without having witnessed either the march of an army 
or any other battle-field than the fatal cotton-field on 
James Island in June. That w^as bloody enough; 
but the usual circumstances of an army were wanting. 
Steamers and transports did the marching. 

The climate, so nearly like that of Massachusetts, was 
exhilarating after the damp, hot, close climate of the 
South Carolina sea-coast. Everything was diiferent and 
everything was better, in spite of many untoward cir- 
cumstances of want of food, clothing, equipage, and 
transportation. Nothing puts a soldier in better humor 
than motion. 
Coniition This two Avccks' Campaign before Antietam devel- 
airydurfng opcd no vcry activc fighting, but it was a period of 
Wcam- great trial for the regiment. Rations for men and 
^'''^'" horses were issued only once from September 4 until 
September 19. Both men and horses had to be 
fed from a country nominally loyal to the Union, but 
in reahty to the Confederacy. It was harvest time. 
The fields were full of ripening corn, and the trees 
with apples. Practically the men were fed with the 
roasted ears of corn and apples, and whatever could oc- 
casionally be got in the way of bread and other provi- 
sions from the houses, not seldom at exorbitant prices. 
The horses were fed almost exclusively upon corn stalks 
and blades, as the South Carolina people call the leaves 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 77 

of the corn stalks. The roads were very rousrh : and 1862, 
the soil, being lune-stone, caused irritation to the horses' ber. 
feet, wounded by marching without horseshoes. A sec- 
ond terrible epidemic broke out among the horses, a 
disease called " greased heel " or " grease." Those 
best capable of judging thought that the condition 
of the blood of the horses, from feeding on the green "Greased 
corn stalks, had a great deal to do with the breaking attacks 
out of this disease. Whatever the cause, the result was 
disastrous. Nearly half of the horses of the Army of 
the Potomac were rendered unserviceable, and vast 
numbers died. The same disease ragged in the horses of 
the Confederate army. Those of the 1st Massachusetts 
cavalry were an easy prey for the disease, and the regi- Kegiment 
ment within two weeks from the battle of Antietam was SSf 
practically unhorsed. The camp became a hospital for 
sick horses. It was sad to see so fine a reofiment, so 
well drilled and fitted for active service, in this short 
period rendered almost useless. The men could be 
cured, but the loss of the horses was irreparable. 

At this time the cavalry was not well organized, was Condition 
used in an ineffective manner, and this month's history cavaky. 
of this regiment affords ample proof of the statement. 
The horses being disabled dismounted the men, and we 
find on the first of November, 1861, of nearly seven 
hundred men who entered Maryland, less than three 
hundred effective cavalry soldiers remaining in the field, 
although few had been killed and wounded in action 
with the enemy. A halt of a few days would have shod 
the horses and clothed the men. It would have made Apenny- 
all the difference imaginable in the condition of things, pound- 
This was a penny-wise and pound-foolish pohcy with a 
vengeance. 



, foolish pol- 

icy. 



78 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1862, 
Septem- 
ber. 



Sept. 17, 
battle of 
ABtietam. 



Crossing 
the creek 
at Antie- 
tam 
bridge. 



BATTLE OF ANTIETAM. 

After tlie enemy was driven to his position on the 
south side of Antietam Creek, McClellan's cavah-y 
watched him until his infantry came up and rapidly 
assumed a position opposite. Each night in the two 
days preceding the battle our men were pushed out to 
the front in immediate contact with the enemy's pick- 
ets, and withdrawn in the daytime to their camp 
near Keedysville. 

The battle itself began on the morning of the 17th. 
Early that day the cavalry division, under General 
Pleasonton, marched down the Sharpsburg pike, very 
soon coming within range of the enemy's guns in posi- 
tion on the heights in front of Sharpsburg. This fire 
was hot, and the division rode for quite a distance in 
full view of the enemy, and at easy range. Little loss 
resulted from the artillery fire, yet the march down to 
the creek was a very unpleasant one, and the men were 
covered with dirt thrown up by the shells from Lee's 
guns which struck all about. The creek was crossed by 
a bridge close to a mill. On the bridge lay the body of 
Colonel Carr, of the 4th Pennsylvania cavalry, in a pool 
of blood, together with the body of his horse. A sohd 
shot had passed through the horse's forehead, lengthwise 
through his neck, and had disemboweled the colonel, 
affording a ghastly spectacle to those who were obliged 
to ride over his body to go into position. After cross- 
ins; the creek, the division was marched into a field on 
the left, where they formed columns of squadrons and 
dismounted, protected by a shght rise in the ground in 
their front. Here the division remained all day untd 
just before dark, within six hundred yards or less of the 




MiXiilbiAivi oKlijGit, i»rd. 




POTOMAC CREEK BRIDGE, VA. 
[Hiffh Bridge Station. \ 



cav- 

[ 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 79 

enemy's artillery massed in front of Sharpsburg. Gen- 1862, 
eral Lee in person was in Sharpsburg nearly all day, be- ber. 
tween the two wings of his army. His left was engaged 
with the bulk of McClellan's, and his right with Burn- 
side's troops endeavoring to cross Antietam Creek below. 
He so manoeuvred his men as to concentrate both wino^s 
against whichever of ours attacked. Lee's centre con- 
sisted almost exclusively of this artillery, comprising Artillery 
about thirty-five guns. In a report of the battle by 
him he mentions the fact of McClellan's cavalry " re- 
maining all day within short range of his artillery." 
Three times during the day the whole division mounted, 
drew sabres, and prepared to charge. A charge would 
probably have been successful. It would in that case if the 
have cut the Confederate army in halves. But the charged': 
charge was not made. The cavalry was supplemented 
in front by two batteries of horse artillery and some 
regular infantry used as skirmishers against the ene- 
my's sharpshooters. In its rear, on the heights the 
other side of Antietam Creek, was the reserve artil- 
lery of McClellan's army, among which were several 
batteries of 20 pounder Parrott guns. It was thus the 
centre of a vast number of guns hotly engaged almost 
the entire day. 

The noise was infernal. The air was at times full of Curious 

effect or 

shot and shell, which had the curious effect of putting artiUery 
the men to sleep. Everywhere could be seen groups of 
men fast asleep, and the loss from the enemy's guns was 
trifling. It has been thought by many of the officers 
that the inactivity of this large body of cavalry was 
inexcusable. In their rear across the creek on the 
right of the road was all day the corps of Fitz John. 
Porter, which was as inactive as the cavalry. 



80 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



18(52, 
JSeptem- 
ber. 

Sept. 18, 
Keedys- 
vUle. 



Lee crosses 
the Poto- 



Sept. 19, 
to the 
Potomac. 



Fight at 
the ford. 



About dark tlie cavalry was withdrawn, recrossing- 
the Antietam Creek further to the westward, and it 
went into bivouac after dark in the old place at Kee- 
dysville. 

The 18th of SejDtember no fighting was done ; both 
armies, worn out by the fight of the 17th, lay on their 
arms. Again an inscrutable lack of energy on McClel- 
lan's part ; but Couch's corps came up, and reinforce- 
ments were constantly arriving. 

Captain C. Crowniushield was sent out the evening 
of the 18th with his squadron to reconnoitre, and actu- 
ally rode into an encampment of the enemy, was fired 
on, but in the darkness escaped loss. 

The night of the 18th, Lee's army successfully re- 
crossed the Potomac at Blackburn's Ford, just below 
Shepherdstown. Early on the morning of the 19th the 
cavalry trotted down to the heights on our side of the 
Potomac River, opposite Shepherdstown, to be shelled 
by twenty-seven Confederate guns in battery on the 
Virginia side, and met with slight loss. It picked up 
some insignificant leavings of Lee's army, and every 
man in the cavalry division was astonished, a day or two 
afterwards, to read in the Philadelphia and New York 
papers in large letters, a heading of " McClellan's cav- 
alry driving the shattered columns of Lee's army across 
the Potomac River." On the 20th the cavalry had half 
crossed the ford, when a furious attack was made by 
the enemy on the infantry who had already got over, 
and great loss fell on the Philadelphia Corn Exchange 
regiment, which was awfidly cut up and driven into the 
river. The cavalry successfully recrossed. 

Quite an interval of rest now came to both armies, 
and McClellan's cavalry, although in bad condition, 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 81 

with diseased horses, had to picket the hanks of the 1862, 
Potomac River and occasionally cross into Virginia on ber. 
a reconnoissance. Several of these reconnoissances were ^^pt. 2.5, 

1 r\ n\ • c^ T reconuois- 

made. Un one, Oaptain bargrent s squadron — H and A sa^f^e 

^ ox across the 

companies — went a good way towards Martinsburg, Potomac, 
meeting the enemy, and engaging in a trifling sku*mish 
in which it lost three men. 

The regiment went into camp close to Sharpsburg, in camp at 
towards the Potomac River, on the 19th of Septem- bilS*^ 
ber, and remained in this camp until the 30th. All of 
McClellan's army lay close by and received numerous 
reinforcements. 

Lee withdrew the bulk of his troops to Winchester, Sept. 29, 
but kept his cavalry close up to the Potomac, and by a slnce"*"'^' 
display of activity gave the impression that he wished PoTomac^ 
to recross. Several times his cavalry and some infantry Uamsport. 
came over at Wilhamsport. This kept the Federal cav- 
alry on the qui vivej and prevented their getting any 
rest. 

On the 30th of September camp was broken at Oet. 1, to 
Sharpsburg, and the regiment marched towards Hagers- CouiS!^^ 
town, and pitched its camp at St. James College. It to^General 
was here attached to General W. W. Averell's brigade, bri|ade.^ 
which then consisted of the 5th United States resrular 
cavalry, 3d and 4th Pennsylvania, 1st Massachusetts, 
and a battery of horse artillery. 

General Averell was colonel of the 3d Pennsylvania, 
and when only twenty-six years old was made brigadier- 
general. 

When the regiment was brigaded under General General 
Averell, it was the first time that a brigade meant any- Avereii. 
thing, for during the Maryland campaign the cavalry, 
although brigaded, did not act by brigades. But here 



82 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1862, 
Septem- 
ber. 



Assump- 
tion of su- 
periority 
by the 
regrulars. 



Weari- 
some 
march. 



opportunity was given to get acquainted with the 
officers and men o£ the other regiments, and the men 
began to feel that they were a part o£ an organization 
other than a mere regiment. The 5th regular cavalry, 
at this time a very small command, was regarded as the 
nucleus of the brigade, and General Averell was him- 
self a West Point regular officer. West Point officers 
and regular United States troops were accustomed to 
look down upon volunteers, and the associations were 
not, in all respects, pleasant. It was trying to be 
obliged to see them cooking over fires made from fence 
rails about the camp, while we were not allowed to burn 



them, and were even put on 



guard 



over them. The 



superiority of these regular troops was rather imaginary 
than real, as most of the officers serving with the regi- 
ment Avere either recently appointed from civil life, or 
just from the ranks, while comparatively few of the 
rank and file were old soldiers. 

The behavior of both officers and men did not inspire 
good feeling. All the horse artillery batteries, one of 
which was always attached to each brig-ade of cavalry, 
were of the regular army, except the 6th New York 
battery alone. This one was quite the equal of the oth- 
ers, and as it happened during the next two years to 
be more than half the time attached to the brigade 
in which was the 1st Massachusetts, a great friendship 
grew up between them and the regiment. 

While the regiment had its headquarters here, the 
principal events were a march of eleven days by the 
regiment, under Colonel Sargent, as part of the column 
sent up the Potomac River nearly to Cumberland, just 
at the time of General Stuart's brilliant cavalry raid 
round McClellan's army. The Cumberland march was 




LT. COL. LUCIUS ryiANLIUS i. 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 83 

very fatiguing, and had the result of wearing out what 1862, 
was left of the horses ; and Sergeant Mulligan of com- ^''*°^'''"' 
pany G and twenty-five men, who unfortunately camped grfant'and 
for the night at the very place where Stuart crossed, men cai/ 
were captured. All the men will remember the famous 
spring of water at St. James College, which came boihng Oct. 1-4, 
out of the earth and made a good-sized stream, in which CoUegr^ 
all the horses of the brigade were watered. From 
the camp there, picket parties were sent out to watch 
the fords of the Potomac at FaUing Waters and Dam 
No. Four. 

The most important reconnoissance occurred Octo- Reconnois- 
ber 16, when a detail of five hundred men crossed the General' " 
Potomac, with a considerable force of infantry and v^^y^- 
artillery under General A. A. Humphreys. The whole 
cavalry detail was in command of Major Curtis, who, 
with eighteen men went ahead to Smithfield. After 
ascertaining what he desired, he retreated on the main 
body, followed by a large force of the enemy's cavalry 
and artillery, and a pretty skirmish ensued. With his 
eighteen men he came near capturing General Lee and 
escort, who hai3pened to be there. Stuart dispatched 
several regiments and a battery to meet Humphreys, 
all commanded by Colonel W. H. F. Lee of the 9th 
Virginia cavalry. Here the first Spencer rifle, a hand- The first 
made one, was used effectively in the hands of Sero-eant rmT''"" 
Lombard, company F. He had formerly been in the 
Smith and Wesson factory at Springfield, and was an 
expert in guns. It became afterwards a famous wea- 
pon, — the first mao^azine gr-un. 

Ever since the first march into Maryland, owing to 
the unshod condition of the horses and their feebleness 
from sickness and exposure on board ship, men were 



84: FIRST 3IASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1862, continually being dismounted and sent to the rear. 
These men reported to Lieutenant Butler, quartermaster 
of the regiment at Washington. This force of men 
was constantly increasing as the force at the front di- 
minished, and the latter part of October there were only 
two hundred men present for duty at regimental head- 
Nov. 2, St. quarters at St. James College, while in Washington 
lege. there were four hundred and fifty men, including some 

recruits who had been sent from Massachusetts, and 
had arrived on the 18th of October. In one squadron, 
out of seventy men on the rolls only nineteen had horses 
fit to march. The soldiers were without proper clothing 
or boots. Many were in rags. There was not a tent 
in the regiment, except one for field officers and one for 
the surgeon. 
EfForts to Vigorous attempts were made to bring the regiment 
menfin^' into fighting condition. To accomplish this it was nec- 
cfnditwn. cssary to get clothing and tents. But horses were also 
wanted, and the men sent to the rear were to be re- 
united with the regiment. Colonel Williams got the 
permission of the War Department to purchase horses 
through his own officers from the farmers about Hagers- 
town. This was u-regular, as the horses for all branches 
of service usually come from the quartermaster's de- 
partment. 
Two 'p^.Q squadrons (companies E, F, B, and G), under 

squadrons 1 ^i 777 77 

Pwter's command of Lieutenant-Colonel H. B. Sargent, were 
Quarters, detachcd Octobcr 19 and sent to General Fitz John 

Porter's headquarters. They crossed the Potomac with 

Porter's corps and the rest of the army. 

When they went thither they were remounted, and 

had new clothing- issued to them. In the march south, 

of McClellan's army, these two squadrons were used 



AN T IE T AM CAMPAIGN. 85 

frequently by General Porter to make reconnolssances 1862, 
and do scouting duty. Under Colonel Sargent, together ^''*°^''"* 
with some regular infantry, they reconnoitred across 
the Blue Eidge at Snicker's Gap, and went down to Sel; ^' 
the Shenandoah River to see if the road was clear, lerry^"' 
Here the ford was guarded by Confederate infantry, '^^'"^'*'- 
with artillery, who attacked them, kilHng and wound- 
ing several men of the 1st Massachusetts. Among 
them Captain Pratt, of company G, was instantly killed, Stf^ 
and a very considerable loss fell on the regular in- ^'^^^'^" 
fantry who made a part of the reconnoissance. Colo- 
nel Sargent's orders were to develop what force was 
there, and to find and clear the ford. Posting his in- 
fantry in the woods, and keeping the bulk of his cav- 
alry in reserve, he charged across the ford with part of 
company G. Colonel Webb, of General Porter's staff, 
then ordered the commander of the regular infantry 
to advance, to protect the cavalry, who, he thought, 
needed their help, and the infantry received a severe 
fire, and lost heavily. General Porter complimented Coionei 
Colonel Sargent on the gallant charge across the river, ^lllT 
and recommended him for promotion. These squad- l^^^Lo. 
rons remained at Porter's headquarters, and only re- """ 
joined the regiment at the end of November, when it 
came to the Army of the Potomac, near Fredericks- 
burg, at Potomac Creek. 

The four companies at regimental headquarters now 
consisted of A, C, D, and H, all together one hundred 
and fifty men. The officers were Colonel Williams, Dr. 
Holland, Captains Sargent,Weld, B. W. Crowninshield, 
Lieutenants Clapp, Merrill, Bowditch, Curtis, and Ad- 
ams. 

Colonel Williams went to Washington about the mid- 



tioii. 



86 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Octob"er ^^^ ^^ October, and handed in his resignation, arranging 
Nov. 2, that he, with his regular army rank, shoukl go into the 
wmiL Adjutant-General's office at Washington. He left the 
goeTto''"'^ regiment, and went to his new post November 2. He 
\\asiimg- ^_^^ ^ Virginian by birth, with most of his intimate 
friends in the Southern army. Feeling that he perhaps 
did not possess the entire confidence of the War De- 
partment on account of his birth, he resigned the colo- 
nelcy of the regiment. He remained during the war at 
Washington, always taking great interest in his regi- 
ment, and being well remembered for his efficient 
organization, drill, and discipline. On the resignation 
of Colonel Williams, Lieutenant-Colonel H. B. Sargent 
was made colonel. Major G. S. Curtis lieutenant-colo- 
nel, Captain S. E. Chamberlain major, Lieutenants 
Clapp, Adams, Tewksbury, Thayer, and Pratt, captains. 
Maj. Hig- Early in November Major Higginson went to Wash- 
to Wash- ington to bring up the recruits and other men there. 
Lieutenant Henry P. Bowditch reported at this time to 
the regiment, from Hilton Head, with the odd men of 
the eight companies left behind, eighty in number. 
Oct. 29, On the 29th of October the brigade broke up at St. 

brigade • • i A £1 

marches to Jamcs Colleofe, and marched to ioni the Armv or the 

cross into ^ ' *^ . " 

Vir^nia. Potomac, thcu about to cross the river. Ihe 1st Mas- 

Ist Mass. ■' 

Ha^'ers- ^'^ sachusctts rcccivcd orders to remain behind for refitting, 

Sand and on the 2d of November marched to Hagerstown 

get horses. £^^. ^|^^^ purposc. Out of elcvcn hundred men on the 

rolls of the regiment, there were only one hundred and 

fifty with the colors. The 3d battalion was at Hilton 

Head, and two squadrons — another battalion — at Por- 

Oct. 2s, ter's headquarters. " A " tents had been issued a few 

1^62 ''A" 

tents is- days before, one to each company, for officers, and each 

sued. -^ . . 

squad of five or six privates had one tent. 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 87 

Representations of the scattered condition of the reg- 1862, 
iment and the want of proper clothing, etc., had bee^'n ^°^''"''^^- 
made in Massachusetts, and Colonel J. Q. Adams, of Colonel 
the Governor's staff, came the 1st of November to visit ttft^vt- 
the regiment, and it was partly due to his efforts that ^'''*" 
the regiment was allowed to remain behind and refit. 

Some new horses were at once issued to the regiment, Nov. «, 
but enough could not be obtained, and on the 6th of fntoSt 
November parties were sent into Pennsylvania to buy Shtes° 
horses for the regiment. One party went to Chambers- 
burg, and another to Gettysburg, exciting on the way 
thither from Hagerstown a good deal of needless curi- 
osity, and even fear, among the inhabitants. This was 
a pai^ of the country through which Stuart had passed 
in his raid. It made such an impression upon the 
people that they took any stranger mounted on a 
horse for a Confederate, and as the peaceful little party 
of six men, with one officer and a mule team and 
wagon, proceeded towards Gettysburg, the inhabitants 
could be seen on aU sides running off their stock into 
the mountains. When the party arrived at Gettysburg, 
the civil authorities wished to arrest them, and on the 
return, at Waynesborough, the town authorities actu- Arrested 
ally did so. It would have been no trouble to resist llZl 
the arrest; but knowing it would take only an hour *"" 
or so to have the truth ascertained, they submitted qui- 
etly, and lived for the time, at the expense of the town, 
at the hotel, making a good dinner out of it. These 
parties had issued circulars, and on the following Mon- 
day the commanding officer of the regiment waslo pro- 
ceed thither and purchase from the inhabitants, who in 
consequence of the circulars would bring their horses 
to town. But unexpectedly the quartermaster depart- 



88 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1862, ment issued horses at Hagerstown, and on Sunday, No- 
ber. vember 9, the parties were recalled, and no purchases 

were made. In Pennsylvania, at this time, the draft 
was in operation, and substitutes were considered cheap 
at eight hundred dollars. While at Hagerstown some 
recruits came up, and to company A were added two 
new Smiths, making in all, in that company, eight of 
that name, out of ninety -six men, or one in twelve. 
Curiously, not one of these was named John. 
Depot of The regiment's stores and equipage, unshipped from 

recruits in , i i i -itt i • i 

Washing- the trausports, had made at Washnigton, under a quar- 



tou 



termaster, a nucleus round which had collected the men 
who had gone to the rear dismounted. To these had 
been gradually added paroled prisoners exchanged, the 
band, and also some officers, including a few newly 
appointed, and quite a number of recruits. This com- 
prised in all a much larger number than those serving 
with the colors. A considerable number of wounded 
and paroled prisoners found means, fan* and foul, for 
leaving the service. Dismounted men were pretty sure 
to become demoralized. Absence of proper discipline 
and neighborhood of all sorts of temptation and dissi- 
pation played havoc with them, and many excellent sol- 
diers were lost to the regiment by going to dismounted 
camp at different times. 
March to On tlic 14th of November, all the men at headquar- 
City. ters having been mounted, the regiment marched to 

Camp in . ., "ni*i/-^* 

Washing:- Washington, camping the same night at Jb rederick City, 
St. Park, and the next at Rockville, and reached Washington on 
the 16th at noon, making its camp at 7th Street Park. 

The 2d Massachusetts cavalry commenced its organ- 
ization at this time, in Boston, and took from the 
1st Massachusetts many officers and non-commissioned 




UT. COL^ JOHN L. TEWKSBURY 



ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 89 

officers, who, in the 2d, received considerable promo- i8G2, 
tion. Of the officers of the 1st who joined the 2d were berT^°' 
Captain C. Crowninshield, Lieutenants Forbes, Blagden, officers 
Washburn, Cabot, and Clark. Several of the best ser- mLL cav- 
geants were made lieutenants in the 2d. * ^" 

The condition of affairs in the 1st at this time had 
much to do mtli the willingness of officers to leave and 
join the 2d; particularly as by so doing they would 
get promotion. Officers in the 1st were few, and com- Scarcity of 
panics B, C, D, E, G, and M, were without captains. "^ 
Five of these companies were in Virginia. 

While the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, McCieUan 
in its march, were at Warrenton, General Burnside was nTv*!''io; 
put in place of General McClellan, who then left the teV, Nov!" 

11 186'' 

Army of the Potomac forever; and General Hooker 
took command of Fitz John Porter's corps. On Gen- 
eral Burnside taking command, changes were made in 
the organization of the cavalry, and new assignments 
were made of cavalry to divisions of infantry. 

Such a scattering of cavalry was demoralizing, and Uniform 
tended to no good. The most beneficial change that tjonSsen- 
ever took place in the cavalry was subsequently, during ciency. 
the winter, when under Hooker's command it was or- 
ganized into a cavalry corps of three divisions. This 
organization continued to the end of the war. By di- 
viding into these small commands, which of necessity 
were almost independent, the cavalry was subject to no 
general supervision or uniformity of organization and 
equipment, and the excellence that the cavalry after- 
wards obtained when organized into a corps was prin- 
cipally due to the fact of such uniform organization, 
management, and equipment ; and not a little, also, to 
the fact that a common organization produced es2:)rit de 



90 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1S62, 
Novem- 
ber. 



Horses, 
arms, and 
equip- 
ments sup- 
plied. 



The regi- 
mental 
standard. 



Governor 
Andrew's 
incognito 
visit to 
regiment 
in Wash- 
ington. 



Regiment 

starts for 
Freder- 
icksburg. 



corps. A little later, in the spring of 1863, the estab- 
lishment of a cavalry bureau at Washington rendered 
this uniformity more eft'ective. 

At Washington, supplies of all sorts were issued to 
the men. All received horses, and whatever of arms 
or equipage was wanting. 2d Lieutenant Edward A. 
Flint joined the regiment with his commission from 
Massachusetts, November 18. 

Just before marching to Fredericksburg, the regi- 
mental standard, — the flag and staff, with the silver 
eagle, now in Doric Hall, in the State House at Boston, 
— which had not been with the regiment in the Mary- 
land campaign, owing to the suddenness of the depar- 
ture from Alexandria, reappeared, and guidons were 
given out to the companies for the first time since leav- 
ing South Carolina. The silver eagle which ornamented 
the color staff was given to the regiment by his fellow 
aides on Governor Andrew's staff as a compliment to 
Lieutenant-Colonel H. B. Sargent. 

Governor Andrew had received so many communica- 
tions about the condition of the regiment, and there 
was so much dissatisfaction among the officers on ac- 
count of the regiment's condition, that, besides the visit 
from Colonel Adams in October, Governor Andrew him- 
self visited the regiment while it was in Washington, 
unknown to men and officers. 

On the 22d of November, having been fully recruited 
and supplied, the regiment, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis, marched towards Fredericks- 
burg, camping two days at Alexandria. The night of 
the 24th, camp was pitched at Pohick Church; the 25th, 
at Chappawamsic Creek ; and the 26th, at Acquia Run. 
On the 27th, Thanksgiving Day, the regiment reached 



ANIIETAM CAMPAIGN. 91 

a camp wliich proved to be its winter quarters, at Poto- i862^ 
mac Run, where Averell's brigade was situated. This ber. 
march was made in a bad spell of weather ; the roads Nov. 27, 

. . Potomac 

were a sea of mud all the way down, the skies gray Run, with 

. Army or 

and lowering, and a biting cold wind was blowmg. thePoto- 
The first day's march from Alexandria was through 
the Mount Vernon estate of General Washington, which 
had been formerly the most fertile part of Virginia, 
as it was the first settled. But the system of slavery 
was exhausting to the soil, and land became always 
poorer, until finally it had to be abandoned for agri- 
cultural purposes. Nothing more desolate than this dis- 
trict, at this time, could be imagined. No fields were comiitlon 

I'liTi p 1 ofVirgrinia 

cultivated ; those which had been, tormerly, were now aion- the 

, , Potomac. 

overgrown with trees, or overrun with grass and weeds ; 
houses were everywhere deserted. The principal town 
between Alexandria and Fredericksburg was Dumfries, 
once a place of great importance, and a principal sea- 
port on the United States coast. The town consisted 
largely of brick houses, built from imported bricks. 
It is stated that at one time European goods were 
entered at Dumfries, and were thence distributed to 
the principal cities of the United States seaboard ; and 
that even New York took goods from Dumfries. But 
in 1862 nothing remained of this prosperity, and the 
very houses themselves had largely disappeared, and 
what remained were in ruins. 

As we have said, camp was reached on Thanksgiving Thanks- 
Day, and a blustering day it was. The Thanksgiving Day,''i862. 
dinner, though meagre enough for a Fast Day, was 
thankfully eaten after the severe march. Colonel Sar- 
gent, the same day, joined the regiment, bringing with 
him companies B, G, and E, and leaving at General 



92 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1862, Hooker's headquarters company F, Captain Motley. 
beT""' Lieutenant Rice, formerly of the 1st Massachusetts, 
^^ who resig-ned while the reo^iment was at Hilton Head, 

teUs*^*"" was made a captain at this time in the 2d Massachu- 
setts. Lieutenant N. Bowditch was made adjutant of 
the regiment, and Lieutenants Clapp and Adams were 
promoted to be captains of companies C and D respec- 
tively. 2d Lieutenants C. A. Longfellow and James 
J. Higginson, both of Boston, joined the regiment 
this winter, with their commissions. Major Chamber- 
lain and Lieutenant Coupe, having been exchanged, re- 
joined the regiment on the 16th of December, and also 
PoolesTiUe some of the private soldiers who were captured at Pooles- 
SackT ville. A few days later Lieutenant Coupe resigned and 

regiment. , •• 

went home. 



CHAPTER V. 

WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. NOVEMBER 28, 
1862, TO APRIL 12, 1863. 

As soon as camp was established at Potomac Run, on i862, 
the little knoll on the northern side of the plain above 
the run, and close to the railroad which ran alona^ its Nov. 27- 

. Dec. 10, 

easterly border, work was done to make it comfortable, camp at 

. 11M11 !• '11 • Potomac 

for it seemed likely that this might become the winter Run. 
quarters. 

Before this was accomplished, Burnside, urged from 
Washington to fight a battle in spite of the late and 
inclement season, had completed his preparations for 
the battle of Fredericksburg. Two days before, at 
dress parade, were read orders indicating that a battle 
was at hand, and December 11 Averell's brigade took Dec. 11, 
up the line of march south towards Fredericksburg, near Fred- 
over roads at first frozen, but which afterwards, when burg, 
the sun melted the surface, became muddy and difficult. 
The march was continued all day and night, and only 
next morning did the brigade arrive opposite Freder- 
icksburg. It bivouacked in the little piece of woods Dec. 12-15, 
close by where the camp of one of Hooker's brigades in woods 
had been, containing the 19th Massachusetts infantry, ericks- 
This fact gave to the bivouac something the appearance 
of being among friends, for the chaplain was there, and 
some of the sick. 

Here the brigade rested all through the operations 



burg. 



94 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1862, 
December. 

Battle of 
Freder- 
icksburg-. 



Dec. 15, 
18(J2, 
march 
back to 
camp at 
Potomac 
Run. 
Dec. 1.5- 
April 12, 
18B3. Win- 
ter quar- 
ters at 
Potomac 
Bun, Va. 



connected with the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg, 
December 13, 1862. It witnessed with its ears alone 
the tremendous cannonading which was the feature of 
the occupation of the city of Fredericksburg itself, and 
afterwards the frightful crash of musketry almost with- 
out artillery which accompanied the attack on Marye's 
Heights. 

Rumors would occasionally reach the camp of some 
reported success, and the cavalry was expecting nothing 
less than, when the enemy should be driven from liis 
position, that it Avould take the advance and follow his 
retreating columns. But alas, all rumors of success 
were without foundation, and slowly the disaster be- 
came known to the troops; a terrible feeling of de- 
pression succeeded Avhen it was found that all active 
operations were over, and Burnside was recrossing his 
defeated army. A detachment of the regiment, instead 
of accompanying the brigade, was on picket duty on 
the right flank. This picketing had been going on be- 
fore the regiment arrived from Washington, and each 
regiment took its turn, each brigade guarding a partic- 
ular part of the line. 

The cavah-y now marched back to the camp at Po- 
tomac Run, and word was given that it was to be per- 
manent winter quarters, and the regular picket duty 
continued. 

On January 20, under orders from Washington, Gen- 
eral Burnside made one more attempt to advance, and 
the army left its camp and prepared to cross the Rappa- 
hannock. But this time the elements sufficed to thwart 
the attempt. There came a terrible storm of wind and 
rain, and under the churning wheels of artillery and 
ammunition wagons, the roads and fields were almost 




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WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 95 

immediately converted into a pudding o£ mud, into 186;;, 
which wheeled vehicles sank deep, and it soon became '^'''''''"■^■ 
impossible to move anything- on wheels. In fact, the A novel 
troojis themselves could not march. The different m^^t. '" 
corps were by this march brought near the banks of the 
Rappahannock, and the mud prevented rations beino- 
transported to them. The rain continued pitilessly, 
and, except to a mounted man, all movement was out 
of the question. 

In this state of things the cavalry was ordered out Jan. 23 
just at dark on the night of January 23, and was bSe" 
marched to the depot of supplies at " Stoneman's tionJto "in- 
S witch," where every trooper was given a box of hard- 
tack, weighing fifty pounds, to put on his saddle in 
front of him. By means of the cavalry thus loaded, ra- 
tions were carried out to the infantry corps, who were 
bivouacking as best they could under the rain and with- 
out food. 

Pontoon bridges were laid down, but no crossing was Bumside's 
made, for the troops could not get to the bridges. The march, 
movement was consequently abandoned, and it took 
several days to get the troops back into their camps 
through the muddy roads and fields. This was known 
as " Burnside's mud march," and the march of the cav- 
alry or " cracker brigade," as it was denominated by the 
troopers, will long live in their memories. 

On the way out to the infantry, everywhere could be A modem 
seen wagons and artillery stuck in the mud hopelessly, SeTpo^nd! 
and occasionally immovable. The horses and mules 
were detached, but were as firmly fixed in the mire as 
the wagons and guns, and some were drowned. Fortu- 
nately the cavalry horses were movable and got safely 
back to camp, not without great fatigue and sore backs 



96 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
January. 



Huts built 
and tents 
logged up. 



Fuel 
scarce. 



Contriv- 
ance for 
keeping 
warm. 



Kitchens. 



caused by the heavy boxes of hard-tack borne on their 
withers. 

Winter headquarters now were established. A sub- 
structure of logs fitted across each other and plastered 
wdth mud was made, and the tents were placed on top. 
Fireplaces of stones were made at one side of the tents, 
and for a chimney a barrel set up on end worked very 
well. Though not pretty to look at, winter quarters 
were thus made comfortable. 

The chief difficulty was to find wood to burn in the 
fireplaces, and this frequently had to be brought from 
a considerable distance. In the course of the winter all 
the woods in Stafi^ord County within five miles of 
Hooker's army disappeared, being used for logging the 
quarters for officers and men, but largely as fuel. Fire- 
places sometimes were made outside the tents or huts 
with an underground flue, covered with flat stones, and 
the chimney on the other side of the tent. This kept 
the ground dry and the tent warm, having much the 
same effect as a furnace in a city house. Chimneys 
were frequently made of barrels, but sometimes of logs. 
For the officers the same sort of thing on a larger scale 
was made. The great drawback to comfort was the 
smoke. The old proverb, " Where there is smoke there 
is sure to be some fire," was here reversed. Whichever 
officer had a tent with a fireplace that did not smoke 
was sure of plenty of visitors. 

A large log house at the southern extremity of the 
officers' street served as a guard-house. Log kitchens 
were built at the end of each company street, and men 
were detailed as cooks for each company. Before long 
everything that was possible was done to make the men 
comfortable while in camp. 










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HUT AT POTOMAC CREEK, VA. 
C<7/«/ /.vc ^/,,.„ Cavalry] J^(vrk;'m3. 






(•'■M^-lfei^T^- 



127/ 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 97 

Near the camp, on a little rise overlooking Potomac j^^nSry. 
Run, which bordered one side of the plain, was a very 
old gravestone, of sandstone, with a long inscription, oid grave- 

T • * • 111 stone. 

It was one of the very earliest m America, and dated 
1607, a few years after the settlement of Virginia. 
This stone was visited by people from all parts of the 
army as a curiosity. In making the fireplaces for the 
tents, somebody removed the stone, and, cutting it in 
three pieces, used it for the back and sides of a fire- 
place, an act of sacrilege for which there was no 
excuse. It is to be hoped that it has been recovered, 
put together, and again set up where it belongs. 

Winter quarters are expected to give to an army a 
long rest from marching and fighting, an opportunity 
for recruiting and refitting, and many other comforts 
which are impossible in active campaigning. 

The quartermaster and commissary departments are Better ra- 
then able to issue to the troops better and more varied men and 

r'li 11 1 horses. 

rations, and to supply materials to nil ail the wants 
caused by the wear and tear of active field Avork. In 
the cavalry new horses are supplied, and hay is a regu- 
lar feature of a horse's feed. In the field in summer, 
oats alone are usually available as feed. Grazing on 
a march is difficult and really amounts to little. What- 
ever of " long forage," as hay, straw, and corn fodder is 
called, the horses get is taken from the country. But 
in 1863 supplies of this kind were exhausted in Vir- 
ginia, and opportunity for grazing the cavalry horses 
on grass and growing fodder was poor, and could sel- 
dom be effectively improved. In winter, hay in pressed 
bales was brought down in quantity ; and the horses, 
if they remained in camp, could be easily supplied. 
All deficiencies of horse equijDiiients, arms, camp and 



98 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

18(53, garrison equipage can be and usually are made up, and 
the soldiers' clothing is renewed. At the same time 

Mails. mails are established, and communication with home is 
regular and frequent. This was the case at Potomac 
Run, and some new inventions in the way of food made 

ted"^\^e<'^e- thcii" appcarancc. Among these were desiccated vegeta- 

tabies. jjjgg^ which the men very soon learned to call " desecra- 
ted." When cooked with beef they were palatable, and 
no doubt proved of sanitary value. 

Soldiers' Ou a marcli the regular food issued to the soldiers 



rations. 



consisted of " hard-tack," as it was called. This was a 
square cracker, usually pretty good, but occasionally it 
had been stored for a long time. Age added to the 
hardness and detracted from the sweetness. Sometimes 
the crackers were infested with weevils or white worms 
with black heads, which did not add to the attraction 
of this kind of food. Fat salt pork was the regular 
meat ration, and sugar and coffee the liquid stimulant. 
Rations were commonly given out for three days at a 
time, and in order that the men should not be improvi- 
dent, it became a habit with them to make a long 
narrow bag out of whatever material was at hand, gen- 
erally from an old rubber blanket, and into this was 
put the coffee and sugar mixed together. The coffee 
was always excellent in quality, and was roasted and 
gi'ound when issued. When it was placed in the bag, 
the soldier could easily see wdiat one third or any frac- 
tion of that part was, and could then make up his 
mind how much Avould go for each meal. 
Coffee. This proved a useful arrangement, and the coffee, 

three times allowed to come to a boil over the fire, 
in a tin mug, was exactly the Turkish coffee so much 
prized everywhere in the East. The canteens in which 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 99 

water was carried were made of tin, the two concave iscs, 
sides soldered together. These when unsoldered, and ^^""""^"^ 
that was always hapjDening by accident or through 
long use, each made convenient cookino- vessels. 

On the march the troojier had to be his own cook, a stand- 
while in the established camps cooking was done at a ^''^'^''''" 
company cook-house by men who acted as cooks for that 
company. The popular dish was prepared in this way. 
Hard-tack would be broken up into small pieces and 
wet with water ; then the soldier would take his half 
canteen, put in his salt pork, and fry it over the fire, 
and would add to it the wet broken cracker, cook the 
whole together a little while, with judicious stirring to 
properly mix the fat, and before serving put smne 
sugar on top. This dish received among the cavalry a 
designation unsuited to ears polite, which old soldiers 
will readily recall. It was the standard food of both 
cavalry and infantry in the Army of the Potomac. 

Whenever fresh beef was served, it could be cooked infantry 
in a variety of ways. The infantry, acting more to- beftco^ks; 
gether, were enabled to have their food prepared more thllTt 
by company cooks than were the cavalry, who com- '"" 
monly acted in detached parties, and who thus became 
good individual cooks. One of the advantages of the 
cavalry service was, that acting on the outposts, in 
scouting, and generally speaking on the advance and 
flank of an army, the cavalry trooper had many oppor- 
tunities for getting food from houses. Chickens, tur- 
keys, sheep, pigs, and such small deer, helped to make 
the fare of a cavalry soldier superior to that of an in- 
fantry man. When such things were not procurable, 
the standard dish was what I have described. 

During this winter, while on picket near Hartwood 



100 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1803, 
.January. 



An expert 
forager. 



A Christ- 
mas deli- 
cacy. 



Pugna- 
cious cat- 
tle and 
poultry. 



Christmas 
games in 
camp. 



Church, it was discovered by one of the officer's ser- 
vants, who became remarkably expert at unearthing 
treasures in the way of food, that in the attic of a 
house, carefully concealed, was a treasure of poultry 
which from confinement and good feeding had become 
unusually delicate and plump. It is remarkable that 
this fact should have so long remained unknown to the 
soldiers who without interruption had been guarding 
the country about this house for weeks. On Christmas 
Day a part of this treasure, in the shape of a turkey, 
graced the table of an officer at Potomac Run, which 
when dressed and ready for the spit weighed twenty-five 
pounds. Probably no turkey was ever more appreciated 
than that one, and the officer who became possessed of 
it is perfectly certain to this day that no such turkey 
was ever seen before. 

Orders were always given that the pigs, sheep, and 
cows ("cattle beasts," as the Virginians called them) 
of the natives should not be interfered with. It was 
a good deal to ask of hungry troopers to pass by such 
delicacies in their march, and somehow or other when 
camp was reached sheep and pigs would appear. When 
remonstrated with, a common excuse of the men was 
that they could not be expected to be attacked by 
such animals without offering resistance ; and it was 
evident that these animals became very offensive and 
dang-erous in Virsfinia in 1862 and 1863. 

Attempts were occasionally made to render the camp 
life of the men less monotonous, and on Christmas Day 
a steeple-chase took place on the plain in front of the 
brigade camps, in which many of the officers joined. 
The men were encouraged to play at games, the bands 
of the different regiments played frequently, among the 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 101 
soldiers s^lee clubs were established, and in some camps i803, 

1 • ^ 11 1 mi January. 

there were theatricals and other such amusements, ihe 
picket duty was incessant and exceedingly wearing, and Picket 
when the men regained their camp for a short period of eessant. 
rest before again going on picket, the time was largely 
spent in sleeping. No form of amusement had such at- 
tractions as sleep after a tour of picket duty. 

The severe outpost duty performed by the cavalry 
told heavily on it. General Hooker informed one of 
our officers that in order to perform this duty properly 
he ought to have 30,000 cavalry in good condition. 
And it was doubtful if 5000 in good condition existed 
in the army at this time, although the rolls called 
for many more. The horses suffered terribly, and the 
glanders, which first appeared in the regiment a year Glanders 
before, broke out again with violence, and committed 
great ravages. 

One might have expected that in an army separated No rest 
from its enemy by a large river, the winter would be a aby. 
time for reorganization, drill, rest, and improvement. 
But this was very far from the case, and the horses 
and men had almost no time for drill and little for 
rest. It became the duty of the cavalry to picket and 
patrol the river front from Falmouth up to Rappa- 
hannock Station, a distance of twenty miles ; also, as- 
sisted by troops stationed at Dumfries, to guard the 
whole right flank of the army and its communica- 
tions, from Washington down to the Rappahannock 
River. 

A part of this guarding was done by making recon- 
noissances as far as Warrenton, and every week or two 
large detachments would be sent out to scour all that 
intricate country, rendered almost impassable by muddy 



102 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
January. 



llartwood 

Church 

picket 

headquai-- 

ters. 



Sufferings 
of the 
horses. 



Surgeon- 
Major 
Holland. 



and difficult rocids. The regular line for outpost picket 
work was divided among the three divisions. 

The picket headquarters of Averell's brigade was at 
Hartwood Church, at a distance of about five miles 
from the camp, and the regiment may be said to have 
practically passed its time in the neighborhood of 
Hartwood Church, with intervals of so-called rest in 
camp. 

This duty was so demoralizing to the horses that 
many perished from lack of feed, and exposure to rain, 
snow, mud, and cold. Some of these tours, owing to 
absence of the rest of the regiment on reconnoissances, 
lasted ten days at a time. 

The winter was cold and wet, and the horses were 
without shelter. They stood at the picket-rope in mud 
halfway up to their knees, and in the spring the sur- 
vivors were in bad condition. The men, however, 
had acquired a good knowledge of picket duty; and 
although chances for drill were like angels' visits, yet 
this Avinter was the critical period of their probation. 
When the spring campaign opened, the cavalry was 
more efficient than ever. The camp, situated on the 
Httle elevation, was well drained, and proved a healthy 
one, and the men suffered little from illness. 

Dr. Holland, the surgeon, a man of great accom- 
plishments, looked well to the sanitary condition of the 
camp and the men. He was a lover of horses, and was 
universally referred to in any horse question. He was 
older than any of the other officers, he suffered more 
from the rough camp experiences, and was unable to 
take the field in the spring. 

The practice of medicine in the field has to be 
greatly simplified. While the medicine chest, from its 



f— 1 ^ 




WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 103 

size, looked formidable, it was always a sort of tradition i8G3, 
among the men that nine tenths of its equipment con- ^'^^^^' 
sisted of opium pills. At sick call in the morning, the Thesur- 
orderly sergeant of each company would march his sick hk stS 
men up to the surgeon's quarters, where each man in 
turn received the attention of the suro-eon. The hos- 
pital-steward was C. E. Munn, who has since acquired 
high rank as an army surgeon, being in the United 
States regular service. The doctor had an invariable 
routine with a sick man. He felt his pulse, made him 
put out his tongue, and turning to the hospital-steward 
would say, " Give him pills, about three." 

The doctor had a faithful German servant named Andy and 
Andy, who was utterly loyal to the doctor, and cared Sr'stse 
nothing for any one else. Andy was regarded as one 
of the curiosities of the camp, with his slow and faith- 
ful way of looking at men and things. On one occa- 
sion, to somebody who depreciated the doctor's horse, in 
an attempt to " get a rise " out of Andy, he innocently 
retorted that the doctor's horse had the " best under- 
chaw in the regiment." This portion of a horse had 
not hitherto received much attention, but ever after, in 
a horse talk, the quality of his " underchaw " was men- 
tioned. 

The assistant surgeons were Drs. H. H. Warner and 
G. S. Osborne. Frequently one of these would be on 
detached service. 

Quartermaster L. W. Knight and Commissary J. L. Qnarter- 
Brigham were two of the features of this winter's camp co^^^"*^ 
and of the whole term of service. They were looked ^'''^^' 
up to with not a httle envy, mixed with the conscious- 
ness that everything good to eat, and all the supplies 
and stores, came from them. No matter what the other 



lOJ: FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, officers and men suffered in tlie way of hunger and 
aimary. ^^.^^^^ ^£ ^^^^^^ ^^^ jj-y quarters, the quartermaster and 

the commissary, shortly after camp was pitched, always 

A table had good quarters themselves, and always seemed to 

bie always have plenty of the best to eat and drink. It is but fair 

°*'° ' to say that, when anybody was in trouble from want of 

these things, they were ready to share what they had. 

They were not always up with the regiment, cavalry 

being commonly in the advance. The trooper's horses 

were thin enough, but the quartermaster's stable and 

picket-rope were lined with fat mules and fat horses, 

and the quartermaster himself certainly was not an 

exception to the old saw that " Who drives fat oxen 

should himself be fat." 

Cavalry Cavalrymen universally served with cavalrymen in the 

<iri(i LiiO Til 1 

"douffh- field, and even in winter were quartered by themselves, 

boys. ^ • 1 • p 

and the intercourse of the cavah-y with the nifantry, 
both officers and men, was infrequent. Cavalry thought 
and saw little of the "doughboys," as they called 
the infantry, and the infantry had little faith that 
cavalry ever did anything but ride about on horses. 
The picket Only a few days before the regiment began a tour of 
^°^' picket duty at Hartwood Church, Stuart had made a 

raid upon the picket line, and four companies of the 
3d Pennsylvania had been captured, and one of the 1st 
New Jersey. 
Hartwood Hartwood Cliurcli was situated at the junction of sev- 
eral important roads ; the church was thus a conspicu- 
ous landmark for that part of the country. In case 
of an attack on our army from that direction, it would 
have been a commanding position. One of the regi- 
ments in our brigade, the 3d Pennsylvania, the first to 
mount guard at that place, when the line opposite Fred- 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 105 

ericksburg was taken iij) by our army, had made head- im 
quarters at the church itself. A soldier, or officer, pos- '^^°'''''^- 
sessed of some talent for drawing-, had illustrated the The 3d 
walls of the church with large cartoons of a cavalry li^^ht 
fight, in which his side was getting the best of it. It 
is said that this was actually being done at the moment 
of an attack upon the pickets by Stuart's cavalry, stuart's 
which, taking: a by-road, avoided the pickets, and came niSs"" 
upon the reserve unexpectedly. The result of the at- imi^^^"' 
tack was that officers and men, making themselves com- 
fortable in the building-, were surprised, and, nearly to 
a man, captured by Stuart's troopers. The cartoons Cartoons 
remained unfinished, or possibly a second edition was S t£ 
added at Libby Prison. The headquarters of the picket ^'''*'- 
were then drawn back about a third of a mile into a 
piece of woods, and only vedettes were stationed near 
the church all winter. 

^ Captain Motley^ left the regiment on detached ser- 
vice on General Gordon's stafiP, and only rejoined it 
sixteen months later at Warrenton, in April, 1864. 
Two men of the regiment died in the camp hospital on 
the 20th of December, Widger of company H, and Al- 
len of company A, both of typhoid fever, and on the 
16th, C. W. Jones of company A, of the same disease. 
It was remarkable to see how much better the old men 
of the regiment stood the cold and exposure than the 
new recruits, illness being almost confined to the latter. 

In all the reconnoissances made this winter, Morris- Moms- 
viUe was a well-known point for camping or assem- '^'' ^^" 
bhng. The name foreshadows quite a place ; the fact 
was that the town consisted of one house and barn. 
Here a road branched towards Kelly's Ford, a favorite 
crossing place on the Rappahannock River, while the 



106 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
January. 



Hiitler 
-Kvers and 
liis prices. 



News- 
papers, 



Camp ru- 
mors. 



lleeonnois- 
sances. 



main road went on to Bealton Station, and led to all 
the country west, towards the Blue Ridge. Before 
spring, Morrisville was as well known to everybody in 
the regiment as Boston Common. 

The army sutler, in the person of Gustav Evers, 
quondam corporal company A, made his ai)pearance 
" in great force " as soon as winter quarters Avere estab- 
lished. He Avas captured and wounded at Poolesville, 
discharged on account of his wounds, and made sutler. 
This afforded the only opportunity the men had of 
spending their money for such luxuries as tobacco, 
cigars, and all those questionable delicacies put up in 
glass bottles and tin cans. Butter of a pale yellow hue 
was sold in tin cans at sixty cents a pound, and every- 
thing else was on a like scale. It is doubtful if the sut- 
ler realized more than three hundred per cent, profit. 

This was the only thing a man could do with his 
money, if he did not wish to send it home, except to 
purchase newspapers, which were eagerly looked for, 
and Avliich were quickly distributed through the camp 
by boys mounted on horses. The Philadelphia " In- 
quirer " was the newspaper which brought the latest 
news, and was most sought for, as it arrived each after- 
noon of the day of publication. 

The usual camp rumors prevailed all winter, and 
stories, whatever they were about, were always tinted a 
delicious rose color, every man believing what he par- 
ticularly wished and hoped for. A very common one 
was that the regiment was going to Washington to do 
provost duty. 

All this winter frequent reconnoissances were made 
towards the west, into the debatable ground beyond our 
pickets. A strong one started, the 31st of December, 




MAJOR WILLIAM F. WHITE 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 107 

1862. This was to have been a raid to reach, if possi- iso;'., 
ble, the James River, and to come out on our line south '^""**^* 
of Richmond, — at least so it was reported, — while a \Z^&a 
part of the column was to go to Warrenton and other tSed by 
places, to mystify the enemy as to our intentions. In- '^*'^'^''*- 
fantry and artillery were to hold the fords of the Rap- 
pahannock, at which the cavalry was to cross, and some 
wagons took forage and rations, to be distributed when 
the river was passed. Just as the column reached the 
river, and was preparing to cross it at Kelly's Ford, a 
dispatch came from Washington recalling the expedi- 
tion, on account of the fact that Stuart happened at 
that time to be making a raid, with 4000 cavalry, close 
up to Washington. A part of the expedition thus 
deferred made an effort to cut off Stuart, marching on Futile ef- 
his line of retreat through Warrenton for that purpose, off istuart. 
But on this, as on most occasions, Stuart proved to be 
hke the Irishman's flea, — when we put our hand upon 
him he was not there. One part of the column got near 
enough to Stuart's cavalry to see a few of them, and 
some stragglers were captured. That was all the great 
expedition resulted in, except to march through the des- 
olate country. In the three days the column marched 
about eighty-six miles. 

The result of this carefully planned and easily dis- Gloomiest 
comfited raid was discouraging to officers and men the war. 
alike. This period, about the 1st of January, 1863, 
was the gloomiest, perhaps, that the Army of the Poto- 
mac ever knew. McClellan's failure on the Peninsula 
was followed closely by Pope's disastrous campaign, 
which, had it not been tragic, would have been ridic- 
ulous. McClellan in command in Maryland, by not 
following up his success at Antietam, caused greater 



108 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, disappointment, even, than some of the defeats. And 
shortly afterwards the disastrous battle of Fredericks- 
burg ensued. All these battles caused an awful loss 
of life. 
Burnside Tliis statc of tilings Continued until the accession of 
Joe Hook- Hooker to the command, on January 27, 1863, in place 
in com- of General Burnside, who asked to be relieved. A new 

maiid. 

face was now put upon affairs, and the army, with its 
new management, was at once better organized and 
equipped. On the 1st of January a large part of the 
army had not been paid for six months. Hooker im- 
proved the organization greatly in all ways, but partic- 
ularly in the way of a liberal appointment of competent 
Inspectors officcrs as iuspcctors of the troops of all arms. Fre- 

of all arras „ .. . p ^ • r»n i i 

appointed, queiit loriiial inspections oi the regiments lollowed, and 
these inspections were also directed towards the outpost 
and picket duty, Avhich, up to this time, had been under 
the supervision simply of the officers commanding the 
troops. No one thing was so salutary as this inspec- 
tion. The officers conducting it were given ample 
powers ; and commanders of outposts w ho w^ere found 
negligent of their du4y were in some cases instantly 
dismissed the service. Every brigade had an inspector, 
and the inspectors themselves were organized thor- 
oughly, under the head of the inspector-general of the 
Army of the Potomac. All the arms were carefully 
inspected, and the Smith's carbines were condemned 
at this time and replaced by the Sharp's. 

Colonel J. January 7, Colonel Adams, of Governor Andrew's 

Q. Adams ^ • i • • i i • i 

visits the stan, came down again and visited the regiment, and 

regiment. 

stayed two days. 

The picket duty was so exacting that every man Avas 
usually on picket one third of his time, and occasionally 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 109 

oftener. They were used as vedettes two hours on and is63, 
four hours off. Officers were expected to be, except in '^'"^'^^^^'' 
reserve, awake all the time. 

One great discomfort in camp was caused by mud, 
the soil of Virginia seeming to be pecuharly adapted 
for making that delicious compound. 

While on picket the horses were not allowed to be Horses on 
unsaddled, except a few at a time, for the purpose of keft'sad- 
being cleaned, and when this was done the saddles were '^^''^' 
at once replaced. Each morning, an hour before sun- 
rise, every man on outpost, whether actually on picket 
or not, "stood to horse," and remained ready to mount, - stand tc 
until some time after the sun actually rose. The utmost IXeday 
vigilance was exacted on this duty. ^''®^^" 

[Extract from a letter to Colonel Harrison Ritchie.] 

1st Cavalry Brigade (Averell's). 
Potomac Ruk, January 9, 1863. 
On the skill and fidelity of cavalry depends the safety of the Responsi- 
arniy. This regiment is constantly employed, by night and day, in pavSr"^ 
frost and storm, without fire or shelter, without unsaddling or unbri- service. 
dling for days, except to groom, perhaps, two horses at a time, in 
the hardest and most inglorious service in the world, outpost and 
vedette duty, — where the youngest officer acts alone, and requires 
qualities almost unknown, and seldom required in infantry com- 
mands. 

H. B. Sargent. 
Colonel 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. 

Also, under date of January 23, 1863, to Governor 
Andrew, Colonel Sargent says : " At this time there is 
now owing to us over $200,000, some men not having 
been paid from seven to nine months, and families in 
distress." 

The winter gave opportunity to all officers, of every 



110 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
iS6;'>, grade, to look out for promotions. Every colonel ex- 

Februaiv. , , i i • t ^ i 

pecteci to be made brigadier-general, and every line 

Promo- , 1 1 • £> • • 1 • 

tioiis. omcer was looking tor promotion in his own regiment, 
but more commonly in new regiments, which were being- 
organized in their State. 

Feb. 12, On February 12 the cavalry was reorofanized. The 

18tja, eav- c\-\ ^• ' • " • • 

airyreor- 2d divisiou, Commanded by Brigadier-General \V. W. 

gamzed. . 

Averell, was made up of two brigades. The 1st brigade 

was commanded by Colonel A. N. Duffie, of the 1st 

Colonel A. Rhode Island cavalry. Colonel Duffie was a Frencli- 

istR. I. man, formerly an officer of the 4tli Chasseurs d'Africiue, 

cavalry. . "^ . . , _ ^ 

accomplished, enthusiastic, and popular. His brigade 
was composed of the following regiments : 1st Rhode 
Island, 4th New York, 6tli Ohio, 1st Massachusetts. 
Lieutenant N. Bowditch was detached to his staff: as 
acting assistant adjutant-general, and Lieutenant C. G. 
Davis was made acting aide-de-camp. 
Command- The 2d brigade of the division, commanded by Colo- 
cavairy ncl J. I. Gregg, of tlic 16th Pennsylvania cavalry, con- 
sisted of his own and the 4th and 16th Pennsylvania. 
The cavalry corps was now made into three divisions, 
and Brigadier-General George Stoneman put in chief 
command. The regular regiments, 1st, 2d, 5tli, and 6tli 
cavalry, were organized into a reserve brigade, com- 
manded by Brigadier-General John Buford, and relieved 
from picket duty. The 1st division, two brigades, was 
commanded by General A. Pleasonton ; the 2d, two 
brigades, by Brigadier-General Averell ; the 3d, by 
Brigadier-General D. McM. Gregg. 

From Colonel Duffie's brigade five hundred men were 
constantly on picket. 

Attempts were made to build stables for the horses 
in February, but they were never completed. 



corps 




HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 
Major and Brvt. Lt. Col, 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. Ill 

The reorganized band made feeble efforts to play, mm, 
and the paymaster who came to pay off the reghnent, ^^'"'""'^''y- 
hearing them practicing, asked, " Who is dead ? " It 
soon made great improvement, and finally became well 
known for its excellence. 

On the 5th of February an expedition under com- An expedi- 
mand of Major S. E. Chamberlain, 1st Massachusetts, 1™''' 
inspector on General Averell's staff, consisting of a bri- Kjahan- 
gade of infantry, with artillery and the 1st Massachu- t^on. ^^''' 
setts, started out to destroy the bridge at Rappahannock 
Station, recently repaired by the Confederates, and 
guarded. The expedition camped at Grove Church the 
first night, after a march in rain which froze as it fell, 
and made things particularly nasty. In the mornino- it 
proceeded to guard all the lower fords of the river with 
the infantry and artillery, and the same day the cavalry, 
under Major Chamberlain, succeeded in destroying the 
bridges, after something of a fight, in which several 
men were killed and wounded on both sides. Colonel 
Curtis took one hundred and fifty men of the regiment 
to Elhs's Ford to make a diversion. This day the cav- 
alry marched forty miles. 

February 10, General Stoneman inspected the regi- Regiment 
ment. February 13, Captain Adams received as a iTGenSai 
present from Massachusetts an extraordinary imported ^*''"^°^^"- 
English bull-dog with a very open countenance, which 
he named " Mac," who proved a great favorite. 

Before spring several officers were detailed on staffs, officers 
and detached from the regiment. Colonel Sargent went '^'*^'*'''^- 
to Washington, on a court-martial ; Major Chamberlain, 
as inspector at division headquarters; Captain Motley to 
General Gordon's, and Lieutenant H. T. Davis to Gen- 
eral Devens's staff, as aids. Lieutenant N. Bowditch 



112 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
February. 



Promo- 
tioiLs. 



Fitahugh 
Lee at- 
tacks the 
pickets at 
Hart wood 
Church. 



A court- 
martial. 



was detailed as assistant adjutant-general, and Lieu- 
tenant C. G. Davis as acting aide-de-camp, of Colonel 
Duffie's staff ; Captain Clapp was transferred to the 
adjutant-general's corps U. S. A., and assigned to Gen- 
eral Benham's staff. These details, and the officers who 
resigned to join the 2d Massachusetts cavalry, left the 
regiment with twenty-three vacancies on the roster. In 
consequence, promotions were made from the ranks, 
as follows : Orderly Sergeant Teague of company D, 
Sergeant Hayden of company E, Lombard, company F, 
and Sergeant-Major J. A. Goodwin, to he 2d lieuten- 
ants. Besides this. Captains Thayer and Batchelder, 
who were sick in the summer, continued so all winter, 
and never rejoined the regiment. Captain Thayer re- 
joined the regiment twice, but almost immediately his 
health broke down, and he finally resigned. 

Company F had been all winter at General Hooker's 
headquarters, as body-guard, but it rejoined the regi- 
ment before the spring campaign opened. 

On February 25 an attack on our pickets was made 
by Fitzhugh Lee, with 1500 cavalry. The whole out- 
post at Hartwood Church was driven in to the infantry 
picket line. The 16th Pennsylvania cavalry hajjpened 
to compose the force, and they behaved badly, and ran 
away. A court-martial was at once established to in- 
quire into the affair. This court found them guilty of 
deserting their post in presence of the enemy, and sen- 
tenced them all to death. This sentence was not car- 
ried out. The 16th Pennsylvania was a new regiment, 
with officers as inexperienced as the men ; and this fact 
afforded a reason, if not an excuse, for their behavior. 
There were captured from this regiment one hundred 
and fifty men, and six or seven commissioned officers, 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 113 

besides many killed and wounded. The Confederate isfi.!, 
loss was three officers killed, and two officers and seven 
or eight men captured. Their loss occurred through a 
rash charge, which carried them too far. They met a 
reinforcement, which turned the tables. 

In the brigade there were two bands, one of the 1st 
Massachusetts, and the other of the 1st Rhode Island, 
both excellent and much appreciated. 

Colonel Duffie, on takinof command, instituted bri- Brigade 

' . " ' . drills. 

gade drills, and by his zeal and knowledge did much 

to increase the efficiency of the brigade. His English ^ 

was far from perfect, and his attempts were interlarded 

with curious and novel expletives, which were very 

amusing. He won the confidence of all the command 

by his good nature and activity, and afterwards in the 

field did good service. 

When Lieutenant Bowditch was detailed assistant 
adjutant-general on Colonel Duffie's staff. Lieutenant 
H. P. Curtis was made adjutant of the regiment. 

Presents of clothingf and other useful thinofs came to Boxes 

, . . . ^. from 

the reo'iment durino; the winter from friends in Massa- honie. 
chusetts, and from the Sanitary Commission. Boxes of 
good things from home Avere fully appreciated, and 
were generally divided around quickly. Books were 
in demand. Both volumes of any book were seldom 
finished, so great was the borrowing demand. But one 
volume, it made little difference whether first or second, 
was better than none ; and literature was frequently 
devoured in this unusual manner. 

Among other home curiosities, Mrs. Harrison Gray Anoyei 
Otis sent Colonel Sargent a pair of socks, with the Con- so^cks! 
federate flag for bottoms, so that he should easily tread 
it under foot. 



114 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

\m\ The companies of the regiment were filled uj) by 

enlisted and drafted men, and a new assignment of 

Regiment officers was made soon after Colonel Sargent returned 

tilled up •11 -ITT 1 • 1 1 

by recruits ±rom court-martial duty at vVashinofton, the roster be- 

jind ton- . . "^ 1^111 

scripts. ing as follows, m March, before taking the field : — 

Colonel H. B. Sargent. 

Lieutenant-Colonel G. S. Curtis. 

Major H. L. Higginson. 

Major S. E. Chamberlain, Division Inspector. 

Surgeon-Major James Holland. 

Assistant Surgeon H. H. Warner. 

Assistant Surgeon G. S. Osborne. 

Quai'termaster L. W. Knight. 

Commissary J. L. Brigham. 

Captains. 

A. B. W. Crowninshield. 

B. Montgomery Ritchie.* Lieut. D. H. L. Gleason commanding. 

C. Lieut. E. A. Flint commanding. 

D. C. F. Adams, Jr. 

E. H. P. Bowditch. 

F. T. L. Motley.* Lieut. G. M. Fillebrown commanding. 

G. John Tewksbury. 



H. L. M. Sargent, Jr. 



Lieutenants. 



E. R. Merrill. E. A. Flint. 

N. Bowditch.* F. W. Hayden. 

H. T. Davis.* G. H. Teague. 

C. G. Davis.* C. C. Parsons. 
G. M. Fillebrown. A. E. PhUlips. 

D. H. L. Gleason. J. J. Higginson. 
H. P. Curtis. C. A. Longfellow. 

* Detached. 

Mules for In Marcli all the wagons were taken away from the 
mais.^'" regiment, and to each company was given two mules for 
pack animals. 



WIN TEE BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 115 

Sickness in the regiment, which during the winter i86;5, 
had averaged twelve per cent., towards the end of March 
averaged only five. 

March 28 General Hooker and staff visited the camp General 
and were received with immense enthusiasm by the men. Smpr'"" 
On the 29th the regiment was inspected by General 
Stoneman, and later by Colonel (Andy) Webb, and 
highly praised for its condition. 

The battle of Kelly's Ford, March 17, was a deliber- Battle of 
ate attempt to try conclusions with the enemy, for the & ' 
purpose of adding prestige, if possible, to our troopers, 
before the spring campaign. The Confederate cavalry, 
in force, was known to be a short distance beyond the 
ford. General Averell was selected to take an equal 
force, and after carrying the ford, protected by rifle 
pits, drive in the advance guard, and attack the enemy 
on his own ground. Averell had a force picked from 
his own division and the reserve brigade, and two bat- 
teries of horse artillery. He took across the river about 
2000 sabres and eioht mins. 

His programme was carried out to the letter, and 
after driving the enemy back, he made them develop 
all then- force. The enemy's attacks were successfully 
repulsed, and Averell withdrew his force unmolested. 
It was a success, and showed all engaged what could be 
done. It was, so far, the best thing the Federal cavalry 
had accomplished, and paved the way for the success of 
1863. 

In this battle were engaged three officers of the 1st ist Mass. 
Massachusetts cavalry, aU acting on staffs. Major afSy's 
Chamberlain was division inspector of cavalry, and chief Soutded. 
of General Averell's staff. Lieutenants Bowditch and 
Davis were acting on the staff of Colonel Duffie, com- 



116 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, manding 1st brigade. All three of these officers were 
struck in the fight, Lieutenant Davis in the clasp of 
the sword belt, in the middle, doubling it up like a cup. 
Lieutenants Davis and Bowditch led a charge of cav- 
alry, and were engaged in a hand to hand fight with 
the Confederates. Lieutenant Bowditch greatly distin- 
guished himself in this charge, knocking out of their 
saddles three Confederates. His horse was killed, and 
Lt. Bow- he received three wounds. When lying on the ground 
Sify "'"'' helpless he was shot through the bowels, and mortally 
Tfte" " wounded, dying in the camp the next day, much re- 
iantrj%'' grcttcd by everybody in the brigade. He was a gallant 

and o^enial officer.^ 
Major Major Chamberlain, at the very beginning of the 

lain'" "^ battle, in crossing Kelly's Ford, was conspicuous in the 
in crossing attack, wliich was a difficult one, and Avhich he directed. 
The other side was held by a considerable force, pro- 
tected by rifle pits. The attack, at first, was unsuccess- 
ful ; and Lieutenant J. P. Domingo, 4th New York, was 
severely wounded, and Lieutenant Nicolai, 1st Rhode 
Island, was killed, two men killed and five wounded. 
The ford was then most gallantly carried by twenty 
men of the 1st Rhode Island cavalry, under Lieutenant 
Simeon E. Brown. Almost all the Confederates guard- 
ing the ford were killed, wounded, or captured, and 
Major Breckenridge, of Kentucky, of the 3d Virgnna 
cavalry, was captured. Major Chamberlain was shot 
through the nose, and through the left cheek, from 
which wound he came very near losing his life. 

In Averell's report of Kelly's Ford, with a plan of 
the battlefield and a list of casualties, Major Chamber- 
lain is mentioned for " distinguished gallantry." 

1 See Memoir, privately printed. 




MAJOR ATHERTON H. STEVENS, JR. 



WINTER BEFORE FREDERICKSBURG. 117 

The casualties were : — i863, 

Union. Killed — officers 1, men 5. Wounded — r^j^^ ^^ 
officers 12, men 38. Captured or missing — officers 2, "''^*'''^- 
men 20. Aggregate, 78. 

Confederate. Killed — officers 3, men 8. Wounded 
— officers 11, men 77. Prisoners — officers 1, men 
33. Agfo-reof-ate, 133. 

Horses. Killed, 71. Wounded, 87. Taken by en- 
emy, 12. Aggregate, 170. 

It was remarkable that the only three officers of the istMass. 
1st Massachusetts actively engaged in the battle should I'enn. at 
have been hit. The regiment itself remained on the Mar. i7. 
other side of the Rappahannock, and with a part of the 
4th Pennsylvania was sent out under Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Curtis to repel a threatened attack of some Confed- 
erate cavalry, supposed to be at Warrenton, and guarded 
the roads from that direction. No enemy was met, 
however, except a few Confederate scouting parties, by 
one of which Lieutenant F. W. Hayden was captured, Lt. Hay- 

/> T • • 1 ^^^ eap- 

and the re«;iment thus lost the chance of disting-uish- tured. 
ing itself in the first action of any account with the 
Confederate cavahy up to this time. Prisoners cap- 
tured were found to be armed with new EnoHsh revol- Confeder- 

J^ ate arms. 

vers, — Kerr' s patent, — and had ammunition recently 
made in Connecticut. The prisoners owned up to a 
defeat. Major Pelham, of the Confederate artillery, a 
very gallant and efficient officer, was killed in the fight. 
He was that day serving on a court-martial at Cul- 
peper, as was General J. E. B. Stuart himself. Both, 
summoned by the sound of the guns, went into the 
fight, and Pelham (a relation, by the way, of Major and 
Lieutenant Curtis) was killed while heading a charge. 



General 
situation 
in spring- 



CHAPTER VL 

SPRING CAMPAIGN, APRIL 12 TO JUNE 17, 1863. 

1863, The cavalry was now properly formed into brigades 

and divisions. Better officers came to the front, and 
particularly in the regimental officers great improve- 
of 18G3. ment was attained, while the men learned the duties of 
the soldier pretty thoroughly. 

Kelly's Ford was the first battle of any importance 

between the cavalry of the two contending armies. It 

was not a very great affair, but they met face to face 

on smooth level ground, and although each side claimed 

the victory, the Union cavalry had the best of it. At 

any rate the battle had the effect of inspiriting a cavalry 

which had had no brilliant success up to that time. 

Sargent in When the cavalry took the field in the spring, Colo- 

of brigade; nel Sargent commanded the brigade, and the command 

regiment, of the regiment was assumed by Lieutenant-Colonel 

Curtis. If the same recuperation and reinforcement 

could have taken place with the horses as with the men 

and officers, the regiment would have been in first-rate 

shape. But, alas ! the wearing and never-ending picket 

duty of the winter made this impossible, and the horses 

were sadly out of condition when the camp was broken. 

The band had to be dismounted in order that their 

horses could be given to mount the troopers, and many 

men were left behind for want of horses not only in the 

1st Massachusetts, but in all regiments. 



SFBING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 119 

In March it was thought that the campaign would i863, 
very soon o^qw. Leaves of absence had ceased to be ^'" ' 
given early in the month, but they were again renewed Ready to 
the first of April, as the weather became less pleasant. ™^^^ ' 
All superfluous baggage was sent to the rear, and the 
troops were ready to take the field at a moment's no- 
tice. 

On the 10th of April the cavalry marched out to the To the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad and took up position noTk.""^^"' 
along the Rappahannock River to watch the crossings. 
On the 20th of April, after many skirmishes with the 
Confederate cavalry who were on the other side of the 
river. Hooker's cavalry crossed the Rappahannock, but Crosses the 
came back again without a battle, and went to Warren- ''''^'^' 
ton, where they received supplies from Alexandria. It 
was a part of the spring campaign that our cavalry 
under General Stoneman should make a raid in the 
dh-ection of Richmond, and they prepared for it at this 
place. 

At this time Hooker, who had succeeded Burnside 
in the command of the Army of the Potomac, was plan- 
ning to cross the river in the face of Lee and attack 
him. All his dispositions were masterly, the act of 
crossing the rivers was ideal, to be followed by humili- 
ating disaster and muddle. It was a part of his plan 
that the entire cavalry force, under General Stoneman, stone- 
should cross the Rapidan and make an extensive raid 7lt 
in the country towards and to the south of Richmond, 
destroy all the bridges, railroads, and canals, rendering 
the country impassable to Lee's army, who should thus 
be cut off from his base of supplies and be at the mercy 
of Hooker's army when he should defeat him. But 
from the crossing of the river the cavalry was terribly 



120 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
1803, handicapped by a severe storm which caused the rivers 

April. 11111 

to swell, and made the roads so dillicult that the artil- 
Faiiure of lerv had to be sent back. Instead of Stoneman cuttins: 

stone- / . » 

teiuiw/" ^^ "^^^ from his base of supplies, and destroying all the 
raid. roads, his progress was so slow that the Confederate 
cavalry came up with him, and, though net able to de- 
feat him, yet stopped him and prevented the accom- 
plishment of his plan. 
Causes of Indeed, from April 10 until the expedition did finally 
"re. cross the river, the very bad weather and constant suc- 

cession of rains had continually postponed the start. 
The whole force changed camp frequently, grew weary 
with marching and countermarching, used up its sup- 
plies, and became always less confident and able. The 
roads were difficult, and the expedition was seriously 
impeded by all these things before the start. 

The presence of this large body of cavalry became 
known to the enemy, who also collected his forces across 
the Rapidan in position to thwart the object of Stone- 
man. The damage done by it finally was not great, and 
a part had to go to Gloucester Point, to prevent being 
cut off. 
Rattle of The history of the battle of Chancellorsville need 
lorsviiie. not be repeated here. Everybody knows how Hooker's 
army, excellently organized, probably the best that ever 
marched in America, through Hooker's strange loss of 
power, was rendered helpless. Although a great part 
of it Avas not engaged, all had to recross the river after 
five days of severe fighting, suffering defeat by detail 
at the hands of an active and enter])rising enemy. Had 
Hooker kept his cavalry in hand as a part of his main 
army, Stonewall Jackson's flank march, which, so ad- 
mirably planned and executed, was the principal instru- 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1SG3. 121 

ment of Hooker's defeat, would have been impossible ; ]sr,3, 

and the whole movement might have been as brilliant 

in result as the crossing of the Rapidan and Rappahan- it mifrht 

1 , . . , , • -r» ( 1 liave been. 

nock, the organization, and the preparation. But Stone- 
man's cavalry, weary and unsuccessful, came in on the 
right flank, whence it had gone out, having accom- 
plished little or nothing but a tiresome march. May 2 
the regiment recrossed the Rapidan and camped by 
Ely's Ford. 

The cavalry went back into its old camps with the All the 

• f 1 •! 1 /' T CI • IT aniiy in 

inhintry, and a terrible reeling or depression and disap- old camps 

111 11 1 1 ajjain. 

pointment settled down upon all these troops, who two 
weeks before had marched out with confident anticipa- 
tion of success. A short pause now took place, which 
was ended by the development of Lee's plan of invasion, 
and by the cavalry battle at Brandy Station, June 0. 

The dismounted men of the cavalry corps were until Remount 
June organized in camps moved from place to place, 
first at Dumfries, then at Potomac Run, again at Dum- 
fries, and later at Alexandria. A tolerable system of 
remounting the men and sending them to their regi- 
ments was established. General Pleasonton paid per- 
sonal attention to the matter, and put efficient officers 
in command. 

The cavalry bureau was during the summer organ- 
ized at Washington, and the remount and refitting was 
accomplished on a large scale through this bureau. 

A large camp, fairly equipped, was located at Gies- "Camp 
boro Point, near Alexandria, and called " Camp Stone- 
man." All dismounted men were sent to that camp 
and were remounted, and from time to time sent back 
to their regiments. Such a camp offered many kinds 
of dissipation and demoralization to men temporarily in 



122 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



April. 



Evils of 
the dis- 
mounted 
camp. 



Lieuten- 
ant Glea- 
son's fight 
on the 
Rapidan 
liiver. 



it, and many good cavalry soldiers became so demoral- 
ized as never to be good for anything again, while not 
a few never rejoined their regiments, procuring, fre- 
quently by dishonest means, a discharge or detail. No 
doubt this camp was better than nothing, but was very 
far from being what it should have been. Being close 
to Washington it allowed endless oj^portunities for dis- 
sipation of all kinds, and they were eagerly embraced. 
In all foreign armies a remount station is considered to 
be as important to the regiment as the men who are in 
the field, and if each regiment could have had at some 
refitting station a responsible officer to look out for its 
interests in this j)articular, much good would have re- 
sulted. 

Before the battle of Brandy Station, while Hooker's 
cavalry stood opposite Lee's, many fights occurred, in 
one of which Lieutenant Gleason, commanding company 
B, had a curious hand-to-hand encounter with a Confed- 
erate officer. In a letter home Lieutenant Gleason wrote 
as follows about it : — 



come an- 
iiounee- 
luent. 



[Lieutenant Gleason's letter about the May 1 fight.] 

Passed through Culpeper about twelve M., Thursday, April 30, 
1863, and camped two miles from Rapidan Station. My squadron 
on picket, but I was left in camp. About ten in the evening I was 
An unwel- aroused by Lieutenant Wardell, adjutant, who said, " Colonel Sar- 
gent wants you to report to him at once." I was very tired, played 
out, and had just fallen into a splendid sleej). I protested vigorously, 
and Wardell answered as vigorously, both with suppressed tones as 
Colonel Sai'gent was close by. It ended, as it always did end, by my 
reporting as ordered. Colonel Sargent said, " Mr. Gleason, you 
know the weakest part of the picket line is usually where two regi- 
ments meet ; you will take two good men, well mounted, and go out 
and see that the vedettes are doing their duty, and that the whole 
front is well protected." I started with two non-commissioned ofli- 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 123 

cers of company B, and wandered about during the balance of the is(;:? 
night, dayiijht finding us at the extreme right or near Robinson's ^^^Y- 
Ford. We moved leisurely towards the centre, where the 1st Massa- 
chusetts was stationed, reaching Rapidan Station about seven A. M., 
May 1. Was told by the pickets that the rebels on the other side of 
the river were getting ready to charge across, and I gave orders how 
to dispose of the men to offer the best resistance, and then moved 
towards the supports, which were about one eighth of a mile back. 
Before reaching them the Johnnies came across, up the bank, and The rebels 
charged down the road towards our (1st Massachusetts) reserve, suddenly. 
They were met gallantly by our pickets, but pushed ahead as if noth- 
ing was opposed to them. JNIean while I was in the field on their right 
flank, the two men who had been with me all night joining the pick- 
ets. A fine rail fence was between me and the enemy, and I felt 
very comfortable and safe ; drawing my Colt, I fired six shots into A little 
or at them, then with a Smith and Wesson began a second round. I tke" ^^^'^~ 
am sure I don't know why I did n't kill lots of them, as I was vei*y 
cool and collected, at least I thought so. But they did n't any of 
them seem to drop, and suddenly five of them tore a hole through 
the fence and came after me. My security was at an end, and put- A home 
ting spurs to Dixie I headed for home, over a fence into another ^^^' 
field. Here I was confronted by a deep gully right across my path, 
and two rebels close at my heels. I turned to the right, gave my 
horse full speed, and came to the end of the gully, as one rebel 
reached the same point by cutting off an angle. I was about ten feet 
ahead, and had two shots left. I fired one, the other missed. Shov- 
ing the pistol into the holster, I tried to get at my sabre, but as my 
belt was on under my overcoat, I could n't get at it, and the rebel 
ordered me in choice language to surrender, or he would shoot. Un- 
consciously I had allowed my speed to slacken, and I could see into 
the empty barrels of his pistol. It struck me as being funny, threat- 
ening with an empty pistol. I said, " What, with that pistol ? " He 
replied, " Yes, d— you, it 's loaded." I laughed and said, ' I 've 
got two in my holsters in the same condition." Meanwhile he had 
ranged alongside on my left, and our horses were crowding each 
other as horses will when alongside. He was leaning as far as he Iland-to- 
could one way, and I the opposite. Then we clutched at each other ; counter.' 
I got his head across my breast, with my left arm under his chin, 
and with my right fist pounded him for all T was worth. He with 



124 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, his pistol was striking blindly for my head, cutting a gash over both 
May. eyes, and knocking a finger-nail off ; during this time our horses 
were loping towards our lines. Behind was another rebel who could 
not keej) up. Now, my horse never liked to wet his feet ; approach- 
ing a large muddy place, while we were locked in the above loving 
embrace, both horses jumjjed, but not at the same time. The conse- 
quence was, both of us were dismounted. I sat flat in the mud with 
An iinex- beels elevated, while Johnny landed on the back of his head and 
uoument. shoulders ; his horse stood still, mine ran away, and here I was left 
sitting in the mud, in comjjany with two of the enemy. I lost my 
temper when I lost my horse, I fear. Any way, getting on my feet, 
my sabre was where I could get at it, and drawing it I went for 
those two rebels with a rush. In fact, there was too much rush (my 
rebel had again mounted), and neither horse would allow me nearer 
than ten feet of him. After a few plunges, both of them turned and 
left me alone in the mud. I fear I called them names, and used lan- 
guage that was not polite, as long as they were in sight. Then I ran 
for dear life, got over a fence, and sat down on a rock to rest and 
collect my thoughts. Joining my company a short time after, I found 
Lieutenant Higginson of company B had cliarged the rebel column, 
cutting off the two worthies who were with me, and the man nearest 
my heart was wounded by a carbine shot, and taken prisoner. I 
saw him the same afternoon, back some two or three miles, in a 
house ; his eyes and face were black and blue, and he looked as if 
Amenities he had been through a powder-mill explosion. I made him as com- 
fortable as I could, and left him. He asked me why I did n't sur- 
render when he ordered me to, saying, " If my pistol had been 
loaded I would have blown your brains out." "■ No doubt," said I, 
" but you would n't have been fool enough to tell me it was loaded 
if it had been." He was a second lieutenant in the 6th Virginia 
cavalry, and we both laughed when we compared our emotions and 
impulses; neither before had professed great skill as boxers, and 
neither was very proud of the result. During the fight he dropped 
his pistol, and we met on equal footing. I have the pistol now, and 
as I look at it, I can see the whole scene move before me like a pan- 
orama. 

The same day Lieutenant A. E. Phillips was shot 
from across the river and killed. 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 125 

On June 3 while Lieutenant Gleason with company B 1803, 
was watching White Sulphur Springs, on the Heclgman Lieutenant 
River, his pickets were driven in by a superior force from %iit near 

• IIP 11-iP Sulphur 

across the river, and he found himselr attacked by two Springs, 

... Va. 

strono- squadrons of the 4th Virginia cavalry. He formed 

his men in the road and gallantly charged the head of 

the attacking column. His boldness and courage caused 

the retreat of the Confederate forces. Referring to his 

diary he gives the following account of this affair : — 

White Sulphur Springs, Virgikia, 
Tuesday, June 2, 1SG3. 

Went on picket at White Sulphur Springs with company B, thirty No more 
men, and Lieutenant Duchesney. We took with us two guidons, the q,j picket, 
first and last time I had them on this service. I placed the vedettes 
on two roads, Fox's Ford road, and Bealton, in shape of the letter A, 
the top heing near, and where they could command the ford and 
road to Warrenton. It was a very exposed position, and Reid of 
company B was captured on his post during the early part of the 
night, without firing a shot. The night was dark, and light rain at 
intervals. My headquarters were on the Fox Ford road, on top of 
the high hill, in the edge of the wood, and about one third of a mile 
from the Springs. 

June 3. 

Sprinkled a little in the morning, and again about 11.30, when Rebels 
one of the vedettes reported a body of rebels on the west side of the 
Hedgman River. I immediately mounted the men, gave orders to Prepare 
the vedettes to hold their ground as long as they could, and threw a 
skirmish line out at the foot of the hill under command of Lieuten- 
ant Duchesney, with orders, if attacked, to fall back slowly, covering 
both roads. I then rode to the top of the hill, where a perfect view 
could be had of the rebel forces. With my field glass I counted 
about four hundred men, in two squadrons, and what I took to be 
two old ai'my wagons. I then wrote a dispatch, in duplicate, to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis, commanding regiment at Fayetteville, 
and sent the two men with guidons back. My diary says they 
crossed at 12.30. 

The rebels moved very deliberately ; they did n't seem in the least 



126 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
June. 



Skirmish. 



Rebels ad- 
vance. 



Charge. 



Repulsed. 



Tliey 



Are rein- 
forced. 



Melee. 



hurry to begin business, and I thought, at one time, they would go to 
Warrenton without an attack. After they crossed they halted at the 
Old Hotel, sent a squad towards Warrenton with the wagons, threw 
out one squadron as skirmishers, the other in good supporting dis- 
tance, and advanced briskly. My pickets and skirmishers met them 
pluckily, and retired slowly, fighting every step ; the rebels also ad- 
vanced gallantly, and showed the best drill I ever saw from them. 
They kept their horses circling, and it was the prettiest sight I ever 
witnessed. Keeping well in line, at proper distance, the squadron 
in support, with squadron front, — it was like a drill. When they 
had advanced a few rods up the hill, I gave the order to fall back 
into the woods on the Fox's Ford road, with eight men rear guard. 
We had retired about one eighth of a mile, when we heard them yell 
and charge. It sounded like " hell let loose." We were at a walk. 
I wheeled the men by threes, as the road was too narrow for fours, 
returned carbine and pistol, drew sabre, and charged from a dead 
halt. There was about three rods distance between our forces, when 
we broke around the angle in the road, and met them. The yell 
died out, their mouths and eyes opened, and, while some fought, 
most of them tried to get out of it, and, for once in my life, I cut, 
slashed, and stabbed to my heart's content. We drove them out of 
the woods, down the hill, and, had it not been for their support, 
which came up promptly, and covered them, we would have had the 
best part of the first squadron prisoners. As it was, at one time we 
had more prisoners than we had men, but were obliged to let them 
go when the second squadron charged. This they did as soon as 
their own men were out of the way. However, they did not come 
into the woods again, but halted at the edge. 

My own experience was as follows : I did n't speak but once after 
the charge began, and that was to the officer who led the charge, 
Captain Owen, 4th Virginia cavalry. As I met him I gave him a 
cut across the forehead, and very cordially said, " Take that, you 

," and passed on. Tlien a trooper tried to shoot me with 

his carbine, but fired too quick, shooting one of his own men through 
the body, dead ; and rising in his stirrups, he hit me a fearful blow 
on top of my head with his carbine, though I guarded as best I 
could, and no doubt saved a broken skull. My hat went off in this 
little difficulty ; and another fellow, before I had recovered from the 
first blow, hit me a cut with a sabre, on the right side of my head, 




BENJ. W. CROWNINSHIELD 
Major and Brvt. Col. U. S. V. 



SPEING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 127 

which laid open the scalp about four inches, and knocked out a few 1863, 
pieces of bone. I have five little pieces now for keepsakes. This ''^^®- 
man was cut out of his saddle by Corporal Doyle, who was immedi- 
ately behind me. When we arrived at the edge of the wood, my 
horse Dixie was beyond control, and I went down the hill with the Dixie tries 
rebels, with Macdonald oi company B close at my heels. I sue- rebels. 
ceeded in turning my horse just as the rebel support charged ; but, 
they being at my left, I got back first. I ordered the men to let the 
prisoners go, and fall back down the road, which we did pretty 
lively. As we got near the place where we first charged, my horse 
stumbled, and threw me over his head. He got up first, and dragged Dismount- 
me about two rods, when I let him go. Corporal Poole was the only escape 
man near me. He wanted me to take his horse. I refused, and '^^P*'""®- 
told him to have the men rally at Fox's Ford. As I got on my feet, 
my hat, which the carbine friend knocked off, and the rebel captain's 
cap lay alongside me. I grabbed both, jumped into the woods, 
which were very thick, ran about two rods, stopped, took off my 
rubber coat which, as it began to rain, I had put on, unhooked my 
sabre, put my coat through sabre knot, and began to creep away 
from danger. Passing down a hill to the east, I came to a spring, 
feeling thirsty, a little weak, and generally used up. I lay down to 
drink. It was then I first learned I was wounded. As the blood Wounded, 
rushed to my head the pain was fearful. Taking off my hat I found 
my hair and wound full of sand. Washing it off as best I could, I 
crept back up the hill into the road, and to the jDlace where our 
headquarters had been, and then, not seeing or hearing anything, I 
crawled out to the top of the open ground, and saw the rebels at Rebs get 
White Sulphur Springs. Part of them went to Warrenton, the bal- and re- 
ance had crossed the river from whence they came. cross. 

My loss in this affair was Sergeant Preston and private Fitzpat- Losses, 
rick, prisoners ; myself wounded. The rebel loss, as reported by an 
old citizen-doctor, on the Eastham River, was eight killed and six- 
teen wounded. Five were buried just across the river, near the 
ford. Captain Owen, 4th Virginia, who commanded the expedition, 
was court-martialed. He reported that he was ambuscaded by a reg- 
iment, and told Preston he was a liar, when Preston told him our 
numbers. 

My horse received a bad cut on one fore leg, from some source, 
during the melee. 



128 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

18(53, The battle of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863, called 

out the best effort of the greater part of General Pleas- 
Battle of onton's cavalry corps. All of his brigades were on the 
station, field, but it so happened that Colonel Duffie's second 
division went to the left after crossing Kelly's Ford, 
and only a very insignificant part of one of the bri- 
Tioops en- o;ades was enofaired. The rest of the division, two bri- 
2"ades, was not enofaired at all : and the loss was com- 
paratively insignificant ; more than one half of the 
whole loss in the division this day falling upon two 
companies of the 1st Massachusetts cavalry. The main 
part of the fighting was near Brandy Station and Bev- 
erly Ford, the 1st and 3d divisions and the reserve bri- 
gade being the principal forces engaged. General D. 
McM. Gregg, at the battle of Brandy Station, com- 
manded the 1st and 3d divisions ; and he sent Colonel 
Duffie's division towards Stevensburg, expecting to find 
a large force of the enemy there. 
Disposi- Colonel Duffie, after crossing the ford, which was 

cavalry, scarccly defended at all, deployed his 1st brigade, com- 
manded by Colonel L. P. di Cesnola, the 1st Rhode 
Island being on the right of the road, the 1st Massachu- 
setts immediately on the left, the 6th Ohio further to 
the left of the road, a section of artillery in the road, 
and the rest of the artillery and the 4tli New York in 
reserve, and advanced straight up the road towards Ste- 
vensburg. 

His second brigade, commanded by Colonel J. Irvin 
Gregg, followed on after the others, not being deployed. 
The little force that was at the ford when the head of 
the column crossed, retreated on Brandy Station ; and, 
giving the alarm. General Wade Hampton, commanding 
at that point, sent towards Stevensburg the 2d South 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 129 

Carolina cavalry, Colonel M. C. Butler, and shortly af- ises, 
terwards the 4th Virginia cavalry. Colonel Wickham, 
which did not belong to his division, but happened to 
be in the vicinity. The 2d South Carohna, arriving on 
the hill near Stevensburg, was disposed, dismounted, on 
both sides o£ the road in a strong^ and commandino: 
position ; while in the road, under command of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Frank Hampton, was about a company, 
mounted, but kept well back, so as not to show its 
strenofth. 

As the first brigade of Duffie advanced, the dis- Dismount- 
mounted men, well protected, fired upon our men, who opeirfire"* 
were mounted, and made the advance uncomfortable, vanee. 
One carbine in the hands of a dismounted man under 
cover is certainly worth half a dozen in the hands of 
men on horseback ; and these men of Hampton, on our 
left of the road, were in the ruins of a larofe, burned 
building, a seminary, and delivered a hot fire upon the 
advance of the 1st Massachusetts, which was opposed to 
them. 

Coming to close quarters, the men of Captain Tewks- Our men 
bury's squadron, companies E and G, became impa- aSge"'' 
tient at the disadvantage of their position, and called 
out to Captain Tewksbury to order a charge. He told 
the men to remain steady ; but again calHng out, some 
of the men thought the order came from their officers, Charge be- 
and the squadron started to charge. The larger part of ourMdere. 
this and Lieutenant Higginson's squadron (companies A 
and B) were at the time deployed as skirmishers, and 
that squadron started immediately after Captain Tewks- 
bury's, and the charge was taken up by the 1st Rhode 
Island on the right of the road. But Captain Tewks- 
bury's men, by starting first, took the lead, and getting 



130 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
June. 



4 th Vir- 
ginia cut 
in two, and 
put to 
tlight. 



Captain 
Tewks- 
buiy un- 
horsed. 



Enemy at- 
tempts to 
form new 
line. 



into the road, brushed away the mounted men of the 
2d South Carolina, killing Lieutenant-Colonel Frank 
Hampton and many of his men. 

It happened that the 4th Virginia cavalry was just 
coming on to the field, or rather, just getting into line 
of battle. They were taken, perhaps, at a slight disad- 
vantage on this account ; but this charge cut that regi- 
ment in two parts, one squadron being left to the right, 
and the other part of the regiment turned in the road 
and fled precipitately through Stevensburg and towards 
Culpeper, in utter confusion. All attempts of their offi- 
cers to rally them were unsuccessful, and Captain Tewks- 
bury's squadron, not numbering over eighty men, went 
through them like a whirlwind, capturing fifty-three 
prisoners, and killing and wounding a good many. Cap- 
tain Tewksbury himself was struck out of his saddle, 
but he was not hurt ; and getting on his horse again, 
led his men successfully. The men of the 2d South 
Carolina regiment, who had dismounted, took to their 
horses, and got to the rear in confusion, A^dthout wait- 
ing. Then with the squadron of the 4th Virginia, left 
on our right, Avhich at one time was quite surrounded 
by our men, but remaining hidden in the woods quietly 
was not perceived, they managed to retreat in the direc- 
tion of Brandy Station, and took up a new line across 
Mountain Run. 

Colonel Duffie brought up the rest of his brigade to 
the hill by Stevensburg, unlimbered his artillery, and 
fired upon whatever had been brought together of the 
4th Viro-inia and 2d South Carolina, across Mountain 
Run. The very first shot was efi^ective, disabling two of 
Hampton's officers, as will be seen later in this account. 
Meanwhile, the men of the 4th Virginia, who had re- 




MAJOR CHARLES G. DAVIS 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 131 

treated down the Culpeper road, rallied and came back, i8G3, 
but did not effect anything. They followed Duffie at '^^' 
a safe distance as he withdrew his brigade. All the 
fighting there was, was in this first attack by one squa- 
dron of the 1st Massachusetts against all the Confed- 
erate force, two reo^iments. Colonel Irvin Gres-o-'s 2d 
brigade, which was in the rear of the 1st brigade, on 
hearing the fighting going on at Brandy Station, at 
the beginning of tlie fight, went in that direction, fol- 
lowing the sound of the guns. They, however, did not 
come to the field in time to take part in that engage- 
ment, and they were not engaged all day. They event- 
ually reerossed the river with the other brigade at Bev- 
erly Ford. 

While Colonel Duffie was preparing to charge the 2d Coi. Duffi^ 
South Carolina and the part of the 4th Virginia cavalry withdraw" 
which had retired across Mountain Run, and had issued ^^ady to 
the order for it, he received orders to withdraw his "^ ^""^^ 
forces, and marched to assist the other divisions, which 
were engaged near Brandy Station and Beverly Ford. 
Limbering up his guns, and retreating by the road on 
which he had advanced, he went to the left, towards 
the battlefield, which was at that time being hotly con- 
tested; but he got there too late to take part in the 
battle, and uniting with Irvin Gregg's brigade, he re- 
crossed the whole division, in the evening, at Beverly 
Ford. 

In his excellent book, McClellan, of General Stuart's Confed- 
stafl:', gives an elaborate account of this fight, explain- countsTf 
ing the movement of each one of the squadrons of the *^^ ''''*'*"'' 
2d South Carohna and 4th Virginia, giving in detail 
the accounts of different officers. The principal feature 
of the fight was the running away of the 4th Virginia 



132 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, cavalry ; and these elaborate explanations serve, per- 
haps, to throw a little dust in the eyes of the reader, 
but not to lessen the prominence of that event. The 
force which he speaks of as being in Stevensburg be- 
fore the fighting took place, which he says the 2d South 
Carolina drove out, Avas one battalion of the 6th Ohio 
cavalry, which was sent there to reconnoitre immediately 
after Duffie crossed the river. They simply retired be- 
fore the superior force. 

In McClellan's account of the battle at Brandy Sta- 
tion, he sums up the forces on both sides, and leaves 
the reader to believe that they were about equal. And 
he takes great pains to say that one brigade of his cav- 
alry was not in battle, except a part, dismounted. Now, 

Who were the fact is, that Duffie's Avhole division Avas not in the 
fight, except the two squadrons of the 1st Massachu- 
setts, as I have shown ; and the battery only fired a few 
shots. Russell's brigade of infantry, which was left at 
Kelly's Ford after Duffie advanced to Stevensburg, was 
not enofaofed. Duffie's division and Russell's brirade 

Losses. numbered tosfether 3393 officers and men. The loss of 
the whole brig-ade in this fiofht was four killed, eleven 
Avounded, and nine captured ; twenty-four altogether. 
Of these, sixteen were in the 1st Massachusetts. Of 
the captured in the 1st Massachusetts, one certainly was 
a man whose horse ran away into the Confederate lines. 
Nearly all the loss our men sustained occurred when ad- 
vancing against the 2d South Carolina, Avho were fight- 
ing on foot, and before our men were actually engaged. 
The 2d brigade casualties amounted altogether to only 
five. 

Sergeant Sherman, of company G, in a letter gives 
this account of Stevensburo- : — 

o 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 133 

We drew sabres and started on the charge, and there were only iggg 
between eighty and ninety men altogether in the squadron. Tlie J""«- 
rebels stood until we got within a few yards of them. I thought we Be^nni„. 
had got into a bad fix ; but before we got to them, they broke and '^f *^' '^^- 
ran like a flock of sheep toward the village, and we in amono- them ^^a^^e. 
usmg the sabre. I followed one man and called to him to surrender 
but he took no notice of it. I soon reached him and struck him be- 
tween the shoulders with the staff of the guidon. It knocked the 

breath out of him and he surrendered Going through the town 

the women were abusive. The rebels made two or three attempts at 
making a stand, but it was no use. We went through them like a 
whirlwind. Captain Tewksbury got knocked off his horse once, and 
remountmg shot the man that struck him. 

I saw a two-horse ambulance with two men on the seat drive out A capture 
of a yard ahead of us. Downing and I went for it, and after a lone, 
chase I finally forced the horses into a ditch which overturned the 
wagon and buried the two drivers in the ruins. It proved to be a 
hospital wagon full of stores, medicines, liquors, tea, coffee, etc. We 
cut the horses out, started them towards Stevensburg, and proceeded 
to help ourselves from the contents of the wagon, avoiding medi- 
cines. While doing this an orderly from Colonel Duffi^ came to re- 
call us, saying the woods just beyond were full of rebel cavalry get- 
ting ready to charge, and at the same moment our battery opened 
fire on them firing over our heads. AVe then saw a large force of 
rebel cavalry coming at a gallop, and lost no time in getting back to 
the town. The battery turned the rebels back. One man's horse 
ran away and carried him into the enemy's ranks, where he was 
made prisoner. 

The women in the town refused to have the rebel wounded in What the 
their houses saymg xt was a disgrace to the Confederacy to let a Eeht ..f 
small force hke ours drive four hundred of them. the'gt. ' 

McClellan, in his account of the battle of Brandy 
fetation, says, — 

eveTtsoTlelr T, T T"'"" '^"^^^ Stevensburg, where How the 
events of less magnitude, but of equal interest, were transpirin<.. "^r^^^^^- 

Colonel Hampton pursued the direct road to Stevensbui-.: and Sit. 
rneeting Lieutenant Broughton's party learned that a squad^n of 
the enemy had advanced through the town, and had again retired. 



134 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
June. 



The Con- 
federate 
account. 



Explains 
the pre- 
sence of 
Federal 
cavalry. 



The Con- 
federate 
position. 



As Hampton's party, now numbering thirty-six men, reached Ste- 
vensburg, he found this squadron di'awn up in a position of observa- 
tion on the east side of the town. He immediately ordered a charge, 
which the enemy did not wait to receive, but retired in the direction 
of their main body. Colonel Butler had, in the mean time, led his 
regiment on a by-road to the east of Stevensburg, and reached the 
main road just in rear of this retreating squadron, the pursuit of 
which was continued past Doggett's house to the wide stretch of 
open field beyond, over which the enemy was seen advancing in 
force. Judging that the attack would be made from the open field 
north of the road, Butler withdrew his regiment to the line of 
wooded hills already described. It was necessary for him to occupy 
a line from Doggett's house to Hansborough's, a distance of nearly 
a mile, and to cover this line he had less than two hundred men. 
Leaving the thirty-six men under Colonel Hampton to act mounted 
on the road, Butler deployed the remainder of his regiment on foot 
along the line on the north side of the road. Colonel Hampton was 
ordered to charge anything which might assail him. 

It is now necessary to explain the presence of the Federal cavalry 
at this point. The column under General Gregg had effected an 
easy crossing of the river at Kelly's Ford between the hours of five 
and eight o'clock A. M., for it was opposed by nothing but Rob- 
ertson's picket, which retired toward his brigade in the direction 
of Brown's house, leaving General Gregg's advance entirely un- 
obstructed and unobserved. General Gregg left Russell's infantry 
brigade in the vicinity of Kelly's Ford, and pushed forward to 
Stevensburg the 2d cavalry division, 1900 men, under Colonel A. N. 
Diiffi^, of the 1st Rhode Island cavalry. Following Colonel Duffi^'s 
march as far as Willis Madden's, General Gregg turned the 3d 
cavalry division to the northwest, toward Brandy Station, where he 
made the attack. . . . Colonel Duffle's column continued to move 
toward Stevensburg. One squadron of his command entered the 
town without opposition, but retired on the main body when charged 
by Colonel Hampton. 

The position in which Butler awaited attack was well chosen. 
The woods concealed the smallness of his numbers, and even on the 
road the sloping ground prevented the enemy from discovering any 
but the leading files of Hampton's mounted detachment. The en- 
emy's advance was at first cautious, even timid. As Butler had an- 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 135 

ticipated, the first attempt was to break tlie line of his dismounted iggs 
men, on his left, and two such attacks were made; but both were J^^^'- 
repulsed by the close fii-e of his Enfield rifles. The enemy now 
turned his attention to Hampton's position, and prepared to carry it 
by a direct sabre charge on the road, supported by squadrons on 
either flank To meet this attack, Colonel Hampton dismounted Method of 
nearly one half of his men for the protection of his flanks, retainino- '^««t»;& , 
but twenty to meet the enemy's mounted charge. Between Hampt "" 
ton's position on the road and the nearest point of the line of But- 
ler's dismounted men was a considerable gap. 

At this juncture Colonel Wickham arrived with the 4th Virginia The 4th 
cavalry. He had been turned oflP from the direct road to Stevens- ^''^^f^^ 
burg by Captain W. D. Farley, volunteer aide-de-camp to General 
Stuart, and had been guided along the same obscure road by which 
Butler had advanced. He now found himself on the ri-ht of But- 
ler's dismounted men; the head of his column resting on the main 
road east of Stevensburg, just in rear of the position held by Hamp- 
ton's mounted detachment. The change in the direction of L 
march was most unfortunate, and was the real cause of the stampede 
which ensued. Had Wickham moved through Stevensburg, as he 
would have done had he not met Captain Farley, his regiment would 
have been in position to meet the enemy, whose advance might have 
been checked at the strong line occupied by Butler. The circum- 
stances in which Wickham was placed were peculiar. His own reo- 
iment was in a position where it was impossible for it to act, en- 
closed as it was in a thick pine copse, on a narrow by-road, where 
even a column of fours could scarcely move. It was therefore neces- 
sary to turn the head of his column westward, toward Stevensburg, 
and after thus gaining the main road, to wheel about by fours pla- 

72 IT '" '""t '^"'""' ^' ^'^ ^^^P^^^^'^"^ ^'-^d^ V Butler, He who 
and the events which had already occurred, Wickham naturally ^f *f " 
hesitated to give orders either to Butler or Hampton until he could ' 

sur^^y the ground and bring his own regiment into action. 
1 r T;f ^^P''^"^'^' ^on^manding the 2d South Carolina cav- 
alry after Colonel Butler was disabled and Colonel Hampton was 
killed in an appendix to his report dictated by Colonel Butler, states 
^.a the command was turned over to Colonel Wickham by Colonel 
Butler and hat it was suggested that Colonel Hampton's position be 
strengthened by sharpshooters on the right, and by a mounted forcd* 



136 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863 ir> the road. The communication between Butler and Wickham was 
'^""'^' made through Lieutenant-Colonel W, H. Payne, of the 4th Virginia. 
Adjutant Moore states that in a brief interview between Colonel 
Hampton and Colonel Wickham, Hampton requested that both his 
right and left be strengthened by squadrons of sharpshooters, and that 
Wickham promptly acquiesced, and moved back toward his regiment 
Precan- to give the necessary orders. Captain John D. Hobson, of company 
the rebels. ^i ^^h Virginia cavalry, has recently assured me that the squadron 
composed of his own company and Captain Strother's was put in on 
Hampton's left, and that being soon separated from the rest of the 
regiment these companies acted with the 2d South Carolina during 
a considerable part of the rest of the day. This agrees with Major 
Lipscomb's report, and also with Colonel Wickham's. While these 
arrangements were being made, the enemy was advancing a column 
on the road, supported by strong squadrons on either side, moving 
slowly, however, as they came under the fire of the few men dis- 
mounted on the road. The force of the enemy was so large that, in 
the opinion of both Adjutant Moore and Lieutenant Rhett, a charge 
by Hampton's twenty men, unsupported, would only have resulted 
in their destruction. Lieutenant Broughton informed Adjutant 
Moore that he delivered a message from Colonel Hampton to Col- 
onel AVickham to the effect that he (Hampton) would close back 
upon the 4th regiment so as to make a charge in solid column. At 
this moment the rear of the 4th regiment was emerging upon the 
Anunfor- road from the woods, and the order " By fours, right about wheel," 
^unate or- ^^^^^ heard. Whether this command was given by Colonel Hampton 
to execute the movement contemplated in the message delivered by 
Lieutenant Broughton, or whether it was given by some officer of 
the 4th regiment so as to bring the faces of his men toward the en- 
emy, is entirely uncertain. The result was most unfortunate. Cajj- 
tain Chestnut and Lieutenant Rhett, at the head of Hampton's men, 
remained facing the enemy, to conceal, if possible, a movement which 
they felt must bring an attack upon them at once. But the enemy 
saw the wheel, and instantly ordered the charge. Colonel Hampton 
again ordered the right about wheel, and placed himself at the head 
of his men ; but it was of no avail. In a moment they were swept 
to the side of the road, and the full force of the charge fell upon the 
4th Virginia. Colonel Hampton, while engaging one of the enemy 
"with his sabre, was shot through the body by another, and was mor- 




EDWARD A. FLINT 
Major and Brvl. Col . 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 137 

tally wounded. He succeeded in reaching the house of John S. Bar- i863, 
hour, west of Stevensburg, where he died that night. June. 

It cannot be a matter of surprise that the 4th regiment, under 
such circumstances, broke and ran. Had the regiment rallied quickly 
no blame would have attached to it. There was not a finer body 
of men in the service. They had frequently proved their valor on 
other battlefields, and on many subsequent occasions they confirmed 
their good reputation. But on this day a panic possessed them. A panic 
They did not respond to the efforts of their officers, and the enemy's 
pursuit was continued through the town of Stevensburg and beyond 
as far as Barbour's house, where Colonel Wickham and a few of his 
men threw themselves into a field on the roadside, and by the fire 
of their pistols checked further pursuit. 

Very few of Hampton's men continued on the road with the 4th 
regiment. Most of them gave way to the left toward the line of the 
dismounted men of their own regiment. Simultaneous with the 
charge on the road, a squadron of the enemy had attacked the left 
of Butler's line, which was held by Lieutenant Markert ; but this 
attack was readily repulsed, and Markert's line, still intact, offered a 
good rallying point for Hampton's men. 

Major Lipscomb's report narrates the events which now followed. 
He says : — 

" The enemy having gained possession of the road, and passed Major 
through Stevensburg on the road to Culpeper, the right of our line comb's re- 
fell back obliquely to the road leading from Stevensburg to Brandy P°^*'* 
Station. They were rallied and formed by Colonel Butler between 
Stevensburg and Norman's Mill ; but the columns of the enemy 
pouring out of the woods on his left, and threatening to gain his 
rear, compelled him to fall back beyond Norman's Mill, and take a 
new position on the hill near Beckham's house. Colonel Butler 
ordered me to hold my position, and if they pressed on the right to 
move in that direction. The firing on the right gradually got to my 
rear, and I was in the act of moving when Captain Farley, of Gen- 
eral Stuart's staff, brought to me a squadron of the 4th Virginia 
cavalry, with orders to hold my position. I immediately put all the 
riflemen in position. About half an hour afterAvards I received or- 
ders from Colonel Butler to retire with rapidity across Mountain Rebels 
Run. My line was extended, and by the time the riflemen were fallback, 
mounted, the right and left of our line had both fallen back across 



138 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863 Mountain Run. Having sixteen dismounted men with me, I was 

'''^"^- oblioed to retire slowly to protect them. AVlien I reached the open 

field I found a column of the enemy on either flank, from three to 

four hundred yards distant, and also moving towards Mountain Run. 

Our artillery fired two shots, which fell near me, and which, I think, 

caused the enemy to take me for one of their own columns, as they 

did not fire on me until after I had crossed the Run." 

Butler had now secured a good position covering the road to 

Brandy Station, and where he might expect soon to be reinforced 

by the 4th Virginia cavalry. Moreover, he threatened the enemy's 

flank should he advance towards Culpeper Court House. The one 

gun which had followed Colonel Wickham from Brandy Station was 

now available, and Butler proposed to make a stand. But while in 

the road, side by side with Captain Farley, their horses' heads in 

Execution opposite directions, a shell from the enemy struck the ground near 

done by a ^ ricochetted, cut off Butler's right leg above the ankle, passed 
single ■/ ' ' o o . , 

shell. through his horse, through Farley's horse, and carried away Farley s 

leg at the knee. 

The Hon. John T. Rhett addresses his narrative, from which I 
have already largely drawn, to the Hon. M, C. Butler ; and thus 
describes a scene which for knightly courtesy and heroism cannot be 
surpassed. 
An inci- " After we crossed the stream, the enemy placed a gun in posi- 

dent of the ^j^^^ j^^ j^^j^ ^j^^^ ^f ^^g ^^^ While they were so doing you ordered 
us to retire. As we were moving off I was turned in my saddle 
looking backwards. I saw the artilleryman fire the gun, heard an 
exclamation, and saw that the shot had taken effect in the small 
group with you. Captain Chestnut and myself, with a few men, 
hastened to the spot. We first went to you, sending some men to 
aid Captain Farley. When we had placed you in a blanket you said 
to us, — 

" ' I wish that you two gentlemen, as you have placed me in the 
hands of my own men, would go and take charge of Farley.' 

"We went to Captain Farley, told him that you had sent us, took 
him out of a blanket, and placed him in an old flat trough. He was 
very cool, in fact pleasant and smiling, though evidently in great 
A brave pain. Just as we were about to send him away, he called me to him, 
and pointing to the leg that had been cut off by the ball, and which 
was lying near by, he asked me to bring it to him. I did so. He 



man 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 139 

took it, pressed it to his bosom as one would a child, and said, smil- i863, 

June, 
ing' — 

" ' It is an old friend, gentlemen, and I do not wish to part from 
it.' 

" Chestnut and myself shook hands with him, bidding him good- 
by, and expressing the hope that we should soon again see him. 
He said, — 

" 'Good-by, gentlemen, and forever. I know my condition, and A soldier's 
we will not meet again. I thank you for your kindness. It is a 
pleasure to me that I have fallen into the hands of good Carolinians 
at my last moment.' 

" Courteously, even smilingly, he nodded his head to us as the Meets his 
men bore him away. He died within a few hours. I have never 
seen a man whose demeanor, in the face of certain, painful, and 
quick death, was so superb. I have never encountered anything so 
brave from first to last." 

Duffie's division [brigade], now far sejjarated from the rest of 
the Federal cavalry, and recalled by repeated orders from General 
Gregg, did not press the advantage gained, but retired from Ste- 
vensburg in the direction of the railroad, where it effected a junc- 
tion with Gregg's division, and recrossed the Rappahannock at the 
railroad bridge. 

Of the battle of Brandy Station, further on, McClel- 
lan says : — 

The severity of the fighting during this day is shown by the losses Severity of 
sustained in both commands. The total Confederate loss was 523 j ® bgbt- 
officers and enlisted men. As trophies of the fight there remained 
in Stuart's hands three pieces of artillery, six regimental and com- 
pany flags, and 486 prisoners. The total Federal loss was 936 
officers and enlisted men. Colonel J. Kiljiatrick and Colonel P. 
Wyndham, commanding the two brigades of Gregg's division, each 
claim the capture of a Confederate battle-flag and of General Stuart's 
adjutant7general. Stuart did lose his aid, Lieutenant Goldsborough, 
who was captured while attempting to return to Brandy Station 
from Stevensburg ; but the report of the capture of the adjutant is a 
mistake. 

The forces engaged were, on the Federal side, three divisions 
of cavalry, consisting of twenty-four regiments, and two brigades of 



140 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



18G3, 
June. 

The forces 
engaged, 
iiccording 
to Confed- 
erate au- 
thorities. 



Confeder- 
ate com- 
ments on 
the re- 
sults. 



This fight 
made the 
Federal 
cavalry. 



infantry, consisting of ten regiments ; numbering in all, according 
to General Pleasonton, 10,981 effective men. All of these troops, 
except Russell's brigade of infantry, were more or less engaged in 
the battle. On the Confederate side there were five brigades of 
cavalry, containing twenty-one regiments, one of which was absent 
on picket duty, and not within reach of the battlefield. On the 
monthly return for May 31, 1863, these five brigades and the 
horse artillery reported an effective total of 9536. The fighting on 
this day was done almost exclusively by fifteen regiments, — five of 
Hampton's, five of Jones', four of W. H. F. Lee's, and one of Fitz 
Lee's. Three squadrons of sharpshooters from Fitz Lee's brigade 
were engaged, late in the afternoon, on the Confederate left. Rob- 
ertson's brigade was not engaged at any time during the da}-. 
General Robertson moved promptly to the suppoi't of his picket 
at Kelly's Ford, and discovered the movement of Gregg's division 
toward Stevensburg. He reported the facts to General Stuart, who 
was probably four miles distant, and asked for instructions. Mean- 
while Gregg pursued his way unmolested. 

The number of guns employed on either side was probably nearly 
equal, although the advantage of position was generally with the 
Confederates. 

The results claimed by Federal writers as following from this bat- 
tle seem extravagant. The information which General Pleasonton 
obtained was positive, as far as it extended, but after all was meagre. 
He developed the presence of the Confederate cavalry, and of a 
portion of the Confederate infantry at Bi-andy Station.^ Beyond this 
he learned nothing. Certainly General Hooker does not credit him 
with having penetrated General Lee's designs ; for on the 12th 
of June he uses the following language in orders addressed to the 
commanding officer of the 1st corps : " In view of the position of 
affairs on the right, the absence of any specific information as to the 
objects, movements, and purposes of the enemy," etc., etc. Sub- 
sequent correspondence contained in General Hooker's testimony 
before the Committee on the Conduct of the War shows that uncer- 
tainty concerning General Lee's intentions existed both at Washing- 
ton and at General Hooker's headquarters, as late as the 21st of 
June. One result of incalculable importance certainly did follow 
this battle, — it made the Federal cavalry. Up to that time con- 
1 But see next page. 




MAJOR AMOS L. HOPKINS 



SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1863. 141 

fessedly inferior to the Southern horsemen, they gained on this day iggs, 
that confidence in themselves and in their commanders which en- "J'^i^- 
abled them to contest so fiercely the subsequent battlefields of June, 
July, and October. . . . 

The assertion that Confederate infantry was seen debarking from 
the cars in the vicinity of Brandy Station has no better foundation. 
General EwelFs report and the rejiorts of General Rodes and his 
subordinate commanders show that Ewell's corps marched to Stu- 
art's assistance from a point on the Rlxeyville road four miles north 
of Culpeper Court House, by way of Botts' farm, to Brandy Sta- 
tion ; and that Rodes' division, which was in advance, did not reach 
Barbour's house until Pleasonton and Buford were in the act of re- 
tiring. 

The battle of Brandy Station was, in fact, a recon- it was a 

« 1-111 IT? ■• recoimois 

noissance ni torce, which developed Lee s preparations sance in 
to invade Maryland. McClellan claims that only fifteen 
regiments were engaged on Stuart's side. He forgets 
Munford's brigade, who came up late, and also assumes 
that all of Pleasonton's regiments were used in the 
battle, which was not the case. Of the 2d division, 
which went to Stevensburg, only the skirmish line was 
engaged, and a very few shots from the battery. He 
denies that Confederate infantry was seen, but owns it 
was sent for, and came up, tao. 

Williams's infantry brigade was engaged only very 
slightly. 

McClellan goes into great detail in his account. It is 
impossible to reconcile the different accounts he quotes, 
and much of the events of June 9 will always remain 
doubtful. 

The Brandy Station fight was severe for a part of Effect of 
the troops engaged, and the moral can be quoted from * **" ^ *' 
McClellan: "It made the Federal cavalry." 

At Stevensburg the two Confederate regiments, of 



142 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, course, saw the brigade coming to follow up the skir- 
mishers, but they did not wait for them to get to close 
Unusual quarters. They ran from the skirmishers' charge, and 
of discre- the affair was soon over. Nothing could have been im- 
vaior. proved in our attack, but it was a small affair. The 
enemy showed an unusual admixture of discretion with 
their valor on this occasion. 



CHAPTER VII. 

BATTLE OF ALDIE, JUNE 17, AND GETTYSBURG CAM- 
PAIGN, TO AUGUST 1, 1863. 

After crossing the river June 9, General Pleasonton iscr,, 
reorganized his eavahy, near Warrenton, as follows : — 

Cavalry Corps : Brigadier-General Alfred Pleasonton. Organiza- 

1st Division : Brigadier-General John Buford. Pleason- 

1st Brigade : Colonel William Gamble. *^'^ *^^^- 

8th Illinois, 8th New York, 12th Illinois, 3d Indiana. 
2d Brigade : Colonel T. C Devin. 

6th New York, 9th New York, 17th Pennsylvania, 3d 
West Virginia. 
2d Division : Brigadier-General D. McM. Gregg. 

1st Brigade : Brigadier-General Judson Kilpatrick. 

1st Massachusetts, 2d New York, 4th New York, 6th 
Ohio. 
2d Brigade : Colonel J. I. Gregg. 
1st Maine, 4th Pennsylvania. 

Reserve Brigade : Major S. H. Starr. 

6th Pennsylvania, 1st, 2d, 5th, 6th United States. 

On the 16th the corps marched up the railroad to 
Manassas, ahead of the infantry. 

On June 17 the regiment marched with the cavalry- 
corps from the Orange and Alexandria Railroad across 
the Bull Run battlefields, and struck the Little River 
turnpilte about half past two in the afternoon, in the 
neighborhood of a few houses, which composed the vil- 



144 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
June. 



Squadron 
ordered to 
develop 
enemy's 
force. 



Ordered 
not to go 
beyond a 
certain 
point. 



Failure to 

observe 

orders. 



lage of Aldieo Kilpatrick's brigade was in advance and 
nearest the town, and a halt was made. 

After waterins: its horses in the stream near the 
town, the regiment crossed it, and was drawn up in col- 
umn of squadrons, Avhen some firing took place from 
behind a stone wall by the village. General Kilpat- 
rick with his staff rode up, and ordered Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Curtis to send some men up to find out what force 
of the enemy was there. Captain Sargent's squadron 
(companies H and F) Avas the one designated for this 
duty, and after sending forward the first platoon, under 
Lieutenant Fillebrown, in skirmishing order against the 
enemy. Captain Sargent himself followed with the rest 
of the squadron. 

Colonel Curtis's instructions to Captain Sargent, in 
accordance with those received from General Kilpat- 
rick himself, were to drive the enemy off the hill, 
but not to go beyond a house which he pointed out. 
Lieutenant FillebroAvn's platoon advanced under fire, 
rapidly obliquing to the left towards the road, and 
drove away what appeared to be a force of about thirty 
men. As these men retired, their strength became 
greater, for they were the picket of the 2d Virginia cav- 
alry, which had been nearly all day posted at Aldie, to 
watch the country to the eastward, and they were rein- 
forced by their reserve. Captain Sargent's squadron 
came up with Lieutenant Fillebrown's platoon, and the 
whole squadron at once charged the enemy, driving 
them before them. In the heat of the charge. Captain 
Sargent forgot to stop at the house indicated, and pur- 
sued the enemy beyond. Colonel Curtis, at the head 
of the rest of the regiment, seeing this, ordered Major 
Higginson to go up and stop him. Major Chamberlain, 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 145 

just returned from sick leave, but not reported for duty, iskj, 
was present with the regiment, and went with Major 
Higginson, and the two came up to the head of the impm- 
squadron while they were on the charge ; the blood of pursuing- 
all being up, and the men at a sharp gallop, they were 
all carried forward, and the halt was not made at once, 
but was finally effected. They had driven the one squa- 
dron of the enemy back upon its reserves, and when 
our men halted and went very slowly back to rally the 
squadron, the enemy in turn advanced, and charged Enemy 
down upon the retiring party. This attack was proba- turn, 
bly made by the 5th Virginia cavalry, Colonel Rosser, 
just coming on the field. In the confusion of the 
charge, as the enemy dispersed in scattered parties, our 
men also scattered in pursuit ; and on the retreat, there 
were together in the road Major Higginson, Captain 
Sargent, Lieutenant Fillebrown, Sergeant Martin, and 
one private. These retired slowly, firing as they went, 
and the enemy, in superior numbers, with officers at the 
head, charged upon them, and a fight at close quarters 
took place in the road. Major Higginson's horse was 
so badly wounded that he could carry him no further, 
and this little party of the 1st Massachusetts stayed to 
protect Major Higginson and repel the enemy, and 
were at once engaged in a hand-to-hand encounter. 
Almost immediately all five of them were wounded : a disas- 
Major Higginson in three places, by a pistol shot and 
sabre wounds; Captain Sargent was apparently dead, 
lying upon his side, with blood streaming from his 
mouth, quite unconscious; Lieutenant Fillebrown was 
shot through the body, as was also the private, and Ser- 
geant Martin was cut over the top of the head with a 
sabre. The rest of the squadron, meanwliile, was ral- 



trous out- 
come. 



146 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
June. 



Part of 
squadron 
cut off 
from regi- 
ment. 



Eludes 
capture. 



Wounded 
men 
brought 
off. 



Wounds 
not mortal 



lying, and under the charge o£ Lieutenant Parsons, the 
only remaining officer, again charged and dispersed the 
enemy ; but in doing so, they were cut off from the 
main body of the regiment. When Lieutenant Parsons 
looked around to effect his retreat after the charofe, he 
found the enemy in his rear and also in his front. The 
enemy in his front proved to be the two regiments, the 
rest of the 2d and tlie 3d Virginia cavalry, who had 
been getting forage on the Snickersville pike, some two 
or three miles away. Hearing firing, they came back 
at a rapid gait. Between these two forces. Lieutenant 
Parsons had no alternative but to break off to the ria'ht 
into the woods, and by making a long detour he suc- 
ceeded in getting his men off, and came in by the river, 
bringing two prisoners with him. Towards the very 
end of the battle he was brought up by Colonel Curtis, 
to Avhom he reported, to the house, which was a promi- 
nent feature in the fight, and where, dismounted, the 
men used the carbine effectively. Lieutenant Fille- 
brown and Sergeant Martin, both badly wounded, made 
their way on foot, the sergeant leading the two horses 
through the woods, and came out at very nearly the 
same place that Lieutenant Parsons brought his men ; 
the lieutenant was placed in a house in Aldie, where 
were collected a great many wounded men, as well as 
Major Higginson, wdio had recovered consciousness, and 
managed, with help, to get back. Captain Sargent was 
picked up in the road and taken into a house (that of 
Mr. Furr), where he was kindly cared for, and subse- 
quently was taken by an ambulance with the rest of the 
wounded. His w^ound at first seemed to be mortal, but 
proved comparatively slight, the bullet having gone 
round his body, and in a few weeks he was w^ell again. 




/ViAJOR GEORGE H. TEAGUE 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 147 

The Confederate cavalry thus became aware of the i8G3, 
situation before it was clear to General Kilpatrick that 
he was engaged with so large a force, and it was of the Enemy 
greatest advantage to Colonel Munford and his men, as situation. 
it enabled them to anticipate and overpower the infe- 
rior numbers at first encountered before reinforcements 
could arrive. Kilpatrick's brigade was not concen- Kiipat- 

rick s I116II 

trated. A part of the 1st Maine was absent, and only not concen- 

. . trated. 

came late on the field; and a long time intervened be- 
fore he could unite his reo^unents on the field. But 
meanwhile, the four squadrons of the 1st Massachusetts ist Massa- 

-. . T 1 • chiisetts 

were engaged at the greatest disadvantage against very outnum- 
superior forces, which came up to the attack from dif- 
ferent points at the same time. The picketing force 
was already in position from the beginning. The 5th 
Virginia came at once to their help from the Middle- 
burg road, and was followed closely by the 4th Virginia 
and the battery, while the 2d and 3d Virginia, which 
had previously gone up the Snickersville road for for- 
age, came back by that road. The 1st Virginia was 
also present on the Middleburg road. McClellan claims 
that it was not engaged. It was there, and not far 
away was another brigade, that of W. H. F. Lee. 

Captain Sargent's squadron, as we have seen, was cut 
off from Aldie by the 5th Virginia. The squadron 
again faced about and charged a squadron of this force, Unsuccess- 
and captured two men. But not being able to open its ontheTn-^ 
way back, it went off the road to its right, seeing the 
2d and 3d Virginia rapidly coming down the Snickers- 
ville road in its front to take part in the battle. 

Captain Tewksbury, ordered up to support Captain 
Sargent's squadron, found himself at once in front of 
a ^rong party of the enemy (the 4th and 5th Virginia), 



emy. 



148 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
]8Gr,, which he prepared to char<re. He was driven back by 

.lime. . '^ '' 

superior numbers out of the road into a field partly 
wooded at the left (south) of the road, and his squa- 
dron dispersed. Captain Adams's squadron (companies 
C and D) just then arrived, and was drawn up in line 
mounted, in this field, and Colonel Curtis was in com- 
mand. A charge by the enemy was here attempted, 
but the men did not come to the scratch, seeing their 
An officer foc stood liis grouud. The officer in command came 

charges i i i i i • 

alone. oravcly on, but was not aware that his men were not 
behind him until he was too near to get away, and was 
knocked off his horse. 

The fighting was severe, indeed desperate at times. 
The 4th New York was driven in confusion from the 
field, and its disorder gave the enemy a great advantage 
Cesnoia ^^ tlic time, wliicli threatened disaster. Colonel di Ces- 
coiorrcap- nola, wliosc rcgimeut had incurred the displeasure of 
General Kilpatrick for some misdemeanor, a day or two 
before, and had had its colors taken away, at Aldie 
begged his colors back, and placing himself at the head, 
ordered the charge, but his men did not follow him, 
and he, with the colors, was captured. A few days 
later, at Upperville, the 4th New York fought wdth 
great gallantry, and retrieved its reputation. The 6th 
Ohio captured one squadron of the 5tli Virginia in a 
gallant charge, m which Major Stanhope was mortally 
wounded. 

Having lost the use of Captain Sargent's squadron, 
and the squadrons of Captains Adams and Tewksbury 
being thrown into disorder by sudden contact with 
vastly superior numbers, Colonel Curtis ordered up 
Lieutenant Davis's squadron at a trot. This squadron 
coming suddenly up the hill saw in the road ahead a 



tured. 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 149 

squadron of the enemy, which it at once started to j^es, 
charge, being ordered to do so by the adjutant. 

The road was narrow and very uneven, so much so, 
indeed, that the men moved with difficulty. A little 
before, two squadrons of sharpshooters, dismounted, 
had been placed by the enemy alongside the road on our 
right, behind the stone walls, at a place where the road 
was lower than the oround at the side. This ambus- a squa- 

~ dron am- 

cade of sharpshooters had to be passed by Lieutenant J^^!'^''^^^** 
Dii vis's squadron in charging the enemy in the road, shooters. 
All unconscious of the danger, the squadron rushed on 
its fate ; and when exactly opposite, and only a few feet 
away, these sharpshooters rose and fired on the hapless 
riders below them, crowded in the narrow and rough 
road. In a moment the road was full of dead and dy- 
ing horses and men, piled up in an inextricable mass. 
Those whose horses fell were pinned down and unable 
to rise. All who were not killed were captured, except 
a very few of those in the rear of the squadron. Not 
a single officer escaped. Lieutenant Hugh Carey was 
mortally, and Lieutenant Davis slightly wounded ; both 
these and Lieutenants Duchesney and Higginson were 
captured, and Avith them twenty-five men, many of 
whom were wounded. The enemy fired upon them 
while helpless in the road, and some were killed even 
after surrendering, and while in the enemy's hands. 
But the Confederate officers stopped this, and saved 
the lives of several who would otherwise have been 
killed. 

At this moment the enemy's force developed rapidly Oiirmen 

'' X i «- di-iven and 

and came up in front and on both flanks. An effort somecap- 

^ tured, 

was made to dismount our men in the piece of woods 
and fight on foot, as the Confederates were vastly supe- 



150 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, rior, and had dismounted a large party who fought 
with carbines from behind the stone walls in front and 
on the right. A strong battalion, mounted, came in on 
the left and rear> driving our men in confusion through 
the woods. Thirty of Captain Adams's squadron who 
were preparing to fight on foot were here captured, as 
they could not reach their horses in time to get away. 
An attempt was made to form a new line a little way in 
the rear. As soon as our other regiments came on the 
field, the 1st Maine and 2d New York made gallant 
and successful charges. The enemy returned them, and 
each side was successively reinforced. In all, on the 

The forces • ^ ^ ^ n • -i 

engaged. Federal Side, there were engaged five regiments : ist 
Massachusetts, 1st Maine, 2d New York, 4:th New York, 
and 6th Ohio, and a battery (Randol's) ; and on the 
Confederate side five : the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th Vir- 
ginia, and a battery (Breathed's). 

The battle The battle itself was a surprise to both sides. For a 
whole week the cavalry of the two armies had not been 
in contact. Lee had sent his to the east to cover the 
movement of the main body of his army towards Mary- 
land. Hooker, aware of this, was marching his army 
north, keeping between Lee's army and Washington, 
and ordered his cavalry ahead and along the Bull Run 
mountains on the east side, to give him warning of any 

A chance movement of the enemy in that direction. Apparently, 

collision. "^ 

after losing the touch, each general became uneasy ; 

and, with the desire to learn the whereabouts of his 

adversary, the advance of the two corps of cavalry 

Where- l^rouffht them together at Aldie. Stuart's headquarters 

a bouts oi o ~ 

PieLmr'^ were then at Rectortown, to the westward, where he was 

**'"• with the main body of his cavalry, guarding the passes 

throuQ-h which Lee was crossing into the Shenandoah 



a surprise. 




JAMES HOLLAND 
Surgeon Major 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 151 

Valley. Pleasonton was already northwest of Washing- ises, 
ton, and in a position from which he could easily cross 
the Potomac or advance into Loudoun valley, as he did 
the day after Aldie, driving Stuart's men in disorder 
into the passes of the Blue Ridge in the ensuing bat- 
tles. 

The battle of Aldie was a success for our arms. The ^^^^^^, 

success lor 

battlefield was held, and the road gained leading into °'''" ''''"'^• 
Loudoun. The field was dearly won. Being the at- 
tacking party, the Federal loss was greater than the en- 
emy's. To the 1st Massachusetts it was a bloody day, Bloody 

■1,.,. J J ^ flay f or 

but not an niglorious one. Many were killed and many jje ist 
were captured. In the up-hill contest the men showed ««"s- 
how they could meet death without flinchino-. Beino- 
engaged by squadrons, under no general command, over- 
powered by numbers from the very beginning, it was 
an awful strain, and it was well met by all. There were 
some bright episodes. One was the capture of the col- Capture of 

P ,;-.,, 7-. . , ^ colors oi 

ors ot the 5th Vu-gnna cavalry by Corporal Ordway of ''-J^J"" 
company E. It was not in a hand-to-hand conflict, but 
the result of a charge, in which the color-bearer was 
killed and the colors were taken from his dead body. 
They were for years at the State House at Boston. 

Just as the enemy drove Captain Adams's and Cap- 
tain Tewksbury's squadrons from the field, guidon- 
bearer Sherman of company G took, also, the guidon of 
company E, as the color-bearer was wounded. In the 
retreat he was followed by about thirty-five men of the 
3d Virginia, including several officers. They wanted 
the guidons. Mounted on a strange horse, his own weT' 
having been disabled, the sergeant ran for his Hfe and cXrs.^' 
his colors, followed by all the party. Not knowing 
where the way led, he dashed through the woods, and 



152 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, was fired at all the way. The horse proved a good 
^^' one, and he finally got away, saving the colors and cap- 
turing the officer in pursuit, whose horse fell and broke 
his neck in jumping a fence. On bringing his pris- 
oner out of the woods he met the whole party that 
had been pursuing him. They had been captured by 
the 2d New York. 
A fight of Perhaps more veterans followed the colors into battle 
ve eranb. ^^ ^\^^q than at any time during the war. The men 
could hardly be called veterans before the 1863 cam- 
paign opened, and afterwards the proportion of new 
men and recruits was always greater. And in the 1864 
campaign a whole battahon of new men lessened the 
efficiency of the regiment. 
Number ^^ Aldic the rcg-iment had four squadrons, — eight 

engaged- <-' * 

companies, — and altogether a little more than three 
hundred men, nearly all of whom were well-trained and 
efficient. 

The Confederates retreated finally towards Upper- 
ville, leaving the battlefield to Kilpatrick. That even- 
ing a party buried all the dead of the regiment, twenty- 
three in number. As we have said, Captain Sargent's 
A remark- wouud provcd uot to be mortal. Lieutenant Fille- 
tJ^uiui. brown's wound was remarkable, the bullet passing 
through the bowels and out behind, without wounding 
the intestines, and although he soon recovered, he was 
never after fit for active service. Major Higginson still 
bears on his right cheek as handsome a sabre wound 
as any brave soldier ever had. Sergeant Hart of com- 
pany B, a most gallant soldier, received seven wounds, 
from the effects of which he died some days after at 
Alexandria. 

In this battle the reo^iment lost : — 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 153 

Officers. Men. Total. i863. 

Killed (Lieutenant Hugh Carey). ^ 1 23 24 •^'^"®- 

Wounded (Major H. L. Higginson, 

Captains L. M. Sargent, C. G. 

Davis, Lieutenant G. M. Fille- 

brown). 4 38 42 

Prisoners (Lieutenants C. G. Davis, 

J. J. Higginson, L. N. Duches- 

ney). 3 85 88 



Total 8 146 154 

The battle of Aldie has been difficult to understand 
m all its details, and particularly the part borne by the 
1st Massachusetts. This is largely due to the fact that 
two of the four squadrons acted independently. 

The 1st Maine, the 2d New York, and the 6th Ohio Eeinforee- 
put a different face on the battle, and the enemy was tunied the 
gradually, and after desperate fighting, pushed back to- ^^^ ^' 
wards Middleburg. The account of this battle, given 
by McClellan in his book, makes what occui-red much 
clearer. Where he refers to " the great number of 
Yankees killed," he unquestionably alludes to the sur- 
prise of Lieutenant Davis's squadron. His account is 
as follows : — 

After the battle of the 9th of June, Longstreet remained at Cul- Move- 

peper Court House, while Ewell pushed forward into the valley and troops " 

conducted those movements which resulted in the capture of Mil- .^^"ch 

^ broiig-ht on 

roy's command at Winchester. On the 15th of June Longstreet the colli- 

moved from Culpeper to occupy Ashby's and Snicker's gaps, in the 

Blue Ridge, and Stuart placed three of his brigades, Fitz Lee's, W. 

H. F. Lee's, and Robertson's, in advance, and on the right of his 

column. Jones's brigade and Hampton's were left to guard the line 

of the Rappahannock until A. P. Hill's corps had passed northward. 

The movements of the cavalry did not bring Stuart in collision 

with the enemy until the evening of the 17th, when a severe engage- 

1 Lieutenant Carey was not mustered in as lieutenant when he was 

killed, but had been promoted and had acted as lieutenant for some time. 



154 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

■1863 ment took place at Aldie. Fitz Lee's brigade, under Colonel Thomas 
June. rp J^J^„Jfol.J ["igt^ 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th Virginia regiments], had been 
sent forward to occupy the gap in the Bull Run Mountain at Aldie ; 
while Colonel J. R. Chambliss, with W. H. F. Lee's brigade [6th, 9th, 
and 15th Virginia regiments], reconnoitred toward Thoroughfare 
Gap. Robertson was held near Rectortown, so as to move to the as- 
sistance of either as occasion might demand. 

Early on the morning of the 17th, Colonel Munford, with the 2d 
and 3d Virginia cavalry, moved from Upperville through Middle- 
burg, and having established his picket posts east of Aldie, crossed 
over to the Snicker's Gap road, and proceeded with these two regi- 
ments to prociu'e corn at the house of Mr. Franklin Carter, about a 
mile distant. He expected to encamp that night in the vicinity of 
Aldie. Colonel Williams C. Wickham, with the 1st, 4th, and 5th 
Virginia cavalry, the remaining regiments of the brigade, had moved 
from Piedmont through Middleburg and was about to place his men 
Colonel in camp at Dover Mills, near Aldie. The 5th regiment. Colonel 
counters"" Thomas L. Rosser, which arrived some little time after the 1st and 
our troops. 4tii^ ^yj^g directed by Colonel Wickham to pass beyond Dover Mills, 
and select a camp nearer Aldie. In so doing Colonel Rosser en- 
countered the enemy, who was rapidly driving back the pickets es- 
tablished by Colonel Munford. 

The force of the enemy making this attack was the 2d cavalry 
division, commanded by General D. M. Gregg, and accompanied by 
Major-General Pleasonton. General Kilpatrick's brigade, consist- 
ing of the 2d New York, 1st Massachusetts, 6th Ohio, and 4th New 
York regiments, supported by the 1st Maine cavalry, from Colonel 
J. I. Gregg's brigade, and by RandoFs battery, appears to have done 
all the fighting. The two other brigades of General Gregg's division 
were closed up within supporting distance. 
Federal The arrival of Rosser's regiment was most opportune. By an im- 

checked mediate sabre charge he drove back the enemy's advance ui)on their 
by sabre niain body in the town of Aldie. Having relieved the pressure on 
the pickets, Rosser stationed his sharpshooters, under Captain R. B. 
Boston, on the right of the KSnickersville road, where a number of 
haystacks afforded some protection, and held the remainder of his 
small regiment ready for their support. Colonel Munford in the 
mean time arrived in person, and stationed Lieutenant William Wal- 
ton, of the 2d Virginia cavalry, with the reserve picket, fifteen men, 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 155 

behind a stone wall on the left of the Snickersvllle road, with orders iges 
to hold his position against any odds until the 2d and 3d regiments J^^^e. 
could come to his assistance. In the mean time, and while Colonel 
Wickham was stationing the 1st and 4th regiments and Breathed's 
battery to dispute any advance on the Middleburg road, Rosser, sin- 
gle-handed, had met and repulsed two charges which were made 
upon Captain Boston's squadron; and believing that he could be 
maintained there with advantage, had ordered Boston to hold his 
position at all hazards. The result proved that this disposition was 
unfortunate ; for during the subsequent heavy fighting Boston was 
so far advanced as to be beyond the reach of support, and he and 
his squadron were captured. 

During all this time there was no force on the loft of the Snick- Federal 
ersvdle road except the picket posted by Munford behind the stone ''^^f ^^ 
wall. Munford therefore moved Rosser's regiment and the 4th ^ 
Virginia cavalry, with one gun from Breathed's battery, so as to 
command this road, leaving Colonel Wickham with the rest of the 
guns and the 1st Virginia cavalry on the Middleburg road. In the 
mean time the enemy pressed heavily on Lieutenant Walton. He 
had repulsed two mounted charges, but being outflanlced by dis- 
mounted men, had been withdrawn about fifty yards behind a house 
and orchard, in which position he commanded the only opening 
through which the enemy could attack. Here three distinct charges 
were met and repulsed in counter-charges by the 5th Virginia cav- 
alry, by the 3d squadron of the 4th regiment, led by Lieutenant A. 
D. Payne, and by the 2d and 5th squadrons of the same reo-iment 
led by Captain W. B. Newton. These were the only squadrons of 
this regnnent present at this battle, the 1st and 4th squadrons hav- 
ing been detailed early in the day to accompany General Stuart. In 
each of these charges the enemy had suffered severely at the hands 
of Lieutenant Walton's sharpshooters, who poured volleys into their Murderous 
Hank as they passed him in advancing and in retiring. As Walton's f^l °* 
party was, however, evidently small, the enemy determined to dis- '^^^t'^^s. 
lodge him, and was preparing a considerable force for another at- 
tack, when the 2d and 3d Virginia cavalry reached the field. Two 
squadrons of sharpshooters were at once dismounted and placed on 
the left of the road : the squadron from the 2d regiment under Cap- 
tarns Breckinridge and Graves, that from the 3d regiment under 
Captain George D. White. Their line was advanced to the stone 



156 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, wall from which Lieutenant Walton had heen withdrawn. Colonel 
^^^- Munford now felt that his position was secure against an attack of 
cavalry, and there was nothing he more desired than that the enemy 
should wear himself out against it. His flanks were secured by the 
Little River and its tributaries. The enemy must necessarily attack 
Position of his front. The road by which it was ap^jroached was worn, as it 
shooters, ascended the hill, into deep gullies, which compelled an attack in 
column of fours and prevented the enemy from spreading out his 
front. Munford's strong party of sharpshooters commanded the 
road. They were stationed in an enclosed field, with a stone wall 
in their front, a post and rail fence on their right, and another fence 
on their left. The fences to the rear were thrown down so as 
to give the cavalry access to the field. Munford felt that unless 
his cavalry failed in their duty, his dismounted men were perfectly 
secure. 
Hand-to- The 2d Virginia cavalry, led by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Watts, 

fight. ■'low charged the advancing enemy, who had penetrated beyond the 

position of the sharpshooters. The heads of the columns met in the 
narrow road in a hand-to-hand sabre fight. While this was in pro- 
gress, Captain Jesse Irving threw down the fence on the right of the 
road, and bringing his squadron to the front, opened fire on the ene- 
my's left flank. Cajjtain W. W. Tebbs executed a similar move- 
ment on the left of the road, while the sharpshooters were all the 
time firing into the enemy's rear. Their attack was completely 
broken, and their leading squadron almost destroyed. Another sup- 
port moved up during the confusion, but was met and repulsed by 
Colonel Rosser. Li this fight Lieutenant-Colonel Watts was wounded 
and permanently disabled. The command of the 2d regiment de- 
volved on Major Cary Breckinridge, who moved the regiment off to 
the right to reform, carrying Avith him Colonel Louis P. Di Cesnola 
and the colors of his regiment, the 4th New York cavalry, 
(ith Ohio During all this time Captain Boston, of the 5th Virginia cavalry, 

Captain had been holding the haystacks, far in advance of his friends, where 
men " Colonel Rosser had placed him with such stringent orders. He was 
beyond the reach even of a recall, but had been doing his utmost to 
aid in the fight. He was now charged by the 6th Ohio cavalry, un- 
der Lieutenant-Colonel William Stedman ; and after losing three of 
his oflficers, including his junior captain, and a third of his men 
killed and wounded, he surrendered to the odds brought against him. 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 157 

The Federal cavalry Avere determined to carry the position if it i863, 
•were possible, and another charge was speedily organized. This 
was met by the 3d Virginia cavalry, led by Colonel T. H. Owen, The most 
who took the road, supported on his right by the 2d regiment and charge o£ 
on his left by the 5th. The sabre was the weapon used, and the * ® ^^^' 
enemy was again driven back. Colonel Munford pronounces this to 
be the most spirited charge of the day. Colonel Owen, however, 
pressed his success too far. He drove the enemy almost to the vil- 
lage of Aldie, where he was charged by a fresh regiment and driven 
back, losing many of the prisoners he had taken and some of his 
own men. Major Henry Carrington, of the 3d regiment, was cap- 
tured at this point.^ Colonel Munford says in his report : — 

" Captain Newton, having rallied his small command and a good A slaugh- 
many men from other commands, was again ready to relieve Colonel 
Owen as he fell back, and by a timely charge repelled another effort 
to flank him. As the enemy came up again, the sharpshooters opened 
upon him with terrible effect from the stone wall, which they had 
regained, and checked him completely. I do not hesitate to say that 
I have never seen as many Yankees killed in the same space of 
ground in any fight I have ever seen, or on any battlefield in Vir- 
ginia that I have been over. We held our ground until ordered by 
the major-general commanding to retire, and the Yankees had been 
so severely punished that they did not follow. The sharpshooters 
of the 5th were mostly captured, this regiment suffering more than 
any other." 

Colonel Munford reports that he captured 138 prisoners. His own 
total loss was 119, of which the 5th Virginia cavalry lost 58, mostly 
from Captain Boston's squadron. 

There is a significant absence of reports of this battle on the Fed- Federal 

reports 
eral side. General Kilpatrick made no report of it. General D. M. quoted. 

Gregg devotes one paragraph to it, in which, in general terms, he 

claims a victory over " the enemy, strongly posted, and in superior 

force to Kilpatrick's brigade." Lieutenant-Colonel William Stedman, 

commanding the 6th Ohio cavalry, makes a particular report of the 

capture of Captain Boston's squadron, in which charge he lost " three 

men killed and eleven wounded, including Major Stanhope, who has 

since died of his wounds." Colonel Stedman adds : " The enemy 

1 This is undoubtedly the party captured by the 2d New York. See 
page 152. 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
June. 



« Adjutant- 
general's 
report of 
losses. 



Confeder- 
ate esti- 
mate of 
numbers 
engaged. 



opened on us from the hill beyond with grape and canister ; but we 
held the position until dark, when we were ordered to retire." Colo- 
nel C. S. Douty, of the 1st Maine cavalry, was killed on the field. 
He was succeeded by Colonel C. H. Smith, who, on the 31st of Au- 
gust, reports that " A portion of the regiment, led by Colonel Douty, 
charged, turned the enemy, and drove him from the hill and his 
stronghold among the stone walls. The regiment gained the posi- 
tion, secured our wounded, collected the trophies of the field, and 
were burying the dead when relieved just before dark. The casu- 
alties were as follows : killed, six ; wounded, nineteen ; missing, 
five." No other statement of the Federal losses is to be found in 
the reports ; but the records of the adjutant-general's office show 
that the 1st Maine cavalry and Kilpatrick's brigade (exclusive of 
the 1st Rhode Island cavalry, . . .) lost 50 killed, 131 wounded, 
and 124 missing, — a total of 305. This excessive loss will per- 
hajjs account for the silence of the Federal officers. It certainly 
testifies to the gallantry of the regiments which advanced so often 
against such a strong position held by so determined a foe. 

The disparity of numbers was in favor of the Federal cavalry, on 
whose part five regiments were actively engaged. Only four regi- 
ments were engaged on the Confederate side ; and of these the 3d 
and 5th regiments were small. Two squadrons wei-e absent from 
the 4th regiment, and one from the 2d. The 1st Virginia cavalry 
held the Middleburg road, but took no other part in the battle. The 
fighting was done by probably less than a thousand men on the Con- 
federate side. Munford retired from the field about dark, by the 
Snickersville road, not because of any pressure that was brought to 
bear on him by General Gregg, but in obedience to the orders of 
General Stuart, and in consequence of events which had occurred at 
Middleburg. He brought off from the field all of his dead, and all 
of his wounded who could be moved. He established his pickets 
about a mile from the battlefield, and these were not molested until 
the followinof morninsr. 



Heavy loss It was tliG fortune of war more than anything else 

sachuset'ts that caused this severe loss to the 1st Massachusetts. 

tune of It happened to be the first regiment in the brigade to 

meet the enemy, which was advancing towards our cav- 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 159 

airy in full force, each in utter ignorance of the prox- i863, 
imity of the other ; the 1st Massachusetts cavalry struck 
the enemy in force, and became engaged by detach- 
ments, in all cases against a superior force of Confed- 
erate cavalry, who were protected by stone walls, banks, 
and lines of trees, while our regiment fought in the 
open, without any protection whatever. The regiment 
fought in detail, and not as a body, and at first with- 
out support of the other regiments of the brigade. 

The following anecdote of a pair of shoes and the 
fataHty attending the wearer, at the battle of Aldie, is 
related by Major Teague : — 

^' While our troops were camped along the bank of 
the Rappahannock, an order was issued for all civihans 
and sutlers to leave the army. We knew by that order 
that some important movement was to be made. Within 
a week the whole force was moving toward Gettysburg. 
The heat and the dust that day, June 16, 1863, were 
something fearful to experience, and I recall getting a 
drink out of the muddy water of the road over which 
we were passing, so intense was my thirst. It was about 
four o'clock in the afternoon, while passing a sutler's 
wagon that was obstructing the road, the owner of 
which, not having obeyed the order of the previous 
week, was now destined to pay the penalty, that a pro- 
vost marshal Avho was passing called out, ' What regi- 
ment is that ? ' and upon our answering, said, ^ Well, A sutler's 
1st Massachusetts cavalry, go through that sutler ! ' No disobedi- 

£ ^ ' 1 1 "1 1 nc ence of 

lurther urging was needed ; in less than fifteen minutes orders. 
the contents of that wagon were distributed the whole 
length of the regiment, — pins, needles, thread, combs, 
brushes, shoes, tobacco, pipes, etc. One fellow captured a fateful 
a pair of white canvas shoes. When we halted that Ihoet 



160 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

i8fi3 nio-lit on the march, which was not until near midnio^ht, 

he took out his pen and ink and wrote the initials of 

R. V. c. his name, 'R. V. C on the front of each shoe, and 

marks bis 

shoes. put them on to wear. 

" The latter part of the next afternoon, while in a 

severe engagement at Aldie, he was instantly killed, 

and for a few minutes wo had to fall back, but only for 

a short tune ; yet it was sufficient for one of the rebels 

to get sight of the shoes and appropriate them to his 

own use. He did not long enjoy Avearing them, for on 

retaking our lost ground we took the same R. V. C. 

shoes on the feet of a dead rebel. 

Three men " The ucxt day wc had all we could do to take care 

the R. V. of our dead and wounded ; the day following we began 

thirty-six the fio'htinof brio'ht and early, and made the Johnnies 

lioiiis. & o o . 

flee across that valley from Aldie to Snicker's Gap, 
which was one of their strongholds in that range of 
mountains. They seemed not anxious to engage us, but 
rather to protect themselves as they ran, yet one of the 
first of our men to be killed that day was one wearing 
the white canvas shoes marked R. V. C. After that 
no one seemed to have a hankering for them, as he Avas 
the third man to be killed in them within thirty-six 
hours." 
Regiment After this battle tlie regiment, terribly depleted, had 
twt'squa-*' to be reorganized into two squadrons, one consisting 
of five companies, the other of three. It was not 
again severely engaged until after the battle of Get- 
tysburg. Gregg's division, to which it belonged, was 
engaged in the battle of Gettysburg on the second day, 
on the right ; but the regiment, although deployed in 
hne of battle, was detailed to bring up the 6th army 
corps and reached the field with them the next morning. 




SURGEON MAJOR SAMUEL W. ABBOTT 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 161 

This fio-ht on the rig^ht was severe and brilliant, and de- i863, 
feated Stuart s attempt to pass around our right nank. 

On the third day at Gettysburg, the regiment was de- ^"jfg^J 
taehed to act as provost guard at army headquarters, *^"*y- 
and deployed a great part of the day in rear of the line 
of battle, to stop straggling and take charge of cap- 
tured prisoners. 

Some of the cavalry, during Lee's retreat, became 
engaged with the enemy's infantry and cavalry and 
trains, and very sharp fighting was the consequence, as 
also at times in the week preceding the battle, when 
driving Stuart up through Maryland, and preventing 
his junction with the main body of Lee's army. For 
the regiment it was a time of very severe marching 
rather than fiohting-. 

It will be remembered that General Lee and many separation 
other Confederate critics have attributed his defeat to an^lnju^y 
the want of his cavalry, who for ten days or more were ter. ^ 
separated from him by the interposition of our army 
and our cavalry^ Parts of our cavalry were constantly 
engaged with Stuart and kept him from rejoining Lee. 
Stuart marched round the rear of Pleasonton, crossed 
the Potomac between him and Washington, and was 
pressed towards the east, so that he could not immedi- 
ately return. He had to march to Carlisle before he 
could even take the direction he wished, and finally re- 
joined Lee July 2, on his left, near Gettysburg, when 
he at once attacked Gregg, and was promptly defeated. 
After Gettysburg, General Lee retreated down the east- 
ern side of the Blue Ridge, to the vicinity of Hagers- 
town, our army marching parallel to him, Avith the Custer 

. 1 ^~ 1/^ ?!••• nearly cap- 

mountams between, (jeneral Custer s division, cross- tures Lee's 

flirtillGrv 

ing the mountains, followed his rear, and making an trains. 



162 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
June. 



To Freder- 
ick City. 



Accessions 
from dis- 
monnted 
camp. 



Run into 

Stuart's 
cavalry. 



attack upon his reserve artillery and transportation, 
parked near Hagerstown, came very near capturing the 
whole of it. 

The rest of our army and cavalry marched south to 
Frederick City, and then west, over the same ground it 
had pursued previous to the battle ot Antietam the year 
before. 

At Frederick City, Captain B. W. Crowninshield re- 
joined the regiment, July 7, bringing up about one 
hundred men and Lieutenants Merrill and Goodwin. 
The squadrons were then reorganized into four, com- 
manded by Captains Crowninshield, Adams, Tewksbury, 
and Bowditch. 

These three officers had been, since April 11, in 
charge of the dismounted men of the regiment, in vari- 
ous camps. On the 27th of June, with the band and 
about ninety men of the regiment, they made part of 
a column of about three hundred men, belonging to 
different regiments of the division, all commanded by 
Major Frye, of the 4th Pennsylvania cavalry. This 
column was to join the division in Maryland. 

The first halt was made the evening of the 27th, at 
a cross roads in Maryland, from which roads ran to 
Rockville, Tenallytown, Alexandria, to the crossing of 
the Potomac at Coon's Ferry, and up the river, north- 
west. 

The next morning, June 28, a soldier, going very 
early to a farm-house to get food, found a cavalry horse 
tied at the door, and inside a cavalryman of the 6tli Vir- 
ginia regiment, whom he at once captured and brought 
in. The man reported himself as one of a small scout- 
ing party, who crossed the ford the evening before and 
camped near. A party sent to capture them ran into a 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 163 

large cavalry camp, in fact all Stuart's cavalry corps, 1863, 
which had just crossed into Maryland. 

After a slight sku-mish, Major Frye took the Rock- ^J^^g 
ville road, with the column, but soon ran into Stuart's 
cavah-y again — a considerable force, with artillery. 
Thus cut off from the roads west. Major Frye retreated 
to Tenallytown by a country road, but not before a 
skirmish took place, in which the 1st Massachusetts de- 
tachment engaged the enemy, and kept him back until 
the heterogeneous command could get across the ene- 
my's front into the small road leading east. 

Arrivinc: at Tenallytown they brought the first news First news 
of Stuart's crossing, who, the same day, captured a move- 

-f^ , .,, ments. 

waofon train at Uockville. 

The same party again started into Maryland July 3, 
where stragglers from Gettysburg were reported as very 
numerous near Frederick City and neighborhood, with 
orders to scour the country and arrest all stragglers. 
Other parties were sent out from Washington on the 
same errand. Arriving at Frederick City the regiment 
was met, and an order was procured that they should 
rejoin the regiment, from which up to now fate had 
seemed determined to keep them away. 

On July 11 Colonel Curtis, worn out with malaria, Resigna- 
resigned the command of the regiment to Captain 
Crowninshield, and July 18 went on sick leave to Mas- 
sachusetts. He never rejoined the regiment, resigning 
in March, 1864, after his total recovery to health seemed 
impossible. Major Higginson, also, did not rejoin after 
Aldie. He resigned August 4, 1864, finding himself 
unable to bear the fatigue of a campaign, after having 
several times in vain attempted lighter duties suited to 
his disabled condition. 



164 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, Lee, with the swollen Potomac River in his rear, un- 

able to cross, drew his army together on a line from 
Lee and Hao'crstown to Falling- Waters, and our army assembled 

Meade con- O o ^ j 

other ^^*^^ in his front, expecting every moment to make an attack, 
which every soldier thought would succeed. The 1st 
Massachusetts cavalry pushed to the front with the di- 
vision, having a small engagement at Jones Cross Roads, 
July 11, — two killed and five wounded, — and encoun- 
tered Lee's cavalry and infantry in position Jvdy 12 
and 13, in the very place where, the year previous, our 
regiment had been encamped at St. James College. 
There, for two days, they stood face to face, while all 
of Meade's infantry was closed up, ready to assault 
Lee. On the second day Lee's cavalry was replaced 
by infantry, and the position occupied was one of very 
great strength. Artillery was in position, and breast- 
Attack de- works were made. In this skirmishing a few men of 
teecrosses the regiment were lost, and our infantry coming up 
o omac. ^^^^1 replacing the cavalry delayed the expected attack 
so lono; that Lee was enabled to cross the Potomac 
River successfully, and the Gettysburg campaign came 
to an end. 

The reofiment had been in Huey's brio^ade since Al- 
die, with the 8th and 4th Pennsylvania. 
Mcintosh's On the 14tli it reported at Boonsboro to Mcintosh's 
bngade. j^yig-^^jg^ which was made up of the 1st Maine, 1st New 
Jersey, 1st Maryland, 1st Massachusetts, 1st Pennsylva- 
nia, and 3d Pennsylvania regiments. Mcintosh was 
colonel of the 3d Pennsylvania, and he and his regi- 
ment were old friends. 

No sooner had Lee placed the river between the two 
armies than our cavalry was hurried down stream, and 
crossed at Harper's Ferry. It marched out on the south 




ALBERT R, RICE 
Assistant Surgeon 



ALDIE: GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 165 

side to discover what Lee was about. It learned that i863, 
he had sent out his cavalry, as usual, to prevent our ^^' 
finding out. The two forces came together near Shep- Fight at 
herdstown, July 16, and had a brisk fight, in which the town. 
1st Maine, principally, was engaged. The 1st Massa- 
chusetts was for a while under artillery fire, but not 
otherwise in action. But night came on, and at mid- 
night our cavalry retired to Harper's Ferry. Many 
Confederate wounded were paroled at Shej^herdstown. 

A few days later found the cavalry division in the |"*^® 
Loudoun Valley, up which it proceeded, and occupied ^aUey. 
the gaps of the Blue Ridge, from which the march of 
Lee's army up the Shenandoah Valley could be readily 
observed. Meade's infantry followed the cavalry. The 
3d corps marched into Manassas Gap, where its engage- 
ment with a part of Lee's army was observed by the 
1st Massachusetts, occupying Snicker's Gap at the time. 
A tall pinnacle of rock near the Gap, called the " Bear's 
Den," afforded a wonderful view of the whole Shenan- Panorama 

1 1 T7 n 1 • • • rm 1 ^^ *^^® She- 

doah V alley and vicinity, ihe weather was lovely; and nandoah 
few who enjoyed the little vacation, as it were, in that 
Gap, will forget the beauty of the scene, with the tragic 
background of Lee's army, marching in retreat, with 
clouds of dust, and seemingly endless lines of white 
covered wagons, with the accompanying thunder of the 
3d corps guns on the immediate left, only a few miles 
away, near Front Royal and Manassas Gap. 

Meade was just too late to prevent Lee's passing into Lee back 
eastern Virginia, which he did through Chester Gap. 
A few days found him back in his old position across 
the Rapidan River. 

To the soldier of the Army of the Potomac it seemed 
as if these campaigns were ever repeating themselves. 



166 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, The Massachusetts cavaby soldier was probably more 
familiar, at this time, with the by-roads of that part of 
Thetopo- Virginia, with the sky line of the Blue Ridge and Bull 
Virgima txWYi Mountains, than with any equal portion oi his na- 
miiiar. tive State. Every year furnished its battle, or battles, 
followed by a march up or down the line of these moun- 
minabie^'^ taius ; the same reconnoissances, through the same coun- 
reconnois- try, over the same roads ; the same interminable picket 

sauces and i,',i ^• , • , i ,• 

picket tliity, in the same districts, where, on returning, one 
would stop at a house and say, " Howdy ? " to the 
same Virginia women, bristhng as they always did with 
intense hatred, or ask a question, the answer to which 
he knew he could not believe before he asked it. 
o Lord!^' ^^^ could iiot help wondering if this thing was to go 
forever? ^^^ forcvcr. It sometimcs seemed as if the only end of 
it, for the Union soldier, would be six feet of the sacred 
soil on some by-road, where no Massachusetts feet would 
ever tread. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. TO CENTREVILLE 
AND BACK IN QUICK TIME. MINE RUN AND TO WIN- 
TER QUARTERS AT WARRENTON. AUGUST, 18G3, TO 
JANUARY, 1864. 

The month of August found tlie army agcain in posi- i863 
tion along the north fork of the Rappahannock River. ^"^'*- 
Lee's army lay between the Rappahannock and Rapi- 
dan ; and the time was used by both armies for what, 
during the war, passed for rest and recreation. For Picketing 
weeks nothing more than insignificant picketing and noiLret 
reconnoissances were attempted. All that country north 
of the Rappahannock and west of Warrenton was pick- 
eted and patrolled. Up to the middle of August the 
regiment was camped near Sulphur Springs and Amiss- 
viUe. The weather was excessively hot, but the work 
was easy. The 3d corps lay near Sulphur Sprino-s. 

On August 1 Colonel Sargent, who had not been with Cdonei 
the regiment since April, returned and assumed com- iSSj-' 

mand. ment. 

On August 9, while the 1st squadron of the 1st 
Massachusetts was picketing RixeyviUe Ford, with head- 
quarters at Oak Shade, a Httle way back on the road in 
plain sight of the ford, an order was received from Col- 
onel Mcintosh, commanding the brigade, to take the 
whole force across Welford's Ford, and send a party 
from there to Beverly Ford. It was the wish of army 



168 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

18G3, lieaJquarters that the picket line should cross the river 
"^^ " at Welford's Ford, and be maintained from there to 
Ordered to Bcverly Ford, on the enemy's skIc of the river. The 
pickeTiine representation from Captain Crowninshield that the 
river! ^ force of the enemy was strong across the ford made no 
difference, as the orders were peremptory. So leaving 
as few men at Oak Shade as would serve to picket the 
Rixeyville Ford, he took with him about forty men, 
drove the enemy away from Welford's Ford, and on 
Cross the crossiug advanced against the enemy, who were seen 
^''^'^' coming out of the woods a little to the right of the 
ford, across an open field, in strong force. He sent a 
Heutenant and sixteen men of the 1st Pennsylvania, who 
brought the order down, and were ordered to cooperate 
with him, to Beverly Ford. Riding at a rapid gait, they 
succeeded in getting there, although they were at first 
reported to have been captured ; and indeed it seemed 
quite impossible to get safely through. The force of 
Enemy ap- the enemy who came out of the woods was apparently 
foree."" a whole regiment ; and the orders of their officers could 
be distinctly heard as they mounted their men and came 
down Avith a force of about two hundred on the little 
party of forty, indulging, as they were wont to do, in 
opprobrious remarks. They could not, however, see 
distinctly what our strength was, and advanced very 
slowly. The party of the 1st Pennsylvania made good 
progress, and as the ground was open, and it was easy 
to see a mile in that direction, the rest were gradually 
withdraw and successfully withdrawn across the river. But to 
cuSlo^r^ maintain a picket line there was absolutely impossible. 
This little event caused quite a voluminous correspon- 
dence at headquarters, as to the authority for sending 
so small a force across. 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 169 

Headquarters of the regiment, from August 15 to the iscs, 
middle of September, was in bivouac at Waterloo and ^"^''''*- 
Orleans, in rear of Plum Run, and picketing was done 
along the run, while constant patrols and reconnois- 
sances were made to Flint Hill and neighborhood. The 
weather, though hot, was deHghtful, and the scenery 
very beautiful. " Man," however, particularly when clad Only man 
in gray and mounted and armed, " was vile," and fre- "^ ^^' 
quent raids were made on the pickets. If a soldier in 
search of food or adventure went to a house two hun- 
dred yards away from the road, he was pretty sure of 
trouble, and many found it an easy way to Libby Prison; A short 
for the whole country round about was swarming with Libby 
partisan rangers. An ambuscade, only too successful, 
was sprung on a party of the 6th Ohio regiment while 
on a scout towards Barbour's Cross Roads, and the 1st 
Massachusetts went hurriedly out, only to prove the 
truth of the proverb about locking the stable door after 
the horse was stolen. 

These outpost tours of duty, however, were on the 
whole delightful, and contributed to vigilance and good 
health, and permitted a greater variety of good food. 
While at Oak Shade a large flock of sheep was observed Mutton to 
not far away, and, possibly on suggestion, a negro read- tSwas 
ily volunteered to procure some mutton. The mutton Z^T^' 
came, large and strong. On inquiry, it was found that 
the darky, measuring value by cost, and wishing to 
please his commissioner, had slaughtered " massa's best 
merino ram, sah ! Cost one thousand dollars, sah ! " 
That mutton was perhaps appreciated by " massa," but 
the officers' mess, though hungry, could not " get away" 
with it. 

Major Chamberlain reported for duty August 19, and 



170 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
1863, remained until September 5. The 3d battalion being 

Septem- i n i i i 

ber. permanently detached, orders were given to recruit a 

new one in its place, and Captain Tewksbuiy and Lieu- 
tenants Teague and Russell were sent to Massachusetts 
for that purpose. 

Frequent Recoiuioissances across the Hazel River were made 

reconnois- i j^ o i rr 

sances. August o and 5. 

Army On the 13th of September General Meade pushed 

Rappahan- across tlic Rappalianiiock River, the cavalry taking the 
advance, the 2d division crossing the Rixeyville Ford ; 
and the 1st Massachusetts, with the rest of Meade's cav- 
alry, engaged the cavalry of Lee near Cul2)eper, and 
pushed them down to the Rapidan River. 
Fight at The 1st and 3d divisions, crossing at Beverly and 

peper. j^^jj^'g j^qi.(^[^ engaged the Confederate cavalry near 
Calpeper before Gregg's division came up, defeated it, 
and captured three guns. Making a halt at Culpeper, 
they allowed Gregg's division to take the advance. 

In the fight which ensued, the regiment supported the 
battery of horse artillery commanded by Captain Mar- 
tin, the 6th New York. 
Rebel cav- The Confederate cavalry was in force just south of 
at'hanT Culpeper, being W. H. F. Lee's division. It had its 
artillery in position to receive the advance of Gregg 
when it should march out of the town on the road to 
Cedar Mountain. 
Made The regiment took the advance quite leisurely, march- 

the^ene^- ing by the house in which our Colonel Williams had 
euce. been brought up, and was entirely unaware of the ene- 
my's presence. But on reaching the road, it was at once 
made the target for his artillery. The first shot — a 
solid one — struck in the bed of a small stream, throw- 
ing up a spray of water, and bounding along struck the 




HOMER H. WARNER 
Assistant Surffeun 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 171 

hilt of Lieutenant Flint's sabre, took the bit out of the isgs, 
mouth of the bugler's horse in the next squadron, and ber. 
took off the leg of Quartermaster-Sergeant Read of 
company A. The regiment then took the trot down the 
hill, and drew up in line of battle. The battery in- 
stantly dashed up at a gallop. The horse artillery had Artillery 
recently been reorganized, and, discarding the three-inch front. 
rifle steel gun, now had Napoleon-smooth-bore twelve- 
pounders ; and each piece had eight horses and four 
riders. The guns came up between the squadrons, 
mounted to the top of the slope at a furious gallop, and 
turned to bring the pieces into action under a very a deadly 
severe fire, not only of the enemy's artillery but of a 
strong force of dismounted men behind a stone wall. 
In the few moments required to turn the pieces, seven 
out of eight horses and three out of the four men of 
one gun were either killed or wounded. 

The thing was most gallantly and brilliantly done, 
but the loss was unprecedented. Yet not a moment 
was lost, and the pieces, firing double canister, soon 
forced the enemy to retire both guns and dismounted 
men. As he did so, the guns were limbered uj) and 
dashed forward at a gallop, the regiment following at 
the same pace. The next and last position was entirely 
in the open, and an artillery duel took place, with the An artii- 
cavalry quite unprotected and in full sight behind the t?i7enemy 
guns. The enemy's artillery was soon driven off, one 
squadron sent in pursuit, and a bivouac was made in a Bivouac in 
piece of woods, after dark. It was a most uncomfort- 
able place, in the hard rainstorm which set in and con- 
tinued all night, the men, generally, sleeping in pud- 
dles of water. In his flight to the Rapidan, the enemy 
abandoned some wagons and a gun limber. 



172 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, There is no more inspiring sight in war than a fine 

ber. battery of horse artillery going into action. The clat- 

ter of the wheels, the ringing words of command, the 
A sight shrill notes of the bugles, the splendid, resistless rush 
thrills and of liorses and men at full speed, the quick turn to bring 

inspires. . . ... p • p 

the pieces into position, the momentary contusion or 
getting the guns in battery, and almost instantaneously 
the cannoneers dashing about with ammunition or work- 
ing the guns, — all this is exciting and inspiring ; but 
especially so if done under a heavy fire, as was the case 
this day at Culpeper, with shells bursting overhead, 
crashing through trees, hurling about branches and 
sphnters, ploughing up the ground, occasionally cutting 
down men and liorses. Frequently, also, it happens that 
an ammunition chest or a gun itself is exploded. The 
Casualties Casualties are not in proportion to the noise, however, 
portion^to and it is often hard to understand why more men and 
horses are not killed or wounded by artillery fire. 

The infantry of Lee's army had already crossed to 
the south bank of the Rapidan River, at Rapidan Sta- 
tion, Avhere the land is much higher, and controls the 
lower land on the north side. Protected by a large 
Part of number of guns on the south bank. General Stuart 
cavaiVon maintained a part of his cavalry on our side of the Rap- 
theriver!^ idau Rivcr, with a battery of horse artillery at the ford. 
Orders to General Greo;2:, commandino^ the 2d division, on the 

force them . ^ ^^\ ^ , or, i i i xi 1 i. 

across. mommg 01 the 14th oi September ordered tne 1st 
Massachusetts, 6th Ohio, and 1st Rhode Island cavalry, 
under command of Colonel Sargent of the 1st Massachu- 
setts, to push the enemy across the river, and develop 
his strength on the other side. As the other side was 
particularly open, and at least a division of infantry 
could be plainly seen there, enjoying themselves, with 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 173 

the bands playing popular Confederate airs, this order is63, 
seemed somewhat unnecessary, and Colonel Sargent sent &.*'''" 
a dispatch setting this forth, thinking General Gregg 
was not aware of the situation. But on its reiteration 
the three regiments pushed on towards Stuart's cavalry, 
and at once encountered the fire of a large number of Encounter 
pieces of artillery from the south bank, besides that of of a^' 
the battery on this side, which was located near a house ^''''• 
on a small hill just at the ford. When the head of the 
column reached the edge of the woods, on the road to 
the ford, it halted, while a short survey of the ground 
was made by Colonel Sargent before he should "march 
into the open ground. The road sloped down gradu- 
ally into a meadow of large extent, which bordered the 
river, and just above the ford itself was a hill with farm 
buildings and trees, and about the l)uildings a force of 
cavalry— the 9th Virginia — and a battery of horse 
artillery. 

For some time the enemy did not see our men ; and Anint.r- 
while they sat on their horses chatting, somebody woke SJ^*^' 
up a nest of those peculiarly lively wasps called yellow ^tfte?-' 
jackets. They did not mean to be insulted with impu- '"'"^*''^- 
nity, and swarmed out in force. It was just becoming 
very lively and unpleasant, when the boom of a cannon 
across the river was heard, and that thrilling sound 
which is the forerunner of mischief, in comparison with 
which yellow jackets are amiable and delightful. Not 
a thought more was bestowed on them, for the first 
shell came near enough to throw dirt upon the head of 
the column, and followers came thick and fast. The 
situation at once became very hot and trying for our 
cavalry, who were without artillery, and absohitely un- 
able to inflict any damage on the enemy. Action was 



174 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, embarrassing, for without artillery no injury could be 

ber. done the enemy, even on our own side of the river ; 

rassh^^sit- "^vhile to cliarge him, there was every chance of annihi- 

uation. lation on the way to his position on the hill above the 

ford. Indeed, the attack was much like that of the 

British Light Brigade at Balaclava, except that here by 

far the larger number of guns was across the river, and 

of course inaccessible. The moment any body of men 

became consj)icuous, they drew the fire not only of the 

guns at the ford, but of a much larger number across 

the river, on higher and perfectly open ground, which 

could direct a plunging and intersecting fire on us, and 

search out every inch of our ground. As if to add 

The enemy iusult to injury, a large body of infantry was there in 

plight. camp, with field music, to enjoy our discomfiture ; and 

they did seem to enjoy it hugely. 

Colonel Sargent and staff posted themselves on a lit- 
tle eminence, in plain sight of the enemy, and appeared 
to be pleased to make targets of themselves. At times, 
many guns were fired at them, covering them with dust 
and dirt. Why any escaped being hit was a marvel ; 
but artillery fire is not always certain. Colonel Sargent, 
feelino- nettled that his remonstrances had not been lis- 
A charge tcned to, puslicd close up and repulsed a charge made 
ancTre-*^ by the 9tli Virginia cavalry regiment. The Confeder- 
ates seeing our inability to inflict any injury, and pro- 
tected by the strong force with artillery across the river, 
reinforced their cavalry ; and about dusk made an at- 
tack on our forces and inflicted considerable damage, 
almost entirely on the 1st Maryland. Our troops were 
in turn reinforced, and repulsed the enemy, and after 
dark all were withdrawn, and the Confederates crossed 
to their side of the river. 



pulsed. 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 175 

The following- is the report of Colonel Horace B. Sar- ises, 
gent, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, commanding detach- ber. 
ment 1st brigade, 2d cavalry division, of skirmish (15th) 
at Rapidan Station. 

Camp near Slaughter Mountain, 
September 15, 1863. 
CAPTAi]sr: I have the honor to report that in accordance with ver- Colonel 
bal orders from Colonel Mcintosh, commanding brigade, I took com- repfr t°of 

mand of a reconnoissance toward Rapidau Station about twelve m., skirmish 

, . ^ 'at Kapi- 

for the purpose of determming the presence of infantry on the other dan Sta- 

side of the river, and the general position of the enemy. 

My force was as follows : 6th Ohio cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Stedman, 1G5 men and 11 officers ; 1st Rhode Island cavalry, Colo- 
nel Thompson, 170 men and 13 officers ; 1st Massachusetts cavalry, 
Captain Sargent, 228 men and 12 officers ; total, 563 men and 36 
officers. 

On reaching the open country I established a line of skirmishers 
in advance of the wood, with supports, leaving the 1st Massachu- 
setts in reserve. Having advanced my skirmishers as far as I mifht 
without exposing my supports, I reported the result of my observa- 
tions and requested orders. Being ordered to press forward and 
compel the enemy to develop whatever he might have on the oppo- 
site side, I threw forward dismounted skirmishers, engaging them 
with the enemy at 500 yards distance, and about 800 yards from the 
river, under the support of mounted skirmishers, and squadrons in 
line of battle within long supporting distance. A severe shell fire 
from seven pieces concentrically placed on both sides of the river 
was developed, and sharp skirmishing ensued. 

A cavalry force, apparently of two squadrons, appeared on this 
side in front, with two guns appearing and disappearing near them, 
and commanding the road which the enemy evidently expected me 
to use. Two full batteries, not opened on the right and left, but 
harnessed up, a large number of men on foot (said by my officers to 
be infantry), a large wagon train stationary, one cavalry camp (from 
which men had been seen moving, leaving horses saddled), and rifle- 
pits, with a dense smoke behind the hills on the other side, were dis- 
tinctly seen ; movements of the enemy indicated a large force ready 
to repel and inviting attack, but apparently moving away from river. 

During the last hour before sunset two cavalry charges were made 



176 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, upon our skirmishers, and handsomely repelled by short charges up 
be^*^™" to the edges of deep watercourses which sepai-atcd the parties and 
made pursuit dangerous. The position was difficult for cavalry, 
involving either the abandonment of skirmishers, the exposure of 
supporting squadrons, or the failure of the reconnoissance. Every 
change of position at once changed the range of the enemy's artil- 
lery, and by retiring at a gallop a portion of our cavalry in the 
woods, and instantly debouching to another position, a dangerous 
shell fire was diverted from the deployed squadrons to the empty 
woods, with marked relief. 
Enemy's About nightfall I was withdrawing my line toward the woods. 

pe]l^*^fu^ The 1st Maryland was ordered to relieve the 6th Ohio, and while 
r"h j^*^^" the change was making a sharp shell fire opened, and the enemy 
charged, driving in the skirmishers. The charge was repelled by 
the 1st Maryland and the prompt appearance of the squadron of 
the 1st Rhode Island and the 1st Massachusetts at various points, 
and a line of pickets was strongly established, and held firmly until 
I was relieved this morning. The casualties are reported as follows : 
Casualties, killed, 3 ; wounded, 22 ; missing, 4. I think the casualties in the 
1st Maryland cavalry were occasioned in a large degree by charg- 
ing beyond the skirmish line over bad ground and not hearing recall 
of bugle. The charge was very gallantly entered on, and opportune. 
We took 3 prisoners ; several rebels wounded are reported. I have 
the honor to inclose the reports of the officers commanding, and to 
mention with great praise the perfect gallantry and steadiness of the 
command under a destructive fire, constantly increasing in severity 
as the skirmish line was advanced. 
Commen- Lieutenant-Colonel Stedman, Captain Northway, and Lieutenant 
Austin, of the 6th Ohio, handled their skirmish line with great cool- 
ness and efficiency. Captain Rogers and Captain Thayer, of the 1st 
Rhode Island, and Captain Crowninshield, Lieutenant Gleason, and 
Captain Sargent, of the 1st Massachusetts, with the officers of their 
command, were especially commendable for the promptness and 
vigor with which they obeyed any order, however dangerous. 

It is difficult to conceive better behavior than that of the three 
regiments and their officers, under a heavy artillery fire, where it 
was impossible to protect the supports of an advancing line. 

I have the honor to be, captain, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, Horace Binney Sargent, 

Colonel 1st Massachusetts Cavalrt/, Commanding Detachment. 
Captain Newhall, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. Ill 
Of the 13tli and 14tli of September, McCleUan writes ises, 

thus : Septem- 

ber. 

Throughout the remainder of the day Stuart continued to retreat As the 
toward Rapidan Station, which he reached after nightfall The Pn ^"o'l^edei^ 
eniy s advance reached the Rapidan River early the next niorninc, 
the 14th. There was hut little activity on either side on this day' 
Just before night, Major Flournoy, of the 6th Virginia cavalry 
asked permission to cross the river and attack some squadrons of 
the enemy which were in sight on the other side. The permission 
was granted. Major Flournoy formed his regiment by squadrons 
on the north side of the river and advanced to the attack. The 
movement itself was of no consequence, and produced no result ex- 
cept, perhaps, the capture of a few prisoners ; but Flournoy 's charge 
was witnessed by a large number of spectators, both of the cav- 
alry and of the infantry, and called forth many expressions of ad- 
miration at the skillful manner in which he handled his squadrons 
After driving the enemy into the shelter of the adjacent woods, 
Flournoy reformed his regiment and returned at a walk. 

This was the charge just at dusk, probably. About char^of 
noon the 9th Virginia cavahy charged and went all to vfrSa 
pieces of their own effort, and never even reached the 
point aimed at, where a squadron of the 1st Massachu- 
setts, was ready for them. This charge was disgrace- 
fully ineffective. 

These two days resulted in considerable loss of life Honors 
to both sides, but honors were not easy, as Meade's cav- "°* '""''• 
airy captured several guns (with the 3d cavalry divi- 
sion) from the enemy. 

The infantry now came up and reheved the cav- Relieved 
airy, which retired to Cedar Mountain, and later to Cul- t'^^"^'^"' 
peper, and Steven sburg. 

September 23 the 11th and 12th corps left the Army 
of the Potomac to join Grant's army in Tennessee, 
where, under General Hooker, they at once made their 



178 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY, 

1863, mark at the battle of Mission Ridge. The 2d division 

of cavahy followed these two corps in their march along 

the line of the Orange and Alexandria railroad, as far 

To Cat- as Catlett's Station, and at first the men supposed they 

tLn an/' too wcrc going to Tennessee. From Catlett's Station 

Sulphur they went to the Fauquier White Sulphur Springs, and 

picketed the line of the river at that place. 
Lee crosses Octobcr 12 Lcc assumcd the offensive, and attempted 
the same movement he had made in 1862, which ended 
in the second battle of Bull Run ; making a very rapid 
advance, and crossing the river at White Sulphur 
Springs and the other fords down the river. Nobody 
who was present from the 1st Massachusetts will forget 
that crossing on October 12. For a week or more 
everything had been peaceful and quiet. But at about 
noon of that day the pickets reported cavalry of the 
enemy on the other side of the river, and the 1st Maine 
cavalry was ordered across to find out Avhat was up. It 
pushed through, went to near Chester Gap, and was cut 
1st Maine off from the river by them and lost to our army for 
*""* ° ■ two days, for the troops of the enemy turned out to be 
the advance guard of Lee's army, concentrating at that 
point to force the passage of the river, and the 1st 
Maine had to make a wide detour. 
Below the The other squadrons of the 1st Massachusetts and a 
White* section of artillery held the bridge at Sulphur Springs. 
SpS The 1st squadron was ordered below the ford, down a 
steep, wooded hillside, to watch the banks of the river. 
Nothing on the other side was seen except a few horse- 
men riding about, and the captain of this squadron was 
sitting by a large beech-tree, and for want of anything 
better to do was cutting his name in the bark of the 
tree. Suddenly, without the slightest warning, fire was 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 179 
opened from a large number of guns, and was instantly ises, 

, 1 • 1 p 1 1 f October. 

followed by a strong attack, to wmcn our leeble lorees 
could offer but the slightest resistance. The section of An unex- 
artillery on our side of the bridge fired rapidly, but the tack, 
attack was so sudden that the bridge could not be de- 
stroyed even. Lee's troops, in mass, swarmed down to 
the crossing, cavalry and infantry, and before this squa- 
dron could get to its horses, mount, and withdraw, the 
enemy were massing their troops on our side of the 
river. Coming out of the woods up the hillside in his 
rear, this squadron came upon a full regiment of Con- 
federate cavalry, mounted, which fortunately did not 
discover to what army it belonged, and it had to take 
to the woods, avoid the roads, and march in doubt and 
difficulty across fields and through woods and swamps, 
without a compass, for an hour. By good fortune it Compelled 
was enabled to rejoin the rest of the regiment, not far artful dod- 
from Bealton Station, dodging Confederate troops all 
the way. 

On the morning of October 12, Colonel Sargent Coionei 
assembled the regiment and took leave of it, being takes leave 

of tllG rGfiT" 

ordered to join the army of General N. P. Banks, com- iment. 
manding the Army of the Gulf, as chief of cavalry. 
He made a farewell address to the regiment and turned 
the command over to his brother, Captain L. M. Sar- 
"■ent. Colonel Sarsrent continued to hold his rank as 
colonel, although he did not again join the regiment 
during the war. 

Arrived at Banks's army. Colonel Sargent could not 
be made chief of cavalry, as was promised, owing to 
being outranked by other colonels. He did, however, 
have the actual command, ranking as a staff officer to 
the commander of the column of attack. In the first 



180 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, engagement with the enemy at Bayou Rapids, Loui- 
siana, Colonel Sargent was wounded. He never en- 
Coionei tirely recovered from the effects of the wound, and did 
'wo'iSded, not return to duty. He was brevetted brigadier-general, 
teins dis- to date from March 21, 1864, when he was wounded. 
General Sargent, unable to be in the field, was after 
a severe illness discharged for disabihty, September 29, 
1864. 
Close prox- On the night of the 12th, Meade rapidly marched his 
the fwo army in retreat along the line of the railroad, with Lee 
^^™"'^^' on his flank in close proximity. During the few hours 
of rest allowed to both armies that night, they were 
bivouacked not merely close to one another, but some 
regiments were actually within the lines of the other. 
All nio-ht loncf, on the march towards Auburn, the cav- 
airy in then- retreat were ordered to set fire to stacks 
of hay, and particularly of corn, with which many of 
the fields were filled, to give an impression to the enemy 
that the troops were going into camp. As the night 
was inky dark, it made a weird spectacle. Before day- 
lio-ht the next morninoj', October 13, at Auburn, the 
regiment on attempting to water its horses found Stu- 
art's troopers attempting the same thing at the same 
place. Fio'hting at once commenced, and continued 
all day long and late into the night. Stuart, with his 
Stuart's headquarters and a considerable body of his troops, had 
tere withTn passcd the preceding night actually within our lines, 
our ines. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ positiou been known, he could easily have 

been captured Avith about two thousand of his men. 

At the crossing of the creek at Auburn, it was neces- 
sary to hold the enemy back, for a little time, and the 
1st Massachusetts was made rear-guard, having with it 
a section of horse artillery. It held the position until 





'"i^Mir 



GEORGE S. OSBORNE 
Assi. Surgeo7i and Surgeo7i ^th Mass. Cav. 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 181 

the enemy was close upon it both in front and on its i8G3, 
left flank, suffering a loss of several men, and finally ^''^''^'"'^ 
retreated, when the moment came, in full gallop, but in 
perfect order, and rejoined the brigade. 

The retreat from Warrenton Junction and Auburn to Retreat to 
Bristoe Station, at which point the road would bring stSiou. 
all Lee's army in conjunction with the line of retreat 
of Meade, was across a particularly open country, and 
the 2d cavalry division was used all day as rear-guard, 
retreating by echelon, with the horse artillery in the 
intervals of regiments, and Stuart advancing his in 
pursuit with the same disposition. 

Every man could see every detail of this movement, a beauti- 
and no military parade in time of peace could have t^It. 
been more attractive or beautiful to witness. Proba- 
bly three thousand mounted men on each side made up 
the pageant. Every soldier was interested, even to the 
extent of not thoroughly appreciating the beauty of the 
scene, for a brisk fire of artillery continued on both 
sides all day, and occasionally the men came to close 
quarters. The division showed a sohd front, however, 
and no battle was brought on. This day the 1st lost 
six men wounded. 

Meade's retreat was complete and artistic in every Ni.^ht at- 
respect ; and he accomplished the movement from the Bristoe 
Rappahannock River to Centreville without the loss of ^*''*'"'"- 
gun or wagon, although the two armies were actually in 
contact the whole distance, and some severe fighting oc- 
curred, notably on the evening of that day at Bi^stoe 
Station. There, protected by the embankment on the 
line of the railroad, Meade's infantry gave the advance 
of Lee's attacking forces a sharp repulse, and captured 
a battery. Two squadrons of the 1st Massachusetts 



182 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
1863, acted with that force. The affair began just as the 

October. . ^ • ^ i pit 

sun was setting and continued some liours atter dark, 

making a pretty exhibition of fireworks. This was the 

The criti- Critical point in the retreat ; it was managed in a mas- 

caJ point . . , -p-, 

in the re- tcrlj manner, and Lee here gave up the contest. He 
did, however, send his cavahy to push our rear-guard 
when he had halted his infantry, after the vain attempt 
to break our lines at Bristoe Station. This force of cav- 
alry, apparently all he had, made a sudden and rather 
vigorous attack on the rear-guard, in consequence of 
which a part of the 1st Massachusetts was sent back to 
reinforce it. But before they got there, the enemy had 
given up the attempt, and this was the last push he 
made in the retreat to Centreville. 
Meade Mcadc coutinued his retreat to Centreville, where the 

Centre- wagoii ti'aius wcre all parked, and forage and rations 
were issued to the troops. During the retreat, from 
October 12th to the 16th, the cavalry had no rations 
issued, and as they had started without any, appetites 
were good when Centreville and the wagon train Avere 
reached. 
Lee re- Lee, in his turn, retreated, and Meade followed him, 

MeadVToi- finally taking position on the line of the Rappahannock 
River. At Rappahannock Station, Lee constructed and 
held works on our side of the river, defending the 
bridge at that place. On the 8th of November, these 
were attacked by the 1st division of the 6th corps, com- 
manded by General David Russell, and carried in a 
handsome manner, with the capture of all the enemy's 
force, about two thousand in number, and several pieces 
of artillery. Here, again, the country was entirely open, 
A very aiid this brilliant success was attained in full view of a 
affair. large part of both armies. It was one of the hand- 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 183 
somest affairs of the whole war. This ended the fight- i863 

, November. 

ino- for that year until Muie Run ; and Lee recrossed 
the Rapidan. Camps were pitched on the line of the 
Rapidan. The 2d division guarded the right flank, and 
the 1st Massachusetts took its turn in holding Warren- 
ton and engaging Mosby and his allies. 

It had been a hard summer, and the troops were Hopes of 

__ - rest disap- 

longing for winter quarters and rest. But the Wash- pointed. 
ington authorities had other and quite different views, 
and on the 26th of November Meade began his move- 
ment in the so-called " Mine Run Expedition." Cross- "Mine Run 
ing at the lower fords of the Rapidan into the Wilder- tion." 
ness, he turned to the right, and marched by the Orange 
plank road to attack Lee, who met him on the line of 
Mine Run. 

The 2d cavalry division crossed Kelly's Ford on the a start for 

/ the WU- 

Rappahannock November 24, and pushed up to near demess. 
Ely's Ford, where it remained in bivouac next day. On 
the 26th — Thanksgiving Day, by the way — crossing 
was made at Ely's Ford, and the cavalry marched rap- 
idly towards Spottsylvania Court House and camped for 
the night (a very cold one) at Rose Mount. The next 
morning it marched to Parker's store, on the Orange 
plank road, where it met a column of Meade's infantry, 
the 5th corps. Pushing directly on, the cavalry took 
the lead, and marched towards Gordonsville. The 1st 
Massachusetts was leading regiment in the column. 
The march was rapid, and something different from 
usual. It was in the Wilderness (aptly named), with 
gloomy woods, so thick as to be apparently impenetra- 
ble. Suddenly, on reaching the first clearing, at New Meet the 

/-111 1 • 1 j_ enemy at 

Hope Church, the enemy s cavalry pickets were met, New Hope 
and a few shots announced business. General Gregg 



184 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, was riding just behind the regiment. He at once came 
* to the front, and ordered the first two squadrons dis- 
mounted, one on each side of the road, Captain Crown- 
inshield's on the right and Captain Bowditch's on the 
left. In a moment they were ready, and forming along 
a by-road, found an open field in front, with a body of 
Dismount- the cuemy's cavalry'', mounted. A charge on foot made 
charge them ruu, but not without loss, and a sorrel horse was 
they rim. capturcd, wliicli Captain Gleason appropriated. The 
men went ahead as quick as they could run in their 
overcoats, and the enemy made no stand until his in- 
fantry was met soon after. Meanwhile his battery 
opened, and soon ours responded ; the other squadrons 
reinforced those engaged, and as the enemy developed 
his infantry, the other regiments of the brigade came 
mole in dismounted, to reinforce the 1st Massachusetts, until 

\)ri2r3((lG Gil" 

gaged. all the brigade was engaged. 

As the force advanced, the ground became rougher 
and well wooded, at times with occasional openings. 
Charges were made, and prisoners were taken from what 
proved to be Walker's North Carolina brigade of in- 
Someof fantry. Lieutenant C. A. Longfellow, of company A, 
tiel'^'^"^ was badly wounded, at first supposed mortally. A little 
later, while trying to bring off a badly wounded man of 
the 1st New Jersey cavalry in company Avith Doran of 
company A, — both volunteered to try and get him after 
the men of his regiment had abandoned him, — Lieu- 
tenant Lombard, of company A, was instantly killed, 
being shot through the head. On the other side of the 
road Captain H. P. Bowditch was shot through the arm 
while leading a charge. Only just before night the 5th 
corps infantry came up and relieved the cavalry, but 
not before the enemy had been pushed back nearly to 




ASSISTANT SURGEOIv: 



H. DURGIN 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 185 
his works on Mine Run. General Griffin of the 5th isfis, 

^^ . November, 

corps, who rode with General Gregg and witnessed the 

attack, said it was one of the prettiest little things he 

had ever seen done by volunteer troops. In the fight 

the 1st Massachusetts lost one officer and four men The attack 

killed, and two officers and eleven men wounded. Griffin saw 

it. 

Curiously, although the 1st Massachusetts had the ad- 
vance and suffered the principal loss, it was not allowed 
to put " New Hope Church " on its colors, while other 
cavalry regiments were allowed to do so who scarcely 
were engaged in the fight. McClellan says : — 

At the close of the Bristoe campaign the Confederate army re- The rebels 
turned to Culpeper County, and encamped on either side of the ""becked 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad, holding the line of the Rappahan- f,"®' 
nock. After rebuikling the railroad, which had been destroyed 
north of the river, the Federal army again advanced, and on the 
7th of November forced the passage of the Rappahannock at 
Kelly's Ford and the railroad bridge, inflicting heavy loss at the 
latter place on the Confedei-ate infantry. General Lee now with- 
drew his army beyond the Rapidan, and preparations were made for 
establishing winter quarters. This season of rest was, however, in- 
terrupted by the Mine Run campaign. On the 26th of November 
General Meade put his army in motion, crossed the Rapidan at Ger- 
manna and Ely's fords, and moved up the river in the direction of 
Orange Court House. Hampton's division, supported by the ad- 
vance of Hill's corps, checked the enemy, on the 27th, near New 
Hope Church. 

If " Hampton's division checked " anybody, it cer- 
tainly was not at New Hope Church. That part of it 
got away as fast as their legs and their horses would 
carry them, and the quick retrograde movement was 
continued by their infantry skirmishers too, who left 
some twenty prisoners in our hands, mostly captured by 
Captain Bowditch's dismounted men. 



186 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
1863, Two days later, while we were picketino- the left 

November, n i p i 

liank of the army at Parker's store with the 3d Pennsyl- 
vania cavalry, Wade Hampton's division came suddenly 
upon us by circuitous roads, killing and wounding sev- 
Hampton cral men and capturing nearly everything in the way 
ouicavaii-y of baggage, except what the men had on their persons. 

at Parker's . o i -r> i • • i i i -< 

store. ihe od Pennsylvania was on picket, and the 1st Massa- 
chusetts was in reserve and unsaddled. The enemy in 
some way avoided the pickets, and came dashing into 
the reserve without warnino-. 

Just a few minutes before this attack was made, a lit- 
tle group of officers was seated, shelling corn for their 
horses. With them was a negro servant named Tom 
Chisholm, Avho had come with the regiment from South 
Carolina, a very handy, civil, and intelligent boy. It 
happened that the officer whose servant he was, just 
before the attack was made, said to him, half in joke, 
" Tom, what do you suppose the rebels would do to 
you, if they captured you? " " Oh," said he, " they 'd 

A darkey's kill me, surc." " No indeed, they would n't," said Lieu- 

presenti- 

meiitfui- tenant Gleason. Here ensued the attack and surprise. 

nlled. , ^ 

When it was over, and the scattered men were brought 
together, Tom among others was missing. Next morn- 
ing the position was regained, and on a tree, exactly 
where the group had sat shelling corn the day before, 
hung the body of poor Tom. He was correct in his 
idea of what the rebels would do to him. In a little 
house, the so-called Parker's store, when the attack 
took place, were eight or ten sick or wounded soldiers 
awaiting the ambulances which should take them to 
Cold- the rear. When the store came into our possession, 
murder. Noveiiiber 30, the bodies of three of these men lay 
there with their brains blown out. One, who escaped 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 187 

into the woods, came in and told us this was done by 1863, 
the Confederates in cold blood, at a time when a gen- 
eral officer was sitting on his horse close by. It did not 
make us feel particularly amiable. In this action the 
regiment lost one officer and ten men wounded, and ten 
captured. 

When the regiment was attacked by the enemy's a picket 
cavalry at Parker's store, it happened that one company 
and two officers of the 1st Massachusetts, Lieutenants 
Merrill and Jackson, were picketing the plank road 
in the direction of Fredericksburg, that is, towards the 
rear. Hampton surprised and with his overwhelming 
numbers easily drove in the 3d Pennsylvania, which was 
on picket, and the 1st Massachusetts in reserve, forcing 
them off the plank road and down a side road. It thus 
happened that this little party of men was then cut off, 
as the advanced troops were driven in. But Lieutenant a handful 
Merrill, who was in command, put a bold front upon his predp?tate 
dangerous position, and rode straight into the column of on^threne- 
Hampton's men, who as far as could be seen blocked up umn. 
the road. Fortunately the road was narrow and flanked 
with thick woods. At the head of his men he dashed 
in on the Confederates, who were surprised at his bold- 
ness, and from their higher position could easily count 
his whole force and see that he was unsupported by 
troops behind. He himself had a hand-to-hand en- 
counter both with pistol and sabre. Those who wit- 
nessed it recall his futile attempts to run a Confederate 
trooper through with his sword. It was cold weather, 
and the enemy, as well as our troops, had on great 
coats. The dull sabre made no impression, but doubled 
up in its effort to pierce the great coat of Johnny Lieuten- 
Reb. Lieutenant Merrill himself was shot throudi ^"oundel" 



188 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

i8()3, the knee, but contrived to stay on his horse, and man- 
aged with his men to get into the woods and thence 
back to the main body. It was a small affair, but a 
brave and gallant one. 
Glad to The evening and night of December 1, Meade re- 

the wilder- treated across the Rapidan River, the cavalry as usual 
bringing up the rear. Owing to bad roads the retreat 
was slow and very tedious, and we expected every mo- 
ment to be attacked, as we formed the rear-guard. 
Halts were numerous, and the men became very weary. 
The cavalry recrossed at Germanna Ford, and as they 
marched up the steep bank on the north side of the 
river, the last to cross, one of the bands in the 3d corps 
struck up the well-known tune, " Oh, ain't I glad to get 
out o' de wilderness." The whole army within hearing 
caught the idea and set up a shout which was a fervent 
amen to the sentiment of the song. This was the last 
fight in 1863. 

After an interval of picket duty, the army went into 
winter quarters between the Rappahannock and Rapi- 
dan rivers. Lee's army of Northern Virginia was just 
across the river, with headquarters at Gordonsville. The 
1st Massachusetts cavalry, for some days after the cross- 
ing, picketed at Germanna Ford, w^as then relieved by 
infantry, and with the rest of the cavalry was disposed 
along the flanks of the army. The 2d division found 
Headquar- itself with hcadquarters at Warrenton, a place at that 
at War- time regarded almost as a second home to the regiment, 
so often had it been quartered there. 

When the word came to establish headquarters, De- 
cember 12, the regiment was " standing to horse " just 
within the town of Warrenton, opposite the house of 
the Governor of Virginia, " Extra Billy Smith." The 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 189 

commandina; officer announced to the little group of ises, 
officers the fact, and added, " I will take a leave of ab- 
sence first and go home." " Why ? " asked a captain. 
" To get my teeth mended." He turned his head aside, 
took out a set of false teeth which nobody knew he pos- Why he 
sessed, and then laughingly exposed a face which by leave of 
this little change looked fifteen years older. To the 
horror of not a few of the group, two other officers 
proceeded to do the same thing. The rest, I think, 
put their hands on their own teeth to see if they were 
fast. 

WARRENTON. 

Warrenton is the most considerable town in that Situation 

of War- 
part of Virginia through which the Bull Run Moun- renton. 

tains extend. It is situated upon high ground, and 
overlooks the country about for quite a distance. It 
is a county town, and has a court house and jail, and 
a hotel well known in that part of the country as the 
" Warren Green." It was the fortune of the 1st Mas- 
sachusetts to spend considerable time in this place in 
picketing it. In the autumn of 1863 the regiment 
went there so frequently as to become well known to all The ist 

,., ,. ,, •11 Massachu- 

the people in the town, and it had the enviable repu- setts weU 

. . . . .7 known 

tation of being the only regiment in the brigade that there. 
was not at some time or other successfully attacked by 
the Confederate partisan troops who constantly operated 
in the neio^hborhood. 

Warrenton was famous for its pretty girls, who did Famous 
not fail to tell wonderful stories of the Confederate pretty 

... . girls. 

troopers, predicting attacks upon us, and the discomfi- 
ture which they said was always the result of an engage- 
ment with their Virginia heroes. Whether this had 
anything to do with the success of the 1st Massachusetts 



190 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1863, 
December. 



Predic- 
tions of 
the War- 
renton 
belles not 
verified. 



A trap 
which 
failed to 
catch any- 
thing:. 



First Con- 
federate 
flag made 
here. 



in guarding' this place may be doubtful, but it is a fact 
that while other regiments of the brigade had many 
rough encounters with Mosby, White, the Black Horse 
cavalry, — company H, 4th Virginia cavalry, — and 
other companies of Confederate cavalry infesting this 
region, the 1st Massachusetts had better luck and man- 
aged to come off best in whatever encounters took place 
here. 

On one occasion, in the autumn of 1863, a squadron 
of the regiment, sent to picket the town, found that the 
regiment whom they relieved had lost an officer and 
thirteen men the night before, who were surprised by 
the Confederates, and their whole picket post was cap- 
tured. The men of the 1st Massachusetts, as soon as it 
became dusk, took down some telegraph wire, and care- 
fully fastened it in two places across the road, at such 
a height as would intercept the neck of a cavalry sol- 
dier riding against it, placing it just outside of where 
the picket post of the relieved regiment had been, and 
then stationed themselves inside, along the road, await- 
ing an attack, which did not come. But later one of 
these telegraph wire traps was successful, and the par- 
ticulars of it were related by the aforesaid pretty girls 
of Warrenton, who seemed to be in constant communi- 
cation with their rebellious friends outside. It would 
be invidious to mention the names of the young ladies 
referred to, but their society was vastly appreciated by 
the officers of one reofiment. 

It was in Warrenton that the first Confederate flag 
was made, at the beginning of the war, by Miss Vir- 
ginia Semmes, the sister of Raphael Semmes, wdio com- 
manded the famous Confederate vessel, the Alabama. 
Warrenton occupied a prominent place in the history 




LUCIUS W. KNIGHT 
/.•;/ Li. atid Regtl. ^. M. 



SUMMER ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 191 

of the F. F. V.'s, and more Confederate news could be i8G3, 
obtained there than at any other place short of Rich- ^'"^"^'^"'■• 
mond. Here lived Extra Billy Smith, Governor of 
Virginia, the Paynes, and Colonel Chilton, a well-known 
officer on General Lee's staff. These distinguished per- a centre 
sons themselves were elsewhere, but the people who re- feSe^; 
mamed seemed to be in constant communication with "'"'• 
their absent friends. 

In the winter of '63 and '64, when winter quarters 
were established, the 1st Massachusetts was encamped 
in a field exactly across the road from Governor Smith's 
house ; near by was the mansion of Doctor Fisher, and 
next, that of the Rev. Mr. Barten, the Episcopal ' cler- 
gyman. Mrs. Smith and her daughter Mary appeared 
to be the only occupants of the house. The aim of the 
regiment to be courteous to everybody did not fail at Courteou.s 
Mrs. Smith's. In return she would occasionally make a tlTll. 
batch of bread for the officers of the regiment, which *^'"'^'' 
was of surprising excellence. Considerate treatment 
of the citizens by the regiment certainly made our stay 
here i^leasanter. 

Outside Warrenton to the west, about a mile distant, A„„„de 
was situated a high hill known as Water Mountain, gS 
from which a very extensive view could be had ; and ^°'*- 
this mountain was frequently occupied as a signal sta- 
tion, the top being defended by a sort of block-house. 
This was one of the points occupied in picketino- the 
neighborhood of Warrenton, and as the ride up and 
down was not a comfortable one, and the danger of an 
attack was always considerable, it was not ii favorite 
post to picket. Attacks were continually being made 
by our Confederate friends, and these often resulted in 
the killing or wounding of the men, without affordin<r * 



192 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1863, ^ ^jjy corresponding advantage to an army. Not unfre- 
quently during this winter deserters came in from Lee's 
army to Warrenton, and just before spring in consider- 
able numbers, leading to the behef that there was de- 
morahzation, which was not the case. 



CHAPTER IX. 

WINTER QUARTERS AT WARRENTON. REENLISTMENT. 
NEW BATTALION. JANUARY TO MAY, 1864. 

The winter of 1863-64 was a very severe one for i864, 
picket duty ; and hardly a week passed without an in- ^°"^'^* 
cursion being made into Mosby's Confederacy, with the 
hope of capturing the redoubtable chieftain and his 
ubiquitous horsemen. These minor raids proved futile, FutUe at- 
however, so far as capturing Mosby was concerned, but capture*" 
they made things lively, and kept the men and horses **^ ^" 
in health by the exercise. 

A raid made on the 1st of January, 1864, to the She- a raid to 
nandoah Valley with the expectation, it Avas said, of sur- Royal, 
prising a camp of some Virginia cavalry regiments sup- 
posed to be quartered there, near Front Royal, was 
memorable in the history of all the regiments engaged 
in it. The Confederate regiment was not captured, — 
perhaps was not there, — but we had a curious march 
of it. The day of setting out was warm and mild, 
sloppy and muddy. After waiting many hours for the 
2d brigade, encamped near Warrenton Junction, the 
column started. 

One of those interesting spells of weather, which in " ciearin- 
the phraseology of " Old Probabilities " is called " clear- "'"""'"" 
ing weather," came on, and what had been snow and 
water changed instantly into ice. The force bivouacked 
that night at Orleans, and passed the whole night trying 



weather.' 



194 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
1864, to get warm enough to be able to sleep. The cold was 

January. . ^ . „ __. 

intense, but the eomiort was not. ihe next day the 
cavalry may be said to have slid and skated to Front 
Royal, over the mountains, through Chester Gap ; and, 
finding the expedition a bootless one, except that it 
burned several tanneries and factories of horse equip- 
ments, was returning by way of Manassas Gap. 
Over Blue Mauassas Gap is the widest and most practicable of 
M^ifassas ^ ^^® ^^P^ "^ ^^^ Bluc Ridge, the railroad running 
^*P* through it ; but for some reason it was the least used by 

us in crossing the Blue Ridge. This was the first time 
the reofiment had ever been throuo^h it. At a house in 
the middle of the gap was found a great deal of honey 
in the comb, the culture of bees being a common one 
in that part of Virginia. The bees in that cold weather 
were not active, and the capture was exempt from the 
Honey usual penalty of disturbing honey-comb. But honey 
go round." ^cjs sucli a luxury that every trooper in the command 
proceeded to take his part, — and there was " enough 
to go round." The consequence was that every uniform 
was bedaubed with •' linked sweetness long drawn out." 
On these excursions, frequently, a store of apple brandy 
would be found, and the consequences, when this was 
Applejack the case, were direful. Probably no known liquor will 
tency. ^° 23roduce so much " drunk" in so short a time as "apple 
jack," particularly when new. On this Front Royal 
expedition a quantity was found, and many soldiers 
had to be tied upon their horses, to keep them with the 
column. The regiment camped the second night at 
Piedmont, tried in vain to gobble up some of Mosby's 
men at Salem next morning, and got back to Warren- 
ton the third day. 

The following letter briefly outlines the main features 




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WINTER QUARTERS AT WARRENTON. 195 
of tlie expedition and revives the impressions of the i864, 

time : January, 

Warkenton, Va. 
On the night of December 31, or rather at three A. m. of January How we 
1, came orders to be ready to march at daybreak. At the time it had new 'year^ 
been raining q„ite liard for twenty-four hours, and everything was 
knee-deep in the very muddiest of mud. You can imagine our" feel- 
ings at receiving the orders. We made the best of the bad thing, 
however, and got ready at the appointed time, and remained ready 
all day, too, until about two o'clock, when the 2d brigade came up, 

and we all set out for . 

About noon the wind had changed to northwest, and it blew vio- Greenland 
lently and became like Greenland's icy mountains, only more so. ^^^^^er. 
But we had to faoe it. And we very nearly perished. That day 
we made Orleans, about fourteen miles from here, and camped for 
the night. The roads froze hard as marble, but by means of enor- 
mous fires we were able to keep alive, and some slept. Next day 
we started before daylight, and marched until after dark, from Or- 
leans, via Chester Gap, across the Blue Ridge to Front Royal. The 
day was awfully cold. Our regiment had the advance, and, of 
course, all the little excitement of chasing scouts of the enemy etc 
etc. I am sorry to say the inhabitants had more poultry, etc., on The poul- 
January 1 than on January 2, on that road. Every man's horse re- *'^ ''^"'■• 
sembled a butcher shop. We got four or five horses and a few pris- 
oners. The gap on the valley side is quite picturesque. From it 
we could see large camp fires, said to be General Imboden's, with a 
rebel bngade of cavalry and battery. The enemy was said to be on 
a raul down the Shenandoah Valley, and I suppose we were sent to 
cu them off. One thing certainly has prevented this being done. 
When we went down to the Shenandoah River at the ford we found The She- 
some twenty feet of water and no bridge. The enemy held one side ?^""^°^^ 
and we the other, and - we looked at each other. They could not ^r'^' ' 
come over to us and we could not get at them. Rebel General Ros- 
ser, with a cavalry brigade, was at Strasburg, twelve miles away. 
Citizens confirmed the rebel raid story, but we should be out of 
rations and forage next day. So next day we marched through 
Manassas Gap to Piedmont, on the way back over the rough road. OurlaW 
Early this mormng I went with our regiment four miles, before day- ^ 
break, and surrounded Salem, and searched the town, to no purpose, ' ' 



196 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864 as all the Mosby men knew we were near, and got away before. We 
January, breakfasted with an F. F. V., who said " Sir," every other word. He 
was stately, and had six or seven different vintages of hog on the 
table. We got into camp this afternoon at about three, in a severe 
snow-storm, which is still going on. It has been as severe a march 
as we have ever made, in the coldest weather of this year. 

Major Sar- On amviiig at Boston on his leave of absence, Major 
recruiting Sargent was made recruiting officer for the new third 
battalion of the regiment. He remained m Boston all 
winter, attending to this duty, rejoining the command at 
Warrenton with the newly raised battalion, March 24. 
Officers re- At that time men were not as easily procured as they 
with the had been ; and, jjrobably to induce men to enlist, Gov- 
ernor Andrew saw fit to recruit new officers with the 
men. Consequently, when this battalion joined the 
regiment, it was with entirely inexperienced company 
officers. This was not pleasant for the officers in the 
Injustice eio^lit old companics of the regiment ; of whom many 

to officers '-' iniii i 

entitled to had riscu irom the ranks, and all had been engaged 

promotioD. i i • • p t 

in hard work at this tmie lor over two years, it seems 
to-day incredible that this should have been done, and 
it can be justified only upon the ground of absolute 
necessity, because men could not otherwise have been 
recruited. Here were four hundred men and officers 
without any experience whatever, utterly green, out- 
numbering the men in the eight other companies. It 
followed that when a detail was made for any purpose, 
one of these inexperienced captains would outrank all 
the lieutenants of the old command. These four hun- 
dred men were good enough, and the officers quite up 
Bad feel- to the average of any officers with equally little experi- 
regiment. eucc, but tlic feeling produced in the regiment was bad ; 
and the four hundred green men, without any train- 



WINTER QUARTERS AT WARRENTON. 197 
ing, added at first very little, i£ any, to the efficiency of i864, 

1 • 1 n T 1 January. 

the regiment, except upon the muster roll, it turned 
out that in the first fifteen days of the campaign of 
1864: which followed, this new battahon went all to 
pieces ; and before the fifteen days were over, many of 
the men of these four new companies were assigned to 
others. The old officers m command of the companies Additional 
thus formed, in addition to losing their chance of jjro- entailed. 
motion in case they were Heutenants, were obliged to 
account for all the property belonging to the new ones, 
adding thus injury to insult. 

The need of officers during this winter at Warrenton Absence of 
was very urgent. From December 15 to March 24, no and efforts 
field officer of the regiment was present, and out of tiiem 
twenty-eight line officers in the eight companies, only 
eight were present for duty with the regiment. This 
caused great demoralization, particularly as the same 
want of officers had continued for the larger part of 
the year. The attention of the brigade and division 
commanders was directed to this, and at their request 
every effort was made to bring back officers absent on 
staffs and other detached duty, but without success. 
Several officers had been in Massachusetts since Ausfust 
on recruiting service, while others were absent on ac- 
count of wounds, and not a few on staffs. Some who 
were ordered back returned, only to be immediately 
detailed again by high authority. 

The absence of so many officers made duty more dif- Officers in 
ficult for the few left with the regiment at Warrenton, overruled 
and resulted in some conflicts of authority, because the tees. 
most of the officers were in Boston. 

In the winter of 1863-64 the three years term of ser- Reeniist- 
vice of many regiments expired. These regiments had 



198 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, seen most service and were the most reliable in the 
army. If they could be induced to reenlist there would 
be added, or rather left in the service the best men it 
contained. These troops had enlisted at a time when 
men joined the ranks entirely from patriotic motives. 
Bounties were unknown. But those more recently en- 
listed had received large and constantly increasino- 
bounties. 
Efforts to It was in January and February that the effort to o-et 
anstore- the vctcraus to reenlist culminated. Offers of lar^e 

enlist. 1 ' 1 ' It ^ 

bounties and promises of long furloughs were the prin- 
cipal inducements. These promises were from time to 
time changed. The one inducement that found most 
favor with the veterans of the 1st Massachusetts was 
that the whole command; with colors, band, and offi- 
cers, should go to Massachusetts for thirty-five days, 
and there be recruited to the maximum, as was at first 
promised. 
Mendis- The condition was that two thirds should reenlist. 
by prom- The requisite two thirds was with difficulty obtained, 
iiUed. when the order Avas construed to include two thirds of 
" all, including men on detached service." These men 
detailed were having a " soft thing," as it was called, 
were contented with their easy duty, and, almost to a 
man, refused the offer. Those Avitli the colors were 
having an unusually tedious and severe winter, v/ith 
ceaseless, picket duty and scouting, and for various 
reasons were discouraged. Almost every day the reen- 
listment scheme assumed a different phase. The very 
changes were disheartening, and they generally took 
away the attractiveness of the scheme, and made the 
men at first doubtful, and at length reluctant. Colonel 
Adams, of the governor's staff, came down to see if he 



WINTER QUARTERS AT WARRENTON. 199 

could effect anything-, but without avaih Finally, when i864, 
the offer was made that any company, of which two '^^''''^^• 
thirds should reenlist, should go home as an organiza- Company 
tion. Company D reenlisted, and went on with Captain ^ndloes*" 
Adams and Lieutenant Wardell. It was the only com- ^"'^"' 
pany to do so. 

The pay of line officers was at this time much re- Payo^offi- 
duced by charging $54 a month for an enlisted man as t^^Zt 
a servant, and it was difficult, sometimes impossible, to "^iT 
get any other ; while other embarrassing stoppages from "■"'"^' 
the inspector's department, for various reasons, sadly 
- reduced the pay. The pay of private soldiers and non- 
commissioned officers was continuaUy increased, and the 
reenlistment bounties were enormous. Many men who 
originally enHsted at the regimental headquarters, and 
did not had from particular towns, were permitted to 
reenlist from any town they pleased. They naturally 
chose such as paid the highest bounty. 

As a result, when the paymaster came, the camp was 
full of money, and a good deal was sent home. Pro- 
motion from the ranks prevented many men from get- 
tmg their bounties, and some promotions were refused 
for pecuniary reasons alone. 

The new battalion formed in Massachusetts should New bat- 
have been officered from the old men and officers who should 
at this time had had two hard years' service. It was '^^TJT 
expected by the men, and it was deserved. The demor- sS^^ 
alization was greatly increased when it was found that 
for the four companies and four hundred men, not only 
new and mexperienced officers, but even new non-com- 
missioned officers were selected. Eeenlistment, conse- 
quently, was almost stopped, and many who had put 
down their names took them off the list. 



200 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, About this time some officers resigned, and took rank 

in other regiments. Captains Bowditeh and Weld were 
made majors in the 5th Massachusetts (colored) cavalry. 
Lieutenants Parsons and Jackson and several sergeants 
took commissions in the colored cavalry. 
Arrival of Tlic uew battaliou itself made its appearance in camp 
battaUon Marcli 24, in a driving snow-storm, having marched 
from Alexandria in three days. Major Sargent, after 
putting these men in camp as Avell as it could be done 
in the snow and mud, called all the officers together ; 
and, after reviewing the whole situation, asked all to be 
friends and take things as they found them, and make 
the best of it. 
Prejudice There was no friendship at first, and the uncomfort- 
nfw men. able coudition of the new men in camp did not excite 
much sympathy among the old men. This feeling grad- 
ually wore away, however, and finally disappeared when 
the old men who had not reenlisted went home. 
Two com- Companies C and D — Captain Adams's squadron — 
taehed for received orders in April to proceed to headquarters, 

service at n ■< -r^ -\ ^ i^ i^ ri 

Meade's Amiv 01 the Potomac, to act as guard and escort to uren- 

headquar- "^ • /^ • a i i 

ters. eral Meade. At the time Captain Adams was absent 

on leave in England. On the 15th of April the squa- 
dron left camp at Warrenton and marched to Brandy 
Station, and reported for duty under Lieutenant Ed- 
ward A. Flint of company C. With the squadron 
were Lieutenants George H. Teague attached to com- 
pany C, and James A. Baldwin to company D. Captain 
Adams of company D reported from leave a little later, 
and in the following June Lieutenant James J. Hig- 
ginson, who had been taken prisoner June 17, 1863, at 
Aldie, returned and reported to this squadron for duty, 
remaining with it to the end. 




JOHN L. ERIGHAM 

jgl Lieut, and Commissary 

Capt. and Brvt. Major 

Staff of Gcnl. Slieridan 



WINTER QUARTERS AT WARRENTON. 201 

While at General Meade's headquarters the duty 1864, 
done consisted mostly of escort and orderly work, car- ^^ ^^^ 
rying dispatches and orders. te^^*?*^"^"^ 

Their comrades in the field with the cavalry corps Field ser- 

. vice at its 

were having the hardest work of the whole period of hardest, 
the war, engaged almost daily in battles or skirmishes. 
They were suffering constant losses. It was only occa- 
sionally that they fell in with the men of the squadron 
at army headquarters. When they did, there were 
plenty of expressions of envy at their good fortune. 
This squadron never again rejoined the regiment ; and 
at the expiration of its term of service the men were 
sent to Boston and mustered out separately from the 
rest of the reg-iment. 

The taking away of so many of the old officers and Tiie new 
men at this time, and the uniting of so large a new outnum- 
element as the four new companies of the battalion re- veterans. 
cently recruited in Boston, made a great change in the 
regiment. The old men were outnumbered, and there 
were only a very few of the original officers left. 

There was a feeling of something like disgust all Regiment 
around, and the regiment was never again the same, again the 
For the old men it was difficult to get acquainted with 
the new, and, in fact, it was never accomplished : and 
since the war the new men have always been a sort of 
mystery to the old officers, which has prevented many 
from getting pensions. 

When the men went home who had not reenlisted, 
the personnel was almost entirely new. In some squa- 
drons there was not six per cent, of the original men 
who enlisted in 1861. 

It was at Potomac Creek in the winter of 1862-63 
that there was the largest number of the old men with 



202 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1804, 
April. 



Great 
changes 
in the 
regiment. 



Winter 
quarters 
broken up 
and divi- 
sion goes 
into camp. 



Sheridan 
takes com- 
mand. 



the colors. During the spring and summer, casualties 
thinned them out. The recruits coming into companies 
with a majority of old men were quickly assimilated, 
and soon took on the same character and traditions. 
Soon after January, 1864, reenlistment made a break, 
as the veterans went home for thirty-five days' leave. 
Some got promotion in other regiments. But the great 
changes Avere the detachment of companies C and D 
never to return, and the adding of the four entirely 
new companies with new officers and non-commissioned 
officers, followed in active cani23aign by a large number 
of casualties, and in early autumn by the muster out of 
the original men who had not reenhsted. 

On reorganization the composition of the companies 
was changed, and very little remained of the old regi- 
ment but its name and traditions. 

On the 26tli of April, 1864, the whole division broke 
up winter quarters at Warrenton and went into camp at 
Three Mile Run, between Warrenton and Warrenton 
Junction. This was preliminary to the advance of the 
army. A month before, in March, General Sheridan 
had been summoned from the West to take command 
of the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac, in 
accordance with General Grant's desire. 

On taking command, he simply reviewed each divi- 
sion in turn, and without issuing any high-sounding 
general orders. The cavalry regarded him, perhaps, 
with more curiosity than any other feeling, and waited 
quietly to see what he would do. It did not take long 
to find out, for the campaign oj)ened, and it is safe to 
say that General Sheridan proved all that had been 
expected of him by General Grant. 



CHAPTER X. 

SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN. RAPIDAN TO PETERS- 
BURG, MAY TO SEPTEMBER, 1864. 

The forward movement actually beg-an April 29, and i864, 
simultaneously Avitli the movement came hot weatlier. 



In 1864 winter jumped into summer. Snows continued The for- 
until very late, and there was no spring- ; the day the move- 
cavalry marched from Three Mile Run across the Rapi- 
dan River was exceedingly hot. Men and horses were 
greatly fatigued, and the heat was oppressive. The 
division was marched, April 29, to Paolis Mills. All 
the troops were now massed on the Rapidan River, 
ready to cross. 

The cavalry crossed at Ely's Ford, May 4, marched At Todd' 
straight out through the Wilderness to Cedar Run, near ^'^^™' 
Todd's Tavern, in the direction of Spottsylvania Court 
House, and a squadron of the 1st Massachusetts went to 
that place to reconnoitre, narrowly escaping capture by 
a large force of cavalry. The infantry followed close 
behind. The slight opposition made to the crossing by 
the enemy perhaps added to the seriousness of the men 
in the ranks, who all felt sure that a terrible struggle 
was at hand. Nor were they disappointed. 

General Lee at once put his army in motion to attack Cavalry 
Meade and Grant. In the fighting which ensued, the gm.*' ^^" 
cavalry of both armies came together on the left flank, 
south of the infantry. As our cavalry advanced to open 



204 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
May. 



The new 

battalion 
gret a taste 
of real 



The 1st 
Massachu- 
setts or- 
ders itself 
forward. 



up the road, Sheridan's troopers fought a constant suc- 
cession of battles with the cavab*y of Lee, in which they 
were almost uniformly successful. The 1st Massachu- 
setts had its share of the fighting, and lost, at Todd's 
Tavern, several officers and men. 

General Wilson's od division, after marching from 
the fords to Parker's store and from there out towards 
SjDottsylvania Court House, met Lee's cavalry in force 
and was driven in to Todd's Tavern, across the Mat 
River. The 2d division was here met, and the 1st bri- 
gade, after letting the 3d division pass, promptly took 
up the fight and advanced to meet Lee's cavalry. At 
once the fight became lively. This was the initiation 
of the new battalion into real war, or, as Napoleon HI. 
has Frenchily named it, their " baptism of fire." It 
made the veterans smile to see these new men, and wit- 
ness their various emotions, as they came under the fire 
of the enemy's artillery. There was no doubt about 
their having the range, as they fired down the road with 
shells. One w^ent through Captain Hopkins's horse, 
w^ounding the captain in the leg, and the same shot did 
the same for Sergeant-Major Light and his horse, and 
the sergeant died from the wound. The shells crashed 
through the trees and made it appallingly lively, until 
for some reason they changed the direction of their 
fire a little, spoiling some first-rate practice. 

General Davies halted the regiment and directed it 
to remain until he sent for it. He then rode onward, 
and did not send for the regiment. But the 1st New 
Jersey came back down the road in some confusion pur- 
sued by the enemy, and the 1st Massachusetts ordered 
itself forward into a field to the right of the road, and 
opened a fire, by which the enemy was repulsed, and 




BENJAMIN G. MANN 
ist Lt. aii.i Rcgtl. Com. Brvt. Cnpt. 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 205 

did not again get so far forward. Meanwhile, Captain i864, 
Gleason's squadron was taken to the left and had a 
smart little engagement of its own. The enemy was Enemy 
everywhere driven back, and after dark the regiment where re- 
bivouacked where it stood, without unsaddling, and got 
what rest could be had with a dusty road for a bed, and 
an endless confusion of sounds for a lullaby. The men 
were too tired to cook food, but made a little coffee. 

In the morning, and in fact for three days, the bri- Three days 

, mii>m • ^ ' ni°^ picket- 

srade remained near Todd s Tavern, picketino-, fio-ht- ing and 
mg, and witnessing the march past or various corps 01 
infantry, as they went to the left and held the enemy 
off meanwhile. On the 8th Lee's cavalry made a strong 
effort to create a disturbance, and a hot fight ensued 
near Todd's Tavern. The 6tli Ohio had a beautiful 
opportunity to decimate one of Lee's regiments, as it 
dismounted and offered its flank in an attempt to break 
our line of battle, and was driven back in disorder, with 
severe loss. Four days and four nights this ground 
was held against all the enemy's attempts. Custer's 
division, on the 7th, relieved Gregg's pickets, and he 
brought up a band and placed it just behind the line of 
vedettes, and made it play for a long time, to the great 
amusement of Gregg's men, who were not accustomed 
to such tactics. 

The country was very intricate, and General Grant, Sheridan 

" ordered to 

finding that cavalry could not operate advantageously, rear of 
and also induced by General Sheridan's remonstrance army, 
against General Meade's use of his corps, ordered Sher- 
idan to march with his whole force to the rear of Lee's 
army, and cut off his communication Avith Richmond. 
This movement began on the 9th of May, Sheridan 
marching his cavalry due south, straight toward Rich- 



206 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, mond. The first encounter was in the afternoon of that 
day, just as night was coming on, between the advance 
of Stuart and our rear-guard. A fight began first be- 
tween the Gth Ohio, the 1st New Jersey, and Wick- 
ist Massa- ham's brigade. At dusk the 1st Massachusetts became 
becomes the rear regiment of the whole cohimn, and the attack 
guard, and was transferred to them. The enemy was repulsed ; 

sustains , . i p • p • i • i i 

enemy's but in the couiusion 01 rctreatino^ upon the main body 

attack. 1111 1 

after dark, by narrow roads, through deep woods, orders 
could not be properly transmitted. Occasionally, they 
were not received at all, and two officers and eighteen 
men marched by mistake into the Confederate lines and 
were captured. Casualties from wounds were few. A 
squadron which was thus not properly relieved had to 
march in Egyptian darkness several miles without a 
guide, and finally got into the camp of the regiment a 
little before daylight. 
Prisoners The iicxt momiug reveille was sounded by the enemy 
from Lee. witli artillery and carbines, instead of the friendly trum- 
pet or bugle, and all was in motion before sunrise. At 
Beaver Dam Station a large convoy of prisoners cap- 
tured by Lee was recaptured, and Sheridan's cavalry 
pushed on in the direction of Richmond, skirmishing 
all the Avay with Stuart. The 2d division encamped 
that night at Ground Squirrel Church, towards Ground 
Squirrel Bridge. May 11, before daylight, part of the 
regiment was on picket, and the balance, under Major 
Fight at L. M. Sargent, was sent to Ashland Station, on the line 
station, of the railroad, to destroy Confederate stores at that 
place and break up the line of the railroad. While en- 
gaged in this duty, just as day was breaking, the 2d 
Virginia, the advance of Stuart's cavalry, burst upon 
them and a severe little fight took place. 



SPEING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 207 
Just as the attack of the Confederates was delivered, i864, 

May. 

orders came to Major Sargent to withdraw to the main 
column. In order to do so without loss, he ordered 
Captain Motley's squadron, companies F and G, to 
charge mounted up the line of the railroad, that is, 
north. At this time the houses and yards of the houses 
on the east side of the town were full of the enemy's 
sharpshooters, dismounted, firing from the houses and 
behind the fences. Captain Motley pointed out the error Captain 
of charging in this direction, but at once obeyed the squadron 
order and charged across the line of this fire, as he was across line 
directed. Of course he accomplished nothing, as the fi^e. 
enemy was on his flank, and a fierce fire killed and 
wounded many of his men before he had gone twenty 
yards. In fact, his charge cut him ofP from his line of 
retreat, and many were killed, wounded, and taken pris- 
oners. 

Captain Motley and Lieutenant Smith were both Officers 
wounded, the latter twice, and both were captured, wounded, 
Lieutenant Hopkins was instantly killed just at the mo- t^red. 
ment of retreating from the town. Captain Crownin- 
shield's squadron, the first in the column, was ordered 
to picket the road with one platoon, and destroy the 
station, cars, and stores with the rest of the men. 
When the attack came, this squadron was assembling, 
as the men came in from picket and the work of de- 
struction. It was consequently the last to leave. It 
was just as this squadron turned to leave that Lieuten- 
ant Hopkins was killed. After the three squadrons 
had left the town, came an order to return to Ashland. 
The order was incorrectly delivered by General Gregg's 
aide. It was, however, soon corrected, and the squa- 
drons withdrew and joined Gregg's division, which was 



208 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
May. 



Incidents 
of the ac- 
tion at 
Ashland 
JStation. 



held in reserve, and was not engaged at the battle of 
Yellow Tavern, in which the famous Confederate leader, 
J. E. B. Stuart, was mortally wounded. He died two 
days later at Richmond. At Ashland — the birthplace 
of Henry Clay, by the way — many stores were de- 
stroyed, an interesting mail captured, and the railroad 
track ruined. Prisoners were captured of the 2d Vir- 
ginia cavalry, engaged in this affair, who reported that 
Captain Motley died in their hands of his wounds, giv- 
ing such minute details that the story was beHeved by 
the officers of the regiment, and from their letters his 
family believed him dead for some months. He actu- 
ally was sent to a Confederate hospital, and after much 
suffering finally recovered, although for a long time 
unable to write to his family. 

The squadron under Captain Gleason was attacked 
in the morning, while on picket, and Captain Gleason 
was wounded while fighting gallantly, and several men 
were killed and wounded. 

Captain Gleason tells of this fight at Ground Squir- 
rel Church as follows : — 



The fight 
at Ground 
Hquirrel 
Church. 



Ground Squirrel Church, Va., May 10, 1864. 

About five p. M. received orders to go on picket with my squa- 
dron and Lieutenant Herrick. We, being the only officers, reported 
for orders to General Sheridan, who sent me about one mile to our 
right, in the woods, with orders to hold the ground at all hazards. 
It was between nine and ten before we got our vedettes on post, 
which was done by putting three on each post, with orders to relieve 
each other. We kept one bugler only with us, — Herrick and self. 
At eight A. M., the 11th, called in the pickets, and without breakfast 
or water went to the pike road, the road the army was traveling on. 
Found the cavalry moving towards Richmond, 2d division, 2d bri- 
gade, in the road. Went into a field, fed horses, and told the men 
to get breakfast, if they could, but be ready to start at once. The 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 209 

fortunate ones had their coffee cooked, horses half fed, when an or- i864 
derly rode up to me and said, " Is this the 1st Massachusetts cavalry ^^^' 
that was on picket ? " I said, " Yes." " Your regiment has gone on 
a raid to Ashland, and you are ordered to fall in between the 10th 
New York and 2d Pennsylvania." I said, " But they belong to the 
1st brigade and I to the 2d." He replied, " I know it ; but that 's 
General Gregg's order." I asked where they were, and he said, 
" That 's the 10th New York now passing, and you will have to act 
promptly to get your place in line." Ordered boots and saddles 
blown. Mounted, and took my position according to orders ; men 
with hot coffee in cups, some having breakfasted, some not. We 
marched to or near Ground Squirrel Church, where we left the regi- At Ground 
ment the night before, when another orderly rode up and said, " Is Church^ 
this Captain Gleason of the 1st Massachusetts cavalry ? " I replied, 
" Yes." He said, " The rebels have attacked the 1st Maine cavalry, 
who are our rear-guard, and are driving them. General Gregg or- 
ders you to wheel out, go back, and stop the retreat." 

We had been marching platoon front, I broke into fours to the 
left, where there was a little half-moon road, just large enough to 
hold my command, drew sabre, and went as far as I could, but not 
far, owing to the jam in the road. How long we sat I can't tell, 
but it seemed a long time. The road was jammed full of struggling 
men and horses, all pushing towards Richmond, but away from the 
enemy. In the rear were two pieces of artillery, and when nearly 
up to us the rebels were swarming around them. I gave orders to 
charge, and we brushed the Johnnies away ; in fact, we brushed so 
many on each side of us that we were in great danger of being sur- 
rounded. We charged but a short distance, wheeled by fours, came 
back to the place where we charged from, again wheeled by fours, 
formed line across the road, returned sabre, advanced carbine, and 
opened fire, holding the line until every rebel was out of sight, or 
about thirty minutes. The fire on both sides was terrific, the lines Terrific 
not more than thirty yards apart ; every man could look into his ene- cbse^quap- 
my's eyes, and almost tell their color. As the fire slackened, two *''^'^- 
rebel officers, a colonel and adjutant, at least so I thought, rode on 
top of a little rise, and with a field glass deliberately looked over 
the field. We fired several shots at them, in fact a volley. The 
colonel coolly dropped his glass, drew his pistol, fired two shots, and 
rode away unharmed. I was wounded early in the fight, first by a 
pistol ball tlu-ough the skin above the left knee, then by a minie- 



210 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
May. 



Promises 
which 
were not 
kept. 



Fight at 
Hanover 
Junction. 



ball in my right hip ; my horse was shot through the withers and 
chest, and left on the ground. 

We held the ground until the 1st brigade formed, and we were 
relieved. 

I am unable to state our loss, or that of the enemy, which was 
the 6th North Carolina cavalry. 

My men mounted me on a secesh horse we captured, and I turned 
over the command to Lieutenant Herrick. As I passed to the rear, 
I found the field full of disorganized cavalry. A few rods farther I 
was halted by Surgeon Moore of Gregg's staff, who said General 
Gregg wanted to see me. I found him dismounted, alongside the 
road ; he asked the circumstances of the fight, how I left things, etc. 
Then he said, " Captain Gleason, you have done a gallant thing in a 
gallant manner, and I shall have you brevetted for it," asked how 
many men I had, what companies, what other officers, and added, 
" I shall give them full credit in general orders." All of which, as 
far as I can learn, he never did. 

There were one or two of company B \vith me at the time, who 
remember the conversation. Sanborn of B, I think, was one ; Pet- 
tengill 1 know was there ; also Doctor Moore, and one other staff 
officer, whom I did not know. 

As near as I can remember, we had about eighty men. Sanborn 
says sixty. I have no memoranda to go by. The other matter is 
from my diary, and substantially correct. 

In the charge on the enemy, orderly sergeant Sanborn, company 
B, was at the head of the men, and showed great gallantry. 

When General Stuart started, early May 11, to at- 
tack Sheridan's cavalry from his bivouac on the North 
Anna River, he divided his column, sending General 
Gordon's North Carolina brigade to follow the rear of 
Sheridan's column, while he himself, with Fitz Lee's 
two brigades, marched to Hanover Junction. Early in 
the morning, Gordon's brigade made a sudden and vig- 
orous attack on the pickets, which Captain Gleason 
helped repel. The 1st Maine, and indeed all the 2d 
brigade, had been engaged all the morning, and it was 
a very severe fight, in which charges and countercharges 




CAPT. LUCIUS RICHMOND 





CAPT. D. B. KEITH 
Major 4th Cav. 



CAPT. CASPAR CROVVNINSHIELD 
Col. 2!i.< ■--■'. Britf. Genl. U. S. V. 



SPEING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 211 

were made. Only after the artillery and all the regi- i864, 
ments of the brigade were brought up, was the enemy 
checked and driven off. 

The enemy's accounts of this fight are stories of in- 
dividual jDrowess rather than of general events, and are 
doubtful in character. They did make a gallant fight, 
and it came near being a bad one for Gregg's 2d bri- 
gade. 

In these few days from May 4 to May 12, out of 15 Heavy loss 
officers and 522 men, the loss of the 1st Massachusetts sachusetts 
cavalry was 8 officers and 116 men, a pretty high per days. 
cent, for so brief a time. 

Since crossing the river the horses had not once been Hardships 
unsaddled, nor had any camp been established. What campaign. 
rest men and horses obtained was got in the roads, 
wherever they happened to be, men and officers hold- 
ing the bridles of their horses and lying down in the 
dirt alongside of them. Rations were insufficient, and 
it was only on the fifteenth day from the crossing of 
the river that the horses were unsaddled and the men 
had time to wash themselves or change their clothes. 
The wounded were carried in ambulances with the col- 
umn, or left in houses when wounds were severe. The 
new men in the 3d battalion had a rougfli initiation mto 
the duties of the fighting cavalry soldier. It is proba- 
ble that many of them felt like the Arkansas heutenant 
who, during the Mexican War, had tormented all his 
friends until he was given a commission. He joined 
his regiment the day before the battle of Buena Vista, 
and on the evening of that day was heard to exclaim, 
" I wish I was to hum in Arkansas and my commission 
to hell." 

In the death of General Stuart that day at the bat- 



212 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, tie at Yellow Tavern, the Confederate cavalry suffered 

^*^' a loss which was irreparable. It was their last serious 

Death of attempt to accomplish anything during this raid of 

stu'arTin Sheridau. They withdrew, or followed Sheridan feebly, 

irrepara e ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ horscs being utterly worn out. Officers 

among the prisoners that were captured spoke of their 
Stuart's command as entirely used up and demoralized, that they 
used'^up had the worst of every cavalry battle since the opening 
moraUzed. campaign. Although fighting bravely, they were beaten, 
and their demoralization and loss culminated at this 
time in Stuart's death. 
Reach the General Sheridan, after Yellow Tavern, pushed on to 
tbifoT capture Richmond by the " brook road," or " mountain 
Kichmon . ^^^^,, ^^ -^ ^^^ called. Marching by this road until he 
was close to the city and fortifications, he turned to the 
left, and before he could cross the Chickahominy River 
at Meadow Bridge he was surrounded on all sides by 
the Confederates. The enemy's cavalry was behind him 
and on his right, in front the fortifications of Rich- 
mond in plain sight, and an impassable river on the 
left, with the bridge burned. The forces in Richmond, 
4000 in number, fortunately not very efficient, were 
composed of what might be called home guards, clerks 
in the departments, and whatever could be collected, 
ludiffer- Besides these, however, three brigades were ordered into 
Sheridan's Richmoud from Petersburg, all under the command of 
theTich-*^ General Bragg. These came out and attacked Sheridan 
Sers!" in front. He hardly gave them a thought. A few dis- 
charges of canister from the artillery drove them back, 
and no impression was made on Sheridan's troopers, 
who, almost wearied out with the marches and fighting 
of the preceding days, sat stolidly on their horses and 
took hardly any notice of this feeble attack. 



SPBING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 213 

While it was going on, and before the bridge could i864 
be made practicable for the crossing of the cavalry, the ^^^' 
whole command remained quiet, with shells flying over 
their heads, and cannon-balls ricochetting under'' their 
feet, from three different directions at once. The back- 
ground of the picture was interesting, for it was 'no- Their 
thnag less than the city of Richmond, which had been aJSaSi: 
long considered a Mecca to the Army of the Potomac. 
Unfortunately, however, provisions and forage were ut- 
terly gone, and a double line of fortifications bristlino- 
with artillery was between the weary cavalry and their 
Mecca. 

Meadow Bridge was not very weU defended by the Theat- 
Confederates. It had to be taken and made practicable S- 
to open up the road to the James, and was gallantly "'"''• 
carried and repaired under fire. Slowly but regretfully 
the troopers crossed Meadow Bridge, and marched un- 
molested over McClellan's old battlefield towards Hax- 
all's Landing on the James River, reaching it two days 
later, Richmond fading out of their sight on the right 
as they marched. 

During all this May campaign the desperate work Theseri- 
that troops of all arms were called on to perform tTeMi"' 
seemed to be understood beforehand. All noticed the *^"'- 
determined look on the faces of the men bearing arms. 
Ihere was a remarkable stolidity. A whole corps would 
march without noise, steadily forward, apparently car- 
mg not at all whether it was into a battle or a camp. 
Ihey realized only too surely the fact that the battles 
meant death or wounds to more than half of them be- 
fore a month was to pass. There was no jesting, no 
Idle talk. The serious air of all was ominous, and made 
a deep impression on the beholder. 



214 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, In the Wilderness, before Spottsylvania Court House 

was reached, the heat was oppressive. The infantry 
Unwonted threw away everythini^ but the most indispensable arti- 
cles. Overcoats and army blankets by thousands were 
cast aside. The roads were almost literally lined with 
The cav- them as the army marched. The cavalry trooper, usu- 
aiiveto ally gay and noisy on the march, became silent and 
ation. serious, and by the time Richmond was reached was 
indifferent to danger and steady as granite. For the 
greater part of the 12th of May, while hearing the 
guns of the enemy on all sides at once, and well aware 
of the situation, every man was in his place in the ranks, 
and, although halted for many hours, there was abso- 
lutely no straggling. The ground was quite open, and 
the soldiers sat on their horses, biding their time, as if 
made of wood, too tired even to talk to the next man 
in the ranks. Two squadrons of the 1st Massachu- 
setts composed the rear-guard of all in crossing Meadow 
Expecting Bridge. For a long time, in perfectly open ground, 
* these squadrons had stood in line, Avatching in all direc- 
tions for an attack w^iich it seemed must necessarily 
come. But only small parlies of the enemy appeared, 
and did not come to blows. They were not sorry when 
the order came for them to retire and cross the bridge. 
An all- During the night of May 11, Sheridan's cavalry 

march. marclicd without any rest. As each brigade on the 
Brook Turnpike reached a certain by-road, it turned off 
to the left. It was on this by-road that the enemy had 
buried torpedoes, which our prisoners were made to 
unearth at the sabre's point. 

Each brigade, as its head reached this place, put out 
a squadron on picket towards Richmond, on the turn- 
pike. A squadron of the 1st Massachusetts was thus 




CAPT. JAMES H. CASE 





CAPT. HORACE N. WELD 
Li. Cot. jlh Cav. 



CAPT. ARNOLD A. RAND 
Col. 4lh Cav. 



SFBING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 215 

marched up the turnpike quite a distance, and posted in 18G4, 
the yard of a large house, which was enclosed by a high ^^' 
privet hedge, and vedettes were stationed further out 
on the road. When we were placed there it Avas quite 
dark, but day was about to break. Before we were 
withdrawn it became light enough to see distinctly, and 
what a sight greeted the eyes ! The city of Kichmond Richmond 
lay in plain sight, apparently about two miles away, "^liht!^ 
though probably much further, and stretched away to 
the left, — steeples, factory chimneys, and all the many 
sights common in city suburbs. Not far away, down 
the road, two brass guns with gunners were plainly vis- 
ible, and fortifications to the right quite near, on the 
parapets of which the sentinels could be seen marching 
their beats. Expecting every moment a shot from the 
brass guns, the trooper sat on his horse, tired enough, 
ordinarily, to drop, but under the stimulus of such a 
sight quickly wide awake as the wonderful spectacle 
was taken in. Were we to get in? was every man's 
thought. Having so far been everywhere victorious, 
of course nothing less was expected. But charging 
fortifications was not for cavalry. 

Hitherto, in the whole history of the Army of the a most ex- 
Potomac, no such fatiguing march, one so plentifully march?^ 
interspersed with battles and skirmishes, had ever been 
made. The 1st Massachusetts was glad enough, but 
probably not gladder than others, when it dismounted 
in the clover fields alongside of the James River, and 
permission was given to unsaddle the horses, while de- 
tails went to the transports and steamers which, as a 
part of this movement, had come up to meet them with 
forage and provisions. The wounded had painfully 
been carried in the jolting ambulances for the past six 



216 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, clays, and now were put upon transports and carried 
^^' North. The weary trooper fed his horse upon the rich 
clover and plenty of oats, and removing his clothes took 
a plunge in the James, thinking sadly of the comrades 
of two weeks before, whom he should never see again. 
Thecav- The cavalry corps, coming without warning to the 
at a pleas- bauks of tlic Jauics, offered a rather startling interrup- 
tion to a pleasure party which had gathered at a large 
house where they camped. A goodly number of young 
ladies had come down a day or two before from Rich- 
mond, — perhaps partly to avoid the dangers to which 
that city might be exposed. Among them was a daugh- 
ter of General Robert E. Lee. Here they had to remain 
until the corps left, and they had to eat hard-tack and 
salt pork, too, as under the circumstances nothing else 
could be procured. 
Effect of While Sheridan's cavalry was thus acting indepen- 
raid oidy ^ dcutly iu the direction of Richmond, the balance of the 
rary. army was fighting the series of battles about Spottsyl- 
vania Court House, and gradually pushing on toward 
Richmond by the left flank, fighting at every step. 
The disturbance created by the cavalry raid was only 
temporary. Lee's communications with Richmond were 
soon reestablished, and Sheridan's raid was more suc- 
cessful on account of its battles with Stuart's cavalry 
than as an injury to Lee's army by preventing its com- 
munication with Richmond. 
Cavalry After the Condition of the cavalry was reestablished 

Meade's ou tlic banks of the James, it marched in various di- 
rections across the peninsula, crossed the Pamunkey 
above White House Landing, and on May 25 came up 
to Meade's army at Chesterfield, passing around to the 
rear and rejoining it on the banks of the South Anna 



army. 



SFBING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 217 

River. Here a lot of detached men also came up, and ise*, 
with them, Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain, — made ^^^' 
lieutenant-colonel vice Curtis discharged, March, 1864. 

Colonel Chamberlain, on his way to the regiment, in Colonel 
May, vras put in charge of all the men going up to the lain'repeiis 
cavalry corps. This made a force of some seventeen baggage" 
hundred men altogether. On their way down, at Mil- ^''^'^^' 
ford, they fell in with a large force of Lee's infantry, 
who had in some manner broken through Grant's lines 
and were threatening his baggage trains. A sharp fight 
took place, in which Colonel Chamberlain handled his 
force so well that the attack was beaten off. The cav- 
alry then marched southeast, and crossed the Pamun- 
key River at Hanover Town May 27, getting safely 
across on pontoon bridges before Lee could interfere March to- 
with the movement. It marched rapidly out on the mmS^"'^' 
road to Richmond, to within fifteen miles of that city, ^^^'°' 
and at Hawes Shop was met by Stuart's cavalry, May At Hawes 
28. The 2d division. General Gregg's, met the enemy stef' 
first, and a severe battle was at once joined, in moder- ''''''^^^• 
ately open and level ground, in which artillery was also 
actively used, and the 1st and 2d divisions were soon 
involved in the fight. In front of the 2d division was 
a fresh brigade of Confederate cavalry, which had been 
brought from the South, and that very morning, only a 
few hours before, had marched through Richmond on 
its way to join Lee's army. It was composed of South 
Carolina and Georgia regiments, and wishing to make 
a smart appearance in passing through Richmond, the 
officers wore white kid gloves. Their reception at the Uneere- 
hands of the 2d division of the cavalry corps was not Smelt 
quite so flattering as that accorded them by the ladies glove chiv- 
of Richmond. During that afternoon they lost more ^^^' 



218 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
May. 



An irk- 
some duty. 



Not an 

agreeable 

sight. 



Grant 
reaches 
Cold Har- 
bor. 



than half their entire number, and at nightfall a detail 
from the 1st Massachusetts, sent to bury the dead, found 
an unusual proportion of Confederate officers, who had 
been thrust so quickly into the fight that tliey had not 
had time to take off their white kids. 

In this battle the 1st Massachusetts w^as drawn up in 
column of squadrons and supported the artillery. It is 
remarkable in how many engagements of the w\ar this 
irksome duty fell to the lot of this regiment. To sit on 
one's horse behind artillery in action, without any pos- 
sibility of protection, to be a mark for the enemy's 
guns and at the same time to be powerless to deal a 
blow in return, is the hardest duty a cavalry soldier can 
perform. An infantryman can lie down under fire, but 
a cavalry soldier is obhged to remain upon his horse, 
and frequently to see his enemy point his gun at him, 
and the artilleryman pull the lanyard which fires it, 
knowinof all the time that he is the mark at which it is 
aimed. Sergeant Looney, carrying the colors of the 
reo-iment, was hit by a shell and died in a few minutes. 
Lieutenant W. W. Wardell of the 1st Massachusetts, 
acting aide-de-camp on General Davies' staff, was shot 
through the neck and instantly killed at the height 
of the battle, — a brave, efficient, and cheerful officer. 
Hardly any more severe engagement than tliis occurred 
during the war. The losses were great on both sides, 
but victory rested on the Union banners. The regiment 
lost nine in killed and wounded. 

This movement of the cavalry was for the purpose of 
opening a crossing of the river to the rest of Grant's 
army, which followed immediately on the heels of the 
cavalry, and took up the position of Tolopotomoy Creek. 
By the overlapping of successive army corps on the left, 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, 186 J^. 219 

Grant's army was brought to Cold Harbor and the i864, 
James River. '^'^"®' 

While these last battles were being fought, the cav- New line 
ah-y was disposed on Grant's two flanks, the 3d division cweka- 
on his right, and the 1st and 2d on his left. The 1st ^5 
and 2d divisions, on the morning of the battle of Cold 
Harbor, were sharply engaged with the enemy's infan- 
try, the battle being taken up by the infantry, and the 
cavalry withdrawn. The line, after Cold Harbor, was 
along the Chickahominy Creek, the 1st and 2d division 
cavalry camp being established on the left flank of 
Grant's army, near Bottom's Bridge. 

In the memoirs of General Sheridan he speaks of this 
occupation of Cold Harbor quite at length. 

It was a very important position, and the cavalry was Animpor- 
ordered to hold it "at all hazards." When the order S.''"'" 
was received, the cavalry had left the place, which it was 
not expected it could take. But it had done so without 
difficulty, although the enemy had built breastworks. 
On marching back, on receipt of Meade's order, these 
were reversed, and the cavalry dismounted and repulsed 
a severe attack made by Lee's infantry. The same day, 
later, infantry relieved the cavalry. This week was 
memorable in the Army of the Potomac for reinforce- Amemora- 
ments by the 10th army corps, for the disastrous attack ^^'''''^• 
on the enemy in position at Cold Harbor, for fierce 
heat, and a dust which made a march ahnost as dread- 
ful as a battle. At a little distance there was no dif- 
ference discernible between the white troops and the 
negroes, a division of whom was attached to the 10th 
army corps. 

On the 2d of June, as the battle of Cold Harbor was Cavalry 
beginning, the 2d division of cavalry had an engage- HaS. 



220 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, ment on the extreme left of the line, in which it got in 
pretty open ground, on the right flank of the enemy's 
line of battle. This was plainly visible and down it the 
cavalrymen could look. It appeared to be possible to 
make trouble for our friends in gray, and a charge 
seemed likely. But none was made, and the 1st Massa- 
chusetts soon found itself in a maze of woods, Avith 
an almost impenetrable undergrowth of brambles and 
shrubs — a most discouraging place for mounted men. 
The situation was not improved by a lively artillery fire, 
which came crashing through the trees, a good deal at 
random. The cavalry was soon withdrawn, and put in 
camp near Bottom's Bridge, on the Chickahominy, in a 
very large field bordered by pine woods. 
The rebels On the moruiug after the camp was established here, 
present of the cucmy opcucd at very long range from across the 
Whit- Chickahominy with a battery of Whitworth guns. The 

w or til 

shells. very first shot fell in a camp fire, round which several 
men were sitting, cooking coffee. Others followed fast, 
but curiously, and fortunately, all failed to explode. A 
battery was brought up on our side which tried to reach 
our rebellious friends in vain. The officer in command 
of the battery estimated the distance at nearly four 
miles, and gave it up as impossible. The Whitworth 
battery also stopped firing, just when orders were about 
to be given to change camp. No doubt the officer in 
charge thought his shells fell short, deceived by the fact 
that they did not explode. Some of the Whitworth 
shells were passed round as curiosities. They were 
hexagonal, very long, and beautifully polished. 
Treyiiian's On the 6th of Juuc, just after Cold Harbor, General 
raid. Sheridan began another raid, known as the Trevilian's 

Station raid, and the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry took 




CAPT. HENRY P. BOWDITCH 
[MaJ. ^th Cav.] 





CAPT. RANDOLPH M. CLARK 



CAPT. MYRON C. PRATT 



SPEING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 221 

its share in that, — a fatiguing- march, and accompanied i864, 
by severe fighting. •^'^"®- 

Sheridan's Trevilian's Station expedition was followed 
promptly by the greater part of the Confederate cav- 
alry, and they succeeded, helped by infantry, in pre- 
venting the carrying out of that part of Sheridan's 
plan which would take him to Gordonsville, and per- 
haps into the valley. In the fighting, which was severe Severe 
about Trevilian's Station, advantages were alternately ^^''*^"''' 
on each side. Sheridan then made a detour to the east- 
ward, recrbssed the Pamunkey River at White House, 
and the James a little later, convoying an immense 
wagon train to the James. While doing this he was 
attacked at St. Mary's Church, a critical point, and it Fight at 
became necessary for the 2d division of Gregg to hold cLS?''' 
alone all of Lee's cavalry here until the other division, 
guarding a train of nearly a thousand wagons, should 
reach the James. Gregg was compelled to fight a force 
five times his own, which saw the point and appreciated 
the importance of defeating Gregg's division. A most Adesper- 
desperate struggle ensued, during the latter part of gie'.''"^" 
which the 1st Massachusetts was in the fore front. It 
behaved with its usual steadiness, and was the last to 
leave the field. 

At that time no general was needed to tell the vet- Every 
eran troopers what was to be done. All took in the sit- wll^It 
nation, and saw the need of determined and successful "^"'" 
resistance. Reinforcements could not be had, and every 
man knew his duty. The enemy was kept back long 
enough to enable the trains to get safe to the James. 
It was desperate work, and just missed being a bad 
disaster. In his personal memoirs General Sheridan 
speaks in glowing terms of Gregg and his troopers. 



„ man 

knew what 
Avas a1 
stake. 



222 FIBST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

18fi4, 

June. THE TREVILIAN's STATION RAID. 

A pen pic- An officer writes thus of the Trevilian's Station raid 
raid.*' ° to another in Massachusetts, who was wounded, and 
gives a vivid picture of that distressful march, with its 
accompanying battles, as seen by the men of the regi- 
ment : — 

I had just got your letter done when " the General " sounded, and 
away we went. The 3d division came down and took our place, and 
we went to the Pamunkey River and crossed on pontoons that night 
(June 6). It was a seven days' wonder as to where we were going. 
It turned out to be a raid, and a hard one, too. After crossing we 
camped, and next morning (June 7) we marched to Eliotsville, 
where we camped for the night. Then we knew we were going to- 
wards Gordonsville, and to cut the railroads. We marched until 
June 11, without anything to mar the quietude except the bush- 
whackers. They were plenty, and captured many men, including 
in our regiment Childs, whose horse gave out, and Clough, but the 
latter got away from them. On the night of the 9th we camped 

at F . I was out foraging that night until eleven o'clock. 

A fora- We had to do it by squadrons, the bushwhackers were so thick. I 
ffenLrnot lost the road, and marched and marched, until I got tired and 
a rare one. stopped. By luck, some of the men saw camp fires in the distance. 
Whetlier they were ours or not nobody knew. I thought I might as 
well be taken in the night as wait until morning. I was then on the 
Louisa Court House road, and the rebels were but a short dis- 
tance away, though I did not know it at the time. I had an old 
chaise, with an old horse, loaded up with bacon and corn, and the 
horse was so nearly played out that it took six men and a boy to 
keep him going. I had got him along so far that I would not give 
up as long as he could move. So on I went over fields, three miles 
across country, over fences, fields, and bogs, until I got up to the 
lights, when behold, it was our regiment on picket. Was n't I glad 
to get the old cart in, corn and all ! They had given me up for 
lost, and so I should have been had I not turned off where I did 
from the main road, for a whole division of rebel cavalry was only a 
mile further down the road from where I turned towards the camp 
fires. 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 223 

In the morning we started again, the 1st division in advance, and ^^m 
marched about an hour, when boom ! boom ! went Custer's cannon. J^'ie- 
I thouglit we were in for it, as he ran straight into Hampton's corps 
at Trevilian's Station. Hampton was marching right across Cus- 
ter's path, when Custer came up, and charged into him and took his Cnster col 
baggage tram. For want of support he was obliged to let it o-o |«le.s with 
again, as Hampton attacked with his whole force and drove Custer "''''""• 
back, and recaptured his train and headquarters baggage before we 
could get on the scene, although we took the trot. We were too 
late to save the train, but we drove Hampton back, and burned the 
station and tore up the rails. We forced Hampton back to a hill 
and there he stuck and fortified himself with breastworks, and <.ot 
Gordon's infantry to support him. We held them there until dark, 
and then you ought to have seen us get out, part at a trot and part 
at a gallop. My squadron was the last on the field, and you can 
bet we got out lively when our turn came. We marched all night 
at a quick gait, and only halted in the morning to get breakfa-t 
pretty well played out. We had been on the line all day and did 
not lose a man. Our regiment had only one hundred and sixty 
men, as Captain Crowninshield had the rest with him in char-e of 
a wagon train sent to White House Landing, and did not get^ack 
untd after we had marched, and was then ordered to Wilson's divi- 
sion, which did not go on the raid. Custer lost all but one hundred Heavy loss 
and ten men of the 6th Michigan that day, and a lot out of the other ?Pf ? *^*^^ 
regiments of his brigade. The rebels did just slay them. 

After we got breakfast we started again, and kept on towards A land of 
Fredericksburg; and we all supposed we should go there and get a t^l^^Zd 
httle rest, for we were completely exhausted. We marclied throu-h ^y ^ar. 
Grant's fighting ground of Spottsylvania County. The country wis 
covered with breastworks. It was a scorching day, and the dust - 
that was no name for it ! The country was all burned up. Such a 
scene of devastation ! Everything had the gloom of death for miles 
and everywhere were mounds, where men lay in their last resting- 
places. I tell you, it was a sad sight. Not one human being did we 
see all the time. I never want to go there again. We were lookino- 
for Fredericksburg, and got within five miles of it, when we sud- 
denly turned off. What was it for? Were we not going there ' We 
]ust made up our minds that old Sheridan meant to kill us all when 
we heard we were going to West Point, to cross in transports. We 



224 FIEST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864 l^^pt on, and -went within eight miles of it, when we turned round 
Juue. ao-ain and marched hack. Horror of horrors ! where next ? was the 
cry of everybody. What Is the matter ? 

It seems All the dismounted men, over one thousand in number, were sent 

raarclu ^ with over four hundred niggers and all the wagons to West Point ; 
and then we found we had got to go back to Dunkirk, and turn to 
the left to White House. It was nothing but damn, damn, all the 
time, all tired out, and half starved, the horses playing out every 
minute, and men getting sick ; it was rough indeed. A thousand 
fresh cavalry could have knocked us all to pieces easy. 

For White Well, we got to Dunkirk, and camped for the night, on the 19th. 

House. j;jext morning we started, and crossed the Mattapony River on the 
way to White House. After going two miles we met a wagon train 
loaded with forage and rations. You can bet there was some haul- 
ing of hard tack when the men got sight of the train and found what 
was in it. Rations were at once drawn and eaten, and we pushed 
for the White House again, and got within three miles of it, when 
our ears were greeted with the sound of 100-pound guns from our 

Hampton gunboats ; and who should be the cause of it but Hampton, who, with 

t.riGS to *^6t • * 1 /^ 1 AT 

our trains. 1"S whole corps, was trymg to get our trams, and General Abercrom- 
bie, with about a thousand infantry and the 1st Rhode Island cav- 
alry, in the breastworks, keeping him back with the help of the gun- 
boats. The train had been sent back across the bridge to the north 
side, out of range. Hampton did not manage his artillery well, and 
could make no impression on Abercrombie's lines. 
A night We camped that night on the north side, tired enough, and with a 

'^'*""' good prospect of a lively time for to-morrow, — a good thing, in our 
condition, to go to bed on, but hard to digest. It did not seem more 
than an hour after I had turned in before I felt some one })ulling 
my leg. I remonstrated, when an unknown voice said, "" Turn out 
your squadron on foot, with their arms." This was interesting. It 
was dark as Egypt. We got the whole division together on foot, 
and crossed the bridge, the 2d brigade in advance, and marched out 
about two miles, and found the rebels falling back. 

AVe then marched back, and you can bet I was glad we were not 
to fight that time. We crossed the bridge, got breakfast, saddled 
up, and recrossed the bridge again, teams and all, and had marched 
about two miles, when again we met the rebels. The 1st division 
and 2d brigade of our division drove them away, while our brigade 




MOSES F, WEBSTER 
Col'l. and Major ./fit Mass. Cav. 





CAPT. JOSEPH C. MURPHY 



HERBERT PELHAM CURTIS 
Capt. and LI. Col. U. S. A- 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 225 

dismounted and made breastworks, and we lay behind them in line i864, 
of battle all day, expecting an attack. How the sun did pour down ^^^' 
and fairly scorch us ! While we lay there the trains and our infan- 
try were going on the river road toward the James River. At night 
we fell back towards the river, higher up, and Hampton was hector- More fight- 
ing us all the way. We would retreat a little and then halt and face Hampton, 
back. With us was an infantry regiment of negroes, and they fought 
like devils all the way. The reason we had such a hard time was 
because Grant had left a large train of wagons behind him when he 
crossed the James, eight hundred of them altogether, and we had to 
see them safely across the peninsula. Hampton was reinforced by 
infantry, and worked hard to capture our convoy, but he did not get 
one wagon. We should have had no trouble but for the train. As 
it was, Gregg's division was left to keep Hampton off, while the 
train, guarded by Torbert's division, marched across, lower down. 
We were short of ammunition, too, both for artillery and carbines. 
We marched to Charles City Court House, and were sent out early 
in the morning, June 24, from there to St. Mary's Church, where 
the roads crossed, and our regiment was on picket. The adjutant 
and I had quite a little affair at once. We were alone, and ran into A personal 
seven of our friends in gray. It was a surprise party to both, and 
I expected to go to Richmond ; but they ran away, and we emptied 
our revolvers at them. While I was firing, my little horse suddenly 
threw up his head, and I shot him through the neck. He has got 
well since. Soon the rebels came up in force, but did not attack 
until evening, contenting themselves with picket firing all day. A 
message came in the afternoon to Colonel Chamberlain, saying the 
1st New Jersey would relieve us, and we were to go through to Wil- 
cox Landing, and see if there were any signs of the enemy there, 
and if Sheridan had arrived with the train. We found the train 
arrived, and were sent back with orders to Gregg to retire. Just as 
we arrived, Hampton attacked in force with infantry, artillery, and 
cavalry. We were sent at a gallop into the line, and found every Ordered 
regiment but ours fighting, dismounted, and heavily engaged. We iij,g ^^ j!g. 
were put to support our batteries, and stayed with them, twelve fon's^at"^^ 
guns in all, which were firing canister into the advancing rebels, tack. 
It was no use ; it did not stop them. Our men on the line were out 
of ammunition, and in ten minutes the whole line was on the ske- 
daddle. The batteries' ammunition soon gave out, too, and we were 



226 



FIBST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
June. 



There- 
treat. 



Men too 
exhausted 
to get 
away. 



Enemy 
stop the 
pui'suit. 



seven miles from our trains, and there was nothing to do but run 
for it. We saved the guns with difficulty. The rebels had infantry 
and their whole cavalry corps against our two small brigades. They 
outnumbered us five to one, at least. Their sharpshooters were ac- 
tive, and killed Brown, and wounded Cheney and another, and in 
getting out we had thirty men taken prisoners. We were the last 
off the field, and I think it was as hot a place as I ever got into. 

The enemy came on so fast there was no time to mount the skir- 
mishers, and as the whole division was fighting on foot, there was a 
devil of a mess and confusion. 

The road was full of led horses and artillery, all mixed up with 
pack mules, and men mounted and dismounted, all shouting and 
cursing. It was the most disorderly retreat I ever have seen since 
I have been in the service. If the rebels had pushed hard just then 
they would have gobbled the whole thing. The day was awfully hot, 
and the men had had no water all day, and had been fighting two 
hours against an overwhelming force, — the last part without ammu- 
nition, darkness coming on, and we all played out with marching, 
heat, hunger, and fighting day and night for the past eighteen days 
continuously. You can imagine what it must have been. The rebels 
captured a good many of the dismounted men in the lines, and while 
trying to get to their horses, as it was. They were so completely 
used up that they could not run. They would go a few rods, and 
then, if their feet touched the least obstacle, they would pitch head 
over heels, and lie there. We told them the rebels were right after 
them, then they would get up with great efPort and try again, but it 
was no use ; they had not the strength, poor fellows ! All this time 
the 1st division was in camp, only seven miles away. They knew 
nothing of what was going on with us. General Gregg had sent 
couriers, but they were all captured, and no news of our situation 
got through. Hampton drove us until it got dark, when he stopped, 
and we tried to get some order into the division. In the confusion 
the men had got away from their regiments, and in the darkness 
everybody camped where he found himself, and waited for daylight 
to put things to rights. Some of the 10th New York went to the 
river before stopping. Next morning, 25th, we woke up tired 
enough, I tell you. The trains went on to Wilson's Landing, under 
cover of gunboats, and later we followed. The whole expedition 
lasted from the 6th of June to the 25th, and it was hell. The 1st 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 227 

Maine lost sixty-six men and ten officers. All lost heavily, and the 1864 
loss in horses was very great, while those left were all used up — June, 
living skeletons. Captain Phillips, of Gregg's staff, was torn all to Expedition 
pieces by a shell. General Gregg himself was as cool and as stern as ^ ^^' 
a post. General Davies was everywhere, as usual. Colonel Cham- 
berlain's horse was killed, and Major Sargent's vi^ounded, and many 
horses were killed in the retreat at St. Mary's Church. 

After reaching the James, it took us two days to cross everything 
to the south side. When we got over we camped at Fort Powha- 
tan. Wilson, at this time, was on his raid. After a few days we 
were sent out to meet him, and help him into the lines. We did not 
find him, although his stragglers were everywhere, and he came in 
the other way, having lost all his wagons and artillery, and more 
men than they care to have known. I don't think these great raids 
amount to much. 

The first squadron of the regiment, A and B, was de- 1st squar 
tached the night before the division started on the raid, detached 
sent to White House Landing as guard to a wagon "^ ^' 
train, and, unable to rejoin the regiment in the Trevi- 
lian's Station raid, was ordered to the 3d division. As 
a consequence the regiment was short about eighty men 
on the raid. Recruits and old men coming up made 
this detachment as large as all the rest of the regiment 
before it returned. To this, as a nucleus. General Nucleus 
Wilson added all the men who came up from the rear meiTind 
belonging to the two divisions absent with General ^ ^^"^ ^^* 
Sheridan. The whole made a command of seven hun- 
dred and eighty men, and Captain Crowninshield was 
put in charge. Officers were scarce, and there were only 
eleven to command all these men. 

Attached to the 3d division, this detachment took its Gets its 
share of picketing and skirmishing, and in the march picketing, 
to the James River, when Grant crossed it, was engaged ing, and 
in a series of fights, notably at White Oak Swamp 
Bridge, June 22 and 23. Crossing the James by the 



Jane. 



228 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, pontoon bridge, with tlie 3cl division, it was pushed rap- 
idly up in front of Petersburg ; and during the absence 
of Wilson's division, for two weeks guarded Grant's left 
flank, as his different corps came up and assumed posi- 
tion in front of that city. 

General Wilson, with the 3d division of cavalry, be- 
gan his raid to destroy the railroads leading south from 
Richmond and Petersburg on June 21, immecUately 
after crossing the James, before Grant's army corps 
were in position. The cavalry under Captain Crown- 
in shield was left behind, and reported to General 
Meade. For nearly two weeks it was all the mounted 
force with the Army of the Potomac, and had to guard 
the left flank and rear, and do all the scouting during 
that time. It had several small engagements. This 
detachment was relieved July 6, and the men compos- 
ing it reported to their respective regiments. 

Sheridan's two divisions did not rejoin Meade's army 
until June 28, arriving in a very exhausted condition 
with no less than 2000 men dismounted. 
Wilson's Wilson's raid proved unfortunate. He lost many 
guns and men in his retreat, after having merely tem- 
porarily destroyed Lee's communications south. This 
raid w^ould, perhaps, have been a great success had 
Reams Station been held by our infantry, as General 
Wilson expected, and as had been promised. 
Utility of There is no instance during the war of a cavalry raid 
trouabie. making any interruption of communication which was 
not soon repabed. While it temporarily disarranged 
connections, yet no army was forced to abandon its po- 
sition on account of such interruption. Still, these 
raids brought the cavalry of both sides together, and 
furnished opportunity for a good many lively battles. 



raid not a 
success 



1864, 
June. 



SPRING AND SUMMER CA3IFAIGN, I864. 229 

In those occasioned by General Wilson's raid, his cav- 
alry got decidedly the worst of it, and rejoined Grant's 
army in a demoralized and almost disorganized condi- 
tion. The cavalry o£ General Kautz, Army of the 
James, acted with Wilson. 

Sheridan's raid to Trevihan's Station was another in- 
stance of the same thing. His battles were on a larger 
scale, and more successful; yet Trevilian's Station raid 
can hardly be considered a brilliant success. The fight- 
ing was severe, and honors were about easy. The losses 
of men were great, and of horses, immense. 

While the odd detachments guarded the left flank of 
Grant's army, on the 21st of June the 2d army corps 
passed round the rear of the 5th corps, and went into 
position, facing Petersburg on the left. The cavalry 
detachment that day guarded the left flank of the 2d 
corps, reaching by patrols as far as the Weldon Rail- 
road ; in the afternoon it was attacked by a very large Cavalry at 
body of Lee's infantry, which it resisted with what force Wsln^"^ 
it could. The command comprised men from sixteen &e^" 
different regiments, armed with many kinds of fire- *''^^"'^" 
arms. On being slowly driven in by the infantry, it 
exhausted all its ammunition, even to pistol cartridges. 
Time was given to send word to 2d corps headquarters 
of the approach of this infantry, and the 3d division of 
the 6th corps came up at nightfall, in time to offer re- Enemy 
sistance to what turned out to be Hill's corps, which, VAT 
had it not been for this detachment of cavalry, would 
have come in rear of the 2d corps, and probably have 
caused serious disaster. Fortunately the woods were 
thick and the roads narrow, and this small force could 
offer much resistance. 

The next morning General Meade sent for the com- 



corps. 



230 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
July. 



Meade re- 
fuses to 
believe it 
was HLU's 
corps. 



He finds 
out his 
mistake. 



Approach 
of Ma- 
hone's di- 
vision dis- 
covered. 



The report 
discredit- 
ed, with 
the usual 
result. 



mander of this detachment, and in presence of the gen- 
erals and staff of all his army questioned him about the 
attack of the evening before. After being told, Gen- 
eral Meade refused to believe the report, saying it was 
impossible Hill's corps should be there ; and speaking- 
very disrespectfully of cavalry in general, and this de- 
tachment in particular, gave the order to advance his 
troops towards the Weldon Railroad, on the supposition 
that nothing was there to interpose. He soon found 
out his mistake ; and, in consequence of being unwill- 
ing to believe the report of the cavalry officer, sustained 
a severe loss of a battery (Knight's) and about 2000 
men. 

Even at this period of the war there was a strong in- 
clination to discredit the services of the cavalry, who 
were considered by many infantry officers as a useless 
force. 

A few days after, this same body of cavalry en- 
countered the approach of Mahone's division of Lee's 
army coming from the direction of the Weldon Rail- 
road, against the left flank of the 6tli corps. This 
corps was the extreme left of Grant's army, and was 
protected by earthworks. Again notice of the coming 
attack was given, and discredited ; and in rough terms 
the commanding officer at that point refused to believe 
the information afforded him, which would have given 
him ample time to prepare for the attack. Mahone's 
spirited division fairly dashed upon the troops of this 
officer, who ought to have been prepared, killed many 
of his men, captured about 1100 prisoners, largely from 
the 11th Vermont Heavy Artillery, and retired towards 
the Weldon Railroad with impunity, before sufficient 
troops could be brought against him. 




D. H. L. GLEASON 
Capt. and Brvi. Major. 





JAMES J. HIGGINSON 
Cupt. and Brvt. Major 



CAPT. JOHN DREW 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, I864. 231 

The three divisions of cavalry, now in pretty poor i8r,4, 
condition after such severe work, were united in the '^'^^' 
rear of the right of the army, and in a position near the 
James River, accessible to the railroad and supplies. 
They obtained a little period of rest, which they had A little 
well earned after then? raids of the past three weeks. ''^^*' 

While m camp here, several reconnoissances were 
made on the left flank, notably one to Reams Station, 
in which all the cavalry took a part, but little fighting 
occurrino-. 

The next movement of the cavalry was July 27, just 
before the explosion of the mine before Petersburg. 
Sheridan marched all. three divisions on pontoon bridges 
across the James River to Deep Bottom and Strawberry 
Plains. Hancock's 2d corps went also, and sharp fight- 
ing took place against Lee's infantry. The fight on 
our side, sustained principally by the 1st and 2d divi- 
sions, was successful. 

During this fight at New Market, Lee's infantry at- Fight at 
tacked Sheridan's dismounted cavalry, and was severely & ^^'''" 
repulsed, losing two standards. Two pieces of our artil- 
lery, however, were captured. General Sheridan com- 
plimented the officer in command for keeping his pieces 
in action and not withdrawing them, saying it was " easy 
enough to get new guns." 

The 1st Massachusetts was here engaged dismounted, A diyer- 
and lost several men. This movement was an attempt favor°of 
to make Lee think we were about to attack Rich- tV^burg 
mond, and cause him to send troops in numbers to 
the north bank of the river, and was really a diversion 
m favor of the attack to be made when the mine was 
sprung. This whole force was withdrawn on the night 
of July 29, and regained Meade's army on the disas- 



mine. 



232 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, trous day of the blowing up of the mine. Of all the 
"^' fizzles of the war, this was the greatest. What ought 
to have been a great success became a ridiculous fail- 
ure, on account of the incapacity and drunkenness of 
the officers in charge of the assaulting columns. 
Lee turns At this time General Lee began a desperate diver- 
by threat- sion iu liis favor by sending General Early with the old 
Washing- Stonewall Jackson troops, Ewell's old corps, to the She- 
nandoah valley, where he united with his troops Whar- 
ton's division, and whatever there was, at the time, in 
the valley. They marched across into Maryland, after 
forcing General Hunter's command out of their path, 
defeating different bodies of troops sent to intercept 
them ; and July 12 appeared in front of the fortifica- 
Washing- tious of Washington, which city they came within an 
escaper ^ acc of capturiug. A very little more push would have 
accomplished this ; but they fell short of success by a 
narrow margin. The 6th corps arrived at the critical 
moment, when all the odds and ends about Washing- 
ton, including invalid corps, militia, and home guards, 
were in the forts, expecting to be attacked in force by 
Early. This caused General Grant to detach General 
Sheridan, and with him two of his three divisions of 
cavalry. The 6th corps of infantry, General H. G. 
Wright, had preceded him, and the 19tli army corps, 
which had just arrived on the James River on trans- 
ports from New Orleans, was made a part of the move- 
ment. 

The successful Shenandoah Valley campaign, under 
General Sheridan, came as a sequel to this movement. 
Captain Crowninshield was detached July 26, to act on 
General Sheridan's staff as A. A. D. C., and did not 
again rejoin the regiment. 



capture. 



SPRING AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, 186 J^. 233 

At no time during the war was the hardship anything i864, 
at all equal to the summer of 1864. While the work " ^" 
was most severe and unremitting, there were fewer offi- Hardships 
cers to perform it. The pay amounted to nothing. It merofTsei 
must be remembered that officers, from circumstances, pfeT^™ 
were obliged to have enlisted men to do their work, or 
else do it themselves, and were often obHged to use gov- 
ernment horses or go afoot. 

It seemed, at times, impossible for regiments to con- Seeming 
tinue in the field. The men would get dismounted at wifty of 
a fearful rate ; and once a man got dismounted, he upX'^ 
would often disappear and never be seen again. Some ^^^^^^ ' 
of the men who lost their horses in June on the Trevi- 
lian raid were sent from dismounted camp at City 
Point to Maryland, and did not rejoin the regiment for 
many months. 

It will be noticed that at this time not a single squa- Dearth of 
dron in the regiment was commanded by an officer of ''^''^'^• 
higher rank than 2d lieutenant. Only two captains 
were present on duty, and each commanded a battalion. 
Several companies had no officers, and were assigned to 
officers commanding other companies. Even of the 
officers commanding squadrons, some were not commis- 
sioned, only acting. Several sergeants declined a pro- 
motion, which brought with it excessive responsibility 
and totally inadequate pay, — in some cases indebted- 
ness instead of pay. 

Extracts from letters written home say of this : — 

July 11, 1864. 
If the flies will let me, I shall write you a letter, but they are so Discom- 
very plentiful, and so very hungry, that it would be something to ac- thfdrf 
complish worth boasting of. This long spell of dry weather has weather. 
made all kinds of insects very abundant, and has made the flies 



234 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1804, madly voracious. They are everywhere, and eat everything they 
•^^ ^' come in contact with. Fortunately they seem to need rest at-night, 
but by day they neither rest themselves nor will they let anybody 
else rest. I have never seen them so terrible anywhere. Between 
them and the dust and heat our life is not exactly agreeable. There 
is a look of rain to-day, and I pray we may not be doomed to disap- 
pointment. The ground is actually baked up, and all the crops must 
be ruined. Corn has shriveled up, and the leaves on the trees rat- 
tle as in the autumn. Our brief period of rest does not consequently 
amount to nuich. 

At the present rates my pay don't amount to anything at all. We 
have calculated that in favorable times an officer will owe govern- 
ment about $25 a month, instead of getting anything from it. 
They make us pay twenty-five cents a pound for beef, fifty-one cents 
for coffee, etc., etc. Beef used to cost seven cents, and coffee fifteen 
cents. 

JSickness The awfully diy weather is causing much sickness among the 

terrible men. The men seem to dry up, as evei-ything green has done, 
dust. They are reduced almost to skeletons. The earth is really baked, 

and the dust is quite beyond describing. The horses are suffering 
in consequence. Every evening we go through all the signs of thun- 
der showers, — clouds, wind, and often thunder and lightning, — 
but never any rain. 

A letter written July 17 gives a description of the 
heat and desolation existing about Petersburg at that 
time : — 

I was just writing to you on the 11th, and got four lines written, 
when " the General " sounded, and away we all went, in the dust 
and heat, to the extreme left of the army. We had been in that 
camp three days. 

Experi- Nobody knew where we were going, but judging by the Trevilian 

had to g^et ra^f^' some said Maryland. 

used to. ^^Q jqq]j q[\ ^ight to go the five miles to the infantry outposts, as 

all the roads were blocked up with dead pine trees. At daylight we 
halted by the 5th corps breastworks, got something to eat, and 
marched on down the plank road until we met the rebel pickets, and 
the 1st Pennsylvania ran them in three miles, when we met Hill's 



. r*iR"^SlSilfj*< 





If ^ mf 




CAPT. DAVID W, HERRICK 



GEORGE L. BRADBURY 
rsi Lieut, and Adjt. 



SPRIJSFG AND SUMMER CAMPAIGN, 186^. 235 

corps. After some manoeuvring, and some light skirmisliing, we i864, 
came back, after losing a few men in the brigade. We supported ^^' 
the battery, as usual, and lost nobody. The rebels were laying traps 
for us, and tried to make us advance, but we did not " see it." 

We then fell back two miles, and went into camp. We were 
somewhere near Reams Station. The whole country about here is 
desolate, and utterly dried up. Negroes say nothing was ever known 
like it, and we found no water anywhere for horses or men until 
we got to Lee's Mills. All the wells were dried up. 

We remained at Lee's Mills in camp until yesterday, when we Tlie usual 

were relieved by the 1st division, just as we had got our camps 

nicely cleared up after hard work. That is the usual way, you 

know ; and then after marching and countermarching, got here to 

Lighthouse Point. 

On the march the dust filled the air for miles. It was dreadful, The unex- 
• !■ 1 111 ampled 

and sometimes for an hour you could not see the squadron ahead dust and 

for the dust. Men and horses were almost stifled. I thought I had ®^ " 
seen dust and heat on the Trevilian raid, but that was not a circum- 
stance to this now. We have not had a drop of rain since June 
came in ; and by the look of the sky we are not likely to have one 
until next June. At Lighthouse Point we did not go to our old 
camp. I call it " old," although we were there only three days, 
and that is as long as we have been in one place since the campaign 
opened. This time, for a wonder, we have got a camp in the woods, 
the first time this year. At first a nasty hole, half of the trees dead, 
and the pine needles a foot deep. At it we went, and after a day's 
hard work we have made a splendid camp, clean and shady. I 
[Lieutenant Drew] now command A and B squadron ; Lieutenant Officers 
Russell, E, F, and K ; this makes the 1st battalion, commanded by ^"jth the 
Captain Crowninshield ; the two squadrons have only four officers, colors. 
The 2d battalion is under Captain Tewksbury, Lieutenant Hcrrick 
commanding 1st squadron, G and H, Lieutenant Howland the 2d, 
I, L, and M ; and there are only three officers for the two squa- 
drons. Sergeant Littlefield is acting adjutant, and Lieutenants Mar- 
tin and Lyman are really sergeants, acting as lieutenants. 

Wood is acting as my cook, and cooks well when there is any- 
thing to cook. Things are high, and no pay yet. They now charge 
us officers $53 for a servant, and five per cent off their pay, and 
forty cents a day for riding a government horse. So you will see 
what my month's pay amounts to. 



236 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Jul*' [better from Lieutenant-Colonel S. E. Chamberlain to Governor 

Andrew.] 

Lighthouse Point, Va., July 6, 1864. 
Letter to Reported at headquarters of cavalry corps, May 26. The regi- 
AndUw.^ ment has 396 officers and men for duty, in camp. Captain Adams' 
command at headquarters Army of Potomac not included. . . . Cap- 
tain Cro^vninshield just joined the regiment with 180 men, after a 
month's absence. 

General Davies spoke in high terms of Major Sargent's conduct 
in the Sheridan raid to Richmond. He compliments him in warm 
terms. 



CHAPTER XI. 

MUSTER OUT OF OLD MEN. REORGANIZATION OF REG- 
IMENT. WINTER BEFORE PETERSBURG. AUGUST 1, 
1864, TO JULY 18, 1865. 

After the 1st and 3cl divisions had gone to the i8G4, 
valley of the Shenandoah with Sheridan, the cavalry 
with Grant's armies consisted of the 2d division, under Cavalry 
D, McM. Gregg, and Kautz's brigade, attached to the Grant by 
Army of the James. On the Confederate side there 
were W. H. F. Lee's and Hampton's divisions. These 
occasionally made attacks on Grant's flanks and rear, 
and thus encountered Gregg's division, which was used 
generally to picket the flanks and rear. It also took 
part in all the attempts to advance our lines on the 
left, along the Weldon and South Side railroads. The Makes ex- 
principal expedition of the cavalry was that which Roanoke 
began December 6, in which infantry and cavalry de- 
stroyed a part of the South Side Railroad, and reached 
the Roanoke River at Bellfield. 

When Greg-o; was left alone, he established his head- Pickets 

the left 

quarters not far from the Weldon Railroad, to guard the and rear. 
left and rear, and picket duty became regularly divided 
up between the two brigades. One regiment or more 
was usually at Prince George Court House, from which 
a principal road led to the rear, and a force was always 
on guard towards Reams Station. 

On August 14 Gregg's division crossed the James 



238 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, at the place wliere Sheridan crossed it on July 28, and 

ugust. ^j^^ division was, as then, accompanied by the 2d army 

Associated corps o£ General Hancock. This corps was the mova- 

Tock's ^" hie one, and was frequently hurried out on either flank. 



corps. 



in company with the cavalry. The Confederates after 
confronting it at short intervals on opposite flanks of 
the army, used to designate it as "Hancock's flying- 
corps." 
Movement The movcmeut of August 14 across the James was 
James. ^ similar to that of July 28, on which occasion the object 
was a diversion in favor of the mine explosion. The 
advance was by the same roads, towards Malvern Hill. 
Hancock's infantry being on the left, next the river, 
was sharply engaged, and considerable skirmishing and 
fighting also took place on the right, where the cavalry 
was placed, and Colonel Gregg, commanding the 2d 
brigade, was wounded. The regiment lost, one killed, 
three wounded, five missing. Confederate infantry was 
met ; but before any general engagement occurred, all 
Kecross the force returned across the James on the 19th, and 
to Weidon the cavalry marched at once to the extreme left, on the 
Weldon Railroad, where it became engaged on the 21st, 
while supporting working parties who were destroying 
the railroad, and lost three men wounded. 

On the two following days the same movement con- 
tinued ; the working parties were not soldiers, but men 
hired for the purpose. On the 23d three men were 
wounded. 
Advance From here an advance was made towards Dinwiddie 
uSddie Court Housc. The place was reached, and at night the 
House. brigade retired to a creek and camped. 

Early in the morning the brigade returned to the 
town, and were soon attacked by the enemy in force. 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 239 

He pushed the brlj^ade back some distance until the 2d i8C4, 
brigade was met, and the enemy was repulsed. Miles ber. 
brigade of infantry was discomfited, and some confu- 
sion resulted, the enemy at one time getting in our 
rear. 

At four A. M. the whole force was in line of battle. Return to 
awaiting an attack that did not come, and later the again, 
whole force marched back. The cavalry returned to 
their camps near the Weldon Railroad, and the regiment 
remained two days, going, on the 29th, on picket near 
the Perkins House. 

On the 2d of September an advance was made to the Advance 
Yellow House, on the Weldon Railroad, marching at two low House. 
A. M. Some manoeuvring followed, but no fight, and 
at night all returned to camp. Except for a tour of 
picket, the regiment remained in camp until the 16th 
of the month. 

On that morning, at two a. m., the brigade marched 
rapidly down the Jerusalem Plank Road, nearly to the 
Nottoway River, towards Hawkinsville, where the enemy 
was found in earthworks, with artillery. A raid had 
been made the day before on the rear, and a herd of 
2500 cattle had been captured and carried off by Lee's 
cavalry. It was hoped they might be recaptured and 
the force intercepted by our cavalry, but the enemy had 
too much start. General Davies and his troopers got Troopers 
their blood up and charged the works most gallantly, earth- 
surprising the enemy, and capturing prisoners. Several 
charges were made. The brigade — the 1st Pennsyl- 
vania being on other duty — numbered 1500. In this 
fight the regiment lost two killed, ten wounded, and 
nine missing. 

In camp again. Quiet ruled for a little while, a tour 



240 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

i8(M, of picket being the only move. On the 24th a salute 
1)6?^°"' of one hundred shotted guns was fired into Petersburg, 
in honor of Sheridan's victories of Winchester and 
Fisher's Hill, in the Shenandoah Valley. 
ToWeidon September 27 all the brigade marched to Prince 
Railroad, q^^^^^ q^^^^.j. House, and next day to theWeldon Rail- 
road, arrivino- at eio-ht a. m., and remained for a time, 
expecting an attack Avhich did not come. Then the 
brigade returned to camp on the 28th. 

General Davies, having recovered from his wound, 
had returned, and taken command of the brigade the 
day before. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain was promoted colo- 
nel in Colonel Sargent's place, September 30, and Ma- 
jor L. M. Sargent, Jr., lieutenant-colonel. On the 28th 
Colonel Colonel Chamberlain and Surgeon Wood left the field, 
lain leaves tlic fomicr goiug to AnuapoUs, Md., to command the 

reg:iment, oo iiii -i i 

and made parolcd cauiD there, a place he had occupied several 

Colonel of i ^ ^ . 

5th Mass. times before. He made an address to the resnment on 

Cavaky. ^ , 

leaving. July 26, 1865, on Colonel Adams' resignation, 
he was made colonel of the 5th Massachusetts cavalry 
(negro), and served with that regiment in Texas, until 
its muster out, October 31, 18C5. 

It will be remembered that the old men of the regi- 
ment came to camp at Readville September 9-16, 1861. 
They were mustered into the United States service " for 
three years or during the war," November 1, 1861. 
Some doubt existed as to when the term of service 
When would expire. The men naturally thought they should 
listment bc discharged and mustered out in three years from the 

should T» 1 I'll! 

enti- date of enlistment. But the government decided that 

service would not end until three years from the date 
of mustering in. On October 24 the following order 
•was issued : — 




LIEUT. WALTER MILES 





LIEUT. EDW. R. MERRILL 



LIEUT. FRANCIS WASHBURN 
{Col. 4th Cav. and Bvvt. Brig. Genl.] 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 241 

Headquarters Army of the Potomac. _ 1864, 
Orfo6er24,1864. °"*«^""- 

Special Orders. No. 287. 

[Extract.] 

6. The term of service of the 1st regiment Massachusetts Volun- Order for 
teer Cavalry being about to expire, that regiment, excepting the out of 
officers hereinafter mentioned, and the reenlisted men and those who j^^^en'^ ^^'^'^ 
have joined since the date of original organization, will, on to-mor- 
row, the 25th instant, proceed to Boston, Mass., under the connnand 
of the senior officer, to be discharged, these to be reported to the 
chief mustering officer for the State, to be mustered out of service. 

The horses and equipments of the men to be discharged will be 
turned over to the proper departments of the staff, to mount dis- 
mounted men of the 2d cavalry division. 

The men of the legiment who are to remain in service will, under 
the direction of the division commander, be formed into comj^anies, 
as required by paragraph 3, Circular No. 36, of May, 1864, from 
the AVar Dejjartment. 

The following named officers are selected to officer the portion of Officers 
the regiment not discharged : — mained. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel E. Chamberlain. 
Major Henry L. Higginson. 
Major Lucius M. Sargent, Jr. 
Surgeon Albert Wood. 
Assistant Surgeon S. W. Abbott. 
Assistant Surgeon Samuel H. Durgin. 
Chaplain George W. Gorham. 
Captain B. W. Crowninshield, company A. 
2d Lieutenant John Drew, company E. 
2d Lieutenant John W. Martin, company F. 
2d Lieutenant D. W. Herrick, company H. 
Captain Amos L. Hopkins, company K. 
Captain Joseph C. Murphy, company L. 
Captain Edward A. Flint, company C. 
2d Lieutenant William Foy Smith. 
2d Lieutenant L. N. Duchesney, company B, 
Captain T. L. Motley, company F. 
Captain H. Pelham Curtis, company H. 



242 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
October. 



Officers 
who were 
mustered 
out. 



2d Lieutenant John W. Rowland, company I. 
1st Lieutenant Edward S. Wilson, company K. 
2d Lieutenant Newell B. Allen, company L. 
1st Lieutenant George H. Teague, company C. 
1st Lieutenant J. J. Higginson, company D. 
2d Lieutenant J. A. Baldwin, company D. 

The following named officers will accompany the regiment for the 
purpose of being nmstered out : — ■ 

1st Lieutenant and A. C. S. John L. Brigham. 
1st Lieutenant John A. Goodwin, company A. 
1st Lieutenant Charles G. Davis, company E. 
1st Lieutenant Edward J. Russell, company F. 
2d Lieutenant Frank W. Hayden, company G. 

The Quartermaster's Department will furnish the necessary trans- 
portation. By command of 

Major-General Meade. 
(Signed) S. Williams, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Headquarters 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, 
October 26, 1804. 
Official. George L. Bradbury, 

Lieutenant and Adjutant. 

The mus- Orders were given for the men to proceed in squads 

ter out iu i • -r> j 1 

Boston. to Massachusetts, for muster out in l3oston, and on 
October 24 the men who were to be discharged went to 
the rear from the Davis House, where a serious fight 
had been going on. October 25 they turned in their 
equipments and horses, and went to Boston in charge 
of Lieutenant J. L. Brigham. On November 6, at the 
armory of the National Lancers in Sudbury Street, they 
were mustered out of service and paid off. Captain 
Crowninshield was mustered out at the same time and 
place by orders issued subsequent to the above. 

Another advance was made October 29, the regiment 
marching that day to the railroad, about three miles 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 243 

from Reams Station, and later out towards the Vaughan isei, 

November. 

Road, fighting and skirmishing all the way. The Con- 
federate cavalry was driven back about three miles on Skirmish- 
the 30th. Next day, November 1, the enemy attacked Vaughau 
in force, with cavalry, infantry, and artillery. Davies' 
whole briofade threw up hastily constructed earthworks, Enemy at- 
near the Davis House, and fouo^ht so well that the the Davis 

^ ° House. 

enemy was three times repulsed, and finally fell back. 
In this fight the 6th Ohio, being surprised at the begin- 
ning, lost one hundred men taken prisoners. The 1st 
Massachusetts lost this day, two killed, three wounded, 
and one missings. 

Until the 7th of November the brigade remained in 
the neighborhood of the fight, being, on the 2d, on 
picket on the Wilkinson Road ; the 3d, in camp near 
the Davidson House ; the 4th, on the Nyatt Road, about 
half a mile on the right; 5th and 6th, in camp. On the ^t West- 
7th returned to camp at Westbrook House, where some h^^ 
rest and quiet were had. 

When Colonel Chamberlain left the regiment, Cap- 
tain Murphy was in command. The regiment was paid 
off November 10. TJie regimental band was broken up, 
and the men returned to their companies — those who 
had reenlisted. A brigade band was organized, and 
one man of the regiment joined it. The band instru- 
ments were sent to Boston to be sold, to pay the ac- 
count of Mr. Whitcomb, the leader. 

The regiment took its regular tours of picket duty. 
On the 23d General Davies reviewed the new (3d) bri- 
gade, consisting of the 1st Massachusetts and 21st 
Pennsylvania. 

The division and Hancock's corps moved out Novem- Dinwiddle 
ber 26 to the left flank, towards Dinwiddie Court House, Ho'^se. 



244 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864, via the Perkins House. On the next day skirmishing 
ovem er. £^jjQ^^,g^|^ .^^^j ^j^^ regiment, acting as rear-guard, had a 
mild fight, in which two men were wounded and four 
missing. Regiment picketed road on the left, leading 
to Boydton Plank Road. At three p. m. on the 28th 
the whole force Avithdrew, and the regiment returned to 
camp. Here it remained in quiet, and November 28 
moved a half mile to Westbrook House, and began log- 
ging up the tents and the estabhshment of a permanent 
Winter camp for winter quarters. Later, orders came to make 
S> "^^ the Avinter camp at Prince George Court House ; but 
when it was found that the 1st Massachusetts had al- 
ready taken so much pains with its camp, the other bri- 
gade was put there, and the 1st brigade was placed near 
the 1st Massachusetts. 
Camp of There the camp was improved, and before long it be- 

ihusews a came a model, and the other regiments were ordered to 
establish new camps, after an inspection by General 
Gregg, who particularly praised that built by the 1st 
Massachusetts. The 24th New York, a new regiment, 
was put in the brigade, and the 6th Ohio was put into 
the 3d brio;ade. 

The Confederates, since the destruction of the Wel- 
don Railroad, had been sending supplies to Stony Creek 
Station, about twelve miles out from Petersburg, and 
from there everything was transported by wagons to the 
South Side Railroad into Petersburg. 
Expedition Stouy Creck Station was protected by a fort mount- 
I'reek sta- iug fivc guus, and there was a garrison of dismounted 
cavalry. Besides this force, Hampton's division of cav- 
alry was camped only a mile away. Near the station 
were a mill and large storehouses. At three a. m. on 
November 30 the whole division marched to the rail- 



tion 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 245 

road, one and a half miles above Stony Creek Station, ^^i864,^^ 
arriving about noon. 

The 2d and 3d brigades at once attacked the station. Fortuken 
The garrison was surprised and at first made slight re- p|ies^d|- 
sistance, and soon threw down their arms ; but retook 
them and continued the fight on seeing only a small 
assailing force. The fort was attacked by our cavalry 
mounted, and the enemy was surrounded, and surren- 
dered. Two brass guns Avere thrown into the well, and 
the three others — 32-pounders— were brought ofP. 
The mills, factories, shops, and storehouses were de- 
stroyed, including 3000 bushels corn, 500 bales hay, 
300 axes, 500 shovels, and 50 barrels of whiskey. 
While the fire was raging, Hampton's cavalry came up, 
but was repulsed after a Hvely fight. General Davies, general 
who had a fatality for getting hit in the foot, was again again^^^ 
struck in the same place by a spent ball. All the force 
retreated after their work was fully accomplished, and 
arrived in camp at ten P. m., after a most successful 
expedition and a march of fifty miles. 

After four days' quiet in camp, another expedition, Ex^dition 
on a large scale, was ordered, to endeavor to interrupt Kaiiroad. 
the enemy's use of the Weldon Railroad altogether. 
For this purpose the whole of the 5th corps and a part 
of the 2d, together with all of Gregg's and Kautz's cav- 
alry, were assigned. 

Gregg's division started before daylight, December 7, 
and marched all day, arriving at Sussex Court House at 
night, where it bivouacked. On the way the Nottoway 
River was crossed by fording. About noon, December 
8, a small force of the enemy was met at Jarrett's Sta- 
tion, was easily defeated, and the station and water tanks 
were destroyed. Here camp was made for the night. 



246 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1861, 
December. 



Enemy 
met in 



force. 



Next day the exj^edition marelied south along the rail- 
road, destroying the track as jDrogress was made. At 
Three Creek a crossing was made by pontoon bridge 
and fording, and two miles further on, near the Meher- 
rin River, the enemy was met in force, with works and 
nine guns. He had offered but small resistance until 
this position was reached. The station on the railroad 
was Bellfield, on the north side. The object was to 
destroy the bridge across the river. On the south side 
were three forts. To carry the works on the north side 
a dismounted charge was made by part of the brigade, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent was ordered to support 
them with a mounted charge across an open field, be- 
yond which was a river and the nine guns. The charge 
was made in skirmishing order, and the regiment found 
itself under the guns, but unable to get in to them, on 
account of the water. The enemy could not depress 
his guns enough to hit the men, who were directly un- 
der them. To get out. Colonel Sai'gent ordered the 
men to disperse and retreat across the field in very 
open order. His plan was eminently successful for the 
rest, but in going across the field he was hit by a piece 
of shell in the shoulder, which ranged down through 
his chest, a very severe wound, of which he died in a 
few minutes. Himself a surgeon, he was aware of the 
nature of his wound, and he said to the man who picked 
liim up, " This is the last of me." He recognized Cap- 
tain Teague also. Of all the officers connected with 
the regiment, very few were with it in the field so long 
as Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent. He was the last one to 
A most be killed or wounded. He was a most accomplished 

accom- -1 ., . n -,• 

piished man, and a very versatile one. A surgeon of distin- 
man. guishcd accomplishmeut, fond of athletic sports, he 



Colonel 
Sargent 
killed. 




l_IEUT. LUCIUS H. MORRILL 
Capt. 4th Cav. 





LiEUT. GEORGE BLAGDEiM 
Major 2nd Mtiss Cot. 



lEUT. ALTOW E. Phli-LlPi 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 247 

excelled in all ; a remarkable drauglitsman, his surgical i864, 
drawings are still admired at the Massachusetts General ^'''"'^''• 
Hospital. He was a good Shakespearian scholar. In 
conversation he was witty, and would often entertain a 
tent full of officers for hours by his brilliant talk and 
curious stories, of which he had an inexhaustible sup- 
ply of all hinds. His body was sent to Boston, and his 
funeral at Jamaica Plain was largely attended. After 
the fight the bridge and station were burned, and the 
cavalry retreated to Coman's Wells, and the next day, 
after a very disagreeable icy march over bad roads, pro- 
gress was made to near Sussex Court House, where the 
night was passed. On this day the bodies of several 
soldiers were found, who had been bushwhacked and 
murdered. In retaliation, all the houses were burned 
as the command marched in. December 11 was an ex- 
cessively cold day. The men suffered severely, and Much suf- 
some had their feet frozen while on the march. The Sf.'" 
day before, some of our infantry were met, who had camp.*° 
come out to support the expedition in case Lee should 
attack it. After a wearisome march, camp was reached 
at two o'clock in the morning of December 12. The 
slow march back was caused by the infantry having the 
advance ; the cavalry bringing up the rear. 

The regiment was now commanded by John Tewks- 
bury, made lieutenant-colonel December 10, 1864. Lieuten- 
Winter quarters were made comfortable, and nothing ^t"^- 
more exciting occurred than picketing the line from commrnd. 
Lee's Mills to the James River, the part taken by the 
1st brigade, General Davies commanding. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Tewksbury issued the following 
report of the composition of the regiment shortly after 
taking command : — 



248 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



18G3, 
February. 



Repriment 
after con- 
solidation. 



Headquarteks 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, 
Near Petersburg, Va., January 5, lb65. 

Brigadier-General William Schouler, 

AdJu(ant-Gene/)'al State of Massachusetts. 

General, — I have the honor to inform you of the consolidation 
of the companies of this regiment, in compliance with special order 
No. 287, headquarters Army of the Potomac, a copy of which I en- 
close. The twelve companies were consolidated into seven, and a 
nucleus of the eighth, with maximum strength, and in the following 
manner : company H and nine of company M formed company A ; 
companies A and B and five of M formed company B ; company D 
and thirty of M formed company D ; company C and sixty-five of I 
formed company C ; companies E and F formed company E ; com- 
pany L and twelve of M formed company G ; companies G and H 
and eighteen of I formed company F. 

The remainder of companies I and M formed the nucleus of com- 
pany H. The whole strength of the regiment, on paper, being 729 
men. 

I also enclose a roster of the commissioned officers of the regi- 
ment. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John Tewksbury, 
3IaJor commanding 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. 



Character 
of the re- 
cruits. 



Hatcher's 
Hun. 



There were present with the colors about four hun- 
dred men. 

Recruits came from Massachusetts, composed princi- 
pally of Germans and French, the latter mostly Alsa- 
tians. Of these many were excellent soldiers, in spite 
of their ignorance of English. The hospital steward, 
Jean O'Hara — a Franco-German Irishman — spoke all 
the languages of his descent fluently, and was besides 
an excellent medical assistant. His many accomplish- 
ments made him a man of note in the regiment. Jan- 
uary 13, salutes were fired for Sherman's success". 

The next battle was on February 5 and 6. On the 
5th all Gregg's division started out by Reams Station 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 249 

to Dinwicldie Court House, pushing back the enemy's i865, 

, , n p 1 February. 

pickets, and at the latter place captured a bonted- 
erate colonel on leave o£ absence, and a mail. At 
nioht the division moved back to Rowanty Creek and 
camped. The enemy had come in in the rear, and were 
destroying the bridge, when the command returning 
met them and drove them away. At midnight the 
division set off via the Court House again, towards 
Hatcher's Run. General Davies returned this morning 
from leave of absence, and took command of his bri- 
gade. On getting to the Vaughan Road the infantry, 
5th corps, was met, and line of battle was formed, with 
infantry on the right, 1st brigade on the left, and 2d 
brigade on the road, mounted, and a charge was ordered 
on the enemy, Early's corps, which had come out to at- 
tack. Colonel Greeraf, commanding the 2d brigade, was Colonel 
almost at once wounded in the foot, and when taken to General 

Davies 

the rear met General Davies, and asked him to take his wounded. 
place and charge the enemy. No sooner was the charge 
begun than General Davies was wounded severely in the 
breast and arm. Although a gallant charge was made GaUant 
on the enemy's infantry it failed, and many officers of faUs. 
prominence were killed and Avounded, among them Colo- 
nel Janeway and Lieutenant-Colonel Beaumont of the 
1st New Jersey, and Lieutenant-Colonel Tremaine of 
the 10th New York — the latter mortally. A severe 
fight ensued on the right with the 5th corps. In this 
eno-ao-ement the 1st Massachusetts was held in reserve 
and not engaged. The division lost about one hundred 
and twenty men. A severe storm of sleet and rain 
made this move very trying, but the lines were ad- 
vanced on the left, and the cordon that was shutting 
in General Lee's army was tightened. 



250 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
1865, On the 8th the cavah-y returned to camp, arrivinir in 

March. . , . ' '^ 

the mornnig, being withch-awn on the 7th, at night. 

Nothing of importance occurred to the regiment from 

Resigna- this time until March 17. On February 12 General D. 

tion of-.|-,|-^ . - ^ 

General JVlcJVl. Gregg rcsigucd and went home on account of 
illness. He was greatly regretted by every officer and 
man of the command he had so ably led since May, 
1862, two years before. Under all circumstances he was 
calm, ready, and undismayed. He was a man of fine 
presence, of correct habits, and always a perfect gentle- 
man and soldier. Few generals commanded the same 
body of men as long as General Gregg commanded the 
2d cavalry division. When the battle was doubtful, his 
presence was worth a brigade of reinforcements. His 
connection with the 1st Massachusetts cavalry was al- 
ways of the jjleasantest. 
Our last The Vaughan Road expedition was the last the reffi- 

tion. ment made with the division. On March 17 orders came 
for the regiment to report to Brigadier-General Collis, 
commanding at City Point, for provost duty. On leav- 
ing. General Davies, commanding the division, issued 
the following order : — 

Headquarters 2d Cavalry Division, 
March 17, 1865. 

Special Orders. No. 58. 

[Extract.] 
Ordered to The general commanding regrets that the exigencies of the ser- 
City Point. '^^^^ require the sei3aration of the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry from 
this command. 

In parting with that regiment he desires to express to the officers 
and men his high appreciation of the valuable services they have 
rendered, and the good conduct by which they liave been uniformly 
distinguished. All officers and enlisted men of the regiment now on 
detailed duty within this division will, as soon as practicable, be re- 
lieved, and ordered to report to the regiment at City Point. 




NATHANIEL BOWDITCH 
ist Li. and Adji. 





GREENLEAF W. BATCHELDER 
ist Lieut, and Adjt. 



A'lLLIAM W. W/.r.__^ 
/.-■/ Lieut, and Adjt. 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 251 

The enlisted men of the regiment now in the dismounted camp at is65 
City Point will be sent to the regimental headquarters when estab- "^P^' 
lished. By command of 

Bkigadier-General Da vies. 
(Signed) A. H. Bibbek, Captain and Aide-de-camp. 

While tlie attack on Petersburg was going- on, the 
regiment picketed the rear of the 9th army corps. 

Camp was established on a high bluff overlooking 
the James River. 

Many prisoners came in from the front, captured by 
Sheridan and the 5th corps, and the regiment's hands 
were full, guarding them. It was an exciting and wild 
time. Every day added to the wonder, as prisoners by 
thousands came in, and guns by scores, and endless 
other captured property. On the famous 9th of April, 
when Lee's surrender was announced, everything at Lee's sur- 
City Point that could make a noise of any kind united «!!" 
in contributing to the hallelujah for the end of the war 
— for every soldier so regarded it. Steamers and loco- 
motives whistled, guns thundered, bands played, trum- 
pets blew, and every human throat added its vibrations, 
until pandemonium seemed let loose. 

General Ewell and many of less note, and 8000 pris- 
oners, came from Sailor's Creek battle. 

April 14, the regiment marched towards Meade's 
headquarters with 3000 conscripts, substitutes, and 
bounty-jumpers, a motley crew. 

These were handed over to headquarters at Burkes- 
ville on the 17th. After one day's rest the regiment 
marched out, and a detachment was sent to capture, if Ordered to 
possible, a famous guerrilla named Harvey and his gang. guerriuL 
They had been robbing and terrorizing the country serteS: 
near Charlotte Court House, pitiless to the impoverished 



252 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1805, 
May. 



News of 
Lincoln's 
assassina- 
tion. 



March to 
Rich- 
mond. 



natives and soldiers alike. The balance of the regiment, 
with the 2d Pennsylvania cavalry, was ordered towards 
Lynchburg in search of deserters and stragglers, and 
that useless froth that hangs round the edge of an 
army. 

The first day brought the column to Prince Edward 
Court House, and the regiment camped on the farm of 
a Mr. Dickenson, quondam Confederate representative 
to Cono-ress. It was at once curious to notice that own- 
ership of land became an element of camping. During 
the war, nobody knew or cared to know the name of 
the owner of a camping ground. 

While they were marching by the railroad, the engi- 
neer of a passing locomotive threw to the men a news- 
paper containing the news of the assassination of Pres- 
ident Lincoln. His reelection in the autumn, not long 
before, gave new life to the war, and particularly to the 
Army of the Potomac. Now his violent death at almost 
the moment of victory saddened every soldier, and mea- 
surably lessened the joy of triumph. 

Spring Creek Church was reached April 25, and the 
country was comparatively peaceful and undevastated. 
Hampden Sidney College was near, and pretty well 
played out by the war. 

This expedition ended April 28, at Burkesville, a 
considerable section of country having been scoured. 
What a difference from a march with an eager and en- 
terprising enemy pressing the column ! Now Confeder- 
ate soldiers were guests, and came curiously to camp, as 
if to see their friends. 

On May 2 the march north began. Proceeding via 
Amelia Court House, Chesterfield County, and Man- 
chester, Richmond was reached May 6, and Meade's 



BEFORE PETERSBURG. 253 

army was reviewed by General Meade and General Hal- isfis, 
leek. General Lee saw the army pass, from the Court 
House steps. 

From Manchester all the dismounted men were sent March to- 
to Washington via City Point. The march was now Wasiiing- 
resumed towards Washington, the different army corps 
taking different roads for convenience. The regiment 
passed through Concord Church, Bowling Green, Fred- 
ericksburg, Stafford Court House, Potomac Run (where 
the regiment had passed the winter of 1862-63), Dum- 
fries, Centreville, Fairfax Court House, and Alexandria. 
At Arlington Heights, near the National Cemetery, camp Camp at 
was established, and here in this neighborliood, with Heights. 
one change of camp, the regiment remained until May 
28. It participated in the review of the Army of the 
Potomac May 23, joining the division for the i}urpose, 
and on the 28th it rejoined the division for good, camp- 
ing at a place near Fairfax Seminary, by Alexandria. 
Here the men were made as comfortable as possible, 
and if more liberty was not allowed on account of the 
situation, it was at any rate taken by some commands. 

June 4, some Western cavalrymen " went through " 
some of the sutler's tents, causing a great disturbance, 
and the 1st Massachusetts was called on to quell the 
row. On June 18 the rolls for muster out were ordered 
to be got ready, and the end was in sight. On the 
25th of June, all government property having been 
turned over, the regiment left Alexandria for home, Leave Ai- 

n -n 1 • 1 11 exandria 

starting at live a. m., reveille having been sounded at for home. 
three a. m., and camp broken soon after. The sick men 
went too, being taken in ambulances to the cars, and 
then placed in freight cars, on hay procured for the 
purpose. During the, previous six weeks 250,000 men 



254 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1865, had been transported by the railroads leading north 
from Washington. 

Baltimore was reached at evening, and Philadelphia 
next morning. The cars took the men to Amboy ; a 
boat, to the Battery in New York. On the 28th the 
Neptune Line propeller Galatea took the regiment on 
board, and landed them next morning at Providence ; 
Reach and before noon they reached Readville, from which 
place the regiment originally went by cars on December 
26, 1861, almost exactly three years and six months 
previously. 

Before night nearly all the men had gone home on 
leave of absence. As there was no duty to be done, 
and the last thing was to be paid off, discipline was un- 
The final ncccssary. All departed, to be reassembled for the last 
separation, ^j^^^ when the paymaster should be ready to pay them. 
This occurred nearly a month later, on July 18, and 
the men separated forever as soldiers. 



Readville. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE THIRD BATTALION, FROM AUGUST 19, 1862. 

When the 1st and 2d battalions of the regiment left 1862, 
South Carolina for Virginia, August 19, 1862, it was 
supposed by all that the 3d battalion would soon follow 
the other two. General Mitchell, who succeeded Gen- 
eral Hunter, remonstrated at the departure of so many 
troops from Hilton Head, and succeeded in getting an 
order issued that no more troops should be taken away. 
Among those left was the 3d battalion, and it was all 3d battai- 
the cavalry in this department. One company was sta- tahied at 
tioned at Hilton Head, with headquarters at Lawton's Head, 
plantation, and the other three at Beaufort, in the old 
camp. 

The 3d battalion was commanded by Major A. H. 
Stevens, Jr. Major Curtis, the senior major, com- 
manded all of the regiment in South Carolina, includ- 
ing, besides the 3d battalion, some men of other com- 
panies, who had been left there for one reason or 
another. In September, however, finding it impossible Efforts fail 
to get the 3d battalion away. Major Curtis left South dTrs^Yat- 
Carohna to rejoin the regiment in Maryland, and man- Sm'ith "^""^ 
aged to take the regimental band with him. 

A little later Colonel Williams succeeded in getting 
to Virginia all the men belonging to the 1st and 2d 
battalions ; and they went north in charge of Lieuten- 
ant Henry P. Bowditch, and reported to the regiment 



256 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1S62, 
August. 



Picketing, 
patrolling, 
and or- 
derly duty. 



Service 
irksome. 



3d battal- 
ion made 
indepen- 
dent. 



in Maryland, near Hagerstown. On the 2d of Septem- 
ber tlie 3d battalion was actually shipped, and started 
north, but met the tug Rescue before getting out, and 
was ordered back. Althouoh the 3d battalion could 
not be got away at this time, it was thought that soon 
they would be ordered north to join the command in 
Virgfinia. 

In South Carolina active operations ceased on any 
important scale, and the duty of the 3d battahon was 
pretty closely confined to picketing, patrolling, and or- 
derly duty, for a long time. 

October 22 a reconnoissance towards Pocotaligo, 
across the ferry, was made, in which the battalion took 
part. Captain Rand of company L was ordered to Gen- 
eral Saxton's staff as A. A. A. G., and continued on 
that duty for several months. 

The climate was trying ; but by great care the health 
of the men was maintained. The service, however, was 
irksome, and lacking in excitement. May 29 company 
M went to Hilton Head, and company L to General 
Saxton's headquarters as guard. 

July 16 the patrol had trouble in the town with some 
artillerymen on a spree, and Corporal Bartol of com- 
pany K was shot through the lungs. 

August 4, 1863, the 3d battalion was made in- 
dependent of the other two, and was called the Inde- 
pendent Battalion, Massachusetts Cavalry Volunteers. 
October 2, Frasier, company K, was captured while near 
the Rose place. 

The following letter from Major Stevens to Adju- 
tant-General Schouler gives an account of the battahon 
and its doings at this time : — 




LIEUT. ALBERT F. RAY 
\ Major 4tk Cav.] 





LIEUT. C. CHANCEY PARSONS 
[Afajor 5th Ca-u.^ 



LIEUT. GEO. M. FILLEBROWN 



command. 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 257 

Headquarters Independent Battalion, 1864, 

Massachusetts Cavalry Volunteers. January. 

Hilton Head, S. C, January 21, 18(34. 

To Wm. Schouler, Adjutant-General Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts. 

General, — I have the honor to reply to your order of date of Major 
12th inst., received this day, which is the first request of the kind report, 
that I have received. 

The headquarters of the battalion have been at Beaufort, S. C, 
since date of last report (October 31, 1862), where three companies 
were stationed ; the fourth company was stationed at Hilton Head, 

s. c. 

The command at Beaufort, consisting of companies A, B, and C, Duty and 
were constantly on duty, part of them as patrol, mounted police, etc. ^^(^^ ^f ^^g 
The balance of the command were on outpost duty constantly ; being 
obliged to stand picket guard every third night, and frequently every 
other night, giving the men only one night in. The line picketed 
extended along the shore of Broad River, some twelve miles, and 
was a duty of no trifling importance, and was done with credit to 
the men, and rewarded with the respect and approbation of the sev- 
eral commanders of the post. 

The fourth company (company D), under the command of Cap- 
tain Thayer, was stationed at Hilton Head, S. C, and doing outpost 
duty, with its headquarters at Lawton's plantation. 

A detachment from company A went to Folly Island in April, 
1863. In June the remainder of the company were ordered to Hil- 
ton Head, where they did outpost duty ; headquarters at Seabrook. 
In July the force at Folly Island was increased by another detach- 
ment from the same company. The detachment on duty at Folly 
and Morris Islands remained through the siege of Fort Sumter, and 
the duties performed were very arduous. One man only was 
wounded, private T. D. Knight, but the wound was a slight one. 
The detachment returned to Hilton Head in December, since which 
time it has been on outpost duty at Seabrook. 

Company D, now under command of Captain Morrill, is still at 
Lawton's plantation, having been there for over a year, doing the 
same duty as formerly. 

There has been one man taken prisoner belonging to this com- 
mand. Private James B. Frasier, of company B, while on picket at 



258 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864, 
January. 



Deser- 
tions. 



Commen- 
dations. 



Indepen- 
dent Bat- 
talion 
shares in 
Florida ex- 
pedition. 



the outpost, October 2, 1863, at Beaufort, S. C, was made prisoner 
by the enemy, after being wounded. He is at present confined in 
Columbia Jail, Columbia, S. C. 

There have been two desertions since the battalion left Massachu- 
setts. Private Joseph A. Noble (company B), of Roxbury, deserted 
from " leave of absence," July, 1862, and has never been appre- 
hended ; private John T. Simonds, of company B, deserted from 
detached service with the 1st Regiment Massachusetts Cavalry, in 
Virginia, and when last heard from was at " Dismounted Camp," 
Washington. One desertion took place previous to the battalion 
leaving Massachusetts, — private Ellis V. Lyon, of company A. He 
has been apprehended, and was returned to the company December 
24, 1863. He Is at present in charge of the provost mai'shal at Hil- 
ton Head, awaiting trial. These three cases of desertion are borne 
as such on our rolls, but in case of Simonds, application was made 
to 1st Massachusetts cavalry regiment for him, and he Is supposed 
to be awaiting transportation ; and in case of Lyon, there is some 
doubts about its being an Intentional case of desertion. 

The battalion has won the esteem of the several post and depart- 
ment commanders, for their promptness and alacrity in the discharge 
of their duties, and proficiency in drill and discipline, receiving the 
endorsement of Generals Gillmore, Saxton, Brannon, Mitchell, and 
other commanders. 

The health of the command has been and is excellent, the casual- 
ties being very few, only two deaths having occurred during the past 
year. 

The order ■whicli made the Independent Battalion 
jNIassachusetts Cavahy Volunteers a part of the 4th 
Massachusetts cavalry was issued February 12, 1864. 
But the battalion was in South Carolina, acting under 
its old officers, and as part of the troops of the depart- 
ment, shared in the expedition to the St. John's River, 
and the engagements that ensued. The expedition 
was commanded by Brigadier-General Seymour, under 
orders from General Gillmore, commanding the depart- 
ment. 

The mounted force, consisting of the Independent 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 259 

Battalion Massachusetts cavalry, 40tli Massachusetts i864, 
mounted infantry, horse battery B, 1st United States 
artillery, was called the Light Brigade, and placed under The Light 
the command of Colonel Guy V. Henry, of the 40th 
Massachusetts. 

January 4, 1864, the troops for the expedition to TheFior- 
Jacksonville beofan to assemble at Hilton Head, and tionar- 

. _, , rives at 

preparations were begun. On February 4 General Gill- Jackson- 
more reviewed all the troops. February 5 the battalion 
embarked on steamer Charles Houghton, started the 6th 
for Florida, and arrived at Jacksonville at four p. m. of 
the 7th. While landing, the steamer General Hunter 
was fired on by the enemy's pickets. In a very short 
time twenty mounted men were in pursuit, and chased 
the pickets three miles, over a rotten plank road, cap- 
turing a signal station and several prisoners. With 
these trophies and sundry feathered rations, they re- 
turned to Jacksonville. Next afternoon the advance Advance 

T • 1 n • 1 1 • n starts in- 

started inland in two columns, one marching on Lamp land. 
Finnegan, the other passing it and capturing Confeder- 
ate pickets without giving an alarm. About one a. m., 
February 8, an artillery camp was run into and captured 
by a charge. Six Napoleon guns and a large quantity 
of stores and prisoners were the results here. After a 
short rest the advance was resumed, and on reaching 
Baldwin, where the two columns united, another gun 
and other arms were captured. Companies A, B, and C 
(quondam I, K, and L) were with this column, while 
company M marched with the main column. 

FACTS AND MEMORIES OF THE FLORIDA CAMPAIGN, BY SERGEANT 
A. J. CLEMENT, COMPANY M. 

When the army moved from Jacksonville on the afternoon of 
February 8, 1864, company D of the Independent Battalion was 



260 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1804, 
February. 



detached from the Light Brigade and headed the column of in- 
fantry which was to march on the main road westward. With this 
column was the commander-in-chief, Brigadier-General T. A. Sey- 



Kcatter 

enemy's 

pickets. 



Charge an 

artillery 

camp. 



Enter 
Baldwin. 



Cross St. 

Maiy's 

River. 



At Three Mile Run company D charged, scattered a mounted 
picket force, and chased them several miles. Companies A, B, and 
C, followed by Elder's battery, moved out on the road towards Camp 
Finnegan, which was passed without being molested, although the 
enemy could be heard in the darkness giving orders to " fall in," for 
it was the intention of Colonel Henry to surprise an artillery camp 
further on. A detachment of company I was sent on ahead of the 
column, and as the light of the rebel picket-fires was seen along the 
road, they charged the post and captured the picket, thereby pre- 
venting any alarm being given to the rebel camp. 

About midnight the Independent Battalion arrived on a little rise 
overlooking the artillery camp, where the rebels were peacefully 
dreaming of the future great Confederacy. Colonel Henry halted 
the battalion and made his arrangements to charge the cramp with 
one platoon, with another close behind for support. He ordered the 
bugler to sound the charge twice, and shouted to the men these 
words, " If ever you yell in your lives, boys, yell now! " And in the 
language of the official report of that event, " They charged with a 
yell that still lingers in the ears of those who heard it." 

Besides six guns and a number of prisoners captured, there was a 
quantity of ammunition, clothing, and other things, which had been 
run through the blockade. 

After resting a short time the line of march was resumed, and 
just at daylight the battalion charged into Baldwin, capturing a can- 
non mounted on a platform car. Here, also, large quantities of to- 
bacco were captured, also cotton and resin. Early in the day. Gen- 
eral Seymour arrived by the other road, with company D as escort, 
and the Light Brigade was then reunited. 

On the morning of the 10th the Light Brigade resumed its west- 
ward march, reaching the lofty eastern bank of St. Mary's River, at 
Barber's Ford, about twelve o'clock. There were no signs of the 
enemy, and the column moved down to cross the bridge, — it and 
the river being totally shut out of view by a dense growth of forest 
along the banks. As the head of the column entered the forest at 
the brink of the rapid river, they were ambushed, and received a 




LIEUT. CHARLES A. LONGFELLOW 




LIEUT. P. T. JACKSON 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 261 

very heavy fire. It was then discovered that the bridge was d&- i864, 
stroyed, and the guide pointed out the ford a few rods below. Colo- ^ ^'<^^rj. 
nel Henry ordered Captain Webster to take his company (L) and 
flank the enemy. Companies I and K were dismounted as skirmish- 
ers. As company L moved down the narrow road which led to the 
ford, they became the target of Hank's guerrillas on the other side, 
and the road becoming filled with wounded men and horses, the 
order was given, " Fours left about." At this time Captain Web- 
ster had his horse shot, and one of his shoulder straps was shot off. 
The company reformed after getting out of the bushes, and return- 
ing pistols and drawing sabre, charged through the stream. The 
enemy scattered as we reached the opposite bank, leaving quite a 
large number of horses behind. As we moved on immediately we 
never learned what the loss of the enemy was. We went at a brisk 
gait, destroying the railroad at several points, and came to Sander- Come to 
son early in the afternoon. We found the central portion wrapped 
in flames, for the rebels had fired a large stock of cotton and resin 
at the railroad depot, to prevent its capture. 

Tbe brigade remained in Sanderson a few hours, and then moved 
steadily on till almost sundown the next day, February 11, when we 
were reported to be close to Lake City, with a force with artillery to Near Lake 
oppose us. Skirmishers from company D were sent forward, and 
received a volley from behind the railroad embankment, which con- 
vinced us that we were to be opposed vigorously. It was at this 
time that Johnson, of company D, was wounded. Dai'kness was 
now rapidly falling, the horses were jaded, and there were rations for 
neither man nor beast. We had ali-eady gone far beyond the origi- 
nal destination (Baldwin) of the expedition, and Colonel Henry de- 
cided to fall back a few miles for the night, as a heavy storm was 
impending. After marching back about five miles, we passed the 
night in the woods, in a torrent of rain. Next day, February 12, 
we returned to Sanderson, got rations, and met our infantiy, which 
had followed in our track. The whole army then fell back to Bar- Fall back 
ber's Ford and went into camp. It may be well to state here that ber'sFord. 
it was then, and subsequently, understood that to occupy Jackson- 
ville and capture Baldwin was the main object of the expedition. 
With Baldwin in our possession, all southern and eastern Florida 
were cut off from the enemy, and all cattle and other supplies lost 
to them from those sections. 



262 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864 There is fullest proof that the second advance was contrary to 

February. o^-Jers, for Olustee had hardly been fought when orders came from 
Gillmore, at Hilton Head, forbidding the advance which led to the 
disaster. 

While the main body was resting at Barber's Ford, a detachment 
was sent out, February 14, towards King's Ferry, Ga. Arriving 
next day, they met the enemy's cavalry, which they drove ofiB. They 
destroyed two ferry boats and the telegraph station, and came back 
to Barber's Ford, February 17. 
Prepara- We lay at Barber's Ford a full week, during which time our camp 

S^heT ^vas full of bogus " Union " Floridians, and fully twenty of them 
advance, ^y^re there on the Friday night when evident preparations were 
made for another advance. In fact, everybody knew of it two days 
before, and in this way, if in no other, the rebels got the informa- 
tion which led them to send down their regiments from Charleston 
and Savannah. AVe crossed the ford at daybreak Saturday, Febru- 
ary 19, and began the advance. In an hour we had a cavalry force 
in our front, which fell back slowly before us, with an occasional 
exchange of shots. 

About one p. m. a halt was called, to allow the infantry to come 
up, and while the brigade rested, company D was advanced about 
half a mile, to a point where the highway crossed the raih-oad. The 
picket line was laid out, and the men posted. Only one rebel cav- 
alryman was in sight, and he was at a safe distance, on the railroad 
track. And he remained there for General Seymour to look at two 
hours later. 

I am particularizing here, for at this point we (company D) dis- 
covered that the enemy were in great force. 
Encounter First we saw and counted, as one by one they jumped across the 
the enemy. j-aJiroad, over one hundred infantrymen. We saw their long rifles 
flash in the sunlight. They were after the left of our thin picket 
line. Presently they opened on us, and kept it up till our men were 
hard pressed all along the line. From the extreme right, on the 
highway, came in Corporal Dennet, and minutely described how he 
had seen not less than three regiments march by a commanding ofii- 
cer whom all the regimental ofiicers saluted. One can see a long 
distance through those forests of big pines, entirely free from under- 
growth. 

After what seemed a long time, the 7th New Hampshire came up, 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 263 

and went in as skirmishers, and the rebel fire ceased. All was silent, y^qa 
with that one cavalryman in sight, when General Seymour and staff February, 
came up, and with him the whole Light Brigade. All the facts were 
told to the commanding general. Captain Elder (of our Light Bri- 
gade horse battery) said with a sneer that lie could see " just one 
man." It was a direct slur on us, and it had its effect, for the ad- 
vance was at once ordered, the two regiments of infantry still keep- 
ing their skirmish line in the woods. 

We went slowly, and the rebel cavalry again appeared vexatiously Reach the 
near, as though inviting us to charge after them. In less than ten ^her^^the 
minutes General Seymour ordered us to wheel to the left and halt, enemy 
that he might send a shot up the road. To this shot there was no Xandthe 
response, and the rebel cavalry had disappeared over a slight eleva- g£* ^^' 
tion of the road. A few rods further on we came to the edge of a 
clearing. Here Elder fired another shot, and he got a prompt re- 
sponse that killed one of his horses. And here the fight began. We 
were on the chosen battle-ground, — a pond on one side, a swamp 
on the other, soft, spongy ground to the rear, and in front a clear- 
ing, where tlie grade rose slightly. And it was just over the edge of 
this elevation that the enemy lay, with veteran troops, solid in force, 
partially entrenched, and all fresh and ready. 

We had Elder's U. S. A. horse battery with our brigade, and two 
regiments of infantry, to begin with. The rest of our small force 
was coming up, but much of it was still miles in the rear. 

We watched the 7th New Hampshire go up cheering, and come 
back fearfully used up. Then Captain Jack Hamilton's U. S. A. 
battery (old Sherman Mexican War Battery) went in with a rush. 
Every gun was at once taken, and Captain Hamilton was brought 
off wounded. 

The regiments came up singly, went in cheering, and stayed to be Into the 
almost annihilated. Langdon's U. S. A. battery went in with a rush Sh°* 
and lost four out of six guns. The colored troops went in grandly, 
and they fought like devils. (Next day Major Bogle was lying with 
his wounded colored troops at a mill a few miles to the rear, where 
the rebels slaughtered all the wounded "niggers" who had crawled 
there from the battle-field, — about three hundred.) 

We were soon too busy to observe particulars. We were wanted 
everywhere, especially on our left flank, where the rebel cavalry con- 
tinually showed up. But they would n't stand to meet us. We tried 



264 FIBST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864 them twice. Then, as the case became desperate, we were jjlaced 
February, ^j^^gg ^o the guns of the one battery (Elder's horse battery, four Na- 
poleon guns), which held its own, kept its guns, and saved the army 
by allowing our troops to draw out of the trap just as darkness came 
on. Darkness alone saved us. 

For an hour we clung to that battery, with a hail of fire that was 

mostly too high. Twice I thought we should use our sabres, as the 

yelling devils came down for those guns. But Polder (afterwards 

Grant's chief of artillery) was fearless, and kept his men at work 

Niffht gloriously. With black darkness the fighting ceased. The enemy 

fffing^ seemed indisposed to push us. Perhaps Seymour's ruse of having 

each regiment give three times three cheers made them think we 

had fresh arrivals of troops. 

Company Company D stayed over two hours on the edge of that field, while 

JJ,^"e!i7in the rest began the retreat. Then we followed slowly all night. It 

retreat. ^^^s fearful work to keep the men attentive. They did n't " care a 

damn " for anything. They believed we were sure to be gobbled 

anyway. But not a shot did they fire, nor did we discover that they 

followed us that night. 

We reached Barber's Ford at daybreak, and there got out of sad- 
dle for the first time in twenty-four hours, and fed our horses. 

Company D was the last to go through the ford as we left the 
heights to follow the army. 

We reached Baldwin that afternoon, with orders to hold it. We 
found there piles of infantry equipments, abandoned by the demor- 
alized men, an immense quantity of our own army stores and ammu- 
nition, and untold quantities of cotton and resin. No enemy pushed 
us severely, though they hovered near. We stayed that night and 
to the night after, all vigilant and awake, no man leaving his horse 
except for necessary reasons. 
Immense At midnight we fired the whole valuable mass, and soon the whole 

stores of f ^^.^^g ablaze, as we marched away to the volleys of scores of 

cotton and ' 

resin de- cases of Spencer cartridges, which were among our nulitary stores 

Slwin!* destroyed there. We burned every bridge at the many little " runs," 
and reached Camp Finnegan next morning. Our company was then 
relieved, but we at once were called out to skirmish. Finally we 
reached Three Mile Run, where I had fired the first shot, on Febru- 
ary 8, as we forced the picket on our first advance. 

Here the Light Brigade established the outpost line, while the in- 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 265 

fantiy threw up earthworks around Jacksonville. We had one very i864 
serious skirmish a few days later, for they really tried to force us Fortify 
back. Lamont, of company B, was killed in this skirmish. After vfu^^°"" 
that, until weeks later, there was little done. Virtually our work 
was over, — an inglorious termination of an expedition that started 
most auspiciously. Later we went up the St. John's River and eajv 
tured Palatka (April 6). There four men were taken by the enemy Capture 
while on picket, Lincoln, Poole, Jackson, and Sylvester of Co. I. ■'^*^^^*^^- 
They were sent to Anderson ville, as we learned later. April 14 
we crossed the river, made an all-day swamp march, and came out 
at St. Augustine. A day later we marclied to opposite Jacksonville. 
There we gave up our horses to the 75th Ohio infantry, and took 
steamer to Hilton Head, arriving April 24. Saw there some of our 
new comrades of the 4th regiment, robbed them of their horses, and 
took steamer for Newport News, where we arrived May 8. Started 
again, and reached City Point, Va., May 12. According to the offi- 
cers' reports, we captured or destroyed over one and a half million 
dollars worth of cotton and resin. 

After the Jacksonville-Olustee campaign, the follow- 
ing orders were issued : — 

Headquarters United States Forces, 
_, ^ Camp Finnegan, Fla. 

General Orders, No. 1. 

The commanding officer cannot fail to express to the Independent After 
Battalion Massachusetts Cavalry, in his command, his high admira- ^^'^®*®®- 
tion of their coolness and bravery during the battle of Olustee. You 
had already distinguished yourselves by your constancy and endur- 
ance, but at Olustee you evinced the highest qualities of a soldier. 
You formed the rallying point for troops, encouraged the infantry 
by your coolness, and prevented tlie enemy's cavalry from charging 
the retreat. You assisted to cover, remaining miles in rear of the 
infantry. Your position was most trying, being exposed to heavy 
fire without the least chance for any excitement to divert your minds 
from your danger. The only battery that came out as it went in 
was the one you assisted to support. To you belongs the heroic sat- 
isfaction of having saved an army. 

By order, QuT V. Henry, 

Colonel 40th Massachusetts Mounted Infantry, 
Commanding Light Brigade. 



266 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864. Headquarters Light Brigade, 

JacksonvUxLE, March 30, 18G4. 

Special Orders, No. 3. 
To the officers and men of the Battalion Massachusetts Cavalry. 
Battalion ^^ ^^ vf'iih. deep regret that your commanding officer receives an 
fWuLi^ht '^^^^^ detaching you from the Light Brigade. He wishes to ex- 
Brigade, press to you his thanks for the zealous manner in which you have 
always performed your duties while under his command. 

He has always placed great confidence in your hravery, gallantry, 
and discipline, and he has never been disappointed. 

Hoping that this change is only temporary, and wishing you suc- 
cess in every undertaking, your commander bids you farewell. 
(Signed,) Guy V. Henry, 

Colonel Jfith Massachusetts Mounted Infantry, 
ComviaiLding Light Brigade. 

Headquarters District of Florida, 
Jacksonville, March 24, 1864. 

Special MAJOR, — It is reported to the brigadier-general commanding 

courage i\i^i durincj the skirmish of the 1st inst., a serg-eant and certain men 
and skill. ' t5 ' & 

of the Massachusetts cavalry, construing their orders too literally, 
resisted the advance of largely superior numbers, and were finally 
captured, but not before every shot had been expended, with such 
courage and skill as to have commanded the admiration of the en- 
emy. 

It will please the brigadier-general commanding to mention such 
circumstances in General Orders, and you are requested to give 
whatever information you may have, and the names of the party in 

question. 

Respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant, 

R. M. Hall, 
1st Lieutenant, 1st United States Artillery, A. A. A. G. 

Major A. H. Stevens, Massachusetts Cavalry, 
Commanding Light Brigade. 

Camp Finnegan, Fla., February 23, 1864. 

Wounded Report of wounded of the Independent Battalion Massachusetts 
of the bat- ri i 
talion. Cavalry. 

At Barber's Ford, Fla., February 10, 1864 : — 

Corporal Andrew W. Bartlett, company A, gunshot, liver. 



^ii^S^St^^m 





LIEUT. EDWARD J, RUSSELL 



SERGT. L. N. DUCHESNEY 
[Lieut, ist and Capt. Frontier Cai 





LIEUT. JOHN W. MARTIN 



LIEUT. TIMOTHY P. LYMAN 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 267 

Private Freeman P. Howland, company A, gunshot, arm, com- i864. 
pound fracture of the liumerus. 

Sergeant Frank Blaisdell, company B, gunshot, head. 

Private Thomas Cahill, company B, gunshot, thigh (since dead). 

Private George Ferrand, company B, gunshot, thigh. 

Captain Moses F. Webster, company B, shoulder, slight. 

Corporal N. W. Cram, company C, shoulder, slight. 

Private Richard Burns, company C, lumbar region (since dead). 

Private George W. Hunkins, company C, gunshot, left hand. 

Private George Hutchinson, company C, gunshot, right arm. 

Private E. Pasho, company C, gunshot, arm. 

Private S. P. Ridley, company C, shoulder, slight. 

Near Lake City, Fla., February 11, 1864 : — 
Private George E. Johnson, company D, gunshot, neck. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Atherton H. Stevens, Jr., 
Major Commanding Battalion. 

FROM THE adjutant-general's REPORT OF 1864. 

The 4th regiment Massachusetts Cavalry Volunteers was organ- 4th Mass. 
ized by Special Order No. 70, series 1864, from War Department, ganized."^ 
Washington, D. C, dated February 12, 1864, ordering that the bat- 
talion of cavalry known as Independent Battalion Massachusetts 
Cavalry, serving in the Department of the South, and formerly of 
1st Massachusetts Cavalry, be, together with 1st Battalion Veteran 
Cavalry, then recruiting in Massachusetts, constituted 4th Massachu- 
setts Cavalry. 

General Order No. 39, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, assigned 
Lieutenant-Colonel A. A. Rand to command the regiment. 

The regiment, consisting of twelve companies, each one hundx'ed 
strong, was fully recruited and organized on or about the 1st of 
March, 1864. 

The 1st battalion, commanded by Major Stevens, was, at the or- 1st bat- 
ganization of the regiment, stationed in South Carolina, under com- 
mand of Major-General Q. A. Gillmore. 

The 2d battalion. Major Keith commanding, sailed from Boston 2dbat- 
for Hilton Head, S. C, on the 20th of March, 1864, on board trans- 
port steamer Western Metropolis, and arrived there April 1, 1864. 



268 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



1864. 



:kl bat- 
talion. 



1st battal- 
ion or- 
dered to 
Virginia. 



With 10th 

army 

corps. 



Various 
services of 
the com- 
mand. 



The 3d battalion, Major Cabot commanding, sailed from Boston 
on the 23d of April, 1864, with a detachment of one hundred and 
fifty men for 1st battalion on board transport Western Metropolis, 
and arrived at Hilton Head, S. C, April 27, 1864. They then re- 
ceived orders to return to Fortress Monroe, and report to Major- 
General Butler, commanding Department Virginia and North Caro- 
lina, after debarking at St. Helena Island, S. C, to coal and water 
the steamer. The battalion reembarked May 1, arriving at Newport 
News, Va., Avhere they encamped, May 3, 1864. 

The 1st battalion was also ordered to Virginia ; arrived at Ber- 
muda Hundred under connnand of Captain Richmond, May 8, and 
participated in the movement of the 9th and 10th. It also partici- 
pated in the engagements at Drury's Bluff, commencing on the 12th 
of May and ending on the 16th. Two men were wounded. 

The 1st battalion participated in the movement against Peters- 
burg on the 9th of June ; one man killed and two wounded. On 
the 16th of June they took part in the movement which resulted in 
cutting the rail and telegraph communications between Richmond 
and Petersburg. 

On the 21st of June regimental headquarters was removed to near 
department headquarters, in front of Bermuda Hundred, and there 
remained until August 15, when the regiment was attached to the 
10th army corps, headquarters at Hatcher's, Va. 

August 14. A detachment of the command accompanied the 10th 
corps in the movement to the north side of the James River, at Deep 
Bottom. The remainder of the command were ordered to the 
trenches on the Bermuda front. 

August 17. Lieutenant-Colonel Washburn reported with the whole 
command to General Birney, commanding 10th army corps, north 
of the James River, and took part in movements which followed, 
until the 20th, when the army recrossed the James, the cavalry cov- 
ering the rear- 
August 24. The command accompanied 10th army corps to front 
of Petersburg, to position previously occupied by 18th army corps. 

The regiment took part in the movement to north side of the 
James River, September 28. Colonel Rand commanding, and was 
almost constantly engaged on picket duty, as skirmishers and scout- 
ing, until October 5, when the command encamped on New Market 
Road. During the fight of the 7th of October, it was engaged as 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 



269 



1864. 



skirmishers and i)icketing, and at night encamped near 10th corps 
headquarters, left of the New Market Road. 

The command took part in the reconnoissance made by the Army Services of 
of the James, October 27 and 28, returning to former camp on the *^^® '^°™' 
night of the 28th. "'''"'*• 

Company M, under command of Lieutenant Miles, was ordered 
to Harrison's Landing, September 1, 1864, where they have re- 
mained, engaged in general outpost duty. They have lost, in vari- 
ous collisions with the enemy, one man killed, two wounded, and 
four prisoners. 

November 2. A detachment. Captain Richmond commanding, 
under direction of Major Stevens, then provost marshal lOtli army 
corps, made a successful expedition into a portion of Charles City 
and Harrison counties, capturing several suspected spies and guerril- 
las, as well as horses and cattle. 

The position of the regiment is now (December 18, 1864) as fol- 
lows : the regiment is attached to headquarters Department of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina. The 2d battalion (Major Webster com- 
manding) is serving in Department of the South. Detachments are 
with the 24th and 25th corps, and at Williamsburg and Harrison's 
Landinsf. 



Aggregate of losses : — 

Killed. Enlisted men 
Wounded. Officers 

Enlisted men . 
Missing. Officers 

Enlisted men . 
Prisoners of war. Officers 

Enlisted men . 
Discharged. Officers . 

Enlisted men . 
Died. Officers . 

Enlisted men . 

Regiment now numbers : — 
Officers 
Enlisted men 

Aggregate 



Its losses. 



10 

1 

15 
1 

2 

4 
85 

5 
64 

1 
22 

45 
1,102 

1,147 



270 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1864 ^^y report for 1864 brought the history of the regiment down to 

December 31, 1864. The following is its completion from that 
date : — 
Stations of When the year 1865 opened, the regiment was divided as fol- 
^Tb^tS*"^^ lows : two companies were stationed at Jacksonville, Fla. ; two at 
Deveaux Neck, S. C ; two at the headquarters 24th, and two at 
headquarters 25th army corps, before Richmond ; one at Williams- 
burg, Va., and one at Harrison's Landing, Va. The headquarters 
of the regiment, with two companies, were at Vienna, Va., attached 
to the headquarters of the Army of the James. 

When the Army of the James moved from its winter quarters, on 
the 28th of March, companies F and K remained attached to the 
24th army corps, and took part in the engagement of that corps 
while in pursuit of the Army of Northern Virginia. Companies E 
and H remained with the 25th army corps before Richmond, and 
were the first troops to enter the city (April 3). The guidons of 
these companies were the first Union colors carried into Richmond, 
and raised by Union troops. They floated from the Capitol building 
until a larger flag suppHed their place. That part of the regiment 
attached at this time to the headquarters Army of the James (com- 
panies I, L, and M), commanded by Colonel Francis Washburn, 
marched with them to Burkesville, arriving on the night of the 5th 
of April. 
Fight at Early on the following morning, in compliance with orders re- 

Bnd e ceived the night previous, Colonel Washburn, with two regiments of 
infantry, each about four hundred strong, and a part of his own 
force of cavalry, numbering thirteen officers and sixty-seven men, 
started to destroy High Bridge, eighteen miles distant, and of great 
importance to the retreating rebel army. The bridge was reached 
about noon, the enemy offering feeble resistance to his advance. 
The infantry were halted in the vicinity of the bridge, while the 
cavalry pushed on about two miles further, meeting a superior force 
of the enemy's cavalry, with artillery. A short time before the 
bridge was reached. Brevet Brigadier-General Theodore Read ar- 
rived, with orders to hold, and not destroy the bridge. He took 
command. The cavalry retired to the bridge, and found the infan- 
Enemy try warmly engaged with another force of the enemy's cavalry, and 

superior in gjio^yjno- sio-ns of breaking. It was soon evident that the enemy was 
numbers. o t> » i i v 

superior in numbers, and that a fight at long range could not be 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 271 

maintained until General Ord should be apprised of their situation, ig65. 
and should send infantry — the only troops he had — to their relief. M^^xl. 

Thus situated between two forces of the enemy, — the larger be- 
tween him and the Army of the James, — to charge and break 
through the enemy, if possible, seemed the only honorable course for 
General Read to take ; no other was suggested. 

Twice the cavalry charged, breaking through and dispersing one Hemmed 
line of the enemy, reforming and charging a second, wliich was overptw- 
formed in a wood too dense to admit of the free use of the sabre. ®'^<^'i- 
In vain, however : eight of twelve officers engaged were put hors de 
combat ; three killed, and five severely wounded. The little band 
was hemmed in and overpowered by two divisions of cavalry, — 
Rosser's and Fitzhugh Lee's, — the advance of General Lee's army. 
Colonel Washburn, whose intrepid bravery in this fight endears 
his name to his associates, and adds the crowning glory to a life ele- 
vated by the purest patriotism, died a few weeks afterwards from 
the effects of his wounds. 

Because of the influence of the affair upon the results of the cam- 
paign, I have dwelt upon it. 

" To the sharpness of that fight," says a rebel colonel, inspector- Impor- 
general on Lee's staff, to General Ord, "the cutting off of Lee's thr%ht 
army at Appomattox Court House was probably owing. So fierce 
were the charges of Colonel Washburn and his men, and so deter- 
mined their fighting, that General Lee received the impression that 
they must be supported by a large part of the army, and that his 
retreat was cut off." Acting under this impression, he halted his 
army, gave what the " inspector-general " calls stampeding orders, 
and began to throw up the line of breastworks which were found 
there the next day. Three trains of provisions, forage, and cloth- 
ing, which had been sent down from Lynchburg, on the South Side 
Road, were sent back, to prevent them from falling into our hands, 
and his army, which was on one third rations, and those of corn 
only, was thus deprived of the provisions, the want of which ex- 
hausted them so much. 

Moreover, by tlie delay occasioned by this halt. General Sheridan Sheridan 
was enabled to come up with E well's division at Saylor's Creek. Ew3f^^^ 
When Lee discovered his mistake, and that the fighting force in his 
front was only a small detachment of cavalry and infantry. General 
Ord, with the Army of the James, had already profited by the delay, 



272 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALBY. 

1865, and so closed up with him that a retreat directly south was no longer 
April. practicable ; he was obliged to make the detour by way of Appo- 
mattox Court House. General Rosser concurs in this opinion, and 
states that the importance of the fight has never been appi'eciated. 
General That Lieutenant-General Grant and General Ord appreciated its 

port. importance, and confirmed the principal facts stated above, is shown 

by the following extract from General Grant's report of the armies 
of the United States : — 

" General Ord advanced from Burkesville towards Farmville, 
sending two regiments of infantry and a squadron of cavalry, under 
Brevet Brigadier-General Theodore Read, to destroy the bridge. 
The advance met the head of Lee's column near Farmville, which 
it heroically attacked and detained, until General Read was killed 
and his small force overpowered. This caused a delay in the ene- 
my's movements, and enabled General Ord to get well up with the 
remainder of his force, on meeting which, the enemy immediately 
intrenched himself. In the afternoon, General Sheridan struck the 
enemy south of Saylor's Creek," etc., etc. 

I have said little of the two regiments of infantry engaged, be- 
cause they failed to support the charges of the cavalry, and fought 
feebly. 

Soon after the surrender of Lee, the detachments Avere assembled 
at Richmond, Va., Avhere, until its muster out of the service, the reg- 
iment performed a routine of guard and courier duty. It received 
its final discharge at Galloupe's Island, Boston Harbor, November 
26, 1865. 

THE FIGHT AT HIGH BRIDGE, VA. 

Fight at The opening of the spring campaign of 1865 found the old Inde- 

Bndg-e, pendent Battalion, then the 1st battalion of the 4th Massachusetts 
6^*865^'^' cavalry, in a somewhat divided condition. Company K was on de- 
tached service at the 24th corps headquarters in front of Richmond, 
while companies I, L, and M, with the field and staff of the regi- 
ment, were on duty at the headquarters of General Ord, command- 
ing the Army of the James. These three squadrons, under the im- 
mediate command of Colonel Francis Washburn, had been so reduced 
by details for orderly and courier duty, in addition to other causes, 
that when orders to break camp were received, on the 27th of March, 
but twelve officers and one hundred and forty-nine men could be 
mustered for duty. This force was in attendance upon Major-Gen- 




HARRY D. LiTTLEFIELD 
ist Lieut, and Acting' Adj't. 



^--.cX 




GEO. W. FLAGG 
ist Lieut, and Act. Adji. 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 273 

eral Orel, who moved on the morning of the 28th with those divi- jg^js 
sions of the Army of the James which participated with the Army ^'"■"• 
of the Potomac in the final attack upon Pctersljurg. Early on the 
morning of the ;id of April Petersburg was evacuated, and the Fed- Poters- 
eral armies moved at once in i)ursuit of the retreating foe, the Army I,'."t',':,j'^^^"" 
of the James proceeding by the line of the Lynchburg Pailroad. ^'l^- •''» 
These three scpiadroiis were not engaged in any lighting during the 
momentous days following the retreat of Lee from Petersburg and 
Richmond, l)ut the close of each day saw the nundjers of the little 
band steadily diminishing, by reason of details for orderly duty, etc. 
The weather had l)een beautiful, the spring far advanced ; and an 
ollicer of the 4tli, writing a few hiii-ried lines to friends at home, re- 
marked, " It seems more like a pleasant ride into the country, than 
like the jjursuit of one army by another." Late on the evening of 
the 5th of April Burkesville was reached. General Lee, with the Lee's army 
Army of Northern Vii-ginia, was marching on a line nearly parallel To,'^.'"'''^ 
witli the Army of tiie James, and on the night of the 5th of April Jb'UHe, 
was at Amelia Court House. A few miles northwest of Rice's Sta- 1805'/' 
tion the Api)omattox River is crossed by the South Side Railroad 
at High Bridge, a long and lofty trestle-work structure, famous 
throughout that region. The raih-oad tiien cuts across a northerly 
looj) of the Api)omattox, and takes to the southern bank, where the 
river is bridged at Farmville. Leaving Amelia Court House with 
his army during the night of April 5, General Lee hoped by a rapid 
march to cross the A])poniattox at Farmville, thirty-live miles west, 
destroy the bridges, and escape towards Lynchburg. Foreseeing 
this movement. General Grant had directcMl Geneial Ord to send a 
detachment to burn these bridges, if possible, and thus hinder Lee's 
march. The execution of this difficult and dangerous duty was en- 
trusted to Colonel Wash]>urn. Shortly before midnight on the 5th Colonel 
of April, Washburn received oiders to take conmiand of a small jtloS™ 
force, consisting of his own cavalry, the whole available strength of ""burn 
which, with him, was then but tliirteen officers (Captain Goddard ovtl- Appo- 
having joined at Burkesville from leave of absence, not then ex- '"''""''• 
pired) and sixty-seven men, with two small regiments of infantry, 
the 54th Pennsylvania and 123d Ohio, and to move early on the 
morning of the Gth to destroy the bridges over the Appomattox, 
near Farmville, some sixteen or eighteen miles distant from liurkes- 
ville Junction. At four o'clock on the morning of the 6th of April, 



274 FIRST 3IASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1865^ this small command, less than seven hundred strong, left their 
April. smouldering camp fires ; the men, particularly of the infantry, ex- 
On the hausted by the severe marches of the few previous days, were hardly 
in condition for the hazardous duty to which they were called. The 
march was necessarily slow, as the cavalry had to regulate their pace 
by that of the tired infantry. As the column advanced, signs of the 
near proximity of the enemy became more and more apparent, and 
it was soon evident that the expedition partook, in a great degree, of 
the character of a forlorn hope. 

A few hours after the column had started, and Lee's line of re- 
treat had developed itself, General Ord received information of the 
exact locality of the Confederate army, and at once sent Brevet 
General Brigadier-General Theodore Read, assistant adjutant-general of the 
patchwl^to -A-rmy of the James, to inform Colonel Washburn of his danger, and 

i^?-™ , to order him to return. By dint of hard riding. Read, with a single 

Washburn '' . , 

of danger, orderly, overtook the detachment very near the locality where, an 

hour later, the battle of High Bridge was fought. Messengers sent 
out by General Ord shortly after Read had started were driven back 
by the enemy, who, in their retreat towards Farmville, had swung 
into the same road along which, only a short time previous, Wash- 
burn with his command had marched, and the spectacle was pre- 
sented of a hostile army filling the road between Washburn's troops 
and the Army of the James, and neither Washburn nor the Con- 
federate leaders were aware of the close proximity of the other. 
Shortly after General Read had joined the command of Colonel 
Washburn, it was ascertained that, from the direction of the march 
of the Confederate army, it had become impossible to rejoin General 
Ord, and nothing remained but to push forward and endeavor to de- 
In sight of stroy the High Bridge. The column accordingly advanced a short 
the bridge. ^|jj,j-j^„pg further, until it arrived within sight of the structure, then 
rather more than three fourths of a mile distant. The intervening 
country was marshy, and inaccessible to cavalry. Furthermore, it 
was discovered that there was a strong redoubt at the head of the 
bridge, toward Farmville, covering with its guns all the surrounding 
country, which was open and marshy ; and it was certain that, if a 
direct assault should be attem])ted, the attacking force would melt 
away before it could reach the enemy's abattis. By making a wide 
detour and coming on the rear of the redoubt, it was thought that a 
sudden attack might be successful. Washburn undertook the accom- 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 275 

plishment of this with his cavahy. General Read remained with 1865, 
the infantry in a narrow belt of woodland, about a mile from the April, 
bridge, the country in the immediate vicinity being somewhat broken 
and hilly, and more or less covered with a growth of young trees. 
Soon after leaving the infantry, the cavalry came to a small stream, 
the bridge over which had been partially destroyed. On a hill just 
beyond was a line of low earthworks, occupied by a small force of 
dismounted rebel cavalry, who opened fire immediately on the ap- Enemy 
proach of the Union troops. Lieutenant Davis, with the advance ^^^" 
guard, dashed forward, swam the stream, and while some of the 
men laid the planks on what stringers were left of the bridge, the 
remainder, under the lead of the gallant Davis, charged up the hill, 
and attacked the enemy with such fury that they were driven com- 
pletely back to their reinforcements, near Farmville, where they 
made a stand. The main column came up rapidly, and threw out a 
strong skirmish line, engaging the enemy vigorously for about half 
an hour, when the superior numbers of the Confederates, aided by 
their artillery, compelled Washburn to withdraw. The retreat had Indica- 
hardly commenced, when heavy fu-ing in the direction of the infan- large force 

try indicated the presence of a larjje force of the enemy. A few ° 
J i o J enemy. 

minutes of rapid riding brought the cavalry within sight of the belt 
of woodland where the infantry lay, and leaving the road, Wash- 
burn led his men across the country, and through a narrow ravine, 
to the rear of the hill where the battle was going on. Had he kept 
the road, a quarter of a mile further, around almost the first bend in 
the road, on the small hill beyond, would have brought him in direct 
contact with the head of the Confederate column of cavalry, which 
from this point filled the road back towards Burkesville as far as 
the eye could reach. This, however, was not known to Washburn 
or his men at the time they left the road and struck across the coun- 
try. The squadrons trotted up the slope and formed line at the 
summit, under the heavy fire, as calmly as if they were on review. 
Then the situation became apparent. The infantry, wearied out, Washburn 
and with ammunition nearly exhausted, were falling back before the his situa- 
fierce attack of a large force of dismounted rebels in front, who *^°'^' 
filled the air with their yells of victory. Masses of cavalry were 
forming on the left for a charge, and the dismounted troops in front 
were being rapidly reinforced by mounted men. Colonel Washburn 
sent his adjutant to the left to rally the breaking infantry, while he 



276 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



ISfia, 
Apiil. 

Washburn 
determines 
to charge 
the rebel 
lines. 



The charge 
made, and 
followed 
by an- 
other. 



himself held a hurried consultation with General Read. Upon the 
return of the adjutant, with information of the state of affairs at the 
left, Washburn determined at once to charge down the front of the 
line, throw back the dismounted rebel troops upon their cavahy, and, 
by an advance of the infantry to his support, wrest victory from the 
enemy. It was a brilliant but desperate scheme, there being but 
one alternative, — that of cutting through the enemy and leaving the 
infantry to their fate. This alternative received not a moment's con- 
sideration. The colonel turned to his men, and in few words told 
them of his purpose and its probable results. Swinging into column 
of fours, the command moved at a trot to the right, and in ad- 
vance of the infantry. Then, quick and sharp, came the order, 
" Fours left, gallop, march ! Charge ! " The clear notes of the 
bugle rang out, sounding the charge, and the small battalion, with a 
ringing cheer, swept upon the foe. Quickly reforming his command, 
Washburn retraced his steps, with a large number of prisoners, the 
result of the charge. On approaching the edge of the woods, what 
was the astonishment of the officei's to see the Burkesville road filled 
with a column of Confederate cavalry, and coming across the field, 
between the road and the woods, were three lines of battle. The 
enemy's cavalry were everywhere seen galloping to the succor of 
their defeated van, and the sight from the top of the hill was 
enough to discourage the stoutest heart. The Federal troopers drew 
rein, to reform for another charge, and their young colonel and 
their blue standard led them once more, as they dashed down the 
gentle slope, crashing through line after line, until all order was 
lost, and it became a hand-to-hand contest. After the officers were 
down and there were no leaders, little groups of our Union troops 
were to be seen here and there fighting desperately, and it seemed 
as if each man felt 

" As though himself were he 
On whose sole arm hung victory." 

But another huge gray wave, capped with its glittering crest of steel, 
broke over them, and their work was done. 
Not a man Not a man escaped from the field. Scarcely fifteen minutes had 
elapsed since the first charge had been made, but in this brief space 
of time, of eleven officers in the cavalry who went into the fight, 
three were dead, five wounded, and the others unhorsed and taken 



Over- 
whelmed 
by num- 
bers in a 
haud-to- 
haud 
mel^e. 



escaped. 




LIEUT. C, W. DYER 



J^^^ 




"St 



•0S^^ 




V ^; 








LIEUT. DUETT C. CLARK 
Capt. jrd Cav. 



LIEUT. J. 0. JOSSELYN 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 211 

prisoners. General Read was killed in the woods, almost immedi- jgRr, 
ately after AVashburn had left him. The colonel lay upon the field, April, 
severely wounded, with his comrades scattered here and there, all 
those yet living overpowered and captured. In that handful of 
heroes was one among the enlisted men. Color Sergeant Thomas 
Hickey, towards whom the heart of every man in the regiment 
thrills with gratitude to tliis day, not only for the bravery with 
which he had borne the standard through the thickest of the fight, 
but because, when all hope of victory was gone, he had the presence 
of mind, and made the opportunity, to utterly destroy it before he 
was captured. The battle was over. The small body of infantry, 
their ammunition exhausted, and deprived of the sui3port of their 
cavalry, were unable longer to sustain the unequal conflict with the 
overwhelming force of the rebels, and had surrendered in a body. 
The victors had nothing further to do than to dispose of their pris- 
oners and despoil the slain. The latter were stripped, and left un- The slain 
buried upon the field, where they were found early on the morning ^^espoiled. 
of the 7th of April by the advancing troops of the Army of the 
James, and this was the first information which General Ord re- 
ceived of the result of the expedition sent out by him the day be- 
fore. 

Colonel Washburn, shot in the head, and with his skull cloven by Results of 
a rebel sabre, was robbed of his clothes, watch, and money. Lieu- ^^^ ^^^' 
tenant-Colonel Jenkins was shot through the right arm. Captain 
Hodges, of I squadron, and Captain Goddard, of L, were killed. 
Captain Caldwell, of M. was shot through the leg. Lieutenant 
Davis, the same gallant officer who led the advance near Farmville, 
was shot through the body, and died shortly after the fight. Lieu- 
tenant Thompson, wliile mounted, was shot by a wounded rebel ly- 
ing on the ground ; the bullet, entering near the right knee, passed 
up the leg diagonally across the body, and lodged near the left 
shoulder. He was left on the field for dead, but receiving surgical 
attention when the Union troops came up, and aided by a strong 
constitution, he recovered, rejoined the regiment a few weeks later, 
and served until its muster out. Lieutenant Belcher was severely 
wounded by a sabre-cut across the face. Adjutant Lathrop, Lieu- 
tenants Sargent and Fuller, were taken prisoners. Surgeon Garvin, 
with the chaplain. Rev. Albert Zabriskie Gray, did not go into the 
fight. They remained in the rear when the first charge was made, 



278 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1865, and were captured after the battle was over. The wounded were 
April. Yeit in a house near the field, without care, medical attendance, or 
food. 
Wa-s it a It would be difficult indeed to find, in the history of modern war- 

rifice?^^*^' f*^"^' anything more brilliant than this action at High Bridge. It 
seemed at first to be a useless sacrifice, but it proved to be so far 
from this that it probably very materially hastened the great sur- 
render. It was a battle fought against the most fearful odds ; for 
those eleven officers and sixty-seven men attacked Rosser's and a 
part of Fitzhugh Lee's divisions of cavalry, some of the finest 
troops in the Confederate army, while Longstreet's corps was within 
supporting distance. Nearly one hundred rebels Avere killed or 
wounded in this engagement, — from their own account, — and 
among the slain was General Bearing, commanding one of Rosser's 
brigades, one colonel, three majors, and several officers of lower 
grades. 

Colonel "Washburn's sword was sent by General Rosser to the 
widow of General Dearing, but it was afterwards recovered. The 
colonel's horse was taken by General Rosser personally. 
Moral ef- The moral effect of this battle was such that General Lee sup- 
latur.^*^^ posed the attack to be made by the advance of a large force which 
had in some manner outmarched him and got in his front. He 
therefore was so delayed in his retreat, by the preparations he 
deemed necessary, that both Sheridan and Ord gained valuable 
hours in the pursuit. The fight took place shortly after twelve 
o'clock, and it was late in the afternoon before the cavalry column 
started on the march with their prisoners. 

COLONEL WASHBURN. 

Adraira- The great loss occasioned by the death of this brave 
^rieMol and gallant officer was deeply felt, and tributes of re- 
cowf. spect to his memory were universal. Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral Grant, as soon as the intelligence of his death was 
received, paused amid his vast labors to write with his 
own hand a letter to the family of the deceased, ex- 
pressing sympathy in their loss and admiration for his 
gallant and heroic conduct. 



TEE THIRD BATTALION. 279 

1865, 
Headquarters Armies of the United states, April. 

Washington, D. C, May 21, 1865. 

Mrs. Harriet W. Washburn : — 

My dear Madam, — I have just seen, for the first time, the obit- J^^^rGgn- 
uary notice of your noble son, who fell wounded at the High Bridge, eral Grant, 
so gallantly leading his men. I had hoped his wound would not 
prove mortal, and that he might be spared many long years, to view 
with pride the work he so bravely aided in consummating. 

Allow me to express my sincere condolence for your bereavement, 
and to express the hope that in the blood of so many thousand mar- 
tyrs our country has sealed her liberties and peace, at home, at least, 

for all time to come. Very truly yours, 

U. S. Grant, 

Lieutenant-General. 

The following memorial by Hon. A. H. Bullock, then 
governor elect of the Commonwealth, appeared origi- 
nally in the " Worcester Spy." 

COLONEL FRANCIS WASHBURN. 

" yet, if Nature's evil star 

Drive men in manliood, as in youth, 
To follow flying steps of Truth 
Across the brazen bridge of war, — 

" If New and Old, disastrous' feud ! 
Must ever shock, like arm^d foes, 
And this be true till time shall close. 
That Principles are rained in blood, — 

" Not yet the wise of heart would cease 

To hold his hope through shame aud guilt, 
But with his hand against the hilt 
Would pace the troubled laud like Peace." 

Colonel Frank Washburn, of the 4th Massachusetts cavalry, 

wounded in the desperate engagement at High Bridge, Thursday, Governor 

the 6th inst., arrived in Worcester on Friday last, and died the fol- tribute to 

lowing night at the house of his brother, Mr. J. D. Washburn, ^^^f- 

Only a few months before, another brother. Captain Edward R. bum's 

• 1 1 • 11 1 1- 1-r memory. 

Washburn, well known to many of our citizens, had yielded his lite 



280 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

j3fir,^ under the wounds received at Port Hudson. Thus the experience 
April. ^f jjjjg ^^.jj^j. i-epeats itself, and thus these two at length meet again. 
It was a pleasure, early in the war, to urge upon the governor 
Colonel that lie should commission Frank Washburn as junior second lieu- 
burn's tenant in the 1st Massachusetts cavalry. The commission was 
military cheerfully bestowed. It was all the young gentleman asked for. 
By the course of his studies and practice in Germany he had ac- 
quired peculiar fitness for the cavalry service, and seemed worthy of 
a higher rank, which was suggested to him ; but he modestly de- 
clined, remarking that he preferred to take the chances of his pro- 
motion on the merits of his service. He had returned from Europe 
at the first intelligence of the war, to offer himself to his country, 
as some others had done, and preferi-ed to pass upward through the 
gradations of her service to the honors of the field, if he miglit 
win them. He was soon made captain in the 2d cavalry, all the 
while remaining at his post. When the 4th cavalry was organ- 
ized, without solicitation, but not without reason, he was selected by 
the governor for the lieutenant-colonelcy. Upon the resignation of 
Colonel Rand, of this regiment, Washburn was pi'omptly promoted 
to his rank. That rank he distinguished in the eyes of all his men 
and of his superior officers ; and that saddle, save only a few days 
of furlough in which to witness the burial of his soldier brother, he 
■ constantly filled until he fell from it to die. He fought in South 
Carolina and in Virginia; he led his men under Sheridan, in the 
presence of Ord and of Grant ; and the best proof of his fidelity 
and his gallantry was in the special recommendation of the Lieuten- 
ant-General, forwarded to Washington after his last battle, and 
when his wounds were not supposed to be mortal, that he should be 
brevetted brigadier-general, which request was no doubt complied 
with before his death. At all times, and on all fields, he received 
the respect and confidence of his men for soldierly qualities, for 
brilliant action, for kind and affectionate treatment. In all the en- 
gagements of three years and a half, he never received a wound 
until lie received the last. 

His fatal encounter was in that last critical battle which enforced 
His per- the surrender of Lee. While endeavoring to hold the High Bridge, 
sonal Q^,g^. ^y]^jg]| it, was feared Lee's army might escape. Colonel Wash- 

burn was surrounded by Rosser and Fitzhugh Lee, and fought them, 
till he fell, in the odds of eight men to one. He was conspicuous 




REGTL. Q. M. SERGT. EDW. H. ADAMS 
I rst Lieut. 3th Cav. 1 





.1/. Sn-iTl. 



JOSIAH N. BRACKETT 
t}..,.,i ^_ jff_ Sergt. 



THE THIRD BATTALION. 281 

through the fight, and twice with impetuous charge hroke through i865, 
the rebel lines and threw them into confusion. He might at either P^ • 
of these times have passed on with his cavalry and escaped. But Refuses to 
he refused to leave the infantry while there remained the slightest self, 
chance of rescuing them from their situation. Accordingly he made 
his third charge, and in this, while crossing sahres with a rebel offi- 
cer whom he had nearly disarmed, he was shot in the head by an- 
other, and after he had fallen received a sabre-cut upon the skull 
which finished his work. He was two days a prisoner, during which, 
notwithstandmg the gallantry he had displayed, and which even the 
enemy afEected to extol, they did nothing for his Avounds, and robbed 
him of his horse, his sword, and his money. Repeated illustration Treatment 
of the " magnanimity " of the army of General Robert E. Lee ! enemy. 
And what followed has already been told. 

It is difficult to forbear quoting an extract from a letter received 
from my old friend, Hon. E. B. Washburn, of Illinois, a very re- 
mote relative of the deceased, written while on a visit to the scene 
after the battle : — 

" I have seen Colonel Washburn, of the 4th Massachusetts cav- 
alry, at the hospital at the Point of Rocks. I cannot refrain from 
testifying to his unsurpassed gallantry and prowess in the action in 
which he was wounded, which challenged the admiration of both 
armies. General Grant and General Ord both bore testimony to 
his daring courage, and expressed to me the greatest anxiety for his 
speedy recovery. Your State may well be proud of such a noble son." 
In this instance, as in many and many another, the battle is over 
and the funeral succeeds. But in this case, as in the other cases of 
the mortality of those last memorable days, even kindred can almost 
suppress grief in the joy-pgean of victory. Not so in four long 
years before. But now the Republic is safe, and becomes henceforth 
the monument to every one of its heroic departed. And so the sur- 
vivors, with a solace that almost amounts to a triumph over nature, 
may now, as in no age before, commit the mortal remains of valor 
to the dust of the earth. Every generation will have a benediction 
for the soldier of the War of Restoration and Liberation. 

" Sleep sweetly, tender heart, in peace, 
Sleep, holy spirit, blessed soul, 
While the stars burn, the moons increase, 
And the great ages onward roll." 

A. H. B. 



282 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

1865, To avoid any confusion in reading these reports, it is 

necessary to remember that the 3d battalion, 1st Mas- 
sachusetts cavalry became, August 4, 1863, the Inde- 
phYse"in pendent Battalion Massachusetts Cavalry; and again, 
;;d baYtai- in January, 1864, was incorporated, with two battalions 
Mass. cav- ucwly rccruitcd in Massachusetts and organized to- 
^ '^ gether with them, into the 4th Massachusetts cavalry. 

This battalion was in South Carolina when this reor- 
ganization took place. It left South Carolina — being 
replaced by one of the new battalions from Massachu- 
setts — and went to Virginia, still commanded by Ma- 
jor Stevens. 

In the 1st Massachusetts these four companies, com- 
posing the battalion, were known as I, K, L, and M. 
When they became the Independent Battalion, they 
SZt?i? were known as A, B, C, and D. In the 4th Massachu- 
the battai- ^^^^^ ^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ kuowu as I, K, L, and M. It was 

three of these companies, I, L, and M, that, under the 
command of Colonel Francis Washburn, did such con- 
spicuous service at High Bridge. 

Many of the of&cers of all the companies of the 4th 
cavalry were of the old 1st, either as enlisted men or as 
officers, so that their glory and honor is common to the 
1st ; and, while the deeds of the 1st Massachusetts cav- 
alry are a proof of the common training and discipline 
of 1861-62, it furnished the leaven that ran through 
all the Massachusetts cavalry regiments, except the 3d, 
and largely made them what they were. 



ion, 



CHAPTER XIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. HORSES, ARMS, EQUIP- 
MENTS. NAMES OF BATTLES ON THE FLAG, ETC. 

The men of the regiment who came from the cities Nothing to 
and those who came from the country districts were tweencity 
about equally divided. At first most of the of&cers were try men. 
from those cities and towns where the companies were 
raised. Those who were afterwards appointed by Colo- 
nel Williams were all from cities, and a large proportion 
had graduated from Harvard College Avithin a few years. 
But as time wore on promotions were made from the 
ranks, and many of those thus advanced came from the 
country districts ; so that it is fair to say that the men 
of the regiment, both officers and those in the ranks, 
were about equally divided between the city and the 
country. Was there anything to choose between these 
two classes? Decidedly not. In the city companies 
there were more f oreigfuers. All were from Massachu- 
setts, and it is safe to say that no Massachusetts regi- 
ment was composed of a better class of men than the 
1st cavalry. 

The South Carolina experience, while of no possible Experience 

T 1 j_i 1 gained in 

use to the country and the army directly, none the less (South Car- 
aiforded an unusual chance for drill, discipline, and 
learning all the principles of outpost duty. Marching 
and fighting had to be learned afterwards, as also sup- 
plying the regiment with commissary and quartermaster 



284 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Known for 

steadiness 
under fire. 



Not good 
horsemen. 



Draw- 
backs of 

the New 
Enghind- 



stores in the field. But the system was acquired in 
South Carolina, under the admirable teaching- of Colo- 
nel Williams. Throughout the cavalry corps the regi- 
ment was always known for steadiness, and it frequently 
happened that in an engagement it would be held in 
reserve for an emergency, and thus would miss a chance 
to distinguish itself. At such times it not unfre- 
quently supported a battery, or stood still under fire, 
waiting its opportunity. 

As a rule, the men Avere not good horsemen, neither 
did they ever excel in the use of fire-arms. These two 
accomplishments can be acquired only in youth, and 
even then by persons who, from their situation, are 
compelled to use horses and guns, or have a decided 
love for both. It would have been vastly better for 
the service if the regiment could have been recruited 
from among men who in size, disposition, and previous 
mode of life, had an especial adaptation to the duties 
of the cavalryman. 

It was one of the drawbacks of the soldiers raised in 
the eastern part of the country, and particularly of New 
Englanders, that they were not used to fire-arms, and 
they were consequently poor shots. Their mode of life 
adapted New Englanders more for the infantry and 
artillery than for cavalry service, and not even in South 
Carolina was there time or opportunity for making the 
men excellent horsemen. The drill and the evolutions of 
a regiment Avere learned quickly, and well, but through- 
out the cavalry from the East, horsemanship was, to say 
the least, indifferent. The Confederacy had an immense 
advantage in the universal practice of horsemanship and 
familiarity with fire-arms, which had always obtained 
there. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 285 

The men were thoroughly well drilled in sabre exer- Thorough- 
cise, both on foot and mounted. After dress parade, iusalre' 
sabre drill would frequently follow, and it was a beauti- ^'^'^^^^^'^' 
f ul sight to see the glittering sabres swing together, and 
hear the swish of the twirling blades. 

The regiment was particularly good at picket duty, Never sur- 
and in this service it never suffered a surprise, and the^ene '^ 
exceedingly little loss, during the Avhole Avar. Almost 
without exception, the other regiments with which it 
Avas brigaded were at one time or another surprised, 
and lost many men in killed, wounded, and prisoners, 
while on picket. Many of the 1st Massachusetts were 
killed and wounded, but almost none caj^tured before 
they could give the alarm. Whenever the regiment 
was stationed in any toAvn, and several times it was, 
notably at Warrentoii, Va., it had a reputation for good 
behavior which was the direct result of its discipline, 
added to the excellent character of the men themselves. 
Both for officers and men there were many friends of 
both sexes ; a rather remarkable thing in this bitterly 
secessionist town. Warrenton gave to the Confederate 
army (a large proportion for the cavalry) every one of 
its citizens capable of bearing arms. Nor was the aid 
of the women of that town to be despised as spies and 
scouts. 

The 1st Massachusetts not only furnished officers for Supplies 

other com- 

its own organization, but also a laro^e proiiortion of the "i^*"'!^^ 

^ <^ i^ i- with om- 

officers of the 2d and 5th Massachusetts cavalry, and ^'^''^^ 
one entire battalion of the 4:th Massachusetts cavalry. 
Many of these officers were the best in the 1st, and in Capacity 
their subsequent careers did honor to the excellent ^"^^"' 
training they had received in their original regiment. 
As was natural, from a regiment composed of such an 



286 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

excellent class of men, a good many of tlie privates and 
not a few of the officers were detached on staff duty, 
and for other reasons, at different places away from the 
colors. This detaching of officers and men weakened 
the regiment's efficiency. Still, so good was the mate- 
rial, that any loss of officers could be replaced from the 
ranks of the regiment. 

Shortly after the expiration of the war an association 
of members of the regiment was formed, called the 
1st Massachusetts Cavalry Association, which has met 
every year since to talk over old war times and experi- 
ences. The old 3d battalion, made into the indepen- 
dent battalion August, 1863, has also an association 
which meets regularly, and several company associations 
exist. At the annual meeting of the regimental asso- 
ciation held in 1886, a suitable badge for members 
was adopted, and it is generally worn by the comrades 
at their reunions. 
Colonels Duriug its wliole three years' service, and more, the 

lains. regiment had but three colonels : Robert Williams, 
from September, 1861, to October, 1862 ; H. B. Sar- 
gent, from October, 1862, to September 29, 1864 ; and 
S. E. Chamberlain from that time until the end. Ori- 
ginally the regiment had a chaplain, as had all Massa- 
chusetts regiments, but his duties were anomalous, and 
he usually had more to do with the post office than 
anything else. When Chaplain Patterson resigned at 
Hilton Head, early in 1862, he was never replaced until 
in 1864, when G. W. Gorham, company F, was made 
chaplain. 
Svirgeons The rcsfiment was always fortunate in its sur2!"eons, 

oftheregi- *^ . • i i • i -rw tt n i 

^^^^- and during its term of service had eight. Dr. Holland, 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 287 

of Westfield, Mass., a man of great reputation before The doc- 
entering the regiment, was the first surgeon-major. Dr. *°'- 
Oscar C. DeWolf was assistant surgeon ; he afterwards 
went to the 2d as surgeon-major, and in Chicago has 
smce become famous. Dr. Albert Wood succeeded Dr. 
Holland as surgeon-major, and had as assistants Drs. 
Warner, Rice, George S. Osborne, and S. W. Abbott. 
Hospital-steward Munn, who to-day is a surgeon in the 
United States army, served in that rank in the regiment 
until made assistant surgeon of the 27th Massachusetts. 
Dr. S. H. Durgin was assistant surgeon. These sur- 
geons were aU good, some preeminently so. No officers 
were so universally welcomed as the doctors, as they 
were always called, and no regiments were more fortu- 
nate and very few as much so as the 1st Massachusetts 
Cavalry. 



HORSES. 



There were many peculiar horses among those the Reminis- 
contractor delivered in Massachusetts in 1861. One in cerufny°"' 
particular, named " White Eye," had been, in Virginia, %?' 
a famous^ race-horse. He was a thoroughbred, son of 
"Boston." For some years before the war he had 
belonged to different horsey gentlemen in the city of 
Boston, changing hands frequently, on account of a 
decidedly peculiar temper. Once, in Boston, he was 
bemg ridden toward State Street, on Court. The street 
was blocked by heavy teams, but White Eye would stop 
for nothing, and he jumped, rider and all, into a loaded 
coal cart. 

He had suffered damage in his legs, and one was Misden.ea- 
queer. That did not stop him from going, and in spite wStf 
ot all he was a magnificent beast, a light chestnut sorrel, ''"" 



288 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

with blaze face and " white stockings," large and power- 
ful. After one officer had tried and condemned him, he 
was given to Massey, company H, who was an EngHsh- 
man, and had been a jockey, and could usually manage 
him. But on one occasion, at Beaufort, when Captain 
Sargent was describing some movement to his sqnadron 
in line, the Heutenants sitting leisurely in front of the 
squadron, listening to the captain. White Eye suddenly 
took it into his head to go, and like a bullet he dashed 
out of the ranks, overturning Lieutenant Pratt and 
horse like a card house, and ran for miles with Massey 
before he could be stopped. White Eye's career was 
checkered thickly with misdemeanors in South Carolina 
and Maryland. During the Antietam campaign, in 
1862, he was one evening being led with the officers' 
spare horses, with a pack on his back, along the canal 
Was the towpatli, ou tlic Potomac River. Suddenly, and without 
sane? wamiug, he leaped from the towpatli to a convenient 
canal boat, from that to the opposite bank, and then 
into the Potomac River, in whose waters he disappeared. 
It was dusk, and that was the last seen of him. In 
1864, at Charlestown, Va., when on General Sheridan's 
staff, Major B.W. Crowninshield met Mr. Botts, brother 
of John Minor Botts, the most prominent Union man of 
Virginia, and a famous breeder of thoroughbred stock. 
Mr. Botts remembered the horse very well, and said the 
temper was noted in " Boston's " descendants. The 
horse was, perhaps, insane. 
A horse In couipauy F was a peculiar broncho, a dun-colored 

notbe°rid- horsc, Avitli a dark line down his back. This beast 
could never be ridden. Innumerable attempts were 
made during many months to subdue him by Rarey's 
and others' methods. All were in vain. He would be 





B. W. CROWNINSHIELD 
Capt, and Brvt. Col. 



w 



I im- 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 289 

pulled over backwards twenty times in succession, and 
mounted and remounted by relays of troopers. All 
efforts and contrivances were useless. The horse was 
victorious over his enemy, man. 

When the regiment left the State, officers tried to Two ._ 
get good mounts, and two horses were procured from 0"^' 
Canada, from which to pick the best and present it to ^°''''" 
Colonel Wilhams, by his well-wishers in Boston. An 
immense brown horse named '' Clodhopper," considered 
the best steeple-chaser in Canada, was the choice. The 
horse proved almost useless as a charger, being very 
hard in his gait, and the colonel seldom used him. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent got from Canada " Brother 
to Brooker," a horse of great accompKshment as a 
jumper. But his temper and mouth Avere incompatible 
with cavalry service, and not even a Mexican bit with a 
wn-e attachment running across the horse's nose would 
stop him when he wanted to go. On the first march of 
the whole battalion on Beaufort shell road, when the 
trot was taken. Brother to Brooker took an uncontrol- 
lable gallop, and the singular spectacle of a runaway 
battalion was presented. Some troopers ran into the 
river, and few stopped until camp was reached. 

While at Beaufort, Captain Caspar Crowninshield Michigan- 
purchased of an officer of the 8th JNIichigan infantry a '^''" 
sorrel stalhon of great power which was ever afterwards 
called " Michigander." This horse was finally killed 
by a shell, under the same officer, then colonel of the 
2d Massachusetts cavalry, at Waynesboro, Va., October, 
1864. 

Lieutenant Merrill had a mahogany bay stallion, " Old oid Tom. 
Tom," who became well known. In a skirmish with 
Captain B. W. Crowniushield's unmense bay horse, " Old 



290 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Old Man. 



Nutmeg 
and Gra- 
ter. 



Tom Tay- 
lor. 



Ephraim. 



Man," of pronounced talent in kicking, Lieutenant Mer- 
rill's stallion had his skull fractured, but he survived. 

Major Higg-inson bought a fine strawberry roan of a 
man of the 3d Indiana cavalry, which he called " Nut- 
mes"." A somewhat larorer animal he called " Grater." 
Probably each officer owned a horse that he considered 
remarkable. Those instances are given which are fresh 
in the historian's memory. 

There were many horses in the ranks which developed 
fame, especially when the owners were smart enough to 
get sufficient fodder for them, or such a position as 
would enable them always to have plenty. 

Farrier Hilton, of company H, had a horse who was 
fast, and won money in running matches. A horse 
called '^ Tom Taylor," in company F, was also fast. In 
some regiments, the officers, particularly in the quarter- 
master or commissary department, owned horses kept for 
racing. Some of these were thoroughbreds ; and while 
in winter quarters, running races, usually " quarter 
races," was an element of amusement. One such occa- 
sion occurred while the cavalry Avas together at Paolis 
Mills, just before coming to the Wilderness, in 1864, 
and considerable money was dropped in the 1st Massa- 
chusetts, by betting on Tom Taylor, against an unknown, 
which turned out to be a thoroughbred " quarter horse." 

Sergeant Coolidge, of company A, had what was per- 
haps the last of the horses originally issued in Massa- 
chusetts ; a sturdy " canuck," or Canadian horse, with 
long hair on the fetlocks, very thick mane and tail, and 
a large head and heavy neck. He was always fat and 
well. On crossing the Pamunkey at Hanover town, June 
27, 1864, " Ephraim " (that was his name) disappeared. 
Somebody stole him, and carried him beyond the ken 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 291 

and reach of an outraged veteran cavalry soldier — 
pretty carefully hidden he must have been. 

A good cavalry soldier was a good provider. The Trait of a 

IIP J"!*! 1 11 good cav- 

excellent trooper had lorage tor his horse when nobody airy soi- 
else did. Perhaps such a soldier might be slightly ob- 
livious, at times, of the difference between ineuin and 
tuum, and very likely the maxims of an ideal trooper 
would not do for a Sunday-school. But Sunday-schools 
do not raise cavalry, and in war other morals rule. 
Some men were always well mounted, had good horses, 
and their weapons were ready all the time ; of such is an 
efficient regiment of cavalry. 

The vicinity of the picket rope was not a place for The picket 
fine-spun theories on morals. It frequently happened 
on a march in a new part of the country that strange 
horses sometimes appeared. " Where did you get that 
horse ? " spoken by the captain, would usually provoke 
an irrelevant answer. 

It was odd how a little art would change a horse's A troop- 

, , . , , , 1 , . er's art in 

appearance so that his own dam would not know him, disguising 

xiorsGS 

let alone owner or breeder. If the horse could talk, 
he would say in the classical words of Mother Goose, 
" Sure this is none of I," after falling into the hands of 
a veteran trooper who wanted a new horse. With a 
pair of scissors, a very nice imitation of a brand would 
be made to appear on shoulder or hip. A little hair- 
dye would remove all white marks, and the same scis- 
sors would so change mane and tail as to make the 
animal unrecognizable. A piece of horse hair drawn 
about the coronet would produce an immediate and 
unaccountable lameness, which a knife would instantly 
dissipate. Almost any change in apjDcarance or gait 
could be produced at short notice by the cunning trooper. 



292 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 
A lost While in Maryland, a new horse would occasionally 

horse 

seldorc 

found. 



seldom appear, and frequently the owner, not long after, in 



Reverence 



search of a lost animal. The captain would say, " Come, 
look over the picket rope ; see if you can find your horse 
here." Somehow they never could. 

A dispute once occurred ahout the age of a horse be- 

for age. louging to au officer. The question was referred to an 
old Irishman named Brannon, who formerly had been 
in a famous trotting establishment, and Avas well versed 
in horse lore. He approached, opened the horse's 
mouth, and at once took off his hat and made a pro- 
found bow. " Well ? " said the officer. " Respect for 
age ! " answered Brannon, to the great amusement of 
the others present. 

A new When a new horse was tied to the picket rope, a 

horse had • i i • • ^ ^ c 

to fight battle at once began with his neighbors lor sujjremacy, 

lights. and raged fiercely until the question was decided. 

That ended forever all quarrels, as far as that horse and 

his next neighbor were concerned. There was always 

one " boss " horse, who was never interfered with, on 

each picket rope, 

"Banged" The dcpredatious made by certain horses upon the 

tails and manes of others did not add to the pictur- 

esqueness of the animals. Sometimes the tails were so 

uneven that the men would " bang " them squarely 

across. One trooper had done so to his horse, and the 

orderly sergeant, at stable call, asked Avhy he had done 

it. He answered, " To make him look right ; he is a 

hunter." " Hunt oats ! " was the disdainful answer. 

Only geld- It is tlic rulc of tlic scrvicc to have only geldings as 

troop troop horses, for obvious reasons. When the horses 

came, however, there were a number of mares among 

them. They proved quite as lasting as the geldings. 





WILLIAM FINNEY, I. CO., [NEW] j 




W. I. CASWELL, K. CO., [OLD[ 



A. R. BRYANT, M. CO., lOLDl 



^ **^ V 





E. H. GOODING, M. CO., FNEWl 



FRANK M. LUND, M. CO., |OLD] 



REGIMENTAL BAND. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 293 

One officer, a fancier of horses, was in the habit of An expeet- 
picking up horses that were always " going to be " val- oughbred. 
uable, but which were generally of little account. On 
the Richmond raid, in May, 1864, he secured a thor- 
oughbred-looking mare in foal, of which great things 
were predicted. His disgust was great, when at Hax- 
all's Landing the mare produced a mule colt. The joke 
went all through the division. 

The horses were originally branded, not U. S., as The 
government horses were usually, but M. C, and cap- of'horael 
tains of some companies had private marks to distin- 
guish their animals, such as a small brand on the hoof. 
Later, horses were used up so rapidly that such marks 
became useless, and after those first obtained were lost, 
all new ones had the U. S. brand. 

The farrier was hard worked on a march. In camp The far- 
he had a not unpleasant position ; but during a cam- 
paign he was in constant demand, and had his hands 
full of work, under no end of difficulty. Before the 
second year of the war, officers learned that it was a 
good thing to be prepared for emergencies, and every 
trooper was required to have one front and one hind 
shoe fitted for his horse, and placed in the saddle-bags, 
with nails, ready to be nailed on when needed. The 
Burden machine-made shoe was used, as it required less 
work to fit it than to make a shoe from the bar iron. 
This machine-made shoe had, at the time, been recently 
patented. 

A great want, during all the years of the war, was The vet- 
an efficient veterinary surgeon. In 1864 government surgeon. 
authorized pay for one, but none ever came to the 1st 
Massachusetts. In place of such a person, there were 
plenty of aspirants to the reputation aid fame of " horse 



294 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

doctor." They were usually farriers, but sometimes pri- 
vates. Surgeon-Major Holland, a great lover of horses, 
was very ready to give advice, and what he gave was 
always good. He had no patience with the self-called 
A horse horse doctor. His indignation was great when, at Hil- 
tauir ^ ton Head, one of them was using violent remedies for a 
supposed case of coHc in a mare, which proved a little 
later to be labor pains, when the patient produced a 
colt, which became a regimental pet. 
The horse Mucli of the horsc equipment was cumbrous and use- 
simEed! less. In time of war, except on the plains, there was no 
need of lariat rope or picket pin. Even watering bri- 
dles were unnecessary. The heavy leather skirts of the 
saddle, intended to keep the coat from being soiled, 
were found needless. Towards the last of the war the 
men frequently used the saddle tree without leather 
skirts (they were easily unscrewed from the tree), and 
in order to make the saddle sit better, the men would 
put their own blankets under the saddle, over the horse 
blanket, and thus prevent a saddle gall, and at the same 
tmie carry their own blankets more comfortably. The 
heavy hooded stirrups were unsightly and unnecessary, 
and quickly got out of shape when wet and muddy. 
The wooden stirrup, without the leather, was better. 
Many of the bits were too severe. 
The sol- Of the soldier's equipment, the rattling scabbard, with 

ec'iu'ipment. irou riugs, made a ceaseless noise. Had the straps fas- 
tened directly to the scabbard, without the jingling ring, 
the noise would have been avoided ; and on occasions, 
absence from this noise would have added to the effi- 
ciency of a scouting party. The men finally learned to 
fasten the sabre, scabbard and all, firmly to the near side 
of the saddle, nearly parallel to the horse's body, and 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 295 

when mounted throw the left leg over it. It was then 
ready to be drawn when mounted, and was not in the 
way of the dismounted soldier, who had quite enough 
to do to take care of himself and his carbine in the 
thicket into which he had so frequently to march when 
skirmishing. On foot a sabre is seldom of use, and is 
dreadfully in the way. 

The sabres were originaUy the regular United States The sabre. 
weapon, made at the Ames Works, Springfield, Mass. 
In 1863, a hghter weapon, of EngHsh make, took their 
place. Many officers, following the example of Colonel 
Williams, had the long, straight sword of the French 
Centgardes, a dangerous looking affair for thrusting. 
All the sabres were ground as sharp as possible. 

The revolvers were the Colt's large holster pistol — The re- 
an excellent weapon. The revolver is of great use on 
foot and on horseback. The men used to keep the 
revolver in its case on the belt, or frequently would 
carry it ready for immediate use, inside the right boot 



volver. 



leg. 



ate arms. 



The Confederates were armed with sabres of all sorts, Confeder- 
usually EngHsh make, but sometimes with a heavy Aus- 
trian cavalry sabre. They had usually Colt's revolvers, 
which they managed skillfully ; but sometimes they had 
an English revolver — "Kerr's patent" — not as good 
a pistol as Colt's. Their ammunition was frequently 
English. They had sharpshooter companies in a regi- 
ment, often two, while the balance of the companies was 
armed with pistols and sabres. Some of their regiments 
had English Enfield carbines, and some were'' armed 
with a carbine made in Richmond, like a short Spring- 
field rifle, made to sling; while some had long rifles 
slung across the shoulders. The carbines were, in 1862, 



296 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

the Smith — a poor weapon — condemned in February, 
1863, and replaced by the Sharps, which was the 
weapon in most general use in the United States cav- 
alry. 
Cavalry Amiy rci^ulations prescribed for the United States 

uniforms. . . 

cavalry soldier, light blue trousers, dark blue jackets, 
trimmed with yellow, shoulder scales of brass, and a pre- 
dacious looking felt hat, with yellow cord. But utility 
and common sense discarded and simplified most of 
this, and very soon the uniform was curtailed to a four- 
button, dark blue blouse, light blue trousers, and a 
cloth fatigue cap. Boots of various kinds were bought 
by the men, into which the trousers were tucked. 

Many troopers of the regular United States cavalry 
used to cut open the trouser legs, Mexican fashion, and 
sometimes ornament them with brass buttons down the 
seam, or else they would have them cut over, with very 
wide sjiring bottoms. These fashions came from Texas 
and Mexico, and were ill adapted to muddy Virginia. 
Appear- There was no splendor in the clothing and equipment 

veteran of men or liorscs in the cavalry, but although clad the 
same, what a difference in the appearance of the men of 
different regiments ! There was something thorough- 
bred looking in the veteran trooper ; and a regiment of 
such men, sturdy, sunburned, and weather-beaten, with 
their useful looking horses, caused respect in the be- 
holder. When Sheridan's troopers made their march 
past in Washington, in 1865, the appearance of the 
cavalry aroused great enthusiasm. 
Calls. While in camj) the men were aroused by reveille be- 

fore sunrise ; stable call, 6.30 ; sick call, 6.30 ; orderly 
call, 7.15 ; breakfast, 7.30 ; watering, 8.30 ; guard 
mount, 8.30; drill, 9.30; recall, 10.30; drill, 11 j 





HENRY F. WOOD, CO. C 




HENRY C. WESTON, CO. D 



REGIMENTAL BAND 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 297 

recall, 12 ; dinner, 12.'30 ; drill, 2 ; recall, 3 ; stable call, 
3 ; retreat and dress parade quarter of an hour before 
sunset ; tattoo, 9 ; taps, 9.30. 

This was the order of camp duty at Camp Brigham, 
Novembei', 1801. It gives some idea of the order of 
things when cavalry is in camp, and also indicates that 
idleness is not likely to trouble a trooper's existence. 

The instrument upon which the calls were blown was Trumpet. 
supposed to be a trumpet, the musical instrument of 
cavalry the world over. Once in a while a regiment 
had trumpets ; and they can make good music, too, 
when well played. 

More frequently regiments had bugles, the same as Bugle, 
artillery or infantry. These were shriller, and made 
sounds which could be heard farther, but they lacked 
the variety of notes which a trumpet, lower pitched, will 
produce. 

The cavalry calls were identical with those of the 
French cavalry. Those of the infantry and artillery 
were French too. 

The drill was French : the double ranked formation. Fninch 

. . . , drill. 

And, except the 1st Maine, all the regiments in the 
Army of the Potomac used the same drill. The text- 
book was McClellan's. 

Besides the drill according to McClellan's cavalry iiorseB 

1 • 1 1 • c( 1 n T ijinfjht to 

tactics, tlie men in both camps m feouth Carolina were leup. 
taught to leap their horses over timber and ditches. In 
this exercise the men were fully accoutred with arms, 
and in jumping the sabre would make wild movements. 
So did men and horses sometimes, and the exercise pro- 
voked abundant mirth. It was not all fun, by any 
means. At Beaufort an artificial ditch was made in the 
sandy soil, next to company F's officers' tents, and the 



298 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

ditch had to be faced with timber to preserve its shape. 
In jumping, some went over, some into the ditch, and 
some stopped short. Men and horses would occasion- 
ally part company, and sprains and contusions resulted. 
All vastly preferred the timber jump to the ditch. Col- 
onel Sargent's steeple chaser could always show the way 
to the whole battalion, and in any exercise on horseback 
he made an admirable model for his troopers. 
Diffieiiity The officers Avere compelled to have non-enlisted men 
servants, for scrvauts — by the way, almost an impossibility to 
obtain. These servants, frequently negroes, marched 
with the baggage animals of the brigade, and with the 
officers' led horses, and few were good servants. A 
pack-saddle, or some large saddle-bags, would take the 
officers' kits. And a queer looking affair the pack 
train was, too ! Those servants who were smart would 
usually manage to beg, borrow, buy, or steal something 
for the officers' dinner during the day's march. They 
got to be called " strikers," and there was great rivalry 
amongf them in ofettino- food and little articles of lux- 
ury. Commonly, three or four officers would mess to- 
gether; sometimes the officers of a company or squa- 
dron would unite. In this manner the smartest strikers 
would combine to forage for dinner. 
Commis- " Commissary whiskey," when the war began, was a 

sary whis- tit ti -it 

key. reliable and cheap article. Large stores were on hand 

at depots, and thirsty officers could safely swallow the 
article dispensed by the commissary department. When 
this supply ran out, age did not form an element of the 
article supplied. It was new and fiery, rough and nasty 
to take, though warming and grateful in times of wet 
and cold and exhaustion. Various devices were in 
vogue to take off the ragged edge of this useful bever- 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 299 

age. One was to put it over the fire and let it simmer, 
another to set it afire and let it burn awhile. What 
disappeared was popularly supposed to be the worst 
part. Some called it the fusel oil. It is to be doubted Fusel oil. 
if the article was much improved by this treatment. 
Whether in the condition in which it came from the 
commissary's hands, or from those of the would-be im- 
prover, commissary whiskey was always popular enough. 
It was sold cheaply, too. There was a tradition, prob- a baseless 

, , . , . tradition. 

ably baseless, that no commissary or quartermaster ever 
paid anything for his own whiskey, but that water 
enough was turned into the barrels to keep his account 
square. 

Amono" the resfiments with which the 1st Massachu- intimates 

. . . , of the 1st 

setts was brigaded, none was so intimately connected, Massacim- 
with it, perhaps, as the 1st Rhode Island, unless possi- 
bly the 3d Pennsylvania. In 1864, however, neither of 
these regiments was in Davies' brigade, and intimate 
relations were then established with the 1st Pennsylva- 
nia, and 1st New Jersey, and 6th Ohio, of which the 
last only was in the same brigade in 1863. 

General Henry E. Davies commanded the brigade to Command- 
whicli the 1st Massachusetts belonged, from April, 1864, brigade. 
to the end ; an admirable commander, always in the 
place of danger, he ordered nobody where he did not 
go himself. From October, 1862, and until January, 
1863, the brigade was commanded by General William 
W. Averell. 

Colonel A. N. Duffie succeeded General Averell, and 
General Kilpatrick had the brigade a little while in 
June, 1863. Colonel Huey of the 8th Pennsylvania, 
and others, according to seniority, succeeded him. In 
1863 the organization of the brigades was frequently 



300 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Division 
command- 
ers. 



Organiza- 
tion of 
regiment. 



Corps of 
pioneers. 



changed, and the commanders as frequently. Usually, 
this summer of 1863, brigades were commanded by the 
senior colonel in the brigade, and later, frequently by 
Colonel J. H. Taylor of the 1st Pennsylvania. 

The division commander from 1863 to 1865 was 
Brigadier-General David McM. Gregg, an officer of sin- 
gular evenness of temper and coolness, steady and im- 
perturbable under all circumstances. He was trusted 
and relied on, and beloved by all his inferiors in rank. 
The regiment was fortunate to be under him, and he 
always appreciated the regiment's steadiness. 

When the regiment was first organized, the system 
for the regular army had recently been adopted of hav- 
ing three battalions, each complete in itself, with quar- 
termaster, commissary, etc. 

In organizing volunteer regiments, where battalions 
would be kept together, these additional officers were 
not allowed, as regiments were then expected to serve 
together, and not by battalions. 

There was established a corps of pioneers in 1863, 
who rode at the head of the resriment on the march. 
There were sixteen men, and a sergeant in command. 
These pioneers had to take down fences, build and de- 
stroy bridges, erect barricades, and generally do axe- 
men's work. Besides their arms, some carried axes 
slung across their shoulders, some shovels, and some 
picks. They were chosen men and a trusty corps. In 
winter, when the tents were logged up, they built field 
and staff officers' huts, and those for the regiment, such 
as hospital, commissary, and quartermaster. Details 
from companies built usually their own and their offi- 
cers' huts. 

As the pioneers of the 1st were unusually clever at 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 301 

this business, they were always in demand at brigade Work of 
and division headquarters, to make the generals and neeii!^° 
staffs comfortable. During the winter of 1864-65, be- 
fore Petersburg, they built a little church and a gym- 
nasium. With their axes they could square timbers and 
build huts as handsomely finished as if planes and sand- 
paper had been used, and furniture, too, was occasion- 
ally made for high officers. 

The names of battles on the flag of the 1st Massa- Names of 
chusetts, allowed by general order No. 10, of March 7, t^e flag?'' 
1865, from headquarters Army of the Potomac, were as 
follows : — 

Poolesville, September 5, 1862. 

South Mountain, September 15, 1862. 

Antietam, September 17, 1862. 

Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

Chancellorsville, May, 1863. 

Brandy Station, June 9, 1863. 

Aldie, June 17, 1863. 

Upperville, June 21, 1863. 

Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 

Williamsport. 

Culpeper, September 13, 1863. 

Auburn, October 13, 1863. 

Todd's Tavern, May 5, 1864. 

Fortifications of Richmond, May 12, 1864. 

Cold Harbor, June 2, 1864. 

St. Mary's Church, June 24, 1864. 

Bellefield, December 10, 1864. 

Vaughan Road, February 8, 1865. 

At several of the battles named the regiment, though Names 
present, was not seriously engaged ; but there were oth- should 
ers which certainly should be inscribed on the colors, oTthe^^" 
where the regiment fought bravely and suffered loss. ^* 
Notably at : — 



302 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Snicker's Ferry, November 6, 1862. 

Sulphur Springs, October 12, 1863. 

New Hope Church (Mine Run), November 27, 1863. 

Ground Squirrel Church, May 11, 1864. 

Ashland, May 11, 1864. 

Hawes Shop, May 28, 1864. 

Trevilian's Station, June, 1864. 

Deep Bottom, July 29, 1864. 

Malvern Hill, July 29, 1864. 

Reams Station. 

Cattle raid, August 16, 1864. 

Memories Other sGHses besides those of sigcht and hearino; have 

evoked by . . 

the sense Jgf^ {q^ Qiir iiiemories reminiscences of warKke experi- 

oi smell. ^ 

ence. Wlio can smell the smoke of a forest fire with- 
out having recalled the bivouacs in the woods, in which 
so very many times the horses would be picketed and 
the shelter tents put up ? 
Penny- Can aiiv soldier ever f orsret how characteristic of Vir- 

royal. . . '' ^. . 

ginia and Maryland campaigning was the smell of the 
pennyroyal herb ? It was in all the fields, and on being 
crushed gave out its pungent but agreeable odor. 

Wild gar- In Spring, in the same States, the wild garhc was 
omnipresent. As a consequence the beef cattle ate it, 
and in turn its pervasive flavor was imparted to the 
beef and to the milk. This was particularly noticeable 
in May, 1864, on the plains between the Rappahannock 
and Rapidan rivers, where all Grant's army prepared to 
cross, before the memorable Wilderness campaign. 

Green per- No One wlio marchcd with the cavalry will forget the 
attractive appearance of the persimmon trees in au- 
tumn, loaded with their beautiful fruit, which proved 
for the unwary like the apples of Sodom. It was a 
common trick to give them to the innocent recruits and 
watch the effect. 



Simmons. 





TYLER HARDING, E CO 




GEO. A. ABEL, F CO. 



GEO, W. FILLEY, F CO. 





Vs'M. H. RICE, G CO, 



GERRY R. VVALKER, H CO, 



REGIMENTAL BAND 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 303 

Should any one ask the writer to name something a pervad- 
pecuHar to the South, he would say " pigs." The pig temtic ot 

, . .•, . ^ r\ ^ *^® South. 

was the most important contribution to the bouthern 
food supply, and was met with on every road and in 
every field. He was impartial, and had apparently no 
Southern proclivities ; he yielded his succulency as 
freely to the Northern soldier as to his master during 
the years of the war, and afforded much amusement in 
his taking off. It would make one fall from his horse 
with laughter to see poor piggy's pursuit by a band of 
hungry boys in blue, his squeals vexing the air. A pig 
hunt was always in order, and at times the pig was the 
principal commissary department of the cavalry. 

The Virginia snake fence was also a feature, the cor- The vir- 
ners giving good shelter when nothing else offered at ^'"^ '^""^' 
night. In skirmishing, too, the fences, and particu- 
larly the corners and angles, were in demand. Fences 
had, however, another use much more important than 
these. As material for fires they were " worth a farm." 
The reofiment's halt for the nig-ht was the doom of the 
rails, and in ten minutes all the fields became one, as 
the fences disappeared. But there were fences which, 
for different reasons, were sacred. The owners might 
be called Union, or foreigners. I recall a place near 
Greenwich, belonging to English people, as a striking 
instance of this. When headquarters, whether regi- 
mental or brigade or division, were established at a 
house which boasted any fences, these would generally 
be guarded, as a token of hospitality. Then there 
would be grumbling loud and deep, when other sources 
of supply gave out, and sometimes, when next day 
dawned, the guards would find the fence gone. Fences 
became a curiosity in Virginia in many places in 1862, 



304 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

and rail-splitters must have had their hands full for a 

long time after Appomattox. 
Character- In the South, then, pigs and rail fences Avere univer- 
eertainof sal. In Maryland and Pennsylvania a characteristic 

the South- 1 1 • 1 1 . 1 1 11 

era States, was the Dig barn, the spring house, and apple butter. 

In Virginia, apple jack, mint julep, and egg-nog, too. 

In South Carolina, swamps, live-oaks, mocking-birds, 

flowering- hedofes, and magfiiolias. 
First, On one of his first tours of picket at Beaufort, the 

catch your , , 

pig- desire for fresh meat made the writer buy a little pig. 

He was sold by the negro woman who claimed to own 
him, " on the hoof." He resisted all the blandishments 
offered to induce him to come near enough to put salt 
on his tail. So drawing a small self-cocking revolver. 



gTO. 



we tried him on the wing, and brought him down. The 
pig was delicious, if not up to the standard of Charles 
Lamb. Naturally they grew scarcer all the time, and 
more wary. 
Ofthene- Of tlic iicgro mucli cau be said. We used at one 
time to think they all looked just alike, but after seeing 
those at Hilton Head and Beaufort, the Viroinian neofro 
looked very different. Those in South Carolina were, 
many of them, imported from Africa in the original 
package. They were mostly intensely black, uncouth, 
and unattractive in their appearance. Being on picket 
with Lieutenant Charles Francis Adams, Jr., an im- 
mensely powerful, jet black man was interviewed, who 
was bewailing his lot in terms understood with difficulty. 
He was bemoaninof the loss of " seventeen head " of 
something understood to be cattle, or perhaps pigs, and 
we naturally thought of the marauding infantrymen 
who were on picket. So we asked, " Was it pigs? " he 
had lost. " No," said he, " seventeen head of children." 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 305 

He went on to regret that the war had taken away the Depreei- 
value of slaves ; how a good field hand that used to be vaCe of 
worth fifteen hundred dollars was now worth not more ^^ "^^*'* 
than two hundred and fifty. Lieutenant Adams said, 
" Well, our family is pretty well on record as aboKtion- 
ists, but if niggers are as cheap as that, I shall have to 
think about buying some." 

Two prominent Massachusetts gentlemen, who had Ne^ro 
sons in the regiment, and had come down to Beaufort '^°"'^°' 
to have a look at things, were one day riding in a cot- 
ton field with the writer. We met a party of negro wo- 
men, field hands, powerful but not beautiful. Both gen- 
tlemen looked with anything but rapture at the exhibi- 
tion of female charms, and Mr. F said, " M , 

there is one thing I cannot account for, and that is the 
mulatto." Darwin's theory would gain adherents in 
South Carolina. 

There were two kinds of music in the regiment be- Darkey 
sides the band. When the regiment was in South Car- shS"*^ 
olina there collected about the different departments 
various negroes, of all shades of color. Many were 
officers' servants. But among the mule drivers and in 
the quartermaster's department were some individuals 
who excelled as singers and dancers. The leader was 
a mulatto named Arthur, possessed of a very melodious 
tenor voice, and a repertory of peculiar songs, many of 
them savoring of the religious, which after the war be- 
came famous and popular, such as "Sweet Chariot," 
" Golden Stairs," etc. This Arthur organized a band 
of singers, who beguiled the evenings in Maryland with 
singing and dancing. To display the latter art, the 
backboard of a mule wagon was usually the floor ; and 
with the accompaniment of a band of singers, a big 



306 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Autumn fire, aiid a crowd of officers and men in the background 
Ittrac"-^ it made the cool autumn evenings pass pleasantly. Offi- 
^^^' cers from other regiments would be attracted also, and 
these nesfro artists became famous. All knew the 
genuine Carolina songs, and how to pat the rhythm 
with their hands on their thighs, which gave an origi- 
nal flavor to the entertainment. They disappeared 
when the regiment left Maryland, November, 1862. 

Lieutenant Merrill's black servant, who came from 
South Carolina, also had a sweet, low voice, and one 
verse he used to sing runs in the historian's memory : — 

" Oh, hush you silly creature ! 
Oh, cease your flattering tongue ! 
Talk about getting married dear. 
You know you are too young," 

accompanied by the beat of his foot and the pat of his 
hand to emphasize the rhythm, — probably some old 
South Carolina song. 
Negro All who wcre at Beaufort will recall the " shouts," 

"shouts. ' gQ_j,^jjg(j^ ^f ^Ijg negroes. Crowds would assemble and 
sing together, standing and shuffling about in a circle, 
with constantly increasing enthusiasm, and with an ac- 
companying and overpowering odor, which made white 
attendance short. 
A quar- There was also a quartette of enlisted men, who made 

capital music, and helped amuse the officers and men. 
One song in particular, the chorus of which ran " Hur- 
rah for old New England and her cloud-capped granite 
hills," was a prime favorite. There was another, one 
verse of which will be remembered by many : — 

" I asked her if she could, and would ; 
I thought she 'd say she couldn't. 
Instead of that she said she could, 
But rather thous:ht she would n't." 



tette 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 307 

This quartette had a reputation outside the regiment, 
and was frequently invited to other regiments, where 
they were always gladly received and generously 
treated. 

One officer was a great reader o£ newspapers, and a a book 
devourer of such books as found their way to camp. '"''™- 
If any owner of a novel missed it, he at once hunted 

up Lieutenant C , with the good chance of finding 

the whereabouts of the missing volume, if not of recov- 
enng it. His literary habits were not without danger to 
fellow officers, in other ways than in the alibi of books. 
Thirst for literary amusement led to reading after dark ; 
the only reclining position obtainable was lying down 
in a tent, while light came from a candle placed in a 
bottle or even on the ground ; and beds were almost 
always of straw or hay. This made a bad combination. A bad 
It resulted that from fatigue, or from a soporific book, tTon.''"^' 
the lieutenant twice fell asleep while reading by candle 
light, and woke up to find his bed and the tent on fire. 
On both occasions, first at Hagerstown, second at Po- 
tomac Run, the tent was totally destroyed, with most 
of its contents. One interesting part of the event was 
that the tent belonged to another officer, who on both 
occasions had to bemoan the loss of what few articles 
of luxury he possessed ; one of the tents was his own, 
sent from Boston, and the loss was quite irreparable. 

Once, on a march, the adjutant, during a halt, placed 
the colors in an apple-tree, and when the regiment 
marched, a little later, forgot them. A party sent back 
fortunately found them where they were left. 

The 4th New York cavalry was a peculiar, and might a polyglot 
have been called the polyglot regiment. The colonel, "'^'^^""'' 
Di Cesnola, was an Italian. Other field officers were 



308 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Foreign 
element in 
4th N. Y. 
Cavalry. 



Drafted 
men not 
equal to 
volun- 
teers. 



Schemes 
to avoid 
service at 
the front. 



Americans and Germans; while the men inchided Amer- 
icans, Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Spaniards, Hunga- 
rians, and perhaps men of other countries. Most of 
them could speak only their own language. A large 
proportion had been in cavalry service in their own 
country, and many were well set up, and fine looking. 
They were sad rogues, and the regiment lacked cohe- 
sion and unity, as might be expected from the elements. 
The officer of the day gave them a wide berth when 
coming to their pickets, as they could not understand 
him, nor he them. In some battles they fought very 
well, but generally they were not considered reliable, 
and there were scandals of frequent occurrence. The 
American part was far the best, and at Upperville dis- 
ting-uished itself and the whole regfiment. The 1st 
Massachusetts was frequently brigaded with this regi- 
ment. 

The recruits sent to the regiment, as the war was 
prolonged, became constantly less good. Bounty men 
and substitutes were not the equals of the volunteers 
who originally enlisted. Some were professional bounty 
jumpers " on the make," trusting to chance to give 
them an opportunity to desert. The drafted men would 
do almost anything to escape service, and in the latter 
part of the winter and spring of 1864, some actually 
mutilated themselves in order to get to the rear and 
avoid the campaign. Instances occurred in the regi- 
ment of men deliberately shooting themselves in the 
foot, hand, or arm. These wounds sometimes proved 
more serious than was intended. One veteran who had 
learned his business was easily worth a dozen recruits, 
as one old horse who had learned army economy was 
worth a dozen new ones. 





LORENZO L. HOWES 




EDWARD W. F. MACINAW 




HEINRICH HESS 




CCRPL. GUSTAVE EVERS 
(SUTLER) 




HERBERT MAYCOCK 
A COMPANY 




THOS. F. B. McDEVITT 




CHAUNCEY PETTIBOtSlE 



MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS. 309 

The youngest soldiers of whom we have record are : The young- 
Sergeant Richard R. Walsh, of comjDany A, fifteen in the regu 
years, seven months ; John B. Kelly, company D, fif- 
teen years ; Charles A. Gay, company H, fifteen years ; 
Stanton P. Allen, company I (new), fourteen years, nine 
months. 

The first death after the regiment left Massachusetts, The first 
in 1861, was that of Corporal Joseph T. Stevens, of '^'^*^- 
company I (old), who died March 31, 1862. He was 
buried with full military honors, the only funeral so 
conducted in our regiment. 

In a letter to Harrison Ritchie, aide-de-camp to Gov- 
ernor Andrew, dated April 12, 1862, Colonel Williams 
says: "Corporal Stevens died March 31st, and was 
buried with ^^roj^er military honors, in a small grave- 
yard in the eastern part of a clear space within the lines 
of Hilton Head. The proper head and foot boards have 
been placed in the yard, which has been inclosed, and 
sown with gi-ass ; the first death which occurred in the 
regiment since it left the State." 

The second death was that of James H. Tucker, of 
company I (old), who died April 30, 1862. 

One of the most interesting facts in connection with Four 
the records is that of there being four brothers in the in the regi- 
regiment. Cyrus D. Strang, and Joel A., of company 
A ; Jesse and Corporal Gabriel, of company L (old). 
Joel died of wounds; Gabriel was killed April 6, 1865; 
Jesse died since service ; Cyrus is still living. All bore 
an active and honorable part during the service, and 
enjoyed the entire confidence of their comrades. 



ment. 



ROSTER 



FIELD, LINE AND STAFF OFFICERS. 
NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

LIST OF NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS OF COMPANIES 

1861. 

STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE ROSTER. 



Colonel B. W. Ckowninshield : 

Dear Sir, — In turning over to you the result of my work as statistician 
of the 1st Massachusetts Cavaby, I must confess to a feeling of regret that 
the work which has engrossed much of my time for over two years is at an 
end. One cannot realize, until he undertakes work of this kind, how fascinat- 
ing it can be, in spite of the many perplexities and discouragements he meets 
with. For two years I have been living over again the incidents and scenes 
of army Hfe ; again I have seen the faces and heard the voices of brave, manly 
fellows who were once your comrades and mine ; again we have met in the 
camp, on the scout, in the skirmish, the charge ; again have I stood by the side 
of a brave comrade who has given his life for his country, or by the wounded, 
who, with lips compressed to conceal his suffering, declines the proffered help, 
and resolutely refuses to leave the field, or, if forced to do so, complies with 
reluctance and regret. The dreary camp and picket duty, the shot and alarm, 
the bugle call, camp song and jest, the letter sent and received, the long line 
of horses with their ever restless movement, like waves of the sea, — all these 
memories, with many more, come thronging to my heart and brain, efEacing 
time ; and again we are present in person, as we were twenty-five and more 
years ago. And now comes the saddest part, the awakening and parting ; but 
never to be so far apai't as before this spiritual reunion. 

When at your request — I was about to say command — I undertook the 
arrangement of the statistics of the regiment, it was supposed that the adjutant- 
general's records, as printed, were substantially correct, making the labor com- 
paratively light. Such, however, was not the case, and I must ask your kind 
forbearance for errors that occur. 

It being impossible to obtain access to the rolls on file in Washington, the 
aid of General Dalton, Adjutant-General of the State of Massachusetts, was in- 
voked. He gave me carte-blanche to examine all documents pertaining to the 
regiment in his charge. Material aid was rendered by his assistants, comrades 
Baker, Doane, and Wilson, to whom I am under personal obligation. 

Great injustice would be done did I not, in this connection, speak of the ser- 
vices of Miss Abbie S. Hall, daughter of the late Colonel Theron E. Hall, who 



314 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

has been indefatigable in lier labor to bring order out of chaos. She has given 
generously of her time for the past two years, going patiently over the work 
again and again, as new material came to hand. To no one are our thanks 
more heartily due. 

Some idea of the necessary work may be had, by considering the fact that 
there were sixteen full companies, which, with recruits, numbered over 2350 
men and 110 officers. To follow these names through their various changes, 
transfers, and the consolidation of the regiment in 1864 was no small matter ; 
and if errors occur, as occur they will, the blame must not aU be laid at my 
door. Take into consideration the worn and almost illegible condition of the 
company rolls, practically no descriptive rolls, the absence of monthly reports, 
and the difficulty can be partially understood. Copies were made of the mus- 
ter in rolls of 1861 and 1864, and the muster out rolls of 1864 and 1865, in- 
dividual muster in and muster out rolls, and casualty reports from regimental 
commanders and medical staff. These copies were sent to members of the 
several companies for additional information. These comrades have rendered 
valuable assistance, having furnished the missing link without which the record 
of many a brave and true comrade could not have been conijileted. And while 
I cannot promote or even brevet them, I would give honorable mention to com- 
rades Baldwin, Brackett, and Cavanaugh, of company A ; Sanborn and Gay, 
company B ; C. G. Davis, company C ; E. A. Smith and Livingston, company 
D ; C. M. Smith and Sunbury, company E ; Hyde, Clark, and "Woodbury, com- 
pany F ; Sherman, company G ; Duchesney, S. W. and H. T. Bartlett, com- 
pany H ; Finney, Lincoln, and Swift, company I ; Guptil, company K ; Field 
and Otis, company L ; Fisher, company M. And to all others who have ren- 
dered assistance I wish to express gratitude. 

Comrade J. H. Walker, company I (old), furnished the list of the Old, or 
Independent Battalion, with names of recruits who joined it after it was merged 
into the 4th cavalry. These lists were submitted to comrades Willis and Kim- 
ball, company I ; Bacon, company K ; Stockbridge and Wall, company L ; 
Atkins and Miles, company M ; who gave additional memoranda of value to 
the history. 

It is impossible at this late day to get an accurate list of field casualties. 
The lists sent by regimental commanders, while correct in the main, often mis- 
lead. Names and companies are sometimes given wrong ; men reported absent 
or deserters who were killed in action or taken prisoners, and so reported by 
the medical department. Many comrades have been lost sight of in the strug- 
gle to gain a livelihood since the war ; and of these no information can be had, 
save what is learned from company rolls. 

As this part of the work is statistical, and not intended to cover personal 
narrative, I have been obliged to apply the same rule to all, and to condense 
the work as much as possible. At the same time, I have endeavored to record 
the military service of all, either in the militia or United States service. In 





J. W. RICHARDSON 



LRGT. RICHARD WALSH 

SERGT. GEO. H. CAVANAUGH 
JOSIAH D. PATTERSON 





SEBASTIAN ZIIMMERMAN 



ELIJAH WILLARD 



A. COMPANY. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE ROSTER. 315 

spite of this condensation, an unequal, pei'haps undue amount of attention may 
have been received by some ; if so, I ask mild criticism ; memoranda in some 
cases being too voluminous, in others too meagre. 

The age and residence of comrades are recorded as they ajipear on the muster 
rolls. In many cases, however, the information cannot be considered accurate, 
as in 1861 boys in their teens became twenty, and old men were equally suc- 
cessful in renewing their youth. In some cases the place of birth was given, 
instead of residence ; and when reenlisting another town was named, thus giv- 
ing, as it were, two " hail ports." The utmost care has been used in searching 
the record of those comrades against whom rests the charge of desertion ; and 
the statistics, as here presented, are as recorded in Washington at the present 
time. This work has been done by Mr. Baker, of the adjutant-general's office, 
by direction of General Dalton. In this way the disgraceful charge of de- 
sertion has been wiped from the record of many of the comrades. 

Trusting that the result of my efforts may meet the approbation of the com- 
rades of our gallant old regiment, 

I am, colonel. 

Yours very truly, 

D. H. L. Gleason. 



" The companies of this regiment, from A to M inclusive, were organized 
at Readville, Mass., from Sept. 5 to Nov. 1, 1861, for three years. Com- 
panies I, K, L, and M of the original organization were detached Aug. 4, 
1863, to form an Independent Battalion of Cavalry, to which eight new compa- 
nies were added Feb. 12, 1864, forming the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Four 
new companies were raised from Dec. 5, 1863, to Jan. 14, 1864, to take the 
place of the transferred comjianies. The original members were mustered out 
and the veterans and recruits consolidated into eight companies Oct. 24, 1864. 
They remained in service until June 29, 1865, when mustered out, in ac- 
cordance with orders from War Department." — Official Army Register, 
Approved March 2, 1865. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



[Abbreviations of which the meaning is obvious are omitted.] 



Bvigl. Bugler. 

Disch. for dis. Discharged for disability. 

Eng. Engagement. 

Exp. Expiration of service. 

Far. Farrier. 

Hosp. Hospital. 

Ord. Orderly. 



Pris. Prison or prisoner. 

Pro. Promoted. 

Pro. Mar. Provost Marshal. 

Sad. Saddler. 

Ser. Service. 

Wag. Wagoner. 

V. R. C. Veteran Reserve Corps. 



One star (*) indicates that the man before whose name it is placed died since termination 
of service. 

Two stars (**) denote promotion in the regiment, and indicate that the record is to be 
found in the officers' list. 



ROSTER. 



COLONELS. 
Robert Williams. 

Grad. West Point. Instructor in Cav. at West Point Military Academy. Capt. 
2d U. S. Dragoons, 1861. Chief of staff to Gen. Banks, spring of 1861. 

Col. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 7, 1861, age 32 [Culpeper, Va.]. At his own 
request recalled to service in U. S. A. Oct. 29, 1862, as A. A. G. 
Residence, Washington, D. C. 

Horace Binney Sargent. 

Grad. Harvard, 1843, with first honors. Grad. Dane Law School, 1845. 
1845, 2d Maj. Ind. Corps Cadets, Boston. 1859-60, A. D. C. Gen. Banks' staff, 
M. V. I\L 1860-61, senior A. D. C. to Gov. Andrew. 

Lieut.-Col. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 12, 1861, age 40, [Roxbury]. Col. Oct. 30, 

1862. Bvt. Brig.-Gen. Mar. 21, 1864. Disch. for dis. Sept. 29, 1864. In com- 
mand of brigade April and May, 1863. In autumn of 1863 transf . to Dept. of the 
Gulf. Severely wounded. Mar. 21, 1864, at eng. Bayou Rapids, La., under Gen. 
Mower. Appointed " Chief of Cav." Unable to accept on account of wounds. 
Bvt. Brig.-Geh. U. S. V. " for gallantry and good conduct in the battle of Bayou 
Rapids." 

Residence, Santa Monica, Cal. 

Samuel Emory Chamberlain. 

Enlisted June, 1846, in 2d Regt. 111. Vol. for Mexican War. Corp. Transf. to 
1st U. S. Dragoons. Served through war. 

1st Lieut. Co. C. 3d Regt. M. V. M. (3 mos.). M. Apr. 23, 1861. Exp. July 
22, 1861. 

1st Mass. Cav. Sept. 12, 1861, age 32 [Cambridge]. Capt. Nov. 25, 1861. 
Maj. Oct. 30, 1862. Lt.-Col. Mar. 5, 1864. Col. Sept. 30, 1864 (not M.). Bvt. 
Brig.-Gen. Feb. 24, 1865. Prisoner Sept. 5, 1862, Poolesville, Md. Rejoined 
regt. Dec. 9, 1862. Jan., 1863, Asst. Insp. Gen. to Gen. Averell. Severely 
wounded, Mar. 17, 1863, Kelly's Ford [gunshot]. Leave of absence until June 3, 

1863. Returned to regt. and though not reported for duty, present at Stevens- 
burg and Aldie. Then in command Camp Parole, Annapolis, until Aug., 1863. 
Sept. 1, 1863, again at Camp Parole. Returned to the field, May 26, 1864, and 
commanded regt. until Sept. 1, 1864. Then at Camp Parole until regt. was 
M. out. Transf. to 5th Mass. Cav. as Col., July 26, 1865. Exp. Nov. 28, 1865. 
Bvt. Brig.-Gen. U. S. V. (for gallantry at battle of St. Mary's Church). 

Residence, Wethersfield, Conn. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONELS. 
Greely S. Curtis. 

Capt. 2d M. V. I. May 24, 1861. Resigned Oct. 31, 1861. 

Maj. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 30 [Boston]. Lieut.-Col. Oct. 30, 
1862. Disch. for dis. Mar. 4, 1864. On light duty, Long Island, Boston Harbor, 
Dec. 12, 1863. Bvt. Brig.-Gen. U. S. V. Mar. 13, 1865, " for gallant and meri- 
torious conduct." 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 



318 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Lucius Manlius Sargent, Jr. 

Grad. Harvard, 1848. Giad. Harvard Medical School, 1857. 

Surg. 2d M. V. I. May 28, 1801. Resigned Oct. 9, 1861. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 35 [W. Roxbury], Maj. Jan. 2, 
1864. Lieut.-Col. Sept. 30, 1864. Killed (before M.) by a shell near Bellfield, 
Va., Dec. 9, 1864. Severely wounded in chest (gunshot) June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
In command of regt. Oct. 12 to Dec. 14, 1863. Also from Mar. 24 to May 25, 
1864 (Sheridan's 1st raid). Highly complimented for conduct on this raid, by 
Gen. Davies, in these words : " In a most gallant charge, contributing in an emi- 
nent degree to the success of the late movement, he fell, sword in hand, at the 
head of his mounted column." 

John L. Tewksbury. 

Served in Forbes Coast Guard, Boston, 1861. 

M. Co. A. 1st Mass. Cav. Sept. 12, 1861, age 31 [Boston]. Corp., Sergt. 
2d Lieut. Dec. 1, 1861. 1st Lieut. Mar. 27, 1862. Capt. Feb. 13, 1863. Maj. 
Aug. 10, 1864. Lieut.-Col. Dec. 10, 1864 (not M.). In command of regt. at City 
Point, Va., 1865, till close of war. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Quiucy, 111. 

MAJORS. 
*WiLLiAM F. White. 

Maj. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 1, 1861, age 53 [Somerville]. Resigned July 17, 
1862. Sept. 9, went to camp at Readville with recruits, per Special Order, 
No. 48: — 

" Headquarters Boston, September 9, 1861. 
Major William F. White will proceed forthwith to Readville and assume com- 
mand of Camp Brigham. He will take with him to camp such cav. recruits as 
have been enlisted in Boston. 

By order of the Com. in Chief, Wm. Schouler, Adj." 

John H. Edson. 

Grad. West Point, 1853. 

Lieut. U. S. Mounted Rifles, in Mexican War. Resigned 1860. 

Maj. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 4, 1861 [Boston]. Resigned Jan. 7, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Henry Lee Higginson. 

Harvard College, A. M. 

2d Lieut. 2d Mass. Inf. May 28, 1861. 1st Lieut. July 8. Resigned Oct. 31. 
^ Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 26 [Boston]. Maj. Mar. 26, 1862. 
Severely wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie (three sabre cuts and two pistol wounds). 
Disch. for dis. Aug. 9, 1864. On recruiting ser. Mass. Dec. 12, 1863. On staff 
of Major-Gen. Barlow, July, 1864. Bvt. Lieut.-Col. U. S. V. March 13, 1865, 
" for gallant and meritorious service during the war, and especially in the cam- 
paign of 1864 of the Army of the Potomac." 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

*Atherton H. Stevens, Jr. 

3d Lieut. Lt. Dragoons, 1st Batt. M. V. M. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 36 [Cambridge]. Maj. July 19, 
1862. Transf. to 4th Mass. Cav. Exp. May 7, 1865. In command of" 3d [Inde- 
pendent] Batt. Aug. 19, 1862, to Mar., 1864. 




LEMUEL WOOD 
B COMPANY 



ROSTER. 319 

Thomas Lawrence Motley. 

Member of New England Guards, Boston, before the war. 

1st. Lieut. 2d Mass. Lif. May 28, 1861, to Dec. 24, 1861. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 25, 1861. Maj. Mar. 5, 1864 (not M.). On 
detached service at Maj.-Gen. Hooker's hdqrs. fall of 1862. On Brig.-Gen. 
Gordon's staff, Jan. 14, 1863. Rejoined regt. Feb. 15, 1864. Wounded in arm 
and leg. May 11, 1864, Ashland, Va., and taken prisoner while leading a charge. 
In Libby Prison 3 mos. Maj. and A. A. G. Nov. 25, 1864. May 19, 1865, on staff 
of Gen. Gordon, Norfolk, Va. July 5, 1865, with Col. Wilcox, Chief M. O., at 
Columbus, O. Exp. Sept. 1, 1866, as Bvt. Col. 

Residence, Groton, Mass. 

Benjamin W. Crowninshield. 

Grad. Harvard, 1858. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dee. 19, 1861, age 24 [Boston]. Capt. Mar. 
26, 1862. On staff of Maj.-Gen. P. H. Sheridan as A. A. D. C. July 26, 1864. 
Maj. Aug. 10, 1864 (refused commission). Pro. Mar. Gen., Middle Military Div., 
Sept. 18, 1864. Exp. Nov. 6, 1864, as Bvt. Lieut.-Col. and Bvt. Col. U. S. V. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Charles G. Davis. 

Grad. Green Grammar School, Lowell. 

Member of National Lancers. 

1st Sergt. Co. C. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 17, 18C1, age 21 [Charlestown]. 
2d Lieut. Feb. 4, 1862. 1st Lieut. Jan. 6, 1863. Capt. Feb. 16, 1864. Maj. 
Sept. 30, 1864. Severely wounded, right arm and shoulder, and prisoner, June 
17, 1863, Aldie. Confined in Libby Prison, Va., Danville, Va., Macon, Ga., 
Charleston, S. C. (under fire), and Columbia, S. C. Escaped from Columbia Nov. 
4, 1864. Reached U. S. lines at Knoxville, Teun., 5th Dec. 1864, after a march 
of 31 nights. Exp. Jan. 5, 1865. 

Residence, W. Roxbury, Mass. 

*Edward a. Flint. 

Grad. Harvard, 1851. Returned from South America to serve in war. 

2d Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 14, 1862, age 30 [Boston]. 1st Lieut. Mar. 
21, 1863. Capt. Feb. 16, 1864. Maj. July 2, 1864 (not M.). On detached ser. 
with Cos. C and D, at Gen. Meade's hdqrs, 1864-65. Bvt. Col. U. S. V. April 9, 
1865, " for gallant and meritorious service during the war." Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Amos L. Hopkins. 

Grad. Williams College, 1863. Capt. of Batt. organized in college. 

2d Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Aug. 11, 1863, age 18 [Williamstown]. Capt. 
Dec. 10, 1863. Maj. Dec. 10, 1864. Wounded May 5, 1864, in leg. Exp. June 
26,1865. J » » 6 1 

Residence, New York City. 

George H. Teague. 

Member of Salem Cadets, before the war. 

M. in Co. D, 1st Mass. Cav. Sept. 23, 1861, age 25 [Newton]. Corp., Sergt., 
1st Sergt. 2d Lieut. Jan. 27, 1863. 1st Lieut. Jan. 28, 1864. Capt. Sept. 2, 
1864. Maj. Dec. 10, 1864 (not M.). On detached ser. with Cos. C and D on 
Gen. Meade's Body Gd. 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. Capt. 5th Mass. Cav. M. 
Aug. 1865. Exp. Oct. 31, 1865. 

Residence, Wakefield, Mass. 



320 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

SURGEONS. 
*James Holland. 

Surg. Major 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 14, 1861, age 45 [Westfield]. Disch. 
for dis. June 26, 1863. 

Albert Wood. 

Grad Dartmouth College, 1856, and Harvard Medical School, 1862. 

Asst. Surg. 29th M. V. I. Aug. 12, 1862, to July 7, 1863. ^ , ^ „ 

Mai. and Surg. 1st Mass. Cav. M. July 7, 1863, age 29 [Northboro]. Re- 
signed Nov. 1, 1864. Acting Staff Surg. U. S. A. Jan. 1, 1865, hosp. City Pt. 
Resigned May 17, 1865. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel W. Abbott. 

Grad. Harvard, 1862. 

Asst. Surg, in Reg. Navy Nov, 11, 1861, to May 24, 1864. 

Asst. Surg. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 3, 1864, age 27 [Woburn]. Surg. Nov. 
2, 1864. Acting Brig. Surg. Feb. and Mar., 1865. Exp. July 24, 1865. 
Residence, Wakefield, Mass. 

ASSISTANT SURGEONS. 
Oscar C. De Wolf. 

Williams College, A. M. Grad. N. Y. Medical College, 1858. 
Asst. Surg. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 14, 1861, age 26 [Chester]. Surg. 2d 
Mass. Cav. Nov. 13, 1862. Disch. for dis. Feb. 4, 1865. 
Residence, Chicago, 111. 

Albert R. Rice. 

Grad. Jefferson Medical College, Phil., Pa., 1861. 

Asst. Surg. 1st Mass. Cav. M. July 24, 1862 [Springfield]. Exp. Nov. 21, 

1862. Asst. Surg. 49th M. V. I. M. Dec. 3, 1862. Exp. Sept. 1, 1863. A. A. 
Surg. U. S. N. Mar., 1864. Disch. Sept., 1865. 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 

Homer H. Warner. 

Asst. Surg. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 16, 1862 [Springfield]. Resigned Aug. 
20, 1864. 

Residence, New York City. 

George Sterne Osborne. 

Grad. Harvard, 1860. Harvard Medical School, 1863. 
Acting Asst. Surg. July 8, 1862, to Sept. 9, 1862. 

Asst. Surg. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Apr. 1, 1863, age 24 [So. Danvers]. With regt. 
continuously to Jan. 23, 1864. Promoted Maj. and Surg. 5th Mass. Cav. Dec. 30, 

1863. Resigned May 7, 1864. Acting Asst. Surg. May 16, 1864, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Residence, Peabody, Mass. 

Samuel H. Durgin. 

Asst. Surg. M. Aug. 8, 1864 [Alton, N. H.]. With regiment from Aug., 

1864. to Appomattox C. H., 1865. Exj). June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 

CHAPLAINS. 
William C. Patterson. 

Chaplain. M. Dec, 30, 1861, age 50 [Dedham.]. Resigned Aug. 18, 1862. 
Residence, . 



ROSTER. 321 

George W. Gorham. 

Private, Co. F. M. Dee. 29, 1863, age 43 [Holyoke]. Chaplain, Sept. 18, 
1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, . 

CAPTAINS. 
Marcus A. Moore. 

Capt. Lt. Dragoons, M. V. M. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 37 [Waltham]. Dismissed Jan. 
5, 1863. 

* William Gibbs. 

Col. of 1st Mass. Art'y, M. V. M. Resigned spring of 1854. Fall of 1854, 
Commander of Waltham Light Dragoons. In M. V. M. 28 yrs. previous to war 
Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 45 [Waltham]. Resigned Feb. 3, 

Luciu8 Richmond. 

Capt. Lt. Dragoons M. V. M. 

Capt. 1st. Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 31 [No. Bridgewaterl Capt. 
4th Cav. Exp. Dec. 17, 1864. & l 5 j p 

Residence, Brockton, Mass. 

Oren R. Shaw. 

1st Lieut. Lt. Dragoons M. V. M. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 25, 1861, age 42 [Boston]. Resigned Jan. 30, 

Residence, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

David B. Keith. 

In U. S. A. before the war. 

1st. Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 25, 1861, aged 30 [Boston]. Capt. Nov. 
25, 1861. Resigned June 27, 1862. 2d Lieut. 4th Mass. Cav. M. July 21, 1863. 
Capt. Dec. 24, 1863. Maj. Dec. 28, 1863. Disch. for dis. Nov. 17, 1864. 

Residence, Roxbury, Mass. 

Caspar Crowninshield. 

Grad. Harvard, 1860. 

Capt. 20th regiment, M. V. I. Julv 10, 1861. Resigned Nov. 25, 1861. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 25, 1861, age 24 [Boston]. Maj. 2d Mass. Cav. 
Jan. 30, 1863. Lieut.-Col. Mar. 1, 1864. Col. Oct. 21, 1864. Resigned June 
16, 1865. Byt. Brig.-Gen. U. S. V. Mar. 13, 1865, « for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war." 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

* James H. Case. 

1st Lieut. Lt. Dragoons, 1st Div. M. V. M. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 25, 1861, age 43 [Bridgewaterl. Capt. 4th Mass. 
Cav. Disch. for dis. Apr. 6, 1864. 

Arnold A. Rand. 

Private 4th Batt. M. V. I. Apr. 14, 1861. 

Second Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 27, 1861, age 24 [Boston]. Capt. Feb. 
4, 1862. Disch. June 10, 1803. Capt. and Asst. Adjt.-Gen. U. S. V. June 3, 1863. 
Resigned Jan. 12, 1864. Lieut.-Col. 4th Mass. Cav. Dec. 3, 1863. Col. Jan. 22, 
1864. Resigned Feb. 3, 1865. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 



322 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Horace N. Weld. 

Five years iu U. S. A. before war. Sergt. Boston L. A. Apr. 20 to Aug. 3, 18G1. 

'2cl Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 19, 1801, age 41 [Boston]. Capt. Feb. 7, 
18G2. Resigned Mar. 10, 1863. 2d Lieut., Aug. 24, 18U3. Capt. Nov. 18, 1863. 
Maj. 5th Mass. Cav. Jan. 22, 1864. Liout.-Col. Feb. 15, 1865. Exp. Oct. 31, 
1865. (On staff of Brig.-Gen. Pierce, Boston, Mar. to Aug., 1863). 

Residence, Campello, Mass. 

Myron C. Pratt. 

2a and 1st Lieut. M. Dec. 1, 1861, age 30 [Holyoke]. Capt. July 19, 1862. 
Killed, Nov. 3, 1862, Snicker's Gap, Va. 

Greenleaf W. Batchelder. 

1st Lieut, and Adjt. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 22 [Boston]. Capt. June 28, 1862, 
(not M.). Resigned Sept. 13, 1862. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Channing Clapp. 

Grad. Harvard, 1855. 

1st. Lieut. M. Dec. 19, 1861 [Boston]. Capt. Sept. 14, 1862. A. A. Gen. 
U. S. V. May 12, 1863. With Brig.-Gen. Benham's Engineer Brigade until end 
of war. Exp. July, 1865, as Bvt. Maj. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Charles Francis Adams, Jr. 

Grad. Harvard, 1856. 

In Boston City Guards, 1857-58. Adjt. 1st M. V. M. 1859. 4th Batt. 1860-1. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 19, 1861, age 26 [Quiney]. Capt. Oct. 30, 
1862. In couiniand of Cos. C and D, body gd., at (tcu. IMeade's hdqrs. 1864. 
Lieut.-Col. 5th Mass. Cav. July 15, 1864. Col. Feb. 15, 1865. Resigned Aug. 1, 
1865. Bvt. Brig.-Gen. U. S. V. Mar. 13, 1865, " for distinguished gallantry and 
efficiency at the battles of Secessionville, So. Mountain, and Antietaui, and for 
meritorious services during the war." 

Residence, Quiney, Mass. 

♦Randolph M. Clark. 
Grad. Harvard, 1855. 

1st Lieut. M. Dec. 26, 1861, age 26 [Dedham]. Acting Adj. 2d Batt. Beau- 
fort, 1862. Capt. Jan. 6, 1863 (not M.). Disch. Aug. 8, 1863. 

John G. Thayer. 

2d Lieut. M. Dec. 19, 1861, age 32 [Waltham]. 1st Lieut. Feb. 4, 1862. 
Capt. Feb. 1, 1863. Disch. for dis. Feb. 15, 1864. 
Residence, . 

♦Montgomery Ritchie. 

Capt. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 25, 1862 [Geneseo, N. Y.]. Resigned May 6, 
1864. Never with regt. On staff of Gen. Augur, Washington, D. C. 

Henry Pickering Bowditch. 

Grad. Harvard, 1861. Harvard Medical School, 1868. 

2d Lieut. M. Nov. 5, 1861, age 22 [Boston]. 1st Lieut. June 28, 1862. Capt. 
May 13, 1863. Wounded in riglit arm (gunshot) Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Ch. 
Disch. for dis. Feb. 15, 1864. ^Maj. 5th Mass. Cav. Mar. 26, 1864. Resigned 
June 3, 1865. 

Residence, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 




ALBERT S SHEPARD 




ALEXANDER McDONALD 




¥flt 



*.^ 




CORPL. GEO. M. WASHBURNE 
B COMPANY 



ROSIER. 323 

Moses F. "Webster. 

Corp. Co. B. Light Dragoons, M. V. M. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 12, 1861, age 45 [Boston]. Capt. July 3, 
1863. Maj. 4th Mass. Cav. Oct. 18, 1864. Resigned July 7, 1865. (Injured, 
Feb., 1864, Barber's Ford, Fla.) 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Joshua B. F. Hobbs. 

Grad. Amherst. Received one year's instruction in cav. evolutions, in Europe. 
2d. Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Aug. 24, 1863, age 25 [Boston]. Capt. Nov. 19, 

1863. Disch. for dis. Sept. 3, 1864. 
Residence, . 

Joseph C. Murphy. 

Served in U. S. Cav. from 1858 to 1863. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 27, 1863, age 27 [Boston]. Capt. July 2, 

1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, . 

Herbert Pelham Curtis. 

Grad. Harvard, 1851. 

2d Lieut. M. Dec. 19, 1861, age 31 [Boston]. 1st Lieut, and Adj. July 19, 
1862. Capt. Feb. 6, 1864. July to Dec, 1863, on stafP of Gen. Benham, Engineer 
Brigade. April, 1864, on duty in office of Gen. Holt, Judge Advo. Gen. U. S. A. 
Disch. from Vol. Ser. June 26, 1865. Appointed Maj. and Judge Advo. June, 

1865. Maj. and Judge Advo. U. S. A. Feb. 25, 1867. Lieut.-Col. and Deputy 
Judge Advo. Gen. U. S. A. 

Residence, . 

Daniel H. L. Gleason. 

Educated in common schools. 

Private Co. G. M. Sept. 25, 1861, age 20 [Holden]. Sergt. Com. Sergt. Co. 
G, Oct., 1861. 1st Sergt. Co. F, Nov., 1861. 2d Lieut. July 27, 1862. 1st 
Lieut. Feb. 1, 1863. Capt. Jan. 27, 1864. Wounded May 1, 1863, Rapidan Sta. 
Wounded June 3, 1863, White Sulphur Sp. (sabre cut on head). Highly com- 
mended for gallantry (in reports) by Gens. Pleasonton and DufEd. Severely 
wounded May 11, 1864, near Ground Squirrel Ch. (gunshot in hip). Highly 
complimented and Bvt. Maj. on the field by Maj.-Geu. D. McM. Gregg. Disch. 
for dis. Sept. 14, 1864. 

Residence, Natick, Mass. 

James J. Higginson. 

Grad. Harvard, 1857. 

2d Lieut. M. Jan. 6, 1863, age 26 [Boston]. 1st Lieut. Jan. 4, 1864. Capt. 
Sept. 1, 1864. Resigned May 27, 1865, Bvt. Maj. Prisoner June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Confined in Libby. Exchanged Mar. 6, 1864. On detached service with 
Cos. C and D, Gen. Meade's hdqrs. June, 1864, to May, 1865. Bvt. Maj. April 9, 
1865, " for gallant and meritorious service during the war." 

Residence, New York. 

Edward S. Wilson. 

Eight years in Spanish Army (3 years studying cav. and inft. tactics and engi- 
neering in Gov. and Mil. Academies at Madrid). 

2d Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Aug. 24, 1863, age 35 [Bristol, R. I.]. 1st Lieut. 
Dec. 10, 1863. Capt. Sept. 2, 1864. Wounded and prisoner May 9, 1864, Sheri- 
dan's Raid. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 



324 FIBST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

*JoHN Drew. 

Private Co. C. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 21 [Chelsea]. Corp., Sergt., and 1st 
Sergt. Co. C. 2d Lieut. Feb. 2, 1864. 1st Lieut. Nov. 14, 1864. Capt. May 30, 
1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

James A. Baldvtin. 

Bugler Co. A. M. Oct. 22, 1861, age 18 [Maiden]. Corp., Sergt., Q. M. 
Sergt. 2d Lieut. Feb. 16, 1864. 1st Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. Capt. Sept. 3, 1864. 
Exp. June 26, 1865. On detached ser. with Co. C and D, Gen. Meade's hdqrs. 
June, 1864, to May, 1865. 

Residence, Chicago, 111. 

David W. Herrick. 

Private Co. D. M. Oct. 12, 1861, age 35 [Boston]. Pro. Sergt. Reenlisted 
Jan. 30, 1864. 2d Lieut. Feb. 2, 1864. 1st Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. Capt. June 
17, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. Wounded in right arm and left breast (gunshot) 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Disabled from June 18, 1863, to Mar. 1864. Mar., 1865, 
dtld. Asst. Inspector of Fortifications, to Lieut.-Col. Stone, City Point, Va. Re- 
turned to regt. in April, 1865. 

Residence, Brighton, Mass. 

George Lewis Bradbury. 

Private Co. D. M. Oct. 30, 1861, age 18 [Boston]. Corp. Apr. 10, 1862. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Sergt. JVIay 1, 1864. Sergt.-Maj. July 18, 1864. 2d Lieut. 
Oct. 28, 1864. 1st Lieut, and Adj. Dec. 17, 1864. Capt. June, 1865 (not M.). 
Exp. June, 1865. Capt. 5th Mass. Cav. M. June 17, 1865. Exp. Oct. 31, 1865. 

Residence, Indianapolis, Ind. 



FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 
Charles E. Rice. 

Member of National Lancers before the war. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 24 [Brighton]. Resigned 
Apr. 30, 1862. Capt. 2d Mass. Cav. Feb. 9, 1863. Disch. for dis. Oct. 22, 
1864. 2d Lieut. 1st Batt. Frontier Cav. Dec. 27, 1864. Capt. Dec. 29, 1864. 
Maj. Mar. 15, 1865. Exp. June 30, 1865. 
Residence, Brighton, Mass. 

Walter Miles. 

Member of National Lancers before the war. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 31, 1861, age 32 [Charlestown]. Resigned 
Mar. 6, 1862. 
Residence, . 

*Freeman H. Shiverick. 

Member of N. Bridgewater Dragoons before the war. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 12, 1861, age 33 [No. Bridgewater]. Re- 
signed July 26, 1862. 

Edward R. Merrill. 

3d Lieut. Light Dragoons, M. Y. M. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 21, 1801, age 31 [Boston]. Exp. Feb. 15, 
1864. Nov. 29, 1863, wounded in right knee (gunshot) at Parker's Store. Capt. 
5th Mass. Cav. Apr. 5, 1864. Declined commission. Capt. 1st Frontier Cav. 
Mar. 20, 1805. Declined commission. 

Residence, New York City. 



ROSTER. 325 

RuFus D. Hills. 

4th Lieut. Light Dragoons, M. V. M. 

Feb' S^^isoi^'' ^^'''^' ^^^' ^' ^''" ^^' ^^^^' ^^' ^^ ^^^^ Bedford]. Resigned 
Residence, . 

*Lucius W. Knight. 

Sergt, Co. A. Light Dragoons, M. V. M. 

1st Lieut, and Regtl. Q. M. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 9, 1861, ao-e 31 rBostonT 
Exp. Sept. 27, 1864. A. A. Q. M. 1st Brig. 2d Cav. Div. Aug! iSr 1863.^ ^' 
Edward A. Brackett. 

Member of Lt. Dragoons before the war. 

1st Lieut, and Batt. Q. M. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Oct. 25, 1861, age 41 TWinches- 
ter]. Resigned Mar. 6, 1862. ^ '- ^^'^"^^ 

Residence, . 

Milton R. Bowkn. 

July*26,'T862!"'^ ^''"" ^' ^^" ^^ ^''- ^' ^^^^' ^»' ^^ [Dorchester]. Resigned 
Residence, . 

Francis Washburn. 

Grad. Scientific School, Harvard U , 1859 
rlf ^'rir ^^-P^''- T-^' ^o.^^' ^^" -^ [Lancaster]. 1st Lieut. Mar. 7, 1862. 
CoF f2 4 ?SV^n: t"^ ^^' ^^^?' Lieut.-Col. 4th Mass. Cav. Feb. 1 1864. 
An;-rrri&r^?''' if .°^ T""^' '^I^''- --' ^^^^- ^^t- B^ig-Gen. " to date from 
April b, Ibbo, lor gallant and meritorious services at High Bridge, Va." 

*JoHN L. Brigham. 

Private Co. M. M. Dec. 17, 1861 [Boston]. Regtl. Com. Sergt. 1st Lieut 
Sub o'f'-^rr/.^f -/m^" 'n 1862.' Exp. Vov. l 1864. Capt? and Col;; of 
al^d B^lt-M^l'Stt! 9,^1815"^'^^-^^^^^ ^- ^^ ''^"'^"- " «°"«^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^apt. 

*Henry T. Davis. 

Grad. Harvard, 1844. 
• ^^ I^T^- J^hP""}- ^h 18^1' ""S^ ^' [Boston]. 1st Lieut. May 1, 1862. Re- 
cfpt loth U S cfv' '*■ ^^^^' ^' ^' ^' ^"^ ^^'S-^'"- ^^^^^' ^^ar. 1, 1863. 

George Blagden. 

Grad. Harvard, 1856. 

Member of Boston Cadets 1857-59. 1st Lieut. 1st M. V. M. 1859-60. 
r . o^"^^'* ^^''- ^^''- ^- ^^«- -^' 1861 [Boston]. 1st Lieut. July 27, 1862. 
Capt 2d Mass. Cav. Jan. 13, 1863. Maj. Mar. 1, 1864. Exp. June 2, 1865. 

^sil . ""t ^^^^-^'^""^ °*" C°^- L^^^ll- ^s«t- to Com. Gen. of Prisoners fall of 
1864 to June, 1865. 

Residence, New York City. 

William Hathavtay Forbes. 
Harvard, 1860. 

97"i8r9''"V^'*. ^of '.-.^^''•^ ^1- ^^<'- 26, 1861, age 21 [Milton]. 1st Lieut. July 
n '/ oi ,Sf 1'^ ^^,^/'- ^^^- J'^"- 14, 1863. Maj. May 12, 1863. Lieut.-Col. 
Oct. 21, 1864 Exp. May 15, 1865. Prisoner July 6, 1864, Aldie, in fight with 
Mosby Confined at Lynchburg, Ya., Macon, Ga., Charleston and Columbia, S. C. 
Lscaped from Columbia but recaptured. Exchanged Dec, 1864. 
Residence, Milton, Mass. 



326 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Lucius H. Morrill. 

Member of Lt. Dragoons before the war. 

2cl Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 12, 18G1, age 34 [New Bedford]. 1st 
Lieut. Sept. 14, 1862. Capt. 4th Mass. Cav. Aug. 5, 1863. Exp. Dec. 27, 1864. 
Residence, . 

Nathaniel Bowditch. 

Grad. Scientific School, Harvard U., 18G1. 

2d Lieut. M. Nov. 5, 1861, age 21 [Boston]. 1st Lieut, and Adj. Oct. 30, 

1862. Died Mar, 18, 1863, of wounds received Mar. 17, Kelly's Ford, Acting 
A. A. Gen. to Col. Duffi^ commanding Brigade. 

*Charles V. Holt. 

Com. Sergt. Co. B. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 21 [Cambridgeport]. 1st. Sergt. 
2d Lieut. July 27, 1862. 1st Lieut. Feb. 3, 1863. Transferred to 4th ]\Liss. 
Cav. Disch. for dis. July 26, 1864. 

Alton E. Phillips. 

Member of Springfield Horse Guards before the war. 

1st Sergt. Co. E. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 18, 1861, age 22 [Chicopee]. 
2d Lieut. Mar. 7, 1862. 1st Lieut. Jan. 16, 1863. Died of wounds (received at 
Rapidan Sta.) May 4, 1863. 

Albert F. Ray. 

Sergt. Co. D. M. Sept. 23, 1861, age 20 [Haverhill]. Sergt.-Maj. 2d Lieut. 
June 28, 1862. 1st Lieut. Jan. 27, 1863. Acting Adj. 3d [Independent] Batt. 

1863. Capt. 4th Mass. Cav. Jan. 19, 1864. Maj. May 8, 1865 (not M.). Exp. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, Haverhill, Mass. 

Charles Chauncey Parsons. 

Grad. Harvard, 1860. 

2d Lieut. M. Aug. 22, 1862, age 21 [Cambridge]. 1st Lieut. Feb. 13, 1863. 
Capt. 5th Mass. Cav. Jan. 7, 1864. Maj. May 30, 1865 (not M.). Disch. for dis. 
June 16, 1865. 

Residence, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

George M. Fillebrown. 

Private Co. F, 4th M. V. M. about three years before the war, and M. into ser. 
Apr. 22, 1861. Exp. July 22, 1861. 

Private Co. B, 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 20 [Foxboro]. Corp. 
Com. Sergt. 2d Lieut. Oct. 30, 1862. 1st Lieut. May 12, 1863. Exp. June 25, 

1864. Received severe gunshot wound through abdomen June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
Residence, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

John A. Goodwin. 

Com. Sergt. Co. B. M. Sept. 12, 1861, age 22 [Boston]. Sergt. Maj. 2d 
Lieut. Dec. 4, 1862. 1st Lieut. May 13, 1863. Ex-p. May 15, 1865. A. A. Q. M. 
Cav. Dept. Washington, D. C, Apr. 13, 1863 ; returned to regiment Apr. 30, 
1864. Wounded and prisoner. May 9, 1864, Sheridan's Raid. 

Residence, . 

Harrison Holt. 

2d Lieut. 55th M. V. I. May 16, 1863. 1st Lieut. June 7, 1863. Resigned 
Oct. 14, 1863. 

1st Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 9, 1863, age 21 [Andover]. Disch. for 
dis. July 26, 1864. 

Residence, . 



ROSTER. 327 

Edward Payson Hopkins. 

Left Class of 1864, Williams College, to join regiment. 

1st Lieut. M. Jan. 2, 1864, age 21 [Williamstown]. Killed, Ashland, Va., May 
11, 1864. ' ' J 

William W. Wardell. 

1st Sergt. Co. C. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 22 [SomerviUe]. Sergt. Maj. Feb. 

1862. 2d Lieut. Jan. 16, 1863. 1st Lieut, and Adj. Jan. 2, 1864. A D. C. to 
Gen. Davies, Apr. 23, 1864. Killed May 28, 1864, Enuous Church, Va. 

Charles A. Longfellow. 

Private 1st Mass. Battery, 1863 (not M.). 

2d Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Mar. 27, 1863, age 19 [Cambridge]. Acting Atlj. 
Aug., 1863. Severely wounded Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church (gunshot). 1st 
Lieut. Jan.^24, 1864 (not M). Disch. for dis. Feb. 15, 1864. 1st Lieut. 5th Mass. 
Cav. Jan. 7, 1864 ; declined commission. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

*Edward J. Russell. 

Com. Sergt. Co. B. M. Sept. 14, 1861, age 21 [Lawrence]. 2d Lieut. Feb. 3, 

1863. 1st Lieut. Feb. 16, 1864. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Lawrence N. Duchesney. 

Private Co. F, 6th M. \. M. Apr. 16, 1861. Exp. Aug. 2, 1861. 

Private Co. H, 1st Mass. Cav. M. Nov. 22, 1861, age 18 [Lawrence]. Corp. 
Jan. 1, 1862. Sergt. Feb. 1, 1862. 2d Lieut. Jan. 16, 1863. 1st Lieut. Feb. 16. 
1864 (not M.). June 17, 1863, Aldie, injured and prisoner ; in Libby ; confined 
in dungeon as hostage 73 days ; July 19, 1864, removed to Salisbury ; Oct. 19, 

1864. escaped from car en route to Danville ; reached U. S. lines at Knoxville, 
Jan. 13, 1865. Exp. Apr. 3, 1865. Capt. 1st. Batt. Frontier Cav. M. V. [at- 
tached to 26th N. Y. Cav.] Mar. 20, 1865. Exp. June 30, 1865. 

Residence, Lawrence, Mass. 

Harry D. Littlefield. 

Private 8th Mass. Batt'y, June 19, 1862. Q. M. Sergt. Exp. Nov. 29, 1862. 
2d Lieut. 15th Mass. Batt'y. Dec. 18, 1862. Disch. for dis. Sept. 26, 1863. 

1st Sergt. Co. L [New Batt.], 1st Mass. Cav. M. Jan. 6, 1864, age 22 [Roxbury]. 
2d Lieut. Mar. 8, 1864. 1st Lieut, and Act'g Adjt. Sept. 3, 1864. Exp. Oct. 22, 
1864. 1st Lieut. 11th Batt. L. Art'y, M. V., commissioned Sept. 6, 1864. Exp. 
June 16, 1865. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

*Newell B. Allen. 

Private 1st Batt. L. A., M. V. M., May 18, 1861. Exp. Aug. 2, 1861. Li 8th 
Batt. L. A., M. V. M., May 30, 1862. Exp. Nov. 29, 1862. Received honorable 
mention at battle of Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862 [Sp. O. No. 8, Brig.-Gen. Cox, com- 
manding 9th Army Corps.] 

Private Co. I [New Batt.], 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 5, 1863, age 25 [Chelsea]. 
2d Lieut. Dec. 16, 1863. 1st Lieut, and Regtl. Q. M. Nov. 13, 1864. Exp. Jan. 
2,1865. ^ 

John W. Martin. 

Private. Sergt. and 1st Sergt. Co. H. M. Sept. 25, 1861, age 26 [Lawrence]. 
Reenlisted Jan. 5, 1864. 2d Lieut. Feb. 16, 1864. 1st Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. 
Exp. June 26, 1865. Leg fractured by fall of horse at Poolesville, Md. 
Residence, Dixon, 111. 



328 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Benjamin G. Mann. 

Com. Sergt. Co. B. M. Sept. 12, 1861, age 26 [Charlestown]. Regtl. Com. 
Sergt. 1st Lieut, and Regtl. Com. Sub. Nov. 13, 18G4. Exj). June 26, 1865, 
Bvt. Capt. Prisoner Oct. 24, 1863, near Bealton Sta., escaped Oct. 28. 
Residence, . 

John W. Howland. 

Private Co. C. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 26 [Amherst]. Sergt. Reenlisted Jan. 
1, 1864. 2d Lieut. Jan. 16, 1864. 1st Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as Bvt. Capt. " for gallant and meritorious conduct, to date from April 9, 1865." 
On detached ser. with Co. C and D, Gen. Meade's hdqrs. 

Residence, Amherst, Mass. 

*WiLLiAM FoY Smith. 

Private Co. I [New Batt.]. M. Dec. 5, 1863, age 22 [Boston]. Corp. Acting 
1st Sergt. Acting Sergt.-Maj. [New Batt.]. 2d Lieut. Jan. 16, 1864. 1st Lieut. 
Nov. 13, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. Wounded through right lung, and prisoner 
May 11, 1864, Ashland, Va. 

George W. Martin. 

Sergt. Co. H. M. Oct. 9, 1861, age 22 [Manchester]. Sergt. of Pioneers. Reen- 
listed Dec. 29, 1863. 2d Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. 1st Lieut. May 26, 1865 (not M.). 
Resigned June 5, 1865. 

Residence, Oakland, Cal. 

George W. Flagg. 

Corp., Sergt. and 1st Sergt. Co. E. M. Sept. 18, 1861, age 20 [Conway]. Re- 
enlisted Dec. 29, 1863. 2d Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. Acting Adj. Jan., 1865. 1st 
Lieut. May 26, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Chicopee, Mass. 

Timothy P. Lyman. 

Private, Corp., and Sergt. Co. E. M. Oct. 5, 1861, age 27 [Goshen]. Reenlisted 
Feb. 19, 1864. 2d Lieut. Sept. 3, 1864. 1st Lieut. May 26, 1865. Exp. June 26, 
1865. Prisoner June 17, 1863, Aldie; in Libby and Belle Isle, 39 days. Paroled 
July 26, 1863. On detached ser. as Sergt. of Pro. Guard, Oct. 10, 1863, to Feb. 
10, 1864, Washington. 

Residence, Goshen, Mass. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 
George F. Jennings. 

Private Co. A, Light Dragoons, M. V. M. 

2d Lieut. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Dec. 19, 1861, age 30 [Boston]. Resigned, Mar. 
25, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Louis Cabot. 

Grad. Harvard, 1858. 

2d Lieut. M. Dec. 26, 1861, age 25 [Brookline]. 1st Lieut. 2d Mass. Cav. 
Jan 15, 1863. Capt. May 12, 1863. Maj. 4th Mass. Cav. Feb. 25, 1864. Resigned 
Jan. 17, 1865. 

Residence, Brookline, Mass. 

*Horace M. Butler. 

Sergt. Co. E. M. Oct. 9, 1861, age 34 [Springfield]. Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. 2d 
Lieut, and Batt. Q. M. Mar. 26, 1862. Dismissed Dec. 28, 1863. 




CORPL. WILLIAM B. BUCHANAN 




JEREMIAH T. DALY 




ALVAN BARRUS 




SERGT. THOMAS PRESTON 





SER6T. WILLIAM TOBEY 




ANDREW J. DUNHAM 



tOWARD FAHEY 



B. COMPANY, 



ROSTER. 329 

William Coupe. 

1st Sergt. Co. D. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 27 [Pawtucket, R. I.]. 2d Lieut. 
Mar. 27, 1862. Resigned, Dec. 13, 1862. Prisoner Sept. 4, 1862, Monocacy, Md. 
Residence, South Attleboro, Mass. 

Frank AV. Hayden. 

Sergt. Co. E. M. Oct. 23, 1861, age 26 [So. Reading]. 2d Lieut. Sept. 14, 
1862.° Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. Prisoner Mar. 17, 1863, near Bealton. Asst. Pro. 
Mar., Washington, D. C, from Oct., 1863, to Mar., 1864. Transf. 2d Lieut. 1st 
Batt. Frontier Cav. M. V. (26th N. Y. Cav.) May 28, 1864. 1st Lieut. Mar. 7, 
1865. Exp. July 7, 1865. 

Residence, Wakefield, Mass. 

Benjamin T. O. Snow. 

Q. M. Sergt. Co. A. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 30 [Boston]. Regtl. Q. M. Sergt., 
May 26, 1862. 2d Lieut. Feb. 1, 1863. Disch. for dis. Feb. 15, 1864. 
Residence, . 

Patrick T. Jackson, Jr. 

Harvard, 1865. Left before graduating to serve in war. 

2d Lieut. M. Apr. 16, 1863, age 18 [Boston]. Acting Adjt. and mustering 
officer winter of 1863-64. 1st Lieut. 5th Mass. Cav. Mar. 14, 1864. Discharged 
Dec. 1, 1865. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

*WiLLiAM Chase. 

Private Co. L. M. Sept. 25, 1861, age 26 [Haverhill]. 2d Lieut. May 12, 1863. 
Transf. to 4th Mass. Cav. Resigned, Feb. 9, 1864. 

*Charles O. Phillips. 

Sergt. Co. E. M. Sept. 18, 1861, age 23 [Deerfield]. 2d Lieut. May 13, 1863. 
1st Lieut. 4th Mass. Cav., Aug. 5, 1863. Exp. May 7, 1865. 

Francis O. Lombard. 

Sergt. Co. F. M. Sept. 14, 1861, age 26 [Springfield]. 2d Lieut. May 30, 1863. 
Killed (before M.) Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church, " while heroically endeav- 
oring to bear away a wounded soldier in his arms." 

Hugh Carey. 

Warrant officer in U. S. Navy before the war. 

Sergt. and 1st Sergt. Co. B. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 12, 1861, age 30 [Boston]. 
2d Lieut. May 30, 1863. Killed (before M.) June 17, 1863, Aldie, " while fight- 
ing bravely and refusing to surrender." 

Charles W. Dyer. 

Private and Sergt. Co. G. M. Oct. 6, 1861, age 19 [Boston]. 2d Lieut. Jan. 
20, 1864. Exp. Sept. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Henry F. Reed. 

Sergt. Co. D. M. Sept. 17, 1861, age 43 [Medford]. Pioneer Sergt. Reen- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. 1st. Sergt. 2d Lieut. Jan. 2, 1864. Refused commission. 
Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, Medford, Mass. 



330 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Duett C. Clark. 

Private Co. F. M. Sept. 14, 1861, age 23 [Westfield]. Sergt. 1st Sergt. 
2d Lieut. Feb. 16, 1864 (not M.). Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. Severely wounded in right 
arm (gunshot), Oct. 17, 1863, Auburn. Reenlisted Dec. 18, 1864, in Frontier 
Cav. Co. transf. to 3d Mass. Cav. 2d Lieut. Feb. 8, 1865. Capt. Oct. 5, 1865. 
(not M.) Exp. Sept. 28, 1865. 

Residence, East Hartford, Conn. 

Cornelius Kaler. 

Private, Co. D. 5th M. V. I., Apr. 19, 1861. Exp. July 31, 1861. 

Private Co. D. 1st Mass. Cav. M. Sept. 23, 1861, age 21 [Haverhill]. Corp. 
Apr. 1, 1862. Sergt. Dec. 3, 1863. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. Mar. 1, 
1864 (declined commission). Wounded and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie, escaped. 
Pris. Oct. 17, 1863, Auburn, escaped. 1st Lieut. 5th Mass. Cav., Mar. 8, 1864. 
Capt. April 30, 1864. Exp. Oct. 31, 1865. 

Residence, Kennebunk, Me. 

*Charles PL Stevens. 

Sergt. Co. B. M. Sept. 17, 1861, aged 27 [Melrose]. Transf. to Co. G. 1st 
Sergt. 2d Lieut. Jan. 2, 1864 (not M.). Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. Wounded in hands, 
July 28, 1864, New Market, Va. 

Daniel D. Hews. 

Sergt. Co. A. M. Sept. 14, 1861, age 23 [Boston]. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. 
2d Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. Resigned May 20, 1865. 
Residence, Maplewood, Mass. 

George Howe [Louis Black]. 

1st Sergt. Co. M. [New Batt.]. M. Jan. 14, 1864, aged 22 [Springfield]. 2d 
Lieut. Nov. 13, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

George B. Davis. 

Q. M. Sergt. Co. I. [New Batt.]. M. Dec. 5, 1863, age 18 [Springfield]. RegtI. 
Q. M. Sergt. Nov. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. May 16, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, . 

James O. Josselyn. 

Private Co. C. M. Aug. 15, 1862, age 31 [Roxbury]. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 
Regtl. Com. Sergt. Nov. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. May 26, 1865 (not M.). Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

Residence, Boston Highlands, Mass. 

Edward B. Bingay. 

Private Co. G. M. Sept. 25, 1861, age 24 [Boston]. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 1864. 
Sergt. Co. F. 2d Lieut. May 26, 1865 (not M.). Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, . 

ADJUTANTS. 

G. W. Batchelder, H. D. Littlefield (Acting), 

Nathaniel Bowditch, C. A. Longfellow (Acting), 

H. Pelliam Curtis, P. T. Jackson, Jr. (Acting), 

William W. Wardell, George W. Flagg (Acting). 
George L. Bradbury, 



ROSTER. 



331 



REGIMENTAL QUARTERMASTERS. 
Lieut. Lucius W. Knight, Lieut. Newell B. Allen. 

REGIMENTAL COMMISSARIES OF SUBSISTENCE. 
Lieut. John L. Brigham, Lieut. Benjamin G. Mann. 



BATTALION QUARTERMASTERS. 



Lieut. Lucius W. Knight, 
Lieut. E. A. Brackett, 



Lieut. M. R. Bowen, 
Lieut. Horace M. Butler. 



REGIMENTAL NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 



Name. 



Sergt. Majors. 

Albert F. Ray. 
Edward P. Light. 
John A. Goodwin. 
Daniel B. Sawyer. 
William W. Wardell. 
George L. Bradbury. 
Charles D. Browninar. 



Regtl. Q. M. Sergts. 

Horace M. Butler. 
Horatio Wood. 
William M. Rumery. 

George B. Muzzey. 

Benjamin T. O. Snow. 
Edward H. Adams. 

Josiah N. Brackett. 
George B. Davis. 
Vashni H. Pease. 



Regtl. Com. Sergts. 

John L. Brigham. 
Frank Miles. 



D. 
D. 
B. 
A. 
C. 
D. 
M(new). 



E 

K (old). 
C. 

I (old). 

A. 
A. 

A. 

I (new). 

F. 



M (old). 
M(old). 



Termination of ser. and cause. 



2d Lieut. June 28, '62. 
Died of wds. June '64. 
2d Lieut. Dec. 4, '62. 
Reduced to ranks. 
2d Lieut. Jan. 16, '63. 
2d Lieut. Oct. 28, '64. 
June 26, '65, Exp. 



2d Lieut. Mar. 26, '62. 
"D. fordis., July2, '62." 
2d Lieut. 2d Cav. Dec. 

18, '62. 
Disch. Nov. 16, '62 (G. 

O. W. D. Dec. 10, '62). 
2d Lieut. Feb. 1, '63. 
1st Lieut. 5th Mass. Cav. 

Mar. 8, '64. 
Nov. 24, '64. 
2d Lieut. May 16, '65. 
June 26, '65, Exp. 



1st Lieut. Mar. 7, '62. 
Died Oct. 10, '62, Hilton 
Head. 



Residence. 



Haverhill, Mass. 



Died Nov. 20, '64. 
Killed May 28, '64. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Providence, R. I. 



Dead. 

Died June 23, '62. 

Dead. 



Dead. 

Boston, Mass. 
Sixteen Acres, Mass. 

Dead. 



332 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Name. 


Co. 


Termination of ser. and cause. 


Residence. 


Benjamin G. Mann. 
William 0. Lincoln. 

James 0. Josselyn. 


B. 
A. 

C. 


1st Lieut. Nov. 13, '64. 
Nov. 19, '62, G. O. W. D. 

No. 126. 
2d Lieut. May 26, '65 

(not M.). 


Boston, Mass. 

Boston Highlands, Mass. 


Hospital Stewards. 








Curtis E. Munn. 

Jeremiah Leavitt. 
Henry B. Bates. 
Jean O'Hara. 

George H. Ruggles. 


H. 

I (old). 

A. 
K (new). 

D. 


Asst. Surg. 27th Inf. July 

5, '63. 
June 26, '65, Exp. 
Nov. 7, '64, Exp. 
Disch. July 18, '65, 0. 

W, D. 
Disch. for dis. Jan. 21, '64. 


Died, 1879. 
New York City. 

Jericho, Mo. 


Chief Buglers, 








William H. Fessenden. 
Timothy J. Powell. 
Edward B. Prevear. 
Murray V. Livingston. 


L (old). 
E. 
A. 
D. 


Disch.fordis.Apr.22,'63. 
June 26, '65, Exp. 
Oct. 24, '64, Exp. 
June 29, '65. Exp. 


Boston, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 


Saddler Sergts. 








Edward H. Adams. 
Alexander M.McGregor. 


A. 

F. 


Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. Sept. 

2, '63. 
June 26, '65. Exp. 


Dead. 
Salem, Mass. 


Sergt. Farriers. 








Benjamin W. Norris. 




Disch. for dis. Jan. 5, '64. 




Pioneer Sergts. 








Henry F. Reed. 
George W. Martin. 
Albert A. Sherman. 


D. 
H. 

G. 




Medford, Mass. 
Oakland, Cal. 
Lexington, Mass. 





WILLIAM H. LEGG 




LUCIUS B. ANGIER 




ALFRED H. KEAY 





r.RV C. DAVIS 




GEO. H, WHITNEY 



C COMPANY 



ROSTER. 



333 



The following shows the officers and non-commissioned officers of the diiferent com- 
panies. Muster-roll of December, 1861 : — 

COMPANY A. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rauk. 


Name. 


Capt. 


Henry L. Higginson. 


Corp. 


Bradley H. Williams. 


1st Lieut. 


Edward R. Merrill. 


Corp. 


Joseph W. Richardson. 


2d Lieut. 


Horace N. Weld. 


Corp. 


John H. Burgess. 


Sergt. 


Daniel B. Sawyer. 


Corp. 


William M. Craig. 


Sergt. 


Gustave Evers. 


Corp. 


George PL Cavanaugh. 


Sergt. 


Josiali N. Brackett. 


Corp. 


Daniel D. Hews. 


Sergt. 


Augustus R. May. 


Bugler. 


James A. Baldwin. 


Sergt. 


George Nichols. 


Bugler. 


Edw. B. Prevear. 


Sergt. 


Theodore L. Brackett. 


Farrier. 


Abel Jones. 


Corp. 


Joseph S. Minot. 


Farrier. 


Enos Daily. 


Corp. 


George J. Coolidge. 







COMPANY B. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


Capt. 


Samuel E. Chamberlain. 


Corp. 


Maurice F. Quinn. 


1st Lieut. 


Moses Webster. 


Corp. 


Joseph S. Griffiths. 


'id Lieut. 


Charles V. Holt. 


Corp. 


James Hart. 


1st Sergt. 


Charles H. Wise. 


Corp. 


William Tobey. 


Sergt. 


Benjamin G. Mann. 


Corp. 


Thomas Preston. 


Sergt. 


Henry S. Gillman. 


Bugler. 


William D. Gourlay. 


Sergt. 


Edw. J. Russell. 


Bugler. 


James T. Carr. 


Sergt. 


George M. Fillebrown. 


Farrier. 


George Hartness. 


Corp. 


Alonzo Pierce. 


Farrier. 


George W. Bragg. 


Corp. 


William M. Martin. 


Saddler. 


Gustave Wancke. 



COMPANY C. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


Capt. 


Oriu R. Shaw. 


Corp. 


George H. Hilliard. 


1st Lieut. 


Walter Miles. 


Corp. 


John A. Glines. 


1st Sergt. 


Charles G. Davis. 


Corp. 


Samuel W. Harris. 


Sergt. 


William M. Rumery. 


Corp. 


John Drew. 


Sergt. 


William W. Warden. 


Corp. 


Charles C. Quimby. 


Sergt. 


Samuel Wright. 


Musician. 


Joseph F. Ennis. 


Sergt. 


Josiah B. Snow. 


Musician. 


William H. H. Foster. 


Sergt. 


William A. Golliff. 


Bl'ksmith. 


Benjamin F. Lane. 


Corp. 


George A. Ayling. 


Saddler. 


William 0. Russell. 


Corp. 


Alfred P. Jones. 


Wagoner. 


Ira B. Kuowlton. 


Corp. 


Samuel D. Gale. 







334 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



COMPANY D. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


Capt. 
2d Lieut. 


Atlierton H. Stevens, Jr. 


Corp. 


William H. Hatch. 


George F. Jennings. 


Corp. 


Henry F. Reed. 


1st Serg-t. 


William Coupe. 


Corp. 


George H. Salisbury. 


Sergt. 


Albert F. Ray. 


Corp. 


James Hamilton. 


Sergrt. 


Charles Bowen. 


Corp. 


Charles F. Th\irston. 


Sergt. 


George H. Teague. 


Corp. 


David W. Her rick. 


Sergt. 
Sergt. 


llobert Pierce. 


Corp. 


Edw. 0. Towne. 


Eli A. Smith. 


Corp. 


George D. Odell. 



COMPANY E. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


Capt. 


Caspar Crowninshield. 


Corp. 


Alfred Clough. 


Lieut. 


Myron C. Pratt. 


Corp. 


James M. Coomes. 


1st Serfjt. 


Alton E. Phillips. 


Corp. 


John B. Greer. 


Sergt. 


George W. Abbott. 


Corp. 


Hollis C. Pinkham. 


Sergt. 


Horace M. Butler. 


Corp. 


Charles H. Putnam. 


Sergt. 


Frank W. Hayden. 


Corp. 


James Stuart. 


Sergt. 


Gilbert L. Mixter. 


Corp. 


Solon W alton. 


Sergt. 


Charles 0. Pliillips. 


• 





COMPANY F. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


Acting Capt. 


David B. Keith. 


Corp. 


Bernard Newell. 


2d Lieut. 


Arnold A. Rand. 


Corp. 


Cy R. Prescott. 


1st Sergt. 


Daniel H. L. Gleason. 


Corp. 


George E. Woodbury. 


Sergt. 


Vaslmi H. Pease. 


Corp. 


John D. Rouse. 


Sergt. 


Duett C. Clark. 


Corp. 


Louis S. Allen. 


Sergt. 


Francis O. Lombard. 


Bugler. 


John G. Hanson. 


Sergt. 


Edwin 0. Hyde. 


Bugler. 


Frank J. Weston. 


Sergt. 


Joseph Nevins. 







BOSTEB. 



335 



COMPANY G. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Capt. 


David B. Keith. 


1st Lieut. 


Charles E. Rice. 


2cl Lieut. 


Henry P. Bowditch. 


Sergt. 


AVilliam H. Guild. 


Sergt. 


Charles A. Keith. 


Sergt. 


John B. Coombs. 


Sergt. 


Thomas Martin. 


Sergt. 


James E. Mulligan. 


Corj). 


Levi W. Haves. 


Corp. 


Josiah W. Ball. 



Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Musician. 

Musician. 

Farrier. 



Name. 



John Hurley. 
Albert Peeler. 
Orriu W. Harris. 
Calvin Rice. 
Michael H. Glass. 
Sherman Lynde. 
William H^ Rice. 
Samuel N. Davenport. 
William M. Burns. 



COMPANY H. 



Rank. 



Capt. 

1st Lieut. 

2d Lieut. 

1st Serirt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Serg't. 

Sergt. 

Sefgt. 

Corp. 



Name. 



Lucius M. Sargent. 
Charles F. Adams, Jr. 
Henry T. Davis. 
Charles M. Ainsley. 
Daniel W. Ladd. 
Oliver H. Clark. 
Benjamin C. Pray. 
JohnM. Barnard. 
William Goss. 
Edw. L. Wilkins. 



Rank. 



Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp, 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Musician. 

Musician. 

Artificer. 



Name. 



George W. Martin. 
John W. Martin. 
Lewis Hatch. 
Edw. Kelly. 
Stillman R. Durrell. 
John N. Craigue. 
Thomas Taylor. 
Joseph Atkins. 
Alfred M. Thorp. 
Edw. W. Hilton. 



COMPANY I. 



Rank. 



Capt. 

1st Lieut. 

2d Lieut. 

1st Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Corp. 

Corp. 



Name. 



Lucius Richmond. 
Freeman H. Shiverick. 
Nathan Merchant. 
Robert S. Capin. 
George W. Leach. 
George N. Holmes. 
William S. Huntington. 
John H. Leonard. 
Francis S. Richardson. 
Benjamin Knight, Jr. 
Matthew W. Lmcoln. 



Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Bugler. 

Bugler. 

Farrier. 

Farrier. 



Name. 



Charles M. Packard. 
Rnfus H. Willis. 
John H. Walker. 
Joseph E. Cole. 
Joseph T. Stevens. 
Francis O. Harlow. 
Henry T. Daggett. 
John D. Darling. 
Alfred Worthington. 
Ai J. Bailey. 



336 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



COMPANY K. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Bank. 


Kame. 


Capt. 


James H. Case. 


Corp. 


WUliam W. Phinney. 


Lieut. 


Rufus D. Hills. 


Corp. 


Joseph R. Rieketson. 


Lieut. 


Lucius H. Morrill, 


Corp. 


Cyrus A. Richmond. 


Sergt. 


Albert Ih Tirrell. 


Corp. 


Reuben L. Baker. 


Sergt. 


Preserved Buuock. 


Corp. 


Horace E. Dupee. 


Sergt. 


William T. Soule. 


Corp. 


Edmund Crockett. 


Sergt. 


Henry B. Tinkham. 


Corp. 


Chester D, Pratt, 2d. 


Sergt. 


John M. Whitcomb. 


Corp. 


Charles G. Baker. 


Sergt. 


Allen F. Belcher. 







COMPANY L. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


Capt. 


William Gibbs. 


Corp. 


Edgar W. Goodnow. 


1st. Lieut. 


Greenleaf W. Batchelder. 


Corp. 


Alfred M. Sargent. 


Sergt. 


William R. Hoyt. 


Corp. 


Thomas Kief. 


Sergt. 


Niles G. Parker. 


Corp. 


Charles C. Atwood. 


Sergt. 


Silas S. Holmes. 


Corp. 


Ephraim C. Wetherbee. 


Sergt. 


Joseph W. Collins. 


Corp. 


Varnum E. Holmes. 


Sergt. 


John A. Caldwell. 


Bugler. 


George Spaulding. 


Sergt. 


William R. Peck. 


Bugler. 


Charles C. Cobleigh. 


Corp. 


William Chase. 


Saddler. 


William H. H. Wall. 


Corp. 


Edw. P. McCoy. 


Wagoner. 


Peter Gilson. 



COMPANY M. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


Capt. 


Marcus A. Moore. 


Corp. 


Robert Glenn. 


2d Lieut. 


John G. Thayer. 


Corp. 


John E. Oilman. 


1st Sergt. 


Owen A. Baxter. 


Corp. 


George E. Johnson. 


Q. M. Sergt. 


Charles D. Kendall. 


Corp. 


George D. Lawler. 


Sergt. 


Clotaire S. Gay. 


Corp. 


John E. Sylvester. 


Sergt. 


Thomas Miles. 


Corp. 


Horace G. Whitcomb. 


Sergt. 


Jonas L. Parks. 


Bugler. 


Samuel S. Gibson. 


Sergt. 


Henry W. Riddell. 


Farrier. 


Henry E. Hamilton. 


Corp. 


Andrew Clement, Jr. 


Farrier. 


Herman Mills. 


Corp. 


Erastus Dennett. 


Saddler. 


William H. Kaulbach. 



Xi 




Q. M. SERGT. SAViUEL D. GALE 



SERGT. ALVAH H. D. HOBBS 



C. COMPANY. 



ROSTER. 



337 



The following shows non-commissioned officers of the different companies Cnew 
battalion). Muster roll of February, 1864. 



COMPANY I. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


1st Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 


Joshua E. Lazell. 
George B. Davis. 
Clark D. Blood. 
John Greenleaf. 
Charles A. Davis. 
Preston D. Alden. 
Joseph B. Swift. 
Robert J. Warren. 


Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Musician. 

Musician. 


Henry M. Goddard. 
William T. Hatch. 
Timothy Regan. 
Timothy Pelton. 
Charles H. Jones. 
Henry C. Bruce. 
Lawrence Clements. 
Joseph 0. Merrill. 



COMPANY K. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


1st. Sergt. 

Q. M. Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Corp. 


William Mulliken. 
Charles H. Morgan. 
William H. Bates. 
George E. Hagar. 
William Lucas. 
JeanO'Hara. 
Cornelius D. Sullivan. 
Edmund C. Chapin. 


Corp. 
Corp. 
Corp. 
Corp. 
Corp. 
Corp. 
Corp. 


George C. Jeffrey. 
Samuel Kennedy. 
John T. Hills. 
Theodore Schuyler. 
Henry Magee. 
Henry \^'alke^. 
Charles H. Greely. 



COMPANY L. 



Rank. 


Name. 


Rank. 


Name. 


1st Sergt. 

Q. M. Sergt. 

Com. Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Corp. 


Harry D. Littlefield. 
Horace W. Otis. 
Charles W. Sturtevant. 
William Kavanaugh. 
Edwin W. Brown. 
Milo C. Priest. 
James Gillon. 
James T. McCracken. 
Lyman E. Field. 
John Fagan. 


Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Bugler. 

Bugler. 

Farrier. 

Saddler. 


John B. Fields. 
William A. James. 
John G. Wilson. 
George Green. 
Edwin B. Daniells. 
John JMorgan. 
George W. Coots. 
James T. Walsh. 
Jeremiah Benson. 
Frank Fricke. 



338 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



COMPANY M. 



Rank. 

1st Sergt. 

Q. M. Sergt. 

Com. Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Sergt. 

Corp. 

Corp. 



Charles D. Browning. 
James A. Ellis. 
Lewis E. Prince. 
John B. Fisher. 
George Howe. 
William McFarland. 
William H. McKinney. 
Stephen B. Stevens. 
John B. FuUerton. 
James Follet. 



Rauk. 



Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Corp. 

Farrier. 

Farrier. 

Saddler. 

Bugler. 



Edmund H. Gooding 
John W. Kileup. 
Charles B. Preston. 
Edward P. Pierce. 
Lorenzo Stoddard. 
Charles McAvoy. 
John Jesser. 
Horace W. Brown, 
Jeremiah Hurley. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 



COMPANY A. 



*CooLiDGE, George J. 1st Sergt. Age 44. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Corp., 
Sergt., and 1st Sergt. iu 1862. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co.'b. ^ , 

Walsh, Richard R. 1st Sergt. Age 19. Boston. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Bugler, 
1863. Corp. and Q. M. Sergt. 1864. On detached ser., Gen. Gregg's div. lidqrs. 
as Orderly. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. In most eng. of regt. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. (Age at M. 15 yrs, 7 mos.). 
Residence, 13oston, Mass. 

Sawyer, Daniel B. 1st Sergt. Age 30. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Acting 
Sergt.-Maj. July 27, 1862. (Reduced to ranks.) Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. Died 
Nov. 20, 1864, knight Gen. Hosp. In 1st L. Battery, M. V. M., May to Aug., 1861. 

**Baldwin, James A. Q. M. Sergt. 

Blieler, Charles. Q. M. Sergt. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Reen- 
listed Feb. 23, 1864. Corp. Mar. 6, 1864. Sergt. July 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. B. as Q. M. Sergt. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Brackett, Josiah N. Q. M. Sergt. Age 29. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. 
Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. Apr. 15, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 

»Leary, Michael A. Q. M. Sergt. Age 35. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Corp. 
and Sergt. Exp. Sept. 9, 1864. 

Smith, Elihu B. Q. M. Sergt. Age 21. Lancaster, N. H. M. Sept. 23, 1861. 
Corp. Pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Hot Springs, Ark. 

**Snow, Benjamin T. O. Q. M. Sergt. Age 30. Boston. 

Read, Charles A. Q. M. Sergt. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Wounded 
(leg amputated) Sept. 13, 1863, Culpeper C. H. Disch. for dis. Apr. 15, 1864. 

RiBSlClGllCG ■• 

*EvERS, Gust'ave. Com. Sergt. Age 36. Brighton. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Corp. 
Wounded and pris. Sept. 5, 1862, Poolesville. Disch. for dis. Dec. 28, 1862. Af- 
terward Regtl. Sutler. 

Lincoln, William O. Com. Sergt. Age — . Boston. M. Dec. 24, 1861. Regtl. 
Cora. Sergt. Apr. 10, 1862. With Co. at Annapolis and Hilton Head, where he was 
sick in hosp. June, 1862. In hosp. Beaufort, July, 1862. Eng. Antietam, Sharps- 
burg. Exp. Nov. 19, 1862. G. O. W. D. No. 126. 
Residence, Hingham, Mass. 

*Smith, Dana. Com. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 16, 1861. Exp. Sept. 
6, 1864. 

Cavanaugh, George H. Sergt. Age 22. Boston. M. Oct. 8, 1861. Slightly 
wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie, and Aug. 29, 1864, Opequan Creek. Transferred 
to 6th N. Y. Horse Battery Nov. 1, 1863, as Cannoneer. In all eng. of regt. to 
June 3, 1864, when transferred to Horse Battery D., 2d Regulars. Exp. Oct. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Mattapaii, Mass. 



340 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

**Hews, Daniel D. Sergt. 

HuRLK, TiMO iHY. Sergt. Age 33. Roxbury. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Wounded and 
piis. June 17, 1863, Aldic. Wounded in foot Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store. 
Wounded, 1864, Malvern Hill. Reenlisted Feb. 23, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

LiNSCOTT, John F. Sergt. Age 25. Cbieopee. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Corp. 
Wounded in left foot June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Denver, Col. 
MiNOT, Joseph S. Sergt. Age 24. Boston. . M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discb. for dis. 
Apr. 1, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Nichols, George. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Injured Sept., 

1862. Sergt. Dec. 11, 1862. Wounded and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. Discb. 
for dis. Dec. 17, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Schwarz, Charles C. Sergt. Age 21. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Sergt. 
Nov. 20, 1862. Killed June 17, 1863, Aldie. 

**Tewksbury, John. Sergt. 

*Wheland, John T. Sergt. Age 32. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Corp. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

*WiLLiAMS, Bradley H. Sergt. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Corp. 
Discb. for dis. Dec. 27, 1862. 

*Chase, Samuel A. Corp. Age 28. Boston. M. Aug. 2, 1862. Discb. for dis. 
Aug. 20, 1863. 

Dow, George W. Corp. Age 31. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Harrington, Warren. Corp. Age 21. Boston. M. Feb. 24, 1862. Trans- 
ferred to Co. H, and prom. 1st Sergt. Sept., 1862. 

Honneuse, Frederick. Corp. Age 19. Roxbury. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Feb. 23, 1864. Wounded by Prov. Mar., Marcb, 
1864, Boston. Died Mar. 11, 1864, Mass. Gen. Hosp. 

*McElroy, Hugh. Corp. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Pris June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Wounded in neck, minie-ball, Oct. 14, 1863, Auburn. Exp. Oct. 
24, 1864. ^. , 

Moore, Charles R. Corp. Age 21. Hartland, Me. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Died 

Sept. 8, 1862, Wasbington, D. C, in Douglass Hosp. 
Kerr, William R. Corp. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 

1864. 

Iv6siu.GDCG, . 

Richards, Ashley H. Corp. Age 21. Dalton. M. Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 

26, 1865, in Co. B. 

AAiGsiclcncG ' "• 

*Roberts, James. Corp. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Severely wounded 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
*Shroeder, August. Corp. Age 25. Cbarlestown. M. Feb. 26, 1862. Sligbtly 

wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Shepard, Richard S. Corp. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Transferred 

to Navy. 

Residence, . 

Prevear, Edward B. Bugler. Age 18. Leominster. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. 

Oct. 24, 1864, as Regtl. Bugler. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
*Rappoles, Joseph. Wag. Ace 19. Roxbury. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 

Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. B. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 341 

Smith, Andrew J. Wag. Age 25. Cambridge. M. Sept. 13, 1861. Exp. Oct. 
24, 1864. 

Residence, Cambridge, Mass. 
Butters, Willard, Jr. Far. Age 27. Medford. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp 
Oct. 24, 1864. ^ 

Residence, . 

Jones, Abel. Far. Age 39. Medford. M. Sept. 12, 1861. On detached ser. 
as Sergt., Far., and Blacksmith June 18, 1863, with Gen. Kilpatrick. Slightly 
wounded in right hip (bayonet) and pris. July 5, 1863, Emmetsburg. In Belle Isle 
and Richmond prison eighty days ; paroled Sept. 20, 1863. In principal eno-. of 
Co. to exp., Oct. 24, 1864. r r & 

Residence, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Adams, Edward Henry. Sad. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 24, 1862. Sad. 
Sergt. Jan. 3, 1863. Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. Sept. 2, 1863. 1st Lieut, in 5th Mass. 
Cav. Mar. 8, 1864. Exp. Oct. 31, 1865. 
Callahan, Michael. Sad. Age 22. Lawrence. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Sept. 
9, 1864. ^ ^ 

Residence, Haverhill, Mass. 
McDevitt, Thomas F. B. Sad. Age 21. Boston. M. Aug. 13, 1862. Slightly 
wounded in left hip and foot June 17, 1863, Aldie. In all eng. of Co. to July, 
1863. Disch. for dis. (caused by wounds) Feb. 17, 1864. 
Residence, Portland, Ore. 
Allen, William. Age 21. SpringHeld. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Died Dec. 28, 1862, 

Potomac Creek, Va. 
Amman, Andrew. Age — . Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Severely wounded June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Died June 18, 1863. 
Armitage, George. Age 32. Leicester. M.July 31, 1862. On detached ser. at 
3d corps hdqrs. 1863. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Austin, Xahum. Age 24. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Knee crushed by horse, 
and pris. Sept. 5, 1862, Poolesville. Paroled on field. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
*Bailey, Otis, Jr. Age 22. Charlestown. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Termination of 

ser. by O. W. D. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Baker, John. Age 22. Boston. M. Oct. 27, 1863. Furloughed from Campbell 
Gen. Hosp., Washington, May 17, 1864. Deserted Sept. 28, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Baker, William. Age 26. Newton. M. Nov. 23, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864 
Baldwin, George W. Age 21. Abington. M. Aug. 9, 1862. " Sent to hosp. 
^ov. 22, 1862. Ordered to return to duty Jan. 29, 1863 ; failed to rejoin his 
command and became a ' deserter ' from that date." 

Residence, . 

^^TJJ, Henry B. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Hosp. steward. Exp. 

Residence, New York, N. Y. 

^^,'^^o^?r,'.'^'^'\? ^^- Age 23. Cambridge. M. Sept. 19, 186L Pris. Jmie 17, • 
1863, Aldie. Paroled July 23, 1863. Deserted Oct., 1863. 

Residence, . 

Bertrand Louis. Age 21. Boston. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Died Jan. 13, 1863. 
Bonner John. Age 20. Methuen. M. June 23, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Brannon, Peter. Age 30. Boston. M. Dec. 24, 1861. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Jan. 4, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Brannon, Peter. Age 33. Chelsea. M. Dec. 3, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. H. 

Residence, . 



342 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Brackett, Theodore L. Age 30. Newton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. of war. 
Paroled [July 21-Aug. 13], 1863. Accidentally shot while on picket. Died from 
wounds Dec. 26, 1863, Warrenton, Va. 
Brown, Charles E. Age 21. Taunton. M. Sept. 26, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Brown, Thomas M. Age 19. Methuen. M. June 23, 1864. Died Feb. 19, 1865, 

on fui'lough from Co. B. 
Brooks, Joel H. Age 37. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Deserted Feb., 1863, 
Annapolis. 

Residence, . 

Burgess, John H. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
BuTTRiCK, Abiel H. Age 35. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Calder, William. Age 28. Springfield. M. Feb. 17, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Caldwell, George H. Age 21. Gloucester. M. Nov. 28, 1863. No record of 
discharge in Washington Sept. 23, 1867. 

Residence, . 

Cameron, Horatio. Age 35. Plymouth. M. Jan. 24, 1862. Acting Corp. 
Sept., 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, So. Boston, Mass. 
Campbell, William. Age 30. Cambridge. M. Feb. 16, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Caverly, Stephen H. Age 23. Boston. M. Mar. 14, 1864. Pris. May 9, 1864, 
near Beaver Dam Station. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Chapman, Dutee G. Age 23. Preston, Conn. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Deserted 
Nov. 17, 1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Chamberlain, Warren R. Age 27. W. Roxbury. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted 
Dec. 11, 1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Coleman, Leonard M. Age 23. Newburyport. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Died Mar. 5, 1864, Belle Isle. 
Coleman, William A. Age — . Milford. M. Oct. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Comfry, James. Age 29. Boston. M. July 31, 1862. Acting Wag. Exp. Oct. 
24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Conway, Michael. Age 23. Brighton. M. Dee. 18, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 
1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Connor, William. Age 22. Worcester. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Cook, William P. Age 18. Dorchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Ex-j). Oct. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Cooper, James R. Age 41. Roxbury. M. Oct. 24, 1863. Disch. for dis. Aug. 
17, 1864. 

Residence, 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 343 

Corcoran, James. Age 30. Boston. M. Nov. 14, 1863. Wounded in head 
Aug. 18, 18G4, Malvern Hill. Transferred to V. R. C. 

Residence, . 

CoxwAnv, James. Age 21. Springfield. M. Sept. 24, 1864. Deserted to the 
enemy, off picket, Nov. 24, 1864, near Petersburg. 

Residence, . 

Craig, William M. Age 29. Charlestown. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24. 
1864. I- ' i^ , 

Residence, Kinsley, Kan. 
Daily, Enos. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Deserted Sept. 20, 1862, 
Rockville, Md. F » , 

Residence, . 

Daniels, Milton F. Age 35. Springfield. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Killed June 17 

1863, Aldie. 
Doherty, Michael. Age 35. Lowell. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Prisoner Sept. 4, 
1862, Monocacy, Md. Reported at Camp Parole Oct. 13, 1862. Deserted Feb 
1863. 

Residence, . 

Donovan, Alexander O. Age 25. Winthrop. M. Dec. 18, 1863. Transferred 
to Co. B. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

DoRAN, John C. Age 22. Granby. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Holyoke, Mass. 
Doylk, Michael. Age 21. Boston. M. Mar. 22, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Emery, George E. Age 21. Roxbury. M. Feb. 18, 1864. Exp. July 25, 1865. 

Residence, W. Swanzey, N. H. 
*Farmer, William. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis Nov 
28, 1862. 

Felton, Cyrus W. Age 41. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 
•16, 1862. 

Residence, . 

FiTCHTER, Frederick. Age — . . M. Oct. 14, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 1862, 

PoolesviUe. _ Reported at Camp Parole Oct. 13, 1862. Sent to regiment, Nov., 
1862. Having failed to rejoin Co. was reported " deserter." 
Residence, . 

Finan, John. Age 35. Ashburnham. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis Feb 
28, 1863. b. xeu. 

Residence, . 

Finger, Chestop. Age 37. Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 1862, 
Poolesville. Deserted from Camp Parole, Annapolis, Dec, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Foran, James. Age 33. Boston. M. Feb. 26, 1862. Transferred from 9th 
M. \ .1. May, 1862, Hilton Hd. Deserted Sept. 27, 1862, Washington. 
Residence, . ° 

Fullmer, Joseph. Age 27. Roxbury. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Injured at Annapolis 
by falling tree. Disch. for dis. Feb. 4, 1862. 
Residence, . 

Gehrung, Gottlieb. Age 38. Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 

1864. 

Residence, . 

Gould, Daniel H. Age 19. Boston. M. Oct. 26, 1863. Pris. Sept. 16, 1864, 

Jerusalem PI. R. Died Nov. 29, 1864, Salisbury, N. C. 

^^r^^^'/^^^^^ ^- ^^e 21. Lunenburg. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Transferred to 
V. R. C 

Residenccj Marblehead, Mass. 



344 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Gray, Edward P. Age 21. Goshen. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Transferred to Co. E. 
9th Regt. V. R. C, Sept. 13, 1863, by G. O. W. D. Ko. 312. Sergt. Jan., 1864. 
Detailed clerk lidqrs. military dist., Washington, D. C, Feb. 5, 1864. Clerk in 
War Dept. A. G. O., May, 1864. Exp. Nov., 1864. 
Residence, San Francisco, Cal. 
Gray, Henry. Age 28. Springfield. M. Mar. 31, 1864. Wounded in leg Dec. 
9, 1864, between Bellefield and Hicksford. Exp. July 3, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Grayson, George H. (alias). Age 21. Boston. M. Apr. 5, 1862. [See Co. G.J. 
Green, Eliphalet. Age 28. Newburvport. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded and 
pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Newburyport, Mass. 
Green, James L. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Deserted Dec. 2, 1861, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Grey, John. Age 43. Taunton. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 16, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Hatcher, George. Age 28. Sheffield. M. Jan. 11, 1864. Deserted from hosp. 
Dec. 1, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Hawkins, James A. Age 18. Boston. M. Jan. 2, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Hess, John H. Age 27. Roxbury. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Eng. Poolesville, South 
Mountain, Antietam. Left in camp, Potomac Creek, sick. Transferred to 51st 
Co. 2d Batt, V. R. C. 

Residence, Maiden, Mass. 
Hills, Benjamin L. Age 35. Cambridge. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, Southboro, Mass. 
Hodges, Alonzo L. Age 24. Boston. M. Apr. 4, 1862. Disch. for dis. July 15, 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Howe, Edward K. Age 42. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 
22, 1862. 

Residence, Hingham, Mass. 
Howe, John. Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 25, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Howes, Lorenzo L. Age 43. Adams. M. Jan. 2, 1864. Exp. June 9, 1865, in 
Co. B. 

Residence, North Adams, Mass. 
HuTTON, James. Age 34. Maiden. M. Nov. 7, 1863. Transferred from Co. B. 
to V. R. C. Feb. 22, 1864. 

Residence, . 

JucKETT, Daniel. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 27, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. July 18, 1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Johnson, Charles A. Age 28. Lynn. M. Feb. 26, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Jones, Curtis W. Age 19. Medfield. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Died Dec. 26, 1862, 

Potomac Creek, Va. 
Kelly, John. Age 32. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Killed June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
Kimball, Horace W. Age 19. Southvvick. M. Sept. 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. B. 
Residence, . 




CORPL. GEORGE KENDALL 




CORPL. AiJGiJSTUo SEVERANCE 



BUGLER JOSEPH H. ENNIS 



C. COMPANY. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 345 

King, William A. Age — . Dedham. M. Dec. 24, 1861. Deserted Jan. 29, 

1862, Annapolis. 
RjGsicIgdcc "* 

Le Moyne, Joel H. Age 19. Boston. M. Dec. 10, 1863. Exp. June 13, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Le Moyne, Thomas. Age 29. Boston. M. Nov. 19, 1863. Wounded in leg 
July 28, 1864, Newmarket. Disch. for dis. in Co. B., Nov. 13, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Lynch, Michael. Age 22. Cambridgeport. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Pris. June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Deserted Oct., 1863. 
Residence, . 

Lyons, Owen A. Age 22. Cbicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted Feb. 24, 

1864, Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. B. 
Residence, Cbicopee, Mass. 

*Maguire, Thomas. Age 18. Boston. M. Mar. 29, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 

in Co. B. 
Maguiness, William. Age 19. Springfield. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Exp. 1865. 

Residence, Oxford, Mass. 
Mahan, Francis S. Age 22. Boston. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Deserted Aug. 27, 
1863, Alexandria, Va. 

Residence, . 

Ma HONEY, Dennis. Age 21. Southboro. M. Oct. 22, 1863. Wounded in leg 

July 28, 1864, Newmarket. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. B. 
Mahoney, Dennis, 2d. Age 27. Worcester. M. Sept. 28, 1864. Lijured in 
leg Dec. 9, 1864, between Bellefield and Hicksford. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Mahoney, John. Age 37. Boston. M. Aug. 1, 1862. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. 

Pris. Aug. 18, 1864, Malvern H. Died Nov. 20, 1864, Salisbury, N. C. 
Mahoney, Peter. Age 30. Boston. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Transferred to V. R. C. 

Residence, Cliarlestown, Mass. 
Mahoney, Thomas. Age 24. Boston. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Mahoney, William. Age 18. Enfield. M. Aug. 4, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Mathews, Thomas H. Age 36. Lowell. M. Aug. 6, 1864. Missing from Picket 
Post Oct. 14, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Mause, Fred. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Dropped from rolls Dec, 
1863. Deserted. 

Residence, . 

May, Augustus R. Age 42. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 
27, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Maycock, Herbert. Age 21. Charlestown. M. Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, Amesbury, Mass. 
Maynard, Henry H. Age 33. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Co. Clerk. Exp. 
Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

McCann, James. Age 39. Cbicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Transferred to V. R. C. 

Residence, . 

McCann, Jeremiah. Age 21. Lowell. M. Aug, 6, 1864. Wounded (finger am- 
putated) Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem PI. R. Disch. for dis. June 28, 1865. 
Residence, . 



346 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

McCauthy, William. Age 35. Boston. M. Dec. 17, 18G4. Exp. June 2G, 1865, 
ill Co. 15. 

Resilience, . 

McCuLLocii, Charles. Age 18. Boston. M. Aug. 23, 18G2. Detailed ser. at 
3d Corps hdqrs. Mar. to Aug., 1863. Exp. Oct. 24, 1861. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
*McDo\VKLL, Alexandek. Age 22. IloUiston. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Transferred 

to V. R. C. 
McFadden, Daniel. Age 22. Newton. M. Aug. 24, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, Beach Point, Prince Edwards I. 
*McInaw, Edwaud AV. T. Age 10. Roxbury. ]\I. Dec. 24, 1861. Detailed in 

Band Apr. to Sept., 1863. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
McNally, Francis. Age 20. Boston. M. Aug. 13, 1862. Wounded slightly 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reeulisted Jan. 4, 1864. Deserted Mar. 17, 1864, on 
furlough. 

Residence, . 

Morrison, William. Age 24. Roxbury. M. Nov. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
18(55, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Newman, Robert, Jr. Age 38. Boston. M. Nov. 7, 1863. Disch. for dis. July 
14, 1864. 

Residence, . 

O'Brien, John. Age 40. Boston. M. Dec. 18, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 16, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Oliver, William. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 14,1861. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Apr. 3, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Palmer, Philip. Age 20. Boston. M. Aug. 21, 1862. Wounded in right arm, 
June 9, 1863, Stevensburg. Deserted Aug. 27, 1863, Alexandria. 

Residence, . 

Palmer, William. Age 18. Boston. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. In Richmond. Paroled .Jidy 23, 1863, City I't. Reported at camp pa- 
role, Md., Aug. 3, 1863. Investigation (Feb., 1890) fails to elicit further infor- 
mation. 

Residence, . 

Parks, Joseph W. Age 21. Boston. M. Apr. 5, 1862. Deserted Sept. 30, 1862, 
Washington, D. C. 

Residence, . 

Patrick, Hugh. Age 21. Longnieadow. M. Dec. 30, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Patterson, .Iosiah D. Age 19. Boston. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Reenlisted Jan. 3, 
18(51. Deserted Mar. 17, 1864. J:idisted in Co. B. Frontier Cav. (under name 
of David Patterson) Dec. 30, 1864. Exp. June 30, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Paul, Albert G. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Killed June 17, 

1863, Aldie. 
Pettihone, Ciiauncey. Age 21. Rockland, 111. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Detaded 
Ord. 3d Corps hdqrs. Mar. to Aug., 18(53, under (icn. Whipple. Ord. and Clerk 
to A. (i. M. 2d Cav. Div. Practically in eng. of Co. to exp., Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Polo, 111. 
Phillips, Alexander. Age 21. Rehoboth. M. Aug. 29, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
18(>.~>, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Poor, dosiiuA M. Age 21. Lynn. ISI. Aug. 6, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. Killed July 28, 1864, New Market. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 347 

Powell, James. Age 19. Boston. M. Mar. 24, 18G4. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Putnam, Willakd 11. Age 25. Worcester. M. Jan. 5, 18G1. Hxp. June 26, 
1805, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

QuiGLEY, Beknakd. Age 42. Boston. M. Nov. 6, 1863. Died Nov. 6, 1864, 

City Pt., Va. 
*Rani>, Daniel. Age 32. Chelsea. M. June 29, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 

Co. B. 
Rau, Jacob. Age 25. Greenfield. M. Feb. 8, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

RiCiiAUDSON, Joseph W. Age 27. Boston. M. Oct. 8, 1861. Detailed in band. 
Pris. Juno 17, 1863, Aldie. Paroled [July 21-Aug. 13], 1863. Detailed as 
printer at A. G. ()., Washington, D. C. Teruiinatiou of ser. by O. W. 1). Feb. 29, 
1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
RiORDAN, James. Age 18. Williamstown. M. Jan. 20, 1864. Exp. Juno 26, 
1865, in C. B. 

Residence, . 

«RoFFE, Mathew T. H. Age 22. Newton. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Detailed in band. 

Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
RoLLO, Arnold. Age 18. Roxbury. M. Mar. 19, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Rodney, George E. Age 21. Springfield. M. Jan. 15, 1864. Exp. July 17, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Sanborn, William J. Age 34. Lynn. M. July 31, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Sargent, Albert T. Age 22. Newburyport. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. Apr. 23, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Siiannaiian, Daniel J. Age 19. Dighton. M. Feb. 15, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Shumway, Gilbert II. Age 23. Dorchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. Nov. 21, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Ebenezer. Age 22. Springfield. M. Aug. 19, 1862. Slightly wounded 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 19, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Smith, George W. Age 31. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded in breast, 
foot, shoulder, arm, and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Sept. 16, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Smith, John A. Age 29. Lynn. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Joseph. Age 25. Medford. M. Oct. 1, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Smith, William [correct name Knapton Wardman]. Age 21. Lawrence. M. 

Sept. 17, 1861. Slightly wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Sparks, Joseph II. Age 36. Lynn. M. July 31, 1862. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
Stearns, Justus S. Age 19. Lynn. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Disch. for dis. Dec. 29, 
1863. 

Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
Stinger, Michael. Age 37. Charlestown. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Apr. 23, 1862. 
Residence, . 



348 FIE ST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Strang, Cyrus D. Age 23. Medford. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Wounded in shoulder 
and neck (pistol ball) and pris. June 17, 18G3, Aldie. Held by enemy four hours, 
and left on field for dead. In all eng. of Co. to this date. Disch. for dis. Nov. 
30, 1863. 

Residence, Medfield, Mass. 
Strang, John A. Age 21. Medfield. M. Sept. 19, 18G1. Wounded June 17, 

18G3, Aldie. Died June 28, 18G3, hosp., Washington, D. C. 
Swan, Charles F. Age 18. Harvard. M. Jan. D, 1864. Acting Bugler. Exp. 
June 26, I860. 

Residence, . 

Sweetland, James E. Age 19. Easthampton. M. July 28, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Swift, Joseph B. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 4, 

1863. Reeulisted in Co. I (new). 
Residence, Togus, Me. 

Tierney, Daniel. Age 25. Chicopee. M. Aug. 31, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

ToRRY, Joshua L. Age 36. Boston. M. Oct. 23, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Traverse, Hugh. Age 30. Boston. M. Dec. 18, 1861. Deserted Mar. 1, 1863, 
while on detached service. 

Residence, . 

Trudeaw, George. Age 23. Springfield. M. Oct. 27, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
YiCKEHY, James J. Age 32. Boston. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Deserted Nov. 11, 
1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Wayland, William. Age 26. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Apr. 
23, 1862. 

RGsiciGncG * 

Welch, Edward D. Age 18. Grauby. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Whitcomb, Myron. Age 19. Monroe. M. Aug. 23, 1864. Exp. June 24, 1865. 

Residence, . 

WiLLARD, Charles S. Age 24. Worcester. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Wounded in foot 
Aug. 23, 1864, Reams Sta. Exp. Aug. 30, 1865. 
HGsiclciicG -, 

WiLLARD, Elijah. Age 35. Lynn. M. July 31, 1862. Eng. Kelly's Ed., Fred- 
ericksburg, Stoneman's Rd. In Acquia Creek and Campbell hosp. Transferred 
to 2d Batt. V. R. C. Aug., 18G3. Exp. Nov., 18G5. May, 1861, 4th Lieut. Co. C. 
14th Regt. V. M. (afterward " 1st Mass. H. A."). July 5, 1861, 1st Sergt. 
Disch. for dis. (sprained ankle) Mar. 7, 1862. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Winters, George. Age 27. Roxbury. M. Feb. 18, 1864. Deserted May 20, 

1864, from Campbell Gen. Hosp., David's Isl., N. Y. 
Residence, . 

Witt, Ainsley. Age 22. Cambridge. M. Dec. 17, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

WoGAN, Michael. Age 43. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 
15, 1861. 

Residence, . 

*Woodwell, George E. Age 28. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Oct. 8, 18G2. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 349 

Wyeth, Richard H. Age 19. Lunenburg. M. Sept. 10, 1861. Disch. Apr. 1, 
1863, on writ of Habeas Corpus for minority. Enlisted in Co. D, 3d Mass. Cav. 
Feb. 25, 1864. Killed Sept. 19, 1864, Winchester, Va. 

Wyeth, William H. Age 18. Lunenburg. M. Aug. 20, 1862. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. Captured bv bushwhackers while ou patrol 
near Lee's Mills, Va., June 26, 1864. In pris. Florence, S. C, Oct. 2, 1864. " In- 
vestio-ation fails to elicit further information." 

Zimmerman, Sebastian. Age 18. Roxbury. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Reenlisted 
Feb. 23, 1864. At Warrenton, 1864, thrown from horse (against stone wall ; lay 
unconscious all night) injuring head, causing deafness. In all eng. of Co. Exp. 
June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Wayland, Mass. 

COMPANY B. 

Wise, Charles H. 1st Ser^t. Age 21. Maiden. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Eng. 
Charleston, Johns Isl., James Isl. Left regt. at Poolesville. Capt. Inf. Sept. 17, 
1862. 

Residence, Maiden, Mass. 
**Carey, Hugh. 1st Sergt. 

Sanborn, George W. 1st Serg. Age 29. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. 
Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Doyle, Stephen A. 1st Sergt. Age 31. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Dec. 28, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Richardson, Charles W. Q. M. Sergt. Age 31. Boston. M. Oct. 16, 1861. 
Sergt. Dec. 1, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. Reenlisted Jan. 12, 1865, Ensign in 
Navy. Exp. Feb. 27, 1866. Eng. S. Mountain, Antietam, Aldie, Gettysburg, 
Mobile. 

Residence, Newtonville, Mass. 
**FiLLEBROWN, George M. Com. Sergt. 

Cobb, Eben E. Com. Sergt. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Corp. In 
principal eng. of regt. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Denver, Col. 
**Goodwin, John A. Com. Sergt. Sergt. Maj. 
*-**HoLT, Charles V. Com. Sergt. 
**Manx, Benjamin G. Com. Sergt. Regtl. Com. Sergt. 
*-**RussELL, Edward J. Com. Sergt. 
* **Stevens, Charles H. Sergt. Age 27. Melrose. Transf. to Co. G. as 1st 

Sergt. 
Freeman, Victor O. Sergt. Afje 20. Lawrence. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reen- 
listed Dec. 28, 1863. Wd. Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem PI. R. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Versailles, Conn. 
Hart, James. Sergt. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Wd. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. Died from wds. July 19, 1863, Alexandria. 
Looney, Michael. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wd. May 28, 

1864, Ennons Church. Died from wounds June 8, 1864. 
MuRROW, William D. Sergt. Age 18. Boston. M. Sept. 16, 1861. Pris. Nov. 
29, 1863, Parker's Store. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Preston, Thomas. Sergt. Age 24. Roxbury. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Pris. June 3, 
1863, Sulphur Springs, while on picket duty ; taken to Libby, paroled June 6. On 
detached ser. in 1864 in charge of orderlies, hdqrs. 1st Brigade, 2d Div. Cav. 
Corps. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. First enlisted Apr. 23, 1861, Co. C, 3d M. V. M. 
Exp. July 22, 1861. 

Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 



350 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

*QuiNN, Maurice F. Ser^t. Age 21. Chailestown. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Exp. 

Oct. 24, 180-4, as absent sick. 
*Savagk, Richard. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Feb. 15, 1864. AVouncIed in 

both legs, Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem PI. R. Exp. June 26, 1805. 
TOBEY, William. Sergt. Age 21. Chailestown. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Corp. 

Sept. 28, 1861. Sergt. Nov. 1, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. Pris. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie, 4 mos. at Libby and Belle Isle. Wounded severely in hand, by bullet, 

Parker's Store, Nov. 29, 1863. In principal eng. of regt. 
Residence, Salem, Mass. 
Aldrich, Henry B. Corp. Age 20. Petersham. M. Sept. 12, 1861. On Color 

Guard. Prisoner June 17, 1863, Aldie. In Libby 2 months 8 days. Practically 

in all eng. of regt. Exp. Oct. 25, 1864. 
Residence, Solomon City, Kan, 
BoswoRTH, William G. Corp. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Prom. 

June 1, 1863. Wounded below knee, and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie, paroled [July 

12- Aug. 13,] 1863. In principal eng. o^ regt. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864, as absent sick. 
Residence, Auburndale, Mass. 
Buchanan, William B. Corp. Age 21. Soraerville. M. Sept. 12,1861. Wounded 

in left shoulder, by pistol ball, Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church. Mar. 21, 1864, 

disch. for dis. from wounds. In all eng. with regt. till wounded. 
Residence, Odell, 111. 
Deihl, Henry. Corp. Age 22. Westfield. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 

20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Westfield, Mass. 
Freeman, John B. Corp. Age 22. Lawrence. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Sabre cut in 

shoulder June 9, 1863, Brandy Sta. Killed June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
Gay, Joseph. Corp. Age 22. Cambridgeport. M. Dec. 21, 1861. Accidentally 

wounded May, 1804. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. First enlisted Apr. 23, 1861, Co. C 3d 

M. V. M. Exp. July 22, 1801. 
Residence, West Newton, Mass. 
Griffiths, Josiah S. Corp. Age 26. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Thrown from 

horse Feb., 1802. Disch. for dis. May 3, 1802. 
Residence, Marion, Mass. 
Johonnot, Ira. Corp. Age 24. Winchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 

1864. 

KiLBURN, Charles E. Corp. Age 22. Weymouth. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Wounded 

in left thigh Oct. 14, 1863, Auburn. Wounded in shoulder Nov. 27, 1863, New 

Hope Church. Died of wounds Jan. 4, 1864. 
Marsh, Sheperd. Corp. Age 25. Newburyport. M. Dec. 24, 1861. Wounded 

in knee (leg amputated) Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

O'Brien, James. Corp, Age 20. Littleton. M. Nov. 13, 1863. Exp. June 26, 

1865. 

RiGSlClGnCG . -, 

Pierce, Edwin H. Corp. Age 23. Amherst. M. Aug. 13, 1862. Reenlisted 
Dec. 29, 1803. Exp. June 20, 1805. 

Residence, . 

Poole, Charles E. Corp. Age 23. Medford. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded by 

pistol ball, pris. June 17, 186.3, Aldie. Died Apr. 23, 1864, Anclersonville. 
*Washburne, George M. Corp. Age 20. Foxboro. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Scout 

to Gen. Averell. Exp. Nov. 17, 1864. 
Whelton, David. Corp. Age 30. Charlestown. M. Dec. 28, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Carr, James T. Bugler. Age 28. Lawrence. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted July 
29, 1862, Hilton Head. 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 351 

Everett, George B. Bugler. Age 24. Hanson. M. Feb. 23, 1864. Transferred 

to Co. D (Sergt.). 
Pike, George M. Bugler. Age 27. Acton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlistecl Feb. 
15, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Hodges, Charles H. Bugler. Age 21. Holliston. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Pris- 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. M. out (as private) with detachment of company Nov. 7, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Dudley, Samuel. Wagoner. Age 36. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Oct. 
24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Bragg, George W. Blacksmith. Age 37. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Trans- 
ferred to V. R. C. 

Residence, . 

Hartness, George. Farrier. Age 35. Cambridge. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. 
Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Wancke, Gustave. Saddler. Aged 20. Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Kicked by 
horse, badly injured, 1862. Arm broken, near Frederick, Md., Sept., 1862. In 
most battles vs^ith regt. Exp, Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Washington, D. C. 
Abbott, Joseph D. Age 21. Beverly. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Detached to 6th N. Y. Horse Bat'y, Nov. 1, 1863. Exp. Sept. 13, 1864. 
Residence, Ipswich, Mass. 
Barrus, Alvan. Age 30. Goshen. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Acting hosp. steward, 
Marine Hosp. Baltimore. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Goshen, Mass. 
Barrus, Lorin. Age 37. Goshen. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Goshen, Mass. 
Brasher, James H. Age 18. Boston. M. Jan. 25, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Brennan, John A. Age 21. Quiney. M. Aug. 5, 1864. Exp, June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Briogs, Daniel R. Age 45. Acton. M, Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 29, 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Brown, Nathaniel. Age 21, Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Killed June 24, 1864, 

St. Mary's Church. 
Bryant, Joseph B. Age 18. Boston, M. Jan, 13, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Roxburj', Mass. 
Burgess, Edwin M. Age 23. Holyoke. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Disch. for dis. Mar. 
26, 18G3, 

Residence, West Somerville, Mass. 
Buswell, Joseph. Age 30. Charlestown. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 
20, 1863. Disch. for dis. Apr. 4, 1865. 

Residence, , 

Campbell, John. Age 24. Chieopee. M. Feb. 1, 1862. Disch. for dis. Mar. 14, 
1863. 

Residence, . 

Clarkson, John. Age 27. Somerville. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 
3, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Clapper, Michael M. Age 36. Richmond. M. Jan. 19, 1864. Exp. June 21, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

CoNLEY, Hugh. Age 30. Lowell. M, Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Worcester, Mass. 



352 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Connelly, James. Age 29. Lowell. M. Dec. 30, 1863. Wouuded in side July 
28, 1864, New Market. Transf. to V. R. C. Apr. 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Crillis, Daniel (see Trillis). 

Cutler, Amos E. Age 37. Woburn. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 29, 
1863. Stewart Hosp., Baltimore. 
Residence, Woburn, Mass. 
*Daly, Jeremiah T. Age 20. Cambridge. M. Sept. 12, 1861. On detached 
ser. as Orderly, Dec, 1862, and Jan., 1863, hdqrs. Cav. Corps. Practically in all 
eng. of Co. to exp., Nov. 7, 1864. 
Davis, Edward. Age 31. Woburn. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Deserted Jan. 8, 1862, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Davis, Everett. Age 18. Grafton. M. Mar. 24, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

l^GSlCiGHCG , 

Dean, Herbert F. Age 23. Foxboro. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Apr. 4, 1864, promoted in R. I. Vol. Special O. 137, W. D. 
IvgsicIgiicg > 

Devoy, Laurence. Age 21. Lawrence. M. July 21, 1864. Wounded in hand 
Oct. 1, 1864, Vaughn Road. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

XvGSlClGnCG . 

Donovan, Daniel C. Age 21. Charlestown. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 
24, 1864. 

Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 
Dooley, Joseph. Age 22. Quincy. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Transf. to V. R. C. 

XVGSlClGIlCG ■' 

Downs, Maurice. Age, 21. Holliston. M. Aug. 25, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. Deserted Dec. 1, 1864, on furlough. 
Residence, Natick, Mass. « 

Dunham, Andrew J. Age 28. Abington. M. Aug. 15, 1862. AVith Co. and 

regt. till exp., Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Rockland, Mass. 
*Elms, Henry S. Age 43. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
*Epps, Charles H. Age 23. Boston. M. Dec. 23, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 

1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Estey, Edward S. Age 39. Soutbboro. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Deserted Jan. 8, 

1862, Readville. 

JAiGSlflGllOG — — ^— — 

Estes, William H.' Age 31. - Pittsfield. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Wouuded in arm, 
June 6, 1864. Exp. May 18, 1865. 
Residence, North Adams, Mass. 
Fahey, Edward. Age 21. Easthampton. M. Aug. 12, 1862. On detached ser. 
as Orderly May, 1863. Pris. May 10, 1864, Beaver Dam. At Richmond, Ander- 
sonville, Charleston, and Florence ; paroled Dec. 20, 1864. Practically in all 
eng. of regt. to May, 1864. Disch. Mar. 18, 1865, O. W. D. 
Residence, Denver, Col. 
Fentress, Walter H. Age 26. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Oct. 31, 
1861, Readville. 
xxesidence * 

Field, Thomas E. Age 19. Petersham. M. Sept. 14, 1861. In all eng. of regt. 
to exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
RcsiclGiicG t^ tills Pgiih. 
Finn, John. Age 23. Leicester. M. July 28, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . . 

Fitzpatrick, Daniel. Age 19. Lowell. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. White Sul- 
phur Springs, June 3, 1863 ; taken to Libby, paroled June 6. Exp. Nov. 17, 1864. 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 353 

Francis, William D. Age 30. Somerville. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 
26, 1863. Deserted ou furlough from hosp. in 1864. 

RiGSlQGllCG • 

Frenauf, Francis. Age 21. Springfield. M. Feb. 1, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Alflie, paroled [July 21-Aug. 13, ] 1863. Reenlisted Feb. 16, 1864. Deserted May 
6, 1864, on furlough. 
Residence, . 

Gabler, Andrew J. Age 19. Lauesboro. M. Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

XvGSldGllCG — — ^^ 

Gannon, Thomas. Age 21. Lowell. M. Dec. 30, 1863. Died Nov. 15, 1865, St. 
Louis. 

Gardner, George W. Age 21. Boston. M. Aug. 14, 1862. On detached ser. as 
Orderly, 1863 at brigade hdqrs. under Gen. Davies. Head, hand, and knee in- 
jured, and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. At Belle Isle and Libby ; paroled about 
July 27, 1863. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

X^GSltlGllCG X> OS toil JVXtlSS 

*GiLLMAN, Henry S.' Age 33. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Glassett, John. Age 21. Greenfield. M. Mar. 15, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

GouRLAY, William D. Age 26. Boston. M. Nov. 19, 1861. Term, of ser. Nov. 
13, 1863 by O. W. D. 

Residence, . 

Harrington, Charles F. Age 29. Boston. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 
1864. 

XvGSlQGllCG — ^— ^ 

Hartung, John. Age 31. Boston. M. Oct. 6, 1862. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
Healey, Charles E. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

JAiGSlClGllCG . 

Hicks, Samuel F. Age 26. Boston. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Transf. to V. R. C. July 1, 
1864. 

IxGSIClGllCG -^^-^^ 

Hosmer, Isaac M. Age 18. Roxbury. M. Feb. 11, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Howard, James C. Age 24. Ilubbardston. M. Aug. 7, 1862.' Pris. June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Lynn, Mass. 

Howard, Robert. Age 22. Maiden. M. Nov. 21, 1863. Killed May 6, 1864, 

Todd's Tavern. 
*HuLL, Hiram. Age 42. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. [See Co. L.] 
Jones, George. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Kelly, Frederick A. Age 31. Boston. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Slightly wounded, 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Transf. to V. R. C. Apr. 1, 1864. 

Residence, . 

KiNLOCK, John. Age 21. Easthampton. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Slightly wounded, 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Feb. 17, 1864. Wounded and pris. Sept. 16, 

1864, Jerusalem PI. R. Exp. June 17, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, . 

King, Peter S. Age 28. Springfield. M. Feb. 1, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 
1863. Thrown from horse and slightly injured June 28, 1863, Wiuchester. In 
all but two battles of regt. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, South Cleveland, 0. 

Leeman, Charles A. Age 21. Augusta, Me. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. Deserted Mar. 19, 1864, on furlough. 

X\.GS1(1G11CG . 

Leonard, John. Age 22. Lowell. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, . 



354 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Lawson, Charles E. W. Age 30. Boston. M. Aug. 15, 18G2. Transf. to V. R. 
C. June 1, 18G4. 

Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Mace, Benjamin. Age 23. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Deserted Nov. 15, 18G1, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Major, Robert. Age 18. Boston. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Exp. Sept. 18, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Massey, Richard. Age 42. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Transf. to Co. H. 
Manning, James C. Age 35. Chelsea. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Exp. Sept. 8, 1864- 

Residence, Chelsea, Mass. 
Marden, Ellis. Age 39. Dover. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Deserted Jan. 1, 1863, 
Camp Parole, Annapolis. 

Residence, . 

Martin, William M. Age 23. Methuen. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Wounded in right 
shoulder June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
McCauley, Matthew. Age 24. Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Reeulisted Dec. 
20, 1863. Deserted Mar. 19, 1864, on furlough. 

Residence, . 

McDonald, Alexander. Age 21. Walpole. M. Sept. 23, 1861. On detached 
ser. from Feb. to Aug., 1863, with three different Corps. In all eng. of regt. ex- 
cept when on detail. Ex]). Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, North Abington, Mass. 
McDonald, John M. Age 18. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Killed June 9, 1863, 

Stevensburg, Va. 
McGrath, Luke. Age 26. Lenox. M. Dec. 20, 1863. Deserted April 25, 1865. 

Residence, . 

McInnis, Dugald. Age 28. Springfield. M. Dee. 8, 1861. Detailed in band. 
Wounded in right foot by fragment of shell (maimed for life) June 16, 1862, near 
Secessionville. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
McKiE, John N. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 20, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

McKenney, Robert. Age 18. Boston. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Disch. Dec. 21, 
1861, Readville, by civil authority (under age). 

Residence, . 

McQuADE, Charles. Age 23. Chelsea. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Transf. to navy 
May 3, 1864. 
xvcsiciGncB ■ 
Moore, Arthur G. Age 37. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 4, 
1863. 

Residence, . 

Morgan, Joseph. Age 43. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 12, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Mortel, Patrick. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

RcsiflGncG ". 

Moulton, Jacob. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Deserted Oct. 31, 1861. 

RcsiclGiicc . 

Newell, Olney P. Age 21. Franklin. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Detailed at Stone- 
man's hdqrs. in 1862 ; winter of 1862-63, Prov. Guard, Warrenton ; Corps 
Hdqrs. Guard at Gettysburg ; slightly wounded in head, June 16, 1863, near Ma- 
nassas Junction. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Attleboro, Mass. 





EUGLER MURRAY V. LIVINGSTON 
h-f. Chief Bugler 



DANIEL SHANNON 





Q. M. SERGT, ELI A. SMITH 



f" flPW^^ 





CHARLES H. V/HITING 



D COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 355 

Pettingill, David K. Age 30. Boston. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*PiERCE, Alonzo. Age 43. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. Sept. 26, 

1863. 
Pierce, George W. Age 22. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Uiscli. for dis. May 3, 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Pike, William E. Age 22. Acton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted Jan. 8, 1862, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Power, Thomas J. Age 22. Charlestown. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Died May 26, 

1862, Hilton Head. 

Pray, Ben.jamin C. Age 26. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Transf. to Co. H. 
Prescott, Isaac H. Age 18. Boston. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Disch. for dis. Nov. 
10, 1864. 

Residence, Melrose, Mass. 
Preston, John. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 20, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Pushee, LuxriER H. Age 38. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Detailed in 1st Band. 
Deserted Oct. 20, 1862, Washington. 

Residence, 

Readon, John. Age 21. Cambridge. M. Sept. 28, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Reed, William T. Age 28. Abington. M. Aug. 9, 1862. Wounded in leg 

Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Reid, William. Age 18. Boston. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
Richardson, Jeremiah M. Age 29. Boston. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
Mar. 1, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Robinson, Asa L. Age 35. Boston. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
Roberts, James. Age 32. Easton. M. Nov. 10, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

ScHLOTHiEN, Edward. Age 38. Chatham. M. June 16, 1864. Deserted Nov. 
19, 1864, on furlough. 

Residence, . 

Sevey, George. Age 28. Boston, M. Sept. 17, 1861. Telegraph Orderly, Poto- 
mac Creek in 1863. At brigade hdqrs. under Gen. Davies in 1864. In most eng. 
of regt. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Shepard, Herbert L. Age 18. Mansfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Received three slight 
wounds and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. At Belle Isle and Richmond about one 
month. "Weight 170 pounds wlien captured, less than 100 pounds on arriving at 
Annapolis Hosp." Reiinlisted Dec. 20, 1863. Exp. July 19, 1865. In principal 
eng. of regt. 

Residence, Washington. D. C. 
Shepard, Albert S. Age 27. Mansfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Mansfield, Mass. 
Sherman, Daniel P. Age 34. Kingston. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Killed June 17, 

1863, Aldie. 

Shields, Peter. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 20, 1863. Disch. for dis. July 15, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Simmons, William. Age 19. Charlton. M. Mar. 31, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 



356 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Sinclair, Henry A. Age 19. Lowell. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Nov. 20, 18G1. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Henry. Age 44. Dedham. M. Sept. 12, 18G1. Disch. Dec. 25, 1862, for 
dis. caused by injury received in action. 

Residence, . 

Smith, James H. Age 29. Quincy. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 25, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Solon, John. Age 21. Conway. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Pris. May 18, 1863, Dum- 
fries. Reeulisted Feb. 15, 1864. Deserted May 6, 1864, Boston (on furlough). 

Residence, . 

Stedman, Richard W. Age 26. Lee. M. Jan. 2, 1864. Disch. for dis. May 7, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Sullivan, William. Age 19. South Danvers. M. Jan. 19, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Thomson, Alexander E. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 16, 1861. Killed Nov. 27, 

1863, New Hope Church. 
Thomas, William C. Age 22. Boston. M. Feb. 8, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Titus, Alphonzo D. Age 25. Cambridge. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Scout to Gen. 
Averell. Died from injuries (received by horse falling and throwing him) Jan. 
21, 1863, Potomac Creek. 
Trillis, Daniel. Age 19. Wellfleet. M. Nov. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Veazie, Charles C. Age 18. Adams. M. Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*ViNAL, Warren J. Age 39. Scituate. M. Sept. 10, 1861. Reeulisted Dec. 26, 
1863. Wounded in foot May 5, 1864, Wilderness. Transf. to V. R. C. Feb. 22, 
1865. 
Weldon, Eli E. Age 38. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Disch. for dis. May 18, 
1863. 

Residence, Washington, D. C. 
♦Wellington, Heliodorus. Age 44. Somerville. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. 

Oct. 24, 1864. 
Welch, James. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863. Aldie. 
Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Weston, John B. Age 24. Georgetown. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Slightly wounded 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Killed Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church. 
WiGGiN, Lewis W. Age 22. Lowell. M. Sept. 14, 1861. On detached ser. as cattle 
guard seven months in 1804, under Sergt. Brackett. AVounded in side with charge 
of buckshot and ball, and pris. Mar. 1, 1864, near Charlottesville, Kilpatrick's 
Raid. In Ross Pris., Richmond, 21 days ; escaped by cutting through wall. In 
most eng. of Co. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Salem, Mass. 
Winn, Eben S. Age 27. Cambridge. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Severely wounded 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Disch. for dis. Sept. 30, 1863. 

Residence, . 

WiTHERELL, HERBERT E. Age 21. Bostou. M. Aug. 9, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Pembroke, Mass. 
Woodward, Freeman. Age 38. Springfield. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Exp. Oct. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Eastharapton, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 357 

*WooD, Lemuel. Age 23. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Practically in all eng. 
of Co. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

WuiGHT, George O. Age 24. Marbleliead. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Wounded in 
right leg with ininie-ball June 17, 1863, Aldie, and pris.; escaped dm-ing charge 
of 1st Me. Wounded in left arm, pistol shot, Sept. 16, 1864, "Kebel Cattle Raid," 
City Point. In all eng. from Todd's Tavern to City Point. Exp. Oct. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Reno, Nevada. 

WiLKiNS, Edward L. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 12, 1861. Transf. to Co. H. 



COMPANY C. 

**DAvrs, Charles G. 1st Sergt. 

Davis, William N. 1st Sergt. Age 40. Brighton. M. Dec. 20, 1861. Corp. 
Aug. 14, 1863. Sergt. Mar. 1, 1864. In all eng. of Co. Exp. Dec. 1<J, 1864. 
Residence, Bell Flower, 111. 
*-**Drew, John. 1st Sergt. Age 21. Boston. 

O'Connell, James. 1st Sergt. Age 30. Lynn. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Slightly 
wounded and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie ; paroled [July 21-Aug. 13.] 1863. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

**Wardell, William W, 1st Sergt. Age 22. Somerville. Sergt-Maj. Feb., 

1862. 
*WiLsov, Samuel H. 1st Serg. Age 28. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
*Gale, Samuel D. Q. M. Sergt. Age 36. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 3, 1863. 
Neild, Samuel N. Q. M. Sergt. Age 23. Chelsea. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Corp. 
Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Q. M. Sergt. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Stonehara, Mass. 
*CoBB, Ethan E. Com. Sergt. Age 35. Mansfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Exp. 

Oct, 24, 1864. 2d Lieut, in Frontier Cav. Mar. 30, 1865, to June 30, 1865. 
Bragdon, John E. Sergt. Age 21. Newton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 
1862, Poolesville. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Salisbury Beach, Mass. 
GoLLiFF, William A. Sergt. Age 27. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 9, 1865. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
*Glines, John A. Sergt. Age 40. Somerville. M. Sept. 17, 1801. Exp. Oct. 

3, 1864. 
Harris, Samuel W. Sergt. Age 30. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Eng. James 
Isl., Antietam, and all with regt. to Kelly's Ford, Mar. 17, 1863. Disch. for dis. 
Mar, 19, 1864. 

Residence, Fitchburg, Mass. 
Hilliard, George H. Sergt. Age 25. Medford. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. 
Sept. o, 1862, Poolesville. Disch. for dis. Jan. 8, 1863. 

Residence, . 

HoBBS, Alvah H. D. Sergt. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Eng. James 
Isl., Sulphur Spr. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
**How-LAND, John W. Sergt. 

Kitchen, Robert B. Sergt. Age 31. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1801. Pris. 
June 17, 1863, Aldie ; paroled July 21-Aug. 13. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Sergt. 
Term, of ser. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, . 



358 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Legg, Charles A. Sergt. Age 21. Auburn. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Corp. Aug. 
W, 1803. Piis. Aug. 17, 18G3, near Orleans, Va. ; paroled Aug. 20. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 18G4. With Co. through the war. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Stony Creek, Conn. 
*RUMEKY, AViLLiAM M. Sergt. Age 36. Boston. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Acting 
Regtl. Q. M. Sergt, July, 1862. 2d Lieut. 2d Mass. Cav. Dec. 18, 1862. 1st 
Lieut. Feb. 9, 1863. Capt. July 1, 1863. Maj. Oct. 1, 1864. Lieut.-Col. May 
13, 1865 (not M.). Exp. July 20, 1865. 
Williams, George E. Sergt. Age 36. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Corp. 
Wounded in arm Xov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store. Reenlisted March 31, 1864. 
Sergt. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Oconto, Wis. 
Wixters, James E. Sergt. Age 32. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Corp. 
Fris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Mar. 31, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Wyman, Charles H. Sergt. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. June 
17, 1863, Aldie. AVounded in thigh Oct. 14, 1863, Auburn. Pris. May 12, 1864, 
Todd's Tav., while on picket. 

Residence, . 

Cromett, Hiram A. Corp. Age 35. Clinton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. June 
17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Kendall, George. Corp. Age 23. Gardner. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Orderly at 
hdqrs. 2d Div. 3d Corps, from Mar. 1 to Aug. 25, 1863. Corp. Mar. 30, 1864. 
Eng. Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Manassas Gap, while ou detached ser., then 
with Co. to exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, South Gardner, Mass. 
McErvoy, Daniel. Corp. Age 32. Boston. M. Mar. 31, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Residence, East Boston, Mass. 
Quimby, Charles C. Corp. Age 29. Somerville. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. 
for dis. Sept. 1, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Severance, Augustus. Corp. Age 37. Watertown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Pris. Oct. 14, 1863, Auburn. Died Nov. 30, 1863, Rich- 
mond, Va. 
Webber, Owen H. Corp. Age 20. Medford. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Ennis, Joseph F. Bugler. Age 21. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 
1862, Poolesville. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Insane Asylum, Concord, N. H. 
HUSE, Nathan. Bugler. Age 18. Haverhill. M. Jan. 24, 1864. Exp. June 
29, 1865. 

Residence, Beverly, Mass. 
Wingate, George B.' Bugler. Age 25. Hampton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. in 
action, 1863. Died Nov. 15, 1863, on Flag of Truce boat New York, en route from 
City Point to Annapolis. 
*Gault, John W. Wagoner. Age 37. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. On detached 

ser. under Q. M. Knight. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Knowlton, Ira B. AVagoner. Age 45. Somerville. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. 
for dis. Aug. 26, 1863. 

Residence, Insane Asvlum, Concord, N. H. 
Lanf, Benjamin F. Blacksmith. Age 27. Middleboro. M. Oct. 5, 1861. 
Disch. for dis. Dec. 8, 1862. 
Residence, Middleboro, Mass. 
Bible, Johx. Farrier. Age .30. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1862. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, . 




fli^.^:;i^^^5 ^ :pj'- 







f ? 



■1 * 



#. 



..!» 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 359 

Russell, William O. Saddler. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reen- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Practically in all eng. of Co. Disch. for dis. June 30, 1865. 
Residence, Walker, Iowa. 
Adams, Seymour. Age 18. Boston. M. Nov. 8, 1863. Exp. July 13, 1865. 

I^GsiclGncG ■ • 

*Atken, Henry B. Age 29. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Mar. 6, 1863. ^^^ ^ ^ . 

*Andrews, John K. Age 27. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded in 
left hip and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. In Libby, Scott's Tobacco House, and 
Belle Isle about four mos. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Angier, Lucius B. Age 27. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. In all eng. with 
Co. to exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Atkinson, Jonathan. Age 24. Stoneham. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 

1, 1864. Died May 19, 1865, Readville, Mass. 
Ayling, George A. Age 26. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 13, 1864. 

Residence, Ridge Hill, Mass. 
*Bacon, Henry H. Age 19. Lowell. M. Sep. 19, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Baker, John K. L. Age 35. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Wakefield, Mass. 
*Bartlett, Charles F. Age 21. Somerville. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Missing Sept., 

1864, while on escort for staff officers, near Petersburg. Exp. Oct. 1, 1864. 
Bartlett, George W. Age 24. Somerville. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, East Somerville, Mass. 
Blake, William. Age 24. Dorchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Mattapan, Mass. 
*BoND, Alanson. Age 34. Somerville. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. Nov. 1, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Boyd, William. Age 23. Charlestown. M. Feb. 20, 1862. Wounded in right 
leg June 1, 1862, Johns Isl. Exp. Feb. 21, 1865. First enlisted in Co. K. 5th 
Mass. Vol., July 21, 1861, and was in 1st Bull Run. 
Residence, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 
*Bradley, William. Age 37. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Slightly 
wounded and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie ; paroled [July 21-Aug. 13], 1863. Exp. 
Oct. 24, 1864. 
*Breen, William. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Feb. 25, 

1863. 
*Brigham, Elijah, Jr. Age 36. Buckland. Mar. 15, 1864. Exp. June 29, 

1865. 
Brooks, George B. Age 25. Springfield. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 

1, 1864. Died Mar. 21, 1864, Boston, Mass. 
Brown, James R. Age 44. Boston. M. Aug. 22, 1862. Transf . to V. R. C. 

Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Brockway, John L. Age 20. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Slightly wounded 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
*Bryant, Austin R. Transf. from Co. M. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Bryant, William R. Age 22. Roxbury. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Feb. 6, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Carter, Albert C. Age 27. Sterling. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 
30, 1862. 

Cate, Freeman A. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Transf. to V. R. C. 
Apr. 10, 1864. 
Residence, . 



360 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALBY. 

Chase, Edward F. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Jan. 13, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1805. Enlisted in 14th ]Vle. Inf. Oct. 17, 1861. Discharged Mar. 27, 1863. In 
first battle of Baton Rouge. 

Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Chick, Thomas C. Age 34. Medford. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Clark, Joseph H. Age 24. Charlestown. M. Feb. 20, 1862. Deserted Oct. 18, 
1862, Philadelphia. 

Residence, . 

Cochran, Alphonzo. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 
1, 1864. 

Residence, . 

CoLLEY, William A. Age 21. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Nov. 3, 1863. 

Residence, . 

*Davis, Henry C. Age 18. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 

1864. 
Deniver, John H. Age 37. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Transf. to V. R. C. 
Mar. 15, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Dodge, Lorenzo D. Age 27. Gardner. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted Mar. 1, 
1861, Readville. 

jAi G S 1 cl G lie G ■ • 

Dyer, Thomas L. Age 24. Gardner. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie ; at Libby and Belle Isle ; paroled July IG, 1863 ; returned to dutv Sept., 

1863. Orderly at hdqrs. 2d Cav. Div., Gen. Gregg, Nov., 1803 to Apr., 1864. 

Practically in all eng. of Co. except while pris. Exp. Oct. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Polk City, Iowa. 

*Edmands, GeorCxE B. Age 23. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Slightly 

wounded and pris. June 17, 1803, Aldie. Exp. Oct.. 24, 1804. 
Elliot, Francis G., Jr. Age 24. Oxford. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
May 4, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Emerson, George F. Age 19. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Fay, Julius R. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 14, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Ferris, John. Age 19. Shelburne. M. Jan. 15, 1864. Pris. May 12, 1864, near 

Todd's Tavern. Died of starvation, Sept. 2, 1864, Andersonville. 
Foster, William H. H. Age 20. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Detailed in band. 
Exp. Oct. 3, 1804. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Freeman, James B. Age — . Roxbury. M. Dec. 18, 1861. Wounded in right 
arm June 9, 1863, Stevensburg. Exp. Dec. 16, 1864. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Maine. 
Gibby, William H., Jr. Age 18. Chelsea. M. Jan. 5, 1804. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

I^GsIflencG CliGiSGR JVIrss. 
Green, Joel W. Age'21. Spencer. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Died Jan. 22, 1863, Po- 
tomac Creek, Va. 
Harris, George N. Age 26. Paxton. INI. Aug. 25, 1862. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Herrick, George I. Age 23. Cambridge. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Pris. June 17, 
1803, Aldie ; paroled July 21- Aug. 13. Wounded in heel Oct. 14, 1863, Auburn. 
Exp. Oct. 3, 1864, as absent sick. 

Residence, Government Insane Hosnital, Washington. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 361 

HoBART, George W. Age 25. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded in 
leg and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Hodge, John R Age 18. Hadley. M. Dec. 24, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

IvgsicIgiicg > 

Holmes, Benjamin F. B. Age 25. Auburn, Me. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded 
in foot and leg, June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp, Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, N. Auburn, Me. 
*HousTON, James M. Age 39. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
*HowARD, Franklin. Age 43. Clinton. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Wounded June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Disch. for dis. Feb. 17, 1863. 
Howard, Lafayette G. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Feb 18, 1863. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
HOYT, Israel. Age 33. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861, Deserted Dec. 1, 1861, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Hutchinson, Eliphalet B. Age 33. Holliston. M. Aug. 17, 1862. Wounded in 

chest June 9, 1863, Stevensburg. Died June 30, 1863. 
Ingalls, Nathan E. Age 23. Springfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Transferred to 
V. R. C. 

Residence, . 

Johnson, Alfred V. Age 37. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. June 
17, 1863, Aldie; paroled [July 21-Aug. 13], 1863- Exp. Sept. 16, 1864. 
Residence, Sharon, Mass. 
Jones, Alfred P. Age 24. Worcester. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Sarasota, Fla. 
**Josselyn, James O. Age 31. Roxbury. Regtl. Com. Sergt. Nov. 1, 1864. 
Keay, Alfred H. Age 38. Cambridge. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Thrown from 
horse, spine injured, and pris. Sept. 5, 1862, Poolesville ; held two hours. Jan. 29, 
1863, disch. for dis., caused by same injury. 
Residence, Medford, Mass. 
Kelly, John. Age 40. Douglas. M. Feb. 23, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Kimball, Daniel W. Age 40. Medford. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Slightly wounded 
and pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 13, 1864. 
RgsicIciicg ■■' 
Legg, William H.' Age 21. Holliston. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Died Feb. 9, 1863, 

Potomac Creek, Va. 
*Lombard, J. Tewksbury. Age 33. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Lund, Frank M. (See Co. M.) 

*Maynard, Henry G. Age 19. Lowell. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Maxim, Nathan B. Age 26. Carver. M. Aug. 19, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie ; paroled [July 21-Aug. 13], 1863. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Middleboro, Mass. 
McCoNNELL John W. Age 24. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Died June 20, 1863. 
McKenny, William H. Age 18. Boston. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
Jan. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

McMahon, Peter. Age 21. Lowell. M. Sept. 23, 1861. On detached ser. as 
clerk in Q. M. Dept. under Q. M. Knight, Dec, 1862, to exp., Oct. 3, 1864. 
[ Eng. Brandy Sta. 

Residence, Lowell, Mass. 



362 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Merrill, Walter H. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Jan. 11, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Kesidence, Tiiriusburg, Ohio. 
Miller, Wilhelm. Age 35. Greenfield. M. Feb. 15, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Kesidence, . 

MiNCHiN, George H. Age 22. Newbury. M. Jan. 18, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865 

Residence, . 

Morse, William W. Age 21. Enfield. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

MouLTON, Frank B. Age 22. Maiden. M. Feb. 22, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, Camden, Arkansas. 
Murphy, John. Age 18. Granville. M. Dec. 24, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Murphy, Michael. Age 19. Dennis. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Newton, Charles H. Age 19. Gardner. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 
1864. 
Residence, So. Gardner, Mass. 
O'Connor, Thomas F. Age 20. Boston. M. Feb. 26, 1864. Arm broken by 
fall of horse on corduroy road, near Yellow Tavern, Nov. 24, 1864. In eng. of 
Co. to exp., June 29, 1865. First enlisted in Co. H. 8th Mass. Vol. Oct. 30, 1862. 
Exp. Aug. 7, 1863. 

Residence, New Britain, Conn. 
Overton, William H. Age 18. Stoughton. M. Jan. 18, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Residence, Stoughton, Mass. 
Palmer, William D. Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Parker, William E. Age 20. Newton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Transferred to 
V. R. C. Mar. 19, 1864. 

Residence, New York, N. Y. 
Parker, Jacob F. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. Sept. 
29, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Peckham, George W. Age 29. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Pendergast, Morris. Age 21. Mansfield. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
Oct. 27, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Peters, Edmund F. Age 39. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 
1862, Poolesville ; also, June 17, 1863, Aldie ; 36 days at Libby and Belle Isle. 
In all eng. of Co. to exp., Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Chelsea, Vt. 
Peters, John. Age 36. Cambridge. M. Dec. 30, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Preston, William H. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted Feb. 5, 
1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Rogers, John L. Age 43. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. April 
17, 1864. 

Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 
*RiCHARDSON, George E. Age 24. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. Sept. 14, 1864. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 363 

Russell, Solomon P. Age 41. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Acting Sergt. and 2d 
Lieut of Co. C. when at Readville in 1861. Deserted Mar. 1, 186:^, on furlough. 

TipSlQGIlCC • 

Scott, George F. Age 19. Newton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, Asheville, N. C. r^ ^r r^ n. ^ 

SiMONDS, John F. Age 22. N, Bridgewater. Transferred from to. K. JiiXp. Uct. 

3, 1864. 

Residence, Maiden, Mass. ,„ ^o^o 

*Smith, Reuben C. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 8, 1862, Pris. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie'; paroled July 21-Aug. 13, 1863. Exp. Oct. 1, 1864. 
Snow, Josiah B. Age 30. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 1, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Souther, William R. Age 18. W. Roxbury. M. Jan. 15, 1864. Exp. June 

29, 1865. 

I^GsiciBllCG . 

Sullivan, Robert. Age 18. Marlboro. M. Mar. 30, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

XvGSlClGnCG . 

Taylor, George W. Age 22. Newton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Sept. 
25, 1862. 

IvGSlQGllCG ' 

TiLLSON, Elis'ha a. Age 18. Mansfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Disch. for dis. Dec. 
29, 1862. 

K-GSlClGllCG . 

Trashir, Robert. Age 25. Lynn. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

RgsicIgiicg 'm 

Trow, James' J. Aged 19. Lowell. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

lAjGSlClGnCG " . 

*Tufts, David B. Age 36. Lynn. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. Aug. 4, 

1863. 
Tufts, William H. Age 20. Lynn. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. Jime 17, 1863, 
Aldie ; paroled July 21-Aug. 13, 1863. Reenlisted Feb. 22, 1864. Exp. June 
29, 1865. 

Residence, . -ri /-^ o 

Wakefield, Gilbert. Age 21. Somerville. M. Sept, 23, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 
1864. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Whitney, George H. Age 22. Harvard. M. Nov. 19, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 
1864. Pris. May 12, 1864, near Todd's Tavern ; in prison, Florence, S. C. Paroled 
Dec. 28. Exp. June 21, 1865. 
Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Whitney, Horatio T. Age 21. Harvard. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Slightly wounded, 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp.- Oct. 3, 1864. 
x^GsiciGncG — 
Williams, Byron H. Age 19. Amherst. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
Sept. 21, 1863. 

IvGSlClGllCG . 

*WooD, Henry F. Age 26. Marlboro. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Detailed in band. 

Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Wright, Samuel. Age 45. Somerville. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Detailed m charge 

of regimental bake-house at Hilton Head, summer of 1862. Disch. for dis. Sept. 

21, 1863. 

Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
ZoLLER, George H. Age 20. Brighton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 

22, 1862. 

Residence, Newton, Mass. 



364 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



COMPANY D. 

**CouPE, William. 1st Sergt. 

*NiCHOLSON, Charles. 1st Sergt. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. 5th Mass. Cav. Jan. 5, 1865. Kesigned Aug. 23, 
1865. 

**Reed, Henry F. 1st Sergt. 

**Teague, George H. 1st Sergt. 

George, Daniel G. 1st Sergt. Age 21. Salem, N. H. M. Sept. 17, 1861. 
Right thigh injured by fall from horse June, 1862, Hilton Head. 1st Sergt. April 
12, 1863. Prisoner, June 17, 1863, Aldie ; 2 mos. in Libby, Castle Thunder, and 
Belle Isle. Reenlisted, Jan. 1, 1864. In all eng. of regt. till transferred to navy, 
April 21, 1864, as able seaman. Assigned to U. S. S. Chicopee. Oct. 26, 1864, 
volunteered with Lieut. Wui. B. Cushing at destruction of Rebel Ram Albemarle, 
Plymouth, N. C. ; hurled into river by explosion of torpedo and taken pris.; in 
Salisbury, N. C, until close of war. Disch. June 17, 1866, as cockswain. 
Residence, W. Hanipstead, N. H. 

*HiLL, John R. Q. M. Sergt. Age 26. Roxbury. M. Oct. 17, 1861. Pris. June 
17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Feb 22, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Smith, Eli A. Q. M. Sergt. Age 41. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Acting Q. M. 
Sergt. and Com. Sergt. Oct. 11, 1861, to Sept., 1862. Thrown from horse, and 
spine injured Jan. 22, 1863, Potomac Creek. In hosp. April 13 to Nov. 19, 

1863. Transferred to V. R. Corps Aug. 17, 1863. Eng. Secessionville, South 
Mountain, Antietani, Fredericksburg. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Carley, Rufus H. Com. Sergt. Age 34. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded 
and prisoner June 17, 1863, Aldie ; paroled July 21-Aug. 13. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 

1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, . 

*Shepard, Adam. Com. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 

3, 1864. 
Adams, Eli.tah F. Sergt. Age 25. Dorchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded 

through body (bullet embedded in backbone) Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church. 

Died in hospital, Washington, Dec. 11, 1863. 
Boyce, Jerome D. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 9, 1863. Practically in 

all eng. while with Co. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Livingston Manor, N. Y. 
George, John H. Sergt. Age 19. Salem, N. H. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 

Jan. 1, 1864. Corp. June 17, 1863, by Special Order, "for gallant and meritorious 

conduct at battle of Aldie." Sergt. May 1, 1864, for same reason, after battle of 

Mine Run. In all eng. of Co. to time of discharge. 2d Lieut. 5th Mass. Cav. Oct. 

14, 1864. Disch. Oct. 31, 1865. 
Residence, Methuen, Mass. 
*Hamilton, James. Sergt. Age 27. Cambridge. M. Oct. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 

Jan. 23, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Hatch, William H. Sergt. Age 23. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 

Jan. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. 5th Mass. Cav. Sept. 27, 1864. Exp. Oct. 31, 1865. 
Residence, New York City. 
**Herrick, David W. Sergt. 
**Kaler, Cornelius. Sergt. 
Odell, George D. Sergt. Age 23. Cambridge. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Corp. 

Nov. 1, 1861. Sergt. Mar. 1863. Color Sergt. June 17, 1863. In eng. of Co. 

Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 1st Lieut, in 5th Mass. Cav. Mar. 8, 1864. Acting Q. M., 

1865. Acting Brigade Inspt., 1865. Exp. Oct. 31, 1865. 
Residence, Brattleboro, Vt. 




RICHARiJ VV. LAKEMAN 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 365 

Olney, James A. Sergt. Age 26. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Jime 29, 1805. 
Residence, Pawtucket, R. I. 
Pierce, Robert. Sergt. Age 36. Boston. M, Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Sept. 22, 1863. 

Residence, Portland, Me. 
**Ray, Albert F. Sergt. Sergt.-Maj. 

Rogers, Samuel D. Sergt. Age 24. Lawrence. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reen- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. First enlisted in Co. F, 6tli Regt. M. V. 
1. Exp. Aug. 2, 1861. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
BowEN, Charles. Sergt. Age 22. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Feb. 4, 
1863, on furlough. 

XLtiSlClGllCG * • 

**Bradbury, George L. Sergt. Sergt.-Maj. July 18, 1864. 

*FiELD, Uaxa a. Sergt. Age 22. Milford. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pns. Mar. 28, 
1863,' Kelly's Ford. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . rr^ p i - /-i r> 

*EvERETT, George B. Sergt. Age 24. Hanson. Transferred trom Co. B. 
Mar. 1864. Wounded in 1864. Exp. Oct. 1864, for promotion. 

IvgskIgiicg ""• 

Thurston, Charles F. Sergt. Age 20. Cambridge, M. Sept. 19, 1861. Pris. 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Wounded Mar. 29, 1865, Grav- 
elly Run. Disch. for dis. May 29, 1865. 

Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. oi- i i 

TowNE, Edward O. Sergt. Age 37. Cambridge. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Slightly 
wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togas, Me. 
Almy, Frank M. Corp. Age 21. Cambridge. M. Aug. 4, 1862. Slightly 
wounded June 17, 1803, Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Killed Apr. 30, 1865, 
Lynchburg, Va. . 

Bailey, George F. Corp. Age 24. Lawrence. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pns. June 
17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

R,GS1(1g11CG HtllllDStGJXU. N« -ti. 

Chapman, Loring B. Corp. Age 23. Charlton. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted 

Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Hubbardston, Mass. 
*CoRNiNG, Warren H. Corp. Age 22. Corning, N. H. M. Aug. 9, 1861. 

Wounded in shoulder Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
*Cranshaw, James W. Corp. Age 23. Haverhill. M. Feb. 5, 1864. Exp. 

June 29, 1865. 
Crombie, Henry W. Corp. Age 27. Roxburv. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Mar. 7, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

French, William P. Corp. Age 19. Boston. M. Feb. 27, 1864. Exp. June 

29, 1865. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Hamilton, Thomas I. Corp. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Died of 

wounds June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
Hinman, Frank. Corp. Age 21. Lawrence. M. Oct. 17, 1861. Killed June 

17, 1803, Aldie. ^. , ^ 

Pierce, John. Corp. Age 23. Pawtucket, R. I. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Died of 

woimds June 17, 1863, Aldie. t> • t 

Pray, Charles H. Corp. Age 27. Newbury. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Reenlisted 

Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, . 



366 FIBST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Prince, Franklin S. Corp. Age 20. Northampton. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp 
June 29, 1805. *^' 

Kesidenie, New Britain, Conn. 
Young, 8kth. Corp. Age 23. Newbury. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Wounded in head 
June 17, 18G3, Aldie. Exp. June 29, 1805. 
Residence, Newburyport, Mass. 
Bellow, Louis. Biigl.' Age 23. Barnstable. M. Jan. 20, 1864. Exp. June 29. 
1805. 

Residence, . 

GuKNKY, John. Bugl. Age 43. Lawrence. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Dec. 29, 1864. 

Residence, . , 

IIiXEs, W.\LTEK J. Bugl. Age 19. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Aug. 13, 1864. 

Residence, Washington, D. C. 
Livingston, Murray V. Bugl. Age 21. ILaverhill. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Act- 
ing Regtl. Chief Bugler. Reiinlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
*Hanscom, Nathaniel 11. Far. Age 40. Boston. M. Oct. 17, 1861. Disch. 

for dis. Mar. 11, 1863. 
Small, Ben.iamin F. Far. Age 32. Charlestown. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Paroled July 21-Aug. 13, 1863. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Gig Harbor, Wyoming Ter. 
Squire, Roswell. Far. Age'41. lioston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Pris. Mar. 28, 
1863, Kelly's Ford. Reeidisted Jan 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*BoswoRTH, David G. F. Sad. Age 23. Springfield. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Ex-p. June 29, 1865. 
FuiiBER, Lyman V. B. Sad. Age 20. Lawrence. RL Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. 
for dis. Apr. 24, 1862. 

Residence, . 

*Greendall, Jesse F. Wag. Age 27. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for 

dis. Apr. 2, 1863. 
Hooper, Nathan C. AVag. Age 23. Boston. M. Oct. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Cambridge, Mass. 
Ring, Nathaniel R. Wag. Age 38. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Diseh. for 
dis. Feb. 26, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Allen, Charles. Ago 19. N. Reading. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Missing since Oct., 
1863. Dropped as deserter Mar., 1864. Investigation (Feb., 1890) fails to elicit 
further information. 

Residence, . 

Ames, Daniel S. Age 28. Springfield. M. Aug. 8, 1862. Promoted in N. H. 
Vol. May 26, 1864. 

Residence, Monte Vista, Col. 
Atherton. Charles D. Age 25. Cambridge. INI. Aug. 15, 1862. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Austin, John. Age 32. Falmouth. M. Jan. 27, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Bailey, George W. Age 21. Roxbury. M. Feb. 8, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Bailey, Jesse O. Age 43. Roxbury. M. Feb. 22, 1864. Exp. June 17, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*Bailey, Rufus n. n. Age 22. Roxbury. M. Feb. 16, 1864. Exp. July 9, 
1865. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 367 

Bently, Thomas. Age 19. Longmeadow. M. Feb. 20, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
18G5. 

Residence, . 

Bernard, John L. Age 38. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 18G1. Deserted Dec. 19, 
1801, on furlough. 

Residence, . 

Blasland, William. Age 28. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1801. At 1st Corps hdqrs. 
fall of 1802. At army hdqrs. winter of 18G2-1803. With the Co. in all eng. 
Residence, Washington, D. C. 
Boole, George F. Age 20. Boston. M. Aug. 12, 1802. Missing June 17, 1803, 
Aldie. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1804. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

BowKER, Charles W. Age 3.5. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1801. Killed June 17, 

1803, Aldie. 
BOYNTON, Eli E. Age 30. Swampscott. M. Oct. 25, 1801. Thrown from horse, 
back injured, Apr., 1801, Hilton lid. On detached scr. in Signal Corps, Feb. 
1863. Eng. So. Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Feb. 6, 1864. (Name now Everett Boynton. Eli dropped by order of Court, 
1876.) 

Residence, Swampscott, Mass. 
Brown, Curtis M. Age 22. Mansfield. M. Aug. 7, 1802. Exp. Nov. 1, 1864. 

Residence, Mansfield, Mass. 
Brown, Frederick O. Age 32. Boston. M. Dec. 4, 1803. Died Sept. 23, 1864, 

City Point, Va. 
Brown, Patrick. Age 37. Salem. M. Aug. 10, 1804. Exp. June 27, 1805. 

Residence, . 

Buckley, Florence. Age 19. Haverhill. M. Nov. 11, 1863. Exp. June 29, 
1805. 

Residence, . 

*BuRRiLL, George A. Age 26. Randolph. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Sept. 0, 1803. 
Carroll, John. Age 24. Charlestown. M. Sept. 19, 1801. Deserted Dec, 1861, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Cheslyn, Richard W. Age 21. Medford. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Killed June 17, 

1863, Aldie. 

Clapp, William A. Age 18. Hopkinton. M. Dec. 16, 1863. Died May 15, 

1864, City Point, Va. 

Cliff, James. Age 45. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 15, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Cole, John H. Age 24. Pawtucket, R. I. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Transferred to 
V. R. C. Aug. 24, 1863. Disch. Sept. 15, 1864. 
Residence, Pawtucket, R. I. 
Collins, James E. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Dec. 16, 1863. Exp. June 29, 
1805. 

Residence, E. Cambridge, Mass. 
*CoNANT, Symerna B. Age 43. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1801. Wounded in face 

Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store. Transferred to V. R. C. Apr. 21, 1804. 
*CoRCORAX, George E. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1801. Pris. June 17, 
1803, Aldie. Paroled July 21 - Aug. 13. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1804. Exp. June, 
29, 186.5. ' 1' . 

Cotton, Hiram B. Age 25. Pawtucket, R. I. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Died Sept. 

12, 1863. Alexandria, Va. 
Darrah, James M. Age 41. Boston. M. Oct. 13, 1862. Disch. for dis. Feb.. 

1863. ' 

Residence, . 



368 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Dennis, Henry W. Age 28. Boston. M. Dec. 9, 18G3. In principal eng. dur- 
ing Grant's campaign in Va. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Donahue, William. Age 22. Roxbury. M. Feb. 26, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Doyle, Thomas. Age 23. Concord. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Died Oct. 7, 1863. Hart- 
wood Cliurch, Ya. 
Doyle, William M. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Dunbar, George F. Age 19. Ware. M. Dec. 1, 1863. Died Aug. 15, 1864, 

City Point, Va. 
Eaton, John L. Age 30. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
JEgleston, Eli. Age 27. Springfield. M. Oct. 25, 1862. Deserted Jan. 10, 

1863. Hartwood Church, Ya., while on picket. 
Residence, . 

Egleston, William R. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 20, 1862. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 

1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, . 

Fay, Charles A. Age 19. Hopkinton. M. Dec. 7, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Flanders, Charles H. Age 22. Haverhill. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Oct. 3, 
1864. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Fogg, George F. Age 27. Haverhill. M. Jan. 25, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, So. Danville, N. H. 
Foss, Henry G. Age 21. Haverhill. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. May 1, 
1863. 

HGsiclGncG '■■ 
Galloway, Francis. Age 32. Greenfield. M. July 28, 1864. Died before 

Petersburg, Jan., 1865. 
Gray, George S. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Woimded in lung June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Died June 20, 1863, Alexandria, Ya. 

*Greely, Warren J. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 

1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Gurney, James M. Age 24. Lawrence. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Deserted Dec. 18, 

1861, Readville. 
IvGsicl6ncG — , 

Hall, William. Age 22. Holyoke. M. Jan. 16, 1864. Disch. for dis. April 27, 

1864. 

Residence, . 

Harmox, Albert C. Age 27. Boston. M. Oct. 17, 1861. Wounded (by spent ball) 

in wrist June 17, 1863, Aldie. Pris. same place ; escaped same night. Exp. Sept. 

18, 1864. 

Residence, Brockton, Mass. 
*Harnden, Charles W. Age 22. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Transferred to 

V. R. C. April 28, 1864. 
Haviland, William H. Age 18. Boston. M. Feb. 16, 1864. Exp. July 3, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Hill, William H. Age 21. Saco, Me. M. Dec. 12, 1861. Wounded and pris. 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Paroled July 21 -Aug. 13. Reenlisted Feb. 27, 1864. 
Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Hobson, George H. Aged 28. Cambridge. M. Oct. 17, 1861. Wounded twice 
in head, with sabre. Mar. 17, 1863, Kelly's Ford. Pris. at same place, Mar. 28, 
1863, while carrying despatch. In Libby two months. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 369 

Houghton, Augustine F. Age 38. Clinton. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Pris. June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Paroled July 21 - Aug. 13, 1863. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 

Hunt, John R. Age 28. Chelsea. M. Feb. 20, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

HuRD, Edwin. Age 22. Newton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 
Exp. June 29, I860. 

Residence, Newton Upper Falls, Mass. 
Jackson, Aloxzo. Age 25. Lake Village, N. H. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Killed 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
Jackson, William. Age 22. Pawtucket, R. I. M. Sept. 17, 1861, Wounded in 
face and wrist June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. May 15, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Johnson, Frank H. Age 23. Haverhill. M. Jan. 26, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
*Kelly, John B. Age 19. Boston. M. Feb. 20, 1864. In eng. with Army of 

Potomac. Exp. June 29, 1865 [enlisted when 15 years old]. 
Kent, George W. Age 25. Cambridge. M. Aug. 4, 1862. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, E. Cambridge, Mass. 
Kimball, Charles H. Age 18, Groveland. M. Jan. 11, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Ladd, Henry E. Age 36. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
Lakeman, Richard W. Age 41. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. In all eng. with 
Co. till transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 15, 1864. 
Residence, So. Boston, Mass. 
Light, Edward P. Age 22. Somerville. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Sergt.-Maj. Wounded 
by shell (right leg amputated) May 6, 1864, Todd's Tavern. Died of wounds June, 

1864, Cold Harbor. 

Lincoln, Williaji F. Age 29. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 
8, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Littlefield, Albert. Age 24. Dorchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Paroled July 21 - Aug. 13. Reeidisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Residence, E. Braintree, Mass. 
Lowell, William H. Age 22. Boston. M. Aug. 4, 1864. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Paroled July 21 - Aug. 13. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Fi-anklin, Mass. 
*Marsh, Martin L. Age 21. Haverhill. M. Feb. 19, 1864. Exp. June 29, 

18G5. 
Martix, William G. Age 22. Milford. Mi Aus;. 1, 1862. Disch. for dis. Jan. 
22,1863. 

Residence, . 

McCarty, Charles. Age 19. Great Barrington. M. Aug. 2, 1864. Exp. June 
29, 1865. >= h , V 

Residence, . 

McEachrax, John. Age 22. Marblehead. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, . 

McMahon, John. Age 28. Boston. M. April 2, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
Co. H. ^ 1' ' ' 

Residence, . 

McPherson, William. Age 24. Springfield. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Paroled July 21 - Aug. 13. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 
29, 1865. 

Residence, . 



370 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Miner, Smith. Age 25. Pittsfleld. M. Aug. 2, 18G4. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*MiNTER, George F. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Discb. for dis. Oct. 

31, 1862. 
Moore, William. Age 36. Boston. M. Jan. 25, 1864. Exp. June 8, 1865. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Morse, Anson. Age 20. Southbridge. M. Feb. 20, 1861. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
iuCo. H. 

R-gsicIghcg . 

Morse, Henry M. Age 20. Milford. M. Nov. 17, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
as absent. 

Residence ^ 

Myers, Samuel G. Age 24. Milton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. Jan. 2, 1862. 
wbile on scouting expedition. Practically in all eng. of Co. to exp., Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Needham, Charles W. Age 24. Georgetown. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Wounded June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Died same day at Alexandria, Va. 
NOYES, John. Age 31. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Missing Dec. 19, 1862, 
Fredericksburg. During tlie eng. of Fredericksburg, while waiting in regimental 
line, for the pontoon bridge to be completed, the Cos. were ordered to " water 
horses." Noyes fell with his horse into the river. Some time befoi-e the man 
reached shore, the horse had effected a landing and run off. Having reported his 
loss to the officer commanding the Co., Noyes was ordered to search for the 
horse, and not return till he found it. Neither man nor horse was seen by the regi- 
ment afterward, and, as far as known, Noyes is still searching. 
Nugent, James H. Age 18. South Dauvers. M. Mar. 5, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

XvGSlClGllCG ■ -^ 

Olney, George F. Age 21. Boston. M. Feb. 24, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, Pawtucket, R. I. 
Ord, James. Age 19. Medfield. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Detailed in Band. Exp. 
Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, Medfield, Mass, 
Osgood, Joseph H. Age 34. Haverhill. M. Jan. 27, 1864. Disch. for dis. June 
6, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Pearson, Jason E. Age 21. Greenfield. M. Aug. 5, 1864. Disch. for dis. May 
30, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Pease, William S. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 
1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Mei'iden, Conn. 
Pierce, Leander F. Age 19. Springfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Died Aug. 17, 

1863, Potomac Creek, Va. 
Porter, John C. Age 19. Bradford. M. July 13, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Rand, Edwin W. Age 20. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 15, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Raymond, George F. Age 25. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Transferred to Y. 
R. C. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Reinhard, Ferdinand A. Age 18. Dorchester. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reenlisted 
January 1, 1864. Practically in all eng. of Co., except while sick in hosp. from 
spring of 1864 to July, 1865. Exp. July 18, 1865. 
Residence, Dorchester, Mass. 
Robinson, William. Age 21. Lowell. M. Aug. 2, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Danville, Vt. 




HENRY H. GALLOWAY 




JOHN D. LITTLEHALE 




ROBERT J, COCHRAN 




SERGT. HORACE A. SUNBURY 





SHERMAN W. HUBBARD 




JOHN MELENFY 
[Bold Dragoon) 



ANDREW A. MASON 
E COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 371 

JRooD, Henry, Age 19. Springfield. M. Aug. 25, 1862. Deserted Jan. 10, 
1863, while on picket, Hartwood Church, Va. 

Residence, . 

RowE, Andrew C. Age 40. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. in 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Ruggles, George H. Age 30. Dorchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. On detached 
ser. as Hosp. Steward, Hilton Head. Clerk in Com. Dept., Dumfries. Acting 
Q. M. Sergt. Giesboro Point. Disch. for dis. Jan. 21, 1864. 
Residence, Jericho, Mo. 
Salisbury, George H. Age 26. Pawtucket, R. I. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reen- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Pawtucket, R. I. 
Shannon, Daniel. Age 21. Concord. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Wounded through 
left leg with minie-ball June 17, 1863, Aldie. Eng. Fredericksburg, Brandy Sta- 
tion, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 15, 1864. 
Residence, Washington, D. C. 
Shepard, Louis J. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded in the head 
and prisoner Jan. 10, 1863, while on reconnoissance near Catlett's Station. In 
hands of 1st Va. Cav. 3 days ; sent to Libby and nearly starved for 3 mouths, 
when paroled ; in hosp. 1 month, then rejoined regt. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
*Shephard, Marcus M. Age 19. Dorchester. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded in 

right thigh June 17, 1863, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Spinney, George A. Age 23. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Killed June 17, 

1863, Aldie. 

Sprague, William N. Age 44. Douglas. M. Feb. 23, 1864. Disch. for dis. Feb. 
6, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Stewart, Charles H. Age 21. Haverhill. M. Feb. 5, 1864. Exp. Juue 20, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Sturtevant, William H. Age 33. Lowell. M. Jan. 27, 1864. Disch. for dis. 
Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Switzer, Almon L. Age 20. Warren. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Wounded in ankle 
Nov. 27, 1862, Potomac Creek. Eng. James Island, Antietam. Transferred to 
V. R. C. Sept. 1, 1863. 

Residence, Hinsdale, N. H. 
*Telyea, Alfred S. Age 26. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 

1861. 
Thayer, Henry C. Age 34. Randolph. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 

1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Randolph, Mass. 

TowNE, Archie C. Age 22. Nashua, N. H. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Died Nov. 5, 

18G2, Hilton Head, S. C. 
Trussell, Augustus J. Age 23. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Nov. 15, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Tucker, William O. Age 18. Hopkinton. M. Dec. 18, 1863. Exp. June 29, 
1865. 

Residence, Providence, R. I. 
Tyler, Albert W. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Detailed in Band. 
Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Residence, Washington, D. C. 
Wales, Charles C. Age 26. Douglas. M. Feb. 23, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, . 



372 ' FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Waters, Alfred S. Age 18. Springfield. M. Dec. 3, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Kesideuce, . 

Waters, Hexry C. Age 35. Cambridge. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Died May 14, 

1864, Washington, D. C. 
Waters, James. Age 27. Lowell. M. Aug. 3, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Weston, Henry C. Age 26. Hopkinton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. On detached ser. 
in Band as Band Master. With regt. most of the time. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, Chicago, 111. 
White, Robert. Age 25. Springfield. M. Aug. 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Whiting, Charles H. Age 19. Quincy. M. Sept. 19, 1861. On detached ser. 
as Acting Com. Sergt. under Gens. Averell and Gregg, Jan. 5, 1863, to Aug. 19, 
1864. In all eng. while with Co. Exp. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Whittier, Lyman P. Age 22. Haverhill. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Detailed in Band. 

Died Sept. 8, 1862, Beaufort, S. C. 
*Whittier, William P. Age 25. Sanbornton, N. H. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reen- 

listed Jan. 1, 1864. Disch. for dis. Sept. 23, 1864. 
WiTHAM, Charles O. Age 31. Falmouth. M. Jan. 27, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

t Deserted from picket, leaving his horse tied in the woods, where it was found eleven days afterward, 
in a starving condition. 

COMPANY E. 

**Flagg, George W. 1st. Sergt. 

**Phillips, Alton E. 1st. Sergt. 

**Lyman, Timothy P. Q. M. Sergt. 

**BuTLER, Horace M. Q. M. Sergt. Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. 

Brooks, Thomas B. Com. Sergt. Age 18. Blandford. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Pris. 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Unionville, Conn. 
***Phillips, Charles O. Com. Sergt. 
Bellon, Patrick. Sergt. Age 22. Otis. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 

29, 1863. Deserted Apr. 14, 1864, on furlough. 

Residence, . 

Blakelin, Simon. Sergt. Age 23. Charlotte, Me. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Slightly 

wounded, head and shoulder, with sabre, June 9, 1863, Stevensburg. Pris. Nov. 

29, 1863, Parker's Store ; at Belle Isle and Andersonville 16 mos. ; paroled Apr. 

1, 1865. In all eng. of Co. except when pris. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Lawrence, Mass. 
Carson, James L. Sergt. Age 19. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted 

Dec. 29, 1863. In all eng. of Co. from Antietam to exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Torrington, Conn. 
Dudley, Ezra J. Sergt. Age 23. Blandford. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted 

Dec. 29, 1863. Missing in action. May 11, 1864. Exp. July 1, 1865. 
Residence, Falls Village, Conn. 
**Hayden, Frank W. Sergt. 
MiXTER, Gilbert L. Sergt. Age .34. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Pris. 

Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store ; at Belle Isle Dec. 1, 1863 ; in spring of 1864 taken 

to Andersonville, where he died July 27, 1864. 
Ordway, N. P. (Alvin B. Ordway). Sergt. Age 18. Haverhill. M. Oct. 13, 1861. 

Pris. Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store ; at Belle Isle Dec. 1, 1863 to Mar. 15, 1864, 

then in Andersonville. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. (Alviu B. enlisted, but N. P. Ord- 
way served in his place). 

Residence, Greenland, N. H. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 373 

PlNKHAM HoLLis C. Sergfc. Age 25. Boston. M. Oct. 31, 1861. 2d Lieut 2d 

Mass. Cav. Dec. 29, 1862. 1st Lieut. Mar. 1, 1864. Exp. July 20 1865 
Stewart James Sergt. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discli. for 
dis. Mar. 2b, 1863. 

Residence, . 

SUNBURY, Horace A. Sergt. Age 28. S.Reading. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Wounded 
lett hip and ankle, hept. 16, 1862, Antietani. Reenlisted Dec. 19, 1863. Serfft 
ri ^'J^v* T P^f tically in all eng. of regt. to Nov. 9, 1864, when pro. 2d Lieut." 
61st M. V. I. ; 1st Lieut. Mar. 16, 1865. Exp. July 16, 1865. 
Residence, Chelsea, Mass. 
Walton, Solox. Sergt. Age 31. S. Reading. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Corp De- 
tailed in Band. Exp. Sept. 18, 1864. ^ 
Residence, Greenwood, Mass. 
White William O. Sergt. Age 24. Springfield. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Corp 
lipQ 1? • 1 'c: '''' Pio»f I- two yrs. Wounded, right knee, by shell Sept. IL 
1863, Rapidan Sta. In all eng. of Co. to exp., Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Holyoke, Mass. 
^-^""To?; ^''"'' ^- ^^^St- H^ 26. Shutesbury. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Exp. Nov. 
Residence, . 

Wiley, Augustus T. Sergt. Age 29. S. Reading. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Killed 
dune y, ISbJ, Stevensburg. 

"^""ioTq'pS'''^?'' ^; ^''"P- ^^^^^- Bl»ehill, Me. M. Dec.3,186L Corp. Mar. 

fti r ; J"."^ /T,°^ ^°- *''^ ^^''^''- ^°^ f^^^- J""« ^> 1863. Enlisted iu Co. I, 
61st regt. M. V. I. Feb. 2, 1865. Exp. July 16, 1865. 
Residence, St. Regis' Falls, N. Y. 

^""TT^iST^i^- ^,'''"P.- .^^"^ ^'^- Winchendon. M. Mar. 30, 1864. Orderly 
Vfi Vr! T ^^^^"^"^^2,^ ^ y'-ll- Wounded in left arm and side (minie ball) Sept. 
iVf r V r"i?^"^ ^°''''^- T^" Pri»«ipal e»g- of Co. during term of enlist- 

ment. C«n^- I^eb I860 Exp. June 26, 1865. Enlisted in Co. H, 53d regt. 
M. V. I. Oct. 8, 1862. Exp. Sept. 2, 1863. " 

Residence, Cavendish, Vt. 

*^FeTT9 f«Vr% -^T- o^'J?- Vi"Sfi<^W- M. Oct. 9, 1861. Reenlisted 
i^eb. 22, 1864. Pns. June 9, 1864. Exp. June 6, 1865. 

Greer John B. Corp. Age 23, Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 186L Horse shot 

and fell causing injury, pns. Sept. 5, 1862, Poolesville ; paroled and returned to 

regt. same mght. Disch. for dis. Jan. 9, 1863. 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 

*"DeT^q ^RC^'^'l ^- T^^'^o if^' ^^^ ^^"^"P^"" ^- ^"^^ ^^ 1862. Reenlisted 
uec. z\), l»b3. Exp. June 2, 1865. 

^^"^J'p^^^^'^-r^-^ Corp. Age 37. Boston. M. Oct. 27, 1861. Pris. Nov. 29, 
1863, Parker's Store. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, . 

°5\?6o^PnT''^-, ^^"^-v^^^^^- SP^i"fffi«l<i- M. Sept. 14, 186L Pris. Sept. 
T fv'JZ . I^eenhsted Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in leg May 5, 1864, 
Todd s Tav. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Residence, Worcester, Mass. 

^'''T{SvTlfl^\P''''^- A^f.^?- ^°"^''^^- M. Sept. 18, I86L Pris. Nov. 
f?om hL A 1 ^^"'mi' '^*.?""" ^^^" ^i '"°^-' "^ Andersonville 71 mos.; escaped 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 

^jtinriVS^'sfi?'^?!?- ^^'"^-r^^!^^- Northampton. M. Aug. 20, 1862. Pris. 
Residence — ■'^^^"^''*^^ ^^'^^ ^9, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Ufford^I^orris. Corp. Age 24. Springfield. M. Feb. 29, 1864. Transferred 

Residence, — — . 



374 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

ViGEANT, Abraham. Corp. Age 22. Acushnet. M. Mar. 21, 1864. Exp. Juue 
26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Young, Walter T. Corp. Age — . Buckland. M. Feb. 10, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

Residence, Greenfield, Mass. 
Powell, Timothy J. Bugl. Age 23. Blandford. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Detailed 
in Baud. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 1863. Regtl. Chief Bugl. Exp. Juue 26, 1865. 

xvcsidcncG • 

WiTHEY, William H. Bugl. Age 18. Audover. M. Nov. 23, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Jennings, Charles H. Far. Age 21. Adams. M. Feb. 5, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

1.X6S1(1g11CG • 

Meacham, George S. Far. Age 29. Boston. M. Sept. 29, 1861. Reenlisted 
Dec. 29, 1863. Transferred to V. R. C. Sept. 14, 1864. 
Residence, Providence, R. I. 
Williams, Lyman W. Sad. Age 26. Williamsburg. M. Sept. 14, 1861. 
Wounded on head (sabre), pris. Juue 17, 1863, Aldie ; at Belle Isle and Rich- 
mond 42 days. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
*Abbott, George W. Age 38. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. \V ounded June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Pris. Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Allen, Henry C. Age 19. Conway. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Lost right arm Sept. 
14, 1863, Rapidan Sta. Disch. for dis. Nov. 8, 1863. 
Residence, Beloit, Wis. 
*Arms, George F. Age 19. Conway. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 

Baker, Edwin F. Age 22. Blandford. M. Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Gardner, Mass. . ^„^. 

Baldwin, William. Age 21. Hadley. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

XtCsidGiicP — — ■, 
Bartlett, Carl. Age 22. Dennis. M. Jan. 18, 1864. Pris. Sept. 16, 1864, 

Jerusalem Plank Road. Died Nov. 16, 1864, Andersonville. 
Bassford, David, Jr. Age 33. Boston. M. Dec. 13, 1863. Exp. June 26, I860, 
absent sick. 

Residence, Hanover, Mass. >-^ , , -r tonn ^ 

Bellew, Robert. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Orderly June, 1863 to 

Oct., 1864. In all eng. with Co. from Nov., 1862, to Oct., 1864. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, Philadelphia, Penn. -r^. , . o/> 

Bemis, Reuben S. Age 23. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Died Aug. 26, 

1862, Acquia Creek. , -rx o,^ ,o/>< 

Booth, John. Age 40. Chicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Deserted Dec. 26, 1861. 

I\.bsicIgiicg . 

Bookers, Isaac. Age 21. Greenfield. M. Jan. 23, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . „ . t • • j 

BowKER, William. Age 20. Winchendon. M. INLarch 26, 1864. Leg injured 
Sept. 19, 1864 (horse being killed and falling on it). In eng. at Cedar Creek and 
most of those in Shenandoah Valley with 2d Mass. Cav. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Cavendish, Vt. 
Boyle, Patrick. Age 32. Enfield. M. Feb. 23, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

I^GsidGIlCG, ■ ■ ■, 

Bradford, Euas F. Age 24. Conway. ]\L Aug. 12, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie; paroled Aug. 1, 1863. Reenlisted Dec. 22, 1863. Practically in eng. of Co. 

till April, 1864. Exp. Juue 26, 1865. Detailed at K Hosp. April 16, 1864, 

to Oct. 8, 1864. 

Residence, Conway, Mass. 





AMASA C. MORSE 



jARIUS H. SHAW 





FARNHUM SCUTHWICK 



HOSF i I TWAVt p 





SlRGT. WILLIAM O. WHITE 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 375 

Breckinbridge, Charles A. Age 22. Waterbury, Vt. M. Sept. 18, 18C1. 

Reenlisted Jan. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Meriden, Conn. 
BuGBY, Franklin A. Age 31. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Exp. Jan. 28, 

1863. 

BuLLARD, William H. Age 23. Buckland. M. Feb. 10, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Burke, Edward. Age 26. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 
1863. Deserted July 26, 1864 ; tried by C. M. ; sentence remitted. Deserted 
May 28, 1865, camp near Arlington Heights. 

Residence, . 

Butler, Marcus. Age 42. Chester. M. Dec. 8, 1863. Right knee badly injured 
by fall from mule, while on detached ser. as teamster June 10, 1864, Fredericksburg. 
In Stanton liosp. 6 mos. ; in Chestnut Hill hosp. at close of war. Exp. June 27, 
1865. 

Residence, Otis, Mass. 
Carpenter, James W. Age 25. Roxbury. M. Oct. 11, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 

1863. Thrown from horse ; slightly injured, Poolesville. In most eng. of regt. 
Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Boston Highlands, Mass. 
Chandler, Cornelius. Age 27. Longmeadow. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Detailed 
in Band. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Chase, Franklin. Age 24. Biddeford, Me. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Orderly Doc, 
1861, to Aug., 1862, under Q. M. Knight. Wounded in hand, neck, side (sabre, 
gunshot, rupture), Sept. 15, 1863, near Culpeper. Pris. while on picket there and 
sent to hosp. No. 12, and Belle Isle ; pris. about 4 mos. Eng. Antietam, Peters- 
burg, Ogdensburg. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Montreal, P. Q. Can. 
Childs, Alphonzo F. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 30, 1862. Pris. May 11, 

1864, on Sheridan's Raid. Died Aug. 20, 1864, Andei'sonville. 

Church, William II. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 29, 1862. Pris. Nov. 29, 1863. 

Parker's Store ; at Belle Isle, Dec. 1, 1863, then taken to Andersonville, where he 

died, June 17, 1864. 
Clarey, James W. Age 22. Stockbridge. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Pris. Deep Bot- 
tom. Died Oct. 6, 1864, Andersonville. 
Clark, Wallace S. Age 21. Northampton. M. Aug. 25, 1864. Exp. May 8, 

1865. 

Residence, . 

*Cloughlin, Robert. Age 24. Southwick. M. Jan. 9, 1865. Exp. June 26, 

1865. 
Cochran, Robert J. Age 22. Ilolyoke. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Orderly under 

Gen. Hooker, 1864. Practically in ail eng. of Co. to exp., Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Tower City, No. Dakota. 
Cole, Daniel D. Age 21. Barre. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, Barre, Mass. 
COLTON, Edgar S. Age 25. Longmeadow. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Wounded in right 

shoulder, and missing, June 17, 1863, Aldie. Transferred to Invalid C. Mar. 4, 

1864. 

Residence, . 

COOMES, James M. Age 38, Longmeadow. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Pris. June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Paroled July 21 - Aug. 13, 1863. Pris. Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's 

Store ; at Belle Isle Dec. 1, 1863; in Andersonville, spring of 1864, where he died. 

May 4, 1864. 
Cooley, John M. Age 22. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Wounded in action 

Aug. 1, 1863. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, . 



376 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Cook, William O. Age 21. Leydeu. M. Jan. 22, 1SG4. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Crane, David. Age 20. Rehoboth. M. Aug. 26, 1864. Exp. May 8, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Cronin, Patrick. Age 29. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Crosby, William B. Age 47. Springfield. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Discli. for dis. 
Sept. 1, 1862. 

Residence, . 

CuRRAN, Cornelius. Age 29. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discb. for dis. 
Jan. 8, 1863. 

Residence, . 

*CuRLEY, Edward. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Dee. 15, 1863. Exp. June 26, 

1865. 
Curtis, William P. Age 26. S. Danvers. M. Feb. 8, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Day, Henry F. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discb. for dis. Sept. 1, 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Degencing, Jacob. Age 21. Boston. M. Mar. 12, 1864. Exp. July 17, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Doherty, Patrick. Age 35. Cambridge. M. Dec. 11, 1863. Exp. June 8, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Donovan, Dennis. Age 18. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

*DuLY, Melville. Age 41. Cbicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Easton, Ralph. Age 24. Westfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Edwards, Samuel W. Age 38. Westbampton. M. Sept. 3, 1864. Exp. May 8, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Erhart, John G. Age 23. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discb. for dis. June 
3, 1862. 

XvGSKlGnCG — — , 

Evans, Henry A. Age 27. Dorchester. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Died Oct. 14, 1862, 

Mt. Pleasant bosp., Wasbington, D. C. 
Fowler, Edwin F. Age 25. Deerfield. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, Greenfield, Mass. 
Fuller, William S. Age 24. Springfield. M. Aug. 19, 1862. Died Jan. 10, 

1863, Annapolis, Md. 
Galloway, Henry H. Age 19. Eastbampton. M. July 28, 1864. Exp. June 

26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Galencia, Perley. Age 22. S. Danvers. M. Feb. 8, 1864. Wounded tbrougb 

neck (minie-ball) June 28, 1864, near Malvern Hill. On detacbed ser. at Cav. 

Corral winter of 1864-65 under Lieut. Stone. In eng. of Co. till wounded. 

Exp. June 26, 1865. Enlisted 17tb Regt. M. Y. I. July 22, 1861. Discb. for 

dis. July 11, 1862. 5tb Regt. M. V. I. Sept. 16, 1862. Exp. July 2, 1863. 
Residence, So. Peabody, Mass. 
*Gardner, James. Age 26. Cambridge. M. Dec. 10, 1863. Discb. for dis. Aug. 

10, 1865. 
*Garvin, William. Age 30. Springfield. M. Sept. 30, 1862. Wounded June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 377 

Gates, Horace. Age 30. Ludlow. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Sept. 8, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Goodman, Charles S. Age 19. Springfield. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Reenlisted 
Feb. 12, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

GoucH, George. Age 39. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Transferred to 
V. R. C. Nov. 20, 1863. 

RosiciGncG ■ 

Gove, Charles F. Age 27. Concord. M. Oct. 27, 1863. Exp. July 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Gove, Frederick H. Age 25. Springfield. M. Jan. 22, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

X\i6SIQ.BIlC6 -^■^—~— 

*Graves, Charles F. Aje 24. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 

1864. 
Gray, Hiram A. Age 25. Conway. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Detailed in band. Pris. 
May 2, 1863, Ely's Ford ; at Belle Isle two weeks. In principal eng. of Co. Exp. 
Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, New Haven, Conn. 
Hackett, Jeremiah. Age 35. Lawrence. M. July 6, 1864. Disch. for dis. June 
15, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Hall, Eliphalet L. Age 18. Conway. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Harding, Baxter. Age 27. Conway. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Detailed in band. 

Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Harding, Tyler. Age 21. Conway. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Orderly June, 1862, 
Beaufort, S. C, under Gen. Brennan. Clerk at Brig. Commissary's Jan. to 
June, 1863. Clerk for Regtl. Q. M. Jan. to Apr., 1864. Clerk at Div. Hdqrs., to 
Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. In principal eng. of Co. 
Residence, Des Moines, Iowa. 
Haselton, Hollis B. Age 21. Roxbury. M. Mar. 31, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Herman, John Martin. Age 21. Buckland. M. Jan. 30, 1864. Exp. July 17, 
1865. 

Residence, •. 

HiGGixs, John. Age 27. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Eng. Poolesville, Au- 
tietam. Disch. for dis. Nov. 17, 1862. 

Residence, . 

HiNES, Patrick H. Age 19. Holyoke. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Pris. May 3, 1863, 
Ely's Ford ; at Belle Isle. Paroled June 10, 1863. Wounded through chest, 
Nov. 27, 1863, Mine Run. Practically in all eng. of Co. to exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Walpole, Mass. 
HoGAN, Thomas. Age 28. Northampton. M. Sept. 1, 1861. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie ; paroled July 21-Aug. 13. Transferred to V. R. C. Mar. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

HoLLE, Gottlieb. Age 26. Deerfield. M. Jan. 27, 1864. Ex-p. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, New Britain, Conn. 
HoRRiGAN, Arthur. Age 31. South wick. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Killed Sept. 14, 

1863, Rapidan Station. 
Howe, Edward R. Age 42. Beverly. M. July 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Hubbard, Sherman W. Age 30. Boston. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Oct. 2, 1862. 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 



378 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Jetter, William. Age 20. Greenfield. M. Jan. 28, 1864. Sent to front on ob- 
servation, May 9, 1804, never seen after. 
KiBBE, Curtis L. Age 28. Otis. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Died July 10, 1863, on 

furlough from liosp. 
KiBBE, Harlow 13. Age 39. Palmer. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. Feb. 
14, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*KiDDER, George II. Age 27. Saugus. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Reenlisted Dee. 29, 

1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
*KiNG, Francis E. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Wounded in left 
hand and thigh (rifle-ball), July 10, 1863, Jones' Cross Roads. Eng. Aldie, Get- 
tysburg. Transferred to V. R. C. Apr. 24, 1864. 
Knatt, Christian. Age 25. Greenfield. M. Jan. 30, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Shelburne Falls, Mass. 
Lane, William. Age 27. Springfield. M. Sept. 17, 1864. Exp. June 8, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Lincoln, Sherlock H. Age 43. Warren. M. Dec. 9, 1861. Eng. with Co. till 
disch. for dis. Nov. 19, 1862. 
Residence, Plainfield, Mass. 
LiTTLEHALE, JoHN D. Age 18. Tvngsboro. M. Feb. 20, 1864. Wounded 
througli left shoulder (rifle-ball) May 11, 1864, Ashland, Ya. Eng. Wilderness, 
Sheridan's Raid to Richmond. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Fitchburg, Mass. 
LocKLiNG, Joel M. Age 28. Lowell. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Pris. Nov. 29, 1863, 
Parker's Store ; at Belle Isle, Dec. 1, 1863 ; in spring of 1864 taken to Andcrson- 
ville, where he died May 17, 1864. 
Lyon, Charles H. Age 21. Danvers. M. Oct. 26, 1863. Killed May 11, 1864, 

Ashland Va. 
Markle, Balthas. Age 23. Deerfield. M. Jan. 27, 1864. Wounded in leg, 
Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem Pllank Road. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Mason, Andrew A. Age 44. Boston. M. Aug. 1, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 

1863. Killed May 11, 1864, Ashland, Va. 
McGray, Eugene T. Age 24. Springfield. M. Aug. 4, 1862. Wounded (toe 
amputated) July 10, 1803, Jones' Cross Roads, Va. Transferred to V. R. C. 
April 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

McCoLLESTER, Nelson. Age 32. Holyoke. M. Sept. 18, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1S64, 

Residence, Holjoke, Mass. 
*McGowEN, Daniel. Age 35. Pawtucket, R. I. M. Oct. 2, 1861. Disch. for 

dis. April 4, 1864, from Augur Gen. Hosp. 
McGrail, John. Age 23. Boston. M. Oct. 13, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 5, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

McNamara, Thomas. Age 19. Brighton. M. Oct. 13, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Sept. 17, 1862. 

Residence, Allston, Mass. 
Melenfy, John. Age 25. Warehouse Pt., Conn. M. Sept. 18, 1862. Severely 
wounded in right hip (rifle-ball) Jan. 8, 1863, Frede ricksburg. In all eng. of 
Co. to exp., Nov. 7, 1864, (Known in Co. as "The Bold Dragoon.") 
Residence, Collinsville, Mass. 
Merton, Henry. Age 20. Springfield. M. Jan. 2, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1805. 

Residence, . 

*Miller, AVilliam. Age 39. Chicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 

1803. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Miller, Daniel G. Age 31. Chicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 379 

Miles, Roger. Age 39. Boston. M. Oct. 13, 1861. Disch. for dis. Oct. 3, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Montague, Thomas A. Age 21. Buckland. M. Feb. 10, 1864. Co. Clerk Feb. 
15, 1864. Regtl. Clerk Nov. 1864, to exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Morse, Amasa C. Age — . Springfield. M. Aug. 20, 1862. Wounded in left 
side and prisoner June 17, 1863, Aldie ; at Winchester four weeks. Eng. Stevens- 
burg, Aldie. Disch. for dis. 'Oct. 27, 1863. 
Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
*]SrEARY, Patrick. Age 23. Lowell. M. Nov. 30, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Owens, Patrick. Age 21. Palmer. M. Oct. 6, 1861. Wounded accidentally 
April 24, 1863. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Page, Charles K. Age 31. Lowell. M. Oct. 19, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, — — . 
Parker, Henry H. Age 20. Southampton. M. Feb. 24, 1864. Deserted July 
26, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Pasho, Gardner. Age 18. Billerica. M. Dec. 9, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Perkins, Joseph. Age 32. Waltham. M. Jan. 18, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Phelps, Charles S. i\ge 34. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Disch. for dis. Jan. 
5, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Pickins, Silas D. Age 32. Lakeville. M. Aug. 19, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Pierce, Henry N. Age 30. Lowell. M. Sept. 3, 1864. Disch. for dis. Mar. 8, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Pinkney, Asberry C. Age 37. Springaeld. M. Jan. 22, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

PuRCELL, Philip. Age 25. Northampton. M. Oct. 31, 1861. On detached ser. 

as Pro. Gd. under Capt. Ford. Pris. Dec. 12, 1863, while on detail as Ord. for 

Engineers ; at Richmond, Belle Isle, Andersonville, 16 mos. Paroled April 1, 

1865. All eng. of Co. except while pris. Exp. May 22, 1865. 

Residence, Providence, R. I. 

Putnam, Charles H. Age 25. Springfield. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Died July 3, 

1863, Springfield, Mass. 
Putnam, Charles H. Age 30. S. Danvers. M. Jan. 28, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, Lynnfield, Mass. 
Quirk, Martin J. Age 18. Boston. M. Jan. 13, 1864. Pris. May 11, 1804, 

Ashland. Died Mar. 21, 1865, Andersonville. 
Ragen, Cornelius. Age 18. Weymouth. M. Nov. 4, 1863. Exj). June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Dedham, Mass. 
Raymond, Frederick M. Age 19. W. Springfield. M. Feb, 29, 1864. Pris. 

May 11, 1864, Ashland. Died Mar. 5, 1865, Millen, Ga. 
Remington, Orin D. Age 24. Conway. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Remmington, Robert A. Age 29. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Pris. Nov. 
29, 1863, Parker's Store ; at Belle Isle Dec. 1, 1803 ; in spring of 1864 taken to 
Andersonville, where he died July 26, 1864. 
Richards, Marshall N. Age 22. Greenwich. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Pris. June 
17, 1863, Aldie ; escaped same night. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 1863. Detailed to go 
with Pres. Lincoln to Richmond and Petersburg. In principal eng. of Co. Exp. 
June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Hardwick, Mass. 



380 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Roach, Patrick. Age 21. Cambridge. M. Jan. 19, 18G4. Wounded in side and 
leg July 28, 1864, New Market. Disch. for dis. Dec. 28, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Sampson, Robert. Age 35. Dennis. M. Jan. 18, 1864. Transferred to Navy 
April 23, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Scott, Henry E. Age 22. Springfield. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Scout to Gen. 
Averell in 1862. Pris. Dec. 20, 1862, near Warrenton ; in Libby ; paroled Jan. 
6, 1863. Disch. for dis. (caused by injury received when captured) Feb. 17, 
1863. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Seari.e, George E. Age 32. Westfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 
29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Searles, James H. Age 21. Andover. M. Nov. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Shaw, Jarius H. Age 41. Lakeville. M. Aug. 19, 1862. Pris. Nov. 29, 1863, 
Parker's Store ; escaped by taking pris. the captor. Reenhsted Dec. 29, 1863. 
Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Middleboro, Mass. 
Sheldon, James H. Age 25. Deerfield. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 
29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Deerfield, Mass. 
Sheer an, John. Age 24. Greenfield. M. Mar. 15, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

SiZER, JuDSON S. Age 18. Blandford. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded in thigh 
Oct. 12, 1863, Sulphur Sp. Exp. Oct. 14, 1864. 
Residence, Kearney, Neb. 
Skinner, Gustavus F. D. Age 36. S. Reading. M. Feb. 29, 1864. Exp. July 5, 
1865. 

Residence, ■ . 

*Sleeper, George W. Age 18. Winchendon. M. June 25, 1864. Exp. June 

26, 1865. 
Small, Joseph W. Age 39. Monson. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Rejected Oct. 24, 
1861. 

Residence, 

Smith, Lewis. Age 36. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 6, 
1863. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Lucius. Age 36. Springfield. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 
29, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Smythe, Matthew W. Age 44. Waltham. M. Dec. 31, 1864. Exp. June £6, 
1865. 

Residence, 

SouTHWiCK, Farnhum. Age 22. Springfield. M. Aug. 16, 1862. On Provost 
duty, Gen. Gregg and Davies' hdqrs. Jan., 1864, to exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
Spear, Joseph F. Age 30. Shutesbury. M. Dec. 26, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 28, 
1863. Exp. June 26, 1861 

Residence, . 

Stearns, Henry A. Age 25. Conway. M. Aug. 11, 1862. In all eng. of Co. to 
exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, Conway, Mass. 
Steiniiart, John W. Age 20. Charlestown. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Pris. Nov. 29, 
1863, Parker's Store ; at Belle Isle Dec. 1, 1803, taken to Andersonville in spring 
of 1864 ; died at Florence, S. C, Oct. 27, 1864. 




E COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 381 

Sullivan, John. Age 19. Charlestown. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Disch. for clis. Oct. 

20, 1862. 

Residence, Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Sumner, E. Otis. Age 40. Dorchester. M. Oct. 15, 1861. Severely wounded in 

chest May 28, 1864, near Chickahoniiny Riv., Sheridan's Raid. Died of wounds 

May 31, 1864. 
*SvvEETSER, John E. Age 22. S. Reading. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Mar. 25, 1863. 
Thayer, Hosea L. Age 20. Plainfield. M. Dec. 16, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 

1863. Practically in all eng. of Co. Exp. June 29, 1865. 
Residence, Ruxbury, Mass. 

TiLTOX, Ukorge F. Age 21. Conway. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Wounded in hip Nov. 
29, 1863, Parker's Store. Died of wounds Dec. 21, 1863, Alexandria. 

Tilling AST, William H. Age 37. Dedham. M. Dec. 11, 1861. Reenlisted 
Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in abdomen July 28, 1864, New Market. Died of 
wounds Aug. 31, 1864. 

Twiss, Charles H. Age 18. S. Scituate. M. Sept. 2, 1864. Exp. May 8, 
1865. 

Residence, Beverly Mass. 

*Vial, Edward W. Age 33. Pawtucket, R. I. M. Oct. 3, 1861. Transferred to 
Indt. Batt. Sept. 12, 1862, as Hosp. Steward. Thrown from horse at Olustee, caus- 
ing internal injuries. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864, as Hosp. Steward of 4th Mass. Cav. 

VOETSCH, Amundus. Age 25. Greenfield. M. Jan. 27, 1864. Wounded in neck 
Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. Exp. June 28, 1865. 
Residence, Turner's Falls, Mass. 

Webster, Luther. Age 32. Springfield. M. Jan. 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Wells, Henry H. Age 19. Greenfield. M. Mar, 15, 1864. Wounded May 5, 

1864, Todd's Tav. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, 

Whittemore, Thomas. Age 43. Chelsea. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Mar. 4, 1863. 

Residence, • 

Wiley, Albert S. Age 28. S. Reading. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Wounded through 
right lung and pris. Sept. 5, 1862, Poolesville ; paroled on field. Disch. for dis. 
Nov. 19, 1862. Reenlisted Feb. 29, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Wakefield, Mass. 
Wilder, Henry J. Age 21. Conway. M. Sept. 18, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 
1863. Wounded in left breast July 30, 1864. Lee's Mills. Died of wounds July 
31, 1864. 
Wilton, William B. Age 18. S. Scituate. M. Sept. 2, 1864. Exp. May 8, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Worthington, Ransford, Jr. Age 34. Agawam. M. Oct. 4, 1861. Exp. Nov. 
7, 1864. 

Residence, Agawam, Mass. 
Wright, William. Age 20. Saugus. M. Dec. 9, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, . 



382 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



COMPANY F. 

Smith, William H. 1st Sergt. Age 22. Holyoke. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reeuiisted 
Dec. 26, 1863. Abounded iii arm and breast'(riile-ball) Oct. 1, 1861, Vaughn R., 
Va. In all eng. of Co. Exp. June 26, 1865, as 1st Sergt. in Co. E. 
Residence, St. Armand, P. Q. Canada. 
Ross, James C. 1st Sergt. Age 26. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861 (reduced to ranks). 

Transferred to Co. H. and pro. 1st Segt. 
**Gleason, Daniel H. L. 1st Sergt. Transferred from Co. G. 
**Clark, Duett C. 1st Sergt. 

Pease, Vashni H. Q. M. Sergt. Age 27. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. 
Com. Sergt. Oct. 10, 1861. Q. M. Sergt. Mar., 1863. Reenlisted Dec. 28, 1863. 
Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. June 19, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Sixteen Acres, Mass. 
Hyde, I:dwin O. Com. Sergt. Age 23. Southampton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Corp. 
Nov. 1, 1861 ; Sergt. Nov. 4, 1861 ; Com. Sergt. Sept. 15, 1862. Wounded 
slightly iu right shoulder, Aug. 19, 1864, Deep Bottom. Wounded severelv in 
right thigh Aug. 23, 1864, Weldon R. R. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 1863. Practically 
in all eng. of Co. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. as Com. Sergt. 
Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 
Lloyd, Francis M. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864, as absent sick. 

Residence, . 

Lloyd, James F. Sergt. Age 25. Springfield. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reenlisted 
Dec. 20, 1803. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 

Residence, . 

**LoMBARD, Francis O. Sergt. 

Nevins, Joseph. Sergt. Age 26. Monson. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Prls. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Dec. 27, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. as Sergt. 

Residence, . 

Newall, Bernard. Sergt. Age 27. Greenfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted 

Dec. 26, 1863. Killed July 28, 1864, Newmarket. 
Prescott, Cy R. Sergt. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted 
Dec. 20, 1863. Wounded iu thigh May (5 to 14), 1864, Wilderness. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. E. as Sergt. 

Residence, . 

Brooks, Preston V. B. Corp. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted 
Dec. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, iu Co. E. as Corp. 
Residence, Cuttingsville, Vt. 
Sampson, Ichabod. Corp. Age 31. Medford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded in 
right leg (ritle-ball) May 11, 1864, Ashland. In all eng. of Co. till wounded. 
Exp. Oct. 16, 1864. 

Residence, Pembroke, Me. 
RowE, Jacob F. Corp. Age 30. Springfield. M. Aug. 4, 1802. Reenlisted 
Feb. 0, 1864. Fracture of fibula, Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. Exp. 
June 17, 1865, as Corp. in Co. E. 

Residence, . 

Rouse, John D. Corp. Age 19. Pittsfield. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Exp. Sept. 18, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Woodbury, George E. Corp. Age 28. Boston. M. Nov. 1, 1861. Orderly in 
Sept., 1862, under Gen. II. B. Sargent. Wounded in abdomen Nov. 29, 1863, 
Parker's Store. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 1863. In all eng. of Co. till transferred to 
U. S. Signal Corps, Apr., 1864. 
Residence, Brockton, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 383 

Hanson, John G. Bugi. Age 22. Boston. Transferred from Co. G. Exp. 
Sept. 24, 18G4. 

Residence, . 

SissoN, William H. Bugl. Age 22. Holyoke. M. Aug. 11, 18G2. Slightly 
wounded in left arm by piece of shell, Sept. 14, 1863, Rapidan. Oct., 1863, 
severely injured by fall from horse (never recovered). Sent to Hosp. Giesboro 
Pt. Clerk of Court Mar. winter of 1862-63, Warrenton. In all eng. of Co. from 
Fredericksburg to Auburn (inclusive). Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Cornish Flat, N. H. 
Wentworth, Watson L. Bugl. Age 18. Chlcopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reen- 
listed Dec. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. as Bugl. 

Residence, . 

*Weston, Frank J. Bugl. Age 19. Chicopee. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Exp. Sept. 

18, 1864. 
*GiRARD, James S. Blacksmith. Age 41. Boston. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Reen- 

listed Dee. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 186-5, in Co. E. as Blacksmitli. 
Couch, Daniel B. JSad. Age 18. Conway. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Severely 
wounded in abdomen, June 17, 1863, Aldie ; also sabre cut on head and shoulder. 
Reenlisted Dec. 20, 1863. On detached ser. at Dismounted Camp, City Point, 
under Maj. Tucker, June, 1864, to Mar., 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865, iu Co. E. as 
Sad. 

Residence, Concordia, Kan. 
McGregor, Alexander M. Sad. Age 30. Boston. M. Oct. 22, 1861. Exp. 

Jan. 2, 1864, to reenlist. (See Co. G.) 
Folsom, Stephen G. Wag. Age 40. Chicopee. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Reenlisted. 
Dec. 20, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. as Wag. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
*Abbey, Abner M. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Abell, George A. Age 23. Conway. M. Aug. 1, 1862. On detached ser. as 
teamster, July, 1863, to Jan., 1864. Pris. Oct. 24, 1863, near Bealton Station ; 
escaped at midnight, Oct. 26 ; severely injured by kick of horse Oct. 9, 1864. 
Exp. Nov. 7, 1864 (on detached service in Band). 
Residence, Meriden, Conn. 
Allen, Louis S. Age 22. Blandford. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Armitage, James W. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Transferred to 

V. R. C. Apr. 1, 1863. 
Babcock, Addison M. Age 28. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Babcock, Livingston. Age 26. Springfield. M. Aug. 20, 1862. Missing in 
action in 1863. 

Residence, . 

*Bannister, William, Age 22. Lowell. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Nov. 28, 1862. 
Barden, Joel. Age 43. Chicopee. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Sept. 1, 1863. 

Residence, Diamond Hill, R. I. 
Beals, Joseph. Conway. M. Aug. 8, 1862. On detached ser. as baker under 
Dr. J. L. Panerass, Nov. 1, 1863. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Goshen, Mass. 
Bement, Emory H. Age 21. Conway. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Bickford, Thomas. Age 23. Boston. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Deserted Dec. 3, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Blake, Joseph W. Age 27. Lee. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 27, 1863. 
Transferred to U. S. Stmr. Sabine, Apr. 28, 1864. Exp. Sept. 21, 1865. 
Residence, Monterey, Mass. 



384 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Blanchard, Isaac C. Age 37. Huntington. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Sept. 13, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Bush, Aaron V. Age 28. Lincoln, Vt. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded in arm and 

body Oct. 12, 1863, Sulphur Sp. Died of wounds Nov. 21, 1863. 
BusHEE, Francis A. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1801. Acting Corp. 

Wounded, pris., and died in prison. May 11, 1864, Ashland, Va. 
Cannon, Franklin L. Age 23. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1801. Wounded in 
arm (sabre), 1862. On detached ser.. Convalescent Camp, Va., till disch. Feb. 13, 
1863. Reenlisted Dec. 22, 1803, in Co. L. 2d H. A. Exp. Sept. 3, 1865. 
Residence, Blandford, Mass. 
Chapman, Charles T. Age 21. Pittsfield. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Pris. June 17, 

1803, Aldie. Died Aug. 28, 1863, Annapolis. 
Collins, Horace R. R. Age 33. Belchertown. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. Feb. 4, 1863. 

Residence, West Mansfield, Mass. 
Connair, George W. Age 42. Boston. M. Dec. 23, 1863. Exp. May 26, 1865. 
(See Co. G.) 

Residence, . 

CooLEY, Lyman A. Age 21. Palmer. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Deserted Dec. 25, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

CoPELAND, Charles R. Age 40. Huntington. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. Feb. 13, 1863. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Cowles, John S. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 

1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 
Residence, Hartford, Conn. 

Crafts, Preston C. Age 27. Charlestown. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 
Davenport, Benjamin F. Age 27. Holyoke. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Reenlisted 
Dec. 20, 1863. Received spinal and internal injuries, by fall of horse, May 11, 

1864. In husp., Washington, May 25, 1864, till disch. Feb. 3, 1865. Transferred 
to V. R. C. Jan. 10, 1865. 

Residence, South Hadlev Falls, Mass. 
Day, Eben. Age 44. Cambridge. M. Nov. 27, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Doherty, Neal. Age 23. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 1863. 

Killed Aug. 18, 1864, Malvern Hill. 
Dunham, John M. Age 19. Springfield. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Pris. Oct. 14, 1863, 
Auburn, Va. Oct. 1867, no further record in Washington. 

Residence, . 

Easterbrooks, James E. Age 39. Worcester. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Wounded 
May 11, 1864, Ashland. Died of wounds, July 21, 1864, in hosp. Point Lookout. 
Felch, Joseph E. Age 27. Springfield. M. Aug. 13, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 
1863. AVounded in right knee (rifle-ball), and left leg broken (in a cliarge). 
May 11, 1864, Ashland. Sent to hosp. Point Lookout ; sick with black measles 
while there. All eng. of Co. to time of wounds. Exp. July 18, 1865, in Co. E. 
Residence, Epping, N. H. 
Ferry, Charles H. Age 23. Huntington. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

FiLLEY, William A. Age 30. Huntington. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Jan. 13, 1863. 

XvGSlQ.GriC6 • 

FiLLEY, George W. Age 29. Dedham. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Detailed in regtL 
band, Nov. 21, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864, in Co. H. 
Residence, Waterville, Kan. 




JOSEPH E. STACKPOLE 



WILLIAM E. STEWART 



F COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 385 

Finn, John. Age 22. Wiuthrop. M. Mar. 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*FiSKE, John M. Age 26. HoUiston. M. Aug. 19, 1862. Severely wounded in 
spine Oct. 20, 1862, Washington ; also May 27, 1864, Emmon's Church. Detailed 
in band April, 1863. In principal eng. of regt. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. (Entirely 
helpless for years from diseases contracted in service.) 
Flynn, Dennis. Age 18. Roxbury. M. Mar. 24, 1864. Exp. June 9, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Ford, Stephen. Age 23. Greenfield. M. Feb. 29, 1864. Wounded in arm Aug. 

14, 1864, Malvern Hill. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Residence, . 

Frost, Daniel W. Age 39. Springfield. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 
26, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 
Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
Gamwell, Herbert. Age 26. Chicopee. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted, Dec. 15, 
1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Gardiner, Charles H. Age 21. Huntington. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. April 11, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Gardiner, Seymour. Age 18. Dalton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, St. Louis, Mo. 
Gary, James H. Age 25. Gill. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. April 11, 
1863. 

Residence, . 

*Gillman, Caleb G. Age 38. Peru, Penn. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Mar. 24, 1863. 
Goodale, John. Age 28. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. June 

15, 1864. 

Residence, Hartford, Conn. 
**Gorham, George W. Age 43. Holyoke. 
Gordon, Thomas A. Age 37. Medford. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Goss, Elisha W. Age 22. Longmeadow. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Feb. 5, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Hart, Daniel C. Age 28. Springfield. M. Aug. 4, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 
1863. In principal eng. of regt. till exp., June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 
Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
Hayden, James M. Age 21. Boston. M. Mar. 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*nAYES, Michael. Age 30. Springfield. M. Aug. 2, 1864. Disch. for dis. May 

6, 1865. 
Henry, Michael. Age 23. Salem. M. July 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. June 5, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Hillery, William C. Age 30. Dedhara. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 
13, 1863. 

Residence, . 

House, Edwin J. Age 21. Boston. M. Mar. 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Hoyt, Franklin R. Age 25. Moire, N. Y. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Exp. Oct. 10, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Hubbard, Albion F. Age 18. Conway. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Died June 20, 

1863, Washington, D. C. 
Hull, William H. Age 21. Pittsfield. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 
1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 
Residence, . 



386 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Hunt, Alfred J. Age 31. Lee. M. Sept. 25, 18G1. Disch. for dis. Feb. 11, 
1863. 

Residence, Great Barrington, Mass. 
Hunt, Andrew J. Age 26. Cliicopee. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Acting Corp. On de- 
tached ser. as Ord., 1862, under Col. Morrow, Beaufort, S. C, and Geuls. Hum- 
phrey, Tyler, Hooker, Army of Potomac. In eng. of regt. to Wilderness, when 
sent to iiosp. Harper's Ferry. Afterward Ward-master in hosp., Baltimore, till 
exp. Sept. 14, 1864. 

Residence, Claremont, N. H. 
Ingraham, Henry B. Age 21. Conway. M. Aug. 14, 1861. Wounded in head 
and right arm, and pris. May 11, 1864, Ashland ; in rebel hosp., Richmond, till 
Aug. 22, 1864, when paroled and sent to Annapolis. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Holyoke, Mass. 
Jackson, John W. Age 23. Conway. M. Aug. 1, 1862. Exp. Xov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, Buchanan, Mich. 
Kean, Henry. Age 18. Taunton. M. Nov. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Woburn, Mass. 
KiRKLAND, John. Age 25. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Died Dec. 23, 

1862, Baltimore. 
Kneeland, Edward S. Age 22. Springfield. M. Aug. 20, 1862. Reenlisted 
Dec. 20, 1863. Ex]!. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
Lamphier, John. Age 19. Chester, Vt. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Deserted Dec. 15, 
1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Lane, Julius M. Age 33. Chicopee. M. Aug. 9, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864, as 
absent. 

Residence, Chicopee, Mass. 
*Lasor, Sanford W. Age 28. Lowell. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Transferred to 

V. R. C. Nov. 13, 1863 ; Corp. Co. 57, 2d Batt. Disch. Sept. 13, 1864. 
*Lee, Joseph. Age 26. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. 

Exp. June 17, 1865. 
LooMis, Chester C. Age 23. Springfield. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864, 
as absent. 

Residence , 

Lucas, Stephen. Age 29. Palmer. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Sept. 13, 1864. 

XvGSlQ.GnCC . ■, 

*Lynde, Charles. Age 31. Templeton. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Lyons, James. Age 24. Newton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

RcsiclGiicG - , 

Maloney, John. Age 18. Boston. M. Oct. 10, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 1863. 
Exp. June 26, 1865, as absent. 
Residence, Fitchburg, Mass. 
Mason, George. Age 40. Northfield. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Massey, Richard A. (See Co. H.) 

McFarland, Daniel W. Age 27. Gardner. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Sept. 11, 1862. 

Residence, Norfolk, Mass. 
Miller, John T. Age 27. Boston. M. Mar. 22, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

MiNEHAN, John. Age 21. Holyoke. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Died Feb. 26, 1864, 

Washington, D. C. 
Morris, Kyhn. Age 30. Dedham. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Deserted Nov. 24, 1861, 

Readville. 

Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 387 

Newton, John O. H. Age 25. Springfield. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864, as absent sick. 
I\esi(lence , 

Ober, John P. Age 26. Pittsfield. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
Palmer, Leonidas. Age 23. Boston. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Deserted Nov. 6, 
1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Peck, Chauxcey E. Age 18. Longmeadow. M. Sept. 25, 1861. In principal 
eng. of regt. to exp. Sept. 12, 1864. 
Residence, N. Wilbrahani, Mass. 
Pierce, David D. Age 23. N. Braintree. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
June 30, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Pierce, Lyman L. Age 21. Leverett. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 
1863. 

Residence, •. 

*Priest, Tilly L. Age 30. Springfield. M. Sept. 30, 1862. Transferred to V. 

R. C. Mar. 16, 1864. 
Prouty, Isaac H, Age 41. Brookfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Rathburne, Henry H. Age 22. Pittsfield. M. Nov. 1, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864. 

Residence, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Rice, Augustus M. Age 36. Fitchburg. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Dec. 28, 
1861, Readville. 

JAiGSIcIgIICG 

Rich, Chauncey E.' Age 18. Springfield. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864, 
as absent sick. 

Residence, Allston, Mass. 
Roberts, Smith M. Age 37. Medford. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. Mar. 
18, 1863. 

x\gsic1giicg ■ I I 
Roody, Isaac! Age 40. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864, as 
absent sick. 

Residence, . 

Sawin, Otis W. Age 22. Westminster. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Disch. for dis. Aug. 
9, 1862. 

Residence, Westminster, Mass. 
Scott, Henry R. Age 36. GiU. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Searle, William H. Age 25. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Shove, John J. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 9, 1862. Pris. Oct. 14, 1863, 

Auburn. Died Aug. 23, 1864, Andersonville. 
Smith, Albion G. Age 18. Sutton. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Killed June 3, 1863, 

Sulphur Spr., Va., on patrol. 
Smith, Edwin F. Age 31. Springfield. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 
1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 
Residence, Belchertown, Mass. 
Smith, William H., Jr. Age 18. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. Nov. 15, 1861. 

Residence, N. Grafton, Mass. 
Smith, William L. Age 34. Springfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 
1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 
Residence, . 



388 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Stackpole, Joseph, Age 26. Chicopee. M. Aug. G, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 

1863. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Lathrop, Cal. 

Stevens, Joseph L. Age 34. Springfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Residence, . 

Stetson, Amasa. Age 18. Shutesbury. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Stewart, William E. Age 23. Springfield. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Severely 
wounded in left lung (rifle-ball) June 17, 1863, Aldie ; 2 nios. in St. Paul's Church 
Hosp. Disch. for dis. Aug. 17, 1863. 
Residence, Ware, Mass. 
Strong, Asa G. Age 29. Easthampton. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Transferred to V. 
R. C. Feb. 18, 1864. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Sullivan, Daniel. Age 37. Bellingham. M. Aug. 30, 1864. Exp. June 4, 
1865. 

XvGSKlGllCG • 

Sullivan, Daniel L. Age 19. Springfield. M. Sept. 15, 1861. (See Co. G.) 
Sweeney, Cornelius. Age 20. Waltham. M. July 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Taylor, Frederick. Age 33. Huntington. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Killed July 28, 

1864, New Market, Va. 

TowNLEY, John J. Age 20. Boston. M. Nov. 5, 1863. Pris. May [5-6,] 1864. 

Died Sept. 30, 1864, Andersonville. 
TuLLAR, John F. Age 18. Stockbridge. M. Dec. 15, 1863, Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Underwood, Joseph. Age 40. Huntington. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Jan. 18, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Van Bramer, William P. Age 21. Cliicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864. 

x\.gsic1giicg * 

Ward, John C. Age 18. Roxbury. M. Mar. 24, 1864. Exj). Nov. 16, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Wardwell, Harlan P. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Exp. Nov. 7, 
1864. 

*Ware, John! Age 22. Deerfield. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. 

Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. E. 
White, Benjamin F. Age 24. Williamsburg. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 

20, 1863. Missing in action May [5 to 14], Wilderness. Reported killed. 

COMPANY G. 

Guild, William H. 1st Sergt. Age 32. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Sergt. 

Nov. 1, 1861. In eng. of regt. to exp. Oct. 16, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
***Stevens, Charles H. 1st Sergt. Transferred from Co. B. 
**Gleason, Daniel H. L. Com. Sergt. Transferred to Co. F as 1st Sergt. 
*Hurley, John. Com. Sergt. Age 24. Charlestown. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. 

Oct. 31, 1864. 
Keith, Charles A. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. 1st Lieut. 4th 

Mass. Cav., Aug. 5, 1863 ; Capt. Jan. 14, 1864. Ex-p. July 5, 1865. 
Residence, Savannah, Ga. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 389 

f Sherman Albert A. Sergt. Age 24. Uxbridge. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Corp., 
Sergt. Wounded (slight) Sept. 17, 1862, Autietam. Wounded (slight) June 18, 
1863, Middleburg. Wounded in head, Nov. -ll, 1863, New Hope Cliurch. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 31, 1864. Transferred to Co. F at consol. of regt. Oct. 1864. Sergt. 
of Pioneers Dec. 18, 1864. Pro. 1st Serg. and transferred to Co. H Apr. 7, 1865. 
Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Lexington, Mass. 
Mulligan, James E. Sergt. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded 
June 9, 1863, Stevensburg. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. 2d Lieut. 4th Mass. 
Cav. Jan 19, 1864. 1st Lieut. July 27, 1864. Capt. Apr. 23, 1865. Exp. Nov. 
14, 1865. 

Residence, Seymour, Ind. 
Ball, Josiah Warren. Sergt. Age 20. Holden. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Corp. 
In principal eng. of Co. to Dec. 19, 1862, vk^heu pro. 2d Lieut. 2d Mass. Cav. On 
detached ser. Act'g Pro. Mar. at Edward's Ferry. Post Adj., Q. M., and Com. 
Severely injured Dec. 19, 1863, Langley, Va. Exp. Apr. 13, 1865. In 3d Batt. 
Rifles R. M. V. I., May 19 to Aug. 3, 1861. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Stanyan, Ira. Sergt. Age 33. Medford. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 
26, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Salem, Mass. 
Peeler, Albert. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 
26, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 
*Rice, Calvin. Sergt. Age 20. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Smith, Artemus C. Sergt. Age 19. Holden'. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. June 
17, 1863, Aldie. (Escaped same day.) Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, Oakdale, Mass. 
*HiLL, Richard. Sergt. Age 21. Somerville. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Severely 

wounded in right leg June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Harris, Orrin VV, Sergt. Age 27. Attleboro. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Corp. Sept. 
1861. Sergt. Dec. 1861. On recruiting ser. in Boston, 1862. Wounded Feb. 
1863, Rappahannock Bridge. Wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie. Pris. Aug. 16, 1863, 
Orleans, Va. In all eng. of regt. till pris. Exp. Dec. 6, 1864. 
Residence, Cochituate, Mass. 
**Dyer, Charles W. Sergt. 

Glass, Michael H. Sergt. Age 23. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Pris. June 9, 
1863, Stevensburg. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, East Boston, Mass. 
Atherton, Charles P. Corp. Age 25. Springfield. M. Aug. 8, 1862. Reen- 
listed Dec. 26, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Harvard, Mass. 
Crocker, Frederick O. Corp. Age 28. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reen- 
listed Feb. 1, 1864. Wounded in neck Oct. 27, 1864, Gravel Creek, Boynton Road. 
In principal eng. of regt. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F as Sergt. 
Residence, Duxbury, Mass. 
Green, Robert. Corp. Age 21. Reading. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Corp. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Reenlisted Feb. 1, 1864. Received sunstroke May 25, 1864, near Hanover Court 
House. In nearly all eng. of regt. to exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Hersey, Henry W. Corp. Age 26. Springfield. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Pris. June 
17, 1863, Aldie. Recaptured same day. Reenlisted Dec. 25, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, Still River, Mass. 
*GooD, John A. Corp. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 4, 
1864. 



390 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Lombard, George H. Corp. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 52, 1861. Corp. in 

1862, Wounded in left thigh (rifle-ball) June 17, 1863, Aldie. Sent to hosp., 
then on detached ser. with 1st N. H. Cav. In principal eng. of Co. to exp. Oct. 
31, 1864. 

Residence, Lewiston, Me. 
Lynde, Sherman. Corp. Age 23. Melrose. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. Aug. 16, 

1863, Carter's Run. Exp. Oct. 31, 1861. 
Residence, Melrose, Mass. 

Ryan, William. Corp. Age 24. Amesbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. On detached 

ser. under Gen. Benham, at James Island. Wounded in right leg (rifle-ball) 

June 9, 1863. Eng. of regt. till wounded. Transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 15, 

1864, pro. Sergt. 

Residence, Southington, Conn. 
Whldden, Samuel C. Corp. Age 23. Stoughton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. 
Aug. 16, 1863, Carter's Run. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Vinton, Harvey L. Corp. Age 37. Newton. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Severely 
wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 1864. Pris. May 9, 1864, 
Sheridan's Raid. Died Oct. 31, 1864, Andersonville. 
*Harris, William A. Corp. Age 24. Wrentliam. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded 

Nov. 3, 1862, Snicker's Gap. Disch. for dis. Jan. 14, 1863. 
Davenport, Samuel N. Bugl. Age 21. Brighton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Detailed 
in band July 12, 1862, to exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, Brighton, Mass. 
*RiCE, William H. Bngl. Age 23. Brighton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Detailed in 

band. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
*Robinson, Thomas M. Bugl. Age 23. Framingham. M. Oct. 12, 1861. 

Wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Robinson, James L. Bugl. Age 18. East Bridgewater. M. Dec. 12, 1863. 
Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Bridgewater, Mass. 
Burns, William M. Far. Age 27. Lawrence. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Left foot 
injured June, 1862, Hilton Head. Eng. James Island, Antietam, Stevensburg. 
Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, Guthenburg, Neb. 
McGregor, Alexander M. Sad. M. Jan. 3, 1864. Regtl. Sad. Sergt. Exj}. 
June 26, 1865. [See Co. F.] 
Residence, Salem, Mass. 
*Atherton, George R. Sad. Age 24. Springfield. M. Aug. 8, 1862. Reen- 
listed Dec. 26, 1863. Exp. June 10, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

*LiNCOLN, Edward M. Sad. Age 23. Watertown. M. Jan. 13, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
^ Haberlin, James. Blacksmith. Age 23. Cambridge. M. Jan. 26, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. F as Far. 
Residence, San Francisco, Cal. 
Adams, Charles S. Age 28. New York. M. Sept. 25, 1861. On detached ser. 
with Div. Q. M., Nov., 1863. In eng. of regt. from James Island to exp. Oct. 31, 
1864. 

Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
Aldrich, George W. Age 22. Uxbridge. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded 
(severely) June 17, 1863, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. Feb. 15, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Aldrich, James G. Age 20. Uxbridge. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 
1864. Deserted May 3, 1864. 
RGsiclcncG ■ 
*Appleby, Mark H. Age 30. Cambridge. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Sept. 29, 1864. 





JOSEPH SEALS 



FRANKLIN L. CANNON 





V-^ 



COM. SERGT. EDWIN O HYDE 



CHAUNCEY E. PECK 





BENJAMIN F. DAVENPORT 



F COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 391 

^'SprJf'lSb™^ ^' ^^^ ^^" ^P"°§^^^^*^- ^- ^"ff- 22, 1862. Disch. for dis. 

Residence, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

*Atherton, William H. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 8, 1862. Disch. for 
clis. Jan. lo, looo. 

Bailey, Thomas. Age 27 Needham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Pris. Oct. 14, 1863 
Auburn. Exp. Jan. 27, 1865. ' ' 

Residence, Highlandville, Mass. 

Residence, . 

*Belcher, George W Age 33. Newton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Leg broken by 

kick of horse, Feb., 1863. Disch. for dis. April 27, 1863 ^ 

«BiNGAY, Edward B. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Transferred to Co. 

a at consol. of regt., and pro. Sergt. 

*BouTELLE James E. Age 40. Nashua, N. II. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for 
ais. April 'zl, 1803. 

Biggs, Henry. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted Jan. 7, 1862 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
*Briggs Thomas H Age 38. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. May 9, 1864 
Sheridan's Raul. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. J > '^'*, 

^""""Resi Jenc?— ■ ^^^ ^^' ^^""^^^'^- ^^- ^^P*- 1' 1^64. Exp. June 5, 1865. 
Brown, William S. Age 39. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 

1864. Pris. May 9, 1864. Died Aug. 25, 1864, Andersonville. 
*Bruce, Robert W. Age 26. Brookline. M. Aug. 19, 1862. Exn. Oct 31 

Carmichael James. Age 35 Springfield. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Reenlisted Feb. 
1, 1804. Exp. June 25, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, . 

*^OcT31,''l862''^''''''^'' ^" ^^^ ^*' ^^^''''^- ^- ^'P*- ^^' ^^^^- ^'^''^- f«^ <!'«■ 

^T7''l8G3^S/^'T'^n^^- w'^v'^'T";. ^^- ^"^- ^' 1«62. Wounded June 
Li, IbbJ, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Residence, Govt. Ins. Hosp., Washino-ton 

*^l7rf\J''''Ti^- /^^ ^?; ^°'^°"- M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 
1864 Wounded a'«lpns. May, 1864, Sheridan's Raid. Detailed as clerk in 
Washington, fall of 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F 

*Clarke, James M Age 22. Walpole. M. Oct. 5,1861. Exp. Oct. 4, 1864 

lTl?ro"5?T-7; Aff^ 24. Concord, N.H. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Died July 
19, 1862, of typhoid fever, Beaufort, S. C. ^ 

Coleman John. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted Oct. 25, 1861. 
Kesidence, . ' 

^Si?^'"'''''"''' ^^^ ^^' ■^°'^°"- ^- ^^P*- ^^' ^^^^- ^'^''^'- ^«^ di«- Nov. 19, 
Residence, . 

^Tl^r' '^^''^\- ."^Pn^^- ^^'*''"- ^^- S^P*- 20' 1862. Missing June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. Deserted April, 1864. 
Residence, . 

Cook Daniel P. Age 33. Lynnfield. M. Aug. 31, 1864. Exp. June 5, 1865. 

Residence, Lynnfield Centre, Mass. 
^"[Se Co ^T""^ ^- ^S"" ^^2. Boston. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Dec. 23, 1863. 

*Cooley, Livingston E. Age 26. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded and 

pris. June 17, 1863 Aldie. Paroled Jnly 21-Aug. 13, 1863. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Coombs, John B. Age 28. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 186L Disch!^for dis. Nov. si 

Residence, . 



392 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

*CooMBS, William H. Age 20. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Cooper, William li. Age 29. Cliarlestown. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Exp. Oct. 31, 
1864. 

Resideuce, Greenwood, Mass. 
Courtney, Johx H. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Exp. Oct. 31, 
1864. 

Residence, • . 

CuRTiN, Jeremiah. Age 30. Maiden. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 
1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Lower Stewiacke, N. S. 
Daley, James H. Age 21. South Carolina. M. May 7, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
July 29, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Dennis, Theodore C. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Downing, Oliver. Age 18. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. On detached ser. as 
Ord., fall and winter 1862-63, under Gen. Svkes. Wounded severely, right leg 
(rifle-ball), July 10, 1863, Jones's Cross Roads. Reenlisted Feb. 1. 1864. Prac- 
tically in all eng. of regt. to exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. as Sergt. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Doyle, John. Age 24. Taunton. M. Jan. 29, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

DiLWORTH, Peter. Af!;e 21. Adams. M. Jan. 26, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. F. 

Residence, Xorth Adams, Mass. 
Doherty, William. Age 29. Boston. M. Dec. 26, 1863. Wounded May (4 to 
14, 1864), Wilderness. Disch. for dis. Dec. 18, 1864, in Co. F. 
Residence, Soldiers Home, Togns, Me. 
Dresser, John T. Age 21. Stockbridge. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Pris. at Auburn, 
Oct. 14, 1863 ; paroled at Richmond Dec. 27, 1863. M. out with detchmt. of Co. 
Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Eager, Frederick C. Age 18. Enfield. M. Nov. 13, 1863. Disch. for dis. 
Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Emerson, Justis W. Age 23. Lynnfield. M. Sept. 1, 1864. Exp. June 5, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Fisher, Martin L. Age 21. Walpole. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Aug. 8, 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Fish, Nathaniel H. Age 36. Sandwich. M. Sept. 25, 1861. On detached 
ser. in Medical Dept. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. In principal eng. of regt. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Cataumet, Mass. 
Foster, Edward L. Age 25. Chicopee. M. Nov. 1, 1863. In all eng. of regt. 
from Jan. 1864 to exp., June 26, 1865, in Co. F., as Corp. 

Residence, . 

FuLLAR, John F. M. Dec. 15, 1863. Never did duty. Sick, sent to hosp. 

Residence, . 

Fall, Isaac C. Age 24. Lebanon, N. H. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Killed in action 

June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
Gay, Erastus L. Age 30. Charlestown. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Dec. 16, 1862, 
to June 1, 1863, detailed as Wagon-master. Slightly wounded June 9, 1863, 
Stevensburg ; Aug. to Oct. 1863, detailed as private Ord., Brig. Hdqrs., Gen. 
Mcintosh ; Mar. 4, 1864, detailed by Sec. of War for special dutv under Sec. of 
Treas. (Special O. W. D. 103, Extract 34.) Exp. Jan 21, 1865. ' 
Residence, Alamota, Kan. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 393 

Goodwin, Horace H. Age 27. Brookline. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Died Feb. 3, 1864, 

Howard Hosp., Washington, D. C. 
GoDSOE, Richard F. Age 34. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 
6, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Grosbeck, Charles H. Age 19. Lee. M. Jan. 4, 1864. Wounded in hip, Oct. 
27, 1864, Gravel Creek, Boyuton Road. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, -. 

Greyson, George H. Age 21. Boston. Transferred from Co. A, June 27, 1863. 
On detached ser. Ordu. Dept., Washington, Aug. 31, 1864. Exp. Nov. 8, 1864. 
KjGSicIgiicg — — ^^— 
Green, Alexander. Age 21. Maiden. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Hanson, John G. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Transferred to Co. F. 

as bugler. 
Harvey, Lewis E. Age 19. Taunton. M. Aug. 8, 1862. Wounded June 17, 

1863, Aldie ; pris. Aug. 16, 1863, Carter's Run. Pris. Oct. 27, 1864, Boyntou 

Plank Road. Exp. June 2, 1865. 

_t\)GSl(1611CG ^^"^^^ 

*Harris, William H. Age 21. Mansfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Exp. Sept. 15, 

1864. 
HixoN, Robert T. Age 21. Cambridge. M. Dec. 11, 1863. Exp. Juue 26, 1865. 
in Co. F. 

Residence, Cambridge, Mass. 
Hayes, Levi W. Age 25. Farmington, N. H. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Hibbard, Charles W. Age 18. Dorchester. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 4, 
1864. 

Residence, Roxbury, Mass. 
Hodgkins, Frederick. Age 28. Lynn. M. July 23, 1864. Died of wounds Nov. 

22, 1864, Howard Hosp., Washington. 
Jandro, William. Age 21. Adams. M. Jan. 18, 1864. Transferred to V. R. 
C. from Co. F. 

Residence, Hinsdale, Mass. 
*Keating, Cornelius. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Wounded June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Keefe, Philip. Age 28. Boston. M. Jan. 21, 1864. Died Nov. 29, 1864, Read- 

ville, Mass. 
Kimball, John F. Age 40. Dorchester. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
(caused by injuries received by horse falling on him on drill) May 31, 1862, 
Edisto Isl. 

Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Kingsley, Joseph. Age 22. Blandford. M. Nov. 6, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Kingsley, Charles O. Age 20. Becket. M. Oct. 25, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Larkin, Thomas. Age 19. Dedham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Termin. of ser. Dec. 4, 
1861, by civil authority. 

Residence, . 

Layton, Jacob. Age 25. Erving. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Pris. June 9, 1863, Ste- 
vensburg. Dropped, 1864, from Mar. and Apr. rolls by order of Adj., not being 
heard from for over six months. Investigation fails to elicit further information 
(Mar., 1890). 



394 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Lincoln, Nathan P. Age 21. Boston. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Exp. May. 25, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Linn, Walter F. Age 22. Lawrence. M. Oct. 15, 1861. In all enjr. of Co. 
to exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, Gothenburg, Neb. 
LiTTLEFiELD, Elliot. Age 38. Newton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. Sept. 14, 1863, 

Rapidan Sta. Died winter of 1863-1864, Andersonville. 
Lord, Edwin. Age 35. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Discb. for dis. Nov. 28, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Martin, Thomas. Age 22. Charlestown. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Died June 10, of 

wounds received in action June 9, 1863, Stevensburg. 
]VLiRTiN, William H. Age 21. Perrv, Me. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Pris. Aug. 16, 
1863, Carter's Run. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Marsh, AVilliam. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Dropped from the 
rolls April 30, 1864, by order of Adjt., not having been heard from for over six 
months. Investigation at War Dept., Feb. 10, 1891, fails to elicit further infor- 
mation. 
Mitchell, Thomas. Age 22. Worcester. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. F., absent sick. 

Residence, . 

McLaughlin, Thomas. Age 21. Charlestown. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Melville, Thomas R. Age 28. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Brighton, Mass. 
Miner, Henry E. Age 21. Springfield. M. Nov. 17, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
Moore, Charles H. Age 23. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. May 
30, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Morrill, David B. Age 18. Brighton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, Allston, Mass. 

McDonald, Daniel. Age 36. Adams. M. Jan. 26, 1864. Wounded in shoulder 

July 28, 1864, Newmarket. Ex-p. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

*Morrison, James W. Age 27. Mansfield. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Disch. for dis. 

Feb. 10, 1803. 
Newton, James H. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 

1864. Deserted May 3, 1864. 
Residence, . 

Perkins, George W. Age 21. Charlestown. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded in left 
knee June 9, 1863, Stevensburg. Wounded Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church. 
Died of wounds July 1, 1864, Washington, D. C. 
Plankington, James II. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Nov. 1861. 

Residence, . 

*Pratt, Charles M. Age 21. Boston. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Pratt, Daniel. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, Maiden, Mass. 
QuiNN, Morris. Age 19. Boston. M. Sept. 30, 1862. Reenlisted Feb. 1, 1864. 
Exp. June 20, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Holyoke, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 395 

*QuiLTY, Thomas. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 8, 1862. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Resterick, Richard. Age 20. Chailestown. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded 
accidentally June 25, 1863. Transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Residence, Dorchester, Mass. 
Rider, James. Age 25. Uxbridge. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Nov. 1, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Robinson, Charles A. Age 21. Lowell. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded Nov. 3, 

1862, Snicker's Ferry. Disch. for dis. Feb. 6, 1863. 
Residence, Lowell, Mass. 

Rathbun, Charles. Age 22. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 5, 1864. On detached ser. 
with Battery A, 2d U. S. Artillery one mo. in 1864. In principal eng. of Co. from 
Jan., 1864, to exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Millington, Mich. 
Ryan, Matthew. Age 22. Chicopee. M. Aug. 8. 1862. Wounded May 5, 1864, 
Wilderness. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, Chicopee, Mass. 
Scott, Joshua H. Age 37. Andover. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded June 17, 

1863, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 15, 1864. 
Residence, Andover, Mass. 

Shapleigh, George D. Age 23. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Died Aug. 7, 

1862. 
Skelton, Robert P. Age 20. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded severely 
in ankle, July 10, 1863, Jones Cross Road. Disch. for dis. May 10, 1864. 
Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Smith, Charles S. Age 23. Medford. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, Medford, Mass. 
Smith, Henry D. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 8, 1862. In eng. with Co. to 

1864, On detached ser.. Brig. Hdqrs. Jan. 5 to Oct. 25, 1864. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, Salida, Col. 

Smith, Byron. Age 21. Boston. M. Jan. 20, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. F. 

XvGSlClGnCG "• 

Smith, Hiram. Age 27. Boston. M. Jan. 20, 1864. Exp. June 9, 1865, in 
Co. F. 

KfCSlClGIlCG • 

Spach, Henry F. Age 22. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Stevens, James H. Age 24. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Killed in action Nov. 

27, 1863, New Hope Church. 
Stevens, Sidney F. Age 29. Springfield. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Reenlisted Feb. 
1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Indian Orchard, Mass. 
Sullivan, Daniel L. Age 19. Springfield. Transferred from Co. F. Severely 
wounded June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp.'Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, Kansas City, Mo. 
*SuLLiVAN, Dennis. Age 23. Chicopee. M. Aug. 9, 1862. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Sterrit, William R. Age 25. Lenox. M. Jan. 19, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

*SwAN, Frank F. Age 23. Worcester. M. Jan. 9, 1864. Pris. May 9, 1864, 
Chilesburg (Sheridan's Raid). Transferred to Co. F. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Served in Co. D. 51st Mass. Inf'y. M. Sept. 30, 1862. Exp. July 27, 1863. 
Thackwell, Henry. Age 20. Dedham. M. Jan. 2, 1862. Wounded Apr. 27, 
1863, Dumfries. Disch. for dis. Oct. 21, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Veazir, Charles H. Age 20. Roxbury. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded June 
17, 1863, Aldie. Wounded and died Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Church. 



396 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Walker, Daniel N. Age 24. Boston. M. Oct. 10, 1861. Deserted Feb. 13, 
1863, while ou duty as Orderly to Gen. Buchanan. 

Residence, . 

Warren, John F. Age 21. Brighton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, Newton Corner, Mass. 
Wells, Joseph. Age 28. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 4, 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Wentworth, Nathaniel. Age 18. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 18, 
1861. 

Residence, Hudson Centi-e, N. H. 
White, Ira A. Age 19. Taunton. M. Aug. 8, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, ab- 
sent sick, in hosp. 

Residence, . 

White, Addison R. Age 25. Uxbridge. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. Oct. 14, 1863, 

Auburn. Died May 21, 1864, Annapolis Junction, Md. 
AVhidden, George "W. Age 23. Concord. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. June 17, 

1863, Aldie ; escaped same day. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 
Residence, . 

Whidden, John C. Age 29. Concord. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Washburn, George F. Age 21. Boston. M. Nov. 18, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Whitney, Theodore P. Age 30. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. May 9, 

1864, Sheridan's Raid. Died in rebel pris. Aug. 26, 1864. 

Woodward, Webster B. Age 26. West Springfield. M. Jan. 12, 1864. Died 

July 7, 1864, Mt. Pleasant Hosp., Washington, D. C. 
Wright, Roscoe G. G. Age 23. Worcester, M. Jan. 5, 1864. Transferred to 
Navy Apr. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

COMPANY H. 

Sherman, Albert A. 1st Sergt. (See Co. G.) 

Clark, Oliver H. 1st Sergt. Age 28. Manchester. M. Oct. 19, 1861. 
Wounded in knee (leg amputated) Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store. Disch. for 
dis. Oct. 4, 1864. 

Residence, Philadelphia, Penn. 
DuRRELL, Stillman R. 1st Sergt. Age 24. Lowell. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Reen- 
listed Feb. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Ross, James C. 1st Sergt. Transferred from Co. F. (again reduced to ranks). 
Disch. for dis. Dec. 20, 1862. 
Residence, Dayton, Ohio. 
**Martin, John W. 1st Sergt. 

Harrington, Warren. 1st Sergt. Age 21. Boston. Transferred from Co. A. 
Purposelv surrendered to enemy Sept. 28, 1802, near Shepardstown. Deserted 
Jan. 10, 1863, Annapolis. 

Residence, . 

Hackett, Thomas. Q. M. Sergt. Age 28. Boston. M. Aug. 13, 1862. Reen- 
listed Feb. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

XvGSlClGnCG — ■ ■, 

Ladd, Daniel W. Q. M. Sergt. Age 27. Salem. M. Oct. 5, 1861. In eng. of 

regt. to exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Residence, Salem, Mass. 
*Kelly, Edward. Com. Sergt. Age 28. Salem. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Pris. 

Sept. 5, 1862, Poolesville. ReenUsted Dec. 26, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 

Co. F. 





JOSEPH E. FELCH 



.(OHN M. FISKE 




CORPL. !::haB0li SAMPSON 




CORPL GEORGE E WOODBURY 






^ 





SEYMOUR GARDINER 



F COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 397 

Kelliher, James. Com. Sergt. Age 17. Salem. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Nov. 
11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Bartlett, Samuel W. Sergt. Age 26. Roxbury. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Corp. 
Dec. 4, 1862. Sergt. Mar. 1, 1864. Pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie; at Libby and 
Belle Isle. Treatment : " While in charge of guard detailed from the army in 
our front, fair, though poorly fed. The Richmond guards seemed to vie with 
each other in making our lot miserable. Libby was devilish. From there to 
Belle Isle was out of the fry-pan into the fire ! " Practically in all eng. of regt. 
to exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
**DuCHESNEY, Lawrence N. Sergt. 

*Hayes, William. Sergt. Age 18. Lawrence. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted 
Dec. 26, 1863. Pris. July 28, 1864, New Market. In Belle Isle and Salisbury ; 
escaped Oct. 19, 1864 ; recaptured ; escaped second time ; recaptured. Ex- 
changed Mar. 2, 1865, Wilmington, N. C. Died Mar. 13, 1865, Lawrence, Mass. 
Houghton, Edwin A. Sergt. Age 23. Natick. M. Sept. 28, 1861. Exp. Nov. 
11, 1864. 

Residence, Milton, Mass. 
Lyons, John. Sergt. Age 26. Marblehead. M. Oct. 28, 1861. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 15, 1864. 
Residence, Marblehead, Mass. 
**Martin, George W. Sergt. 

Namar, Arnold. Sergt. Age 29. Scituate. M. Dec. 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

O'Brien, Hugh. Sergt. Age 27. Medway. M. Dec. 3, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
O'RouRKE, Thomas. Sergt. Age 22. Medway. M. Dec. 3, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Aylward, Richard. Corp. Age 28. Milford. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Exp. Nov. 
11, 1864. 

Residence, Milford, Mass. 
Bateman, Charles. Corp. Age 18. Salem. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Killed Sept. 14, 

1863, Rapidan Station. 
Caverly, Alonzo H. Corp. Age 19. Sterling. M. Dec. 8, 1864. Returned Apr., 
1865, to 18th N. H. Vol. as deserter. (Dropped from rolls. S. O. 97, Hdqrs. 
A. of P.) 

Residence, . 

*Devine, Timothy. Corp. Age 38. Milford. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Pris. June 

17, 1863, Aldie. Reenlisted Dec. 28, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Gay, Charles A. Corp. Age 15. Marlboro. M. Sept. 29, 1864 (in Co. M. new 
Batt.) Eng. Weldon R. R., Bellefield, Petersburg, Stony Creek. Exp. May 8, 
1865. First enlisted in Co. A, 47th M. V. I., Sept. 19, 1862. Exp. Sept. 1, 
1863. 

Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Gear, Luman C. Corp. Age 34. Peru. M. Dec. 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, , 

Greelish, Michael. Corp. Age 23. Milford. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 

Residence, Avon, Mass. 
Goss, William. Corp. Age 28. Marblehead. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted 
Dec. 20, 1863. Transferred to navy Apr. 23, 1864. 
Residence, . 



398 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALBY. 

Johnson, Harrison G. O. Corp. Age IS. Newburyport. M. Dec. 5, 18G4. 
Exp. June 2'2, ISGo. 

Residonee, . 

Mason, John L. Corp. Age 30. Boston. M. Nov. 29, 1801. Killed Ang. IG, 

1SG4, Malvern Hill, ^■il. 
LiNEiiAN, Dennis. Corp. Age 20. Salem. M. Oct. 5, ISGl. Reenlisted Dec. 
20, 18G3. Exp. June 2G, 1865, in Co. F. 

llesidcnce, . 

Leopold, Henry A. Corp. Age 24. Cambridge. ]\I. Sept. 4, 1862. Exi). Xov. 
11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Lewis, Nathaniel S. Corp. Age 28. Springfield. M. Nov. 30, 1864. On de- 
tached ser. City Point, winter of 1864, nnder Maj. Tucker. Eng. Petersburg, Rich- 
mond, Hatcher's Run. Exp. June 30, 18G5. 
Residence, Norwich Town, Conn. 
RowE, Mattmkw. Corp. Age IS. "West Cambridge. M. Dec. 17, 1861. Reen- 
listcd Dec. 25, 1863. E\-]>. June 26, 1SG5, in Co. F. 
Residence, Arlington, Mass. 
Wood, Isaac O. Corp. Age 39. Actou. M. Nov. 28, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1S65. 

Residence, . 

Bartlett, Henry T. Bugl. Age 23. Holliston. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Detailed 
musician in band Apr. 2, 1SG3, to Jan. 12, 1864. Rceulistod Dee. 22, 1863. 
Hdqrs. Bugl. 1st Cav. Brig. (Gen. Davies) June 14, 1864, to Mar. 28, 1865. In 
charge of Cav. Corps IMail, June 1, 1865. Practically in all eng. of rcgt. to exp. 
June 26, 1SG5, in Co. F, on furlough. 
Residence, New York City. 
Barker, "William. Bugl. Age — . Springfield. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Practically 
in all eng. of regt. to exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Residence, Providence, R. I. 
*Davis, Peter R. Bugl. Age 37. Cambridge. M. Aucr. 15, 1862. Exp. June 

26, 1865. in Co. F. 

Hobart, Willey E. (real name "Wm. Eaton). Bugl. Age 18. Amherst. M. Dec. 

27, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Sherburne, N. Y. 

*Ufford, Andrew J. Bugler. Age 18. Amherst. M. Dec. 27, 1864. Exp. 

June 26, 1865. 
McLooN, Gilbert. Bugler. Age 23. Lowell. M. Oct. 9, 1861. "\Younded Nov. 
29, 1863, Parker's Store. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Hilton, Edward W. Far. Age 31. Charlestown. M. Oct. 5, 1S61. Exp. 
Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, Beverly, Mass. 
Richards, Jefferson H. Far. Age 33. Brookfield. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Died 

of wounds June 25, 1864, St. Mary's Church, Va. 
Morgan, Mark. "Wagoner. Age '33. Beverly. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Murray, Edward. Saddler. Age 37. Boston. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Reenlisted 
Dec. 22, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

AiNSLEY, Charles M. Age 25. Boston. M. Sept. 9, 1861. Disch. for dis. July 

28, 1862. 
Residence, . 

Araga, Alfred. Age 28. Scituate. M. Dec. 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Atkins, Joseph. Age 31. Boston. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Died July 8, 1863, Taylors- 
ville, Md. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 399 

Baker, George. Age 21. Sonthwick. M. Feb. 3, 1864. Absent sick, 1865, from 
Co. F. " No evidence of death or discharge." 

Residence, . 

Barnard, John M. Age 41. Marblehead. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp Sept. 15 
1864. 11. 

Residence, . 

Beals, James H. Age 19. Haverhill. M. Dec. 31, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. F. 
Residence, Kingston, N. H. 
Belonies, Charles. Age 36. Franklin. M. Dec. 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as absent sick. 

Residence, . 

BiGuiT, Louis. Age 24. Scituate. M. Dec. 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, . 

BoDEN, Elisiia C. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Exp. Nov 11 

1864. fe ' v . 

Residence, South Windham, Conn. 
Boyle, James. Age 35. Lowell. M. Aug. 23, 1864. Deserted June 2, 1865, 
Cloud's Mills, Va. 

Residence, . 

BuRNiiAM, Ebenezer A. Age 29. Conway. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Practically in 
all eng. of regt. to exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Residence, Conway, Mass. 
BuTMAN, Joseph W. Age 22. Marblehead. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Disch. for dis. Jan. 20, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Callahan, John O. Age 32. Marblehead. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 
1862, Poolesville. Exp. Oct. 21, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Cannon, Michael. Age 23. Oakham. M. Jan. 3, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Caldicott, George W. Age 28. Milford. M. Nov. 1, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
18()5, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Chamerier, IIepolite. Age 23. Barre. M. Dec. 31, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Chadbourne, John, Age 45. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Dec. 13, 1861. 

Residence, . 

COLUY, Richard. Age 42. Franklin. M. Dec. 2, 1864. Disch. for dis. April 25. 

1865, from hosp., G. O. 77, A. G. O. 
Residence, . 

Collins, William. Age 22. Chicopee. M. Aug. 8, 1862. Died Sept. 19, 1864, 

Washington, D. C. 
CoMEREORD, TiiOMAS. Age 19. Marlboro. M. Dec. 19, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Connor, Jeremiah. Age 17. Lawrence. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Residence, . 

Connors, Patrick. Age 32. Springfield. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Coste, Henry. Age 28. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 20, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Plattsburg, N. Y. 
Courman, Daniel. Age 28. Boston. M. Mar. 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as absent sick. 

Residence, . 

CouGHLiN, James. Age 31. Milford. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Maine. 



400 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Cox, William W. Age 35. Swampscott. M. Oct. 28, 1861. Disch. for dis. July 

15, 1862. 

Residence, Lowell, Mass. 
Craigue, John N. Age 26. Boston. M. Oct. 28, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 22, 
1862. 

Residence, 

Crowley, James. Age 18. Lowell. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Discli. for dis. Oct. 10, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Cunningham, William. Age 19. Waltliara. M. Oct. 28, 1861. Discli. for dis. 
Feb. 11, 1863. 

Davis, Thomas B. Age 18. Lawrence. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. July 14, 1863, 
Dumfries. Died May 31, 1864, Andersonville. 

Desmond, Richard. Age 25. Springfield. M. Dec. 9, 1864. May 26, 1865, ab- 
sent sick in hosp. 
Residence, . 

DiNKEL, Leonard. Age 38. Springfield. M. Jan. 22, 1864. Died in hosp. Nov. 

16, 1864. 

Douglass, William H. Age 22. Brookline. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
Jan. 25, 1863. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Do\v, Levi. Age 40. North Hampton, N. H. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Dec. 15, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Drollett, Peter A. Age 22. Braintree. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 8, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Dubois, Edmund. Age 24. Provincetown. M. Dec. 2, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

XvGSlClGnCG • 

Duffy, William. Age 18. Plymoutii. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Pris. Sept. 29, 1862, 
Duffield Sta. Reeidisted Dec. 20, 1863. Transf. to Navy April 23, 1864. 

XvCSlClGllCG • 

Egng, (Equit) Louis. Age 25. Scituate. M. Dec. 7, 1864. Exp. May 30, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Farrell, William. Age 25. South Danvers. M. Mar. 5, 1864. Wounded in foot 
May (5 to 14), 1864, Wilderness. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F., as absent sick. 

Residence, . 

Ferguson, James. Age 30. West Cambridge. M. Dec. 17, 1861. Died Nov. 

19, 1863, of wounds received near \Yliitehall Church. 
*Ferguson, Joseph. Age 22. Boston. M. Aug. 20, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Ferrin, Levi E. Age 25. Natick. M. Sept. 25, 1801. Pris. Duffield Sta., 
Sept. 1862. Pris. five days. Deserted from Annapolis, 1862. 
Residence, Natick, Mass. 
Finn, John. Age 30. West Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 30, 
1863. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Finton, Timothy. Age 27. Mil'ford. ]\L Aug. 6, 1862. Pris. June 17, 1863, 
Aldie. Exp. Nov. 8, 1864. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
FiSK, Howard O. Age 27. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Killed June 17, 1863, 

Aldie. 
Flanders, George F. Age 18. Lawrence. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Oct. 10, 
1861. 

Residence '. 

Fox, James. Age 20. Boston. M. Jan. 4, 1864. Disch. for dis. Feb. 18, 1865, 

in Co. F. 
Residence, . 




GEO. H. LOMBARD 



BUGLER JAMES T. WALSH 





IRGT J. WARREN BALL 
Lieut, snd Cav. 



SERGT. ALBERT A. SHERMAN 



G COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 401 

Freeman, Bartlett B. Age 36. Marblehead. M. Oct. 6, 1861. Eeealisted 
Feb. 6, 1864. Exp. June 13, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, 

French, Mathias. Age 18. Mansfield. M. Nov. 10, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Fuller, Nathaniel F. Age 21. Wrentbam. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Gately, Thomas. Age 21. Pittsfield. M. Feb. 4, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. F as absent, sick. 

Residence, Marlboro, Mass. 
Gallagher, Patrick. Age 25. Williamstown. M. Jan. 19, 1864. Transferred 
to Co. F. Transferred to V. R. C. Mar. 13, 1865. 
Residence, Leominster, Mass. 
Gallagher, John. Age 21. Waltham. M. Oct. 28, 1861. Deserted Dec. 11, 
1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Gilmore, Thomas. Age 26. Marlboro. M. Dec. 20, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Gleeson, David. Age 21. Chicopee. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Exp. Oct. 31, 1864. 

Residence, Chicopee, Mass. 
GouD, Clarkson. Age 21. Worcester. M. Jan. 3, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Graham, Charles. Age 16. Lowell. M. Oct. 5, 1864. Pris. Sept. 29, 1862, 
near Duffield Station. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Gray, Henry. Age 29. Berlin. M. Nov. 9, 1864. Deserted Apr. 10, 1865, Ger- 
mantown, Pa. 

Residence, . 

Green, John. Age 21. Boylston. M. Dec. 24, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, 

Grumhose, Charles. Age 21. Springfield. M. Dec. 31, 1864. Deserted Apr. 
4, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Guilfoyle, Michael E. Age 22. Athol. M. Dec. 28, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Halpin, Patrick. Age 23. Ashfield. M. July 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, as 
absent sick. 

Residence, . 

Hans, Joseph. Age 27. Springfield. M. Dec. 31, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Hannaford, Walter. Age 21. Boston. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Aug. 
18,1862. ^ 

Residence, . 

Hardy, Charles A. Age 19. Springfield. M. Sept. 17, 1864. Disch. June 5, 
1865, G. O. 83, A. G. O. 

Residence, . 

Harding, John. Age 21. Holland. M. July 12, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, as 
absent sick. 

Residence, . 

Harris, Thomas. Age 23. Winthrop. M. Mar. 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as absent sick. 

Residence, ■ . 

Hatch, Lewis. Age 40. Marblehead. M. Sept. 13, 1861. Practically in all eng. 
of Co. to disch. for dis., Dec. 30, 1863. 
Residence, Wells Depot, Me. 



402 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Hayes, Patrick. Age 30. Lawrence. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Killed June 15, 1862, 

John's Island, S. C. 
Hentschel, Frank. Age 37. Roxbury. M. Oct. 11, 1861. Died of wounds 

Sept. 15, 1863, Rapidau Station. 
Henville, William W. Age 40. Salem. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Discli. for dis. Dec. 
24, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Hewes, Robert. Age 17. Lawrence. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Hill, John. Age 37. Boston. M. Apr. 18, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, as absent 
sick. 

Residence > 

Hoerner, Charles. Age 28. Springfield. M. Dec, 31, 1864. Exp. May 31, 
1865. 

ivGSlClGllCG » 

Hoffman, William. Age 22. Sterling. M. July 26, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as absent sick. 

Residence, . 

Hopps, Joseph. Age 35. Springfield. M. Dec. 31, 1864. Deserted Apr. 4, 1865, 
City Point, Va. 

Residence • ' 

Ivers, William. Age 19. Salem. IVL Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded June 16, 1862, 
James Island. Disch. for dis. Sept. 11, 1862. 

Residence, . 

James, William H. Age 21. Worcester. M. Jan. 3, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Johnson, Albert B. Age 22. Marblehead. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted Nov. 
21, 1862, Washington. 

Rgsicigiicg • 

Jones, Lewis! Age 29. Natick. M. Oct. 15, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. 
Detailed, Pioneer Corps, 1864. In eng. of regt. to exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, Natick, Mass. 
Jordan, Edwin A. Age 24. Franklin. M. Oct. 28, 1861. Slightly wounded 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

RcsidGiicG • 

Jordan, Henry A. Age 24. Wrentham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Detailed on hosp. 
duty 5 weeks, Jan. 1862, Beaufort ; then sick in hosp. till June. Disch. for dis. 
July 8, 1862, Hilton Head. Enlisted Dec. 17, 1863, Co. D, 3d Mass. Cav. Mar. 
10, 1865, disch. for dis. caused by wounds received in action. 
Residence, Dubuque, Iowa. 
Jordan, Horatio A. Age 22. Wrentham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 
27, 1863. In all eng. with regt. till Jan. 1, 1865, when transferred to V. R. C. 
Residence, Medfield, Mass. 
Jackson, Alvin. Age 34. Braintree. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Disch. Jan. 10, 1863. 

K-GSKlGllCG • 

Kehoe, William. Age 28. Marblehead. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 4, 1864. 

Residence, San Diego, Cal. 
Kelly, James. Age 19. Mansfield. M. Nov. 10, 1864. E.xp. June 26, 1865. 

JA-GSiciGIlCG , 

Kent, James.' Age 42. Marblehead. M. Oct. 29, 1863. Transferred to navy 
Apr. 23, 1864. 

ivGSlClGllCG - 

Kihlgreen, Charles A. Age 38. Boston. M. Aug. 9, 1862. Pris. June 17, 
1863, Aldie. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

XvGSlQGllCG ~ * 

Kimball, William L. Age 28. Salem. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. Sept. 
27, 1862. 

Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 403 

King, Thomas. Age 19. Belmont. M. Aug. 18, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. 
Deserted Mar. 22, 1864. 

Residence, . 

La Moor, Joseph. Age 28. Springfield. M. Dec. 31, 1864. Exp. June 2, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Laundry, Joseph. Age 19. Bellingham. M. Jan. 28, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. F, as absent sick. 

Residence, . 

LiNDOLF, William B. Age 32. Milford. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
June 10, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Maguire, Mathias. Age 26. Wenham. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 
20, 1863. Deserted May 2, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Maloney, Michael Age 20. Williamstown. M. Jan. 19, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. F, as absent sick. 
Residence, Nortb Adams, Mass. 
Massey, Richard. Age 42. Boston. Transferred from Co. B, 1861. Trans- 
ferred to Co. F, 1862. On detached ser. Q. M. Dept., Washington. Disch. Nov. 
11, 1864. Reenlisted Dec. 28, 1864, in Co. H. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*Matthews, Albert E. Age 28. Milford. M. Aug. 7, 1862. Wounded Nov. 

29, 1863, Parker's Store. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
McDowell, John. Age 21. Williamstown. M. Jan. 19, 1864. In all eng. of 
regt. till wounded in left foot (rifle-ball) July 28, 1864, New Market. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 
McDuffee, Hugh. Age 27. Salem. M. Sept. 28, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 

1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, as absent sick, in Co. F. 
Residence, . 

McGee, Sanford. Age 34. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Exp. June 23, 1865. 

Residence, . 

McGrath, Thomas. Age 20. Dedham. M. Nov. 19, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

McNab, William. Age 42. Cambridge. M. Sept. 28, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Meirs, John, Jr. Age 21. Newton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Pris. Nov. 29, 1863, 

Parker's Store. Died Aug. 20, 1864, Andersonville. 
Meirs, John. Age 31. Newton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 25, 1863. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Mellen, Charles. Age 28. Franklin. M. Dec. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Newton, Mass. 
*Melville, George. Age 44. Boston. M. Sept. 15, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 

1864. ^ 
*Messenger, Daniel E. Age 36. Milford, M. Aug. 15, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 

1864. 
Metcalf, George W. Age 19. Salem. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Milton, B. Sylvester S. Age 32. Boston. M. Dee. 28, 1863. Wounded in head 
and right leg May 11, 1864, Ashland ; at 9th Corps hosp., Citv Point, in June. 
Eng. Wilderness and skirmishes. Disch. Sept. 21, 1864, for dis-'caused by injury 
to spine and fracture of three ribs. 
Residence, Salem, Mass. 
Moore, Martin. Age 29. Lynn. M. July 22, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, as ab- 
sent sick. 

Residence, . 



404 FIRST 3IASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Morse, William. Age 27. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 9, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. F. 

RGsiciGnco . 

Morgan, John F. Age 19. Beverly. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, Beverly, Mass. 
McGuiRE, John. Age 21. Springfield. M. Nov. 30, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

MuNN, Curtis E. Age 26. Dedbam. M. Jan. 12, 1862. Hosp. Steward, July 
15, 1862. Asst. Surg. 27th Inf. July 5, 1863. Surg. 2d Inf. Dec. 5, 1864. Exp. 
July 14, 1865. 

Residence, Fort Canby, Wasb. 
MuNSELL, Thomas L. Age 25. Asbfield. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 
1864. 

Residence, Norfolk, Mass. 
Nennery, Michael. Age 28. Dennis. M. Nov. 30, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
*Ne\vhall, Alfred P. Age 21. Lvnn. M. Aug. 6, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 20, 

1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F."' 
O'Brien, James A. Age 18. Cbesbire. M. Dec. 17, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

O'Brien, Michael. Age 19. Dorcbester. M. Nov. 15, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, Readville, Mass. 
O'Neil, Patrick. Age 19. Dennis. M. Dec. 3, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Parker, Edwin A. Age 19. Dedbam. M. Aug. 5, 1862. Wounded in head 
June 17, 1863, Aldie. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Patterson, Charles. Age 23. Somerville. M. Mar. 21, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, as absent sick. 

Residence, . 

Paul, Theodore. Age 23. Newburyport. (No record.) 

Residence, . 

Peart, George H. Age 19. South Danvers. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Died July 15, 

1862, Beaufort, S. C. 
Paspartout, Elois. Age 23. Dennis. M. Dec. 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Pearson, William F. Age 21. Newburyport. M. Dec. 5, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, Newburyport, Mass. 
Pray, Ben.tamin C. Age 26. Boston. Transferred from Co. B. Deserted Feb. 
14, 1863, Potomac Creek. 

Putnam, Augustus. Age 45. South Danvers. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Discharged 
Jan. 10, 1863. 

QuiNN, John.' Acje 24. Salem. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded June 16, 1862. 
James Island. Disch. for dis. Sept. 13, 1862. 
Residence, Salem, Mass. 
Rhodes. Isaac M. Age 29. Lynn. M. Oct. 26, 1861. Reenlisted Feb. 6, 1864. 
Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

xi6si(lGnc6 ' . 

Regan, Dennis. Age 42. Holliston. M. June 5, 1864. Exp. June 17, 1865, in 
Co. F. 

KiGSlQGIlCG • 

Richardson, Thomas, Jr. Age 25. Belmont. M. Aug. 11, 1862. Exp. Nov. 
11, 1864. 

Residence, Belmont, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 405 

Robert, Joseph E. Age 24. Topsfield. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Dec. 9, 

1861, Readville. 
Residence, . 

Robinson, John T. Age 27. Boston. (No record.) 

Residence, . 

RoMAiN, Alexander. Age 29. Ashfield. M. July 7, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as absent sick. 

Residence . 

RooNEY, James. Age 25. Lowell. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Deserted Dec. 1, 1861, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Root, Joseph. Age 19. Hadley. M. Dec. 23, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. F. 

xvgsicIgiicg > 

Ross, Daniel 'm. Age 27. Salem. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, Lobster, Oregon. 
Rowe, William P. Age 24. Lynn. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. 
Transf. to navy, Apr. 23, 1864. • 

Residence, . 

Shaw, Bartlett. Age 25. Swampscott. M. Oct. 9, 1863. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, Sacoxie, Kansas. 
Shattuck, George W. Age 18. Amherst. M. Dec. 27, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Sherman, George W. Age 18. Lawrence. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 

1862, Poolesville. Reenlisted Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in foot July 28, 1864, 
New Market. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, Lawrence, Mass. 
Shultz, William. Age 27. Springfield. M. Nov. 23, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
18G5. 

Residence, . 

Slade, George. Age 28. Longmeadow. M. Nov. 15, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Small, Joseph L. Age 26. Charlestown. M. Aug. 4, 1862. Transferred to Co. 
G, 1st V. R. C. Nov. 30, 1863. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Barna. Age 43. Spencer. M. Oct 5, 1861. Pris. June 17, 1863, Aldie. 
Discharged while on furlough from Camp Stoneman, Va., Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Thorndyke, Mass. 
Smith, Edward. Age 26. Wenham. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted (as saddler) 
Nov. 21, 1862, Washington, D. C. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Josiah [Joseph]. Age 22. Hamilton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted Nov. 
21, 1862, Washington, D. C. 

Residence, . 

Spencer, Hiram B. Age 33. Salem. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Strickner, John B. Age 37. Roxbnry. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Wounded in hand 

and leg Aug. 21, 1864, Reams Station. " Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Tannett, George S. Age 39. Leominster. M. Jan. 3, 1865. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

*Taylor, Thomas. Age 24. Salem. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
*Thayer, Charles G. Age 35. Natick. M. Sept. 28, 1861. Wounded in thigh, 

Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope Cluirch. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Thorp, Alfred M. Age 27. West Cambridge. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted as 
Corp. Jan. 10, 1863, Annapolis. 
Residence, . 



406 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

TiERNEY, Matthew. Age 26. Worcester. M. Dec. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Underwood, Myron H. Age 24. Chicopee. M. Aug. 14, 1862. Eng. Freder- 
icksburg. Disch. for dis. Mar. 7, 1863. 
Residence, Hudson, Wisconsin. 
W.\LKER, Gerry R. Age 21. Springfield. M. Aug. 16, 1862. Detailed in band. 
Piis. Nov. 29, 1863, Parker's Store. Exp. Nov. 7, 1864. 
Residence, Chicago, 111. 
Walker, Joseph. Age 23. Worcester. M. Jan. 3, 1865. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Ward, John. Age 28. Springfield. M. Nov. 23, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

RgskIgiicg , 

Ware, Samuel. Age 27. Conway. M. Aug. 15, 1862. Pris. Nov. 29, 1863, 

Parker's Store. Died Aug. 10, 1864, Andersonville. 
Welch, Maurice. Age 32. Boston. M. Aug. 12, 1862. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Wells, Lewis. Age 26, Boston. M. Jan. 25, 1864. Wounded in arm, May (5 
to 14), 1864, Wilderness. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Weymouth, William W. M. . Exp. June 26, 1865. 

Residence, . 

West, Charles E. (real name William S. Sampson). Age 20. Lawrence. M. 
Sept. 25, 1861. Bugler 1863-64, Warrenton. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Residence, Lawrence, Mass. 
WiGGiN, Joseph A. Age 21. Lawrence. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Pris. Sept. 5, 
1862, Poolesville. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. Deserted, on Vet. furlough, from 
Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Weston, Charles H. Age 21. Lawrence. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Deserted Nov. 
21, 1862, as Bugler. 

Residence, . 

Whittemore, Nathan W. Age 38. Worcester. M. Jan. 3, 1865. Exp. June 
26, 1865. 

RcsiclGncG CliolsGR JVIcIss. 
*Whitney, Samuel b'. A. Age 27. Natick. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 

1864. 
WiDGER, William. Age 37. Swampscott. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Died Dec. 20, 1863. 

Potomac Creek. 
WiLKixs, Edward L. Age 25. Boston. Transf. from Co. B. Disch. for dis. 
Apr. 24, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Williams, John H. Age 36. Newburyport. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Dec. 30, 1863. 

XVGsiclGllCG — ■ — , 

Williams, John. Age 21. South Hadley. M. Nov. 12, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865. 

Residence, . 

Wood, George D. Age 23. Beverly. M. July 16, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as absent sick. 

Residence ■. 

Wood, Josiah D. G. Age 21. Wrentham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded near 
White Hall Church, Nov. 19, 1863. Wounded in head Nov. 27, 1863, New Hope 
Church. Wounded severely July 28, 1864, New Market. Died Dec. 4, 1864. 




IRVING R, CHENEY 





NATHANIEL H. FISH 



;RGT. FREDERICK 0, CROCKER 



SERGT, ORRIN W. HARRIS 



ROBERT P. SKELTON 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 407 



COMPANY I (Old). 

*Capen, Robert S. 1st Sergt. Age 32. Middleboro. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Sergt.-Maj. (4tb Cav.) Aug. 23, 1864 ; 2d Lieut, and 1st 
Lieut. May 8, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, as 2d Lieut. 
Edson, George A. 1st Sergt. Age 21. East Bridge water. M. Nov. 19, 1861. 
Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.), July 13, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 
1865, as 1st Sergt. 

Residence, South Abington, Mass. 
*Leach, George W. 1st Sergt. Aged 30. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 
1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) Dec. 10, 1864. 1st Lieut. 
Apr. 6, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
*Packard, Charles M. 1st Sergt. Age 22. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. 
Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) May 13, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Carpenter, Augustus W. Q. M. Sergt. Age 24. Rehoboth. M. Dec. 14, 1861. 
Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, Stoughton Centre, Mass. 
Willis, Rufus H. Q. M. Sergt. Age 23. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. 
Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Sergt.-Maj. (4th Cav.) Dec. 27, 1864. 2d Lieut. Jan. 
5, 1865. Resigned June 13, 1865. In command of party who collected rebel 
battle flags at Appomattox. 

Residence, New Bedford, Mass. 
Walker, John H. Q. M. Sergt. Age 30. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 
1861. In principal eng. of Co. Thrown from his horse and injured left hip, 
while making post grand rounds, Sept. 1863, Hilton Head. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
George, Edward T. Com. Sergt. Age 19. Mansfield, M. Sept. 25, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, 

Chandler, Samuel A. Sergt. Age 25. Duxbury. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reen- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Bridgewater, Mass. 
*Colburn, Augustine A. Sergt. Age 32. Dedham. M. Sept. 14, 1861. In 

principal eng. of Co. to exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Ellis, Elihu T. Sergt. Age 21. East Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) Aug. 16, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, 
as Sergt. 

Residence, . 

French, William H. Sergt. Age 19. East Bridgewater. M. Sept. 19, 1861. 
Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, East Bridgewater, Mass. 
Holmes, George N. Sergt. Age 32. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. 
Disch. for dis. April 23, 1864, Hilton Head. 
JaiGsicIgiicc I 
Kimball, William H. S. Sergt. Age 21. Maiden. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Reen- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Fall of 1864 on detached ser. Hdqrs. 10th Army Corps, as 
Special Order clerk. 1st Lieut. 8th U. S. C. T., Dec. 6, 1864. Returned to regt. 
Mar. 6, 1865, Special Ord. No. 64, " At his own request." Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. 
2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) May 8, 1865 (not M). Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, West Lynn, Mass. 
Knight, Benjamin, Jr. Sergt. Age 24. Mansfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. 
for dis. May 12, 1863, Beaufort. Eng. Pocotaligo. 
Residence, Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Lincoln, Matthew W. Sergt. Age 24. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. In principal eng. of Co. till April 2, 1864, when taken pris. 
Exchanged from Florence Prison, Mar. 9, 1865. Exp. June 1, 1865. 
Residence, . 



408 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

LOVELL, Samukl C. Sergt. Age 22. Mansfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reeulisted 
Jan. 1, 18G1. Transf. as 1st Sergt. Co. K (4th Cav.) Aug. 23, 1864. Regtl. Com. 
Sergt. Sept. 12, 1864. 2d Lieut. Nov. 15, 1864. 1st Lieut. July 16, 1865. Exp. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, Mansfield, Mass. 
*RiCHAKDSON, Amanbus E. Serg. Age 31. Stoughton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Re- 
eulisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, absent sick. Died Dec. 1865, Rich- 
mond, Va. 
TiLDEN, Edward. Sergt. Age 19. North Bridgewater. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Re- 
eulisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Buss, Erancis a. Corp. Age 24. Rehoboth. M. Oct. 15, 1861. Reeulisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Trausf. to Co. F 4th Cav. Aug. 12, 1864, as Q. M. Sergt. Exp. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Bartlett, Andrew^ W. Corp. Age 24. Dover. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reeulisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Severely wounded Feb. 10, 1864, Barber's Ford, Fla. Died Feb. 
28, 1864, Bccaufort, S. C. 
Dudley, Joel D. Corp. Age 21. Brighton. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Reeulisted Jau. 

1, 1864. Killed in action Apr. 5, 1865, High Bridge, Va. 
Jordan, Hubbard E. Corp. Age 18. Dedham. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Reeu- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Stoueham, Mass. 
Leonard, John IL Corp. Age 31. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. In prin- 
cipal eng. of Co. to exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Marlboro, Mass. 
*Linehan, Daniel. Corp. Age 19. Charlestown. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Reeulisted 

Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
MouLTOX, Stephen C. Corp. Age 24. Rehoboth. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reeu- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

ivftsidciiCG "• 

Stevens, Joseph T. Corp. Age 28. Dedham. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Died Mar. 

1, 1862, Hilton Head, S. C. 
TuRNBULL, Joshua. Corp. Age 27. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Jan. 19, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Wood, Nathan C. Corp. Age 18. Mansfield. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reeulisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*Daggett, Henry T. Bugler. Age 24. Weymouth. M. Sept. 14, 1861. De- 
tailed in band. Chief Bugler 4th Cav. May 17, 1864, Newport News. Exp. Sept. 
23, 1864. 
Jewett, ,Iohn. Bugler. Age 28. Hausou. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Trausf. to Co. 
K, 4th Cav., Dec. 23, 1861. Reeulisted Apr. 16, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Robinson, William AV. Bugler. Age 23. Mansfield. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Re- 
eulisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*CoLE, Joseph E. Saddler. Age 31. Wrentham. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reeu- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Sergt. Sad. 4th Cav. Sept. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Drury, P:dward. Saddler. Age 19. Natick. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Reeulisted 
Jau. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Worthington, Alfred. Farrier. Age 23. East Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 
1861. Reeulisted Jau. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, North Attleboro, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 409 

Baines, James. Farrier. Age 28. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Reeulisted Jan. 1, 
1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Alexander, Giles R. Age 34. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Practically in all eng. of Co. Pris. High Bridge, Va. ; held two 
days. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, Canibridgeport, Mass. 
Badger, Caleb. Age 44. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Eng. Poco- 
taligo. Disch. for dis. July 9, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Bailey, Ai J. Age 24. Natick. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Exp. Oct. 30, 1864. 

Residence, Bridgewater, Mass. 
Bisbee, Joseph P. Age 22. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Died July 14 

1862, Hilton Head, S. C. 
*Blaisdell, Virgil F. (Virgil Marcellus). Age 18. Madison, N. H. M. Oct. 31, 

1861. Disch. for dis. April 8, 1862. Died in Madison, N. H., Aug. 11, 1862. 
*Brown, Ezekiel N. Age 32. Lynn. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. 

Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Cox, Isaac. Age 22. Stoughton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Eng. Morris Island, S. C; 
between Petersburg and Ft. Darling, Va., May 9 to 16, 1864. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Milford, Mass. 
Cunningham, Richard. Age 23. Somerville. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 
1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
Darling, John D. Age 34. Douglas. M. Nov. 11, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 
1864. Chief Bugler 4th Cav. Sept. 25, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Maunchaug, Mass. 
Dean, Thomas F. C. Age 19. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 

1, 1864. Killed in action Feb. 10, 1864, Barber's Ford, Fla. 
Darden, Jonas. Age 33. Beaufort, S. C. Col'd Cook. M. Sept. 28, 1863. Exp. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Eagan, Martin. Age 29. Bridgewater. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 
1864. Exp. July 2, 1865. 

Residence, . 

*EsTES, Joseph C. Age 36. N. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 

Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Aug. 15, 1865. 
Faxon, Ebenezer K. Age 42. Stoughton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Apr. 22, 1863, Beaufort. 

Residence, Stoughton, Mass. 
Farnsworth, Charles P. Age 33. Stoughton. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reenlisted 
Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Fitzpatrick, James. Age 24. Somerville. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Transf. to V. R. C. 
July 15, 1863. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
French, Tolman. Age 43. E. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
May 4, 1864, Portsmouth Grove Hosp. 

Residence, . 

Gaynor, Isaac P. Age 23. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 
1864. Wagoner. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Brockton, Mass. 
Harlow, Francis O. Age 30. Middleboro. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

Residence, . 

Holmes, Henry P. Age 21. North Bridgewater. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Exp. Oct. 
8, 1864. 

Residence, Brockton, Mass. 



410 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

*HowLAND, Frkemax P. Age 24. Hanson. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reeulisted Jan 

1, 1864. Exp. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Rowland, James H. Age 21. Hanson. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis Apr 

8, 1862. 

Residence, Whitman, Mass. 
*Ho\VE, Hiram F. Age 35. Waltham. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Exp. Oct. 30,1864. 
Hunt, George W. Age 33. Randolph. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Eng. Pocotaligo ; 

Morris Island, S. C. ; between Petersburg and Ft. Darling, Va., May 9 to 16 1864. 

Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Huntington, William S. Age 32. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Ord. 

to Gen. comdg. Dept. of South, Apr., 1862. In principal eng. of Co. from Morris 

Island, S. €., to exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Jacobs, Daniel W. Age 27. Abington. M. Sept. 14, 1861, In eng. of Co. to 

exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

JossELYN, Caleb H. Age 31. Bridgewater. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

1864. 

Residence, Foxboro, Mass. 
*Keene, Andrew J. Age 23. New York. M. Jan. 2, 1862. Disch. for dis. Apr. 

22, 1863. Beaufort. 
Knight, Noah M. Age 27. Douglas. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 

1864. Exp. Aug. 10, 1865. 

Residence, Tie Siding, Wyoming. 
*Knight, Thomas W. D. Age 20. Taunton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Reenlisted 

Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
*Leavitt, Jeremiah. Age 36. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Hosp. 

Steward 1st Mass. Cav. June 10, 1862. Reenlisted Dec. 26, 1863. Exp. June 26, 

1865. 
Lyon, Ellis V. Age 21. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Eng. be- 
tween Petersburg and Ft. Darling, Va., May 9 to 16, 1864. Died Sept. 24, 1864, in 

hosp. at Petersburg. 
LuNT, Edward A. Age 24. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Disch. for dis. July 

9, 1863, Beaufort. 
Residence, Stoughton, Mass. 

Morse, Andrew. Age 22. Livermore, Me. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 
1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Muzzy, George B. Age 25. Dedham. M. Nov. 23, 1861. Regtl. Q. M. Sergt. 
1st Mass. Cav. Apr. 9, 1862. Exp. Nov. 16, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Orr, Wilson. Age 24. North Bridgewater. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 
1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Patterson, Samuel M. Age 29. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Acting Hosp. 
Steward, Aug. to Dec, 1862, with Asst. Surg. Oscar C. DeWolf. Pris. Mar. 5, 
1864, Camp Finnegan, wliile on scout ; in Andersonville till Sept. 1864, then in 
Charleston (Fair Grounds) 4 weeks ; escaped and was recaptured ; then confined 
in Florence, S. C, and Goldsboro, N. C, until paroled Mar. 7, 1865. (Sick with 
swamp fever when paroled.) Disch. from Parole Camp June 14, 1865. 
Residence, Spencer, Mass. 
Peterson, John T. Age 33. North Bridgewater. M. Sept 14, 1861. In princi- 
pal eng. of Co. to exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Poole, Horace F. Age 27. Easton. M. Dec. 11, 1861. Pris. in Fla., exchanged 
at Florence, S. C, Mar. 9, 1865 ; died on the way hume. 




MICHAEL NENNERY 





.'GLER HENRY T. BARTLETT 



DANIEL M. ROSS 




BARTLETT SHAW 



BUGLER WILLIAM S. SAMPSON 
u/ias Charles E. West 



H COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 411 

Porter Isaac R. Age 29 East Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. In principal 
eng. of Co. to exp. Sept. 24, 1864. ^ ^ 

Residence, . 

Read, George H- Age 20. Medvyay. M. Oct. 31, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864 
liixp. Nov. 14, 186d. ' 

Residence, . 

*Richardson Francis A Age 26. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discli. for 

clis. Jan. 1, 1864, Hilton Head. 
Richards, George S. Age 23. Boston. M. Apr. 5, 1862. Exp. Oct 14 1864 
Residence, Charlestown, Mass. ' 

*Richardson Gilbert R Age 21. Stoughton. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Discb. for 

(lis. Jbeo. I, 1862, Hilton Head. 
Smith, William A. Age 31. Middleboro. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Apr. b, 1802, Hilton Hd. 

Residence, . 

^7S ^^^or>YK. Age 24 Haverhill. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 
1864. Injured in hip by fall of horse, Oct., 1864, Johnston House. Eno- Poco- 
ligo ; Strawberry Plains ; Capture of Ft. Harrison. Exp. Nov. 14 1865 ''" 

Residence, . ' 

Stoxe, Joseph c. Age 23 Holbrook, Ct. M. Dee. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Aug. 9, 1862, Genl. Hosp. Bedloe's Island, N. Y. harbor-. 
Residence, . 

Studley John A. Age 20. Abington. M. Sept. 14, 1861 [Corp. 4th Cav.l. 

Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 7, 1865. ^ i" J- 

Residence, Rockland, Mass. 
Sylvester John. Age 31. Plymouth. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 

1864. Died in pns., Andersonville, Dec. 1864 

'^hSh™"' ^^^'^^' "^^^"S*""- M. Sept. 14, 1861. Died Apr. 30, 1862, 

Tucker, RoscOE. Age 23. Bridgewater. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Orderly for Gen 

Heckinan, Apr. 1863. Died in pris., Florence, Jan. 29 1865 ^ 

ViNiNG William A Age 21. Weymouth. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Wounded at 
Olustee. Reenlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Hingham, Mass. 
Ware, Joseph. Age 32. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Exp. Oct 18 1864 
Residence, . ^ ' 

^™1862"Bo''sTof' ^^^^^' ^""^^Sewater. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Residence, . 

^NoV^'iriSer'''''''''' ^^" ^^^ ^^' ^^'''*^^°™' ^^«- M- Nov. 14, 1861. Exp. 

Residence, . 

Wortman, Frederick M Age 19. Randolph. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Fell from 
U. S. steamer Rebecca Clyde and drowned. Port Royal Harbor, Feb. 6, 1864 

COMPANY I (New.) 

Lazelle, E. Joshua. 1st Sergt. Age 23. Enfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Com 
on I mT'&r fi 1 sS' w'll'"^ Plank Road. Severely injured (by' horse fallTg 
Hosp^ ^ ' ' ^^^^«^"^^«- Exp. July 17, 1865, Co. C, sick in Finley 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
*'*Ser?rj'?°77Kra '5,' Sergt. Age 36 Lowell. Vet. M. Dee. S, 186.3. 1st 

**Smith, William F. Act'g ist Sergt. 



412 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

**Davis, George B. Q. M. Sergt. Age 22. Boston. Vet. Kegtl. Q. M. Sergt. 

Nov. 1, 1864. 
Lincoln, Charles S. Q. M. Sergt. Age 27. Chelsea. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Q. M. 
Sergt. Nov. 1, 1864. Injured in right leg (kicked by horse), July 28, 1864, near 
Deep Bottom, Ya. In eng. of Co. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
McDonald, Dugald M. Com. Sergt. Age 29. Waltham. M. Jan. 14, 1864. 
Corp. July 1, 1864. Sergt. Nov. 17, 1864. Act'g Regtl. Ordnance Sergt. Dec. 1, 
1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C, as Com. Sergt. 

Residence, . 

Swift, Joseph B. Com. Sergt. Age 23. Boston. Vet. [See Co. A.] M. Dec. 
5, 1863. Com. Sergt. Julv 1, 1804 ; 1st. Sergt. Co. G ; 1st Sergt. Co. L Nov. 
30, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co A (Sergt.). 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Blood, Clark D. Com. Sergt. Age 22. Pittsfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. 
Corp. E.vp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C as Corp. 

Residence, . 

Alden, Preston D. Sergt. Age 22. Springfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. At dis- 
mounted camp, Dec. 1, 1864. Deserted Jan. 12, 1865 (Co. C). 

Residence, . 

Colby, David H. Sergt. Age 36. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Sergt. July 1, 

1864. Orderly at Gen. Meade's Hdqrs. In principal eng. of Co. Exp. June 29, 

1865, in Co. C. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Greenleaf, John. Sergt. Age 25. Boston. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Corp. 

July 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C as Corp. 

Residence, . 

*Pelton, Timothy. Sergt. Age 19. Great Barrington. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. 

Corp. Exp. June 18, 1865, in'Co. C. 2d Lieut. 5th Mass. Cav. May 26, 1865. 

Exp. Oct. 31, 1865. Musician Co. B 37th M. V. I. M. Aug. 30, 1862. Disch. 

for dis. Apr. 2, 1863. 
*Regan, Timothy. Sergt. Age 24. Lowell. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Corp. 

Missing in action Aug. 16, 1864. Exp. May 28, 1865, in Co. C. 
Belcher, Charles B. Corp. Age 19. Chelsea. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Corp. July 1, 

1864. In all eng. of Co. On escort duty. Gen. Meade's Hdqrs. Exp. June 29, 

1865, in Co. C. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 

Bruce, Henry C. Corp. Age 36. Lowell. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 
29, 1865, in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

*CoLE, James M. Corp. Age 29. Williamstown. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. De- 
tailed Regtl. Com. Dept. Dec. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C. 
GODDARD, Henry M. Corp. Age 33. South Hadley. M. Dec. 5, 1863. De- 
tailed Wag. Q. M. Dept. (at own request) Dec. 1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
Co. C. 

Residence, . 

GooDELL, William. Corp. Age 30. Pittsfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Disch. 
for dis. Dec. 12, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Harvey, Henry E. Corp. Age 25. Boston. Vet. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. 
June 29, 1865, in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Hatch, William T. Corp. Age 22. Lowell. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. 
June 29, 1865, in Co. C as Corp. 

Residence, . 

Hazlett, John. Corp. Age 38. Adams. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Corp. July 
1, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C as Corp. 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 413 

Jones, Charles H. Corp. Age 31. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 
1865, in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

McArdle, James. Corp. Age 22. Pittsfield. Vet. M. Dee. 5, 1863. Far. Exp. 
June 29, 1865, iu Co. C, as blacksmith. 

Residence, . 

Murphy, John. Corp. Age 17. Lowell. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Residence, =. 

Otis, Lemuel T. Corp. Age 21. Boston. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Transferred 
to 6th N. Y. Battery, Apr. 7, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Wilson, Norman. Corp. Age 18. Chelsea. Vet. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Corp. 

July 1, 1864. Wounded May, 1864. Killed Oct. 1, 1864, Vaughan R., Va. 
Booth, Daniel B. Bngl. Age 18. Lowell. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 
1865, as Bngl. in Co. C. 
Residence, Nashua, N. H. 
Hagan, Frank. Bugl. Age 18. Somerville. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Wounded June 

15. 1864. Wounded and sick iu hosp. Dec. 1, 1864. Deserted Mar. 5, 1865, from 
Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Merrill, Joseph O. Bugl. Age 37. Natick. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Died 

Nov. 17, 1864, in hosp. Lowell, Mass. 
Davis, Patrick. Far. Age 37. Williamstown. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Transferred 
to Co. L, Oct. 9, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, iu Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Lynch, Lawrence. Far. Age 38. Cambridge. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 

26. 1865, in Co. F. 
Residence, . 

Atwater, Benoni W. Sad. Age 23. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Downing, Lewis PL Sad. Age 30. Enfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 10, 
1865, in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Milliard, David. Wag. Age 44. Springfield. M, Doc. 5, 1863. Died Dec. 

16, 1864, Springfield, Mass. (Co. C). 
Stevens, Joseph L. Wag. Age 36. Springfield. Vet. [See Co. F.] M. Dec. 
5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Abbott, Edwin E. Age 30. Stoughton. M. Aug. 12, 1864. Exp. June 4, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Adams, Francis. Age 21. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Adams, Samuel M. Age 18. Chelsea. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
Co. C, as absent sick. 

Residence, Chelsea, Mass. 
**Allen, Newell B. Vet. 

Allen, Stanton P. Age — . Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. In eng. of Co. With 
Co. C on Meade's body guard ; carried despatches during assault on Petersburg 
and chase of Lee to Appomattox. With Gen. Meade when he called on Lee, in- 
side of rebel lines, and bis private orderly at grand review, Washington, 1865. 
Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C. First enlisted in 21st N. Y. Cav. Aug. 2, 1863. 
(Age 14 yrs. 5 mos.) Discharged Aug. 31, 1863, habeas corpus (application of 
father). 

Residence, Troy, N. Y. 



414 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Andrews, Charles E. Age 23. Pittsfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 18G3. Exp. May 
24, 18(35, ill Co. F. 

liesidence, . 

Barnes, Francis. Age 18. Fall River. M. Dee. 5, 18G3. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Kesidenee, . 

Bassett, Lucius. Age 18. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Disch. for dis. June 2, 
1865, in Co. C. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Benoit, Richard. Age 35. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 27, 1865, in 
Co. C. 

Residence, ■ . 

Bliss, Henry J. Age 36. Lee. Vet. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. Sept. 3, 
1804. 

Residence, . 

*Bo\VEN, Nelson O. Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Prov. Guard Dec. 1, 

1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. C. 

*BoYD, William A. Age 41. Lowell. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 

1865, in Co. C. 

Broderick, Michael. Age 26. Atliol. M. Aug. 29, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. First enlisted Co. B, llth Regt. M. V. I. June 13, 1861. Exp. June 
24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Canning, Eugene. Age 28. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. "Wounded in action 
May 5, 1864, Wilderness. Disch. for dis. June 13, 1865, York llosp. 

Residence, . 

Carter, Nelson. Age 23. Hadley. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Wounded and 
pris. May 5, 1864, Wilderness. Died Dec. 12, 1864, of starvation, Andersonville. 
(Co. C.) 
Clark, William C. Age 22. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Clements, Lawrence. Age 27. Boston. M. Dec 5, 1863. Wounded (sabre 
cut) in scalp. In hosp. Washington, Feb. 1864. Deserted Mar. 12, 1864, from 
Co. C. 

Residence, . 

COFFRAIN, Henry P. Age 18. Chelsea. ]\I. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Coots, George W. Age 18. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Transferred to Co. L 

(new). 
CuMMiNGS, Charles W. Age 21. Springfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Missing June 
24, 1864, St. Mary's Church, Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Davis, Charles A. Age 26. Lowell. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Deserted Feb. 
18, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Day, Albert J. Age 23. Chelsea. Vet. ]\L Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Dennis, Edward. Age 23. Pittsfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Dolan, James. Age 28. Boston. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Pris. May 9, 1864, 

near Beaver Dam Station. Died, Sept. 23, 1864, Andersonville. 
Donovan, William. Age 38. Lowell. M. Dec. 5, 1863. No record of Exp. in 
Washington, June, 1890. 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 415 

Fagan, Bartlett. Age 36. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Fairbanks, Charles F. Age 17. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, Blue Island, 111. 
Falvey, Johx E. Age 17. Westfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. No record of Exp. 

HGsiclcncs, . 

Feeney, Martin. Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Finney, William. Age 26. W. Roxbury. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Slightly .wounded, 
pris. May 6, 1884, Wilderness. In Andersouville 7 mos. Exp. June 6, 1865, in 
Co. C. 

Residence, Brookline, Mass. 
Ford, Wesley. Age 18. Great Barrington. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Wounded in 
action May 5, 1864. In liosp. Dec. 1, 1864. No record of Exp. 

Residence, . 

Gerry, Elbridge. Age 42. Milford. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Transf. to 239 Co. 1st 
Batt. V. R. C. Exp. July 5, 1865. 
Residence, West Upton, Mass. 
GoDixG, Gilbert H. Age 26. Chelsea. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Sick in hosp. Dec. 1, 
18G4. Deserted Jan. 12, 1865, from Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Graffan, Charles. Age 29. Lowell. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. F. 

Residence, . 

Graves, Henry D. Age 29. Northampton. Vet. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Sick in 
hosp. Dec. 1, 1864. Disch. for dis. Apr. 8, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Harding, George A. Age 26. Boston. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Transf. to 
V. R. C. Nov. 10, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Hartson, George F. Age 18. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Detailed Regtl. 
Hdqrs. Dec. 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Chelsea, Mass. 
Hasson, William. Age 20. Great Barrington. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Died in hosp. 

July 12, 1884. 
Hatch, Moses. Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Died of wounds June 10, 

1864. 
HoM, Theodore C. Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

HoMERSLOUGH, Edward. Age 33. Boston. M. Dee. 5, 1863. Slightly wounded 
in shoulder Aug. 18, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Homer, Joseph O. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Killed (accidentally) 

Mar. 15, 1864. 
Howe, Charles. Age 26. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Sick in hosp. Dec. 1, 
1864. Deserted Mar. 5, 1865, from Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Jansex, Eilart. Age 39. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. No record of Exp. 

Residence, . 

Janvraix, Herbert S. Age 28. Boston. M. July 7, 1864. Died Oct. 31, 1864, 

City Point, Va. 
Jones, Jerry. Age 24. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Deserted Feb. 17, 1864. 
Residence, . 



416 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Kearney, James W. Age 21. Springfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 18G3. Killed Oct. 

1, 18G1, Vauglian Road, Va. 
KiKKY, James L. AgQ 21. Cambridge. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, Ashland, Me. 
La Fountaine, Louis. Age 22. South Hadley. M. Feb. 29, 1864. Disch. for 
dis. Jan. 13, 18G5, in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Latour, Joseph. Age 25. Chelsea. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Deserted Feb. 17, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Lazelle, Nathan E. Age 23. Lowell. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Trausf. to 
V. R. C. 

Residence, . 

Lovejoy, Frank. Age 22. Fall River. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Deserted Jan. 
28, 1804. 

Residence, . 

LovELL, Oliver. Age 29. Yarmouth. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Mallory, Edward J. Age 35. Great Harrington. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. At 
dismounted camp Dec. 1, 1864. Deserted Jan. 12, 1865, from Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Mallory, George. Age 18. Great Barrington. M. Dec. 5, 1863. At dismounted 
camp Dec. 1, 1864. Deserted Jan. 12, 1865, from Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Manning, Bryan. Age 22. Somerset. M. Apr. 8, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

*McCarroll, John. Age 29. Lowell. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Disch. for dis. May 28, 

1865, in Co. C. 
McQuADE, Arthur. Age 21. Lowell. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. F. 

Residence, Lowell, Mass. 
Mellenday, Ellis. Age 21. Cambridge. M. Aug. 5, 1864. Exp. May 17, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Merrill, Perry O. Age 21. Springfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Pris. Aug. 19, 1864. 

Died of starvation, Florence, N. C. (Co. C). 
O'CoNNELL, John. Age 35. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Deserted Mar. 26, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

O'Harra, Timothy. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
Co. C. 

Residence, . 

*0wENS, Samuel. Age 18. North Adams. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 

in Co. F. 
PiNSENAULT, Jacob (Pinseno). Age 23. Springfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. 

Pris. Aug. 19, 1864. Died Nov. 2, 1864, of starvation, Andersonville (Co. C). 
Sands, George H. Age 31. Clielsea. Vet. ]\L Dec. 5, 1863. 2d Lieut. 1st 
U. S. C. T., Sept. 30, 1864. 1st Lieut, do. Nov. 18, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Seeley, Samuel W. Age 18. Chelsea. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Ex-p. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. C. 

Residence, . 

Shannon, Daniel. Age 21. Pittsfield. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Disch. for dis. 
Mar. 30, 1865. 
Residence, . 




LEWIS JONES 



CHARLES A. KIHLGREEN 



H COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 417 

Steele, William. Age 24. Great Barrington. Vet. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Deserted 

Feb. 18, 1864. 
SuLL^v'S' jlM^T'Age 17. Chester. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, iu 

Co.C. 

TAyfofGi'LEsT^ge 21. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Wounded July 28, 1864, 
New Market. Died of wounds July 30, 1864. ^ ^an4 

*Thorntox, Owen. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Pris. May 9, 1864, near 
Beaver Dam Station. Exp. June 10 1865, i" ^ o. ^ .o lefi- ;,. Pn C 

Tool, Thomas. Age 31. Lowell. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Lxp. June 12, I860, in Co. C. 
Residence, Lowell, Mass. „„ . ,. .^ 1 

VosE, Frederick A. Age 18. Chelsea. M. Dec. 5, 1863. At dismounted camp 
Dec. 1, 1864. Deserted Jan. 12, 1865, from Co. C. 

ViNiNGfHENRY"ir"Age21. Plaiiifield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 29, 1865 

(on furlough), in Co. C. 
Wa™n,"k^'. Age 21. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 

in Co. H. 
WiLS^otcHll^"''A^ge^^^ Fall River. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Deserted Feb. 7. 1864. 

WilSr!'frede";;7kA. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. 
May 3, 1865, from hosp., G. O. 77, A. G. O. (Co. H). 

Residence, Dorchester, Mass. ,^ ^ ^- -.o^o ta- i * -i-. iu„^ 

WooDW-^RD, Joel S. Age 41. Lowell. M. Dec. 5, 1863. Disch. for dis. May 
11, 1865, from hosp., G. O. 77, A. G. O. (Co. H). 
Residence, . 

COMPANY K (Old). 

Belcher, Allen F. 1st Sergt. Age 19. Foxboro M Sept. 23, 1861 Reen- 
listed Jan. 1, 1864. Com. Sergt. 4th Cav. July 6, 1864 ; 2d Lieut. July 27, 1864, 
1st Lieut. Feb. 1, 1865. Exp. June 6, 1865, as Bvt. Capt. 

Residence, Foxboro, Mass. ,r /^ .. oo iq/.i t? x„ 

Hazelwood, Robert B. 1st Sergt. Age 24. Boston. M Oct. 23 1861 Reen- 
listed Apr. 21, 1864. Commissioned 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) June 6, 1865 (not M.}. 
Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . „^ ,, -«r o i. -i/i iq«i 

*TiRRELL, Albert H. 1st Sergt. Age 22. Weymouth. M. Sept. 14, 1861. 

2d Lieut. U. S. C. T., May 5, 1863. ,, ^ . ^ -,0^1 t? •• r ^ ^ 

Tripp, Joseph. Q. M. Sergt. Age 19. Fairhaven. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, San Francisco, Cal. , «^ -.0^-1 t? ■• 

Dupee, Horace E. Com. Sergt. Age 28. Foxboro. M. Sept. 25, 186L Reen- 
listed Apr. 21, 1864. In principal eng. of Co. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, Norwood, Mass. -.^r t^ ^ ioca t?,^ 

Bacon, Charles D. Com. Sergt. Age 21. Foxboro. M. Dec. 4, 1864. Exp. 
Dec. 3, 1864. 

Residence, Marlboro, Mass. . 

Blaisdell, Frank A. Sergt. Age 34. Boston. M .Tan. 2 1862. Corp. Aug., 
1862 • Sero-t. Nov., 1862. Reenlisted Jan., 1864. Practically in all eng. of Co. 
Severely w'ounded, head (rifle ball), Feb. 14, 1864, Barber's Ford ; wounded, arm, 
slight, Petersburg ; wounded, arm, left leg, RiehmonfL On detached ser. Grant s 
Hdqrs., Petersb.frg; Terry's and Weitzel's Hdqrs. Richmond ; Butlers Hdqrs. 
Deep Bottom. Exp. Dec. 2, 1865. 
Residence, Medford, Mass. 



418 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

*BuLLOCK, Preserved. Sergt. Age 25. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Regtl. 
Com. Sergt, Oct. 15, 1862 ; 1st Lieut. (4th Cav.) Jan. 19, 1864. Exp. Jan. 23, 
1865. 

Hawes, William H. Sergt. Age 23. Wrentham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reeu- 
listed Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, . 

HoLLis, Lakoy S. Sergt. Age 26. Weymouth. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 16, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Raudolph, Mass. 

HooBAN, Michael. Sergt. Age 19. Dorchester. M. Jan. 20, 1862. Reenlisted 
Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, St. Francis, Cal. 

HoRNE, LoRiNG R. Sergt. Age 26. Charlestown. M. Feb. 14, 1862. Exp. Oct. 
14, 1864. 

Residence, Elizabeth (Elbert Co.), Colorado. 

Phinney, William W. Sergt. Age 21. Sandwich. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Pris. 
Mar. 5, 1864, Camp Finnegau, while scouting ; in Andersonville till Sept., 1864 ; 
then sent to Charleston (Fair Grounds) ; escaped and was recaptured ; contined 
in Florence, 8. C, and Goldsboro, N. C. Died, spring of 1865, Fortress Monroe, 
while being exchanged. 

*RiCKETSOx, Joseph R. Sergt. Age 25. Fall River. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reen- 
listed Apr. 21, 1864. Disch. for dis. Jan. 15, 1865. 

*Soule, William T. Sergt. Age 25. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Reen- 
listed Feb. 4, 1864 ; 2d Lieut. 4th Cav. Jan. 19, 1864 ; 1st Lieut. Dec. 10, 1864 ; 
Capt. July 5, 1865 (not M.). Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

*TiNKHAM, Henry B. Sergt. Age 21. Taunton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. 2d Lieut. 
2d S. C. Vols. June 1, 1863. 

Shaw, Albert F. Sergt. Age 27. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Corp. Feb., 

1863. Sergt. Aug., 1863. On detached ser. as Sergt. of Patrol Sept., 1863, to 
Feb., 1864, Beaufort. In principal eng. of Co. to Exp. Oct. 8, 1864. 

Residence, Taunton, Mass. 
Whitcomb, John M. Sergt. Age 21. Weymouth. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Disch. 
for dis. Jan. 7, 1862. 

Residence, East Weymouth, Mass. 
Bartel, Leopold. Corp. Age 22. New Bedford. M. Dec. 26, 1861. Corp. 
Oct. 15, 1862. Wounded in left shoulder while on duty as jailer, July 16, 1863, 
Beaufort. In all eng. with Co. to Exp. Dec. 3, 1864. 
Residence, New Bedford, Mass. 
Richmond, Cyrus A. Corp. Age 28. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. 
for dis. Oct. 5, 1862. 

Residence, . 

*Tierney, James. Corp. Age 26. Newton. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Exp. Dec. 3, 

1864. 
*DeBank, Mark a. Corp. Age 28. Boston. M. Feb. 10, 1862. Reenlisted 

Apr. 16, 1864. Dishon. disch. Nov. 29, 1865, by O. W. D. (4th Cav.) 
Daggett, William A. Bugl. Age 19. Braintree. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Exp. 
Sept. 21, 1864. 

Residence, Hingham, Mass. 
Krouse, Herman. Bugl. Age 19. Boston. M. Mar. 5, 1862. Reenlisted Apr. 
21, 1864. Ex^). Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Peabody, Mass. 
*Baker, Reuben L. i31acksmith. Age 24. Abington. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. 

Sept. 24, 1864. 
*Allen, Rufus C. Age 21. Dartmouth. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 

1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

*Atherton, Francis M. Age 25. Boston. M. Feb. 11, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
Apr. 23, 1863. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 419 

*Bacon, Newton W. Age 18. Foxboro. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Exp. Oct. 16, 

Baker^ Charles G. Age 26. New Bedford. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Discb. for dis. 
July 8, 1862. 

Residence, . „ , . -n 

Bassett, Orville. Age 21. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. 3d Asst. Engr. m 
Navy, Jan. 22, 1863. On U. S. steamers Sacramento and Ticonderoga. Eng. Fort 
Fisher. Diseb. Aug. 9, 1865. 

Residence, Windsor, Conn. ^^. t^ o ^^ n^ 

Belcher, Alfred C. Age 19. Weymoutb. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. ., , • ^ x 

*Brenxan, Gerald. Age 31. Dedbam. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Detaded m 1st 

Band. Discb. for dis. July 30, 1862. 
Bryant, Edwin. Age 19. New Bedford. M. Oct. 15, 1861. Exp. Oct. 14, 
1864. 

X^PSlCL6nC6 , 

BuRDETT, James F. Age 30. Lynn. M. Nov. 11, 1861. Discb. for dis. Apr. 22, 

1862. 

RgsicIgiicg. -. 

Cahill, Thomas. Age 21. Weymoutb. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Died Feb. 10, 1864, 

from wound received in tbigb. Barber's Ford, Fla. 
Caswell, Washington T. Age 28. Dedbam. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Detaded m 

band. Died Aug. 24, 1863. 
Chaplain, Moses. Colored Cook. Age 21. Beaufort, S. C. M. Aug. 19, 1863. 

Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

KiGSiclGIlCG, — , 

CoLSON, Frederick B. Age 21. Weymoutb. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted 

Apr. 21, 1863. Exp. Nov. 7, 1865. 

R-gsicIgiicg • 

Copeland, Ambrose. Age 33. Marlboro. M. Mar. 18, 1862. Exp. Oct. 14, 

1864. 

RGSiClGllCG — 

Crockett, Edmund. Age 41. Nortb Bridgewater. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discb. 
for dis. Sept. 25, 1862. 

Residence, Campello, Mass. ^ ti» 

Dam, Joseph. Age 45. Dedbam. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Rejected (over age). M. 
out Oct. 24, 1861. 
TijGsicIgiicg — ■—. 
Doran, Thomas. Age 24. Middleboro. M. Nov. 11, 1861. Exp. Nov. 10, 
1864. 

Ii.GSlClGn.CG - — . 

*Eaton, William T. Age 27. Randolph. M. Sept. 19, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 

21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. t.. , , t 

Edwards, Henry D. Age 25. New Bedford. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Discb. for dis. 

Dec. 27, 1861. 

XijGSIcIgIICG • 

Farrington, 'Ellery O. Age 23. Mansfield. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, Lynn, Mass. . i * 

Feltis, William H. Age 18. Quincy. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 
1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

RgsicIgiicg . 

Fennard, George A. Age 21. Middleboro. M. Mar. 17, 1862. Wounded in 
tbigb Feb. 10, 1864, Barber's Ford. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 
1865. 

Residence, . 



420 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Field, Waldo. Age 40. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 
24, 1864. ^ 

Residence, Brockton, Mass. 
♦Frasier, James B. Age 19. Braintree. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Pris. Barnwell 

Island. Exp. Jan. 4, 1865. 
Oilman, Caleb K. Age 38. Abington. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Discli. for dis. Dec. 
2, 1862. 

Residence, Gilmanton, N. H. 
Gray, Loring. Age 34. Dartmouth. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. June 23, 
1862. 

Residence, . 

Green, James B. Age 21. Boston. M. Feb. 16, 1862. Exp. Oct. 14, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Green, Thomas. Age 21. Roxbury. M. Mar. 1, 1862. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 

1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Hall, Amasa B. Age 28. Boston. M. Feb. 18, 1862. Exp. Oct. 14, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Hall, John A. Age 22. Plymouth. M. Dec. 18, 1861. Disch. for dis. Apr. 22, 
1862. 

Residence, Brockton, Mass. 
Hawes, Bradford. Age 17. Weymouth. M. Nov. 11, 1861. Nurse in hosp. 
Sept., 1863, to May, 1864. Acting hosp. steward, 2d Batt. at Olustee and before 
Petersburg. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 
Residence, East Weymouth, Mass. 
Hayward, Lewis B. Age 34. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Hobart, Henry A. Age 20. Braintree. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 
21, 1864. Corps Sergt. 4th Cav. Exp. Aug. 9, 1865. 
Residence, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Hutchinson, Matthew. Ar:,e 34. Milford. M. Jan. 14, 1862. Reenlisted Apr. 

21, 1864. Died Aug. 23, 1864, Hatcher's Run. 
Ide, Smith M. Age 25. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 8, 1864. 

Residence, New Bedford, Mass. 
Klng, Charles. Age 25. Boston. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Exp. Nov. 25, 1864. 

Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
Kingsbury, Henry D. Age 21. Franklin. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 8, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Lamont, John C. Age 26. Chelsea. M. Jan. 29, 1862. Killed Mar. 1, 1864, 

McGurth's Creek, Fla. 
Lamson, John H. Age 20. Quincy. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Wounded right foot 
(gun-shot) and pris. Feb. 10, 1864, Olustee. p]leven months at Tallahassee and 
Andersonville. "Weight at capture, 165 lbs.; at escape (from Andersonville), 65 
lbs." Exp. Jan. 24, 1865. Enlisted 4th Regt. Inf. M. V. M. Apr. 22, 1861. Exp. 
July 22, 1861. 

Residence, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Lear, Charles B. Age 22. Lynn. M. Dec. 11, 1861. Exp. Dec. 10, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Lloyd, Thomas W. Age 26. New York. M. Jan. 4, 1862. Exp. Oct. 14, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Merrow, William O. Age 27. Uxbridge. M. Mar. 7, 1862. Disch. for dis. 
Nov. 18, 1862. 

Residence, New Sharon, Me. 
MiNiER, Barney. Age 32. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Dec. 25, 
1861. 

Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 421 

Noble, Joseph A. Age 33. Dedbam. M. Dec. 22, 1861. Deserted June 12, 

1862. 

XvCSlClGllCG -, 

Oliver, William. Age 18. Natlck. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Keenlisted Apr. 21, 
1864. Deserted July 28, 1865. 

Residence, . 

O'Malley, James. Age 22. Roxbury. M. Feb. 18, 1862. Exp. Oct. 14, 1864. 

R-GSlClGllCG ■ 

Parker, Charles D. Age 26. Readville. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Discb. for dis. July 

8, 1862. 

1?.gsi(1giicg • 

Parker, John, Jr. Age 21. Quincy. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 

1864. Lieut. U. S. C. T. Aug. 15, 1865. 

RGSlClGnCG . 

Partridge, George V. Age 19. Medway. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Wounded and 

died May 2, 1864, Beaufort, S. C. 
Penniman, George F. Age 24. Braintree. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

1864. 

KiGsid-GIlCG . 

*Perkins, Abraham F. Age 20. Mereditb, N. H. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Exp. Dec. 

o -1 ani 
*Perkins, Oscak. Age 24. Mereditb, N. H. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Exp. Oct. 21, 

1804. ^ „ . , ^ 

Pond, Charles H. Age 19. Foxboro. M. Sept. 19, 1861. In all eng. witb Co. 

Corp. 4tb Cav. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Attleboro, Mass. 
Pratt, Chester D., 2d. Age 23. Weymoutb. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Discb. for 

dis. Nov. 17, 1862. 

H-GSlClGllCG • 

Robertson, Joseph W. Age 22. New Bedford. M. Dec. 11, 1861. Reenlisted 

Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, New Bedford, Mass. 
Rogers, Frank M. Age 26. New Bedford. M. Feb. 4, 1862. Reenlisted Apr. 

16, 1864. Deserted Aug. 14, 1865. 

XV 'SlClGllCG *• 

*Roock, Charles C. Age 45. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Discb. for dis. 

June 23, 1862. 
Shaw, Alonzo M. Age 19. Mansfield. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Tbrown from borse 

(arm broken) Mar. 3, 1863, Barnwell's Plantation, Beaufort. Discb. for dis. 

(caused by the injury) Apr. 22, 1863. 
Residence, Cbarlestown, Mass. 
Simonds, John F. Age 22. North Bridge water. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Transf. to 

Co. C. 
*Skinner, DeWitt C. Age 33. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

Smith, Albert B. Age 32. Abington. M. Mar. 22, 1862. Died May 22, 1862, 

Hilton Head, S. C. 
Smith, John E. Age 20. Middleboro. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 20, 

1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

R/GSlClGllCG - 

Smith, Samuel H. Age 40. Dartmouth. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Discb. for dis. Jan. 
13, 1862. 

^i6SlQGIlC6 * 

Snow, Austin H. Age 33. North Bridgewater. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Discb. from 
Band by O. W. D. Apr. 24, 1862. 
Residence, Lynn, Mass. 



422 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

SouLE, Benjamin F. Age 27. New Bedford. M. Oct. 5, 18G1. Exp. Oct 8 
18G4. ^ ■ ' 

Residence, New Bedford, Mass. 
Staples, Job M. Age 17. Lakeville. M. Nov. 11, 1861. Exp. Nov. 11, 1864. 

Kesideiice, Middleboro, Mass. 
Steele, Charles H, Age 18. Worcester. M. Dec. 26, 1861. Disch. for dis 
July 29, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Swain, Charles B. Age 32. New Bedford. M. Oct. 23. 1861. Died Nov. 4. 

1862, Beaufort, S. C. 
Swain, Francis. Age 24. Lynn. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Dec. 10, 1864. 

Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
*Thayer, Hiram. Age 35. West Bridgewater. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. for 

dis. Apr. 22, 1862. 
Tucker, George L. Age 18. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Reeulisted Apr. 
21,1864. In all eng. of Co. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Stoughton, Mass. 
TuTTLE, Reuben. Age 20. Frauconia, N. IL M. Dec. 11, 1861. Disch. for dis 
Oct. 1, 1862. 

Residence, Glenwood, Mass. 
*Watson, Lewis. Age 30. Newton. M. Feb. 6, 1862. Disch. for dis. Oct. 2. 

1862. 
Welch, William. Age 19. West Bridgewater. M. Sept. 16, 1861. In all en?, 
of Co. Exp. Sept. 28, 1864. 
Residence, Portland, Ore. 
White, Leonard N. Age 27. Stoughton. M. Sept. 14, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864. i^ V , 

Residence, Stoughton, Mass. 
Williams, John. Age 41. New York. M. Aug 11, 1862. No record of exp. 

Residence, . 

Wood, Horatio. Age 18. New Bedford. M. Dec. 24, 1861. Regtl. Q. M. 
Sergt. Died on Steamer Ericsson, June 23, 1862, en route from Port Royal to 
his home. (Disch. for dis. dated July 2, 1862.) 
Wood, James H. Age 23. Quiucy. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 8, 1864. 
Residence, . 

COMPANY K (New). 

Mulliken, William. 1st Sergt. Age 24. Harvard. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded 

in face and leg May 5, 1864, Wilderness. Died June 3, 1864. 
*Coville, Thomas H. Com. Sergt. Age 29. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. 
Pris. May 6, 1864, Wilderness. Returned to regt. May 12. In all eng. of Co. 
Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Bates, William H. Sergt. Age 22. Pittsfleld. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1S65, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Greeley, Charles H. Sergt. Age 24. Pittsfleld. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Hagar, George E. Sergt. Age 22. Pittsfleld. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Missing in 
action May [5-6], 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, D.ilton, Mass. 
Jeffrey, George C. Sergt. Age 27. South Danvers. M. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Wounded May, 1864. Disch. for dis. July 1, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, East Saugus, Mass. 
Kennedy, Samuel. Sergt. Age 22. Cambridge. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. May 
[5-14], 1864, Wilderness. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A (absent sick). 
Residence, . 




COM. SERGT. EDW. T. GEORGE 




VIRGIL MARCELLUS ELAISDELL 





SAMUEL M. PATTERSON 




MOODY K. STACY 



Q. M. SERGT. J. H. WALKER 





WILLIAM A. VINING 



CHAS. E. GRATON 

Enlisted as C. E. Danforih. 

Recruit 4tli Cav. 



I COMPANY (OLD) 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 423 

Morgan, Charles H. Sergt. Age 26. Cambridge. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
Hara, Jean O'. Sergt. Age 36. Orleans. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Hosp. Steward 
Dec. 24, 1864. Disch. July 18, 1865, O. W. D. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Arthur P. Sergt. Age 18. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in 
neck and pris. May 11, 1864, Ashland Station. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Sullivan, Cornelius D. Sergt. Age 21. Dedham. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Disch. 
for dis. Dec. 28, 1864, in Co. A. 
Residence, Greenfield, Mass. 
Schuyler, Theodore. Sergt. Age 27. Cambridge. M. Dec. 29, 1863. De- 
serted Feb. 18, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Adams, Stephen. Corp. Age 29. Brighton. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Transferred to 
Co. A Oct., 1864. Pris. May 6, 1864, Todd's Tavern. No record of parole or 
disch- 

Residence, . 

Chapin, Edmund E. Corp. Age 19. Hadley. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Clarke, Seldox Y., Jr. Corp. Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Crawford, James. Corp. Age 19. Salem. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded, right 
thigh (gunshot), Todd's Tavern, May 7, 1864. Pris. May 9, 1864, from field 
hosp. ; recaptured in 8 days. In eng. of Co. to June 19, 1865, when disch. for 
dis. caused from being thrown from horse (Co. A). 
Residence, Lowell, Mass. 
Dolphin, Michael H. Corp. Age 22. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Fuller, Wellington. Corp. Age 21. Dalton. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, ■. 

Helme, Alonzo. Corp. Age 37. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, Wellington, Kansas. 
Holien, Brien, Corp. Age 21. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. May [5-6], 

1864. Died June 5, 1864, Richmond, Va. 

JoSELYN, WiLMOT J. Corp. Age 27. Lanesboro. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. May 
9, 1864, near Beaver Dam Station. Exp. June 14, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Magee, Henry. Corp. Age 34. Chelsea. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Transferred to 
Navy Apr. 27, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Swan, William H. Corp. Age 18. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Deserted May 
25, 1865, Alexandria, Va., in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Hallowell, Josiah R. Bugl. Age 18. Stoughton. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Randall, Edward F. Bugl. Age 18. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. May 

5, 1864, Todd's Tavern. Died Nov. 8, 1864, Millen, Ga. (Co. A). 
Carter, Eli. Far. Age 22. Springfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, . 



424 FIRST 3IASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

HiNES, Daniel R. Far. Age 31. Lanesboro. M. Dec. 29, 18C3. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Wood, John. Sad. Age 23. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Andrews, Alvin. Age 24. Chelsea. M. Dec. 23, 1863. Pris. May 9, 1864, near 

Beaver Dam Station. Died July 5, 1864, Chester, Va. 
Beckwith, John H. Age 18. Sandisfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in leg 
May 5, 1864, Wilderness. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Camden, N. J. 
BOGART, Henry O. Age 18. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Practically in all eng. 
of Co. Exp. June 21, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Holyoke, Mass. 
Brown, Charles M. Age 24. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Deserted Feb. 18, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Broderick, Donald. Age 27. Great Barriugton. M. Dec. 29, 1863. No record 
of disch., War Dept., Aug. 23, 1887. 

Residence, . 

Brophy, Joseph B. Age 39. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Burrows, Samuel. Age 21. Adams. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Killed May 5, 1864, 

Wilderness. 
Carpenter, Calvin. Age 37. Lanesboro. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Died Sept. 26, 

1864, Satterlee Hosp., Philadelphia. 

Carroll, George. Age 18. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Casey, JMaurice. Age 28. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Killed Sept. 16, 1864, 

Jerusalem Plank Road. 
Cavanaugh, John. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in leg May 
[5-14], Wilderness. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Marlboro, Mass. 
Clark, Michael. Age 22. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in foot May 
5, 1864, Wilderness. Deserted Oct. 14, 1864, furlough from Campbell Genl. 
Hosp. 

Residence, . 

Clough, Martin. Age 35. Roxbury. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Collins, William. Age 18. Springfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Died Aug. 31, 

1864. 
Connors, John. Age 23. AVest Roxbury. M. Dee. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. A as absent sick. 
Residence, . 

*CoNLON, John. Age 23. Springfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Discb. for dis. May 
29, 1865, in Co. A. 

Dean, John A. Age 21. Williamstown. JM. Jan. 14, 1864. Wounded in shoul- 
der Aug. 23, 1864, Ream's Station. Died of wounds Sept. 5, 1864. 

DusHELM, Leon. Age 22. Great Barriugton. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. May 9, 
1864, near Beaver Dam Station. Died July 1, 1864, Andersonville, Ga. 

Emerson, Alfred E. Age 18. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Evans, Henry M. Age 18, Lee. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. of war. Died Oct. 
26, 1864, Andersonville, Ga. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 425 

FoOTE, Noah. Age 21. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, ia 

Co. A. 

RgsicIgiicg* — . 
Gay, Charles R. Age 35. Cambridge. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. May 9, 1864, 

near Beaver Dam Station. Died Aug. 1, 1864, Andersonville, Ga. 
Golden, Thomas. Age 21. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 

Co. A. 

K^csiciGiicG — — , 
Good, John. ' Age 18. Dedham. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 

Co. A. 

KjGsiciGllCG ■, 

Gray, Hiram's. Age 27. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Died Aug. 17, 1864. 
GuPTiL, Cornelius R. Age 22. Roxbury. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Horse shot May 
11, 1864, near Ashland, Va. ; ankle dislocated by horse falling. Sent from hosp. 
to Camp Stonemau for remount ; with dismounted men, armed as Inf., in eng. 
Snicker's Gap, July 17, 1864. In all eng. of Co. except when absent injured. 
Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 
Hackett, Peter. Age 18. Conway. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, m 
Co. A. 

Residence, Conway, Mass. 
Hackett, William. Age 29. Cambridge. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Hills, John F. Age 28. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Killed in action Sept. 

16, 1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. 
Hood, James W. Age 29. Lowell. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, m 
Co. A. 

KjGsicIgiicg ■ 

Hood, John. ' Age 20. Lowell. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Hunter, Robert. Age 29. Adams. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Killed May 5, 1864, 

Wilderness. 
Jackley, Jacob. Age 22. Dalton. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Horse shot ; breast bone 
and finger broken by horse falling. Detached six weeks in 1st N. H. Cav., at 
Sandy Hook, Winchester, Strasburg. In eng. of Co. when not detached. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
RgsIcIgiicg BclltiirG Oliio. 
Jeffers, Franklin. Age 18. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Detached with 6th 
N. Y. Battery. 

X\ G S 1 ClG 11 C G • 

Jennings, Walter D. Age 18. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. In all eng. of Co. 

Injured by horse falling on him, spring of 1865, near Petersburg, Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, Long Lake, N. Y. 
Johnson, Peter. Age 23. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 

Co. A as absent wounded. 

Residence, . 

Knippe, Henry H. Age 19. Sandwich. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. May 9, 1864, 

near Beaver Dam Station. Died Aug. 8, 1864, Andersonville, Ga. 
Leyman, John. Age 19. Lanesboro. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. of war. Died 

July 10, 1864, Andersonville, Ga. 
Lucas, William. Age 22. Springfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Pris. May 9, 1864, 

near Beaver Dam Station. Exp. May 5, 1865, in Co. A. 

XvGSlQGllCG ^^— — 

Lutsinger, Frank. Age 21. Great Barrington. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Missing in 
action, May, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, • 



426 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Luther, Joseph IL Age 22. Orleans. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Lynch, Jeremiah R. Age 18. Watertown. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Madden, James. Age 18. Marlboro. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. July 20, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Residence, Spencer, Mass. 
Maker, James. Age 21. Pittsfleld. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Residence, . 

McDoNOUGH, John. Age 33. Great Barringtou. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

McIntire, Edward. Age 18. Lanesboro. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in left 
arm July 28, 1864, New Market. Exp. May 25, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Moui.TON, Lewis F. Age 26. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Transf. to V. R. C. 

Residence, Fownal Centre, Vt. 
Owens, David. Age 22. Lee, M. Dec. 29, 1863. Deserted Feb. 19, 1861. 

Residence, . 

O'Day, Edward. Age 18. Canton. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Pond, John P. Age 25. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Wounded in face 
May [5-14], Wilderness. Exp. July 18, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Reynolds, Charles. Age 21. Boston. M. Dee. 29, 186-3. Trausf. to Y. R. C. 

Residence, ■. 

Roberts, Edward V. Age 21. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. Mav, 1864. 

Died Sept. 21, 1864, Andersonville, Ga. 
Rohan, Patrick, Age 18. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. A. 

Residence, Pittsfield, Mass. 
See, John. Age 36. Lee. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Shay, Patrick, Age 28. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Deserted Feb. 19, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Maddison B. Age 25. Westfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

SowDEN, John. Age 23. Cheshire. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 10, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Stanton, George W. Age 20. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Deserted Feb. 16, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Sullivan, Thomas A. Age 19, Worcester. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Missing July 
28, 1864, New Market. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. 
Suppknaugh, John. Age 18. Great Harrington. M, Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded 
in thigh Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, -. 

Terry, Reuben L. Age 31. Williamstown, M. Jan. 14, 1864. Deserted Nov, 
1, 1864. 

Resideuccv , 




IRVING WAT£R,V1AN STANTON P. ALLEN 





CORP. CHAS. B. BELCHER 



NELSON O. BOWEN 



1 COMPANY (NEW) 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 427 

Thomas, James H. Age 27. Pittsfield. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 26, 1865 

ill Co. A. 

Residence, Hinsdale, Mass. 
TiNGAY, William. Age 26. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. May 9, 1864, 

near Beaver Dam Station. Died Ang. 10, 1864, Andersonville, Ga. 
ToziER, Henry A. Age 21. Dorchester. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Disch. for dis. 

July 11, 1864. 

X\jPS1c1g11C6 ' * 

TuTTLE, Frank. Age 18. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Exp. June 12, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Xfc ^ S 1 fl G 11 C G — ^^^— 

Walker, Henry. Age 25. Cambridge. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Died July 9, 1864. 
WnEELOCK, William T. Age 24. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Transf. from Co. 
A. to U. S. Battery. 

Residence, . 

Whitney, George W. H. H. Age 25. Adams. M. Dec. 29, 1863. Wounded in 
neck, Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Williams, John. Age 25. Boston. M. Dec. 29, 1863. No record of Exp. 

Residence, . 

Willsey, John V. Age 29. Cheshire. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Transf. to Navy Apr. 
27, 1864. 

JAjGSIcIgIICG . 

Woodruff, John G. Age 27. Cheshire. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. May 9, 1864, 
near Beaver Dam Station. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, Adams, Mass. 

COMPANY L (Old). 

Caldwell, John A. 1st Sergt. Age 29. Lowell. M. Sept. 25, 1861. 1st Lieut. 
(4th Cav.) Jan. 19, 1864. Capt. Jan. 5, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, Bvt. Maj. 

Residence, . 

Lee, John. 1st Sergt. Age — . Stow. M. Dec. 26, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 
1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) July 13, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, as 1st Sergt. 
Residence, Lenox Furnace, Mass. 
Fessenden, William H. Q. M. Sergt. Age 23. Dorchester. M. Dec. 4, 
1861. Corp. ; Sergt. ; Q. M. Sergt. Oct. 15, 1862. Slightly wounded, finger 
(fragment of shell) June 16, 1862, James Island. Detailed in band, Chief Bugl., 
Hilton Head. In all eng. of Co. while in S. C. and Fla. Disch. for dis. (caused 
by exposure in eng., Pocotaligo) Apr. 22, 1863. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Welsh, Martin. Com. Sergt. Age 20. Waltham. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Reen- 
listed Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Carr, Alonzo a. Sergt. Age 25. Ashby. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Orderly at 
post hdqrs., Beaufort. Sergt. Feb. 1, 1864. In eng. of Co. to Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Ashby, Mass. 
Chapman, Edwin. Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
May 14, 1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Collins, Joseph W. Sergt. Age 36. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. Feb., 1863. 

Residence, Beaufort, S. C. 
Flanagan, James. Sergt. Age 27. Natick. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 16, 1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) Jan. 5, 1865. 1st Lieut. July 13, 1865. 
Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, Natick, Mass. 



428 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

GooDNOw, Edgar W. Sergt. Age 21. AValtham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. 1st Lieut. 
(4tli Cav.) Jan. 19, 1864. Exp. Nov. 12, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Hervey, Albert G. Sergt. Age 22. Andover. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reen- 
listed Apr. 21, 1864. Regtl. Com. Sergt. (4tli Cav.) Dec. 2, 1864. 2d Lieut. May 
17, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, as Regtl. Com. Sergt. 
Holmes, Silas S. Sergt. Age 22. Lowell. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Died Nov. 21, 

1862, Beaufort, S. C. 
Keif, Thomas. Sergt. Age 20. Bridgewater. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 21, 1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) Apr. 6, 1865. 1st Lieut. July 13, 1865. 
Dismissed Nov. 20, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Parker, Niles G. Sergt. Age 34. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Promoted 
Feb. 25, 1863, in 1st S. C. Colored Regt. 
Residence, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 
Poor, George W. Sei-gt. Age 22. Lawrence. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 16, 1864. Regtl. Com. Sergt. Feb. 21, 1865 (4th Cav.). 2d Lieut. Apr. 7, 
1865. 1st Lieut. July 8, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, as 2d Lieut. 
Residence, Hudson, Mass. 
Qualters, Michael. Sergt. Age 24. Waltham. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Sargent, Alfred M. Sergt. Age 25. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 21, 1864. 2d Lieut. (4th Cav.) Nov. 15, 1864. Resigned May 11, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Stockbridge, Lindley H. Sergt. Age 21. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. 
Transf. to V. R. C. July 1, 1863. 1st Sergt. Co. F (V. R. C). 2d Lieut. (4th 
Cav.) Feb. 1, 1865. 1st Lieut. Apr. 26, 1865. Resigned July 21, 1865. 
Residence, Haverhill, Mass. 
Trask, Hfnry D. Sergt. Age 19. West Cambridge. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Apr. 21, 1864. Disch. for promotion Nov. 29, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Wetherbee, Ephraim C. Sergt. Age 45. Concord. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. 

for dis. Nov. 23, 1863. 
Butterfield, George F. Corp. Age 20. Sudbury. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Ord. 
to Gen. Saxton, Beaufort, and Gen. Gilraan Marston before Petersburg, Va. 
Corp. Sept., 1864. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Residence, Saxonville, Mass. 
Cass, Charles W. Corp. Age 21. Plaistow, N. H. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Corp. 
after Olnstee, Feb., 1864. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 
Residence, Plaistow, N. IL 
Fern, Almond P. Corp. Age 42. Nottingham, N. H. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Died 

Aug. 6, 1862, Beaufort, S. C. 
Pierce, Amos. Corp. Age 43. Townsend. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Detailed with 
Asst. Surg. De Wolf, winter 1861-62. In S. C. heat and sand affected eyes, 
causing disch. for dis. (from Mt. Pleasant Hosp., Washington) Dec. 12, 1862. 
Reenlisted July 12, 1864, V. R. C. Transf. to 2(1 Co. Provisional Cav. Sept. 24, 
1864. On President's body guard. Disch. for dis. Feb. 14, 1865. 
Residence, AVest Townsend, Mass. 
Short, Patrick H. Corp. Age 21. Lowell. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Strang, Gabriel. Corp. Age 33. New S.alem. M. Dec. 26, 1861. Reenlisted 

Apr. 21, 1864. Killed Apr. 6, 1865, High Bridge Station, Va. 
WiLLARD, James A. Corp. Age 21. Townsend. M Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for 
dis. May 11, 1862, Beaufort. 
Residence, Ashby, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 429 

Willis, Frank E. Bugl. Age 19. Sudbury. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Wounded Feb. 
20, 1864, Olustee. Exp. Sept. 24, 18G4. 

llesideiiec, . 

Wall, William H. H. Sad. Age 21. Augusta, Me. M. Sept. 23, 1861. In 
eng. of Co. Thrown from horse, injured left ankle, summer, 1863. Exp. Sept. 
24, 1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
GiLSON, Peter. Wag. Age 40. Gardner. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Atwood, Charles C. Age 28. Lowell. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Lowell, Mass. 
*Ayers, John C. Age 37. Boston. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Disch. for dis. Dec. 16, 

1862. 
Bailey, Orin A. Age 21. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Balentine, Elijah. Age 27. Haverhill. M. Oct. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 

16, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Blanchard, Trueman C. Age 33. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 16, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Branan, Martin. Age 30. Waltham. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Brady, Patrick. Age 18. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

1834. 
Brown, Edward Q. Age 22. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. Oct. 
15, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Bruce, Lorenzo. Age 23. Townsend. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Exp. Oct. 19, 1864. 

Residence, Charlestown, Mass. 
Burns, Richard. Age 29. Newark, N. J. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Killed Feb. 10, 

1864, Barber's Ford, Fla. 
Carville, Henry. Age 25. Waltham. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Deserted Nov. 17, 
1861, Readville. 

Residence, . 

Carney, John. Age 18. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. Aug. 19, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

*-**Chase, William. 

Clancy, James C. Age 22. Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Nov. 25, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

Cobleigh, Charles C. Age 19. Townsend. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864, as Bugl. 

Residence, Cambridge, Mass. 
Cody, James. Age 26. Lexington. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Nov. 16, 
1861. 

Residence, . 

*Colby, William. Age 27. Haverhill. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 

1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Cook, Thomas. Age 21. Waltham. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Deserted Nov. 1, 1861, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

CoNLON, John. Age 19. Waltham. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 
1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, . 



430 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

CowLES, Lyman. Age 20. Gloucester. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Orderly to Maj -Gen. 
Terry. In eiig. of Co. to Exjj. Dec. 4, 1861. 
Residence, Pomona, Cal. 
CowLES, Merrick. Age 18, Gloucester. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Wounded slightly 
in shoulder (ritle-ball), Feb. 10, 1864, Barber's Ford. Orderly last year of ser- 
vice at 10th Corps Hdqrs. and special Orderly to Gen. Marstou, 18th Corps. 
Exp. Dec. 4, 18G4. 

Residence, Ciiicago, 111. 
Cram, Nathaniel W. Age 29. Gardner. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded Feb. 
10, 1864, Barber's Ford. Reenlisted April 21, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, as 
Corp. 

Residence, South Gardner, Mass. 
Currier, William II. M. Sept. 19, 1861. (No further record at State House.) 

Residence, . 

Dow, Charles. Age 25. Dedham. M. Dec. 26, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 16, 
1863. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
*Drake, James B. Age 19. Northwood, N. H. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Sept. 26, 1862. Died in 1862. 
Foss, Emery W. Age 24. Strafford, N. II. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Injured by horse 
Nov. 1. On special duty most of time as cook, and teamster. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Foss, Henry M. Age 19. Strafford, N. H. M. Nov. 11, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Foss, Isaiah, Age 44. Boxford. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Disch. for dis. Oct. 12, 1862. 

Residence, . 

Gibson, Lemuel. Age 37. Waltham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Disch. for dis. Oct. 20, 
1862. 

Residence, Waltham, Mass. 
Gilchrist, Benjamin. Age 28. Dedham. M. Oct. 29, 1861. Disch. for dis. in 

1863, Beaufort, S. C. 
Residence, . 

GiLOREUs, Benjamin F. Age 28. Waltham. M. Nov. 11, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

June 1, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*GiLMAN, Charles P. Age 26. Haverhill. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

1862, Beaufort, S. C. 
*HuLL, HiRAM. Age 42. Boston. Transf. from Co. B, Nov. 30, 1861. Exp. 

Sept. 24, 1864. 
Hanks, Henry J. Age 27. Dedham. M. Oct. 7, 1861. In eng. of Co. to Exp. 

Oct. 12, 1864. 

Residence, Medfield, Mass. 
Hill, George H. Age 20. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. In eng. of Co. to Exp. 

Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Haverhill, Mass. 
*HoLMES, Varnum E. Age 23. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

1864. 
*HooKER, Charles F. Age 30. Newton. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

1864. 
,HoYT, William R. Age 29. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864, 

as Sergt. 

Residence, Lynn, Mass. 
HuNKiNS, George ^V. Age 25. Methuen. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Wounded Feb. 10, 

1864, Barber's Ford. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 1864. Disch. for dis. June 20, 1864. 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 431 

Hutchinson, George. Age 21. Newton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded Feb. 10, 
lt.(>4, Barber's I ord. Exp. Oct. 5, 18(34. 

Residence, -. 

*Mantin Patrick Age 33. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

i«r7'p^T,f'' ^- ^^" ^^- ^°^^"- ^^- Oct- 5, 1861. Deserted D^c. 27, 
1861, KeadviUe. ' 

Residence, . 

MORAN, Edward. Age 21. Dedham. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Deserted June 6, 

Residence, . 

Residence, . 

^^riSelT''^"^'' ^' '^^'^ ^^* ^°''^^^"^' ^«- ^- Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Sept. 
Residence, . 

^"^^.'^t^' ^^';:^«^ J; /g« 21. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 
lb, 1864. Deserted June 6, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Pasha, Elisha. Age 24. Billerica. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Wounded Feb. 10, 1864, 
Barber's lord. Exp. Oct. 9, 1864. 
Residence, . 

*^rfk^'\''!%'^^\.H^^^- Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Hosp. Steward Jan. 
4, 1804, 1st Regt. U. S. Cav. 

^''^^2^^'^^^^^^- Age 20. Marlboro. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. Oct. 26, 

Residence, . 

^"I'^^^f '^^'?™f W. Age 28. Waltham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Wounded March 1, 
1864, Eight Mile Run, Fla. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 
Residence, Milford, Mass. 

^^vY'o^'^llc^ R; .^^"^ ?f- ^^''^^"^- ^- N°^- 11' 1861. Wounded in hand, 
14 1865 0^"«tee. Reenlisted Apr. 21, 1864. In all eng. of Co. Exp. Nov. 

Residence, Hingham, Mass. 
Ridley Sewall P. A^^ 23. Boston. M. Dec. 11, 1861. Wounded in left 
shoulder, and in eye Feb. 10, 1864. Practically in all eng. of Co. to Exp. Dec. 11, 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
RoswELL, James Age 33. Haverhill. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Back severely injured 
by^horse, June 15, 1862, in S. C. Disch. for dis. (caused by the injury) Oct. 26, 

Residence, North Wolfboro, N. H. 
*RowE, John F. Age 20. Milton. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Exp. Oct. 25, 1864. 
186?^'^''' ^""^^^^^^ ^^- ^S^ -^- Waltham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 5, 

Residence, . 

Sanderson, George O. Age 33. Waltham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 5, 

Residence, Waltham, Mass. 
Seabrook, Ansel. (Colored Cook.) Age 18. Beaufort, S. C. M. Dec. 31, 1863. 
Exp. Aov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, . 

Shelly, William. Age 25. Roxbury. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Deserted Nov. 25, 1861, 
Keadville. 

Residence, . 

Spauxding, George W. Age 25. Townsend. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 5, 

Residence, . 



432 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Stevens, Isaiah. Age 45. Lynn. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Detailed as wagoner in 
Q. M. Dept. Feb., 18G3. Eng. Pocotaligo. Disch. for dis. May 1, 1863. 

llesidence, . 

Storek, Amos K. Age 21. Lowell. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Chief Orderly to Gen. R. 
S. Foster, 2d Div. 10th Corj)s, June 20, 1864, and with him in all eug. to Exp. 
Oct. 12, 1864. 

Residence, Dorchester, Mass. 
*Strang, Jesse. Age 37. New Salem. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Waters, Michael. Age 26. Waltham. M. Oct. 6, 1861. Disch, for dis. June 
2, 1861. 

Residence, . 

*Wentworth, Hiram S. Age 26. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 

25, 1864. 

Weatherbee, Benjamin H. Age 23. Marlboro. M. Nov. 11, 1861. In eng. of 
Co. to Exp. Nov. 11, 1864, as Sergt. 4th Cav. 
Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Whittier, .John W. G. Age 29. Newton. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Residence, . 

*Whittier, Kimball. Age 34. Haverhill. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Jan. 24, 1863. 
Wing, George H. Servant. Age 18. M. Oct. 9, 1861. (No further record at 
State House.) 
Residence ^ 

Woon, Preston. Age 23. Medford. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Died Sept. 9, 1862, at 
liosp. Beaufort, S. C. 

COMPANY L (New). 

**Littlefieli>, Harry D. 1st Sergt. 

Otis, Horace W. Q. M. Sergt. Age 22. Watertown. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. 
Wounded right ftrm, neck, shoulder, and body, Ashland, May 11, 1864 (gun-shot). 
Disch. for dis. caused by wounds, July 1, 1865. (Co. G.) M. Sept. 19, 1802, Co. K, 
5th M. V. L, Corp. Exp. July 2, 1863. 
Residence, Watertown, Mass. 
GiLLON, James. Com. Sergt, Age 25. West Roxbury. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. G, 

Residence, . 

Sturtevant, Charles W. Com. Sergt. Age 18. Roxbury. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 
1864. Reduced to ranks July, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Brown, Arthur H. Sergt. Age 18. Cheshire. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 

26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, , 

Brown, Edwin W. Sergt. Age 37. Cambridge. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Daniels, Edwin B. Sergt. Age 20. Somerville. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Promoted 
from Corp. July 1, 1864. Exp. July 10, 1865, as absent sick, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Green, George. Sergt. Age 21» Brewster. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
18G.5, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

McCracken, James T, Age 20. Chelsea. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence , 

Fields, John 'b. Sergt. Age 25. PittsHeld. M. Jan, 6, 1864. Pro, from Corp, 
July 1, 1864, Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co, G, 
Residence, . 





CORPL. L. BARTEL 



ALFRED C. BELCHER 





COM. SERGT. CHAS. D. BACON 



SERGT. FRANK A. BLAISDELL 



^^'1^ 











BRADFORD HAWES 



WILLIAM WELCH 



K COMPANY (OLD) 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 433 

Field, Lyman E. Sergt. Age 20. Adams. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded 
May 11, 1864, Ashland. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Zylonite, Mass. 
Kavanaugh, William. Sergt. Age 30. Boston. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Re- 
duced to ranks, July 1, 1864. Pris. Sept. 16, 1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Lloyd, John. Sergt. Age 21. Roxbury. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded May 6, 

1864, Todd's Tavern. Died in hosp. May 10, 1864. 

Priest, Milo C. Sergt. Age 43. Brighton. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Disch. for 
dis. Mar. 13, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Ammidon, Lewis F. Corp. Age 24. Adams. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded 
in foot May, 1864. Wounded and pris. Oct. 27, 1864, South Side R. R. Exp. 
June 26, 18l35, in Co. G. 

Residence, North Adams, Mass.. 
BoRViR, William. Corp. Age 23. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Gibson City, 111. 

Carroll, Charles J. Corp. Age 18. Cambridge. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Cate, Edwin D. Corp. Age 23. Somerville. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Pris. Aug. 16, 

1864, Deep Bottom. Died Jan. 13, 1865, Salisbury. 

De Wyer, Andrew. Corp. Age 18. Boston. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Fagan, John. Corp. Age 21. Springfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, East Attleboro, Mass. 
HoDGDON, Joseph W. Corp. Age 22. Lowell. M. Jan. 6, 1864. (Promoted 
July 1, 1864.) Exp. June 26, 1865, as absent sick, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

James, William A. Corp. Age 26. Chelsea. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Died Oct. 22, 

1864, Washington, D. C. 

Morgan, John. Corp. Age 18. Adams. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as Wag. in Co. G. Enlisted in Co. B, 34th M. V. I. Aug. 1, 1862. Disch. for 
dis. Dec. 27, 1862. 

Residence, Adams, Mass. 
Smith, Edwin B. Corp. Age 24. Hadley. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Smith, Edwin A. Corp. Age 18. Chicopee. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, ■. - 

Coots, George W. Bugl. Age 18. Boston. Transferred from Co. I (new). 
Wounded Aug. 16, 1864, Malvern Hill (knee, slight). Exp. June 29, 1865, as 
Bugl. in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Hudson, Edward W. Bugl. Ago 18. Somerville. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Roxbury, Mass. 
Walsh, James T. Bugl. Age 21. Dedliam. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Brig. Bugl. 

1865. Eng. of Co. from May, 1864, to Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, New York city. 

Benson, Jeremiah. Far. Age 29. Wareham. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, . 



434 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Fricke, Frank. Sad. Age 21. Springfield. M. Jan. C, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Baker, Joseph A. Age 19. Sandwich. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. May 22, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Barry, Edward. Age 29. Springfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Barxum, James H. Age 20. Adams. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded Aug. 23, 1864, 
Ream's Station. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Adams, Mass. 
Belknap, William H. Age 18. Southbridge. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Died Dec. 27, 

1864, in hosp., Hai-tford, Conn. (Co. G). 
Bergen, Martin. Age 21. Springfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Braymer, Josiah. Age 38. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Detailed to Battery I, 
2d Regulars, July 1, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, as absent sick, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Bright, Moses H. Age 24. Watertown. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 19, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Brownwalder, Daniel. Age 42. Hancock. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Pris. Oct. 27, 

1864, South Side R. R. (Co. G). 
Residence, . 

Callender, James. Age 25. Boston. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Ftb. 17, 1864, 
Jersey City. 

Residence, . 

Campbell, John. Age 26. Chicopee. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Jan. 23, 1864, 
Readville. 

Residence, . 

Cheesborough, Edwin C. Age 18. Adams. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. G. 
RgsicIghcg CIiGsliirG JVXrss. 

Cook, Manfred C. Age 21. Lynnfleld. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Cook, Peter. Age 21. Lee. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, Springfield, Mass. 
Dardis, Thomas. Age 19. Watertown. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, as absent sick, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Davis, Augustus M. Age 25. Medford. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Injured May 11, 1864, 
Ashland. Exp. July 18, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Andover, Mass. 
Dickson, James. Age 18. Boston. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

Residence,. . 

DoLAN, Patrick J. Age 24. Chicopee. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Downs, Elisha. Age 24. Adams. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Died Aug. 26, 1864, in 

hosp., Giesboro Point. 
Dunbar, Henry M. Age 21. Lvnn. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

Residence, Belchertown, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 435 

Farrington, Abel. Age 21. Stoughton. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded and 
pris. May 11, 1864, Ashland. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Stoughton, Mass. 
Fero, Frank. Age 21. Brewster. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Jan. 12, 1864, 
Readville. 

RgsicIgiicg " ■ '-, 
Forbes, Hiram W. Age 25. South Hadley. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 
36, 1865, as absent sick, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Ford, William. Age 18. Great Barrington. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded and 
pris. May 11, 1864, Ashland. 
RgsicIghcg .-, 

Fulton, Samuel. Age 27. Roxbury. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Pris. May 11, 1864, 
Ashland. Exp. June 26, 1865, as absent sick, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Gallagher, Martin. Age 33. Boston. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Feb. 17, 
1804, Jersey City. 

Residence, . 

Garland, Wingate. Age 25. South Reading. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded and 

pris. May 11, 1864, Ashland. Died Feb. 10, 1865, Andersonville (Co. G). 
Glines, James. Age 28. Swanipscott. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

jxgsicIgiicg -, 

Green, Horatio D. Age 18. Palmer. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Gregory, Robert. Age 26. Chicopee. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Trausf. from Co. G to 
6th N. Y. Battery Apr. 18, 1864. 
Residence, Chicopee, Mass. 
Grimes, Peter. Age 36. Stoughton. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

Residence, Lowell, Mass. 
Hackett, Sumner S. Age 37. Stoughton. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Hanly, Michael. Age 28. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 0, 1864. Wounded and pris. 

May 11, 1804, Ashland. Died Aug. 22, 1864, Andersonville. 
Harris, William D. Age 22. Boston. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Feb. 17, 1864, 
Jersey City. 

Residence, . 

Havey, Robert C. Age 18. Somerville. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Hewes, Richard H. Age 26. Lynnfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Pris. May 11, 1864, 
Ashland (Co. G). 

Residence, . 

Hicks, Henry C. Age 21. Monroe. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Pris. May 11, 1804, Ash- 
land (Co. G). No record of parole or Exp. 

Residence, . 

Kelly, Dennis. Age 19. Cambridge. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded May 9, 1864. 
Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Kenny, James. Age 18. South Hadley. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Transferred from Co. 
G to V. R. C. Nov. 12, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Kerrigan, Frank. Age 19. Dedham. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

Residence, San Francisco, Cal. 



436 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

King, Wiluam G. Age 19. Springfield. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 

18(35, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Lay, Henry G. Age 18. Westfield. M. Jan. G, 18G4. Died Aug. 28, 1864, 

Sandy Hook. 
McCafferty, Owen. Age 40. Boston. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, iu 

Co. G. 

Residence, . 

McCabe, William H. Age 20. Salem. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded and died 

Aug. IG, 18G4, Deep Bottom. 
McIntire, James F, Age 18. Chelsea. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 

in Co. G. 

Residence, Shenaudoah Iron Works, Va. 
Miller, William F. Age 35. Sandisfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Pris. Oct. 27, 1864, 

South Side R. R. Died Jan. 22, 1865, Richmond (Co. G). 
*MiTCHELL, Robert W. Age 31. Roxbury. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 

18G5, in Co. G. 
Morrill, James. Age 35. Brookline. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Feb. 2, 1864, 

Readville. 

Residence, . 

MuNSON, Russell S. Age 18. Lanesboro. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded June 26, 

1864, St. Mary's Church. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, . 

Ordway, George A. Age 20. Boston. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
as absent sick, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Otto, Ludwig. Age 28. Williamsburg. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Right hand fractured 
Feb. 6, 1865, near Petersburg. Exp. May 31, 1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, Louisville, Ky. 
Perkins, William H. Age 18. South Danvers. M. Jan. G, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Phelps, Edward M. Age 18. Watertown. M. Jan. G, 1864. Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, . 

Pike, Joseph A. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 

Co. G. 

Residence, Cambridge, Mass. 
Proper, Lafayette. Age 35. Otis. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, as 

absent sick in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Raymond, Walter L. Age 18. Andover. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Pris. Aug. 

16, 1864, Deep Bottom. Died Dec. 25, 1864, Salisbury (Co. G). 
*RiCHARDSON, Isaac F. Age 41. Roxbury. M. Jan 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 

in Co. G. 
Rice, Ormond E. Age 18. Adams. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 

Co. G. 

Residence, . 

RiDiCAN, Patrick. Age 23. Springfield. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 

as absent sick in Co. G. 

XvGSlClGllCG "'^~ • 

Roberts, George. Age 22. Waltham. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Feb. 17, 1864, 
Jersey City. 

Residence, . 

Sampson, Richard H. Age 18. Boston. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 





K COMPANY 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 437 

Stocking, James W. Age 18. Adams. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

Residence, Anoka, Minn. 
Thompson, Albert L. Age 23. Clarksburg. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Whipple, Eugene E. Age 19. Lowell. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Accidentally shot 
Apr. 25, 1864, Warrenton. Disch. for dis. Feb. 3, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

*Whitney, William. Age 33. Cambridge. Vet. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 

26, 1865, in Co. G. 
Wilson, David. Age 18. Lowell. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, Clinton, Mass. 
Wilson, James. Age 21. Lowell. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, Lowell, Mass. 
Wilson, John G. Age 25. Watertown. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Deserted Jan. 21, 
1864, ReadviUe. 

Residence, . 

WiLKiNS, Samuel O. Age 21. Middleton. M. Jan. 6, 1864. Wounded and pris. 
May 11, 1864, Ashland. Died Aug. 30, 1864, Andersonville. 

COMPANY M (Old). 

Atkins, John. 1st Sergt. Age 20. Lincoln. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted 
Apr. 16, 1864. Wounded three times and pris. Apr. 6, 1865, High Bridge, Va. 
2d Lieut. 4th Cav. (not M.) July 5, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Boston, Mass. 
Baxter, Orson A. 1st Sergt. Age 35. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. 2d Lieut. 
(4th Cav.) Aug. 5, 1863. 1st Lieut. Jan. 19, 1861 (not M.). Died Oct. 14, 1864, 
Harrison's Landing, Va. 
Clement, Andrew J. 1st Sergt. Age 23. Chelsea. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Corp. ; 
Sergt. In all eng. of Co. to Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 
Residence, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Miles, Thomas. 1st Sergt. Age 28. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. 1st Lieut. 
(4th Cav.), Jan. 19, 1864. Exp. Jan. 27, 1865. 
Residence, Waltham, Mass. 
Alden, James B. Q. M. Sergt. Age 20. Cambridge. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. 
Sept. 22, 1864. 

Residence, -. 

Ramsdell, Adoniram J. Q. M. Sergt. Age 19. Newton. M. Sept. 23, 1861. 
Reenlisted Apr. 16, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Saugus, Mass. 
Riddell, Henrv W. Com. Sergt. Age 22. Waltham, M. Sept. 23, 1861. 
Exp. Sept. 24, 1864, as absent sick. 
Residence, New York city. 
Sherman, George E. Com. Sergt. Age 21. Lincoln. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Apr. 16, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

Residence, . 

Darling, Charles H. Sergt. Age 18. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Wounded 
near Harrison's Landing. Reenlisted Apr. 16, 1864. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Marshfield, Mass. 
EiNNELL, John. Sergt. Age 19. Newton. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 
16, 1864. Orderly in 1864 to Col. Jackson and Gen. Birney. Wounded in head 
by shell, July 28, 1864, New Market (lost hearing in left ear). Pris. Apr. 6, 1865, 
High Bridge, Va. Paroled Apr. 9. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Yutan, Neb. 



438 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Kkndali,, Ciiaki.ks T). Sergt. Age 35. Waltlmm. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Eng, 
Jjiines islanil, Oliistce. Kxp. Sept. 21, 18G4. 
Kesidciice, VValthaiii, Mass. 
Gay, Clotaikk S. Sergt. Age 3G. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Exp. Sept. 
24, 18GI. 

Kesidencc, . 

Glenn, Roukkt. Sergt. Age 27. Waltham. M. Oct. 9, 1861. In all eng. of Co. 
to Kxp. Oct. 0, 18G4. 

ResidcMU'c, Boston, Mass. 
IIiCKEY, Thomas. Sc^igt. Age 21. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. ReeiiHsted 
Apr. IG, 18(54. Sligl)tly wounded and piis. Apr. G, 18G5, High Bridge, Va. Color 
Bearer. 2d Lieut. 4tii Cav. Aug. 5, 18G5 (not M.). Exp. Nov. 14, 18G5. 
Residence, Jlingliani, Mass. 
MooNEY, Thomas. Sergt. Age 28. Fall River. M. Oct. 5, 18G1. Keculisted 
Apr. IG, 18G4. Exp. July 20, 18G5. 

Residence, . 

Parks, Jonas L. Sergt. Age 28. Waltham. M. Oct. 5, 18G1. Disch. for dis. 
Feb. <), 18G3. 

Residence, . 

*TucKKK, Khen, Jk. Sergt. Age 21. Weston. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Injured by 
shell F(>1). 20, 18G4, Olustee (causing deafness). Reenlisted Apr. IG, 18G4. Corp. 
Nov. 1, 18G4. Sergt. Mar. 1, 18G5. Pris. Apr. G, 18G5, High Bridge, Va. ; re- 
leased when Lee surrendered. Exp. Nov. 14, 18G5. 
Whitcomu, IIokack G. Sergt. Age 31. Waltham. M. Oct. 5, 18G1. Reen- 
listed April 2G, 18G4. 2d Lieut. U. S. C. T. Oct. 12, 18G4. 

Residence, . 

WouMW()t>i), AujEiiT F. Sergt. Age 25. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Exp. 
Sept. 24, 18G4. 

Residence, . 

*DENNETr, Ekastus. Corp. Age 21. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Exp. Sept. 

21, 1S(;4. 
FiLi.KHKowN, Oliver. Corp. Age 28. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Exp. Sept. 
24, 18G4. 

Residence, . 

Frost, Charles L. Corp. Ago 20. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Exp. Sept. 
24, 18G4. 

Residence, . 

Oilman, John E. Corp. Age 21. Boston. M. Sept. 25, 18G1. Exp. Sept. 24, 
18G4. 

Residence, . 

lIovKY, IIamiu.in L. Corp. Age 23. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Disch. for 
dis. May 22, 18G3. 

Residence, ^^'altham, Mass. 
Jackson, Edward L. Corp. Age 23. Newton. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Orderly to 
Gens. Hunter, (Jilmore, and Terry. In all eng. of Co. to Exp. Sept. 24, 18G4. 
Residence, Waltham, Mass. 
Maynard, Frederick D. Corp. Age 21. Somerville. M. Dec. 4, 18G1. De- 
tailed as Color Bearer, luhjrs. 10th Army Corps. Exp. Dec. 4, 18G4. 
Resideiu'c, Somerville, Mass. 
Rogers, John F. Corp. Age 21. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Reenlisted 
Ai)r. IG, 18G4. Exp. Nov. 14, 18G5. 

Residence, . 

GinsoN, Samuel S. Bugl. Age 38. Candn-idge. M. Oct. 15, 18G1. Exp. Oct. 
15, 18G4. Reenlisted Mar. 2, 1865. Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 
Residence, Waltliani, Mass. 
Sawyer, Charles IL Bugl. Age 29. Waltham. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Exp. Oct, 
23. 18(54 

Residence, Newton Lower Falls, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 439 

EiRL, John A. Far. Age 22. Maiden. M. Oct. 19, 18G1. Reenlisted Apr. 16, 
1864. P:xp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

M,L,5r1'ta.Ml"T:r.''°A^'-24. McdW. M. Sept. 26, 1801. Died Apr. 9, 
1864, in hosp., Beaufort, S. C. (typhoid fever). ^...1-^.1 

*Kaulback, William. Sad. Age ^40. Boston. M. Dec. 18, 1861. Reenlisted 
Anr 16 1864 Exp. Nov. 14, 1865. 

*INGALL8; John. Wag. Age 34. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

ArS, Robert, Jr. Age 20. Newton. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, . -,, r, . r.o .10^.1 t' c t o/i 

Bacon, Clarence R. Age 19. Billerica. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

1864. 

Blanchakd! Ei^RD R. Age 18. Waltham. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Termination of 
ser. Dec. 27, 1861, by civil authority. 

BLAKi.noHN%~7ge 21. North Hampton, N. II. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 
24, 1864. 

Residence, Boston, Mass. ^ .„„, » • 1 . n i i 

BOWMAN, George F. Age 21. Boston. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Accidentally wounded 
June, 1862, Edisto Island ; wounded Feb. 20, 1864, Olustee. Exp. Nov. 26, 
1864. 

I'^GsitiGncG "■ "• 

Brackett, Gilbert O. Age 22. Brighton. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 

Dec. 14, 1862. 
iypskIoiicg - 
Brennan, M. J. Age 48. M. Sept. 17, 1861. Disch. Nov. 10, 1861. (Over age.) 
*-**Bkigham, John L. Regtl. Com. Sergt. t. c. o^ 

Brown, Augustine W. Age 28. Saxonville. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864.' 

Residence, . r^ , r, 100 a 

*Brown EmviN. Age 21. Lewiston, Me. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Exp. Oct. 9, 1864. 
Brown, '(iKORGE W. Age 47. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
Nov. '10, 1861. 

Residence, . ^ -r. . .1 i • i i 

*Bryant, Austin R. Age 30. Billerica. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Detailed in band. 

Transferred to Co. C. ^ ^r.^- t^- ^ r t 

Bryant, George C. Age 21. Bethel, Me. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. 
May 12, 1862. 

♦CaugTeCokorge'iI. Age 22. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 22, 

Clark, John W. Age 21. Charlestown. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Exp. Oct. 9, 1864. 

Residence, . /^ ■ r ionA 

Cole, Charles. Age 23. Lexington. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 

l"iGSI(lcilCG ■ • 

CORMICK, Joseph. Age 25.- Boston. M. Oct. 23, 1861. Dropped as deserter 

June, 1863. 
Residence . 
Earlk, Thomas H. Age 41. Lexington. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Died July 24, 

1863, Milton Head, S. C. 
Estabrook, Luke. Age 34. Lexington. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. bept. 24, 

1864. 

T^GSlClGnCG '• 

*Estabrook, William. Age 38. Lexington. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 12, 
1864. 



440 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

*FiELD, Edward H. Age 19. Waltliam. M. Sept. 23, 18G1. Exp. Sept. 24, 

1864. 
Fisher, Wilmot L. Age 24. Boston. M. Oct. 20, 1861. Deserted Nov. 2, 1861, 

Readville. 

Residence, . 

Foss, Charles L. Age 18. Belmont. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Discli. for dis. Apr. 

29, 1862. 

jAiGSlClGllCG ' • 

GiLMAx, John T. Age 21. Dover. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, East Saugns, Mass. 
Goodwin, Daniel S. Age 19. Waltbam. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Discb. for dis. 
Nov. 16, 1861. 

Residence, . 

Hamilton, Henry E. Age 25. Lowell, M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 
1864. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Hamilton, John A. Age 26. Reading. M. Oct. 19, 1861. Died of wounds May 

24, 1864, Hampton, Va. 
*Hanscom, John K. Age 40. Lexington. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Discli. for dis. 

Mav 29, 1863. 
Havey, Patrick. Age 25. Waltham. M. Dec. 4, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 16, 
1864. Deserted June 6, 1864. 

XvGSlClGllCG . .^ 

Hayes, William. Age 28. Waltham. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Died Dec. 27, 1863, 

Hilton Head, S. C. 
HiLDRETH, John. Age 22. Lexington. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 23, 1864. 

RgsicIgiicg ■. 

*HowE, William F. Age 29. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Hunt, Curtis R. Age 25. Waltham. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 12, 1864. 

Residence, Suncook, N. H. 
Johnson, Albert N. Age 19. Lincoln. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Johnson, George E. Age 22. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Wounded in neck 
Feb. 10, 1864, Barber's Ford. Exp. Sept. 23, 1864. 
RgsicIgiicg Boston j\Xfiss. 
Jones, Henry M. Age 20. Lincoln. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Deserted Dec. 4, 1861, 
Readville. 

Residence . 

Kenny, Michael. Age 21. Waltbam. M. Sept. 28, 1861. Deserted Dec. 2, 

1861, Readville. 
Residence, . 

KiFF, Orlando S. Age 23. Waltbam. M. Oct. 9, 1861. Eng. James Island. 
Exp. Nov. 14, 1865, as absent sick. 

Residence, Waltham, Mass. 
Lawler, George D. Age 20. Boston. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 

Residence, Wintbrop, Mass. 
Lund, Frank M. Age 19. Billerica. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Detailed in Band July, 

1862, to Exp. Oct. 3, 1864, in Co. C. Thrown from' horse Dec. 1862, injured back. 
In Sheridan's Raid, 1864. 

Residence, Lowell, ]Mass. 
Marrow, James. Age 31. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Discb. for dis. Mar. 
29, 1863. 

Residence, . 

Martin, John R. Age 30. Dorchester. M. Oct. 5, 1861. Exp. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Residence, . 

McCarty, Jeremiah. Age 32. Lynn. M. — . " Left the field in 1st Cav., not 
transferred." 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 441 

%7/dO?t^^0^8i^:i^ton^r^"^- ^^- ««P*- ^3, 1861. Regtl. Co.. Sergt. 

Moore, George B. Age 21. Wayland. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

Residence, . 

Murray, Wu^liam. Age 23. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 23, 

Residence, "Waltham, Mass. 

Myers, Nathaniel T. Age 19. Milton. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Died Feb. 15, 1863, 
Hilton Head, S. C. ' 

^l^cT' n^^^'f T't ^^% %^o..^^^^*^^"^- M- Sept. 23, 1861. Reenlisted Apr. 16, 
1804. Deserted June 6, 1864. ^ 

Residence, . 

^T86T Refdvllte'''' ^' ^^^ ^^' ^'^^^^"^- ^- ^^P*- "^^ 1861. Died Oct. 13, 
^'^''^Re'sidence^''— ^^^ ^^' ^^'^^*'''''™- ^- ^^P*- 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 1864. 
Pitman, John T. Age 24. Chelsea. M. Sept. 25, 1861. Disch. for dis. Apr. 29, 

Residence, Canton, Mass. 
^1862. '^'''^^' ^^^ ^^' ^^^*^^°'- ^- S«P*- 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. Jan. 20, 

Residence, . 

Richardson, Cyrus B. Age 22. Woburn. M. Oct. 12, 1861. Exp. Oct. 12, 

Residence, South Boston, Mass. 
Rooney, James. Age 42. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Pris. near Harrison's 
Landmg. Reenlisted Apr. 16, 1864. Died May' 31, 1865. Cor" llh Mass! 

San^derson, Edwin C. Age 20. Charlestown. M. Nov. 26, 1861. Exp. Nov. 26, 

Residence, Seneca Falls, N. Y 
^lohrOcf'/sr^ ^' ■ Y "i- i.^f^*'^r- ^- ^^P*- 2-% 1861. Knee put out of 

Residence, Waltham, Mass. 
*Sawin John C. Age 36. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept 24 1864 

R^sWence'^ ^'^^- ^°^''- M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. feptSi', 1864 
Sylvester, John E. Age 22. Belmont. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
*Thompson, Samuel. Age 44. Waltham. M. Sept. 23, 1861. Exp. Sept. 24, 

Trask, George. (Servant.) Age 18. M. Oct. 1, 1861. 
Kesidence, . 

'^'1862. ^''''''''' ^' ^^^^^' ■^°'^^"- M. Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for dis. July 13, 
Residence, . 

^To', S^c!"" ^' ^^^ ^^' ^'^*°"- ^- ^''- ^^' ^^^^- ^'^"^ J""^ 1' 1S62, Ed- 

*^rs!'or elise?"'"'''''''' ^^^ ^^- 2"-^t«^- M- Sept. 23, 1861. Disch. for 



442 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



COMPANY M (New). 

Browning, Charles D. 1st Sergt. Age 22. Worcester. M. Jan. 14, 1864. 
Sergt.-Maj. Exp. June 26, 1865. 

llesidence, . 

Fisher, John B. 1st Sergt. Age 22. Hadley. M. Dec. 25, 1863. Pris. July, 

1864, Malvern Hill, escaped same day. In all eng. of Co. during term of enlist- 
ment. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, Dedliam, j\Iass. 
**HowF., George (correct name said to be Louis Black). 1st Sergt. 
McFarland, William. 1st Sergt. Age 21. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. 
June ^6, 1865, in Co. G, as Com. Sergt. 

Residence, . 

Browx, George Logan. Q. M. Sergt. Age 19. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. 
Corp. Practically in all eng. of Co. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, West Point, Cal. 
Ellis, James A. Com. Sergt. Age 21. Watertown. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. 
for dis. Mar. 13, 1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Stevens, Stephen B. Com. Sergt. Age 28. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. H. 
Residence, Rockland, Mass. 
Banfield, Philip. Sergt. Age 30. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 

1865, in Co. D. 
Residence, . 

Niles, Samuel. Sergt. Age 24. Holyoke. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Raymond, Granville. Sergt. Age 18. Stoughton. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, in Co. H. 
Residence, Brockton, Mass. 
Stoddard, Lorenzo. Sergt. Age 32. Milford. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Clark, George W. Corp. Age 22. Becket. M. Jan. 14, 1864. No record of 
Exp. 

Residence, . 

Eastman, Edmund G. Corp. Age 21. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Follett, James. Corp. Age 33. Douglas. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Gibbs, William H. Corp. Age 21. Ware. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Gooding, Edmund H. Corp. Age 18. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Practically 
in all eng. of Co. After Sheridan's Raid sent to Camp Stoneman for remount ; 
July 5, 1864, with dismounted men armed as Inf., sent to Maryland Heights, 
Harper's Ferry, thence into Virginia. Returned Aug. 1. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. A. 

Residence, Somerville, Mass. 
Grant, Peter. Corp. Age 22. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, • . 








CORPL. AMOS PiERCE 




CORPL, GABRIEL STRANG 




StRGT. EDWIN CHAPMAN 




;ORPL. JA5. A, VVILLARD 



LORENZO BRUCE 



L COMPANY (OLD) 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 443 

Nichols, Edmund. Corp. Age 29. South Reading. M. Jau. 14, 1864. Exp. 
June 26, 1865, iu Co. G. 

XXGSlClGllCG • 

Rose, John R. Corp. Age 19. Wellfleet. M. Jan 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, iu Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Ryan, John. Corp. Age 27. Williamstown. M. Jan. 14, 1'864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, iu Co. G. 

Residence, Adams, Mass. 
Hurley, Jeremiah. Bugl. Age 16. Fall River. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Missing 
Aug. 16, 1864, Malvern Hill. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

SissoN, George W. Bugl. Age 18. Lynn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, East Saugus, Mass. 
Jesser, John. Far. Age 25. Williamsburg. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

McAvoY, Charles. Far. Age 47. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

White, Charles W. Far. Age 19. Andover. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, Salem, Mass. 
Brown, Horace W. Sad. Age 23. Douglas. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Adams, Alpheus H. Age 40. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Accidentally 
wounded iu foot, May [5-14], Wilderness. Deserted Aug. 21, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Anderson, Charles B. Age 24. West Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Transf. 
to Navy Apr. 27, 1864. 

Residence, . 

Andrews, Newall. Age 18. Ware. M. Jan. 14, 1864. No record of Exp. 

Residence, . 

Barker, Stephen. Age 33. Woburn. M. Jan. 5, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Baxter, George N. Age 29. Cheshire. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Baxter, William. Age 19. Cheshire. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Died Oct. 26, 1864. 
Bryant, William R, Age 30. Wellfleet. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

BuRBANK, Horace P. Age 42. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Missing Aug. 
18, 1864, Malvern Hill. Exp. June 12, 1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

BuRDETTE, Louis. Age 28. Hadley. M. Jan. 14, 1864, Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
Co. D. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Buskin, William. Age 18. Lanesboro. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Campbell, Thomas. Age 26. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. G. 
Residence, . 



444 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Carroll, John. Ago 18. Stoughton. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G as Corp. 

Residence, . 

Chadburn, Joseph W. Age 21. Charlestown. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 18G5, in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Clark, Andrew. Age 28. West Stockbridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. 
June 21, 18G5, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Clark, David S. Age 32. Clarksburg. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Clark, James. Age 27. Chelsea. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exi). June 26, 1865, in 
Co. B. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Clonett, Lewis. Age 19. Hadley. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
CoD. 

Residence, . 

Cohre, Henry. Age 32. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. No record of Exp. 

Cole, Peter O. Age 22. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Died Jan. 21, 1864, Read- 

ville, Mass. 
Crabtree, Edward. Age 18. Hadley. Vet. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Practically in 
all eng. of Co. Exp. June 26, 1865, "in Co. H. 
Residence, Chelsea, Mass. 
Crabtree, George. Age 19. Hadley. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, Lawrence, Mass. 
DoYAN, Charles E. Age 37. Lynn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Died Dec. 16, 1864, 

Lynn, Mass. Saddler in Co. H. 
Donahue, Michael. Age 33. Stoughton. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. Sept. 16, 

1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. Dishonorably disch. Sept. 16, 1864. 
Residence, Randolph, Mass. 

Eagleson, John. Age 18. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

Ellis, Stephen. Age 16. Sandisfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. Jime 26, 1865, 
in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Furnett, Henry. Age 20. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Fields, George W. Age 18. West Stockbridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 
26, 1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

FuLLERTON, JoHN B. Age 24. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Wounded in head 

Aug. 21, 1864, Ream's Station. Died Sept. 6, 1864. 
Gale, John. Age 19. Wales. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Gay, Charles A. (See Co. H., Corp.). 

GiFFORD, Ebkn. Age 18. Monroe. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. Aug. 18, 1864, 

Malvern Hill. Died Nov. 22, 1864, Salisbury, N. C. 
*Griffin, Marshall D. Age 24. Somerville. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 

26, 1865, in Co. B. 
GuiMAN, James. Age 22. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. Juue 6, 

1865, in Co. H. 
Residence, . 

Hagerty, John. Age 23. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. No record of Exp. 
Residence, . 



STATISTICS OF COMPANIES. 445 

Harden, Benjamin F. Age 18. East Bridgewater. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Died 

Sept. 4, 1864. 
Holmes, George E. Age 18. South Reading. M. Jan. 14, 1864. No record of 
Exp. 

Residence, . 

Humphrey, Charles L. Age 18. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. July 28, 
1865, in Co. B. 

Residence, . 

Johnson, George. Age 26. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, 
in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Kelly, Michael E. Age 34. Lynn. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Killed Sept. 16, 1864, 

Jerusalem Plank Road, Va. 
KLiLCUP, John W. Age 21. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. Aug. 16, 
1864. 

Residence, . 

Laurie, Thomas B. Age 20. Hadley. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Law, Thomas. Age 19. Randolph. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Lenergan, Michael. Age 44. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

LiNEHAN, Jeremiah. Age 24. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. A. 

Residence, . 

LocKWOOD, Charles. Age 21. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 
1865, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Loud, Joshua D. Age 29. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Wounded May 28, 1864, 
Ennon's Church. Disch. for dis. July 6, 1865, in Co D. 

Residence, . 

*Mason, Joseph. Age 33. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 

Co. D. 
McKiNNEY, William H. Age 21. Chelsea. M. Jan. 14, 1864. No record of 
Exp. 

Residence, . 

McLouGHLiN, John. Age 21. Wales. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. Sept. 25, 1865, 
in Co. G. 

Residence, . 

Miller, Lendorf W. Age 30. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. July 28, 
1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, Worcester, Mass. 
Noble, John. Age 44. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 29, 1865, in 
Co. D. 

Residence, . 

O'Brien, John. Age 24. Fitchburg. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, in 
Co. B. 

Residence, Westfield, Mass. 
O'Donnell, Thomas. Age 40. Northampton. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, as Sergt. in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Parsons, Charles A. Age 20. Cambridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. 
Oct. 14, 1864. 
Residence, . 



446 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Patten, Isaac B. Age 19. Watertown. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Wounded and pris. 

Aug. 18. 1804, Malvern Hill. Died Dec 4, 1804, Salisbury, N. C. 
Pelton, William C. Age 20. Northampton. ]\I. Jan. 14, 1804. Wounded in 

shoulder May [5-14], Wilderness. Died Sept. 11, 1804, Point Lookout, Md. 
Phelps, James A. Age 19. Monroe. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Died Aug 2, 1864, 

Arlington, Va. 
Phillips, John H. Age 21. Lynn. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Wounded in hip Aug. 10, 

1804, Malvern Hill. Exp. June 29, 1865, in Co. D. 
Residence, . 

Pierce, Edward P. Age 22. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. No record of Exp. 

Residence, . 

Preston, Charles B. Age 30. Reading. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Pris. Sept. 16, 

1864, Jerusalem Plank Road. Died Dec. 1, 1864, Richmond, Va. 

Prince, Lewis E. Age 19. Northampton. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Exp. June 26, 

1805, in Co. G. 

Residence, Wollaston, Mass. 
Pring, William. Age 40. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. June 15, 1865, 
from hosp., G. O. 77, A. G. O. (Co. H). 
Residence, Nova Scotia. 
QuACKiNBusH, JoHN. Age 19. Williamstown. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26. 

1865, in Co. A. 
Residence, . 

Riley, John. Age 35. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Disch. for dis. May 31. 
1805, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Sands, Charles W. Age 18. Cambridge. Vet. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Disch. for 
dis. May 6, 1865, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

Symmes, Jefferson. Age 29. Springfield. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Exp. June 29, 
1805, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

*TiDD, Horatio O. Age 18. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Exp. June 20, 1865, 

as Sergt. in Co. H. 
Tyson, John H. Age 24. West Stockbridge. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 
1865, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Turner, Henry J. Age 20. Becket. M. Oct. 28, 1803. In eng. of Co. Exp. 
June 20, 1805, in Co. G. 
Residence, Becket, Mass. 
Watson, Gerando J. Age 21. Boston. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Died Dec. 10, 1864, 

Woburn, Mass. 
Westcott, Robert W. Age 18. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Exp. June 20, 
1805, in Co. H. 

Residence, . 

Whitcomb, Nathaniel. Age 30. Monroe. M. Jan. 14, 1804. Exp. Juae 29, 
1805, as absent sick, in Co. D. 

Residence, . 

WoRTMAN, Jacob. Age 21. Woburn. M. Jan. 14, 1804. No record of Exp. 

Residence, . 

Young, James S. Age 19. Pittsfield. M. Jan. 14, 1864. Exp. June 26, 1865, iu 
Co. G. 

Residence, . 



UNASSIGNED RECRUITS. 



447 



UNASSIGNED RECRUITS, FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Adams, Charles O. 
Alevey, George. 
Anderson, Charles. 
Anderson, John W. 
Anderson, William. 
Appleton, William J. 
Ashport, Lemuel. 
Aube, Alexander (Vet. 4th 

U. S. Cav.). 
Avery, Franklin M. (Vet.) 
Baur, Charles. 
Bens, Charles. 
Bent, George H. 
Blakslee, Elson, Jr. 
Blood, Alonzo M. C. 
Bolio, Cephas V. 
Bond, Benjamin. 
Boiirden, Augustine. 
Boyden, John T. 
Brick, John. 
Browning, Augustus S. 
Brown, Charles S. 
Brogan, Michael. 
Bryant, Joseph. 
Burke, David. 
Bushnell, Eli. 
Buswell, Solon. 
Caldwell (or Cardwell), 

Benjamin F. 
Caldwell, Hugh. 
Calder, Humphrey M. 
Campbell, Nicholas. 
Clark, William. 
Cole, James. 
Conway, Anthony. 
Conroy, James. 
Corney, Israel. 
Crounin, Patrick. 
Cunningham, Charles. 
Curley, James. 
Daunt, William. 
Davis, Charles. 
Devlin, John. 
Dillon, William. 
Donovan, Morgan. 
Dougherty, William. 
Dwier, Michael. 
Dyer, Edward. 

Flynn, James. 



Date of Muster. 



Feb. 2, 1864. 
Mar. 9, 1864. 
July 20, 1864. 
Sept. 23, 1863. 
Sept. 23, 1863. 
Dec. 17, 1864. 
Sept. 3, 1864. 
Jan. 28, 1864. 

Oct. 8, 1863. 
June 22, 1864. 
Sept. 9, 1863. 
Dec. 9, 1863. 
Jan. 5, 1864. 
Dec. 30, 1863. 
Dec. 27, 1864. 
Aug. 26, 1862. 
Feb. 29, 1864. 
Nov. 24, 1863. 
Aug. 10, 1864. 
Feb. 1, 1S64. 
Mar. 15, 1864. 
Jan. 18, 1864. 
Sept. 15, 1862. 
Nov. 6, 1863. 
Dec. 7, 1863. 
Feb. 12, 1864. 
Aug. 9, 1862. 

Sept. 11, 1863. 
Aug. 7, 1862. 
Oct. 9, 1863. 
Oct. 9, 1863. 
Sept. 8, 1863. 
Sept. 2, 1863. 
Aug. 2, 1862. 
Jan. 14, 1864. 
Dec. 14, 1863. 
Sept. 1, 1863. 
Oct. 7, 1864. 
Aug. 15, 1862. 
Oct. 28, 1863. 
Dec. 29, 1863. 
Dee. 10, 1863. 
Feb. 16, 1864. 
Aug. 8, 1862. 
Sept. 30, 1862. 
Aug. 7, 1862. 

Sept. 1, 1804. 



Expiration of Service. 



Rejected Feb. 6, 1864. 
No record in Washington. 
June 25, 1865. G. O. W. D. 
No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 
No record in Washington Sept. 4, 1867. 
No record in Washington Sept. 4, 1867. 
No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 
No record in W^ashington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

Rejected Feb. 1, 1864. 

Rejected Jan. 6, 1864. 

Died Jan. 27, 1865, Galloupe's L, Mass. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

Rejected Mar. 3, 1864. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

Deserted Oct. 2, 1864. 

Rejected Feb. 1, 1864. 

Died Apr. 21, 1864. 

Rejected Jan. 22, 1864. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in W^ashington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

Rejected Feb. 13, 1864. 

Died Oct. 2, 1862. 

No enlistment papers on file. 

Nov. 1, 1864. 

No record in Washington Aug. 29, 1867. 

No record in Washington Aug. 29, 1867^ 

Deserted Sept. 9, 1863. 

Deserted Sept. 9, 1863. 

No record in Washington Aug. 16, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 2, 1867. 

No record in Washington Aug. 29, 1867. 

No record in Washington Aug. 29, 1867^ 

Discli. for dis. Oct. 27, 1864. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

Ret. Nov. 25, 1863, to Navy as deserter. 

Rejected Jan. 5, 1864. 

Rejected Dec. 17, 1863. 

Rejected Feb. 26, 1864. 

No record in W^ashington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

Deserted Oct. 1, 1862. Returned ou 

President's Proc. Mav 15, 1865. 
Disch. for dis. Oct. 8, 1864. 



448 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Name. 


Date of Muster. 


Foster, Charles H. 


Dec. 9, 1863. 


Foster, AV illiam H. 


Sept. 17, 1862. 


Franklin, John. 


July 12, 1864. 


Gallipaux, Charles. 


Jan. 9, 1864. 


Gay, Edward. 


Dec. 23, 1863. 


Gengew, Lewis. 


June 11, 1864. 


Glassett, Michael. 


June 6, 1864. 


Goobey, Michael. 


July 30, 1862. 


Goodrich, Preston M. 


July 26, 1864. 


Graham, Charles J. 


Sept. 14, 1863. 


Greenleaf, John M. 


Jan. 5, 1864. 


Green, William F. 


Sept. 15, 1863. 


Grover, Fitz Roy. 


Aug. 2, 1862. 


Guilford Darwin S. 


Nov. 20, 1863. 


Gutterson, Abner G. 


July 16, 1864. 


Haddock, Leonard H. 


Jan. 28, 1864. 


Hammill, John. 


Sept. 17, 1862. 


Harvey, Edward. 


Feb. 11, 1864. 


Harris, John L. 


Aug. 14, 1862. 


Harrison, William. 


Jan. 21, 1864. 


Hatzky, Fritz. 


Aug. 8, 1862. 


Hayes, Thomas. 


Sept. 23, 1863. 


Henno (or Henns), William. 


Sept. 14, 1863. 


Higginbottom, James. 


Dec. 2, 1863. 


Houssmer (or Housmor), 


Feb. 18, 1862. 


Frederick. 




Hubbard, George. 


Aug. 4, 1862. 


Huntoon, John. 


Dec. 29, 1863. 


Hyan, John. 


Mar. 10, 1864. 


Ingalls, Stephen (Vet. 


Oct. 23, 1863. 


Slrst enlisted in Co. H, 




24th M. V. I.) 


Oct. 28, 1861. 


Jennings, Theodore. 


Nov. 28, 1863. 


Johnson, Henry. 


June 20, 1864. 


Johnson, .Tames. 


Nov. 26, 1863. 


Johnson, Lorin W. 


Aug. 19, 1862. 


Jones, William. 


Feb. 15, 1864. 


Jourett, Oscar. 


Feb. 10, 1862. 


Kain, John. 


Oct. 24, 1863. 


Kirk, James H. (or W.). 


Sept. 6, 1864. 


Langley, Tliomas. 


Feb. 10, 1862. 


Looby, Michael, 


July 30, 1862. 


Lovely, James A. 


June 22, 1864. 


Louch, James. 


Dec. 12, 1863. 


Madden (or Madelin), 


Oct. 31, 1863. 


James. 




Mangan, John. 


Aug. 6, 1862. 


Ma.rtin, Austin E. 


Feb. 17, 1864. 


Marsh, Lewis. 


Jan. 20, 1864. 


Marston, Walter. 


Aug. 14, 1862. 


Mattre (or ]\Iathi), Louis. 


Jan. 11, 1864. 


McCarthy, Thomas. 


Aug. 22, 1862. 



Expiration of Service. 



No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 4, 1867. 

Disch. for dis. Nov. 23, 1864. 

No record in Washington Sept. 6, 1867. 

Died Sept. 30, 1864, City Point, Va. 

No record in Washington Sept. 27, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 4, 1867. 

Deserted Sept. 15, 1863. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record. 

Rejected Jan. 29, 1864, 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

Rejected Feb. 12, 1864. 

Died Feb. 13, 1863, Washington. 

No record in Washington Sept. 6, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 28, 1867. 

Deserted Sept. 26, 1863. 

Deserted Sept. 15, 1863. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 
Rejected Jan. 6, 1864. 

,1867. 
1867. 



AVfjecieii tiiiu. I), X001. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 



Disch. for dis. Apr. 23, 1863. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

Disch. for dis. Nov. 17, 1803. 

Disch. Galloupe's Island, May 6, 1865. 

No record in Washington Aug. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 7, 1867. 

Disch. for dis. Feb. 4, 1865. 

No record in Washington Sept. 16, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 17, 1867. 

Disch. Oct. 9, 1864. 

Transferred to Navy Apr. 23, 1864. 

Served in Co. K, 5th N. Y. Cav. 

No record in Washington Oct. 18, 1867. 

Disch. for dis. Dec. 31, 1864. 

Rejected Jan. 20, 1864. 

No record in Washington Jan. 4, 1868. 

Died June 2, 1864. 

No record. 




SADDLER. WM, H, H. WALL 



PRESTON WOOD 



COMPANY (OLD) 



J 



UNASSIGNED RECRUITS. 



449 



Name. 



McKenna, John, 
McMillan (or McMilan). 

Michael. 
Merrill, John W. 
Mitchell, Hamilton. 
Moore (or Moon), Patrick. 
Morris, Francis. 
Morehouse, Warren. 
Murray, John. 
Murray, Patrick. 
Newton, Solomon E. 
O'Brien, Michael. 
O'Brien, Dennis. 
Octavus, Isaac. 
O'Donnell, Frank. 
Oliver, Sydney S. 
Ollis, John. 
Parsons, Hill. 
Parker, Stephen. 
Peasley, John. 
Petra, James. 
Putnam, John, 
llamsey, Daniel. 
Ray, Angel H. 
Read, Henry. 
Redfern, James. 
Rich, James. 
Robertson, George. 
Russell, Loriu. 
Ryan, John. 
Scott, Thomas. 
Shannon, Edward. 
Simon, Henry. 
Smith, Grion. 
Smith, John. 
Smith, Thomas. 
Soel, Thomas. 
Stanley, Alfred G. 
Stackpole, George. 
Stanton, Henry (Vet.) 
St. Ledger, Thomas. 
Stratford, Mark. 
Sullivan, James. 
Taylor, Charles J. 
Thomas, William. 
Trim, Alvin. 
Turner, James. 
Viuclet, Edward. 
Wade, Jose])h E. 
Wakefield, Elias B. 
West, Charles. 
White, Charles A. 



Date of Muster. 



Dec. 17, 1863. 
Feb. 23, 1864. 

Sept. 18, 1863. 
Sept. 14, 1863. 
Jan. 14, 1864. 
May 26, 1864. 
Sept. 11, 1863. 
Jan. 2, 1864. 
Jan. 25, 1864. 
Aug. 7, 1862. 
Aug. 23, 1864. 
July 14, 1864. 
Jan. 14, 1864. 
Jan. 21, 1864. 
Aug. 16, 1862. 
Dec. 1, 1863. 
June 14, 1864. 
Jan. 5, 1863. 
Mar. 1.5, 1862. 
Mar. 31, 1864. 
Dec. 1, 1863. 
Mar. 21, 1864. 
Oct. 14, 1863. 
Aug. 11, 1862. 
Feb. 24, 1862. 
Sept. 10, 1863. 
Sept. 1, 1863. 
Sept. 30, 1862. 
Mar. 10, 1864. 
Sept. 3, 1863. 
Sept. 8, 1863. 
Jan. 4, 1864. 
Sept. 11, 1863. 
Jan. 9, 1864. 
Sept. 30, 1863. 
Oct. 26, 1863. 
Apr. 2, 1864. 
Mar. 25, 1864. 
Nov. 19, 1863. 
Oct. 9, 1863. 
Aug. 2, 1864. 
Feb. 15, 18G4. 
Aug. 19, 1862. 
Sept. 12, 1863. 
Feb. 29, 1864. 
Jan. 20, 1864. 
July 1, 1864. 
Dec. 7, 1863. 
June 18, 1864. 
Aug. 19, 1862. 
Jan. 14, 1864. i 



Expiration of Service. 



Rejected Dec. 19, 1863. 

Died Mar. 13, 1864, Galloupe's Island. 

No record in Washington Sept. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 28, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 14, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 14, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 28, 1867. 

Rejected Jan. 13, 1864. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

Disch. for dis. Mar. 5, 1863. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record in Washington Sept. 17, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 17, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 17, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 17, 1867. 

No record. 

No record in Washington Sept. 27, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 26, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 19, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 27, 1867. 

No record in Wasliington Sept. 27, 1867. 

Disch. for dis. Dec. 15, 1862. 

No record in Wasliington Oct. 2, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Feb. 22, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 4, 1867. 

Rejected Jan. 12, 1864. 

No record in Washington Oct. 18, 1867. 

No record in AVashington Oct. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 5, 1867. 

No record in Wasliington Oct. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 4, 1867. 

No record in Wasliington Oct. 17, J 867. 

No record. 

No record in Washington Sept. 20, 1867. 

No record in Washington Sept. 29, 1867. 

Rejected Mar. 5, 1864. 

No record in Washington Sept. 20, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 14, 1867. 

No record in Washington Oct. 4, 1864. 

June 25, 1865. 

No record in Washington Oct. 4, 1867. 

No record in Washington Nov. 6, 1867. 



450 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Name. 


Date of Muster. 


Expiration of Service. 


White, Charles M. 
Whitney, John M.^ 
Williams, Charles E. 
Wilder, George W., Jr. 
Wilson, flussell. 

Wisner, James. 
Wood, Charles B. 
Woodruff, John. 


Nov. 18, 1863. 
Sept. 6, 1862. 
June 7, 1864. 
Feb. 29, 1864. 
July 16, 1864. 

Apr. 13, 1864. 
Sept. 11, 1862. 
Feb. 3, 1864. 


No record in Washington Nov. 6, 1867. 
Transferred to Navj\ 
Deserted Oct. 31, 1864 (Co. C). 
Disch. for dis. Aug. 15, 1864. 
Returned Aug. 14, 1864, to 149th N. Y. 

V. as a deserter. 
Transferred to Navy May 17, 1864. 
Disch. for dis. Mar. 6, 1863. 
Rejected Mar, 2, 1864. 



RECRUITS, CO. I, INDEPENDENT BATTALION (4th Cav.). 



Name. 


Rank. 


Date of Muster. 


Date of Expiration. 


Chute, Elbridge G. 


Corp. 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Duff, Robert. 


" 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 7, 1865. 




Hayraan, George. 


Bugler. 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Ayer, George W. 


Private. 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Died July 29, '64, Pt. of Rocks, Md 


Bailey, Ephraim. 


<( 


Dec. 31, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865. 




Barrett, Michael. 


a 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Aug. 20, 1865. 


Deserted. 


Bates, David W. 


« 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Died Sept. 9, '64, Petersburg, Ya. 


Benson, Howard T. 


<c 


Feb. 18, '64. 


June 2, 1865. 




Bradley, Chas. W. 


u 


Dec. 31, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865, 




Brooks, John. 


(( 


Dec. 31, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865, 




Bully, Samuel. 


<( 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865, 




Buzzell, George. 


(( 


Dec. 31, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Cannon, Benj. F. 


« 


Dec. 31, '64. 


May 26, 1865, 




Chubbuck, Chas. H. 


<( 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov, 7, 1865, 




Clark, Chas. 


(C 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Aug, 6, 1865, 


Deserted. 


Connor, James. 


(( 


July 8, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865. 




Costello, Peter. 


« 


Sept. 6, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865, 




Danforth, Chas. E.2 


« 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865, 




Doran, William. 


It 


June 21, '64. 


July 14, 1865, 


Deserted, 


Dwyer, Michael M. 


<( 


July 25, '64. 


Aug. 10, 1865. 


Deserted. 


Farrar, Morris. 


(( 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Feeley, James. 


« 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Died Feb. 15, '65, Pt. of Rocks, Md. 


Ford, Seth H. 


(( 


Sept. 6, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Freedman, Gottleib. 


« 


Aug. 13, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Fried, Jacob. 


« 


Oct. 20, '64. 


Oct. 20, 1865. 




Fuller, David A. 


« 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Gilligau, Edward. 


(( 


Aug. 9, '64. 


Nov, 14, 1865, 




Glasgow, Arthur. 


(( 


July 14, '64, 


Aug, 24, 1865, 


Deserted. 


Gray, William H. 


« 


Jan, 8, '64. 


Aug. 8, 1865. 


Deserted. 



1 Detailed clerk Surg. Gen. O. ; disch. Nov. 5, 1802, by reason of enlistment as Hosp. Steward, U. S. A. 
Disch. Mar. 8, 1S64. Acting Asst. Surg, U, S, N. June 27, 18G4, assigned to U. S. S, Norwich ; drowned 
Aug. 16, 1SG4, St. John's River, Fla. 

* Name, Charles E. Graton \, being under age he assiuned.tbe name of Danforth. 



RECRUITS, INDEPENDENT BATTALION. 



451 



Guy, Charles H. 
Halleck, Russell H. 
Handy, Edward. 
Henrietta, James. 
Hoyt, John H. 
Junior, Joseph. 
Kankee, Ernest. 
Kelly, James. 
Kelly, William. 
King, Philip H. 
Lee, Henry. 
Lewis, George H. 
Loud, Cyrus S. 
Magee, Nelson. 
Manchester, Albert H. 
Marge tt, James. 
Marshall, Joshua. 
McCarthy, Charles. 
McSweeney, Dennis. 
Moriarty, Patrick. 
Norwood, Franklin. 
Munroe John. 
Nye, Oliver C. 
Parker, Benj. F. 
Peckham, Chester T. 
Pollard, Anthony. 
Powers, Patrick. 
Rand, Wm. H. 
Reddy, Patrick. 
Reynolds, Michael. 
Richards, Saml.W., Jr. 
Rivers, Peter. 
Sorton, John. 
Stroginsky, Theoph. 
Templeton, John. 
Tennant Amherst D. 

Todd, William F. 
Truesdell, Horace L. 
Walker, William H. 
Williams, George R. 
Wilson, Thomas. 
Witt, Charles N. 
Wright, William. 
Young, Charles. 



Private. 



Date of Muster. 



June 4, '64. 
Aug. 17, '63. 
Aug. 10, '64. 
Feb. 8, '64. 
Aug. 17, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
July 14, '64. 
July 2, '64. 
Sept. 20, '64. 
June 25, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Mar, 31, '64. 
Feb. 8, '64. 
Jan. 8, '64. 
Aug. 18, '64. 
Oct. 20, '64. 
Feb. 8, '64. 
July 14, '64. 
Feb. 8, '64, 
Dec. 10, '64. 
Aug. 9, '64. 
Aug. 30, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Nov. 2, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
July 8, '64. 
Sept. 12, '64. 
Aug. 9, '64. 
Aug. 15, '64. 
June 24, '64. 
Oct. 20, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 

Aug. 22, '64, 
Aug. 9, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Oct. 18, '64. 
Aug. 15, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 



Date of Expiration. 



Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
June 21, 1865. 
Mar. 4, 1864. Deserted. 
Aug. 10, 1865. Deserted. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 24, 1865. Deserted. 
June 24, 1865. 
Nov. 5, 1864. Deserted. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
July 7, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
June 21, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 9, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 12, 1865. 
Mar. 1, 1864. Deserted. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 

Died Aug. 28,'64, Pt. of Rocks, Md. 
Nov. 2, 1865. 
Dec. 13, 1864. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
June 21, 1865. 
May 26, 1865. 
Nov. 5, 1864. Deserted. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 

Died Sept. 16, '64, Fortress Mon- 
roe, Va. 
June 21, 1865. 
April 15, 1865. Died. 
Sept. 24, 1864. Deserted. 
July 3, 1865. 
June 21, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 10, 1865. Deserted. 



452 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



RECRUITS, CO. K, INDEPENDENT BATTALION (4th Cav.). 



Taylor, William A. 
Barry, Charles W. 
Fisk, Thomas F. 
Grand, Charles. 
Hack, Henry C. 
Moody, William H. 
Porter, Franklin H. 
Smith, George W. 
O'Brien, William. 
Allen, Asa P. 
Anderson, William B. 
Andrews, Frank A. 
Avery, Eleazer. 
Bennett, Wm. H. H. 
Bigelow, Wayland. 
Bradley, Thomas. 
Brauer, Bernard. 
Burdett, Abiden R. 
Burnham, Orin R, 
Burt, William. 
Butler, Pierce J. 
Butterfield, William. 
Carey, Thomas J. 
Christlemiller, Math. 
Clark, Charles. 
Cook, George W. 
Crogan, James. 
Cushing Nathaniel. 
Dickinson, Le Baron A. 
Dolan, James. 
Drake, Eugene. 
Dumbolton, Jas. A. 
Finney, Michael. 
Foley, John. 
Ford, Chas. H. 
Frank, Gustave. 
Freeman, James. 
Gans, Chas. 
Gould, Isaac W. 
Graham, Robert. 
Grinnell, Lyman H. 
Hall, Moses. 
Hemmingway, Aug. A. 
Hilton, Frank, 
Howard, James. 
Humphrey, Edw. AV. 
Humphrey, AVm. H. 
Hynes, Edward. 



Rank. 


Date of Muster. 


Sergt. 
Corp. 


Mar. 1, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 


(( 


Mar. 1,'64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 


n 


Mar. 1, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 


ti 


Sept. 13, '64. 


« 


Feb. 8, '64. 


Bugler. 
Private. 


Aug. 8, '64. 
Julv 12, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 


<( 


Sept. 21, '64. 


(( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


<( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


(( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 




July 23, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 


a 


Mar. 1, '64. 


<( 


July 6, '64. 


« 


Sept. 24, '64. 
July 1, '64. 


<( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


« 


July 25, '64. 
June 25, '64. 


(( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


<( 


July 20, '64. 


(( 


Feb. 1, '64. 


« 


Nov. 1, '64. 


(( 


'Msiv. 1, '64. 


« 


Dec. 17, '64. 


« 


Oct. 1, '64. 




Sept. 30, '64. 
July 12, '64. 


(( 


Aug. 8, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 


<( 


July 1, '64. 


(( 


Aug. 2, '64. 


" 


Mar. 1, '64. 


« 


Dec. 28, '64. 




Sept. 6, '64. 
Dec. 31, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 


« 


Sept. 3, '64. 
Sept. 21, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 


(( 


Oct. 17, '64. 


(( 


Sept. 22, '64. 



Date of Expiration. 



Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 25, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 10, 1865. 
May 22, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
July 17, 1865. 
Aug. 30, 1864. 
April 16, 1864. 
May 22, 1865. 
Aug. 12, 1865. 
Aug 11, 1805. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 10, 1865. 
May 5, 1864. 
July 19, 1864. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 4, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 12, 1865. 
Aug. 11, 1805. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 22, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Mav 22, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
July 19, 1804. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 22, 1865. 



Lieut. U. S. C. T. 



Deserted. 
Deserted. 

Deserted. 
Deserted. 



Deserted. 
Lieut. N. Y. V. 
Deserted. 



Deserted. 



Deserted. 
Deserted. 



Deserted. 




MERRILL COWLE 



GEO. H. HILL 



RECRUITS, INDEPENDENT BATTALION. 



453 



King, Isaac. 
King, Nelson. 
Ladue, Israel. 
Lang, John. 
Lawrence, Albert B. 
Leonard, Frank A. 
Lovell, Lewis. 
Lyons, Jeremiah. 
Martin, John. 
Marcell, Moses. 
Mayo, George. 
McEachron, John. 
McMalion, James. 
Monser, Samuel. 
Muller, Wilhelm, 
Murphy, Thomas. 
O'Keefe, Jolin. 
Pringle, Thomas, 
Riley, Stephen. 
Renter, Gustav J. T. 
Ring, John. 
Rowell, James A. 
Seymour, Geo. A. 
Shaw, Geo. F. 
Slane, Patrick. 
Smith, James. 
Steele, Geo. W. 
Stuart, Chas. 
Taylor, Francis A. 
Thompson, Thomas. 
Welch, Thomas. 
Whitney, Edw. H. 
Welsh, Wm. 



Private. 



Date of Muster. 



July 16, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
July 15, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Sept. 9, '64. 
Aug. 9, '64. 
July 13, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Nov. 25, '64. 
Oct. 26, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
July 26, '64. 
Sept. 3, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Dec. 29, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Oct. 17, '64. 
July 6, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Oct. 21, '64. 
Sept. 27, '64. 
Oct. 26, '64. 
July 1, '64. 
Aug. 8, '64. 
Dec. 17, '64. 
Nov. 16, '64. 
Dec. 29, '64. 
Sept. 10, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Sept. 30, '64. 



Date of Expiration. 



Aug. 16, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 11, 1865, 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 22, 1865. 
Mar. 18, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 12, 1865. 
Aug. 16, 1865. 
Aug. 15, 1865. 
Aug. 17, 1865. 
Apr. 11, 1864. 
Aug. 15, 1865. 
May 22, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
June 13, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 13, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Oct. 21, 1865. 
Aug. 11, 1865. 
Oct. 26, 1865. 
May 22, 1865. 
May 22, 1865. 
June 13, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 13, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 



Deserted. 
Deserted. 

Deserted. 

Deserted. 
Deserted. 
Deserted. 
Deserted. 
Deserted. 
Deserted. 



Deserted. 
Deserted. 

Deserted. 



Deserted. 

Deserted. 
Deserted. 



RECRUITS, CO. L, INDEPENDENT BATTALION (4th Cav.). 



Name. 


Rank. 


Date of Muster. 


Date of Expiration. 


Baldwin, James S. 


Sergt. 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Keefe, Joseph P. 


" 


Sept. 19, '64. 


May 26, 1865. 




Pappee, Daniel. 


<( 


Aug. 6, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Rothwell, John. 


(C 


Dec. 31, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Sawyer, Joseph M. 


(I 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 1, 186.5. 




Watts, Albert J. 


ii 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Wales William E. 


Q. M. S. 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Anderson, Robert. 


Corp. 


July 20, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Churchill, Willard T. 


a 


Feb. 18, '64. 


Nov. 14, 1865. 




Hogan, Lawrence. 


" 


Aug. 29, '64. 


May 26, 1865. 





454 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



Dickey, Madison C. 
Jackson, William. 
McFarland, Charles. 
Tower, Horace S. 
Baumjjartou, Morris. 
Zeiliuski, Jeroslow. 
Huso, Walter A. 
King, Richard H. 
Allen, John. 
Anderson, John. 
Andrews, John. 
Birniington, Cornelius. 
Boyland, Edward J. 
Brady, Henry. 
Brady, James W. 
Burke, John. 
Burke, Michael. 
Burns, Lawrence. 
Butler, Charles. 
Carter, Charles E. 
Cleveland Howard A. 
Connor, John. 
Connor, Madison C. 
Cook, Henry R. 
Corcoran, William. 
Craig, Francis. 
Cunningham, William. 
Deniar, Samuel T. 
Dolan, Lewis P. 
Donovan, Cornelius. 
Donohue, James. 
Dunn, Michael. 
Dyer, Joseph W. 
Dymond, David W. 
Enuis, Daniel T. 
Farrell, John, Jr. 
Feeley, Patrick. 
Fellows, Ruf us J. 
Fogel, Andrew. 
Cjalloway, James. 
Galviu, Edward. 
Gannon, James J. 
Garfield, George A. 
Godfrey, Edward. 
Godkin, Stephen F. 
GofP, Rinaldo R. 
Goodwin, Joseph L. 
Graham, William. 
Grandaw, William H. 
Hadfield, Roger. 
Hart, James. 
Harvey, Edward C. 
Hodgkins, Frank. 



Rank. 



Corp. 



Bugl. 

Saddler. 
Blacksm. 
Private. 



Date of Muster. 



Feh. 18, '64. 
Sei)t. 2, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Aug. 6, '64. 
Sept. 13, '64. 
Sept. 12, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
July 20, '64. 
Aug. 20, '64. 
Sept. 1, '64. 
Aug. 29, '64. 
Aug. 26, '64. 
June 23, '64. 
Jan. 4, '64. 
July 5, '64. 
Oct. 26, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Oct. 26, '64. 
July 2, '64. 
Dec. 12, '64. 
Dec. 12, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Dec. 14, '64. 
Jan. 3, '65. 
Aug. 15, '64. 
Jan. 4, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Oct. 1, '64. 
Aug. 29, '64. 
Aug. 31, '64. 
Oct. 28, '64. 
Dec. 15, '64. 
Dec. 15, '64. 
Aug. 29, '64. 
July 13, '64. 
June 24, '64. 
Aug. 25, '64. 
Dec. 31, '64. 
Dec. 12, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Dec. 31, '64. 
Jan. 2, '65. 
Dec. 31, '64. 
Dec. 31, '64. 
July 26, '64. 
Oct. 26, '64. 
Dec. 31, '64. 
Dec. 31, '64. 
Dec. 10, '64. 
Dec. 31, '04. 
Sept. 3. '64. 



Date of Expiration. 



Died Dec. 1, 1864, Washington. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Aug. 11, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865, as absent sick. 

July, 8, 1865. Transf. to V. R. C. 

May 26, 1865. 



Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
July 21, 1865. 
Aug. 24, 1865. 
Aug. 11, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Aug. 11, 1865. 
Jan. 16, 1865. 
Aug. 11, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 26, 1865. 
July 16, 1865. 
Mar. 15, 1805. 
Mar. 1, 1864. 
May 26, 1865. 
June 21, 1865. 
May 26, 1865. 
July 9, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
May 26, 1865. 
Au^. 17, 1865. 



Deserted. 

Deserted. 
Deserted. 
Deserted. 

Deserted. 
Disability. 
Deserted. 



Deserted. 
Disability. 
Deserted. 



Deserted. 



Died Nov. 26, 1804, Varina, Va. 

Oct. 3, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1805. 

Aug. 11, 1805. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Mav 28, 1865. 

Died Sept. 3, 1864, Ft's Monroe. 

Aug. 14, 1805. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1805. 

Nov. 14. 1805. 

July 2, 1805. Deserted. 

June 1, 1805. Disability. 

June 1, 1865. 



RECRUITS, INDEPENDENT BATTALION 455 



Rank. 



Holton, Granville E. 
Hutchinson, Arthur. 
Ireson, David A. 
Johnson, Charles H. 
Johnson, Thomas. 
Johnson, William. 
Johnston, Thomas. 
Jones, Solomon H. 
Keene, Charles. 
Kelley, James. 
Kerrivan, Michael. 
Kolb, Augustus. 
Lee, James. 
Lyons, Daniel. 
Mahoney, Cain. 
Mahoney, John. 
McCarthy, John. 
McLelan Daniel. 
Mead, George W. 
Middleton, John J. 
Moore, James. 
Morien, Ettien. 

Morris, Ryan W. 

Morse, Edward W. 

Murphy, James H, 

Murray, Martin. 

Nee, Thomas. 

Osborne, Daniel L. 

Osborne, George H. 

Paren, Moses. 

Payson, Charles W. 

Reinhold, Peter N. 

Rollins, Stephen H. 

Russell, John. 

Scott, Winfield H. 

Shell, Jacob. 

Sims, Andrew T. 

Smith, Charles. 

Smith, John. 

Stevens, Charles. 

Sullivan, Dennis. 

Sullivan, John. 

Thomas, John H. 

Thompson, Thomas J, 

Towne, William A. 

Walsh, John. 

Watson, Edgar. 

Welsh, George P. 

Whiting, Zeno. 
Wiggington, James C. 
W^ilson, .Tallies. 
Wilbur, Charles. 
Wood, James. 



Private. 



Date of Muster. 



Feb. 5, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Dec. 31, '64. 
Dec. 27, '64. 
July 8, '64. 
July 12, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Sept. 7, '64. 
Oct. 26, '64. 
July 15, '64. 
July 1, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 15, '64. 
July 9, '64. 
July 8, '64. 
July 12, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Sept. 2, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Aug. 2, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 5, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Dec. 27, '64. 
Oct. 26, '64. 
Sept. 1, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 

Dec. 8, '64. 

Aug. 30, '64. 

Sept. 15, '64. 

Dec. 8, '64. 

June 30, '64. 

Oct. 27, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 

June 22, '64. 

Aug. 27, '64. 

Sept. 26, '64. 

July 5, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 

July 7, '64. 

Mar. 31, '64. 

Aug. 6, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 

Oct. 1, '64. 

Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
July 7, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 
Feb. 18, '64. 



Date of Expiration. 



Aug. 17, 1864. Died Ft's Monroe. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

June 1, 1865. Disability. 

Apr. 5, 1865. Missing. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Aug. 14, 1865. Deserted. 

Mar. 15, 1865. Deserted. 

June 21, 1805. 

Aug. 19, 1865. Deserted. 

July 16, 1865. Deserted. 

June 27, 1865. Disability. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Died June 29, '65, Camp Lee, Va. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Aug. 14, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. Absent sick. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

May 26, 1865. 

June 13, 1865. Disability. 

Aug. 13, 1864. Deserted. 

Mar. 15, 1864. Deserted. 

Mar., 1864. Deserted. 

July 17, 1865. 

June 11, 1865. Deserted. 

Aug. 17, 1865. Deserted. 

Aug., 1865. Dishonorably disch. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

June 17, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

May 26, 1865. 

Jan. 16, 1865. 

Aug. 13, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Mar., 1864. Deserted. 

Killed June 9, 1864, Petersb'g, Va. 

Aug. 14, 1865. Deserted. 

- Transf.toV.R.C. 

Deserted. 



Dec. 26, 1864. 

Aug. 19, 1865. 

May 26, 1865. 

Aug. 14, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1805. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1805. 

Nov. 14, 1805. 

Died Aug. 7, 1804, Ft's Monroe. 

Died Apr. 9, 1805, Pt. of Rocks, 

Md. 
Nov. 14, 1805. 
Nov. 14, 1805. 
Oct. 15, 1804. Deserted. 
Mar., 1804. Deserted. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 



4.56 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



RECRUITS, CO. M, INDEPENDENT BATTALION (4th Cav.). 



Name. 



Freeborn, George 11. 
Greenwood, Samuel M. 
DeWolver, James. 
Farrer, Daniel. 
Groton, Winlield S. 
Howard, Estes J. 
Mahoney, John. 
Randall, Russell. 
Winipflieimer, Clias. 
Aliern, Daniel. 
Averill, Louis C. 
Avery, George. 
Bailey, Robert. 
Baker, George W. 
Bell, Joseph. 
Bemis, John W. 
Bliss, James A. 
Boost, Christian. 
Brow, Dennis. 
Brown, George P. 
Burke, Thomas J. 
Callahan, Win. 
Clark, Josej)h. P 
Cleveland, Augustus. 

Connors, Martin. 
Corbett, James. 
Daniels, James. 
Davis, Hiram E. 

Dempsey, James. 
Dumas, Earnest. 
Fay, John. 
Felton, Edgar B. 
Fitzgerald, Chas. 
Flood, Henry. 
Gallagher, Patrick. 
Galvin, John. 
Green, Henry S. 

Haskins, Asa L. 
Haskins, George W. 
Hickey, Wm. 
Hill, Henry E. 
Hill, James. 
Hoffman, Henry C. 
Holmes, Geo. R. 
Hoyt, Henry. 
Jackson, Andrew. 
Jenkins, George M. 



Rauk. 


Date of Muster. 


Sergt. 


June 29, 'G4. 


" 


Mar. 1, 'G4. 


Corp. 


Nov. 10, '64. 


" 


Nov. *28, 64. 


(( 


Nov. 16, 64. 


(( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 


(( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


Bugl. 


Aug. 18, '64. 


Private. 


Dec. 17, '64. 


'< 


Mar. 1, '64. 


a 


Mar. 1, '64. 


ti 


Mar. 1, '64. 


<( 


Nov. 25, '64. 


« 


Nov. 23, '64. 


« 


Nov. 17, '64. 


« 


Dec. 10, '64. 


« 


Nov. 10, '64. 


« 


Julv 26, '64. 


(( 


Nov. 29, '64. 


ii 


Nov. 23, '64. 


ti 


July 30, 64. 


<( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


(( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


a 


Mar. 1, '64. 


" 


Nov. 22, '64. 


a 


Mar. 1, '64. 


(< 


Aug. 8, '64. 


ti 


Mar. 1, '64. 


u 


Dec. 21, '64. 


« 


Nov. 22, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 


« 


Nov. 6, '64. 


<( 


Mar. 1, '64. 


(( 


Dec. 27, '64. 


<( 


Nov. 11, '64. 


« 


Dec. 1, '64. 


<( 


Nov. 11, '64. 


« 


July 28, '64. 


(<' 


Mar. 1, '64. 


(( 


Dec. 1, '64. 


« 


Nov. 15, '64. 


<c 


Dec. 22, '64. 


(( 


Jan. 3, '65. 


(( 


Nov. 14, '64. 


(( 


Dec. 15, '64. 


« 


Mar. 1, '64. 



Date of Expiration. 



Absent sick. 



Deserted. 



Aug. 10, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Oct. 19, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 8, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

July 15, 1865. 

June 17, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Jan. 7, 1865. Disability. 

Feb. 20, 1865. Died. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

July 13, 1865. Deserted. 

Apr. 14, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Returned as a deserter from 

Marine Corps. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Dec. 16, 1864. Deserted. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Died Jan. 18, 1865, Point of 

Rocks, Md. 
Nov. 16, 1865. 
Apr. 4, 1865. Deserted. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
Nov. 14, 1865. 
July 25, 1865. 
Aug. 16, 1865. 
May 24, 1865. 
Nov. 11, 1865. 
Died Sept. 27, 1865, Richmond, 

Va. 

Deserted. 



Deserted. 
Died. 



Aug. 17, 1865 

Nov. 14, 1865 

Nov. 14, 1865. Absent sick. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

July 13, 1865. Deserted. 

June 25, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Aug. 18, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. Absent sick. 




Q. M. SER6T. H. W. OTIS 




AUGUSTUS M. DAVIS 



L COMPANY (NEWi 



BECRUITS, INDEPENDENT BATTALION. 457 



Johnston, Geo. H. 
King, John. 
King, Michael. 
Klein, Louis. 
Lee, Chas. H. 
Mann, Thos. 
Mauston, Hazen. 
Marron, James. 
McClearn, Richard. 
McGann, John. 
McGee, Patrick. 
McNamara, Cornelius. 
Mulligan, John. 
Murphy, Peter. 
*Murriam, Warren. 
Norcross, Chas. W. 
Perry, Thomas. 
Pratt, Leander. 
Prifer, Robert. 
Priest, James C. 
Randall, John P. 
Roberts, Joseph. 
Rochester, Philip. 
Rosenthal, Jacob. 
Russell, Charles. 
Schleicher, George. 

Schole, Charles. 

Schriver, John. 
Shaw, Enoch E. 
Shea, John. 
Sheridan, Thomas. 
Sherman, Alonzo. 
Smith, Albert T. 
Smith, Joseph. 
Smith, William. 
Stevens, Charles L. 
Story, Jaham. 
Sullivan, William H. 
Tevlin, John. 
Thomson, William. 
Townseud, John W. 
Wade, Oliver M. 
Ward, Ansel B. 
Wardle, Henry G. 
Warren, William H. 
Wheeler, Edward H. 
White, George W. 
Widas, Charles. 
Wilber, Edward. 
Rogers, John E. 
Scriven, Edward. 



Rank. 



Private. 



Date of Muster. 



Date of Expiration. 



Mar. 1, '64. 
Nov. 28, '64. 
Dec. 12, '64. 
Dec. 22, '64. 
Mar. 1, '62. 
Nov. 28, '64. 
Mar. 23, '64. 
Oct. 1, '64. 
Nov. 25, '64. 
Dec. 15, '64. 
Dec. 24, '64. 
Aug. 2. '64. 
Nov. 18, '64. 
Nov. 22, '64. 
Jan. 3, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Dec. 20, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Jan. 3, '65. 
Dec. 1, '64. 
Nov. 21, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Feb. 24, '65. 
Nov. 28, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 

Feb. 20, '64. 

Nov. 23, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Nov. 23, '64. 
July 28, '64. 
June 6, '64. 
Nov. 28, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Mar. 23, '64. 
Mar. 1, '64. 
Nov. 23, '64. 
Mar. 4, '64. 
1 Dec. 27, '64. 
I Mar. 1, '64. 

Mar. 1, '64. 

Mar. 1, '64. 

Mar. 1, '64. 

Mar. 1, '64. 

July 21, '64. 

Dec. 8, '64. 

Nov. 14, '64. 

Mar. 23, '64, 

Nov. 21, '64, 

Nov. 22, '64. 

Nov. 14, '64 



Nov-. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

July 13, 1865. Deserted. 

July 24, 1865. Deserted. 

July 14, 1865. Deserted. 

Aug. 18, 1865. Deserted. 

May 22, 1865. 

Jan. 7, 1865. Disability. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

July 21, 1865. Deserted. 

Died Oct. 22, 1865, Richmond, Va. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Aug. 9, 1865. Deserted. 

July 16, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Jan. 3, 1865. Died. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

May 15, 1865. Transf. to V. R. C. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

May 24, 1865. 

Killed Oct. 13, 1864, Clark's 

Farm, Va. 
Returned as deserter from Marine 

Corps. 
July 15, 1865. Deserted. 
June 16, 1865. 

Aug. 14, 1865. Deserted. 

Aug. 9, 1865. Deserted. 

Aug. 16, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 8, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

May 4, 1865. Deserted. 

Aug. 10, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

June 22, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

July 16, 1865. Deserted. 

Nov. 7, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

June 7, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 

Nov. 14, 1865. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



THE REGIMENTAL BAND. 

When the regiment was organized, the army regulations authorized the 
enlistment of a band, and one was enlisted for the 1st Massachusetts cavalry, 
of eighteen instruments, and it went to Hilton Head, and remained there 
until July, when the order came mustering out regimental bands. The leader 
of this, the first band, was C O. Gott, only a tolerable musician, and under his 
leadership the band was fair only. It was a feature of the dress parade, on 
the field back of the colonel's quarters, where the loose sand made marching 
difficult, and mounted drill terrible. When the troop was beat off, the band 
dismounted had quite a task to march across the front of the regiment, in the 
sand, with the thermometer at 90°, and at the same time do justice to the music 
and the mosquitoes. 

On one occasion, the player of the slide trombone, when pushing out for a 
low tone, got the extended instrument caught in a blackberry vine, and sud- 
denly found himself at anchor, Avhile the rest of the band marched on, and 
left him to his fate. Colonel Williams's sharp eyes were not qualified by a 
knowledge of the nature of the unhappy instrument, and he called out to the 
player, in his dignified tones, to know " what he was doing, sticking that thing 
into the ground? " In a land where amusements were scarce, the band's per- 
formances were always welcome, and the order which came from the War 
Department to discharge all regimental bands was heard with dismay. There 
were at this time, July, 1862, over 1000 regiments in service, and consequently 
the expense of musicians was enormous. No wonder the expense frightened 
the government. 

The officers, however, concluded that a band was useful, and it was decided 
to have one by detailing enlisted men from the companies, the leader making 
an examination for the purpose, and that instruments and other expenses which 
it entailed should be paid for out of the regimental fund. Men were detailed, 
after the return from James Island, and at once placed under the leadership 
of Mr. Levi Curry, who had been band leader of the 28th Massachusetts, and 
who was hired for the purpose when his band was mustered out by the same 
order which ended the 1st Massachusetts band. 



462 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Beaufort being a moi'e favorable place tlian Hilton Head, the new band was 
sent thither, and began its up-hill work in earnest. It was a new business to 
almost all, and the work of "getting uji a lij)" was so tedious and irksome, 
that many wanted to go back to duty in their comjianies rather than continue 
in the band. The latter was considered by the men generally as a '' soft 
thing." There was no guard duty, no ])icket duty, no drill, and no fighting, 
and all through the war not one of the band was even wounded. 

When the regiment returned from James Island, the band was left at Beau- 
fort, and was there when the regiment, or rather the two battalions and head- 
quarters, went to Virginia. 

In September, Major Curtis went from Beaufort to Virginia ; but before he 
left, an order was issued at Hilton Head that no more men of the 1st Massa- 
chusetts cavalry should leave that department. He ordered the band on board 
a steamer at Beaufort, bound north, which touched at Hilton Head, and the 
band made a valuable stowaway for the regiment, as was found out when the 
steamer was at sea, and on her way to Baltimore. Here they were landed, 
and went with Major Curtis to Washington. On arriving there, they were 
ordered to join the recruits, dismounted men, etc., who were in the city. Major 
Curtis, eager to join the regiment in Maryland, started off himself, and the 
band at first could not find the camp ; but finally succeeded, and remained 
there until headquarters joined from Hagerstown, November 17, and soon 
after went to the Army of the Potomac, at Potomac Run. 

No great proficiency had been attained in playing; but by hard work they 
finally succeeded. 

When the regiment marched in April, the band was left in camp, and dis- 
mounted, in order to mount as many men as possible to take the field. The 
band went with the dismounted men from Potomac Run to Dumfries, then 
back to Potomac Run and Alexandria. It made part of the column which 
started, June 27, for the front from Alexandria, and which had such an 
exciting time with Lee's cavalry, and was driven back into Washington. 
Arrived here, it made something of a sensation by its excellent music, and was 
seized on by General Sir Percy Wyndham and staff, who appreciated good 
music. Under his auspices it took part in many Washington parades, ])laying 
on one occasion at a ball at Quartermaster-General Meigs's house. While at 
the various dismounted camps, the opportunity for indefinite practice was given 
and improved, and while in Washington a new uniform was procured, each 
man paying for his own. Meanwhile the regiment was being engaged in 
severe fighting and marching, and naturally wanted the band present to enliven 
and cheer it up. Constant efforts to have the band sent to the front were 
frustrated, and it was thought they were having a good, easy time, and did 
not want to come. The fact was, that the officers at dismounted camp were 
pleased to have it there, and easily found means to keep it, in spite of orders 
to send the band to the front. 




w 




SERGT. ROBERT GLENN 



SERGT. THOMAS HICKEY 





ORLANDO S. KIFF 



FARRIER, HERMAN MILLS 



M COMPANY (OLD) 



APPENDIX. 463 

Finally, on reiterated orders, it did start to the front about the 1st of Sep- 
tember, 1863, and reached the headquarters of the regiment, near Cedar 
Mountain, September 14. At the same time the led horses and such luggage 
as was suitable for the field came up, for the first time in a month or more, 
and the recruits and the men from the dismounted camp, made a handsome 
reinforcement. 

Ever after this, tbe band kept with the regiment, and besides Its excellent 
music — for the band had now become about the best in the army — it ren- 
dered excellent service in the field during battles, being detailed at such times 
to assist the medical staff. 

Surgeon-Major Wood was loud in his praise of their services for such duty 
on many occasions. 

Mr. Curry, the band leader, had been replaced during the summer by Mr. 
K. H. Whitcomb, of Vermont, who was in Washington, expecting to be made 
the leader of a brigade band. Not getting at the time what he wanted, he 
accepted the offer to lead the regimental band, and proved a capital leader, 
being himself an accomplished player on several instruments, excelling on the 
key bugle. 

When the regiment went into winter quarters at Warrenton, the band 
instruments had become rather the worse for wear, and it was decided to 
have new ones. To pay for them, a subscription was taken up all through 
the brigade, where the band had a reputation, not only for good music, but 
for playing in other camps, and doing its large share of " making things plea- 
sant." Anuisements were not abundant nor varied, and a good band was well 
appreciated. The new instruments were ordered of copper instead of brass, 
as making softer music. There was quite a delay In getting them, owing to a 
misunderstanding of authority for appropriating a part of the money from the 
regimental fund, and for a time the band was without any instruments, as the 
old ones were sold and delivered to the 1st New Jersey cavalry, March 25, 
1864. 

During the trying spring and summer campaign In the Wilderness and in 
front of Petersburg, besides furnishing music and Its stimulus to the weary 
men of the regiment, — brigade and division, too, for that matter, — the 
bandsmen did their duty in taking care of the wounded. 

In September, 1864, the Instruments were sent to Massachusetts to be sold, 
and those of the band whose time of service was over went home to be mus- 
tered out, while such as had reenllsted were sent to their respective companies. 
A brigade band was organized at this time, — the only music of the brigade. 
One man whose term had expired, joined this organization ; but the end of 
the band of the 1st Massachusetts cavalry had come. 

It win thus be seen that the original band, enlisted as such, lasted from 
November, 1861, until July, 1862. It included the following men : — 



464 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



MEMBERS OF OLD BAND FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY, MUSTERED IN JAN- 
UARY 6, 1861 ; MUSTERED OUT AUGUST 16, 1862. 



Marcus A. Aldrich. 

Henry H. Cook. 

Gerald Bvennan, B Cornet. 

Moses W. Emerson. 

Calvin O. Gott, Leader. 

Orlando Gott, Alto. 

Dwight S. Jennings. 

Frank G. Lawrence. 

Neither Brennan nor Pushee appears 



Edward Meredith, Baritone. 
John H. Moore. 
Thomas Prenchard, Tuba. 
L. H. Pushee, Bass Trombone. 
Heni'y C. Ring. 
James W. Robinson. 
James W. Stabiles, B Cornet. 
Jean White, Tenor Trombone, 
on the adjutant-general's list. 



The second band was composed of enlisted men of the companies detailed 
for service in the band, and its organization was as follows : — 



MEMBERS OF NEW BAND, DETAILED FROM COMPANIES. 




APPENDIX. 465 

GLEE CLUB. 

A glee club was organized from among the bandsmen during the winter at 
Potomac Run, as follows : — 

Powell, first tenor. Weston, second tenor. Roffe, first bass. Harding, 
second bass. Later, when Powell left, Weston sang first tenor and Walton 
second tenor. 

The singing of this quartette was excellent. They frequently sang evenings, 
by the colonel's camp fire, and the men of the regiment would crowd to hear 
their pleasant music. There can be no question about the value of music in a 
regiment to lighten the cares and labors of the men. 



466 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



ENGAGEMENTS OF THE FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

The following table represents as nearly as may be the actions in which the 
regiment participated : — 



June 10, '62. 
June 10. 
Sept. 5. 
Sept. 12. 
Sept. 14. 
Sept. 15. 
Sept. 17. 
Sept. 19. 
Sept. 21. 
Sept. 28. 
Oct. 16. 
Nov. 3. 
Jan., 1863. 
March 17. 
May 1. 
June 1. 
June 6. 
June 9. 
June 17. 
June 21. 
June 29. 
July 3. 
July 11-13. 
July 16. 
Sept. 13. 
Sept. 14. 
Oct. 12. 
Oct. 14. 
Oct. 14. 
Nov. 27. 
Nov. 29. 
May 5-8, '64. 
May 9. 
May 10. 
May 11. 
May 11. 
May 12. 
May 17. 
May 28. 
June 1. 
June 2. 
June 5. 



Johns Island. 

James Island. 

Poolesville. 

Catoctin Mountain. 

South Mountain. 

Antietam Creek. 

Antietam. 

Potomac River. 

Potomac River. 

Shepherdstown, etc. 

Harper's Ferry and Smithfield. 

Snicker's Ferry. 

Rappahannock Station. 

Kelly's Ford. 

Rapidan Station. 

Rapidan Station. 

Sidphur Springs. 

Stevensburg (Brandy Station). 

Aldie. 

Upperville. 

Washington Cross Roads, Md. 

Gettysburg. 

Jones's Cross Roads, Md. 

Shepherdstown (under fire). 

Culpeper, 

Rapidan Station. 

Sulphur Springs. 

Auburn. 

Bristoe Station. 

New Hope Church (Mine Run). 

Pai'ker's Store. 

Todd's Tavern. 

Cliilesburg, Va. 

Beaver Dam. 

Ground Squirrel Church Bridge. 

Ashland. 

Richmond (Meadow Bridge). 

Milford, Va. 

Hawes's Shop. 

Cold Harbor. 

Near Cold Harbor. 

Bottom's Bridge. 



COMUANOEB. 



Captain Sargent. 

Captain Sargent. 

Captain Chamberlain. 

Colonel Williams. 

Colonel Williams. 

Colonel Williams. 

Colonel Williams. 

Colonel Williams. 

Colonel Williams. 

Captain Sargent. 

Major Curtis. 

Colonel Sargent. 

Colonel Sargent. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis. 

Captain Gleason. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis. 

Captain Gleason. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis. 

Captain Crovvninshield. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis. 

Captain Crowninshield. 

Captain Crowninshield. 

Colonel H. B. Sargent. 

Colonel H. B. Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Captain Gleason. 

Major Sargent. 

Major Sargent. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Cliamberlain. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 



APPENDIX. 



467 



June 10. 
June 11, 12. 
June 13. 
June 22. 
June 24. 
June 27. 
July 12. 
July 28. 
July 30. 
Aug. 14-17. 
Aug. 21-23. 
Aug. 25. 
Sept. 10, 17. 
Sept. 29 (?) 
Oct. 27, 28. 
Dec. 1, 2. 
Dec. 9. 
Feb. 5-7, '65. 



Old Church. 

Trevilian's Station. 

White Oak Bridge. 

Weldon Railroad (Williams farm). 

St. Mary's Church. 

Weldon Railroad. 

Lee's Mills. 

New Market (Deep Bottom). 

Lee's Mills. 

Malvern Hill (Deep Bottom). 

Six Mile House, Weldon Railroad. 

Reams's Station. 

Belcher's Mills. 

Arthur's Swamp. 

Hatcher's Run and Vaughan Road. 

Stony Creek Station. 

Belllield. 

Dabney's Mills. 



COMIIANDEB. 



Captain Crowninshield. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Captain Crowninshield. 
Captain Crowninshield. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Captain Crowninshield. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chamberlain. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent. 
Captain Murphy. 



Some o£ these engagements were small affairs, and indeed, in some of the 
large battles not enumerated here, the regiment was present, though not en- 
gaged, being held In reserve out of fire. 

There were also other engagements where men of the regiment were under 
fire, and where some were included in a list of casualties, notably about Wash- 
ington, in July, 1864, when all the dismounted cavalry was sent up and acted 
either as cavalry or Infantry. As in this case, these men served under other 
ofKcers than those of the regiment, and not as an organization, and as it is 
impossible to get particulars, such engagements are not included here. 

While on picket, encounters would not unfrequently take place, of greater 
or smaller importance. Such are here reported, where the affair was of con- 
sequence enough to be called an engagement only ; and yet it is difficult to 
draw a sharp line. The fact is, that " something was going on all the time " 
in cavalry. In winter, the raids into " Mosby's Confederacy " assumed large 
proportions, lasting sometimes many days, involving great exposure, and result- 
ing in hard marching, freezing bivouacs, and some casualties, too. 

Still, perhaps this list of engagements represents pretty nearly what was done 
by the regiment. 



^6S FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



ENGAGEMENTS OF COMPANIES I, K, L, AND M, OLD THIRD BAT- 
TALION FIRST REGIMENT MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

June 16, 1862 Secessiouville, S. C. 

Morris Island, S. C. 

Fort Wagner, S. C. 

Siege of Charleston, S. C. 

St. John's Bluffs, Fla., Co. K. 

Jacksonville, Fla., Co. K. 

February 8, 1864 Capture of Jacksonville, Fla. 

February 8, 1864 Camp Finnegan, Fla. 

February 8, 1864 Three Mile Run, Fla. 

February 9, 1864 Baldwin Junction, Fla. 

February 10, 1864 Barber's Ford, Fla. 

February 11, 1864 Sanderson, Fla. 

February 12, 1864 Lake City, Fla. 

February 17, 1864 Callahan Station, Fla. 

February 20, 1864 Olustee, Fla. 

March 1, 1864 Cedar Run, Fla. 

April 2, 1864 Eight Mile Run, Fla. 

April, 1864 Palatka, Fla. 

May 8, 1864 Bermuda Hundred, Va. 

May 17, 1864 Drury's Bluff, Va. 

1864 Harrison's Landing, Va. 

June 10, 1864 Petersburg, Va. 

June 16, 1864 Bermuda Front, Va. 

August 14, 1864 Petersburg, Va. 

August 16, 1864 Strawberry Plains, Va. 

August 17, 1864 Deep Bottom, Va. 

August 18, 1864 Furnell's Mills, Va. 

August 27, 1864 Chapin's Farm, Va. 

April, 1864 Hatcher's Run, Va. 

September 29, 1864 Deep Bottom, Va. 

October 7, 1864 Laurel Hill, Va. 

October 13, 1864 Darbytown Road, Va. 

October 27, 1864 Seven Pines, Va. 

November 10, 1864 Charles City, Va. 

December 21, 1864 Cumberland, Va. 

April 2, 1865 Petersburg, Va. 

1865 Harrison's Landing, Va. 

April 6, 18G5 High Bridge, Va. 

April 9, 1865 Appomattox Court House, Va. 





EDWARD CRABTREE 



1st SERGT. JOHN FISHER 





GEORGE CRABTREE 



FARRIER, CHARLES W. WHITE 



M COMPANY (NEW) 



APPENDIX. 469 

LOSSES OF FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

(gregg's cavalry corps.) 

Greatest loss in one battle, Aldie, Va., June 17, 1863 : — 

Killed ........ 20 

Wounded 57 

Missing 90 

■A-ggregate 167 

Killed and died of wounds [during the war] : — 

Officers 6^ 

Enlisted men ........ 93 

Total 99 

Died of disease, accidents, in prisons, etc. : — 

Officers ......... — 

Enlisted men ....... 140 

Total 140 

Total deaths 239 

^ We lost eight officers: Pratt, Bowditch, Phillips, Carey, Lombard, Hopkins, Sar- 
gent, Wardell (Carey and Lombard were killed before muster). 



CASUALTIES OF FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Killed, 6. 

Died of wounds, 2. 

Wounded, 18. 

Otherwise injured, 3. 

Prisoner, 11. 

Wounded and prisoner, 4. 

Wounded more than once, 7. 

Discharged for disability, 11. 

Dismissed, 2. 

The above casualties occurred in the 1st cavalry; those occurring after 
officers were transferred to other regiments are not included. 



470 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



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Died of wounds. 
Died in prison. 
Died of disease. 
Wounded. 
Otherwise injured. 
Wounded and pris- 
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Prisoner. 
Missing. 
Wounded more than 


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Commissioned. 
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APPENDIX. 



471 



SUMMARY OF LOSSES IN THE UNION ARMIES. 

The following pages are copied from " Regimental Losses in the American 
Civil War," by Wm. F. Fox : — 

" In the American Civil War, the Union armies lost 110,070 killed or mor- 
tally wounded, and 275,175 wounded ; total, 385,245, exclusive of the missing 
in action, whose number has not, as yet, been officially stated. Of the 110,070 
deaths from battle, 67,058 were killed on the field ; the remainder died of 
their wounds. This loss was divided among the different arms of the service 
as follows : — 



Service. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
Men. 


Total. 


Ratio of 

Officers to 

Men. 


Infantry. 
Sharpshooters. 
Cavalry. 
Light Artillery. 
Heavy Artillery .* 
Engineers. 
General Officers.^ 
General Staff. 
Unclassified. 


5,461 

23 

671 

116 

5 

4 

67 

18 


91,424 

443 

9,925 

1,701 

124 

72 

16 


96,885 

466 

10,596 

1,817 

129 

76 

67 

18 

16 


1:16.7 
1:17.7 
1:14.7 
1:14.6 
1:24.8 
1:18.0 


Total. 


6,365 


103,705 


110,070 


1:16.2 



The losses in the three principal classes of troops were : — 

KILLED OR DIED OF WOUNDS. 



Class. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
Men. 


Total. 


Ratio of 

Officers to 

Men. 


Volunteers. 
Regulars. 
Colored Troops. 


6,078 
144 
143 


98,815 
2,139 
2,751 


104,893 
2,283 
2,894 


1:16.2 
1:14.8 
1:19.2 


Total. 


6,365 


103,705 


110,070 


1:16.3 



1 Heavy artillery, acting as infantry, is included with the infantry. 

2 Does not include officers in volunteer regiments detailed on staff duty. 



472 



FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



DIED BY DISEASE, 

(Not including deaths in prisons.) 



Class. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
Men. 


Total. 


Ratio of 

Officers to 

Men. 


Volunteers. 
Regulars. 
Colored Troops. 


2,471 
104 

137 


165,039 

2,448 

29,521 


167,510 

2,552 
29,658 


1:66.7 
1:23.5 
1:21.5 


Total. 


2,712 


197,008 


199,720 


1:72.6 



The total number of men enrolled was 2,772,408. As many of them en- 
listed for short terms and reentered the service, their names appear two or 
more times upon the rolls. Reduced to a three years' standard, the total en- 
rollment would equal 2,320,272 men. This would give the following percent- 
ages : — 

KILLED OR DIED OF WOUNDS. 



Class. 


Enrolled. 


Killed. 


Per Cent. 


Volunteers. 
Regulars.^ 
Colored Troops. 


2,067,175 

67,000 

186,097 


104,893 
2,283 
2,894 


5.0 
3.4 
1.5 


Total. 


2,320,272 


110,070 


4.3 



DIED OF DISEASE. 

(Not including deaths in prisons.) 



Class. 


Enrolled. 


Died. 


Per Cent. 


Volunteers. 
Regulars. 
Colored Troops. 


2,067,175 

67,000 

186,097 


167,510 

2,552 

29,658 


8.1 

3.8 

15.9 


Total. 


2,320,272 


199,720 


8.6 



1 Many of the regulars were stationed on post duty. The regular regiments in 
the field sustained losses fully as heavy as those of the volunteers. 



APPENDIX. 



473 



DEATHS FROM ALL CAUSES. 



Class. 


Enrolled. 


Deaths. 


Per Cent. 


Volunteers. 
Regulars. 
Colored Troops. 


2,067,175 

67,000 

186,097 


316,883 

5,798 

36,847 


15.3 

8.6 

19.7 


Total. 


2,320,272 


359,528 


15.4 



DEATHS FROM ALL CAUSES (Classified.) 



Cause. 


Officers. 


Enlisted Men. 


Aggregate. 


Killed, or died of wounds. 


6,365 


103,705 


110,070 


Died of disease. 


2,712 


197,008 


199,720 


In Confederate prisons.^ 


83 


24,783 


24,866 


Accidents. 


142 


3,972 


4,114 


Drowning. 


106 


4,838 


4,944 


Sunstrokes. 


5 


308 


313 


Murdered. 


37 


483 


520 


Killed after capture. 


14 


90 


104 


Suicide. 


26 


365 


391 


Military executions. 




267 


267 


Executed by the enemy. 


4 


60 


64 


Causes known but unclassified. 


62 


1,972 


2,034 


Cause not stated. 


28 


12,093 


12,121 


Total. 


9,584 


349,944 


359,528 



1 Tn addition to this number, there were 5,290 who died while prisoners, and who 
are included in the other items of this classification. The total number of Union 
soldiers who died while in the hands of the enemy, according to this official report, 
was 30,156. The causes of their deaths are classified as follows: from disease, 
24,866; wounds, 2,072; sunstroke, 20; accidents, 7; drowning, 7; killed after cap- 
ture, 104; executed by enemy, 64; causes known but not classified, 319; cause not 
stated, 2,697; total, 30,156. But owing to the imperfect records kept at some of 
the Confederate prisons, the deaths are not all included in the foregoing statement. 
The mortality of Union prisoners, as shown by the graves, has been estimated at 
36,401. 



474 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 



WHO RAISED THE FIRST NATIONAL FLAG AT RICHMOND? 

The following passage from the " Century " magazine for June, 1890 (p. 
309), settles a contested point in favor of a Massachusetts officer. Honor to 
whom honor is due : — 

Major Atherton H. Stevens, Jr., of the 4th Massachusetts volunteer cavalry, 
raised the first national flag over the State House in Riclnnond on the occasion 
referred to in the text. Major Stevens was provost-marshal of the 25th corps 
(colored troops), commanded by General Weitzel. 

Major Stevens was that morning in command of the most advanced party 
of the Union army. It was to him the major surrendered the city in the first 
instance. After receiving the surrender, Major Stevens galloped into town at 
the head of the "small detachment," and, ascending to the roof of the State 
House, hoisted two small national flags, in fact the guidons of the squadron 
of the 4th Massachusetts cavalry, which he commanded. 

It was several hours after that before Lieutenant de Peyster came on the 
ground, in company with Weitzel's staff. This officer (Lieutenant de Peyster), 
accompanied by myself, went to the roof to hoist the flag brought by him. 
We found the guidons at the masthead ; these we lowered and replaced them 
with his flag, which was, by the way, I believe, the same one that had been 
first hoisted at Mobile on the capture of that city. 

There was no personal risk whatever in raising the second flag, but at the 
time when the " small detachment " galloped in, the streets were filled with 
disorderly characters, and the chances were thought to be many of a collision 
with them, or of a shot from an ambushed enemy. Therefore whatever credit 
may be due to the officer who first raised the national flag over Richmond 
should be given to him ungrudgingly. That officer was Major Atherton H. 
Stevens, Jr., of the 4th Massachusetts volunteer cavalry. 

LooMis L. Langdon, 
Colonel 1st United States Artillery, 
Late Chief of Artillery 25th Army Corps, San Francisco. 




a 00 Z) 



O o > 



APPENDIX. 475 



COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. 

AT GETTYSBURG. 

The 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, which at the battle of Gettysburg was de- 
tached from Gregg's division and on duty at General Sedgwick's headquarters, 
has erected a fine monument as near the headquarters of the 6th corps as it 
was possible to place it. At the dedicatory ceremonies, October 11, 1885, 
Major Charles G. Davis of West Roxbury called to order, and comrade E. A. 
Smith offered prayer. Major Davis then delivered the following address : — 

Comrades and Friends: 

As chairman of the Memorial Committee of the 1st regiment of cavalry, 
Massachusetts volunteers, on this October day I cordially greet not only the 
representatives of our own old regiment, but many surviving comrades of 
other commands of the old Bay State, who are on this memorable field for the 
same purpose as ourselves, that of placing in position a monument to mark the 
most important spot occupied by the command during the three days' battle of 
.July, 1863. These memorials not only perpetuate the memory of the dead, 
whose devotion and sacrifice made possible the safe return of the living, but 
will ever point to the courage and bravery of our comrades who are with us 
to-day. The story of the great battle of Gettysburg is familiar to the world. 
It is therefore needless for us to dwell upon a subject which on this very field 
has been so eloquently treated by some of the most gifted orators of the land 
durino- the past few weeks, in connection with the erection of these memorials. 
The battle of Aldie, the preliminary engagement, or prologue, to the battle of 
Gettysburg, had, as you all will remember, made many gaps in the 1st cavalry 
of Massachusetts. The regiment maintained its place in the 6th corps, and 
reported on the field under the gallant Sedgwick. It was then detached and 
ordered to report to General Patrick, the provost marshal general of the army, 
to guard the prisoners. Being wounded at Aldie, and a prisoner in the ene- 
my's hands, I personally missed the glory of being with you at Gettysburg, 
and the details of the regiment's action I must leave to those that come after 
me. This monument or memorial which we to-day erect upon this sacred and 
historic spot is the result of the efforts of your committee, generously assisted 
by the contributions of members of the regiment, their friends, and the allow- 
ance granted by the State of Massachusetts. Prominent among the contribu- 
tors, I will mention Colonel H. L. Higginson, Charles F. Adams, Ji\, William 
Forbes, B. W. Crowninshield, Louis Cabot, Major J. J. Higginson, Captains 



476 FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY. 

Channing, Clapp, H. Pelham Curtis, and E. R. Merrill ; Lieutenant C. A. Long- 
fellow ; Sergeants Thurston and Brackett ; and last but not least, that eminent 
and patriotic physician of Boston, Dr. Henry I. Bowditch, whose son, a lieu- 
tenant in our regiment, was killed at Kelly's Ford, March 17, 1863. Your 
committee consisted of General Samuel E. Chamberlain, Major D. H. L. Glea- 
son, and myself. The first named gentleman being called away to his field of 
duty in another State, we were deprived of his aid and counsel, and the labor 
of procuring the monument devolved upon comrade Gleason and myself. In 
transferring it to the charge of the representative of our governor, we venture 
to express the hope that our efforts meet with your approbation. Although 
perhaps not so elaborate as some others on the field, we feel that it is chaste 
and appropriate. 

Comrades, over twenty years have passed away, and the white-winged angel 
of Peace spreads her mantle lovingly over North and South, over Blue and 
Gray. The deeds of the gallant men who fell upon this field will be remem- 
bered when this stone is covered with the mould of ages, and long after we 
have responded to the final roll call, future generations will ask : " Why these 
stones ? " The nation is their monument. 

Feeling and patriotic remarks were also made by Major D. H. L. Gleason 
and Sei'geant E. A. Smith. 

The monument is massive and beautiful. Upon a smooth surface appears in 
bold relief a horse's head, a horseshoe, and two crossed sabres. It bears this 
inscription : — 

FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRS" 

THIRD BRIGADE, SECOND CAVALRY DIVISION 

ON DETACHED SERVICE. 

It was designed and executed by the Boston Granite Company of Worces- 
ter. 

AT ALDIE. 

The first regimental monument erected by Union soldiers on a Southern 
battlefield was dedicated at Aldie, Loudoun County, Va., by the 1st Massachu- 
setts Cavalry on June 17, 1891. A delegation composed of sixteen survivors 
of that regiment, and embracing every company of the three battalions save 
one — company G — was present, and consisted of Major Charles G. Davis, 
Sergeant George H. Cavanaugh, company A ; Sergeant J. H. Brackett, com- 
pany B ; Commissary Sergeant L. Gardiner, company F ; Sergeant T. Preston, 
company B ; T. Richardson, company H ; Sergeant George Kendall, company 
C ; Sergeant C. H. Newton, company C ; Sergeant C. A. Legg, company C ; 
Private J. H. Hess, company A ; Private C. E. Peck, company F ; Sergeant 
C. Cavanaugh, company B ; Private J. H. Shaw, company E ; Quartermaster 



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MONUMENT 

FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY 

ALDIE, VA. 



APPENDIX. 477 

Sergeant W. O. White, company F ; Private W. Shannon, company D ; Bugler 
W. I. Hines, company D ; and H. L. Shepard, company B. 

The ceremonies at the monument were short and impressive, and a fitting 
commemoration of the twenty-eighth anniversary of this hloody contest, the 
history of which is best told by Major Davis, who briefly spoke as follows : — 

Beneath a sky as blue as the field on the glorious flag that floats proudly 
over a free, united, and prosperous country, we are assembled to dedicate this 
monument erected to commemorate an event in the history of the nation. 
"When I gaze into the faces of my comrades in arms, when I look back nearly 
a third of a century, when I recall the incidents of the camp, the march, the 
bivouac, and the battle, a feeling indescribably tender gathers around my heart 
as I think of the gallant fellows that, with us, under the red, white, and blue 
banner of the Union, rode side by side, and followed the guidons of the 1st 
Massachusetts Cavalry. Those were the days when experience and hard ser- 
vice made us men of ideas. 

We learned to make three days' rations last six days ; that is, to sparingly 
eat one hardtack, and, aided by cold water, imagine we had eaten two. We 
also learned how to kill a pig within hearing of the provost guard without let- 
ting it squeal. We also learned to endure fatigue and hunger, to suffer from 
heat and cold, to face danger and even death, not for gain or glory, but to up- 
hold the flag and preserve the Union. 

Twenty-eight years ago to-day, in the afternoon, on this field of Aldie, the 
Union forces under Kilpatrick met the Confederate forces under Stuart. 

It